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Annals of Morris County 




PuF.siDiiNT OK Wabash Coi.i.I'Xie 


Q:BIt.A.R-5r OIF jyniE 


^ It is not my design to write an elaborate his- 
^^ tory of the County of Morris, but rather to 
^\ff make a few statements concerning it which 
seem to me to be interesting and important, 
since every community has a hi.story which, if 
properly related, must be interesting and even 
important, at least to those who belong to it. 
In its beginnings and progress it may have 
borne a very humble part in the grand drama 
which the world is acting, and yet humble as 
that part may be, it was grand to those who 
acted it. There is not an old community or 
church in any old county in our State whose 
history has not a very considerable interest to 
the local antiquary and historian. It may nev- 
er have held a very prominent position as re- 
lated to the general commonwealth. It may 
be neither aWittenburg or a Geneva, the cen- 
ter of moral revolution, a Runymede or Phila- 
adelphia, rendered famous by some immortal 
scene, the birth of a Magna Charta or the pub- 
lication of a Declaration of Independence. Its 
history spread out on the pages of general his- 
tory might seem out of place or be eclipsed by 
the more distinguished deeds recorded on the 
same pages, and yet that humble history has 
the merit (/f being in a sense personal to our- 
selves. Here the fathers of such a community 
-fought the battle of life, wrestled with the 
problems of moral responsibility, loved the 
loving, pitied the sorrowful, helped the weak, 
wept over the dying ; here they laid the foun- 
dation s of the social fabric as best they could, 
often in a very blind yet honest method, lived 
life as we now hve it, and they died leaving 
their graves to us as silent monitors not to per- 
mit them to sink into forgetfulness. Although 

*Read before the N. 
May 20th, 1869. 

J. Historical {Society, 

not as great as many who have hved, they are 
our forefathers, and the work they did for us 
merits a grateful record at our hands. 

The beginners of society in Morris Coimty 
were plain people, many of whom had very lit- 
tle education. The records of the county and 
of several churches which date back far toward 
the first settlement on the Whippany River, 
prove this. I have spent not a httlo time and 
effort to fix a precise date to the foundation of 
society in the county, but with no marked suc- 
cess. In the year 1767, the Rev. Jacob Green, 
th e third ))astor of the Hancver Church, wrote 
what ha called a "History of the Hanover Pres- 
byterian Church." This is copied from a book 
in which Mr. Green recorded baptisms. In a 
preface to this manuscript record Mr. Green 
writes that "about the year 1710 a few familicK 
removed from Newark and Elizabeth, &c., and 
settled on the west side of the Pessaick River in 
that which is now Morris County. Not long after 
the settlers erected an house for the publick 
worship of God on the bank of the Whippenung 
River (about three miles west of the Pessaick 
River), about one hundred rods below the 
Forge which is and has long been known by 
the name of The Old Iron Works. There was 
a church gathered in the year 17—. Mr. Na- 
thaniel Hubbel was ordained and settled by the 
Presbytery of New York. About this time this 
place obtained the name of Hanover and be- 
came a township, but the place was most com- 
monly known by the Indian name Whippenung. 

Mr. Hubbel continued to minister here till , 

when for some uneasiness between him and the 
people he was dismissed. This church then 
had no proper book of Records. And if Mr. 
Hubbel kept a/iy church records of his own 
they were not left to those who came after." 

Mr. Green began his ministry in 1746, when 
some of his pioneers were still living, and he 
could have easily found the date of settlement 


and given the names of the settlers and many 
facts of interest, but it is too often true that to 
those who are near the facts of which history 
is composed, thost.! facts do not seem of fjreat 
Talue, at least not enough to caase them to be 
carefully preserved. By way of extenuatinR 
"Parson Green' for not secunug in permanent 
form these un-merchautable statements as to 
who the eurly settlers were and when they 
cameand what they did, all of which were then 
within his easy reach, it may be alleged th..t he 
was a man of many callings, a very busy man. 
His salary was small, and he says this "led him 
to take more worldly cares and hu.sinoss than 
he could nare chosen." His people encourag- 
ed him in this course, assuring him "that 
country congregations could not have ministers 
unliss ministers would take some care to pro- 
vide and help support their own famiUos." He 
studied and practiced medicine, he had a school 
under his care, often wrote and executed wills 
for his patients and had a share both in a grist 
mill and a distillery. Some wag is said to have 
directed a letter to him with this somewhat 
comprehensive superscription : 

"To the llev. Jacob Green, Preacher, 
And the Kev. Jacob Green, Teacher ; 
To the Rev. Jacob Green, Doctor, 
And t..e Kev. Jacob Green, Proctor ; 
To the Rev. Jacob Green, Miller, 
And the Kev. Jacob Green, Distiller." 

In regard to his numerous avocations, he 
said in his autobiography : "When I entered 
upon worldly scheme 3 I found them in general 
a plague, a vexation, and a snare. If I some- 
what incieased my worldly estate, I also in- 
creased sorrow and incurred blame in all things 
except the practice of physick."* 

It is not hard to account tor such a man's 
regiect to collect and record history which 
was then too recent to seem of much import- 
ance, and yet it is very annoying that the good 
man who an pastor and physician wa.>> constant- 
ly meeting those who could have told him the 
very facts we b<j much desire to know, should 
not have interrogated the witnesses and re- 
corded their answers. 

Th« earliest reference to Morris County that 
I find, is in a letter of David Barclay, Arthur 
PorlK'8 and Gawen Lawne, to the Scots Propri- 
etors of East Jersey, under date of March 29, 
16M4. In answer to query seventh, they say : 
"There are also hillj up iu the countrcy, bat 
how much ground they take up we know not, 
they art) said to bo stony and covered with wood 
and beyond them is said to bo excelltait land.f 
.\.i that tim<" the region thus mentioned must 
have been tekiu incjunit.^. How early It was 
explored and surveyed, I bayo not with cortain- 

•Dr. Green's Christian Advocate, X. 52 . 
tE. Jersey under the Proprietors, '291. 

ty ascertained. The unvarying tradition has 
been that the first settlement was made at 
Whippany. and another tradition declares that 
Abraham Kitchel, grand.son of the Kev. Abra- 
ham Pierson, Sen., of Newark, and the two bro- 
thers Timothy and Joseph Tuttle, wore among 
the earliest settlers, but this is not verified by 
an examination of their deeds,* which fix the 
date of .\braham Kitchcl's removal to Hanover 
in 1724, at least fourteen years after the origi- 
nal settlement is supposed to have been made. 
On the 2d of April 1726, Timothy Tuttle con- 
veyed to his "loving brother Joseph Tuttle, of 
Newark," certain real estate in that place. It 
is supposed — the deeds are now to be had — 
that Timothy Tuttle removed to Morris County 
the year he sold real estate to liis brother. On 
the 23d of January, 1733-4, John and Samuel 
Johnson, of Newark, deeded to Joseph Tuttle. 
of the same place, some real estate in Newark, 
so that he was then still a resident there. 
Meanwhile he had purchased, in 1725, a large 
tract of land on Hanover Neck, a part of which 
is still occupied by one of his descendants. 

Who then did settle first at Whippany, and 
when did thev settle there ? It is very certain 
that there had been some settlement previous 
to 1718, for on the second day of that year one 
"John Richards, of Whipanong, in the County 
of Hunterdon, in the Province of New Jersey, 
Schoolmaster," was the owner (jf a tract of land 
which is now known as the Whippany Burying 
Yard, id the northwest corner of which, for 
many years, stood the First Presbyterian 
Church. At that date the 'Schoolmaster," 
"for and in consideration," as he said, "of the 
love, good will and affection which I have and 
do bear toward my Christian friends and neigh- 
bours in Whippanung aforesaid, as also for the 
desire and regard I have to promote and ad- 
vance the publick interest," gave the described 
tract of land for the site of "a decent and suit- 
able meeting house for the publick worship of 
Ood," as also for "a school-house. Burying 
Ground, Training field, and such like publick 
uses." The lot contained three and a half 
acres. In the deed he speaks of hit land as be- 
ing "in the township of Whipanong, on that 
part commonly called Peurpenong, on the 
northeastirly side of the Whipanong River." 

It is fair to infer that considerable progress 
had been already made, but at present I can 

♦A deed still in possessitm of a descendant of 
Abraham Kitchel, dated May 5, 1713, and given 
by "John Prudden, quondam minister," con- 
veys a tract of ground in Newark to Abraham 
Kitchel, of Newark. In 1718 John Baldwin con- 
vevs a tract of ground to Abraham Kitchel, of 
Newark. On the 20tli of May, 1724, "Rebecca 
Wheeler, of Burlington," deeded to Abraham 
Kitchel 11)75 acres east of Whippany River, a 
part of which is still occupied by one of his dc- 
Hcendauts, Joseph Kitchel, of Hanover Neck. 



give no infoi-mation as to the precise facta. My 
conjecture is that the original settlers may have 
been squatters, raalciug irou trom the Kiicca- 
simna irou ore, with the boundless forests in 
the region which they converted into (loal. 
The tradition is that the ore was brought in 
leather bags on pack-horses from the great 
mine now known as "the Dickerson Mine,'" 
which at that time and for many years after- 
ward exposed vast quantities of ore above 

As bearing on the question, it may be said 
that the c )ijy of a deed may be seea ii: Tren- 
ton which indicates that in 1715 a tract of land 
had b'.-en surveyed in the present township of 
Morris.* No doubt somewhere still remain the 
facts in books of record-:, or unrecorded deeds 
and wills, winch shall throw light on the settle- 
ment at Whippauy. 

In 1713 Jamf;s Wdls, an Englishman, bought 
of the East Jersey Proprietors a large tratrt of 
land in and about what is now called Ralstoii- 
ville, about one mile wesn of Mendham. In 
17.12 .Tames Pitney iiought land of his brother 
which had previously been purchased of the 
Proprietors. It is impossible to determine at 
what date Meadhaai was settled. Even the 
proximate date of the founding of that church 
is only interred as being pieviousto 173!S, when 
its name is maiitioued in connection witli the 
Presbyteiy ot New IJruu.swkk. Dr. Hastings 
thinks it was organized ab'^nit 1735 or 173(1. f 
In 1745Eilniund Burnet made a deed of its yard 
and site fr» the Mtmdhain Church, in which, 
with original orthogiapliy, he speaks of him- 
self »« "E-lm lu Buruuant, of Rocksitii-us, in ye 
County of Sumraer,s<t in East nu Jareses In 
.\raaracah," for certain reasons giving the con- 
gregation "'A scairtain pees of parsel of -Land 
on which the meeting Hows Now Standeth." 

It will be remembered that thus far the ear- 
liest definite face ascertained is that in 1713 
Junes Wills purchas(,'d a tract of land at Mend- 
ham, and that he probably settle d on it at that 
timer)r soon after. At Hanover the settlement 
was ''about 1710,'" bnt the actual dates as de- 
rived from deeds do not go back of 171.5 and 
1718, although it is evident that earlier pur- 
chases had been made. If we now cross fhe 
mountains west of Hanovei, wi; come to the 
rogiou in which another actual purchase was 
ii'ade at an early date. These facts were re- 
ceived from the late Richard Brotherton, of 
Randolph Township, a very intelligent and \ 
worthy Friend, who pn/fessed to make tiie state- 
ments from documents to which he had access 
and which arc supposed to be still in existence. 
Mr. Rrotliertou .says that one Joseph Kirklnide 

*East Jcrsej- Rocords, Liber F. 3, p 2^. 
tHasting's M. S. on .VI Midliani. 

located a tract of land in the present townshij' 
of Randolph, in Morri.s County, as early as 
1713, containing 4,.52.'> acres, besides the usual 
allowance for highways, also in the same year it 
tract of 1,2-54 acres bounded on the southwest- 
erly line of the flrst tract. The JSnccasunnii 
Mine lot was located in 171G, by John Reading, 
and sold the same year to Joseph Kirkbride, 
containing 5.58 acres,* and after his death th( 
tract was ilivided ijetween his three sons, Jo- 
seph, John and Mihloa Kirkbride, except the 
mine lot, which was held by them in comuioii 
until such time as the same should be sold.f 

Mr. Richard Brotherton further states that 
the home-farm of Hartshorn Fitz Randolph was 
located July 30, 1713 (the .survey being made 
by John Beadijig), and by him conveyed to Jo- 
seph Latham, who conveyed the same to John 
Jackson in 1722. The Executors of Edwani 
Fitz Randolph (Nathan and Hartshorn Fit/ 
Randol])h), obtained a judgment against Jack- 
son, and on the 1.5th of August, 17.53, John 
Ford, the Sheriff of Morris Couiity, sold the 
land which was purchased by Hartshorn Fitz 
Randolph, who occupied it until his death, 
which occurred in 1807. He bought other 
lands adjoining until his farm containe I 80f> 

This Hartshorn Fitz Randolph is said to have 
been a devout Friend, and to have had in hii-' 
employ a man who was a singalar charactw 
and allowed by his master almost as many lib- 
erties as "the King's fool."' Tradition has pre- 
served the following anecdote relating to tjit; 
two, of the truth of which as much belief ma> 
be entertaineil as the ci'cnmst.anccs may seem 
to warrant. It is said that on a ccrt.'in Suiida> 
morning Mr. Fitz Rauduiph wished to go to th« 
Quaker Meeting House on the opposite hill, 
but the brook was so swollen with rain as noi 
to l)e very easily crossed. The man offered . t<. 
cairy him across on his back. When in iln 
midst of the stream he stopped and said to Mi'. 
FitzR. "Will thee give me a quart of apple- 
jack if I take thee saf<^ly -over ?" "No, I wili 
not ; go on," said Mr. FitzR. "But Hay, will 
thee give it nie? for if thee does not, I will let 
thee down into the water!" "I must not giv« 
thee that which will do thee liaini."' •'But I ^:a.^ 
thee >fi;sT gi ;e it roe or I will let theedown infe 
the water quickly !"■ was the reply of tile impu- 
dent fellow, whos(: motions indicated that hi 

*Bt)undod on tb<; northwest line and coruer.s 
at the north corners of the said tract ot 4,52S 
acres, making together (!.3.?7 acres, besides the 
usual allowance lor liighways. which b -longed 
111 the said Jo.soph Kirkbride. 

tin 1744 Henry Brotherton, the grandfather 
of RichanI— my tntorniant — bimght 12.5 acr< sol 
one of the Kirkbride heirs, and in 1753 hih 
brotjier, James Brotlurti.n, l)onghf 'HW cr 30!/ 
acres on Mill'- Hill of the sauM esiate 


meaut what lit' Faid, "Well I pnmiiEo it, to give 
thee the appk-jark! now proon,"«aiJ t lit- Quaker. 
••But swEAi! that !l)ee will give it me!" persi.-it- 
<xl the man. '•Thee kiiows that I must not 
".!wear!" '"But 1 say thee mi'st swear that thee 
will giTe me the upplt-jaek, or I swear I will 
put theequickly into this water !" "Well, well," 
said Mr. Fitz 11., "thee is very unreasonable, 
hnt thi-e hai me in thy power, and ho I swear 
that I will give thee llif rum !" "There, now, 
Mr. Fitz Randolph, thee hasdon" it !" exelaim- 
id the man with an ill-coueealed chuckle, 
•'thee has don<' it now! lor thee has always 
said that a mas that wiu, will lie. auJ 
so I will let thee down into ihe wafer at any 
rate!" and he at onee suited the action to the 
word, leaving his f mployer in yo good pliglit 
physically or spiritually for the .service he was 
•lefiguing to attend. 

Mr. Brotherton states that Schooley'.s Moun- 
tain received its name from one William 
Schooley, who was an early settler on it. Hisf 
■ion William came to Kandolpli ToAvnsliip in 
1713 and purchased si veral hundred acres— 
about 600— ot the Kirkhride famiiv, including 
what is now Mill Brook, some three miles south- 
• ast of Dover. There his son Robert 8 lieoley 
built the first grist mill in that section of Morris 
County. Henry and Richard Brotherton, two 
brotherc, and Richard Dell, married daughters 
of William Schooley, of Schooley's Mountain. 
Dell rirocved from .Sc hooley's Mountain in 1759, 
to a tiact ot land winch he purchased from the 
heirs of William Peun. This farm is two miles 
'■BSt of Dover, and on the south side of the 
Roekaway River. His .sim Thomas Dell bought 
land of the Kirkbiide heirs a mile east of Mine 
Hill in llie yi ur 1780 :.»id lived there until his 
•lea Hi in 18.50, when he waa over ninety years 
^ of age. Ill 175(! ihat remarkable man, Oen. 
William Winds, from th' east end of Long Is- 
land, purchased '275 acres of Thomas and Rich- 
ard I'cnn and lived on thi- i^ame until bis death, 
Oelobir 12lh, 178'.>. This farm is east of the 
villagi- of Dover nfarly a mile, and south of 
the point of Pine Hill. In 1757 JosiahBeaman. 
the brother-in-law of Clen. Winds, purchased 
l(i7 ai^res where Dover now is, and principally 
(iu the north aide of the Roekaway River. 

The tract of land south of tiie river where 
Dover ntands, and including the water power 
which drives the Iron Mills at that place, was 
located and pnreliased in the year 1743. In 
1739 one Daniel (Jarrell pur/haHcd a tract (jf the 
Kirkhride estate in the vicinity of Dover, and 
n part of it is still occupied by his descendants. 
It is said that during the hard winter of 1740. 
when the snow was very deep, thisDaniti C'anel 
was obliged to carry hay on his back two miles 
and a half to kwp his cattle and horses alive.* 
*RivjKrd Brotbcrluu'H Mh. lu bauda of Uer. 

It has already been stated that m 1713 Johu 
Reading surveyed a titict of land which was 
conveyed to Josepli Latham, who, in 172'2, sold 
it to one John Jackson, who built a foige on tho 
littti.' stream which puts into the Roekaway 
near the lesidence of Mr. Jacob Hurd. The 
forge was nearly in front of Mr. Hurd s house. 
The first forge in Mori is county was ist Whip- 
pany, and this one, buili by Jackson, a mile 
west of Dover, was probably the second. The 
wood for charcoal was abundant, and the mine 
on the hill not far distant. For some reason 
Jackson did not succeed iu bis iron mannfrvc- 
ture, and was sold out by the Sheriff in 1753. 
I am not sure as to Ibis John Jackson. James 
Jackson, of Newtown, L. I., the grrat-grand- 
father of the late Col. Joseph Jackson of Roeka- 
way, had a son John am»ng his twenty children, 
He was born March 9th, 1701. Joseph Jackson, 
sou of the aforesaid James, was a resident near 
Dover, and with his son Stephen, was joint 
owner of what was " commonly known as 
.Schooley's Forge," the beginning corner of 
which was "about one chain from Josiah Bea- 
man's house. " When John Jackson was sold 
out by tne yiuriff, Josiah Bcanian bought the 
forge, and it seems very probable that John 
Jacksoa's brother and nephew wciv the pur- 
cba.sers of a part of the forge built by John. 
This purchase was made in 1768, and the next 
year Joseph sold bis right in that forge to 
"Steplun Jackson of Mendom, Bloomer." 
Slephei) Jackson thus began his fortune in this 
bumble way, and aft?r a few years became the 
owner of the fine mill prt>perty at Roekaway 
with large tracts of valuable lands. Ho once 
had th'^ honor of et;tertaining Gen. Washiiigtou 
at his house, and was a man of great energy. 
He died iu 1H12. 

My attempts to retch the earliest Doct'JiFNT- 
auv dates concerning Rockawav have not beiii 
sucecssfnl ; but from careful examination 1 am 
led to conjet!ture that theseltlemeni began not 
long a Iter that at Dover, about 1725 oi{«>ssil)ly 
as iat»' as 1730, at which time a small iron forge 
was built near whi'ro the upper forge now 
stands in Roekaway. 'I'hisstatemint embodies 
the o])inion of sonie very aged men whcse fa- 
thers had livetl in tho reirion from an early pe- 
riod. Among the men wb(( worked that forge 
(whether the earliest is not known) were Aimer 
Beach, grandfather ol the late Col. S. S. Beach, 
and Isaac Beach, a nephew of his. The latter 
told his son Isaac, who died about twenty years 
ago, that be remembered to have seen an en- 
campment of the Roekaway Indians a half mile 
south of the present village. The savages dis- 
appeared from the region a few years after the 
whites began to settle here, and were said to 
have been merged in the tribe of Dclawarcs . 


There was the remaant of an encampment also 
near whore the JSteel Furnace stands. 

Among tlie early settlers in the vicinity of 
Iiorkaway and Dover, in addition to xhose 
named, may be mentioned Gilbert Hudden, 
spoken of in one deed as "a citizen of North 
<^"arolina," who built the first grist mill about 
half a mile below the Itolling Mill; David Bea- 
inan, a dtacon in the church, cliorister, niilier, 
forgenian and a very busy man, who loft prop 
ortT and numerous descendants, but whose 
•Jtraveis without a monument ; t'apt. Job Allen, 
a carpenter, a very public spirited man and 
good citizen, whose influence in founding the 
<-.liurch was very marKed ; Dcaion John Clarke 
a most (Icvout man, universally honored and 
"po rerl'ul in prayer ," and some others. There 
are two men who d( serve special mention; Wo- 
•ies Tuttlc of Mount Pleasant, and John Jacob 
Fiesch of Mount Hope. Moses TuUle was the 
son of Col. Joseph Tattle, of Hanover, and was 
born in 1732. His death c>ccurred in 1819. He 
married Jane, the daughter of Col. Jacob Ford, 
.sen., a great land holder in Morris county. 
About the time of hii marriage, in 17oC, he re- 
moved to Mount Pleasant, three miles west of 
Uockaway, for the purpose of managing his 
fatner-iii-law's iron works. By inheritance and 
prudence lie become possessed of a tine tract 
of land, on which several valuable mines were 
discovered. He was a justice of the peace and 
a leader in society. Anecdotes are told which 
^bow his shrcwcuess. A very athletic young 
woman made oath that a young man had com- 
mitted an atrocious assault upon her. Squire 
Tnttle advised the younj, man to settle with 
her by offering her a turn of money tied up in 
.v bag, which she at once received. The squire 
(hen directed the young man to take the bag 
from her by force, but she at once tlnng him 
from her as if he were a child, proving the fal- 
sity of the charge. Sht; was at once arrested 
..Hiid punished for peijury.* Mr. Tuttle as tue 
thrifty manager of a largi: Torgc property and 
real estate, once ft)un(l himself to be a creditor 
to a considerable amount when tire State Leg- 
iHiature made its bills of credit a le- 
jjal tender. This act of course reversed the 
• ourse c.f nature, so that the strange sight was 
to be si-en of debtor'-: chasing down their ered- 
U>rs. Mr. Tuttle left the country as if he were 
jv criminal fleeing justice, and spent two years 
in the wilderness State of Kentucky to escape 
his too willing debtors! He has left many 
descendants who are among our most estimable 

John Jacob Fasch Avas a native of Hesse Cas- 
sel, and came to this country in the service of 
the London Company, who owned extensive 
tracts of land at Riugwood, Long Pond and 

♦Statement of Richard Brotherton. 

Charlottenburgh, at each of which places thej: 
erei.ted furnaces and forges. These were built 
and for a time managed by a German, whote 
name was Hasenclever, who brought over a 
nuinber of Germans and among them Mr. 
Fa;seh, who for a time assisted and then super- 
seded him about 176G. His successor, early in 
1772 and possibly in 1771, was another remark- 
able man, Mr. Itobert Erskine, of Scotland, a 
large number of whose papers have been de- 
posited with the New Jersey Historical Society. 
In passing it may be stated that Hasenclever is 
said to have gone to Mount Hope with Fasch, 
and died there. It has been currently reported 
that he left thirty pounds to the Kockaway 
church, on condition that his body should be 
buricid under the pulpit, but I can find no rec- 
ord of any such money having been paid to tho 
trustees, nor of lus having been buried at 
Roekaway, although I suppose from the state- 
ments ot old people, that he was buried there. 

Tlie London Company, as it was called, seems 
not to have been very successful pecuniarily, 
in the manutaeture of iron. It could only make 
the crude iron and send it to England, all rollr 
ing and slitting mills in America being prohib- 
ited by the mother country, so that the busi- 
ness was conducted to the worst advantage. 
To cart the blooms and pigs thirty miles to New 
York, and then ship tliem tlirey thousand miles, 
for conversion, was too heavy a cost for profit. 

The reputation of Mr. Ftesch in the commun- 
ity was good, both as a man of business and in- 
tegrity. That Mr. Erskino had no confidence 
in him, in either respect, is evident from his 
private letters and from t'..e fact that as the Lon- 
don Company's agent he sued bim to compel 
him to refund property alleged tt> he retained 
unlawfully by him. In his letter to Corllandt 
Skinner, Esq., in reference to "the hills in 
Chancery, filed against Mr. F.-esch," he names 
£400 as the sum in litigatinn. In his correspon- 
dence yvith his employers, in 1772 and '73, he 
criticises his predecessor mercilessly as luie who 
"without the consequence your business givt-s, 
any man will be a ciphi^r ; if he has conducted 
it dishonestly will be less than one. * * * » 
I cannot say I have observed in him. or any of 
his works, tho least spark of genius. * * * » 
It is a criterion of genius I think, to be com- 
municative from inclination, of which Mr. 
Fajsch is the reverse." In one of these ietlors 
he sajs that "the farmers iu the invirons have 
been spoilt by Hasenclever." The Scotchman 
probably underrated the Qermau's integrity, 
but as to his abilities as a business man we 
know that ne finally canu- to bankruptcy, or 
nearly so, although the Mount Hope estate wan 
a very productive one durin;,; the war, through 
government contracts. Facsch's reputation, in 
Morris county, as a man of honor was very high, 


and his mistakes at Rina;woo(l wore probably 
not tbe n'siiltH of disboncsty bnt puch as any 
man in '^uch a place might easily and without 
blami' make. 

It was a popular and widely believed tradi- 
tion, that the English government, believing 
that the Americans were mainly dependent on 
the London Compxny 's works for iron, made an 
arrangement with t'lat (^ompany to dcstioy 
them, in order to injure the Colonies in the dif- 
ficulties which were evidently approaching. It 
is very possible that some such proposition may 
have been made, bnt the only evidence I cjn 
find at any attempt to carry it out is in tbede- 
Btruotion of the works at Charlottenburgb, and 
the fact, stated to me by some old men, that in 
the forests about those works, they have often 
seen coal-pits which seen to have been burned 
down many years before, bnt the coal was not 
ased, shoeing a violent saspeusion of business 
at some time. These works were destroyed and 
the common belief is that it was done by direc- 
tion of the Home Com jany. Still it must be, 
admitted that the basis of the rumor is quite 
shadowy. For an iron mill to burn up is not 
very extraordinary, certainly not so extraordi- 
nary, as for a conspiracy to burn several mills 
to have esc ped tUe notice and record of such 
a vigilant manager and patriot as Mr. Erskine. 

An<l here let ne indicate a few meager facts 
about IJiugwood, the headquarters of the Lon- 
don Company, as possibly aiding some one who 
may attempt to write its history as it deserves. 
I infer from records at Trenton, that "the 
Riogwood Comp.iny" preceded the London 
Company. April 15,1740, Coruelius Board m«11s 
to Jusiah (3gden, John Ogden, Jr., David Og- 
den, Sen., David Ogden, Jr., and Usal Ogden, 
all of Newark, called "the Ringwood Compa- 
ny," sixteen acres of land at Ringwood for six- 
ty-three pounds. February Ist, 1764, Joseph 
Board sells to Nicholas Gouverneur of New 
To.k and David Ogden, .Sen . six acres and a 
half for six pounds ten shillings. The same day 
Joseph Jioard conveys to the c(>mpaiiy "a tract 
of lain! scituale lying and being at Ringwood, 
near the Old Forge and dwelling bonne of Wal- 
ter Erwin." The tract was of the same size 
and pnce us the previous one. July 5th, I7(i4, 
The Ringwood Company sell to "Peter Hascn- 
claver, I lie of liondon, Merchant," for 5,000 
pounds, all the company's lands at Ringwood, 
in Rergeti now I'assaic— County. The deed 
states that on the property Ihoro are "ereetc^d 
and standing a Furnace, two forges, and sever- 
al dwilling houses." It Hpeaks of "Timothy 
Waid's forge," also of the "Old Forge at Ring- 
wood." The deed is signed hy David Ogden. 
8en., David Ogden, Jr., Samuel (JnHverneiir 
and Nicholas (Jouvorneur. John and Uzal Og- 
den deed their share to Hasenclcvor on the 

same day, but in a sfjparate conveyance. Hai*- 
enclevcr also bought laud in the vicinity of 
Ringwdoil of Joseph Wilcox and Walter Erwin 
the same year, also a tract of sixty-eight acref 
of David Ogden, "lying in the mountains be- 
tween the two rivers, Romapock on the eas' 
and Wanqiie River on thi west at a pUt-e cslled 
Rotten I'ond, in the County of IJeigen." He 
also bought of one Delancy and others 10,(>0(» 
acres, three miles from Ringwood, at 30 poiftid*- 
per 100 acres. October 28, 17G5, Hasenclever 
bongbt ninety-eight acres and also some other 
lands of Lord Stirling.! The extent ol thf 
company's estates may be inferred from these 
scanty notes, and at tlie same time the date of 
the London ConTi)any's organization may be 
fixed as in 17G4, when Peter Hason clever, their 
agent, began the purchase of those forges and 
tracts of land at Pompton, Riugwood, Long 
Pond and CharloHenburg, all in Bergen Coun- 
ty as then constituted. From some intimations 
in the letters of Joseph Hofif at the Hil)ernia 
Works with Lord Stirling, I infer that the com- 
pany claimed some right in the minewat Hiber- 

Hasenclever at once began to enlarge the old 
works and build new ones at each of the placen 
just named. After a time, as already stated. 
Mr. Faesch became the manager in place oJ 
Hasenclever, who probalily was not equal to 
the tasli on account of ill health. Almost flu 
only knowledge we have of Faesch's stewaril- 
ship at Ringwood an<l its dependencies, we de- 
rive from i-is successor, Erskine. II is evident, 
however, that the IjoikIoh capitalists bad grown 
weary of furnishing capital to carry on work)- 
which wore nnproductive of dividends, and fo; 
that reason sent a man in whom they had on 
tire confidence to look after their interests aiui 
manage them with plenipotentiary powers. 
What ho thought of Mr. Faesch is intimated in 
his letters, as already cited, but to his personal 
friend Ewing, in Scotland, he 8))eaks without 
reserve, but I think with unnecensary karsh- 
nesB. Mr. Faesch's cntin; subsequent career 
refutes the charge, to which there is only on« 
fact that suggests the unpleasant suspicion ef 
having misappropriated his employer's fuiidh. 
I refer to his pun-hase of several tliousaii'l 
acres at Mt . Hope, ininn diate y afttr leaving 

I have in my possession the copies of letters 
of Mr. Robert Erskine, in his own handwriting, 
to Mr. Waller Ewing and his "very dear cousin 
Rev. Mr. Fisher." The first is dated March 17, 
1/7:5, and the second March 18th, and both 
written at New York. The first letter contaiuh 
some items of interest concerning the extentoi' 
the liondon Comnan.v's business and Mr. Er»- 

fEast Jersey Records F^iber 15 3, pp. 6(5- 
7«, 84, IIH, 234. 



kine's opinion as to its managomont previous 
to liis taking cliargo. He spiaks of its being 
'•two wboie y<-aiH and upwards since 1 saw them'' 
— certauj relatives in Scotland. Tliu date of 
this and the follovviug leltei- so early in 1773- 
Marcli 17— and the partieular knowledge shown 
of the company's business, makes it evident 
that he must have reached Kingwood at least 
as early as the previous year, 1772, if not in 
1771. Mr. Erskiue continues, "but let me apol- 
ogize for my partial silence and leave it to 
thuse concerned to find an excuse for their to- 
tal. The c(jneerns of the company for whom 1 
am ci.gaged are very great, the amount of 
tiieir inventories at New Year in iron, goot!«, 
cattle and nioveahies alone was upwards ot 
£30,000 currency ; the annual circulation of cash 
and supplies is between £20,000 and £30,000. 
Before I came here tins propc^rly was in the 
hands of a set, of rascals, as I can now fully 
prove : the company suffered impositions from 
all quartei's, many of which I have put a stoji 
to, but not all. I have rid me of the greatest 
part of those who deserved no confidence, have 
discovered my predecessor in the management 
to have been guilty of a most infamous breach 
of trust, confirmifd under his own hand, and 
which makes it necessary to commence a suit 
in Chancery against him. The bringing things 
to the Ifjiigih I have done has recpiired all my 
address. The aftairs ot my employers still re- 
quire the whole of my attention. I am con- 
vinced the works may be carried on to profit 
were all those concerned honest. I have eight 
cltjrks, about as many ovei'seors, forgemen, 
ronnders, colliers, wood cutters, carters and 
laborers to the amount of five or six hundred. 
The care of this centers in me, besides cash 
accounts of 1,000 or l,50(i pounds per month 
tijudered monthly, to bring such an undertak- 
ing into a proper train of going on, is ccirtaiuly 
not a sreail task. This is my apology." 

The s'-jcoud letter, to his "Itev'd and very 
dear cousin," presents the writer in another 
phase and a better one, and at the same time 
furnishes a vi.jw of the condition of society 
among the mountains as relaied to church priv- 
ileges. "1 heard of the loss of my Dear Cousin 
Mrs. Fisher (by Mr. rajan's sou, who arrived 
here last summer), with no small concern. The 
God whom you serve has uo doubt supported 
you and will carry you through this valley of 
tears with joy, but oh, my deal- cousin, I beg 
an interest in your prayers. You will see by 
my letter of apology to Mr. Ewing for writing 
so seldom, how I am involved in the cares of 
this world. Were it not for a wicked heart, 
however, the business I am engaged in ought 
rather to load me to God than make me forget 
him, as I have seen much of his Providence 
since I came here. There is uo place ot wor- 

ship near where I live. Some German clergy- 
men corny only about five or six times a year. 
I have of late, however, procured supplies from 
the Presbytery here, and have agreed for sup- 
lilies once in two months, which they have 
promised to appoint. This expense I defray, 
and if the farmers and neighbors join in sub- 
scription we may have a orce a 
month or oftener." 

How extend(id the trust of Mr. Erskine was, 
may be inferred furtluM- from the fact that he 
applied to the general Ccnigress after the war 
began, and also to Gen. Washington, to have 
his men exempt from military duty exccol in 
special exigencies. He had a c<jmpany of ins 
own men organized, equipped and drilled, and 
ready on very short notice to march, Erskine 
himself was for a time the captain oi the com- 
pany. He was in the American service as Geog- 
rapher or Topographer, and there arc some 
maps still in existence of his drafting. Th" 
papers in the possession of the Historical So- 
ciety show that he was a very ingenious drafts- 
man and mathematician. 

The difficulties ot his position and also the 
manner of his meeting them are set forth iu 
his letters to his London employers during the 
years 1771, '5 and '6. They also present the state 
of affairs and of public sentiment at that tirae 
as seen by a very intellitrent witness. Thus in 
June, 1774, he says : "I have uo doubt that a 
total suspension of commerce to and from 
Great Britain will certainly take place. Such I 
know are the sentiments of those who even 
wished a chastisement to Boston. If in « ant of 
triends here, it will be difficult even with mi- 
croscopic search to find them. Gracious God 
avert the (consequences." Jun« 17 he writes : 
"The "Virginians, who are the soul of America, 
take the hsad. We have not yet heard from 
the southward, but from what has appeared 
hitherto, the whole colonies seem to look 
on that of New England as a common 
cause." Iu August he writes : "The southern 
colonies as they are more warmly situated, so 
they seem more warmly to oppose the present 
measure ; the Carolinians exceed those of Vir- 
ginia, if possible, but over the whole continent 
there is a feeling and sensibility for the mother 
country. They have not yet forgot their 
friends, their relations and their benefactors. 
These will powerfully plead in the breasts of 
the Congress, and I hope in a great degree coun- 
terbalance that warmth which injuries, real or 
imaginary, naturally create. What is conclud- 
ed on then may be the dictates of necessity 
and not of resentment, and therefore I think a 
non-exportation i)lan will be a dernier resort 
and not entered into at present." 

In October 1771 he writes, that "the Olivcr- 
ian spirit in New England is eftectuaily rou.scd 



and (liffustc ovtr the whole contiDent. which 
though it is nww pent np within boiiftds, a frw 
drops of blood let run wonld make it break ont 
in torrents which W.OOO men conld not stem, 
mnchles»the liandfall tk-n. Oage has, whose 
8i tnition is far from agreeable. The masons 
and carpenters who began to build barracks 
have left off work. Tradesmen of the same kind 
have be«n engaged here— New York— bat on 
second thoughts have refused to go. Were 
he to come to extremities be no doubt might 
sacrifice thousands, but in the eml would bo 
cut off. I don't see. therefore, how he can pro- 
cure comfortable winter quarters without 
either abandoning the place or, like Hutchin- 
son's addresseh, publicly recant. The rulers 
at home have gone too far. The Boston Foi t 
bill wonld LaVf been verv difficult of digestion. 

hope of reconciliation will be cut nflT. That 
sword wliich has hitherto been dr.iwn with re- 
luctance will then be whet with rage, u.idness 
and despair, and the ports thrown open to all 
nations for assistance and trade, wliich it is 
impossible lor the British Navy totally to pre- 
vent. Gracious Heaven prevent things from 
being brought to this pass, or that a total rep- 
aration should take place between friends so 
dear !" In the same letter Mr. Erskme speaks of 
"the genera! orders of Congress for all the colo- 
nists to be arrayed from 16 to 50 yeais of age,'' 
and of some incon\enienci s he is suffering at 
the Works by "sevt ral stont fellows going off 
a!id enlisting." "It will be moved at the Con- 
gress to-night for the inhabitants of this piace 
to provide for Il.e safety of tbeirwives, children 
and valuable efft cts. God knows, therefore. 

but not allowing Ch.arters the due course of bow long the comniUDicalion with England may 
justice, and the Canada bills, are emetics which remain open and when you will hare an oppor- 

cannot possibly be swallowed and must be 
thrown up again to the bedaubing of the .nd- 
ministration, who seem to have utterly fogot 
that they bad the same spirit to contend with 
as at home, without the sarce advantages ol 
turning it into a different channel by bril>ery 
and cornjption. I have never disguised my 
thoughts to Tou on any subject since I came to 
this country. Yon will therefore excuse my 
freedom on political concerns.'" 

The rhetoric of the last letter was more forci- 
ble than elegant, but the writer is evidently in 
earnest ia his attempt to arrest the unwise 
measures of ibe home Oiivernmunt. In Octo- 
ber 1775 he thus writes : "The cemmauicatiun 
witli my native country may soon be cut off. 
The prospect ia very gloomy and av Inl. (ttttl 
in his providence seems to have determined 
the fate of the British Empire, which is likely 
to be rt-nt in piec«'s. I do not believe, however, 
that there i» a man of sense on this continent 
who desires such a disjunction provided they 
are not drove to it by absolute necessity, bnt if 
forcible mecanres arc persisted in tlie dire 
event must take place, which mas God in his 
mercy yet prevent." In the same month he 
writcR again ; ''The situation of this eonntrj- 
and my own makes me truly anxious. • • • 
• I shall add that the generality of people at 
home are totally wrong in their ideas of this 
conntry and its inbabitants. who being now in 
arma m jst by next spring be looked np«jn as 
equal to the same nHinl>er of regular troops 
not only to do them justice, but that their op-' 
ponenta may have proper ideas of the business 
they go upon if the enterprise of subduing 
them bepe-rtisted in, which, however, I hope 
in God will not Im' the case. Perhaps the p«'ti- 
lion of Congress may afford a prcper op«-ning 
for a negotiation. Should that Ik; rejected as 
the laiit, then God have ro< iry on us all. All 

tunity to hear iu a regular way again." 

May 3, 1775, from New York, Mr. Erskine 
writes : "The people, as I have said before iu 
private letters, are sincerely in earnest every- 
where. I have even been applied to for gun- 
powder by the principal people of the County of 
Bergen in the Jerseys, in which your Iron 
Works are situated, where tbey, who till new 
hardly thought anything of the matter, are 
forming into regular disciplined bodies as fast 
as possible, which is the only business attend- 
ed to at present anywhere. Gen. Gage is shut 
up upon salt provisii ns in Boston, from whence 
it is allowed he could not ?tir ten miles had he 
10.(100 men ; for 20,0t0 men who now beyond 
donbl can fight, are intrenched without the 
town, and .^('.fl-O more were sent home ngimi 
as supcrtlui-ns at present. But I leave paitic- 
nlars to thetewspapeis, and am stnry the limes 
have furnish* d a subject so foreign to my far- 
mer correspondence. The present subject I 
have adopted from the general voice which helrt 
it necessary that all who correspeinded. with 
England should be explicit in declaring the sit- 
uation of this country, which is beyond dispute 
indissolubly unitedagainst the British Ministry 
and their ads, to which the Americans will 
never subscribe bnt in characters of blood ; nor 
since blood has been shed do I believe a hearty 
reconciliatioa can again take piace unless 
BLOOD seals the contract." A week afterward 
he writes : "Nothing now is attended to but 
arms and discipline. Even the Quakers of Phil- 
adelphia have taken arms, and two companies 
of that persuasion were formed last week. * 
• * The seaport towns may be beaten down 
if the ministry think proper, but no force they 
can send will be able to penetrate ten miles 
inland. 'Tis perfectly astonishing they have 
carried things so far. The fishMy bill, the alle- 
gations of cowardice, Ac, have exasperated the 



wbole eoDtiutnt lo the last degree." Again of 
rhelOtJi of June, Le writes- "I beg leave to 
;,'ive yon my sentiments respeeting an accconi- 
rnodation, wliicb tbere is not the least prospect 
•>f being ofifected by force of £irm.s, soon if at 
all, for the universal diligence in learning and 
apphcatioD given to military affairs naist soon 
.•(.invert the people of this continent into reg- 
ular troops. * * * * They have tbeir eyes 
about them and are determined to be free or 
die. There is no doubt, bowLver, that a hearty 
recoct iliation would immediately take place 
were they put on the game footing as in "(KJand 
the right of taxation given up, for iudependen- 
cy is uot tbeir aim. Such a wish was never ex- 
pressed or hinted at either in the last or pres- 
ent Congress."' 

In a letter May 23, 1775, he exclaims: "My 
heart bleeds for my nativi; country." In Au- 
gust he writes, that "had the ministry design- 
«:d to render the opposition to their measures 
as effectual as possible, they could not have hit 
upon a better met'jod than the steps they have 
pursued." "Sept. 5. The people are in gen- 
eral longing for intelligence from England, but 
however ardtuf and sincere their desires are 
for a happy and amicable reconciliation, they 
are in general prepared and preparing for the 
worst.' Dec. atl), he tells his employers that 
whatever takes place "I shall continue to act 
for your interests and the' preservation of your 
property as well as I can." Dec. 6th, he is in 
great trouble about protested bills in conse- 
• (uence of the troubles of the country, and then 
lie exclaims : "Ob! my country! lo what art 
I hou driving? This gives me piquaut distress 
ind»ed. How long will madness and infatua- 
tion continue V Oh God, justice and judgment 
are the habitation of tby throne; mercy and 
truth shall go belore tby face. Excuse me, it 
is neither treason nor rebellioH to wish the 
kings of the earth would imitate the Sovereign 
of the Universe. Civil war, subjects and kin- 
ilred blood shed, and for what? Becau:<e the 
Mitiislry of Britain have adopted the prejudices 
aud resentments of a Governor and bis petty 
partisans of one of the provinces. Heavens! 
what a figure the present annals will make in 
history !" 

In a communication dated December 2, 1775, 
to the "Colonel and other (»tticers of the 
Battalion of Continental Troops raising in the 
.Terseys," Mr. Erskine give a copy of' his own 
commission, which deserves to be reported in 
full. "In I'rovincial Congress, Trenton, New 
Jersey, 17 August, 1775. This Congress being 
informed by Jt)hu Fell, Esq., one of the Depu- 
ties for the County of Bergen, that Robert Ers- 
kine, Esq., bath at his own expense provided 
arms and accoutred an independent company 
of Foot Militia in said County, do highly ap- 

prove of his zeal in the same, and <lo order that 
he be commissioned as Captain of said com- 
pany. A true copy from the Minutes. Wm. 
Paterson, Scc'y." 

This commission Erskine copies in order to 
have the officers of the battalion rectify the ir- 
regular proceedings of one Yelas Meade, who was 
enlisting his men contrary to the exemption of 
Congrisfi ; such enlistments seriously interfer- 
ing with the business at the Works. He says 
bis company "consists of forgemen, carpenters, 
blacksmiths and other hands, whose attend- 
ance is daily required. I dare say, however, 
that there is uot a man belonging to it but would 
willingly lend his aid in a case of extremity 
when every consideration must give way to the 
salvation of the country." He further says, "I 
have been at a very great expense in arms, 
uniform and discipline, and be closts bis letter 
"with the sincerest wishes of success to the 
friends of the British Constitution and the Lib- 
erties of America." 

On the 10th of February, 1776, he wrote to 
his London employers, am»ng other things, 
that "brave Gen. Montgomery has fallen before 
Quebec, and makes the third hero who has ex- 
pired before its walls. We have some extracts 
from the English papers to the 17th of Novem- 
ber ; it makes me happy to see their complex- 
ion a iittle more favorable to a reconciliation. 
But shilly-shally undetermined procrastination 
and insidious maneuvers will not do. This coun- 
try is too mucb on their guard, too well pre- 
paied and toy mueli exasperated to attend to 
anything but plain English. It is the heighth 
of folly lo hope to disjoin them. Unless the 
Ministry treat with the Congress they need not 
attempt treating at all, for were any colony 
base enough to break the Union, could they 
dare do it ? No. Open on all sides, their being 
attacked on their skirts and sea-coasts by their 
European enemies is an happy alternative to 
that of being destroyed from all quarters; be- 
sides it is not in human nature to deliberate in 
the alternative, after engagements so short in 
a quarrel that has gone so far, a fact so obvi- 
ous that I hope all sciupulous punctilios will 
be got over and a cessasion of arms and a re- 
peal of the obnoxious acts take place, and then 
I trust Great Britain will regaiu the confidence 
and esteem of this country, provided she shows 
a hearty and speedy disposition to do them jus- 
tice." Under the same date he encloses his 
"cash account for January, and adds, "this — 
the profitable running of the Works — with a 
speedy settlement of the present disputeH, 
would give me the highest satisfaction, but 
speedy the settlement must be if at all. A con- 
tinuance of hostilities and another campaign 
and the burning a few more defenceless towns 
and such acts of wanton mischief, will most uu- 



doubtcdly make the broach irreparable." 

TLisc quotations preaeiit tbe Uiu^'woud Dian- 
t^c-riii a lis^bt that retlt.cls credit on him as 
one who ik-arly read tlie signs of the timeu 
and iutcrprctuil thoKO Hi2;uit hoiieHtly to bis 
British (.uiployors. It js very cvidcut that, ho 
dfsiriHl the Uevolutiou to bi- arrtstod by the 
honest rotraction of their odious measures by 
the Britisli ministry, and the faithful eessiuu 
to the American colonies of th»; rights whwh 
Ihcy jnsily claimed. Were there no other sour- 
cos of information than these letters, it would 
be evident that their writer was a warm advo- 
cate of the Americans in their dJMputt with tli" 
mother country, but taken with other proofs, 
they present Robert ErsUiue in a noble a ttitude 
in the struggle which he predicted in such 
strong languago, together with its issue. 

He died at Rinorwood, and his grave occupies 
a retired spot about a quarter of a mile from 
the ruins ef the old Ringwood Fuiiiace, near 
the roail leading from Ringwood to West Mil- 
ford. There are only two graves at th is place, 
these laying wide by side, the one that of Rob- 
ert Ert kino and the other that of his former 
clerk, Robert Mouleath. Mr. Krskiue's monu- 
ment is of gray marble, is supp<irted in a re- 
curalx^nt position by a brick wail about one 
foot high, and bears the following inscription : 
"In memory of 
Robert Erskine, F. R. S. 
Geographer and Surveyor General 
To the Army of 
The United States ; 
Sou of the Uev. R.VLPH EusKiNK. 
Late Minister at Dunfermline 
In Scotland. 
September 7th, 1735. 
October 2d, 1780, 
Aged 45 years 
And '25 days." 
I am tempted here to copy an autograph let- 
ter from Margaret Erskine, "the loving and iif- 
feetionate mother" of Robert, which shows the 
canny Scotch woman not too prudent about 
"the Lotry tickets, their being a few that gets 
anything that way," and yet who Kays "I will 
be gild to hear it you g(rt anything that way, 
and what you payd for yonr ticket" It is (evi- 
dent from the letter that he had sought a Pro- 
foBHorship at Glasgow. 

"Dear liobbio, I received your's this day I 
wroi to yon this day eight days with a ship- 
masters recept for a box to you with some iin- 
nings which youl ha/e gotby this time. I shall 
be Very glad that I am in a uiistaKe about your 
boing oblidged to be present as a candidal for 
ye vacancy at Ulesgow it was the openeau of 

your Brother and many others that you should 
be present but if it is ueadless it may be they 
may cause you yet for to be sure tne profcs- 
strrssis not pleased with that Buchanuaii bu'it 
is like as ye D of A-gyl is hear he will obhdg' 
them to taKe him tit or unlit if it serves hii- 
tuiu I think you have got a suthsceant swack 
of his Ciress a.s I hope you will expect no tavours 
from him it would be ■■> great mercy if you conld 
think of doing something hear lor I am afrayil 
you will get some offers to go to Jeaiueky Gi'- 
brealter or some of the colonys abroad which 
would be very disagreeable lo me. You mav 
be sure I would be very glad to see you lieir 
for I almost desper of ever seeing you and if 
you go lather abroad it will ccrteanly be thi 
case I hope you will take care not to niedle wit b 
Lotry'tickets their being few gets anything thai 
way Garvok give out KM) pouudsster for tickets 
and they came out all blanks. I will be glad to 
hear if you get anything that way and what yon 
payed for your ticket. I hope it will be as you 
say that the people you stay with are religenss 
sober folk but I thought it best to let you se*- 
my Brothers letter that you mii^ht be on yonr 
gaird— I hope the Lord himself will keep liis 
hand about you and keep you oul. ot evel com- 
pany for to be sure their are many temtationti 
in and about London and oUmost in every place 
I am Dear Robie your loving and affectuat 
Mother Makoaret Ebsinf..'" 

Dunferm (date torn off). 

As already said, it was in 1772 that Mr. 
Faesch was superceded in the management of 
til" London CompanyV Works by Mr. Erskiiic 
I'rcvious to 1770, Col. Jacob Ford, Jr., of Mor- 
ristown — his widow was Washington's hostci<> 
during hh second winter in Morristown— k- 
said to hrve purchased some 2,000 acres of tin 
land which afterward constituted a eonsideiji- 
blc part i)( the large tract bought by Mr. 
Faeseb. Col. Ford built a forge some thn i 
miles north of the Mount Hope mansion, Jhcu 
known as Buvnt Meadow, but subseqnciilK 
Denmark. He there built a hoiit-e and lived a 
year or two. Col. Foid was at Denmark «v 
early as 17GH, because that year he is mention- 
ed in the Rockaway Trustee book as occupying 
"I'ue No. 5," in the first meeting house. For 
some reapon he was dissatisfied with Denmark 
as a residence, and in 1770 built tliC' stone maii- 
8K/U at Mount Hope. This is still standing, 
and I may add that I saw a pane of glass in one 
of its windows on which was the diamond-cut 
autograph of Samuel Ogden, of Boon ton, with 
a date w'.ich I have forgotten. This relic way 
lost on repairs being made on the house. 

In 1772 Mr. Faesch removed to Mt. Hope.* 

* I have not seen the deed for lands purchas- 
ed from Col. Jacob Ford, Jr., but the fact is 



aud the late Col. Joseph Jackson, of Rockaway, 
say* that Faesch built the Moiiut Hope Fur- 
nace in that year, and fjradually cidargcd hia 
purcliatits until he was said to own ten thous- 
an<i a<:res, the most of which was wood land. 
He became the lessee of the Hibernia Works at 
some time during? the war and cast a large 
amount of shot and shclJ for th(? Government. 
Gen. Washington and statt'once visited him at 
Mount Hope, and he was regarded as a thor- 
oughly loyal man, entering into the war with 
great zeal. It is said that he was successful in 
Ills business as an iron master until, at the 
close of the war, foreign importations 
him down. After the war he removed tn Mor- 
ristown aud purchased the old magazine which 
stood on the southeast corner of the Square. 
This he converted into a dwelling and occupied 
it until his wife died, Feb. 2.3, 1788. After this 
he removed to Old Boontou, and died of dropsy 
May 2G, 1799, at that place, aged 70 years. He 
was buried at Morrislowu. Mr. Faesch was said 
to be skeptical in his religious opinions, but one 
of the promptest supporters of the ilockaway 
church, giving as a reason for the apparent 
inconsisicucy, that "religion was a very good 
thing to keep the lower classes in proper sub- 
ordination!" His autograph may be seen on 
hcveral subscription papers of the parish, and 
the flourish at the end was in form like a pipe. 
He married Miss Ellizabcth Brmkerhotf, of Par- 
isippany, and left two soii-< and two daughters. 
The sons, John Jacob aud llicliai-d, ntn-er mar- 
ii(^d, and died whilst yet voung nun. One of 
the daughters died about 1818. .She wa.s not 
married. The other marric 1 a Mr. Win. H. 
iiobiuson and had two daughters, one of whom 
uiairied Uobert I. Girard, oi:' New York, and 
died about lb48 or 'D, leaving children, and the 
oiher was living in California in 1851. Mr. 
Faesch himself married for his second wife a 
widow Lawrence, who>e maiden uame was 
Leonard, her mother being a K(\ariiey.* There 
were no children by this marriage. 

In liis day John .Jacob Faesch was one of the 
great men of Morris C<iunty, regarded as its 

'.iuown that he Ixiught the Mount Hope house 
and a large tract of land with it that year. 
Sent. 12, 1772. he bought of William Burnet and 
John .Johnson for l,24t) pounds. 7s. 6d. Procla- 
mation, a tract of land in IVquanuoc, measur- 
ing (i,200 acres, out of which certain tiacts are 
reserved. May 8, 1772, he bought of "Aliraham 
Ogdeu a tract in Mendham Township known 
and (malted Jackson's Mine, containing ten 
acres for 10 pounds." He also bought, Nov. G. 
1772, another tract in same township of four 
42-100 acres for 33 pounds 18s. 6d. And Feb. 
1st, 1773, he bought of .Facob Ford, Jr— "both 
of Pequannack Township" — a small tract of 
land "at h place known as Mount Hope," for 
r> .~)ounds. East .lersey Records, Liber G. 3 pp. 
06; 237, ». and 200. 

*Whiteh 'ad's Amboy, p. !)2. 

greatest iron-master, one of its richest men 
and one of its most loyal citiz^-ns. The robbers 
Moody and Claudius Smith several times at- 
tempted to rob his house, but provided with 
arms by the Government and surrounded with 
his own men, he was not a very pleasant ob- 
ject of attack by the bandits. 

As mention has been made of Col. Jacob 
Ford, Jr., as one of the early settlers of the 
upper part of Morris (bounty, I may add that 
he was the son of Col. Jacob Ford, Sen., aud 
that after his sale ot Mount Hope to Mr. 
Faes h, he returned to Morristown. He he'd 3 
commission in the American army, built a pow- 
der mill at Morristown, and saw some service, 
but shortly after Washington led his army into 
winter quarters, early in January, 1777, Col. 
Ford died of pneumonia, Jan. 11, aged thirty- 
nine. Eight days afterward— Jan. 19 — his fa- 
ther. Col. Jacob Fjrd, Sen., died of fever aged 
seventy-three years.* By order of Gen. Wash- 
ington, the son was honored with a military 
funeral. His descendants are among the most 
honored citizens of the County. 

Not far from Mount Hope is Hibernia, at tho 
head of the "Horse Pound" Valley, and situa- 
ted between two steep mountains about four 
miles north of Rockaway. At one time no lit- 
tle iutersst was connected with this place and 
f^ome men who figured there. The land was 
taken up and the works built earlier than either 
at Denmark or Mount Hope. 1 am not able to 
give the precise date, only it was prior to Oc- 
tober 28, 1765.t 

It will be noticed that in 1705 John Johnson 
had iron works at "Horse Pound,'' as Beach 
Glen was then called, from the fact that near 

♦ Morristown Bill of Mortality, 29. 

t At this time Samuel Ford and his wife Grace 
— daughter of Abraham Kitcliel -f<ir the sura 
of 265 pounds, 13s. 4d. sold to James .\nderson. 
of Newtown, Sus'-:ex County, "one equal and 
undivided third part of all and every of the Re- 
spective five following lots of land hereinafter 
mentioned, and seitua'e in the Township of 
Pequannock, in the County of Morris afore- 
said, about one mile and a half above John 
Johnson's Iron Works, iSrc." Lots number one, 
two, three and four contain ten acres each, 
strict measure, and number live ten acres and 
thirty-four hundredths. This land is described 
as part of a "lott of land returned to Col. Ja- 
cob Ford, and recorded at Perth Amboy in 
I'lOok S, 4 p. 35<)." The same convevance of 
Ford to Anderson speaks of "outhouses, build- 
ings, barns, Furnaces, itc. mines and miner- 
als, &c.," as included in the deed. The deed is 
acknowledged "before me. Joseph Tuttle, Esq., 
one of the Judges of His Majesty's inferior 
Court of Common Pleas, held at Morristown, 
July 9, 1766." On the same day. Oct. 28, 1765. 
Samuel Ford and his wife Grace, sold to Benja- 
min Cooper, of Newtown, Sussix County, for 
the same sum, "one equal and undivided third 
part of all and every" of the same "five lotts of 
land" ns described in the conveyeuce to Ander- 
son—East Jersey Records Liber D. 3 pp 42-6. 



the upper end of the valley the Indians, and 
perhaps early settlers, had a \n^ enclosure 
made, in which to catch the horses that had 
lieen running wild over the mountains duriiij; 
the summer. The names of Lord Stirling, I'eii- 
jamin Cooper and Samuel Ford, are (•oiinect<'d 
with the original building and o -iifrsliip of the 
Hibernia Works. The history of L(ird Stirling 
is fuliy stt forth in a volume published under 
the autipicei4 of the Historical So.rit-ty. 

Benjamin Cooper was the son of Judge Dan- 
iel Cooper, and in 1708 I find that ''Benjahiin 
Cooper & Co." held "pew No. «" in the old 
Rockaway meeting house. Lord Stirling was 
the "Compiiny." It is said that Fold and Lord 
Stirling built Hibernia Work.s. llie former 
l^caine a notorious character, sirid as a part of 
his villainous career was run at Hibernia, it 
will be interesting to record a few things con- 
cerning him. 

Mr. Whitehead, in his paper on "The llob- 
bery of the Treasury in 176B," describes Ford 
as '"an artful rogue, an Englishman by birth 
but married and having relations in New .Jer- 
sey."* In this he is mistaken. In the census 
of New Jersey, taken in I771-2,t is the follow- 
ing item : "Widow F,lizal>i>th Lindslcy, moth- 
er of Col. Jacob Ford, was born in the city of 
Axford, in Old England, came to Philadelphia 
when there was but one lions in it, and into 
this Province —New Jer.sey— when she was bnt 
one and a half yeart old. Decea.sed April 21st, 
1772, aged 01 years and one month." Samuel 
Ford was the grandson ot this esliniable la<iy4 
He was regarded as a very ingenious man, and 
from IJenjamin Cooper's confesyion. an<l Ford's 
rejoinder, I infer that the business of counter- 
feiting w;js agitated before the latter sold out 
his Hibernia interests t(» Anderson and C'oop- 
er. in 17*>5. >Ir. Whitehead intimates that 
Ford we'-.t to Ireland in 176y, "for imjirove 
ment in the profession,"! bit Kivington'> 
New York ()az<Mte of July 22d, 177.]. says that 
"Ford went to Ireland si.\ years ago, and to 
England eighteen months ago." He made two 
trips across ihe ocean in the prosecution of his 
bnsiness. The date of the Hibernia Works 1 
suppose was to raise the means to make the 
voyage in 176-5. He was back in 1706 and we 
find under date of June 2S, 1766. in the minutes 

•Proceedings N. J. Historical Society, V, p. 
53. f 

t Historical Society Library. 

JHis fath« I's name was Sjimiiel. He married 
(irace, the daughter of Al>raham Kitchel, ot 
Hauov«-r, and sister of Aarun the Congresbman. 
Her great-grandfather was the Rev. Abraham 
Pierson. sen., of Newark. Her niece Mrs. Eu- 
nice Pierson, of Rockaway, who lived to the ex- 
uaordinary ageof ninety-three years, once told 
ine that, Samuel Ford was a handsome man 
but "he was a great grief to his friends." 

9 I'roceedings N. J. Historical Society, V, 53. 

of Privy Council of New Jersey, that the Gov- 
ernor . igned a warrant on the Treasury "to 
the Hon. John Stevens, Esq., for sending an 
express into this Colony to inform the inhabi- 
tants of a large sum of Jersey bills of credit 
being arrived in a vesKcl from England." 
There can be httic doubt that this was the 
fruit of Ford'.s professional visit to Ireland, 
then repuu'd to furnish the most skillful coun- 
terfeiters in the win-ld. "Whilst in Ireland he 
married an interesting young Irish gir!, with 
whom he i< said to have received some money. 
On reaching this country she was well nigh 
ciiized on linding that Ford had a wife and 
children. This was one of the worst acts ol his 
wicked life."* 

In the letter which Ford wrote to Cooper, 
after his own escape fioiu the Morris jail, he 
berates Cooper for his "attiooioiis falsehood" 
in charging on him th',- robbery of the Treas- 
ury at Perth Aiuboy, and then speaks m terms 
of virtuous indignation because in the confes- 
sion "You describe me as being the chiefest 
promote^' anl tirst introducer of the money 
making aflfair," as he pleasiuitly denominates 
connterfeitiug. He then adds this sentence, 
"Did you not in the time of our distressed cir- 
cumstances at the furnace [Hibernia] liral 
move such a seheUiC to me?" From the deed 
of two-thirds of the Hibernia property in 1765, 
it is fair to infer that he then sold out all his 
interest there, and in connection with his own 
letter just quoted, it seems to me clear that 
•'the inoney-makiiig affair" was in progress as 
early as that t m '. Further it seems probable 
that he sold his property in order to go to Ire- 
land that very fall or the next spring, and that 
his return wa". made known by the arrival in 
June, 1766, of a ship with "a large sum ol 
counterfeit Jorsey^bdls of credit." With this the fact that in 1707 he was r<!.-id- 
ing in New York, where ho was arrested "oa a 
charge of uttering false New Jersey bills of 
credit. "t 

It is evident that after his return from Ire- 
land he sought a more secluded place for his 
business, and found it in a swamp-islanJ on 
the Hammock, midway between Morristown 
and Hanover. Ttie late Sherift" lioberlson, ot 
Morris county, became the owner of the hous«i 
Ford livttl in, on the Hammock, and in repair- 
ing it found s!)me of Ins con nteifei ting tools iu 
the wal's where they had been secreted by 
Ford, many years before. In July, 1768, the 
robbery of the Treasury took place, and Ford'd 

* Dr. Timothy Kitchel heard his father say 
that this young woman was afterward married 
to an Irishman, and livoil at Whippany man.v 

t Mr. Wliit.jhead's Pawer, Proceedings of N. 
J. Historical Society, V, 52. 



letter to Cooper with other testimony leaves 
f-bo strong suspicion that lie was the planner 
.A nd cxecuior of that crime. This is contirniod 
Ijy the coufesijions wliich Cooper, Hivyncs and 
IJiidd made under the gallows, all pointing' as 
is said, to Ford as the Treasury robber, but 
tliere if5 no direct proof of the charge, and Ford 
bioiBoif denies it. 

In the Pennsylvania Gazette, oF Sept. 29th, 
1773, we find the iubstanco of Cooper's confes- 
sion. "He coafei<sod himself piivy to the rob- 
bery ot the Treasury at .\mboy, and that he re- 
cfived 300 pounds of the money; that it was 
<;oucerted by Ford, and perpetrated by him 
Hnd three soldiers (ben quartered there ; that 
the plan was lirst to attempt to carry off the 
iron chest, and if that failed, next to take the 
key from Mr. ISUinuer's bod roo^i, and to kill 
Ijim or any person who sliould discover them, 
»udthat afterwards if any of them should bo 
<uspected or convicted, they were to turn 
King's evidence and accuse Mr. Skinner as be- 
ing an accomplice with them. When some of 
Miem were shocked at this proposal, as thereby 
.»n innocent person might lose his life. Ford 
ii'plied, '"'No, d — him. he will only be con- 
ilemned, he has friends enough to save him 
I'rom the gallows.' " That after breaking into 
the Treasurer's office, ftdjoitiing his bed-room, 
tliey attempted to carry off the chest, but find- 
ing it difficult set it down again, and lireaking 
open a desk in the room in hopes of finding 
tnoney, they there found an old key to the 
luoney chest, which was rusty and thought un- 
fit for use (the key then in use being in Mr. 
Skinner's bed-room); with this old key they 
opened the iron chest, and thereby the lives 
.'hat would have been exposed were probably 
preserved." I copy this not to vouch for its 
truth but as supplying a ueedod document in 
Miis singular history.* 

The emission of counterfeit money had grown 
into an alarming evil, and it was generally be- 
lieved that Samuel Ford was the leader of the 
gang. Accordingly, on the 16th of July, 1773, 
be was arrestid and imprisoned at ilorristowu. 
During the night, or the next day after his ar- 
rest, he escaped, "being aid( d," as Mr. White- 
head says, "by his confederate. King— a rival 
veteran in villainy." This John King was prob- 
ably "John King, latt' nnder-Sht!riff of Morris 
county," and thus was able to aid in his jail- 
breaking. Moreover, dejiuty-Sheriff King was 
b«fore the Privy Couticil in February, 1744. 
The Sherift', Kinney, was himself indicted for 
allowing the escajie of so dangeious a prisoner. 
Indeed some pretended to believe that Kinney, 

* Mr. Whitehead's paper, already referred to, 
gives a succinct narrative of the principal cir- 
cumstances, and their bearing upon subsequent 
B vents. 

and others higher in society, were implicated 
ill the crime.* Certain it is that very little 
care was taken to hold the rogue, and the pur- 
suit of him was not very vigorous. He first 
fied to a lonely spot on the mountain, between 
Mount Hone and Hibernia, and staid in 
"Smultz' Cabin," a deserted cabin in an old 
colliery.t The late James Kitehel. of Rocka- 
way,| when fourteen years old, was one Sunday 
at the Rockaway meeting house, and saw Sher- 
iff Kinney arrest Abraham Kitehel as a guide 
for his posse to Ford's hiding place. Greatly 
excited, the boy ran home, but on thfl way 
stopped to tell one John Herriraan the occur- 
rence. He says that this man stript off liis 
coat and ran straight over the meadows for 
Hibernia, for "Smultz' Cabin." The Sheriff 
took the matter leisurely, although Mr. Kiteh- 
el, his guide, said to him publicly, "I know 
where Ford is and will take you to the spot, 
but you know you dare not, for your own sake, 
arrest him I" At last, at a leisurely pace, they 
reached the cabin, and sure enough Ford was 
gone. "There, Sheriff," said Kitehel, as they 
entered the cabin, "is where Sam Ford has 
been secreted, and you would rather give your 
horse, saddle and bridle than to find him here 
now!" The Privy Council regarded Kinney as 
"blameablc for negligence in his office, respect- 
ing the escape of Ford." He vas indicted for 
it, and the Council advised the Governor "to 
prosecute the said indictment at the next 
court. "§ 

It was a widely prevalent opinion in Morris 
County, as has been stated, that some men in 
high positions were interested in Ford's "mon- 
ey-making business," which he pleasantly calls 
"a piece of engenuity." Four men were con- 
victed in Morris County and one in Sussex 
County, and all sentenced to bo hung ; Bonja- 
rani Cooper of Hibernia, Dr. Bern Budd, Sam- 
uel Haynes, David Reynolds and one Avers. 
Reynolds was a common man, with no strong 
social connections, but Cooper, Haynes and 
Ayers were Justices of the Peace. Cooper's 
own father, Daniel Cooper, was one of the 
Judges of the Court that tried him. Dr. Budd 
was a physician greatly esteemed in the County 
for bis social position, and also for his reputed 
skill in his profession. Indeed, so great was 
the latter, that this bad business and his hav- 
ing been sentenced lo death in consequence of 
it, did not prevent his retaining his practice. 
One of his patients, a very inquisitive woman, 

* When the Sheriff sold out what little prop- 
erty Ford had left, even to a tin cup filled with 
rniik for the babe, his son said to Iiim "I have 
seen you in my farher's shop." 

t Statement of his niece, Mrs. Eunice Pier- 

$ Mrs. Pierson's brother. 

§ MS minutes of Privy Council. 



the first time she bad occasion for his pervices, 
asktd hiin very naively "bow he kind of felt 
when he came so near being banged ?" Dr. 
Budd died of putrid fever Dec. li, 1777, aged 
thirty-nine years.* Of the four Morris County 
convicts, Cooper, Haynes and Budd were re- 
prieved the morning of the day appointed for 
their execution. f The substance of Cooper's- 
confession has already boon given, and the min- 
utes of Privy Council show that in a trial insti- 
tuted by Lord Stirling as,ainst Col. Samuel Og- 
deu and Samuel Tutbill, Esqs., for nnJ'air deal- 
ing in the taking of aQidavits and confessions 
"in the County of Morris, in or about the 
months of August, September and October 
last— 1773— relative to the counterfeiting of the 
paper bills of credit oi this province and the 
Bobery of the Treasury of this Province," Budd 
and HaynvB had both made conf^'.'^sions, for the 
minutes direct that "Wm. DcHart, Esq., bring 
with him the affidavits of Budd and Haynes, 
taken after they were released from Gaol, and 
the original paper which he— DeHart— recei"ed 
from Haynes' wife." These afifidaviti I have 
not seen, nor the substanco of them, but the 
whole series of incidents, taken togeihcr, looks 
as if they also told the same story as Cooper 
did, charging on Ford the Amboy robbery. 
An»l I cannot rclrain from espres-^iiiK the fool- 
ing which an examination of all the acccs.iiblfi 
records as well as traditions leave on my mind, 
that whilst Samuel Ford was a very great vil- 
lain, he was acting his villainy in very resjwci- 
able company, a part of which did not get to 
court and the scaffold os some others did. 
Bevnolds, the least guilty of the whole, was 
hung, having been arrested on the testimony 
of a brother Irishniaii, who after the execution 
manifested the most lively grief. 

How long Ford was conciuled in the vicinity 
of HiVjcrnia is not known, but his letter to 
Cooper was pioved by Josiph Morris, liis bro- 
ther-in-law, and Jonathan Ford, his brotber, 
Sept' mber 8, 1773. I have '.arefully examined 
the tills of the Pennsylvania Gazette for 1773, 
aud also Rivington'a New York Gazette, and 
am surprised to lind how dilatory the SheriH' 
aud Governor were in their efforts to arrest 
Ford. He broke jail on the Ibth of July, and 
was known to bo in concealment not far away 
during the entire month of August, and per- 
haps longer, yet Sheriff Kinney docs not get 
his offer of reward published until August 5th 
in the Itivington ; and the Pennsylvania Ga- 
zette tloes not get the Governor's proclamation 
until December Ist. It is not until September 
of the name year that tho last nanu^d paper bf- 
gius to publish items concerning the pursuit of 

• Morristown Bill of Mortality, 41. 
t Minutes Privy Council MS. . I'rocfiedinga N. 
J. Hist. Soc. V, p. 51. 

Ford, and then we have items in the Lssues of 
.September 22d, 29th, October 20th, Decemb.i 
1st and 9th, 1773, aud January 26th, 1774. 

From the best authority, 1 loam that Ford 
made his way to what was called the Green 
Brier Country, among the mountains of Vji- 
ginia, where he assumed the name of his moth- 
er's family, Baldwin. He thtre was a silver- 
smith, aud termed a partnership with auothei 
man. During a severe illness he disclosed hi^ 
real history to his partner's wife, whc so sym- 
pathized with him that after his recovery ami 
the death of her own husband she married hiiti. 
so that he had his third living wife. His oldenv 
sun, William Ford, and Stephen Halsey (son of 
Ananias), vi.sited him in Virginia, where they 
found him with "a great property," a new wilt- 
and some promising yonng Baldwins. It jk 
possible that this distinguished Jerseyman. 
"who left his country for bis country's good," 
may be the ancestor ot some of the Virginia 
Baldwins who have tig ared in public liie. Th« 
Jersey visitors asked the new wife if he had not 
deceived her, but she said she kne .vail his pa^<t 
history, and ohe had no fear of his returning t<.- 
New Jersey. They described Ford as a "moM 
melancholy man." He professed to his son an«i 
Mr. Halsey his senitencd, a grace that le<l t-«> 
a religious lite, which must have been sonn- 
wliat weak in its nature, as it did not lead him 
to abandon his adulterous relations and do ju>- 
tice to the excellent woman in New Jersi>. 
whom he left to sustain her family wilhoui u 
tarthing's aid from him. 

Probably about the time of Cooper's arrc'sl. 
or previous to it, he sold his iute'est at Hibei- 
nia to Lord Stirling, who was already a joint 
owner, and his arrest was at Hibernia in 17/3. 

I have seen no deed of sale by either Coopei 
or Henderson, but can only say that Lord Stir- 
ling was reported to be the sole owner of tht 
works when he rented them to Mr. Faescli. 
This must have been subseiiuent to Julv IC 
1778, a«, which dale I tiud c lett.u- to Lord Stir- 
ling, from Cliarles Hofl', his manager at Hibrr- 
uia, repi>rling to him what he was doing. Jo- 
seph Hoff, the son of Charles Hoff, Sen., of 
Hunterdon County, was for some time tho man- 
ager of the Hibernia Works."* The letteis of 
which I have copies from the brothers Josepli 
and Charles HotT, reach from May 17, 1775, l<' 
July 10, 1778. From these wo learn that pow- 
der was scarce, that "the weathor is so ver^ 

'* I have copies of several letters from him to 
Robert Erskine, Lord Stirling, "Jlessis. itobt. 
and Jno. Murray," C(d. Moylaii, Murray, Sam- 
son & Co., and "Col. Knox, at Fort Washing- 
ton, in the State of New York ;" also sotne froui 
his younger brother. Charles Hoff, who at hip 
death succeeded him in the management. Tlie 
original book is in tho possession of Joseph 'J'. 
Hoff, Esq., of Mfiuut Pleasant— P. (). address. 
Dover, N.J. 



warm (August 25,1775) that if I do uot have 
iiiiu for the people I f<ar they will be more 
sicklj ;" that, June 30, 1775, 'iu convorsalioii 
with Lord Stirling, this week at this place, he 
told uie it was his candid opinion that every 
kind of intercourse between New York and Jer- 
sey would be inin:ediately cut off l)y the port of 
the former beinu; shut ;" that in the spring and 
summer of 177() attempts were made to cast 
••anuon at Hibernia, with no great success, al- 
though "last night we made a tryal at easting 
(me of the guns, but, unfortunately fOr us, we 
brought the furnace too low and it missed ui 
the Breech, all the rest was sound and good ;" 
that, tSept. 2, 177(), "I lament much Lord Stir- 
ling's situation at present ;* hope, however, he 
may be exchanged tor some persons of equal 
rank in our custixly ; the dangerous situation of 
property of all kinds gives me sensible concern 
for yon in particular and the province in gener- 
al ; I hope, however, to hear more favorable ac- 
counts soori, tho' indeed the crisis seeiis to be 
arrived, which must decide the fate of New 
York one way or the other ; happy for us that 
we have so secure an asylum from danger." 
He then tells his correspondent "we have made 
two small cannon," which he asks to have tried. 
He writes to Col. Knox for help "to support 
ihe business and complete the job." July 27, 
1777, Charles Hoff, who succeeded Joseph, 
writes to Governor L'vingston that "we are 
now bormg and preparing for trial four or five 
cannon of thi-ee pounders, and ai'c of opinion 
that they will prove good, which wo'ild 
be of great use in the .artillery. We made 
last year, lor the publick service, upwards 
of one hundred and twenty tons of shot 
of ditterent kinds, many tons of which 
are here still. I shall ever think myself happy 
and in my duty to my country, to contribute 
by every means in my power in opposing that 
tyrranical spirit which is now exhibited in the 
British nation, and shall be ready to obey any 
eonmiauds from your Excellency for that end." 
That their capacity for ircm making was not 
large, is evident horn the statement of the man- 
ager to his New York correspondents, that "we 
make 15 or 16 tons weekly," which "pig-metal, 
I have sold some for 12 pounds, some for 15 
pounds, some for 20 pounds and some for 30 
l)ounds per ton." The Hotfs wanted to make 
cannon, and so write to Col. Knox, saying, "we 
w(mld wilhugly engage to make h quantity of 
shot of any kind and try at some cannon— say 
(! or 9 pounders— Ac. We are persuaded our 
iron will answer for cannon, a» we have proved 
the first we made to be good." Charles Holf, 
in 1778, says the government gave exemption 
to t.«reaty-five men for the Hibernia Works, 

* Then a prisoner with the English. See Col- 
lections Hist. Soc, Vol. n, p. 163. 

which caused an abundance of candidates for 
the places. The same year (.July 4, 1778), Mr. 
Hotf wrote a card ou the subject of "a good 
many deserters, both of the British troops and 
Hessians, who are come in and sent to Phila- 
delphia." He seeks to engage some of these 
for cutting wood, making charcoal, doing work 
as mechanics, and other employments. His 
brother, John Hoft', was sent to Philadelphia 
with particular instructions as to kird, num- 
bers and pay. He did not succeed in the plan. 
Mr. Faeseh employed several Hessians at Mount 
Hope, most of whom remained in this couuti'v 
after the war.* 

It will be seen that Hibernia and Mount 
Hope both have claims on our interest, m dis- 
cussing the early history of Morris County. 

Let me before closing this paper gather up 
a few dates and tacts concerning other pirts 
of the county. From a manuscript "history 
of the Congregational Church, "'t I learn that 
"the tract of land now constituting the town- 
ship of Chester, was surveyed and run into lots 
in 1713 and 1714, and began soon after to be set- 
tled with emigrants from Southhold. L. I., who 
had been brought up in the Congregational 
church planted there by their fathers, and were 
by conviction and profession attached to its 
doctrines and customs. It was in their hearts 
io do as their fathers had done, plant a chuicli 
of tho same faith and form of government as 
that in Which they had been baptised and to 
which they owed so much. Having settled from 
one to three miles apart, in a country to be 
cleared of heavy timber, with their private 
buildings to erect, roads, bridges and fences 
to make, and families to support, it is wonder- 
ful that they, as early as 1747, should have been 
able to erect a commodious house of worship 
witii pews and galleries to seat an audience of 
40(1. This hous' stood about six rods w«st of 
the presenr meetinghouse." 

The Presbyterian church, at ('hesier, was or- 
gazized iu 1752, and bega'i its meeting house 
about 1755. 

A manuscript account of "the Evangelical 
Lutheran church of German Valley, Morris 

* Among the incidents of the war was the 
robbery of Charles Hoflf's house and stables, by 
a gang of fellows from the neighborhood of 
Ramapo, led, as was said, by the notorious 
Claudius Smith. They came suddenly into tho 
house in the early evening, compelled the fam- 
ily to get supper for them, stole what iewelry 
plate, flue goods and horses thej' could, and 
made otf for the mountains again with their 
plunder. In 1790 Capt. Joseph Board, who re- 
sided in the vicinity of Ringwood, wrote Mr. 
Hoff concerning some of the miscreants who 
came to a bad end. Smith and his party shot 
down one Lieut. Clark, who had been their pur- 
suer, but the murderers were themselves over- 
taken iu their hiding place and all shot. 

t Compiled by Rev. Abner Morse. 



county, New Jeisf y " has I'jis record : ''This 
part ot our couuty appears to have beiu .si.'ttl"d 
in part l>y Protestant Geiniantf, somu time 
about the year 174t). This settlement of (Jer- 
uiaub, together with others in Hunterdon and 
Sussex counties, was visited as earlv as the 
year 1745, by the llev. H. M. MnblenberKh, 
CD., so justly distinguished 'or his learning, 
piety and patriotism. With his name, and the | 
names o/' his sons, the early history of these! 
Cierman settlements, as well as the history of I 
the entire Amtriean Lutheran church, is rich- 
ly interwoven. The Lutiierau chHrch, of Ger- 
man Valley, was originally incorporated witli 
Lutheran churches in the above named coun- 
ties, tiie principal one ot which was located at 
New Gemiantown, Hunterdon county. The 
more distinct history of these churches com- 
menced with the year 1767, at which time, 
through the agency of the Uev. H. Muhlen- 
l»ergh, those churches obtained :; charter of in- 
corpfiration from George III, King of Great 
liritain, executed by William Franklin, Esq., 
Captain General and Governor of the Colony of 
New Jersey, "at his office in Burlington." The 
iirst church built at German Valley was a 1'>r 
house 01 verj' rude construction, whidi, iu 1775 
gave plaje to the Union church owned by the 
Presbyterians and Lutherans."* 

In the north-eastern part of the county set- 
tlements were made very early. Dr. iSehenck, 
for several years the pastor of the liefonned 
church at Pompton Plains, says that the firs^ 
settlements in .hat region were made on the 
east side of the Pompton river, in what is now 
Passaic county. ''At the opening of the year 
1700, it is probable that there were but five or 
six white families in this valley- that is on the 
east side — and probably none on the l'lain>, 
or west side of the river. The first families 
came from New Y(»rk, and were, some ot them 
at least, members of the Dutch church, or 
their falheiB were. A few families also settled 
in 1700 in the vicinity of the Ponds. The ear- 
liest notice we have of preaching, in this region 
of country, was at the Ponds, in 1710. The 
first house of worship was built in 1735-6, and 
dedicated April 7th, 173(). Thi« was also on 
the east bank of the Pompton river, a little be- 
low where what was then called the Pompton 
river empties into the I'ecpianac, and on hinds 
formerly belonging to the Schuyler family. It 
was probably taken down in 1770." The first 
church erection at I'ompton Plains was planned 
in 17(i9, and fini.-'hed, so far as to be used, in 
1771. Its pews were not made until aft<;r- 
w»rd».t Dr. Scbenck says, the first purchase 

♦MS sketch of German Vallev Lutheran 
ehuich, by lU'V.E. D. 

tCopy of Dr. Schenek's Paper in Minutes of 
Pompton I'lains Church. 

of lands in ihe Pompton valley, from Indians 
and proprietors, included the great body of tlx' 
land in t)ie valley. If some lover of local his- 
tory would spend a few days- among the Ityer- 
son, and other old families, of Pompton, lling- 
wood, and Dloomingdale, in the examination of 
deeds, and compare these with the Records at 
AnibdV and Trenton, the date of settlement in 
that region could probably be kittled, since 
these families art' s:!id to have been among the 
first in that ri\^ion, and their descendants still 
live ther •. 

The NAMK of the county and its shlrjtown 
has elicited some inquiry. A few paragraphs 
C(.ncerning tlie genealogv and name o\ the 
county will close this paper. In 170!l the Pim- 
vincial Legislature passed an act dehniug and 
naming several counties. The county of I5ur- 
lingten then inelndc'd all the present counties 
of Hunterd(m, Meieer, Morris, Snssi'X and War- 
ren. In 1713 the same authority divided Hnr- 
lington county so as to set off by itself tin- 
county of Hunterdon, in honor of llobert Hun- 
ter, the Governor of New York and New Jer. 
se.v. Hunterdon llieii included the piesent 
counties of Hunterdon, Mercer, Morris, War- 
ren and Sussex. On the 15th of March, 1738-9. 
the Provincial Lcigislature passed an act whirli 
set off from Hunterdon the territory included in 
Morris, Sussex and Warren, and named it Mois- 
Ris, evidently in honor of Us Governor, Lewis 
Morris, who about a month previous had been 
appointed the first Governor of New Jersey as 
a Province distiiiCt from New York.* For sev- 
eral years, according to Allinsou, the most of 
the citizens of Morris county must have been 
practically disfranchised, since it appear-* thai 
until tli<! passage of an aci. May lOili, 17Ch, ami 
eontirnied by the King, in Couiu il, Deeeinbu- 
aih, 1770, they voted in Hunterdon as formei- 
ly ; being allowed '• from time to time, as occa- 
sion sliall be. to appear at ruENToN, ok Ehf-v.- 


there to vote and help to elect and cfioose llep- 
resentutives for the said (bounty of Hunterdon, 
after th"! same manner as furmcrly before tlnr 
making of this act."! 

As to the early settlement of Moruistown 
my information is quite meager, althongh I 
have given a great deal of time to the search 
for it. and must now hand it over to the local 
historian. A single record at Trenton shows 
that surveys had been made m Morris town- 
ship about the time ot .tie surveys in IMend- 
ham, Cheslei', liandolph and Hanover town- 
ships. The first jjurchasp on thft west nidi- of 
i'omi)ton li'er, according to Dr. Scli: nek, was 
made about ^le year 1700 ; tliose in Mtndham, 

• Papers of Governor L. Morris. 29. 

t Allinson's Laws of Niw Jersey, 109, .SOG-7. 



(nicstor, Kauclolpli, in 171:^14 ; on thf 27tli of 
November, 175*<, Fredonck Miller bought laml 
in Uockaway valli-y, above Ik'oiiton, of " Wil- 
liam Allen and Edward Shippeii, oxecntor of 
Hunipl:rey Murray, defeased, of Pbiladilpliia,"' 
whieb land belonjrod to a tract siirvcyod unto 
J:inies BoUen, for Lfrjalees of Georj^o Huteb- 
inson, deceased, ontainiug 1060 acres.* 

As late as 1738 tbe name of Morristowu was 
West Hanover, as is evident from tbe record 
made by tbe llov. Gilbert Teniieiit of bis visit, 
ill July of tbat year, to '' W*st Hanover." I 
.suppose it must bave beciii a question agitated 
iiiiicng tbe yicopie soon after tbe county of 
MouRis was set off from Hunterdon, wlietbcr 
I lie county town sbould not. receive the uanu! 
■■>{ tbe Gcnrernor also ; but tbe first ifJieial use 
of it, tbat I have discovered, is two years after 
ilie oiganizatiou of tlie county. Tbe following 
record in tbe tirst volume of minutes of tbe 
<'ourt of Common Pleas, tor Morri.'< county, is 
uii important addition t<» tbe history of tbe 
•MHiuty and is given entin*. 

•■Makch -ioTH, MIX* 'XL. 
Gkneual, Sessions of the Peace. 

''The Court taking into (consideration the 
necessity of dividing the county of Morris into 
Proper Townships or Districts, for having 
proper officers within every such Township or 
District, and more especially lor such officers 
as are to act in concert with other Townships, 
we therefore order and Determine that from 
lieiioetortb a certain Township, bounded on 
Pissaic river, Poquanock riv^r, to the lower end 
of the great pond at the head thereof, and by 
Kockaway river and the west branch thereof, 
to tbe head thireof, and thence cro.<s to tlie 
lower end of said pond, and shall hencefortli 
be called Poquanock Township, District orPre- 

" Aad that a certain road from the liridge, 
by John L>ays, up to tbe Place where f'e same 
road passes between l{enjamiii_and Abraham 
Pierson's, and thence up tbe same roa<l lo tbe 
corner of iSamui.'l Ford's fence, thence leaving 

*This warrant bears date March 14th, 1714- 
15. This tract is said in tlie deed to be sur- 
veyed to the saidJaaies liollen, for tbe lega- 
tees of Hiitcbinaon, dec'd, "' tor his Lot, of No. 
21, within the New Purchase made of the In- 
dians, above tbe tails of tbe Delaware river," 
and It is said tn have been '" surveyed nnto the 
said James Hollen, in three several pieces, and 
near a place called Wippauung. in the county 
of Hunterdon, in the mouth of May, 1715." 
iE. Jersey Records, Liber F, 3.) On the Isi of 
June, 1769, " the ilight Honorable William, 
Earle of Stirling, and Lady Sarah, Countess of 
Stirling, for tlio sum of" £'2.it02. sell to Col. 
Staats Long Morris, of New A'ork, 007 37-100 
acres in the township and cofNTY of Moitiiis, 
which tract is said in the deed to have been 
origmallv surveyed iii 1715. (E. Jersev Records, 
Lib;;r r3, p.21; 

Samuel Ford to the right bund, thence run- 
ning up to the road that leads from tbe Old 
Ii-oa Works towards Succasunning, and cross- 
ing Whippenung Rridge, and from thence to 
Succasunning, and from thence to the great 
pond OH the head of Musconecung. do part the 
Township of Hanover from the Township ol 
Morris, which part of the county of Morris, 
Lying, as aforesaid, to tbe Southward and 
Westward of said roails, lines and places, is or- 
dered by tiie Court to be and remain a Town- 
ship, District or Precinct and to be (ai.t.ku 



'"The court adjourned till nine o'clock to- 
nuuTow evening."* 

It seems probable that the court acted thus 
in view of [jetitious from the peo]>le ; but, how- 
ever tbat may bo, this settles detinitely the 
name of the town and, as I think, disposes of 
a suggesti<»n of a different origin for tbe name 
made by myself on a previous occaaion.f 

It IS worth while here to state that the First 
Piesbytei'ian church of Morristown was actu- 
ally organized tbe same ^ear with the county 
of Morns, 17;)8, a' though its organization was 
attempted three years previous ; but, as is 
stated in a deed made by tbe trustees ol that 
church to the Justices and Freeholders of tbe 
county, September 7th, 1771, "on the 8th day 
of SeptemV)er, A, D. 1756, bis late Excellency 
Jonathan Belcher, Esq., Captain General, Gov- 
ernor and Comniander-in-Cliief in, and t)ver. 
the Province of New Jersey, Ac, did make and 
grant, under the great seal of said province, 
unto Benjamin Hathaway, Charles Howell, 
Heni'v Primrose, Benjamin Boyles, Tliomas 
Kent, Benjamin Cox and Samuel Roberts (by 
I he name oi the 'I'rustees of Presbytei-jaii 
church of Morristown), a Chauteu, investing 
them and their successors with full powers to 
receive, and give grants of lauds tor the U8(' 
and benefit of said I'resbyterian church, &c.'" 
The object of this conditional convftyance, in 
1771, was to lurnish tbe Justices and Freeludd- 
ers of the county with right to " a certain I^ot 
of Land, commonly called the Gully," "con- 
taining one acre, strict measure," " for tho sole 
use and purposes of a Court House, Gaol, and 
other necessary uses, for the Court House. 
Gaol, iVc, as long as the said Court House 
shall remain on said lot, or tbe said county ap- 
plies the same to those purposes only, and no 
louger." Tbe consideration was '' tbe sum ol 
£5, (current moiuy of th.' Pr?>vince aforesaid. 

* Minutes of Court of Common Pleas for 
Morris county, N. J., Book No. 1, p. 2. In July 
of same year John Kinney was proclaimed 
Sheriff, and licensed to keep lavuru lu Hano- 

t Pres. Quar. Rev., vol. VL 2«9, April, 1808. 



at eight sbilliugs tlie oudcc, to tbem iu Land 
paid, &c., and also that said Justiuus aud Free- 
holders, do constantly and ooutinually keep 
full aud iu pafBablti icpaa-, that part of the 
hcroaJter mentioned lot of land corimonjy 
called the Gully." ,The names of the church 
trustees in September, 1771, were Henry Prim- 
rose, Uenjamm Bayles, Benjamin Cox, Samuel 
Roberts, Joseph Stiles, Samuel Tuthill, Ste- 
phen Conkling. The name of Benjamin Bayles 
is signed with "his mark." 

The Justices aud Freeholders of Morris 
county, at the same date, were Robert Goold, 
Lemuel Bowers and Josiah Broadwell, Esquires, 
Justices ; and Freeholders, Matthew Lum, Mat- 
thias Buruct, Noah Beach, Jacob Gould, Jacob 
Ford, jr., hartzhorm Fitz llandolph, Jacob 
Drake, Jabesh Bell aud John Stark. The sub- 
scribing witnesses to the deed Were Timothy 
.Mills, jr., and Joseph King, and it was ac- 
knowledged before Jacob Ford, sen.* The court 
boost! and jail were on the northwest corner of 
the square. On the 1st of April, 1816, the 
Trustees of the church, for the sum of sixteen 
hundred dollars, made over their reserved 
rights iH what is now the public square, to cer- 
tain t^eutlemeu named in certaiu condi- 
tions that the ground might be orna- 
mented and improved, but not built on " ex- 
cept for a meeting hous •, a court housci and 
jail, and a market house ;" aud if " at any time 
thereafter the county of Morris sliould cease 
to use the land now occupied for a court house 
and lot, fur that purpose, the same should be 
tronsidered a part of the green or common, 
subject to the conditions a'foresaid." 

This paper, already too long, mu^t be eon- 
iluded. I regret that it cannot l>e madi: fuller 
and more explicit. The older members of the 
Society, who may have tried their hand at writ- 
ing local history, will appreciate uiy difficul- 
ties, and the young members will do so as soon 
as they attempt the same thing for any local- 
ity east of the Delaware, or west u{ the Hud- 

Let me then sum up the facts ascertained 
with more or less certainty. 

The earliest purchasers of lands in the Coun- 
ty of Morris, so far as I can hraru, were iu Pe- 
quaunock Township, in the vietinity of Pomp- 
ton Plains, on the west side of the river, from 
the I'roprietors and Indians, as p.arly as " the 

• I regret not to be able to give my authori- 
ty for these fatfts. By some mistake, at the 
lime I mad^ the quotations, I neglected to note 
the reference, but from the tact that thest; 
deeds, alluded to, are among notes which were 
laken when examining the tast Jersey Records 
at Trenton, I infer that I found these also in 
Liber F, 3, East Jersey Records, but am not 
sure. I am totj far from Tautiiii to vtrify my 

opening of 1700," when there "weie live or 
SIX families'' on the opposite side of the river. 
The first settlers were from New York, Long 
Island, and probably Bergen ('ounty, New Jer- 
sey, as then constituted. 

The church there date.s back to 1735 or '6. 

The uext i*uob>.bi.k date is that at Hanover, 
near Whippany Presbyterian Chuieh, at the 
Old Iron Works, and is "about 1710." Theeai- 
iest ACTU.\L I'ate is the deed to James Bollen, 
" near a place called Whippeuung," la the 
County of Hunterdon, in tin: month of May. 
ni.!." The same year we tind a tract surveye<l 
iu the tcwn and County of Mohkis. In 171H 
Jolm Richards, schoolmaster, dc'eded to bis^ 
neighbors, tor use ot a church, school hous( . 
training ground, burying yard, &c., the ground 
now occupied lor the cemetery at Whippany. 
This delines the date of Hanover (^hurcli a*- 

The eailiest surveys and purchaser at Mend- 
ham, Chester, Uandolph and Mill Brook (neai 
Dover), were made in 1713. The great Dick- 
erson Mine was purchased iu 1716. Iron Work- 
were built at Whippany "'about 1710," aud a 
forge near Dover in 1722. This detines the be- 
ginning of things at Dover. 

About 1725 or '30 settlements began at Ro<k- 
away , and forges were built on diflerent streams 
a^ Rockaway, Denmark, Middle Forge, Nink<'< . 
Shauugum, Frauktin and other plajes from lli<- 
year 1725 to 1770. 

Col. Jacob Ford, Jr., built Mount Hope in 
1770, and sold to Mr. Faesch in 1772, m whicli 
year the furnace was built by the latter. 

The '•Riiigwxod Company'" organized in 1740. 
an<l sold out to the "London Company" in 
1764. Haseuclever was the tirst manager of tli< 
London Company, then Faesch, and then Rol»- 
ert Erskiue. The lands of this compaoy mv 
said to have l>een coiitiscated during the Revo- 

German Valley was settled by Gerrnaiis about 
1740, visited by Dr. Muhlenberg in 1745, aixl 
its church aclui'lly buili in 1747. '^^ 

Tlur Rockaway Presbyterian Church datrs 
back to 175H, some thirty years after the tirsi 

The Coi-NTV OF JIoKKis was organized in 
1738, and its first Township of Hanover a re- 
gion of country of indetinite extent, previous 
to this date, while it belonged to Hunterdon. 

MoKKisTowN received its name in 1740 from 
the C(mrt of Cot'umi^u Pleas, and three town- 
ships deferred, viz., Hanover, Morris and Pe- 

Pompton Plains, indeed, we may say Peqnan- 
nock, as a section, was settled by Holland 
Dutch ; Hanover, Morristown aud (jhathaiu. 
by people from Newark, Elizabeth and New 
England : Meudhiiui and Chester, from Long 


and and New j^n, ,<ii(i ; Randolph and Koclt- 
»ay, by Holland Dutch and a promiscuous as- 
.riuient of people Irom various localities, 
mong them what was then Essex County ; 
nd German Valley by Germans. Not a few 
Quakers from Burliust'^"^ County were among 
;he pioneers. 

It would be pleasant to note some changes in 
tlie country since Reading first stuck his tri- 
pod in;l!Horris County, and the triphammer at 
!^anover, Dover and Rockaway first rang its 
nusic among the forests, and the last rem- 
lants of tlie Indians vanished from the Rock- 
iway and Musconotcong ; but this would tran- 
cend my purpose. Let me commend the work 
>f collecting the early history of this beautiful 
bounty to our yorxo historians. 


Much of thy early history of Morris County 
I loHt beyond recovery, and with it the char- 
ter and deeds of many who figured largely in 
at history have faded from the memory of 
man. In gathering the materials for this pa- 
lter, my mind ha.s been agitated with regret 
that 80 little can now be known concerning the 
uien and the events connected even with our 
Revolution, and with indignation at the crimi- 
nal negligence wbich has permitted the loss. 
j'.y way of esteiiualion it miy be said, however, 
that Morris County was settled by a plain and 
mpreteuding people, who caicd but little for 
'le honors of ancestry, and who judged that 
■iteiity would be able to care for themselves, 
•ked by great integrity of character, and 
al for the cause ot religion, honored with a 
competence which their simple habits convert- 
ed into abunilance, and little thinking thaf 
losterity would look back so far into the past 
vitli a real desire to know its history, they 
ept but few records to wliich we may now rc- 
;r, and these generally pertaining to the titles 
^ their lands, and the common transactio^is of 
eii churches. As for any extended records 
men distinguished among them as civilians, 
ists, or patriots, or of the origin, progress 
success ot any expeditions in defence ot 
rights as a community, or in aid of the 
■j"y at large, there are scarcely any in ex- 
e. It is certainly not a little strange, 
county, the patriotism of which furnish- 
ny men and large supplies to our army 
I the war for Independence, and which 
^e honored as containing the winter 
s of the American army, a county which 
theatre of bold exploits, and the anx- 

belore the New Jersey Historical Soci- 
K'th. 1853. 

ious consultations of Washington .. 
men who constantly attended him, 
able to furnisb so few authentic mai 
history. The last of her Revoluti(mar. 
through whom we are able to enibrac 
triots of 1776, arc only just departing; 
when we attempt even a meagre histoi 
•county, or of any prominent individur 
we are compelled to resort to "unwritten 
lions of the elders," with a full hnowleaj, 
their probable uncertainties and exagg(!ratio. 
But it is too late to enter complaints, sin 
they cannot no,v be redressed. The fathers 
Morris County are dead, and although we mnt 
regiet that they left so little from which thei 
children might construct a fitting memorial ti 
their virtues as citizens, and as patriots we cai 
only say, "Peace to their ashes." 

When the Revolutionary war l>egan, the peo- 
ple.of Morris County generally sympathized witl 
it, and in proijortion to tbeir means, did ar 
much to sustain it as any other section of tl 
state. Here, as elsewhere, there were tories wh 
showed their hostility to the Patriots by deed, 
of violence and robliery, which were sometimes 
even marked with bloodshed; but the masses 
of the people, tracing tbeir ancestral lines back 
to Now England, were thrilled with a patriot- 
ism which sf-rupled at no sacrifice for an end es- 
teemed so desirable. In many cases, all the 
male members of the family old enough to car- 
ry a musket were enrolled either in the rcgula'- 
army or among the "minute men." The 
mothers, tbe wives and the daughters tilled 
the soil, while their sons, husbands and fathers 
contended v.'ith tbe enemy. One woman wpf 
urged to get a "protection" from the Britis 
and she asked, "Would it be right or woman 
for me to secure a protection froHi the Britisl 
when I have a husband, a father, and five bio 
thers fighting the British ? I think not, and 
therefore I will not do it." For the safety o 
her family she was urged to that course, bui 
with the magnanimity of a Spirtan and 4,he 
faith of a Christian, she replied, "I will not get 
a "protection' from the British : if the God oi 
battles will not take care of us, then we will 
fare with the rest !" She was not alone in her 
resolve. Morris County could boast of hun- 
dreds of women who would endure any hard- 
ship and encounter any danger, rather than 
sanction by a word the presence of an invader, 
and the impertinence of a foe. 

As for the men. the first alarm sent them to 
the rescue, leaving the plough and reaping- 
hook to the women, wliiKst they should repel 
the enemy. One man was .stacking his grain 
when he heard the sound of the alarm cannon 
booming over the hills. In an instant, he 
sprang down with the exclamation, "I can 
stand this 1" seized his gun and Imn-ied lo V 


Tlie Kilobils, tbe Condicts, tbo 
>he Dicliiusoiis, tlin Howolla, the De- 
10 Jacksoiis, the Tuttlcs, and other 
like stuff, threw themselves with aui- 
ato the contest, to shai-e its daiif;er8 

, if not all the townships in the county, 
1 pntriotic associations, both to Ruard 
jst toriea and to furtber tbe general inter- 
s of tbe Amet lean cause. The original paper 
;ned by one hundred and seventy-seven citi- 
■ns of "Pequanoc" towu;<hip, is among the 
.iriositics to be seen in the Library of this So- 
iety. This township embraced the pr^'sent 
ownsfiip of Rockaway, and Ihe article itself 
vhich was signed by the male inhabitants of 
he town, may stand as an index to the feehngs 
which pervaded the County. "The .\s8ociatioii 
){ Wbigi in Pequanock township in 177G," 
idopted the following pledges : 
"We tbe subscribers. Freeholders and Inhab- 
gnts of the township of Pequanock, in the 
Jounty of Morris, and Province of New Jersey, 
having long viewed with Concern the avowed 
Design of the Ministry of Great Britain to raise 
a revenue in America ; being deeply aftlctea 
with the cruel Hostilities alrtady commenced 
in Massachusetts Bay for carrying that rrbi- 
trary Design into Execution ; convinced that 
the Preservation of the Plights and Privileges 
of America depends, auder GOD, on the firm 
Union of its Inhabitants, Do, with hearts ab- 
horring Slavery, and ardently wishing for a 
Keconciliation with our Parent State on Con- 
stitutional Principles, solemnly Associate and 
1C8OLVE, under the Sacred Ties of Virtue, 
ionor, and Love to our Country, that we will 
lersonally, and as far as our lutiuence extend, 
endeavor to support and carry into Execution 
whatever Measures may be recommended by 
the Continental and Provincial Ccngrcsscs, for 
lefendiug our ConstitutioD, and preserving the 
3ame inviolate. 

"According to tbe Picsohitions of the afore- 
aaid Continental and Provincial Congresses, we 
are firmly .'leterniined by all means in our pow- 
er to guard against tlie Disorders and Confu- 
Mions to which the peculiar circumstances of 
tbe Times may expose us. 

"We Do AlsoFtjkthek Associate and Aokee, 
as far as shall be consistent with the Measures 
adopted for the preservation of American Free- 
dom, to support tbo Magistrates and other 
Civil Ofticers in the Execution of their Duty 
agreeable to th" laws of tliis Colony, and to ob- 
serve the Directions of our Committee acting." 
To the honor of the Morris County yeomanry 
let it be said, that tbe British never succeeded 
•u lodging a detachment of troops within its 
'ders, althongh many attempts were made. 
o\\der mill, not far from Morristown, the 

magazine sihiated in tbe lowu, together wi 
the character of the County as a hot-bed of 1 
hellion, acted as so many incitements to t> 
enemy to make th<! attempt to reach the moun 
tains of Morris. The enemy were twice repnla 
ed at Springfield, (in 1777 and 1780,) and 01 
another occasion a detachment penetrated at 
far as ;he Passaic at Chatham. Tbe BritisL 
officer seni word to Gen. Winds that he propos- 
ed to take dinner at Morristown the next day' 
The General, who was not remarkably select ii 
his terms M-hen excited, sent woid back to the 
braggart— "If you dine in Morristown to-mor 
row noon, you will sup in he'l to-morrow 
night !" 

The people were ready at a moment's warn 
ing to fly to the rescue of their soil from th« 
invader, and some ej-e-witnesses have told mt 
that, on the slightest alarm, the countv seemet 
alive with men who were hastening to the ren- 
dezvous to be led against the enemy. 

"Parson Green," of Hanover, wus the expou 
ent of the Church to which he ministered, an 
of the whole Presbyterian community. He w 
sent to tbe Provincial Congress ; he pre'ch.u 
and prayed in behalf of our armies; and al- 
though he did not join the army at Springtiek 
in 1780, he was present to encourage his coun 
trymen in their resistance to the enemy. Th. 
mothers and the ministers, the men and tin 
muskets, tbe powder and the pulpits of Morris 
County all were pledged to encourage and aid 
her soldiers in the general cause of freedom 
Her \Vhig Associations contained the bone am 
sinew of her independent yeoman, and her Vi' 
ilance C(jmmittees kept so sharp a look-out 
treason at home, that toryism could do '. 
more than show its rage by a few violent au 
bloody acts. Her soil was the home and Xh{ 
hosjiital of American soldiers, and was coise 
crated t»y the frequent presence of Was'iingtou 
Her grain fields, her herds and flocks, afforde 
food to the patriots of the army, and her ire 
mines furnished cannon bails with which 
fight the enemy. In such men as Lord St 
hng of Baskingridge, and General Winds 
Rockaway, Colonel Dayton of Succasiinna, Ci 
tain DeHart and Benoni Hathaway of Moi 
town, Aaron Kitchel, William Tuttle and h' 
uelBeicbof Hanover, were found eonif 
leaders for every emergency, and the j 
stood ready to go where they might lead, 
cause of American independence was em' 
a popular cause in Morns County, to w) 
rich and the poor, the old and thcyounf 
of the soil and makers of iron, all pledgi 
selves with admirable enthusiasm. In 
there were not tbe most liberal mean; 
cation, but all the men and some of th 
bad been educated to the use of fire-f 
whilst their Whig Associations numbi 

ANl .. 

V lio signed the pledges of freedom by making 
I. "ir ' uiai]i," all of thi-m Itnew hew to wing the 
I bullet to another kind of mark, even the 
li t of any enemy to the sacred cause they 
had espoused. 

Among the patriots of Morris County, we 
•unst assign a prominent position to William 
Winds, of liockaway. I'y wealth as a landliold- 
-1-, and by natural gifts, he was a leader of the 
people. It cannot bo too much regretted that 
the history of such a man should have been left 
u'lwritten, and thus at the mercy of Time. His 
name will never be forgotten, and the uumer- 
«us anecdotes concerning him will be handed 
d )wn from generation to generation. He will 
I) J a favorite hero of local tradition for ages to 
■ ■ome ; but tradition makes sad work with the 
finer elements of history, retaining and retail- 
ing as It does only the disconnected anecdotes 
which are calculated to gratify the popular taste 
loisometliing striking. The popularmemory is 
^ory strong in its impressions concerning men; 
but connected narratives made of facts are as 
fleeting as tracks on the sea-shore. It will be 
the object of this paper to gather up, so far as 
possible, what remains of General Winds's his- 
*tory ; and in doing this, it will bo proper also 
t> delineate the man as he lives in the tradi- 
tidus of Morris County. 

William Winds was born in Southhold, Long 
island, in the year 1727 or 8. The Hon. Mah- 
lou Dickerson informs me that a few years 
siuce he saw the house in which Winds was 
boni ; but so careless or ignorant are those 
who ought to know these things, that I am 
"uly able to guess the year of his birth from 
thd record on his monument that he died "Oc- 
tober 12th, 1769, inthe6-2d year of his age." 
From "a list of the names of old and young. 
Christians and heathens, Freemen and ser- 
vants, white and black, <l'c. irhabitteinge with- 
in the Townshipp of Southhold," it would ap- 
pear that the Winds family, early in the last 
o utury, was quite numerous. (Documentary 
list., New York, vol. i, p. 4.">3.) William re- 
r 'oved to New Jersey when he was a young 
n an, and purchased a part of the Burroughs 
tnict of land, on Pigeon Hill." After improv- 
iu;; severai acres of his purchase, he ascertain- 
'•d that the title, under which liQjheld it, was 
not reliable, and with a frank statement of the 
^^(t he sold his right, giving a quit-claim deed. 
He then bought a large tract of land only a 
■< h 't distance from the village of Dover. Here 
' ■ '.ed until his death. The barn which he 

- stili standing, and the foundations of 
use are vet to be seen. Ho sold from 
igiual purchase several farms, retaining 
s own use what is still known as "the 
3 farm." For these facts I am iudeb;ed 

to Jacob Lose\, . 4., u . ..j agt . 
still living. 

His wealth as a landholder, and his nat^ 
force of character, gave Winds great influenc 
in the community, at a time when the savages 
yet infested New Jersey, and the whole coun- 
try was agitated with the contest between Eng- 
land and France. At such a period a leader, 
who might be looked up to for counsel, would 
bo in great demand. Besides this. Winds was 
so chivalric in his bravery, and so decided in 
his views, and withal there was in him such a 
blending of courage with great physical pow- 
ers, that his fellow citizens naturally tnrued to 
him in times whore ordinary gifts were insuffi- 
ci ent to meet the emergencies which were con- 
stantly arising. 

In conversing with an aged native of Kocka- 
way, I was informed by her of a tradition which 
bad been currently reported ever since she was a 
child, which seems worthy of being sifted, as 
she was twenty-three years old when Gen. 
Winds died, and she had lived a neighbor to 
him all that time. Her father. Deacon John 
Clarke, was intimate with Winds, and in this 
way she received the story. 

As Mrs. Anderson related the tradition,* it 
was without dates or places. In the old French 
war a brigade was raised in New Jersey to aid 
in the conquest of Canada, and in this brigade 
Winds was commissioned as an officer. On 
their march, a great way north of Albany, the 
New Jersey troops were exposed to the enemy, 
and whilst being attacked were forbidden by 
their own commander to tire again, or ofTer any 
resistance. Winds, although a subordinate, 
ran up to the general officer, and remonstrated 
with him, but he drew his sword on him. The 
vvarm blooded Winds seconded by the enraged 
troops made such an answer to this, that the 
commander put spur to his horse and fled for 
his life. Winds now assumed the command 
and brought off the troops with honor. 

Such IS the statement of an old lady, who re- 
tained the cheerfulness and vivacity of youth, 
until she nearly attained ninety years of age. 
In consulting Mr. Losey, the aged man already 
alluded to, I ascertained that a battallion was 
raised in New Jersey in 1758, the term of en- 
listment being for one year, and Winds received 
a royal commission in this battallion as a ma- 
jor, but Mr. Losey is mistaken in the rank he 
assigns Winds at that period, since in the rec- 
ords of the Presbyterian Parish of Rockaway on 
Jan. 29th, 1771, he is called Captain Winds, 

* There is so much that is improbable in this 
tradition, that the Committee on Publications 
are unwilling to allow it to be printed und 
their direction without stating their belief th 
it is not in any way confirmed by contempc 
aueous records. 


jt given ti .. 

. . . ji April —ai, 17, „ He was a eap- 

.n that war. The name of tbedeliuquent 

.nmaiulcr he is not able to state, nor the 
;>lace at which tlio scene describL'd by Mrs. 
AnderiOD occtirred, but he has no doabt that 
Ronie Buch incident did occur, since it was a 
common talk when be was a yonng man. He 
was acquainted with Winds, baving lived sever- 
al years in his neighborhood. In compannp 
his version of this incident with that of ray 
other informant. I t5nd a very great correspon- 
dence Ixjtween the testimony of the two wit- 
nesses, but Mr. liOsey further states that 
Winds was not present at the capture of Que- 
bec by Wolfe, in 1759, the term for which the 
New Jersey troops were enlisted having expired. 
Yet Winds was present in many siiirmishes. and 
assisted in taking many prisoners. His treat- 
ment ot these was so generous, that several ac- 
companied him baik to New Jersey, and set- 
tled there. Among these was a man named 
Cubboy, whom Mr. Lo.sey knew, and to whom 
Gen. Winds became so attached, as to present 
hira with a deed for twelve acres of laud in the 
ficinity of Dover. This man acted as a sort of 
body servant to Gen. Wind.i ''or many years. 
The conduct of Winds m this campaign was 
favorably reported by his soldiers, and he be- 
c«mo more than ever a p<ipnlar man at home. 
In this as in all his future campaigns he gained 
the love of hii» troops by his standin ^ between 
them and greedy spocu'ators, who thus were 
not able to push a merciless warfare on the 
meiins of the common soldiers. 

With slight variations the tradilion is con- 
firmed liy f'el. .Joseph J.Tckson, of llockaway, 
who was personally acquainted with Winds, 
and whose father repeatedly served under hini 
during the revolutionary war. 

That New Jersey sent troops to Canada in 
175R is certain,* and that they formed a part 
of the army which .\borcrombie led to the at- 
tack on Ticouderoga, in July of that year, is 
also certain. This probably affords us the clue 
to the tradition here related concerning Winds. 
In that disastrous battle, the Rifted Montcalm 
efimmanded tho French, gathering laurels 
wbuh only served to render the wreath of vic- 
tory, which fortune <m the succeeding year 
gave to the dying Wolfe, the moie fadeless. 
In spite of the sound advice of Stark, tho hus- 
band of "Molly Stark," and also some English 
officers, Abercrombie calling tli'^m ''liehoboani 
counsellors,'* prc-cipitated his gallant troops 
npon a fw>lish and bloody defeat. U is conduct 
was neverely reprobated by the survivors of his 
Array, and by tbo authorities at bome.f 

• See Bancroft's U. S., vol. iv. pp. 299, 304. 
t Bancroft's U . S. vol. iv., pp. :J00-307. 

Jdere is the seed out of which grev in 
Brobability tbo Morris county tradition, 
home Winds was not merely a brave man,, 
"the bravest of the brave." In some res^ 
be was the most noted man in the county, j 
ho held there a relative position which was n| 
so obvious in an army made up of brave men" 
from England and Scotland, and the New Eng- 
land Colonies who, among other noted spirits, 
had sent W'olfe, Putnam, and 3IoIly Stark's 
man. With communities as with individuals, 
there is a natural tendency to vanity, and with 
the former this is gratified by dilating to tl\oir 
utmost dimensions the heroic deeds of their 
ropresentative men. Thus it was not un- 
natural tor the good people of Morris 
county to discuss, by blazing hickory fires, 
and over mugs of oder, the deeds of their 
soldiers in that bloodv campaign. Among 
these reuiini.sences, under the general inspira- 
tion of such occn.sions, the important share 
which such an eccentric, brave, and popular 
man as Winds, took in those scenes, would ro- 
leive a large allowance, for thus not only did 
toey find the theme of good fireside storie.*, bpt 
food for their vanity as a community. "i 

But be this as it may, there can be littfle 
doubt that Winds was a commissicned captain, 
in active service, in the severe campaign at t\K 
north in 1758, and that he there gained himself 
the reputation of being a bold and trusty olfi- 

I have not been able to learn whether Winds 
engaged in military service at any time during 
tbo ptnod intervening between the French 
War and the Revolution. Meanwhile be re- 
ceived a commission from the Eiifjlish ant) or- 
ities as one of the King's Justices of tbo Peace 
for the county of Morns. This wa.s- previoo? 
to 1765, a year famou.s in American history for 
the passage of the odious Stamp Act. In c(U;i- 
mon with the masses of his countrymen, he re- 
garded this act as an intoloraole oppression, 
and resisted its practical enlorcement, a thing 
more difficult than common in his case as a 
Justice <if the Peace. The bold resistance >f 
the New England Colonics has found a place n 
history, and yet the mountains of Morris coun- 
ty furnished as singular an evasion of the .ct 
as any on record. To avoid the use of ;he 
stamped paper. Justice Winds substituted the 
bark of tho #hite birch. Warrants and writs, 
bonds and executions were not then ao 
ou.s as in these days of litigation, and the s m- 
plicity of the times allowed a brevity iu these 
legal documents which might now le c > *r-^ 
cd indi.'corous, but when the constable 
ed a warrant to arresi "Richard Ro 
bring him before me, William Winds," 
was no one bold enough to deny the su' 
authority. If there be another iustArii 


ASl^^hif OV '0Ox.. 

iuthi>rity. ir there be aDother »n8t»Dc« of a 
.;wor;< Justice of K^nK George DttUifyiog tb<; 
- taiap Act with \vhite birch bark, it bv) escap- 
. ;1 III • notice, aad this must thertiforo iie reck- 
■xfi one of the eigiiB which marked that 
.tXyoa ol froenjen. 
The FreBbjteriaD Chnrch of Itockaway was 
o-gaiiized about the year 1753, although mca-s- 
area had been taken Home time provioun to put 
n-jf a meotiug-house. The first sabacription for 
iKiiK purpoHC bears t'ate of 17i9, but so far at 
ftV. oai) now ascertain, the frame was not raised 
itntii the third year afterward. It retuained 
mfimshcd for more than half a century. With 
this congregation Winde was connected, and 
ut some time, which no record in existence 
points out, he made a public profession of re- 
ligion. In all probability it was during the 
I^istorate of the Bev. James Tuttle, the first 
) aster, who held the office from 1768 to 1771. 
The rocordu of the parish show that Wmds was 
a^ liberal contribuior to the expenses of the 
(!bnrch, and also that he assisted largely in 
l.ailding the first meeting-house, although it 
iiinst be acknowledged that his warm imperi- 
«jUB temper betrayed him into some extrava- 
aucea scarcely consistent with his profession, 
fc'or iustance, finding his horses one Sabbath 
morniag to be somewhat fractious, he com- 
f.elied them to drag his family to meeting in a 
sleigh on bare ground ; and on another occa- 
ijon, after the commencement of the Revolu- 
tion, when the congregation was startled by a 
•nessvnger ou horseback, bringing the news 
that the enemy were ou the march to Morris- 
town, Winds exhibited the most angiy impa- 
tience because "the minute men" hi-d come to 
rhurch without their guns. One venerable 
woman is still living who witnessed the scene, 
and Rhe says that Wmds never went to church 
iu those days without his arms, and that on 
this alarm he was no provoked at the remissness 
if his fellow soldiers, "that he spoke, or rather 
bawled, so loud that I should think he might 
have been heard to the bhort Hills 1" 

The same old lady tells me that Winds some- 
times led in prayer when the congregation, for 
rt-ant of a pastor, held " Deacon's meetings." 
Sihe says that m his prayers his voice usually 
Vas gentle and low, until he began to pray for 
the cause of American freedom, when his 
excitement became explosive, and his voice was 
vkised until it sounded like heavy thunder 1 
he has heard him suddenly raise his voice 
rom a low pitch to its highest power when 
iraying for America, so that the congregati<m 
vould be startled as by a sudden pea! ot thunder. 
All witnesses agree in describing Winds as a 
large and powerful man. Dr. Ashbel Green, in 
his revolution uy reminiscences, says that he 
•'was of gigantic frame and strength, and no 

one doubted iiiii courufjc. liat th.i Ui«i<: 
markable thing about hiu. was iiis voice. 
exceeded iu power and efficiency (for it wa,s 
articulate as well as loud,) evary ottier h'um«,tt 
voice I ever heard." The Ot. aptly ilenotes; iH 
as a " stentorophouic voice." Mrs. Andt'i&n, 
who lived more than half a mile iu fin "-< 

from Winds's bouse, the valley of th« IU>ck&«. 
river interveuittg, s(iyK that she has frequently 
heard distinctly the various orders which he 
was issuing to the laborers in hie fields. The 
anecdote of hia frightening off a detachment of 
British soldiers, by crying out to the top of his 
voice, "open to the right ana lett and let the 
artillery through," is famihar to every Jersey- 
man. The scone of this anecdote was oi) the 
Haokensack river, as wag testified by b^pnhen 
Jackson, Esq., father of Col. Joseph /ucKfjon; 
who was present when the farce was enacted. 
There are many anecdotes still related, which 
show that since the days of Stentoo such a 
voice has rarely been heard, but its roo«t "lin- 
gular exhibition was iu church musiit. When 
he sang, the old people say he no^ merely 
drowned the voices of the whole congregation, 
but he seemed to make the veij buitdiug itself 

At this point it will be in place to glean some 
facts which show the man as he was at home. 
Here everything was planned and executed with 
military precision. He insisted on literal obe- 
dience to his orders, and this when his own 
interests suffered by it. From Mrs. Winds to 
his slave, no one dared vary a hair's breadth 
from his commands, under penalty of sucb a 
storm as it was fearful to encounter. His 
favorite laborer, for this reason, wag a man 
called Ogdeu, and on one occasion his prompt 
attention to ordci s was to the cost of his 
employer. Winds was starting for Morristown 
one morning, when he saw that his sheep had 
broken into a grain field. Greatly excited, he 
roared out, " Ogden, go and kill every one of 
those sheep I" and springing on his horse, he 
rode off at full speed, which he did not abate 
until he had gone more than a mile. Then he 
bethought himself that his man was a terrible 
Uteralist, and wheeling his horse, he rode back 
at a John Gilpin rate, at every leap of his horse 
roaring out like the report of a brass field-piece, 
"Ogdeu, hold your hand 1 Ogden, hold your 
hand !" But Ogden had executed orders so far 
as to have slaughtered seven of the sheep before 
he received counter orders. In the greatest 
good humor, he commended the man for his 
promptness, but assured him that he had done 
enough for the present. 

Anecdotes of a similar character are very 
nuinero.tP, some ot which do not place the man 
in a very amiable light. Whilst ho never laid 
violent bands on his wife, yet it is said that b 


lufkeU her npio <t room for some deviation | 
.•ora bia orGors. rfho was in feeblo health, yet 
with a woiuan's wit she UHU\lIy adapted h<'rifelf 
■i> the odtlitics of a man she really loved, and 
■ ft'-u shi.ldeA his men from the effects of his 
isure. Althonjjh feeble, she outlived 
rl-f had reasou to regrt' a greut while 
.le ol' his orders, which was to a iiiecf, to whom 
he was much attached, to execute some errand 
on thf> horso which ho himself usually rode, 
and whicli waa as fiery as his master. The 
yonns woman, not daring to disobey, <?ot on 
the horse, and was thrown. The fall made her 
a cripple for life. During her tedious illness he 
watched her j^s tenderly as if she h»d been his 
own child, and when he died he left her a legacy, 
amounting to '• one-twentieth of his whole 

At another time the wife of his favorite 
Frenchman, Cubby, came to ask sjme favor 
when his temper was not altogether placid. 
With the palm of his band he knocked her over. 
Her husband went to a neighboring Justice to 
set a warrant, but good 'Squire Ross, knowing 
Winds's peculiarities, took Cubby and his wife 
'i> the General's house, when the following 
good-natured colloquy healed the rupture : 

"Molly," said Gen. Winds, "you ought to 
have known better than to come about with 
8uch an annoyance when you saw me out of 
humor 1" 

"Yes, yea," replied the woman, "perhaps so ; 
but mad or not, you ought to liavc known bet- 
ter than to knock a lady down with your fist !'" 

This retort raised a hearty laugh, in which 
the offender joined, and so the difficulty ter- 

Uncommonly prompt and energetic in all his 
own movements, laziness was a crime which he 
punished unsparingly. A man, who was a 
cooper by trade, had moved into the neighbor- 
hood, and one day Winds, entering his shop, 
said : "Next week I am going to kill my hogs, 
and I want so many meat casks by Friday night; 
will you malte them?" "Yes, I guess so,' 
drawled out the lazy fellow. At the appointed 
time the General was at the shop, but his casks 
were not done. He demanded the reason, and 
getting an answer which showed that laziness 
was the cpuse, he seized a hickory whip, and 
gave him a sound threshing, all the time roar- 
ing out, " I'll teach yon to lie, and be lazy tool!" 
lie then ordered him sharply to work, or he 
rt(*ild administer some more wholesome cor- 
rection. It is needless to say that the cooper 
did not run further risks, but executed the 
ordur to the letter. 

But whilst these anecdotes present the man 
as imperious and harsh, yet there is much 
^YilJenre to show that he had a kind heart. 
When he was killing a sheep or a beef, a part 

of it was sent to his minister ; and if he'tneiif 
of any poor family in want, choice bitsiwer*" 
sent to them also. On one occasiou ai poo)" 
man tried to buy a cow, but was met wit|i the 
disheartening^ reply— "A cow indeed! wh»t dji 
you want of a cow ?" "To keep my family froi^i 
starving." " Have you got anything to paiy for 
a cow ?" "No sir, but I hope to have, soiri».i>'' 
these times." "You can't have a cow of nie, 
for you will never see the time when you ciu 
pay tor her!" ' 

He was annoyed at the time with a tbonsaiid 
things which he was arranging in order to get 
in readiness for the army. His horse was then 
at the door, ^ut a mile's ride had dissipated hi.-t 
anger, and he rode back to give his man orders 
to drive a certain new milch cow, with the calf 
at her side, to the poor man, with the raessagt 
that he need give himself no trouble about th(e 

All the survivors of that generation with 
whom I have conversed, testify to his grejlt 
generosity to the poor and distressed. He had 
a rough manner, but a kind heart. Imperious 
and petulant, yet a little time would displace 
these uuamiable traits with gentleness and get - 
erosity. The man is before us as he appeared i i 
the prime of his manhood, at the commence- 
ment of the Revolutionary war. Physically h(- 
was a giant, with a gianfs strength and a Sten- 
tor's voice ; as a citizen, he was a kind neigh- 
bor and a warm friend ; as a magistrate, he re- 
garded equity and not technicalities, and dis^ 
penscd justice in modes more consonant wit*i 
martial than civil law ; as a Christian, ho 
shrunk from no pecuniary obligation to relig- 
ion, and was as punctilious as a Pharisee iu all 
religious duties ; as an employer, he suffered 
no interference with his plans, and those who 
obeyed him most closely enlisted his kindest 
regards ; as a military officer, he was always 
ready for duty, and his soldiers were devoted to 
him as a father— his very eceentricities endear- 
ing him to them, for even these wore employee!! 
in their behalf. 

We have already seen that the raassea of th^' 
Morris County people warmly eapoused thf 
cause of American Indeixiudenee, and led on b^ 
such men as William Winds, they practical^ 
pledged their honor, their lives and their for- 
tunes to the enforcement of the Great Declara- 
tion of July 4th, 1776. Whilst the towns of tHis 
county were not harassed like those near*'' 
New York and Philadelphia, yet they sent m> 
to defend their suffering brethren. What th< 
were not obliged to suffer from the hostile 4 
predations of the British army, their fields an 
granaries made up in supples to the America 
army. Almost the entire male popnlatioi 
over eighteen years of age, bore arms either oii 
special occasions or in the regular arm v. Som ■ 



of her sons assiatecl in capturing Burgoyne, and 
others in capturing Cornwallis. The pulse of 
liberty beat full and strong in the hearts of the 
Morris yeomen. Auiong tliese there was no 
warmer-hearted patriot than the subject of 
this paper. 

The date of bis comniissiOH as Lieutenant 
.j^olonel in the Fu-st New Jersey Battalion was 
iuesday, November 7, 1775; and by appoiut- 
iient of the Continental Congres.s. Previous 
fo this, on October 2Sth, 1775, the First Bat- 
talion of New Jersey had elected the very offi- 
cers who were afterward commissioned by 
vjoogifss. From a letter bearing date "Mend- 
jhain, Dec. 7th, 1775," we ascertain that Winds 
was searching the country vigorously for the 
purchase of arms. The letter is a curiosity, 
and may be in part transcribed literally, to the education and temper of the man : 

"Sir — I received yours of Nov. 30tb, and am much 
obliged to your Honor for your cear (care) in sond- 
lug my commission. I have had some success 
iu purchasing arms, but cannot send the number at 
this time, they being in different places purchased 
by men implied (employed) by me, but will send 
the number sune. * « « * 

Sir, I have heard that you have been desired to 
recommend Jonathan T. Morris for an ensign. I 
beg leave to inform the Colonel that it would hurt 
the Company much if he is commissioned. 

From your very humble servant, 

"N. B. When I came from Burlington I found 
Capt. Howell's Company had only twenty-eight, and 
Capt. Morris's about nineteen guns only."* 

On December 10th, 1775, Major DeHart wrote 
to Lord ytiiling that some complaints had been 
made of "the price and quality of some of the 
arms purchased by Col. Winds." Among the 
same manuscripts I find an order under date 
of November 21st, 1775, from Stirling to Winds 
to lead three Companies, of which Capt. Mor- 
ris's and Capt. Howell's were two, to the High- 
lands, but the order was probably counter- 

During the contest between Governor Frank- 
lin and the Assembly, we find Winds at Perth 
; Amboy, the seat of Government, in command 
of a detachment of troops, subject to the order 
of his Colonel, Lord Stirling. Under date of 
January 10th, 1776, Stirling writes to the Pres- 
ident of the Continental Congress that he has 
ordered Lieutenant Colonel Winds to secure 
the person of Governor Franklin, and remove 
him to Elizabfcthtown, where he had "provided 
good and genteel lodgings" for him. Two 
days previous to this. Winds wrote the follow- 
ing letter to the Governor . 

"B.\RRACKs .\T Perth Abiboy, Jan. 8th, 1776. 
Sir — I have had hints that you intend to leave the 

* MSS. in possession of N. J. Historical Soci- 

Province in case the letters that were interci 
should be sent to the Continental Congress, t 
have particular orders concerning the matter, 
therefore desire you will give me your word an< 
honor that you will not depart this Province until 
I know the will and pleasure of the Continenta 
Congress concerning the matter. I am, &c." 

Franklin replies the same day : "I have no. 
the least intention to quit the Province ; ncr 
shall I, unless compelled by violence." But 
meanwhile, as the required pledge had not been 
given, the zealous Winds had stationed his sen- 
tinels at the Goveror's gate to assist him in keep- 
ing his resolution. This calls out an indignant 
letter the next day, January 0th, and it is con- 
cluded with this significaDt sentence : "How- 
ever, let the authority or let the pretence be 
what it may, I do hereby require of you, if 
these men are sent by your orders, that you do 
immediately remove them from henoe, as you 
will answer the contrary at yonr peril." 

To this letter Winds replied the same day in 
a strain which shows the stufif he was made of : 
January 9th, 1776. 
"Sib — As you in a former letter say you wrote 
nothing but what was your duty to do as a faithful 
officer of the Crown ; so I say, touching the senti- 
nels placed at your gate, I have done nothing but 
what was my duty to do as a faithful officer of the 
Congress. lam, &c." 

The situation ot Franklin was uncomfortable 
enough, since on the 10th of January Lord 
Stirling sent a message to him by the outspok- 
en Winds, "which kindly invited him to dine 
with me at this place," (Elizabethtown,) and 
such was the decision of the messenger, that 
"he at last ordered up his coach to proceed U^ 
this place." The intervention of Chief Justice 
Smyth, who prevailed on him to make the 
promise which Winds demanded, saved the 
Governor from a 'disagreeable ride, under a 
guard to Elizabethtown."* 

Fiom Franklin's second letter to Winds it 
comes to light incidentally that he was not only 
a Lieutenant Colonel, but an elected repre- 
fientative of the people of Morris in the Assem- 

The jouru al of Timothy Tuttle also shows 
that from December 2l8t, 1775, to January 
lith, 1776, Winds's troops were on duty around 
Perth Amboy and Elizabethtown ; on the 14th 
of that month they searched Staten Island for 
tories ; and on the 18th they marched from 
Bergentown to New York city, thence to Hell 
gate, Newtown, Jamaica and Rockaway, on 
Long Island, in pursuit of tories. On the 22d, 
at Ehzabethtown, he stood sentry over a ship 
lately taken from the enemy. 

In February of this year. Winds informed 
Congress that he was stationed at Perth Am- 
boy with a part of the Eastern Battalion of th' 

» Life Lord Stirling, pp. 119-122. 


tinental forces ; that he was destitute of 

imunition, and that he stood in need of a 
apply. Congress, by their President, request- 
ed the Committee of Somerset county to fur- 
nish him with four quarter-casks of powder, 
and the Committee of Middlesex ccunty to lur- 
nsh him with 150 pounds of lead. 

The journals of Congress show that ou 
"Thursday, March 7th, 1770, it was ordered that 
William Winds, Esq., be promoted to be Col- 
onel of the New Jersey Battahon, and Matthias 
Ogden, Esq., be appointed Lieutenant Colonel 
of the same."* The news of his promotion was 
accompanied with the following letter Irom 
the President of Congress : 

Philadelphia, March, 7th, 177G, 

"Sib — The promotion of my Lord Stirling to the 
rank of Brigadier General in the Continental Army, 
having orcasioned a vacancy, the Congress, in con- 
sideration of yoiar merit and attachment to the 
American cause, have appointed you to succeed him. 
I do myself the honor to enclose your commission ; 
and am. Sir, your humble servant, 

JOHN HANCOCK, President. 

"To Col. Wm. Winds, New York."t 

In a letter to Congress, dated a week after 
Hancock's, Winds acknowledges the honor con- 
ferred on himself, hut protests in behalf f.f the 
Regiment against the appointment of Mr. Og- 
den as Lieutenant Colonel, and hopes that 
"this young gentleman's merits might be re- 
warded in some other way ; and from "Stillwa- 
ter, May l^'th, 1776,' he writes to President 
Hancock, stating the extortion and the negli- 
gence of "Doctor Burnett," and requesting that 
"Congress will appoint some other person tu 
serve in that deparlment."J This letter was 
' vidently written on the march northward, to 
which service Winds's Regiment had been or- 

From the despositions of several soldiers ap- 
plying for pensions, we gather the fact that 
• iirly in May, 177G, Col. Winds's Regiment set 
ut to join the expedition against Canada, in 
Ahich Montgomery lost his life the previoMS 
year. The Regiment proceeded as far as the 
town of Sorell, if not to Three Rivers. 

The inhabitants of the several towns in the 
New Hampshire grants wrote to General Sulli- 
van, asking protection in view of "the retreat 
of the American army from Canada, and the 
news of the savages killing several of our men 
nn the west side of Lake Champlain." They pe- 
iiion that a guard be sent to Onion river, or 
Hoine other place judged to be most advanta- 
geous to the army and the inhabitants. Under 

•Vol. i, p. 280. 

t American Archives, 4th Series, vol. 5th, p. 

I American Archives, 4th Series, vol. (!, p. 

date of July 2d. 1776, Sullivan writes to General 
Washington : "I have ordered Col. Winds, 
with a hundred and fifty men, to take post on 
the Onion river, to guard there until I could 
have your Excellency's and General Schuyler's 
opinion."* That he actually took this post, is 
evident from a letter which he wrote to Generj- 
al Gates from — 1 

"Shebeouene, July 15th, 1776. ( 
"Sm— I am here, by leave of Gen. Sullivan, witli 
2G men, and have built a stockaded fort for the safe- 
ty of my men and the inhabitants. I this da> 
hp.ard that my Regiment is ordered down to Ticoni 
deroga ; and if so would be glad to receive some or', 
ders whether to stay here or to go after them. Jj 
have sent a batteau for provisions, as we are just 
out. Beg the favor that the Commissary n)ay be 
ordered to send some by the brave Sergeant Ed- 
wards. WILLIAM WINDS, Colonel. 
"To the Commander at Crown Foint."t 

A general order issued by Gene;'al Sullivai 
on November 5tb, 1776, at Ticondcroga, is as 
follows : "Col. Winds is ordered to prepare to 
embark to-morrow morning for Skeensborough 
with such officers, non-commissioned ofi&cers. 
and soldiers of said New Jersey Regiment, 
whose terms of enlistment are out, who are de- 
sirous of being iinnicdiately discharged . They 
will embark at 5 o'clock, five in a boat." The 
same orders contain a request that these olfi- 
cers and soldiers remain until the 13th inst.. 
when "they will be permitted to depart with 
honor, and shall be allowed pay lor their return 
home." The general order of the 7th instant 
expresses the heartv thanks of the General ti 
the officers and soldiers ot the Ist Jersey Bat- 
talion who re-uain with the army, "for the hon- 
or and public spirit they shew in disdaining to 
follow the infamous example of their Colonel 
and the deluded soldiers who followed him. 
The General would inform them that tJie 
drums were beat by his order in derision of the 
tew who had the basenosss to quite their po.sts 
in this time of danger. "i 

An unpublished journal kept by Yimothy Tut- 
tle, of Whippany, who was with Winds during 
this entire campaign, confirms the statemeuti 
already made, and gives additional light ou th 
movements of the brigade. 

"May 28th, 1776— Started from Crowu Point 
down Dake Champlain. 31st— To St. John's by 
water, fifteen miles. June 4th— Reached tho 
town of SoroU, thirty miles down the river, anc^ 
forty-five below Champlain. 6th— Sick of fa- 
tigue, working at a battery under Capt. Miller 
two Pennsylvania regiments started for Thret 

♦ Amer. Arch., 4th Senos, vol. vi. p. 1219. 

tib.vol. i, p. 359. 

t Journal of Lieut. Elmer, in Proceedings of 
New Jersey Historical Society, vol. iii, pp. 40, 


Kiveis ; various tidiugs of the strength of the 
oueiny, 3,000 regulars and 1,700 Hanoverians. 
7th -New Euj^Iaml troops embarked for Three 
Bivers; v^annoo firing heard. 8th— Embarked for 
Vi'hree Rivers; rowed over the lake ; heard heavy 
tiring, and soon came in sight of the contest, but 
could give no assistance, tlie enemy's cannon 
areventing ; Capt. Morris and a party sent out 
ijj»batteau were nearly captured, and only 
I'aved th<^msolves by hard elt'orls with their 
lars. 9th —Passed otr in batteaux tor SorcU ; 
when in the lake could see the enemy tiring 
from their sliifis ; reached Sorell at uoon ; heard 
our array had been destroyed. Remained four 
days at Sorell. Hurried off to St, John's ; 
small pox among the men. 24th— Reached 
Crown Point, when many men began to sicken 
with the small pox ; lost Bcvtral men by it ; re- 
mained at Crown Point some time. July 14th 
—Left Crown Point, ard reached Ticonderoga 
on the 15th. Sept. 1st— Col. Winds returned 
from Jersey, having ))oen absent about a moutli. 
Oct. 10th— -Col. Winds applied to the General 
for leave to go home. 13th— Bad news ; our 
fleet destroyed down the lake ; expect to be at- 
tacked. "iSth- Enemy in sight ; gave them a 
few cannon shot. Nov. 5th— Col. Winds and 
men have permission to return home.. 6th — 
Left Ticf)uderoga for home." 

The entry in Mr. Tuttle's journal under Oct. 
28tb, shows the reason of Geu. Sullivan's ear- 
nestness for Col. Wiuds's regiment to remain, 
but there seems no proof that there was any 
danger of au attack, for in that case Col. Wimls 
would not have imiiatci Sir John Falstaft", 
"fight and run away." 

That this was the cause for this severe ex- 
pression iu these general orders I have no 
doubt, but it is very plain that no go-td ground 
can be assigned for it. Between Col. Dayton, 
who lived on Succasuuny Plains, in Mori is 
county, and Col. Winds, there was a bad stale 
of feeling, and this may hare had its efloci on 
Gcu. Sullivan's mind, but that he was not real- 
ly guilty ot an "iutamous example" is evident 
from tlie fact that he simply complied with his 
duty in conducting his soldiers home as he. had 
promised them. And that nis conduct was ap- 
proved by his fellow-citizens at home is plain 
'rom his promotion on the succeeding year. 
rho journals of the Provincial Legislature show- 
hat on 'Feb. 3d, 1777, William Winds, Esq., 
was, by the joint meeting elected Colonel of 
the Western Battalion of Militia iu the county 
of Morris, lately commanded bv Col. Jacob 
Drake," and that on -March 4th, 1777, Col. 
Wm. Winds was elected by ballot a Brigadier- 
General of the Militia of this State." Tbis all 
joes to prove >hat Winds had not lost the con- 
idence of the soldiers or people of New Jer- 

It ia worth}' of remark here, that in Nove 
ber and December of 1776, Gen. Washingt 
wrote several letters to Gov. Livingatou, 
Ne,f Jersey, Gov. Trumbull, of Connectic 
John Augustine Washington, ami to the Pri 
dent of Congress, in which he employed the; 
severe terms : '"Iu short, the conduct of tl. 
Jerseys has been most infamoiiR. Listead oi 
turning i.ut to defend their country, and af- 
fording aid to our army, they are making their 
submissions as fast as p(jssiblc."* He speak*- 
also of his having been "cruelly disappointed'' 
i\v the New Jersey militia. That he spoke 
hastily, and that he condemned the Jerseys too 
.severely, is manifest from his subsequent ad- 
missions, that "hope was beginning to revivt 
in the breasts of the New Jersey militia," and 
"the militia are taking spirits, and I am toKl 
are coming in fast from this State. "f "The 
mud rounds," as they were named by the sol- 
diers, were accomplished during these memor- 
able dark month.H, The roads were intolera- 
ble, and when frozen, the soldiers m-ght bi 
traced by the blood pressed on the ruts from 
their badly piotc^cted feet. The enemy was tri- 
umphant, and yet no state outdid New Jersey 
in its devotion to the sinking fortunes of free- 
dom under such appalling diliicultiei'. Reveral 
regiments had been scut north of Albany, and 
thcNewJeisey militia at home- turned out in 
as large numbers as could be expected, to check 
the common enemy. Whole companies, as htxt 
b<;en testilied by witnesses who are recentl\ 
deceased, followed Washington in his bloodj 
retreat through the Jerseys, although thoii- 
terms of eniisttuent had expired. Let posterity 
honor their memory. 

We have seen that Coi. Winds left Ticonder- 
oga on the 6th of NovombcT, 1776, and some of 
the revolutionary soldiers s-jy that he was wit!) 
Gon. Washington during ids retreat. If so he 
must have joined the army immediately ob his 
return from the north. Although 1 have nu 
proof of the fact beyond that just given, from 
the character of the man, I consider it not at 
all unlikely. However dilatory others might 
be, he was ever ready to march to his country's 
aid at an instant's notice. Be this as it may. 
we know that he wa.s on duty that winter. Tlu 
British lay at New Brunswick, ami Winds com- 
manded the troops which guarded the lines. 
He had several skirmishes with tho enemy dur- 
ing the winter. His headquarters were at Van 
Mulinen's, and from thence he made freejueni 
excursions to Boiiiid Brook, Elizabethtown. 
and the neighboring region, to hold in check 
the foraging parties of the tniemy, which great- 
ly distressed tho people th*t season. Jamet' 

' Sparks's Washington, vol- iv. p. 230. 
t Ib.pp. 2.W-261. 


jLpI, of Bockaway, a very reliable witucss, 

posed that early in 1777, ''he was throe 

•utlis un<ler WiudH at Woodbridge, Van Mu- 

len's, and that frontier, and that not a week 

sed without a brush from the enemy. The 

^Hgtnieni at Strawberry Hill was during this 

me." William Cook, of Hanover, deposes to 

.e same facts, and specifies tlie Strawberry 

dill atfair. lu addition, he says a sharp en- 

i?a^emeut took place at Woodbridge, in which 

Winds commanded. Job Love, another revo- 

hitionary veteran, speaks of a skirmish near 

Quibbletowu, that spring. N. Wittakcr says 

the whole country was in a state of alarm, and 

tliat Winds's troops had several fights with the 


An amusing anecdote is told of a trick played 
on him during this spring campaign, by two 
young soldiers named Heniman and Camp. 
They were really short of provisions, but 
thought to try the General's sympathy, for they 
knew he would be around shortly. Ho they got 
a smooth stone, and placed it in their camp 
kettle, and set ii to boiling. Bye and bye Winds 

"Well, men, anything to eat?" he inquired. 

"Not much, General," they replied, with 
much gravity. 

"What have you got Ih the kettle ?" said he, 
.'•omiug up to the fire. 

'•A stone, General, for they say there is 
■jome strength in stones', if you can only get it 
out!" ^ 

"There ain't a bit of strength in it. Throw 
it out. You must hare something besides that 
to eat." 

With this he left the house, and rode rapidly 
to the farm-house of a Quaker in the neigh- 
borhood. The good man's wife had just baked 
a batch of bread. 

"My friend," said Winds, "my soldiers are 
starving, and I want that bread." 

"Thee cannot have it to help men to fight." 

"I don't care a fi; about thee and thou, but 
I want the bread. Here's the money." 

"I cannot take thy money for such purposes." 

"Very well," said Winds, "it will be left to 
buy something else with, but the broad I will 
li&ve, money or no money!" 

With that he j>laced the loaves of bread in a 
bag, and throwing it across his hoiss, carried 
it back to the camp, where ho distributed the 
bread, not forgetting our wags, who were mak- 
ing the stone soup I 

A number of veteran soldiers unite in the 
testimony that Col. Winds did hia duty in rep- 
pressing the enemy with the greatest activity. 
One night a musket-ball struck near his tent, 
as if womo traitor in the vicinity had intended 
to shoot bim. 

During this year, the militia of New Jersey 
seem to have stood in better credit than when 
Gen. Washington condemned them so severely, 
since John Hancock writes to Gov. Livingston, 
Sept. 5th, 1777, that "by their late conduct 
against our cruel enemies, they have distin- 
guished themselves in a manner that does them 
the greatest honor, and I am persuaded they 
will continue to merit on all occasions, whcp 
called upon, the reputation they have so justly 

During this summer, Gen. Winds was sta- 
tioned somewhere on the North River, so tha. 
he did not participate in the capture of Bur- 
goyne's army, which took place Oct. 16th, 
1777. t William Patterson writes from Morris 
town, Oct. 18th, to Gov. Livingston, "Glorious 
news I glorious news ! General Burgoyne has 
surrendered himself and his whole army priso- 
ners of war to Gen. Gates. * * * * Enclos- 
ed are two letters for your Excellency and a 
newspaper. One of the letters is from General 
Winds, and ocmg informed that it was on busi- 
ness of importance, I have dispatched the 
messenger sooner than I should have done. I 
believe our militia will not be wanted up the 
North Kiver, if so, would it not be best to re- 
call them ? At all events it would not be im- 
proper to order Gen. Win'ls, (unless he be al- 
ready ordered by Gen Dickenson,) to returri 
the instant the enemy sail down the river."t 

The last expression of this quotation sho-^s 
us what duty Gen. Winds was engaged in on 
the Hudson. The plan of the British Avas to 
form a junction between Burgoyn<'8?rmy.''ron. 
the north, and that of *<ir Henry Clinton from 
New York. The latter began his share of the 
enterprise by surprising the garrison of Fort 
Montgomery, and his troops committed some 
shameful depredations along the river. Never- 
theless he did not elfect his purpose, since the 
American troops holding the passes of the riv- 
er, prevented him. It was to aid m guarding 
the Hudson against Sir Henry Clinton, thaf 
Winds was dispatched thither, probably in Au- 
gust.§ After the English returned to New 
York, Gen. Winds was recalled. This fact vt 
fully confirmed by the testimony of Luke Mil- 
ler, who was with Gen. Winds. I am unable tc 
farther trace his movements during this year 
but he was probably engaged as in the spriui 
in repressing the foraging parties of the enemy 
and protecting the State from the incursions o. 
the enemy. 

In 1778, Gen. Winds was seyeral months in 
active service in the region of Elizabethtowc 

* N. J. Rev. Corres., p. 99. 

1 13th Miller's Eng., vol. iv, p. 204. 

i N. J. Rev. Corres. p. 109, 

§N. J. Rev. Corres. p. 80. 




•nd the Hackensack, and during the time hcv- 
ual severe skirmishes were fouKht with the 
jueiiiy. The depositions of many revolution- 
ary pensioners give proof of this fact. Tins 
was an eventful year with him, since one mis- 
take on an important occwsion reduced him to 
partial disgrace. During the spring and the 
ear?y part of ahe summer we find Oeu. Winds 
cbnimaudiug a detachment of militia m the 
roi^hborhood of Elizabethtown. Sir William 
Howre had been succeeded by Sir Henry Clin- 
tan, in the command of the British army. 
Trance had sent assistance to our country, in 
oonsequcLce of which Clintou had been ordered 
to detach 5,000 of his troops to aid in a descent 
Oil the French possessions in the West Indies, 
and 3,000 men to Flonda, with the remainder 
he was to march to N^ York. The American 
army was at Valley Forge, and as soon as the 
news of the evacuation of Philadelphia was 
known. Gen. Washington crossed into New Je-- 
*cy with his whole army, to pursue the retreat- 
ing army. Clinton crossed the Delaware at 
Gloucester Point, ai d marched through Mount 
Uolly with the intention of reaching the Kari- 
tan at New Brunswick. But finding that Gen. 
Washington was in force at Kmgston, near 
Princeton, he changed his direction for Sandy 
Ifook. On the 28th of June 1778, the British 
took a 8tr(,ng position at Monmouth Court 
ilouse and awaited the attack, of the Ameri- 
■ ans, which Clinton saw to be inevitable. All 
the dispositions of Washington were admirable 
but in two of his plans he was foiled through 
ihe incompetency or cowardice of the officer 
sunt to execute them. It was on this occasion 
that the cowardly retreat of Gen. Lee ex- 
cited the usually placid temper of Washington 
to the highest degree of wrath. This misera- 
ble conduct of Lee threw everything into such 
confusion that during the night the British es- 
caped to their fleet at Sandy Hook. In the 
battle o''that day the Americans were victors, 
*nd had Lee dore his part, they might have 
destroyed or greatly disabled the enemy. 

In the plans of Gen. Washington was one 

which was entrusted to a body of the militia 

finder Gen. Winds. As soon as the plan of the 

-iuemy was perceived to march to Sandy Hook, 

■irders were given to Gen. Winds to lead his 

•ommand to New Brunswick, and then follow 

le South bank oi the Raritan towards Amboy 

ad Sandy Hook, for the double purpose of in- 

.roepting the baggage train of the enemy, 

ad in case ol their defeat at Monmouth Court 

touse, to cut ofl" their retreat. In pursuance 

fan arrangement which the inspection of a 

ap will pronounce admirable, Winds had fol- 

'ed the Raritan as far as Spotswood, reaching 

t place before noon. The sounds of the 

■ •■ ■■ <piou at Monmouth were constantly heard as 

it were to siimulate his 'a^Hi. Vnk'i, tfe^y ^ uad 
the bridge over the stream at Spotwood ta 
up, and they were hastening to repair it in 
der to cross with as httle delay as possibl 
At this point my informantc differ slightl. 
Mr. James Kitchel, who was under Winds, ant 
was present, says that Gen. Winds hire receiv- 
ed orders to march back to Ehzabethtown, as 
the enemy were ou the way from Ne v York, 
and in this several witnesses agree, but it must 
be admitted that these witnesses were pri- 
vates, and therefore could not have had the 
best means of knowing the reasons for t/ieir 
commander's course. Another witness says 
that a sleek Quaker, looking as innocent as at) 
angel, brought the news to Winds that the ea? 
emy weio marching on Elizabethtown. But i| 
is not material as to how the information wis 
brought, since it was brought in some way ; 
and although it was false, it led Gen. Winds to 
march back to Elizabethtown. That he must 
have done this on his own responsibility, and 
contrary to express orders, is evident from the 
impossibihty that Gen. Washington or any of 
his general officers could have issued an order 
so at war with the wants of the occasion. Be- 
sides this, the verdict of the community against 
Winds for his conduct would not have been 
given ; could he have plead in 'ixtenuation the 
orders of a superior. All the facts and circum- 
stances f^how that he acted hastily and with no 
good grounds on which his disobedience could 
be justified. 

The testimony of the soldiers who were with 
him, indicate that a strong feeling was excited 
against him, and that some in the heat of the 
moment attributed the retreat from Spotswood 
to cowardice. It is said that he came near be- 
ing court-martialed, but of this I find no evi- 
dence. His character lor courage was too well 
established for him to be punished as a coward, 
and his past deeds, marl^ed with such ardent 
patriotism and daring, procured for him ex* 
emption where a worse man would have b«e» 
cashiered. I am sorry to make this record con- 
cerning my hero, and shall be glad to alter it 
if the proof can be furnished of its incorrect- 

Dr. Green's reminiscences show that after 
the battle of Monmouth, probably in July, Gen. 
Winds led a detachment of troops to Minisink 
on the Delaware to repel a threatened incup- 
sion of Indians, but the enemy did not ap- 
pear.* The same venerable witness shows that 
during the remainder of the summer and fall 
he guarded the lines on the Passaic and Hack- 
ensack with great courage and prudence. On 
several occasions he attacked the enemy, and 
repulsed them in all their attempts to cross 

^ Life of Dr. Green, pp. 96- »a 



♦>>e.ivVfi-. Tfie"»en<»^rable David Gordon, when 
ety-one vears old, repeated to me a speech 
ade by Ger. Winds during this campaign^ 
hich i8 sufficiently characteristic. They were 
,t Aquackanonk, and one Sabbath morning 
Gen. Winds paraded his troops, and thus ad- 
dressed fhem : "Brother soldiers, to-day, by 
the blessing of God, I mean to attack the ene- 
my. All you that are sick, lame, or afraid, 
stay behind, for I don't want sick men ; lame 
men can't run. and cowards won't fight!" The 
Spaitanic brevity and hearty witot the address 
ai« quite notable. 

My venerable informant pronounced the 
words with the vivacity of a young man, and 
when he had finished, warmed up with the 
ftirring recollections of his old commander and 
the scen«3 through which he had followed him, 
he exclaimed, "Some say Gen. Winds was a 
coward, but I tell you he was an old warrior, 
and I don't believe any such charge. If ho 
hadn t any thing else to fight with but his 
voice, he couid scare a regiment out of their 
wits with that!" And this was a fact during 
that summer when the amusing anecdote, of 
his scaring away a datachment of the enemy, 
by roaring out "open to the right and left and 
let the artillery through," actually occurred. 

Here I may appropriately insert a character- 
istic anecdote of Gen. Winds, which I suppose 
to bo as reliable as an oft-repeatod anecdote 
can well be. It sounds very much like the man. 
Col. Joseph ,TacUs<in says he often heard his 
father relate this anecdote. The detachment 
under the command of Gen. Winds, was lying 
at Hiickcnsack, and one Sunday morning they 
were ordeied to parade, fully equipped, for some 
expedition not yet made known. It seems that 
through some oversight ot the quarter-master, 
a Mr. Woodr jfif, of Elizabethtown, the soldiers 
had had short rations on Saturday, and none 
on Sunday. The Colonel's father, being a 
neighbor and friend of the General was com- 
missioned to state the facts to him, and tell 
him that the troops were not in a very good 
■condition for so long a march. 

When Winds heard this he was furious, and 
asked if "there were no provisions?" Mr. 
Jackson replied that he " supposed there wore 
provisions enough." " Where is quarter-mas- 
ter Woodrufif?" demanded the General, with 
growing impatience. And without wailing for 
a reply be strode up to the building in which 
.the provisions were stored, and seizing a heavy 
gtick of wood, he stove the door in at a blow. 
*' There," said he, "help yourselves men." 

Just then the quarter-maaler, who had with- 
out leave m» le a rapid visit to Ehzabethtown, 
appeared on .he ground. His presence called 
forth the following colloquy, which on the Oen- 
ftrai's part was Bustained in his loudest tones. 

"Where have you been, Woodruff, leaving th 
men to starve for your abotniuabie negligence? 
"I have been home, Gen. Winds." 
"Home I What did you go home for ? Gc 
home and neglect duty, eh?" 
"I went home to get some clean clothes.'' 
'Clean clothes, indeed 1 I wear my uiggovs 
breeches !" , 

Taen in a tone tremendous for its angjv 
loudness, and yet one in which those who km \ 
hiin, could detect some roguery, be cried oui 
to his officers, " Bring out a rope and hang hiiL 
up to the first tree!" 

The quarter-master, well knowing the reso- 
lute character of the man, began to think he 
would have to swing for it, and turned deadly 
pale, when the General cried out again, "Never 
mind it this time, but Idhk out for the next." 

After the troops had eaten, they were marched 
to Prakeness, where a little scene occurred, 
which proves that all soldiers, however honnr- 
ablo, are not always honest. 

Three men, neighbors of Gen. Winds, atd 
members of Capt. Jackson' .■? company, Richard 
and Jacob Heuiman, and Jacob Camp, got 
outside the sentinels, probably by fair promises. 
and made a call on a rich Dutch {armer, somi 
two or three miles from the camp. One of tlit 
men went into the house and introduced hiiij- 
self to the farmer, and entertained him witb 
narratives and anecdotes concerning the wa^. 
whilst the other two visited the milk room, a 
little distance from the house, in search of pre- 
visions. They found their des're in the shapi 
of a nice ham, some beautiful butter, and sonu 
loaves of bread On leaving the honest Dutch- 
man, the soldier slipped off hisownOibbeonitisli 
shoes, and slipped on mine host's, which hap- 
pened to be handy. 

The next morning the ('aptain was treated h\ 
his patriot soldiers with some delicious broiled 
ham, and some fresh bread and butter, liiielT 
in contrast with common anny fare. " Wherr 
did you get thif, men?" inquired the conseico- 
tious Captain. "Wo don't know any thiuj; 
about where it came from. Captain," replied lai 
equally conscientious followers. But hunger, ' 
supposes sharpens appetite more than it doi'> 
conscience, the monks to the contrary notwitl. 

It was some time during this year that Wio'. 
managed an attack on a party of Hessians i 
adroitly, as to take, according to one witncs 
fhirty prisoners, and according to anotlie • 
seventy. This is said to have been near Co) 
necticut Farms, and our informant says it w.-' 
in Elizabethtown. 

In the following yenr he was not much 
active service so far as I can learu, and ow 
to the fe(!ling excited against him in connec* 
with the battle of Monmouth, he losigaod 




commission as a Brigadier-General. His resig- 
nation bears date of June lOtli, 1779. From 
tbis time lie is not to be reckoned as a member 
of the active army, but he did not desert his 
country's cause. When tlie battle ol' Spring- 
tield r-as fought in 1780, lie was present and 
did good service. In 1781 he was also assisting 
the cause, as the following well authenticated 
anecdote shows. It was related to me by Ira 
Dodd, Esq., of Bloumtield, who bnd it from his 
lather. When General Washington was driv- 
ing Cornwallis before him, and had begun the 
seige at Yorktown, it was de< med of the high- 
est necessity to keep the Britihh in New York 
until the arrival of the French fleet in the 
Chesapeake should cut off Corn w'allis's retreat 
by water. Accordingly, he says, Lafayette was 
sent to tiiake a great demonstration on the 
British in New York. For this purpose he 
began to collect all the boats in the surround- 
ing waters, even seizing those above Paterson 
Falls on .he Passaic. These were carried on 
wagons to be launched at Elizabethtowu, ap- 
parently for an attack on Staten Island. On 
one particular night it rained furiously and 
some of the wagons broke down at Cranetown. 
(West Bloomfield.) These inujyances threw 
Lafayette in a great rage. General Winds was 
ill command of a detacliment, and his voice 
vied with the tempest as he cheered and directed 
his ineu. Mr. Dodd said that Winds roared 
louder than the thunder. When Latayette was 
in this country, he met Mr. Dodd, his compan- 
ion-in-arms, and laughing heartily said, as he 
grasped his hand, " Oh, how mad I was that 
night at Cranetown !'" 

In 1788, General Winds, William Woedhull, 
and John Jacob Faeseh were elected by Morns 
i-ounty to the State Convention which ratified 
the present Constitution of the United States. 
On the 12th of October, 178U, he died of drop.vy, 
in the chest. It was remarked as a fact not a 
little singular, that for many years he had 
expected to bary his wife, who was in feeble 
health, but she outlived him several years. In 
his will, signed the day before his death, he 
gives the use of all his personal and real estate 
to nis "dear and well beloved wife, Ruhamah," 
"lor her sole use and benefit" as long as she 
should remain his widow, and should she marry 
"the use and benefit of the third of his whole 
estate." He inserts the praiseworthy injunc- 
tion "that she shall at no time, nor on any 
occasion, uor by any persons whatsoever be 
obliged to give any account for any waste or 
damage done by her or her order ou said estate." 
The last bequest in the will is in these words, 
"for great regard I have felt for the inter- 
est of Christ's kingdom, and for the benefit of 
the Presbyterian Church, I do hereby give and 
Ijcqueath to the Presbyterian Church at Rock- 

away all the remainder of my whole estate for 
a par.sonage, and do hereby further will and 
order that the said remainder of my estate 
shall be and remain for ever for that use and 
purpose only, and that it shall never be disposed 
of for any other purpose whatever." 

Mr. David Gordon informed me that General 
Winds had in his fauiily at the time of his 
death, one of his soldiers, named Phelps. This 
man insisted that his old commander shotild be 
buried with the honors of war, although some 
opposition was made to it. Accordingly. Capt. 
Josiah Ball, who had frequently served unuer 
General Winds, assembled a company of Winds's 
soldiers, who buried their deceased General 
rvith the honors of war. Dr. John Darby, of 
Parsippany, seems to have ofHciated first as 
General Wiuds's physician, then as his lawyer 
in writing his will, and lastly as his minister in 
cheering him with the consolations of religion. 
In this last capacity he also pronounced the 
funeral sermon, from Job xxiii : 8-l(i. "Behold 
I go forward, but he is uot there, &c." 

His monument of brown free stone is just in 
the rear of the church, and bears the following 
inscription, written by Dr. Darby-: 

"Under ihis monument lies buried the body 
of Wm. Winds, Esq., w^ho departed this life, 
Oct. 12th, 1789, in the C2d year of his age. 

" His natural abilities were considerable, 
which he improved for the good of his fellow- 
men. Whenever the cause of his country and 
liberty called, he ventured his life ou the field 
of battle. As a civil magistate he acted with 
integrity, and also sustained the office of 
Captain, Major, Colonel, and General, with great 

"He was a provident husband, a kind neigh- 
bor, a friend to the po(;r, and a good Christian. 
Blessed are the dead that die in the Lord." 

Such .vas William Winds, a man whose name 
is a fixture in the traditions of Morris county, 
but the details of whose history have already 
mnstiy perished from the memory of his coun- 
tiymeu. Full of genuine courage, yet too hasty 
and impetuous for great military deeds ; self- 
reliant as "a self-made man," yet sometimes 
the dupe of the designing ; truly generous, yet 
most exacting ; a friend to the poor, yet im- 
perious as a tyrant ; the patron of morality and 
religion, yet detracting from these noble virtues 
by the neglect of gentleness and meekness ; a 
whole-hearted patriot, holding his life and 
property at the call of his country, yet doing 
his country a wrong from heady inconsiderate- 
ness ; such was this remarkable man, whose 
memory Morris county has reason to cherish 
as among the choicest of her revolutionary 
heroes, and whose name ought to be embalmed 
in the warmest regrets of the parish in which he 
spent so much of his life, and to which he finally 



bt-qiieathed half of bis estate. la preparing 
this niea^'er outhnc of his history. I have felt 
ready to coraplain of the cruel ilestruGliveuess 
of lime which has suflferefl so little of him to 
survive, but imperfect as it is, I dedicate this 
paper to his memory, with the single reflection 
that it is somewhat singular the task should 
have been left to a stranger to collect sufficient 
oi his hfe to keep safe and sacred among the 
histori* records of New Jersey the name of 
William Winds. May it never be forgotten ! 


The hero and the s'jrine have been severely 
cciudemned and yet men continue to "worship 
the one and |bow at the other In so doing 
they mean no wrong, but merely express the 
M-nlimeiit of admiration we feel for a great 
deed and the one who performed it, and the 
sentiment of reverence which we experience 
for the place in which a great deed has been 
performed and a great man has been. 

We may in our philosophy jeer at Mr. Car- 
lylc's notion of hero-worship, and feel grieved 
as we see our fellow men bowing at their shrines 
of what ever kind. 

And yet the greatest philosopher uncovers 
his head at the tomb of Washington and the 
most devout Protestant is thrilled with rever- 
ence as he stands under the tree where Luther 
rested, or at the sepulcHer which holds his dust. 

Mr. Webster in his speech at Valley Forge 
said "there is a power in local association. All 
acknowledge it and all feel it. Those i)lacos 
naturally inspire us with emotion which in the 
course of liuraan history have become connected 
with great and interesting events." 

On this one hundredth anniversary of our 
nation we experience sentiments which are 
among the best ever felt in the human 
We think of the original colonies, in themselves 
weak, and this weakness increased by their 
independence and jealousy of each other ; of 
the contrast between them and the great 
power that coerced thoui— they weak, it the 
strongest on earth ; of the conviction which 
leading men in England had before the collis- 
ion that " notwithstanding their boasted affec- 
tion for Great Britain the Americans will one 
day set \ip for independence" — a CDiiviction 
which such men as Franklin regarded as the 
portentious prf)phecy of bloody battle, and they 
therefore in all sincerity hastened to assure 
the people and rulers at home that "Americans 
can entertain no such idea unless you grossly 
abuse tbera," and that "a union of the Amori- 

* All oration dclivorod at Morristown, July 

can colonies was impossible uuiess they be 
driven to it by ihe most grievous tyranny and 
oitpression ;" of the scenes in many a private 
home and many a council chamber, as well as 
in the more public assi'mbly, whether of legis- 
lators or people, in which with unutterable 
forebodings and agony and yet with heroic 
courage the bcit and truest men in this coun- 
try weighed every principle, determined the 
character of every act affecting them, and at 
last announcing their independence fought for 
it through years of darkness and blood ; of the 
special incidents of that long struggle and the 
great men that acted on the conspicuous 
theatre in the presence of all civilized nations, 
Concoid, Bunker Hill, Trenton, Yorktown, bat- 
tles which were ihv offspring of Indopendenc .■ 
Hall and the Declaration —the Adams, Patrick 
Henry, Thomas Jeffers-om, and the greatest of 
them all Washington. I say, we thiuk of these 
great acts and great men and with more fervent 
devotion than over we pronounce the words, 
" Oiat CoiTNTUY," and we yield our homage to 
the men who gave us a couutry and we devout ly 
bow as at a shrine at the spots where they 
achieved the deeds which give them immortal 

But whilst to'day we indulge iu these remi- 
niscences of our national glory— these great in- 
cidents and pel sons that find place in general 
history— let ours be the humble task of re- 
counting some inci<lciit8 which are part of the 
history of Morris countv during that period 
which to-day is in every thought. 

And here I find myself beset with a peculiar 
embarrassment which is both like and unlike 
that of the great French pulpit orator when he 
preached in the cathedral of the French capi- 
tal. Like him when he preached sermonr al- 
ready printed and in the hands of his hearers, 
all that I isuow of our local history has been in 
your bauds for years ; and unlike him iu the 
eloquence with which hosi-eptaway the em- 
barrassment, I in my humble gift of speech 
mu&t yield to it with an appeal to my bearers 
for their indulgence. In former years gather- 
ing many a fact ot our Revolutionary history 
from lips that are now dead, and from sources 
so scattered in archives, libraries and garrets 
that many of them now are beyond my own 
reach, I have not hoarded them, but without 
money and without price have given them free- 
ly to the press, the historian and the or.itor. 
Some of these facts, so precious to me as their 
preserver, in one case with no recognition of 
their source, are found in a general history of 
this country ; in another a graceful pen so pre- 
sented theiu on his glowing pages, and so 
kiudly delined their scfnroe that in their new 
bcputy I almost forgot they were ever mine ; 
and iu still another case the tongue of the Sen- 



ator repeated them so eloquently and with 
such generous commendation— I crave pardon 
for the weakness— that though a thousand 
miles away as I read his words, my blood 
Imgled as with wine. Thanks to the historian, 
the journalist and the Senator for their appre- 
ciation of this incomplete, yet genuine, labor 
of love amid the reminiscences of men and 
things a hundred years ago in this goodly 
county of Morris! 

And yet this does not help me to-day and 
here very much, for whether I speak of our own 
heroic men and women, or of those patriots 
who dwelt here during two winters in house, 
cabin or tent, or of the things grave, or the 
things not so grave, that were done among these 
hills so long ago, a hundred of my hearers will 
cither nod or shake their heads in approval or 
dissent as if they knew these things a great 
deal better than the speaker himself, which no 
doubt they do since they have his knowledge 
and their own! 

Yon see, my friends, how much I need your 
forbearance, and how kind it will be in the 
wisest of you to look as though ycu never had 
heard of these things as I repeat them ttvday ! 
And, moreover, even if you do hea^ttiese things 
for the hundredth time, pray remtraber that 
Yankee Djodle, Hail Columbia, and the Declara- 
tion are quite old and familiar, and yet old as 
thev are how they cause the blo<id to leap ! 
Though they had seen the old flag a thousand 
times, "the boys in blue" wept and shouted as 
they saw it run up at Fort Donaldson and Port 
Royal ! 

How different the Morris County of 1776 and 
the Morris County of 1876 I It is true its moun- 
tains then as now were grand to look at, the 
conspicuous watch-towers whence our fathers the enemy and gave the alarm, and yet 
these mountains then stood in the midst of a 
sparsely settled wilderness in which were scat- 
tered a few towns and villages with far fewer 
acres under cultivation than in our day. Its 
churches were few, the principal being the 
Presbyterian churches at Morristown, Hano- 
ver, Bottle Hill, Rockaway, Mendham, Black 
River (or Chester), Parsippany, Succasnnna, 
the Congregational Church at Chester, the 
Baptist church at Morristown, and the Dutch 
churches and OldBoontou and Pompton Plains. 
Its schools were few. The late Dr. Condit says 
that the majority of those who learned the most 
common English branches did so in night 
schools taught either by the preacher or some 
itinerant Irish scholar. The roads were bad 
and the wheeled vehicles so scarce that at the 
funeralof a light horseij^an on Morris Plains 
after the war, as an eye witness once told me, 
there was only a single wagon of any sort pres- 
ent, that being the one that carried the re- 

mains to the grave. Dr. Johnes the pastor, 
the attending physician, the bearers, the mourn- 
ers, and the friends were either afoot or on 
horse back. Nor in this respect was this funer- 
al of the light horseman very different from the 
more pretentious funeral of the Spanish Am- 
bassador who died at Morristown the second 
winter the army was in this place. 

The manners and occupations of the people 
were simple. The fleece, the flax, the spinning 
wheel and the house-loom were found in every 
mansion, and the most eloquent men at the 
bar and in the pulpit, as also the most beauti- 
ful women, and brave men who made this coun- 
ty so glorious in those days, wore garments 
which the women had made of cloth which 
themselves had manufactured. They were 
hardy, simple, frugal, brave and good, and 
when the conflict came it required as little to 
keep both men and women in fightirg condi- 
tion as it did the soldiers of the Great Frederic. 
The contrasts between the beginning and the 
end of the century in these as also in many other 
respects are remarkable, and one cannot but be 
inspired by it not only to glory in the splendor 
of our county as it now is, but in the sturdy 
simplicity of the people of our cimnty as it then 

The strength of the county as a mihtary po- 
sition has often been noted. On the south, not 
far beyond the Mcrris boundary line, is Wash- 
ington Rock, on a bold range of mountains well 
adapted for observing the movements of the 
enemy in the direction of New Brunswick, as 
also for repelling an attack. Coming north- 
fward we have Long Hill, the Short Hills, 
and Newark Mountain, on which are 
many points which on a clear day com- 
mand a wide view of the Passaic and Hack- 
ensack valleys, together with that sweep of 
country which includes the Bloomfield, New- 
ark, Elizabeth, Rahway, Amboy, Bergen, the 
Neversink Highlands, the Narrows, and, but 
for Bergen Hill, New York itself. One does not 
need to be a Jerseyman to admire such a view 
as he gets from the Short Hills, Eagle Rock, or 
the rugged ledges of rock just north of the 
toll-gate on the mountain back of Montclair. 
But it is not of the beauty of this region, but 
its strength, that I now speak. An enemy ob- 
served is half vanquished ; and from these 
watch towers, which guarded the approaches to 
Morris county, especially the one on the Short 
Hills, near " the Hobart Notch," night and day 
sentinels were casting jealous glances to de- 
tect the slightest sign of an enemy. It is also 
sure that loyal men, scattered over every part 
of the country between these Highlands and 
New York, were on the alert, and their couriers 
always ready to ride swiftly westward to the 
hills of Morris to carry the alarm. On these 



elevated places were' signal gnns and the bea- 
cons ready to be kindled. Ou Kimball Moun- 
tain, Denville Mountain, Green Pona Moun- 
tain, and even ou the spur of the Catskill 
range dividing Orange county from New Jer- 
bcy, were other stations like that on the Short 
Hilla ; so that, let the enemy njver so secretly 
cross to Staten Island, and thence to Eliza- 
beth to^vn Point, or in the winter cross tlie 
meadows to Newark, as ibey often did, the eye of 
some sentinel, either on the bills or the plains, 
detected the movement, which the flying cou- 
rier, the lond-mouthcd cannon or the ominous 
beacon flaming its warning from mountain to 
mountain, conveyed to a patriotic people, who 
themselves were ever on the watch and ready 
to respond. On several occasions the enemy 
moved across the river from New Brunswick, 
or, crossing the Karitan, reached Elizabeth- 
town, Lyou's Farm, Connecticut Farms, and 
twice Springfield, within canncn shot of "the 
Old Sow," as the signal gun was called, and 
the beacon on the Short Hills. 

But such were the advantages for watching 
the enemy and alarming the people, and such 
also the natural strength of its mountain ram- 
parts, that the enemy were always met by large 
bodies of as brave men as ever bore a firelock 
to the defence of altar and home. The enemy 
supposed himself unobserved, but invariably 
found himself confronted by a foe that seemed 
to him to spring out of the very ground or to 
drop down from the cloutis. There were sev- 
eral inducements which led the tnemy greatly 
to desire the possession of, or at least a closer 
acquaintance with, the county of Morris. It 
was well known that Col. JacobFord, Jr., whose 
widow was Washington's hostess the second 
winter, had built a powdi • mill on the Wbip- 
pany river, which was making considerable 
amounts of "good merchantable powd'T," the 
amount of which Col. Benoni Hatha vay was 
careful to exaggerate by what might be called 
" Quaker powder kegs," that were tilled, not 
with powder, but with sand, and these, uudcr 
careful guard, were conveyed to the magazine 1 

There was not only the well-guarded Powder 
Magazine in .some safe place, but the general 
magazine on the south side of Morris Green, 
whose treasures of food and clothing and other 
articles for the army were in fact never enough 
to be of any great value, yet Colonel Hatha- 
way so managed the deposits made there that 
they seemed to aM but the initiated very form- 

A dozen miles norlh of Mornstown wore sev- 
eral forges that were furnishing iron for Ihe 
army for horse shoes, wagon tiro and other 
jnirposee. And at Mt. Hope and Hibernia, each 
about four miles from the village of 
Rockaway, were two blast furnaces. The 

former was the property of John Ja- 
cob Faesch, a patriotic German, and 
the other belonged to General Lord Stirling, 
and under the management fit st of Jos. Hot^', 
and after bis death of his brothei Charles, sons 
of Charles HoB, nt' Hunterdon. At both these 
fnrnaccs large quantities of shot and shell were 
cast for the army, and at Hibernia Hofl" made 
repeated attempts to cast cannon, and in one 
of his letters to Lord Stirling says he "did 
cast one very good one, only it was slightly de- 
fective at the breech." 

These manufactories of army munitions were 
supplemented by large breadths of arable land, 
a considerable part of which was of excellent 
quality, and wnich all together produced an 
immense amount of the provisions needed by 
armies. And not only so. but the acres of Mor- 
ns were the key to the richer acres of Snssex. 
Indeed, it is difficult to exaggerate the impor- 
tance of our county in all these respects, and 
wiien we add the fact that it was a perpetual 
threatening to the enemy who made New York 
their base, we can s-ee why so many attempts 
were made by the enemy to penetrate it. 

Some of the attempts were by Tories, led by 
Clandius Smith, who once threatened Mt.Hope 
and who actually robbed Robert Ogrlen be- 
tween Sparta and Hamburg, Charles Hofl' at 
Hibernia, and Robert Erskine at Ringwood. 
The most imposing attempt to visit Mortis 
county was in 1780, under Knyphausen, and he 
reached Springfield, where he was suddenly 
confronted by a )jart of Washington's army 
then in motion for the Hudscm and great num- 
bers of the Merris minute men. Dr. Ashbel 
Green says his father, Parson Green, witnessed 
the fight from the adjoining bills, and rumor 
says Parson Caldwell did not stick to the hills, 
but mingled in the fray, which gains some no- 
toriety from Lis distributing the hymn books 
of the neighboring church, accompanied with 
the exhortation to "put Watts into them," be- 
lieving that the best hymn of Watts v^ould 
make a good wad in a patriotic gun 1 Here, 
too, it was that Benoni Hathaway's wrath was 
so excited because his commander ordered his' 
troops to the top of " a Hy Mountain" ir stead 
of against the enemy. 

It was here also that Timothy Tuttle, with a 
company of men, making their way through a 
rye field, poured a deadly volley into a detach- 
ment of the enem\ taking dinner. The pepper 
made their soup too hot for comfort, and they 
left it in a hurry. And here, too, it was that 
an American oflicor was badly wounded, and 
one of his men, named Mitch(!il, ran in be- 
tw(^cn the confronting^arniies and on his own 
strong shoulders carried his captain to a place; 
of safety. As his act was perceived the enemy 
fired a volley at bun, concerniug which he aft- 



erwards remarked, with amusing simplicity, "I 
vow I was skeared !" 

Aud here I may quote a couple of verses from 
au old newspaper of the day to show how the 
vain effort of Knyphausen to reach Morris 
eounty was regarded by the men who drove 
him back : 

" Old Knip 
Aud old Clip 

Went to the Jersey shore 
The rebel rogues to beat ; 
But at Yankee Farms 
They took the alarms 
At little harms, 
And quickly did retreat. 

Then alter two days' wonder 
Marched boldly to Spnngtield town, 
Aud sure they'd knock the rebels down; 

Hut as their foes 

Gave them some blows, 

They, like the wind, 

8oon changed their miud, 

Aud in a orack 

Uelurued back 

From not one third their number 1" 

The reniarkablo fact remains that the eueuiy 
never reached our county, except now and then 
a marauding party from Orange county, like 
those led by Claudius Smith and the Babcocks. 

I have mentioned the rapidity with which 
the alarms of inva-sion were circulated through 
the county, and the readiness with which Mor- 
ris county men hurried to the place of danger. 
There were two organizations in the county 
which had much to do with this splendid fact. 
■J'he first of these was what was known aj the 
'•association of Whigs." 

Among the {>apers of the late ColonelJoseph 
Jackson, of Rockaway, I found the original pa- 
per containing the articles of " the association 
of Whigs in Pequanac Township, 1776," with 
•Hie hundred and seventy-seven autograph sig- 
natures, except a score or so made their 
"marks." The articles rehearse the veasons 
for thus associating in the somewhat lofty and 
intense style of the day, and declare that "we 
are firmly determined, by all means in our 
power, to guard against the disorders and con- 
fusions to which the peculiar circumstances of 
the times may expose ua. And we do also fur- 
tlier associate and agree, as far as shall be con- 
sisftnt with the measures adopted tor the pre- 
servation of American freedom, to support the 
magistrates aud other civil officers in the exe- 
<ution of their duty, agreeable to the laws of 
this colony, and to observe the directions of our 
vommittee acting." 

The Committee of Safety for Pequanoc con- 
sisted of Robert Gaston, Moses Tuttle, Ste- 

phen Jackson, Abram Kitcbel and Job Allen. 
Each of tnese had a paper like the one quoted, 
and circulated it. The one here referred to 
was in the hands of Stephen Jackson, and per- 
haps as many more names were on the papers 
held by the other members of the committee. 

In e»ch township of the county this organi- 
zation existed in such strength as to include 
most of the loyal men. 

Besides this there was an organization known 
as " the minute men," who were regularly en- 
rolled and officered, aud they were pledged to 
be always ready to assemble at some precon» 
certed rendezvous. In critical times the min- 
ute men took their guns and ammunition with 
them everywhere, even to the church. This 
little fact is the hinge of an anecdote I had 
from Mrs. Eunice Pierson. She described Qen . 
Wni. Winds as a powerful and imperious man, 
a devout Christian, who took his part in the 
lay services of the old church at Ilockaway 
when there was no minister, uttering all ordi- 
nary petitions in quiet tones ; but when he 
prayed tar the country raising his voice till it 
sounded like thunder. Although he had been 
a leading officer in the armv, after bis retire- 
ment he became a minute man, always carry- 
ing his wagon whip aud his gun into the 
church. One Sunday during sermon he ap-^ 
plied the whip to an unruly boy, and on 
another Sunday a courier dashed up to the 
church door, shouting the alarm that the oie- 
my was marching towards the Short Hills. 

Of cour.-se in a trice the meeting adjourned 
in confusion, not waiting for a benediction. 
Gen. Winds seized his gun, and rushing out of 
the house oi'dered the minute men into line ; 
but, lo and behold! not a man had his gun ! 
" Then," said Mrs. Pierson, "Gen. Winds raved 
ind stormed at the men so loud that you might 
have heard him at the Short Hills i" You may 
remember that Dr. Ashbel Green speaks of 
Winds' voice as " stentorophoric. It was ar- 
ticulate as well as loud, and it exceeded in 
power and efficiency every other human voice 
that I ever heard." Aud yet, caught unarmed 
that time, Ihe general rule was the contrary. 
Whenever the signal gun was heard or the om- 
inous tongue of flame shot up from the beacon 
hills, or the clattering hoofs of the courier's 
horse over the roads by day or by 
night to tell the people of the invading en- 
emy, these minute men were in an incredibly 
short time on their way to the appointed places 
of meeting. 

I recall an illustration which may show this 
whole movement of the minute men in a beau- 
tiful manner. In Mendham there was a minute 
man named Bishop. The battle of Springfield 
occurred June 23, 1680. The harvest was unu- 
sually early that summer, and this man that 



morning was harvesting his wheat when the 
sound of the signal gun was faintly heard. 
They listened, md again the sound came boom- 
ing over the hills. "I must go." said the far- 
mer. " You had better take care of your 
wheat," said his farm hand. Again the sound 
of the gun pealed out clear in the air, and 
Bishop exclaimed, " I can't stand it. Take 
care of the grain the best way you can. I am 
oflf to the rescue !" And in a few minutes was 
on his way to Morristown. And he says that 
as he went there was not a road or lane or path 
along which he did not find troops of men who, 
like himself, were hurrying to the front. 

We have only to recall " the association of 
Whigs,'' with their committees of safety," and 
the organization of "minute men," which 
were formed in every part of the county, to un- 
derstand how it was that our Morris yeomen 
were always ready to resist any attempt of the 
f neniy to invade the county. In fact, they were 
resolved that the enemy should never reach 
the county if they could prevent it. Their spirit 
was expressed in the familiar reply of Winds 
to the young English officei who came to Chat- 
ham bridge to exchange some prisoners. Said 
the young Englishman, " We mean to dine in 
Morristowu some day." " If you do dine in 
Morristown some day," retorted Winds in not 
the most refined language, "you will sup in 
hell the same evening!" 

We cannot understand the remarkable effect- 
iveness of the people of this county during that 
long war without recalling the fact that all the 
resonrce.s of the county were concentrated and 
handled by the "Association of Whigs," and the 
"Muiute Men." 

There is another influence to be added and in 
the grouping I certainly mean no disrespect to 
either party. I now refer to the women and the 
clergy of Morris County. In the wars of civil- 
ized nations both these will be found a power- 
ful agency, but in some wars their influence 
has been very positive and direct. It was so 
in the war of the Itevolution and pre-eminently 
so in this county. At the very beginning of 
the conflict Mr. Jefferson asserted the necessity 
of enlisting the religious sentiment of the coun- 
try by appointing fast days and inducing the 
ministers to preach on the great issues of the 
day. He admitted that he could see no other 
way to break uj) the apathy and hopelessness 
which were destroying the popular courage so 
aecessrry at such a crisis. 

It is a very interesting fact that a sk; ptical 
statesman should have sagaciously perceived 
and recommended such an agency. At once 
the force tVing invoked did that which it was 
already doing, but now with tin; authoritative 
endorsement of the highest character. Tlie 
ministers of the several chnicees— preeminent 

among them— it is not invidious to say Congre- 
gational and Presbyterian— on fast days, and in 
their ordinary services dwelt on the very themes 
which had evoked the eloquence of Jeflfi rson in 
the Declaration, of Henry, and Lee, and Adams, 
and Rutledge m legislative halls, and of others 
not less mighty in their appeals to the peo- 
ple. It is not saying tt>o much to declare that 
when we consider that with all the reverence in 
which in those days they were held as God's 
ambassador!-, and the high character they pos- 
sessed as men of learning, purity and public 
spirit, theirappeals carried greater weight with 
vast multitudes than any words of the mere pol- 
tician or statesman. In that day far more than 
in this the minister was clothed with a sort of 
divine authority, and when the American clergy 
from the pulpit ienounced the tyranny of 
Great Britain and commanded their hearers to 
go to the rescue of their "poor bleeding coun- 
try," it was in a measure as if God himself had 
spoken by them. 

The ministers in Morris County during thai 
period were chiefly Presbyterian and Dutch 
lleformed. The leading Presbyterian minis- 
ters were Johnes at Morristown, Green at Han- 
over, Kennedy at Baskingridge--a part of 
which was in this county— Lewis and his suc- 
cessor Joline at Mendham, Horton, Aaron 
Richards and Bradford at Bottle Hill, Woo<1- 
hnll at Chester, and Joseph Grover at Parsijt- 
pany, David Bajdwin, Congregational, at Ches- 
ter, and Dominie Myers at Pompton Plains. 
There were other ministers in the county, bui 
I have named the principal ones. Of these wh 
may single out Johnes and Green as fair sam- 
ples of them all. The eulogy which Albert 
Barnes pronounced on Dr. Timothy Johnes is 
fully sustained by the facts. An able ami 
sometimes a truly eloquent preacher, he was 
a remarkable pastor, and his ability in that 
respect was tasked to the utmost during th- 
two years the American army was in, Morris 
County. If anyone d )ubts this statement let 
him examine the "Morristown Bill of Mortali- 
ty," which IS simply a record of tunorals whi.-l» 
he himself had attended. In the yar 1777 he 
attended 2(i.5 funerals, of which more than half 
were cansed by small pox, putrid sore throat, 
and malignant dysentery. During a part i>i' 
the time his church was occupied as a hospiiiil 
for the sick. The same was tru«' of the churcli - 
es at Snccasunna and Hanover. The latti r 
was used for "a small pox hospital for patieni* 
who took the disease in the natural way."' 
The fact that the Morristowu church was occu- 
pied as a hospital accounts for the other oft- 
lold fact that Washington once received tli.- 
communion elements from Dr. Johnes at a 
sacrimental service held in a grove at the rear 
of the Doctor's own house. The storv has been 



dJBcredited by some, but I have heard it from 
too many who were hving wheu it occurred to 
doubt its truth. 

Dr. Johnes threw himself with the greAt^st 
ardor into the cause of his countrymen, and 
his influence was widely felt over the couutrr. 

The Rev. Jacob Green— "Parson Green" as 
he was commonly called — was a marked man. 
One of the most thorough and assiduous pa.a- 
tiirs he was also an able preacher. Besides this 
be had au extensive practice as a physician, pnd 
unable to educate his children otherwise he 
opened and managed a classical 8cho<^)l with 
the aid of a tutor. He did not a little also in 
other kinds of seculai business, such as milling 
and distilling, and as if these were not enough 
to use up his energy he drove quite a law busi- 
ness, wrote articles on political economy for. 
the newspapers, served in the Legislature, and 
was for a considerable time Vice President of 
the College of New Jersey. He was held in the 
greatest reverence and died in the midst of his 
labors which had been extended in the one par- 
ish ever a period of forty-four years. 

In the pulpit, the houae, the newspaper, and 
in all phdces Mr. Green espoused the cause of 
Independence with thegreatestzeal. Such was 
ins known influence in the parish and county 
as a citizen, a minister and a physician, that 
iiefore he issued orders tf) inoculate his soldiers 
Washington invited this country parson to a 
consultation about this important measure. 
(!onvinced by Washington of its necessity, both 
Green and Johnos— and no doubt Kennedy, 
W'oodhull and the othei Morns county minis- 
ters — took the matter in hand to inoculate their 
own people. They arranged hospitals and dic- 
tated every plan with a preci:<ion and positive- 
ness that was not to be disobeyed by their par- 
ishioners, and such was the weight of this au- 
thority that it is said very tew of the members 
of these churches disregarded it, and that few 
of them died of the foul disease. Of the 68 
funerals from this disease attended by Dr. 
Johues only six were members of his church, 
and these died before the local arrangements 
for inoculation were perfected. 

I mention this as a sign of the authority of 
these ministers, and to sbow what an influence 
they exerted in favor of the cause of American 
Ipdepeudence. How they wrought in the good 
cause is matter of record. Tlie Associated 
Whigs and the Minute Men of Morris heard 
many "a powerful prayer and discourse" from 
these ministers to make them of good courage. 

With these men we must associate the women 
of Morris County. There were some tories in 
the county. Thomas Millege, the sheriflf elect, 
was one, and he was not the only one. There 
were some in Rockaway Valley who impudent- 
ly declared their expectation that the British 

would triumph, in which event they had ar- 
ranged which of th« farms belonging to the 
Whigs they would take as their share of the 
spoils ! But so shrewdly and bravely did Mrs. 
Miller concentrate the Whigs of that region 
through meetings held in her own house as to 
defeat the raa3als and clear them out. 

So often has the story of the Morris Coant.v 
women been told that I fear any reference to it 
may seem tedious to you. It was no uncom- 
mon thing for these women to cultivate the 
fields and harvest the crops whilst the men 
were away to the war. On more than one occa- 
sion not a dozen men, old or .young, were leJr 
in the Whippany neighborhood. The same was 
true in many other neighborhoods. Annn 
Kitchel was a fair representative of all the Mor- 
ris County women, in both scorning "a British 
protection" when her husband and four broth- 
ers were in the American army, and in keepinf; 
the great pot full of food for the patriot sol- 

Yes, she spoke for a thousand like herself 
when she said so proudly to the Deacon whn 
urged her to get a protection, '• If the God of 
battles will not take eare of us we will fare witli 
the rest!" Brave Anna Kitchell and over in 
Mendham the second winter the army was 
repeatedly reduced to the very verge of starva- 
tion, and with roads blocked up with snow for 
miles, so that at one time a correspondent of a 
Philadelphia paper says there was "an enforce.! 
fast of three days in the camp." The poor fellows* 
were only saved by their own personal appeals 
to the farmers of the county. Col. Drake once 
told me that for months that winter not a 
rooster was heard to crow in the region sn 
closely had they been killed and the balamv* 
were only kept st'.fe in the cellars! And the 
hungry, bare-footed and thinly clad soldiers 
went to the Morris County kitdiens, and 
Hannah Carey, the wife of David Thompson, 
- she once scalded an impudent tory-- spoke for 
all the women who presided over these Morris 
County kitchens, hs she ladled out the food 
from her great pot, "Eat away, men, you ai>' 
welcome because you arc fighting for the 
country ; and it is a good cause you are engaged 
in!" Brave Hannah Thompson! brave Anon 
Kitchel! brave women of Morris County! Tli** 
men fought well for the country and so did 
the women ! 

In the New York Observer recently appeared 
a spirited anecdote of a Mrs. Hannah Arnett of 
Elizabethtown, who heard her husband and 
several other dispirited patriots discussing tin- 
question of giving up the effort to 
independence. When she saw the fata! conclu- 
sion to which they weic Crifting she burst into 
the room, and in spite of the remonstrances of 
her husband, rebuked theirweak cowardice and 



said to hiio, "What greater canse could there 
be than that of country. I married a good man 
and trne, a failhl'ul tiiend, and loyal ChrisOan 
gentleman, but it needs no divorce to sever me 
from a traitor and a coward. If yon take the 
infamous British protection which a treacherous 
enemy of your country offers you— yon lose your 
wife and I— I lose my husband and my home !" 
Hannah Arnelt spoke for the patriot women of 
America f and she was as grand as any of them 1 
The burdens of the war fell very heavily on 
Sew Jersey. It was "the battle field of the 
Revolntion." The presence of the armies in 
pursuit, retreat or battle, put the counties below 
the mountains in a chrtnic distress. Indeed 
such were the hardships endured at the bands 
of the enemy in these lowland counties, that 
the people held in the greatest detestation "the 
Kcd coats and the Hessians," From their 
presence the Morris County people were free, 
and yet it should not be forgotten that the 
almost intolerable burdens, consequent on the 
presence of the American army two winters, 
fell on them. Dnring the winter and spring of 
1777— the army reached .Worrit town about the 
7th of January, 1777— the soldiers were billeted 
on the families of Morristown or Hanover, 
Bottle Hill, and other parts of the connty. 
Twelve men were quartered on Parson Green, 
sixteen on Anna Kitchets' husband Ural, a 
score on Aaron Kitchel. and so throughout the 
farming diistrict. To these families it was al- 
most ruinous, since all they bad was eaten up 
m the service, m> that when the army inarched 
oil it left the region as bare as if it had Jx^en 
swept by a plague of locusts. 

To this we must add the almost ineonc^iva- 
hleti-rror and hardship of the enforced universal 
inoculation of the people because the soldiers 
wore inoculated. The late liev. Samuel L. 
Tutlie, of Madison, so earefnlly investigated 
this matter in that pari«h that he found out 
where the small-pox hospitals were and some 
grave yards where our soldiers were buried. 
Ur. Asbbel Green in his autobiography says 
that the Hanover church was a hospital for 
ihose who had the disease the natural way, and 
in fearlnlly PK-turesque language he describes 
the horrors of the scenes he had wiine.ssed m 
that old church. It is tnie that it was a singu- 
lar fact that Hiarcely one who was i»m;ulated 
iliod, whilat scarcely uue who t(juk tliu diwjase 
ill the natural way g<»t well. But in either 
»;aso the horrors of this loatbsonke diseasi^ laid 
i>n our Jlorris county people a burden whoise 
weight must have been crushing. And thus 
you see a hungry and sick army in those homes 
v.r our ancestors the iirst winter. 

()t the second winter 1 have already spoken, 
but refer to it again to rerimd you of the fact 
that during that almost onpaiulleled winter 

when gaunt famine hung over the American 
camps, and when the paths and roads about 
them were marked with blood from the feet of 
the ill-shod soldiers, the forests of Morris 
county gave timber for cabins and wood ft)r 
fuel, their barns yielded torage to the army 
horses, the yards furnished meat and the 
granaries and cellars gave forth food forth*? 
soldiers. There is no arithmetic or book-keep- 
ing that can announce the value of these con- 
tributions at such a crisis, and yet so gener- 
ously and unselfishly did our fore- fathers 
respond to this cail of their country that it is 
said that receipts for the supplies were declined 
by most and that a very small fraction of tb«' 
whole value was covered by the receipts. In » 
word the magnificent fact rises before us to-day 
that the Morris county people of the Revolution 
did what they did with such ample charity it> 
both those dreadful winters substantially witli- 
ont reward. They gave their men to tight, 
their women to suffer, and their property to !»•• 
consumed for country and liberty without 
money and without price. Nominally what 
•hey had was worth fabulous prices in a cur- 
rency rendered worthless by over-issue an<i 
counterfeiting, but thev seemed for the time 
to forget the ordinary uses of money and to 
open to the patriot soldiers all iheir stores u> 
make ih^m strong to tight the great light that 
was to win for them a country. 

Of course I have not told all that crowds upoiv 
the memory of those heroic timf s, but it in 
time to arief.t this discourse pratractcd 
unduly. We are not to forget ihe move con 
spicvioQs names and deeds which belong to our 
Revolntionaiy history and which alter a ceii- 
tury sbiue ont like stars at night ni the clear 
sky. Tht'V will not he forgotten. From a thou- 
sand platforms thkik will be rehearsed 
this day, whilst the booming cannaii and tb( 
pealing bells, and the glad Khi.nts of our people 
shall proclaim how we priae the great menTand 
tleeds of that heroic period. 

We have followed to-day a humbler inipul)><' 
and re<-»lled the fore-fathers of our own s'ouHl.y 
in the Revolution. We have (jvr herrtes, and 
our shrines are »here they wrought for theii- 
eountrj-. Each old parish has its heroes, and 
each old church was the shrine at which brave 
men ami women bowed in God's fear, consecrat 
iug »lj<ir all to their conntiy. And surely no 
loKcendant of them can stand on the Short 
Hills at the point where the unsleeping sei - 
tinels of the old county stood a hundred yeiri« 
ago, nor wander along the Loaiitifn Valley, or 
over Kimball Mountain where .American sol- 
diers suffered and Morns county men niid 
women sustained them, nor the lawnti 
that environ the old Ford mansion and enter 
its honored halls where once dwelt Washington 



ill llui midst of a circle of illustrious lueu with- 
out profound emotioi). 

TLese are our shriues, nnd as from t'lese 
jioiiitb we look over Ibe nia^nilicent county of 
wliicli we are so proud, we are not to forget 
Miat our aucestors did wliat they could to save 
it trom the enemy ami make it a pla:!e iu his- 
tory. But this picture of the patriotism, the 
trials and llie triumph.^ ^t our Morris county 
ancestors fairly represents the peo])ie in other 
eonuties of New Jersey aud the other State.=! of 
the Union. It was ih(; peopU^ who asserted the 
principL's of the Declaration. If they had not 
felt aa thev did, and lahoied and suflered as 
they did, if (hey had uot laid themselves and 
their children, their estates, the increase of 
their herds aud their flocks, the golden wealth 
of their fields and gratiaiies, indeed their all on 
the altar of their cuuntiy, if froui thousands 
of family altars, closets and pulpits, the people 
had not sent their cries to God for their conn- 
try, even Washington could m t have gained 
us what we now have, a countuy! We love 
our country aud it is worthy of our love. Let 
us not cease to i)raisc God who gave the men 
of '70 wisJoiu, courage and fortitude which led 
to results that are so eouspicuous to-day. 

The Itepuhlic has survived a hundred years. 
It has pussfid through some tremendous perils, 
and I tear the perils are not all past. I speak 
not as a partisan to-day, but as an American 
as I assert the conviction that amidst the shak- 
ing foundations of systems and beliefs aud 
uatiaus in every part of the civilizc^d world it 
will be well for every American patriot to 
fortify his heart, not by referring to the examples 
i>f Greek and Roman heroo,«, but by recalling 
I he names of those who signeil the Declaration, 
and fought our battles and through great and 
luiroic sufferings wrought out for us those 
triumphs which are now emblazoned in results 
vastly grander than tliey ever dreamed of. 

Aud in these glories of our Oeuteuniql year 
let us proudly remember that in the achieve- 
ment of these gUn-ies the men aud women who 
a hundred years ago lived in Morris county 
bore an hoi.'orable part, and see to it that they 
are forever held in grateful rennMnbrance. 

Fellow citizens of Morris county, I have thus 
thrust out mv hand at random aud gathered 
into a garland a few of the names ai " deeds of 
the patriot, fathers who a hundred years ago 
bore their part iu the great struggle for 
independence among the grand old hills of 
Morris. Huoh as it is on this Centenuial ith of 
July in the spirit of a true loyalty both to our 
common country and to our honored county I 
briH^^tbts garland from afar as the sign of the 
love I have both to our county and our country. 
,\.nd as the :fore fathers «ere W(uit on all sorts 
of documents and occasions to say, so let me 

close these remarus with their oft rej^eated 

" God save America I" 


The County of Morris, in the State of New 
Jersey, was settled "about 1710," by families 
from Newark and Elizabethtown. The main 
object attracting them thither was the iron ore 
which had been discovered in a mountain range 
a few miles West of Mornstown. During the 
three quarters of a century which preceded the 
War of the Revolution, the settlements which 
had been made in Hanover were multiplied, 
spreading over the territory now occupied by 
the Townshijs of Chatham, Morris, Mendham, 
Chester, Ilockaway and Pequannock. Several 
forges were built on the Whippany and Rocka- 
way rivers ; and a small "slitting mill," contia- 
r\ (o the aibitrary laws of the Mother Coun- 
try, was carrying on a contraband business. 
As early as about 1770— if not earlier— a blast 
furnace was built, and named "Hibernia." some 
twelve miles North of Moriistown. The noted 
Samuel Feud, a counterfeiter, who "left his 
country for his country's good," was engaged 
in this ; and, afterwards, Lord Stirling became 
its proprietor. In 1772, John Jacob Faesch, a 
native of Hesse Cassel, bought a small tract, 
at Mount Hope, of Colonel Jacob Ford, Jr., 
and a large ."urroucding tract of the heirs of 
the East Jersey Proprietaries, and built a blast 
furnace, which became, with the "Hibernia" 
furnace, a most efficient auxiliary to our army, 
in furnishing balls and grape. There is some 
reason to suppose ihatsome canucm were also 
cast at "Hibernia." 

Up to the period of the Revolution, the pop- 
ulation was of New England orisin, couiiug 
from Newark, Long Island, or, dii-ectly, from 
the New England States, and entered deeply 

*In the year 1854, the author of this article, 
at tl e request of several gentlemen of Moiris- 
town, prepared two lieetnres on the hi^tory of 
Washington's two Winters in Morris County. 
These were afterwards re-writteii, and read be- 
fore the New Jersey Historical Society. Tiie 
comnivudation bestowed on the paper, by that 
Society, led the late Washington living, whilst 
preparing his Life ok Washington, to ask for 
the loan of it, which he referred to, in one of 
bis volumes, in a complimentary manner. Af- 
terwards, Mr. George Bancrolt sent for the 
manuscript. Not hearing from the article, I 
wrote him ; and his answer indicated that it 
had failed to reach its destination. After- 
wards, the editor of Harper's Jlonthly solicited 
a copy lor that Magazine : and, from the orig- 
inal notes, a condensed sketch was prepared. 
This was handsomely illustrated anJ published. 
Some months alter this, the original article was 
found ; and it is published, in full, in The His- 
torical Maoazine.— J. F. T. 


into the I'.^elirjgs and struggles which agitated 
the Ea^'P'n Celonies. Ii is truo that th.^ east- 
ern part of Pequannock, on the plains which 
ijordcrcd the Passaic and Pequannock rivers, 
and in Wasinngton township, along a hrancii 
of the Karitan, the Hollanders predominated. 
Whilst many of these did not share in the opin- 
ions which produced the Revolution, in faci, 
were entirely averse to that moveiufnt, the 
masses of the Dutch were patriots. In 177G, 
the cultivation of the soil occupied tlie atten- 
tion of those who resided in the eastern and 
southern Townships of the County ; whilst, in 
the remaining Townships, the manafaclure of 
iron was the main pursuit. 

The County is one of the niosi varied and 
heautiful, in its scenery, in the n-holo State. 
On th'- eastern horders are the Sliort Hills and 
Long Hill, a range of highlands commanding 
a magnificent prospect of the country, North, 
as far almost as to the Orange county line ; 
East, as far as New York and the Narrows ; and 
South as far as New Rrunswick. The prospect 
from these Hills, in a clear afternoon, blending 
into one charming landscape, woodlands and 
meadows, hills and mountains, farms, villages, 
towns and cities, ponds, rivers, and the en- 
trance to the ocean, is one which can never be 
forgotten. West of Morristown, there are ran- 
ges of mountains traversing the County, from 
North-east to South-west, and containing in- 
calculable amounts of magnetic iron >,re, and 
ahouniling in valleys finely adapted to the 
plough. One thing is observable in the topog- 
raphy of the County, that its ranges of hills 
and mountains are so disposed as to make it 
easy to arrange beacon -fires, which, in a very 
very short time, would alarm the; whole Coun- 
ty. This fact, I shall have occasion to mark 
in another i)lace, as one of good importance, 
during the War, ?nd as investing these locali- 
ties with thrilling interest to all succeeding 

Until within a few years, among the moun- 
tains of Morns, were living many old men and 
women who had passtid through the trying 
pcencs of the Revolution, which had made so 
deep an impression on their nieniorie-; that, 
very naturally, it became the delight of their 
life to repeat the story of tlieir suflorings and 
victories. In 1845, in the Presbyterian Con- 
gregation of Rockaway, alone, there were some 
eighteen persons over eighty years of age. 
One of these died in 1S.52, in his ninety-third 
year; another in IS.'jO in his 91st year. Both 
had served iii the llevolutiouary War. Hevera' 
women have died within five years, who weru 
ninety years old or upwards. In 1S54, there 
were two per<onn at the respective ages of 
eighty-tight and eighty-nine. In Morristown 
were two brothtrs, Kdward Condict, Esq., and 

the Hon. Lewis Condict, whose memory ref q- 
ed back to the period and events of the Rcip- 
lution. In addition to such venerable wltne^s- 
es, there were ma;iy descendants of those who 
shared in the tria's and conflicts of that time. 
The children oFsuch as Captain Stephen Jack- 
sou, of Rockaway, Colonel .TaeobFord, Jr., Hon. 
Lewis Condict. Captain William Tuttle, and 
others, of Morristown ; Captain David Tlioin',i- 
son,of Meudham ; Aaron Ki'chel, of Hanover; 
and many others ot the same jjcriod and opin- 
ions, still reside in Morris and remember woU 
•'what their fathers told thetu," concerning 
that un]);tralleled struggle for freedom. 

For years, it a peculiar pleasure to the 
writer of this sketch to converse with the ac- 
tual witnesses of the Revolution, or those who 
had heard, fr)m such, the facta and traditions 
ol the Revolution. These have been written 
down for preserve! ion ; and the principil ob- 
ject of this article is to weave, into one narra- 
tive, as far as possible, that pirt of ihese rec- 
ords which illustrate the history of Washing- 
ton, during the two Winters be pass:-d in Mor- 
i-is county— the Winters of 1776-'7 -iud 1779- '80. 
Excepting the brief and, certainly, for local in- 
t<,rcst, the quite meager sketch of Lossing, in 
hid admirable Field Book of the Rn-olution, I 
am acquainted with no book or pamphlet which 
pretends to give even an outline history of 
those two inemor.ible Winters. Nor do I pre- 
tend to give a complete sketch*; but c nly to add 
facts and traditions which may aid in a work 
so djsirable, since everything which serves to 
bring out, distinctly, the trials of the patriots 
and, especially, the character of Washington, 
during that period, immortal in history, is val- 

Before sketching the sojourn of Washington 
in Morris County during the Winter of 177G-7, 
it will bo important and pertinent to glance at 
the events which preceded it. 

The Summer and Fall of 1776 had been mark- 
ed with disheartening reverses, on the part of 
the Americans. In Augnst, General Greene, 
ue.^t to Washington, the ablest oflieer in the 
Army, and at that time in eommand on Long 
Island, was "confined in his bed with a raging 
f(!ver," "but he hoped, through the assistance 
of Providence, to be able to ride before the 
presence of the enemy may make it absolutely 
necessary." His wish was not realized ; and. 
on the twenty-seventh of Augusf, the disas. 
trous Battle of Long Island was fought, Wash- 
ington "is said to have witnessed the rout and 
slaughter of his troops witli the keenest an- 
guish," being unable to render any assistauw 
withont I lie greatest peril to his whole Army. 
Meanwhile Washington says, "our peoQ^ji^coii- 
tinue to be very sickly," even "( "le-fourth oi 
the whole ," and "during the hea'O' storms, are 



much diRtressecl, not having a siiftiGienny of 
teiita to cover them." (Spa,rl\s's WritiKgs of 
Wasbinc;too, iv..(»4;, OS; Ramsay's 'A'asliington, 
37.) Botwcen eleven aud twelve hundred men 
were either killed or taken prisoners ; ind 
jimouij th(i latter Generals Sullivan and Lord 
Stilling. On the thirtieth of August, all the 
military ftorcs. artillery, and nine thousand 
men were removed from Long Islau- to New 
York ; and, with such .skill was this manoeuvre 
performed, that the enemy, only six hundred 
yards distant, did not discover what was going 
on, until the last boat was pushing from the 
shore. ''80 intense," says Sparks, ''was the 
anxiety of Washington, so unceasing his exer- 
liouH, that for furty-eight hours he did not close 
his eyes, and rarely dismounted from his 
horse." "The darkness of the night and heavy 
fog in the morning" were good hiessings from 
the God of battles. 

During this trying period, Washington real- 
i:2ed the manly words he addressed to his 
troops, that "eacli one for himself, resolving 
to conquer or die, and trusting in the smiles of 
Heaven on so just a cause, would behave with 
bravery and resolution." fllamsay, 40. ) That 
defeat "dispirited too great a proportion of our 
troops," and "great numbers f)f the Militia have 
g'ino oflf in some instances hy whole Regi- 
ments ;" and yet, he says, "every power I pos- 
sess shall be exerted to serve the cause,"— 
words amply veritic.d hy his actions. (Sparks's 
Washington, iv., 73. 74.) 

In September, ho had the mortification of 
seeing two Hegimeuts show too great disrelish 
for the "smeil of gunpowder ;" and General 
Greene, now "able to ride," wrote that "his 
Excellency was so vexed at the infamous con- 
duct of the trooris, that he sought death rath- 
er than life ;" still, posted strongly on Harlem 
Heights, he hopes against hope that "the ene- 
my would meet with a defeat in case of an at- 
tack, if the generality of our troops would 
behave with tolerable bravery."- (Sparks's 
Washington, iv., 9i, 95.) In fact, there was 
something about this man which seemed to in- 
spiro his victorious eneoiies with dread ; so 
that, notwithstanding one vicissitude after an- 
other, not of the mo5t comforting nature, his 
bearing was calm and self-reliant. At last he 
began that ever-memorable retreat through the 
Jerseys. On the nineteenth of November, he 
wasat Haekensack, experiencing "great morti- 
fication" at the capture of Fort Washington, 
with two thousand men, a goed deal of artil- 
lery, and some of the "best arms we had." He 
is "wearied to death with the retrograde mo- 
tion of things, and solemnly protests to his 
brother that a pecuniary reward of twenty 
thousand pounds a year would not induce him 
to undergo what he does ; and yet this was not 

inconsistent with the words he hf 
before, that he was heart-sick to "i 
a brother's sword had been sheathed in 
er's breast, and that the once happy and p.. 
fui plains of America are either to be drench 
in blood or inhabited with slaves. Sad alterna- 
tive ! But can a virtnous man hesitate in his 
choice ?" (Sparks's Washington, i., 137 ; iv., 

From Haekensack, he retreated with Jiis lit- 
tle .^rmy to Aqnackanock; thence to Newark, 
where he halted from the twenty-third to the 
twenty-seventh. On the thirtieth, he was at 
New Brunswick ; on the third of December at 
Trenton ; and on the eighth at "Mr. Berkeley's 
sunimer-seat," on the West side of the Dela- 
ware, with the groat resolution burning in his 
soul, like vestal fires, to live a freeman, or, if 
need be, to die for so noble an aim, and, in fact 
his eye, at that time, glancing Westward, as ho 
says, "if overpowered, we must crc-^s the Alle- 
ghany mountains." (Ramsay, 51.) Those who 
clung to his fortunes, caught his ppirit ; for, 
whilst (here. West of the Delaware, a Conncict- 
icut officer wrote very spicv words to his friend 
at home, "to advise the old and young to be in 
readiness. 'Push the affair of good muskets ;' 
let them carry a full ounce hall ; but I think a 
three and a half feet barrel is long enough, 
'with a good bayonet.' Depend upon it, to 
avoid the worst, it's necessary to bo well and 
martially equipped." (American Ai chives, » 
iii., 1275.) 

This retreat through New Jersey, in Novem- 
ber and December of 177fi, has usually been 
called by the veterans of tliat day, "the Mud 
Rounds," which is to this day a familiar phrase 
in tiiat State. It was so called on account of 
the roads which, during the first part of the 
march, were almost impassabU'^ quagmires ; 
which became frozen bffore the inarch was 
ended— an awful road, indeed, for 1)aiefooted 
soldiers, of wliom there were many in the di- 
diminished ranks of Washington. I have con- 
versed with several si)idicrB who were in the 
Army during that retreat, and have read the 
copious notes of the late venerable man. Doc- 
tor Lewis Con diet, of Morristowu, which were 
taken from the lips of Uevolntionary scldifra 
applying for pcnsitms ; and all who were in that 
march alluded to the ".Mud Rounds," as a tune 
of very peculiar surfering and hardship. Old 
David Gordon, of Roekawitv, who, at the .'ige of 
ninety-two, was as cheerfnl as a bird, frequent- 
ly spoke of that march with a shudder ; and he 
was better otf than many of his companions, 
for he had shoes on his feet. Their tents and 
clothing were iusufticient to protect them ; the 
roads were either muddy or frozen ; the rain- were severe ; and the inhabitants along 
the route, panic-stricken, supposing the cause 


.ndence to be ruined. And yet the 

. Regimt'uts of Waskingtoii never dis- 

jwd him, wljose virtue aiidgreatnpss shone 

.^splcndfutly in that darkest hour. To appear 

calui and confident, as if he wore pursuing the 

foe, instead of conducting a re*.reat, this was 

heroism ; this was faith in the future ; and at 

this point the fame of Washington received 

"the image and superscription" which shall 

challenge the veneration of mankind, in the 

ages to come. 

It is unnecessary for me to recount the vic- 
tories of Trenton and Princeton ; but, at this 
point, may be related a well-authenticated fact 
showing on what httle things the great events 
in history apparently depend. It is generally 
conceded that the victory ot Trenton, on the 
morning of the twenty-fifth of December, 1776, 
was the crisis in our national destiny ; but few 
are aware how near the beam of destiny was to 
ileciding adversely to us. The anecdote I have 
received from that zealous antiquarian. Doctor 
tJharles G. McChesney, for many years the ac- 
complished Secretary of the State, for New Jer- 
sey. He tells me tbat the two-story brick 
liouse is still standing at the North-west corner 
of Warren and State-streets, in Trenton, in 
which Colonel Ilahl, the brave but dissipated 
Commander of the Hessians, with a select cir- 
•le of friends, was spending that Christmas 
uight in drinking and gambling, never dream- 
ing of danger from the dispirited enemy hiding 
on the other side of the Dwlaware. Whilst 
Washington and his troops were contending 
with the tirerce storm of snow and hail and the 
diitting ice tichls of the Delaware, the mercen- 
ary, lialil, was doing something quite different, 
for wbich America has great reason to be 
thankful. A Tory on the Jersey side of the 
river discovered signs which ltd him to sup- 
pose that Washington was crossing for an ob- 
ject which could not well be mistaken. The 
Tory wrote a short letter, warning Itahl of his 
danger, and dispatchad a messenger with it, 
directing him to give it to no one but the H( a- 
sian Commander. On inqtiiring at head-quar- 
ters for Uahl, he was dirwcled to the house in 
which he was carousing. A negro servant 
opened the door, but refused to admit him, ac- 
cording to explicit directions Iroin Kahl to ad- 
mit no one; but, as the informer seemed so 
urgent, he promised to deliver the note to him, 
immediately and actually did deliver it. This 
was in ample time to have prevented a sur- 
prise, but most fortunately, just then, heated 
with drinking, he was dislhbnliug the cards 
for a fresh game, and thrusting the ominous 
note into hi." pocket forgot it. The same news, 
however, were brought him a few hours after- 
ward, and III a t^hape not to be thrust into his 
pocket ; and he found to his sorrow that his 

recklessness had enabled Washington to accom- 
plish a brilliant achievement for his own re- 
nown and the salvation of his country. It th<< 
pernicious vices of drunkenness and gdmbhug 
ever deserved gratitude, as the indirotrt means 
of great good, this would seem to be the case ! 
After the Battle of Trenton Washington again 
crossed with his army to the West bank of tin- 
Delaware. The enemy was in force at New 
Brunswick and at Princeton. The weather had 
become so cold that on the second of Jauuuiy 
the Americans re-crossed the river and took 
possession of TreuioH. On the third of Jan- 
uary the enemy attacked Washington on the 
Assanpink, which runs through Trenton, but 
were repulsed with considerable loss. That 
nignt Washington executed a brilliant manoeu- 
vre in a masterly manner. The camp-tires 
were kindled along his whole line, ivs il the bat- 
tle were to be renewed in the nioiniug ; but the 
Americans silently withdiew towards Prince- 
ton, to make the fourth of January a memora- 
ble day, by another cheering victory, attended 
with one incident, at the time considered eni- 
blematic. The portrait of George the Third 
graced the walls of the Colh;ge Chapel ; and 
whilst the enemy were defending themselves in 
the venerable College, a random cannon-shot 
passed into the window and severed the King's 
head in the picture. It is said tbat the portrait- 
of Washington now occupies the very frame 
from which the headless George was so rudely- 

"Weeping may endure for a night, but joy 
comcth in the morning ;" the retreat through 
the Jerseys, called the "Mud Hounds," by 
those who experienced its severe hardships, was 
the fore-runner ot the victories of Trenton, As- 
sanpink, and Princeton. Forthwith, wo tind a 
more cheerful tone in Washington's letters. 
Whilst retreating, he declared "the conduct of 
the Jerseys has been most infamous," not mak- 
ing sufficient allowance for the fearful preSHOiv 
of circumstances ; but on the tifth of Jauuar> 
he, in elfect, recalls the harsh expressions of 
the eighteenth of December: "These victo- 
ries," he said, "have tired the Ristern llcgi- 
inents with ardor to protract their terms of ser- 
vice ;" "and the Militia are pouring in from all 
(juartcrs, and only want veteran troops to lead 
them on ;" "the enemy have evacuated the 
ctjuntry bcdow ; they went otf in the greatest 
hurry and confusion."— (Sparks's Washington, 
iv., 230, 253, 258. y 

It will not be out of place to state here, that 
many of the captured Hessians were sent U> 
different parts of the country, to be put to 
woik. Thirty of them were employed by John 
Jacob Faesch about his furnace, at aiount 
floiie, in Morris County, the Government hav- 
ing furnished him with muskets sufQcieut for 



his Amtrioan worUrnen to use ia kecpinp; the 
piisonors ct tlx-ir duty. Soino of tbfse priso- i 
iic'is died iiiKl were buried at an old gravo\ai-d on 
tlie West slope of tlic Mount H.ipc range, half I 
a mile West of the worko. Several of tlieui i)e- I 
c.iuie attacbed to tlie countiv and concluded to 
remain. Their descendants ate found to this 
day in the vicinity of llockaway. 

Some suppose, and so state, thai no portion 
of the Ann'rican AriMV was encamped in the vi- 
cinity of Morristowu until afier the Battle ol 
I'rinceton ; lint on the twentieth of Doceiuber, 
1776, Washiu;;ton wrote to the PreBideni of 
Congress that he had "directed the three lle};- 
iaients from Ticondcrrna tohait at Morrislown, 
in Jersey (where I uudersfaud about eight hun- 
dred MilUia had collected), in order to inspi'it 
the inhabitants, and as far as possible, to cover 
tbat part of the counrry." These were ''Eapl- 
ern Ktifcimcuts," led to Moi ristown under tlie 
command of Colonel Vo.'ie, about the midd.p of 
Di.'C(.mber. In a letter to Washin<;tcn, dated 
Decetnb(^r 19th, 1776, General McDougall says 
he cuiue to Morrislown, the day after G<neral 
Lee was captured at Baskaiiidgc, which was on 
the thirteenth of that month; and that Vose 
arrived at Morristown, "'dav before yesterday," 
which was the seventeenth of December. Fiom 
the same letter we learn that Colonel Jacob 
Ford, Junior, had at that time under his com- 
mand seveu hundred Militia. The three East- 
ern Regiments were "Greatous Regiment, 
about 250 men; Bond's do., 100; Porter's do , 
170 ; in all 520 men." At his own request, Mc- 
Dougal, the General Otiicer at this station, was 
superceded by General William Maxwell of Sus- 
sex County, New Jersey. The people of Morris 
County were greatly alarmed, and reason 
to be; for "Colonel Ford's Militia had an en- 
gagement with the enemy at Springfield," on 
the fourteenth of December ; and "he expected 
it would be renewed the next moi'uing, to gain 
the pass ol the mountains." The engagement 
was not renewed ; but the enemy, under Gen- 
eral Leslie, retreated "towards Spank-Town." 
In this first engagement, in which the Morris 
County Militia distinguished themselve, the 
cehbrated John Cleves .Symnies — a pioneer of 
Ohio— participated with a detachment, of Mili- 
tia from Sussex County. (American Archives, 
v., iii., 12-.'6 ; Sussex Centennial, C2.) The reg- 
ular troops were intended to join the Army of 
Washington ; but the enemy made such demoH- 
strations of their designs to reich Morristown, 
where was an invaluable powder-mill, thattbey 
were ordered to remain, to assist in keeping the 
enemy away. Morris County at this time had 
a regiment in the regular service at th? North, 
under v-olonel William Winds, which had mate- 
nally diminished its means of defence ; and 
this was one reason whv Washington consented 

that the few New England troops should re- 
main at Morrisi.iwit, at a time when he needed 
them so greatly. 

On the twenty-second of December, Colonel 
Ford conducted th ' Militia Irom Chatham to 
Morristown ; and, from the fact tbat he was on 
parade on the thirty-first of the mouth, it is 
evident they hud not been disbanded. Proba- 
bly they were kept together until Washington's 
Army arrive 1 from the Battle of Princeton. 

Inasmuch as this gentleman bore a promi- 
nent part in the affairs of the State, up to the 
time if his death, having been honored with 
several responsible offices in the State and Ar- 
my, and, furthermore, as the name is connect- 
ed with that of Washington's Winter-quarteis, 
in 1779-'80, a lew facts concerning him will be 

In the dial" of the late Hon. Gabriel H. Ford, 
son of Colonel Jacob Ford, Junior, was found 
the following entry : —"Thuksday, 21 June, 
I84S). A census was taken in the years 1771 and 
1772, in the British Provinces ol America, and 
deposited, after the Ravolution. as public ar- 
chives ai Washington ; but their room becom- 
ing much wanted, those of each Province were 
delivered to the members of Congress, from it, 
to cull what they chose, preparatory to a burn- 
ing of all the rest ; Gen. Mahlon Dickerson. 
then a member from New Jersey, selected some 
from the County of Morris and sent me yester- 
day a copy, Verbatim, of one entry as follows :— 
'Widow Elizabeth Lindsley, mother of Col. Ja- 
cob Fold, (Senior), was born in the City of Ax- 
fordt in Old England ; came into Philadelphia 
when there was but one house in it ; and into 
this Province when she was but one year and a 
half old. Deceased April 21st, 1772, aged 91 
years and one month.' I always understood, 
in the family, by tradition from her, (whose 
short statuie and slender, bent person I clearlv 
recall, having lived in the same house with her 
and with my parents, in my grandfather's fam- 
ily, at her death and before it,) that her father 
fled from England when there was a universal 
dread of returning Popery and persecution, 
<hree years before the death of Charles the 
S'jcond, A. D. 1682, and two years before acces- 
sion of James the Second, in 1684; that while 
landing his goods, Philadelphia, he fell from a 
plank into the Delaware river and was drowned 
between the ship and the shore, leaving a fam- 
ily of young children in the wilderness ; that 
she had several children by her first husband, 
whose name was Ford, but none bv her second 
husband, whose name was Lindsley, at whose 
death slie was taken into the family of her sou, 
Col. Jacob Ford, Sen., and treated with filial 
ten lerness the remaining years of her life, 
which were mf.ny. I am in the 85th year (sine* 



.Tanaary last) of my asc, being born in 1765, 
and was seven years old at ber death." 

This interesting item is in a clear, beautil'ul 
li.iudwriting, quite remarkable in a man eighty- 
four years old. The family name of Mrs. Liud- 
sley and the origin of her first husband I have 
not seen. From the earliest organization ot 
Morris county, in 173S, her son. Colonel Jacob 
Ford, Senior, was a leading man. In 1740, he 
was one of the Judges of -'the Inferior Court of 
Common Pleas for Morris County," and, tor 
many years, he appears to have delivered the 
Charges to the Grand Jury, and was not unfre- 
quentlya member of the lower House m the 
Provincial Assembly. Being a man of thor- 
ough bnsines's habits and industry, he was suc- 
cessful in accumulating prop rty. His second 
son and name-sake was b »rn in 1738, and when 
the Revolutionary War began, he was one of 
the most enterprising and successful business 
men in the County. In I7G9, he had boldly ven- 
tured some Tourteen miles into the mountains. 
North-west of Morrislown, to build a Forge for 
manulacluriug iron. In 1770, be built the old 
stone house at Mount Hope ; and, iu 1772, he 
sold the property to John Jacob Faesch, who 
erected a blast furnace on it. Previous to the 
War, he had been entrusted with some difiScnit 
missions by the State, which be osecuted to 
general satisfaction. (Ameiican Archives, V., 
iii., 290, 29», 293, 5G4, etc.) But the greatest 
service he rendered his country was as the 
builder of the Powder-mill, on the Whippany 
river, near Morristown. Early in 1776, as may 
be inferred from a manuscript iu the New Jer- 
sey Historical Society, he "offered to erect a 
Powder mill, in the County of Mv^rri , for the 
Making of gunpowder, an article so essential at 
the present time ;" and that tlie Provincial 
Congress "agreed to lend him two thousand 
pounds of the Publick money for one year, 
without interest, on his giving satislactory se- 
curitv for the same, to be repaid witbiu the 
time of one year in good Merchantable I'owder" 
—the tirst installment "of one ton of good Mer- 
chantable Powder," to be paid on first of July 
next, and one ton per month thereafter till the 
sum of two thousand pour.ds be paid," (Bote- 
ler Papers, in the New Jersey His'orical Socie- 
ty.) This mill was forthwith erected ; and 
there is good reason to suppose that some ot 
Colonel Ford's "good Merchantable Powder" 
proved a valuable auxiliary iu the Battles of 
Springfield, Irenton, Assanpink, and Prince- 
ton. The fact is interesting as a part ot the 
history of the llevolutionary struggle, and as 
showing one reason for tho repeated but fruit- 
less attempts of the enemy to reach Morris- 
town. From the letters of General Heath and 
General McDougal, and the modest letters of 
Colonel Ford himself, it is evident that he had 

dime good service to his country ; and tliis ser- 
vice w;is much applauded at tht lime. 'Amer- 
ican Archives, V.. iii. 1251), 1278, 141'J.) 

Colonel Ford continued on duty until the 
thirty-first of December, when on parade he 
was tak^n ill of the sickness of which he died 
on the eleventh of Janoarv, 1777, nearly thirty- 
nine years of age. By order of General Wash- 
mgton, who a few days before hal reached 
Moiristown, th;s gallant officer's remains were 
buried with the honors of war. It is not with- 
out interest here, to state the fact that the 
father. Colonel Jacob Ford, Senior, died on the 
nineteenth of the same month. Both families, 
at that time, were living in the house which 
Washington occnijud as his Head-quarters the 
second Winter iu Mornstown. C(;lonel Ford, 
Junior's widow was a daughter of the venerable 
pastor of the Presljyterian Church, in Morris- 
town, the excellent and patriotic Itev. Doctor 
Timothy Johnes. This lady was afterwarils 
honored as the hosii-SH of Washing ion. 

.\fter the Battle of Princeton, the British 
went into Winter quarters, at New Bruuswick, 
and the Americans at Mornstown. What was 
the number of troops with Washington, I can- 
not state ; but it was small, as is plain from nis 
letters. On reaching Mor istown Washington 
wrote, "the situation is by no means favorable 
to our views, and a^, soon as the purposes are 
answered for winch we came, I think to re- 
move, though I confess I do not know how we 
shall procure covering for our men, elsewhere." 
(Sparks's Washington, iv., 264.) And yet, all 
thii gs considered, it may be doubted whether 
a better position could have been chosen, >itu- 
ated as it is among ranges of mojntains ex- 
tending from the Delaware to the Hudson. Re- 
peated trials proved it to be finely adapted to 
repelling the enemy, who could not approach iu 
any direction without the movement being de- 
tected and the invasion communicated to a 
highly patriotic population by signal-guns 
beacon fires. The means of communicating 
with the posts on the Delaware and Hudson 
were easy ; and, besides all this, large portions 
of tho surrounding country were cultivated, 
afiVirdiUK food and shelter to the soldiers. The 
fact that Washington wintered the second time 
at Morristown. proves that he had changed his 
views of it. The character of the County may 
be inferred Irom the fact th^t Governor Liv- 
ingston, of New Jersey, removed his family to 
Parsippany, a few mile* North-east of Morris- 
town, tor their greater security ; and, for year.s 
the house ne rented was known as "The Gov- 
ernor's House." 

Gcnernl Washington reached Mornstown on 
the seventh of January, 1777, and took up his 
quarteisata tavern owned and kept by Colo- 
nel Jacob Arnold, the commander of a Squad- 



iMii of Lij,'lit Ho:st', wbicli diJ iflScieut service, 
'j'iiis was a Iwu slory house, oa tbe West side 
of the Monistown Greeu ; and it is still istand- 
ius, but greatly ohanfjcd. A lull passed 
tliron.£;b tbe centre of the house ; and on the 
Si .nth sside of this hall were two rooms, com- 
municating with oach other by a door. The 
flout room was occupied by Washington for a 
general otBce, sitting room i>nd parlor, and the 
l):ick r- om lor his sleeping apartment. These 
two rooms have since been thrown into one, 
which is still used as a store. This old build- 
ing has been retitttd, and is likely to stand ma- 
ny years, as a memento of the greatest man 
<-ver sheltered under its roof. From this house 
issued the noble letters of Waxbingtoa that 
Winter, which were so efiScient in promoting 
the cause of our national independence. 

••The Magazine" was on the South side of the 
<.ireen, on a lot where now stands the Wash- 
nigfouHall; and tradition says that frequent- 
ly wagons, apparently loaded with casks ot 
powder and guarded by soldiers, might be seen 
piissing from the powder mill to the magazine; 
buc many of these casks contained sand, in or- 
<ler to deceive spies, who would thus give a flat- 
tering account of this part of our military 
tor s. 

In the North-west corner of the Gret n, stood 
(he old court house and jail, so famous as the 
common prison of Tories caught, not only in 
Morris, but Essex, Bergen and Sussex coun- 

Just East of the present building of the First 
I'l-esbyteriau Church, stood the old Meeting- 
house, which, ns we shall see. was used this 
Winter as a hospital for the army. Following 
tbe street towaids the depot we see the house 
occupied by the "ninistcr. Doctor Johnes,- it 
is still standing— and half a raile furthei on, 
we reach a beautiful swell of land, commanding 
magnificent scenery, in the midst of which is 
the •'Ford Mansion." 

Taking ihe road which goes North tn m the 
Green, in less than a mile, we come to the iden- 
tical house, built by Lewis Condict, a distin- 
guished patriot and, through the war, an inde- 
latigable member of the State Privy Council. 
Taking the road which goes West about two 
miles you reach tbe site of the house used by 
(ieneral Knox, of the artillery, the second Win- 
ter in Monistown. On tht South-east corner 
of the Green, where is now the store of Mr. 
William M. Lindsley, was the office of the Com- 
missary. At this time Morristown was a mere 
village, bat surrounded by a fine tarming re- 
gion, which was quite thickly peopled. 

It is interesting and affecting to glean from 
rehable sources, the facts which indicate the 
character and condition of the people in Morris 
Co. at the time Washington came among them. 

Tbe records of the courts show that the pecun- 
iary affairs of the people were very much em- 
barrassed. The masses of the people were 
Whigs ; but there \fere some Tories. Thomas 
Millege. a leading man, residing in Hanover, 
was elected Sheriff of the countv ; but as we 
learn from a letter of his dated April 2d, 177(5, 
he had scruples about taking the oath. His 
scruples ripened into g( nuine toryism ; and he 
joined tbe enemy, hoping thus to save his large 
estate from confiscation. He died an exile ; and 
his estate was confiscated. In Hanover, "an 
Enghsh emigrant, a man of considerable prop- 
erty, and not a little HAUTKi-B who bad drunk 
deeply into toryism," was holding '-many an 
ardent controversey" with celebrated "Parson 
Gren," Presbyterian minister of the parish, on 
the subject of American Independence. Ashbel 
Green, the parson's sou, heard the talk, and af- 
terwards was amused to see this Tory standing 
up in the church on a Sunday whilst the mia- 
ister read his confession of the sin of toryism, 
being earnestly moved thereto by the rumor 
that he had bet n threatened with a coat of tat 
anil feathers, by some hot bloods in Morris- 
towu. This was in the forenoon; and the cul- 
prit rode rapidly to the said •'neighboring 
town," to get Doctor Johnes to read f jr him, 
the same confession there, which the Doctor at 
last convinced him was unnecessary. (Dr. 
Green's Life, 33-36.) 

About twelve miles North from Morristown, 
in '-Rockawav Vallev," was a nest of Tories, but 
some sterhug patriots. Tbe goodly faiTUs of 
the latter, the Toiies were sure would be con- 
fiscated by and by, and in so many words, had 
selected their share in the forfeited estates; 
but, as Providence willed it, the confiscations 
took place on the other side of the question. 
The patriots met in a stone house which yet 
stands; and the greatest man among them was 
the strong-minded wife of one Fre. eric Miller, 
who annihilated all the faint-heartedness of 
her Whig friends by her own brave bearing. 

Over in Mendham, seven miles West of Mor- 
ristown, Captain David Thompson-devout, 
Godly, most eloquent in prayer— only repre- 
sented his neighbors in that old Presbyterian 
congregation, when in answer to a brother offi- 
cer who exclaimed at a very critical time in our 
affairs : "We are ruined ; what shall we do 
nowV" he said, devoutly raising his eyes to- 
wards heaven, "I suppose we can yet trust in 
God." And Captain Thompson's wife, Hannah 
Carey, was the true representative of her sex 
in Morris, when she said to the star"ing sol- 
diers : -'You are engaged in a good cause, and 
we are willing to share with you what we have 
as long as it lasts." 

In Wbippany, five miles North-east of Morris- 
town, noble Anna Kitchel, wife of Uzal, scorn- 



cd to pet a "Brit'sb rrolection," wlim uiyed 

by good, but taint-licarttd. Deacon hhving, 

as 3be sail, 'a husband, father, and five bro- 
thers !U the Anuiican army, and if the God of 
Battles will not care for us, we will fare with 
the rest !" It was well saul. that Myinfj of An- 
na Kitchel In fact when ue get at the history 
of that Winter we tiud that not a small pai't of 
the provisions which sustained 'he soldiers, 
was raised, the previous seas m by the women 
and servants, aided by men and boys, too old 
or too yoang to assist iu defending the conn- 
try. ' 

About this time Charlas Hofl, the manager 
of Lord Stirhiig's Hibiriiia Furnace, is assur- 
ing his employer that wiih sUilful workmt-n 
they can cast very good cannon there— in fact, 
they did east one on a certar.i day. "which 
missed in the breach ; all the rest wis sound 
and good." But then Mr. Hoff and John Jacob 
Faeseh arc very succetsful in casting cannon 
balls and grape, which no doubt did executior? 
when impelled by some of Colonel Ford's "gooti 
Merchantable Towder." Meanwhile, about 
New Year's day, lion-hearted and lion-voiced 
Colonel William Winds— afterwards General- 
has conducted the Morris County regiment 
home, from the North ; and often he is seen 
riding, or rather rushing along the highways, 
never able to get along fast enough. 

In Morristown there was Benoni Hathewav, 
fiist Major, then Colonel, a man who after- 
ward believed in the "Morristown Ghost." and 
whose faith in witches led Lim ti)keep the so"- 
ereign horse shoe nailed somewhere about his 
premises ; but there was nothing else he fear- 
ed, and very often he rushed among the enemy 
in battle like a cannon ^all. Benoni mai.aged 
the powder in the magazine just right, having 
the same made into cartridges. 

If we look at the churches of Morris county, 
we find them sound to the core on the doctrine 
of the nation's independence- Excepting per- 
haps, two Baptist Churches at Morristown and 
School>iy's Mountain, there wf re no Churches 
but Presbyterian, with one or two Reformed 
Dutch. And the Ministers thought them- 
selves preaching the Gospel, w'jen they taught 
their people, " out of the Scriptures," what are 
the rights of men and nations. Thus, Parson 
Woodhull, of Black River— now 'Chester- 
preached so discreetly and pungcntly, on these 
vital points, that the people sent him. for seve- 
ral years, to the Provincial Congress, to vote 
for them, there. In Hanover, Parson Green, 
an extraordinary man, in some doggerel verse 
of the day, addressed, as "preacher and teacher, 
"Doctor and Proctor, Miller and Distiller." 
was exerting a ]>rodigious intluence, in the 
same direction. This man. Rev. Jacob Green, 
was, in some respects, the most extraordunry 

man in the County ; eniiueut, as a preacher 
and a p'.iysiciaii, and long sighte.l, as a states- 
man. In Morristown, was the mild, gifted, aud 
beloved D,)ctor Johnes, most assiduous Pas- 
tor, most strenuous patriot, and i-nc(.- dispens- 
ing the Communion elements to George Wash- 
ington, at a meeting held iu the Grove, be- 
cause the Church was needed for a hcspiiai. 
In Bottle Hill -now Madison— was good I'a.-t ir 
Azariah Hortou, " »vho was not a vvliit L'ehiod 
the chiefest '' patriots, in his zeal tor America;) 
liberty. In Mendham. was Pastor Lvwis, soO;( 
to be called to higher enjoyments ; hut hi' 
pi'eached and prayed national iiidependoiice, 
as pait of the Gospel. Iu such Churches as 
Rocka'"ayand Succasunna. having no Minis- 
ters, they held "Deacons meetings;'' and it 
was always noticed, thai when brave Wit. lam 
Winds prayed, in the old, unplastered Church, 
at Rockaway, liis voice would become excited, 
even loud as thnuder, as he implored God ti« 
brf-ak the arm of the oppressor and give Amer- 
ica freedom. Eiuiice Kitchel— ut'leiward the 
venerable Mrs. Piers-ou ot IlocUaway— wan died 
in her mnety-fourth year, ofteu heard Winds' 
stormy patriotic prayers ; and knew they sti ick 
a tender chord in the popular heart. 

We have not dealt in imagination, but have 
stated facts, gaihered from anthentio sources, 
in thus sketching the state of things, in Mor- 
ris County, when Washington came here in 
.January, 1777. The people were emburassed 
witn debt ; but everything tney had, they were 
willing to share with their country, and also 
to give her tlieii " men of war able to bear the 
sword." There were some Tories, but the 
records of the Court prove thut such were 
loudly called on to '• repent or perish." The 
old Jail on the Morristown Green, was lull of 
Tories and other prisoners. And, looking at 
the fasilities of detente and communieation, 
the ardeut patriotism of the people and the 
Ministers of Morris Connty, we may question 
the soundness of Washington's oj)iniou, that 
" the situation is by no melius favorable to our 

It is not an easy, but it is an interesting, task 
to glean and ■weave together the fac'^s, yet 
available, showing what was the situation of 
the Army, during that Winter. The testimony 
of old people, incidental illusions i.-i news- 
papers and manuscripts of ihat lime, will give 
us much information. It is, indeed, a singular 
fact, that in a national work, Sparks' Writings 
of Washington, the map of '"Military Movements 
in New Jersey." Bottle Hill is not even put 
lown, nor any reference made to tlie main en- 
camphient, that Winter of 1776-7, near Bottle 
Hill, iu what was called Lowi'iuica Valiey, of 
late years known as Spring Vail y. Nor is any 
allusion made to it, in that other greit national 


book, L")ssin{;'s Fit 1(1 Book of the Rcvolntion. 
l).v tVcqucut coiivcisaliouK, with agod pi-oplc, 
fspociaily soldiers, the writer of this has loug 
bun acqiiai!itfd with the general fact of the 
main eneanipnuint beiiifj there; bat the de- 
tailed account of it has been gathered, with 
great labor, by llic U«3V. Samuel L. Tulle, at 
one time the Pastor of (he I'reslivteiiaii ehiirch, 
in Madison, toritierly Bottle Hill, and, with Ins 
eiiu-ienf. I quote his manuscript. 

"The valley to which reference bas been 
made"— says .\lr. Tnttle iu his Bottle Hill, 
durini,' the Kt volution— "and which was select- 
ed as the place of encampment, was called Lo- 
waniica. whu-h is an Inoinn name, from the 
brook which runs through il. * * * * 
Comnienciiig at a point, a litile South of Mcr- 
ristown, and running in a sontli-easterly direc- 
tion, for the dirttaiHM! of about five miles, it itself in the vicinity of Green Village, in 
what is commonly known as the Great Swamp. 
The Lowantica, which runs through tliis valley, 
is iiii unusually clear ;iud beautitul Btrtam, 
which is torined from the springs which abound 
in the valley. ;ind gush forth, in all th<'ir nativi' 
purily, at almost every step." * » * » 

"At ihe time of w.lii<'h wi- aii' n 'W>iiig. 
nearly (he ululi- t-.i ihis Ixuntilul valley, not 
1 Xeepling ihe pl,iCe of the eiie, lUp.neiit, was 
covered xMih v hciivy gr-nvih of tim'ier. * * 
To this Well-chosen s()ut. ;li(i:i, di.l tii.' Xmeri- 
<-.:n Army lepair, lor ihe puriKHi I'f going into 
Wiiitei-quarters. Tiie weather, al the rime, 
was .seeedingly cold. Pitching (heir tents, at 
tirs'. wherever they c mid timl plao-s for them, 
(hey contiiiiU'd to occupy them il is believed, 
for (wo or three Wreks, until they wcie able to 
cousiruct more -ubsiaetial and comlorlable ac 
conimodatioiis. The centre of the ground, 
markidont f(n' ihe en ampment, wa« not far 
from the preseni m insiun of Mr. A. M. Tread- 
well. * * * * 'PI,,, location was 
admirably adapied lo ila libjects for whi< h it 
was si'locled. The ground, at that point, giad- 
nally descends towards the ,souili-east, and is 
shielded, in a great measure, by the crown of 
hill back of it. from the severe wuids and storms 
from Northeast, North, and North-west. A 
little South of it, runs (he L(nv<intica ; and, 
still nearer, are several very large and excelleni 
s])rings. Till- iricampmint began on the slope. 
West of tin -po' occupied b> Mr. Treadwell's 
residence. '''■ * * One piincipul street, 
between fiuii- and five rods wide, was laid out in 
the middle, in tlie centre of which stood the 
t1i'.g-s!aff, which, by fhis time, had come to be 
called 'the Llberiy P(jle,' from the top of which 
our national banner floated. This street was 
kept in excelleut condition, and was used as a 
parade-ground : allh'iugh thtre is somo reason 
to believr th.ii 'he tine level space, on (he hill, 

north of the camp, was used h)r this purposi- 
on .special occasions, such as general parades 
and reviews. The general direction of (he main 
street was North-east and South-west. On 
this wen; construct! d the cabins of (he officers 
which were somewhat largcii- than those which 
weld put up for the soldiers. On either side of 
this leading avtMiur, were either one or two 
otlier streets, lunning in the same general di- 
rection, and about forty feet iu width. On 
these the cabins of the soldiers were built, in 
somt; cases single but oftener in blocks of three, 
four and tivc together ; whilst outside of them. 
espicially on the northern side, (dhers x re 
constructed, ''ithout any snecial reference to 
the streets, but rather in reference to the char- 
acter of the ground, the side hill there being 
indented with several deep gullies. The cabins, 
of which all the aged people in the vicinity 
agree there wi!re a larg^^ number — probably as 
many as three hundred in all—where made of 
unhewn lo^s and coven.'d with rough clap- 
boards, split out of the forest. * * In 
one end of each cabin, a rough stone fire-place 
was thrown up. surmounted by a plaistered 
stick-ehimuey ; while, in the other end of each 
siiuclnre, a bunk, or sleepiiig-pli.ce, was ere<'t- 
ed with elap-ltoards and small pieces of timber, 
resting on crolclies, whidi wi^e driven into 
the ground. These hunks reached across the 
eulire end of (he cabins, and being tilled with 
straw. Were made toaccoinmodaie (en or twelve 
soldie s each. * * * Rough clap-board 
benelu'S answen'd them for seats. Hugo fires 
were kept com innally blazing day and nig .(. 
and tliesi: eonslituted the sum-tolal of their 

•Several verv larg" cabins were erected tor 
the accommodation of the Commissionaiy De- 
partment and camp stores ; a d thcKe are be- 
lieved t) have bueu located on the southern 
borders of the Camp, in the vicinity of the 
springs, a'ready referred to. In that part of 
the Camp, were also the cabins erected and oc- 
cupied by the Sultlers, who drove on a brisk 
trade in various groceries, especially good 
whiskey. * ♦ * * A little farther down, 
towards '■•he Lowantica, rude sheds were buili 
for sheUering (he horses belonging to the 
camp. * * * * Here, too, the baggage ami 
ai-lillery wagons were drawn up in lines. 

"On the outermost limitsof Ihe encampuient, 
(K^veral log guard-houses were budt tor the 
sentinels, whose dutv it was in regular beats, 
to pass back and forth, along the lour sides of 
the camp day and night.'" 

These lacts were derived from several aged 
people, who resided, all their lives, in that 
vicinity, and who had frequently been in the 
Camp, the Winter and Spring it was 0(;cupied. 
The writer of this article has frequently eon- 



versed with Mrs. Euiiit'f I'lorsnii, wlioso Ims- 
liaml, Darius l^ierson, was liviir,' with his 
fatlier, on tht' farm, a part of which was usid 
for tht Carip ; and she had the. same jieneral 
infi>rn)afi«>n from her husband, who has often 
pointed out to hei , the location and plan of the 
Camp, so that, in the main, the aliove minute 
description is donbMess corre.-t. Mr. Tattle 
nas also p inted oiu th. private honses, in the 
vicinity, which wore occupied hv Col. Francis 
Barljonr, Colonel Matthias Ogdeii, Major 
Eaton, C(.lonel Marsh, Genernl Wayne, and 
other otticers, in the course of this or other 
Winters, during the War. 

The heantifnl Lowantiea Valhy is a place 
hallowed with patriotic associations ; and never 
should it be forgotten that, along its gentle 
slopes, a part of the Army which achieved the 
victories of Trenton and Princeton, heroically great privations : and that, often, the 
great men of the lievolution, Alexander Ham- 
ilton, Anthony Wayne, Baron Steui)en, and, 
above all, pre-eminent, Washington, have here 
reviewed the brave but thinned ruiks ofllieir 
.\rmy. Here, too, the martyr, Caldwell, of 
Elizabethtown, idolized by the soldiers, ha a 
"held forth the word of life," with sinipio but 
eflfective eloqucnco, and, with fervent pathos, 
has supplicated the aid of Him in whose sight 
"the nations are as grasshoppers,'" in behalf of 
the defenders of theii Country. should it 
be forgotten, that, along the slopes of the 
Lowantiea Valley and in its immediate vicinity 
are many nnknowu graves, in which were 
huried patriot soldiers who died, that Winter, 
of dise-ascs induced by hardship, or by the 
small-pox which pivvaiK d. But ot this more 
in another place. 

Washington stationed strong deiaclinii-nt>. 
isptcially of the Militiii, under General Williiim 
Winds, in the region of Pluekamin and t^iib- 
bletown, in Somerset (,'ounty, to witi^li thi- 
enemyr <|"'"'tered in N\ w Bninswiik, atid pro- 
tect that section of the country. I have the 
affidavits of soldiers, applying F 'i- pensions 

feelings of the p<'ople were shocked by si>oiug 
their Churches desecrated, the enemy flestioy- 
ing the pews, and often stabling '.heir h(»rses 
in the Presbvterian and Uefinnied Dutch sanc- 
tuaries. Chinches l>eloiiging to I he English 
Establishnii'iit wire exi-nipti-il, since, "as a 
body, the (Ml rgy, tlie Church of Englaiul, in 
the Colonies, were either neutral in the con- 
test - thr- ca>e with the greater niinibi'r— or 
ranged on tin' >ide of l{oyalty." (Litkis.xuv 
WoiiLK, Seplemlxr TM, IH-iX.) D was not 
strange that the ptople should, in lliesi' eir- 
cunistanees, have bet-omes thoioughly weaned 
from the i-ause of Royalty. The appeals of such 
Ministers as IMaeWhni t( i-. of Newark, and 
Callwell, of Elizabetlitown. and (Ireeii, and 
Johnes. and liorton and Woodhnll, of Morris 
county, wire forcibly sustained by the sacrile- 
gious conduct ol the en'-my. The eonduet ot 
the Tories and refugees vas so inhuuiau and 
outrageous, that the lloyal cause was ideii- 
titied, in the popular esteem, with 'hese vaga- 
bonds, guilty of treason, robbrry. and murdi'r. 
During that Wirter, Governor I<iving.stou and 
his Privy Council, were compelled to itinerate, 
secretly and frequently, now holding their 
meetings at Trenton, Princeton, Newaik, Mor- 
ristown, or wherever it could be done, witli 
safety, for the general good. The Governor 
was not a bold man, but a very persevering 
one ; aud. well aware of the fact that the Tories 
were determined to seize him, as a rare prize, 
to be carried to the enemy, he was iisuall.x 
attended, in his journeys, by a ditachnieiit of 
ArnokVs Light Horse ; and very seldom sli'pi 
two successive nights in one house. In several 
instanci s. the Tories iiiadi' a desci nt on the 
house where the Ciovi-rnor had spent the pn - 
vious night ; but. vhilst thus hunted, for years, 
he ni-iiiaged, in every case, to elude liis enemies. 
This estimai)le offic.r was gieatly esti- nnd 
by Washington, and rendered invaluable ser- 
vici's to the country, in ihose ))erilou$ tinn-s. 

Only a part of the Army was quartered in 
Lowantiea V.illey. Large iiumlx-is were bil- 

which prove that these troops were eir.>age(f letted at private houses, in.tiie townships of 

in no sinecure business ; and that the too Im 
petuoiis Winds did very efficient service. The 
entire season was distinguished by severe 
skirmishes, in which I'ur Milit ia behaved with 
great bravery. 

(ieneral Israel Pntnam was in couiiuand of 
the troops, in the neiglihorhood of the Dela- 
ware ; and General Heath, in the Hudson 
Highlands. Tlie enemy ixhibife;! the most 
ruthless disregard of the rightseven of Ihoi'' 
who bad clftiined siitety, under "British Pro- 
tections ;" and Washington wrote that tlie 
people "are exceodinglj exasperated at the 
treatment tli-y have met with, both from 
Hessian and British Troops."' The religious 

Morris, and Hanover, bv C!ominis- 
sioners appointed for the purpose. This 
methid, though i.eeess rily arliitiary, was met 
by a people of "willing mind." .Varon Kitehel 
and his lather. Joseidi, ol Hanover, had two 
houses, and gave up the larger one, on condition 
that the old people mi:;ht liave the other, 
required only to take care of ihrie sick English 
prisoners, of whom there was no danger o! 
their catching the small-pox. The late llev. 
Doctor Ashbel Gr*en remembirs t'lat his 
father's family "consisted of individuals ; 
Mid, as well as can be rtcolkctetl, fourteen 
officers and soldiers were quartered in tlie sanx- 
dwelling.' (Dr. Greon, in Thk Chuistian 



Advocate, ix. 522. ) TliP Sa.vii's, Uicli a nls, Ely 
IV-acii, Kiti-hcl. Sinitli, Tattle, and (itlicr fami- 
lifs. were served in the same way. niakinp no 

In Whippaiiy, lionoicd a:« llie tiist villafi;e in 
ilie Cdiinty to raises ('onjpaiiy of soldiers, fur 
dct'i lUM^ c)| liberty, Mrs. .\nna Kiteliel, daugli- 
tor of Dr.niel Tnttle, devout believt r that she 
was, was willinj; to •' leave it nil to the Lord ;" 
and, in this piety, 1 cr hushand was not a whit 
Ik hind her. These worthy people never said 
to the soldiirs, 'be ye warmed and tilled," 
merely, bnt always had rooms and free provis- 
ions for at least twelve soldiers, thon^h they 
onoe protested when an office) attempted to 
billot lorty hun<i;ry fellows on them, for whom, 
ln)wever, they hung over the tire, "the laig' 
kettle holdinj; half a barrel, tilled with meat 
potatoes, and other vegetal)le8," fo tliat they 
n)if;ht not <jo aw^iy buufrcrv. And there were 
hnndreds of people in Morris (Jouuty animated 
with the same spirit. Noble men ! noi)le wo- 
men ! yo'ir descendants ai'e proud of their an- 
cestry, riiese are pricit)ns relics of a heroic 
age, and onglit to be garnered tip safelviu his- 

JNleaiiwIiile, as the ('ouimissioners tire pro- 
viiling for the soldiers as best t4iey can. Itt us 
look into tht old ".\rnold Tavern," tlKUi hon- 
ored ill sheltering its great(;st guest. Seated 
thei-e .at his table, with lips compressed and 
brow feiU'fully stern, Wasl\ing(on is '"under the 
disagreeable necessity of Iroublimr his Lord- 
ship, Gen. Howe, with a letter almost whidly on 
the subject of the cruel treatment which our 
officers and iuen,who are unhappy enough to 
fall into vour hands, receivi: on board the pris- 
on ships ill the harbor of New York :" and did 
not the writer ••endeavor to obtain a r-'dressof 
their grievances, hewoiihl think himself as ciil- 
|)able as iliose who intlic'. snch s( verities up(ni 
iheiii." •'Ti:c (listless of the prisoni'rs," wrote 
(ine of th ■III. '•e:i!i not be- comninniciiterl by 
w.iids Twenty or Ihii ly oil eviry dny. They 
lie ill iuaps nnbiiried. What mimbevs of my 
conntrymen have died by cold and hunger, ptr- 
ished for want of the ci uinion necessaries of 
lite! 1 have seen it. This, Sir. is the boasted 
IJiiiish el( iiieiicy ; * * » * Tiatlier than 
again exiK i iiiici their barbarity and insults, 
may I lall \>\ the swor.l of the H( ssians." — 
(Americun Archives. V., iii., 1429.) Just a week 
alter Washington rearhed Mornstown, he 
wrote two noble ep'Stles to Lord Howe, on the 
same day, (January l:ith,) on the subject of 
•'the barbarous usage" our soldiers and sailors 
wore receiving in New York, "which their eina- 
ciati'd coiintonances confii in." (Sparks's Wash- 
ington, iv.. -273-277.) 

liut weiirhtiei matters than this are picssing 
npoi; liiiii. Thr tei;n ol enh'stnient for large 

numbers of his men is expiring and most ur- 
gent letters are sent "to the Council ot Safety 
of reiMisylvania," "to the President of Con- 
gress," "to the Governors of llie thiiteer. 
States." calling for more men and munitions; 
audit is cheering to find him able to saj, on 
the twentieth of January, "our affairs here are 
in a very prosperous tram. Wilhin a month 
past, in several engagements with thr enemy 
we have killed wounded and taken prisoners 
betw( (11 two and Ihree thousand nutti. I am 
ver.r contideiit that the enemy's loss here will 
oblige them to recall their force from your 
State. If I am properly supjiorted, I shall hope 
to close the campaign gloriously for America.' 
(Letter to Governor Cook, in Sparks's Wash- 
ington, iv.. 2oti. ) Hut the coiuageous and over 
hopetui Washington has yet to pass through 
som; very distressing, dark scenes— battles of 
Chad's Ford and Geiniantown for instance— 
and is yet to be deserted by the Uev. Jacob 
Duclie, the first Chaplain of Congress, and en- 
dure the sharp agony of Benedict ArnoUrs trea- 
son, before he '-closes the ('ani|)aign gloriously 
for America ;" but "with the smiles of Provi- 
denci-," he will do it. 

During this month of January, he has "the 
satisfaction to say that General Philemon Du-k- 
mson's behavior, in an action that happened 
near Somciset Court House, on Mill Stone riv- 
er, rettected the highest cridit on him ; for 
though his troops were all raw, he led them 
through the river, middle deep, and cave tin 
enemy so severe a charge, that altliough sup- 
ported by three field-pieces, tlmy gave way and 
left iheir convoy of forty wagons and upwards 
of one hundred horses, most of them of the 
Fiiglish draft breed, and a number of shoe]) 
and ciitlle which lliey had collecied." (Ibid, 

But then it was not all or mainly siin-liglil in 
the "old Arnold Tavern :" tor on the twentv- 
siNth of Janiiaiy Washington wrote, -•reinforce- 
ments come up ^o exiremely slow, that 1 am 
afuiid I shall be lelt without any men before 
they arrive. The enemy must hi' ignorant of 
our numbers, or they have not horses to move 
their artillery, or they would iioi -utter iis to re- 
main undisturbed." ( Ibid, ;^(tl. ) 

At this iioiiil I may intio luce an anecdoti 
which 1 nad from (i. P. 3IcC(illough, I^sq., t'a- 
iln r-in-law of the late Hon. J. W. Miller, who 
had it directiv from (ieiieial Doughty, a Ilevo- 
lulioiiaiy ( fficer nsiding in .Moriistowii. A 
man had be<n employed ny Washington, as a 
bpy ; but some cucumsiaiiecs hao led Ccilouil 
Hamilton to suspect he was carrying n<!ws 
to the enemy ; and he determined lo make 
some good use of the man. Accordingly when 
I the man called one day at the Colonel's office 
I he found him very busy making cut a report of 


the condition of thp arniv for the Comtiianilcr- 
in-chief. The report was made out with great 
miuuteucBS of detail ; sueh a division had so 
many men, and such a division had so 
many, etc., etc.; and then tlie whole was .-i'lm- 
med up into a splendid aggrefjatc at least four 
limes as lar>;e as the actual force. The coudi- 
liou of the Magazines was detaile 1 in the same 
manner. Soon ofter the suspected spy entered 
the ofiBcc, Colonel Haiuiltou pretended t(j have 
some errand and excused himself saying he 
would be back in a few minutes. Apparently, 
in his baste, he had It ft his report lying on his 
table , and no sooner wao he gone than thi' fel- 
low, glancing over its pages, and sure thai he 
bad an invaluable document, through » most 
fortunate chance, pocketed it and left for the 
enemy I General Doughty i-aid that it was Col- 
Oi.el Hamilton's opinion that this happy stroke 
did not a little to keep the enemy from Morris- 
town, at a tine when the American Army was 
in no condition to receive them. 

Thus passed the month of January, iti plans 
to defend the country from its invaders; but 
alio her invader was approaching dreadful in- 
deed to contend with. Mr. Lossiiig intimates 
that while measures were taken to inuoculate 
the .r>ldiers in the Nortlu ni D'partnieiit, such 
lueaus were not taken at Morristown. Not 
havMig hih book at hand, I can o-jly give my 
impnssion from memory. But this is a mis- 
take. Ii vvas a common opinion, in this region, 
at that lime, that tiie suiall-pox .vas wilfully 
and maliciously iutioduded by the »ni my, liop 
ing to do us fatal damage by tlie means. But 
whatever wt:re the means, the "Morristown 
Bill of Mortality'" shows that on the eleventh ol 
January, 1777. "Martha, widow of Joshua Ball, 
died of small-pox.'' '"(lershom Hathaway, on 
the 2tth," and "Ebeiu zt-r Winds, on the 31st' 
of the same month, by the same loathsome dis- 
ease. On the tilth of February, 1777, Washing- 
ton wrote, "the small-pox h;is made such head 
in ev«!ry quarter that I find it iiupossible t.> 
keep it fjom bpieading through the ar- 
my III the; natural way. I have theiefere deter- 
mined not only to iiino<;ulate all the troops now 
here ihdt have not had it, but shall order Dr. 
Shippen toinnocnlate the troops as fast as they 
come to Philadelphia. They will lose no time, 
because they go through the disorder while 
tlii'ir clothing, arms and accoutrements are get- 
ting ready." (Sparks's Washington, iv , 311.) 
He was compelled to resort to ttiis extreni;- 
lueahiire by the experience of the previonsyear, 
especially in the Northdii army, which wuflered 
greatly from small-pox. ".\n establishnn^nt,' 
says Sparks, "lor innoculation was j>rovidjd 
near Morristown loj- the troops in camp; in ■ 
at riiuadi Ipliia, for IhoKK coming from ihi' 
South ; aiiutlier iu I'oiiiiecticuf ; another iii 

Providence." (Ibid, 3(i4.} So far as Morris- 
town is concerned, it was not so much a plaei . 
as a series of iiino, ulatiug hospitals in diflerciit 
places iu the townships of Morris and Hanover. 
The Bev. Samuel L. Tut tie, in his Sketch >.f 
Bottle Hill, during the Bi volution, from whieli 
I have already quoted, renaiks that "sever;il 
private hospitals, in this vicinity, were used lor 
the purpose of innoculation. as a means of ai- 
ri'sting the progrt'ss of the diseas-e. One ol 
these was the dwelling snl)sequently occupicl 
by Jonathan Thompson, in the vicinity ol the 
house belonging to Mr. David C. Miller. At 
that place an excellent surgeon was stationed : 
and thithev all classes in and about this village. 
went to pass through the process of iuocuia- 
tiop." ".\notlier ulace which was set apart fur 
the purpose; of inoculation, was the housi 
which stood at that lime on the farm of the 
late John Ogdeii,ovei the bill— alH'Ut two miiev 
South of Morristown- ♦ * ♦ * 'J'hat house 
wa.-J then owned and occupied by Mr Elijah 
Pierson ; and for several months it was contin- 
ually tilled witli both s<ildieis and c-itizens, wli>. 
had repaired thither in order to guard them- 
selves, by inoculation, against the i-mall-pox. 
I have been informed by some of the BrookCei.i 
tamiiv, residing liut a little distance from the 
Liiwanti>-a i.-.itup ground, that they received it 
finni tlnir levoliitionary ancestors, w!u> lived 
ami dieil on .lie gruund. that .'uiing that sain- 
WiiitiM', there vvas a sm.ill eucxinpineut or tie 
hill b.ick of the Bonsall mansion, a short dis- 
tance North of the place last described ; ami ii 
has seirmed to me not iinpr bable that tlia; 
was an airang<'aii>iit also ui:ulo for i .ocul.itinu; 
the army." '•Another private house that wa^ 
occupied for a hospital, was an old one whi'-li 
stood on the spot now oeciipied ov the resi- 
dence I'f Mr. Bailey, on the road leading by the 
camp ground acros-j the liowautica valley, and 
but a little dislaiiee from the road leading from 
Green Village to Morristown. * * * *^ Phy- 
sicians and nuiseswerit stationed Iheie alse : 
and everything was done t<j save the lives i>; 
the jioor fellows wbo wert.' carried thither from 
lime to time on Ittiers from the camp. All tli^ 
rooms in the house wore iv.inliuually filled wii.i 
l)atieutM ; and a verv large pioporlioti, of the.ii 
die'd and were buried in the orchai<l, about. \\\i 
hundred yards North- est of the house. Noili- 
mg now exists to niarl» th»' place of their 
burial." ''.>nt the piiiii ipai hospital in tli> 
vicinity of the camp, was a large hoise wliieii 
belonged, at that time, to a Gerinaii gentle- 
man t)f the name o'' Harperee, on the lariu 
which now belongs to J. J. Scotield, Esq.. in, 
the old road leading I'loni Bottle Hill to Morris- 
town. That house sio id aliout a quarter nt 
a mile Suith of the aoove ilnu-ough are, an^i 
on grtiuiid wiiicli slope! t.iw.irds the Soinli. 



s!0 that it could not be seen I'roQi the road. 
It was a one and a lialf story house, having 
four rooms ou the lower floor and a -ireater 
number on the upper ; about one and a half 
uiile.s Noi th-west of the centre of the Camp ; 
and in manj' respects admirably adapted for 
the object for which it was used. Here, also, 
many of the doldiers saw tlie last of earth. 
The place where they were buried, it is said, 
is siill to be seen in the South-west corner of 
the Harperee farm. \ triaugular piece of 
ground, containing -.d least tbree-quarters of 
an acre, surrounded by an old-fashioned worm 
fence and tilled with raouuds, as closely as 
they could be placed in regular rows, was the 
place where these unfortunate men, unblessed 
witli the sympathy of wives, sisters, and 
mothers, were committed to the dust." 

yuch are the facts which Mr. Tuttle has res- 
cued trom ohhvion ; but, probabl.v, in reference 
to the last two places which he desciibes, be is 
vr. ng in calling them inoculating hospitals. 
Dr. Asbbel Green, whose father, "I'arstm 
Gteeti. was a Physician, says, explicitly, that, 
during that season, the disease by inoculation 
was ho liglit that there was probably not a day 
in which till Army ccuid not h:ivi' maiched 
against the eiKuiy, if it had bet^n nee s.-iarv." 
(CuuisTiAX Ad.. IX.. 522.) There is other con- 
clusive lestimonv *o iho same ellect : but 
I qualiy <:onclusive is the evidence, that those 
who took the disease i.-. the natural way taififerea 
a'.vlully, and that a large iiroportion of them 
(lied. The Bailey and Harperee houses were 
probably botpitais for those who had the small- 
pox in the natural way, which accounts for its 
fatality, at those places. And well might the" 
author of Bottle Hill, during the llevolution, 
exclaim, "Very sacred, a^, a consequence, are 
the' associations which gather around these 
spots! Very precious r.ngli'. they to bo in the 
estimatii)n of all true American patriots!" 

If we now leturn to Hanover, during this 
memorable season, we find that "Parson Green" 
is preaching regularly in the olil Presbyterian 
Meeting-house, not Trom a " Carpenter's bench" 
as in foi'iner years, but from a real pulpit, built 
for liim by Car))enfer Ji'didiah Beach, to which 
good act be had been specially incited, as is 
said, by tlie Parson's pi caching on the some- 
what odd subject of '• the Four Carpenters," 
the main inference of which discourse was, 
"Why can't I have a pulpit?" That pulpit 
witnesried the miristrations of its worthy occu- 
pant until early in February, 1777, when the 
Oiurch wiis ccmvirted into a temporary hos- 
pital for those soldiers "who had taken the 
disease— small-pox— in rue natural way." 
Ashbel Green, eldest son of tne Parson, was 
then almost lift ecu years old, and was " train- 
ing for real battles, in a Company of boys from 

ten to fiftecH years old ; none I think were 
admitted under ten, unless an individual or 
two of nncommoQ growth !" (Life of Dr. A. 
Green, 55.) It ■was a dismal lime, in the whole 
region, as we, may well imagine. In a valuable 
note appended to the autobiography of the Kev. 
Jacob Green of Hanover, Dr. Ashbel Green 
makes the following statements of facts, which 
he himself was witness to, in his boyhood : 
"After the memorable manoeuvres and Battles 
at Trenton and Princeton, * » * General 
Washington quartered his whole army, not a 
large one, iu Morris-county. The sm;'ll-pox 
had broken out among the troops, and proved 
exceedingly fatal. The Church in which the 
Rev. Jacob (ireen statedly preached was used 
as an hospital for those who had taken the 
disease in the natural way : and the present 
writer can never forget the appalling scenes 
winch he there witnessed, produced by the 
ravages of that frightful malady, now so hap- 
pily disarmed of its terrors by the fortunate 
discovery of vaccination. The troops were 
distributed in the dwellings of the inhabitants, 
and the Surgeons of the Army inoculated both 
soldiers and citizens— the citizens without 
charge. The family of the writer's father con- 
sisted of nine individuals ; and, as well as can 
be ncoUccted, fourteen officers and soUliers 
were (piariered in thf same dwelling. All were 
inoculated together, snd all had the disease in 
a very favorable manner. Indeed, the disease 
by inoculation was so slight that there was 
probably not a day in whu-h the Army' could 
not have marched against the enemy, if it had 
been necessary ; but it providentially was not 
necessary." (Chki«tiin Advocate, ix., 522.) 

All, however, did not have the disease so 
lightly. Little Eunice Kitchel, afterwards Mrs. 
Pitrson, a xoi;o<;enaria>', had the small-pox, 
which left traces so deep as were not eft'aced as 
long as she lived. Eiecta Beach, daughter of 
C iptaiu Enoch Beach, afterwards married to 
Silas Dickerson, of Stanhope, brother of Gov. 
Mahlon Dickerson, then to the late Colonel 
Joseph Jackson, of Rockaway, was apparently 
" sick unto death," with, the same disease ; and 
when she was near eigbt^ years old, she told 
about the lamentation made over her, by 
friends, and how that the Doctor tried to con- 
sole ther.* by the somewhat rugged words, 
" that they should not make such an ado about 
it, for if she got well, she would be so— ugly !" 
— prefixing one of his Infernal Majesty's 
derivatives. No doubt many other families 
were m ibe same distressing situation, and, 
perhaps, some of them did not fare as well. 

The plan for inoculating the Army produced 
great alarm in the community ; and Doctor 
Green says, " My father, I well remember, went 
in a sleigh to Morristown, accompanied by 



some of tlie most respectable men of liis eon- 
gifc;ation, tu c.>nfer with Gcneinl WanbitiK- 
toti ou tlic snl)ject." Tlio repitsentatioDS 
made by tliose gentlemen were aiiswei-ecl l>y 
Wasbiugton witb so mueb force, thai they 
''camebaek jjerfectly reconciled to the meas- 
ure." He incitlentallv Jieutions the fact that 
"Doctor Bond of Philadel|ibia, then a Snrgeou 
of some eminence, of rank in the Ainiy." and 
Doctor Cjchrau, of New Brunswick, were en- 
gaged in inoculating ami attending the sol- 
diers and citizens. In this connection, be also 
adds; '" tor a short time, my father's Church 
was made a Hospital for the reception of those 
on whom the natural small-pox bad appeared, 
before they could be inoculated ; and more 
fiightful and pitiable human beings I have 
never seen. The heads of some of them were 
swellerl to nearly double their natural size; 
ibeir eyes were closed; an 1 their faces were 
black as a coal. The most of these died." 
(Life of Doctor Asbbel ftreen, 88-94.) 

The private records of Parishes and Ministers 
of that day, in Morris County, are unfortunately 
very scanty ; a.ifl, in many cases, not a scrap 
is to be found. In Hanover, Mr. Green left 
nothing; audit is oniy through his son that 
we have anything to enlighten us in that dis- 
mal p'-riod ol history. From his tes'imouy, it 
appeals that soldiers wi'ie quaiten d in every 
bouse ill the Parish ; and that both soldiers and 
citizens wert? inoculated, at houie, and not in 
li' spitals. It seems that a dififirent coui>e was 
jjiirsned in Chatham and Morris Townships, 
where nartieular houses were set apart as Hos- 
piials for inucitlitioii, and, as is abundantly 
I'roved, in the latter place, with results far 
more dreadful than in Hanover. It evidently 
would be imijossil'le to inocul.ile a whole com- 
iiiunuy promptly in hospitals, so that many 
were exposed, whilst wailing their turn, or, 
llirough fear or some oiher cau«e, mglected 
the precaution, entirely. 

This inlerence may i-u plainly diawii from 
the records of death in the Morrislown Bdi of 
.Mortality, for the year 1777. On Ihe twenty- 
fourth of January, and also on the thirty-tirst, 
occurred a d -atb IVom small -pox in the Parish 
of Moiristown. During the month ol^ Febru- 
ary, Doelor .Tohnes atteudel eleven funerals in 
his Parifh, eansed by small-p<ix, an average of 
nearly three per we.-k ; in March he attended 
nine; in April, twcnty-nne ; in May, eleven ; in 
Juno, six ; in July, eight ; and in August, one 
-all produced by small-pox. Sometimes, as 
in April, he attended two snt-h funerals in one 
day, as on the second, seventh, and eightli of 
April ; and on the four'eentli and thirtieth of 
April, this unwearied Pastor attended to tin- 
grave, eacli day, three parishoneis who had 
died of this foni disease. The V.ill <>t Moi tnlitv 

shows that no age, sex, or condition was exempt 
— the wailing infant, the child just learning to 
wratlle, the niotheroflittk children, the father, 
in the strength of manhood, the aged— two 
men died marly ninety years old— the freeman 
and bond-seivant, sll were laid under fear of 
death, in this most awful form. Sixty-eight 
victims of siwall-pMX did faithful Pastor Johncs 
attend to " the house ippointed lor all living," 
in that memorable year of 1777 ; and the most 
of them bv tween (he seventeenth of February 
and the first ol August. It was the saddest 
year the Parish of Morristown ever saw, before 
or since, during whicn the old bell, ivhieli still 
toliS the hours, in the steeple of the First Pres- 
byterian Church, tolled the departure from this 
life, of two hundred and live persons, residents 
in that community, which was one death in 
about e"ery one and a half days, through the- 
entire year. 

As already intimated, "Pai'sin Green '" had 
too much to do to keep bills of mf)rtality, so 
that we s'lall never know bow many of those 
poor soldiers— " more trightful and pitiabl" 
human beings I have never seen" — died in tlie 
old Hanover Church, their heart-rendini; moans 
mingling with the cold, vvinter winds; nor 
shall we know how many families were deci- 
mated by small-pox, dvsLntery, and putrid 
fever, the ti-rrible scourges of that yesr. Tlie 
same was true i>f the Bojtle Hill J'arish, in 
which llev. Azaiiah. H<rtoti, recent Pastor of 
the Church, died of small-pox on the twenty- 
seventh of Maich, 1777. The same season, the 
devoted Pastor, Thomas L.-wis, ol Meiidham, 
died, pel baps overtasked in vi.siling ilic sii-k 
and burying the ilead. Could we hav B'lls 
of Mortality for each of (he old Parishes in 
Morris llonnty, for that year— Hanover, Par.sip- 
pany, Black River. Mendham. Succasunua, 
Kockaway. Pompton Plains— they would doubt- 
less tell just such a tde as the Morristown Bill: 
sad, simple, afflictive, showing that that year, 
in ^lorii.s County, was there a voice heard, 
" lamentation and great mourning." 

We cannot intelligently appieciate the situa- 
tion ol Washington, the tirst Winter he spent 
in Morristown, without thus bidding the past 
rise from the dead, to go before us, like a living 
drama, that we may look at things in detail— 
baukrnjitcy, disease, nakidness. death -ju.«t as 
thity crowded upon Washington, bis soldiers, 
ajid their patriotic entertainers. Never were 
there coniliinations of evil things better cal- 
culated to undermine the courage of all con- 
cerned in the struggle ; and yet their faith in 
God never failed. Washington was not an un- 
moved spectator of the griefs about him ; and 
often might be be seen in Hanover and Lowau- 
tica Valuy, cheering the faith and inspiring 
the courage of liis sufl'ering men. His labors 



were "ery btavj- in the South-east room of the 
•■ Arnold Tavern," nrs;ing on Congri'ss the uo- 
cf'issity (if " t( ndcrin^ an oath of allegiance to 
all the inhabitants, and outlawing thfise that 
refuse il ;" now advising aud inspiriting his 
Oeneinls— Benedict Arnold among tlicni, but 
too bate to be elevated by his couimiiuion with 
the great spirit of the age— now hurrying for- 
ward the eulistinent of tro.>ps and ihe collec- 
tiuu of munitions ; now teaching Lord Howe 
^omc lessons in humanity, by the law of retali- 
ation, "altliongb," says he, "'I shall ahvuyt^ l)e 
liapi)y to mauilcst my disinclination to any 
iindue severities towards those whom the 
fortune of War may chance to tbrow into my 
bauds." His situation is extremely trying, 
lor. on the sicond of March, he wrote, "Gen. 
Howe cannot have * * * jess thau ten 
thousand men in the Jerseys. * * * Our 
number does not exceed four thousand. His 
are well-disciplined, well-offlcered, and well- 
appointed. Our's raw Militia, badly officered, 
and under no government." The balance- 
sheet, thu>i strucii, seemed to be against him ; 
iuit then Robert Morris, the great financier of 
the Ikvolution, did not express himself too 
strongly in writing that very Winter to Wash- 
ingti.n, " Htaven, no doubt for the noblest 
purposes, has blessed you with a firmness of 
mind, steadiness of countenance, and patience 
in siififeriugs, that give you intiiiite advantages 
o\er other men." To use his own word?, 
•• there is a multiplicity of business engaging 
my whole attiution." 

There is a tradilif>u among the old people of 
Morris County, which has the semblance of 
in-obability, aud may therefore be repeated. 
It is that, whilst Washington was at the "Arnold 
Tavern," he had a dangerous attack of quinsy 
sore throat, and, feeling serious apprehensions 
about bis recovery, some of his friends asked 
bim to indicate the man whom he considercil 
the best fitted to succeed him in command of 
the Army ; and that, without hesitation, he 
pomted to General Ny.thaniel Green. This is 
given as it was beard, merely as a tradition. 

Tradition also states that the anxieties ot 
the Winter were relieved with a little pleasantry, 
in a correspondence between the English and 
American t'ommauders-in-ehiet. Howe is said 
to have sent to Washington a copy of Watt's 
version of the one hundred and twentieth 
I'salm, containmg the following amiable 
> rises : 

" Thou God of love, tbou ever blest, 
Pity my .suffering state ; 
When wilt them set mv sorl at rest, 
From lips that love deceit ? 

Hard lot of mine ! my days are cast 
Among the sous of strifej 
Whose never ceasing Ijrawlings waste 
Mv golden hours of life. 

O ! might I change my place, 
How would I choose to dwell 
In some wide, lonesome wib erness, 
And leave these gates of hell !" 

Tc this, the same tradition states, Washing- 
ton returned Watt's version of the one hundred 
and first Psalm, entitled The Magistrate's 
Psalm, containing the following pointed verses : 

" In vain shall sinners strive to rise, 
By flattering and malicious lies ; 
And while the innocent I guard. 
The bold offender sha'nt be spared. 

The impious crew, that factious band. 
Shall hide their heads, or quit the land : 
And all who break the public rest. 
Where I have power shall be supprest." 

This tradition has come to me from two en- 
tirely distinct sources ; but, of course, it cannot 
be authenticated. 

During the Winter, several sharp skirmishes 
were fought iu the region between the Ameri- 
can and English lines. One of these is de- 
scribed in the New Jersey Gazette of March 18th, 
1777, by an American Officer, in a very racy 
manner. The engagoment took place " near 
Quibble or Squaljbletown;" and the officer com- 
mandiug two thousand of the enemy " is under 
arrest, for undertaking, like Don Quixote, to do 
mipossibihlies. He, instead of marchiug di- 
rectly to Brunswick, which he might have 
done, must needs go fourteen miles out of the 
direct road, to take prisoners Gen. Maxwell 
and his party at ISparktown, and to make his 
triumphant entry into Brunswick, leading his 
captives in chains, lilie an old Roman Gc.eral, 
in which be found his fatal mistake, when too 
late to remedy it, for he found that he had 
surrounded a nest of American hornets, who 
soon put his whole body to flight." 

And thus wore away the Winter and Spring. 
The new levies from Virginia and the Middle 
States have reached Moiristown ; the small- 
pox is conquered ; the Powder Mill has been 
making "good Merchantable Powder," which 
Beiioai Hatheway has been converting into 
cartridges ; John Jacob Faesh, of Mount Hope, 
and Charles Holf, of Hibernia, have sent down 
many wagon loads of balls aud grape-shot ; 
and. huzza ! just in tune for the opening 
Campaign, two vessels from France, arrived in 
port with twenty-four thousand muskets! And 
so, about the last of May, Washington, with his 
Army, left Morristown, to engage in the noble 
out bloody scenes of the Campaign of 1777 ; 
prominent among which are the Battles of 
Chad's Ford and Germantown ! God speed you, 
noble man ! We take peculiar pride in recalling 
the facts connected with thj' sojourn among 
the mountains of Old Morris, during the .sor- 
rowful, yet glorious. Winter, of 177G-7 1 

In order to obtain a more life-Hke view of 
the facts connected with the sojourn of Wash- 



ingtoD in Moiiis County, during the Winter of 
1779-80, let us briefly glance at the events 
which transpired between May, 1777, and De- 
cember, 1779. 

On leaving Morristowu, Washington took a 
strong position at Middle Brook, about iiiuc 
miles from New Brunswick, and foiled Sir 
William Howe, who attempted to bring on a 
general engagement. The enemy were prefar- 
ing a fleet, for the transportation of the Army, 
somewhere ; but where, no one could tell : 
peihaps, to act in concert with the formidable 
expedition of Burgoyne, at the North, or, 
perl aps, to seize riiiladelphia. Convinced that 
the latter was Howes aim, Washington marched 
his army to the Delaware ; and, whilst in Thil- 
adelphia, he had his first imerview with 
LaFayette. On the eleventh of September, 
was fought the battle of Chad's Ford, "in a 
country from which Washington could not de- 
rive the least intelhgcnce, being, to a man, 
disafiected." The heavy rains destroyed mneh 
ammunition— on one occasion, "forty rounds 
to a man"— and so distressed his ill-protected 
aud ill-ilothed soldiers, that Washington was 
compelled, not oulv to withdraw to a stiong 
position, but to issue peremptory orders to 
take blankets and clothing, it needs be, by force, 
from Philadelphia, riieuusly does he say, " if 
there i;re any hhoes and blauUets to be had in 
Lancaster, or that part ofthe country, I entieut 
you to have them taken up fur the use of the 
Army ;" lor "• our distresses, in the articles ot 
shoes, stockings, aud blankets, are extremely 
great.'' Oue of the greatest difticulties he had 
to corteud with, he says, is "the want of 
shoes ;" " at least, one thousand men are bare- 
looted, and have performed the marches in 
that condition." In tlicire hard circumstances, 
the Battle of Geimantown was fought, on the 
fouilh ot October, " a blojdy day," as Washmg- 
tcin ealhd it, adding "would I could add it 
were a more fortunate one lor us." He lo^t 
about one tlii>usaiul men ; and, on the eigh- 
teenth of December, 1777, he led his troops 
into Winter quarters, at Valley Forge, whither 
" they might have been tracked by the bluod 
of their feet, in marching oviu' the frozen 

At the North, on the seventh of October, 
three <lay.< alter the disastrous Battle of Ger- 
mantown, the Battle of Bemi.^' Heights was 
fought, Benedict Arnold pei forming prodigies 
of valor; and. on tlie eigliteenlh of that month 
" the Americans marched into the lines of the 
British to the tunc ol Vaukee Doodle." 
" AKUMig the officers taken, were six members 
of the British I'iir.anieni. The train of brass 
artillery and oilier ordinance were immeUMly 
vali*abl(, eoiisisimg <»f forty-two brass ord- 
naiu« . l)eside> seven thousand mnskris. w itli 

six thousand dozen cartridges, besides an 
ample supply of shot, shells, etc." (Thachei"s 
Military Journal, li)7-10:).) An aged woman. 
Mrs. Elizabeth Doluiid, died at Mount Hop*. 
Morris County, in 1852, more than niuetv-oii' 
years old, who once told n>e that, when eleven 
years old, she was living at Walmsy's Tavern, 
at I'ouipton, when the trophies of Burgoyue's 
surrender were passing through, on their way 
to Morris County, where they were to be stored. 
She had been to a neighbor's house, and, on In r 
return, foand the house iii a commotion. In 
the bar rooai, was a heap of curious brass in- 
struments, which belonged to a German Band, 
captured with Burgojne's Army. She say^ 
that, during the three days the Band remained, 
she had music enough and was glad when it 
was gone. The altillery and stores were drawn 
by oxen ; and Mrs. Doland says that some of 
the cannon required three yokes. The tram 
passed from Pompton to Morristown, through 
Montville, Troy and Hanover. It is an inter- 
esting fact that the Prusbytorian Meeting Houm 
at Succasnnua Plains, some twelve miles West 
of Morristown, was used as a place of storag'- 
for the mufekets, cannon, and other articles- 
taken at Saratogi. There is now living— 185-1 - 
a gentleman, in Morristown, the Hon. Li.-wi.- 
Condict, who, wlien a child, saw these sto'-es at 
that old churi-li. The largi r cannon wen 
rangoii and sheltered outside the building ; and 
the entire chnich was tilled with the capiured 
munitions. On the roat" fnmi Morristown tn 
the Plains, just as you are descending the hill, 
was the house of a Jlr. Jame> Young ; the garic r 
ol which was fi!le<l with drums, band nistrii- 
meots, and oth.r accontreinenls requiring 
hhelter. Dr. Condict says he has often, whta 
visiting at Mr. Young's hi;use, amused himself 
with beating the dru ns there stored. And ii 
may be surmised that the fact of these truphir> 
oi a British defeat being stored in Morri^ 
County, was one of the reasv)is why the enemy 
hud such a dcsive to pouetrate that region—:! 
desire which was never graiitied. 

Without doubt, the unfortunate contra'-i 
bitween the disasters of the .vrmy on the Dela- 
ware and tilt: brilliant sueees? of the Army a' 
the North was ihi- occasion of those insidious 
camparisons which some lliouglilless or mali- 
cious person instituted been Washington and 
Gates, and whie.i reiulteii in i plot to supplant 
the Crimmaiiiler-in-chii'f. 

As for the Aiv'iy, at Valle.. Forge, a Freneli- 
mau thought he iiad siimnu-d up tlr ir hardshiii- 
and heroism, in saying, ■•no pay. no elo'ln-. 
no rum." Bu! we must hiisfeu on. 

The Campaign of 177S made Monmouth a 
inemoiMble s|iot in history. The morning ' f 
that day, asDr. Clniles d. McCliesuey once in-, 
hunieil nu , as Washington \\;is liuiiying on t-. 



'he spot on which his tcirible rebuke was to 
scathe, as with )if,'htning. the Atheist aad the 
Traitor. Lee. for his poitroouery, a patrio' 
wouiaii. Dr. Mc^^hesuey's f^ranflmotlier, ran 
Ironi tlie hou^e with a enp of retieshnieiit, 
which she handed to him. Washington took 
it, and said to her, in a subdued tone of voice, 
" Madam, God only knows wheMier I shall ever 
drink another !" Some eight miles Wet-t ofMor- 
ristown, Jacob Losey, who is still living— 1854— 
was bathing in a miU-pontl, and, ever and anon, 
was startled by the long, dull, heavy roar ot 
cannon, booming, dismally, along the earth. 
The lion-hearted, hou-voiced, but too hasty, 
General W'uds, of Morris County, had led a 
strojig detachment of Militia, as far as Spolts- 
wood, a fee miles South of New Brunswick, 
ordered, as is said, to intercept the enemy's 
baggage-tram and cut off their retreat. He 
found the bridge al Spottswood was taken up. 
Loud roared the ca.iuon, showing that there 
was Warm work about Monmouth tJourt House, 
that liot Sabbath in June. Imijctuously did 
he and his men liegin to reiay the bridge, when 
a sleek, pions-looking Quaker ro,!e up, at full 
speed, with the intelligence that the enemy, in 
considerable force, was landing at Elizaheth- 
towu point, intending no doubt, to penetrate 
Morris County ' Winds was on tire at the news, 
and, without thought and without orders, made 
a forced march back to Elizabethtown, on a 
f(joi's errand, to iiave it said liy many, that he 
was a coward, in which assertion there was 
no truth. But then it was a sad mistake for 
his repuialion and, (icrliaps, for his country. 
That Sunday, on wliicli the Battle of Monmouth 
was fought, was an •'inconceivably distressing 
one to our troops and horses," killing a few 
auc] dii<ab)iug many, but, upon the whole, 
showing to Sir Henry Clinton, Howe's succes- 
sor, the force of the words which, we liave 
said, tradition assi'rts Washington sent to 
Howe : 

"The impious crew, that 'actions baud, 
Shall hide th(ir heads or q lit the land !" 

The Winter of ]778-'9, Washington spent at 
Middle Brook ; and its hardships were relieved 
by occasit.iial amu.seinenls, for instance, by 
celebrating •' the anniversary of our alliance 
with France," when a splendid entertainment 
was given by General Knox and the officers of 
the Artillery. General Washington and his 
lady, with the principal officers of the Army 
and their ladies, and a considerable number of 
lespeelalde ladies and gentlemen of the State 
of New Jmsey, formed the brilliant assembly. 
*♦«*** j,j jjjy evening, a very 
beautiful set of li:fworks was exhibited; uud 
the cclebratiijii was coucludeU by a splendid 
ball, opened Dy his Excellency, General Wash- 
ington, having for bis partner, the lady of 

General Knox ;" and the witness of this gal- 
lant display says, admiringly, of Washington, 
"his tall, noble stature and just proportion?, 
his fine cheerful, open countenance, simple and 
mod''st deportment, are all calculated to 
intertst every beholder in his favor, and to 
conimand veneration and respect. HeiatVared 
even when silent, and heloved even while we 
are unconscious of the motive." "As for Mr.«. 
Washington, she too combines, in an uncommon 
degree, great dignity ol manner with the most 
pleasing affability, but po&sesiies no striking 
marks of beauty." (Thatcher's Military Jour- 
nal, 157.) 

But the Winter at Middle Brook was not de- 
voted principally to dancing. Brave, stern 
Baron Steuben has been appointed Inspector- 
General of the Army ; and, on the parade- 
ground, he is disciplining the men so severely 
that their labors amount to little less than 
hard service in the tield. In the Spring of 1779. 
General Washington detached four thousand 
regular troops and a large body of Militia to 
punisli the Indians for the mas.sacres of Cherry 
Valley and Wyoming ; and the late Colonel 
Joseph Jaclison, then tive years old, renu^ni- 
bered tha' a Brigade of these troops encamped, 
for a night, in the field opposite his late resi- 
dence. The officers were quartcd in his father's 
house. As for the general concerns of the 
Campaign of 1779, it was made notorious by 
such piratical movemen's as the burning of 
Portsmouth and New London, an the means of 
"inducing the rebellious Provinces to return to 
their allegiance." On the fifteenih of July, 
•' Mad Anthony " Wayne stormed Stony Point ; 
and, in August, Miijor Heiir. Lee successfully 
attacked and took prisoners a body ot the 
enemy, at Puulus Hook, as Jer.xey City, was 
th'iu called. 

Thus passed that Campaign, until early in 
December, Washington went into Winter-quar- 
ters at Morristowu. His first letter, from Mor 
ristown, that Winter, bears the date " 7 Decem- 
ber, 1779 ;" and to Governor Livingston, of 
New Jersey, he wrote, " the main army lies 
within three or four miles of the town." On 
the fitteeuth of December, he orders Brigadier- 
General Duportail, in conjunction with the 
Quarter-master-general, Greene, to "examine 
all the gri)unds in the environs of our present 
encampmeut," lor "spots most proper to be 
occupied m case of any movement of the 
enemy towards us," " these spots to be large 
enough for the movements of ten thousand 
nun." (Spark's Writings of Washington, vi., 

On the first of December, 1779, Washiugto i 
became, in one sense, the guest of Mrs. Fold, 
daughter of Rev. Dr. Timothy Johnes, and 
widow of the late lamented Colonel Jacob Ford, 



Jiinuir, who died soon alter Washins^ton first 
came to Morriatown, in January, 1777. The 
lionse in which she was re-siding; was built in 
1774, in the most sub.stantial manner antl on 
a scale ot elegance and comfort which indi- 
cates ample means in its builder. It is a 
pleasing fact that the house which sheltered 
Washington has been changed but little since 
he occupied it. The same weather-boards 
which resisted the storm.s of that tremendous 
Winter are jnst where they were then. You 
enter a spacious hal! which rnns the- depth of 
the house ; and not a plank in the floor has 
been rem n-ed since Washington tirst crossed 
the tbreshold of that mansion. The same 
oaken donble-door that opened to him opens to 
y»u, now. When he came there, " the widow 
Elizabeth Lindsley, the honored mother of 
Colonel Jacob Ford, Senior," had been dead 
neajly eight year-!. She lived to see the Ford 
jransion begun : but not to live in it. Hor sou 
and grandson bad Ijeeii tieadthr eyears, nearly. 
The widow of tlif latter closed her lite, there. 
Her son. the lace lion. Gabriel H. Fold, sn - 
ceeded is m(>tber in the mansion, and died at 
the advanced age of eighty-tive years .\t the 
present 'ime (1871) liis son, H.ury Ford. Esq., 
is residing th<Te ; and is surrouiidetl with his 
children aurl grand-children. S ) t at if we 
reckon Mrs. Lindsley, who lived to see the 
honse begun, i' mav be said tliat the old man- 
sion has seen seven generations of 'hi' same 
family. !Six gerieiations have actually resided 
theie, of which the first three are now gone; 
and yet so lirmly is it built, that, a century 
hence, if modern vandalism can be kept from 
'uaking it impossible, the stranger may open 
the same portal, press the same tioor, wander 
Ihrongh the same hall and rooms, and look out 
at the same ivindows, as did Washington, that 
memorable Winter. May it stand as long as 
the house in whic-li Shdksp«iare was born ! F.x- 
cepting in tin matters of paint and paper, the 
addition of a partition or two, and the filling 
up the spacions oarlor fire-place, to accommo- 
date a coal grate, no chaiiges have been inrde. 
Your eye rest on the small walls, the same 
cornices, the same window-casem(!nts, the 
same doors, the same mantle-pieces, the samt^ 
windows, the same hearthstones, as did bis, in 
the Winter of 1770-'8i'. The outlines of 
the landscape, once seen never to be forgotten, 
which hifl eye rested on, then, are the same : 
but the right-hand of enterprise has greatly 
changed the details. The eye now rests on 
thousands of cleand acres which, then, were 
covered with dense forests; and the old town 
itself has changed more than other things. 
W<* are naturally inclined to v( nerate ))Iaces 
where great men have accomplished heroic 
deeds. Very finely did Daniel Webster rnnaik, 

at Valley Forge, " there is a mighfV power in 
local association. We all acknowledge, and ail 
feel it ! Those places naturally inspire us wiib 
eniotio;' which in tin' course of human 
history have been C(miiecled with great 
and interesting <vents ; and this power 
over ingenious minrls never ceases, until fre- 
quent visits familarize the mind to the 
sceies. * » * » 

The mention of Washington the standing on 
the ground of his encampment, the act of 
looking around on the scenes a-IucIi he and his 
officers and soldiers then beheld, cannot but 
carry us back also to the llevolution ana to 
one of its most distressine periods.'' (Works. 

What is true of Valley Forge, is true of Mor- 
ristown and, especially, of the? venerable man- 
sion in which VVasbingtou resided. It is no 
ordinary place ; and every object which has 
survived the ravages ot time has a sort of 
sacredness which one can can feel better than 
describe. Take this old arm chiiir, standing in 
the hall, nnd draw it up to t'le old secretary, 
also htandiug in the ball. Wasliington was 
often seateil in that chair, and often wrot<' at 
that secret. (i-y. Or t.ikt; this ])lain little table, 
said to have u. en a favorite one with him, on 
which to write, because he could easily move 
it ; look at 'he very ink-spots, which are said 
to have been made thai Winter -spots, which, 
in the t ye of the antiquary, are more beauti'ul 
than settings of precious stones— op.Mi now to 
the immoilal letters which Washington wrote, 
that Winter, many of tb(!ni at that very secre- 
tary or little table; read th'ise letters atten- 
tively, and let the imagination evoke the form 
oftheiV great autho.i, on whose brow are th( 
deep tracings of anxious thoight; and one 
must be either very stupid or very stern if he 
do not feel a peculiar thrill, a w.irm glow p»'r- 
vading his whole nature, as thus he bcHiolds, 
not only Washington, hut dignifiei' lady, 
the admirable Martha Washington ; thecourth 
and brilliant Alexander Hamilton ; the apostate 
quaker, but splendid soMii-r. Nathaniel Greene; 
the inconiparal)le ccminiandant of the Artillery, 
Henry Knox ; the giant-sized and stern Baron 
Sieuben ; the polishedKosciuszko ; the elegant 
and accomphslied Sterling ; and perhaps, an 
oecasi<nial member of the group. Satin in Para- 
dise, the traitor, Arnold! 

It is interesting to ascertain the arrange- 
ments of the house and the large- family occu- 
pying it, that Winbr. On (he twenty-second 
of January, 1780, Washington wrote to the 
Quarter-master-general, Greene, whose duty it 
was to provide for the comfort of the Coniraan- 
der-in-chiel, " I have been at my present 
Quarters since the tirst day of December, and 
have not a kitchen to cook n dinner in ; * * 



nor is there a place, at thismomtnt, m which a 
-ervatit can IoiIrc, with (he sniallpst degree of 
lonifort. Eighteen belonging to my family 
;uk1 all Mrs. Ford'^s are crowded together, in 
her kiteheu, and scarce one of them able to 
speak for the colds thi^y have." (Spark's 
Writinss of VViishington, vi., 449.) This was in 
rcterence to the cooking department; and, 
soon a log kitchen was built, at the East end of 
the house, tor the use of Washington's family. 
He himself oecnpicd the iwo South-east rooms 
iif tin main house, on the first and second 
floors. The room on the first floor, he used for 
:i dining, reception and sitting-room ; and the 
(lue immediately above it, as a bed-room. At 
the West end of the house, and but a little 
distance from it, another log cabin was built for 
:< general office, which Washington occupied, 
|iarticularly in the day time, »'ith ('olonel Aley- 
ander Hamilton and Major Tench Tighlman. 
This cluster of buildings was guarded, night 
and dav, by sentinels. In the Held, South-east 
of the house, huts were built for Washington's 
Life Guards, ot whom there are said to have 
Ix^en two hundred ami fifty, under the command 
iif General Colfax, grandfallier of our Vice 

We have ali-eady noted the principal loeali- 
lirs of interest in Morristown, but may here 
alludu to two, with cash of which is asso- 
ciated :mi anecdote of Washington. The first 
Winter he spent there, as has already been 
stated, it was found necessary to use the Pres- 
liyterian Meeting House, as a temporary Hos- 
pital. During the co!d weather. Doctor Johnes 
|)robahly preached, principally in private 
houses, in different parts of the congregation ; 
lint, when the warm weather came on, it is re- 
ixirted, by tradition, that punlic meetings, on 
the Sabbath were held a few r. ds back of the 
Doctor's bouse. The tradition comes directly 
from Doctor Johnes, that previous to holding 
a communion that spot, Washington called on 
him, as is stated in Hosack'.s Li^e of Clinton, 
and, "after the usual preliminaries, thns ac- 
costed him, ' Doctor, I understand that the 
Lord's Supper is to be celebrated with you, 
next Sunday. I would learn if it accords with 
th( ' Canons of your Church to admit commun- 
icants of another denomination !' The Doctor 
rejoined, 'Most ceitaiuly, Our's i.s not the 
I'resbvterian's tai)le, General, bu the Lord's ; 
and hence we give the Lord's invitation to all 
his followers, of whatsoever name.' The Gen- 
eral replied, ' I am glad of it : that is as it 
ought to be ; but, as I was not quite sure of 
the fact, I thought I would ascertain it from 
yourself, as I propose to join with you on that 
occasion Though a member of the; Church of 
England. I have no exclusive p^^rtialities." The 
Doctor assured him of a cordial welcome ; and 

the General was found seated with the com- 
municants the next Sabbath." 

This tradition is well authenticated, and is 
in perfect keeping with his opinions, elsewhere 
expressed, I do not now recall any occasion 
in which he ostentatiously calls himself "a 
Churchman," being a man of correct taste ; 
but he was an Episcopalian, bv an honest 
preference,— he had too just views of God, as a 
Spirit and of His worship, as spiritual, to 
narrow down his devotion to any locality, 
either Mount Gerazim or Jerusalem. Once he 
used these words : " Being no bigot, myself, 
I am disposed t«. indulge the professors of 
Christianity in the Church with that road to 
heaven which to them shall seem the most 
direct, the plainest and easiest, and least 
liable to objections." And to "The Bishops. 
Clergy and Laity of the Protestant Episcopal 
Cliurch," he wrote, on the nineteenth of 
August, 1789, in reply to their Address: "On 
this occasion, if would ill become me to conceal 
the joy I have felt, in perceiving the fraternal 
afficiion which appears to inci-ease among the 
frumds of genuine religion. It aHords most 
edifving prospects, indeed, to see Christians ot 
ivery denomination dwell together in more 
charity, and conduct themselves in respect to 
each other wiih a more Christian-like spirit 
than ever Ihey have done, in any tormer age, 
or in any other nation."— Spark's Writings of 
Washington, xii., 404. > 

In March, 1797, Washington, in his reply to 
the Address of " the Clergy ot diflerent De- 
nominations residing in and near the city of 
Philadelphia," uttered the lollowing senti- 
ment: "Believing, as I do, that Religion and 
Morality are the essential pillars of society, I 
view, with unspeakable pleasure, that harmony 
and brotherly love which characterize the 
Clergy of different denominations, as well in 
this, as in other parts of the United Slates; 
exhititing to the world a new and interesting 
spectablc,at once the pride of our Country and 
the surest basis of universal harmony,"— Dr. 
Green's Autobiography, 615. 

Doctor Johnes has handed down another 
anecdote connected with the place already 
alluded to, which illustrates Washington's 
genuine politeness. One Sabbath he was in 
attendance on the Doctor's service, held m the 
open air, and a chair had been brought in for 
his use. Jnst before the service began, a 
woman with a child in her arms came in ; and, 
as the seats were all occupied. Washiugtoo^ 
immediately rise from his and placing her in 
it, remain('d standing the entire service. 

The other anecdote I received from P. G. 
MacCuUough, Esq., who received it from the 
late General Doughty, of Morristown, who saw 
the incident which he related. The scoue of 



the anecdote, General DcmshU fixed as having 
occured a few rods South of the ruins or the 
New Jersey Hotel, and where a carpenter's shop 
now stands. Washington had purchased a 
young horse of great spirit, activity and power, 
but not broken to the saddle. A man in the 
Army, noted for his braggadocio glorification 
of his own horsemanship, solicited the privi- 
lege of the General to break his horse to ride. 
Permission was given ; and the General, with 
s:>me of his friends, went out to the place 
already mentioned, to see the horse take his 
first lesson. After considerable pieparation 
the leaped on the back of his mettlesouic 
pupil, who, unaccustomed to that sort of in- 
cumbrance, be^an a series of frantic ett'orls to 
unhorse him ; and, in a very few seconds, by a 
judicious plauting of his fore feet and a skilful 
uplifting of his hind feet, he succeeded in send- 
ing his rider clean over his head. As the dis- 
comfited brag .vas landed so unceremoniously, 
but unhurt, Washington threw back his head 
and laughed boisterously, until tlie tears 
fairly ran down his face. General Doughty was 
wont to say that he never met a peiboii wlio 
had ever heard Washington laugh loud, during 
the two Winters he spent in Morris County, 
except on this single occasion ! As sucl;, the 
incident is worthy of memory. 

A.8 a picture of the times, and a fact with 
which to compare the present and the past, let 
me stale that during the Spring of 1780, whilst 
Washington was in Morristown, Jacob Johnson, 
father of the vener.ibli' Mahlo.i Johnstui, who 
gtill survives, died on Morris Plains, three miles 
North of iloriisiown. He was a tine horseman, 
and belonging lo Arnold's troop o^ Light Horse, 
in which service he car.ght the coll of which 
he finally died. His son, Mahlon, remembeis 
distictly. that a large concourse of people 
attended his lather's funeral, and thai there 
was only one conveyance, on wheels, among 
them all, Hiis being used to carry the corpw) to 
the Morristown grave-yard. Hut there was a 
great cavalcade on horseback. Doctor Johnes, 
the minister, and the physician, each with a 
linen scarf on, and on liors.baek, led the pro- 
cession ; and many a liorhc, that day, carrie<l a 
man in the saddle, and, behind him, was seati^l 

processions which now visit the same " God"s 
acre," in coaches and according to the rules of 
;. ood society. 

I have not spoken of the main encampmen' 
of that Winter, jjrefei ring to give a description 
of that and things connected with it, by them- 
selves. To this part of the work, let us now 
address ourselves. On the thirtieth of Novem- 
ber, 1779, General Greene, the Quarter-master- 
gineral, wrote from Morristown tc one of the 
Quartii-inasters of New Jersey, that "wea-o 
yet like the wandering Jews in search of a 
Jerusalem, not having fist upon a position fot 
hutting the Army ;" and he sa\s that he has 
described two favorable positions to the Coni- 
ina» der in-chief, -'the one near Equacanock. 
the other near Mr. Kemble's, lour miles from 
this place." The next day, he writes to th<' 
same gentleman, that "the General has fixiii 
upon a place for hutting tlu Army neir Mr. 
Kimball's, within about four miles ot this 
Town. His reasons for this clioico are un- 
necessary to be explained, bur what over they ai»* 
they will prove very distres.jiog to the Quarter- 
master's Department. « * * * 
I beg you will set every Wheel in motion 
will give dispatelr to business." From this, it 
may be inferred that General Greene preferrt'U 
the position near Aquackinock, as one moi >■ 
accessible, and a. so nearer to the more thickly 
settled Counties along the Hudson. His pr. - 
dictions, concerning the Commissary, were 
fulfilled more literally than he himselt dreamc d 

The position actually chosen is one of thi 
linest localities in Morris Couu'y, and can be 
reached by two roads. The one principally 
traveled, that Winter, is the old load to Meii.l- 
ham, over " Kimbal's^Hill," as it is called, to 
this day. The cain[>iiig-gr(juud is about four 
miles South-west from Morristown. yollowiiii; 
the liasivingridge road, lour miles, tlirongh a 
region famous lor its I'xcellent soil and t\u< 
scenery, w th the moiiiitain on your rigtit, vun 
come to the Kimbal property, now owned Ijv 
H. A. Hoyt, Esq. IKre you liiin lo the riglii. 
and ascend the highlands, tor a mile, and you 
arc on ihe ground wliieii must be considered ;.»; 
consecrated Oy the niiinr.illeled har.iships 

on a "riding ciolh," his wile, or mother, or | the American .\rmy. The diftennt cauq 

sister, or daughter. This was the funeral pro- 
cession which ulteiided to the grave the re- 
mains ol a man ol' properly and position, in 
the of Morristown, in 1780. Certainly, 
mamur and cusKmis have undergone verv 
co.isidiraole cliange, since that time; but, 
whether the change haF been lor the better, 
vach one must decide for himself— probably, 
that plain, unoslentaiious proeeH.^ion contained 
as many «Hrm. svmiiaUiaziiig, uiid uns<dli^h 
hearts .is the inoie conrtl> and bcilei -bred 

where were quarteie 1 the tro.ips from Niw 
England, th.,' Mid Ho and the Sou. hern Slati.-. 
were on i!ie which then bjlongeil to Mr. 
Kimbal and Mr. Wicke, including some on-- acres. The house on the Wicki' prop- 
erty, is still standing, very much as it was in 
that Winter; and ii is worthy of a brief dt s- 
cription. It is on the crown of the hill., whuiiei 
you disceiid, wcsiward, to Mendliani. and east- 
vsard to Morristown. In front of the houfe 
was an 'lid blaid. loensl - cm down in 1870-i-iit 



least tvfo feet hikI a half in diameter; and at 
th!^ East end is the 'urgest red cedar I b.ive 
ever feen. Botli tlirse trees were standiD;^ in 
1780. In the immediate vicinity of the house, 
are several immens.' black chcr-y-lrces, which 
belong 10 the same period. The house itself is 
nearly sqnaie, and i* built iu the old style of 
New England houses, with a famous large 
chimney-staek, ii> the centre. The very iloor 
which swung then is there still, hanging ou the 
same substantial strap-hinges, and ornamented 
with the same old lion-headed linockec. Pass- 
ing thtough tbisdoor, which fronts southward, 
you come into a hall some four feet deep and 
eight feet wide, us widtli being just the same 
as the thickness of the chimney. Turning to 
the right, vou i)ass from the hall into the ordi- 
iiary family-room, and to the left, into the 
parlor. A door from the family-room and the 
parlor leads you into the kitchen, which is 
about two-thirds the length of the house. The 
fire-places of these three rooms all belong to the 
one huge stone stack in the C',intr« ; and every- 
thing about them remains as it then was. 
They woiild alarm modern economists, by their 
capacity to take in wood by the cord. The 
spaces above the old mantle-trees are filled up 
with panel-work, and in the parlor, especially, 
evidently were once quite fine, especially for 
that day. On the North Side of the parlor, is a 
door leading into the spare bed-room, with 
which is connected an amusing incident. 
Great difficulty was experienced, in the Spring 
of 1780, in piDcnring teams to remove the 
army stores, and horses for Cavalry. Mr. 
Wicke's dangiiter. Tempe, owned a beautiful 
youu : horse, which slse fio»]Ui!atly rode, and 
always with skill. She was an admirable and 
a bold rider. One day, a-i the preparations for 
removing the Army were piog essing, Miss 
VVick^" rode her favorite horse to the house of 
her brother-in-law, Mr. Leddel, on 'he road to 
Mendham ; and, on her relnru, was accost(!d 
Ijy some soldiers, who corunianded her to dis- 
mount and let them take the horse. One ot 
Iheui had seized the bridal-ieins. Perfectly 
self-possesssed, she appea.ed to submit to her 
fate, but not without a vain entreaty not to 
take ht-r favorite from her. She then told them 
she was sorry to part with the animal, but as 
she, she would ask two favors of them, the 
one was to return him to her if possible; and 
the other was, whether they ^returned him or 
not, to treat him well. The soldiers were com- 
pletely thrown ofi" their guard, and ihe reins 
were released, they spuposing she was about to 
dismount, than which nothing was farther 
from her intentions, for no soonor was the 
man's hand Ijose from the bridle than she 
touched lier .spirited horse with the whip, and 
he sped from among them like an arrow. As 

sne was riding away, at full speed, they fired 
after her, but probably without intending to 
hit her ; at any rate, she was unharmed. She 
urged her horse up the hill, at his highest 
speed, and coming round to the kitchen-door, 
on the North side of the house, she sprang off 
and led him into the kitchen, thence into the 
parlor, and thence into the spare bed-room, 
which had but one window, and that on the 
West side. This was secured with a shutter. 
The soldiers, shortly after, came up, searched 
the barn and the woods in vain. ]Vti.«s Wicke 
saved her horse by keeping him iu that bed- 
room three weeks, until the last troop was 
fairly off. The incident, which is authentic, 
shows the adroitness and courage of the young 
lady, who, afterwards became the wife of 
William Tuttle, an officer in the Jersey Brigade, 
during the entire War. 

The descriptions of the different camps, 
which are to be given, are quite imperfect, but 
mteresting ; and, such as they are, are derived 
fiom the late Captain William Tuttle, who was 
staticmed wilh the Jersey Troops during that 
Winter. It cannot be sufficiently regretted 
that some friendly pen was not ready to record 
the conversations of this fine old soldier, an 
officer iu the Third Jersey Kogiment, and per- 
ff'Ctly acquainted with all the localities of the 
encampment on Kimbal Hill. He was twenty 
jeaisoldat the time; and, from the conclu- 
sion f the War until his death, in 1«3(J, he resi- 
de(^ most of the »ime either on the Wicke Farm 
or in the immediate vicinity. Very often would 
he go over the ground, especially with his 
young relatives, pointing out the precise spots 
occupied by the different troopi^, and filling up 
houis with tiiiilling an cdotes connected with 
that Winter; hut these conversations no one was 
at the pains to reoid, and now they are hopt;- 
lessiy gone. He enlisted in the regular service 
in 1777, and remained in it until Peace was de- 
clared. He suffered the -i.'xposures of Winter- 
quarters, at Middle Brook, Valley Forge, and 
Kimbal Hill ; was in the battles of Chad's 
Ford, Genuantown, Brandywine. Monmouth, 
Springfield, and "others of less note" j was 
with LaFayetle, in his Virginia Campaign; and 
was at the suige of York Town, and yet his 
careless relatives, culpably, have suffered his 
history to be shrunk into the compass of his 
own meager but modest affidavit in the Pension 

As good fortune will have it, a former tenant 
on the Wicke farm occupied it several years 
before C;iptain luttle's death; and, in com- 
pany with the old gentleman, frequently passed 
over the camp grounds. Under Mr. Mucklow's 
direction, a small party of us passed over the 
various points of interest. Taking the old 
Wicke h<mse as the starting point, we crossed 



the roart, and, following in a South-west direc- 
tion, came into a tract of timber, on an easy 
blopc, and extending to a living spring l-rook. 
In the upper end of the woods, near the brook, 
we found the ruins of several hnt-chimneys. 
Following the side hill, in the same direction 
as the stream, tliat is, in a South-east course, 
we found quite a large number of these stone 
chimneys ; and, in some of them, the stones 
seem to be jU'it as the soldiers left them. At 
one point, we counted two rows containing 
forty chimneys ; some of them evidently be- 
longing to double-huts. Just below these, we 
came into a fine level opening, almost bare of 
trees, and which may have been grubbed clean 
of stumps and roots for a parad3 ground. A 
few rods higher up the side of the hill, were 
other ruins, extending with some degree ot 
regularity around the face of the hill, in a 
curve, until the row was terminated at a brook, 
on the East side, which puts into the stream 
already mentioned. On the crown of the hill is 
another row of ruins ; and Captain Tuttle in- 
formed our guide that the cleared tield, on the 
hill, was once covered with similar remains. 
Thus far, we counted one hundred and ninety- 
sis of these ; and had been ov>;r the ground 
occupied by the Jersey Brigade. Frequently 
did Captain Tuttle relate the fact that ho had 
seen the paths, leading from the Jersey camp 
to the Wiclie house, marked with hlood from 
the feet of the soldiers without shoes 1 

On the same side of the road, and near to it, 
is a cleared field. In this tield a spring-brook 
rises, around which the hill slopes in the form 
of a horse shoe. On the North side of this was 
a slaughter-house ; and a little lower down, on 
the same side, are the remains of the huts built 
for the Commissary-department, and m the 
vicinity of a beautil'ul spring. On the opposite 
side of ths brook, we found several ruins, 
which, with those jnst mentioned, amounted 
to twenty-three. On the ground of the 
sJaughter-house, Mr. llucklow ploughed up 
an old bayonet. 

Crossing the road, directly opposite this 
point we came into a a cleared field which is in 
the Southern slope of Fo.rt-hill. Along the 
road fence, is a row of stones which were in the 
hut fire-places, and which were drawn off to 
clear the ground for ploughing ; but higher up 
in the woods are several remains. East of this 
lot, and lower down the hill, is an open field, 
in which we saw several rows, in regular order, 
containing sixty flre-pl.ices; and thence, follow- 
ing the curve of the hill, in a North-east 
course, in regular rows, we counted one hun- 
dred more. We were informed that the re- 
mains are to be seen around the entire hill ; 
but want ot time forbade our pursuing the in- 
quiry farther. 

We now ascended Fort-hill, around the sides 
of which we had been walking for some time. 
It is shaped like a sugar-loaf ; and, from the 
North-east to the South-east, its sides are very 
steep, making the ascent not a little ilifiicuit. 
I was on this point, in the Spring, before the 
leaves had put out ; and the view from it is 
surpassingly beautiful. Fort Hill is one of the 
most commanding points in Morris County. 
Westward, you can see. the Schooley's Moun- 
tain range and, as I fancied, the mountains 
along (he Delaware. Southward, i^ a fine 
range of highlands, in the midst ot which is 
Baskin^ridge, (where General Lee was cap- 
tured) so distinct that, with a glass, ycni can 
tell what is doing in its streets. South-east of 
you Long-hill and Plainfield Mountain stretch 
far in the distance, from the top of which, you 
may see From New York to N(!W Brunswick, if 
not to the Delaware, Fast of you, aie the 
Short-hills, so famous as the watch-tower of 
freedom, during the Revolutionary War, and 
on which, night and day, sentinels were ob- 
serving the country along the Hackensack, 
Passaic and Raritan, and e/eii to New York and 
the Narrows. North-east, you can see the two 
twin mountain in the vicinity of Riugwood ; 
and, beyond that, the blue-tinged mountains, 
towards N:-wburgh. Between these prominent 
points are intirvening landscapes, beautiful as 
the eye ever rested on. But of this, more in 
another place. 

At the East and North-east, on the top of 
Fort-hill, are S(mie remains not like those we 
had previously examined. They evidently 
were not the ruins of breast-works, but seem to 
have been designed to prepare level places, for 
the free movemtnts of artillery ; and a close 
inspection shows that cannon stationed at those 
two points, on the hill top, would sweep the 
entire face of the hill, in case of an attack. 
This, undoubtedly, was the design. . In the 
immediate viciniiy, are the remains of quite a 
number of hut-chimneys, probably occupied by 
a detachment of artillery-men. 

Passing down the West side of Fort-hill, 
towards the old house, we came into what has 
always been called the Jockey Hollow-road, at 
a place which tradition points out as the spot 
where Captain Billings was shot, when the 
Pennsylvania troops mutinied, on New Year's 
day, 1781. The aged mother of Mr. Robert K. 
Tuttle of Morristown, pointed out a black oak 
tree, by the roadside, as near the spot where 
the unfortunate man was shot down, and 
buried in the road whore he was killed. Mrs. 
Tuttle was, at the time, living on a part of the 
Wicke farm, so that the tradition Is un- 
doubtedly true. 

We now returned to the house in order to 
visit Hospital Field, as it is still called, and 



also tli€ Maryland Field, ko called because the 
Maryland iioops were there encamped, during 
the Winter of 1779-'80". These fields are about 
half a mile North from the house. Hospital 
Field is on the slopj of a high hill, facing 
East and South-east ; and at the bottom, is a 
line spring brock, in the vurinity of which were 
lulls for the hospitals. Of tnese there are no 
remains, as the plough has long since obliterated 
them ; but, uear by. is a most interesting 
place, marktd by a grove of locust trees, 
plarted to protect the graves from the plough. 
Here are two rows of giaves where were buried 
those who died at the hospitals, that Winter. 
A granite monument ought to be built, imme- 
diately, there, to commemorate those unnamed 
men, who died whilst in the service of their 
country. Tlie length of space occupied by the 
graves, ns far as can now be seen, is about one 
hundred and seventy feet, thus making a single 
row of graves about three hundred and fortv 
feet long. The graves evidently are near to- 
gether, so that quite a large number must havs 
died in the hospitals, that Winter. Whether 
there was any other burying-groung used, it is 
impossible now to determine ; but it is very 
|.'rol)altle, that the hill-sidts, in the vicinity, 
contain many graves which will remain un- 
known until the morning of the resurri^ction. 

Directly East from Hospital Field, on a hill 
opposite, the Maryland troops and, perhaps, 
the Virginia were "hutted;" but we were 
assured that no remains are left, as the ground 
.lias all been pi >ughed, so that we did not visit 
it. In all, we had conuteit three hundred and 
8isty-tiv(, chimney foundations, marking the 
sites of as many huts, besides many which, in- 
adverti ntly, we ommitted to count. We must 
have seen more than four hundred m all ; and 
I am thuf particular in describing their posi- 
tions, because a few years more may entirely 
obliterate all traces of the camps on Kimbal- 

If we return to the top of Fort-hill, and cast 
the eye over the prominent points already men- 
tioned, we shall percei"e how admirably they 
are adapted for the purpose of spreading alarm 
by means of beacon-tires. The ranges of the 
Short and Long-hills and Plainfield Mountain, 
on the South-east and, Schooley's Moun- 
tain, on the West, the mountains near Ring- 
wood and along the new York Une, on the 
Noith and North-east, all are as distinct as 
light houses. Very early in the War, there was 
a. beacon-station, on the Short-hills, near the 
country residence of the late Bishop Hobart ; 
but, in the Winter of 1778-'9, Washington com- 
municated to the (iovernor of New Jersey a 
plan for establishing these beacons throughout 
the State ; and, in accordance with his request 
on the ninth of April, 1779, General Philemon 

Dickeraon, one of the most able Militia oflflcers 
in the State, was instructed to carry the plan 
into effect. Hitherto, no traces of a written 
plan have been found, but there can be no 
doubt as to some of the locations. That on 
the Short-hills is remembered by persons still 
liviHg— 1854— from whom the Rev. Samuel L. 
Tuttle derived the account he gives of the 
matter. " On that commanding elevation," 
writes Mr. Tuttle, in bis Lecture on Bottie Hill 
during the Revolution, " the means were kept 
for alarming the inhabitants of the interior, in 
case of any threatening movement of the 
enemy, in any direction. A cannon, an eigh- 
teen-pounder— called in those times 'the old 
sow' — fired every half hour, answered this 
object in the daytime and in very stormy and 
dark nights ; while an immense fire or beacon- 
light answered the end at all other times. A 
log-house or two ♦ ♦ * # were erected 
t here for the use of the sentinels, who, by re- 
lieving one another, .it definite intervals, kept 
careful watch, day and night, their eyes contin- 
ually sweeping over the vast extent of country 
that lay stretched out like a map before them. 
The beacon-light was constructed of dry wood, 
piled around a high pole ; this was filled with 
combustible mateiials ; and a tar-barrel was 
placed upon the top of the pole. When the 
sentinels disco»'cred any movement of the 
enemy, of a threatening character, or such 
tidings were brought them by messengers, 
either the alamgun was tired or the beacon- 
fire kindled, so that the tidings were q lickly 
spread over the whole region. There are 
several persons still living iu this place, who 
remember to have heard that dismal alarm- 
gun, and to have seen those beacon-lights 
sending out their baleful and terrific light 
from that high point of observalicni ; and 
who aiso remember to have seen the iuhaln- 
tants, armed with their muskets, making all 
possible haste to Chatham-bridge and the 

That there was a system of beacon-lights, 
there can be no doubt, although, unfortunately, 
the most of those are dead who could give us 
information about it, and there are no docu- 
ments describing the various points where 
these lights were kindled. Of one, we have 
some knowledge. Seven miles North of Mor- 
ristown, near the present Railroad Depot, at 
Denville, is a ruonutain which rises abrubtly to 
a considerable height, from which you can see 
the Short-hills. On this point, there was a 
beacon-light, managed by Captain Josiah Hall, 
whose descendants still reside id the vicinity. 
A fire from this point would be seen from the 
top of Green Pond Mountain, several miles 
farther North ; and a fire on that mountain 
would probably reach the portion of Susse 



coanty where the brave Colonel Seward, grand- 
father of Senator Seward, resided. Tradition 
says, that such was the case ; and that, often, 
at night, the tongue of fire might be seen 
leapinginto ihe airon the Short-hilts, soon to be 
followed by brilliant lights on Fort-hill, on the 
Denville mountain, the Green Pond Mountain, 
and on the range of Mountaina on the Orange 
County line. To many, it has seemed inexplic- 
able, and It was so to the enemy, that they 
could not make a movement towards the hills 
of Morris, without meeting the yoemen of 
Morris, armed and ready to repel them. I have 
conversed with several old men who have seen 
the roads converging on Mornstown and Chat- 
ham, lined with nun who were hurrying ofl' to 
the Short-hills, to drive back the invaders. 
The alarm-gun and the beacon-light explain 
the mysteiy ; and, as an illustration of scenes 
frequently witnessed, I may give an incident in 
the life ol an old soldier, by the name of Bibhop, 
who was living at Mendham. He was one 
morning engaged in stacking his wheat, with a 
hired man, when the alarm-gun pealed out its 
warning. "I must go," exclaimed Bishop. 
" You had better take care of vour wheat," said 
his man. Again they heard the dull, heavy 
sound of the alarm-gun ; and instantly Bishop 
shd down from the stack, exclaiming, " I can't 
stand this. Get along with the grain the best 
way you can. I'm ofl' to the rescue 1" Hastily, 
he packed a small budget of provisions ; and, 
shouldering his musket, in a few minutes, he 
was on the way to Moiristown. He says that, on 
his way there, ho found men issuing from every 
road, equipped just as they left their ;ind 
shops, so that, by the time he reached town, 
he was one of a large company. Here they 
were met by a messenger who said the enemy 
was retreating. It was by such alacrity that it 
came to be a boast of the Morris County 
people, that the enemy had never been able to 
gain a footing am(mg these hills. They fre- 
quently made the attempt, but never suc- 
ceeded. Once, as it is said, for purposi ot cx- 
ohaoging prisoners, a detachment did reach 
Chatham-bridge, which was guarded by brave 
General Winds, to whom the braggart Captain 
sent word that he proposed to dine next day iti 
Morristown. The message called out th(! some- 
what expressive reply, that "if he dined in 

" Morristown, next day, he would sup in „ 

(the place infernal) " next night 1' 

So fAr as possible, let us now relate the facts 
which show the sufferings and heroism of our 
Boldicrs, on Kimbal-hill, the Winter of 1779-"80. 
On the ninth of December, General Greene 
wrote, "Our hutting goes on rapidly, and (he 
troops will be under cover in a few days. 
The officers will remain in the open field until 
the boards (from Trenton) arrive, and as their 

Bufferings are great, they will be proportion- 
ably clamorous." The N-w England troops, 
on the ninth of that month, were at Pomptou ; 
and Doctor Tbaeher, iu his Military Journal, 
says. *' On the fourtei'iith, we reached thin 
wilderness, about three miies Irom Moiristown. 
■vliere we arc lo build huts tor Winter quar- 
ters " The severity of the Winter may be 
inferred from Doctor Thacher's descriptioj. 
"The snow on the ground is about two feel 
deep and the weather extrem-'ly cold ; the so - 
dieis are destitute of both tt^nls aud blankets, 
and some of them are actually bare-footed and 
almost naked. Our only defence against the 
inclemency of the weather cousists of brus'.i- 
wood, IhrowL together. Onr lodging, the la' t 
night, was on the frozen ground. Those otli- 
eers who have the privilege of a horse can 
always have a blanket at hand. Having re- 
moved the snow, we wrapped ourselvis in 
great ccats, spreaJ our blankets on the ground 
and lay down by the side of each other, five or 
six together, with lai'ge fires at Our feel, leav- 
ing orders with the waiters to keep it well 
supplied with fuel during the night. We coul-l 
procure neither shelter nor forage for our 
horses; and the poor animals were tijd to tli» 
trees, in the w lods, lor twenty-four hours, 
without food, except the bark which they peeled 
from the tries." "The whole Army, iu this 
depafiment, are to be i^iigaged iu buildiUg 
log-huts for Winter-quarters. The ground is 
marked, and the soldiers have comnieucrd 
cutting down the timber of oak and walnut, of 
which we have great abuntiaiiee. Our baggngr 
has, at length, arrived ; the men find U very 
difficult to pitch their tents, in the froz u 
ground; and. notwith<tandiug large fires, ^t 
can scarcely keei> from freezing. In addition 
to other suS'erings, the whole Army has beet* 
seven or eight day entirely destitute of tin- 
staff of lile; our only food is miserable fresh 
beef, without bread, salt, or vegetables." 
(Military Journal, 176, 177.) 

The general fbct that that Winter was one tit 
terrible severity is well known ; but we may 
obtain more vivid ideas of this fact by a few 
details. In the New Jersey Gazette of Februiuy 
0th, 1780, published at Trenton, the edi'or 
says, "The weather has been so extremely col.l, 
tor near two months past, that sleighs an<l 
ether carriages now pass from this place to 
Philadelphia, on the Delaware, a circumstanc*- 
not remembered by the oldest person among 
us," As early as the eightefjuth of Decembei'. 
1779, an officer, who visited some of the sinallei 
encampments along the hills, in the vicinity, 
writes, "I found the weather excessively cold." 
(New Jersey Gazette, December 2'2d, 177'J.) On 
the fourteenth of January, Lord Stirling led u 
detachment against the enemy, on Stateii 


Island ; and on the morning^ of the fifteenth, 
he crossed on the ice, from Ehz.ibuthtown- 
Point. (Life of Stirlin<c. 2(i6 ; Spark.-'s Wri - 
ingsof \Vashian:toD, vi., 447.) The Ilud.-^on was 
so bridged with ice as to permit 
to cross from New York to Hobolien and Paulas 

But tiie unparalleled depth of snow added to 
the iutensu sufleiinj^s of the soldiers. On the 
fourteenth ol December, a ^ Thacher says, the 
"snow was tv\o feet deep." On the twenty- 
eigbth ot December, an ofticer says, in the Nen 
Jersey Gazette, " while I am writing, the storm 
is raging without." But the groat storni of 
the Winter began on the third of January, when 
the gi-oater part of the Army wer'^ not pro- 
tected b\ the huts, which were not yet ready 
for occupa tiOn. Doctor Thacher thus describes 
the storm {Mihtaiy Journal, 181); "On the 3d 
inst." [January, 1780] "we < xperiencod one of 
the most tremendous snow storms ever remem- 
bered ; no man could endure its'violeuce many 
minutes without dauger to his hie. •Several 
marquees were torn asunder and blown down, 
over the officers' heads, in the night, aud some 
of th(! soldiers were actually cnvered while in 
their tents and buried, like sheep, under the 
anow. My comrades and myself were roused 
from sleep by the calls of some officers for 
assistance ; theii marquee had blown down, 
and they were almost smothered in the storm, 
before they could leach our marquee, only a 
few jards, aud their blankets and baggage 
were nearly buried in the snow. We (the 
officers) are greatly lavored in having a supply 
of straw for bedding ; over this we spread ail 
ourllankets, and with ou>- cloThes, and large 
tires at our f< et, while four or five are ciowded 
together, preserve ourselves from freezing. 
But the .sufteriugs of tho poor soldiers can 
scarcely be described ; while on duty tliev are 
unavoidably exposed to all the inclemeucv of 
the storm autl severe cold ; at night, they now 
have a bed of straw on the ground and a sin- 
gle blanket to each man ; they are badly chid 
and some are destituts of dioes. We have 
contrived a kind of stone chimney, outside, 
itud an opening at one end of our tents gives 
us the oenetit of the lire within. The snow is 
now from lour to six feel deep, whicU so ob- 
structs the roads as to prevent our receiving a 
supply of provisions. For the last ten days, we 
received but two pounds ot meat a man, and 
we are frequently for six or eight d.ays entirely 
desMtute of meat and then as long without 
bread. The couscqaence is, the soldiers are 
so enfeebled from bungtr and cold, as to be 
almost unable to perform military duty or 
labor in constructing their huts. It is well 
known that General Washington experiences 
the greatest solicitude for the sufferings of his 


Army and ie sensible that' they in general con- 
duct with heroic patience ?ud fortitude." 

This storm continued for several days, ac- 
conii)anied with violent winds, which drifted 
the snow so that the roads were impassable. So 
deep was the snow, that, in many places, it 
covered the tops of the fences, and teams couhl 
be driven over them. Under date of "Janu- 
ary 22d, 1780," an officer on Kimbal-hill wrote 
the following livily description of the condition 
of the Army, in cou.sequencc of this storm : 
" We had a Fast, lately, in Camp, by general 
constraint, of the whole Army ; iu which we 
fasted more sincerely and truly for three days, 
than we ever did from all the Resolutions of 
Congress put together. This was occasioned 
by the severity of the weather and drifting of 
the snow, whereby the roads were rendered 
impassable and all supplies of provision cut 
oflf, until the officers were obiiged to release 
the soldiers from command, aud permit them 
to go in great numbers together, to get pro- 
visions where thi-y could find them. The in- 
habitautb of this part of the country discovered 
a noble spirit in feeding the soldiers ; aud. to 
the honor of the soldiery, they received what 
they got with thankfulness, and did little or 
no damage." (New Jersey Gazette, January 
26th, 1780.) 

The manuscript letters of Joseph Lewis, 
Quarter-master at Morristown, prove this de- 
scription to be truthful. On the eighth of Jan- 
uary, he wrote, " We are now as distressed as 
want of Provision and Cash can make us. 
The soldiers have been reduced to the neces- 
sity of lohbing ihv inhabitants, to save their 
own lives " On the next day, he wrote, " We 
are. still in distress for want of provisions. Our 
Magistrates, as well as small detachments 
from the Army, are busy collecting to relieve 
our distresses ; and I am told that the troops 
already experience the good effects of their 
industry. We are wishing for more plentiful 
supplies." And, in real distress, he writes 
under the same date " the sixty million dollars 
lately collected by tax, must be put into (he 
hands of the Superintendent for the new pur- 
chases. You will therefore have but little 
chance ot getting Cash until more is made. If 
none comes sooner than by striking new emis- 
sions, I must run away from Morris and live 
with you at Trenton or some other place, more 
remote trom this, to secure me from the 
already enraged multitudes." 

On the eighth of January, General Washing- 
ton wrote from the Ford mausiou, the camforts 
of which must have made the sufl'erings o.' his 
soldiers seem the more awful : " The present 
state of the Army, wi;h respect io provisions, 
is the most distressing of any we have expen- 
onced simce the beginning of the War. For a 



fortnight past, the troops, both officers nnd 
m^D, have been almost perishing for want 
They have been alternately without bread or 
meat, the whole tim*, witli a very scanty. al 
lowance of either, and frequently destitute of 
both. They have borne their sufferings with 
a p.itieuce that merits tlie approbation, nnd 
ought to excite the sympathy, of their coun- 
trymen. But they are now reduced to an 
extremity no longer to be supported." (Sparks's 
Writings of Washington, vi., 439.) Thi.^ letter, 
which was addressed to " the Magistrates of 
New Jersey," is one of the noblest productions 
of his pen: and right nobly did those, thus 
feelingly addressed, respond to the appeal. 
And in this, none were superior to the people 
of Morris-county, on whom, of necessity, fell 
the burden o*" affording immediate relief, and 
wbcse efforts did not cease when tins was 
effected. On the twentieth ot January, Wash- 
ington wrote to Doctor Jo'br' \Vithers|)ooii. 
that "all the Countus i,f this .State that I have 
heard trcni, have attended to my reqiiii-ilion 
for provisions, with the most ciitcrlul and 
cummeiidable zeal ;" and to " Elbridge Geiry. 
in Congress," he wrote " tlie exertions of the 
Magistrates and inhabiiants ot this Stale were 
great and cheerful for our relief." (Sparhs's 
Writings of Washington, vi., 448, 456.) In his 
Military Journal (page 182), Doctor Thacher 
speaks, with enthusiasm, ol " the ample sup- 
plv" of iood furniihed by " the Magistrates and 
people of Jersey ;" and Isaac CoUiiis, Editor of 
the New Jersey Gasette, on the nineteenth of 
January, says, " With pleasure, we inform our 
readers, that our Army, which the unexpected 
inclemency of the season and the roads becom- 
ing almost impassable, had suffered a few days 
for want of provisions, are, from the spirited 
exertions now making, likely to be well sup- 

It was during this season ot distress, that 
Hannah Carey, wife of Captain David Thomp- 
son, of Mendham, one day fed troop after troop 
o hungry soldiers ; and as Jhey told her they 
had no means of paying her, she said to thern, 
" Eat what you want ; you are engaged in a 
good cause; and we are willing to shar<^ with 
you, what we have, as long as it lasts 1' and 
Hannah Carey Thompson was only one ofga 
great company of women, hke-minded with 
herself. It is true, she gave an impudent Tory 
such a reception of scalding water, on u cer- 
tain occasion, -"s made hi.ii roar with pain and 
In future, abstain from such acts; but then 
her heart was large towards the suffering 
defenders of her country. In Whinpaiiy, the 
potatoe-bin, the meat-bag, and the granary of 
Uzal and Anna Kitchel always liad some com- 
fort for the patriotic solniers ; and the ample 
farm of old General Winds, ot Rockaway, had 

not borne harvests too good for him to bestow 
on his hiethien-in-arms. Often, the soldiers, 
goaded by hunger, would go several miles to 
beg or steal a little food ; and, in some such 
excursion, it happened that Elizabeth I'ierson. 
second wife ol Parson Green, of Hanover, 
'•particularly lamented the .oss of a fat turkey 
that had bi.en reservi-d for a Christmas din- 
ner ;" but her husband, although his son, Aslj- 
bel, never remen^bered to have seen him smile, 
perpetrated quite a scriptural joke, *' when he 
rather excused what the soldiers had done, 
by quoting these words from the Book of Pro- 
verbs, 'Men do not despise a thief, if he steal 
to satisfy bis- soul when he is hungry!'" Pro- 
visions came, with a right hearty good will, 
from the farmers in Mendham, Chathaii), Han- 
over, Morris, and Pequannock; and not only 
priivisions, out stockings and shoes, e<>atb un I 
blankets. Over on Smith''i Hammock, as it 
was called, beyond Hanover Neck, Ralph 
Smith's mothii ;issimbicd the patriot womcj 
to sew and knit ii.r the suldiers. In Whip- 
pany, Anna Kiti hel and hi r ueighboisare at 
the same g<Jod work ; and, in .Morristown, 
•' Mrs. Parson Johnes" and " Mrs. Counsellor 
Coiidict," with all the noble women in the 
town, made the rewing aiiU knitting-needles 
fly on their mission ol nierey. Tlie memory of 
the Morris-couniy women of that da> is yet a« 
delightful as the "smell of a tield which the 
Lord hath blessed 1" and this tribute to their 
worth is not woven up of tietious, but of facta, 
gatliered from living lips, and, therefore, nevfu* 
may those women perish inmi the memory of 
their admiring and grateful Jtscendauls. 

The generosity of wuich we have spoken is 
much enhanced by the fact, that the people 
supposed themselves to be giving, and not sell- 
ing, llu^ir provisions. According to the prices 
— Continental Currency— afhxed to various ar- 
ticles, l)y the Magistrates of Morris-couuty, in 
January, 1780, tliey gave away thousands ot 
dollars to soldiers at their tables; and as for 
provisions, nominally sold, they were paid for 
either in Coniinenlal bills or certiticates, both 
ol which they considered as nearly worthless. 
Their opinion of the bills was not wrong, 
since, after the War, hundreds of thousands of 
dollars weie left on their hands, which were 
never redeemed ; but many of them made a 
serious mistake in their estimate of the certifi- 
cates which were redeemed with interest. Yet 
many of these men threw these certiticates 
away, as worthless, and esteemed themselves 
as doing an unpaid duty to their country. 

It is intercsting^to ascertain the prices of 
various articles used in the Camp, that Winter. 
On the twenty-seventh of January, Quarter- 
master Lewis wrote : " The Justices, at their 
meeting, established the following prices to bo 



^'ivcn for Hay and Grain 'throughout the 
i;ounty [of Morris], from the Ist of Daccmber, 
1779, to the 1st of February next, or until the 
ItefTulatinj; Act taUe place. 

'• For Hay, 1st Quality, jEIOO per ton. 
'• '• -Ad " ■ £80 •' 
" " 3(i " £oO " 
" for one horse, 24 hours, 6 dollars. 

" " " per night, 4 " 

Wheat, per bushel, 50 " 

Rye, " <' 35 " 

Corn, " " 30 " 

Buckwheat and Oats, 20 '"' 

This, certainly, is rather a startling " Price 
Carrent ;"but it was only in keeping with such 
significant advertisements as frequently ap- 
jieared in the papers of that day : "One Thou- 
sand Dollars Reward" for the recovery of'' my 
negro man, Toney ; or "Thirty Spanish Milled 
Dollars," for the recovery of my runaway 
'■.\luiarto tclldw, Jack." '-Forty paper doUais 
were worth only one in specie ;" and the fact 
increases our wonder, alike at the patriotism 
nf the people :ind s ildiirs, which was sufficient 
to keep the Xruiy trom open mutiny or l)eing 
entirely disbanded. 

To leave this glojiuy side of the picture, a 
little while, it is well to record the fact that, on 
the twenty-eighth of December, 1779, whilst 
the snow " storm was raging," Martha Wa^^b- 
iagton passed through Trenton, on her wa> to 
.Morristown ; and that a troop of gallant Vir- 
^'lnians, stationed there, were paraded to do 
her honor, being very proud to own her as a 
Virginian, and h<:r husband also. She spent 
New Year's Day in Morr.stown ; and now, in 
the Ford mansion, you may see the very 
mirror in which her dignified form has often 
lieen reflected. The wife of the American Com- 
mander-in-chief leceived her company, did the 
honors of her family, and even appeared, occa- 
sionally, at the '• Assembly Balls,"' that Winter 
dressed in American stulfs. It is a pleasing 
;<necdote, which was once told me by the late 
Mrs. Abby Vail, daughter of Uzal and Anna 
Kitchel. Sjme of the ladies in Hanover, 
and, among them, " the stately Madame 
Budd," mother of Dr. Bern Budd, dressed 
in their best, made a call on Lady Wash- 
ington, and, as one of them afterwards 
.-jaid, " we were dress. d in our most elegant 
silks and rufaes, and so were introduced to her 
ladyship. And don't you think, we found her 
with a speckled homespun apron on, and en- 
gaged in knitting a stocking J She received us 
very handsomely, and then resumed her knit- 
ting. In the course of her conversation, she 
.said, very kindly, to us, whilst she made her 
needles fly, that American ladies should be 
patters of industry to their countrywomen ; * * 
WD must become independent of England by 
doing without those articles which we can 

make ourselves. Whilst our husbands and 
brothers are examples of patriotism, we must 
be examples of industry!" "I do deMare," 
said one of them, afterwards, " I never felt so 
ashaii,ed and rebuked in my life !" It is very 
possible that Martha Washington, with her 
knitting-needles and homespun dress, might 
not be admitted into the same circle with our 
modern " Potiphars ;" and yet she does shine 
beautifully, in this little scene, proving herself 
the worthy companion of the illustrious Wash- 

From documents, not very important in 
themselves, we sometimes derive impressive 
lessons. The original of the following sub- 
scription for Assembly Balls in Moriistown, 
that Winter, is still in possession of the Biddle 
family, on the Delaware : " The subscribers 
agree to pay the sums annexed to their re- 
.speclivo names and an equal quota of any 
further expence which may be incurred in the 
promotion and support of a dancing Assembly 
to be held ir Morristown, the present winter of 
1780. Subscription Moneys to be paid in o 
the hands of a Treasurer hereafter to be ap- 

400 dolls paid 
400 ditto paid 
400 dolls paid 
400 dolls paid 
400 dolls paid 
400 dolls paid 
400 dolls paid 
400 dolls paid 
400 dolls paid 
4O0 dolls paid 
4n0 dolls (laid 
400 dolls paid 
400 dolls paid 
400 dolls paid 

Nath. Greene 

H. Knox 

John Lawrence 

J. Wilkinson 

<;iement Biddle 

Robt. H. Harrison 

R. K. Meade 

Alex. Hamilton 

Tench Tighlman 

C. Gibbs 

Jno. Pierce 

The Baron de Kalb 

Jno. Moylan 

Le Ch. Duliugsley 

Geo. Washington 

R. Clairborne 

Lord Sterling 

Col. Hazen 

Asa Worthingtou 

Benj. Brown 

Major Stagg 

James Thompson 

H. Jackson 

col. Thomas Proctor 

J. B. Cutting 

Ed *ard Hand 

William Little 

Thos. Woolford 

Geo. Olney 

Jas. Abeef 

Robert Erskiue 

Jno. Cochran 

Geo. Draper 

J. Burnet 

paid F. D. ($400.) 
pd 400 dolls 
pd 400 dolls 
pd 400 dolls 
pd 400 dolls 
pd 400 dolls 
pd 400 dolls 
pd 400 dolls 
pd 400 dolls 
pd 400 dolls 
pd 400 dolls 
pd 400 dolls 
pd 400 dolls 
pd 400 dolls' 
400 dolls paid 
400 dolls paid 
400 dolls paid 
400 dolls paid 
400 dolls paid 
400 dolls paid." 

The amounts thus '• paid " constitute the 
somewhat imposing sum of thirteen thousand, 
six hundred dollars " for 'the support of a 
dancing Assembly the present winter of 1780." 
Now I frankly confess ttiat this paper produced 
an uncomfortable sensation in my mind, by the 
somewhat harsh contrast between the dancing 
of the well-boused oflScers, at O'Hara's tavern, 



ami the "huDgry rnin " at Kimbal-hill. The 
Assembly was not so well get off with gas-lights 
aud fashionable splendor as many a Ball in our 
day. No doubt it was rather a plain affair, of 
its kind ; and yet it reminds one that, while 
these distinguished men were tripping " the 
light fantastic toe," in well-warmed rooms, 
there were, at that very time, as Captain Wil- 
liam Tuttle often told it, a great many tents in 
whi'^h tlrere were soldiers without coats and 
barefooted, shivering and perishing in the 
fearful storms and colds of that same "present 
winter of 1780 ;" and that there were paths 
about the camps, on Kimbal-hill, that were 
marked with real blood expressed from the 
cracked and frozen feet of soldiers who had no 
shoes ! 

However, I do not allude to this contrast as 
pecnhar to that place and those men, for 
ing and starvation, plenty crowned with 
wreaths of yellcw wheat and gaunt .amine 
wreathed in rags and barefoot ; dancing and 
dying, are facts put in contrast in other places 
beside O'Hara's and Kimbal-hill, and at other 
times than "the present winter ot 1780." 

The principal object of introducing the sub- 
.script ion-paper here is to show the kind of 
currency on which our Revolution was com- 
pelled to rely. Here we find the leading men 
in Morristown, oaying a sum for the dancing- 
master and landlord, the ministers of a httle 
amusement, which, nominally, is large enough 
for the high figures of Fifth Avenue million- 
aires ; but a Closer inspection shows that the 
sum of thirteen thonsand Jollars was pot worth 
as much as three hundred silver dollars. Doc- 
tor Thatcher says, signiticantly, "I have just 
seen in the newspaper an advertisement otter- 
ing for an article forty dollars. This is the 
trash which is tendered to requite us for our 
sacrifices, sufferings, and privations, while in 
the service of our country. It is but a sordid 
pittance, even ffir our common purposes, while 
in camp ; but those who have families depen 
dent on them, at home, are reduced to a de- 
plorabl(! condition." The officers of the Jer«ey 
troops, in their Memorial to the Legislature of 
New Jersey, declare " that four mouths' pay 
of a soldier wjuld not procure for his family a 
bushel of wheat ; that the pay of a Colonel 
would not purchase oats for his horse ; that a 
common laborer or express-rider received four 
times as much at. an American officer." 

If such were their circumstances, let us rather 
admire than condem th'-se brave men, at Mor- 
ristown, who werc! striving to invest the stern 
severities of that Winter with so-aething of 
the gayer and more frivolous courtesies of fash- 
ionable life. 

As for fighting, there was but little, the 
principal expedition being the descent of a de- 

tachment on Staten Island, nnder Lord Stil- 
ling-. The expectations raised by this expedi- 
tion are quite flatteringly told in an unpublished 
letter of Joseph Lewis, Quarter-master. He- 
writes, under date of "January 15th 1780." 
that he had orders from General Green "to 
procure threi' hundred sleds or sleighs to parsdr 
Friday Morning at this pi'st aud at Mr. Kim- 
ble's **■*♦. I djj not fail to exert 
myself on the occasion, and the Magistraten 
gained deserved applause. About live liundred 
sled.s or sleighs were collected, the majority of 
which were loaded with troops, artillery, itc 
These sleds and as many more are to return 
loaded with stores from the British Magazines, 
on Staten Island, except some lew that are ti> 
be loaded with wounded British rri8<.)nei'-. 
About 3000 troops are gone, under the com- 
mand of Lord Stirling, with a detennination tn 
remove all Slaten Island, bag and baggage, to 
Morristown I" ( MS. Letter of .Joseph Lewis. ) 

This expedition failed of realizing it.s object, 
because the enemy, by some means, had been 
put on his guard. Still, Collins of the New 
Jersey Gazelle, was sure it would "shew tin- 
British mercenaries with what Zealand alacrity 
the American* will embrace every opportunity, 
even in a very inclement season, to promot»- 
the interest of the country by harassing the 
enemies to their freedom and independence.'" 
(New Jersey Gazette, January 19th, 1780.) And. 
on the twenty-second of that January. Quarter- 
master Lewis wrote in quite a subdued tone. 
" I suppose you have heard of the success of 
our late expedition to Staten Island. It wa^ 
expensive but answered no valuable purpos< . 
It shewed the inclination ot our inliMbitants to 
plunder." (MS. Letter J. Lewis.) Thisexpi- 
dition was ai a time when "the ct>ld was iii- ;" and about five hundred of thi- soldiers 
had tlieir feet froz'ii. 

The eremy. by the way of retaliation, on lln- 
twenty-fifth of January, crossed to Elizibetli- 
town and burnt the Town-house and Presbyte- 
rian Church. They also " plundered the hou5t 
of Jecaniah Smith." The sanii night, anothei 
party "made an exc irsion to Newark, surpristd 
the guard there, took Mr. Justice He dden out 
of his bed, and would not suffer him to dress : 
they also took Mr. Robert Ni<'l. burnt tli<- 
Academy, anu went off with precipitation." 
Ilivington's Royal Gazette speaks of this Jus- 
tice eiden as "a rebel magistrate remarkable 
for his persecuting spirit." (Now Jersey Ga- 
zette, February 2d and 16th, 17H0.) It was 
marvellous that Hedden survived that march, 
in such weather, from Newark to New York : 
but the tough man was nerved thereto by hi"- 
brutal emptors. 

But have the troops enongh to eat? General 
Grteue's latter to " the Colonel of the Morn-- 



own Militia" gives ns a nio.^t suriDwtul 
aiiswir. "'Tlif Arniv,'' writes Gi''H.rit'. in .Tan- 
u:irv. " IS upon tli<' point <if clisl)iiii(lins; for 
.v»nt (if | ; tho poor soldiurs Uavi-ig 
hecn for -ivtral (Liys witliout auv, and tlnTe is 
not being more than a snfticiciR-v to t^cvvf one 
/icginu-nt in tlio MagaziiH'. Provisions are 
i(caicc at best ; but the late teirible storm, 
tlio ileptb I'f tbi' snow, and the drifts iu the 
loads i>revent the little stotrk from coming 
foiwaid, which is in readiness, at the distant 
Magnzines. This is, therefore, to request you 
to call upon the Militia-oflicers and men of 
your Uattailion to turn oit their teams and 
lireaii tin' roads, from between this and Haek- 
ittstown, there l)eing a small quantity of pro- 
vi!;i(in>--, there, that cannot come until that is 
done. The roads must be lept open bv the 
inhabitants, or the Army cannot Iji- subsisted. 
And, unless the good people immediately lend 
tbur assistance to tV^rward supplies, the Army 
must (lisbinil. Tijc dire ul consequences of 
-ilcii ail ivimI . will ri )l t'uTuro y.iu.' IV'cli'gs 
wit.i a disi-riptioi ( f : bul r.nieiiib.'r the sur- 
rniin'biig lull diiiauti- will i xpjii uc- the (i'.st 
njchiii ho'y ( tt\v-ts of such a raging evil." 
( ii)li!is;<iii's Lid' and (^nrrespondeiico of Na- 
llianit 1 Greene, i.. liG ) 

On the eleven' h of Juiiiiuiy, Gieeiie wrote. 
•' sudi weather as w,- have had, never did I 
feel," and tlie *iu.w was so deep and driflci 
'• tl>:H. we drive over the lops of the fences. "' 
He then describes the sufferings of the soldiers, 
and ailds. " tiiey have displayed a degree of 

, niaguatiimity, under their su9' :riiigs, which 
does tht'Hi the highest honor." (Ibid, US.) 
On the tenth of March, Joseph L wis tells his 
superior officer, "• I should be happv to receive 
about tilty thousand ( oLars to persuade the 
wagoiiciK to stay in ("amp until May. which will 
|)reveut the troops from suffering." And ou 
(lie twenty-light of tile same month, he again 
writes, '• I am m) longer aid(s to procure a 
single team to rel'ev(! the distresses of our 
Army, to biiiig in a upply of v,o<id, or f;)rw'ard 
the styles which are absolutely necessary. 
»♦*»*! Yiif^ii I could inhabit some 
Uiiid retreat fnmi those dreadful complaints, 
unless I had a house tilled with money and a 
Magazine of Forage to guard and protect m«'." 
'•Good God'/ where are our resources fled? 
We are truly in a most pitiful situation and 
altnost distracted with calls tliat it isnot in our 
power to answer." (MS. Letter of J. Lewis.) 
But there is another tact which adds a 

deeper shade to this picture ot suffering, since 
from Thacher's Military Journal, we have this 
sentence, in which, with no lille I'xultation, 

he says, " having to this late season— February 
Uih— in imr tents, exp.iieuced the greatest in- 

cmivcnience. we ha"e now the satisfaction of 

taking possessiim of the log-hnts just com- 
pleted by our soldiers, where we shall have 
more comlortable accommodations ;" and vet 
in March, he saj's, '-our soldiers are in a 
wretched condition for want of clothes, blan- 
kets, and shoes ; and these calamitous circum- 
stances are accomi)anied b: a want of pro- 
visions." (Thacher's Military Journal, 187. ) 

From these letters, written by actual wit- 
nesses, we are able to irathcr enough of facts to 
aid us in appreciating the couditon of the 

I may appropriately close this historic:. 1 
monograph with an original letter of Washing- 
ton, which has never yet. been published, and 
which is a very striking commentary on the 
difficulties of his position the last Winter h( 
wa.s in Morristown. It was found among some 
old papers, m the possession of Stephen Thomp- 
son, Esq., of .Mendham, Ninv J-jrgcy, a son of 
Captain D.ivid Thompson, who is refeiTed to 
in this article. It will be remembered that the 
^ireat snow-storm winch cau-i.-d such di^tres> 
in the cam;), b'gaii on the third lif .Tanuaiy. 
1780. The famine which threatencl the .\rmy. 
caused Washington to write a letter "to the 
Magistrate.-^ o;*Ne,v Jersey," which ispu'jiished 
in Spark's editions oi' the Writings of Washmg- 
lon. A copy oJ that letter was inclosed in thi' 
letter which is now published for the first time. 
It i.s a valuable letter, as showing that Wasli- 
ingiou's "integrity was Kn»i i tire, his justice 
most inflexible." 

He.\d Qi'AUTKUs, MoKniMMWx, January 8. 17>(». 
•• SiK,— The present distresses ot the .Vrmy. 
with which you are well acquainted, have cU- 
termined me to call upon 'hi^ respective Coun- 
ties of the State for a proportion of grain and 
caUle, according to the abilities of each. 

'• For this purpose, I liave addressed tht 
Magistrates of every County, to induce them 
to undertake the business. This mode I hav. 
preferred as the one inconvenient to the 
inhabitants ; but, incase the requisition shoul<l 
not be complied with, we must then raise the 
supplies ourselves iu the best manner we can. 
This I have siguitied to the Magistrates. 

"I have pitched upon y»u to superintend the 
execution of this measure in the County of 
Bergen, which is to furnish two hundred head 
ot caltiC and eight hundred bushels of grain. 

"You will proceed, then, with all dispatch, 
and calling upon the Justices, will deliver tht 
inclo.sed Address, enforcing it with a more 
particular detail of the surt'eringsof the troops, 
the belter to convincf? them of the necessity of 
their exertion*. You will, at the same time, 
let them delicately know that you arc instruct- 
ed, in case they do not take up the business 
immediately, to begin to impress the articles 
(•ailed for throughout the Countv. You wil' 



press for an immediate answer, and govern 
yourself aocorclingly. If it be a couipliaiiee, 
yon will concert with them a proper place for 
the reception of the articles and the time of 
the delivery, which, for the whole, is to Vie in 
four days after your apphcatiou to them. The 
owners will bring their grain and cattle to ihi.-* 
place, where the grain is to be measured and 
thfi cattle esti rsaled bv any two of the Magis- 
trates, in conjunction with the Comniissury, 
Mr. Voihos, who will be sent to yoa for the 
purpose, and certificates given by the Com- 
missary, specifying the quantity of each article 
and the terms of payment. These are to be 
j)reviously settled with the owners, who are to 
choose whether they will receive the present 
market price — which, if prefericd, is to be in- 
serted—or the market price at the time of pay- 
ment. Immediately on receiving the answer 
of the Magistrates, you will send me word what 
it is. 

" In case of refusal, you will begin to impress 
till you make up the quantity required. This 
you will do with as much Jenderness as possible 
to the inhabitants, having regard to the stock of 
lach individual, that no family may he deprived, 
of its necessarv subsistence. Milch cows are 
not to be included in the impress. To enable 
you to e xecute this business with more efiiect 
and less inconvenience, you will call upon Colo- 
nel Fell and any other well-afifected active man 
in the County, and endeavor to engage their 
udvinceand assistance. You are also author- 
ized to impress wagons for the transp'ortation 
i)t the grain. 

"If the Magistriitcs nndertake the business, 
which I should infinitely prefer, on every ac- 
count, you will endeavor to f)revail upou them 
to assign milis tV.r the reception and prepara- 
tion ol snch grain as the Commissary thinks 
will not be immediately needful in the Camp. 

'•I have reposed this trust in \\>vi from a 
)»erf. ct confidence in your prudence, zeal, and 
respect for the rights of citizens. Wiiile your 
measures arc adapted to the emergency, and 
yoa consult what you owe to the service, I am 
persuaded you will not forget that, as we are 
compelled by necessity to take the propm ty of 
i-itirens for the support of the Army, on whom 
their safety depends, yon should be careful to 
manifest that we have a respect for their 
rights, and wish not to do any thing which 
that necessity, and even theii own good, do 
not absolutely require. 

,1 ,am, Sir, with great respect and esteem, 
'• Your most obeflient servant, 
" Go. Washinoton. 
" r. S. After reading the letti r to tlir .Tns- 
tices you will seal it. 
" Lt. Col. De Haut.' 



The principal portions of this History were 
delivered in fivk lkctukes to tliC church and 
congregation of IlockawHy. The circumstances 
which led to the delivery of the first discourse 
were remarkable and they arc described in 
the opening paragraphs of the discourse itself. 
It is now nearly eighteen years since that occa- 
sion, and yet the history of he church was on- 
ly brought down in a third lecture to the close 
of the s.cond pastor's term of ottice. The Cen- 
tennial year has led s(mie of the people tr) de- 
sire this history to be coni))leted. This re- 
quest is so far liecded as now to bring the nar- 
rative to the close of Dr. King's ministry. 
This was delivered in two discourses Ji]l\ 3ltth, 
1876. For obvious reasons only a bare refer- 
ence IS made to his colleague who was with him 
trom November, 1847, to April, 1862. The task 
of writing the history of thi; church as connect- 
ed with thtj pastors who have occupied its pul- 
pit but are still living, is left for some other 
pen. Let me add that lam greatly indebted to 
my friend, E. 1). H;dsey, for valuable aid espe- 
cially in fixing some of the earlier dates. Nor 
is this the first help I have had from him in 
tracing the history of Morris County. 

August '29th, 1876. 


The circunistar.ces under which we liave come 
together are not a little extraordinary. This 
church has to-flay enjoyed the rare privilege of 
listening to the memorial discourse in which 
y(mr veni'rable pastor has tracea the history of 
God's providence as seen in his ministry of 
more than fifty yens to one people. His otfi- 
cial relations during that period in several 
ca^esbave been with five generations *of the 
same family. It has been an eventful period 
to this church, determining its character and 
position in this conimuuity perhaps for ages to 
come. A great work lias been accomplished 
by the simple agency not of a flash preacher, a 
famous orator, but by the divinely blessed 
preaching of a man gifted with good sense, 
piety and industry. To say he has been lead- 
ing us over that period, and as he announced 
his text, "The Lord hath blesscid thee since 
my coining," our minds flashed over the pros- 
trate condition of things here in 1807, the 
signs of ne*v and vigorous life which were dis- 
played in the revivals of 1808, 1818 and 1831, 
thehundreil converted and the vast good done, 
and we involuntarily said in our hearts, "it is 
truly so, the Lord hath blessed us since his 
servant came here!" 



That occasion was as deliglittnJ as it is rare, 
:uid all its thea]es illustrate; tlic yriu-c of God. 
It is not very likely that this church will again 
liave the privilege of hearing a half-cciitury 
sfrmnn from one of its pastors. 

To-night I shall invite you to accoiiiitaiiy me 
into a more remote field than that to-ilay dis- 
cussed hy the pastor, and whilsi to nic if is full 
.if interest, I shall have to claim your it.dul- 
gt-uce and patience, whilst endeavoring to bring 
np from the past the people who Hrst dwcJt 
and acted here, the manner in which they lived, 
jnd especially all the tac's coiuuicted with the 
most important work they did- that of founJ.- 
ing this church— which is now so veuerable in 
nureyes, with the toils and honors of her tirst 
hundred years. 

Efery community has a history which, -if 
properly related, must be interistiiig to those 
who are members of that commuuity. In its 
tieginuings and iis progress it may have borne 
a VL-ry humble i)art iu the grand drama which 
The world is acting, and yet huinhle as is that 
part it IS both interesting and imporiaut to 
those who acted it. This is my apology, if any 
be needed, for attempting to writt; the history 
of this church. It has never ocu-npied a very 
prominent position except iu this community 
and vicinity. It is neither a VVitienburgh nor 
a Geneva, the center of religious icvolntion, 
and the famous scene of great deeds. Nor yet 
has it the notoriety which someiiim s is given 
ro a community by great weahh. Gur histo- 
ry spread out on the pages of treueral lnstor% 
would seem out of place, and it would sufler 
' chpte from the more distinguis In d transactions 
rc(-urded on the same pages. Dut tor i:s the 
history of this church has mure attractions 
ihan many deeds sufficiently inipiuianl to oc- 
«-upy the pen of the general hixriiiiaii. Here our 
lathers loiight out the brttlt; of lilc against 
real difficulties ; here tLty felt ihe wants which 
j)i-e..sedon them as the moral creatures of God; 
here they wrestled with principalitii-s and pow- 
<.:rs ; here they laid the foundations of the 
i-hurch ; and here they -lit d, leaving the work 
lo their successors, and their sipulchrcs are 
with us to this day. They were i.ot as great 
men ad many who have lived, nor was the en- 
terprise they set on foot as distinguished as 
many others ; yet iu them and in tht-ir work 
we cannot but feel a very peculiar interest. 

To write this history is no easy task, owing 
to the want of records and other materials from 
which to weave the narrative. For some yvars 
my attention has beeu turned to this subject, 
and whenever opportunity has beeu given 1 
have been gathering the materials for this his- 
tory. The records of the Paiish in the form 
of a book quite worn and perishing, and also 
many loose papers have been copied tor me by 

two young gentlemen of the congregation. 
Thif: alone cost the copying of four hundred 
pages of letter sheet. Besides this I have been 
at great labor in examining the records of 
neighboring churc'hes, f)ur early county records, 
rare books and manuscripts iu the Libraries of 
the Societies of New York and New 
Jersey, the State Library at Trenton, the Re> 
Olds of Deeds and Wills for East and West Jer- 
sey Ui the office of the Secretary of State at 
Trenton, and also in looking for facts by cor- 
responding with gentlen,en whose investiga- 
tions would be likely to tit them to aid me iu 
my search. The beginners of society here were 
plain people, the most of whom were unedu- 
cated. The records of the church prove this, 
and yel though they left uo voluminous details 
of their doings, and their position was one se 
eluded ai>iong th<; mountains, I have been grat- 
ified and surprised to find many facts which 
belong to that history, sufficient to make it in- 
teresting lo us if not sufficiout to make tnat 
history con)plete. 

I have spent not a little effort to fix a date 
to the beginiiings of the settlement in this 
parish, but without as much success as I ex- 
pected. The oi'iginal settlement at Hanover 
was '"about A. D., 1710." (Rev. Jacob Green, 
Hist. Hanover Church.) I have seen one deed 
which indicated that in 1715 a tiact of land had 
been conveyed in the present township of Mor- 
ris. (East .Jersey Records, Liber F, 3, p. 'iS.) 
And I think it likely that the settlement in 
Moiristowii was begun as early as t'jat date. 
In 1713 Jatues Wills made the first purchase of 
land in Mendham. (Hastiug's His. Sermon 
MS.) '"The tract of land now constituting the 
township of Chester was surveyed and run into 
lots in nii and 1714, and began to be settled 
sr.on after by emitrrants from Southold, Long 
Island." (Kcc )rds of Chester Cong. Churcli, 
containing Rev. Abner Morse' Historical Ser- 
mon.) In 1713 one Joseph Kirkbride located two 
tracts of land in the township of Randolph 
amounting to near fi.OOO acres. In the same 
year one Hartshorn Fitz Randolph located 527 
acres in sann- vicinity. Wm. Schooky, son of Ihe 
William Schooley who settled on Schooley's 
Mountain, bought 600 acres, including Mill 
Brook, and built the first grist mill in this re- 
gion. His broth^r-in-law, Richard Dell, moved 
on the Dell farm, now owned by Miller Smith, 
in 1759, a mile East of Dover on the lower road 
to Rockaway. Gen. Winds made his purchase 
of Thomas and Richard Pcnn lu 17oG. One 
John Jackson— probably brother of the grand- 
father of the late Col. Joseph Jackson— bought 
of one Latham, who bought of Hartshorne 
Fitz Randolph 527 acres, which included the 
water privileges at Dover. This was iu 1722 
when Jackson built the first torge. In 1757 the 



mill property passed into the bauds of Josiah 
Bemaii. (P.iebaid Biotbcrton's statemeut.) 

Tbrse facts give me conlideuee in the opinimi 
that not long after the t-ettlemeut of what is 
now called Riuidolpb township, in which Dover 
is, the settlers began to come into this region. 
It will he safe for the present to assume this, at 
least until further examinations give us detin- 
itc knowledge. 

The late Mr. Jacob Losey, whose acquain- 
taneo with this section and its original s'-itlers 
wa8 Ttry extousive, once told me that the set- 
tlement at Dovv^-r was commenced about ll'il, 
when a forge for making iron was bnilt not far 
from the present residence of Jacob llurd, west 
of the village. He also said that there were a 
few settlers in the immediate vicinity of Koek- 
away as early as 1730, when a small bioomery 
fnrge was built near the site of ihe present 
upper loj'gc now owned by S. B. Halsey, Esq. 
In this opinion the late Col. Joseph Jackson, a 
very inlelligeiit judge, coincided. Experience 
had led me to suspect any merely trafbtiocary 
evidence in decichns; dales, but it, could not 
have been fai out of the way in tins instance. 

The P(.'nn Tract of 1,250 acres was located on 
•' West Jersey liiglit ' in 171.">. and iu be next 
yeai the P.iddle .t Bellars Inuts, nlsn ut 1,250 
acres each, and on \Yest Jersey llijilit were tak- 
en up. These tracts joined each other. The 
Penn tract reacbini; from the top of the moun- 
tain, back of Mr. King's former residence, to 
beyond the Franklin road. The Beliars tract 
extending from it to the neighlunhood of Den- 
ville, ai;d t'Je Biddle tract extended from mar 
Denvillu to and beyond the liockaway river, 
north of the road leading to llockawny. These 
large tracts were located probably to secure 
the land for after sale to actual settlei>. 

In 1740, March 25th, at a meelinj; of the 
■'Geneial ^Sessions of the Peace" the ('ourt di- 
vided "the County of Morris into Proper Town- 
ships or Districts," not includin}; the territory 
now embraced in Sussex and Warren Counties, 
wliicb then belonged to Morris. Exclusive of 
that territory Morns county wat divided into 
three townships, Hanover, Morris and Pequm- 
ock. That order of the Court also lixe-< the 
da e of the time when Mori istown received its 
present name in place of "West Hanover," or, 
'•New Hanover," by which It was known previ- 
ous to that time. A certain district was '"or- 
dered by ihe Court" to bo "called and Distin^ 
guishi-d by the name of MouuisTOWN." 

Pecjuaiiock Township, as the records of the 
Court show, was bounded on Ihe south-east by 
"the Pissaick, ' on the East and North-east by 
•'the Pequanock rivor to the Lower end of the 
Gnat Pond at the head therjof," and on the 
South and Wi^st by the Rockaway rivi-r fiom 
its junction with the Passaic, following "the 

West branch thereof to the head thereof, and 
thence cross to the Lower End of the said 
Pond." This "Great Pond" I think must U 
"Long Pond," and the boundary line followi il 
the Ringwiiod branch of the Pequanock. Tlie 
greater portion of this parish was in the town- 
ship of Pequaiinock. The remainder was in 
Hanover. The b(/undary dividing Hanover and 
Morri-i began at Chatham, thence to "ihc OM 
Iron Works," at •'Wbippaning." thence across 
the mountain to "Succasunning," and "thence 
to the Great Pond on the head of the Muscfii.- 
necung." Hanocer then included all of liock- 
away and Ranilolph townships South of tin 
Rockaway river. The minuteness with which 
these boniida.i( s aie described convinces up- 
that settlers were scattered throu;;h this region 
previous to the date of that order of the Court. 
(Oldest Book of Records of Morris Count> 
Courts, in Clerk's office at MorristDwn.) But 
as yet I find no deeds even as eaily as 1740, al- 
though there is no <loubt about there beinjc 
familiis in this ngio'.i lit that time. My oiii} 
theory of accounting for this is the conjecinn 
that lor a nunber ot yi;ars those who lived b'l'- 
were drawn here by the facilities ot making 
i.on, and that tli'^y exercised a sort of "hqnin- 
ter's Sovreigiity" over the land without acquir- 
ing any title IVijin the Proprietors. Many ul 
the ••locations" .-^peak ol buildings already buiit 
on till- land described. Add to this auotht r 
fact, that the e;ir,y settlers in this region rarely 
had their dei'ds uut on record, and you can i.e- 
cwunt tor the absence of documentary proof ;>•■ 
to the. times when the lands in this region be- 
gan t<i be bought. 

Among the eailio't names I have yet beei 
able to find are those of Robert ISchooley, .M'- 
iier Beach, Gilbert Hedden, Daviil Beman, J - 
seph and Stephen Jackson — father and '-on 
Hartshorue Fiiz Randolph, John Jacks<in, 
Richard Dell, William W;nds, Benjamin ainl 
Josei)h Pruddeii, Jacob Allerton, Jo.siah Beman. 
John .\yeis, and pefhapa some others. Fui- 
tber inquiries may bring to our knowled^.> 
knowledge some earlier settlers. 

Having thus laid before you a few meager re- 
sults of my investigations into the early settli - 
meiit of this region I now invito your atteution 
to the history of the church. A careful exmn- 
iiii'tion of the earliest subscription papers (da- 
ted ^larch, 175H, J shows us that the materials 
for the (H)ngregation were gathered from an 
extensive but spjrsely .settled region, includur.^ 
Denvilli-, Rocka vay Valley, Horse Pound, ]Heii- 
deii, Mount ll<nj( , Denmark, Berkshire Valley. 
Franklin, Dover, and "the region beyond." 
reaching nearly te> Mount Freedom in one di- 
rt etion and Litth ton in another. From several 
sourct;s I learn that there were not more th-^n 
three houses in the villa^o West of the river 



;i..«l only two on tlie East «ide, and the tamilios 
ill lliL' difi>'tent di' fctiuns from Ihis place- were 
l«;w and si.' O.dv a small pi;.>i>oition of 
tbvKf wii-f iu t'omiortable cinnmHlanres. The 
hiiid wiiM poo.' and agiuat part of it wats cov- 
ered with fort-sts. Iron, the only cash article 
produced here, w«t< m u'e with the serious dis- 
iidvantatje of beiu,^ far from Uiarlict. which 
could only bo reachi.-d over very br.d highways. 
Af that time no small amount oi iron bars was 
carried to Elzabethtowii Point on pack hoises, 
the bars beinfj beut so as to til the saddle. As 
i.s very common in regions where iron is tht! 
priu ipal article of nnnufacture, what little 
wealth thcie was in thi.s section was in the 
hiinds <,f a few persons. Many of the pef»ple 
Were not freehoklors. These facts must be 
borne in mind as we attt^mpt to trace the good 
work these men did in founding this church. 

If wo look at the church privileges they en- 
j'>u.'J previous to the foiiuding of this church 
We shall appreciate their rea.-ions for beginning 
so difficult an (enterprise. P;irsippany then 
had a church building eiclosed, but it had no 
uiinisierof its own. Hanover t'hurch undci 
tiie pastoral care if Riv. Jacob Green was 
'wilve miles distant ; Morristown Church un- 
der the care ot Rev.' Timothy Johnes was nine 
mijcs distant ; .Viendham Church under (he 
eire ol Jtcv. John I'ierson was twelve inilesdis- 
lanl ; and the Congicgatioual and Presbyterian 
Cliujches at Chester were also at very iiicoii- 
vtuieut distuncies. Mr. Abner Eeach, grand- 
lath. rof Cul. S. .S. Beach, and a workman in the 
foigt at l-'ockaway, usually on th( Sabbath 
ro..e ou horseback to Morristown to eliurch 
These tacts show us why these ptoiile took h-ld 
of this difficult euterj^rise of founding a chuich 
notwithsiaiiding theii' small number, scattered 
condition, and their poverty. JJecessity drove 
them to it. 

I may here reniark that the name of our 
stream, tf)WUhhip and church is said to be de- 
rived from a tribe of Indians called the Rock- 
awack.'. Isaac lirjch, the father of Isaac re- 
itently deceased, told Col. Samuel Serrin Beach 
that he remembered an encampment of this 
tribe on the river a i-hort distance above tlie 
village. There was another encampment a lit- 
I le below the Rolling Mill. This was more than 
a huudred years ago. Mr. Beach described the 
Indians as lazy and iuoli'ensive. They 8 3on re- 
moved West of the DeUware, and were morg^id 
in some more powerful tribe. 

M.\KCH THE Second, ix the YEAKOForR Lokd 


1 HUK(.'U. On that day two papers were drawn 
up and signed by the princi[>al men in this re- 
gion, th(e one signed by twenty-nine persons, 
and the oih.r l.-y lorty. The literary preten- 

sions of these pspcrs arc ijuite humhie, bur 
their ain) is towards an object of the highest 
ost importance. These fundumeulal papers I 
will transcribe literally as curiosities and also for 
their importance : "Mirch 2d, 1758. We th. 
subscribers do by these mannefest It to In- our 
d- sier to Joyn with i)asipauey to call and settel 
a miniiester to have the one half of the preachcii 
at posipaney and the other half at rockaway 
and each part to be eakwol in uaj en a minucs lor. 
Job Allen 

Seth iMeliuran 
david beiiian 
gihiert hedr 
Aiidrii .\iorreson 
Isak ogden 
J >liil ))ipe-i 
Samuel Shipman 
.lolin minton 
Sainnel wnithed Juu 
Joseph bnrrel 
wilyam wines 
ncihatiel michel 
.fames losev 

tienery stag 
John Harriman 
Jonah Huston 
Samuel Burwell, 
John gobbel 
abraham Johnson 
John Cogswi'll 
John Huntington 
Oershom Gard 
John Kent 
anios Kilonrn 
wiilam iJanels 
.losiah beman 
altraliam uiasacra 

Samuel Moore. 

'J"hi!? docuriiont in in the handwriting of Job 
Allen, as is ovide it by comparing the writing 
with .Vlr. Aliens autograph in the next paper. 

In the s;im'.^ handwriting we have the .-^eeonil 
l)a})rr whiL-h I also copy literally. 

" March 2 17.>8 
Wo the Iiihab.'tenc of rockaway pigeiilnl and 
upper mhabeteuc at the colonals forges aiul 
pUlc(^s agesant being met together In order 
to consult together about a place to set a met- 
ing hous and being all well agread that the 
most sutal'le place for the hoi fetelmenls Is 
upon the small plain a letel above bemans foig 
which IS below the tirsi small biok upon that 
rode up to Samuel Johnson 

and we the subscribers a blig ourselves lu 
pay toward building a house at that placi the 
sums to our names atixed. 

Job >llen 
Andrew Moreson 
Gilbert Hi-den 
David Beman 
Isaac Ogden 
John Pipes 
Samuel Shipman 
Se'h Mehureii 
John Mint horn 
Samuel W hi led 
J(jseph Burwcl Jun 
William Winds 
Nathanel mitchel 
Josiah Beman 
James losey 
Abraham Masacra 
henery stag 
John Harriman 
John Johnson 
samnel burrel 
Jonah Huston 
John gobel 
abraham Johnson 
John Cogswell 
John Huntington 
Gershom Gard 


1 10 

2 10 
2 10 (I 
2 10 

2 10 



1 10 








John Kent 
AmoK Ktlbun 
heuery tuttol 
JoHopii B(>acli 
John stii^j 
Wiliani Danels 
Samuel .M)(ii-e 
JjC(il) Gairif;ne 
Jiimcs Milegu 
bil waltdu 
ilacob W tharp 
Obadiah Luni 
lienjarain Carey 




(I 5 


1 10 1(1 

1 -> 


2 10 
3 G 
(5 6 
4 0" 

A caretul i-xatniuatioii uT the above fiibsofip- 
lion shows that it is also in Job Allen's hand- 
writing, but tho nanus avo antogi-apli signa- 

I infer from the fact that these earliest papers 
are in the handwriting of Job Allen, hit be 
kads both sub^^cripiions, that he is. onii of the 
largetit contributors, and further that he sub- 
K'.quently bears a conspicuous part in the 
atf irs of the church, that he was ono of the 
must active in beginning the cnteipriae. He 
was a hous« carpenter and for many yi'ars he 
resided at Deiiville on what is now call ;d the 
"' Glovet Place." During tho Ue;olutio!iaiy 
War he rais(vd and commanded a company, and 
was frequently in actua' service. Probably 
Capt. Alien built the tirst meeting house. We 
know that at a later date hn built the galleries 
in tliat house and tinishec'. the houi-e with walls 
and seats. Ho was very nipch esteemed iu the 
community. (Copu>d records p. Hi.) 

It is possible that the Job Allen who signed 
the subscript icu paper in 1758 may have been 
the father of the Job Allen whose name occurs 
in the record aftcrwaids, and who resided at 
Denville as above staled. In a return of the 
lands in Uockaway covering the water power, 
made in 1748 to Jacob F jrd, Jr., the premises 
are said to include "Job Allen's Iron Works," 
and in Nov. 16, 1707, Utters of acniini»tration_ 
of the estate of Job Allen were issued to Jacob 
Ford, Jr., who was his principal creditor. 

Another prominenr man in tho movement 
was Gilbert Hedden who as I was told by the 
late Col. Joseph Jackson, built the first grist 
null in this vicinity "about the year 1700." 
This was a short distance below the Rolling 
mill. The frame of that first mill is now used 
as a carriage house by Mr. Halse.y. What be- 
came of Mr. Hedden I have not learned. 

This date (17G0) for tho erection of the first mill is probably too late a one. April 20, 
1762, Hamuei Munn a blacksmith conveyed to 
David Bcman " onc-lialf of a grist mill stand- 
ing on Eockawuy river about half a mile down 
Htream of said lieman's Iron Works." Dec. 17, 
1703, J(jhn Lewis yeimiaii sells to Wyllis Pier- 
son, blacksmith, one-half the same grist mill 
" which mill he the sd person is to nioove of 
from wheir it now stands from of Lewises land 
to be taken of by the first day of April next." 

In C(d. Jackson's handwritins;- is a iit)te to the 
Munn deed made in 18(11 as folinws : " Mr. U. 
(Bi man) says he built the mill where it now 
stands about the time he received this deed, 
made u' e of the old mill stones and irons to 
build the new one with." From which it aji- 
pears that Pierson and Beman liPJiving become 
joint owners of the mill (then an old mill) about 
1763 they moved it up to a place near the fuge 
on the race bank. By deed dated January 2, 
1765, Wvllis Pierson conveyed the uiidividid 
half of tho grist mill "standing on lockaway 
river just below the bridge that crosses the 
river by David Bemans hones with one acre of 
land," to David Beman evidently after the 
building was in its new place. Here it stood 
proltnbly till rt moved for a wagon house. As a 
mill it was probably supplanted oy the one. now 
standing opposite Dr. Jackson's home which is 
spoken ot in a road return in 1785, as Steplnn 
Jack oil's new mill. Tliis was dlsusnl alter 
the erection of th ) present null by .Judgi; II. il- 
sey in 1854-5. 

Another leading man in the movcuieni was- 
David Beman. He was an early settler in the 
place, and becurae the owner of the upjiei forge, 
the grist mill, an 1 saw mill; he owned also 
other ))roperty in the neighlxuhood. He was a 
man of uncommon energy in everything he 
undertook, and it was a common saying among 
his neighbors " that Deacim Beman had not 
walked a step in seven years!" He would lill 
the hopper of his grist mill and then kun (o 
his saw mill to put that in motion ; then hi: 
would KUN to his forge to hammer out a loop. 
Thus he was constantly rxinnino iu his haste 
to keep upwithall the branches of his business. 
He was chorister, se.'cton, and deacon. Fre- 
quently he waited on the Presbytery for si p- 
plics for the pulpit. When \w had set the 
tunes for many years in the church he was to 
his own disgust supplanted by soihu jouiig 
men who introduced the novelty of singing the 
psalm without reading the line. This was in 
the pastorate of the Kev. David Baldwin in 
1786 and was finished under Uev. John Carl as 
late as 1707. He was a very useful man, and 
an examination of the subscription papers for 
nearly tifty years shows that he was not a whit 
behind his neighbors in devising liberal things 
for the church. He was buried in this church 
yard, and his descendants ought to jut nj) a 
stone to mark his grave.* 

*Mr. William J.ickson in a paper he wrote 
for me says that he, Bcman, when he first kiKiw 
liim livecl in Franklin on the property after- 
wards liought for a i» soiiago for Mr. Carle. 
From there be moved to Rockaway and lived 
where the "Henry Berry house" is, near the Mt. 
Hope ore docks west of the village- He after- 
ward sold this jiropi'rty t.) Mr. Carle and 
removed to Guinea Forge, where the old road 



Of Andrew Morgau (or Morreuon; and Aljra- 
liara Johnson cacli of whom giiv(; five pounds to 
Imild the first mwtins Iioukc I know notliii)<{. 
The five men jnst nienliomd signed five puuiids 

Williiim Winds was a signer of eaeh of these 
papers, and he was the most noud man in the 
eonimunity. He was famous in his praetieal 
njfusal to use the hated stamped paper in his 
business as a Justice of the Peace. He served 
as Captain in a Jersey regiment one year at the 
North dniing the French war, and in some of 
«'ur early clinr.'h recrords he hears tliat military 
tille. Concerning the strength and clearness 
(if bis voice many cut ions traditions exist 
.-unong us. Dr. Asliliel Green, who served un- 
((■•r Winds, s[)CHks ni iiis "stt ntoi'ophonic voice" 
whicli ''exceeded in power i-.nd efticiiaicy, for it 
was articulate as well as l(;ud, every other 
liuinan voice that I ever heard." (Life of Dr. 
<lreen p. 98.) He also commanded a reginieni 
at Ticonderoga in 177(i. In 1777 he was elected 
ii B;igadier Oeneial in the Militia of Ihe State. 
His soldiers admired hmi, but as a soldier he 
laeked self i-ontr<il. This was a principal dcfuct 
III his cbariicter. To bring his wagon whip 
.tcr( ss the back of an uninly boy during pnldit 
worship, to tlira.sli a lazy eoopt-r with one of 
his own hoops, and to onler a dilatory Quaiter 
master to l>t> bung without cerem')ny, vrrVi- 
obaracterislic of the man. Hia service in the 
;irmydid not tend lo correct his hot and im- 
j»eriou8 temper. Our venerable Mrs. Eiiniee 
llerson remembers him as he appearoil when 
bis anger was excited, and he was wont to make 
a somewhat curious <li-play of his fervid tem- 
jierameiit in praying in " the Deacon's meet- 
ings" on the Subbath during the Revolution for 
llie triumph of his country over her enemies. 
On these occasions his voice would rise into a 
most (xcited key resembling thunder. His 
worst characteristics were the most apparent, 
lor under this rough and fiery exterior there 

leaves the Glen road for White Meadow. Mr. 
•lackson says he died there. Another inform- 
:int says he removed to B(jcka,way Valley near 
the old Poor Hou^e now owned l>y Wm. Dixson. 
ihe latter statement is probably a mistake. 

Mr, Jackson says that Deacon Beman was a 
great stutterer and sputterer, very impulsive 
and as smart as a squiirel and as shrewd as a 
fox, full of mother wit. He was always on hand 
upon any discussion respecting church matters 
:ind particularly singing, of which he claimed 
l>reeminence. Although at last worsted on his 
Hgiiiing-war with Benjamin Jackson he yielded 
with pretty good grace. He was always cheer- 
ful and full ot good humor. 

I may add that I think Mr. Jackson is mis- 
taken as to the Parish having bought the 
I'Vanklin parsonage for Mr. Carle from David 
Beman. The records show that the 
i'ought of Jacob Shotwell, through Wm. Ross 
:is agent, that pro|)ertv. (See records Julv 30, 
1792. und February •21,"l703.) 

was genuine kindness, which led him to deeds 
which are presirved in the traditions which 
come to us from those days. A true patriot, a 
kind neighbor, a friend to those in distress, a 
singular but sincere christian, such was one of 
the founders of this church, manifesting his 
attachment to it by his liberality during his 
lite time, aud making it his principal iieir in 
the will 1 e signed just before his iltath.* 

John Huntington whose manly signature is 
affixed to both these papers resided about one 
mile south of the Union Schotil House, and I 
suspect thst he w^s cf)nueeted with "the Colo- 
nel's forges" as Ninkie and Shauugum were 
then called on account of Col. Jacob Ford's 
interest in then>. It is possible that the place 
spoken of as " the Colonel's Forges" may have 
been Ml. Pleasant or Denmark as Col. FonI 
had forges there at work limy b.;fore 175S. The 
late Mr. Andeison and also the late Mr. David 
Guidon have often told me that he was a man 
of most venerable aspect an I dev nit piety. 

The unme ot Deacon Obadia'" Lum i." not 
on the first paper, but it is on the second, and 
for several years is usually on all the subscrip- 
tions for the church. He resided in Franklin 
just l)elow th old Palmer house, and ttadiiion 
•speaks of him as a ver.. good man. 

I may here mention also Deacon Jacob Aller- 
ton although his name does not appear among 
those who founded the church. In 1767 he 
was a prominent man. (Copied records of 
church p. 29) and t')r many ytjirs he filled the 
oflice of Ruhng Elder in a mannrtr that im- 
pressed his acquaintances with tlie conviction 
of his sincerity as a christian. He resided on 
the property half wayl)et-'een Rockaway and 
Denville recently sold by 3Ir. David .\nderson. 
He was noted for his exact regard to truth ami 
his deferring the p'lnishmenl of his children 
until the excitement of theocca&iou had passMJ 

Of these four early Elders I have been told 
by old people that Deacons Allerton and Lum 
sat under the pulpit during the service, that 
Deacon Beman led in singing, and Deacon 
Huntington or one of t he other Deacons read 

*In bis last illness General Winds was at- 
tended by Dr. John Darbe of Parcippany who 
acted as" his physician, then as his minister, 
and finally as his lawyer. He prescribed for his 
disease, censoled him in his dying hour, drew 
up his will, preached his funeral sermon, and 
wrote bis epitaph. His gra"e is in the rear of 
the old church and the mimument bears this 
inscription : 'Under this monument lies buried 
the body of Wm. Winds, Esq., who departed 
Oct. I2th, 1789, in the 62d year of his a";e, &c." 
(See article ir these annals "William Wind.s.") 

John Darbe was graduated at Yale 1748. 
licensed by Suffolk Piesbyteiy 1749. ordained 
hv the sanie 1757, settled at Connecticut Farms 
1758, staid two years, removed after 17(!8 to 
Parcippany, withdrew from New Y^rk Pres- 
bvterv 177:1. 



tlio Pnalm line by lino. Tbev we'e veucrablo, 
pious, effifioct men. at.d wurtLy first to hotel 
office in the church which was to hvc long 
after they bad asccncUd to their rrut. 

The iiauies of Moses Tiittle, Jacob Ford, Jr., 
Stejjhcn Jackson, Benj:iaiin Beach, Al)raliani 
Kitchel, und many other important m mbers of 
the congregation do not appear in the records 
until soaie years afterward. The inference is 
that they were not then hving here or too 
yiMinji to take a part in it. By detd 
dated September 17th, 1759, WiUiam Winds and 
l(nh'<niHh his wife c >nvey to .Jostph Jackson, 
fathei of Stephen, a tract of 1(!2 C-10 acres, part 
of Peun's tract of r2oO acres, whi< h lay in whole 
or in part between the Dover road and the 
Korkaway river. In 1769 after the i eAth of 
Joseph Jacki-on, this tract of l(i2 acres is mon- 
!ion<d in the inventory of his cflF.cts as " tlie 
plantation." The first mention Iliud of Stephen 
Jai-kson, who was a liberal friend of this diurch, 
is 176S wuen Uobert Schooley conveys to Joseph 
and Stephen Jiickson one-f jurth of a property 
'•commonly known as SchooleyV Foroje." This 
was at Dover back of the house receutly f 187(J) 
built by Alphius Bcenier, Esq., on the soutli 
sl.le of the road to Succ snnna. The next year 
■'Joseph Jackson, \eomau," conveys his riRht 
in Seliooley's Forj^e to "Stt-pbeu Jackson of 
Mendhaoi. Blooim r." This was the oeginniuj^ 
of the fine property which lie acquired by 
Ihiift and iudusiry. He was tiiteen years old 
wlien h s fulher bou^jlit the tract of William 
Win(l^ the year the church was rai nd. 

In nWJ and 17i>2 the name of Mosis Tnttle is 
on siibst'i ipijon papers, and in I7G7 lie wss one 
ofh commute' I" agree 00 tlie terms of settle- 
iiKiiit wiln his brothtr the IJev. Juioes Tuttlc, 
tne pas. or of the dinrcb. He prohal)ly 
came to Mount Pleasant about 17.')(i to manajje 
llie lurue propel tv at that place foi bis lather- 
in-law. Col. Jacob Fori'., Sen., who was the 
original builder of that forge. He (Col. Ford) 
look up Irom the proprietors the land <t)veriiig 
'•the tails of the bii'iich <if the Koekaway"^t Mt. 
P.ensaiit and ftherti the forge stood, .is early as 
175(1. A location b low on the same stream in 
)7.j7 is .spokin of as below said Ford s Iron 
Works. As early as 17.'>7 -how much earlier 1 
cannot learn - Mr. Tut tie's bruther-io-'aw Col. 
Jacob Ford, Jr., Imilt a forge at Denmark and 
liveil thereuntil 1770 when he built the large 
, stone house at Mt. Hope. In 1772 he sold his 
-Mount Hope property (o John Jacob Fwsch. 
The books of the church sh iw tliat Col. Ford 
was an active member ()f thecongregblion dur- 
ing the few years he was here. 

The name of Benjanun Beach T do not find 
on our records until 17119 whore he is named as 
oiu! of the pari-.h Collictors. He was the son of 
Abler lit acli wli"se name Ireijueutly occurs on 

the records of the Mornst:,wn cliurch, and w;ih 
when chosen Colledor but 24 years of age. II 
was noted lor his prcci8ene>s in business, an '. 
the exact uiaiiagenient of everything about 
him. His rule was "a |)lace lor everything aii.l 
eveiything in its place." and the transgicsset- 
of tbit rule leceived no quarter Irom him. 
Although not a member of the church mil II 
he WHS an old m n, be freqncnily acted a- 
Trustee and in other capacities b.y appoiuimcnt 
of the congret.''ation, and bore' his snaio in iIk- 
peeiiniary burdens ot the chun-h. 

In April, 1773, Abraham Kitcbel is mentioin d 
as MiKlerat«u' of tlie parish meeting, in wliic'.i 
capacity, and a» Trustee, Committeeman, aiel 
Collector, he frequently served tlio parii-h. His 
brother, Aaron Kitcbel, was out of the mo.-r 
iuielligent men in iht county, taking a proni- 
iiK ut |)art iu the ICevolution, and frequentl.v 
.serving the State in the Provincial and the 
Contiui'iital Congress, Abraham was a man n!' 
better education than was cmuniou in his d.iy 
among men wlio had not been trained id tin- 
higher schools and co'loges. From the time 
he came into tue Parish uiilil he left it in tlo 
Fail of 17'J2 be w;is a leading man, wliose fiini- 
uess sometinu's anioui.led to obstin;icy. H;- 
was a mau of some unmor, gjoai inaepeiiden»> 
lud p lysieal streiiijth. He was iu the employ 
of Beiij iiuiii (.'ooper at Hibeniia with his team. 
On oneoceasKm liappenug lo mt et Cooper try 
a very bail mud bole be asked hi n to have i; 
rtxe'il. t3<Miper gavi him a rough an.swer, an I 
Kitcbel sei/.> il liiiu and threw him into the niii i 
bole s lying, •• wet., then, I will m<;ud it wiJ.i 
you I" Havmg '•neither poverty nor riclie.- ' 
he was libend i^ec<irdiug to Ins means, ami 
whe.. ho removed he leli his i a'o sons Janu - 
au'l Ford to assist in cinying (he burden el' 
the ehuic'i, a task which thty wire not loth ic 
perfoim many veais. He first lived in a lo- 
house near the old stone house, not slandiii, 
now. but orinipied m.uiy vearsby his son .lanji > 
Kitcliil. In 17. (i James wa.s in tljc army jnd 
was brought to Hanovei sick of "Vanii) disn lu- 
pi r." His mother. Charity Ford, in nuisin- 
liiin caught the dis(;a>e and dieil October 7. h. 
ITiG, the very day that the Kitehel house w;i-. 
raised. I have been tolil that Abraham Kitcbel 
once owned tbi' place now held by Col. S. s. 
Beach, which he- exchanged with Francis Me- 
Carty for the White M<adow property. H- 
built the Muir bouse and occUj^ied it uniil 
Noveml>er, 1792, when he sold it to Bernaiu 
Smith. He died at Parsipywuiy Jan. lltb, 1H(I7. 

To thif list I must add one more, althongli 
he did not remove into our boumls until 177-'. 
I refer to John Jacob F.iese^h, for many yeai> a 
leading man iu this region. H<' was a (lorniin. 
u native of H 'se-C^assel, and was sent to t'lih 
eouiiMy by '• tile L ludo:) Ooaipiuy '' as t'l. 


niaoager of tbcir estoasiv3 iron works in 
IJerguu County aw it then was, but in Passaic 
an it now iu. In April, 1710, one Cornelius 
Board sold a tract ol" land to Josiab Ogden, 
John Offden, Jr., David Ojrdcn, Sr., David 
Ogdtn, Jr., and Ui^al ()s;dtn, all of Newark, and 
associated to;<etber under the corporate name 
uf "the Riugwood Company. This company 
bought other lands in that vicinity, and built 
iron works on the property. In July, 1764, 
"the Uio'^'Wood C.fiupany " sold to "'Peter 
H.i8en;lever, late of London, merchant" for 
five tliousand pounds all the company's lands 
at lliugwood. The deed states that on the 
property are "erected and standing a furnace, 
two forges and several dwelling houses." Ha- 
scuclever also bought laud of Joseph Wilcox 
and Walter Erwin in th(! vicinity of Riugwood, 
and of oiie Delancey an 1 others ; he bought 
Jen thousand acres three miles from Uingwood. 
(E. Jersey Itvjcords, Liber B, 3 pp. 76 -US.) 
I suppose he also bought 'he Charlottenburgh 
tra(!t. This Hasenclever was the agent of the 
"L indon Company " and with him was lasoci- 
ati.<l Mr. Faesch who ea.jie to this country 
about 176o. (Mrs. li^tsy Doland's statement.) 
For «om'j cause tlu of Hiseu- 
ckver and Fiicscli did not satisfy their e.m 
p'oyers who superseded them probably in 177-' 
by one Hum|)hries who was srperseded by a 
very intelligent Scotehuian, Ribcrt Erskine. 
I have Erskine's copy of his own letter to that 
effect. Faeseh then purchase, 1 the Mount 
Jiope ftropcrty of Col. Jicob Ford, Jr., and iu 
Septomb r 177"i for the a im of one thousand 
two bu.dred and lorty-six pounds, seven shil- 
lings and six piiice he bought of Wiiliam 
Buruet and John Johnson six thousand and 
two hundred acres in Pequannook, known as 
.'•The Mount Hope Tract" which was located 
Ih'ii yeai by thtm at F.vesch's " request"— the 
property bought of Ford being locations in 
wliolc or in part within the large survey. 
The same year he built the Mount Hope 
Furnace and employed ' many workmen. 
He soon became a contributor to the 
►"xpenscs of the church, and hi-s dashing 
signature terminating in a flourish in 
form like a tobacco pipe, may be seen on many 
subscription pape's which are still preserved. 
Wlieu the Revolution began he took the side of 
the colonies and was regarded a very (varra 
patriot. He cast large quantities of balls and 
shell for the American Army. On one occasion 
during t'te war he had the honor of entertain- 
ing Washington at Mount Hope for a day. 
8ome years after the war he left his Mount 
Hope property and removed to Moiristown 
where he converted the " old Magazine " build- 
ing, on south-east corner of Morris Greon, into 
a dwelling. Subseqneutlj he removed to "Old 

Boon ton ' whore he died in 1799 and was buried 
at Morristown. Tbo-Mouut Hopa Tract after 
Mr. Faesh's death was sold by Gca. D ouglitv. 
a commissioner appointed by the Court of 
Chancery for that purpose, who had it surveyed 
and divided into lots by Lemuel Cobb, father of 
the late Judge Andrew B. Cobb, in 1805 or there- 
abouts. Here I may add that his friend Hasen- 
clever according to some is the hero of a tradi- 
tion in this community, that on his death beJ 
he ordered a considerable sum of money to be 
paid to the trustees of this church, provid<nl 
they would bury his body under the pulpit 
of the old church. Several old people, now 
dead, have told me that his body wa.s buried 
under the pulpit, but the books make no 
mention of the money being received for a 
privilege which in former days was so highly 
prized in the Old World. Some of my infor- 
mants say that a Capl. Friesburgh was the 
person. Concorning Mr. Faeseh I may add 
the words of a very discriminating man who 
knew him well : " In his relations to society he 
was vety generous and large-heart'^d. Hr/ 
did much to support religious institutions iu 
the commnuity, not from any person il interest 
in such things, but because in his opinion these 
institutions werj a p )Werfnl means to keep the 
;ower clasie" in proper siibjeelion." In thjsj 
opinions he was not singular ; he then had. and 
he now has, many "like-minled with hiiimdf." 
not clearly rocognizing the great truth tint 
every man, rich m- poor, master or slave, ueed^ 
Dot merely religious edu^jation but a new heari 
to tit him for livery social sphere iu this lile us 
well as for the im:nortality beyond t'ae giave. 

Joseph Hoff, the son of a gentleman in Hun- 
terdon County, in the Spring of 1775 becimo 
the in inager of Hibernia works for Lord Stir- 
ling. His letters show that he was a o( 
very considererable intelligence. He was here 
two .'ears. After liis death his brother Charles 
Hoff, the son-in-law of Moses Tuttle, succwe led 
him, and whilst living there his house was 
robbed by a troop of Tories, led by the famous 
Claudius Smith. Mr. Hifl afterw:.rd re- 
moved to Mount Pleasant and hi^ family have 
never watered in thnir attachment to this 
church. The descendants of Moses Tut'le and 
his w.fe Jane, daughter of Col. Jacob Ford, Sr., 
ill at least two lines have baou and they are 
still ranked among our best friends. The fifth 
generation m each line is now on the stage. 

Deacon John Cobb, residing where Mr. 
Halsey now, (1858,) hves, was an jctive and 
useful member of this society in early times. 
He built the first frame house in Rockaway. 
It was removed to south of ths forge to make 
way for the large house buiJt by Col. Joseph 
Jackson and now occupied by E. D. Halsoy. 
As early as 1776 Benjamin Jackson's name also 



boRina to appear in the traiiaactions of tue 
church. Ho was a spiightly young man witli 
"music in hira" m mire senses tlian one. He- 
was gifted with a sharp tongue somewhat char- 
acteristic of t'le family ; his temperament was 
both ardent and firm ; honorable in his 
feelings 1h> was lionored even wlien a young 
man ; hut his chief merit was his love of sscred 
music. The old people of a few years ago were 
wout to describe the clearness, sweetness and 
compass ol his voice, very mnch as the atten- 
dents on the modern opera describe the voices 
of the world-noted tenors. He had no equal 
in this region as a singer of sacied music. It 
is not difficult lo imagin.:; the process by which 
he and his young friends wore led to think that 
the " lining the Psalm " by one Deacon, and 
" the setting of the tune " by another, were t» 
be borne no longer than circumstances would 
permit. Concerning this collision so famous 
in our history 1 may have more to say in 
another ylace. 

There are other names belonging to the early 
period of our history which deserve mention, 
such for instance as Willys Pierson, one of the 
tr^.^tee8 in 17UJ, Jacob Garigues, the grand- 
lather of onr Elder, the Burwells, one family of 
whom removed to Canada and there attained 
wealth an(l social position, Goorge Stickle, tla- 
sou of a G.ninaii. and after Gt-orge Harris— 
who taught he first school in Uockaway— one 
of the earliest and most thorough school 
teachers. There is not a teacher in New Jersey 
who can excel the penman-hip of either Harris 
or Suckle which 1 have now in mv possession. 
To these names I might add the names of 
Kobort .Vvres, Joseph Beaian of Dover, brother 
of David, William Iloss who for a time was an 
officer in the church, Chiliou Ford, Robert 
Giiston. Bernard Smith, John JIcGibbons and 
Henry Tuttle, able to build pews for themselves 
in the old church, Benjamin Piuddeu of whom 
the church lot and burying grounJ vere 
bought, James Pufl' Loacy, Eliakim Anderson, 
Frederic Miller, Deacon John Clarke, Josiali 
Hard, Amos Lindsley, Silas Haines, Isaac 
Southard, and soma others who either assisted 
in founding the church or bore a part in sustain- 
ing n during the first year of its exisleuco.* 

I have endeavored thus to place before you 
some of the men who assisted to found our 
church or to support it during its infancy. A 
very cursory examination otourchurch records 
show us that they were none of them educated 
to any greater extent than in the common 
branches, and the most of them very imper- 

♦The Kitchel, Beach and Tuttle families came 
from Hanover. The Jacksons, Beuians, Winds, 
from Long Island, the Palme-s from New 
England, the Ford* and Hotfs from Hunterdon 
Count V. 

fectly even ir these. Some of them signed 
their names by proxy ; and the most of 
those who could write show that their 
hands were more accustomed to the axe-helve, 
crowbar, or forge-tongs than to the pen. It is 
very rare to find a single subscription paper, 
or petition, or entry made by them iu which 
there are not ludicrous errors in spelling and 
grammar. This is not to be wonderrid at for 
I had been told by Dr. Lewis Condict that in 
his boyhood the children ancl young people in 
this country had few cdncaiional privileges 
beyond the occasional night school in winte/, 
and the scanty instruction in the chimney 
corner. Col. Jackson once informed me that 
George Hums taught the first si-hool ever 
opened in this parish in 1784. This was near 
the house now occupied by Dr. J. D. Jackson. 
All Mr. Harris' scholars that quarter came from 
thirteen families and were in number twenty- 
eight. What people then acquired was princi- 
pally by their own efforts with very little as.>-is- 
tance. The wonder is not that the literary 
performances of our pioneers were so faulty, 
but rather that they are so good as to express 
the ides of the authors, an excellence not 
always attained byediicated men. Our father.'* 
were plain, sensible, and hard-working men. 
They lived in very plain ilwellings, with very 
plain furuituie, and on verv plain food. The 
luxuries .vhicb are on the tables of our pcoicst 
pc-ople were rarely seen on the tables of their 
richest. In the Spring the children had their 
only confectionery in the delicious sugur made 
from the maple. The silks ami broadcloths of 
our day have succeeded the home-made linens 
and woolens of their day. The only " hel|i " 
the women had in those days were their «wn 
hard hands and th( ir maiden daughters who 
\fere trained from dvldhood in the mysteries 
of the wash tub, the kneading bowl, the spin- 
ning wheel and the loom. Their hiuids may 
not have been so white as young ladies have 
no T, but their cheeks were more ruddy and 
their step more elastic. The men occasionally 
indulged in the luxury of apple whiskey, but it 
was not adulterated, and their plain diet and 
abundant woi'k promoted robust health and 
long life until this region has become famou.s 
for the numbers of its very aged peopb. That 
was not the age of baby jumpers, tiglit sto''e 
rooms, and paper shoe-solos. The men did 
inanlv work in a manly way, and the women 
aspired after Solomon's " virtuous woman " as 
their beau ideal of excellence. (Prov. 31. 10— 
31.) The simplicity of their times is seen in 
the facts stated to mo by more than one, that 
young woman have been known on 6undav to 
walk barefooted until they reached the vicinity 
of the meeting-house before Ihey put on tbo 
carefully preserved shoes which were so haul 



to procure. Tbe 8lioe inakor watt an itenerant 
from liouse to hoiiso aud his wire " like aoRels" 
visits, lew and far between." Tliiy bad no 
f-ii ors. Tbe good honse-wife and her daugh- 
ters were able to naake the clothes of the men 
who had too much hrrd work in hand to in- 
dulge in the Inxury of a " close fit." We might 
•say of the man ot those times : 

•For him light labor spread her wholesome 
store — 
Jnst gave what lite required, but gave no 
more ; 
His bist companions, innocence and health ; 
Aud his Irfest rich'.-a, ignorance of weath." 

From this picture of tbe people in early times 
b.t us now tuin to the principal work which 
they be, 'an. You will undoistaud me as not 
roferring now to the fields which th«iy cleared, 
the houses and mills they bnill, the roads they 
laid out and mines they opened, but to the 
ChuicU which they founded and sustained in 
theifaee of very extraordinary difficulties. I 
have already stated that on the 2d of March, 
1758, tbe tirttt step was taken towards building 
a meetiDg-house and securing iu connection 
. with the cbureh at Varsippauy the ser- 
vices ol a raiiii!-tcr. The parish iecords furnish 
no evidence that the atti mpt to settle a niinistir sui-ctssful at that time. A subscription 
dated St ptcniber 24th. 1760, renews the attempt, 
but with what success we are not int'ormi-d. 
The fact that iu 1762 another subscription 
Slates that a sum of luouey is needed ■' to pay 
the arrearages of minister's rate, togellier wiih 
the cost of the parsonage lands supoosed to be 
thirty or forty pounds in the whole" shows 
that the infant congregation had had more 
preaching than was paid for. Who preacbeJ' 
here IJrst is entirely matter of conjecture. It is 
very likely that Green of Hanover, Johnes of 
.Morrisowu, and Pier:(on of Mendham may have 
oreacbed here occasionally and that the Pres- 
bytery of New York may have sent occasional 
supplies. I know nothing beyond the fact that 
they had some preaching. So far as I have 
been able to disc(»ver there is no record in exis- 
tence showing just where the Presbytery took 
action in the organization of the church and 
who were the ministers officiating. The names 
of the first members cannot be found, except 
ns some of them may be interrtd from certain 
documents and traditions. We know that it 
was a Presbyterian church from the beginning, 
because the founders assessed their " rate " 
" to pay a Prespetenng minister." We know 
siso that it never swerved from its original 
prefer;*ncc8, except for a year when one of its 
pastors joined the semi-Congiegatioual body 
known as the "Associated Presbytery of Morris 
County." (Howe's His. Moiris Co. Pres. 
MSB.— See Ch. Manual p. 7 ) 

It is a matter of interest to ascertain some of 
tbe names of the original members of this 
church. Among them were Job Allen and his 
wife Mary, David Beman and his wife Mary, 
Mrs. Huldah Benian, wife of Josiah who joined 
in 1794, William Ross and his wife, William 
Winds and his wife Ruhamah, John Hunting- 
ton and his wi^e Elizabeth, Obadiah Lutu aud bia 
wito, Jacob Allerton and his wife, Jacob Garri- 
gus and his wife, Lois, wife of John Harrimau, 
the wife of John Stag, I think it safe to take 
it for gaanted that these were all original mem- 
bers of the church, and there may have been 

In the manual of this church published in 
1833 it is stated that " the Presbyterian Church 
at lloclcaway may be said to have been founded 
about the year 1766, although the first meet- 
ing-house (of wood) was raised in September, 
1752." I suspfct that " 1752 " is an error of 
the printer for " 1762," there is some reason 
for questioning the accuracy of both these 
statements. Although the original subscrip- 
tions of Mnrch 2d, 1758, do not say iu so many 
words that a I'rusbyteriau society was either 
formed or was about to be, it is clearly implied 
in their wishing to unite with the Prc!«!'yit riaa 
church iu Parsippany in hiring a minister. 
Tbe subscription of 17C0 mentions the kin<l of 
minister they were seeking. He was to be a 
Piesbyterian. In the deed forthelot on which 
the meeting-bouse was built, Uenjarain Pruddon 
in 1762, grants lauds to a body of men ''cbosi n 
Trustees by the Parish of Itockawa.v" which 
land IS " to be and remain for tbe Bont^fit and 
use of the Presbctonan church of Roccaway" 
&c. It 18 lair to assume then that the church 
came into being in 1758, and that the meeting- 
house-was built, not by all denominations and 
lor all, but expressly for a Presbyterian church 
which already had, it not a corporate existence, 
yet an actual one. 

As for the date of the raising of the meeting- 
house it was supposed until recently that it 
was in 1760 but an examination of the recordn 
show that that date is no. correct. Under 
date of March 20th 1794, there is an entry on 
the Parish records which settles the matter. 
It appears that Col. Jacob Ford, Sr., had aided 
the church as waj said to the amount of a hun- 
dred pounds. Whether this was a gift or a 
loan I am not able to determine. Perhaps part 
was a donation and part a loan. At the date 
above named we have this entiy. "Job Allen 
took Peter Hiler's Bond to Troy to Collect on 
account of a Debt Due the Estate of Col. Jacob 
Ford, Sen'r against the parish for Building the 
Meting hous a Balance Due on said account of 
£29, 11. 1 Dated Oct. 26. h 1760 was presented 
by Moses Tu tile as due to him. The consid- 
eration of the above was put off for further in- 



foriuation." Fmiiinateh th\s account was re- 
coDtly — 1876— found amooR the papers of 
Moses Tuttle in possession of Miss Harriet 
Huff, and shows that the nieefing-house wai* 
raised in 17^)9, and partly enclosed. The same 
acconnt shows that Klass, paint, and floor 
boards were lought next year (1760; to finish 
the house. 

As for buildiag on land for which they had no 
doed, (and the land was not taken up from the; 
proprietors by Prntlden or conveyed by him to 
the church till 1862,) it may be said that in a 
country where land was so plenty and cheap, 
the risk was small. 

The note which the trustees gave to Bonja 
min Prudden in August 1762 speaks of "Willis 
Picrson and Job Allen ot peqnanac being 
chosen trustees for the parish of rockaway to 
lake a deed for the laud on which the nieetiu 
hous stands " and the deed itself shows that 
the house was built before Prudden gave a deed 
for the land. It has been a cwmmon opinion 
ID this community that some one gave the land 
now occupied as a burying yard as common 
property to the community. This is a mistake. 
On the 24th of August, 1702, "Benjamin 
Piuddeo ot PaquaunacK in the couuty of .Morris, 
and in the province ot New Jersey for and in 
coDsid-'iatiou ot the sum of three pounds one 
HbiUing and six pence" couveyed to "'Willis 
iV-rsoii, Job Allen, and Ol)ad!ah Lum " " tr is- 
tees of the paiish o' Roccuway " " foi tie 
benefit and use of tht Presbyterian Church of 
Ko.caway" the tin acres and iLirty perch" 
which make up ihe church lot. The trustees 
paid part of the pucliase money and gave 
then note for the balance £6:15:8, and that 
note I ba\e with the endorsed payments on 
It. (Copied Kecords pp. 7-10.) 

The Hist burial iu the yard was in 1762. To 
this I may add that on the 29lb of October, 
1702, the pruprieters of East Jersey conveyed 
100 acres of land to the parish •' within one 
mile of llockaway meeting house." The Tom 
Man lot, part of Adam Earles' property and the 
l.inds of Jos. H. Jackson (in 1870) south of the 
Dtuville roa:l are a part of that land. (Sc e 
copy of Deed U cords of Pros. Ch Ilock'y.p. 11.) 
The parsonage was built on this tract. 

The first subscription for building the church 
amounted to £75:10-6, equal to 4boul $188. 
To this it is said that Col. Jacob Ford, Sen., of 
Morristown, added one hundred pounds, one 
reason for the gift being the fact that he wat 
the ownir of much property in this region. It 
18 iKJBsiblc that he did not make bis very gen- 
erous gift totbechurcli nntilafterhis son-in-law 
Muses Tuttle removed to Mouiii Pleasant in 
1760, the very year the church frame was 
raised. It was barely enclosed, and a floor .if 
Icobo Louids was laiil. It wat milhcr ceiled 

nor plastered. The seats vcre unplanvni boaid'^ 
laid on stones and blocks of wood. It bad no 
fire plii'^e, or stove. It was a mere shell, and 
a very rude and comfortless one. And in sucij 
"a tablcnacle in this wilderness" diet out 
fathers worship God. Here occasionally wer«? 
heard the voices of the miuisfers who tolt as 
we do now, that " the harvest is groai but the 
laborers few." 

No move was male to render tho house nn^rf- 
comfortable until 1768, when the first pastor 
was installed over this church and that at Par- 
sippany. From the mutilated record of a pansli 
meennrt that veai it appears that the chu:ch 
had been defiled with some "indecent pAintiujr" 
wliich was to be removed. It was resolved 
that *' tho meeting-hous should bo altered ' 
and "newcs be maid in the form of Morristow;i 
meeting bous," "that tho seats in the body of 
the hoiis he mado first and John McGibbons to 
be over sear of the work and to provide meter- 
ials NedefuU for the work, and that Samue! 
Lewis do all the work, Matthew Lnm of Mor- 
risiown and Nallianicl Mitchel to set a price ;>n 
the whole of tho Laborer." \i the same 
meeting it was " voted to sweap tl^e meelin^; 
lioust: once a fortuite :ind keep the doors shnt, 
for tho term of one ye .ir next insniug." Tlii'i 
valuable office of ''door keeper in the house ol 
The Lord " " being set iii) at ven.lue was '"ouglit 

l>y John for ten Kijillitigs." .\lso "voti'J 

Mr. Daved Bcman, Chomsier and Mr. Ja.ot- 
Vlhngton to li %-ivl ihc psal ..." (tJopied ParisJ 
lU'cords p. 33. ) Ap])ar('iitly in the same p( rimJ 
at a parish meeting it was ''proposed whether 
a stove may i)e allowed in tlie Meeting Hou-- . 
Resolved, That a siove be allowed, and that <f ii. 
may be found pornitioiis that then on complaint 
that it may be so pornitious that then in JU.-fi 
case it may removed from thence By a future 
meeting— if proper." (lb. p. 31) The hazard- 
ous experiment was not made urtil nearly two 
generations- durinj^ a apace of htif a century 
had *luly considered tho matter. I have tlu' 
bdls for the portly box stove and pipe whicli 
had the lionor in 1819 to inaugurate fires in tlj< 
church. The slovo cost £r):r2:10, equal to 
$14.81, and the pipe cost $26.26. Tlie tinu 
when they were procured was in January 1810! 
For nearly sixty years th< to was no beat; io 
tht old church except that which was generate i 
in the lieart.s of its attendants by their love/)!' 
cbnrcli privileges. 

In seating tho church there was a gontU 
mixture of aristocracy permitting the richer 
m<!mbers of the congregation who " are a mind 
to build pews in the meeting hous lo agre*- 
among themselves where each one's pew sba I 
be, provided they dont interfere with thesquair 
body of the church or in the alleys and o'lppsw 
ou each side of tho pulpit." But as if to sht » 


tbenc tavorcd persons with dcpp purses tha' 
the people bekl the power aud would not outter 
too wide distinctions to be made in tbe Laird's 
botise, " motion made wbcther there shoukl be 
cannipys over tbe pews, aud voted not." 
•'These pews to be rased six inches witli the 
false floor, and to be plain and not Bannister 
but with pannel work." And in order to guard 
:!gainst a danger which since that time has 
not threatened the cliurch, the. raising of so 
much morey as not know to what to do witb the 
surplus, tbe good, careful souls V(jted tliat " if 
tliere should be more money raised tliau was 
needful to build the seats in the meeting hous 
it IS to be made US3 ot to Reoair the parsnige 
lious.' (Copied Kceor .s pp. 31-3:J. ) 

The records have a plan showing how the 
pews were arranged and who occupied i.iem 
originally. Ihe plan shows that tliere was a 
(U)or on the East, and "a Great Door " '.in the 
South side of the church. The pulpit was at 
the North end, and its place is marked by two 
maple trees on the north side of Dr. Jackson's 
l)urying yaid. The tiecs were planted by Col. 
Jackson after the old iiouse was taken down. An 
aisle was in front of the pulpit the entire width 
iif the hoLise, and the broad aisle extended 
through the center to the south door. Parallel 
with this on either sitle was a narrow aisle 
.separated from the wall by the width of a pew. 
The body of the house was divideJ into slips, 
'i'he square' pews weie on each side of the 
pulpit anu on the. wall side o. the two small 
iinnh and south aisles. Tli'iy were, previous 
to the tiuishing of ihe house in ITlti, thirteen 
in num'oer. These were numbered commen- 
cing with the wall pew on tlie West end of the 
)jnipit. That pew "'No. 1" was built and oe- 
eiipied by Dea. John Huntington. No. 2 
liy Gen. William Winds, number 3 and 4 
immediately next the pulpit on either side 
Were "for public use," the one being for 
'"the Deacons' pew," and the other for the 
minister's family. No. 5 was built and occupied 
by Col. Jacob Ford, Jr., at that time re- 
siding at Denmark. Benjamin Cooper & Co. 
occupied No. G; Moses Tuttlc occupied No. 7, 
which was the iirst pew down' the East aisle ; 
John McGibbons had No. 8 ; and William Ross 
No. 9 m the same aisle. James Pufi'Losey had 
No. 10, being the Iirst one on the West aisle ; 
.Job Allen had No. 11 ; Henry Tuttle had No. 
12 and Isaac Southard No. 13. The owners of 
those pews were obliged to ceil the side of the 
house as high as the top of the pews. This 
slight protection was the only approach to 
inside ceiling or plastering until 179i, The 
same plan indicates that about half the ca- 
pacity of the body of the house was seated for 
the use of such as had not the ability or incli- 
nation to build pews for themselves. Just 

picture the sanctuary as the first past )r minis- 
tered in it. The pews cover a very sniail 
portion of the upright posts and joists, and 
with this exception posts, joists, beams, rafters 
and braces are in plain sight. There is many 
a knot hole and split in the white wood side- 
boards through which both light and air har- 
moniously enter. The whole building is so 
ventilated in those days the ladies did not 
faint, and tbe minister did not coratjhiin of 
suffocation from a close and over-heated room. 
In the winter time the only self-indulgence 
there allowed was in the foot stoves of the 
ladle?. In the summer time for many years 
the swallows claimed the free use of the meet- 
ing house except during the short portion of 
time devoted to pu')lie worship on the Sabbath. 
Even then the little fellows were wont occa- 
sionally to dash into the house with twitter 
and flurry not quite in keeping with the worship 
of the hour. Young Joseph Jackson with an 
irreverence scarcely to be blamed, many a time 
in Summer divided his thoughts between the 
discourse of the minister and wat:'.hing the 
swallows. In fact being som:jwhat ooservaut 
he thought the religious services of those days 
were too long for the good of the untledgcd 
swallows! not to mention the boys like himself. 
Beneath the pulpit sat Deacons Huntington 
and Allerton, both men of venerable aspect, 
and in front of the pulpit Deacons Beman and 
Lewis, the one chorister and the other " Clark ' 
to read t!ie lines. Whciher De;icou Lum read 
well I cannot say, but I suspect the nervous 
quickness with which Deacon Beman lei the 
singing and that not with to much melody of 
voice as of heart, must have excited a smile in 
young Benjamin Jack.son. who very early 
thought himself a good singer, aud .>-o did 
others. The slips were not crowded with people, 
because there were very few people in the 
region. I suspect it was in one of these slips 
that the misehievious boy was that Sunday 
morning when Gen. Winds got sight of him, 
and rose instantly to bring his wagon whip on 
the culprit's bacK, punishment more summary 
than welcome, i^igh over all hung the pulpit 
with its ominous .sounding board nearer the 
swallows nest than we in our day approve. 
Yet that plain pulpit had in it three powerful 
agencies, an English Bible, a Watts' Hymn 
Book, and a good man. The pews and slips 
were not crowded with persons of wealth and 
fashion and learning, but all the accounts agree 
in saying that those meu and woman were full 
of self-reliant energy, and that many of them 
were distinguished for their pietj% They 
prayed at home, taught the Bible and Catechism 
to their children, had very few books but these 
were generally of tbe solid kind and. well read, 
overcame the real difficulties of long distances 



and a comfortless meeting-house to hear the 
gospel, and in })roporlion to their means made 
sacrifices to sustan the church which lose 
nothinq; by comparison with the sacTiticcs of 
their successor^ of the present time. 

I have dwelt en these little things concerning 
the mectinji-hoHso and the people who wor- 
shipped God in it, a« they appeared in 1768, m 
oraer that you viiay be able to compare that 
past time with the present, and thank God that 
your fathers had enough piety and perscjvcr- 
ance to carry the infant enterprise through 
difflculries which were really formidable. 

Let us now retrace our steps to describe 
another event of great importance to the 
church. There is a mutilated recordota parish 
meeting the design of which was to take meas- 
ures tj secure a ministt^r in connection with 
Parsippany. Although the date is worn 
off, Col. Jackson puts it down as Dec 23d 

1766. (Church Manna) p. 3.) March 2d 1767 a 
meeting was held at which the name, of Mr. 
James Tuttle was mentioned as a candidate for 
the joint-pastorate of the two churches at 
Rod' away and Paisippany, and the suggestion 
resulted in the appointment of " a com:nittee 
to agree with the .said Mr. Tuttle." On the 
11th of May following the parish resolved to 
call Mr. Tuttle. Job Allen and Obadiah Lum 
were chosen as a committee to see about his 
ordination. Deacon Beman was sent to the 
Presbytery " to carre the call and get an 
answer." Later in the year— the date is 
thumbed off— at another meeting "Jub Allen 
and Jacob Allerton were chosen a comite to 
agree with Mr. James Tuttle, and with Pcrsip- 
ening to heir (hire) a parsonage uot to buy 
one," The minute of a meeting in Dacember 

1767, shows the matter was .^till in negotiation, 
but on the 13th of April, 1763, the arrange- 
ments were eo far completed that William 
Winds, Obadiah Lum, Jacob Allerton, Divid 
Bet.ian, and Benjamin Prnddtn were appointed 
a co-.jmittec to rccsive Mr. Tuttle "for our 
society" at the oidination and installation 
services which were to take place at Parsip- 
pany. (Copied Records pp. 29-30. ) He was or- 
dained and installed in April 1768, the tirst 
minister of two feeble churches. 

The Rev. James Tuttle was the son of Col. 
Joseph Tuttle and his second wife Abigail 
Nutman. He was bom May 7th, 1742, so tliat 
he was twenty-Nix years old when lie was in- 
stalled. His father was a prominent man in 
the Hanover Churcn of which ho was an Elder 
for many years. The mother of our minister 
was a sister of Rev. Joliii Nutman. He was 
fitted for college in the 8cho( 1 of his pastor, 
the Rev. Jacob Green, and was graduated at 
Nassau Hall in 1764. He also studied theology 
with his pastor and prubably assisted in his 

school. In 1767 he was licensed to preach by 
the Presbytery ot New York, and on the 2d ot 
Fob. 1767 he was married to Auna, daughter of 
Rev. Jacob Green. The same year, probably 
attracted by the fact that his brother Moses 
Tuttle was a prominent mi>n in this congrega- 
tion, he preached in Rockaway as a candidate 
and in the .\piil following became the pastor ot 
the chnrch. Concerning him as a scholar, u 
preacher, and a pasior, I have learned very 
little. His ministry here was only during a 
period of two years and seven months. Before 
the close of his second year he became so ill ay; 
to be unable to pieaeh, and in March 1770 " it 
was voted whether Mr. Tuttle shall be allowed 
six months' pay over his yearly salary; on 
payment of which be is willing to discharge the 
congregation from all other expenses and 
charges, providing his illness continues and 
increases so as not to be able to perform in his 
oflice. Voted immediately he shall." (Copied 
Records p. 38.) This vote in connection with 
the increase in " the rate lists " indicates that 
the minister was esteemed by his people. On the 
nth of October, 1770, the Parish "voted clear' 
that we are to sue for a dismission of Mr. 
James Tuttle when the Presbytery sitts." On 
the 23d (jf the same month a similar resolution 
was passed, and a committee consisting of 
Obadiah Lnm, William Winds and John Hunt- 
ington appointed "to represent our parrish in 
ausweriiig any Questions askt by the comitee 
from the presbitery." It was also voted that 
Mr. Tuttle "shall be allowed a consideration in . 
case we are dismissed." The consideration 
was " twenty shillings lite money per month to 
be continued as he continues unfit for service." 
(Copied Records pp. 43-45 ) The good man 
who was the object of so much solicitude died 
at Hanover on the 25th of December 1770. It 
is eighty-eight years since his short ministry 
was closed, and no doubt he was cheered Ijv 
the truths which he had as much commended 
to his flock by his devoted life as by his deliv- 
erances from the pulpit. 

In the graveyard at Hanover is the headstone 
of Mr. Tuttle, an upright, brown free stone 
slab, embellished with the usual Death hea<l 
and otlier figures. The inscription is as 
follows : 

" The Rev'd Jnmes Tuttle 

Died Die. 25 1770 

Aged 28 years. 

He was minister at Percipining in Hanover. 
He had one child only named Benaijau w1:h 
died a (few) weeks belVire him and lies hir 
entomb'd besid its Parrent. 

This man of God had a short race but swilt, 
he ran far in littel time. Few exceeded him in 
sweetness of Temper Tenderness of eon<»cieni'i' 



and fidtlity In liis ministerial work and the 
End ot this man was Peace." 

The Rev. Jacob Green probably wrote the 
epitaph, and I cannot account for his omitting 
to mention Kockaway where Mr. Tattle was 
not only pastor bnt where ho lived in a parson- 
age built expressly for him, except by the fact 
that Mr. Green had thf business of settling his 
.><on-iu-law's estate, ana there was some diffi- 
culty in the settlement of his affairs with this 
parish, which may have produced hurd feelings 
ill the mindi of Mr. Green and his daughter. 

By a careful comparison of the rate and sub- 
scription lists at the close of Mr. Tattle's min- 
isiry wi.b those previous to his coming to this 
place we find proof that the church was 
widening the spheie of its usefulness and in- 
creasing the number of its friends. Thus the 
two earliest papers have respectively twenty- 
nine and ihirty-niije names. The paper of 
1760 has 51 names, that of 1762 has forty 
names, but in 1769 the year before Mr. Tuitlo 
died one " rate list" had 70 names on it. The 
sum assessed on these 70 persons was £62:5:10, 
with which the salary of £60 was to bi^ paid the 
minister for half his time. I may here state 
that jrom the beginning of the cbitrch until 
the close of the century it was customary for 
the property holders in the congregation to 
enter into a written agreement to have their 
property taxed by an assessor and tax collected 
by persons appointed by the parish for tliese 
objects. The assessment was called a "rate list" 
and some of these papers specify how many 
acres of improved land, how many of unim- 
proved, the number of horses, cattle, slaves, 
and the value of each, as the basis of the tax 
for the church. A glance shows how much 
more just this mode was than any other. Thus 
in " the Rate list in 1769 " Mosos Tuttlc a large 
property hoMer was assessed £5:5:4, whilst 
Thomas Love, a man who had more good will 
than nioupy was assessed one shilling and five 
pence Gradually the impartial " Rate List" 
of Mr. Tattle's pastorate was softened down 
into " the Rateable subscriptions " of Mr. 
Carle's ministry. From that it was but a step 
to the voluntary subscription on which a rich 
man if be chooses does no more than the poor 
man "devising liberal things." The "Rate 
List" of the fathers would be esteemed hard 
fare by the children. Under that system the 
cfHce of assessor was the most responsible one 
connected with the temporalities of the church. 
Among the assessors of those days we find the 
names of William Winds, Ehsha Hedden, Wil- 
liam lloss, John Huntington, Job Allen, Moses 
Tmtle, Abraham Kitchel and others. 

Durirg Mr. Tut tie's sickness on " Easter 
Sunday loth of April 1770" Mr. Johnes of Mor- 
ii>town preached and baptizerl Donzie, infant 

daughter of William Ross, Susannah and Josiah 
twin infants of Josiah Beinan, and " Catharine, 
Dennis Harty's wife, one girl." In .September 
and October of that year at the parish meetiivg 
" the Reverend Mr. Lewis of Mendbam 
preached a lecture." (Copied Records p. 43.) 
Except < ccasionally the pnlpit was not occupied 
for some months, "the Deacons' Meeting" 
be'ing the unfailing substitute. On the last 
Sabbath of January the Rev. Mr. Chapman of 
Orange "preach here and cristened Nathan'l 
Morris' child Abijah." On the 9th of April 1771 
the parish meeting was opened with a sermon 
by the Rev. Mr- Horton of Bottle Hill. On the 
lith of July 1771 the Rev. Mr. Kennedy ofBas- 
kingridge supplied the pulpit, and on the 25tli 
of July 1771 "Mr. Simson preach a lector." 
(Copied Records, 47-49-50.) Things moved 
heavily with the temporalities and the spiritu- 
alities of the church, and yet the fathers " held 
on their way," for in their weakness and 
poverty they sent a petition " to the Reverend 
Prysbitery " " to send a candidate if they can : 
if not, to grant us Liberty to hire a minister 
that shall be judged of good standing b\' some 
persons thoy shall appoint if such niiuister 
can be found, and that we don't desire suplies 
sent to us in maner as usual." That ^hey kept 
up their services regulailyis evident because 
the records say, "David Beman agrees to swec)) 
the meeting Louse the year next Insuing, 
Twice a month for which he is to have Elleveii 
shillings." (p. 48.) These items may seem 
insignificant, but they show us what " the day 
of small things" was tt them. They had a 
great work in hand and they met its resp0!>i- 
bihties with I'ath and energy. 

I have detained you a long time and yet tlu 
task I proposed to myself is not accomplished. 
I shall have to beg your indulgence for another 
spportunity to complete the narrative. But 
meanwhile what thoughts press upon our 
minds as we recall the fact it is now a hundred 
years since Job Allen and his neighbors drew 
up the papers which proved the germ of this 
church I This morning we were thrilled to 
think of the changes which have been wrought 
since the senior pastor, a young man, came to 
this place, and yet there is one man who re- 
members the first sermon Father K. preached, 
the text, the circumstances ! But where is the 
witness to stand before us and relate what 
those men said in 1758 as they began our 
church, an enterprise of such difficulties that 
we have wondered why it did not come to 
naught? ^\^lcn the senior pastor was born this 
church was 32 years old, and who but God 
knew that among the hills of old Berkshire a 
child was born who was heaven's consecrited 
and foreordained and most precious blessing 
to the little struggling church here among th(^ 



the bills of old Morris. Did those noble men 
in tbai day of darkness oHer prayers ior a 
pastor to guide and defend ibis flock ; prayer 
registered and to be signally answered in due 
time? Even when the blessing caMie. most of 
the fathers bad fallen asleep, but God is 

A hundred years ago! oh, what havoc these 
years have made among those who founded 
this church and bore it up in the face of un- 
usual difficulties! Job Allen, the Beuians, 
Winds, Lum, Huntington, Allerton, HeJden, 
the Burnwells, Losey, Pierson, Mitchel, Tuttle, 
Ford, Kitchel, Faescb, Jackson, Bi.ach, and 
their coteniporaries are all gone. The waves 
of time have washed away the foot prints in 
ihe sand upon its shore : 

Where, where are all the birds that sang, 

A hundred years ago? 
The flowers that all in beauty spranj? 

A hundred years ago ? 

The lips that smiled, 

The eyes that wild 

In flashes .shone 

Soft eyes upon,- 
Where, O where are lips and eves 
The maiden smiles the lover sighs 

That lived so long ag.i? 

Who peopled all the city streets, 

A hundred years ago? 
Who tilled the church with faces meek 

A Imndrcd years a^o? 

The sneering tale 

Of sister frail, 

The plot that work'd 

A brother's hurt— 
WliL-re, O ivhere, are plots and sneers. 
The poor man's hopes, the rich man s feais, 

That hved so long ago ? 

Where arc the graves where dead men slept, 

A hundrtul years ago ? 

Who when they were living, wept 

A hundred years ago ? 

By other men 

That kn<;w not them. 

Their lands are tilled. 

Their graves are filled, 
Vet nature then was just us f;ay 
\.\<Ji bright the suu shoue as to day, 

A hundred years ago. 

I have said our fathers were bumble people 
working in a secludi-d spot, yet they did a noble 
work in a noble spirit, and I have sought dili- 
gently for what remains of their history that 
posterity might do them at least the justice of 
gratefully memory. It has been to me a labor 
of love, and I do not regret the toil it has cost. 
My only regret is that the work is not better 
done by a worthier hand, but such a.s it is I lay 
it gratefully on the s ;pulchre of the men who 
founded this church in faith and prayer a 
hundred years ago. 


I have already stated that in Oc obcr, 1762, 
L)rd Sterling conveyed one hundred acres ot 
land to Henry Cuylcr Jun., 'in trust for the 

use of the Inhabitants of Rockaway Township 
in Morris County to accommodate a mKiistrr 
of the gospel there." (Recor Is, p. 11.) I find 
mention of a parsonage during the time of tin- 
first minister, and suppose thit during the 
second year of his ministry, 1769, such a house 
was built. In Marjh, 1769, William Winds and 
Willys Pierson were " impowcred toDv'spose of 
the Parsonage Lot and House to the interest 
of the parish acording tj their Decietiou for 
the term of three ye irs next Insniug." In De- 
cember, 17(i9, an "old subscription" .'or '"Parish 
house" is numtioued and certain work done by 
Willys Pierson to that bouse is paid for. The 
records show that Capt. Pierson did work to 
that bouse which the parish did not choose ui 
pay for at that time, and that a year and a half 
passed before his account was ever allowed t'> 
be entered on the book. It amounted to 
£16:18:10; and Jacob Allerton, David B.m.iii 
and John Huntington were appointed " a com- 
mittee to Inspect into the work doue by Lapt. 
person to the parsonage House and determine 
what part there of shall be allowed." (Copied 
Records, pp. 37-i7.) The whole account was 
paid. This parsonage was built on what is 
now known as the " Tom Mann Ljt " owned by 
Joseph Jackson, Jr., near the depot. The 
house was on the hill and its site near an ( lil 
pear tree still standing. It was occupied \:y 
Mr. Baldwin during the earlier part of his min- 
istry until he purchased the property at the 
Southeast corner of the to Franklin leav- 
ing the main rond below Mr. Dav.'d AinUrsun. 
When the Rev. Jtr. Call came (o R )ckaway in 
1792 " a committee was appointed to estimate 
how much every man's part in tlu! is t'l 
Pay towards Building New Parson tge hous." 
Arrangements were also m:ide to sell part of 
•' the old parsonage lands " to pay for the '"uiw 
parsonage lands" bought ol Nathan Shot .veil. 
This is the property now occupied by Mr. Sul- 
livan in Franklin, next to Mr. Seely Tomjikins 
place. The congregation buiit that house with 
great embarrassment, and Mr. Carl lived there 
not more than two years, when " the trustees 
Reported that by and with the consent of Mr. 
Carl they have soald the parsonage whare Mr. 
Carl now lives and tbat Mr. Carl proposes ti; 
find his own parsonage and fire wood and that 
the parish pay him a yearly salary of£200s<i 
long as grain an«i produce holds as they are 
now." (Copied Records, 139-U7.) The con- 
gregation relieved themselves of debts by 
selling the parsonage at Franklin to Dr. 
Ebenezer H. Pierson, and Mr. Carl removed to 
what is now known as the "Berry House" on tin- 
East side of the canal opposite the Mt. Hope ore 
dock, which house his father pnrehased for 
him. This closes up all the congregation's 
cnnnection with pirsoiiagi- lands anil par>on;ige 



houses. No one can blame the people for 
selling the land iu order to get out of debt. 
They undoubtedly did the best they could 
under the circ inistances. 

Let us now go back to the close of the first 
minister's pastorate to glean a few items char- 
acteristic of the times. Thus in March, 1770, 
a parish meeting voted that, " David Beman is 
tn sweep the meeting house one year for 
eleven shillings." (Copied Records p. 38.) 
The clerk closes the record of a meeting in 
April of tho same year with the words, "this 
lieiug the ninth Parish mooting in Mr. Tattle's 
reign." (lb. p. 30.) It will be remembered 
that Bockaway and Parsippany had the same 
miuister, and on the 20th of Oct. 1770, it was 
voted that " we still continue to request (of 
the Presbytery) a dismission from pocipaney." 
(lb. p. io.) This dismission came in the form 
of the pastor's death on the succeeding Christ- 
mas Day. The books show that the people 
had considerable difficulty in collecting money 
to pay what was due Mr. Tuttle. On January 
17, 1771, a parish meeting divided ;eiO:G:7 
among six collectors. These were Jacob Alier- 
ton, ilobert Gaston, B. Cooper, Esq., Wm. 
Walton, Levi Ayres, and Isaac Southard. A 
memorandum in 1771 says, "Last Sunday the 
Rev. Mr. Cliapmau (of Orange) preaeht here 
and cristend Nathau'l Morris' child Abijah. 
(pp. 46-7.) The fact shows that the church 
had occasional preaching after Mr. Tut tie's 
death. In the same year the parish allowed 
Col. Ford to build the minister's pew " on the 
Eastt End of the meeting house at his own 
proper cost" on condition that " Robert Gaston 
and his family have full Liberty to sit 
in it until such times as it may be wanted for 
a minister's family in this society." (lb. 49.) 
On the 25lh of July, 1771, the record, states 
that *' Mr. Simpson preaeht a lector " at the 
opening of the parish meeting, and it was 
resolved that " Mr. Robert Gaston's house be 
appointed '' " to receive and keep any minister 
that shall be cald here to preach until such 
Time as the pai'sonage House is prepared for his 
house, aud that such person be allowed for his 
soport." It was also " voted to give a minister 
Eighty-five pounds litT money per annum 
together witn use of the parsonage aud to Git 
him his fire wood." The next Saobath after 
service, " it being put to a vote whether we 
shjuld give Mr. Simson a call to preach for us 
During the space of six monts or a year next 
ensuing, aud it being put to vote it was carried 
in the atiirmativc that we should give him a 
call as above." (Copied Records, 50-51.) On 
the 25lh of January 1772, Dea. Lum, Dea. 
Allerton aud Moses Tuttle were instructed " to 
agree with Mr. Simpson about his preaching 
here the Time be is now appointed to soply 

U'i." (lb. 52.) On tho 1st of Aprd the parish 
voted to " give Mr. Simpson a call to a settle- 
ment and it waa agreed to a man that we do 
give him a call as above," and that "Deacon^ 
Allerton and Lum and Justice Wind.-' be a 
comiteee to enforce ard Confer with Mr. Simp- 
sou relating to said call." The parish also 
appointed Jacob Ford, Jun., t<j Cary our peti- 
tion for Mr. Simpson to the presbitry at Trin- 
towu." It was further •• voted {o give Mr. 
Simpson twenty-six shillings per Saljbath for 
each Sabbath he hath aud doth preach to us 
before the Next siting of Brunswick presby- 
tery." "William Winds, Esq., Deacon Allerton, 
Deacon Lum, Messrs William Ross, Amos Lind- 
sley and David Bein.nn were appointed a com- 
mittee to sign the call to be sent to the Pres- 
bitry lor the selling of Mr. Simpson here," 
On the same leaf it is written "Mr. John 
Simpson hath Preached here at Rockaway ten 
sabbaths." (Copied Records, 53-.35-56.) The 
people were greatly enlisted in the endeavor to 
secure the settlement of Mr. Simpson, for in 
July a meeting was " held at the Parsonage " 
which "voted that the P.irsouage house be put 
in order convenient for to Live in and a well 
Dug and stoned this fall. Provided that Mr. 
Simpson Excepts the Call for a settlement 
here, and three achors of wheato Put in yearly 
for tue first three years." (Copied Records, 57.) 
Mr, Simpson preached twelve sabbath? and 
then declined tne call of the congregation to a 
permanent settlement. It would be a gratui- 
tous undertaking to assign reasons for a step so 
long as there was one very good reason appa- 
rent, that the field was not very inviting. Mr. 
Simpson afterwards removed to Virginia and 
became a member of the Orange Presbytery. 
In 1774 he is named as a member of that body. 
(Hodges Pres. Ch., p. 2, p. 514.) He was grad- 
uated at Princeton in 17G3 and afterwards re- 
ceived the degree of Master of Arts. (Prince- 
ton Triennial 1854, p. 21.) 

Having failed to get Mr. Simpson tho con- 
gregation in October of the same year— 1772— 
resolved to apply to the " New York presbitry 
for a Candadit and in case the same be not 
agreeable, wo order a petition for Monthly 
supplys, voted Mr. David Beman to be the man 
appointed to wait on tho PresDytery sitting at 
Hanover." The same year Mr. Beman had 
made his usual contract to sweep the Meeting 
House once in two weeks for one year at eleven 
shillings. Who wrote the petition I am not 
able to state. It is copied into the records by 
"John McGibbons, Clarke, being peesent ix 
THE ASSEMBLY," and was signed in behalf of 
the congregation by Deacons Lum, Ross and 
Beman. The i^ctition itself is worthy a place 
in this history of the church, and is as follows, 
viz : 



" To tbo reverend Presbj'tery of New York 
appointed to sit at banover, We tiie Inhabitants 
of tbe parish of Rockaway send Greeting ; Your 
humble petitioners setteth forth tbe Earnest 
desire tboy hove tliat tbe gospel may once 
more be preached among them. The Great 
difficulties we labour under for the want of a 
Gospel minister settled among us occasions a 
great Lnkewarmth among the Generality of 
this congregation and tbe Great falling of from 
Sabbath worship seems a Tale too Lamentable 
to Relate— yet we hope tbo lord in (anger) has 
not Removed his candlestick tottaly from us, 
for he may hide his countenance for a small 
moment yet with Tender mercy he will return 
and cuu^e the Light of his Countenance to 
?hiue upon ns more and more. And to you 
Rev'd Sirsis commited the care of his churches 
and to send forth Labourers into tbe harvest. 
We therefore in tbe name ot our Lord Jesus 
tbe Great bead of his Church Joine in this our 
petition Requesting a Candid ite for this our 
parish if any under your care ; if not we beg 
for supplys according to your wise Directions 
that the flock may not bo Tottaly scattered. 
Aucl as this body in behalf of tbe whole parish 
has appointed David Boman to Represent 
them in this matter and to lay our Great Diffi- 
culties before (you) we trust you will order as 
you seem most needful for us. Which we your 
petitioners Humbly prays. Signed by usacom- 
miltee Chose., in behalf of this parish, 01)adiah, 
Lum, Wm. Ross, David Beamau." (Copied 
Records, 58-50.) 

Tbe practiced eye detects not a few gram- 
matical and orthographical erx'ors in this docu- 
ment, but it has the ring of genuine metal. It 
ehows these men were in earnest, that when 
they had no preaching they sustained public 
worship among themselves, that tbe falling otJ" 
in the numbers of attendants ou these humble 
Sabbath services was a cause of grief to them, 
that they ha I ''great difficulties" to contend 
with, and finally that they were resolved not to 
Kutfer this little flock in the wilderness to be 
'•totally scattered" so long as any oflfort or 
Pclf deiii;il on their i)art could prevent it. 
This was noble. May that good temper never 
be wanting in the church those men committed 
to US in trust for the generations following ! 
Could one of those good men come back to 
us, he might truthfully recall " the great diffi- 
culties •' of his day and tell us that our fathers' 
faith Was not in vain, iu the language they 
often sing. 

" My fauKiiig flosh had died with grief, 
Had not my soul believed, 
T6 see thy grace provide relief— 
Nor was my hope deceived." 

The following entry veiib.\tim et lituhatim 
is a curii-ityahd shows the success of the pe- 

tition sent to Presbytery. '' in complyanee with 
the 4 vote passed at a parish meating held at 
David Bemans October 26, 1772, s'd Beman 
wated upon tbe presbatry and Resevcd ovder 
for 3 suplys viz. 

Mr. Joaues 4 sabatb in Dovember. coraplyd 

Mr. Wodhnl 1 in January, couiplyd with. 

Mr. Horton 2 in martch." (Copied Records, 

From November 1772 to "martch" 1773 
tbe congregation had preaching three Sabbaths. 
The records in Beman's handwriting. 

A record under date of January 25th 1772 
shows that the pulpit was not finished, "v^ted 
that the stairs to go up into the pulpilt when 
Built is to be made on tbe East or women's 
side of said pulpit." In those days tbe men 
sat on the west side of the central aisle allow- 
ing tbe women to have the east tide, the 
warmer side, or else the women took it without 
leave wliieh is the more likely theory of the 
two. (Copied Records, 52.) During this year 
and many other years the untiring David 
Beman not only attended Presbytery and set 
the tunes without salary, but he swept the 
meeting hoase "once a fortnate " for eleven 
shillings a year. In September 1773 the con- 
gregation vested the busy man with another 
important office for it was " voted that David 
Bemau s'lould take the care of the burning 
yard and that he should direct all Persons 
Where to bury their Dead and that ho should 
Advertise it througli the Parish." (lb. p. 66.) 
It would seem that such a man deserves not 
merely a gra^e but a headstone in that burying 
yard, for there certainly was not a more useful 
man iu tbe church in that day of small things. 
He was ready to sing or to pray, or to pay, or 
to go t(» Presbytery, or to sweep the meeting 
house, or to bury the dead. He was " a char- 
acter," and more pretentious men might 
imitate him without discredit to themselves. 

In April, 1773, the parish "voted for stuff to 
be provided to finish the parsonage house" 
"theinsuing summer," also to rent it "with 
three acres of improved land foi one year next 
ensuing if they have opportunity," only re- 
serving the " liberty to set out an orchard next 
fall on said improved land." The fact was 
that the good po.iple were so long in finishing 
the parsonage that by the time it was donrs it 
wasworth very little. (Copied Records, p. 60.) 

As we have already seen tbe church at Par- 
sippany and this church were closely associa- 
ted during the time of Mr. Tut tie who was the 
first pastor of both churches. In 1745 the land 
now occupied as a grave yard at Parsippany 
and on which stood the old church was deeded 
by George Bowlsby to Ichabod Tompkins and 
Simeon Vaii Winklo iu trust " for the use. 



licnefit, and behoof of the people belonging 
to the religious society of pcowje comraonlj' 
called Presbyterian." (Bowlsby's Deed, copy 
in possession of Trustees Pres. Cli. Parsip- 
pany.) !>, is a tradition that a log meeting 
bouse was Iniilt on that land about that time. 
(Statement of Mrs. Dr. Fnirchild, Sen.) In 
1755 by direction of Presbytery the llev. Jacob 
Green the pastor of the Hanover Church or- 
ganized a new congregation. A new meeting 
liouse for the parent church was built at Han- 
over Neck and another one at Parsippauy. 
'■ Mr. Gi'Cen was ordered by the Presbytery to 
preach at both these places ; which he con- 
tinued to do till the year 1760, when Precipin- 
ing were allowed by the Presbytery to sack a 
ministry for themselves." (MS. His. of Han- 
over Church by Rev. Jacob Green.) The effort 
was not successful, and probably Mr. Green 
continued to officiate at Parcippany part of hie 
time. The earliest subscription paper in the 
Piockaway church, that of March '2d 1758 shows 
that there was a desire to unite with Parsip- 
pauy in settling a minister, but this desire was 
not gra'ified until in 1768 the Ref. James 
Tuttle was settled ovei both churches. I have 
blreaJy described the efforts made at Rocka- 
way to find a pastor after the death of Mr. 
Tuttle. It is to be presumed that the Parsip- 
pauy congregation were engaged in the same 
search. On the 1st of April, 1773, at an irregu- 
lar parish meeting at Parcippany it was "unan- 
imously agreed after sum Dispute about a 
niinnister wether wee should trie to git a 
Presbyterian or Congregational that this 
Mesure should be taken, that a Short Instru- 
ment sb.ould be Written and offered to the 
Soviety to mennifest thire Choys in manner as 
folloeth, Whereas wee are abont to Send for a 
Minerster this is to Desire every Member of 
this Society to Declare what one t'aay chose by 
writing thoire Names under the woords Pris- 
byterian or Congregational." On " April 7th 
at a Parish Meeting the Instrument was re- 
turned and fild up as folloeth." Sixteen names 
were written under " Prisbyterian" and fifty- 
seven under " Congregational." Notwith- 
Ftauding so decided a vota for Cougregational- 
ism, the church the same year applied to the 
Presbytery of New York for supplies, which 
.«hov\8 that their preferences were not very de- 

At the meeting on the 7th of April it was 
'• voted to send for a minnester," that "Isaac 
Sergeant go into New England after a minnes- 
ter," and " that if the man that go for a Min- 
nester cannot git a Congregational (he) is to 
use bis Indiver to git a Prisbyterian." The 
persons present immediately started a sub- 
scription which finally amounted to £10:6:6. 
(Copied Records Parcippany ) An 

entry In the same records which were kept by 
Isaac Sergeant as Parish "Clark" show? us 
what success he had in his mission. " May 
17th Sot out for New lugland for a Minister and 
Returned the 27th of June without one." That 
jonrney shows us the times and the people, and 
is worthy of special note. 

If we now recur to the records of our own 
church we find that on the 20th of April 1773 it 
was " voted to send by Isaac Sargent to new 
England for a minister," " to Rnse money to 
Boare said Sargent's Expenses," and that 
" Deacon Allerton go to Mr. Sargent to Give 
him Letters and Direction in the above matters 
and Bisfness." Some money was immediately 
raised but the fact is added, " agreed that the 
money Raised for going to New England be 
returned to those who paid it," showing that 
after all it was concluded not to send by Ser- 
geant to New England. The records of April 
2Gth shows that Dr^ Johnes of Morristown 
advised the people against tho course, giving 
" it as his opinion that it was best Not to send 
to New England for a Minister as thera wa^ 
several Now to be Licensed soon." In place of 
sending to New England it was "voted that 
wee will Jlake application for Mr. Burnet for 
to be a Candidate to supply in this Parish." 
and " Mr. David Beman go and talk and con- 
sult Mr. Jones and bring his approbation of 
the Matter by Nest Sabbath Day." The nest 
Sabbath Mr. Beman reported Mr. Johnes' 
advice " to send our petition to the C'omitee of 
minister appointed for vacant congregations 
respecting lugaging Young Mr. Burnet to 
serve with us as a candidate." This advice was 
followed. In addition to this they sent a simi- 
lar petition to the Synod. This brings us to 
another fruitless attempt tj seltle a pastor. 
(Copied Records, 61-64.) During this Summer 
and Fall the pulpit was occupied by several 
ministers. Rev. Messrs. Murdock, Thomas 
Lewis, Timothy Johnes, Jacob Green, Cloce, 
Lion, Burnet, and Joseph Grover. Between 
June and September Mr. Mathias Burnet 
preached three Sabbaths with very great ac- 
ceptance. On the 3d of September the Par- 
sippany church "voted that we offer to join 
Rockaway in applying to the PresbUery for a 
Minister " and that Benjamin Howell and John 
Stiles bo a committee to go to Rockaway to 
conclude the agreement, (Copied Records, 
Parcippany ) On the 27th of the same 

month the parish meeting at Rockaway in 
answer to the inquiry '' whether we comply 
with Persipany proposat voted not to comply 
with it " and to " sjnd Posipany the miuit of 
of our note with some reasons annexed there- 
unto, voted to send it and Job Allen do it with 
the reasons thereof." (Copied Records, 65.) 
From one fact it would seem that Parcippany 



cougratioa was tbcii either richer or more 
liberal thau this, since for many years the 
sexton received eleven shillings a year in llock- 
away, whilst the seslon al P.irsippany received 

December 8tb, 1773, the pirish meeting 
"voted that Deacons Allcrton and C.)bb should 
go to Mr. John Jacob Fash and Euvit him to 
Join with our Parish," and that -'Mr. Fash 
s'.iould have the yusc of Jacob Ford, Jan., Pew 
Whenever he need it as Lo-jg as it rcui.iins the 
property of our Parish." It was also " voted 
that David Be nan for the future should Ktceiv 
th2 several Callections of our Parish as they are 
maid and Dispose of the same according to the 
order of the Parish," which shows that good 
man with a new office in addition to tlie 
former ones. (Copied llecords, 07.) On the 
16th of January, 1774, Mr. Burnet supplied the 
pulpit. On the 24th of that month after " the 
Ilev. Mr. Johncs had preached a Lector " it 
it was concluded to give Mr. Burnet a call, 
also that "wc shal now proceed to provide 
itutf sutable and snacient with what is already 
provided to Lay the fire place and seat the 
Gallery and finish the pulpit in Our Meeting 
House." The same record speaks of a resolu- 
tion " to fix in the Gallery tire." This mint of 
good things in tht form of fire-places in the 
meeting house did not even go far enough to 
'end in smoke." In Februaiy, 1774, the 
p Irish again resolved to call Mr. JIatluas Bur- 
net* who was preaching occasionally for them, 
und this time it was "voted to give Mr. Burnet 
in case ot his excepting our call the sum of one 
hundred pounds per \ear sallary, the use of the 
parsonage and his firewood." In addition It 
was "voted to find Mr. Burnet a convenient 
room and his Board until we can prepare the 
parsonage for his use, and allso his Housckoep- 
iug. Voted that if Mr. Burnet excepts our call 
wc are emedlately to proceed to prepare the 
parsonage house fit lor him." And as if haunted 
will) the tear of hiiving money what they might 
not know what to do with, they guarded against 
snch a contingency by voting " that all money 
that is Overplus if any there should be in our 
several subscriptions iov pai-raish use, (it) shall 
be aphed to the repair of the pirsonago House." 
It was afso resolved to finish " the p rt of the 
gallery all round Aith banister," and also "to 
Invite Mr. Green to aford us part of his labour 
untill the sitting of the Spring prysbitry." 

*The Rev. Matthias Burnet was settled as an 
ordained n)iiiistir over some other chu'chin 
the New York Pri sbytery, as appears from "a 
list of the uicUibeis of the Synod of New 
York and Philadelphia I'rr.m 17r)H to 1788 inclu- 
sive." In 1775, with the Rev. Joseph Grover of 
Parsippany, he represen'e 1 the N(!»v York Pres- 
bvterv in" tlie S', n.d. (.lotlge, I'res. Ch. II, 

The ')usiues3 of preparing the call for Mr. Biir- 
ue: and in case of his refusal, " to petition to 
the prysbitry for a candidate to serve with us 
constantly six months," was committed to 
Moses Tuttle, Wm. RjSs, and H.-ury Howe!. 
On the 17th of May. the call was roa.l and ap- 
proved by the people. It thanks " the Rever- 
cLd Pry.sbytery of New York" "for all the 
favorable notice" taken of them, and " 'o'- 
such a number of soplies fr.'in lime to time 
granted to us" "since wo have 1 1 happily bin 
Destitute of the stated Gospel Ministry." The 
petition then speaks of the fact t'ut "we havo 
lately bin favored with the Lalmars of Mr. 
Mathias Burnet and that with such satisfaciiu-.j 
and we hoi>e .spiritual edification as oxcitci U3 
to desire his sottlem nit anmagst us in the 
gospel ministry." In presenting the call the 
fact is added that the parish includes " about 
one hundred families." Until the parsonage is 
completed " we further engage to find him a 
Convenient Rjom, his diet, and keeping f.>r 
his horse, with our Promise ol' submitting to 
his holy ministration attending to the G )sp, I 
while he shall continue In ch.u'a.;ter among>t 
us." (Copied Records, G9-73. ) 

The o.d parsonage house was a wriicheil 
affair and in June of this year an attempt was 
made to purchase " the dwelling house of Doet. 
Hunting and lot of land it stands on for a par- 
sonage," but nothing was accjiupli.^hed. Dr. 
Hunting's house was near the large willuw 
tree cu the north side of the road leading to 
Denville. The property is now m the hauls nf 
Mr. Francis Stick lo. 

It was " voted the cano;)y o>er the pulpit :o 
be now built." 

Alter so-iiC time had passed the call of the 
congregation was declined by Mr. Burnet, anJ 
then we find them endeavoring to make ar- 
rangement with Parsippany church for one- 
third of Mr. Joseph Grover's time. That 
church would not permit their minister to be 
called as joint pastor, but they seem to have 
allowed him to preach here as a supph' part of 
his time. As this good man pleached in tliis 
place a great deal previous to Mr. Baldwin's 
settlement I may state the fact that in tht^ 
Parsippany Records Mr. Grover's name is men- 
tioned the first time November 22d, 1773, and 
the clerk adds, " this Mi. Grover was a candi- 
date that Job Baldwin brought from N. Ing- 
land." He was recently — comineucement — 1772 
graduated at Dartmouth College. He was 
hired by that congrcgatitm until the 1st of May 
1774, and record is made that Job Baldwin " is 
to be paid for his trouble." April 3Jth, 1774, a 
regular call was made out, and sent to "the 
Reverend Presb; tery of New York" requesting 
them to "app(jint a time for and afl">rd assis- 
tance in ordaiiiirr,' Mr. Grover ovi-r us." Ht 


>v,i8 Dot oiuaiiicil ami hislalled until 1775. Ho 
is «aid ti) liavo Ijwii a p'vaelier of few prcteii- 
hions, but sincere ami useful. After the con- 
giegation of Rocka«ay became involved in 
ti)5ir nm.sical difficnjti. s, tradition Hays that 
Mr. Grover prenche.d here on a certain occ;:- 
Kion, and said very sternly to the leaders in 
thai quarrel, " I bel'eve this chuich is a vine of 

I lie L jril's planting, and tbat it will yet flourish 
and Iriog t(/rih fruit ; but this will not be 
until the L ird t.ik( s o.l the heals o" you who 
a. e leading in these nnh.ippy divisions." He 

I I inained pastor of the Parsippany churcli until 
.august, ITO"*, when the congregation sum- 
msiiily disniissi d him by a vote of thirty-four 
lo titty-four. Soon after this be removed to 
'• the Genesee country." 

After Mr. Burnet in 1773 declined the call of 
tins congregation, the pulpit was supplied oc- 
casionally fH the records show by Kev. Messrs. 
Joseph Grover, Ebei.ezar Bradford (then 
preaching at Suceasunna and Chester,) Young, 
John Davenport, Elliott, Thaddeus Dodd, 
.\ckley, Derondy, (a Dutch minister) and 
'Galaiig," (this name quite illegible.) The 
entries of preaching are in Mr. Bcman's hand- 
writing .•'ud are not as weM written and spelt as 
if his son-in-law George Stickle had held the 
pen. To show what ^:,riviloges they had I may 
state tha*. in 1774 the pulpit was supplied thir- 
teen times, or on an average oace in four weeks; 
in 1775 the entries indicate that no ore preached 
here but Mr. Grover, and ho only onee ; in 1776 
the Rev. Thaddeus Dodd '" pratched" two Sab- 
baths receiving nine and ninepence, and a Mr. 
Ackley two Sabbaths, receiving one pound nine 
shillings. Mr. Johnes of Morristown, opened 
a meeting in January of this year with a 
sermon. In 1777 a Mr. Gaiang (if that be the 
name,) in April " pratched a month, pad him " 
three pounds and three pence, in May and July 
he preached one Sabbath each, concerning the 
payment for which service the entry is, " the 
abough one pound ten and ninepence pad to 
Joab Allan." " Mr. Amzey Lewis pratched " 
one Sabbath in May, for which he received one 
pound one and cue pence. In May of this year 
an attempt was made to hire the Rev. John Jo- 
line, afterwards of Mendham, three months 
"'Descretionery Time alowed him by prysbi- 
try." Moses Tuttle and Deacon AUerton were 
instructed to confer with him, but no conclu- 
sion was reached. In September Messrs. Moses 
Tuttie, Abrm. Kitchel, Stephen Jackson. John 
Cobb, Sr., and David Broadwell, we/e ap- 
pointed a committee " to confer with Mr. Joline 
.\hether he will be content lo settle in this 

The comniiitcc was "impowered by the parish 
tb'make a positive agie •uent with Mr. Joline in 
r. gaid to his sall-uv an. I settlemiMil." In Oc- 

tober the committee reported '* that Lhey have 
confered with Mr. Joline and have agreed witii 
him to stay with us till next May Presbetry if 
the Rev'd Presbetry will Permit him, and Like- 
wise have agreed to give Mr. Joline lor his sji- 
vices till that time the yuse of a Comfortauie 
house and two loads of hay and tlad him lire- 
wood and give him one hundred pounds Prock." 
For some reason this agreemeiu was not ful- 
filled, and in April, 1778, the same committee 
were instructed to call Mr. Joline fur si.t months 
and •• to profer him one hundred ponnl, paster 
for one horse, two cows, tiiewood at tlie doorol 
a comfortable House to Live in." Our Manual 
of 1833 fays, that Mr. Juline " had preachei as 
a eauaiaate six months," but after a caiefui e.'i- 
aminalion of the recjriis 1 tind no evidence that 
Vir. Joline preached thai or any other staled 
period. Hu preached a few limes, and the 
igreement failed, probably because the pari-jh 
was unable lo provide the means for his sup- 
port in the first agreement, and in the last at- 
tempt they failed necause about that time Mi. 
Joiiue Was settled in Meiidbaiu. (Copied Un- 
cords 7y— 93 and Hastings' M. S. His. of Mend • 

Having failed to secure Mr. Joiine, thepaiisli 
invited a young Dulen minister from Haekeu- 
sack lo supply their pulpit, and in November it 
was voted to give Mr. Deronde (Djvondv oi- 
Devonde) " lour Pounds Prock per Sabath tor 
his Past services with us, and to pay Capt. 
Stephen Jackson for his entertaining xVlr. iJc- 
vonde when he comes to Preach to Us." It Wi.^ 
further voted that Messrs. Moses L''aitle, Allen- 
ton, Beman, lloss and Allen, Oo a co.uuuitoe 
"for to enquire into the truth of Sertaiu 
Crimes aledged agrinst Mr.Doroad»' viz. Steal- 
ing, Ly-ng, getting DiuuK, and Swairing.'' 
Soon after the com.niitee reported that taey 
have made "strick enquiry into I e facus al- 
edged against Mr. Deron..e above mentioLed. 
and that tuey tinJ no truth in the Reports 
* * ♦ (which are) onely Raised by Prejusted 
Persons." Mr. Deronde seems to have contin- 
ued his sei vices from some timj previous to 
November in this year until the following 
iMarch, when the parish instructed " Job Allen 
to go Down to Persipany togive a sertam young 
niiuiater that Mr. Grover has Recommended to 
us and now at.Mr. Grover's (an invitation) to 
come up and Preach to us next Sabath." David 
broadwell was " to go to Mr. Deronde and ac- 
quaint him with it that he may not come to 
Prtach to us on that Day." On the 12th of 
April VVm. Winds, Job Aden, Benj. Beach, David 
firoadwell, Abraham Kitchel, Eleazer Lamson, 
Josiah Beman, William Ross and Stephen Jack- 
son, in behalf of the congregation, signed au 
agreement with Mr. Noble Everett to supply the 
pulpit six months, agreeing to "give him thi; 



suru 3f Fifty pnuiuls Proc, an<l iliat we will pay 
the above sum in Iron at t .enly-ciglit •^hilliugs 
per hnudied or Wheat :it fcvoii sliilliiigt pei 
bushel or rye and ludian c )rn at f«nr tihillinj,'s, 
or oats at two shillings sixpence per bushel, or 
poark at five pcnse per pound or beat' at threi 
|>ense per pnund, and that wo, will pay in thi 
I'.bove articlfS if we please bnt if we ehose we 
will pay in ni'iney and the above articles shal 
ho a standard, aijd the va'ue of money shall be 
R-agnlated by the everig (aveingcj prise of the 
articles above mentioned when the six months 
sliall be expired." Having fulfilled thi.s agree- 
ment in September, Mr. Everett declined the 
congregation again '■ to come and preach to 
us as a supply." (Copied R cord 9.5. 81— S4.1 

Soon after Mr. Everett began to preach here, 
Mr. Derondy asked the congregation " a sar- 
tificate from his Discharge from us"' and David 
Broadwell, Joshua Winget and Job Allen were, 
appointed a committee " to sign a sertificate 
for Mr. Derondc." 

"Voted that William Ross and Jolin Hun- 
tington be appointed to go to Mr. (Lemuel) 
Fordham to conmlt with and envite him to 
come and supply us onse a month for the Win- 
ter enswing and to go to Mr. (Timothy) Jones 
to eit his approbation in the matter and make 
report to the pari.ih." There is no evidence 
that Mr. Foidham preached here regularly that 
winter of 1779-SO. but on the 19th of April, 
1780, Eleazer Lampson and Josiah Beman were 
sent to invite him " to preach to us one Sabath 
or more belore the Next Seting of Prisbetefy " 
•' and in case he cant come to preach upon the 
S bath to com"; and preach a Lecture for us 
npiiii a Weak day and make Report to the 
Parish Next Sabath after service." A week later 
the p Irish voted to pay (or " sending abroad 
fo! a candidate to preach in this place as a 
probation< r to settle with us if the presbytery 
cant supply us with one." Abraham Kitchel 
was appointed to tlraw up a petition to the 
Presbytery a. king for a candidate, or if that 
body could not send one, to "give us leave to 
.Tpply to any C)f the neighboring piisbytiries 
lor a candidate." "Mr. I'm man, Capt. Allen, 
and Mr. Kitchel were to inspect and sign the 
petition," and "William Ross, Esq., and David 
Broadwell were to wait on »he presbytery with 
said petition and make report to the parish of 
the answer from presbytery w..en called upon." 
The Presbytery of New York met that Spring 
in Morristown, and the petition of this church 
"humbly sheweth that being Destitute of a 
settled Gfjspel Minister although our frequent 
attempts to procure one have in some instances 
Raised our hopes yet bave ended a Disappoint- 
ment for which we dosiiv to eye the hand ot 
Ood and be humbled under a sense of our un- 
worlhynoBB of HO great a f;ivour and pray that 

.ve mity be Prepi.n.i and have a si-nse ot the 
vorth and value of a (lospil I'reHciif-r an 1 th;it 
ine may be sent to us that nny come in the 
"ullness of the blessing of the Gospel of Ji^n^ 
'.'lirist, wherefore we piav the R v'd Presbe- 
;ery that if their is a. ci'fidid;ile under theii 
Direction that can be sunired and would giv<' 
us any Encouragement we might be Indulged 
with his Labours such a sp;ice of lime as woni 1 
be conveniant," etc. "To which the Pret-br- 
tery granted us the following enpplie* viz. ^li'. 
Fordliam the first R;ibbatb^ in June. Auiinst 
and October, Mr. Johiies the third in Jiim'. 
Mr. Elmer the third in July. Mr. Orover »h ■ 
third in August and Mr. riicen the third in 

It was resolved "to send by IMr. Cbnpnviii 
(of Orange) into New England fo trv to git ;i 
candidate for us to preuch upon probation." 
Job Allen Wds " to dra<\' and sign the letter." 
The records show that Gen. Winds an I Dea. 
Huntington "by request of some members of 
the Parish" "hiive treated and agread with 
the Parish at Suckasoney and Mr. Fordhrni 
that Mr Fordham supply us three sabbaths 
over and above what Uie presbitery has ap- 
pointed him here and that we pay him for them 
sabbaths after the Rate of one Hundred pounds 
per year oald way as we Paid Mr. Everitt." 
The parish ratified this agreement, and voted 
fuilher fo " apploy for the Labours of Mr. 
Gilbert among us what time Mr. Fordham is 
not to supply us until the siting of Next Pres- 
beteiy." At same meeting it was " voted th:)l 
the Parish be at the Expense to make a Ladder 
to go up Galeryes and Lay Down boards on the 
galery Beams and make seates to set on and 
that Benjamin Jackson and Ebenezer Ijiidsley 
do the same." Hen; I may also introduce a 
little item showing the state of the currencv 
For many years Dea. Beman agreed to sweep 
the meeting house twice a month for eleven 
shillings a year, but in 1779 it was voted to give 
him "nix pounds" for the ensuing year and 
in 1780 he was to have "the price of three 
Bushel of wheat for taking cair and sweap the 
meeting hous the year ensuing." From a sub- 
sequent entry I infer that tiie sexton's salary 
was not paid promptly, an cximple which has 
imitators in our own time. 

The congregation refused to "join vith the 
Parish at Suckasoney in giving Mr. Fordham a 
call as a candidate" and aiipointed a committee 
to see whether that minister m>ght not be 
secured for the congregation alone. Mr. Ford- 
ham gave thera encouragement to apply by 
petition to the Presliytery. or fo use tht< words 
of the com"Mttee, "Mr. Fordham *ays Notliiiig 
as appears to them Discouraging to our piiting 
in a call for him as Probationer." "Votid 
that if our Petition Do not surci^ed with Mr 



F'Mclliani that we will Potition tlio Piosbftory 
f"'- sii])|)Iyfs as nsal." 

Tbo pnrisli rpsolvcd to -'raiz the sum of one 
hntiflrp.l pont)fls in spocv " •' by rate and Hiih- 
-t-riptioD." Job Al'eii waf^ (li>-(cted to •' asses^s 
:iik1 levy the aforesaid tax agroable to the 
P'esent T'lX bill now in Line" EbenezT 
Lindsley, Zrnas Conger and Josiah Bigelow 
"Vie appointed collectors. 

The parish " voted to petition the presbetery 
tliat Mr. Fyrdham be continued among us as a 
candidate nnon Probation the space oV six 
nronthsensning,' Job Allen was to draw and 
s:gn the petition, and Joshnal Winget and 
David Broadwell to carry it to Presbytery. 
• The Parish meeting adjonrned to sp bath after 
next at Noon Entermition " 

"Voted that Mr. Fordham may Preach the 
sam? sermons at Rockawnv that he Preaelies 
at Snckasoney as he shall think proper." 

•' After a sermon Pr. ached by Mr. Fordham" 
the records thns stale a fact; "By reason of 
the DepriM'dtion of the Money Issued upon the 
faith of the State and a former Rate being 
assess^^d and Levyed in the aforesaid cnrrency 
for the use of the Parish which makes a great 
IiifH"Uity" it was "voted that we rais<» onely 
"lie half of the sum assessed to be in Iron »» 
•i4s. per hundred, or in wheat at fis. per bnshel 
and rye and Indian corn at 4s. per bushel or in 
money to the value thereof." 

A pe.ition to the Prtsbytery speaks of the 
people's satisfaction in " the labours of Mr. 
Fordham for sometime past for which we 
Uctnrn our Most hearty thanks hoping that 
liis labour has not been in vain, but to our 
great Mortefycation when we were all united 
to put in our call to the Presbetery for Mr. 
Foidham to be ordained over us Mr. Fordham 
Declined to Settle." 

Mr. Fordham preached part of the time in 
this church. "Voted that we immediately 
Levy a Tax on this parish to pay Mr. Fordham 
for his Labours amongst us," the tax to amount 
to •' the sum of tifty nounds prock. money in 
silver or goald by Rate and subscription." 

An clfort was made this year to sell " the 
oald parsonage" and to "purchase David 
P.eman's Plantation for theuse of a Pdvs:)nage." 
During this year besides the regular services 
of Mr. Fordham the Presbetery sent Rev. 
Messrs. Jedediah Chapman, Timothy Johnes 
and Fish to preach one Sabbath each. (Copied 
Records 85-87 96-109.) 

This brings us so fai as the ministry is con- 
lerned to the period when the church begin to 
negotiate with the Rev. David Ba 1.1 win who 
became its second pastor in 178+. In looking 
over the history of the church from the death 
of its first pastor in 1770 to 1783 we find several 
n(\v urni's in our reoids. In 1770 Robert 

Gaston, who lived in the old house where Mr. 
Freeman Wood resided a few years si.nce, 
begins to bear a oonsi)ienous part in the pans'), 
frequently acting as Moderator, Clerk or Co . 
mitteeman. The name of Benjamin Cooner 
appears abont the same time.* In 1771 we find 
the name of '-Edward Lewis, P>sq," and subse- 
quently that of Samuel Lewis, who resided on 
flie property now owned by Rev. Barnabas 
Kmg. In 1772 tor the first time we find the 
name of David Broadw. II who resided where 
Mr. David Menagh's tavern is, and followed his 
trade as a blacksmith. Several times be was 
sent to Presbytery to ask for a minister and 
seems to have been an active and useful man. 
For several years after 1772 during this perio<l, 
John McGibbons, a beautiful penman, was 
somewhat eonspicucms. He owned one fire in 
Beman's Forge, part of the farm now owned by 
S. "B. Halsey, Esq.. and a tract of land in the 
vicinity of the Dell farm iifiw owned by Miller 
Smith. Dea. John Col)b is also a prominent 
man of this period. He lived where Mr. Halsev 
now resides. He afterv rda removed to Par- 
sippany and died there, His dtscondants are 
useful people in that congregation, an;l his 
grandson .\rchibald Cobb is preaching in Pliil- 
adelphia. In 1773 we find the name of " Ca;>'. 
John Monson " a strong man who built and 
occupied a house in the vicinity of where M-. 
Hnbi)ard Stickle now lives. I have been told 
that he built Guinea forge. He w:is an active 
man in this parish, and when the Revolnionarv 
war began be eommanoed a companv a'^ Cap- 
tain, andfinallv became the Colonel ot a mili'ia 
regiment. He subsequently removed to P.r- 
sippany. In 1777 we find ihc nnine of .Tohn 
Hoflf, a yonnger brother of Charles, whoafier- 
wards- removed to Pennsylvania. The name of 
Capl. Joaiah Hall appears occasionally. Durincr 
the Revolution he was often in tlie service of 
his country. He resided near Mr. J. B. Bas- 
singer's place, and is said to have k"pt tlu; 
materials for a beacon li^-ht on the point .)f the 
mountain south-west of the Denville Depot. 
The nimes of Josiah and Aaron Big<'lcw appear 
in the records during this period. Both weiv 
militia captains during the Revolution ami 
were freqiientiy in active service. In 1779 I 
find for the first time the name of Elea r 
Lampson as one of the comtnittee to agree 
with Mr. Everett. I also find the name'^ of 

♦Benj.\min Coopeu. Oct 25th. 1765. S:imuel 
Ford and Grace his wife of Morris! own, in the 
County of Morris, sold to Benjamin Cooper of 
Newton, Sussex Countv for 3266:13:4 "one 
equal and undivided third part of all and ev.rv 
of the Respective five following lotts of land 
hereinafter mentioned and described seiluate 
in the township of I'equanack in the countv of 
Morris afores'd alv>ut one mile and a half aliove 
John Johnson's Iron VVnrks. to wit. tie " F 
Jersey Record.s. Liber. D. 3.. p. 46. 



Joseph and Zenas Conger; also the iiannH o^ 
Thonias OrsboriiP, Josliua Wiiiget aud Si'tli 
Gregory. In 1781 this Grei^ory liad " Liberty to 
dear the loer end of tlie meeting house lot next 
joining to his land on th ; Ti'ast sule of llie 
Mount H )ne road * ♦ ♦ » and to have lh>- 
use of tlie land tour years for clearing and 
tensing it."' (Copied Records, lOi.) 

It will be a matter of interest to know that so 
far as can now be learned Dr. Jonathan Hnut- 
ing* was the tirst physician who was actually 
settled in this parish. He lived by the willow 
tree on the left of the road to Denville. On 
the 1st of June 1774 " Dea. Cobb and Capt. 
Munson were appointed a comitte with 
Doct. Hunting his Heirs, Executor, Adminis- 
trators, or Either respecting hisDwehng House 
and lot of laud it stands on for the use of the 
Darraish for a parsonage house." (Copied 
Records, 74.) This Doctor Hunting purchased 
Tew No. 8 built by John McOibbons and Nov. 
7th, 1774, the parish voted that Matthew Hunt- 
ing should have the same pew which his father 
had occupied. (lb. 77.) Dr. John Darby of 
Parsippany, lor a short time minister in that 
church, practiced medicme in this region. 
He was an excellent man and had many friends 
hereabouts. Occasionallv Dr. Darcy of Hano- 
ver was called hitlier professionally, and 
perhaps the Morriritown physicians, of whom 
Dr. Johnes, son of the minister was one. So 
tar as I am able to leain there was no physician 
residing in the parish after Dr. Hunting's 
ueath in 1774 until Dr. Ebenezer H. Pierson 
b laght tli(^ last parsonage owned by the 
parish, and which is now (18.)8) owned by Mr. 
loiter Sullivan in the Franklin ueighborho)d. 
I Copied Records, 265.) 

,\.s lor the appearance of the meeting house 
it was uot improved during tliis period. The 
liiimo had nothing to cover its inner naked- 
ness with. In 1780 the frame work of " the 
gahrys'' stood out in the old house adding to 
its anatomical ghust'iness. (Ibid 97.) Th«' 
good p<TO^>le passed a re.-folution " to make a 
Ladder to go up Galerys and Lay Down boards 
on tlie galerj beams, m.ike seats to set on'' 
but the resolutions did not bring about the 
good things intended. Until 1791 the old 
meeting house was as comfortless an edifice !»s 
ever held a comfortl«ss congregation. Almost 
the only sign of improvement during the 

*rhis Dr. Hunting, April 6, 1774, »old to John 
Cobl) ^ix acres of a certain pond nieutlow m 
lV(pianiuck, "formerly the grist mill pond 
•"Uieh John Lew puichased ot Gilbnrt Hedden 
and liom thence conv-iyed to VVm. I'ieison, aiKl 
fro.ij 'vheiice to lienjaiiiin Prudden July 28(1 
1704 an 1 from thence to Dani(rl Talmadge, and 
tiuui llience to Jonathin Hunting.'' 

ThisisM'.S. b. ll,ils<_\'s meadow opposite 
the Roil iiii Mill. 

thirteen vepis now under n view wks the clear- 
ing off the lot now occupied as a graveyar.l. 
.-Vnd yet the unflagging determination of these 
men to s:istain the church aul enjoy the mui- 
istrations of a pastor, is very evident. One 
disappointment trod on the heels of another, 
but instead of yielding to discourgement th.'V 
iay " we Desire to Eye the hand of God an<l 
be humbled under a sense of our unworthe- 
ness of so great a flavour, and Pray that «<■ 
may be Prepaired and have a sense of the 
worth and value of a gospel pieacher and th;.t 
one may be sent to nn." When Mr. Hinison 
disappointed them they looked for some one 
else, and so they did fur thirteen years. They 
did the best they could, and they deserve oni 
admiration for what they did, "Cast 
but not de.-Ntroyed " they laid the foundation 
lor those better piivihgis which their children 

At the close of this pi-riod, as I learr., there 
were two roads leading to the Glen or as it was 
then called " Horse Poind." One of thesn 
was very near the one now running iu front of 
the residence of Matthias Kitchcl, and passing 
round the low lands bv where Mr. Ford Kitchcl 
resides. The other and principal road followed 
the White Meadow road a short distance ami 
then turned to the right over the hills and 
coming out in fnnit of Dr. Beach's residenc-. 
There was also a road leading to Hibernu 
which turns from the main road by Jlr. John 
B- Kclsey's Hous), thence to White Meadow.", 
and thence to Hibernia passing West of the 
high mountain at the Glen. There were two 
roads from this place to Dover. The Franklin 
road was very nearly as it now is, but the other 
road turned up the hill just beyond the house 
of Mr. Joseph Hyler (C. A. McCarty in 187(5,) 
and passed uot far from where the Swede's 
Mine is. At a later date it was laid where it 
now is, passing the house of Dea. William Ross 
now occupied by Mr. John Dickerson. The 
bridge over the river at that point bears the 
name of " the Ross Bridge "' and probably will 
for a great while to come. The road to Mounr 
Hope and Denmark has not been changed 
much. The turnpike over the mountain, west 
of our village to Mt. Pleasant, that trom Dover 
through Littleton and that from Dover to Mor- 
ristowu were not then thwught of. The roads 
woie rough and unwor-ied, and the hills were 
not reduced. The vehicles on wheels were 
mostly rough wagons and carts adapted to the 
iron busiiu:ss. Tnose who were able to atl'ord 
it traveled on horseback, the rest walked or 
staid at hiiine. In those diys scores of men 
and women walked to the old chuich fiom 
distances varying from one to seven or ten 
miles, but they did not groan over it as an 
iiisntf. r.ilile evil. Tn'v \vi re hi.rlv in their 



baOitH aad earnuKi in thoir love of churuli priv- 
rlef(e». To (inch people tluirtehjirdsihipB seonied 
hglit. Tlif loiiij walk aud tht; (.'bccilesu tnoft- 
in.L; Irouse could not (pi'-uch iu them the tVel- 
ing, "How amiable are fbcv tabernaclts, O 

From the late Col. Jackson, Mr. Eunice 
I'ifrson, Mrs. Priscella Anderson, Mr. David 
(Jordon and some other aged people 1 learn 
(hat at the close of the; Uovonitionary war in 
1783 there were in Ilockaway Ea^*, tliree 
bonses, the old pai sonage, the west end of Mr. 
Halsey's bouse, and the bouse opposite in which 
the late Mr. James Jackson formerly lived. In 
Ilockaway West there were also three Iranie 
bouses, the William Jackson bo ihc, iheii occu- 
j}ied by Robert Gastun (owned by John F. 
Stickle in 1876.) the Conger house where the 
barber shop is (torn down about 18G8 by John 
Giveny,) and the lieman bouse near the Mt. 
Hope ore dock and which has long since disap- 
peared. The late ('ol. Joseph Jackson once 
wrot* me that " in 1782 there were five fiiime 
houses aud live log cabius in Rockaway, one of 
which was occupied by slaves." When he 
wrote this I suspect be forgot the old parson- 
age which was then standing. During the 
earty part of this period Capt. iStepben Jackson 
and Andrew King were driving the forge a 
Dover. Then Jacksou removed to Franklin 
and built the forge th re, and tinally he came 
lo Rockaway where be continued until his death 
in 11^12. His father Ju> ph Jackson resided in 
a bouse which stood near the r. ver nearly in 
front of the Jabee Esiile house uuw owned b\ 
Mr. Joseph Hyler. Major Benjamin Jackson 
lived in a bouse which stood in rbe tiold nearly 
opposite Mr. Hylers iKJUse jnsi alluded to. In 
J)enville ju-it west of Mr. iSiephen \i. CJooper's 
bouse stood a rickety frame house, the first 
built in the parish. David Broadwell's house 
and blacksmith shop were where tbc tavern 
now is. Job Allen's house was uot far from 
the site of the Glover House. Relow that 
along the valley were the dwellings of Samuel 
I'oer, Husk, John P. Cook, David Peer, 
Peter Hyler, Adam Miiler-, and Joseph Scott, 
the later a hot-headed, powerful but thrifty 
Irishman who gathered together a fine prop- 
erly. On the property now held by Mr. Wm. 
M. Dixon resided Mr. Frederic Miller with his 
wife, a clear-minded woman who loved the 
cause of her country and greatly aided it in her 
neighborhood which was not quite free from 
Toryism. Part of the Miller house is yet 
standing. In that neighborhood was also Wm. 
Dixon the son-in-law of Miller. Farther down 
the valley was the noble farm ot Frederic 
Demouth, who owned acres, livestock and slaves, 
jiiid lived in considerable style. At Old Boon- 
Ion shrewd, sharp-witted Samuel Ogdeii before 

the war was oatmsibly managing a little grift 
mill, bnt really a contraband rolling and 
slitting mill. On a window pane at Mt. Hope 
written in a beautiful hand with a diamond is 
still to be seen th« seuience "Samuel Ogdeii 
.\ug. 1778." At Mt. Hope for Iwoyears resided 
Col. Jacol Ford, Jr., and after him John Jacob 
Faesch, surrounded with many workmen among 
whom were thirty of the Hessian prisoners 
taken at Trenton. At •' Hoise Pound " resided 
Benjamin Beach in the house just east of that 
now occupied by his grandson Dr. Columbus 
Beach.* Not far from the place where htood 
the house of Col. S. S. Bjach burned in 185«. 
stood a dwelling owned and occupied by Capt. 
Aaron Bigclow. At Hiliernia in a house, the 
foundations of which are yet to be seen, resided 
first Mr. Joseph Hofil', and afterward Mr. 
Charles H(tfland his wife Hannah daughter of 
Moses Tuttle. Mr. Joseph Hoft was manager of 
the iron works in 1776, in which year he died 
and was succeeded by his brother Charles who 
was surrounded by a retinue of miners, colliers, 
choppers, and furnace men. He remained 
there until 1781. (Johue's Letter in my Scrap 
Book.) Deacon Jacob AUerton lived whei«j 
Mr. David Anderson now does. Deacon O adiah 
Lum resided in a house just below t'le olU 
Palmer house at Franklin, and I presnmj'h^- 
was the owner either of the Franklin Forge '>v 
the Citlvrain Forge on the .xaino strt^am oppi - 
sit ; where the Union School House stands. 
Ricnard Dell lived where Miller Smith now 
does. Gen. Winds on the farm which still bears 
his name, Wm. Ross where John Dickerson 
now lives, and Josiah Benian at Dover. The 
farm houses were plain affairs, not designed lo 
be airtight, and the cabins were not very com- 
fortable, but all the houses had great tire 
places in which were burnt fabulous amounts 
of wood. In these humble homes our father's 
lived, and lo/ed, and enjoyed, and died, and 
perhaps their share of real enjoyment in their 
homes was not less than we claim to have in 
our more pretentious way of living. In those 
houses men and women lived till many of them 
were pear a hundred years old. They did 
many things well and suffered many things 
nobly, but their toils and sufferings were well 

*HoR8E Pound. Col. Beach tells me the 
origin of this singular name to have been this. 
In eaily times the people of this region, as also 
those in Parsippany and Hanover were accus- 
tomed in the Spring to turn their young cattle 
and horses into the wood above ilockaway to 
tind pasture durimer the Summer. In the Fall 
the horses were driven into a Pound built at 
the upper end of the Glen Forge Pond. This 
was made of logs and spread out wide and was 
contracted to a small space in whicn the horses 
were easily caught. Hence the name of Horse 
Pound which preceded the more elegant one 
by which now it is called Beach Glen. 



rewarded ill the li<falth. cooteDtmeut they had, 
and pspecially in the church which tbcy carried 
in their arms as a nurse her child. VVcro thi-y 
here now thcv would say, "this is the chief 
oy and reward of our labors." 

The history of tlie iron busine.iH in thin com- 
munity during the period under leview 18 im- 
portant and interesting, but of necessity 
must be condensed. So tar as I am able to 
ascertain the facts, the Dickerson Mine on 
Mine i.ill, lately owned by Gov. Mahlon DicK- 
•>rson, is the mother mine in this county. 
That property was returned in 1716 by John 
Ueading and sold bv him the same year to 
foseph Kirkbride, and it remained in the pos- 
!«essi')n of his sons. Joseph, John and Mahlon, 
until the late Governor Mahlon Dickerson's 
father Jonathan Dick'^rson and Minard LaFever 
bought it. The ore was very rich and very ac- 
cessible. As early as 1710 the mine was worked 
und ore packed in leather bags to the first forge 
built in the county, that at Whippany, and 
afterwards to another forge on the small stream 
between Mr. Edward Howell's farm and the 
Morri.s Plains station. The ore was so abun- 
dant and the means of transportation so small 
that Gov. Dickerson once told mo that the 
mine was not regarded as very valuable even 
as late as 1807 wheu he bought it. I think it 
probable that this mine furnished the ore for 
the forges at Dover, Ninkie an 1 Shaungum, 
and {ierhaps some for those at Franklin and 
Kockaway. How early the Mount Hope veins 
i>t iron ore were worked I am not able to say. 
I have heard Col. .Jackson say that when a boy 
he has assisted to cart ore from Mt. Hope and 
that it was so accessible that the cart could be 
be backed up to the vein which then cropped 
out of the side of the hill. Col. Jacob Ford, 
•Jr., bought the property in 1770 but no doubt 
ore had been dug there a long lime previous. 
The real development of the mines at Mt. Hope 
was begun by Mr. Faesch. Previous to 1760 
ore was dug at Mt. Pleasant and Col. ,lacob 
Ford, Hr., had built a forge at the place. Pre- 
vious to 1758 the same enterprising man had 
built forges at Ninkie and Shaungum. It is 
poBsible that he built the Colerain Forge also. 
The mines at Hibernia and the Glen were 
worked previous to 1765. I have been told by 
Col. Joseph Jackson that the works at Hibernia 
were built by Lord Sterling and Samuel Ford 
but when I am unable to determine. In 1765 
Samuel Ford and Grace his wife conveyed to 
Benjamin Cooper of Newtown, Sussex County 
■' one equal and undivided third part of all 
and every of the Respective five following 
lotis of land hereinafter mentioned and des- 
cribed Bcituato ia the township of Pequanack 
in the Connty of Morris aforcisaid about 
one mile and a half a!)ovc John Johnnon's 

Iron works." These trsicts are described 
as in the vicinity of '• the H irse Pound Mine." 
(E. .Jersey Records Liber. D. 3 p. 46.) Some 
deeds in possession of Dr. Columbus Beach 
show that Samuel Ford was a partner in certaiu 
mine lots at,Hibei-nia, so tli;it it appears prob- 
ably that he did help start the Hibernia works 
previous to 1765. Col. Jackson set the date 
down as 1770 or '72. The upper forge in this 
village was built previous to 17.58, and is called 
"Bemaii's Forge" in the cailiest subscription 
paper of this parish. Col. Jackson savs that it 
was built by It^aac Beach. As before stated in 
1748, it was called " Job Allen's Iron Works." 
Thf lower forge was not built until after 
Stf'phen Jackson had erected the old grist mill 
in 178.S which is yet standing. Denmark forge 
was built in 1768 by Col. Jacob Ford, Jr. The 
facts about other torges and mines belonging 
to that early period I am looking for and hope 
to find. 

You have noticed the fact that in .several 
instances in hiring a minister, the parish re- 
served to itself the right to pay in iron in one 
case at 20s. per cwt. and m another at 24s., 
that is at $.50 and 160 per ton. As a contrast 
between the forges of that day and either the 
forges or rolling mills which are in the same 
territory, let me stare a fact which I have from 
William .Jackson. Esq. Col Ford once boasted 
in Morristown "that in his forge at Denmark 
he had made and shingled a loop that day which 
weighed twenty-eight pounds." As another 
contrast between the business in that day and 
this, take the pack horse of 1758 or the li.>a /y 
vagon of a later period taking fr im two to f(>ur 
days to reach Elizabetbtown Point and com 
pare it with the facilities for freii;hting now 
furnish; d by the canal and railway. The pack- 
horse may have carried from two to three hun- 
dred pounds, and the team aided over "Pinch 
Hill ' by an extra team may have carried a tflii. 
One horse ou the canal will draw fifty tons, 
and the " Delaware " freight engine in four 
hours will move a load of four hundred tons to 
Newark surmounting the heavy grades of the 
Short Hills. That one engine will take at oii» 
load as many pounds as 2000 pack horses could 
carry, or as many as 200 teams could draw. 
The small forge of that day contrasted with 
our blast furnaces and rolling mills, the pack 
horse of that day contrasted with our frcighl 
locomotive.", these show that something Ims 
been accomplished in our region since the first 
ore was dug at Mine Hill. 

This sketch would bo incomplete were T to 
omit the facts of onr Revolutionary history. 
Here too I must of necessity be brief. From 
the very beginning of the contest between this 
ofjnntry and Great Britain t>ie people of this 
region took n very decided stand in favor of 



tiieir eonntry. I li«ve doI yet beard of one 
l»roDiinpiit man in the pntish of Rocknway as 
conatitntefl during the Revolution who sympa- 
thized with the enemy. In 1761: William 
Winds, one of his Majesty's Justices of the 
I'eace, bad puch a dis<;ust for the stamp a-t 
that rather than use the stumped piper, trudi- 
t ion say ho used white birelj bark for hi.^ legal 
boHiness. and when Great Britain enforced the 
sftvafje Boston Port Bill, the feelinfts of the 
j>ebp'e were well expressed by the father of 
.f(>seph and Charles Hotf when in a letter to one 
of Them on business he bef„'s him to let hmi 
know " how the poor Bostonians are coming 
• •n?"' Onr parish in 1775-6 lurnished in Col. 
Wm. Winds one of the most efficient officeis 
in the patriot army, and Col. John Munson* 
i»lso .^erring with honor, and at different periods 
of the war Captains Bigelow, Jackson, Hall and 
other officers. As for our men there were very 
f( w who were not enlis-ted in the service of the 
eountry at some time during the war, and 
many of them were in bittle. Among the 
members of •' the Assoeiated Whigs " in Pe- 
qnanoc Township in 1776 are to be found 
nearly all the men known to have been in this 
region. The Committee of Safety was com- 
:>c8ed of Robert Gaston, Moses Tuttle, Stephen 
■Jackson, Abram Kitchel, and Job Allen, all of 
whom were members of this congregation. 
The articles ot the Association and the names 
'.f the signers are publisned in Revolufionary 
Fragments, Morris County, No. 8. There was 
such a public sentiment in this ^immunity at 
I bat time that nothing was so odious as a Tory 
or the finspieion of a leaning in »hat direction. 
When the war began th<^ American Congress 
made contracts with Mr. Faesch at Ml. Hope 
Mild Lord Stirling at Hiberniii for large quanti- 
ties of cannon balls. At tb( hitter place some 
small cannon were cast in 1776. (Jos. HofiTs 
letter, Sept. 2d, 1776.) After the battle of 
Trenton, Faesch took into his employ thirtv of 
the Hessian prisoners, and the government 
fnrnished him with arms to keep them in sub- 
jection. An attempt was made by Moody's 
party to burn down the Mount Hopj Furnace, 
(Col. Jackson's statement in my Scrap Book) 
and in the year 1777 or 8 Mr. Charles HoflF, 
the manager of Hibcrnia, had his house robbed 
by a party led by the notorioaa Claudius Smith. 
Many of the men were enrolled " as minute 
men " and it was no unusual occurrence for 
some of these men to come to the church on 

*Col. John Munson built Guinea Forge, on 
the stream north of Hubbard Stickle's house. 
H(!pt. 12th, 1778, Minutes of Privv Council 
show that "one class from Col. Munson's Regi- 
ment of Morris was with others to guard the 
froritiers to the northward from the incursitins 
of the Indians and disafft cted person.s. 

Sabbath armed and ready for instaiit m'ftrch ift- 
case of alarm. 

In 1778 a part of Gen. Sullivan's armv en- 
camped opposite Mr. Halsey's residence and 
some of the officers lodged with Capt. Jackson. 
They were on the way to avenge the horrible 
massacre at Wyoming. Once our illn.sliioiis 
Washington passed through the place ort his 
way to Mount Hope where he and his suite 
dined with Mr. Faesch. On his Way up he 
honored Capt. Jackson by alighting and paf tak- 
ing of some refreshments in his house.* 

To the general period now iindor cOnsidcfii"- 
tion belongs a series of very interesting events 
which are parts both of our parisli and onr 
county history. For many years previous to 
the Revolutionary War the currency of New 
Jersey was in a greatly d<"rangcd condition. 
As in all new countries the people had more 
land than money, population was sparse, and 
products of the country abi)ve what was needed 
for home consumption were small in amount, 
and less still in their actnal sale for cash. New 
York and Philadelphia were then small towns, 
and not the great maikets they now are. To 
render this state of things worse the British 
government had laid destructive restrictions on 
all manufactures in this country which should 
'n any manner compete with the same pt-Odnc- 
tions at home. Iron, one of our greate''t 
natural resources, we could have made to gfeirt 
advantage if we bad been permitted to do Ao. 
Our immense forests wonld yield the coal, our 
mines the ore, our streams the power, and our 
people the enterprise of making iron in all 
forms and quantities profitablv. So severe 
were these res'.nctions on this manufacture of 
iron that a small slitting mill at Old Boonton 
for making railroads and that kind ot iron was 
concealed beneath a grist mill. The manager 
and joint owner of the establishment was Col. 
Samuel Ogdeu, who was a man of considorab'e 
tact. On one occasion he received an unex- 
pected visit from Gov. William F.iauKlin and 
his suite, in order to investigite the rumors 
which hinted that there wa.=i a contraband iron 
establishment at Boonton. Col. Ogdcn re- 
ceived his visitors wi;h great cordiality, and 
according to the customs of the day brought 
out the liquors from his well-stocked cellar. 
Dinner was also forthcoming and the visitors 
did justice to their host's good meats and his 
good drinks also. Meanwhile Ogden's men had 
closed up the slitting-mill carefully aiid started 
the mill-stones above. After so good a dinner 
it is said Col. Ogden's visitors were in no mood 
to make a very critical examination of the prem - 

♦One of General Washington's letters on file 
in the 8lat»i Library and published scmie few 
years since by order of the Loj. islature i?- d.-.itd 
from Rock a V. ay. 



ines, and the Goyemon seeiDg' tlie mili-»tonbB 
ai work, said, •• be knew there wa« uiithing in 
tbe rumor abunt a coutrabsind iron milll" I 
uiay add tliat auotber rumor says that Gov. 
FrankUu was a sileut partner in the mill and 
itHoliisjudgmcQi in th«;t'a»e)sua!silTaoci)ui)lud 

It JB a somewhat aiagular fact that nearly all 
the moi'u pretentious iron establislinients of 
ibatday failed. The London Coiiipuny, Faesch 
at Mt. Hope, the Hibcruia Con>|):ioy, and 
otherii became embarrassed and in aome eason 
failed. Many '>f i\\e forge ownea's working at 
their own fires and anviiH, were able to make 
money, bnt even then it was only by extraor- 
(Unary effort and economy. The result was 
a very great scarcity ot money. To meet this 
difiScnlty the Legislature occasiouallj' issued 
limited amounts of paper currency. These 
bills were printed on very common paper and 
were easily couulorloited. On every bill as is 
said it was distinctly printed ""Tis death to 
counterfeit," and yet the death penalty was not 
sutficient to deter many persons from making 
and circulating counterfeit coins and bills. As 
confirming what has been said about the em- 
barrassments of people in this State I may 
quote a paragraph from the address of Gov. 
t rauklin to the General Assembly iu April 17ft8. 
•• There is at tins time a consideiable number 
of ilebtors eoiitined in the diti'erenl Guois in 
this Province. The condition of nian.\ of ihem 
IS deplorable." The cotempoianeous lecords 
of the Morris County Courts show the s.nie 

1 have already mentioned that previous to 
17()5 Samuel Ford of Morristowu was the owut-r 
of the property at Hibornia. On the 28th of 
October, 1765, he and his wife Grace executed 
iwu deeds, in the tirst of which tluy conveyed 
io " Benjamin Cooper of Newtown, Susses 
t>mnty. New .Jersey" -'one equal and undi- 
vided tliird part of all and o'cry of the Ues- 
peclive nve following lots of laud hereinafter 
mentioned aud seituate in the Township of 
Feqiiauack in the County of Morris aforesaid 
about one mile and a balf above John John- 
sou's Iron Works, A-c"* Four of these lots 
contained " ten acres strict measure " each, 
au<l the fifth contained ten acres and thio-ty- 
fuur one-hnndreth's of an acre. The second 
deed ik in precisely the same terms as the 
former one, naming the same " equal aud un- 
divided share " of live lota which are named as 
before. The price in each case £'265:13:4, but 
the granlee in the second deed is " Jamos An- 
derson of Newtown, Sussex County. "Both deeds 
mention "outhouses, buildings, barus, Fur- 

•Jobn Johnson's Iron Works w«re at Beach 
Glen. I'be Glen Fi>rgc is built where Johnson's 
urks were. 

nacea, mineSj and miueraJs" as among the ac^ 
ticlvs included in the conveyances. Fruiu 
these deeds it is evident that iron work* ba>l 
been built both at Horse Pound ( .eaah Gleii) 
and at Hibcruia as early as 176.). Who tin 
ow-,.er of iJie •other third part o1 the proporty 
at Hibcruia was I aru nut able to state. Lor<l 
Sterling was a j.'int owner of that property ut 
a subsequent date., but wliolher as early »»► 
1765 1 have not been able to ascertain^ 
■The iale of this property to Cooper and Aor 
derson in 1765 malche/-. into other well kuQwu 
facts. About this time Ford and a confetleraie. 
one Joseph Uicbardson, sailed to Ireland as )>>. 
alleged to perf;;ct " themselves in their pro- 
fession." Mr. VVnjteh(.a<l puts the date do.wn 
as 1769, but I susp'. c( it was not later than 176-j. 
Undoubtedly of the Hibernia land^ 
gave him the nutans for his v»)yage, aud in th« 
Minutes of the Privy Council for this Stat*- 
uuder date of June 28th 1766, the Goveiuoj- 
signed a warrant on the treasury ■' to the Hon. 
John Stevens. Esq., for sending an express into 
this colony n< inform thfi inhabitants o,f a ■lalg•^ 
sum of counterfeit Jer.sey Bills of credit being 
arrived in a veMsel from England.',' Whilst in 
Ireland Jf ord married a young Irish ludy who... 
be brought to this country and abaudoned, liit; 
wifcGraee Kitchel being still alive. Dr. Timotiiy 
Kitcbel of Whippany tells me that las father tolil 
him that this youog woman was afterwanl 
married to an Irisman a^d resided in 'eVhippan.v 
many years. This criiiw and bis final abiit^dmi- 
ment of his wife seem lo mark bim us a h* artlesrv 
villain. He was the grauilsouofa most osii- 
mable lady, and was clot«t-ly Ooiinecteu by blo««l 
and marriage with several of the most iiitl(i<:n- 
tial aud exe<::ilent familiUH in lue couiity, and 
as one wh(j knew hiiu well said, •' liis couourl 
was a grief to his friends.'" He was the son )r 
Samuel Ford and nephew of Col. JacibFord, Si, 
In 1768 be was resi<liiig in New York and .was 
there arrested " on a charge of uttering falw- 
New Jersey Bills of Credit." (Proceedings N. 
J. His. S«ciety, 5. p. 52.) He was never 
brought to trial on this charge. His residence 
was in Hanover Township and for several yeai> 
previous to 1773 he is named as an Orerseer of 
Highways. He owned a farm of 130 acre* 
known as " the Hammock " between Columbia 
and Morristowu. Records of Morris Co. 
(Jourts vol. 1.) Ford's workshop "was in the 
miilst of an almoijt impenetrable swamp about 
A mile distant from his residence at Hanover, 
in which the water for the greater part of th«' 
year was a foot deep and Ihrough wl ich tlw; 
operator was obliged to creep on his hands an<l 
knees for some diHtanee to get at his work." 
(Proceed. N. J. His. Soo. vol. 5. p. 54.) 

There was another transaction in which Foul 
according to popular opiiiioM bi:c:iiiie i«lire,ite<l. 


wlicibcr rij^lit or wroug cannot now be dcier- 
uiiucd. Ou the 21st of July, 1768, the trtasuiy 
of East Jeraej was plimdcn-d of £6570:9:4, and 
:ili eBorts t'l fix the i-riuio ou any person iailed. 
The treasurer, Ste;)hcu Skinner, was siis- 
)n-cled, but wiiljout ^ood reasonrf. Several ar- 
itsts were made, but tliey only left the niybtery 
uutxplaiued. These facts will enter into our 
Mihsequent inquiries. 

The emission of counterfeit m'Tiey had 
become au alarming evil, and on the IGtb of 
July, 1773. Ford was a'rested and committed 
to jail in Morristowu. The night of the ni xt 
cl:iy he escaped, being aided as sonu say, by 
oae ot his own gang n.imed John K ug, and as 
others allege, being assisted by the Shenflf 
himself to the extent that he took no great 
precaution to prevent it. About thr sarn^ 
iiuie seveial other persons B'ere arrested on 
suspicion of being engaged in the same busi- 
ness. Four cilizeUH of this county, Benjamin 
Oot>per, Dr. Bern Budd, Samuel Haynes, and 
David Keyuolds, and one of Sussex County 
named Ayres, livere indicted, tried, convicted and 
sentenced to death.* All except Reynolds were 
persons respectably connected, and Coopei and 
aaynts were Justices of the Peace. Benjamin 
Cooper at the time of his criminal conduct was 
a prominent man in this community, and one 
oi the judges who tried him was his own father 
Daniel Cooper. From the tact that he passed 
somt; spurious bms as? early as 176.) (I'roceed. 
N. J. His. Soe. V. p. 5j. note) 1 su.s|)ect mat 
ine sale ot lau<J to him by Furd in 17G5 wat 
part of the same general scheme wnich haci 

- X^e Uluilicl' Ol iJl. liiiou Uu8 LH:^.l (leseilocU 
lo Hie by Mrb. Col.<,i Jackson who Knew 
ijei, as a peisoii of extraordinary Uiginty, even 
MaieiiuesK ot inanuers. Ui . IJuJirs wiie was 
uimosL besidi; herselj with griel ou account ol 
ner husbauu's luoicimeui, eouvictiou and sen 
leuee, and ou ner t\nee.-5 in the most pathetic 
manner slie lusougnt Gov. Frankliu to pardon 
nim. LJut Budi.'s niotuer reproved her 
'.aughtei -in-law loi her eXecBSiVe grief and 
amoug other tnings ulterea the lolluwmg ver\ 
Sinking sentiment, "He has broken the laws 
i)j lUe land and it is just ihai he suould suffer 
oy iiiem.' Thd iraimious of the cimnty still 
preserve anecdotes indicating that Dr. Budd 
was a kind and generous man. His patients 
OHi nut always have a delicate forgeifulness of 
u..>> lormer mislortue. One woman thought to 
Oe dying revived at signt of ihe Doctor and 
said, "Dr. Budd, how did you kind a' feel 
when you was going to be hanged?" In a 
letter to E. Atkinson his London correspondent. 
Robert Erskiue of Kingwood, under date of 
Oct. 6th, 1773, writes, "1 have been sworn in 
and acted as a justice of the peace in the 
Jerseys for some time past which as justices 
turn out is no great honour. One man has 
been hanged and several are under seu'euce ol 
death for counterfeiting paper currency as you 
will see by the papers, among whom are two 
justices of the peace. Cooper, one Justice, I 
uad a slight acquaintance oi, being partner in 
riibeinia with Lord Stiibng." 

been in progress several years befcne it wi>« 
arrested. The letter of Cooper to Lord Stir- 
ling after the conviction is a curious alfaLi-. In 
It he traces his crime back to 1771 at which 
time " Ford called me to Morri.stown. There 
he told me first of the villainous scheme of 
passing bad money. My necessities distressed 
to distraction led me into it." This was not 
true as to time since there is now a counterfeit 
bill in existence which Cooper passed in 176'.). 
Of course he p-its the best lace on his conduct, 
and further intimates to StirUng that he can 
be ot great service to him in case he is pardon- 
ed. His lettf-r concludes in these words. "But 
God's will be done. 1 am endeavoring to pre- 
pare in- the worst to come. It is my chiei 
aim. Now I believe it is time, I fear I am to 
depart. I have no ote but your Lordship to 
place the least dependance ou, and this only 
from your natural human bencvolentdisposition 
toward all mankind. Here only I hope for your 
interest which if properly obtained and applied 
would no doubt lengthen my days. Many 
things in the course of my perplexity I could 
say more concerning your interest as also my 
present situation. Now I pray you my good 
Lord if you can possibly do me any service in 
this present situation of mine, grant me your 
aid for God's sake." On the morning of the 
day on which he was to be hung, Cooper was 
reprieved, as were also Hayues and Budd,* 
and It is said that all of them in view of the 
gallows made confessions which pointed to 
Ford as the mysterious loboer of the Treasury 
in 1768, but aside from the confessions of thase 
dishonest confederates, no proof was found lo 
susiaui ihc charge. 

Pievious to his .iiTCst Cooper hs>d left Hiber- 
niaandwas living in Hunterdon County, but 
his arrest took place at Hiberuia. What be- 
came of him afterwards I cannot learn, except 
that in 1774 he with Haynes, Budd and others 
were summoned as witnesses by Lord Stirling 
to charges which he made in the Privy Couudl 
against Col. Samuel Ogden, and Samuel Tuthill, 
Esq's, Justices of the Peace, for unfair dealings 
in the taking of afladavils and confessions " in 
the county of Morris in or about the months of 
August, September and October last, relative 
to the counterfeiting of the paper bills of credit 

*The minutes of Privy Council Dec. 3d, 1773, 
show that an attempt was made "to send for 
and examine the convicts in Morris County 
Gaol " in reference to their alleged knowledge 
of the robbery •{ the Treasury, but the House 
of Assembly being of the opinion that sueh a 
course is not proper, " the Council advised his 
Excellency to issue his Majesty's Royal pardon 
to said convicts, Benjamin Cooper, Bern Budd, 
and Samuel Haines." Dr. Bern Budd died 
of putrid fever Dec. 14th, 1777, aged thirty- 
nine years. (Morristowu Bill of Mortalitv 
p. 41.) 



of this province and to the Robbery of the 
Eastern Treasury of this Province." The 
minutes of the Privy Council show that in the 
trial just mentioned, " William De Hart, Esq., 
is to bring with hnn the aflidavits of Bndd and 
Haines taKen after they were released from 
Gaol and the original paper wrote by Haires 
in Gaol which he, De Hart, received from 
Haines' wife," and a letter from Ford himself 
to Cooper fehows tliat the latter also had made 
confessions, all of which charged Ford as 
having robbed the Treasury. 

As for the man who was thus named as the 
leader in all these crimes, after his escape from 
prison he was for sometime concealed in a rude 
hut in a "coaling-job " between Hibernia and 
Mo.unt Hope. The name is preserved to this 
day as " Smultz's cabin," It was the popular 
belief of the day that Sheriff Thomas Kinney 
had connived at his escape. His Deputy 
Sherifl', John King— Ford's confederate as is 
said— in February 1774 charged Kinney before 
the Privy Council with allowing Ford to escape. 
The charge was dismissed as " not supported. 
But it appearing to the Board that the said 
Thomas Kinney may nevertheless be blameablo 
for negligence in his office respecting the 
escape of the said Samuel Ford, the Attorney 
Geneial was called in and examined touching 
that matter, who informed the Board that a 
Bill of 11 diftment was found against the said 
Sheriff ly the Grand Inquest of this swid 
C'ounty of Morris for Misbehaviour respecting 
the paid escape ; whereupon the Council 
advised his Excellency to order the Attorney 
General to prosecute the said indictment at the 
next court." It was also the popular opinion 
that Kinney did not wish to re-captoro Ford, 
becbUfc hiul he used proper diligence he could 
have taken him. It was on a certain Sabbath 
shortly after Ford'h escape that Sheriff Kinney 
and a posse rode up to the old Rockaway meet- 
ing house during service and took Abraham 
Kitehel out of meeting for the purpose of com- 
pelling liim to act as guide to Ford's place of 
concealment. James, the oldest son of Abra- 
ham Kitehel, then about fourteeen years old, 
greatly excited at seeing his father arrested, 
started for home by the road which led by 
where is the house of the late Matthias Kitehel, 
Esq. On the opposite side of the valley re- 
sided one Herriman, and James rushed into 
his house to toll him the occurence at the 
meeting liouso. A stranger sitting in the 
house heard his story and without further 
delay started on a full run across the meadows 
for Hibernia. James on foot had gone to Her- 
riman's, and the stranger on foot started for 
Smultz's cabin, but the Sheriff's party on horse- 
back had a direct road to follow either by 
While Mendow or Mount Hope. ,\s they left 

the church Kitehel told the Sheriff " I know 
where Sam Ford has been concealed and I will 
take you to the spot, but you know very well 
that ^ou would rather give vour li. rse, saddle, 
and bridle than to tind Sam Ford." ThR 
mounted pa i ty moved along leisurely and in due 
time ivached Sniultz'scabin, but of course Sam 
Ford was not there, the footman whr)m James 
Kitehel saw starting from Herriman's house, 
undoubtedly having notified him of his danger. 
There is o\,e little circum^tarce additi<jiial. 
When the Sheriff' attached and sold Ford's 
prop( rty he did up the business to clean that 
he even emptied a cup full of milk winch Ford's 
wife was warming for her child, a circumstance 
which looks like an attempt to show the people 
that their suspicious of his complicity with 
Ford were groundless. And during th se 
transactions which fell with cruel weight on 
Grace Ford and her little family, her oldest 
son William told the Sherriff that he was as 
bad as his father for he had seen him sitting on 
the very press on which Ford was printing the 
counterfeit bills. There are also some hints of 
facets which taken iu connection with the social 
position of those arrested and the popular 
rumors of the day, have led mo to suspect that 
if the tru'h were known that this gang of coun- 
terfeiters was much larger than is generally 
.'upposcd, and that some never named were 
involved in its crimes. And moreover that 
whilst Ford w..s undo ibtedly a dishonest man 
and a leading spirit, he was so iu very re.-pect:i- 
bie company. 

The oMly man who suffered the cxIrdHo 
penalty of the law was David lleyuolds an 
Irishman, and it is a tradition that he was 
arrested on information given by suother 
Irishman who showed the most pungent grief 
when he found thai Keynolds was hung. 

How long Ford remained in this region after 
the adventure at Smultz'a cabin I am not allle 
to state positively. I learn from the county 
records that his family had a hard time of it. 
for on the 21st of September, 1773, two months 
after his arrest and escape and a month after 
the conviction of four of his confederates the 
Sheriff attached his farm called " the Ham- 
mock containing 130 acres," and the court ap- 
pointed "Samuel Tuthill, Esq, Jonathan 
Stiles, Esq., and Mr. Thomas Miiledge auditors 
to sell Ford's " perishable goods." At the 
same time the court ordered warrants 
to be issued for " Bern Budd, and Grace 
Ford and devious other persons" to testify 
to the auditors in the case. It further 
appeared that "Bern Budd and Grace Fcrd 
hath negligently and contemptuously refused 
and neglected to attend as by said warrant 
thoy were commanded." Sold out of house and 
possession, Grace Fi>rd had a heavy load to 


<'arry, but aided by tier friends she carried it 

liravt-ly. She lived to l>e an old woman and 

(lied some years ago in Wliippuny. 

In his pajKr on the robl>ery of t' e Treasnry 
Mr. Whitehead savs tliat while the trial of the 
eount^rfeiter and its attending circumstances 

" were transpiring Ford, Richardson and Kin?;, 
the prime movers and concoctera of the 
mischief were seeking safety in the wilds of the 
Wist with prices set upon their heads. They 
were traced along the Susquehanna and Juniata 
rivers, were joined by another accomplice, and 
all, well armed, proceeded towards the Miss- 
issippi. Ford boldly paid bis way with his 
spurious Jersey bills, thus leaving bis mark 
behind him as he fled, and after reaching the 
Indian country his course was traced some dis- 
tance by the counterreit coin found in possess- 
ion of the uninitiated lords of the forest. 
Emissaries were dispatched down the Ohio 
after the fugitives hut they succeeded in eflect- 
ing tbeir escape." (Proceed. N. J. His. !Soc. v 

I suspect this description is not literally 
furrect, for "John King, late under sheriff of 
Morris County," who undoubtedly is the person 
named as Foi'd's confederate, was in New 
Jersey in February 1774 making statements to 
the Privy Council concerning Kinney's conni- 
vance at Ford's escape. And a letter from 
Sam F<iid himself to Benjnmin Cooper, bearing 
no date. l)Ui sworn to Sept. 8th, 1774, before 
X, 'rd Stirling by Jo.-epli Morris, a brother-in- 
1h w. and Jonathin Ford, a brother, of Sam Ford, 
implies that he was not very far off it that 
time. I suspect he did not leave New Jersey 
until the following Spring or Summer. His 
li'tler is a curiosity and I will copy a few para- 
graos from it. The letter opens with a singu- 
lar but direct statement of the writer's aim. 
■'Can I now be awake.'" he asks, "or is it a 
tlfcani ? Would to God it was a dream! How- 

I ^er 1 Lr>ve ahisdy felt the >niart too keen t 
believe it a dream and shall therefore proceed 
as though it were reility, good earnest. Did 
you ever in the jaws of death depose that Ham 
Ford .vas the person that robbed the Treasury ? 
(>ue would expect that what was then delivered 
(^ould be nothing but the truth. Or was it a 
I urn of thought which you expected to get a 
reprieve for. Well if that was the case was I 
the worst enemy you had in the world that the 
notorious scandal must be fixed on me and on 
my family ? Or had you inducers to persuade 
yon to lay such a charge on me to defame my 
family and a reprieve should be had for you. I 
have various conjectures who should induce 
you to brand me with such atrocious false- 
hoods, but I cannot get the least reason why I 
shonid be the unfortunate person. Have not 
1 rr allv enough to struggle under without that 

false accusation, ah, I say nolorions falsehood 
without the least ground whatever, which you 
m vour own conscience know.'" Having thus 
berated Cooper for his " atrocious falsehood " 
about robbing the Treasury, Ford addresses 
him about "the money making afiair"as he 
ingeniously calls the counterfeiting, and is 
quite indignant " that you describe me as being 
the chiefest promoter and first introducer of 
that " He denies this and asks "did not you in 
the time of our distressed circunjstances at the 
furnace first move such a scheme to me." He 
then seeks to make it appear that David Koyn- 
olds who was hung was the main agent in the 
business first, hut he did his work so rouchly 
that some money passed at tlie Chariotten- 
burgh Iron Works to a Mr. Gordon made a 
great " noyse." " When you found this mone\ 
would not pass did you not press me continually 
to try my ingenuity, that you believed I could 
soon do it to perfection if I would on.'y begin. 
♦ * * * * It :?ever entered my mind to fall 
in to such a scheme nor I am sure it never 
would had not you a pekst me to it, nor did I 
dream I should ever comply for a long time, but 
a continual dropping wares a stone. • * * * * 
However not to dwell so long on this but to 
come to the mane point! am at is this. It is 
known amongst some of my friends where 1 
am .ffiSr that I am the person that is ac^u>«•d 
of robbing the Treasury, which I conceit they 
think the worst of mi , for they dont mind the 
money making cha'ge- That they look upon 
only as a piece of EKOENrirv. Therefore I 
want from under your hand a clearance and 
the reason why you thus falsely accused nie. 
This I want you to write and give to my brother 
on yonr receiving this. Dont fail compl^nng to 
my request, and let my brother see your letter 
to me before you seal it, and let it be drawn to 
his liking. It cant do you no hurt au<l wib do 
me a great of good to shoe my friends where 1 
live. Let me tell you, sir, that you are by no 
means to refuse. If you do, depend a greater 
fall than ever will take place in your family. It 
would be an extraordinary case to see two 
brothers and one brother-in-law condemned 
to be hanged in one creditable family. You 
nipy depend (this) will imtuediately fake place 
in case refusal, if I must take the sevekitv. 
Dont expect your ain3rcement is over. You 
will immediately be tried for the same crimes 
committed in New York which you and I know 
of." He closes his threats by saying that he 
will write to the Governors of New York and 
New Jersey a full account of Cooper's crimes 
and offer to turn State's evidence if he does not 
comply with his demand, and signs himself 
" your much injured well wisher Sam Ford." 
To this remarkable letter some one, probably 
Lord Stirling, adds this note. " Joseph Morris 



ileclaiiid the foregoiug to be a tino copy of the 
original iu Forti's handwriting hIiowm to him 
hy Jonathan F.nd tive or six weeks ago, and 
deliverod by him to Benj. Cooper at his house 
in Hunterdon Connty. iSworn boior*! Stirling, 
8 Sept., 1774. Jonatljan Ford also tcstilieb to 
the truth of the copy the same day. ' 

1 have no counnonts to make on thin remark- 
able letter except to add that I inf> r horn this 
and other eircumrftances that Ford was eou- 
c»;aled in Nvw Jersey some uuniths before he 
started on his Journey. What route he pur- 
sued I do not know, but I learn that he made 
his way to the Green Briar Country among the 
mountains of Virginia, that there he formed a 
partnership with another man and followed the 
calling of a silver BUiith. It was commonly 
reported that after the war began he st^nt word 
to Washington that if he would secure his 
pardon and permission to rfturu that he wouid 
engrave bills which could not be counterieited. 
The proposition was either not received, or if 
received was not noticed. .. In his new home he 
was very sick, and supposing his end to be 
near, he confessed his past history to his part- 
ner's wife. Contrary to expectation he recov- 
ered, and not long after his partner died leaving 
considerable property to his widow, whom 
Ford married, she beiBg his third living Aife. 
lu Virginia he dropped the name of Furd and 
assumed his mother's name which was Bald- 
win. Alter the war, William, his oldest son, and 
Stephen Hilsey (son of Ananias Halsey) made a 
jouruev to Virginia to see him. They toiiud him 
with "a great property" and surroumled by svv- 
eial promi.-i- g yeuiig Baldwins. They asked his 
Virginia wife if he had not deceived her, but she 
knew all wbont his past history anil she did not 
think he would daie to leave her to go to New 
Jersey. His Jirsey visitors described hini as a 
•• most melancholy man." Ho professed to be 
iicuiteut and to have become a religious man, 
wliich profession is not couttrmeil by his con- 
liuuiug his pecnliar family relationti in Virginia, 
aud utn rly negltctiog bis wife CJrace, whom he 
lilt in so distressed a situation with her little 
ones. I may add that his desceudants in New 
Jerst^y are most woithy people whose virtues 
are not in the least dimmed by his misdeeds. 
Xh for the Baldwins of Virginia I learn from 
good authority that in that Green briar region 
;ire men of that name who stand high in the 
community for wealth and talent, and it is not 
unlikely that they are the lineal descendants 
ofthonian Sam Ford who complacently said 
that his friends looked on hia " money-making 
charge," his counterfeiting "ouly as a piece of 
engenuity." He is discribeJ to me as a fine 

looking man, who had a remarkable dimple m fathers of this church through their struggles 
his chin. His talentu were never <loubted bvj ' " ' ' ' *'" ' -• -^ - 

his cotemporaries, vhose judgement was tlia 

s that 

he had uncommou taU-iits but that he made :i 
very bad use ot them. 

It is time I brought this discourse to a cl()Hr. 
I have endeavored to present to you a pictuit- 
of our parish from the death of the first pastoi 
to the calling of the second, a period of i;j 
years. It was a period full of lisappointineiiti- 
to our fathers, which th(!y bore noblv. Tin- 
church was exposed to danger which threatened 
to extinguish it, but God Hiept it alive as ai 
this day. The great effort of thete meu was to 
secure a mrn of God tj be their pastor, and to 
attain an end so desirable they were ready Id 
make great sacrifices. I confess that ihe mote 
I have read and studied the old records of tin 
church with all their errors of spelling, gram 
mar, aud rhetoric, the more 1 have loved tin- 
men who figure in those records. Some of 
tbcm were meu of decided parts, they were 
" cliaracters.' Such were Dea. Allerton, J »b 
Allen, David Beman, Stephen and Benjaoiiii 
Jackson, Benjamin Beach, William Winds aud 
others. All of them were governed by a sense 
of hoD )r. Certain expeuses were to be met in 
bearing up the church, and these men did not 
dodge responsibility, but put hand to paper 
agreeing that the duly elected assessor should 
rate them according to their property. They 
kept up their Sabbath services with a -vnisiA-r 
or without one in that comfortless house which 
some wag called '• the Lord's Barn." Tiiose 
men deserve to be honored. 

But it is an aftoctiu;; cousideiatioii that ail 
those active meu are dead. VViuds, i he Beanies, 
the Jacktons, Uoss, Beach, Gaston, .il<iiin>>ii. 
Blgelow, the Kitcltels, Allen, Allerlun, Lilui. 
Huntington, Ford, Faesch. tlie Huft'i, i'uitle, 
they are all gone. Among us siili lives oti«; 
person now uiuety-two years old, wi»o was only 
four years old when our tirst pastor died, luii 
she is nearly alone. Those brave, failhful, 
strong intn, loving one church, luving uii< 
country, and laboring nobly for botli chureli 
and country, are all gone. Nay most of tlieir 
chiidren are gone also, and now the thud gen- 
eration is made up ol the gray hea .s. 

" Eighty years have rolled away 

Since that high, heroic day. 

When our father's m the fray 
Struck the conquering blow ! 

Praise to them— the bold who spoke : — 
Praise to thoin— the brave who broke 
Stern oppression's galling yoke, 
Eighty years ago. 


Having thus gathered up thos-e incidental 
facts in our early history which are of sufficient 
interest to be preserved, I now resume tin 
thread of my narrative. We have followed the 

and disappointments as late as the beginning 
of 1783. On the I7lh ot March, 1783, we lind 



meDtion for the first time in onr record of the 
Rev. David Baldwin, who w:is af that time 
preacbins as a candidate in ''the Parish of 
Black River," as Chester, iu tliis county, was 
then called. It was resolved " to treat with Mr. 
BaL;win to preac) for us in e;iHe he should not 
-■ettle at Black River." William Ross waited 
on Mr. Baldwin and " reported that Mr. Bald- 
win can give us but little encoiiraKcment." 
In Septcmler we find Ihcni writing to "Mr. 
.Johnes and Mr. Grover to apply for supplies 
for us," and in Deceniljer they " voted to give 
Mr. Baldwin a call for eettlenieat by twenty- 
seven votts lor it and five voles contra." He 
was to receive eighty pounds a year, the use 
of a parsonage, and his fire wood. In the fol- 
lowing February the committee reported that 
'* Ml'. Baldwin exceptid our call and proposal, 
and that he i-houldbe rodvtocon.e tons with 
his Isniily by the first of May next." A com- 
mittee was appointed "to view the parsonage 
bous and s-ee what wants to be Done to make 
it fit for Mr. Baldwin to move into." The 
commit lee were instructed "to put out the 
repairs of suid House at publick auction in 
parcells or in whole as they should Judge 
best." Tiny also voted that "we will beat 
the expense of the parish to move Mr. Bald- 
win, "and " that we will make a garden in good 
order for Mr. Baldwin it be should not find i' 
convenient to move in two weeks lime." The 
Rev. Richard Webster gays Mr. Baldwin was 
installed pastor of this church in April, 1784. 
( MS. Letter of E. W. to roe) and I see noth- 
ing in our records inconsistent witli that 
statement. As there is no mention made of 
Mr. Baldwin in the records either of the Pres- 
bytery or Synod of New York, the presump- 
tion is that the church had united with the 
Morns County Presbytery, which body eflfected 
the installation. 

Of Mr. Baldwin's early history I have been 
able to discover nothing as yet, not oven the 
place of his graduation. Mr. Webster con- 
founds our second p:istor. Duvid Baldwin, with 
Moi-es Baldnio, i^ho nas graduated at Prince- 
ton in 1757, and licensed to preach by the 
.Suffolk Presbytery iu 1759. The earliest traces 
of our minister I find in a historical t-keteh of 
th>» Dongiegational Church at Chester, pre- 
pared by the Rev. Abner Mcuse, and copied 
into the Recordsxif that Church. "The Amer- 
ican War," says Mr. Morse, "came on soon 
after the removal of Mr.Kweasey, and during 
the year of 1777-8 the Coiigiegational Meeting 
Eouse was used as a hospital for disabled sol- 
diers, regular woisliipwas suspended, and the 
csoral ar,d religious hnbils of the people suf- 
fered greatly. A union of the twoehurehe-* 
— the Congregational and the Pre»l)yteiian — 
was 60on after attempted under theliev. David 

Bald jfin who had been ordained about 1779 in 
t be merting house u|.on the hii! west of Black 
River— Presbyterian— and received a tr>CE3ber 
of the Morris County Presbytery and Congre- 
gational body. The mtnibers of the two 
churches were foirned into one church adopt- 
ing, it is believed, the Congregationul mode of 
goveinmeiit. Mr. Baldwin ministered to them 
alternately at their two houtes ol worship for 
six years, bnt disappointed in his hopes of a 
cimented union be left his chureh, which was 
soon after by the Rev. Mr. Lewis, ot Florida, 
lirononnced dissolved." If Mr. Worse is cor- 
rect in saying that Mr. Baldwin preached in 
Chester churches six years he must have come 
into that region in 1777-8, as he left there 
early iu 1784. 

1 he testimony of witnessep in this congre- 
gation concerning Mr. Baldwin is quite uni- 
form. "He was an oidinaiy man, a very 
moderate preacher, bnt a good man." (MS. 
ot Rev. Peter Kanouse.) The late Col Joseph 
Jackson and oth'^rs, both living and dead, have 
often expressed themselves in terms very sim- 
ilar to these just quoted. In the church 
records there is a copy of a letter trom him to 
the corgregstion which manilests a most 
excellent spirit, and at the same time leaves 
• he impression on the mind of the reader that 
ht was rimarkable neither lor natural taleut 
nor lor education. When he came to RocU- 
away he occupied the parsonage house which 
stood on the Tom Mann lot, (where Mr. Oscar 
L. Cortright new lives,) but suUsequculIy 
he purchased land and lived on the properiv 
now occupied by Wm. Dayton, on the south 
side of the road to Denville. The conclnding 
sentence of his letter to the "church and 
parish at Rockaway," shows that his own 
hands ministered to his necessiiies and that 
it was not easy for him to meet his expenses 
during the eight years of his jjastoiate. "You 
cannot be insensible, gentlemen," he writes, 
" that my ministerial labors have been much 
impeaded bv a constant evocation to my tem- 
poial Business for the support of my family 
and still must continue to be without a more 
regular way for my relief from worldly incum- 

The state of society in all this region when 
Mr. Baldwin came to Rockawav and for a 

*The late Col. Joseph Jackson once told mo 
that whilst Mr. Baldwin ciccuDied the parsoQ- 
age Mis. Baldwin came to ISquire Jackson's and 
asked Mis. Jackson if she would not let Mr. 
Baldwin have the loan of one of the ISquire's 
linen shirts to wear to Presbyteiy, as his were 
too much worn to be respectable. Tlie 
Squire's wife represented the case to herhns- 
liaiid who declined to lend the shirt, bnt in 
))la<.e ot it gave Mrs. Baldwin the materials 
lor two new ones for her husband. 



quarter cf a century afterwarvU has been de- 
scribed by the Rev, Peter Kanouse, who is old 
enough to remember the events he delineates 
so vividly.* His father resided in the vicinitv 
of Poworville acd was a member of the Re" 
formed Dutch Cliurch at Old Booutou, which 
has since been merged into the Refornn-d Dutch 
Church at Montville. In a manuscript whirh 
Mr. Kanouse has drawn up at my request he 
uses the toilowinj,' language : "At that time 
the region where we lived was true missionary 
ground, * * * * It is true, pi.>na parents 
watchfd ovfr my wayward steps ; they had a 
powerful hold upon my better feelings. But 
every other influence with \\hich I was con- 
stantly surrounded tended mcst powerfully to 
counteract both their precept und example. 
Immorality of every kind abounded. Fish- 
ing, swimming, hunting, horse-racing, playing 
ball, pitching quoits, card playing, visiting 
and pleasure parties furnished the sports of 
the young ptople on the Sabbath ; and balls 
and rustic dances, shooting matches, gamb- 
ling, and regular horse races on a larger s-cale 
the amusements of the times on other days. 
No one will doubt that profanity, wranglings, 
fightings, debauchery, drunUenness and every 
other evil sprang up in rank luxuriance, * 

« « « • » There was then no Sabbath 
Bchool to throw around my path a sacred 
enclosure— no tracts to warn— no lectures to 
yoalh to instruc';- no revivals of r.Iigion 
turning night into day, and a dreary moral 
winter into spring. No, there were other 
agencies abroad. It was Tom Paine's Age of 
Reason, an age of infidels, of Jacobins, of 
suicides, and drunsenness— an age of necro- 
mancy and heathenish superstition. when men 
were prepared to be ciuped by puch impostor.^ 
as the •' JTorrist(^wn Ghost." Witchcraft and 
fori UPC telling were in vogue, and elf shooting 
was practiced in a manner worthy of Egypt or 

♦Peter Kanouse was born in R^ckaway Val- 
lev, Morris (Jouulv, Aug. 20th, 1784, aud iliou 
nt*D<il;vrto\vn, >. J., May 30) n, 1H64. When 
Mr. King begin his labors at Jtockaway Mr. 
Kaiioiist.- was w<iiking at his trade as a black- 
smith. Ill lhU9 lie Was ekctfd an Lliler t)l tlic 
chuich. Alui- the di'atli of his wile he begun 
to study lor tlie ministry at iJloumlield, N. J., 
a caiiemy,ilKMi laiiglitby Dr. Anizi Armstmng. 
His theological hindics werepur.^ued .vitli Drs 
Arnl^trollg and J.imes l.ichards. He wa> 
lictpsed in 1821 oy the Jersey Presbytny, 
orUaiiied in 1K22, and was p.i.-tor at ^!llec.l- 
sunna, NewaiK, N, Y.,oft!ie three churches oi 
Waiitige. including Deckerluwu, Newark, N. 
J., lluionviile and Pouglikeepsir, N. Y. He 
was aUo a .4ume Missiouary in iVisconsiu 
several years. He was a man of Hue natural 
and acquired gills, excelling in eoaversaiioii, 
always .ihio in ihe pulpit and soiiietiines reach ■ 
ing i^reut eloqueiiet. His iiiini-iry was abund- 
ant in tiarts and at the age of UO he descended 
to the grave in great honor. 

Babylon, and some obscure, yet honest, ignor- 
ant, kind-hearted matron, bowsd with age and 
face furrowed over with year.<, wai regarded 
with terror, and her oracles estremed as if 
uttered bv a very Pythoness. Spooks anrl 
Wil-o-the-wisp were often seen and were fre- 
(juently made the sober theme ot the domestic 
circle before the good old fas'iioned fire on a 
cold wintry niglit. There ware some astrolo- 
gers, and uow and lli*^n one who used divina- 
tion and professed to be able to detect rogues 
and thieves and find stolen property. The 
wonderful old Almanac with the water man, 
or water bearer surrounded by the twelve 
signs, was full of curious art*), and ofiener 
read than the Bible, Indeed something like 
this veneration for this family relic was proba- 
bly the foundation of a prophecy uttered by a 
distingiiislied statesman and disciple of Vol- 
taire, "That soon Mie Bible would be n-i more 
regarded than an old almanac." Could it only 
have been distributed as widely and read as 
eagerly, and believed as firmly, those dark 
days of infidelity, suicides, counterfeiting, 
thieving and superstition would have ended 
and at once been succeeded by the dawn of a 
better, brighter period." Mr. Kanouse says 
further, "whoever willinqairc into the period 
referred to will find that these debasing evils 
were not confined lo the locality of my birsh. 
They were rife throughout the country. The 
French had rendered us important aid in the 
Revolution, but they also infected ns with the 
same spirit that finally produced " the Reigo 
of Terror'" in France and proclaimed that 
" De\th io an eternal sleep." Associations 
were formed to give eclat and currency to 
blind infidelity. These societies embraced 
many who affucted to give type to public sen- 
t'n}ent. The period from 1780 to 1800 pro- 
duced a generation many of whom have lelt a 
tragical history that might well be written in 
blood. Their giant footsteps have but just 
been washed out of this region by the miyhty 
showers ol divine grace," 

In ano:her very interesting letter Mr, Kan- 
ouse writes still further cuuceruing this region 
as it was sixty and seventy years ago. " Bev- 
erwick or Beveihaut, a French Gentleman, 
fled from Guadeloup when his king tell. He 
located a liUle east of Parcippany church, aud 
was one of the cousistory of tho Old Boonton 
Reformed Dutch Church. Ou a time "hen 
ihey were destitute of a Domiue one oft'ored 
himself. Beverwick was absent but the other 
members of the consistory engaged him. 
When the brethren informed him what they 
had done inhis absence, the following colloquy 
look place. 

Jieverwiok. What credentials of his regular 
iiuliietiou into the ministry ilid tlio Doiuint 
show you ? 



Elders. None. 

B. With what body is he conrecfed ! 

Elders. We do not kuow. 

B. What paper did ho ofler to shovv that he 
was in s>30<l strtniliuL,' ? 

Elders. None at all. 

B. How do we know he i? a Dotnine at all ? 

Eldeis. Hi c«n de pvaka— He can preach. 

B. Ha, de Tuflu can oUe de pvaka ! — Ha, the 
Devi' c;in alfO preach I 

This was a pospr, and pretty nigh true as 
my father thought conceruin.^f this imp. 

*' Well now we have rambled over this an- 
cient field as far back as I dare ventur<^, when 
witches and liobgohlins htld iheir paw-waws 
in the old Indian bnryin.ij ground just as you 
KG down to the Boaver Brook, on the East 
eide. as you approach Dixon's dwelling in RocU- 
avray Valley. And when the witclies burnt 
down old Charlottenburg*, I heard a lady say 
they metamorphose 1 her aunt into a horse, 
and after riding her to a place of rendcvous, 
tied lier to a tree wheie she witnessed the bon- 
fire and their devil dance I WiU-o- the-Wisp was 
a spook olten seen by the timid ones along 
Rockaway River from the Owikill up to Dover 
and f.irther too. My early schoolmates and 
myself had many a fiightful race past the 
graves of old Yommer and Pero, two Africans 
who knew all the arts of fitichisin. E'fsUuot- 
inj was often witoessed, for instance a cow 
shot througli from side to side with a ball 
of hair without wounding the skiu I These 
things pived the way for the Morristowu 

This graphic description is sustained by 
many authorities. Dr. Stearns speaking of 
the great revival which began in Newark in 
1784, the Year Mr. Baldwin was installed pas- 
tor of this church, uses the following language : 
"It was at a time ot great re,ig:ous declension 
everywhere, and especially in this cong:ega- 
tiou. Dancing, liolickiug, and all sorts of 
worldly amusements absorbed the thoughts ol 
the young, even in the most respectable and 
religious families ; and among the lower class, 
vice and dissipation, the bitter dregs of the 
long demoralizing war, whioh had just ended, 
prevailed to a fiightful extent.''— (First Ch urch 
P. 241.) 

. *It is a p;)pular tradition that the Chariot- 
leubuig ifin W(ji ks were bninr, buta leiter 
from liiibert Erslxine wno in 1773 became the 
man; ger of the Loiiilon Ci>mpany's estalilish- 
nient, shows that the building was tired but 
the lire was put mit. The, supposed incendiary 
was arrestuil and ijut in jaU. Eiskiue lurtuer 
iiilimates that John Jacob Faesch — a man 
whom he hated heartily— had i>'stigated the 
man to att< mpi the dtstiuction of an estab- 
hshment which was a rival to lus own funiaco 
at Mt. Hope. There is nothing in Mr. F.'s 
claractur so tar iis I h;ivc d scovered to war- 
rant the harsh charge. 

From many aged people who were living 
twelve years ago, and from other sources I 
iiavo heard very sim.lar descriptions of this re- 
gion. Throughout this region even in com- 
munities favored with churches, religion was 
in a low condition, and irreligion was active and 
predominant. The Age ol Reason was popular 
among large and infiuenlial classes, and a 
combination of bad inUuenees bjre down pow- 
erlully against Christianity as a practical and 
authentic scheme of religion. The largo re- 
gion whence this congregation was then gath- 
ered, reaching over PowerviUe, Rockaway 
Valley, Denvtlle, Dover, Mount Pleasant, 
Franklin, Ninkie, Shauogum, and the moun- 
tain region north and west of this place was no 
exception to the rule. Weie the names of 
those men given who in this county gave t<»ne 
and retipectability t) the intidel doctrines of 
Paine and the French Encyclopedists, they 
would excite astonishment. Mr. Kanoase as- 
serts of his own knowledge that what the late 
Israel Crane once related to him, is true to 
some extent of Morris County. "'Mr. Israel 
Crane of Bloomfield related to me more than 
thirty years since that he was extensively ac- 
quainted with gentlemen who had imbibed 
French infidelity, residing in Newark, New 
York, Philadelphia, Balumore, Albany, New 
Haven, B'iston, and many other |)laces, who 
were combined to overthrow the christian re- 
ligion, and instal in its place the corrupt and 
debasing philosophy that brought on the Rev- 
olution in France. In an unblushing manner 
they afiSrmed that the altar and the Uirone 
must share the same fate— that the tolerant 
measures secured lo the clergy among us was 
impolitic and ought to be reversed, and that 
such an ambitions class of men ought to be 
suppressed. These were the Hamans of that 
(lay. And he— Cianc— liad seen the eflfects of 
their efl'orts ana he had also seen their end. 
He believed that a large prouortion of these 
deluded pi.'rsons had gone down to an untimely 
grave — many of them self-murdered- and such 
of them as survived had sunk down from afllu- 
ence and respectability to a stale of depen- 
dence and .lisgrace." To these sad reminis- 
cences Mr. Kanouse adds, "full well I remem- 
ber the hisses of the viper that sprang from 
these dens of iniquity formed in Morris, Esses, 
Sussex and Orange counties. And were tt 
proper to give names and narratives of pri- 
vate individuals, a long and black catalogue 
could be recorded that would make the ears of 
the living tingle."— (Rev. P. Kanouse's MS. 
Discourse before Presbvtery," pp. 9-11.) 

From these des3riptions you will receive a 
distinct impression of the moral condition of 
this region when our second pastor was in- 
stalled in 1784. This church was composed of 



only a few members, the coasregation <in tbe 
Salibath was generally small, there wpre pow- 
erful influences in the region tending to skep- 
ticisra, and to general laxity in morals and 
manners. Until that very ye;ir there hul nevei 
been a scbool in this region and even that had 
only thirteen p.itrons and twenty-eight schol- 
ars.* The rich were embarrassed and the 
poor were distressed. At such a time the Rev. 
Da''id Baldwin came to this plttce. 

I have a!r<ady slated my re.isoni for believ- 
ing that he was installed by a Congr-^gational 
body of miniftTS known as " the Associated 
Presbytery of Moriis County." At that time 
probably the church wrs included in ther.ill of 
that body and remained so until Mr. Carl be- 
came its pastor. This " Morris County Pres- 
bytery," art It wap called, was Congregational 
in everything but il» name, and ori<;inated 
with the able pastor of the Hanover Church, 
the Rev. Jacob Green. He was a member of 
the Presbytery of New York Tt'hich th^n in- 
cluded the territory now covered by the Pres- 
byteries of Newark, Elizabeth, Passaic and 
RocUaway. Tlnee nienibers of the s-ame body 
acted with him, the Rtv. Ebenezer Bradford. 
Mr. Green's son-in-law and pastor at South 
Hanovci', as Madison was then called, tbe Rev 
Jo-eph Grover, the worthy pastor at Parsip- 
pany, and the Rev. Ar.izi Lewis ot Florida, 
Orange Couutv, New York. To discuss the 
canses or even si ate them here, would be irrtl- 
evant to my purpose, but I may say that the 
corre!»pon(l( ncc which took place between 
these ministers and the Presbytery they were 
leaving, is on either part a model of chiistian , 
courteous, fraternal discussion of differences, 
and separation. This was the ecclesiastical 
body with which this church was connected 
during Mr. Baldwin's pastorate. The records 
of that PrrsbyterT I have never seen, and do 
not know that they are in (xislence, so that 
my Ktateroents of dates is necessarily general. 
In 1787 this Piet^bytery obtained a charter lor 
an educational sccifty, under the title of " the 
Trustees of the Society oi Morris County insti- 

•riip Hi-s' si hool taught in KocKaway wis a.* 
Mil. Eniiue Pierson trnd uie l»y George Hams 
in a room near the old Grist Mill. Ho after- 
ward tanghl in the first school house built in 
Rockaway anil whirli stood jusi. below v here 
the st''el fnrnaci' road enters the (}len road. 
It was ou the lull near I he house lor a long 
unie occnpieil by William tlnstin. I add a copy 
ot Wiiriib' manifist ot the ffrst schonl as show- 
ing who ai tended it and who wer.; able to pat- 
ron ze it. It was in a beaunfur sty|p of hand- 
writing. Uairis is said to be very cruel in ihi' 
school and once to havi; been roughly handled 
by some of the boys from the families of 
Ste,>heii Jackson and B.-riiiird Smilh. The 
necoiul teaelie'- in that tiri-t sclmol Ikhiho was 
George ^tickle, tho father of Hubbarl 8. 

tuted for the promotion of h arniug and relig- 
ion." Among Its trustees were the Rev. 
Da'. id Baldwin and William Ross of Rockaway. 
I may add that when in 1790 Mr. Green, the 
fo inder of this Morris County Presbytery died, 
it began to languish and the very next year 
hi.s successor was installed by ihe Presbytery 
of New York. In 1793 our church returned 
from its short wanderings to the oM paths iind 
n joined the Presbytery of New York. — (MS. 
His. Morris Co. Pres., by Rev. Dr. N. S. Periue, 
HanovT Church Records, and First Session 
Book of RocUaway.) 

We arc now prepared to gather up such de- 
tails of the Baldwin niiniKtiy, and facts con- 
nected with it as we may find in the Parish 
records and other places. The sum to be paid 
him annually was eighty pounds to bo "raided 
bv way of rate and subscription as formerly." 
a parsonage and fire wood at the door. The 
laiter was done in a way which was much reck- 
oned on bv the people. It was in the time of 
good sledding that the chopper and teamster 
gatherc-d to cut and load in one dav, the min- 
ister's wood. Some liberal man usually offered 
the use of hia woods for that day, and merrily 
did the axes f.f the woodmen ring in the frozen 
trees, merrily did nimble footed teams flv over 
the road, and merrily did laugh and good cheer 
answer to laugh and good cheer, for both in 
woods and at the minister's house wns the bot- 
tle of pure apple whiskey, not then as now 
taken behind the door but in open day. It 
made them cheery, and witty, and fooll^h, and 
senertus, and soirietimes drunk. Aside from 
this hospitable provision »)f whiskey, tbe min- 
ister's wife had the famous pot-pie to prep.uo, 
without which in thote days the wood troiio 
would have been incomplete. And so many 
wonid turn out and so would they work that 
by night fall there would be in the parsonage 
yard aimost fabulous amounts of wood sufli- 
cient to keep tiiose alinoft f.ibiilous old fire 
places supplied a ve;ir, and after supper iha 
men went home happy, peihaps in tome cases 
too happy. 

That tbe pecuniary expenses were not v.n'y 
promptly nut may be inferred from the hii>- 
tory of the parsonage well. Firct it was voted 
tiiat we will dig a well on the parsonage, and 
second it was "voted that we will dig a well 
ou tho Parsonage and that David Broadwcll 
and Stephen Jaelison gii tho same done and 
bring the account into the parish who shall 
pay tho same." A ycai after this it wan ■* voted 
that we Rais the snm of fifteen pouncLs by way 
of subscription to be paid to Mr. Baldwin to 
dig a well on tho Parsonage." How the well 
was dug docs not appear. 

Frnm variou.-i entries in the records it is 
evident tlie parish had no burplus of means. 



and that in spite of their Rate lists, subscrip- 
tions, assessors and collectors they were coa- 
itantly in arrears. Still their hearts wore 
right for " ai a Parish meeting held tnis 29 
day of December, 1785, being legally called," 
it was " voted that we find Mr. B.ildwin in fire 
tons of Good hay yearly nntil otherwise or- 
dered " At the same time it was ■' voted that 
this oarish m'eating thinks it is necessary for 
the owners of the pewes to Give them up to 
the parish and that thay be sold to pay the 
minister.'' Also, " voted th..t Job Allen pay 
David Beaman for sweaping the meating house 
out of his Rait into Mr. B.ildwing the sum of 
four po'inds nine shillings and two pence." 

We now reach an important point, and as the 
eager traveller traces some river step by step 
until he reaches its source, rejoicing to look 
upon the very founlsin vn hence issues the lit- 
tle brook which as it flows on swelled into a 
river, so we feel in looking upon the fountain 
head of a stream which has barely ceased to 
flow as the years have passed away. The rec- 
ord of April 28th, 1786, will explain itself. 
" Voted that Benjamin Jackson, Franse McCar- 
thy and Jacob Lyon be appointed Quoristers 
that they sing the latter part of the day with- 
out Reading the Psalm line by line and David 
Beaman to sing the fore part of the day unlesc 
otherwise agreed on by Mr. Beaman and the 
other QuorislerB : that they sing any tuues 
that is sung in the neighboring churches as 
they shall judge proper ; that the persons who 
chose to sing have the Liberty to set as con- 
vonieut as Possible in seals near the Centre of 
the Meting hous ; that their be two Dozen ol 
Psalm books purcliased as soon as conveniant 
and that they be Left in the meting house lor 
the use of those persons that Dcire to make 
use of them ; that oontrabusions l)e set on foot 
to Rais the money to pay fur said Books ; and 
that if any persons have any objections to any 
of the above Propositions they are Desired to 
make the same known to the Rev. Mr. BalUwia 
and if not satisfied to be altered so as to have as 
Liitl3 Prejudice or uneasiness as possible." 
(Copied Records IIS.) 

These characteristic minutes imply that 
"the young folks," and possibly some of the 
old ones also, were longing for a change in thn 
musical department. For twenty-six years 
bad Deacon Beaman set the tunes and for as 
long s time had either Drjacon Lum or Deacon 
Huntington o' Deacon Allertou or someb )dy 
else read tha psalms one line at a time. What 
the tunes were we are not told, but tradition 
assures us that the singing was susceptible 
of improvement. Benjamin Jackson aud his 
Bvmpatl izers ihougbt they could improve it, 
and lo, a vote ot the parish, not to oust Deacou 
Beman, but to give Benjamin Jackson, Francis 

McCarthy and Facob Lvoa liberty to sign the 
tune without reading the liueit at the after- 
noon service. It was a triumph of the young 
folks, and Deacon Beman and some other good 
people thought a triumph of the wicked. How 
ungrateful in the parish even to dream that 
any better singing was possible than they had 
without expense for many yeais! And then 
what a dangerous conformity to the world it 
was to yield a time honored custom of having 
tha clerk read the psalm lino by line and the 
chorister to set the tune a sacrifice to the mod- 
ern folly of a choir setting as " convamant 
Possible in seats near the centre of the met- 
ing houi-e!" ana the modern wickedness of 
singing without reading the line. I have no 
difficulty imagining the feeling of the good 
man as he heard "those wicked quoristers" 
for the first lime singing their new fangled 
tunes without the Godly seasoning of reading 
tlie lines 1 Deacon Beman and his friends 
were grieved but tbev had too much piety to 
leave the church " shaking the dust off their 
feet ! " From the time of the vote just record- 
ed to April 23d, 1789, three years, there is not 
a line t > indicate how the change in singing 
was regarded, but on that day it was " voted 
to haVe the Psalm read Line by Line or by 
Two Liucis in our singing in the futer except 
on Particular occasions," (Copied Records 127) 
which seen-s to indicate that in this musical 
wrestling match Deacou Beman has turned hia 
antagonist and was triumphant. If so, the 
triumph was short for his younger and tougher 
opponents soon stirred up the matter so thor- 
oughly that William Ross, a warm sympathizer 
with Beman felt constrained to resign his ofldco 
as elder, and more significant still Deacon Be- 
m m himself not oniy resigned bis office as an 
elder but akso as "chorister to set the Psalms." 
The very cool manner of the parish under the 
circumstances is seen in the following reord, 
" The Parish excepts of Mr. Beman's Resigna- 
tion and Returus him their thanks for his past 
services as an elder of the church auu ctioris- 
ler for the Parish."— (Copied Rec!*r Js 127, 128.) 
Hut the end was not yet, fi)r on the 14th of 
July followiuir "Mr. Benjamin Jackson haveiug 
seivedthis parisn as a cliurister to net the 
Psalm lor some time pa.stUesires to Resign his 
office as chorister. The P.trisU excepts of his 
Kesignati )u aud thanks him for his past ser- 
vices as a chorister."* And so the church had 

♦Benjamin J ackson was the son ot Joseph and 
brother of "Stephen Jackson." He lived 
wheie his father had, directly below Wiiliam 
Kitile's, that is east oi it. He was born March 
5th, 17.J2, removed to Knox County. Ohio, and 
died ai Belleville in that county June 6th, 1812, 
aged 93. He loft numerous and highly respect- 
aule desceudan'siu iliai region, idis son Ben- 
jamin Was a leading man in that region aud 
irequently honoied with places o'' trust by hia 
fellow citizens who highly appreciated hira. 



no chorister, a situation often realized since 
that diiy. Now see the wisdom of our ancestors 
in such an emergency. •' Wharoaa the Parish 
is Destitute of a chorister to set the Psalm and 
bnt 10 members Present at this nietinj; they 
think it not proper to appoint a standing Chor- 
ester at this time; but that Mr. Baldwin, 
Josiah Hurd, Benj. Beach and Jos. Allen con- 
fer togeather and Desire some Peisons to set 
the psaln) from Time to Time Temp"rary nn- 
till the Parish shall think fit to appnint some 
Other mode couservvini; sin^^inj;." Except two 
yery slight hiucs the records say nothing fur- 
ther conct rning this musical war during Mr. 
Baldvin's ministry. On the 29ih of Sept., 
1791, the Records sta'.e, "Whereas Mr. Bem in 
presented A Naritive to be Head, voted that 
it shall he Read," a paper which I would rather 
see than any President's Message and on the 
20th of October following we have this record : 
"alter Sundry Altrications with hard words 
the Parish meeting BroaK up m Con fusion. "- 
(Copied Records, 132.) In a word the congre- 
gregation was divided into two parties and 
very unhappy differences had grown cut of 
that part ot public worship which draws its 
chief charm from harmony of voices aud har- 
mony of hearts. As I have traced these facts 
I have compared them with more modern oc- 
currences, and have exclaim'ul, " is there any- 
thing whereof it may b-) said, "See, this is new ? 
it hath been already of old time which was be- 
fore ns." (Eocles. 1, 10.) 
Let us now retrace our steps to gather up other 
facts of interest in this history. In 1786 we 
find the first trace of renting the pews and 
slips. The first movement was an expression 
of opinion that those who owned pews should 
give ibem to tiie parish to be "sold to pay the 
minister," and in May, 1T8C. it was vcted thxt 
Mr. Baldwin's salary of eighty pounds " shall 
be raised by a Rate affixed ou the several seats 
and Pe»8 that tlmse peisons that choose the 
seats so rated sl.all have them, and if two or 
more persons choose the same seat or Pew 
that person who will bid a larger sum than 
any other shall have it." Another minute 
shows the eoudiiiim of the church building. 
"Voted to Lay the gallery flower*, make stairs 
and some seals in the galleryes." — (Copied 
Ricord«, 120, 121 ) This entry implies that 
the congjegation was increasing in numbers, 
or they would not have made an eflort get 
more ro m. However, the thing was not done, 
end foi several years afterwards the Meeting 
House stood very nearly as it was at fir?t, a 
comloriless vhell, a sanctuary where the swal- 
lows made their nes-ts in tins Summer, and a 
colder place in Winter than decent peo,..le fur- 
nished to their 
In 1787 the records show that Mr. Baldwin 

had purchased a farm of his own, and that he 
made several propositions to the parish, all 
of which remind us of the words, 
'• 'Tis but a poor relief we gain, 
To change the place but keep the pain." 

The pain in this case consisted mainly in this, 
Mr. Baldwin's salary at best was insufficient. 
To relieve himself he bought a farm and asked 
the congregation to give him one hundred 
pounds " to assist me in pnr( basing a small 
settlement where I may be better "iceommo- 
dated for the support ot myself and family." 
As an ofiFset Mr. Baldwin to relin- 
quish twenty pounds a yei^r of his salary, re- 
taining his claim on the parsonage and 
the annual wood frolic, "myself continu- 
ing in the ministry with this Parish until 
Death, Sickness, or the choice of the Society 
or seme other Providence prevent me." The 
parish acceded to this proposal and subscribed 
£106, 6s, 6d, of which abuut £91 were paid to 
Mr. Baldwin.— (Copied Records, p. 172.) 

At this meeting on the 20th of February, 
1787, it was " voted that we would encorporate 
this Parish agreeable to an act of Assembly 
passed March 16th, 1786," and on the 6th of 
March. 17S7, the incorporation of the parish 
was completed under the name of " the First 
Presbyterian Congregation at Rockawayin the 
County of Morris." William Winds, Stephen 
Jackson, Abraham Kitchc^ll, Benjamin Btacu, 
Job Allen, David Beanian and David Baker 
were elected trus-tees.— (Copied Records, 14 
and 123.) 

In Jniy, 1788, the parish not merely voted to 
ront the pews in order to raise the salary but 
to " give notice that any Person who wants to 
lakfe Seats do apply to Mr. Baldwin for the 
same. He was (urnishcd with a list of the 
seats and pews already sold and the prices as- 
sessed on all. There were accor'ling to this 
schedule twelve pews, eight o) which were sold 
to Bernard Smith, William Winds, John 
O'Hara, Silas Hathewav, Stephen Jackson, 
David Beman, Siim'l Moore, Jr., and Job All«n 
at prices ranging Irom three pounds to four 
pound five shillings. There were 32 seats or 
slips of which 17 were so:d at prices ranging 
from twelve shillings to one pound five shil- 
lings. The buyers named on tlie schedule in 
their order are Dav"d Broadwell, John Cory, 
Benjamin Jackson Thomas Orsborn, Fraucis 
McOarty, Eliakim Ar-derson, David Hurd, Da- 
vid Gurrigus, Jaiob Kent, Joshua Moore, Moses 
Lampson, John Herrimau, Abraham L>on, 
Moses Lampson, Frances Moore, Samuel Mer- 
iit. Joseph Casterline. 

Either Mr B.ildwiu was a sharp collector or 
the people were l.o oming unusually prompt, 
for in April a committee appointed to settle 
with Mr. Baldwin reported that they " find 



due Mr. Biildwin from the parish the sum of 
thrue ponads s^ixteeu shitliugs which will be 
Due the first of June tiext." 

It is a matter of interest to mark the fact 
that in 1789, five years after Mr. Baldwin's 
settlement, William Ross and David Beniaii 
are boih called Eldeis of the church, showing 
elear.'y that up to this tinic the church was in 
reality Preshyterian, alfchongh in connection 
with a congregational body. As I am not able 
to find the names of Deacons Lum, Hunting- 
ton and Allerton on our records during Mr. 
Baldwin's pastorate, I infer that they were 
either dead or had removed from the parish. 
In the records of this year occurs a single 
sentence which indicates that the people wore 
not unwilling to part with their minister. 
" Voted that it is the consent of the members 
present at this meeting that Mr. Baldwin go 
to Pleach a Tower amongst vacant congrega- 
tions as Perposed by Presbitery," (Copied 
Records, 125-129.) In the record of September 
29ih, 1791, we find the pari«h " set ting on fool 
an obligation to pay our equal dividend accord- 
ing to our rateable estate for the support of a 
Prisbeterian Minister of the Gospel that shall 
or may be called hereafter by the majority of 
our society to settle in this place." On the 
4th ol January, 1792, "a oroposition of Mr. 
Baldwin Being presented to the Parish and 
Read Imparting his willingness to be Dismissed 
or to continue to Preach for us as the Parish 
should think proper ;" therefore it was voted 
" to pay Mr. Baldwin the full of his saliery and 
all arrearages up to the first of June next at 
which time the Parish consider Mr. Baldwin 
under no further obligation to this Parish nor 
the Parish to Mr. Baldwin." The liberty was 
also jiaimed if it were necessary even before 
. tl e 1st of June " to call and settle any other 
minister to preach witl in the above mentioned 
time by gi- ing Mr. Baldwin Tinit.'y notice 
thereof, but still to pay Mr. Baldwin up his 
saliery as first rated." (Copied Records, 133. ) 
On the l-lth of May a committee reported the 
parish as owing "Mr. Baldwin by reasoning 
his salleiy up to the 1st of Jane next the sum 
of £99, 18s, 0, and that this parish how consider 
thems'^lves at full Liberty to Treate and agrea 
with any minister to preach for them which 
they may Think B' st, thirty-four for it and 
one contra." .At the same meeting it was also 
voted to " apply to Mr. John Carl for to sup- 
ply us as a candidate, 35 for it 1 contra." The 
committee to wait on Mr. Carl consisted oJ 
Moses Tnttle, David Beman, William Ross, 
Stephen Jackson. The same meeting further 
'oted that " Benj. Jackson, Rosel Davis and 
Dan Hurd be the Constors to set the psalm 
for this parish, and that untiil further orders 
the Choresters act Dcseretional what part of 

the Time to Read the Psalm when sung and 
one of them to read it or apply to some other 
to Read it for them." (Copied Records 134. 

Thus we reach the end of our second pastor's 
ministry. There was one man, Abraham 
Kitchel, who considered Mr. Baldwin as abused 
bv the congregation, and further that the 
pood man's dismissal was brought about by 
inf.uences outside the church. A letter from 
Mr, Kitchel to the parish meeting, dated 
" White Meadow 18 of June, 1792," is copied 
into our records. He resigns his ofiBce of trus- 
tee, and then writes, " With regard to giving 
a call to Mr. Cari I can see no impropriety in 
the parrish excluding the churcli, and as a 
member of the parrish I shall not object, but 
as a member of the church I shall, for I don't 
know what right the parrish has to appoint a 
minister or president over the church. Nor 
can 1 think it right for any of the members of 
this church to be aiding or assisting in calling 
and settling one till Mr, Baldwin is settled 
with and Legally Dismissed, and for my part 
shall object Nothing till the church seitles 
with and Does Justice to Mr. Baldwin," 
(Copied Records, 15.) 

January 7th, 1806, thirteen years after Mr. 
Baldwin's ministry was closed, we have a 
rf^cord that it was " voted to allow James 
Kitchel for the last two dollars which he has 
collected on old subscription and paid to the 
Rev. Mr. David Baldwin." 

And I may add that Mr. Hubbard S. Stickle 
told me that Mr. Baldwin spent one Sabbath 
at Rockaway, and that he seemed very poor. 
As yet I learn no more of him. 

The spirit of Mr. Baldwin as shown in a let- 
ter irom him to the Parish meeting January 
4th, l';92, at the very time the subject of his 
dismissal was up, is altogether to his credit. 
As characteristic of the man and furnishing a 
f.icture of the state of things at the close of 
his ministry, I will quote the whole letter : 
" To THE Church and Parish at Rockaway : 

BuETHUEN : — I have been with you these 
seven years past in which time I have expe- 
rienced many very singular favors from indi- 
viduals of your fraternity, which have very 
sensably obliged me. But there has been an 
unhappy disunion which has caused me much 
grief and concern for your welfare and the 
prosperity of religion. I had it in my mind to 
have asked a dismission from preaching with 
you last parish meeting. But taking into con- 
sideration the state, both of the church and 
society, could not think it my duty to leave 
the society in so scattered and broken a situ- 
ation. Concluded to try everything posable to 
remove these obstacles out of the way, which 
under the guidance of the good Pruvidenceof 



Qod and the kiod aRBibtance of some of my 
brethren in the ministry I trust is in a good 
measare eflft-cled. I mean btili to coutiuue mv 
labours nnd influence to compleate a union 
even to indwiduals within the bounitp of rea- 
son and religion, aad then ieave it with your 
candid and senout) coU8ider>ii um wlicilier you 
Bee fit to dismiss me from preachinfj with you 
■sycnr miuiBter. I give it up to Providence, 
but hope that you will do nothing hastily and 
fall not out by the way. 

N. B.— You cannot be insensable, gpntlemen, 
thsit my ministerial labors have boen much 
impeadcd by a constant evocation to mv tem- 
poral business for the support of ray family 
and still must continue to be the same with- 
out a more regular way for my relief from 
worldly incumbrances. 

I subscribe myself in the Boada of the Gos- 
pel, your minister and servant, for Christ's 
take, Da7id Baldwin." 

Rockaway, January 4th, 1792. 

I have no means of ascertaining the actual 
fruits of Mr. Baldwin's ministry of eight years 
but in two verv interesting papers written at 
my request by the Rev. Peter Kanouse, men- 
tion IS made of a revival of roligiou which af- 
fected this region chiefly under Mr. Baldwin's 
ministry. As this is the first revival of which 
we have any record in this parish I will quote 
all that Mr. Kanouse says on the subject 
merely remarKing that th'i dates in hi> letter 
are too late. It was probably in the year of 
1790-91 that this revival occurred, for in 1790 
there was "a season of unusual excitement on 
the subject of religion" in Morristowu. 
(Barnes' Manual of Pres. Ch.Morrislowu, p. 7.) 

" The first revival" says Mr. Kanouse " I 
remember witnessing was in Rockaway Valley 
and it wae, no doubt, the fiidt special work ol 
grace ever enjoyed in that region. I would 
venture to give it date as far back as 1794. A 
Dutch minister called Mireneus itineiats'd 
through the vallev, over Green Pond Moun- 
tain, and Newfoundland. I often huard it said, 
that he frequently indulged a little too freely 
with the fashionable dram, and sometimes 
made his apology by saying to the people, ^'Do 
as I say and not as I do, and inina zeal ver 
jela steal, my soul for your soul you will be 
safe." A Rev. Mr. Duryea used also lo preach 
in some hou.-te or barn ; school houses were 
almost unknown in those days. A Mr. Gideon 
Bostedo, a preacher of the Congregational or- 
der — a pious man, used to labor in the same 
ptrts. But the favorite o! that day was a Rev. 
Mr. Baldwin, a good man, who at an early 'late 
of all the good (lone used to preach at Rocka- 
way, Rockaway Valley, Hibernia, Charlotlen- 
buigh, Stony Brook and the O^vlkill. Tlie work 
of grace to which 1 refer was for that time a 

great and good work. Rockawa'", P.irsippany, 
Hanover, Morristown, Mendham, and no doubt 
other churches of which I then knew nothing 
were refreshed. Soon after this the Rev. 
Messrs. Armstrong, Griflfen and Finley. held 
meetings, in various places, somewhat like 
protrac'ed meetings, sometimes in the open 
heavens or some pleasant grove." fKanouse's 
His. Discourse before Prosbytpry MS. pp 14-16. ) 
In a letter to me Mr. Kanouse refers to the same 
scenes. "The Rev. Mr. BaMwin of the Rockaway 
congregation was the first minister of that place 
that I have any knowledge of. He was an or- 
dinary man. a verj moderate preacher, but a 
good man. I went to school to his sou, an excel- 
lent young man. How long Mr. Baldwin preach- 
ed in Rockaway it is impossible for me to say. 
He preached in Rockaway ValJey at my father's 
house, say 1796, and my own impression is that 
he labored in this region under review soin<» 
years before this date and probably was in- 
strumental in the revival of 1793 or 1794. I 
incline to the latter date. *♦***» 
Tne Methodists camo in about this time and 
made a stand at Mr. Jacob De Mott's, or as we 
pronounced it Temonl's, and for a tune they 
seemed to absorb every otber denomination. 
Alter a little while tliey dwindled into a cypher. 
Amongst them occurred some of the most sin- 
gular scenes I ever met with. It was not 
" the Jerks " nor the " Knock Down " but the 
"fall down "of two very wicked women who 
continued to practice their dccepticma for 
years until a third one joined them who also 
fell and never rose again. But I pass it all. 
The Rev. Mr. Baldwin was the chief means of 
the awakening, though Grover, Keyper. and a 
good old man on Green Pond Mountain whose 
name was Gideon Bostedo were great helps in 
the work. Some of the subjects of that work I 
can name: Mr. Jacob Kanouse and four" o' 
my Bisters, ail in their graves now, Samuel 
Miller, Peter Stickle and wife, George Stickle 
and wife, David Peer an Elder in your church 
(Rotkawav), John Peer, wi.e, sou and daugh- 
ter, John Cook, wife, sou and daugtiier, 
Ihumas and Samuel Peer, and three sifters 
and one son, Ephraim and George Taylor 
and their wives, and some of their sisters. 
Jacob Dermott and wife, Aflara Miller and 
wife, James Shaw and wik, Frederick Hopler. 
Mr. Lasvsou and Mr. Vanliouten, also about 
five members of the family, Mr. Mikle Cook, 
ihese were mainly in and about the valley, and 
several others whose names I have lost. How 
many of them united with the church in Rock- 
away I am uniole to say. The valley at that 
time was regarded as belonging to Boouton. 
Thereviv.l afieded DeuviUe, Rockaway. and 
Parcippany, but my acquaintance was too lim- 
ited to say who were the sul'jects. Several ol 



tbf converts went to Boimion. s mie to the 
Methodists, and D. Peer and wife and I tbiiil; 
a dHUKhter. Jubu Peer and wile and dau.c^litcr, 
Juhn Couk, wife and dausbter, Samuel Mille;' 
and wie, Peier and George SticUle and tlieir 
wives united with your chuicli at Rookawa y 
and I sbou'd Ihink under the ministry of Rev. 
Mr. Baldwin."— (MS. Letter of Rev. P. Kau- 
ouse ) 

Very fortunately one sermon of our second 
pastor has been preserved in a mutilated con- 
dition, but enough of the old and well worn 
manufcri|K. has been kept to indicate to us 
what Kind of ministrations wera here dispensed 
by a man who has long since passed from 
the eartli. H. was preached in the old church 
on a wint.ei's day more than twenty years apo 
at the luneral of Deacon David Beamau'ij wife, 
who was reputed to bo a very pious womui.* 
Mr. Baldwin's text on that occasion was Job 
31. 4. 

1 will quote a few sentences fr-mi this dis- 
course remiudins you of the fact that be who 
preached it and all who that day were gathered 
ia the old meeting house, are dead, except a 
very f-w who were then children. Mr. Hub- 
baid S. Stickle was in the house but be was 
less than three years old. 

The firt^t part of this manuscript sermon as 
it lies before me clearly '■ets loiththe nature 
of God's law, the sinntr's coDdemnatiou by 
that law, and the nature of saving faiiii. An- 
ticipating the solemn scenes of tbe judgment, 
the preacher then said, '• There all our conlro- 
vercies in point nf lUligion together the high- 
est attainments of knoliilg will be forever swal- 
lowed uj) in the iutinile wisdcmi of Gud. There 
the sinner will be convinced ot his lolly lu op- 
posing the gospel and his guilty conscience 
roze out against him. Noihing can screen 
thecn the j)iercing eyes ol Jehovah, who 
will bring them to the bar of justice, and 
maintain the Rights ot the godhead lu the 
view ol all, when every tongue shall confess 
that Jesus Christ is Lord to the glory of God 
the lather. 

"But Thirdly we are to make some reflec- 
tions on a prepaiation for these two great 
events, Diath and Judgment. Death con- 
cludes our probaiiouary state and what we do 
preparatory for the judgment is done before 
Death, lor in tbe grave ihereisr.o repentance. 
Judgment is an eieinal sanction of god upon 
what; we have done whither it be good or 
whither It be bad. *♦****»#* 
***-** ***o sinner, the law of 

*1 aai told Mr». Beainaii was very Ijappy on 
her death Led. When (lying she a^ked these 
abouiherio sing " VVbeo 1 can reail mv title 
Clear." After her speech tailed her husband 
asKed her il bur faiili leiii.uued uiijh.ikeu, and 
she bowed her bind in assent. 

God and thy consienc witness against 
thee, thv sins are pointed out by the pure and 
Holy Ccmm.uid of god. You are destitue of 
that Rghtionsness which yon will have great- 
e'.t nead of in the Hour of Death iind especially 
at the bar of judgment, when all thy crimes 
will be brougiit to light iud aoear in all their 
aggrivated CMCumstances. Death to uncon- 
veited will instcd of loosing its terrours apear 
more and more terrible. The nearer its ap- 
proach the more of its gloomy horrors it 
wa.-eth. You. my hearers, are witnesses to 
the truth. When Death comes near to us by 
removing any of our fellow cretures into the 
Eternal world it is al.irin:ug iudced. But 
more especially when we are cmediately ap- 
p heusive of it-* nearapproach to our own per- 
sona, then we are often scared and at our wits 
end. Then the sinner will cry out lor help yet 
this will soon be over whiu death withdraws a 
little behind the Curtain. But consider tbe 
Curtain will soon be drawn and Expos Death 
to vour view, and your bodys to its cold em- 
braces. But if living and dying impennent or 
unconverted, you must feall thit a.viul sting 
of sin with barded (barued) anguish in your 
hearts the thoughts of death and judgment 
will till the soul with amazement and their 
apprehensions of eternal death and Darkness 
listug to its highest tide and the poor Dis- 
tre.-sed soul sinking into eternal flimes where 
the worm dieth not and tae fire is not 

Let me quote a very cheerful p.issage. " Lst 
us choose what is good among ourselves. T.iis 
sentence, among ourselves seams to carry in it 
a Iriendly corresponding titness. The laniily 
of heaven it united in one and what is tor the 
interest ol one is for the interes-t of 
the hull family. We are to imitate heaven in 
this friendly connection. We profess to have 
heaven on earth, but some may say what good 
can one do another in btiaveu whin thoy are 
all peifect and lull of deiight. I answer they 
delight in one anotiier, ami as one star helps 
tiU up thj tiruiament with spangled glory, so 
the saints help each oLUer in filling beaveu 
with joy and delight. Angells rejoice at tbe 
return of a sinner to god and the number helps 
make their happiness compleac and Saints, 
Angela rejoice together in the glory of that 

Here is another impressive passigo which 
is illustrxted by the havoc death has made 
among those who heard ihis funeral discourse. 
'•Tuis IS a changable state in which there is 
nothing stable and stexdtast. This is not our 
Home ; we con.e and go ; the place in which 
We are now conversant and make members of 
society delighted with a variety of company 
and agreuble conversation of IVtuaJs will soon 


Annals of moreis county. 

know ns DO more. Oar seats and places are 
emptied and filled by others. Families betjin, 
increas, and prosper for a wliile and then 
scatter and are gone, and others cume in their 

With one more quotation I will elose this 
digcourse. Looliing forward to the time when 
tbe believer is assured ot his interest in Cbrist. 
Mr. Baldwin says with touching simplicity. 
" their (aiih in Christ loolis death out of coun- 
tenance and disarms it oT its soul killiut; an 1 
heart tormeDtiu*^ weapon, tuins all those 
awlui featers (features) of the Kuifj of tenors 
into the more mild aspect of a Welcome mes- 
senger. ***** * * iliis opens to 
our view 1 he prospect of futer glory in Heaven 
where the souls cf the Believirs are made 
perlecl and all tears shall be wiped away from 
their eyes. Then the wicked sease from 
troubtling and the weary are at rest. Jud{,'- 
ment is no terror to the soul that is prepared 
to die, but an inlinite satisfaction that the day 
of their Redemption draws nigh when they 
shall shak of their prison garments and be 
cloathed with immor'ality and a crown of 
glory given unto them which faideth not 

After Mr. Baldwin was dismissed he con- 
tinued to reside on his f;irm, near Denville, 
for several years. Whilst ther« his wife died 
and 1 e married again. He afterward removed 
but where I hav^ not learned. Some years 
afterward, as Jlr. HuL>l)ard S. htickle remem- 
bers, Mr. Baldwin spent a Sabbath in the par- 
ish, and preached. He had then become quite 
intirm. Of his substq-ient history I knows 
nothing § 

Upon the whole you will agree with me that 
all we see of <>ur i-ceonri pastor as a Christian 
man and minister, deepens onr rcspt c tor his 
memory. Since making 'his careJul search 
into liis ministry in this ccmimunity my heait 
has felt the r xpression. I have heard from the 
lips of so many old people when talking about 
Mr. Baldwin, " he was a good roan," and no 
doubt he is now enjoying those heavenly 
felicities which he described so pleasingly at 
the fnreial(fone who lived the life and died 
tlie death «jf the righteous. 

Mr. Williim Jaek^cn says that Mr. Baldwin 
was aloi t hix fiet in stature, very erect and 
»itli bioad 6li< niders. He was very "slow ol 
speech and of conise spent a full Sabbath in 

*This maiinseript liagmenlis in the po.sses- 
sion of Mr. Heman blickle, a grand^on ot the 
po"d woman tor whose liineral it was pre- 
pared. Tlie spilling is |)ie>cived as in the 
manuneripl wliiuh ib in Mr. Baldwin's liaud- 

§Mr. Hubbard H. Slieule tells me that Major 
Muiiuii, who ri sidts above Dover, is a grand 
son of Mr. Baldwin. 

the delivery of what he had to say, whilst 
many slept soundly. 1 recollect 'li.-<titictly and 
almost feel still the hardness of those old 
voodtn seals on wliich I sat with my mothc^r 
w hen only five or six years old to hear the old 
man deliver himself. lof course was not much 
of a jnc'ge of preaching at that age, yet it it had 
produced the fame impression on me a't those 
hard lenches, I think I should liave remem- 
beiid unu h of his- pH-aehiPg." And yet if not 
a biiiliant preacher he was a good man, which 
is better. 

We have vofi reached the ministry of the 
thud pastor, tlie Rev. Joiin J. Ciile. As al 
ready staled on the 14th of May. 1792, the 
Parish voted that they "now consider tliem- 
selves at lull lil>erty to Trf ate anda;reawith 
any minister to preach tor thrm which th'V 
may Tbii k best," and further that they voted 
" to apply to Mr. John tarl to supjJy us as a 
candidate, 25 lor it 1 contra." The dissenting 
Vote was cast by Abram Kitcht 1. A comm-ttee 
consii-ling of Messrs. Tnttle, Beaman, Koss 
and Jackson was appointed to carry out the 
wii-h(s ff the palish, and irom an item in the 
Purish Books it is evident that Mr Carl liad 
preachid the day lielore the meeting, that is. 
May 13ih, 1792. The item is this, in the ac- 
count dated September 16th, 1793. " To Mr. 
Carl's supplying the 15 8abbathstrom the 13th 
of May to the 16th ol September in the year 
1792 at 50?. per Sabbath." This marks the 
beginning of Mr. Carl's ministr"- in Rockaway. 
On the 5th of July, 1792, Ihe Trustees record 
the fact tha* "as per vote on Parish book wc 
th IS day signed a call for Mr. John Carl tor 
settlement in this parish." 

The pciniancnt baigain with him bears the 
date ot Stptf mber 16ih, 1192, as is plain from 
an Item in the account ot Sc[)tember IGth, 1793, 
" To Mr. Carl for one year's sallriy from Sept. 
IGth, 179^ to the present date, £100." 

The Pi.rish evidently agreed to furnish the 
n( w minister in addition to the £100, his par- 
sonage, hay and wood, and also to move bis 
good.'! and f; mily. The Parish is crtdited with 
'• an ouni cf lax imd subscriptions to rais Mr. 
Call's talkiy, nio\e liim, and hay the year 
past.L137, 10,7." He must have removed his 
lamily in October as I'avid Broadwell 15ih 
Oeteber, 1792, brings in his account against 
the parish lor" leiching 2 loads ol goods firm 
Binnswiek for Mr. Carl," and 27ih NovemLer 
a third load. His bill lor the three loads was 
£2, 14, ! 

The first " Parish obligation and subscrip- 
tions " in Ml . Carle's time was dated June 20tli, 
1792, tlic si.bscribers agreeing to pay the sums 
severally i.fiixed to onr names yearly and 
every year unto one of tlic C<illector's l.-r th 
time being or Mr. John Carle's salary so long 



as he may continue to preach fjr tbe Parish of 
Rockuway. Among the signers nre Chileau 
Ford, LI. 10. 0, Joim Stotei^bnry, L3. Sttpheu 
Jacl- soil, LG, Geo. D. Brinkerhoff, L3, •' John 
Jacob Faeseli verbally to Geo. D. Briiikerholl' 
for toe .vear 1791, L5." Ou the 27th of Decem- 
ber, 1792 a heavy 8nl).scriptiOQ w;i8 uiaih; " for 
the painient ot the sums severally affixed to 
our names oa or before first day of May uext 
for the bnildiDS of the new parsonajje house." 
Among the largest sub-tcriptions are— omitting 
the fractions— Benj. Beach, LIB, Job Alien, 
Lll, John J. Faet^cl),L 12. Moses Tutlle, L 
17, Josiah Beman, L12, 8tepheu Jacksion L20. 
Jona than Nicholas was the smallest subsoip- 
tion five i-hiliiugs and nine peuce. GiJion 
Beshup gave eight shillings and '• Arthur 
Young fjf nen s-hillings to be paid to isrol Can- 
tield." Tliis subscription foots up a little over 
L23-% but in the account of the Parish " the 
subscriptions to buiM the parsonage house" 
are set dosvn as L279. 18. 1.* 

*A8 showing who were the men of this par- 
ish in 1793 I copy the names on this subscrip- 
tion in the order iu winch ihey occur. 
Beuj. Bi-ach, Job Allen, 
Tit us Btrrv, Silts Hatlieway, 
Chi ion Fold, Geo. isiicklo, 
David Broadwell, Cornelius \n(Ierson, 
David Conger, Lemuel Bovors, 
Wm. Boss, Beijj. Lampsou, 
Stephen Jackson, David Bemau, 
Thomas Conger, Benj. Jackson, 

h\< his 

John \^ N. Bicts, Samuel x Love, 

mail-. mark. 

Sam I Lind^ley, Daniel J^t-wis, 

Jolin J.ieutf Faesch, Jacob Harriman, 

Wm. Miichel, James Miuton, 

Mosi s Hopping, J;imes Suckle, 

Moses Lenilley. Jackaen Aytrd, 

Ebeiiez'i- Lmdiey, Edward Stickle, 

Elephaleb Lyon, Job Ta'madgo, 

Moses Tuttle, Cornelius Hoigland, 

John J ckson, Bernard Smith, 

Fzekii 1 Brnwn, William Liidla(l»f. 

.Joseph Di camp, Charles Hotf, 

Jociah Kurr, John Qoikieu, 

.Jacob l.dsev, Zeba L. Owen, 

Samuel Clark, W lliaiu Alger, 

Thi->iias King, John Benwell, 

-Josiah Bi man, James Clarke, 

John Hall, M.tith'W Luke, 

Edward Wells, John Kin<r, 

Jonah L^on, Samuel Moore, 

Jos())h Wright, John Day, 

James Wheeler, Moses J^oty, 

Daviii Hurd, Samuel Hickb, 

Joei P.^elps, John Corey, 

" tSam'l (Jhnrcbillin shoes near franklin forge," 

Jacob Garrigus, Simon Huntington, 

Gibirt Hnnlington, . Junalhau Nicuols, 

Samuel Williams, ^^anpuel I'aimer, 

John Pai kbnrsh, David Beach, 

Abner B'-ach, Gedion Besliup, 

Samuel Daniels, Joshn-i Winget, 

•John Hiler, Jr., Sarah Kent, 

Moses Boss, Amos Lindley, 

Zephamiah Eagles, Ariliur Young, 

"isrel Caiitield," David Garrigus, 

D. Htrnenan, Josepli Losey, 
Ja'^iob Stickle, 

As to the old parsonage lands Feb. 2d, 178S 
the Trustees in great straits for money to pay 
Mr. Baldwin, agreed to sell part ol the parson- 
age lands and on the 21st of that month say 
"■ we have sold and conveyed to Stephen Jack- 
son twen'y acres for thirty-eight pounds sub- 
ject to redemption on or l>cf )re April 15th for 
L38 poundn in Bloomey iron at L21 per tun, 
or refund iron at L28." There is no record of 
its redempticu that I find. Sept. 5, 1792, Lem- 
uel Cobb surveyed the lands into four parcels, 
reserving about thirty acres of wood land for 
the new parsonage. Jan. 7, 1793, all the lots 
woie struck ofif to David Garrigus who refused 
afterwards to take them, and on March 4rth 
" the house lot was struck of to Johu Shong at 
I.,75. 10. The lot next the house to David Con- 
ger at LIS. 0. 0. The mountain lot to Peter 
Hiler L-27. 18. 6. The Goose lot to Chilioa 
Ford at L12. Amounting in all t» L163. 8. 5. 
Stephen Jackson took the goose lot ofif Ford's 

In 1792 "a legacy was left by Deacon Aller- 
ton ot LSO." Including the last t^o items — 
the sale of lands and the Ipgacy- the parish 
the first year of Mr. Carle's ministry raised 
L050. 10. 21. Fro.a the accounts it also ap. 
pears that the "new Parsonage lands were 
bought for L239. U. 10. This did not include 

The " new parsonage" is ptiU stand- 
ing (1846 not in 1882) and is in the 
Franklin neighborhood, tho house formerly 
occupied by Mr. Peter Sullivan, and next 
to Mr. Seely Tompkins. It has a beautiful 
prospect but a very poor soil. On the 30th of 
July 1792 we learn that the Trustees " agread 
with (Villiam Boss tor the Purchase of a house 
and about Fifiy acres of land Laying on the 
Boad that leads from Bockaway to Franklin 
forge lor which we have agreed to give him 
L230." Feb. 31, 1793 it is said that William 
Boss attended and execjted a deed lor the 
New Parsonage lands and the Trustees exe- 
cuted a Bond of security to William B )ss and 

Mjses Tuttle on account of their giving their 
bonds to Jacob Shotwell for tue purchase of 
the New Parsonage Lands." This shows that 

88 names one of which is that of a woman 
'•Sarah Kent." 

In a list of names March 1794 (or " monies 
due and unpaid, and what may yet be collected 
lor miuisler's sallery and parsonage uouse," 
are some names not on the former one. Among 
tliese I note the following : 

Matthias Zeig, 
Aaron Bic;elo\v, 
Newton Bussell, 
David Esiler, 
David Hill, 
Nath. Bend, 
Thomas Maun, 
Matthew Uuntins 

David Gerdon, 
Nathaniel Boger, 
George Sbawger, 
David Pier, 
Jno. Smith, 
Saih Hall. 
Isaac Osborn, 
Matthias Zeek, 



Rnfs acted as tiie aKent of Shotwell. Ami as 
I suppose in 1793 Mr. Carle nio/td into this 
hon>e and oDcupied it unlil he pureliased a 
bouse of Lis own in Rocliaway. In tlie LiiUs! 
for the |)arsonage kum is painl'nllv Ireqnent as 
an Item of expense. Butts, nails, hinges, and 
BUM are mixed up as if tliere were is rainy 
" quarts ami pails of rum " as pnuuds ol' nails. 
In an account headed " 1792 Trnsteos 
Rockaway parish to Messrs Sticlde and G.nri- 
gues Dr," and one hundred and fourteen items 
with dates there are only thirty-nine items 
which are not rum. Among these seventy-five 
charges in one bill ior rum for < he parsonage 
we have " l.J Gills, rum for raising parsonage 
house 12s" and "David Broadwel' far mm he 
had lor the use of the parsonage 9s." The 
original of this remarkable bill I have bound 
up in the copy I nave had m;ide of the Parish 
recorde. It is in Ihe handwriting of George 
Stickle and is very btau'ilul. On the first 
page "two bars of iron" make the only excep- 
tion to the " ram" i turns, and on the second 
we have a pewter tea, pot, a plug of tobacco 
aud a few pounds of nails to relieve the monot- 
ony of the rum ! 

The Rev. John J. Carle was the son of John 
Carle, of Baskingridge, The father was an 
Elder in the Presbyterian Church at that place, 
was a Judge of the Court at diflerent times, a 
member cifboih Hcmses of the Legislature. He 
was a man of iuflueLice and property. His son, 
John J. Carle, was aiaduated at Queen's Col- 
lege, as Rutger'd College, at N'^w Brunswick 
was then Cdllid, iu 1789. He was licensed to 
prf-ach by (he Presbytery of New Brunswick at 
P^-nnington, N. J., Septemher 2lst, 1731. vSep- 
tcraber 18ih, 179?, having received a call to 
Rockaway, he was dismissed to be under the 
care of the Presbyterj* of New York. He re- 
ceived his second academic degree of A. M. in 
1'92, from llie College of New Jersey. In the 
fall of tliis year he removed his family to Rock- 
away, aud in January, 1793, ho was ordained to 
the gospel ministry, the first ordination ever 
witnessed in this place. 

He is described as a youMg man of fine ap- 
pearance and talents. One who knew liiru 
speaks ol hiiu as " a fluent pulpit orator, orect 
aud of eas-y address ami manners, a moft 
jovial companion wheu out of tlie pulpit, fond 
ofajoke.ind good company. He never held 
any weekly lectures or piavcr meetin;,s. His 
seimous were short and such us not to di&tuib 
bis bearerb' con!^clL'Uces. He ouce said that 
ht never knew but one perton who traced his 
conversion to his preaching." 

The vice of the times was inleuperance as 
might be iiilerrid lium thu hisiory of "the 
new paisoiidtie." and whilst he pastor hero 
Mr. Carle so-^ms \o have somewhat indulged 

his appetite in this respect, and although he 
did not here so to great excesses the habit 
impaired his influence aud causpJthe "church 
to dwindle under his ministry." Many anec 
dotes ar« "till relati;d as to his neglect of study 
and the duti's ot his oftice. as also of his habit 
jast referred to. lu the Manual of 1«33 Col. 
Jackson says " Mr. Carle added a goodly num- 
l)er to the church," and Mr.King in hisDedica- 
tion sermon, Sep'einber, 1J>32, says that "dur- 
ing Mr. Carle's ministry, a period of eight 
years, eleven f)ers.)as were received into the 
commuuiou of tl>e church on examiaation and 
thiee by certificate," 

The same charitable critic in his " Fortieth 
Anuivcrsaiy Sermon"— December, 1848— wrote 
ihat his owu ministry "had been preceded bv 
the ministrations of one who had more taients 
than pietv— more learuing than humility— and 
seemed to take more satisfaction la the pleas- 
ures of sense than in endeavoring to feed the 
people with knowledge and understanding. 
You may well conclude tlat religion was at a 
low ebl), almost as low as it could be and not 
become extinct." 

Tlie one great fault of Mr. Carle was very 
common in that day, aud not a few cicrgyiueu 
fell into it. There is no reason so far as I can 
see why ho sboulj not have become an able 
" minister of the word," and a gooil man in all 
the relations of lift, but this one. This led to 
the unhanpiuess which overtook him as a 
minister and a citiz"u. For this he was de- 
posed from the niini.^try in Connecticut, and 
suffered greatly in the relations he sustained 
to his lather and his family. After his return 
U) Baskingridge in consequence of an uncle's 
death who had left him his principal heir, he 
became very intemperate, subjected his lanuly 
to such suffering that their only relief w»s a 
resurt to the law, and fiualiy died " about 
180S." Mr. Jacoh Collyer, who gave me these 
and other facts, also pointed out to me Ml. 
Carle's grave in the B.iskingridge church yard, 
aud which was tlieu unmarked bv a monument. 

He lias lett descendants who are highly 
It spectabie aud whilst scarcely less could be 
saiu of him, we are to charge the fault which 
led to the disasters of his career to the char- 
acter of the times lu which he lived, aud to 
cast over it the mantle of charity. 

Let us now retrace our stejjs to learn what 
the Parish did during 'the ministry of Mr. 
Carle. The earlier i>art of it seems to have 
becD marked by such ability on the part of the 
minister as to attract the attention of the 
people and inspire them with some ambition 
tj mike the meeting house decent and coui- 
loriaule. In February, 1791, tho Pari.^h re- 
fcolvnd "to raise three hundred uounds for 
repairing and tiuishiug the meeting hous." It 



ie cliffi:;n!l to rcvilize tliu i-onditioii of ihe house 
tLriy-lour .vcais iilicr it was raised and en- 
closed, ll bad seviTtil ai'.stooratic pews in it, 
but u was nvitliT ceded nor plastcreJ. Tbo 
birds aud ibe air liad Fr_e admissioa, and lu 
that Ci^mfortless pkice all Lie meutm^js of the 
cLiurcli lj;id been attended, and tbcre Mr. Carle 
bad been ordair.ed ou a January dav, as in tbo 
barne room fioihbod, I'Ut without tire, lus 
Buccossor was ordained fifteen years afterward 
on a cold Djcember da.'. 

In April, 179i, '• three hundred and upward 
gub.-cribfrs." were reported Tor the meetiu^ 
buuse, and ou the 10th ot June " the Trustees 
Arlieled with Job Allen to tiaish the Meting 
bons tor £3G0." On the lOib of Deeeuiber a 
committee appoinied by the rrustee.s '" to in- 
spect the uieiing bou>! reported that they have 
viewed ibe hou" aud cannot agree upon the 
gojdntss of the work.'' On the 2Htb of the 
same month the Trustees met and with them 
Job Baldwin aud Jotiatliau Brown, "Two 
Joiners." These gentlemen weie invited to 
"delHrraine couserning tbe work and to settle 
with Job Allen," and after viewing tbe bouse 
gave it as '• their opmiou that tlie hous was 
finished .-.ometbing better by more work done 
to it than agreement by the amount of one 
pound and eighteen t'bfllings." It being de- 
cided that " the west stairs had not been done 
in a workmanlike manner, .4llen rclinqnested 
bis claim to And gave it to the Parish ■" Upon 
the adding of a few liit'e '.hiugs lo the galltiy 
" the Parish voted to receive clie bouse now 
finished." In January, 1795, it appeared that 
of the L312 subscribed to repair the church 
Allen had only collected L230 The Trustees 
threatened to proscute thedelinqueais, aud as 
I find no lurther lueDtiou of Ihe matter I infer 
that Allen received bis pay. 

In September 1791, Mr. Carle asked the con- 
gregation to raise Ins salary to£l5l) per year wiih 
the use uf tiic parsonage and firewood, aud I 
suppose it was so arranged, since there was so 
good an understanding hetweeu the minister 
and parish rbat " the Bnird in December gave 
Mr. Carl leav to Build a Smoak buuse ou the 
Parsonage and bring the account against the 
Trustees." In the bume mouth we ha\e Mr. 
Carle's receipt lu full for salary and repairs of 
tbe Parsonage up to 16ih of fSeptembcr. 

December 7, 1795, Mr. Cai lo "' in.ormed tbe 
Trustees that be had oneluded to buy a plase 
ofliiso«naud that the Trustees might have 
full libirty to selj the Parsonage" ami in Vpril 
following, 1796, '• Mr. Gail inlormetl the B lard 
that be liad purchnsed himself a plase viz. of 
David Beemau." This bouse was ou tb.' we.'-t 
side of the village near the llighter Foundry, 
aud was a Iter ward knr)\^n as tbe " Berry 
House. At the sauie time .Mr. Carle purchase 1 

a remnant of the "oild Parsonage at three 
piuinds carrent money per acte." The amount 
named was £55, 10s, Gd. At a subsequent 
meeting Mi. Carle's salary was fixed at £180 
per year "'and to tind himself and fire wood." 
There is cidence in the records that it was not 
easy to raise muuey for him, and at last some 
of the permanent funds were appropriated to 
make up tbe defieiency. Indeed without know- 
irg It certainly I infer that the money realized 
for the sale of the parsonage properties was 
used lo pay Aullen his balance Jor repairing the 
church and Mr Carle's f u' silary. 

Tbe " new parsonage " in Franklin wa^ sold 
to Dr. Ebenezer U. Pierson in Deoeiuber, 1795. 
for eleven biiudred dollars, '•$375 of which was 
to be paid on the 1st of May next aud the re- 
mainder in one year from that t;mrf with in- 
terest." How long Dr. P.ersou was a citizen 
of Rockaway I have no means of knowing. He 
was generally esteemed and bad au extensive 

Tlie enterprising people now took in hand 
"' the feiising .Vletiug hous" and " the clearing 
and fensiug the Meting hous Lot auu likewise 
a Dear yard. An agreenieni was made lu 1796 
whith IStephen Jackson '• lor clearing tiie whole 
of the Mit ng bouse Lot in fiont of the bous 
said Jacksou lo clear it off well by cutting tbe 
stumps low aud all the underbruslj aud Buru 
It all for the wouil aud oald Rails." Aud yet 
in 1797 the parish '* agreed to make a fVolick to 
c ear ofift le Brush in liout of the Meiing hous 
and heap tUe wood anil sell it at Vaudue." 
At that time it was resolved •' to paint the in- 
side of the Meiiug lious," •' Jot> Alien to fur- 
uiah tbe paint and oil and superinleud the 

The record of April 2d, 179S, shows that tiiat 
faiihlul aud gooil man to whom the church 
owed so much, Capt. Job Alleo, bad re- 
ceu;ly died. May 7tb, 1798, the uame of a 
iiiau to wiioai the euurcdi owej a debt 
tiiat can never be paid, appears ou the 
records for the first time, when '"Joseph 
Jack-(iN was appointed clerk of the Board." 
lu 1800 the question is rai.ic I " tbe Trustees 
shall uieak upou the I anus lo pay Mr. Carle's 
salary, and whether the Trustees shall have 
leave to ask a .separation with Mr. Carl." In 
1301 Mr. Carle's miuislry was close^l m Rocka- 
way and in Hay of that year bis family was re- 
moved to Elizibethtown Poiut. I ain tild he 
went to I'oniieciicut lo be the pastor of a 
church. His accounts with the Parish were 
not balanceil until October. 1801. 

Tbe only discourse of any sort which we 
have Irom Mr. Carle's pen is bis "Funeral 
Sermon on the Death ol General George VVafb 
,ngioii." It was delivered in tbo old church at 
liockaway. Very considerable loimalily • was 



observed in liaviu.q tbe mililaiy p<esent and a j 
procPsgicD fornuti v hicli piocieded to tbe 
cburcb to lisiten to tbe serniou and tbeo re- 
turiU'd to tbe starting p!aco beiwecu tbe bouse 
of Stephen Jadsi'u and ♦bat <>ii tbe cppusiie 
side of llie road then rccupie d by Col. Cbilian 
Ford. Tbis was ou tbe east side of tbe river 
in Iroiit of tbe residence occnpitd by <he mte 
Col. Joseph Jackcon. Tbe disconrse of Mr. 
Carle wae piibhtbed in a pamphlet for sale and 
in 18G0 it was rfpiil'lisbcd in tbe Su.-sex Demo- 
crat. It will be found in tbe issue of June 
7tb. It JH in no ropef^t a very remarkable 
documtnr. but it is creditable to tbe author's 

In June, 1802, Joseph Jaol;son was unani- 
mously chosen President of tbe Board, and 
tbat year appears tbe evidence of some trouole 
about tbe Wind's legacy in connection with 
the oecupHnf of the faim, Barnabas Baugbart. 
Through the years following we find arrange- 
ments "for paying the supplies on tbe min- 
istry ordered by the New York Presbetery," 
buying a crowbar, pick, spade, bier, etc. for the 
u>ie of the graveyard. Tbe b'er is describsd 
carefully as " to be niac'e of white oak timber, 
heart sluflf. 10 feet hmg with le a morticed 
into tbe side pieces to even on both 
sides with an Inch sbouKlei lengthways with 4 
ttlats across with brads iu and to be painted 
black." In 1804, there were in tbe treasury 
"sixty. six clo.lars and twenly and a ball 
cents" and the same was ordered to be put 
cut at interest rud'Mo take landed security 
for tbe same." In 1807, Joseph Jackson was 
permitted " to enclose in a fence twenty eight 
feet square in the grave giound at the meet- 
ing hnuse wheie his wife is buried for a bury- 
ing gio'ind for bis family and such ot bis 
Fatliei's lamilj as may choose to bury their 
dead tliere." 

Among ilie ministers who supplied the Rork- 
• way pulpit jifier Mr. Caile kfl it is the Itev. 
L«-wis Williams <\bo was credited with " six 
months services in preaching the gospel in 
Rockaway Meeting House " tor wbiub be was 
paid $180. This was in IhOO*. During the 
years 1802-3 and 4 the congregatiuu paid five 
dollars a iSalbath lor the occasional supply of 
tbe pulpit. The Rev. Wes.-is. Lemuel Ford- 
bani, Crane. James Richards, Amzi .Armstrong, 
Aarou Coiidit, Mathms iJuriiet and Keys are 

*Mr. Jaiki-on sp< aiis of Mr. Williams '' as an 
Eu( lihbmaii jus' fr?m over the water who fnr 
six miiDilis was hire ; to i)reacli half bis time a' 
Roek.iway and ihe balance a> Suck 'Siinna. He 
was a baril preacher, mcire nf a Jew than a 
Gentile ax be l.'aci a j)eriect ablmrence (jf I'ork 
or Lard in ai:\ t-lrpc or combination iu bis 
lood. He boarded at my uncle llenjumiu 
Jackson, and my annt was not slow in piep r- 
ing bis lo< d with a good protioriion of swine's 
flesh in Kome form or other 1" 

uamtd on tne books as paid f <r their minister- 
ial servif es during those years.* 

It is evideut that considerable changes have 
taken pbict* in tbe ct)nditinn of the people. 
Fuisch of Mount H>pe has tailed and moved 
away, and the iurnaces tbeio and at Hiber- 
nia under new hands are doing an unprofit- 
able bumiess. Moi-es Tutlle, Stephen Jack- 
son and Benjamui Beach have become ricb.f 
The population has inert ased, and yet then as 
ever since there was tbat disparity in Wt-alth 
among tbe )>ei>ple which is common in com- 
m unities which depend ou the maiuitacture of 

Within the bounds of the paiish there were 
seveial iiou mines that were worked. Among 
these were those at Mount Hope. Hil>erma, 
Mount Pleasant, and the Swede's Mine, eear 
Dovtr, which "was discovered about 1792 or 
1794." 1 here were blast furnaci^s at Mount 
Kopo and Hibernia, and loigcs at R(>ckaway, 
Horse Pond, Denmark, Dovtr, Frauklin, Niu- 
kie, Sbauuguiu, and some other places. The 
iron was still taken to New Y'urk by way of 
Ebzubelbtown Point. 

As for the moral condition o. the community 
wlieu Mr. t arle was dismissed and until tbe 
lourtb pastor came there is bat one testimony . 
Not nieiel\ was rclit;lou at a very low condition, 
but irreligion was iu great power. Within tbe 
bouiidsoftbe palish there »*'as not a leading 
man who made a pr(.fe>si'in of religion. Some 
were open scoflTers, and tbe masses were 
negiecters of religion. 

One of tbe old men who has recently passed 
away oi>ce wiote to me of one part o( the par- 
ish at this time that "during the reign of 
Israel Cautield & Co., Dover, was uotoiious for 
its infidelity and wicktduesH of all kinds aud 
was considered a second Sodom. All the Pro- 
prietors as well as their Agents and Managers 
bad tmljiaced the sentiments of Toni Paino 
and they gloried iLdii-stminatiug themselves. 
The club included a great number of influen- 
tial men iu tbe cuunty. * ♦ » ♦ » Israel 
Cai-firld waBeon\eiied in the great revival 
under Rev. Albert Barnes at Moiristown, but 
tbe lest ol the club persisted in their opposi- 
tion." He speaks in the warmest admiration 

♦One who often beard Mr. Fortlbam, says 
" he was longer winded than Mr. Baldwin, uiaU- 
ing tbe Sabbath a day ot pain rather than one 
or eibtication to tbo.xo Compelled lo ride those 
oUi stats Without cu.'bioiis to relieve I heir suf- 
hriUKs." Tlie tree and litsy peu of my old 
fiiind Mr. Jackpoii is discernible lu tbe sen- 
tence but all I hear of .Mr. Fordham from otljer 
sources is of iho same import. 

fStepben Jackson filed March 28:h, 1812. 
BMij..niin Beaeli, May 17lli, 1«27. aged 82 
\eais, lidin Jaeob Faescli, Mav 2GLh, 1799, and 
Moses Tut tie, July lOtb, 1819." 



ofMrH. Jacub Losey as a woman ot extraor- 
dinary pietv ami goodness, who w;is a KtMillc 
but powerful refuUtiou iu herself of the blas- 
pheniit'S «bicli ilifso nieu were nttering even 
when (<ealKl at her tul>le. It was no donbl of 
Mrs. Losey that Mr. King f-pcaUs in his de- 
ncription of Dover. " >he was one of the first 
fruits of my ministry, and her consistent and 
boly life ex'rted an impoitant ii flntnce. Her 
deat h whuli <iccuireil two years after she pro 
-/"eased h( pe in C'bript. {;ave a severe blow to 
infidelity. A t-it.ler and two brothers aban- 
doned tlieir infidel principles and professed 
faith in ChriM." (40th '*Ann."Scr. p. 17.) 

When this glcon.y period closed and a 
brighter one dawned theie was hut a single 
Christian man within the wide bounds of the 
Rockaway congiefiation who c(>uld offer a 
prayer in publi: or at the bed side of the 
dying. This fas Deacon John Clark. Pro- 
fanencss, clrunkenress, Sabbath desecration, 
and other foims of immorality were, 
and. as Mr. King remarks in his Foitieth An- 
niversaiy sermon, "rehgion was at a low ebb, 
almost as low as it could be and not become 
extinct." And yet in this dreary survey there 
is one cheering fact that the people were 
determined to keep the church alive so far as 
tbe\ could do it by their contributions and 
attentions. We cannot doubt tliere had been 
from the very first some devout Christian 
people who bad carried this cbuich on their 
hearts, and the life of the churcli was in tbem 
hid ill Christ and therefore safe.* 

*The lollowing list of members of the church 

Ereviiius to ibe settlement of the Rev. B.irna- 
as King. I have nceived irom Hubbaid S. 
Stickle, Esq , who is now (1858) about seventy- 
three yeai> olil. All or most ol these persons 
are not nieniumed iu our other catalogues. 


David Beaman, Wiliiam Ross, 

Jiibu Humiugton, Jacob Alliiiglon, 

John Cybb, JobAiluu, 

Obadiab (V) Lum. 
US' Mr. Stickle thinks he has heard that 

Abraliam Kilcliel and William Winds were 



William "''inds, 
Rulianiah Winds, 
Josiah Bi-ainau, 
Huldab Beaman, 
John Oook, 
Jane Cook, 
John i'ecr, 
Beiiy Pier, 

Elizabeth Sticlile, (wife of Peter) 
Peter SSi.ckle. (son ot Elizibeth and brother 
of Giorge, Hubbiril's lather) 
Mary Allen, (Job) 
Mrs. CastLrhne, (Daniel's mother) 
Mrs. PIk be Ross, (Moses) 
Mrs. Patience Matthews, (James) 
Mis. Eliz;ibetb Lausaw, (Francis Lausaw) 
Daniel Tnttle, 
Eleanor Tattle, 

We now turn our attention to the new era in 
tins church's history. Among the accounts 
of the Trustees appears this item which was 
the first l)tam of a brighter day to Rockaway. 
" 1806, Jan. 2Gtb, cash paid Mr. King for 
preaching one i^abbath $4.50.' Although lie 
supplied the church occasionally during that 
year a nd the nest he was not permanently 
employed until in October, 1807. From that 
time until bis death, April lOlli, 1862, u period 
of almost fifty-five years, the history ot the 
church and his biography would be, if not the 
same, it'intical in many impoitaut particulars. 
A sketch of his life previous to his appearance 
in this pulpit will be pertinent to this history. 
Barnabas King, son of Amos Kirg, and bis 
wile Lucy Peikins, was born at New Marl- 
borough, Mass.. June 2d, 1780. He received 
a careful ekmentary education iu the public 
school, and there arrested the notice of his 
minister. Dr. Jacob Catliu, by his pioficiency 
as a scholar and bis admirable manners. Dr. 
Catlin offered to take him into his family and 
for bis services on the farm prepare him for 
the FresLman Class of Williams' College. He 
spent about two jears iu the paster's family 
winning his estetm, and in the fall of 1800 was 
admitted to Freshman standing at Williams. 
He was giaduated in 1804, and spent the year 
following in teaching and in the study of the- 
ology with Dr. Catlin, who, December 2l8t, 

Jlrs. Stagg. (mother of Eleanor Tuttle) 

Mrs. Slary Beaman, (David) 

Mrs. Ross. (William) 

Abraham Kitchel, 

Mre. Kiicbel, 

Mrs. Elizabeth Huntington, (Dea. John) 

Mrs. Williams, (at Ninkie) 

Mrs. Betsey Stiles, (wife of David Stiles and 
daughter of Abraham Kitchel) 

Mr. Stephen Beach, 

Mrs. Biach, 

Mrs. Anderson, (Eleakim) 

David Garngus, Sr., 

Abigail Garngus, 

Mrs. Innjc. (John) (ask Mrs. David Hamilton) 

Mrs. Lois Heiriman, (wjfj of John Herriman 
and sisier of Gapt. Job Allen) 

Mr. George Briukerhoff, 

Mrs. Brinkerhofl, 

Ml 8. Hannah Kitchel, (wife of James) 

Mrs. Tea bo, (wife of Nicholas and j^rand- 
nioi her of Jacob Powers) 

Mrs. Dency Hatheway (Silas) 

Absalom Lyou, 

Catharine Lyon, 

Samuel Beaman, 

Coon rod Esiler, 

Maigaret Estler, 

Euos Lymas, 

Mrs. Lymas, 

Enos Lymas, Jr., 

William Ray, 

Mrs. Rav, 

John Strong, 

Joslua W njret, 

James Lockwood, 

Charily Lockwood, 



ISOn, in a letter of comm 'mlatio'j speaks of 
him as "possei«.ing an amiable and hopelally 
Chiistiau cliaracler, who was RrnJuarcfl at 
Williams' CdIIoko and licensed by tlie Associa- 
tion of BiT!iet.hire Cninty to preach ilie k"S- 
pel as a caudid.ite for tbe Christian ministry. 
He has preaclied acceptably for a mimbor ol 
moutiispasf, and I feel increasing confidence 
to recommer-d bim to the further improve- 
ment and service o.'' Uie cimrcbes " 

Haviuj; during bis collese course spent a 
part of one winter in teaching at Little Falls, 
NY., be bad packed bis saddle bigs in De- 
cember, l'C5, to start tor Central Nev York in 
■search of a field of labor. Tbe day belore he 
was to start his classmate Beach retnrnfd from 
New Jerse'- with reports of "an open door" in 
that region. Mr. King at once set oat on 
horseback, crossing the HmlFon at Newbiirg, 
and the line bi tweeen New York and Ne«- Jer- 
Bey atVernoQ. He spent Cbristmis eve at a 
country tavern at which there Wa3 a noisy oall 
Tbe next day be made his way to Sparta wheie 
Robert Ogden, a distinguished lawyer — father 
ol Col. Josep Jackson's first wi'e— received him 
into his family. He soon began to preach 
statedly at Sparta and Berkshire Valiey. He 
was in this position when he came to llocka- 
\iay on Friday the 21lh of January, 18(16, 
and preached at a private house bis first ser- 
Boon in the parish from tbe words '' To every 
thing there is a season, and a time to every 
purpose under tbe heaven."- (Eccles. 3, I.) 

"On tbe 5ih of Oct., 1807, the trustees voted 
to oflfer thi' Rev. B.'.rnabas King two hundred 
liud eiglit dollars as a salary lor preaching in 
oui'nieeling houi-e f>r one half of tbe time for 
• year from and after tbe setting of the New 
Yurk Prerbytery in tbe present month" Mr. 
King was warmly commended t» tlie Itojkaw.iy 
people in a letter from Uobert Ogden o* .Spuria, 
aii<I having had tbe permission of the Pre-j- 
bytiry Mr. King began a work which was to 
'rcBult in extraonhnary success, and which 
vas only closed with his life more than fifty- 
h\% years nf-er his first service in this field. 

Tht other half of Mr. King's time that year 
W£.s given to Sivaria and Berkshire \alley. 
Whilst in this parish he was lor some time the 
guest ot Moses Tuttlr.and afterward of Col. 
Jackson. "On careful inquiry it was found 
that tbe church consisted of 31 meinbera at 
the he commenced preaching here, twelve 
of whom were widows."* At this time Mr, 

♦The following Is a list of the 35 members 
Cf.pied from a p iper in Dr. King's h.indwnting 

JobnCl..rk, [Elders. 

J);ivid I'eer, j 

Caibarine Innis, Patit-nce Matthews, 

Klizal)! th (Uuvid) Peer, Anna Earii', 

M.iiy Allen, Anna Beaman, 

King seemed a slender, beardless voulb. in 
feeble ht-altb, altbongli he bad p::ssed his 
urenty -seventh birthday, but he began at 
once in the most systematic manuer to ir.ia- 
ister to his new charge i-r("aching publicly 
and from house to house. He not only preached 
in every neighborhood bur. he visited every 
bins'! for religions instruction and prayer. 
Aliliongh not a singer be met with the singing 
schools and in a way that carried great power 
^onght to give ibera a leligious tone. The 
effect was somewhat apparent ia the increas- 
ing mend>ers that attended church and a pro- 
found religious interest in the congregation. 
In l^Og. there was a remarkable revival adding 
eighty-l'onr to the church. Tiiis revival was 
in progress when Mr. King'soidinitiou and in- 
stallation took place. The larger part of the 
converts were received into the chuicli by Dr. 
lliehaids of Morristown, as Mr. King could not 
ytt ailininister the ordinances. 

Tbe Presbytery of New York ordained and 
installed Mr. Kmg p.'.stor of the church on the 
•27th of December, 1808. Alihough the Meet, 
ing House hid l)"pn finished it a rndc 
affiir. and very cold. It. had no stive in it un- 
til 1820. The day of the ordination was a cold 

Peter Kiuiome, niiu. Penina Searing, 
Mays Kanonsf, A'ligail Conliling, 

Itiitii (-iam'i) Williams, Saiiiuel Palmer, 
Susan Schidmori', Hei hmd Cue. 

PhPbe ( r inies) Shores, Thankful La'opson, 
S;imuel Beam tu, Hannah M ntou. 

Prudence Hathaway, Sarah Beaeli, 
Absiilom Lyon, Margaret Arnold, 

('ailierme Lyon. Rachel Biiant, 

John Conk, Enos Squres, 

•lacob Pi<'r, Hionali Sqnres, 

Jo.inna Peer, Jacob Sqnres, 

R isanna Teabo, 
liiiza.ieth Hyler, 
.James Ferris and wife Cbaxity, 

'J'beie lire 30 names in place ot 35. 

One of liies(! wlio were received 'ii ISiV^ wau 
Mrs Eliz.i'.ieih Cony:er, widow of Cam. Davi.l 
Conger- sii« was the in itlier of thirt 'tn chil- 
dren. S'Je is described as a woman ot groat 
eiier^v and e.xc.uknce. She was received into 
the cbnreli April lOlh, 1808. Snrrouutled by a 
lar^e laniily she taught ih"m (o wo: k and thus 
lo lie srll-snp->ortin:jr, and souglit. to t'lem 
to Ciirist. With ihe uimosi puncuiahry she 
Lonttucte.! fiinily wor.sbip and livtd to sue bei 
so IS living nobly. Abjili wont South on a 
mission to the Indiins, and settled in Giorgia 
leaving a numerous and excellent bodv of de- 
Kceiid lilts. Joiin rimo»'od to New York and 
pas>ed a useful lile, ama-sed pionerty. was an 
hoiiori d older in the chureh, .ml a grand man 
every Way. St-pin-n di<l net unite wKli the 
cliuicb I'ut was a most tstiniablc man and 
roared a most esiiniabio family. Th ' daugh- 
t'-rs without cxci'ption were wortliv of their 
in dher and have giv. u t>> the church and so- 
ciety a large number of people wlio largely 
■jarry the moral impns." of th>! ances- 
iiees whose nmn^ liealsllns note. Her de- 
cid"-d pieiy dc cided the chirncter of herde-ien- 
(lants. She was marrii'<i toTmis B'ry.Sept. 
mil, 1812, aud died AujiUst 14th, 1822, lu her 
58 til year. 



one, and the Pre8l)ytery bad met at a private 
house, (Col. Jost'ijli Jaciisou's. ) for tbe exami- 
nation of the pastor -aiect, and at eleven o'clock 
went to the churcli which was well filled with 
peoplo. There was a prayer meeting in pro- 
gress and as the minister reached the door, 
Deacon Clark was " wrestling in player" with 
wonderful earnestness fi)r a blessing on the 
church, its pastor and the services of the day. 
As the venerable supi)han t closed his pjtitiouis , 
Dr. Jiiohards gr^satly moved, expressed his be- 
lief that a pastorate thus begun mnst result in 
great good. The Rev. Dr. John McDowell, of 
Elizabethtown, preached tbe sermon from Rev- 
elation, 1: 1 " Who holJetb the seven stars in 
bis r'ghthand," the Rev. Dr. Ric;hards, of Mor- 
ristown, delivered the eb;irge to the pastor, 
and Rev. Mr. Pe-rine, of Bottle Hill, the charge 
to tbe people. The services were not shortened 
to suit the woather but were held nearly three 
lionrs, after which tbe members of the Pres- 
bytery dined at Col. Jackson's. Whilst at tbe 
dinner table tbe attention of the company was 
arrested by tbe shaking of the table. On in- 
quiry it was found that; Mr. King had become 
so chilled at the meeting house as to be shak- 
ing as if witli a violent ague. It is worthy of 
remark that as such men asGriffiu ani Hillyer 
and Ricbaros, and McDowell and others, looked 
at the pale young minister whom they had or- 
dained, and at the revival then in progress in 
his church tliey said among themselves "what 
a pity ttiat such a man is evidf'ntly destined to 
an early death I " And yet he survived every 
member of the body that ordained him ! There 
were more brilliant and faraijus men in that 
Presbytery as also in that of Jersey to which 
be afterward was transferred but it is doul)tful 
whether there was one more honored by big 
brethren in tbe minstry or in.ire blessed in his 
work as a preacher of the gospel. 

Tbe first revival in bis ministry that of 1808 
has been referred to, and it was a siguiticant 
fact that of 1 he eighty who were received on 
profession of their iaith sixty-Uiree were beads 
of families, and twenty of these were fathers. 
And no sooner had the Presbytery invested 
biiii with the sacred gilts of his office than Mr. 
King seemed at onct to redouble bis exertions. 
It was a novel iiight in Rockaway, this grave 
and beautiful man of God. so circumspect and 
earnest, that he neorled no other letter of com- 
mendation to bis people. Revisited tbe cabins 
of miners and colliers among the mountains, 
and the bumbl-j homes that nestled in the se- 
cluded valleys or were built on tbe sides uf the 
mountains. He was an evangelist not only in 
these humble abodes but in tbe homes ot the 
rich at Denmark, Mt. Hope, Rockaway, Dover 
and Mt. Pleasant. Punctilious in bis prepara- 
tiou for the pulpit he Was systematic in bis 

visits to bis immt-nse parish which was in 
every direction ten miles in diameter. And he 
visited not mainly for friendly conversation on 
ordinary topics, but fur the special purpose of 
winning souls to Christ. Usually each day's 
visitations were finished by preaching in the 
evening at Pome house in the neighborhood. 
It was a habit that he rarely departed from to 
return to his home after the evening service, 
however distant. He was once returning dur- 
ing a violent and sudden storm from Shongum 
and could only see his way at intervals by the 
flashes of lightning. On another very dark 
night he had started from Mt. Pleasant ; his 
horse stopping suddenly bo felt his way cau- 
tiously to his head and found bim standing on 
the edge of an uncovered mine bote. A single 
step forward would have plunged him and his 
master into sudden destruction. 

At all times scriptural, bjth in the truth and 
words of his preaching, he was peculiarly so 
in thege neighborhood talks and '-the com- 
mon people beard him gladly." His labor 
became excessive at times and for weeks 
together amounting to ten public services a 
week besides his regular visits in the parish 
and visits to the sick. 

In bis 40th anniversary sermon, Mr. King 
said of this period, " my labors were fieu 
extended over a large tract of country, em- 
bracing ten or twelve miles square. I bad six 
preaching places which were from four to six 
miles distant from the church. After two 
tervices in the church I preached at on* of 
these and at one or more on a week day. My 
object was to be at each of these preaching 
places at least as often as once in two weeks." 

On the 24th of October, 1809, Mr. King was 
married to Miss Catharine Beach, of Hanover, 
an event which greatly added to bis influence 
as a pastor. IShe died July 13th, 1821, and 
rarely ever was such a tribute paid lo one in 
her position as that to this estimable woman. 
And there are tbose still living who remember 
her and who speak of tbe tender love with 
which she was regarded by ail who knew her. 
It was no rare thing for her to be found with 
him in the places of suffering and aiding bim 
in bis ministrations even in the distaut parts 
of tbe parish. It is said that wfien the hearse 
which bore her body reached the church the 
last of the carriages had not left her late 
residence, and that never had there been seen 
such wide-spread mourning as when devout 
men carried her to her grave. The Rev. Aaron 
Condit, v*rho had solemnized her marriage, 
oflSciated on the occasion of her funeral. 

Let us now endeavor to reproduce to some 
extent the condition of this' community when 
Mr. King was settled here. On the east side 
ot the stream was the house of Stephen Jack- 



POD, afterward o<Tupiecl by Col. Jos. Jackson. 
The latter was recently married to Electa 
Beach, the widow of Col. Silas Dickeison, of 
Stanhope, and her couiiujj to Rockaway was 
an ercnt of scarcely le^is iniportance than that 
of her ftitnre pastor artl brother-in-law Mr. 
King. ?he was baptized by Parson Green, of 
Hanover, and whtn a small girl had the small 
pox. Snpposfd to be dyinR Dr. Darcy, (llie 
elder,) comforted her grieving relatives in her 
bearing by saying they ought not to grieve for 
ifrtbe pot well she would be very ugly! At 
Stanhope her influence had been powerfully in 
favor of the right and such was her reputation 
among the skeptical relatives of her first hus- 
liand that they held her in the grebtefit rever- 
ence. At Rockaway she at once as the wife of 
a wealthy iron master, and a woman of great 
intelligence, became a power. Her brother-in- 
law, Gov. Mablon Dickerson, often visited her 
and when once he came on the Sabbath she 
chided him for the fault so wisely that he 
neither repeated it nor ceased to respect her 
who reproved him. Blessed with great physi- 
cal energy and oveiflowiug with benevolence 
there wa^* nut a house within five miles of the 
church in which there was suffering to which 
she had not been a minister of mercy. 
She usually performed these journeys on horse 
back, and attended by a servant was wont to 
carry loads of substantial ctmforts to the 
objects of her charity. In 1815 Mrs. J. started 
the first Sabbath school in Morris County in 
the old Red School Ho'ise near the church. 
So consistent in her Christian walk that the 
worst never questioned her piety, and so like 
her Master in the never failing charity of her 
heart and life, she was an unspeakable blessing 
to the church for a period of forty-six years. 
She entered into rest Feb. 7th, 1854. 

Her husband was Col. Joseph Jackson, who 
was already a leading man in the community 
and who was taking great interest in the 
church. In 1796 h^ was appointed Pon'master 
holding the office until 1843. In 1798 his name 
is recorded as a Trustee. In 1802 he was the 
President of ihe Board. In 1804 he was ap- 
poiiitfd Colonel of the 3d Regiment, Morris 
Militia. In 1808 he married Mrs. Electa Dick- 
erson. In 1812 he was ordered with his regi- 
ment into actual service at Powlcs Hook over 
three months. In 1813 ^he was elected Judge 
and was m that office and a Justice of Peace 
32 years. In 1818 he was converted, received 
into the church and appointed l)oth Elder and 
Deacon, and on the 28lh of Januaii", 1855. he 
de'paited this life. On the 5th of July, 1854, 
he wrote " I have been an elder in this church 
about 3G years. How well I hav(i served witn 
all my heart in this important oftico the 
searcher of hearts knows." He had furnished 

the bread far the communion from 1803 to 
18.54. Full ol public spirit and ready to do his 
full share and more, the only charge to be 
made against him is in the highest, degree 
complimentary, that he spoiled the church he 
lo ved so well by assuming a great many bur- 
dens that it would have been better for its 
members to have carried. It was a common 
saying that "(?ol. Jackson carried about one- 
ha ll ol all the ex)tii!-es of the church!" He 
was a man of limited education, but had read 
many books and as-sociaied with superior men 
so that he was a man of large intelligence. He 
was identified with tlie iron industries of the 
county, and with his brother William, owned 
valuable mines and forges, and at different 
times filled cf ntracis wi-th the general gov- 
ernment for iron. Mr. William Jackson wrote 
n;e that " the first bar of round and square 
iron ever rolled in this country was done by 
Col. Jostph Jackson and myself, in the old 
Bollii'g Mill at Paterson, then owned by Sam- 
uel and Roswell Colt in the year 1820, under 
our contract to iurnish the United Slates 
Government wi'h a certain quantity rolled- 
round and hanimeied iron at ihe Navy Yard 
in Eiooklyn, in wljich we succeeded to the 
entire salisl'a( tion of the Governmont."* 

The t-uccess of this experiment led the 
brothers in 1821-2 to build a Rolling Mill at 
Rockaway, which went into operation in 
Nov( mber, 1822. Meanwhile, Blackwell and 
McFarlan were led by the successful experiment 
at Paterson to convert their works at Dover 
into a similar rolling mill. Mr. Jackson 
claimed that they inaugurated this great in- 
duhtry in New Jersey, and indeed the whole 

Mr, William Jackson was younger than the 
Colonel and his name as also that of their 
brother Dr. John D. Jackson, appears early on 
our church records. William niarritd Susan 
Halsey, of Dutchess County, New York, Sept. 
lltli, 1811, a lady in some respects very like 
Mrs. Electa Jackson, More retiring, and yet 
equally sincere in her pie'y, she too exerted a 
powerful influence in the church. In 1818 her 
husband united with the church, and in 1824 
became an elder. This interesting couple were 
married bv the Rev. Barnabas King at the 
house of the bride's father. Dr. Abraham Hal- 
sey on 11th of September, 1810. They Jived to 
celebrate their golden wedding and (seven years 
over, as Mrs. Jackson died in June, 1868,) and 
Mr. King was with them on this occasion. Mr. 
Jackson died in ls72. And it may be added 
that on the 19th of January, 1809, Mr. King 
united in marriage Mr. John R. Hinchman and 

♦The first rolling mill in this country was 
built, by C»J. Isaac Mason in Ptnusylvania in 
181(1. This of J(>seph and Wilii;im Jackson was 
' the eeccnd— the first in New Jersey. 



Miss Mary DcCamp, a grand clau<^liter of Moses 
Tuttk', and it was a fact of singular interest 
that they and tlieir attendants with Mr. King 
wtre presents at the golden wedding. To this 
It may ho added as an almost unparalleled fact 
Guy M. Hincbman, a cousin ol J(jhii R. on the 
21st November, 1816 was married to iSusan De- 
Camp, a younger sister of Mary. The Uev. 
Eamabas King perlormeil the ceremony. This 
couple also lived to celehrate the fiftieth anni- 
versary ot their marriage. Two cousins mar- 
rying two iristers, and both couple reaching 
t he '' golden wedding " male a uotahle fact. 
Kar ely have pertons in this relation lived more 
happily, a fact sufBciently accounted for by 
ge nial and manly character ot the husbands 
and by the beautiful and womanly character 
ot the \\i\ts. 1 may add that Cornelia DeCamp 
a sister of the two ladies just releired to \»a8 
married to Chilion Beach and left several chil- 
dren, Dr. Columbus Btach is the oldest of 
these. Chilion F. DtCamp is a brother of the 
three ladies named. Indeed Jane Tuttle who 
married Jcpcph DeCamp has a following ot 
most estimable descendants. The same is 
true of the other daughters of Moses Tuttle. 

As an iuteiestmg factitmay be stated that 
several couples in the parish since 1859 attained 
the tiftietli anniversary of their marriage. 
Among thes'e are Col. S. y. Beach and Jane 
Hoff his wife, (the latter being a grand- 
daughter ot Moses Tuttle and cousin of Mary 
and Susan Hinchman.) John B. Kelsey and 
Delia Conger his wife, and John Garrigus and 
Folly Hall.* One couple, Mr. David Gordon 
and his wife were separated by her death Feb. 
19, 1851 alter having lived together in the mar- 
ried relation nearly seventy years! 

The houses in the parish were plain struc- 
tures, even those occupied by the more 
vealthy. The villages of Kockaway and 

*0n the 8lh of April 1813, John Garrigus, Jr., 
long an elder ot the Rcckaway Church, and 
Folly Ball were united in niariiage by Mr. King 
and on the 7ih ot Aiiril 1821, John B. Kelsey 
and Delia Conger by same minister. At this 
present writing— April 26, 1876— both these 
venerabli" and excellent pairs are unbroken by 
death. Hie tiist over 63 years and the second 
fifty-live years of married l.fe ! 

Col. S. S. Beach was married to Jane Hoff on 
June 27th, 1805, and the relation was termi- 
nated by the Colonel's death January 19th, 
1859. alter nearly 54 years of mairied life. 
Mrs. Beach survived her husband some filteen 
years, [so far as I know Samuel Garrigus and 
his wife Marv Ann Cring married by Mr. King 
Oct. 13th 1825- still are living. Undoubtedly 
Jerenii«h Baker and Mary his wile, Francis 
McCarty and his wile. Asa Berry anil Sally hie 
wife, William Ccoper and Hannah Ins wite, all 
of them belonging to the period of Mr. King's 
ministry lived in the marriage relation at least 
fifty years and some of them more. In all 
eleven " golden marriages" in one pastorate 
and in one parish 1 

Dover were very small. The manners of peo- 
ple were for the most part very plain. I have 
heard more than one speak of \ouug ladies 
walking barefoot to church with their shoes in 
their hand until thev reached the little stream 
below the church where they washed their feet 
and put on their shoes 1 The singing school 
the apple-paring, and even the dance were 
among the amusements of the ycung people. 
For years the services of Simeon Van Winkle 
the tiddler were in great demand throughout 
the region, and at least one of my venerable in- 
formants told me he loved to dance to Sim's 

The people had their stone Irolics and on all 
occasions made Iree use of applejack. There 
were few school privileges. Ihe books of the 
Parish also show that the more recent devel- 
opments of slow payment for minister's salary 
were only the repetition of a similar slowness 
years ago. 

The people began to repair their church 
soon after Mr. King came, and this continued 
at intervals until the building was succeeded 
by the present edifice in 1832. Perhaps it may 
not be beneath the dignity of history to recall 
the history of attempts to warm the church. 
As already named lu 1768 the parish voted to 
have a stove "if not pornitious," and in Mr. 
Carle's time there was a vain effort to have a 
fire place made in the church. Mr. King hael 
been preaching twelve years in the unwarmed 
church before the box stove bought at Mt. 
Hope of McQueen & Co. was placed on the 
experiment ot reducing the savage tempera- 
tui e of the old house. And even then so rude 
and inoperkct were the pipes that Mr. Gordon 
said they often had more smoke than heat, and 
that sometimes ihe house began to be comfort- 
able when the benediction was pronounced. 

Daviei Beaman who for years had swept the 
church at eleven shillings a year " once a for- 
tnate," set the tunes, and attends Presbytery 
and done many other good things le)r the 
church died in 1802. and David Gordon was 
his successor in the sexton- ship, an office he 
held so long that the schoolchildren supposii^g 
that of course be was to bury everybody were 
wont to wonder who would bury the old sexton. 
An attempt was once made to allow the aristo- 
cratic owners of the pews to build " cannipy's" 
over them, but it was voteel down. In due 
time the sounding board was placed over the 
pulpit, the main use of which seems to have 
been to excite the fear in the minds of the 
children that it might drop down and extin- 
quish the preacher. The singing was usually 
by a choir but sometimes by a precentor. From 
time to time changes took place by death, and 
removal. Such men as Faescb, Bernard Smith 
Abraham Kitchel, William Ross, David Bea- 



man, Stephen Jackson, Moses Tattle, Benja- 
min Bcaclj anfl others were gone. In 1813 the 
Mount Hope Ftirnace alter beiu;? "blowed out" 
fourteen years was again set at work by Robert 
McQueen & Co. who rented the property of 
Henry W. and Lewis Phillips. This company 
operated the furnace until 1822 when the in- 
flux of Britixh iron broke it diwn. With this 
company came one of our excellent families that 
of the late Col. Thomas Muir, whose genial 
qualiti-s as the hospitable host and compan- 
ion arc remembered. Mrs. Muir and her sis- 
ter Ml a. Agnes Walker, were among the most 
devoted and public spirited members of the 

By untiring industry and frugality Moses 
Tuttlc and Jeremiah Baker, of Mt. Pleasant, 
have become independent, and both lived to 
old age. Mr. Baker died August 11th, 1861, 
lacking a few days of 9i years. The iron 
interests of the parish are aflVcted by the 
tariff regulations, and not a few reverses are 
numbered in its history. Mt. Hope, Hibernia 
and some smaller establishments gradually 
fade out. The mines at Mt. Hope, Hibernia, 
Mt. Pleasant, and Mine Hill, begin to show 
promise of future values, when the prediction 
of Gov. Dickerson's father should be fulfilled, 
that the time would come when water would 
cairy boats over the mountains of Morris and 

The Morris Canal was dng just in tinief to 
become the agent of the iron mines of N(!W 
Jersey and the coal mines of Pennsylvania. 
The first half of Mr. King's ministry was full 
of these changes in the physical conditions of 
the region in all the business by which the 
people lived. In the introduction of anthracite 
coal as a fuel for the house and for rolling 
mills was the prediction of the use of it for the 
blast furnace. Of course the railwav must 
also cooie to eS^ct its changes everywhere, 
but in no regions greater than in this. 

I am interested in the growth of values in 
mines. The Mt. Hope property which cost a 
mcie trifle in passing trom one embarassed 
owner to another, at last was sold for $80,000, 

*Col, Thomas Muir died Sept. 28th, 1855, in 
the G4th ytar of bis ago. Mth. Susan Muir his 
wife, died Oct 13tli, 18G0, and Mrs. Agues 
Walker, Feb. 22d, 184'.). 

+The Morris Canal was surveyed in 1828, 
although the question had been agitated sev- 
eral years earlier. In 1830 the first Inclined 
Plants was finished at Montville, and in the 
Spring of 1832 the canal was ready for boats. 
As a reininiscoiice it may be stated that the 
digging of tlie canal through llockaway was 
attended witii a great many cases of chills and 
fever, an incoaveiiienco only exceeded by the 
liard class of men who wer- brought together 
i>v tiie work. (Stuart's Civil Engineer, p. p. 
202 8.) 

and now is worth hundred of thousands. The 
Hibernia mines were valued at a few thousand 
dollars at the beginning of this period, but 
now a million could not buy them. The same 
is true of Mine Hill and a score of other local- 

But whilst the mines have steadily appre- 
ciated the forge properties have been aban- 
doned. All the (orges Irom Shongum to 
Franklin, those in the neighborhood of Do^er, 
Erckaway and in other parts of the county 
have succumbed to the cheaper methods em- 
ployed by the great estabiishnodnts at Boo n- 
ton, Dover and on the Lehigh. 

In the parish great changes have taken 
place. In 1832 the old church was abindoned 
tor tfce new one. In 1834 the Dover Church 
was set off. A Methodis't and an Epi.scoDal 
Church had also been organized in Dover. In 
Rockaway a Methodist Church had sprung up 
in 1833 ; also one at Denville, another at Hock- 
away Valley and still another at Boonton, as 
also a Presbyterian Church at the latter place, 
and one at Mount Freedom. In 1848 Mr. King 
said " five Presbyterian and five Methodist 
Churches have been formed m our bounds." 

Indeed the face of the entire field over which 
Mr. King extended his labors almost without 
competition for the first twenty-five years of 
his ministry, has undergone surprising 
changes. Rockaway in 11^08 had scarce a 
dozen houses, and now it has become a town 
with several adjacent villages. The same is 
true of Dover. At the principal mines are 
thriving villages. The locomotive now visits 
Hibernia, Mount Hope, Mount Pleasant and 
Mine Hill. The ores of these mountains go to 
Pennsylvania and the coal of Pennsylvania 
comes in vast quantities to this region. The 
old school house in which Harris and^Stickle 
taught, and its successor the " old R*d school 
house" Oy the church have been succeeded by 
the coinmodious school houses which afford 
education to all ihe children about them. 

Mr. Edmund D. Halsey in his account of the 
schools of Rockaway, isays the first school 
house in the village is ninied in a deed October 
29th, 1774, and "it stood about where the 
kitchen of Dr. Jackson's house now stands. It 
was removed about 1800." The second school 
house " was on the Glen road on the hill where 
William Gustennow lives." In these houses 
George Harris and Geor,'e Stickle both tauglit. 
The third school room was in the upper part 
of the store room that once stood directly 
opposite Col. Jackson's house now occupied by 
E. D. Halsey. In 1807-8— or possibly a year 
later- the late Rev. John Foril taught school 
whilst he recited to Mr. King in preparing for 
college. Mr. F. was indefatigable, sometimes 
actually spciidiug the whole niglil at his books. 



He ivas graduated with the second honor at 
Priucetun in 1812, and was for many years the 
pastor at Parsippuny. He was a scholar of 
large attainments, keeping up his acquaint 
ance with the ancient ciassicf!, a proficient in 
French, and when three-score mastering the 
G'irman. He died at Parsippany Dec. Slst, 
1872, aged 85. He was in his mental power, 
history and religious life an extraordinary 
man, What became of Geoige Harris, the first 
teacher, "Old Hariis" as his pupils often 
called him at a later day, I never heard, (jeo. 
Stickle became a merchant, married a daugh- 
ter of David Benman, and died ■A'ithin thg 
bounds of the congregation. He was a store 
keeper and as some accounts snow the firm 
was "Stickle and Garrigus." The latter was 
David Garrigus, who was appointed an Elder 
in the church 1798. 

This is not the place nor is this the time to 
write a minute history of this parish. It has 
had remarkable men, and the history of the 
community is one of great interest, but it 
must be reserved for another pen at a later 
day. The history Oi the mother church is the 
thread of «ilver which runs through the whole 
and for tliat period as already intimated that 
history is to a very wonderful degree identified 
with the life of itt remarkable pastor, Mr. 
King. The chronic infirmity of the parish in 
regard to its finances never seemed to disturb 
him or to move his purpose to live and die for 
its interests. The people not merely rever- 
enced but they loved him, and with a fidelity 
rarely excelled he ministered to their genera- 
tions in the holy rites of baptism and the 
Lord's supper, and in the contrasted scenes 
of marriage and of death. In several cases as 
in the families of Muses Tuttle aud Stephen 
Jackson he had ministered to five generations 
of the same family, and in one case he held in 
his arn.s 'had Isid his hands on) a child of the 
sixth generation. He had comforted and 
bulled one generation, led their children into 
the church, marritd them baptised their chil- 
dren, and then ofliciated for their children and 
their children's children in the same way 
generatum alter generation, and surely it was 
no wonder that he was held in much honor. 

And here let me quote the words of one who 
knew him throughout his entire ministry and 
who for several years previous lo his own 
ordination was an Eider at Ruckaway. In a 
discourse prepared for the Piesbytery of Rock- 
away in 1858. the Rev. Peter Kanouse said, 
" may I mention the Rev. Barnabas King, of 
Rockaway, the oldest and longest settled pas- 
tor in the same church within our Synodicai 
bouuds. He entertd upon his ministry in that 
church in 1807 when it eonsist'd of tlurty-flve 
members where he has laboreil with ereat 

acceptance and success for fifty years. Dur- 
ing this period the Lord has poured out his 
spirit upon his congregation several times in 
a powerful manner. Hundreds have been 
ho|)efully converted to God under his minis- 
try. Under God he has turned many to right" 
eousness. Wiiat a crown awaits him in 
heaven ! He still lives amid a halo of glory he 
has drawn around him which will haug over 
his grave when his body returns to dust and 
his spirit to God who gave it. It is good to 
find such an object in this changing world on 
which the eye can fix with delight. It also 
spoaiss volumes of praise concerning his con- 
gregation whose stability, love, and liberality 
have sustiiiued, comfitted and adhered to him 
even down to old age, and who I doubt not 
will continue to minister to his necessities 'till 
he shall want no more.' I may not say more 
of him as a preacher, pastor, couuseller and 
friend, but an anecdote will be acceptable. I 
often heard men preach for Mr. King who were 
popular m the desk and celebrated m the 
church, and yet after such an one had preached 
in Rockaway aud the people questioned among 
themselves how they liked him. nothing was 
more common than to hear one and another 
speak approvingly of the stranger, but adding 
'after all I would rather hear my own dear 
minister !" 

He was noted for nis wisdom in times of ex- 
citement and Mr. Kanouse says that he once 
set several politicians right who faucied they 
had some cause of complaint by saying to them 
one day, "I njtice, gentlemen, from Sabbath 
to Sabbath your seats are empty. I thiuk you 
must have taken oflfeose at our Meeting 
House I" It was a true "Pain Killer." The 
same kindly pen relates a fact often told in the 
parish that a passionate neighbor of Mr. King 
had killed one of his sheep, expecting to excite 
his anger by the. act, but a year afterward 
when not a word or act had given sign that 
the pastor had any knowledge of the injury 
his neighbor aked his pardon and repaid the 

The Rev. Richard Webster once wrote me 
that "Joshua, son of Mo-gan Edwards who 
wrote the History of the Baptists in New Jer- 
sey, lived many years at Morristovvn and held 
Mr. King in great reverence. He said that in 
public prayer he seemed to be under the espe- 
cial guidance of the Swirit, more particularly 
on days of fasting. He said fast day sermous 
unsettled both Dr. Richards and Dr. Fisher. 
Politics were so vehement that sermons aud 
prayers were watched fo- unwise words." 

That most cautious observer of men, the 
late Judge Samuel B. Halsey, passed a high 
eulogy when h" declared that "he had never 
heard Mr. King say a fuoiisii thiug," The Rev. 



Albert Barnes odcc remarked " that, he kuew 
of no miinster whose walk, labor and success 
barl been so adairable as those of Mr. Kinj? of 

For the record of Mr. King's labors the 
reader is referred to b\s own nindosr account 
of them in his "Fortieth Aniiiver>:arT Sermon" 
delivered at Rockaway ou the 31st of Decem- 
ber, 1818. [ trust that this discourse will be 
republished in the " Annals of Morris Counly," 
but from it we ma\ take this summary of his 
method of lab'T and the results. He says, "I 
have preached about 12,000 times. My object 
has been to write jne sermou a week, and for 
a number of years wrote auothtr in part ; but 
for many years pas-t have written one only and 
pave what time I had to spaie to study the 
the other witliout writing. I hive, however, 
been obliged to preach sometimes with very 
liitlt time to premeditate what I should say. 
I have missed but few Sabbaths except when 
by sickness I was confined to my bed. I have 
never staid from the house of God on account 
of the traveling or weather, but once to my 

"In my parochial visits 1 have endeavored 
to call on every family however r< tired or ob- 
scure within our bounds. From long exper- 
ience I am gatif-fied that no labor wiiich a 
mmister can perform is more hkely to be 

" During my ministrations here there have 
been added to the church 680. Of this number 
four became ministers of the gospel. 1 have 
baptized 547, children solemnized 417 marriages 
and atiended 681 funerals." 

Among the greatest awakening in the church 
vrere those of 1808, 1818, and 1832,* but from 

*Mr. King in his fortieth anniversary sermon 
says of ihc revival of 1832 tliat "during the 
summer of 1831 a number of persons had ob 
taincd peace in believing. But early in the 
tall sicknuss pu'vailtd iu tho cougrcgatiou to 
iUL-b au eiicnl that the couid not 
generally be atiended. For a time your pastor 
was confined to his sickchambrr sntl it seemed 
as il tl'.i-ro Would be no mori; inquirers. .\t the 
time, however, when we seemed in the greatest 
need the steps of a young liceniat'; were di- 
rected toward us. Mr. Haitield, who is still 
held in graitiul remembrance, sutiit three 
nionihM with UK, laboring with great Zealand 
unwearried perhevurance. As soon hh his 
labors commenced and tho sickness had so 
abated that the people could go to hear the 
word preache'l, it wi.s evident tliatthe Spirit ol 
God was with us. Nor did it depart oiiliis de 
paituj'c. No revival since 1818 was so general or 
continued so long. During this revival, which 
continued lor nioie tlian a year, 143 persouf 
were received to the tomniuuion of the 

'ihe Rev. Edwin F. Hatfield, D.D., who is 
lelerred to in the above quotation wax 
graduated at Middlebury Ci>!legt, 1829, was 
settled at St. Louis for a time, hucceedi'tl Dr. 
Elisha W. Baldwin in the Seventh church of 

1807 to 1862 there was not a year when some 
wer'' not added to the church, and there were 
several years in which many were added, al- 
though the work was not so extensive as in the 
years just nam d. 

Of the original elders when Mr. King came to 
this place John Clark. William Ross, David 
Peer (Mr. Peer died in April, 1824,) and David 
Garrigus were living. Mi. Ross had received 
Ills letter of disnli^sIou some years before. He 
died in 1807, jiint as the signs of a revival 
showed then.selvfS under Mr. King's preach- 
ing. It is said thr^t lie >hon ed pain in ncalling 
what Mr. Grover had said about those who had 
engaged in the singing difficulties, as if that 
pri diction vere to be fulfilled in his own speedv 
death. He was a good and public spirited 
man and his great-grandson, the Rev. Samuel 
P. Halsey was the sixth paster of the church. 

Of Deacon Clark I have already spoken. He 
was a remarkable man and died in 1824. 

Of David Peer, David Garrigus and some 
other members of the session I have not the 
means of speaking much. John Garrigus, Sr., 
was elected in 1809, and his son iu 1824, and 
both faithfully served the Ghurch for many 
years. Of Peter Kanouse elected in 1809, and 
serving until 1818, I have already spoken, as 
alse of the brothers, Joseph and William Jack- 
son. David Peer lived in Rockaway Valley, 
Benjamin Lampson. Samuel Hicks, and Josiah 
Hurd near Dover. Thomas Conger and Silas 
Hamilton were devout nr.en and elders. 

Of those who were living in 1847, 1 may men- 
tion Henry Beach, a most beautiful and noble 
christian man, whose memory is still cherished 
in the church, and John Mott who was elected 
to the eldership at tho same time. The latter 
was a carpcLter, a native of Long Island, who 
came to Rockaway when he was a boy tQ learn 
his trade. His conversion was striking and 
thorough in 1818. At once he devoted himself 
to christian work in every way within his 
reach. He studied the English scriptures 
with the utmost zest and committed to memory 
large portions, which he was wont to repeat to 
his Bible classes, and iu the weekly prayer 
meeting. He was possessed of a rare elo- 
quence, and both in prayer and public address 
♦ Ins gift was conspicuous. Very timid by na- 

New York, thence was transferred to the North 
church in tho same city. Since leaving that 
ehurch he has been actively connected with 
the Union Theoiomciil Soniina.ry. For many 
years he was stalled cl?rk of the G'ueral As- 
sembly (U. S.), aid at the union of the two 
churciiLs he was elected stated clerk of tho 
(ieneral Assembly again. Ho was honored 
with the doctorate by Mariietta College in 
1850. His name is favorably and widely known 
ihroughiiut tlie chiireh as a successlul preacher 
and with no superior as a stated clerk of th» 
General Asseniblv. 



ture be was by tbo fitrength of hi? convictions 
as bold as ft lion wben the cause of truth re- 
quired it. For Ids n-nrh n tes-'^hin;^ the young 
out of the scriptures, superiuteuiling the sab- 
bath school, ruling well in the c'hurch, and his 
Dart in every good work he will bo long re- 
membered. Elected an elder in 1832 he filled the 
office vsilb great acceptance mure than thirty 
years. He died 18G6. 

Capt. George Rowland was one of the more 
recent elders, a man of a sweet christian spirit 
who ha\ing served the Master in his day and 
generation with great fidelity past to his rest 
greatly i-egretted. He died Jane 16 Ji, 1854. 

Col. Samuel S. Beach was a remarkable man 
and for many years a member of the session. 
He became a member of the church io 1818. 
He and his brother Chiiion divided the farm of 
their father who has been named in these 
pages. They were both of them excellent men 
in their enterprise, integrity, public spirit 
and worth in both public and private. Both 
were devoted Iriends of the church and aided 
to carry its burdens. They passed away leav- 
ing "a good name which is better than great 
riches." Chileon died in September, 1842, and 
Samuel S. Jan. 19th, 1859. 

I will mention but one more elder, Samuel 
Beach Halsey. He was born in Dutchess county, 
New York, in 179G, graduated at Union College, 
1815, admitted to the bar 1818, was twice a 
member of the lower house of the New York 
Legislature, practised his profession in New 
York State until 1834 when he moved to Rock- 
awap ,and whilst his opinions on questions of law 
were eagerly sought his main business was the 
manufacture of iron. He was elected twice to 
the lower house of N.J. Legislature. In March, 
1836, after a season of distressing conviction 
he became a chi-istian and was received into 
the church. In September, 1841, he was 
elected to the eldership, an oftice which he 
filled with distinguished fidelity until his death 
on tlie 15lh of September, 1871. This is a bare 
outline of his life. The details of that life 
could not be supplied by this pen without ex- 
citing the fuspicion of an undue partiality in 
him «ho holds it. His mind was one of rare 
power. It scrutinized each clement that 
passed before it as if analyzing a mathemat- 
ical proposition, aiid'where his judgment was 
rendered on the facts before him it needed 
rarely to be reversed. His mmd was of a ju- 
dicial cast, and held the scales with an even 
hand. Endowed with a wonderful afiBuence of 
the choicest words with which to convey his 
thoughts, and full of the richest thought on 
every subject he had examined, he was a de- 
lightful companiou, and the more so because 
of the humor and wit which constantly lighted 
up his t-peech and added delight to his com- 

panionship. And yet with all these rare gifts 
he was unable to conquer his aversion to ad- 
dress people in public assembly, whether at 
the bar, the political gatheiiug, or in the 
church. His feeling was such that ho aban- 
doned the bar for which he had such eminent 
fitness rather than be compelled to practice at 
the sacrifice of his feeling in this respect. 

His moral peiceptions were very acute and 
ho seemed to det( ct by instinct the presence 
of evil and no inducement could lead hitn to 
do an act which his conscience pronounced 
wrong. Not making a display of his feelings 
nor the reasons of his acts he was sometimes 
censured by those who did not comprehend 
him, but his fidelity to principle was a chief 
virtue. Between him and his pastor Mr. King, 
there existed a beautiful friendship that was 
only terminated by death. The rare and sa- 
gacious pastor appreciated the great gifts of 
his elder and his "spiritual son" and he m 
turn rated his pastor as a man of the purest 
worth, of a wisdom "that uevcr spoke a foolish 
thing," and a faithfulness in his calling that 
mar'icd him an extraordinary man. Among 
the remarkable men wbo had been in that ses- 
sion in some respects Judge Ilalsev had no 

Of the physicians who practiced in this par- 
ish several are recalled. Dr. John Darbe, of 
Parsippany, and Dr. John Darcy, of Hanover, 
were often called and were held in great favor. 
Amoug these actually resident here I now re- 
call the names of four. The first was Dr. Mat- 
thew Hunting who removed here about the 
time Mr. Baldwin left, and who purchased x^Ir. 
Baldwin's farm near Savage Corner, on the 
way to Denville. The honse was near the 
great willow tree that stood by the road side. 
Dr. Hunting died June 4th, 1810. 

Dr. Ebentzer H. Pierson came here from 
Morristown and bought the parsonage built at 
Franklin for Mr. Carle. Dr. P. made this pur- 
chase in 1795, and resided here several years. 
The old people described him as a large man 
and very exteiisively employed throughout 
the region. It is said that he was involved in 
the failuare of Canfield & Losey at Dover, and 
reiBOved to Morristown p hero he continued 
his practice. 

Dr. Ira Crittenden was a native of Lennox, 
Mass., and came to this region in 1811. In 
1812 he married Harriet daughter of Stephen 
Jackson, a most attractive and estimable lady. 
Ho taught school for a year at Denville and 
Hurdiown. He studied medicine with Dr. 
Eberezer H. Pierson, of Morristown, the phy- 
sician who purchased and occupied the par- 
sonage at Franklin. Dr. Crittenden soon made 
a great reputation by his devotion to his pro- 
fession and his success in its practice. He was 



fond of books and was at Rreat pains to keep 
himself fully up to his profession, and at the 
same time he was a detci-min'.'d but cautious 
experimenter in search of light not found in 
the books. He was a delishttul comp.inioii. 
and if he had any fault it showed itself in his 
lingering at places where he found congenial 
companions with whom to discuss questions 
pertaining to literature, politics, meaicine or 
religion. Ho became a member of this church 
in 1818 with his wife, and both retained their 
connection until their death, although for sev- 
eral years they attended the church in Dover, 
fciome years before his death Dr. Crittenden 
Lad a stroke of paralysis, and died December 
6th, 1848, aged 65 years. Mr. King preached 
his funeral sermon froja tho words " Mark the 
perfect man and behold the upright ; for the 
end of that man is peace." (Psalm 37:37.) 
Mrs. Crittenden survived him several years. 
He left several children, and two of his sons 
William H. and Thomas followed him in his 
profession. Dr. Wm. H. Crittendeu died Jan- 
uary 2Gth, 186iaged 49. 

Dr. John Darbe Jackson was tbe young-jst 
6v.n of Stephen and was born in 1794. . He 
died November 17th, 1859, aged sixty- five 
years. He had practised medicine in Rock- 
away forty-four years, and was greatly esteemed 
in the community for his carctulness and 
attention to his patients. His practice ox- 
tended tar in every direction and he was most 
assiduous in his labors. He was noted for the 
gentleness of his manners in the sick room, 
and his presence tor that reason as also for 
his skill was welcomed by tlie sick. He never 
made a profession of faith in Christ j.ublicly 
by uniting with the church. For some years 
he bad been skeptical as to the divine claims 
of the christian rciigion, but as ho reached a 
point in life whence ho must of utcessity 
aclicipate the approach of death no gave his 
mind to the serious examination of the claims 
of religion, and in the end not merely ad- 
mitted its authority but yielded himself to it. 
Had he lived he would undoubtedly have 
joined himself with some church. He died 
suddenly. He was married to Miss Agnes 
Doughtv who still survives him. He left sev- 
eral children, one of whom, Dr. Johu W. 
Jackson, first shared and then succeeded to 
his father's practice. 

Among the lending men of Mr. King's period 
not yet mentioned were Charles Hoff, tho son- 
in-law ot Moses Tuttle, first manager at Hiber- 
nia, and then in business at Mt Pieasiant, and 
who died July 17tli, 1811, Mr. Stolcsbnry who 
managed at Uibernia, and was the father-in- 
law (if Gov. Philemon Dickersou, Col. John H. 
Glover, of Denville, and Thomas B. Segur, of 
Dover. Col. Glover formed a somewhat 

romantic marriage with a young lady in New 
York, whose wealth was in her unblemished 
name and great personal attractions. After 
his marriage he placed his wife ?t school 
where she might have the advantages ot edu 
cation, and be meanwhile purchased several 
hundred acres at Denville and built what has 
been known as the Glover House and resided 
there several years. Tnere his children— de- 
scribed as elegant people— were born and there 
he died September 20tl , 1832. He was a native 
of South Carolina '"here ho had large posses- 
sions. After his death his widow and children 
removed to South Carolina. Col. Glover is 
remembered for the only censurable act of hi8 
life in New Jersey, the whipping of Mr. Jacob 
Maun, the editor of "The Palladium of Lib- 
erty," for some offensive article in its columns. 
Col. Glover was a liberal supporter of the 
church, holding a pe.v in the north-east cor- 
ner ol' the old church, and in many ways show- 
ing great esteem for Mr. King, who oificiated 
at his funeral. 

Of Mr. Thomas B . Segur a few words may be 
said for the sane of himself as no ordinary man, 
and also foi his relations to the community, 
both as a bank officer and a temperance 
reformer. He was sent by Anson <}. Phelps, 
ot New York, to Dover to manage the Union 
Bank as its Cashier. Of this part of his life 1 
need not speak at any length, although his 
career in the bank was full of stiriing inci- 
dents. No man ever guarded a trust with 
more untiring fidelity than he did his. Nor 
was it an easy task lor a strangei to »elect 
from the multitudes who appeared at his coun- 
ter tho mcu whom he might trust, nor for a 
man of his decided convictions in all moral 
questions to lay them aside so far as to doter- 
luinc as a bank officer his duty in certaiii cases 
lather than as one who abhoied all intoxicat- 
ing liquors aud all wh.i dealt in them. And 
yet when one of them veu\ured to tuuut him 
as he discounted his paper he said to him 
sternly, '"I do this act uoi because you deal 
m whisney, but because as a busiuess man you 
are sound 1" Several times wild aud falue 
stories were started to the injury of tho bank 
causing several '"runs" to he made on it, and 
twice at least New York brokers sought to 
break it down by the prescutaliou of such an 
amount of the Uniou bauk notes as they sup- 
posed to be beyond its power to meet. In one 
case Col. Scott, the President, nearly fainted, 
but Mr. Sogur met and vanquished the diffi- 
culty with the utmost, coolness. His ability 
and fidd.ty in that tiust are well shown in the 
spi( ndid assets of the bauk when it was closed 
11 nd its nu-aus put in other forms. 

Both in Dover and the -.t.tte at large Mr. 
•Segur was rccnguized as a most thovougu 



temperance reformer. He came from Central 
New York, and was converted in the sireai re- 
vival wbich swept over that region fifty years 
ago. He had fo it was said been a great per- 
sonal sufferer from the intemperance of those 
closely allied to him, and for this reason, hs well 
as from both the hatred ol so hateful a thing 
as drunkenness and its causes, aud also/rom 
his sharp religious convictions, he never abatea 
his efforts to arrest the evil. His vaults were 
no fuller of money than his shelves of temper- 
ance literature. Speaking of all that pertained 
to his butiiness with the greatest care and zeal, 
he readily went from that to a theme that was 
nearer bin heart than money, the rescue of the 
community from rum. To many he seemed 
an extremist but if he did not. others have 
lived to see some of his most violent opponents 
adopt; his views. At one time some angry men 
with cannon sought to break up a meeting he 
had appointed. He was threatened with the 
withdravvmeut of business from the bank, and 
in various ways his enemies sought to force 
him to be still on this subject: But lie was as 
immoveable as a rock. At times so violent in 
his feelings and expressions as to -seem rude, 
he was in truth a gentle and loving man, who 
would sometimes give way to tears like a 
child when some object of suffering presented 
itself, or some of the more delicate themes of 
religiou were discussed. He lived a very ear- 
nest life and when at last he yielded to disease 
his highest eulogy was that he had plead the 
cause o) the druukard and had been a devoted 
friend of Him who had said •' Woe unto them 
by whom the otten^e cometh !" After a long 
and painful illnes-i he died October 9tli, 1851, 

To show the longevity of people in this re- 
gion it may be stated that trom 1847 to 1862 
out of 383 persons whose funerals were at- 
tended within the field once solely occuped by 
this' church, 35 WL-re b(;t\veen 60 and 70 years, 
35 between 70 and SO, 19 between 80 and 90, 10 
between 90 and 91 and one said to have been 
115 years uld. TLie last one was Juliet lijbbins 
a native of Africa, brouglit^to South Caroliua, 
and thence to New Jersey. Slie was received 
into this church in 1809. 

Probably the oldest couple who have died in 
the parish was Francis McCany and his wife 
who died respectively in 1839 and 1840. Mrs. 
McCarty was 93 years and as her husband died 
the year before I inter he was at least as old. 

Among the very aged people who have died 
in this parish were the '• Widow Hiucliinau," 
aged 90, David Hill, 76, Joseph Casterliut^ 87, 
Mi"s. Kannaii Hoff, nearly 90, Mr. Noah Estile, 
81, Mrs. Chloe Hall, 78, Mrs. Ross, 80, John 
Garrigus, Sr., 60, Mrs. Wig ;ens, 86, Mrs Dav- 
enport, mother in-law uf John Earles, 91, 3Irs. 
Nancy Gordon, who ilied Feb. 19, 1851, ajjed 

90, David Gordon, who died July 23d, 1852, 
aged 92 years and 10 months, Mrs. Smith, of 
Pigeon Hill, 88, Mrs. Naomi Palmer, 76, Mrs. 
Mary Baker, 73, Jeremiah Baker, 91, Mrs. 
Betsey Doland, of Mt. Hope, 91, Mr,4. Elizabeth 
Vail, over 80, Mrs. Electa Jackson, 85, Col. 
Joseph Jackson, 81, Mrs. Hannah Kitchel, 83, 
Mrs.Eliz^ibeth Kitchel, 75. Mrs. Lyon, (mother 
of Isaac) 84, Mrs. Margaret Miller, 85, Caspar 
Zeeke, 71, V/iUiani Cooper, 79, Mrs. Hannah 
Cooper, 79, Mrs. Jane Vandroof, over 90, Tim- 
othy Douglas, 76, Dame! Ayers, 79, Mrs. Polly 
Avers. 91, Mis« Rhoda Lampson, 93, Asa Berry, 
75, Mrs. Sall\ Berry, 72, Mrs. Margaret Arnold, 
79, Charles Sliawger, 89, Joseph Lyon, 74, Col. 
Samuel S. Beach, 77, Mrs. Jane Beach, 88, Mrs. 
Jane Johnson, 77, Phineas Ward, 75, Alexander 
Hill. 70, Earies, 76, Re?. Barnabas King, 
82, Mrs. Clarissa King, 78, John Sanders, 71, 
Mrs. Sarah Tompkins, 87, John Conipton, 80, 
Mrs. Penmah Casterliue, 85, Daniel Casterline, 
87, Elizabeth Casterliue, 85, Mrs. Eartice Pier- 
son, 94, Jacob Loscy, over 90 The list includ- 
ing Francis McCarty and his wife, and Juliet 
Rubbins, has sixteen persons over 90 years of 
age, and 19 between 80 and 90. 

It Mr. King hal carefglly noted the ages ot 
these whose funerals he attended, these figures 
would un-^loubtedly be greatly enlarged, no 
doubt doubled, as the most of these have died 
since 1847. 

Ill order to give this narrative some com- 
pleteness it may here be stated that the Rev. 
Joseph P. Tuttle in September, 1847, was 
called as colleague pastor with Mr. King. Mr. 
Tuttle received his preparatory education at 
tlie Newark (N. J.) Academy and at the Gran- 
ville (O.) Academy, was graduated at Marietta 
College in 1841, Lane Theological Seaiinary in 

1846, was licensed by Marion Presiiytery, April 
4th, 1844, was ordained and installed by the 
same Presbytery as pastor of the second church 
in Delaware, Oliio, April 2l8t. 1846, removed to 
Rocnaway and began labor there in November, 

1847, and on the 26th of April, 1848, was in- 
stalled colleagne pastor by the Presbytery of 
of Rockaway. The Rev. Samuel L. Tuttle, of 
Caldwell, preaciied the sermon from 2 Cor. 2, 
16. " Who is Kuffieient for these things ?" The 
Rev. Barnabas King presided and jmt the con- 
stitutional questions, the Rev. Daniel H.John- 
son of Mendham delivered the charge to the 
pastor and the Rev. Sylvester Cook of Wan- 
tage 1st, the charge fo the people. The in- 
stalling priyer was offered by the Rev, Jacob 
Tuttle, the pastor's father. 

Having made this statement it remains to 
give a succinct account of the closing years of 
Mr. King's life and relations 'o the church. 
Tlie burden of the, labor was snared by him to 
the close of his lite, and his judgment as to its 



V ants was. admirable ap his interest was un- 
faltering?. As already stated hiB first sermon 
was preached here in January, 180G, bis stated 
labor bepan in October, 1807, bis ordination 
and installation took place December 27th, 
1808. Ou the 31st of December, 1848, he 
preached bis 40tb anniversary sermon, which 
was published. He also preached his 45tl) 
auniverssaiy on the words, "And now behold 
the LDrd hath Uept me alive, as be said these 
forty and tive years, &c." (Joshua 14:10) At 
its close he read in a tcne of great tenderness 
one of Watt-i' versions of the 71st Psalm : 
"God of my childhood and my voulh, 

The jriiide of .ill my days, 
I hsve declared thy heavenly truth, 

And told thy wondrous wavs. 
Wilt tliou forsake uiy hoaiy hiiirs, 

And leave my I'aiiitius liearl ? 
Wiio shall sustain my sinkinjr years, 
It God my strength depart? Ac " 

(Watts' Psalms, 71st. 3d'p. C. M.) 
It WHS an occasion that was both rare and 
grand, and one that reflected the highest 
honor both on the pastor and his people. On 
the 24th of December, 1854, Dr. King again 
preached an anniversary sermon, being the 
forty-sixth of bis pastorate, and the forty-ninth 
of his ministry in the one church, since he 
preached his first discourse in Rockaway on 
the 21th of January, 180(5.* The text in the 
circumstances was very thrilling. " The night 
is far spent, theday isat hand." (Rom. 13:12.) 
This discourse contained many pleasant rem- 
iniscences, but its author was unwilling to 
give it to the press. 

On the 12th of December, 1858, the Session 
of the Presbyterian Church at Rockaway 
adopted a minute and directed a copy of it to 
be sent to Dr. King, its senior pastor, in view 
of tlie fact that the fiftieth anniversary of his 
installation, as the pastor of the church, was 
at hand. In this minute the Session speak in 
terms expressive of gnitifude to God for send 
ing such a faithful man to be their pastor, and 
for the abundant rt suits of his ministiy. Its 
second and third resolutions are in these 
wordf : " Rtsolved 2d, TliHt we congratulate 
our venerable Pastor on the approach of so 
interesting an anniversary, and that we earn- 
estly desire him on the Lord's Day previous to 
that occasion to preach a memorial sermon of 
his ministry among tins people. Resolved 3d, 
That we l^rTcntly pray God to continue our 
beloved Pastor to us many years more, and 
that his latter days may be blessed with rich 
and numerous proofs of the Lord's faithful- 
ness and love." In accordance with thiri re- 
quest the venerable man pieached his fiftieth 
anniversary seimon, from the words "The 
Lord bath blesfcd thee since mv coming," 

♦Entered in the old Rockaway Trustte Book. 

(Gen. 30:30.)* The sermon was not given to 
the press, but was heard wi'h profound inter- 
est by the large audience that crowded the 
old church. 

Let it be added that Dr. King was spared to 
his people more than three years after the 
occasion just referred to. He sometimes 
preached, but ot«ener exhorted and always 
with acceptance. His mental faculties re- 
mained unimpaired, and his interest in every- 
thing pertaining to his fiit-nds, the church and 
the country, was as warm as in early man- 
hood. The Monday night the news of the Bull 
Run i^isaster gave such hoiiible unrest to vast 
multitudes in the loyal Slates, was spent by 
him in sleep as trustful and s.weetasan infant ; 
and he said "Children, it cost us seven vears 
of dreadful war to give us a nation ; it will 
cost us years of moredreadfnl war to save that 
nation ; but you need not fear as 'fit were not 
to be saved. It shall live and not die." 

In the spring of 1862 it was thought best by 
himself that he tender bis resignation formally 
to the parish, but his faithful people to their 
honor reiused to receive i(, prolessing to him 
an unabated atlachment. He had now been 
in ihat lelation fifty-three years and several 
months. On the second Sabbath in Maich, 
1862, ke had performed his last official act in 
public, wit h a singular fitness, it being on the 
GCCHSion of his last communion with the 
church, at the close of which he stretched 
forth his hands and with such pathos and 
beauty pronounced the apostolical benediction 
recorded in the thirteenth chapter of the 
Epistle to the Hebrews, twentieth and twenty 
fii St verses, that many were moved to tears, 
and some even said they had never heard the 
woids before! More than fitty-six years be- 
fore he had preached for the first lime in that 
congregation, and more than filty-forir years 
- from October, 1807— he had been preaching 
there regularly, and lacked only less than a 
year of being their pastor during that long 
pericd. During that time he ministered in 
several instances to five generations of the 
same family, aud in one case to six genera- 
tions. j His honorable career was drawing to 

*By a pleasant coincidence, too marked to 
be neglected, that very year was the one hun- 
dredth anniversary of the Church's organiza- 
tion. Thus two interesting facts were asso- 
ciated in the same services. A series of dis- 
courses was conscqueniiy prepared by the 
Junior Pastor, the author ot this sketch, Ihu 
first of which was delivered on the evening of 
the day that Dr King preached his fiftieth 
anniversary sermon. These circumstances 
furnished, in fact, the substance of the paper 
on "The early history of Morris County," sub- 
mitted to the N. J. Historical Society in Mav, 

^When Dr. King began to preach in Rock- 



its close ; not a dog wagged his tongue against 
liim ; the entire commnnity regarded him 
wi+h niiabiited veneration ; and now he placed 
on such a public carter the Ijeautilul crowning 
act of that benediction. 

People are wont to note coin^idcnrep, and it 
was noted as singular that the very day that 
Dr. King's resignation was laid before the 
parish, and declined as already stated, he be- 
came ill. The parish meeting called to con- 
sider the resignation of Dr. King and his 
colleague occurnd March 20th, and was large- 
ly attended. The people resolved unpnimously 
not to accept Dr. K.'s resignation, affection- 
ately expressing their will that he should con- 
tinue their pastor until death should termin- 
ate the relation. Whet this fact was commu- 
nicated to him the morning alter its occur- 
rence he ex])ressed the most lively pleasure 
saying as the tears ran down his cheeks "They 
have always been a kind pe<'ple!" Probably 
in the long period of his ofiBcial connection 
witii the church he had never a happier mo- 
ment than that in which saw his congregation 
clinging to him as if indeed he were a father. 
After a sickness of several days he passed from 
earth as peacefully as a little child passes into 
sleep. He res»ed from his labors on the 10th 
of April, 1862, and on the 13th his remains 
were consigned to the grave, in the midst of 
such a concourse of peop'e as was never before 
gathered in that old yard! At his own request 
the funeral sermon was preached by his 
colleague in the pastorate of the church, who 

away, he boarded in the family of Moses Tut- 
tle, Esq., the sixth child and fifth son of Col. 
Joseph Tnttle, of Hanover, and his wife 
Abigail Ogden. C'^l. Tuttle and his brother 
Timothy settled in Hanover, in Morris County, 
about 1733 or 4. Col. T's second wife was 
Abigail Nutman, a sister of the Rev. James 
Nutman, the second pastor of the Hanover 
church. Their sou, the Rev. James I'uttle, 
was the first pastor of the churclies at Rock- 
away and Parsippany. Dr. Kinp; was the pas- 
tor of Moses Tuttle ; of the daughter of Moses, 
Mrs. Hannah Hotf, widnw of Charles Hoft" ; of 
her daughter Mrs. Jane Beach, widow of Col. 
"^amuel Serrin Beach ; of her daughter Mrs. 
Delia Hazzard, the widow of the Rev. Silas H, 
Hazzard; and he lived to see Mrp. Hazzard's 
daughter and grand child on a visit to Mrs. 
Beach, the venerable great-grandmother, who 
at the time was still living I Making six gen- 
erations of one family who lived in the period 
of his ministry. The late Matthias Kitchel, 
Esq., also married Caroline Beach, the great- 
granddaughter of Mcses Tnttle, and Dr. King 
lived to see her grand children. He ministered 
to five generations of Capt. Stephen Jackson's 
family, viz : Capt. Stephen Jackson, his son 
Col. Joseph Jarkson, his daughter Mrs. Sarah 
Dubois Halsev, and her children and grand 
children. The same was true in other in- 
stances. The whole constitutes a singular 
and perhaps not very easily paralleled state- 
ment of permanence and longevity in his pas- 
toral ofiBce. 

selected for his text on the occasion the words 
'By the grace of God I am what I am ; and 
his grace which was bestowed upon me was 
not in vain ; but I labored more abundantly 
than they all ; yet not I, but the grace of God 
which was with me." (1 Cor. 15:10.) This dis- 
course was published. 

In his able and interesting nistory of the 
Presbyterian Church, Dr. Gillett thus de- 
scribes Dr. King, of Rockaway, in language 
which does not seem extravagant to those who 
knew him. " Frail and feeble in appearance, 
and supposed by all to be consumptive, he was 
spared to the discharge of a long and useful 
pastorate. * * * ♦ But while faithful to 
his special charge, he did not neglect the mis- 
sionary field around him. With the best men 
of the Jersey Presbytery he bore his full share 
in Itinerant evangelization, going trom Powles 
Hook to the Delaware, to tell the destitute of 
Christ. The monuments of his success were 
scattered around him fiir and near. One of the 
most eminent of his contemporaries— the Rev. 
Albert Barnes— remarked that he knew 'of no 
minister who'-e walk and labor and success 
had been so admirable as those of Mr. King of 
Rockaway.' His great ambition was to win 
souls. His one book was the Bible. As a 
preacher, he was simple and scriptural ; and 
his whole course was characterized by good 
sense, consummate judgment, earnestness of 
purpose and devotion to his rork. Usctulness 
he preferred to eloquence or learning. Yet 
his utterance was always manly, and at times 
fervent. One of his most critical hearers re- 
marked ' that he never said a Ibolish thing.' 
Amid fragrant memories and the rich harvests 
of the usefulness he coveted, he descended to 
the grave in a ripe and beautiful old age. The 
wrinkles of more than fourscore years were on 
his brow, but there were no wrinkles on his 
heart. His ' closing hours were marked by 
peace and cheerful hope, and when called to 
depart he was ready for the summons." He 
lacked only two months of being eighty-two 
years of age. 


Dear Brethren : — The undersigned associ- 
ated as the colleague pastors of this church 
and congregation, desire to tender to you the 
resignation of our office and to ask you to 
unite with us in requesting the Presbytery to 
dissolve the pastoral relation which now sub- 
sists between you and us. 

It would be unjust to you and to our own 
feelings were we to refrain Irom expressing to 
you our unalterable attachment and confi- 
dence. " For what is our hope, or joy, or 



crown of rejoicing ? Are not even ye in the 
prppence ol'onr Lord Jesus Cbrist at his com- 
ing? For ye are our gloi'v and onr joy." 

The lact, as it has hpeo stated to us, that 
our love lor yon is reciprocated by you W!th 
no dissenting voice, is one that both cnobar- 
asses and dchgbts us. Had yc u been less than 
unanimous in you) expressions of attachment 
we could less reluctantlv take this step, and 
yet the oneness of yowr afl'ection we esteem 
as among the sweetest fruits of our pastorate 
among you. 

It is more than fifty-six years sinco the 
Senior Pastor preached his first sermon here, 
and more than fifty-three since he was ordained 
and installed as the pastor of this church. 
Very few are now living who witnessed that 
scene. Great changes have taken place since 
that time, and yet amid all these changes this 
church has never varied in its attachment to 
one selected and placed over it by a generation, 
the most of which have long since "fallen 

It is compared with this, a recent event, the 
settlement ot the colleague pastor. Nearly 
nineteen year* ago he first preached in this 
place. Fifteen years ago he supplied vour 
pulpit a few Sabbaths during the dangerous 
illness ot your pastor. Early in November, 
1847, having accepted your call, he began nis 
labors among you, although not lormallv in- 
stalled until the following April. 

This brief perio'l has bc^eu fu'l of changes in 
the congregation and community. Some of 
the standard bearers have fallen, and others 
have taken their places. It is our belief that 
God has placd his seal on the act of this con- 
gregation, in consequence of which we became 
ciilleague pastors of the church. 

It is not necessary to enter into any det.iiled 
statements of the reasons which have led us 
to s-eek a dissolution of a relation thus far sn 
happy and fruitful. The step has been taken 
alter earnest, prayer to the head of the church 
for his guidance, and after a protracted and 
carelnl (Xanmiatiou of thi; field to which tlie 
Junior i*a^tllr has been called. We ate to 
pli-asc not ourselves, butCbiisl m this mattKr, 
and although we cannot make this cliange 
wilhuut eiquisiie pain to ouriJelvcs, it seems 
to be our d'uiy. \\v may have erred in our 
judgmtut ol the duty required of us, but if so. 
It has not been an error intentionally com- 

VVioUiug and praying that grac?, mercy and 
peace liom God the Father, aud the Lord 
Jesus Christ ma\ be with you and this entire 
flock. We are, uear brethren, 

Yours in the Lord, 
(Signed in behalf of the pastors.) 


llockaway, M. J., March 19th. 1862. 

It was Die intention lor the Senior Pastor to 
oign this paper, but sicktieis prevented him. 

EocKAWAY, March IDth, 18G2. 
Dr. Be.\ch : 

Dear Sir : — I suppose from present appear- 
ances, in case of my release from the pastoral 
care of the church, that I shall not be able to 
arrange my business to leave soonf r than th» 
last Sabhath in April. If it be doomed best I 
can snpplv the pulpit until that time, but I 
leave this entirely to the judgment of the 
church. It will greatly facilitate my arrange- 
ments to liave the Trustees enabled to settle 
with mc whatever balance may be due. Any 
accounts against mc by pew holders can be 
turned on the books. Truly yours, 

Joseph F. Tuttle. 

EocKAwl^Y, March 15th. 1862. 
Having learned that a parish meeting is to 
be held on Wednesday, the 19th inst., that the 
people may have opportunity to express their 
views in regard t>) the continuance or discon- 
tinuance of the relation between them and 
their pastor, Kev. J. F. Tuttle, D. D. Sup- 
posin'^r this may result in calling the Presby- 
tery to act on the subject. I wish to say, thai 
in case his dismission shDukl be effected, I 
shall request the Presbytery to dissolve the 
pastoral relation between me and this people 
which has subsisted nearly 54 years. Th's 
request originates from no unkind feelings, 
Irom no want of attention, but simply from 
the fact that from age and infirmity I can no 
longer be of service and might be considered 
in the way of the settlement of another pastor. 
Should the dissolution take place I shall take 
leave of this people with a deep sense of grat- 
itude for the many and long coutinued kind- 
nesses which tlif-y have manifested and the 
forbearance which they have exercised in re- 
gard to my frailties. My prayer will be that 
God would soon give to this people a-pastor 
after liis o^n heart and one in whom all shall 
be harmoniously united. Whatever may be 
the result reached bv th« Pr(>sbytery, I trust 
that pastors and people will acunowledge and 

feel that it is ot the Lord. 

Baunabas Kino. 

(From tue New Yoke Obsekveu.) 
On Thursday, April 10th, 1862, the aged and 
beloved man whose name stands at the head 
of this article, entered into rest. On the 
Sabbath afternoon following, a vast throng of 
people from the neighboring congregations 
met with the bereaved church at Rockaway, 
to pay a trilmte of love to the departed pas- 
tor. Hundreds were not able to gel into the 
church, which wis draped in deep mourning. 
The exercises were conducted by the Rev. 
Messrs. Magic, of Dover, Johnson, of Hanover, 
aud Ford, of Parsippany. Tlje sermon was 



preached by the Rev. Joseph F. Tuttle. D. D., 
fourteen years colleague pastor with the de- 
ceased, in compliance with whose wish the 
arrangement was made. 

The sermon set forth "the giaceofGod as 
manifested in the character and labors of the 
successful minister ot Christ," and was found- 
ed on 1 Cor. 15:10, " By the grace of God I am 
whai I am ; and his grace, which was bestowed 
on me, was not in vain, but I labored more 
abundantly than they all : yet not 1, but the 
grace of God which was with me." 

The personal statements made by the 
preacher, concerning the character and labors 
of the deceased, were very simple. The flev. 
Barnabas King, D. D., was boru in New Marl- 
borougn, Mass., June '2d, 1780; at the age of 
fourteen was prevented from becoming a 
cabinet-maker by the sagacity of his pastor. 
Dr. Catlin, who offered to tit him for college 
in four years, in consideration of his laboring 
for him during the summer mouths. \t tlie 
age of eighteen be was converted. He then 
taught school to get the mu-ans of entering 
college, and in the spring of 1802, he entered 
the Sophomore class of Williams College, half 
advanced. lu the fall ol 1804, lie was grad- 
uated, after which he spent a year teaching, 
and studying theology. October 15ih, 1805, he 
was licensed by the Berkshire Association, and 
having in vaiu sought a settlemtnt near home, 
he was about to start for Westeru New YorK, 
then a new countiy, when a letter from his 
class-mate, Beach, turned liis steps to New 
Jersey. He preached in Rockaway the drat 
time January 25th, 1806, from Eccl. 2 : 1, 2, "'A 
time to be born and a time lo die ;" bui for a 
year and a half labored at Sparta and Berk- 
shire. In October, 1807, he becau his labors 
statedly in Rockaway, dividing his time be- 
tween this place and Sparta. Very soon there 
began a revival, which added to the church 
eighty converts, and in the midst of such 
scenes, he was oraained and installed the pas- 
tor of the church, December 27tli, 1608, the 
eermon being preachedby Dr. John McDowell, 
the only one who participated in the transac- 
tion who now survives him. During the entire 
lime of his sole ministry, that is from 1807 to 
1847, there was only one year without addi- 
tions to the church from the vvoild. That 
exceptional year was 1817, in the fall ot Avhich 
began " the great revival of 1818," which 
brought 151 converts into the church. The 
next greatest work was in 1831-2, Avh^n he was 
aided by Rev. Dr. Hatfield in a manner greatly 

endearing him to the people. 

In his 40th anniversary sermon, preached 
Dec. 31, 1848, Father King stated that he had 
attended 681 funerals, baptized 547 children, 
solemnized 417 marriages, and received into 
the church 680 persons. For many years his 
labors were spread over a territory which now 
includes five Presbyterian and five Methodist 
churches. He had regular appointments at 
Powerville, Rockaway Valley, Lyonvillc, Green- 
ville, the Glen, Mt. Hope, Denmark, Berkshire 
Valiev, Dover, Miue Hill, Shoregrove, Union, 
Fianklin, Harrison ville, besides those at the 
centre. For weeks together he preached ten 
times a week. He was indefatigable in his 
pastoral labors, being assisted by an admir- 
ably constituted Session. 

He was dignified and serious in his manners 
and so consistent that no one questioned liis 
piety. His style of preaching was very sim- 
pie, but scriptural, au'l usually very earnest. 
His heart was lull of sympathy, and in all 
respects he was a model pastor, to whom his 
flock was perfectly devoted. In several in- 
stances he has ministered to five generations 
of the same family, and in one instance to six. 
His thoughtluliiess, generous forbearance 
and helpfulness in the delicate and often 
unpleasant relation of the colleague pastor- 
ate, were only needed to round out his admir- 
able 3haracter. It is a fact that is honorable 
to both the senior and junior colleague in 
that church, that they should have been 
associated fourteen years with not merely 
harmony, but with a devoted affection well 
fitting that of father and son. 

The very day he was stricken with bis last 
thickness, his resignation was offered to the 
church of which he had so long been pastor. 
This was on account of his colleague's accept- 
ance of the Presidency of Wabash College, and 
he did not wisb to be in the way of settling a 
successor. But the church, with a noble 
spirit, refused to accept his resignation, 
alleging as a reason their wish, if it were God's 
will, that he should die their pastor, and be 
buried among his own people. 

His mind was in perfect peace, unclouded 
with a doubt, aud he passed to his home amid 
the teara of as loving and devoted a people as 
ever cheered the declining years of a minister 
of Christ. Many men have shone more bril- 
liantly in the Church and State, but very few 
have lived so as to make a brighter mark or 
leave a more enviable reputation than Father 
King, of Rockaway. 


1776. CENTENNIAL, 1876. 

— «-<a*— «^ 


llfttSil! FlififiP 


Morris County, 


MORRISTOWN, N. J., JULY 4th, 1876. 


Rev. JOSEPH F. TUTT1..E, D. D., 

rnESIDPKT or WaB.'SH C'i>LLF.<>K. lMJi.'.N.\. 

Jn.v iTH, 187r.. 


noVEIl. N. ,T. 



— « f -.-O^^fT^O — t -- 

The hero and the s'iiiae have been severely 
condemned and yet men continue to worship 
the one and bow at thtt other. In so doing 
they mean no wrong, but merely express the 
sentiment of admiration we feel for a great 
deed and the one who performed it, and the 
sentiment of reverence which we experience 
for the place in which a great deed has been 
performed and a great man has Ijeen. 

We may in our philosophy jeer at Mr. Car- 
lyle's notion of hero-worship, and feel grieved 
as we see our fellow men bowing at their shrines 
of what ever kind. 

And yet the greatest philosopher uncovers 
his head at the tumb of Washingtoa and the 
most devout Protestant is thrilled with rever- 
ence as be stands under the tree where Luther 
rested, or at the sej'uleher which holds his dust. 

Mr. Webster in his speech at Valley Forge 
said "there is a power in local association. All 
acknowledge it and all foci it. Those places 
uatarally inspire us with emotion which in the 
course of Human history have become connected 
with great and interesting events." 

On this one hundredth anniversary of our 
nation we experience sentiments which are 
among the best ever felt in the human 
We think of the original colonies, in. themselves 
weak, and this weakness increased by their 
independence and jealousy of each other ; of 
the contrast between them ind the great 
power that coerced them— they weak, it the 
strongest on earth ; of the conviction which 
leading men in England had before the collis- 
ion that " notwithstanding their boasted affec- 
tion for Great Britain the Americans will one 
day set up for independence" — a conviction 
which such men as, Franklin regarded as the 
port«ntiouB prophecy of bloody battle, and they 
therefore in all sincerity hastened to assure 
the people and rulers at home that "Americans 
can encertain no such idea unless you grossly 
abuse them," and that "a union of the Ameri- 
can colonies was impossible unless they be 
driven to it by the most grievous tyranny and 
oppression ;" of the scenes in many a private 
home and many a council chamber, as well as 
in the more public assembly, whether of legis- 
lators or people, in which with unutterable 
forebodings and agony and yet with heroic 
courage the best and truest men in this coun- 

try weighed every principle, determined the 
character of every act affecting them, and at 
last announcing their independence fought for 
it through years of darkn^s and blood ; of the 
special incidents of that long struggle and the 
great men that acted on the conspicuous 
theatre in the presence of all civilized nations, 
Concord, Bunker Hill, Trenton, Yorktowu, bat- 
tles which were the offspiing of Independenc** 
Hall and the Declaration —the Adams, Patrick 
Henry, Thomas Jeffergom, and the greatest of 
them all Washington. I say, wo think of these 
great acts and great men and with more fervent 
devotion than ever we pronounce the words, 
" OuK CoujfTKY," and we yield our homage to 
the men who gave us acountry and we devout ly 
bow as at a shrine at the spots where they 
achieved the deeds which give them immortal 

But whilst today we indulge in these remi- 
niscences of our national glory — these great in- 
cidents and persons that find place in general 
history— let ours be the humble task of re- 
counting some incidents which are part of the 
history of Morris county during that period 
which to-day is in every thought. 

And here I find myself beset with a peculiar 
embarrassment which is both like and unlike 
that of the great French pulpit orator when he 
preached in the cathedral of the French capi- 
tal. Like him when he preached sermons al- 
ready printed and in the hands of dis hearers, 
all that I know of our local history has beon in 
your hands for years ; and unlike him in the. 
eloquence with which he sv ept away the em- 
barrassment, I in my humble gift of speech 
mu6t yield to it with an appeal to my hearers 
for their indulgence. In former years gather- 
ing many a fact ot our Revolutionary hittory 
from lips that are now dead, and from sources 
so scattered in archives, libraries and garrets 
that many of them now are beyond my own 
reach, I have not hoarded them, but without 
money and without price have given them free- 
ly to the press, the historian and the orator. 
Some of these facts, so precious to me as their 
preserver, in one case with no recognition of 
their source, are found in a general history of 
this country ; in another a graceful pen so pre- 
sented them on his glowing pages, and so 
kindly defined their source that in their new 


bttputy I almost forgot they werci CYer mine ; 
and in still another case the tongue of the Sen- 
ator repeater! th*:n so eloquently and with 
such generous commendation— I crave pardon 
for the weakness — that though a thousand 
miles away as I read his words, ray blood 
tingled as with wine. Thanks to the historian, 
the journalist and the Senator for their appre- 
ciation of this incomplete, yet genuine, labor 
of loTe amid the reminiscences of men and 
things a handred years ago in this goodly 
county of Morns! 

And yet this does not help mo to-day and 
here very much, for \^Jicther I speak of our own 
heroic men and women, or of those patriots 
who dwelt here during two winters in house, 
oabiu or tent, or of the things grave, or the 
thingB not so grave, that were done among these 
hills so long ago, a hundred of my hearers will 
either nod or shake their heads in approval or 
dissent as if they knew these things a great 
deal better than the speaker himself, which no 
doubt they do since they have his knowledge 
»nd their 6wn ! 

You see, my friends, how much I need your 
forbearance, and how kind it will be in the 
wisest of you to look as though you nevtr had 
beard of these things as I repeat them to-day ! 
And, moreover, even if you do hear these things 
for the hundredth time, pray remember that 
Yankee Doodle, Hail Columbia, and the Declara- 
tion are quite old and familiar, and yet old as 
thev are how they cau^e the blood to leap I 
Though they had seen the old flag a thousand 
times, "the boys in blue" wept and shouted as 
they saw it run up at Fort Donaldson and Port 
Royal ! 

How different the Morris County of 1776 and 
the Morris County of 1870 ! It is true its moun- 
tains then as now were grand to look at, the 
conspicuous watch-towers whence our fathers 
■aw the enemy and gave the alarm, and yet 
these mountains then stood in the midst of a 
sparsely settled wilderness in which were scat- 
ttired a few towns and villages with far fewer 
acres under cultivation than in our day. Its 
churches were few, the principal being the 
Presbyterian churches at Morristown, Hano- 
T«r, Bottle Hill, Rockaway, Mendham, Black 
Biver (or Chester), Parsippany, Succasunna, 
thn Congregational Church at Chester, the 
Baptist church at Morristown, and the Dutch 
churches and OldBoonton andPomptonl'lains. 
Its schools were few. The late Dr. Condit says 
that the majority of those who learned the most 
common English branches did so in night 
schools taught either by the preacher or some 
itinerant Irish scholar. The roads wore bad 
and the wheeled vehicles so scarce that at the 
funeral of a light horseman on Morris Plains 
after the war, as an eye witness onco told me, 

there was only a single wagon of any sort pres- 
ent, that being the one that earned the re- 
mains to the grave. Dr. Johnes the pastor, 
the attending pbysician, the bearers, the mourn- 
ers, and the friends were either afoot or on 
horse back. Nor in this respect was this funer- 
al of the light horseman very different from the 
more pretentions funeral of the Spanish Am- 
bassador who died at Morristown the second 
winter the army was in this pla e. 

The manners and oecnpations of the people 
were simple. The fleece, the flax, the spinning 
wheel and the house-loom were found in every 
mansion, and the most eloquent men at the 
bar and in the pulpit, as also the most beauti- 
ful women, and brave men who made this coun- 
ty so glorious in those days, wore garments 
which the women had made of cloth which 
themselves had manufactured. They were 
hardy, simple, frugal, brave and good, and 
when the conflict came it required as little to 
keep both men and women in fightirg condi- 
tion as it did the soldiers of the Great Froderic. 
The contrasts between the beginning and the 
end of the century in these as also in many other 
respects are remarkable, and one cannot but bo 
inspired by it not only to glory in the splendor 
of our county as it now is, but in the stunty 
simplicity o f the people of our county as it then 

The strength of the county as a military po- 
sition has often been noted. On the south, not 
far beyond the Morris boundary line, is Wasii- 
ington Rock, on a bold range of mountains well 
adapted for observing the movements of the 
enemy in the direction of New Brunswick, a» 
also for repelling an attack. Coming north- 
ward we have Long Hill, the Short Hills, 
and Newark Mountain, on which are 
many points which on a clear day com- 
mand a wide view of the Passaic and Hack- 
ensack valleys, together with that sweep of 
countiy which includes the Bloomfield, New- 
ark, Elieabeth, Rahway, Amboy, Bergen, the 
Neversink Highlands, the Narrows, and, but 
for Bergen Hill, New York itself. One does not 
need to be a Jerseymau to admire such a view 
as he gets from the Short Hills, Eagle Rock, or 
the rugged ledges of rock just north of the 
toll-gato on the mountain back of Montclair. 
But it is not of the beauty of this regio», but 
its strength, that I now speak. An enemy ob- 
served is half vanquished; and from these 
watch towers, which guarded the approaches to 
Moiris county, especially the one on the Short 
Hills, near " the Hobart Notch," night and day 
se ntinels were casting jealous glances to de- 
tect the slightest sign of an enemy. It is also 
sure that loyal men, scattered over every part 
of the country between these Highlands and 
New York, were on the alert, and their courier* 


always ready to ride .swiftly westward to the 
hillH of Morris to carry the alarm. Ou these 
elevated places were signal guns and the bea- 
ei>u8 ready to be kindled. On Kimball Monn- 
rain, Denville Mountain, Green Pond Mouu- 
Sain, and even on the spur of the Catukill 
rauge dividing Orange county from New Jer- 
sey were other stations like that on the Short 
Hills; so that, let the enemy never so secretly 
cross to Staten Island, and thence to Eliza- 
hetbtown Point, or in the winter cross the 
tueadowa to Newark, as they often did, the eye of 
«ome sentinel, either ou the hills or the plains, 
detected the movement, which the flying cou- 
rier, the loud-montbcd cannon or the ominous 
beacon flaming its warning from mountain to 
mountain, conveyed to a patriotic people, who 
themselves were ever on the watch and ready 
to respond. On several occasions the enemy 
moved across the river from New Brunswick, 
or, crossing the Raritan, reached Elizabeth- 
town, Lyou's Farm, Connecticut Farms, and 
twice Springfield, within canncn shot of "the 
Old Sow," as the signal gun was called, and 
tlic beacon on the Short Hills. 

But such were the advantages for watching 
the enemy and alarming the people, and such 
also the natural strength of its mountain ram- 
parts, that the enemy were always met by large 
bodies of as brave men as ever bore a firelock 
to the defence of altar and home. The enemy 
supposed himself unobserved, but invariably 
found himself confronted by a foe that seemed 
to him to spring out of the very ground or to 
dro p down from the clouds. There were sev- 
eral inducements which led the enemy greatly 
to desire the possession of, or at least a closer 
acquaintance with, the county of Morris. It 
was well known that Col. Jacob Ford, Jr., whose 
widow was Washington's hostess the second 
winter, had built a powder mill ou the Whip- 
pany river, which was making considerable 
amounts of "good merchantable powdtr," the 
amoont of which Col. Benoui Halhaivay was 
careful to exaggerate by what might be called 
" Quaker powder kegs," that were filled, not 
with powder, but with sand, and these, under 
careful guard, were conveyed to the magazine ! 
There was not only the well-guarded Powder 
Magazine in some safe place, but the general 
m agaziue on the south side of Morris Green, 
W hose treasures of food and clothing and other 
articles for the army were in fact never enough 
to be of any great value, yet Colonel Hatha- 
way so managed the deposits made there that 
they seemed to a'l but the initiated very form- 

A dozen miles north of Morristowu were sev- 
• ral forges that were furnishing iron for the 
army for horse shoes, wagon tire and other 
pufposes. And at Mt. Hope and Hibernia, each 

about four miles Trom the village of 
Rockaway, were two blast furnaces. The 
former was the property of John Ja- 
cob Faesch, a patriotic German, and 
the other belonged to General Lord Stirling, 
and under the management first of Jos. HoflT, 
and after his death of his brothei Charles, sons 
of Charles Hoflf, of Hunterdon. At both these 
furnaces large quantities of shot and shell were 
cast for the army, and at Hibernia Hoff made 
repeated attempts to cast cannon, and in one 
of bis letters to Lord Stirling says ho "did 
cast one very good one, only it was slightly de- 
fective at the breech." 

These manufactories of army mnnitiona wore 
supplemented by large lireadths of arablclaud, 
a considerable part of which was of excellent 
quality, and wnich all together produced an 
immense amount of the provisions needed by 
armies. And not only so, but the acres of Mor- 
ris were the key to the richer acres of Sussex. 
Indeed, it is diflScult to exaggerate the impor- 
tance of our county in all these respects, and 
when we add the fact that it was a perpetual 
th reatcning to the enemy who made New York 
their base, we can see why so many attempts 
were made by the enemy to penetrate it. 

Some of the attempts were by Tories, led by 
Claudius Smith, who once threatened Mt.Hope 
and who actually robbed Robert Ogden be- 
tween Sparta and Hamburg, Charles Hoflf at 
Hibernia, and Robert Erskino at Ringwood. 
The most imposing attempt to visit Morris 
county was in 1780, under Kuyphausen, and he 
reached Springfield, where he was suddenly 
confronted by a part of Washington's army 
then in motion for the Hudson and great num- 
bers of the Morris minute men. Dr. Ashbel 
Green says his father. Parson Green, witnessed 
the fight from the adjoining hills, and rumor 
says Parson Caldwell did not stick to the hills, 
but mingled in the fray, which gains some no- 
toriety from his distributing the hymn books 
of the neighboring church, accompanied with 
thb exhortation to "put Watts into them," be- 
lieving that the best hymn of Walts would 
make a good wad in a patriotic gun 1 Here, 
too, it was that Benoui Hathaway's wrath was 
so excited because his commander ordered his 
troops to the top of " a Hy Mountain" ii stead 
of against the enemy. 

It was here also that Timothy Tuttle, with a 
company of men, making their way through a 
rye field, poured a deadly volley into a detach- 
ment of the enemT taking dinner. The pepper 
made their soup too hot for comfort, and they 
left it in a hurry. And here, too, it was that 
an American officer was badly wounded, and 
one of his men, named Mitchell, ran in be- 
tween the confronting armies and on his own 
strong shoulders carried his captain to a place 


ot safety. As his act wa,B perceived the enemy 
fired a volley at hun, concerning which he aft- 
urwards remarked, wjth amu»ing sirapUcify, "I 
TOW I was skeared 1" 

And here I may qaote a conple of verses from 
an old newspaper of the day to show how I he 
Tarn eftort of Kayphausen to roach Morris 
county was regarded by the men who drove 
bim back : 

" Old Knip 
And old Clip 
Went to the Jersey shore 
The rebel rogues to beat ; 
But at Yankee Farms 
They took the alarms 
At little harms, 
And quickly did retreat . 

Then after two days' wonder 
Marched boldly to Springfield town, 
And sure they'd knock the rebels down; 

But as their foes 

Gave them some blows, 

They, like the wind, 

Boon changed their mind, 

And in a crack 

Returned back 

From not one third their number 1" 

The remarkable fact remains that the enemy 
never reached our county, except now and then 
a marauding party from Orange county, like 
those led by Claudius Smith and the Babcocks. 
1 have mentioned the rapidity with which 
the alarms of invasion were cir.ulatcd through 
the county, and the readiness with which Mor- 
ris couuty men hurried to the place of danger. 
There wure two oiganizatioiis in the county 
which had much to do with this splendid fact. 
The first of these was what was known as the 
"asBOciation of Whigs." 

Among the papers of the late ColouolJosepb 
Jaekson, ot Rockaway, I found the original pa- 
per containing the articles of " the asHociation 
ef Whigs in roquanac Township, 1776," with 
one hundred and seventy-seven autograph sig- 
natures, except a score or so made their 
"marks." The articles rehearse the reasons 
for thus associating in the somewhat lofty and 
intense style of the day, and declare that " we 
are firmly determined, by all means in our 
p«wer, to guard against the disorders and con- 
fusions to which the peculiar circnmstances uf 
the times may expose us. And we do also fur- 
ther associate and agree, as far as shall be con- 
sistent with the measures adopted lor the pre- 
servation of American freedom, to support the 
magistrates and other civil officers in the exe- 
cution of their duty, agreeable to the laws of 
this colony, and to observe the directions of our 
committee acting." 

The Committee of Safety for Pcquanoc can- 
sisted of Robert Gaston, Moses Tuttlc, Ste- 
phen Jackson, Abram Kitchel and Job Allen. 
Each of these had a paper like the one quoted, 
and circulated it. The one here referred to 
was in the hands of istephen Jackson, and pei>- 
haps as many more names were on the papers 
held by the other members of the committee. 

In each township of the county this organi- 
zation existed in such strength as to include 
most of the loyal men. 

Busides this there was an organization known 
as " the minute men," who were I'cgularly en- 
roUea and officered, and they wers pledged to 
be always ready to assemble at some precon - 
certed rendezvous. In critical times the min- 
ute men took their guns and ammunition with 
them everywhere, even to the church. This 
little fact is the hinge of an anecdote I hatl 
from Mrs. Eunice Pierson. She described Gen . 
Wm. Winds as a powerful and imperious man. 
a devout Christian, who took his part in tne 
lay services of the old church at Rockaway 
when there was no minister, uttering all oi"d»- 
nary petitions in quiet tones; but when nc 
prayed tor the country raising his voice till it 
sounded like thunder. Although he had been 
a leading officer in the army, after his rctire- 
ment ho became a minute man, always cirr>- 
ing bis wagon whip and his gun into the 
church. One Sunday during sermon he ap- 
plied the whip to an unruly boy, and on 
another Sunday a courier daslied up to the 
church door> shouting the alarm that the e'ie- 
my was marching towards the Short Hills. 

Of course in a trice the meeting adjourned 
in confusion, not waiting for & btJiicdictiou. 
Gen Winds seized his gun, and rushing out of 
the house ordered the miuute men into line ; 
but, lo and behold! not a man had his gun 1 
"Then," said Mis.Pierson, "Gen. Winds rav< »l 
*nd stormed at the men so loud that you might 
have heard him at the Short Hills!" liou may 
remember that Dr. Ashbel Green speaks ot 
Winds' voice as " stentoiophoric. It was ar- 
ticulate as well as loud, and it exceeded in 
power and efficiency every other humau voice 
that 1 ever heard." And yet, caught unarmed 
that time, the general rule was the contrary. 
Whenever the signal gun was heard or the om- 
inous tongue of flame shot up fi\)m the beacon 
hills, or the clattering hoofs of the courier's 
horse over the roads by day or by 
night to tell the people of the invading eu-. 
emy, these minute men were in an incredibly 
short time ou their way to the appointed places 
of meeting. 

I recall an illustration which may show this 
whole iDOvemcnt of the minute men in a beau- 
tiful manner. In Mcndham there was a minute 
man named Bishop. The battle of Springfield 


occarrod June 23, 1680. Tlie harvest was uuu- 
saally early that sutimifr, aud tbia man that 
raoriiing was harvostiug his wheat wlien the 
sound of the sigual gnu was luintiy hoard. 
Tbcy hsteued, ind agaiQ the souud came booin- 
iag over the hills. "I must go," said Iho far- 
mer. "You had better ta1;e care of your 
wheat," said his farm haud. Again the sound 
of the sjuu pealed out clear iu the air, aud 
Bishop exclaimed, " I can't stand it. Take 
care of the grain the best way you can. I ara 
ofif to the reacue !" And in a few minutes was 
on his way to Morriston-n. And be says that 
as lie went there was not a road or lane or path 
along which he did not find troops of men who. 
liijo himself, were hurrying to the front. 

We hare only to recall " the association of 
Whigs," with their committees of safety," and 
the organization of "minute men," which 
were formed in every part of the county, to un- 
der».Und how it was that our Morris yeomen 
were always ready to resist any attempt of the 
f-nemy to invade the county. In fact, they were 
resolved that the enemy should never reach 
the county if they could prevent it. Their spirit 
was expressed iu the familiar reply of Winds 
to th«s youn^ English officei who came toCh;it- 
ham bridfi-e to exchange some prir.oners. Said 
the young Englishman, " We mean to dina in 
Morristown some day." " If you do dine in 
Morristowu some day," retorted Winds in not 
th« most reftoed language, "you will sup in 
hell the same evening!" 

We cannot understand the remarkable effect- 
ivenees of the people of this county during that 
long war without recalling the fact that all the 
resources of the county were conceatrated aud 
handled by the "Association ot Whigs," aud the 
"Minute Men." 

There is another iufluenco to be added and in 
the grouping I certainly mean no disrespect to 
either party. I now refer to the women aud the 
clergy of Morris County. In the wars of civil- 
ized nations both these will be found a power- 
ful agency, but in some wars their influence 
has been very positive and direct. It was so 
iu the war of the Revolution and pre-eminently 
so in this county. At the very beginuing of 
the conflict Mr.Jefferson asserted the necessity 
of enlisting the rehgious sentiment of the coun- 
try by appointing fast days and inducing the 
ministers to preach on the great issues of the 
day. He admitted that he could see no other 
way to break up the apathy and hopelessness 
which were destroying the popular courage so 
aecessrry at such a crisis. 

It is a very interesting fact tha-t a sk.ptical 
statesman should have sagaciously perceived 
and recommended such an agency. At once 
the force thus invoked did that which it was 
ab-eadv doing, but now with the authoritativo 

endorsement of the highest character. The 
ministers of the several chureees— preeminent 
among them— it is not invidious to say Congre- 
gational and Presbytorian— on fast days, aud in 
tlieir oidiuary services dwelt on the very themes 
which had evoked the oloqueuce of Jeflferson iu 
the Declaration, of Henry, aud Leo, and Adams, 
and ilutledge in legislative halls, and of others 
not less Uiighty iu their appeals to the peo- 
ple. It is not saying too much to declare that 
when we consider that with all the reverence in 
which in those days they were held as God's 
ambassadors, and the high character they pos- 
sessed as men of learning, purity wid public 
spirit, their appeals carried greater weight with 
vast multitudes than any words of the mere pol- 
tician or statesman. In that day far more than 
in this the minister was clothed with a sort of 
divine authority, and when the American clergy 
from the pulpit -lenounced the tyranny of 
Groat Britain and commanded theii; hearers to 
go to the rescue of their "poor bleeding coun- 
try," it was in a measure as if God himself had 
spoken by them. 

The ministers in Morris County during thai 
period were chiefly Presbyterian and Dutch 
Reformed. The leading Presbyterian iniais- 
ters were Johues at Morristowu, Gi'oen at Han- 
over, Kennedy at Baskingridge--a part of 
which was iu this county -Lewis and bis suc- 
cessor Johue at Mendham, Horton, Aarou 
Iticbards and Bradford at Bottle Hill, Wood- 
hull at Chester, and Joseph Grover at Parsip- 
pany, David Baldwin, C!ongrega,tional, at Ches- 
ter, and Dominie Myers at Ponipton Plains. 
There were other ministers in the county, but 
I have named the principal ones. Of these we 
ujay single out Johnn.s and Green as fair sam- 
ples of them all. The eulogy which Albert 
Bariie;^ prouounci;d on Dr. Timothy Johues 's 
fully sustained by the facts. An able and 
nometimes a truly eloquent preacher, he was 
a remarkable pastor, and his ability in that 
respect was tasked to the utmost daring the 
two years the American array was in Morris 
County. If anyone diubts this statement let 
bim examine the "Morristowu Bill of Mortali- 
ty," which is simply a record of funerals which 
he himself had attended. In the year 1777 he 
attended 2(t5 funerals, of which more than half 
were caused by small pox, putrid sore throat, 
and malignant dysentery. During a part of 
the time his church was occupied as a hospital 
for the sick. The same was true of the church- 
es at Succasunna and Hanover. The latter 
was used for "a small pox hospital for patients 
who took the disease iu the natural way.' 
The fact that the Morristown church Avas occu- 
pied as a hospitnl accounts for the other oft- 
lold fact that Washington once received the 
communion elements from Dr. Johues at a 


Hacrimental service Lold iu a {?rove at the rear 
of the Doctor's own house. The story has l>oen 
liiseredited by sonio, but I have heard it from 
too many who were liviug whfu it occurred to 
doubt its truth. 

Dr. Johnes threw himseir with the greatest 
ardor into the cause of his countrymen, and 
liis influence was widely felt over the country. 

The Rev. Jacob Green — ''Parson Green" as 
he was commonly called— was a marked man. 
One of the most thorough and assiduous pas- 
tors he was also an able preacher. Besides this 
he had an extensiw practice asa physician, r jid 
unable to educate his children otherwise he 
opened and managed a classical school with 
the aid of a tutor. He did not a little alno in 
other kinds of secular business, such as milling 
and distilling, and as if these were not enough 
to use up his energy be drove quite a law busi- 
ness, wrote articles on political economy for 
tho DeT>spapers, served in the Legislature, aud 
was for a considerable! time "Vice President of 
the College of New Jersey. He was held in the 
greatest reverence and died in the midst of his 
labors which bad been extended in the one par- 
ish ever a period of forty-four years. 

In the pulpit, the bouae, the newspaper, aud 
in all places Mr. Green espoused the cause ol 
Independence with the greatest zeal. >Such was 
his known influence in the parish aud county 
as a citizen, a minister and a physician, that 
tiefore he issued orders to inoculate his soldiers 
Washington invited this country parson to a 
consultation about this impoitant measure. 
(oDVinccd by Washington of its necessity, both 
Green and Johnes— and no doubt Kennedy, 
Woodhull and tho othei Morris county minis- 
ters — took the matter in hand to inoculate tlieir 
own people. They arranged hospitals and dic- 
tated every plan witli a preui.-.ion and positive- 
uesB that was not to be disobeyed by their |)ar- 
iehioners, and such was the weight of this au- 
thority that it is said very few of the members 
of these churches disregarded it, and that few 
of them died of the foul disease. Of the C8 
funerali from this disease attended by Dr. 
Johnes only six were members of his church, 
and these died before the local arrangements 
for inoculation were perfected. 

I mention this as a sign of the authority of 
these ministers, and to show what an influence 
they exerted in favor of the cause of American 
Independence. How they wrought in the good 
cause is matter of record. The Associated 
Whigs and the Minute Men of Morris heard 
many "a powerful prayer and discourse" from 
these ministers to make them of good courage. 

With these men we must associate the women 
of Moms County. There were some torics in 
the county. Thomas Millege, the bherifi elect, 
was one, and ho was not the only one. There 

were some in Rockaway Valley who impudent- 
ly declared their expectation that the British 
would triumph, in which event they had ar- 
ranged which of the farms belonging to tho 
Whigs they would take as their share of tho 
spoils! But so shrewdly and bravely did Mrs. 
Miller concentrate the Whigs of that region 
through meetings held in her own house a.s to 
defeat the r?s:als and clear them out. 

So often has the story of the Morris County 
women been told that Hear any reference to it 
may seem tedious to you. It was no uncom- 
mon thing for these women to cultivate the 
fields and harvest the crops whilst the men 
were away to the war. On mere than one occa- 
sion not 8 dozen men, old or young, were lett 
in the Whippany neighborhood. The same was 
true in many other neighborhoods. Anna 
Kitcliel was a fair rf prcscntative of all the Mor- 
ris County women, in both scorning "a British 
protection" when her husband and four broth- 
ers were in the American army, and in keeping 
the great p(it full of food for the patriot sol- 

Yes, she spoke for a thousand like herself 
when she said so proudly to the Deacon who 
urged her to get a protection, "If the God of 
battles will not take care of us we will fare with 
the rest!" Brave Anna Kitchel! and ovor in 
Mendhara the second winter the army was 
repeatedly reduced to the very verge of starva- 
tion, and with roads blocked up with snow for 
milts, so that at one time a correspondent of a 
Philadelphia paper says there was "an enforced 
fast of three days in the camp." Th( poor fellows 
were only saved by their own personal appeals 
to the farmers of the county. Cf>l. Drake once 
told me that for months that wmter not a 
roostrr was heard to crow in the region so 
closely iiad they been killed and the balance 
were only kept sr.fe in the cellars! And the 
hungry, bare-footed and thinly clad sojdiers 
went to the Morris County kitchens, and 
Hannah Carey, the wife of David Thompson, 
- she once scalded an impudent tory— spoke for 
all the women who presided over these Morris 
County kitchens, as she ladled out the food 
fr om her great pot, " Eat away, men, yon are 
welcome because you are fighting for the 
country ; and it is a good cause you are engaged 
in!" Brave Hannah Thompson! brave Anna 
Kitchel! brave women of Morris County I The 
men fought well for the country and -so did 
the women I 

In the Now York 01>server recently appeared 
a spirited anecdote of a Mrs. Hannah Arnctt of 
Elizabethtown, who hoard h(T luisband and 
several other dispirited patriots discussing the 
question of giving up the effort to national 
independence. When she saw the fatal conclu- 
sion to which they were drifting she burst into 


t,h<' loom, and in spite of the renaonatrances of 
h(*r husband, rebukeJ their weak i-owardiee aud 
j4a;d to hjni, "What greater o»u>e could there 
he. vhnn that of country. I married a good man 
and liue, a faithful Iricnd, and loyyl Christian 
gentleman, but it needs no divorce to sever me 
from a traitor and a coward. If you take the 
i nfan.OHS British protoctiou which a trcacheroUH 
t'UcHiy of yonr couuti-y offers you— you lose your 
wife and I— I lose my husband aud my home I" 
Hauuah Arnett spoke for the patriot women of 
America ! and she was as grand an any of them ! 

The burdens of the war fell very heavily on 
New Jersey. It was " the battle ticld of the 
Revolution." The presence of the armies in 
{•ursuit, retreat or battle, put the counties below 
the mountains in a chrcnic distress. ludeed 
such were the hardships endured at the bauds 
of the entmy in these lowland counties, that 
tlio people held in the greatest detestation "the 
!ted coats and the Hessians." From their 
presence the Morris County people were free, 
«nd yet it should not, be forgotten that the 
almost intolerable burdens, consequent on the 
presence of the American army two winters, 
fell on them. During the winter aud spring of 
1777 — th0 army reached Morri^town about the 
7th of January, 1777— the soldiers were billeted 
(»u the families of Morristown or Hanover, 
lUittle Hill, and other parts of the county. 
Twelve men %vere quartered on Parson Green, 
sixteen on Anna Kitchels' husband Ural, a 
jicon? on Aaron Kitt hel, and so throughout the 

immiDg district, lo these families it was al- 
most ruinous, since all they bad svas e<iten up 
ill ihe service, so that when the army marched 

eff :r kit the Kgion as bate as if it had been 
xwept by a plague of locusts. 

To this we must add the almost inconceiva- 
ble terror andhardship of the enforced universal 
inoculation of the people because the soldiers 
weie inoculated. The late Rev. Samuel L. 
Tultle, of Madison, so carefully investigated 
this matter in that parish that he found out 
where the small-pox hospitals were and some 
grave yards where our soldiers were buried. 
Dr. Ashbel Green in his autobiography says 
that the Hanover church was a hospital for 
those who had (he disease the natural way, and 
in fearluliy picturesque language he describes 
ibe LciTors of the scenes he had" witnessed in 
that old church. It is true that it was a singu- 
lar fact (hat scarcely one who was inoculated 
died, whilst scarcely one who took tlie disease 
in the natural way got well. But in either 
twse the horrors of this loathsome disease laid 
on our Morris county people a burden whose 
weight must have been crushing. And thus 
you see a hungry and sick army in those homes 
(if oar ancestors the firsst winter. 

Of tb e second winter I have already spoken, 
but refer to it again to rernud you of the fact 
that during that almost unparalleled winter 
when gaunt famine hung over the American 
camps, and when the paths and roads about 
them were marked with blood from the feet of 
the ill-shod soldiers, the forests of Morris 
county gave timber for cabins and wood for 
fuel, their barns yielded forage to the army 
horses, the yards furuished meat and the 
granaries and cellars gave forth food for the 
soldiers. Thtre is no arithmetic or book-keep- 
ing that can announce the value of these con- 
tributions at such a crisis, and yet so gener- 
ously and unselfishly did our fore- fathers 
respoud to this call of their country that it is 
said that receipts for the supplies were decHucd 
by most and that a very small fraction of the 
whole value was covered by the receipts. In a 
word the niagnificei't fact rises before us to-day 
t hat the Morris county people of the Eevolution 
did what they did with such ample charity iu 
both those dreadful winters substantially with- 
out reward. They gave their men to fight, 
their women to sulfer, and their property to be 
consumed for country and liberty without 
money and without price. Nominally what 
they had was worth fabulous prices in a cur- 
rency rendered woithless by over-issue and 
counterfeiting, but they seemed for the time 
to forget the ordinary uses of money and to 
open to the patriot soldiers all their storea to 
make the m strong to fight the great fight that 
was to win for them a country. 

Of course I have not told all that crowds upon 
the memory of those heroic times, but it is 
time to arrest this discourse alreaily pr?>trarted 
unduly. We are not to forget the more con- 
spicucus names and deeds which belong to our 
Revolutionary history and which after a' cen- 
tury shine out like stars at night m tho clear 
sky. They will not be forgotten. Prom a thou- 
sand platforms THEin praises will be reliearsed 
this day, whilst the booming cannon and the 
pealing bells, and the glad shouts of our people 
shall proclaim how we prize the great men and 
deeds of that heroic period. 

Wo have followed today a humbler impulse 
and recalled the fore-fathers of our own coutity 
in the Eevolution. We have ouu herots, and 
our shrines are where they wrought for their 
country. Each old parish has its heroes, and 
each old church was the shrine at which brave 
men aud women bowed in God's fear, consccrat • 
iug their all to their country. And surely no 
descendant of them can stand on the Short 
Hills at the point where the unsleeping sen- 
tinels of the old county stood a hundred years 
ago, nor wander along the Loantica Valley, or 
over Kimball Mountain where American sol- 
diers sntTertd and Morris county men and 


women sastained them, nor tread the )aw ils 
that envirou the old Ford mansion aud enter 
its honored hallu where ouee dwelt Washington j 
iu the midst of a circle of illnstrioiis men with- j 
out profound emotion. j 

These are our shrines, aud as liom these j 
points we look over the magnificent county of i 
which we are so proud, we are not to forget i 
that our ancestors did what they could to save j 
it from the euemy and make it a place iu his- , 
tory. But this picture of the patriotism, the j 
trials aud the triumphs of oar Morris county 
ajicefitors fairly represents the people in other 
counties ot New Jersey and the other States of 
the Union. It was the people who asserted the 
principles ot the Declaration. If they had not 
felt as thev did, and labored aud suflfered as 
they did, if they had not laid themselves and 
their children, their estates, the increase of 
their herds and their flocks, the golden wealth 
of their fields and grauaiies, indeed their all on 
the altar of their couutry, if from thousauds 
of family altars, closets and pulpits, the people 
had not sent their cries to God lor their coun- 
try, even Washington could not have gained 
as what we now have, a cocntbt ! We love 
our country and it iQ worthy of our love. Let 
us not ceaso to jiraise God who gave the men 
of 76 wisdom, courage and fortitude which led 
to results that are so conspicuous to-day. 

The liepublic has survived a huudred years. 
It has passed through some tremendous perils, 
and I fear the perils are not all past. I speak 
not as a partisan to-Jay, bat ar; au American 

as I assert the eonvicti:>a that amidst the shak- 
ing foundations of systems and beliefs and 
nations in every part or the eivilizod world it 
will be well for every American patriot lo 
fortify his heart, not by referring to the examples 
of Greek aud Rinnan hcrofls. but by rt calling 
the names of those who signed the Declaratioh, 
and fought our battles and through great and 
heroic sufferings wrought ont for us those 
triumphs which arc now emblazoned in rwsuli* 
vastly grander than tacy ever dreamed of. 

And iu these glories of our Centennial year 
let us proudly remember that in the schievc- 
ment of these glories the meu and women who 
a hnndifd years .ago lived in .Morris county 
bore an lior^oiable part, and see to it that tiny 
are forever held in grateful remembrance. 

Fellow citizens of Morris county, I have thus 
thrust out my hand at random and gathered 
into a garland a few of the naiucs aud deeds of 
the patriot fathers who a hundred years ago 
bore their part in the great struggle foe 
independence among the grand old hills <if 
Morris. Such as it is on this Centennial 4th o! 
July iu the spirit of a true loyalty lx)th to on;- 
common couutry and to our honored-county I 
bring this garland from afar as the sign of tbe 
love I have both lo our county and our coun try . 
And as the fore fathers were wont on all sorts 
of documents and oecusious to say, so lot m*- 
close these remarks with their oft !eji,.! 

" Qod save America 1" 





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