Skip to main content

Full text of "The annals of Newtown, in Queens County, New York; containing its history from its first settlement, together with many interesting facts concerning the adjacent towns;"

See other formats







/ V 


jts listorg lim its toi Sttttent, 








" The benefits of God are to be kept in fresh memory and propagated to posterity." 

Rev. WitLiAM Levericu. 



Printing Office, 35 Ann-street, corner of Noisau. 




1- ' 

zt-i ,. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, ill the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred 
and fifty-two. by James Riker, Jr. in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Unit, d 
States for the Southern District of New- York. 



€amntUax at fato, 






€\)w f nluine 




Newtown, including the several islands known as 
Riker's, Berrien's, Luyster's, Yonker's Island, and the 
two Brothers, covers an area of twenty-six and a quar- 
ter square miles. Its valuable resources ; its contiguity 
and important relation to the city of New- York, as 
well as the pleasing character of its historic reminis- 
cences, are deemed sufficient to commend the follow- 
ing attempt to preserve its history. While the author, 
with much diffidence, submits his work to the public 
scrutiny, he asks leave to state that great pains have 
been taken to make the volume accurate and accepta- 
ble. In the collection and collation of his materials he 
has avoided that undue haste which is the too common 
error of ou¥ local annalists. During a period of seve- 
ral years he has made patient search in every quarter 
promising to yield him information ; but space will al- 
low only a brief summary of his authorities. 

The voluminous manuscript records in the State 
Department at Albany, and the lesser ones in the 
clerks' offices of Kings and Q-ueens counties, as well as 
those existing in the surrounding town offices, have been 
carefully examined. The library of the New- York 
Historical Society has afforded a fund of valuable in- 
formation, both in print and manuscript. The probate 


records at New- York, Brooklyn, and Jamaica, and the 
baptismal and marriage registers of the Reformed 
Dutch churches of Brooklyn and Flatbush, and the 
collegiate Dutch churches of New- York, have opened 
to him a mine of early genealogical matter ; which 
species of inquiry has been further aided by a multi- 
tude of family records and papers, tombstones, &c. 
&c. The author bears grateful testimony to the uni- 
form courtesy with which his investigations, both in 
public and private sources, have been treated. The 
European history and the armorial devices of Dutch 
and French families are mainly drawn from a rare and 
voluminous foreign work, entitled " European Her- 
aldry," These facts are not given to foster family 
pride, but only for their historical value. 

Many individuals have evinced a friendly interest 
in his labors, by favoring him with communications, or 
in other respects aiding him in his inquiries. Among 
these are worthy of kindest mention the Hon. John M. 
Berrien, of Georgia ; Jos. H. Burroughs, Esq., Savan- 
nah, Geo. ; Hon. Jacob Brinkerhoff, Mansfield, Ohio ; 
Dr. John Brinckerhoff, Chicago, 111. ; A. D. Bache, Esq., 
Washington city ; Rev. Dr. Wm. M. Engles, and Asa I. 
Fish, Esq., Phila. ; Rev. Richard Webster, Mauch 
Chunk, Pa. ; the late Rev. Dr. Samuel Miller, Prest. 
Princeton College ; Rev. Dr. Ab'm Messier, Somerville, 
N. J. ; Rev. Garret C. Schanck, Pompton Plains, N. J. ; 
Rev. Jas. K. Campbell, North Branch, N. J. ; Rev. John 
Gardner, Harlingen, N. J. ; Judge Jas. S. Lawrence, 
Cream Ridge, N. J. ; Samuel F. Haven, Esq., Worces- 
ter, Mass. ; Rev. Abner Morse, Sherburne, Mass. ; Hon. 
Charles R. Alsop, Middletown, Ct. ; Watson E. Law- 
rence, Esq., New Haven, Ct. ; Hon. Wm. A. Sackett, 
and G. V. Sackett, Esq., Seneca co., N. Y. ; Rev. 


Arthur Burtis, Cherry Valley, N. Y. ; Rev. Garret J. 
Garretson, Lodi, N. Y. ; Gen. Peter S. Post, Florida, N. 
Y. ; Messrs. T. V. W. Brinkerhoff", and R. H. Brincker- 
hoff, Fishkill, N. Y. ; the late Benjamin F. Thompson, 
Esq., of Hempstead, L. I. ; Rev. Dr. R. 0. Currie, and 
Tunis G. Bergen, Esq., New Utrecht ; Rev. Dr. Thomas 
M. Strong, Flatbush ; Rev. Dr. Jacob Schoonmaker, Ja- 
maica; Rev. Dr. John Goldsmith, Rev. Geo. A. Shel- 
ton, John L. Riker, Esq., and Dr. Hursey Baylies, of 
Newtown ; Hon. Jeremiah Johnson, Brooklyn ; Rev. 
Dr. Thos. De Witt, Hon. Hamilton Fish, Hon. Luther 
Bradish, Hon. Robert H. Morris, Charles King, Prest. 
Columbia College, William Betts, Prof, of Law, Co- 
lumbia College, Lambert Suydam, Esq., the late Hon. 
John L. Lawrence, the late Gen. Peter Van Zandt, 
and Rev. John Alburtis, of New- York city ; the Rev. 
E. H. Gillett, and E. Ketchum, Esq., of Harlem. And 
the author cannot fail to acknowledge in special terms 
the very generous and valuable assistance rendered 
him by the Hon. James Savage, of Boston, and Syl- 
vester, Judd, Esq., of Northampton, Mass., in the search 
for and communication of many important facts. Like- 
wise to Dr. E. B. O'Callaghan, of Albany, and H. 
Onderdonk, Jr., Esq., of Jamaica, he is indebted for 
important aid, other than that afforded him by their 
printed works, the Hist, of New Netherland, and Revo- 
lutionary Incidents, which were also found of invalua- 
ble service. To these might be added the names of 
many kind friends, who have been very helpful, but 
room would fail were this list thus extended. 

With all these aids the compiler has been unable to 
observe at all times a uniform fulness of detail, owing 
mainly to a deficiency of records, and yet in part to the 
strange indifference of some to whom application for 


materials was made. And this in cases where their 
own family history was involved. Such, though per- 
haps insensible of it, have done theinselves an injury. 
In some instances family reminiscences have been ex- 
cluded because they were wholly traditionary, and 
found to be at variance with recorded facts. Hence, if 
the reader should find his family history as here given 
to conflict with some received tradition, let him not 
condemn too rashly ; records generally speak the truth, 
and facts are stubborn things. In matters of more re- 
cent date, based upon oral statements, notwithstanding 
the utmost care to secure accuracy, it can hardly be 
presumed that all errors have been avoided ; any such 
as may be detected by his readers, the author will es- 
teem it a high favor to be informed of Special pains 
have been taken to have the dates correct. 

While the author hopes that no apology is neces- 
sary for any peculiarity of his work, one feature of the 
revolutionary history may require a passing allusion. 
In treating of that period, the names of the prominent 
loyalists have not been suppressed ; and for several 
reasons. It would seriously detract from the value and 
interest of the narrative. Most of them were already 
in print, in the public journals of the Revolution, Force's 
Archives, Sabine's American Loyalists, &c. And more- 
over, none at this remote day need feel aggrieved, since 
we now look with discrimination on the opposers of 
our Revolution, distinguishing between the honest loy- 
alist and that baser sort whose motives were mercenary 
or hands prone to violence. 

Allusions in the following pages, to the present 
time, refer to the year 1851. In this ever-changing 
world often the truth of yesterday is falsified to-day. 
Hence, instances of death, change of residence, &c. 


during the passage of this work through the press, have 
made the language in several places not strictly appro- 
priate. Except these, and several mistakes, mostly ty- 
pographical, noticed in the Errata, the work is believ- 
ed to be a truthful and reliable record. 

James Riker, Jr. 

Harlem, New- York, Dec. 25^/i, 1851. 





Chapter i^ From the discovery of New- York, to the 

decline of the Mespat colony, 1609 to 1650. . 13 

Chapter II. From the founding of the village of 
Newtown, to the purchase of the town from the 
Indians, 1652 to 1656 26 

Chapter III. From the Indian purchase, to the revolt 

of Long Island from the Dutch, 1657 to 1661. . 44 

Chapter IV. From the conquest of the country by the 
English, to the erection of the first church in New- 
town, 1664 to 1671 65 

Chapter V. From the arbitration of the boundary dis- 
pute, to the taking of a census, 1671 to 1683. . 86 

Chapter VI. From the first general assembly, to the 
fall of Gov. Leisler and the foundation of the colo- 
nial government, 1683 to 1691 103 

Chapter VII. From the erection of the fulling-mill, to 
Cornbury's persecution of the dissenters, 1691 to 
1707 122 

Chapter VIII. From the revival of the boundary dis- 
pute, to the troubles with the Fauconniers, 1706 
to 1720 139 

Chapter IX. From the building of the first Quaker 
meeting-house, to the final settlement of the boun- 
dary dispute, &c., 1720 to 1775 153 

Chapter X. From the rise of the American Eevolution, 
to the subjugation of Newtown by the British 
troops, 1774 to 1776 173 



Chapter XI. From the formal submission of Queens 
county to the King, to the end of the war of Inde- 
pendence, 1776 to 1783. . . . . .196 

Chapter XII. History of the Presbyterian, Dutch, Epis- 
copal, Quaker, Baptist, and Methodist churches. . 224 

Conclusion, Eeviewing modern improvements and the 

present resources and prospects of the township. 257 

*<,* For particular contents, see the head of each chapter. 



Embracing the Biography and Lineage of numerous 
Persons and Families, for whose names, see the 
Index at the close of the volume. The plan of 
the Genealogies is given in the Explanations which 
precede them . 263 

A.— The Mespat Patent, in Latin, 1642 413 

B.— Presbyterian Church Members, 1708 to 1771. . 415 

C— Dutch Church Contributors, 1731 415 

D.— Dutch Church Pew-holders, 1736 416 

E. — Communicants, Nov. 1, 1741 417 

F.— List of Town Officers, 1652 to 1852. . . .418 
G.— Freeliolders of Newtown, Dec. 4, 1666. , . .427 


i" i r t |) a r t . 




]l\![espat or Newtown in a primative state, — Its inhabitants, the prowling beast and 
the tawny Indian. — New- York discovered by the Dutch and called New-Neth- 
erland. — The West India Company establish trading posts here — Followed by 
efforts to coloniee the country. — Farmers begin to settle in Mcspat. — The Rev. 
Francis Doughty, a persecuted clergyman, removes here from New England ; 
obtains a patent, and plants a colony. — The settlement burnt by the Indians. — 
A peace made with the savages, and the planters return to their lands. — Mr. 
Doughty locates in New Amsterdam. — Several planters take out their patents. — 
Hendrick Harnienscn's plantation. — Rupture between Mr. Doughty and his asso- 
ciates. — Ends in a suit at law. — Mr. Doughty appeals. — Is imprisoned by Direc- 
tor Kieft. — Is refused the privilege of leaving the country. — Settles in Flushing. 
— Adversity still attends him. — He is finally permitted to leave New Netherland. 
— Ilis children. — His farm in possession of Dr. Adriaen Van der Donck, from 
whom Yonkers Island takes its name. — Decline of the Mespat colony. — Rich- 
ard Smith leaves it. — The venerable Roger Williams' account of this gentleman. 

A. D. 1609 to 1650. 

Scarce two centuries and a lialf have elapsed since Mespat,' 
** by the Indian so called " was the undisputed domain of the 
red man. Those richly cultivated farms that now pay their 
annual tribute to the garner of the husbandman, then laj^ in all 
the wild grandeur of a primeval forest, whose lone recesses 
were only disturbed by the prowling beast, the peans of the 
bird of prey, or the stealthy tread of the Indian hunter. Where 
now graze the kine, the herd of graceful deer roved and fed in 
native pastures. Flocks of wild- fowl bathed in the streams 
across whose waters the timid beaver constructed its dams. 
Daylight was made vocal by hosts of plumed songsters, and the 
swamps echoed, through dismal glades, the nocturnal bowlings 
of rapacious wolves, as they pursued to death some ill-fated 

' This, the Indian name for Newtown, is written Mespachtes by some 
of the earliest Dutch authorities, but it was usually shortened to Mespat, and 
in modern days corrupted to Maspeth, and confined to a small settlement near 
the head of Newtown Creek. 



victim. In unison with the natural wildness, arose the rustic 
hamlet of the natives, a group of bark-clad wigwams, and their 
adjacent planting grounds. Here dwelt the untutored son of 
the forest, passing the period of his existence in the few and 
simple employments of savage life, the chief of which were the 
amusements of the game, or dance ; the graver pursuits of hunt- 
ing and fishing, or the fearful exploits of war. 

Such, in brief, was Mespat, and such its proprietors, ante- 
rior to the discovery of this country by Henry Hudson, who, 
in the year 1609, sailing under Dutch patronage, found and ex- 
plored the noble river that bears his name, and conveying to 
Europe the news of his important discovery, turned the atten- 
tion of Holland intently towards the fertile country beyond the 
great waters, that soon after received the name of New Neth- 
erland, from the land of its adoption. The Dutch nation fol- 
lowed up the discoveries of Hudson with the most successful 
results. The developements respecting this section of the New 
World, its character and resources, convinced the merchants in 
Holland of the great advantages to be derived from the estab- 
lishment of trading posts in New Netherland, whose abundance 
of valuable furs presented the most flattering prospects for com- 
merce, and the speedy accumulation of wealth. Less than five 
years had elapsed, therefore, when ships were fitted out, and 
despatched to this country, and a mart for Indian traffic plant- 
ed on the southern point of the Island of Manhattan, where 
several houses were erected, and a trade opened with the sur- 
rounding tribes of natives. The settlement soon took the name 
of New Amsterdam. 

But, in order more fully to reap the benefit of Hudson's 
discovery, a commercial organization, entitled the West India 
Company, was formed by the Holland merchants, for the pur- 
pose of establishing a closer intercourse with the New World, 
and to whom, by an act of incorporation, conferred by the States 
General of the Netherlands, in 1621, the trade to New Nether- 
land was exclusively conceded. Much profit attended this 
enterprise, and valuable cargoes of beaver and other skins were 
annually transported to Holland, to enrich the coffers of the 
Company. But as yet, no direct efforts had been made to co- 
lonize the country ; and, up to 1629 the population chiefly con- 
sisted of a few individuals in the employ of the Company, and 


connected witli the several trading posts. But, in the above 
year, the adoption, by the States General, of a charter of Free- 
doms and Exemptions, authorizing the members of the West 
India Company to establish "colonies," or manors, gave a 
stimulus to emigration from the Netherlands, and produced 
the colony of Eensselaerswyck, on the head waters of the 
Hudson, and others that were soon after founded by several 
directors of the Company, who assumed the title of patroon, 
holding in their particular seignories, an authority akin to that 
exercised by the feudal lords of the Middle Ages. But ten 
years served to illustrate that these establishments, patterned 
after European feudal polity, were suited neither to the 
speedy growth of the population of the country, nor to its 
social, civil, or commercial advancement. Through neglect 
and mal- administration on the part of the Company, its fertile 
territory lay a howling wilderness, and its vast resources un- 
developed. Made acquainted with this state of things, the 
States General took the matter in hand, in 1638, and by a 
proclamation, declared the monopoly of the country abolished, 
and the New Netherland to be open to all, whether Dutch or 
foreigners, for the purposes of trade, or the cultivation of the 
soil; making, however, those who should emigrate thither, 
subject to the authority of the West India Company, from 
whom every such person was entitled to receive as much land 
as he or his family could properly cultivate ; for which, after it 
should have been a specified term of years under tillage, he 
was obligated to pay the lawful tenth of its produce. But the 
encouragement thus given to emigrants was greatly extended 
in 1640, by the grant of a new and more liberal charter of 
freedoms and exemptions, providing, among other things, for 
the administration of civil government in New Netherland, 
and establishing the rights and privileges of the inhabitants 
upon a footing parallel with those enjoyed in Holland. This 
charter formed the basis of the municipal rights afterward en- 
joyed by the towns and villages of New Netherland. 

The enlarged agricultural and commercial advantages, as 
well as the religious and political freedom now promised to 
the inhabitants of New Netherland, had a benign effect upon 
its interests; and, as a consequence, gave an impulse to the 
work of emigration, both from the continent of Europe, and 


also from New England, whose inhabitants, in considerable 
numbers, availed themselves of the privilege of a residence in 
the territories of the Dutch, whither, unfortunately, the spirit 
of religious intolerance — already enkindled in the land of the 
pilgrims — induced many to flee, and take up their abode. 
Remembering Holland, the refuge of themselves or kindred, 
when the fires of persecution drove them from their homes in 
Britain, and still in pursuit of the priceless gem of religious 
freedom, they naturally turned to the daughter province, to 
find all the sympathy and security enjoyed in the parent 
country. It was to the operation of such hallowed motives, 
that Mespat owed the first combined attempt to reclaim its soil 
from the wildness of nature. 

This section had already attracted the attention of colo- 
nists ; and individuals, both Dutch and English, were now en- 
tering, as pioneers, upon the work of converting its fertile 
lands to purposes of agriculture. At the head of the Kill of 
Mespat, or Newtown Creek, in a section called by the Dutch, 
't Kreupel-bosch, now corrupted to Cripplebush, Hans Hans- 
sen, familiarly called Hans the Boore, obtained a plantation of 
200 morgen, or 400 acres. Descending the stream, Richard 
Brutnell, a native of Bradford, England, was seated on the 
hook, or point, at the entrance, and east side of Canapaukah 
Creek, now the Dutch Kills, where he had a farm of near an 
hundred acres ; and, on the opposite side of the creek was the 
plantation of Tymen Jansen, who had been a ship-carpenter, in 
the employ of the West India Company ; next to whom, north- 
Avard, lay the land of Burger Jorissen, a respectable smith, 
from Silesia. Upon the northern border of Mespat, at what is 
now Fish's Point, Hendrick Harmensen, otherwise called Henry 
the Farmer, had a bouwery, or farm under cultivation. These 
were important beginnings ; but such single-handed eflbrts 
would have required a long period to convert the solitudes of 
the forest into arable fields and smiling gardens. They were, 
however, speedily seconded by a band of enterprising colo- 
nists from New England, the history of which is fraught with 
lively interest. 

Among those who, for conscience sake, had followed the 
pilgrims of the Mayflower, to the " stern and rock-bound coast " 
of Massachusetts, hoping there to enjoy freedom of speech and 


action in matters of religious faith, was the Eev. Francis 
Doughty, a dissenting clergyman, who is stated to have been 
a member of the ancient and honorable family of Doughtys, or 
Doutys, of Esher, in Surry, and Boston, in Lincolnshire, Eng- 
land. He settled at Cohannet, now Taunton, but here he dis- 
covered that he had plunged "out of the frying-pan into the 
fire." Differing, in some of his sentiments, from Mr. Hooke, 
pastor of the church at that place, and his assistant, Street, a 
" controversie " unhappily arose between them. Doughty as- 
serted that, according to the Abrahamic covenant, all children 
of baptized parents, and so Abraham's children, ought to have 
been baptized, " and spake so in public, or to that effect, which 
was held a disturbance ; and the ministers spake to the magis- 
trate to order him out, the magistrate commanded the constable, 
who dragged Master Doughty out of the assembly." Their 
dispute being laid before Wilson, Mather, and other divines, 
assembled at Taunton, " Master Doughty was overruled, and 
the matter carried somewhat partially, as is reported." Dough- 
ty "was forced to go away from thence, with his wife and 
children," and he sought a refuge in the island of Aquetneck, 
now Rhode Island, in ISTarragansett Bay. Here he resolved, 
with certain of his friends residing at Taunton and other 
places, to remove to the Dutch territory, " in order to enjoy 
freedom of conscience," being " undone " in point of worldl}-- 
resources, though he was " a man of estate when he came to 
the country." 

Mr. Doughty, being empowered to act on behalf of his 
associates, made application to the authorities at JSTew Amster- 
dam for a tract of land, and a patent was immediately granted 
them for 13,332 acres at Mespat, which embraced nearly the 
whole of the present town of Newtown, as will be observed by 
a perusal of the instrument. 

We, Willem Kieft, Director-general, and Council of New Netherland, 
for and in behalf of the High and Mighty Lords, the Lords States General of 
the United Netherland Provinces, his Highness the Prince of Orange, as well 
as the Most Noble Lords, the Lords Directors of the General Privileged 
West India Company ; to all those who shall see these Letters, Make 
Known, that We have given and granted, as by these presents We do give 
and grant, nnto Francis Doughty, and associates, their heirs and assigns, in 
real, actual, and perpetual possession, all and every tiiat certain parcel of 
land situate on Long Island, in this province, with the pastures and whatever 


eke it includes, containing, in auperfices, six thousand, six hundred and sixty- 
six Dutch acres, or thereabouts, comprehended within four right lines, each 
two thousand Dutch perches long, the first whereof extends from the east 
angle of Hans Hanssen's meadow,^ dividing, according to the creek, the 
marsh into two unequal parts, unto the plantation of Richard Brutnall, and 
thence proceeds towards the north-east, passing through the middle of the 
fresh marsh to tiie rivulet surrounding the lands of Henry the Farmer, and 
following the same even to its mouth ; the othsr line taking its origin from 
thence, bends towards the south-east, according to the main bank, going 
along the same unto the other creek, following the course of which from its 
mouth, until it attains the eastern extremity of the said marsh, (from whence 
the aforesaid creek arises,) thence turns again towards the south-east, until 
it has gained the length of two thousand Dutch perches ; the third line taking 
its rise from the end of the latter, tends towards the west, of an equal length 
with the others; finally, the fourth running from the last-mentioned point 
towards the north-west, terminates at the above-mentioned eastern angle of 
Hans Hanssen's meadow, at which angle a large stone is erected for the 
greater certainty of the boundaries. 

With power to establish in the aforesaid tract a town or towns ; to erect 
a church or churches; to exercise the Reformed Christian religion and Church 
discipline which they profess; also to administer of right, high, low, and 
middle jurisdiction, to decide civil suits, not exceeding fifty Dutch florins; 
to impose definitively, and without appeal, in criminal matters, fines to an 
equal amount; to pronounce the first sentence in other civil and criminal ac- 
tions of greater moment, and to execute the same, subject, however, to such 
execution being deferred, should an appeal be made to the supreme court of 
New Netherland ; Finally, to exercise all rights belonging to the aforesaid 
jurisdiction, with power, moreover, to nominate some of theirs, and to present 
them to the Director of New Netherland, that a sufficient number may be 
chosen from them for political and juridical government; together with the 
right of hunting, fowling, fishing, and of trading, according to the immunities 
granted, and to be granted, to the colonists of this province, without any ex- 
ception: — 

Wherefore the aforesaid F. Doughty and his associates, their heirs and 
assigns, shall be obligated, so long as they are in possession of the above- 
mentioned lands, to acknowledge the aforesaid Lords for their sovereign Lords 
and Patroons ; to pay, after the lapse of ten years, the tenth part of the produce 
of the land, whether cultivated with the plough, hoe, or otherwise ; orchards 
and kitchen-gardens, not exceeding one Dutch acre, excepted; Finally, to use 
no other standard than that of Holland ; and so as to avoid confusion, to use 
Dutch weights, the Dutch ell and all other Dutch measures. All which we 
promise, under the foregoing conditions, inviolably to preserve, and bind our 

1 The farm of Ilans Hanssen has been already noticed as lying near Cripple- 
bush. It comprised 400 acres, or nearly two-thirds of a square mile, and from a 
careful examination of the patent and those adjoining, I think it must have covered 
a part, and perhaps the whole of the present settlement at the Bushwick Cross- 


successors to the faithful observance of the same, by virtue of the commip- 
Kion and supreme .-luthority granted to us by the Most Mighty Prince of 
Orange, Governor of the United Belgic Provinces. In testimony whereof we 
have subscribed these presents with our own hand, and caused them to be 
countersigned by the Secretary of New Netherland, and the seal of New 
Netherland to be affixed thereto. Given at Fort Amsterdam, on the Island 
Manhattans, in New Netherland, in the year 1642, the 28th of March. 

By order of the Director and Council. 

CoRNELis Van Tieniioven, Secretary.^ 

Endowed with these ample powers, Mr. Doughty and his 
associates made immediate preparations to begin a settlement. 
Less than a year had elapsed, therefore, when a number of fami- 
lies were comfortably located along the most easterly branch of 
Mespat Kill, among whom stood high in point of means and 
respectability, Richard Smith, from Taunton, who was a native 
of Gloucestershire, England. Mr. Doughty officiated as pastor 
of the flock, and affairs were tending prosperously, when the 
sudden breaking out of a war with several Indian tribes gave 
an unexpected and fatal check to the settlement. 

This state of hostilities was begun by Director Kieft, who, 
upon a frivolous pretence of injury received from the natives, 
despatched two bodies of troops from Fort Amsterdam, at mid- 
night, February 25th, 1643, one of which fell upon the Indian 
settlement at Pavonia, on the Jersey shore, and the other upon 
those at Corlear's Hook, Manhattan Island. Both were fearfully 
successful, resulting in a horrid butchery of the sleeping In- 
dians. The natives at first thought it was their enemies, the 
terrible Mohawks, but they were soon undeceived, for only a 
few days after, the Dutch settlers near Flatlands, with the con- 
nivance of the Director, plundered those at Marreckawick, or 
Brooklyn, of a. large quantity of corn, killing two of the In- 
dians who attempted to defend their property. When the 
natives discovered Avho were the authors of these barbarities, 
they were inflamed to the utmost, and though hitherto the 

' The Doughty patent is recorded iu Latin in the Secretary of State's Office at 
Albany. The above translation is, by Dr. O'Cailajrhan, but a copy of the original 
will be found in Appendix A. The MS. being written in small and obscure charac- 
ters, with many contractions, rendering the work of transcribing it both difficult 
and hazardous, a reference to the English translation was purposely avoided, during 
the process of copying, and the document made to explain itself by a collation of 
corresponding words and letters. 


warm friends of tlie Dutch, they now became their implacable 
enemies. With fire-brand and scalping-knife they desolated 
the country around New Amsterdam, devoting property to 
destruction, and the inhabitants to a cruel death, save those 
who made a timely escape to the fort. Similar was the fate of 
the dwellers at Mespat. In an evil hour the savages broke in 
upon the settlement with merciless vengeance ; and some of the 
inhabitants, among whom was John Smith, fell victims to their 
fur3^' The remainder sought safety in flight, while the flame 
was applied to their dwellings, and they, with their contents, 
reduced to ashes ; their cattle and remaining property sharing 
no better fate. MesjDat presented but a few heaps of smoulder- 
ing ruins. 

How changed was the condition of these settlers as they 
sought refuge in New Amsterdam, whither the terror-stricken 
inhabitants from all quarters now resorted. Bereft of means 
for the present, and hope of the future, the prospect was 
shrouded in impenetrable gloom. But one precious boon was 
still theirs ; Mr. Doughty performed Divine service, and im- 
parted to them the consolations of their holy religion. This 
gentleman had been an equal sufferer with his flock, having 
lost nearly everything in the general calamity, but he was in a 
measure sustained by public contributions. 

The Director-general at length discovered his error, and 
made friendly overtures to the savages, to which they, having 
now satiated their desire for revenge, were willing to listen ; and 
to the joy of the sober people, a peace was concluded. There- 

1 At a court of common pleas held at Jamaica May 12, 1703, Samuel 
Smith, aged about 67 years, and Elizabeth, wife of Nehemiah Smith, and 
formerly wife of William Ludlam, dec'd, of Southampton, L. 1. she being 
aged about 70 years, and botli residing at Jamaica, and persons " well known 
and worthy of good faith and credit," make deposition that "about sixty 
years ago, John Smith, fFather to these deponents, living at Taunton in Ply- 
mouth Colony, now under y*^ government of y*^ Massachusetts-bay, left his 
said habitation and went to Mashpatt JCills, in Queens county, on Nassau 
Island, then under y® government of y*^ Dutch, and was there killed by ye 
Indians. These deponents further say, that John Smith, eldest son of ye 
said John Smith, their ifather, and brother to these deponents, is now living 
at Hemsteed, in Queens county, on y'^ island abovesaid, in y'' colony of 
New-York, and further y^ deponents say not." Counly Clerk's Office, Ja- 
maica, L. I. Deeds, Lib. A, p. 1G6. 


upon some of the planters returned to their ruined habitations 
at Mespat, though not without fear of the wily savages. Mr. 
Doughty followed as soon as his total want of confidence in 
the existing peace and his destitute circumstances would allow. 
But, after abiding there half a year, he returned " at Thanksgiv- 
ing " to New Amsterdam, where he remained for several years, 
owning premises near the fort. In the church within Fort 
Amsterdam he statedl}^ preached to the English population. 

Meanwhile, as a better day seemed dawning, several of the 
residents without the lines of the Mespat patent, took occasion to 
secure government titles for their lands. On July 3d, 1643, Bur- 
ger Joris before spoken of, took out his "ground brief " or deed, 
as did Eichard Brutnell and Tymen Jansen the same month, 
their lands lying upon opposite sides of the creek at the Dutch 
Kills, the farm of the last named individual being purchased 
several years after by Joris Stevensen de Caper, the ancestor 
of the Van Alst family. Joris de Caper afterwards added to 
his estate a neighbouring plantation, which had been granted 
March 23d, 1647, to Jan Jansen from Ditmarsen in Lower Sax- 
ony, and from whom is descended the present family of Dit- 
mars. Burger Joris had, in 1642, rented his bouwery and 
stock, consisting of goats, &c. to Robert Evans and James Smith, 
but he subsequently resumed his farm, and erected there a tide 
mill prior to 1654, and the creek was thence denominated Bur- 
ger's Kill. 

Allusion has heretofore been made to Hendrick Harmensen, 
as engaged in the cultivation of a bouwery on the northern 
outskirts of the town, and who may be regarded as the first 
white man that turned a furrow in that section of the township. 
lie had erected a cabin, and obtained, in 1638, several heads of 
cattle, from a lot imported that year by the Director-general for 
the use of the colonists. But within a few years Harmensen 
died, and there is some reason to believe that he was slain in 
the Indian massacre of 1643. After his decease, his widow, 
Tryn Herxker, intermarried, in 1645, with Jeuriaen Fradell, a 
native of Moravia, and subsequently a deacon of the Dutch 
Church at New Amsterdam, who on September 5th of the 
above year, obtained a ground brief in his own name for the 
estate of Harmensen. It is therein designated as "a piece of 
land lying on Long Island, east of Hellegat, and next to the 


great bend, (riglit over against three islands called tlie Three 
Brothers,) being the most westerly corner of the same land that 
lies easterly from the said bend ; and extends from the beach off 
next along a certain swamp, being west 216 rods, to a great 
fresh-water meadow ; along said meadow to a fresh-water creek, 
(which creek is the division betwixt the land of Mr. Doughty 
and this said parcel of land,) and runs further along the said 
creek, till to the aforesaid bend, and further along the river 
shore to the place of begining ; containing by measurement 69 
morgens 183 feet : — to this land appurtains also 8 morgens of 
the aforesaid meadow ; also to this belongs a little island lying 
about west from the house." A good deal of interest attaches 
to the history of this bouwerj^, which was subsequently owned 
by the corporation of the Dutch church at Ncav Amsterdam ; 
but of this particular mention will be made hereafter.' The 
island, fr-om the manner in which it was obtained by Fradell, 
received the name of the Huwelicken, or married island. It 
was afterwards in possession of Burger Jorissen. 

Mespat slowly arose from the ashes ; but, alas, before it re- 
covered strength the settlement was doomed to experience 
another convulsion. This originated in a misunderstanding 
between Mr. Doughty and other principal patentees there. 
The former, regarding himself as vested by the Mespat patent 
with the powers and privileges of a patroon, assumed the right 
of disposing of land within the patent, and, it is alleged, re- 
quired of persons wishing to settle there, "a certain sum of 
money down for every morgen of land ; and then, moreover, 
a certain sum annually in shape of quit rent ; and sought also 

' A tradition exists in the Riker family that their ancestor located, at 
a very early period, at what is now called the Poor Bowery, and obtained 
from the natives a large tract of land at that place — that having previously 
been an armourer in the Dutch service, lie was accustomed to forge toma- 
hawks for the Indians round about him ; but that on a certain occasion the 
savages under a sudden excitement, assaulted him, and one of them gave him 
a fatal blow, and terminated his life with one of the very instruments of death 
that he had made for him ; that after this his widow remarried, and the pro- 
perty was disposed of to the Dutch Church. This tradition, which doubtless 
has a foundation in truth, can relate to none other than Hendrick Harmensen, 
the original proprietor of the farm above mentioned. He was a progenitor 
of the Riker family, as his daughter Margaret married Abraham Rycken, 
their ancestor. 


to make a domain thereof, in opposition to the co-interested of 
the colonie." 

But it is clear that no such thing was contemplated by the 
patent. It conferred upon no one individual any exclusive ti- 
tle to the soil, but was a grant in common, and intended to be 
held in joint tenancy. It erected a town, and gave the settlers 
the town privileges of that day. Therefore, Mr. Doughty's 
claims were resisted by the other patentees, and a suit was en- 
tered before the court of New Amsterdam, by Kichard Smith 
and William Smith, who demanded that Mr. Doughty should 
be made to declare before the court who were associated Avith 
him. After some delay the trial ended in April, 1647, against 
the pretensions of Mr. Doughty. The Director and Council or- 
dered " that the co-partners should enter on their property, re- 
serving to Doughty the bouwery and lands which he had in 
possession." This decision the clergyman regarded as highly 
unjust, and in violation of the privileges guarantied him by 
the Mespat patent ; he, therefore, appealed from the sentence. 
This offended Kieft, who had previously cut off the right of 
appeal to the courts of Holland ; and telling Doughty that his 
judgment was final and absolute, the despotic governor fined 
the defenceless clergyman ten dollars, and locked him up for 
twenty -four hours in prison. 

Quite discouraged of finding liberty in New Netherland, 
he requested the Director-general that, "as he had lived and 
done duty a long time without suitable support, and as his 
land was now confiscated," he might be permitted to take ship 
for the West Indies, or the Netherlands ; but the Director, for 
obvious reasons, declined giving consent. Thus thwarted in 
■ his wishes, Mr. Doughty, the same year, accepted a call from 
the people of Flushing, and settled there at a fixed salary of 
six hundred guilders ; where he remained a year or more, his 
ministrations being attended by Thomas Wandell, and perhaps 
other of the residents on Mespat Kill. But taking occasion in 
certain of his discourses to animadvert on the conduct of the 
government, it so roused the indignation of the famous Cap- 
tain John Underhill, who declared "that Mr. Doughty did 
preach against the present rulers, who were his masters," that 
he thereupon ordered the church doors to be shut against the 
minister, and he was denied access to the pulpit. This con- 


tinued adversity induced Mr. Doughty again to request leave 
to depart the country, which was finally obtained ; but not 
until he had made a promise under his hand not to mention 
the ill-treatment he had experienced from Directors Kieft and 
Stuyvesant. Investing his son Francis with power to collect 
the salary due him from the people of Flushing, (part of which 
the latter afterwards got by recourse to law,) he took his de- 
parture for the " English Virginias" in 1648 or 1649. His bou- 
wery or farm on Flushing Bay, (now owned by Abraham and 
John I. Eapelye,) he had previously conferred on his daughter 
Mary, at her marriage, in 1645, with that distinguished "doctor 
of both laws," Adriaen Van der Donck, who obtained a patent 
for it May 17th, 1648. About three years after this date, Tho- 
mas Stevenson, an Englishman, living at Flushing, removed to 
this farm as a tenant for Van der Donck ; but after the departure 
of the latter to Holland, Stevenson got a patent from Stuyve- 
sant confirming these premises to himself. They passed through 
several hands; and in 1737 were bought by Abraham Eapelye, 
grandfather of the present occupants. The projection formed 
by the bay and creek long bore the name of "Stevens' Point." 
There originally belonged to this farm a singular wooded emi- 
nence, then containing twelve acres, lying in the Flushing mea- 
dows, and around Avhich the waters flowed at full tide. From 
the circumstance of Dr. Van der Donck being familiarly called 
the Yonker — a Dutch title for a gentleman — this piece of up 
land took the name of Yonker's Island, by which it is yet 
known to some.^ 

The colony of Mespat never recovered from the shock of 

' It has been stated that the Rev. Mr. Doughty " was probably a Baptist, 
but afterwards turned Quaker." Now, his own dedarations in the dispute at 
Taunton show that he was not a Baptist; and it is equally improbable that he 
became a Quaker, since he left the country eight years before the first of that 
sect made their appearance here. O'Callaghan (Hist, N. Netherland, ii. 318) 
calls him a Presbyterian. He had sons Elias and Francis; the last of whom 
continued at Newtown many ^ears. Elias was a magistrate of Flushing, 
where he left posterity. He was regarded as an inhabitant of Newtown, and 
complimented by a gift of land, because his father had previously lived there. 
His sister ]\Iary, after the decease of Dr. Van der Donck in 1655, married 
Hugh O'Neale, Esq. with whom she removed to Maryland. This lady was 
born at " Heerastede;" but which of the several towns of this name, both in 
England and Holland, is intended, remains an uncertainty. 


savage warfare, and the no less fatal blows of intestine strife. 
It lost one of its leading citizens in tlie person of Richard 
Smith, the elder, who, with his family, sought a temporary re- 
sidence in New Amsterdam, but finally returned to an estate 
which he had in Rhode Island,' In 1619 there were "not 
many inhabitants ;" though a few of the patentees still dwelt 
there. In this year the reverses which it had sustained found 
their way to the ears of the States General in Holland, among 
other complaints preferred by the commonalty of New Ne- 
therland against the mal-administration in this colony. One of 
the deleo;ates who carried this remonstrance to Holland was 
Dr. Van der Donck, who had drawn up the paper, in which he 
made known the ill-usage experienced by his father-in-law, the 
Rev. Mr. Doughty. But though the aftairs of Mespat did not 
elicit much notice amid the weightier matters with which the 
remonstrance was burdened, yet was the latter so zealously 
presented and sustained by Van der Donck, that the States 
General actually ordered the recall of Stuyvesant; though 
they afterwards, for other considerations, thought fit to coun- 
termand it. And thus declined the ancient municipality of 
Mespat* whose origin had beamed with promise. Its territory 
seemed destined to remain the abode of untame beasts ; and 
the prospect of its speedy colonization vanished as a vision of 
the night. For years the hum of industry and the marks of 
civilization were confined to its marine borders, while the in- 
terior maintained all the grandeur of a wild unbroken wil- 

' Other particulars of Richard Smith and his descendants, usually called 
the " Bull Smiths," are given in Potter's History of Narragansett and Thomp- 
son's Long Island. In 1679 the Rev. Roger Williams, of Providence, ren- 
dered the following testimony to the worth of this pioneer of the Mespat 

" Mr. Richard Smith, for his conscience to God, left fair possessions in 
Glostershire, and adventured, with his relations and estates, to N. England, and 
was a most acceptable inhabitant and prime leading man in Taunton, in 
Plymouth colony. For his conscience sake, many ditferences arising, he left 
Taunton and came to the Nahiggonsik country, where, by God's mercy, and 
the favor of the Nahiggonsik sachems, he broke the ice at his great charge 
and hazard, and put up in the thickest of the barbarians, the first English 

house amongst them He kept possession, coming and going, himself* 

children, and servants, and he had quiet possession of his housing, lands, and 
meadow ; and there, in his own house, with much serenity of soul and com- 
fort, he yielded up his spirit to God, the Father of Spirits, in peace." 


The village of Middelburg founded by colonists from New England. — Civil and re> 
lio-ious privileges granted them. — First choice of magistrates. — The "out-planta- 
tions.'" — Dominies Hook. — William Hallett arrives. — Peace interrupted by a war 
between England and Holland. — Rumor of a conspiracy of the Dutch and In- 
dians aorainst the English. — Great excitement at the English Kills — Flight of the 
inhabitants. — Middelburg also alarmed. — They seek protection from New Eng- 
land. — Their fears prove groundless. — Other sources of disquiet. — A convention 
— it remonstrates against the arbitrary acts of government. — Its prayer reject- 
ed. — Appeal to the States-General — English fleet preparing against New Ne- 
therland. — Middelburg proposes to cooperate. — Unexpected news of peace. — 
Meadows at Mespat Kill granted to Middelburg. — The Poor Bouvvery. — Dutch 
Settlers in that section. — Berrien's Island. — Luyster's Island. — Outbreak be- 
tween the Dutch and Indians. — Citizens of Middelburg involved in the difficul- 
ty. — Capture of Pieter de Schoorsteenveger. — A false alarm. — Religious opinions 
of the settlers. — Rev. John Moore. — Dissentions. — Rev. William Wickenden and 
William Hallett imprisoned for religion's sake. — Settlers on Mespat Kill found 
the village Aernhem. — A dispute arises about the meadows. — Stuyvesant re- 
fuses a patent to Middelburg. — They make a purchase of their lands from the 
Indians. — Names of the "Purchasers." 1652 to 1656. 

It was in tlie year 1652 that a goodly company of English- 
men arrived in this colony from New England, and obtained 
leave from Director Stuyvesant to plant a town within his ju- 
risdiction. The fertile lands of Mespat being yet, for the most 
part, unoccupied, offered a bright field for their enterprise. A 
locality well watered by springs, and having convenient fresh 
meadows, was selected in the interior, about midway between 
the Kill of Mespat and Ylissingen, (now Flushing,) the only 
English village for man}^ miles around, if we except the scat- 
tered tenements at Mespat Kill ; while Breukelen was the near- 
est Dutch village. Several of the new comers were direct from 
Greenwich, Stamford, Fairfield, and other villages along the 
Connecticut shore ; others are supposed to have recently arriv- 
ed from England; a few had been conspicuous in the promotion 
of settlements along Cape Cod and Massachusetts Bay. Of these 
was Lieutenant William Palmer, who had represented Yar- 
mouth in the general court in 1644, and as late as 1651, being 
much respected. Another was Mr. Henry Feeke, an early set- 
tler at Lynn, whence he removed with others in 1637, and 
joined in the settlement of Sandwich, one of his associates be- 
ing Jonathan Fish, who either accompanied or soon followed 

A N N A L S O F N E W T O \V N . 27 

him to Mespat. Also among these first comers were Edward 
Jessup from Stamford, and Thomas Hazard from Boston, as 
were probably John Burroughes from Salem, and Eichard Betts 
from Ipswich, who appear as residents three or four years later. 
All these becamie men of note in the settlement. The new co- 
lonists were also joined by some respectable individuals from 
Heemstede, or Hempstead, but who had previously resided at 
Stamford, among whom were Eobert Coe, and Eichard Gilder- 
sleeve; and from the first named j^lace also, came the proposed 
pastor of the new settlement, the Eev. John Moore, of whose 
previous history nothing has been learned, except that he had 
been the " clergyman of the church of Heemstede." 

The hamlet was begun upon the street, whereon the Presby- 
terian church in the village of Newtown now stands, on both 
sides of which lots were laid out. And then resounded the axe 
in the forest; the noise of the saw and the hammer told the ar- 
rival of a people, unlike any those wilds had ever known before. 
A scene of life and activity ensued, and a group of cottages — 
foshioned after those of New England, of simple construction 
and roofed with thatch — arose to adorn the new settlement, to 
which the name of Middelburg was given, after a place of some 
note in the Netherlands, the capital of the province of Zealand, 
and remembered with gratitude as the asylum of many of the 
English puritans. Next to providing a shelter for their fami- 
lies, the new settlers broke up the fallow ground, committed 
their seed to the earth, and the summer of 1652 witnessed the 
ingathering of the first harvest in Middelburg, 

The privileges of the charter of 1640 were extended to the 
new villagers. Their lands were to be held without rent or 
tax for ten years, at the end of which term they would be re- 
quired to pay the tenth part of the produce. They were to 
enjoy the free exercise of the Protestant religion, and the 
choice of their own schepens, or magistrates ; making annually 
a double nomination of the best qualified persons in the town, 
from whom the Director-general and Council should select and 
confirm half in ofiice, whose authority extended to the collec- 
tion and disbursement of town revenues, and most other mat- 
ters affecting the peace and security of their municipality. 
They were to adjudge all suits arising in their district, 
except the sum in dispute exceeded one hundred guilders, in 


which case an appeal could be made to the chief court, com- 
posed of the Director and Council, as could also be done in 
criminal cases, where the custom of Holland permitted it. In 
the case of such appeal, the magistrates were to enjoy a scat 
and voice in the higher court. The appointment of town offi- 
cers' other than schepens, to wit, a scout, or sheriff, a secre- 
tary, or clerk, to make and preserve a record of public transac- 
tions,^ and a court-messenger, or marshal to attend upon the 
court, execute the will and verdicts of the magistrates, and collect 
the rates or taxes to defray town charges, remained the prero- 
gative of the Director and council. But some of the English 
towns were permitted to choose these important functionaries, 
and Middelburg seems to have enjoyed that privilege. In a 
word, the civil and municipal rights guarantied to Middelburg 
were but a transcript of those conferred by patent, ten years 
before, on Mr. Doughty and his associates ; and their jurisdic- 
tion was essentially the same, embracing the seat of the Mespat 
colony, which obtained the name of the English Kills, to dis- 
tinguish it from the neighboring Dutch settlement along Bur- 
ger's creek, called the Dutch Kills. They were, moreover, 
promised a patent of incorporation ; and under these auspices 
the people of Middelburg convened in autumn to make their 
first selection of magistrates, and nominated Robert Coe, Rich- 
ard Gildersleeve, William Wood, Thomas Hazard, Edward 
Jessup, and William Herrick, from whom the Director and 
council, on November 11th, confirmed in that office Messrs. 
Coe, Gildersleeve and Hazard. Subsequently the choice of 
magistrates was made in the spring. 

' For a list of town-officers, see Appendix F. 

^ The public records of Newtown now in the clerk's office, begin in the 
year 1659, in which allusion is made to records of an earlier date, not now to 
be found. Thobe existing are very complete from the above year, and con- 
sist of seven manuscript books, some of them in a mutilated and perishing 
condition. Here are the minutes of the town court from 1659 to 1688; 
also the record of town proceedings, and, what is more valuable, the greater 
part of all the title-deeds for land within this town, from its settlement down 
to the American Revolution. Their loss could not be repaired, and there- 
fore it is respectfully recommended, that timely measures be taken to bind 
and index these interesting and valuable records, and secure them in a fire- 
proof safe, against the devouring element, by which Flushing and other 
towns in this state have been robbed of their early archives. 


The considerable extent of territory lying between the 
northeast boundary of Middelburg and the East river, com- 
prised, at this date, a small population of farmers, or planters, as 
they were then called, who were mostly Dutch, and had taken 
land from the government upon the terms prescribed by the 
charters of freedoms and exemptions, and for which they re- 
ceived individually a groundbrief, or deed, under the signature 
of the Director, and the seal of New Netherland, These farms 
were distinguished as "the out-plantations," and lay on the 
verge of the river ; extending from what is now called Fish's 
Point, on the north, around to Dominie's Hook, at the en- 
trance of Mespat Kill, which latter point took its name 
as early as 164:3, from its owner. Dominie Bogardus, the first 
minister of New Amsterdam, whose widow, Annetie Jans, on 
Nov. 26th, 1652, received a groundbrief for the same, then es- 
timated at 180 acres.' The out-plantations, which will attract a 
more particular notice hereafter, received a valuable accession 
to their population in the person of William Hallett, a native of 
Dorsetshire, England, who, on Dec. 1st, 1652, obtained a brief for 
161 acres of land, which had previously been in possession of 
Jacques Bentyu, one of Director Van T willer's council. It was 
described as "a plot of ground at Hellegat upon Long Island, 
called Jacques' farm, and beginning at a great rock that lies in 
the meadow, goes upward southeast to the end of a very small 
swa"mp, two hundred and ten rods ; from thence northeast two 
hundred and thirty rods ; on the north it goes up to a running 
water, two hundred and ten rods; containing, in the whole, 
eighty morgen and three hundred rods." This tract is now in- 
cluded within the village of Astoria, which name (no credit to 
the restive, innovating spirit of the age) has been substituted 
for that of Hallett's Cove, the latter a time honored memorial 
of its ancient owner, some of whose posterity still occupy por- 
tions of the land held by their remote ancestor. The residents 
of the out-plantations were not a corporate community, bu^ 
continued for many years to be dependent for civil and reli- 

' This tract was bought in 1697, by Capt. Peter Praa, through whom it 
descended to the Bennet family, who held it until a few years since, when it 
was purchased for Union College, Schenectady. Annetie Jans Bogardus was 
the owner of another patent, located at Hellgate, of which further notice will 
be taken presently. 



gious advantages upon Flushing or New Amsterdam. Dis- 
putes at law arising in this district were usually taken to the 
last named place for trial. 

Scarcely were the people of Middelburg seated in their new 
homes, when the occurrence of untoward events placed them 
in very doubtful relations with their adopted government. 
Jealousies, of many years standing, existed between the latter 
and the English colonies of Connecticut and New Haven, re- 
specting the limits of New Netherland. Complaints of mutual 
aggression had passed between the respective governments, and 
now, while these regarded each other with feelings far from 
friendly, the news was received that war had broken out be- 
tween the mother countries England and Holland. Director 
Stuy vesant, in pursuance of instructions from his superiors, and 
from a sense of his own weakness when compared with his 
powerful neighbors of New England, whence he had abundant 
cause to apprehend evil, prudently agreed with the adjacent 
Indian tribes for assistance, in case his fears should be realized. 
This arrangement being rumored abroad, soon sped its way 
into the adjoining colonies, where it was currently reported, 
and fully accredited that the Dutch governor had formed a 
league with the Indians for the destruction of all the English. 

The report, in the meantime, flew like wildfire through the 
English towns on the west end of Long Island, which, though 
under the government of New Netherland, were made to be- 
lieve that they were to be included in the general slaughter. 
In haste a messenger arrives at Mespat Kill. It is their former 
neighbor, Richard Brutnell, sent by the people of Hempstead 
to apprise them of their imminent peril. He relates, minutely, 
the particulars of the bloody plot, as communicated to the peo- 
ple of Hempstead by an Indian chief: the substance of which 
was that the Director-general designed first to cut off the set- 
tlements of Hempstead and Middelburg, and then the other 
towns at his pleasure. Consternation immediately prevailed 
at Mespat, as the gloomy tidings were circulated from house to 
house ; and means were at once devised to elude the impending 
calamity. A removal, with all speed, was determined upon ; 
and Robert Brokham, with several of his neighbors, set out 
for Flushing, to engage Lambert Woodward to convey their 
goods, with themselves and famiUes, across the sound to Stam- 


ford. They agreed to stop at Middelburg, and inform their 
countrymen there of the startling news from Hempstead. Ar- 
riving at the house of Lieutenant William Palmer, they re- 
hearsed to him what they had heard ; and thereupon most of 
the town were hastily called together, to whom the messengers 
repeated their sad story. Some of the villagers gave credit to 
the evil report ; others were incredulous. Mr. Coe, the magis- 
trate, " said he could not believe that the Dutch governor was 
BO base and vile as to hire the Indians to cut off the English." 
But Brokham earnestly debated the matter with the magis- 
trate; when the latter acknowledged, that being in company 
with the governor two days before, he told him that " if the 
English came against Jiim, he had spoken to Indians to help 
him against the English." This was admission enoagh for 
Brokham and his companions, who, strengthened in their fears, 
went on their way to Flushing, and succeeded in engaging the 
vessel. On April 29th, 1653, the terror-stricken company 
Bailed from the Kills for Stamford; to which place arriving, 
they gave free circulation to the story of their dangers and 
providential escape. 

If the people of Middelburg were at first slow to believe 
these ill-favored rumors, the credit which the New England 
authorities gave to them, the grave action thereupon, and the 
hostile attitude which the more western colonies were as- 
suming, soon served to dissipate their unbelief. The neigh- 
boring villages of Flushing and Hempstead were becoming 
disaffected, instigated and urged on by Captain John Under- 
bill, who now renounced the service of the Dutch, and hoist- 
ing the Parliament's colors, called upon the inhabitants "to 
abjure the iniquitous government of Peter Stuyvesant." To 
add to the terrible aspect of affairs, an armed force, under 
Captain William Dyre, of Rhode Island, was patrolling Long 
Island, for the avowed purpose of maintaining, even to " the 
effusion of blood," the authority of the Commonwealth of 
England. Overawed by these alarming circumstances, and 
impelled by motives of self-protection, the people of Middel- 
burg united with their English neighbors in seeking advice 
and assistance from New England. For this purpose they 
sent two deputies, Robert Coe and Edward Jessup, (and Hemp- 
stead a similar number,) to propound to "the honorable Corn- 


missioners now assembled at Bostcn," certain questions wliich 
were agitating the public mind. They inquired whether, in 
case their subjection to Parliament were demanded " by com- 
mission from England," they could act any longer by the 
Dutch laws ; and if not, what should they do till another go- 
vernment be settled. If there be no reconciliation among the 
Dutch and English, how should they ensure their safety, 
" having so many enemies round about them." If they must 
now " fall off from the Dutch," they desired protection from 
New England, under the Parliament, upon reasonable terms. 
Needing supplies, they requested that they might procure corn 
and victuals from the main, for the use of the English only; 
and also solicited powder and shot, and the favor of ten or 
twenty men, with a commander — or at least the latter, to train 
the people, and go out with them if need be, and bear some 
sway in town affairs, to prevent division and confusion. For 
they feared that a party would be formed to cooperate with 
the " resolute fellows " under Dyre, who, it was apprehended, 
might fall upon the Dutch farms, and thus involve them in a 
state of actual hostihties. Declaring themselves "willing to 
cleave to New England," they proceeded to inquire whether 
the commissioners could empower some of their inhabitants to 
bear rule till further order could be taken ; and closed their 
memorial by begging their speedy assistance : for, say they, 
" our lives and estates lie at the stake, if the Lord, by some 
means, help us not." 

The sending of this delegation forcibly exhibits the intense 
excitement that reigned in Middelburg, and her sister towns. 
It does not appear to have elicited any special notice from the 
Commissioners of the United Colonies, who were warmly dis- 
cussing the necessity of hostile measures against the Dutch 
— New Haven and Connecticut loudly advocating such a 
course, while Massachusetts opposed it. This want of union 
averted, for the time being, the hostilities meditated against 
New Netherland. 

The cruel fears which had racked the imaginations of the 
Middelburg people now subsided ; but only to give promi- 
nence to other sources of public disquietude. Indians and 
freebooters, taking advantage of the late confusion, had com- 
mitted serious depredations on the Long Island settlers. The 


latter could expect no help from tiie government; for there 
existed a general distrust — as well among the Dutch as Eng- 
lish — of its power and disposition to protect the inhabitants, 
either from external foes, or by a judicious administration of 
civil and criminal justice within its jurisdiction. Aroused by 
a sense of their losses and jDersonal insecurity, the English 
towns first called a meeting at Flushing, and then met the 
burgomasters of New Amsterdam in joint meeting, at the City 
Hall, on November 2oth, 1653. The delegates present from 
Middelburg were Kobert Coe and Thomas Hazard. The ob- 
ject of the convention was to devise some plan for their com- 
mon safety. They resolved, at the suggestion of the city delcr 
gates, to address the Directors of the West India Company; 
but wishing to have the opinions of the Dutch villages, an ad- 
journment to the 10th of December was carried. Stuyvesant 
reluctantly consented to the proposed meeting, and writs were 
issued to the several villages to elect their delegates, who, accord- 
ingly assembled at New Amsterdam on the last mentioned 
date — Middelburg sending the same deputies as before. Har- 
mony prevailed among them ; for their dangers and griev- 
ances were in common. On the second day of their meeting 
they agreed upon a remonstrance to the Director and Council, 
and the States General. It opened with an assurance of their 
unchanged loyalty toward the government of the Netherlands, 
and a hearty acknowledgment of the authority of the Lords 
Directors of the West India Company ; under whose jurisdic- 
tion they had voluntarily placed themselves, expecting to en- 
joy rights and privileges harmonizing in every respect with 
those allowed the inhabitants of the Netherlands, the parent 
State. Under such encouragements they had, with immense 
labor and expense, transformed a wilderness of woods into a 
few small villages and cultivated farms ; but for some time, 
fear and alarm had broken their spirits, and discouraged them 
in their labors and callings. Instead of liberty, an arbitrary 
government is rearing its head among them, and laws affecting 
the lives and property of the commonalty are enacted, without 
the knowledge or approbation of the latter. The complaints 
of the Indians that they have not been paid for their lands, 
and the murders they commit in retaliation, keep the inhabi- 
tants in constant apprehension that a new war may be com- 


menced by them ; and yet, strange to tell, these murders are 
often passed over as the acts of far-distant savages. " On the 
promises of grants and general patents, of privileges and ex- 
emptions, various plantations have been made, at a great ex- 
pense of the inhabitants, through building houses, making 
fences, and tilling and cultivating the soil, especially by those 
of Middelburg and Midwout, with their dependencies ; besides 
several other places, who took up many single farms, and soli- 
cited the deeds of such lands, but were always put off" and dis- 
appointed, to their great loss. This creates a suspicion that 
some innovations are in contemplation, or that it is intended to 
introduce other conditions different from former stipulations." 
Other points of complaint there were, but in those above 
named the people of Middelburg were most interested. 

To this bill of complaint Stuyvesant, though displeased, 
deigned to send a long reply. He refused to recognise the de- 
legates from Flatbush, Brooklyn, and Flatlands, because those 
villages had no jurisdiction, and therefore were not entitled to 
send deputies; and as the convention had acted illegally, he was 
not at all bound to acknowledge its proceedings. He examined 
in order each point of complaint, denied that the rights of the 
petitioners were the same as those of Netherland, and branded 
the English delegates as the " instigators and leaders of these 
novelties," notwithstanding that they and their countrymen en- 
joyed greater privileges than the Exemptions allowed the 
Dutch settlers. Touching the complaints of Middelburg, and 
Midwout, (or Flatbush,) respecting their patents, he replied that 
the lands in those villages had been granted to individuals 
whose deeds would be furnished whenever they chose to de- 
mand them; but they should never be carried to them,' 

The delegates were not to be silenced by the sophistry of 
the Director-general. Feeling the responsibility of their posi- 
tion, they again called on him to consider their grievances, de- 
claring their intention in case of refusal, to appeal to his supe- 
riors in Holland. This excited the rage of Stuyvesant, and with 
threats, he abruptly ordered the assembly to disperse. True to 
their word the delegates forwarded their remonstrance to Hol- 

' I presume these deeds were never applied for, as I have not met with 
a single one, either original or recorded. 


Stuy vesant was soon called to witness the evil of his impo- 
litic course. The colonies of Connecticut and New Haven had 
made such representations to the English government that a 
fleet was despatched for the reduction of the Manhattans, and 
on its arrival at Boston in the spring of 1654, New England im- 
mediately began to raise troops to aid the expedition. The Di- 
rector-general bestirred himself to meet the expected invaders, 
but found his strength paralized. " The occurrences of 1653 had 
seriously weaned men's aftcctions from the government, and 
oaths of allegiance were no longer considered binding." Some 
of the English villages openly discarded the authority of Stuy- 
vesant, and when the news arrived of the intended invasion, 
Middelburg proposed that the English should commence hostili- 
ties. At this crisis, when the enemy's fleet was about to sail 
from Boston, a vessel arrived there Avith the news of peace be- 
tween England and Holland. The intelligence reached the 
Manhattans on July 16th, in a ship which brought also the re- 
jection by the Directors at Amsterdam, of the remonstrance of 
the previous year. 

But though the grievances of the populace were thus abso- 
lutely contemned, their remonstrance was not devoid of effect 
upon the conduct of the Director-general, who found it prudent 
to conciliate the good will of the inhabitants. In the month of 
May, Counsellor De Sille and others were commissioned to visit 
several towns upon Long Island, which had solicited "the con- 
cession of some hayland," and allot to each inhabitant, if possi- 
ble, " twenty-live morgen of land, and eight morgen of inter- 
vale." The meadows lying along the east side of Mespat Kill 
were appropriated to Middelburg, the magistrates of which town 
were authorised by an order from Stuy vesant, to apportion the 
same to their inhabitants. A good number of groundbriefs were 
also issued to the owners of the outplantations, thus quieting 
one cause of complaint specified in the late remonstrance. Turn- 
ing to this section of the town we are made acquainted with an 
extensive farm then in progress, "in the occupation and tenure 
of the deacons and officers of the Dutch church " at New Am- 
sterdam ; and by them kept under cultivation for the benefit of 
the poor. From this circumstance it was called the Armen 
Bouwery or the Poor's Farm, whence comes the name of Poor 


Bowery, still applied to that section of tlie town.' It compris- 
ed the plantation formerly of Jeuriaen Fradell, with an addi- 
tional tract of land on the west, obtained of Director Stuyvesant, 
"with a view, if God the Lord blessed their cattle, to make a 
new plantation, or farm." These possessions (now included 
in the estates of T. B. Jackson, J. K. Herrick, S. Palmer, 
L. Kouwenhoven, and A. E. Luyster) were bounded on the 
west by the property of Abraham Eycken, a respectable plan- 
ter, who was descended from an ancient family in Lower 
Saxony. His farm, for which he obtained a groundbrief on 
Feb. 26th of this year, (1654,) is now owned by his descendant, 
John L. Riker, Esq. In this vicinity also was located Harck 
Siboutsen, formerly a ship-carpenter, a native of Languedoc, 
in the south of France, who joined Rycken on the west, where 
he had settled four years previously to taking out his patent, 
dated July 2d of this year. His farm now composes a part of 
that which was owned by the late Isaac Rapelye. Adjacent 
to him on the west side, lay a tract of woodland, belonging to 
the West India Company, beyond which, in the direction of 
" Newton's Point, or the Green Hook," now the property of Mr. 
Woolsey, was a succession of small plantations, owned by Jan 
Jacobsen Carpenel, otherwise called Jan van Haerlem, Adriaen 
Derickse Coon, Hendrick Jansen van Dueren, Lieven Jansen, 
and Simon Joost, These five lots, contained in strips of about 
fifty acres each, butted on the river or meadow, and extended 
back west-south-west some three hundred Dutch rods, to the 
" Great Swamp," also called Lubbert's Swamp, The briefs for 
these lots, which all bore date in 1653 or 1654, were afterwards 
bought up by Capt. Thomas Lawrence, who also obtained from 
Gov. Nicoll, Aug. 2od, 1665, a patent for the small island ad- 
joining, " commonly called the Round Island," and now known 
as Berrien's Island, which island, together with "a neck of 
land" included in the patent to Adriaen D. Coon, is now pos- 
sessed by Ezra N. Berrien. The Green Hook (now G. M. 
Woolsey 's) was patented to Jean Gerardy, Nov. 5th, 1653. On 

' Some, unacquainted with this district, and ignorant of the origin of 
its name, have supposed it given with reference to the poverty of the soil. 
But in tliis sense tlie name is no way applicable, for the land here is exceed- 
ingly fertile, and not to be excelled by any on Long Island for productive- 


the same date Teunis Craye took out a brief for the Polhemus 
estate, and another had been granted, three days previous, to 
Philip Gerardy for the farm of Dr. Ditmars. On March 7th, 
165-i, Annetie Jans Bogardus, who already held a grant at 
Dominie's Hook, obtained a patent for 42 morgen 54 rod of 
land, lying adjacent to the Pot Cove, and which was included 
in the farms late in possession of 'Squire John Lawrence, and 
Major Richard Lawrence. With a view still further to enlarge 
the poor's farm, the deacons of the Dutch church, on June 3d, 
1655, petitioned the government for the island near their bou- 
wery, called the "Huwelicken, or Burger Jorissen's Island," 
" for the purpose of driving thereon their hogs and cattle," but 
they Avere informed that it had been disposed of long before. 
The deacons succeeded in buying it, and thence it was called 
the Poor Bowery Island; but being afterwards purchased by 
the ancestor of the Luyster family, it took the name of Luys- 
ter's Island, by which it is still known.' 

But again the peace of the country was to be interrupted 
by Indian outrage : the fears set forth in the late remonstrance 
were to be realized. New Amsterdam, the metropolis, waa 
the first to feel the shock of savage warfare. Director Stuy ve- 
sant had just departed to chastise the Swedes for their en- 
croachments on the Delaware, when a horde of armed Indians, 
estimated at nineteen hundred, landed at New Amsterdam, 
early on the morning of Sept. 15th, 1655, and began to break 
into houses for plunder. The authorities hastily assembled, 
and held an audience with the chiefs, whom they persuaded to 

' Burger Joris, whose name is closely identified with the enrly history 
of the town, was a native of Hersberg, in Silesia, and came to Rensselaerswyck 
in 1637, being by occupation a smith. There he lived for about five years, 
and then bought a vessel and became a trader on the Hudson, but he even- 
tually settled on his farm at the Dutch Kills, where he died in 1671, aged 
fifty-nine. He was evidently a man of character and ability, as he was re- 
peatedly called to assist in the civil government of the township. He mar- 
ried, in ] 639, Engeltie Mans, from Compst, in Sweden, and had sons, Joris, 
born 1647; Hermanns, born 1652; Claes, born 1657; Johannes, born 1661; 
and Elias, born 1664. These took the patronymic Burger, and in fact their 
father was sometimes called Mr. Burger. They settled in New-York, and 
from them the Burger family of that city have descended. Burger Joris' 
farm was sold to John Parcell, the progenitor of the Parcell family, and is 
now owned by Abraham and William Paynter. 


retire with their warriors, without the walls ; but when night 
set in, the savages grew bolder, shot the Attorney-General with 
an arrow, and felled another to the ground with an axe. A 
great tumult now ensued, with cries of murder, and the sol- 
diers and armed citizens rushed from the fort, and fell upon 
the Indians, forcing them to take to their canoes, while the 
dead of both parties marked the scene of bloody encounter. 
The savages were inflamed to the utmost ; they burned Pavo- 
nia, then poured out their wrath on the settlers at Staten 
Island, and for three days the scalping knife and tomahawk 
descended in vengeance on the unprotected Dutch farmers, 
numbers of whom were slain, and others taken into captivity, 
while their bouweries were desolated by fire. Unfortunately 
for the peace of Middelburg, one of her chief citizens, Edward 
Jessup, together with Henry Newton, a resident at Mespat, and 
Thomas Newton, afterward, if not then, a landholder in Middel- 
burg, were all present at New Amsterdam on the night of the 
battle, and assisted in repulsing the savages. The latter swore 
vengeance against these three persons, and avowed their in- 
tention to send a formal demand for their surrender, though 
they professed to entertain no hostile feelings toward any other 
of the English settlers ; but the Dutch they threatened to extir- 
pate, and pick out of every town on Long Island. This alarm- 
ing intelligence being communicated to the people of Middel- 
burg by Lieut. Thomas Wheeler, of Westchester, several of 
the settlers near Mespat Kill, among whom were Joseph Fow- 
ler, Goodman Betts,' Samuel Toe, and his son-in-law William 
Reede, Joseph Safltbrd, and Thomas Reede, held a consultation, 
and despatched two of their number to lay the news before the 
Director and Council. 

As a consequence, the most lively apprehensions existed at 
Middelburg, and particularly among the Dutch settlers on the 
out-plantations who, from their exposed position became sub- 
ject to harrassing fears, lest in the stilly hour of midnight the 
savages should execute upon them the bloody threats which 
they had uttered. Nor were their fears altogether disappoint- 

' Tlie title Goodman was at this period a familiar term of address 
among the English. For its origin see " Mather's Magnalia," i. 17. Mr. de- 
noted a higher degree of respect, and was seldom ajiplied to any but ministers, 
magistrates, or schoolmasters. 


ed. On a plantation of 150 acres, lying on tlie nortlieast side 
of Annetie Jans' farm, or Dominie's Hook, lived Pieter An- 
driessen de Schoorsteenveger, who had obtained a groundbrief, 
Oct. 19th, 1645. Three or four canoes of savages, prowling 
about Hellgate, surprised Pieter Andriessen and carried him 
away into captivity. This new outrage was not at all calculated 
to lull the anxiety of the settlers at the Dutch Kills, and the 
following incident, which occurred there soon after, more fully 
illustrates the melancholy state of feeling that existed. Joris 
de Caper, ancestor of the Van Alsts, was engaged threshing 
his grain, assisted by his father-in-law Harmen Hendricksen, 
and Teunis Jansen van Commel. On the night of Thursday, 
Nov. 4th, these three lay down in the garner to sleep, but were 
soon after disturbed by the hens cackling, upon which they lis- 
tened, and presently there came a loud knocking at the door, 
with cries of ho ! ho ! ho ! the unearthly yell of the savage, rend- 
ing the midnight air ! Greatly frightened, the three escaped 
from the barn, and each sought a place of security. Harmen 
ran across the farm toward the house of Schoorsteenveger, and, 
creeping up to the door, he heard a word in the Dutch lan- 
guage, whereupon he entered, found a fire blazing on the 
hearth, and the pretended Indians, who were no other than 
several Dutchmen from the Manhattans, preparing to spit the 
fowls. The miscreants endeavored to excuse themselves by 
alleging that hunger drove them to it, and begging Harmen to 
say nothing about it, promised to pay for the fowls on their 
return to the city. Thus the unsettled state of the country 
offered an occasion with the unprincipled to practice vile deeds 
and lay them at the door of the Indian. Aptly was this 
gloomy period called, in after years, "the troublesome time." 
The year 1656 was productive of events not less dangerous 
to the peace of the community, and perhaps more to be depri- 
cated than those just witnessed. To secure the public ordi- 
nances of religion, had been a primary object with the settlers 
at Middelburg, who could not' but attach value to those sacred 
institutions for which many of them had periled the ocean and 
wilderness. The people were partly Independents and partly 
Presbyterians. The latter were too few or too poor to support 
a minister, but the former enjoyed the services of the Eev. 
John Moore, who preached, but administered no sacraments. 


For the public accommodation, and Avith the approbation and 
help of the Director-general, the ground lately occupied by the 
old Episcopal parsonage had been appropriated, and a build- 
ing erected thereon by the town, which served the double pur- 
pose of a church and a residence for the minister.' Now it 
occurred, during a temporary absence of Mr. Moore, that cer- 
tain individuals convened for religious worship, ignorant or 
regardless of the fact that such meetings had been declared ille- 
gal unless convoked by an authorized clergyman. On hearing 
what had transpired at Middelburg, the Dutch ministers in New 
Amsterdam, Johannes Megapolensis and Samuel Drisius, laid 
the matter before the Director and Council, stating " that they 
are informed by different persons residing at Middelburg, within 
the jurisdiction of this province, that since the departure, and 
in the absence of the Rev. Moore, before a minister of the 
gospel in that place, some inhabitants and unqualified persons 
did not hesitate to hold conventicles, and to act as ministers, 
from which nothing else can be expected but discord, confu- 
sion, and disorders in church and state, not only in that village, 
but even to a bad example to others in this province ; they so. 
licit therefore that your honors will provide against it by your 
authority, and that you will ajopoint during the absence of Mr. 
Moore, some other able person, who on Sunday may preserve 
suitable religious worship, by reading the Bible, and some edi- 
fying orthodox author." 

In reply, the Council, on Jan. 15th, remark that their former 
edicts provide a remedy against "conventicles," and "preach- 
ing of the gospel by unqualified persons ;" and request the 
reverend gentlemen to visit Middelburg, and with the advice 
of the magistrates and principal men, seek out " a person quali- 
fied to give desirable lectures." On the back of this the Coun- 

' Thomas Reede wns the builder of this house, for whose payment 
Thomas Stevenson and otlier responsible citizens became the town's security. 
Many of my readers will recollect the old Episcopal parsonage which was 
standing a few years since on the spot now occupied by the residence of the 
Misses Palmer. There is reason to believe that this antiquated building was 
the identical one mentioned in the text. This is inferred from a known 
resemblance in their construction, and the fact that the late parsonage liouse 
bore all the marks of extreme age, and even anterior to the Revolution was 
80 much in decay tiiat it was then debated whether to pull it down or repair 
it, the latter course being finally adopted. 


oil issued a flaming ordinance against conventicles and persons 
" who deign to explain the holy word of God without being 
enabled to by any political or ecclesiastical authority," thereby 
originating " many calamities, heresies, and schisms," It de- 
clared a heavy fine against those who should officiate at such 
assemblies, "either as preachers, readers, or singers," or who 
should even attend the same. We are not informed who were 
the individuals in Middelburg whose piety was thus called to 
endure the rebuke of the sectaries in church and government. 
It was the first violation of the rights of conscience in New 
Netherland, and the beginning of a series of intolerant mea- 
sures that fixed a lasting stain on the administration of Stuy- 

The troubles yet experienced from the savages were now 
so alarming as to require that the Dutch residents on or in the 
vicinity of Mespat Kill, should concentrate themselves for their 
mutual safety ; for not without great hazard could they remain 
on their bouweries or flirms. They therefore formed a village 
on "Smith's Island" at the English Kills, now known as Fur- 
man's or Maspeth Island. The Hon. Nicasins De Sille, one of 
the governor's council, to whom a patent for the island was 
granted March 27th, 1656, had the direction of the new settle- 
ment, to which was given the name of De Sille's native place, 
Aernhem, a strongly fortified and secure town on the Rhine, 
and capital of the province of Guelderland. Streets and lots 
were laid out, cottages erected, and improvements made; and 
the hamlet arose as if by magic. The month of April found 
the new villagers actively employed in mowing the adjacent 

But in so doing, they exceeded their limits, and trespassed 
on "the meadows which were previously given to the village 
of Middelburg." This was made known to the Council by Ro- 
bert Coe, one of the magistrates, who requested that a division 
line might be run between the hayland of the respective vil- 
lages ; in compliance with which a resolution was passed to send 
thither two commissaries to fix their boundaries. This was the 
germ of a protracted dispute respecting the meadows at Mes- 
pat Kills. 

The inhabitants of Middelburg now began to experience 
the disadvantage of having no town patent, none having yet 


been gi'antecl them, notwithstanding the complaints which this 
omission had years before produced. The reason or reasons 
which prompted Stuy vesant to deny them a patent cannot be 
positively affirmed, but it probably resulted in no small degree 
from his arbitrary nature, influenced by jealousy of the increas- 
ing number and strength of the English settlers. Middelburg 
had manifested but little attachment to his government, and 
considerable for that of New-England, but the Director did not 
perceive that this alienation was the result of his own fatal 
policy towards them. His procedure in relation to their patent 
was opposed to the spirit, if not the letter, of the charter of 
freedoms and exemptions, as well as to custom; for general 
patents had been granted to their neighbors composing the 
towns of Hempstead, Flushing, and Gravesend. The people of 
Middelburg rightly estimated the legal value of such an instru- 
ment, for with their bounds yet undetermined, they lay open 
to continual encroachment from the adjacent settlements, to 
which that of Rustdorp or Jamaica was also added this year. 
Failing, therefore, to secure a title for their lands from the 
nominal owners, they turned to the Indians, the genuine pro- 
prietors of the soil, to obtain one from them by an equitable 
purchase. Negotiations for that purpose were entered into with 
Rowerowestco and PomAvaukon, sachems claiming propriety 
in the Middelbvirg lands, who in consideration of the sum here- 
after specified, subscribed a deed on April 12th, 1656, in which 
they assigned their entire right in the said lands, except a tract 
of " upland lying under the hills southward from the town 
place now seated," which they reserved as hunting ground, 
conveying only the "grass for mowing, and feed and timber," 
but giving to the people of Middelburg the preemptive right 
to the said reservation whenever they should conclude to sell 
it. The bounderies set forth in this deed did not differ very 
materially from those of the Doughty patent. 

This purchase reflects honor upon the memory of the pio- 
neer settlers of Middelburg. Actuated by the same principles 
of justice towards the artless savage which has given the name 
of William Penn an eternal fame, they secured not only the 
good will of the red man, but also the comfortable reflection 
that their land title was of the best possible character, because 
derived from those whom the Great Spirit had constituted the 



true proprietors of the soil. Each of the " purchasers " — as 
they continued to be called — gave according to his possessions 
at the rate of a shilling per acre, and most fortunately their 
names are preserved, together with the sums they respectively 
paid. The list is entitled "the Indian rate," and presents a 
nearly perfect list of the male residents of Middelburg in 1658, 
four years after the town was planted. 

Richard Gildersleeve, 
Robert Coe, .... 
John Moore, . . 
John Reeder, . . 
Thomas Reede, . 
Widow Stevens, . 
Samuel Wheeler, 
Ralph Hunt, . . 
John Layton, . . 
James Herod, . . 
Thomas Hazard, 


John Lauronson, . 
John Burroughes, 
Edward Jessup, . 
John Gray, . . . 
Hendrick Jansen, 
John Hicks, . , . 
James Way, . . 
Thomas Robinson, . 
Thomas Stevenson, 
John Coe, .... 
Nicholas Carter, 
William Palmer, 
John Furman, . . 
William Lawrence 
Henry Feeke, 
William Wood, . 

£ s. d. 

2 10 



1 10 





1 10 
1 10 




1 10 
2 6 




James Stewart, . 
Thomas Paine, . . 
Thomas Lawrence, 
James Smith, . . 
Peter Meacock, . 
Edmund Strickland 
Thomas Newton, 
Elias Bayley, . . 
James Bradish, . 
Joseph Fowler, . 
Richard Betts, . 
Robert Pudington, 
William Herrick, 
Thomas Wandell, 
Samuel Toe, . . 
Thomas Reede,. . 
Richard Walker, 
Colesay, .... 
Richard Bullock, 
James Lauronson, . 
Brumme, .... 


Brian Newton, 
Smith's Island, . . 
Thomas Greedy, . 
John Hobby, . . . 
Trafsaus, . . . 



, 1 





.'. d. 

12 6 








13 4 
13 4 

16 8 


16 4 


Proposal to erect a grist-mill. — Dispute about the Town House. — Death of Rev. Mr. 
Moore. — Indian outrage at Mespat Kill. — Intemperance makes its appearance. — 
Its effect illustrated. — General good character of the founders of Middelburg. — 
Care to preserve sound morals. — Curious penalties for crime.— Elias Bayley, the 
marshal, becomes unpopular and loses his office. — Wolves trouble the inhabitants. 
— First schoolmaster in Middelburg. — Village of Aeruhem broken up. — Stuyve- 
Bant grants the meadovi's at Mespat Kill to Bushwick, which creates discontent. 
— Several regulations and changes instituted. — Tithes or tenths become due. — 
Town House repaired. — Plunders Neck purchased. — Call of Rev. William Lever- 
ich. — Political troubles. — Connecticut claims all Long Island. — Responded to by 
Middelburg and the other English towns. — Way preparing for open revolt. — 
Captain Coo corresponds with Connecticut. — Efforts to effect a combination 
against the Dutch. — James Christie arrested and taken to New Amsterdam. — 
Causes an uproar at Middelburg. — The people take up arms. — Christie's release 
demanded. — Excitement increases. — Curious letter to Stuyvesant. — Middelburg 
received under the jurisdiction of Connecticut. — Its name changed to Hastings. 
— Inhabitants sign a declaration of their allegiance to England. — Choose town 
officers in the name of the King. — Adopt the English laws. — Truce between 
Stuyvesant and the English towns. — Stuyvesant sends letters to Hastings. — Are 
referred to ('onnecticut Court. — Measures to settle the Indian reservation. — A 
third of Seller Neck bought. — Hellgate Neck purchased by William Hallett. — 
Hewlett's Island. 1657 to 1664. 

The acquisition of the native right to the soil appears to 
have given a new impulse to public enterprise. Though one 
flouring mill, owned by John Coe, was in operation at the 
mouth of the Horsebrook, Edward Jessup contemplated the 
erection of another on the stream emptying at Fish's Point, 
which bore the Indian name Sackhickneyah, but was " com- 
monly called Wessel's Creek," and afterwards from a person 
who lived at this date on the poor's bouwery "Lodowick's 
Brook." Upon this creek " Wessel's mill " had formerly 
stood, but was probably destroyed in the Indian troubles 
when the savages visited Mespat with the destructive fire- 
brand, and the out-plantations were even more obnoxious to 
their attacks. 

"The work being matter of charge and hazard," Mr. Jes- 
sup applied to the Council, January 15th, 1657, for " the liberty 
of the above-said creek, with a small tract of land, as your 


honors see expedient for a work of that nature, with a piece 
of meadow if it be there to be found, and also that you would 
be pleased to order that none shall erect either mill or mills 
so near the mill that I intend to build, as may be a hindrance 
or prejudice to the said mill : she doing the work well and 
sufficiently, and dealing honestly, as is requested in the 
premises ; and likewise that the said creek may be free from 
engagements to any other. It is not my desire to be a hin- 
drance to any man, or any prejudice to my loving and res- 
pected friend Mr. Coe, but so far as I apprehend, as yet his 
mill is overwrought, and the country may well employ two 
mills, and both have work enough." 

It does not appear that this project was executed, or the 
request granted, and it is hardly to be supposed that the 
influential proprietors of the poor's bouwery would have 
given their assent to the monopoly of this stream, which 
formed the eastern bounds of their plantation. In fact, within 
a few years the deacons disposed of a part of their land for a 
mill seat, and a grist mill was erected where that of Mr. Jack- 
son now stands. 

The Eev. Mr. Moore having returned to Middelburg to 
resume his official duties, the inhabitants of the town, in effect- 
ing an agreement with him concerning his clerical services, 
gave him a title to the town-house under the hands of the 
clerk and one of the magistrates. This was done "in a publique 
meeting," but the measure was opposed by a number of 
individuals, who, perhaps, belonged to the Presbyterian party. 
They held that the building was town property, and at its erec- 
tion was intended to be kept for the use of the ministry succes- 
sively. A remonstrance was therefore got up and sent to the 
Director-general. It was written by John Burroughes, and 
read thus : 

To the Honorable Governor : 

Worthy Sir : We whose names are underwritten, desire to make our 
humble requests known in respect to the house builded here by tlie town 
of Middelburg for public use for a minister for continuance, vvhich some of 
the town hath given away to Mr. Moore for his own property, and his after 
him ; wherein we think we are wronged, and the town left destitute, if Mr. 
Moore please to leave us, or if he should die, for we know men are mortal ; 
then we are to seek both for minister and house to entertain him into ; 



therefore we do humbly entreat that your honor would be pleased to take 
it into consideration, and judge the equity of the thing, and the damage 
that may ensue. Thus leaving you to God and hi3 grace, we rest, 

John Bukroughes, Thomas Cornish, 

Jan. 22d, 1657. John Layton, Nicholas Carter, 

Robert Pudington, Samuel Toe. 
Francis Swaine, 

Stuyvesant gave a decision for the remonstrants. He 
could hardly credit that the house of the minister, built for 
a public use, had been disposed of as stated, and summoned 
the magistrates to render the reasons for this novel proceeding. 
They were also charged not to harm the bearer, John Layton. 

The allusion made in the above remonstrance to the com- 
mon mortality of our nature seemed prophetic as regarded Mr. 
Moore, for he was soon called to exchange his earthly tene- 
ment for a quiet repose in the " narrow house." He ceased from 
his labors, in September, 1657, leaving four sons to perpetuate 
his name, whose descendants are now wide spread and very 

Little of interest as connected with Middelburg, character- 
ized the year or two which immediately succeeded the death 
of Mr. Moore. One event, however, is worthy of record, as 
illustrating the perils of that period. This was the wanton 
murder of a Dutch family at Mespat Kills, on the night of 
AiTgust 26th, 1659. That day three Raritan Indians came to 
the house of Eldert Engelberts, a native of Eland, in East 
Friesland, who resided with his family in an isolated place at 
the Kills. While the savages were engaged by the fire " pick- 
ing and boiling pigeons," they became acquainted with the fact 
that there was seventy or eighty guilders' worth of wampum 
in the house. Avarice took possession of the savages, and 
that night they murdered Engelberts, his wife and two men 
living in the family, rifled the house, and escaped. Immediate 
effort was made by the Director-general to discover the mur- 
derers, but with what result is not known. 

But an enemy more insidious and fatal to the peace of the 
settlement, was lurking about its habitations. Intemperance had 
appeared to such an extent as to call for some restrictions upon 
the sale of spirituous liquors. On August 22d, 1659, the town 
court ordered that no inhabitant of the place should sell any 
liquors or strong drink by retail, after the first of the ensuing 


September, witliout an order from the magistrates, upon pe- 
nalty of fifty guilders, or about nineteen dollars. The neces- 
sity that existed for wholesome regulations to check the mad- 
dening influence of ardent spirits, is shown by the follow- 
ing; a humiliating illustration of the abiding truth of the 
Divine declaration, " Wine is a mocker, strong drink is raging." 
It occurred early in 1660, that Ellen Wall, who "tapped" li- 
quor at the English Kills had received an anchor of brandy- 
wine at the landing-place. While it lay there unguarded, 
two men, overpowered by the temptation to test its quality, 
broached the cask and not only drank themselves, but invited 
an acquaintance who lived hard by, to enjoy it with them. 
For the fourth time was the " porringer" filled, and with it the 
two in their boat left the landing, when they wer§ met by 
Joseph Fowler coming up the Kill, in his canoe ; observing the 
pot of liquor in the bottom of their canoe, he jocosely asked the 
men whether that liquor was for him. " Drink," replied one of 
them, " but you must hold down your head." Crime always 
seeks concealment. Merry over their exploit, and boasting 
that they " did draw four porringers full of Old Nelly's drink," 
the free use of her brandy- wine soon reached the ears of 
Ellen, who the next day fell into a sharp dispute about it with 
the wife of one of the offenders, which, shameful to tell, ended 
in a pitched battle between these female pugilists, in which 
Ellen was bruised and roughly handled, and the air was made 
to resound with their cries ; the disgraceful scene being wit- 
nessed by Mr. Fowler from his field, and by other neighbors. 
Ellen sued and recovered pay for her liquor, but the court 
also fined the women each six guilders, and ordered them for 
the future " to refrain such drunken bouts." 

Such broils were rare exceptions to the usual harmony 
which prevailed within the bounds of Middelburg. The good 
character of the inhabitants generally, is seen in the care 
which they took to preserve good morals, by excluding from 
their society such persons as were likely to endanger them. 
No individual could find a residence among them excej)t he 
were admitted by a popular vote. And instances occurred 
where persons were threatened to be turned out of the town 
for improper conduct. The town court was active and rigid 
in the imposition of penalties against the violators of law and 


good order, and though the punishment inflicted was often 
mild, it was as humbhng in its effects as it was pecuhar in kind. 
This year, 1660, Capt. Coe "laid an indictment" against an 
individual for feloniously taking corn from his mill, and being 
convicted of the crime, the culprit was sentenced, besides 
making amends to Capt. Coe, "to walk from Mr. Doughty's 
house, with two rods under each arm, and the drum beating 
before him, iintil he comes to Mr. Jessup's house, and then he 
is to have his liberty," and further, " to refrain walking at 
unseasonable hours, for time to come, because it gives cause of 
suspicion." Other instances might be cited illustrative of the 
manner in which criminal jurisprudence was administered in 
those days, one of which was sitting in the stocks on the court 
days. Justice dispensed so publicly must have had a salutary 
effect upon the offender, or at least imposed a strong restraint 
upon others inclined to similar practices. 

The marshal of the town court at this day was Elias Bay ley, 
who had filled the office for a series of years, but like too 
many others clothed with a brief authority, he ventured upon 
an abuse of his powers, and, now found himself at a sore issue 
with the inhabitants. In 1655 Mr. Bayley was directed by 
the magistrates to execute a certain judgment against Thomas 
Stevenson. The marshal seized upon one of his yoke cattle, 
and deaf to the entreaties of Stevenson, who tendered him 
part of the mone}'', the balance of which Mr. Coe, the magis- 
trate, on being appealed to by Stevenson, kindly offered to 
advance, he proceeded to kill the ox. Mr. Stevenson made 
complaint to the Council, which decided May 8th, 1657, that 
Bayley should make reparation ; declaring it " contrary to 
divine and human laws " to deprive a man of his work-ox. 
This rashness, especially unbecoming in an officer of justice, 
served to render the marshal unpopular, and he was finally 
removed by a vote of the town, and Thomas Pettit, Sen. 
chosen in his stead. Bayley, however, continued to assert his 
right to the of&ce in defiance of the people, which so incensed 
the public mind against him, that on March 9th, 1660, the 
inhabitants " being generally met together for the choosing of 
magistrates and marshal," not a vote was cast for him. Ne- 
vertheless he still declared his intention to serve " in spite of 
the town," and it was only through an application of the 


inhabitants to the Director-general, in which they complained 
of his " usurping the place of an attorney also, pleading any 
cause, which they suppose to be against the law of the land," 
that Bayley was set aside. 

But the honest inhabitants of Middelburg had other ills to 
contend with, in the wild animals that infested their forests ; 
the wolves proved especially annoying, failing not in their 
nightly prowlings to prey upon the flocks and herds. To 
check this evil, a bounty was offered for wolves killed within 
the town, and the inhabitants at the above meeting formed a 
subscription for this object. The Indians, from their pecu- 
liar habits, proved valuable agents in the destruction of these 
public enemies. 

After the demise of the Kev. John Moore, his bereaved 
family were left in the quiet possession of the town-house 
for four and a half years, during which period the town was 
destitute of the public means of grace. But the deficiency 
was now to be in part supplied by the services of a school- 
master, and it was expected that Mr. Doughty, who had 
married the widow of Mr. Moore, would surrender the 
premises to the use of the new teacher. To this he objected, 
which gave rise to the following interesting memorial pre- 
sented to the Director and Council. 

Whereas, God hath been pleased of late years to deprive us of Middel- 
burg, on Long Island, of the public means of grace and salvation, and also 
of the education of our children in schoolastic discipline, the way to true 
happiness : but yet God having in mercy at last provided for us a help meet 
for the discipline and education of our children, and, by the same person, 
help in the sabbath exercises, we therefore, who never gave, nor consented 
to the giving of tlie housing and lands built and fenced in, and also dedicated 
for the use of the public dispensation of God's word unto us, do humbly 
entreat your honorable lordship, that this our said schoolmaster, Richard 
Mills by nnme, may be by your lordship possessed of the said housing and 
lands, for his use and ours also, for our children's education and the sabbath 
exercise, tlie which God doth require, and we have need of for us and our 
children. As the housing now stands it is like to go all to wreck and ruin, 
the fences are falling down, the house and barn decaying and wanteth 
repair, and Francis Doughty doth not repair it, nor the town — as it stands be- 
tween him and them, we will not repair it, and by tliis means it is like to come 
to nothing in a short time, and so we, and your lordship also, shall be disap- 
pointed ; therefore our humble request to your lordship is, that this our 


schoolmaster, and at present our soul's help in dispensing God's word to us 
and our children every Lord's day, may be settled in it, to enjoy it without 
any molestation from Francis Doughty, or any of his, for so long time as our 
God shall be pleased to continue him amongst us, or to provide another for 
us. Thus knowing that your lordship is as willing to further our souls' good 
as our bodies', we rest your lordship's humble petitioners. 

Thomas Hunt, Mary Ryder, 

Francis Swaine, John Barker, 

James Bradish, John Lauronson, 

James Lauronson, Thomas Cornish, 

Nicholas Carter, Samuel Toe. 

To this memorial was returned the following reply : 

These presents do require and order Francis Doughty, and whoever it may 
concern, to give and grant unto the present schoolmaster, Mr. Richard Mills, 
a quiet possession of the said house and land ; it being with our knowledge, 
consent and help, built for the public use of the ministry, and therefore may 
not, cannot be given and transported for a private heritage. But if he or 
his wife hath to demand any remainder of means or salary of her deceased 
husband, Mr. John Moore, late minister of the aforementioned town, it is 
ordered, and these presents do order the magistrates and inhabitants of the said 
town to give unto the heirs what is due them. Done in Amsterdam, in New 
Netherland, this 18th of February, 166L 

P. Stuyvesant. 

In compliance with this order, the premises were vacated, 
and Mr. Eichard Mills, the first schoolmaster of Middelburg, 
was inducted into the town-house, and entered upon the 
responsible duties of his vocation. 

This spring terminated the existence of the village of Aern- 
hem, on Smith's Island, It was broken up by order of the Direc- 
tor and Council, upon the ground that it might hinder the pro- 
gress of the new village of Bushwich, and the following year 
the tenantless cottages were removed upon the request of the 
magistrates of the new settlement, who feared they might be 
again occupied. Bush wick was planted in 1660, by a company 
of French, joined by a few Dutchmen, among whom was Joost 
Casperse, ancestor of the Springsteens, of Newtown. The 
succeeding year, upon invitation of the inhabitants, the 
Director-general visited the new village on the 14th of March, 
and conferred upon it the name of Boswyck, signifjnng a 
hamlet in the woods. The occasion was propitious, and the 


people embrcaced it to request of the Director certain privileges, 
and the grant of a large tract of land adjoining, as pasturage 
for their cattle, the bounds of which were set forth as extending 
" from the east side of Smith's Island southward to the hills, 
and along said hills westward, to the heights of Merck's plan- 
tation, and from the said heights northerly, by Merck's plan- 
tation, to Bush wick, being a four cornered plot of land." ' 
Willing to favor the applicants, Stuyvesant gave them their 

This grant infringed largely upon the Middelburg purchase, 
and produced great dissatisfaction among the settlers, some of 
whom went to the Director with their complaint. Thomas 
Wandell stated, that having understood that the whole hay 
meadow situated in Mespat Kills, had been allowed to the 
inhabitants and farmers of the village of Bushwick to be 
distributed among them by lot, he would of course lose his 
meadow granted him in the year 1654, by the magistrates of 
Middelburg, under the Director's order, " and lying between 
Smith's Island and the lands of Eldert Engelberts, at the place 
where he was massacred by the savages." He prayed that he 
might retain his meadow, which he was permitted to do, upon 
proving his title. 

The current year seems to have been marked by no other 
event of general interest. During the spring of 1662 several 
votes were taken for the better regulation of the town. On 
March 13th " the town homelot and barn " were let to Thomas 
Roberts, upon condition of his repairing the barn and 
fences. Edward Jessup, Samuel Toe, John Layton and John 
Burroughes were empowered to levy a rate or tax of five 
stivers (about five cents !) on the acre, for the payment of the 
town debts. Thomas Lawrence, who had filled the office of 
town clerk for several 3''ears, was succeeded by John Bur- 
roughes, who in May was appointed clerk of the court also. 
And to guard against some actual or apprehended violation 
of the custom of the town, respecting the admission of new 
inhabitants, it was resolved, May 23d, "that the man coming 
into the town irregularly, at the call the best course shall be 
taken to remove him, being a man of an evil report." 

1 Marcus de Suson, here referred to, had a plantation near Cripplebush. 


In accordance with the terms of the Freedoms and Exemp- 
tions established in 1640, the founders of Middelburg, had 
hitherto been free from all imposts or taxes to the general 
government. The prescribed term for such exemption had 
now expired, and Director Stuyvesant, ever attentive to the 
interests of his superiors, dispatched the following epistle to 
remind them that they would thenceforth be required to ren- 
der annually the tenth part of their harvest, or commute for 
the same, on such terms as should be mutually agreed upon. 

Loving Friends : — 

Whereas the time of ten years and also the freedom of tenths is expired, 
these presents do order the magistrates, and also all the inhabitants of the 
town of Middelburg, and all the other plantations in Mespat Kill, that none 
of them shall presume or undertake to remove their fruits or increase, as 
corn, maize, tobacco, &c. before they have agreed for the year about the 
tithes, with the Governor-genenil and Council, or their commissioners, upon 
forfeiture of fifty guilders. Done in Fort Amsterdam, in New Netherland, 
on the 3d of July, 1662. P. Stuvvesant. 

Upon the reception of this the inhabitants met on July 7th, 
and appointed Edward Jessup, Eichard Betts, and Francis 
Swaine, to wait upon the Director, and agree with him "for 
the tithes for the present year, both for town and kill." 

The toils of harvest being ended, attention was turned to 
making the much needed repairs upon the town-house, as 
was called the only public building in the village, and which 
hitherto had served, as occasion required, the several purposes 
of a church, school-house, and parsonage. James Lauronson 
was engaged September 18th, for the sum of one hundred 
guilders, or forty dollars, to underpin, with stone and mor- 
tar, the house and the leanto ; to lath and plaster both rooms, 
(the town furnishing lath and nails) ; to build an oven, repair 
the chimney, and do what was needful in the chamber, — all 
to be completed in six weeks. William Lawrence was also' 
employed to cover the roof with a good coat of thatch, for 
forty-two guilders, and Lauronson engaged to provide the 
thatch and deliver it at the town-house, for the additional 
sum of forty-five guilders. Payment was to be made these 
individuals, " after the value of wheat at six guilders a bushel." 

While this work was in progress, Eichard Betts, Samuel 
Toe, John Scudder, John Coe, Geotge Sergeant, John Denman 



and Thomas Eeede purchased, Oct. 3d, 1662, of the Indian 
chiefs Womatupa, Wonoxe, and Powatahuman the neck of 
meadow-land " commonly called Plunder's Neck by the Eng- 
lish," lying on the south side of Long Island, and " bounded 
on the eas't side by the river Hohosboco, with a small brook 
on the west side running into the river before mentioned." 
This acquisition of salt meadow was found highly conducive 
to the success of the Middelburg farmers, because salt hay was 
necessary to the healthy growth and sustenance of their cattle, 
which " were subject to diseases when they were pastured on 
new ground, and fed on fresh hay only." 

The thorough fitting up of the town-house was probably 
with a view to the settlement of the Eev. William Leverich, 
who several months after is found occupying the building, and 
preaching the Gospel among the people of Middelburg. This 
learned and pious man graduated in 1625, at Cambridge, 
England, and eight years after came to New England, where 
he "labored in different places about twenty years, part of 
the time in instructing the Indians about Sandwich, for 
which purpose he acquired their language. In 1653, he re- 
moved to Oyster Bay, whence he spent about five years in 
propagating the gospel among the aborigines on the Island ; 
but settled, in 1658, as pastor of the church at Huntington, 
from which he removed with his sons Caleb and Eleazar to 
Middelburg, about the close of 1662, where his labors met 
with decided favor. Measures were taken to raise a salary for 
his support, and afterwards, " for his encoaragement among 
them," the town gave him two parcels of meadow, and as that 
was thought " not to be enough to supply his need," there were 
added twelve acres more at the east end of " Long Traines 
Meadow." The need of a more suitable place of worship was 
apparent, and on Jan. 9th, 1663, the town voted to build a 
^ " meeting-house," but the execution of this design was inter- 
rupted by the extraordinary events which soon after transpired. 
The country was on the verge of revolution and civil war. 

Never, perhaps, was there an administration whose pro- 
ceedings, while aiming to promote good order, morality, and 
religion, tended to results more directly opposite, than that of 
the impolitic Stuyvesant. A course of austere legislation; 
fines and banishment for difference in religious faith and prac- 


tice ; injustice and violence to the savages, who in turn wreaked 
their revenge on the inoffensive settlers, all contributed to 
lessen the population and produce the deepest aversion to the 
government. Middelburg had not escaped the iron hand of 
this policy, as we have seen, and besides, several of the pur- 
chasers had been harshly dealt with. In 1661, Eichard Bul- 
lock was cast into prison for debt, but he managed to escape, 
and probably fled the province ; and five years before that, 
Thomas Greedy, a man of over seventy years, was, for a slight 
offence, banished the country. Such undue severity had a 
direct tendency to disgust and inflame the public mind — the 
English population were totally estranged, and held the go- 
vernment in utter detestation. 

Such was the dominant feeling in Middelburg, when Con- 
necticut received a charter from Charles II. confirming to that 
colony the "islands adjacent." By a wanton construction of 
the patent, Connecticut laid claim to Long Island, as one of the 
islands referred to. On October 27th, 1662, intelligence was 
sent to Middelburg and the surrounding English villages, that 
they were " annexed to the other side of the Sound." The 
long wished for deliverance offered, and the English towns 
hailed the event as affording a most opportune occasion to 
shake off the galling fetters of Dutch tyranny. Thus came 
the eventful year 1663, and though the design of a union with 
Connecticut was yet in embryo, Middelburg evinced a dispo- 
sition to assume the institutions of their English neighbors. 
On Jan. 9th, they appointed several citizens of trust, after the 
manner of the New England towns, to conduct their public 
affairs for the ensuing year. These were John Layton, Fran- 
_cis Swaine, William Blomfield, John Cochran, Samuel Toe, 
Eichard Betts, and Ealph Hunt, all or most of whom took an 
active part in the thrilling events which soon after transpired. 
The way was preparing for a political revolt; the tempest 
of opposition to the government which for long years had been 
gathering blackness, was about to pour forth its angry torrents. 
It was a season of peculiar trial to the Director of New 
Netherland, for to add to his sources of uneasiness, the red 
men were venting their cruelty upon the inhabitants of Esopus, 
on the Hudson. Stuyvesant resolved to despatch a military 
force to their assistance. He sent word to Middelburg, that on 


June SOtli, lie would visit that village in person, or send liis depu- 
ties to obtain recruits for this service. But the application for 
aid was ill-timed, for when the recruiting officers, consisting of 
Lieutenants Couwenhoven and Stillwell, and Ensign Samuel 
Edsall, made their appearance, the magistrates and leading in- 
dividuals dissuaded the inhabitants from enlisting ; the period 
was critical, and the events to which they looked forward, 
might call forth the exercise of their undivided strength. The 
officers therefore left, having effected nothing. 

Notwithstanding this ripening spirit of insubordination, 
Middelburg yet kept up a show of allegiance, dictated rather 
by motives of policy, than any genuine feelings of attachment. 
In the month of July, Thomas Wandell and two other citizens 
waited upon the Director, and commuted for the tithes for the 
current year, the amount fixed upon being fifty schepels' of 
wheat and fifty of peas : upon condition that these and the 
tithes for the preceding year which yet remained unpaid, should 
be delivered within a suitable time, at the Company's store- 
house. It may be doubted, however, considering the anarchy 
which succeeded, whether the government obtained a particle 
of this revenue. 

Among those in Middelburg that warmly advocated an 
alliance with Connecticut, was Capt. John Coe, who in August 
addressed a letter on the subject- to the General Court, at 
Hartford, and dispatched it by James Christie. The latter 
delivered his message on the 22d of that month, (old stjde,) 
two hours after the court broke up, and Messrs. Talcott and 
Allyne returned an answer by the same person, expressing 
much regret that that being the case, they could not aid them 
according to their desire. They recommended an application 
to the court, at its meeting in autumn, when any memorial 
would be duly considered. "In the mean time," they add, 
" we suppose Stuy vesant dare not in the least offer any injury 
to any of you ; and after the meeting of the commissioners, at 
October court, they will the better know how to act towai'ds 
yourselves, or any of the towns about you. If there were a 
general concurrence in the desire of submitting to our govern- 
ment, we suppose it would much promote the end aimed at by 
you." Capt. Talcott also engaged Christie to visit the other 

' A schepel was nearly three English pecks. 


villages of Flushing, Hempstead, and Jamaica, "to try if tlie 
inhabitants were favorably inclined towards the governor of 

Christie having returned to Middelburg, the absence of 
Director Stuyvesant, who had sailed for Boston, to meet the 
Commissioners in relation to their differences, afforded a favor- 
able occasion to visit the English towns, and accomplish the 
proposed union in favor of Connecticut. He accordingly pro- 
ceeded with two others to Gravesend, with "a simple commis- 
sion signed Coe," and a copy of Talcott's letter ; and the town 
being called together, Christie produced his letters and informed 
the assembled villagers that they were no longer subject to the 
Dutch government, but to that of Hartford. But the sheriff, 
Nicholas Stillwell, a friend to the administration, regarded this 
as rather a dubious fact. He accordingly arrested Christie's 
person and papers, and sent intelligence of the proceeding to 
the Council, who thereupon detached a sergeant and eight men 
to convey the prisoner to Fort Amsterdam. On the arrival 
of the soldiers at Gravesend, messengers were immediately 
dispatched to Middelburg, to announce the fate of Christie; 
for which reason the sergeant and his men left with their pri- 
soner, at two o'clock at night, and returned to the city. 

The arrest of their townsman, was heard with indignation 
at Middelburg, and John Coe and Edward Jessup, with five 
of the overseers of the town, immediately proceeded, by night, 
across to Westchester, and returned with Capt. Eichard Panton, 
a commissioned officer under Connecticut, and a company of 
men, "to beat arms against the Dutch." They were joined bj'' 
others in Middelburg, and the next day, Sept. 25th, proceeded 
to Gravesend, to the number, as was stated, of a hundred and 
fifty, mounted and on foot. Finding that Christie was beyond 
the reach of rescue, they determined to secure the person of 
the sheriff, whose house they surrounded about nine o'clock 
in the evening, shouting that they would have him, dead or 
alive, as he had been the instrument in apjDreheuding James 
Christie. They searched the house with lighted candles, but 
in vain ; the object of their pursuit had escaped amid the dark- 
ness, to the residence of his son-in-law. The mob then broached 
two anchors of brandy that lay in the cellar, and regaling them- 
selves, departed without fui'ther depredation. 


On the morrow Cliristie underwent a rigid examination 
before the Council. The same day Captains Coe and Panton, 
in the name of the town, despatched Richard Smith to New 
Amsterdam with a formal demand on the Attorney-general 
for his release, threatening, in case of a refusal, to " resent it 
as a breach of the peace, and act according to the nature of 
the case." The only reply which this elicited, was a circular 
letter to Middelburg and the other English villages, calling 
upon the people to seize any mutinous persons who might 
come into their town, or give information thereof to the 
Council, that the good inhabitants may continue in peace and 
unity, " as they have done, through God's blessing, hitherto." 
But the Council were alarmed, and at once despatched an 
account of this outbreak to the Director-general at Boston. 
The excitement in Middelburg was now at a high pitch, and 
in the exasperated state of the public mind it became a settled 
purpose to abjure and resist Dutch authority, and form a 
junction with Connecticut. But Stuyvesant had at least one 
English friend in Middelburg. This was John Lauronson, 
who wrote the following letter to the Director soon after his 
return, giving him a summary of the reigning disorders. 

Right Honorable, the Lord Stevesant : 

The cause of my presenting these few lines to your honor, is to let you 
understand what traitors there are in Middelburg. John Coe, Edward 
Jessup, Ralph Hunt, Richard Betts, Samuel Toe, John Layton, Francis 
_Swaine, went to Westchester in the night, and brought Panton, with a 
company of men, over, to beat arms against the Dutch, and have taken 
a copy of Panton's commission to kill and slay any that opposeth him. He 
beats up the drum under a color to train, and when the town is come 
together, then he plots against your honor. These seven men set almost 
the whole town against your honor ; they call private meetings, and there 
they conspire against you, and have put the town in an uproar. And Richard 
Betts said that he would spend his life and his estate in this cause, and John 
Layton abused your honor, and said that you are a devil, and a wooden leg 
rogue, and a picaroon, and rails against your honor that it is a shame to hear 
him. Edward Jessup hath been a traitor a long time ; he went to New 
Haven to see to put the town under them,' and I never knew of it, till they 
came for money as would go for his charges. If some come, be not 

» I know not to what occasion this alludes, except it be to the mission of Jessup 
and Coe to Boston in 1653, when they may have touched at New Haven to secure 
the favor of that colony. 


taken with them, they will never be at rest, but always a doing of mischief. 
So, having no more to trouble your honor, I rest your true and faithful 

John Lauronson. 

At the meeting of tlie general court of Connecticut in 
October, Capt. John Coe, deputed by Middelburg, and others 
from the several English towns, proceeded to Hartford and 
presented petitions to be received to the protection and privi- 
leges of that colony, seeing " it hath pleased the Highest 
Majesty to move the heart of the King's Majesty to grant 
unto your colony such enlargements as comprehends this 
whole Island, thereby opening a way for us (as we hope) from 
our present bondage, to such liberties and enlargements as we 
are informed your patent affords." Agreeably to their request 
the court declared that " as the lines of their patent extended 
to the adjoining islands, they accepted those towns under their 
jurisdiction." On the other hand, an embassy which Stuyve- 
sant had sent to confer with the general court touching their 
boundaries, returned without having effected anything, further 
than to satisfy themselves by seeing the delegates from the 
disaffected towns on the most intimate terms with the princi- 
pal men there, "that the doings of Eichard Mills at West- 
chester, of Coe, Panton and others on Long Island, were done 
and put into execution at their instigation." The deputies 
had informed the general court of the detention of Christie : — 
" A countryman of ours, for carrying a message to a neighbor 
plantation from some of yourselves, has been imprisoned for 
several weeks, and how long it will continue we know not." 
Hereupon the secretary of the court wrote to Stuy vesant, Oct. 
22d, demanding the release of Christie. 

It now remained for Connecticut to follow up the recent act 
of annexation, and establish formally, her authority on the 
Island. For this purpose Capt. John Coe, of Middelburg, and 
Anthony Waters, of Jamaica, who were duly empowered, 
proceeded, in November, with about eighty men, horse and 
foot, through the English towns, informed the people that the 
country belonged to the King, removed the old magistrates 
and appointed others, who took the oath of fealty to Con- 


Micldelburg was now in allegiance to King Charles II. In 
the ardor of their loyalty they discarded the name by 
which the township from its settlement had been designated, 
and adopted that of Hastings, after a town in Sussex, England, 
distinguished in history as the scene of the famous victorj^ of 
William the Conqueror, by which that monarch obtained the 
throne of Britain. Encouraged by the prospective growth 
and prosperity of the settlement, the inhabitants gave them- 
selves early in the winter to matters of public convenience. 
All persons were required to make " good sufficient fence 
where their share is to do it," and that by the first day of the 
ensuing March, upon forfeit of " half a crown," for every rod 
of fence defective. Four individuals wei^e chosen fence viewers, 
which is the first notice we have of this not very distinguished, 
but highly necessary office. Two " common fields," each a 
single enclosure, in which the villagers proposed unitedly to 
plough and plant, were directed to be laid out, one on the 
north and the other on the south of the village lots, which 
matter was entrusted to four persons, one of whom was James 
Christie, who had obtained his liberation from the prison of 
Fort Amsterdam, under bonds.' 

1 James Christie was a native of ScotlancI, and at this time was thirty-two 
years of age. He is first named in 1661, when he bought the dwelling 
house of Lieut. William Palmer deceased. He was still living at Newtown 
in 1665, but the following year his widow Sarah married Humphrey Clay. 
There is reason to believe that he was the ancestor of those families bear- 
ing the name of Christie in New-Yoi"k city and vicinity. 

Capt. Richard Panton, who acted so conspicuous a part in the late com- 
motions, had for years cherished feelings of hostility to the government, 
having, in 1656, suffered a brief imprisonment at New Amsterdam for an 
attempt to throw off the Dutch yoke at Westchester. After the conquest of 
the country by the English, he continued an influential man at Westchester, 
both in civil and church affairs, till his decease, in the beginning of the next 
century, at an advanced age. 

Richard Mills, the late schoolmaster of Middelburg, did much to forward 
the revolt at Westchester, of which place he had become a resident and the 
leading magistrate. Stuyvesant had him arrested, and he remained in prison 
for more than a month, but pleading with much importunity to be liberated, 
being " ancient and weakly," and intending in September to sail for Vii-- 
ginia, the Council, on June 18th, 1663, passed an order for his release, and 
he, some time after, left the province. 



The people of Hastings were in the mean while not devoid 
of apprehensions. Stiiy vesant having consented to a j^ropo- 
sition of Connecticut, by which the jurisdiction of both pro- 
vinces over the English on the west end of Long Island, 
was suspended, these towns were left, by this arrangement, 
without a head to look to. They thereupon invited Capt. 
John Scott of Setauket, a person of great influence, to come 
and settle their government. On his arrival, Hastings, and four 
other towns entered into a combination, Jan. 4:th, 1664, to 
manage their own affairs irrespective of Connecticut, until a 
government should be established among them by his Majesty 
of England, who, they were told by Capt. Scott, had granted 
Long Island to the Duke of York. 

On the 4th of February'- ensuing, the inhabitants of Hastings 
met for the transaction of important business. They drew up 
and signed a compact, in which they set forth the grounds of 
their allegiance to England, with their determination to defend 
to any extremity the interests of their royal master. King 
Charles II. It ran as follows : 

To ALL Christian people in any parte of the world, knowe that we, the 
inhabitants of Hastings, otherwise called Middelburg, on Long Island, in 
the south parte of New England, doe declare that we are by our birthright 
privileges subjects of his Majesty, Charles the 2d. of England, Scotland, 
France and Ireland, Kinge ; and within the discoverys of his Royal! prede- 
cessors are providentially seated ; and by right of the natives, have to the soyle 
an .absolute righte of inheritance in free socage, to us and our heyrs and 
assigns for ever, which right, interest and propryety, with his Majesty's 
Royalty of government we promise to maintalne against any usurpers what- 
soever, and will further and more particularly doe any thing whereby or 
wherewith our dread sovereigne and successors may be owned as absolute 
Emperor in poynt of civill judicature, as by establishinge an authority elected 
by the major parte of the freehoulders of this towne of Hastings aforesayd, 
yearly ; this very Island being bounded within the letters pattante granted 
by Kinge James, of glorious memory, the 18th year of liis reigne, to George, 
Duke of Buckingham, James, Duke of Lennox, which pattante was bounded 
between 40 and 48 north lattitude, with all Islands;' and within the sayd 

1 This was tlie patent granted in 1620 to the Duke of Lennox, Fernando 
Gorges and othsrs, under the name of " The Council of Plymouth, in the county 
of Devon, for planting and governing New England, in America." From this 
company the Puritans of Plymouth colony obtained their patent in 1627. Two 
years later the company granted Long Island to Wilham Alexander, Earl of 


lattitude wee say our just propryetys of soyle being invaded, and iiis Majes- 
ty's rights usurped by y" Hollanders ; to tiie great scandall of government and 
discouragement of liis Majesty's hopeful plantation, wliich we will for the 
futter defend as Englisiimen, just propryetors and Loyall subjects, with our 
lives and fortunes ; in witness whereunto we have set to our hands this 4th of 
February, 1663.' [1664, New Style.] 

All the inliabitants, with a few exceptions, attached their 
signatures to this high-toned instrument. '' James Way, Jona- 
than Hazard, William Lawrence, Samuel Moore, did not sub- 
scribe." The town proceeded to ballot for a president "for 
the ensuing year," and " Capt. John Scott, Esquire," received 
their unanimous vote for that ofiice. Town officers were 
elected in the name of "his Majesty, Charles 11." consisting of 
a clerk, constable and five townsmen. The latter were John 
Burroughes, Ealph Hunt, John Eamsden, Samuel Toe and 
John Layton. Eichard Betts and John Coe were appointed 
magistrates for the ensuing year, and deputies to a convention 
to be held at Hempstead on the 20th inst., " to embrace a body 
of laws already established in the Council of Connecticut, and 
to add others for the benefit and advantage of the inhabitants 
of this Island, in the respective plantations, and any other 
things whereby his Majesty's royalty and the inhabitants' rights 
and proprieties may be preserved and farther advanced." 

At this crisis, in order to prevent actual hostilities and 
"the effusion of blood," an agreement was entered into, on 
Feb. 24th, by Capt. Scott, as president of the English towns 
and Director Stuyvesant, to preserve friendship and free in- 
tercourse for a year or longer, until the dispute respecting Long 
Island should be finally determined by his Majesty of England 
and the States General of the Netherlands. But Scott's 
authority was brief. The general court of Connecticut, jea- 

' Under the Dutch, the mode of reckoning time in this town was after the 
new style. Now the old style, which was in use among the English, was in- 
troduced, according to which the year was understood to commence on the 
25th of March, and the month began ten (and on and after March 1st, 1700, 
eleven) days earlier than by the new style. In 1752, the new style was adopted 
in this province, by order of Parliament. That year began on Jan. 1st; and 
on Sept. 3d, following, the old style ended, the next day being considered the 
14th, new style. In this work I adhere to the style in use for the time being, 
but in all cases begin the year with January. 



lous of liis proceedings on Long Island, sent a company of 
soldiers to arrest Lim, and lie was thrown into Hartford jail, 
and liarshly used. This caused dissatisfaction in the English 
villages, but Gov. Winthrop came over to the Island and in- 
duced the people to submit to Connecticut. Scott's magistrates 
were deposed, and others appointed. 

Prior to this, an account of the critical state of affairs had 
been transmitted to the Directors and States General, who in 
January, 1664, sent over a circular letter to the several dis- 
affected towns, in which, addressing them as their subjects, 
they commanded them to continue faithful, under penalty of 
incurring their utmost displeasure. 

On the reception of one of these letters at Hastings, accom- 
panied by another from Stuyvesant himself, the town met on 
May 5th, and agreed to refer them to " Connecticut Court," 
and by direction, James Bradish, the town clerk, immediately 
forwarded them with a suitable letter on behalf of the town, 
complaining of several unreasonable demands of the Dutch 
governor, and praying the court to take "some speedy course 
for their futter peace and comforte." ' 

This letter was probably laid before the general court by 
Capt. John Coe, who the same month took his seat in that 
body as a deputy from Hastings. During the sitting of said 
court, the Rev. William Leverich, Richard Betts, Samuel Toe, 
Caleb Leverich, Ralph Hunt, John Burroughes, John Ramsden, 
Nicholas Carter, Gershom Moore, and James Christie, made 
application and were admitted as freemen of Connecticut. 

The truce now subsisting, afforded the inhabitants of Hast- 
ings time to consult upon other and more local interests. 
" Upon several considerations, the town thought it good to 
settle the upland lying under the hills southward from the 
town place now seated." This was the tract reserved by the 
Indians in their deed to the town, which it was now deemed 
prudent to secure from the encroachment of their Dutch 
neighbors, by an actual possession of the premises. At a 

1 This letter is printed in Bolton's Hist, of Westchester county, ii. 20, 

being supposed to I'efer to a portion of that county, but this is clearly a 

mistake. The original is preserved in the Secretary of State's office, 


meeting of tlie inhabitants, on April 1st, it was resolved that 
such of the town-people as chose to locate there should each be 
allowed a six acre lot to build and plant upon, on condition 
that they should hold themselves as residents of the town, and 
Tpnj their share of the public charges. But they were to admit 
no stranger from any other town as an inhabitant with them, 
unless he had been duly received by a major vote of the peo- 
ple of Hastings. And whereas the whole town possessed a 
common interest in this tract, it was further resolved that all 
should contribute equally to its purchase from the Indian 
owners, except such as should decline to hold a right in it. 
Samuel Toe and Ralph Hunt were appointed to view the pre- 
mises, on the 3d instant, and lay off lots for such as were to 
locate there, among whom were James Gideons and Thomas 
Moore, who by a vote then taken, were received as inhabitants. 

At this time it was also in contemplation to buy from Ja- 
maica a part of the " South Sea Meadows," as they were termed, 
lying on the South Bay. This object was affected the succeed- 
ing fall, through a committee sent to Jamaica, to " agitate and 
agree " respecting the said purchase, who happily made a bar- 
gain for the third of a certain tract, called " Seller Neck," 
another third of which was sold about the same time to Brook- 
lyn. It lay east of and adjacent to Plunder's Neck, ah-eady 
the property of several inhabitants of Hastings. 

Another purchase, not less interesting, was that effected 
August 1st, of this year, by " William Hallett, Sen., of the 
town of Flushing," of a large tract of land, near Hallett's Cove, 
from Shawestcont and Erramohar, Indians residing at Shaw- 
copshee, upon Staten Island, by authority of Mattano, their 
sagamore, and in the presence of two Indians, Warchan and 
Kethcaneparan, and Eandell Hewitt, John Coe, Jonathan Rite, 
and Edward Fisher. It is described as " beginning at the first 
creek called Suns wick ; westward below Hellgate, upon Long 
Island, and from the mouth of the aforesaid creek, south to a 
markt tree fast by a great rock, and from that said markt tree 
southward, fifteen score rods, to another markt tree, which 
stands from another little rock a little westward, and from that 
markt tree east, right to the point of an island which belongs 
to the poor's bouwery, and from the point of the island belong- 
ing to the poor's bouwery round by the river through Hellgate 


to the aforesaid creek westward where it began ; also an island 
whicli is commonly called Hewlett's Island, which island the 
aforesaid Hewlett did formerly live upon; as also all other 
islands within this tract of land aforementioned." On Dec, 
6th, 1664, the sagamore, Mattano, ''chief of Staten Island and 
Nya6k," confirmed the above sale, and acknowledged to have 
received, in full payment for the land, "fifty-eight fathom of 
wampum, seven coats, one blanket, and four kettles." * This 
tract, called by the Indians " Sintsiuck," and embracing nearly 
the whole of " Hellgate Neck," was afterwards confirmed to 
Hallett by the English governors NicoU and Dongan, or "so 
much of the aforesaid Indian deed or purchase, as had not 
before been disposed of to others by groundbrief or patent." 
It therefore did not affect the several grants to individuals, 
lying within its limits.^ As Mr. Hallett no longer held himself 
amenable to the government of New Netherlands he could not 
have consulted Stuy vesant in making this purchase. This is 
evident also, from the fact, that on August 19tli, 1664, new 
style, Abraham Eycken, a planter on the north bounds of the 
town, obtained from the Director-general, (it being one of his 
last ofiicial acts,) a patent for Hewlett's Island, above named. 
It was so called from the ancestor of the Hewlett familj^, of 
Long Island, (probably Lewis Hewlett, a native of Bucking- 

^ Recorded in Secretary of State's office, Albany, Deeds ii, 74, 75. 

" In 1667, William Hallett entered a suit against Capt. Thomas Law- 
rence, for the recovery of Berrien's Island, whicli the latter had obtained a 
patent for, but Hallett's claim was not admitted. 

The residents near this island may congratulate themselves on the failure 
of the late attempt to convert it into a Potter's Field for the city of New- 
York, which (in the words of a resolution of the Board of Health of Newtown, 
prohibiting public burials of the city of New-York, upon said island,) 
" would be a public nuisance, prejudicial to the health, and endangering the 
lives of the citizens of the said town." It can scarce be doubted, especially 
if it were managed a la mode Randell's Island ! Then add to this the conse- 
quent depreciation of property, while the pleasant water communication and 
avenues conducting thither, and adorned with country seats,would necessarily 
become the daily resort of sepulchral processions, and we discover additional 
propriety in the objections raised to the measure. Among the peculiar 
circumstances connected with this affiiir, the most ludicrous was an effort of 
a committee of the N. Y. Corporation, to show that Berrien's Island lay 
imiliinihe bounds of the county of Neiv-York ! See Document 6 of the N. Y. 
Board of Assist. Aid. for 1849. 


hamsliire, England,) who at an earlier day had been driven 
from it by the Indians, with the destruction of his house and 
property. Gov. Nicoll, recognizing the authority of the Dutch 
governor, to dispose of the island, confirmed it to Eycken, 
Dec. 24th, 1667, and it is yet owned by the descendants of the 
original patentee, and known as Biker's Island. 


Conquest of New Netherland by the English. — Assembly at Hempstead. — Name 
of Hastings changed to Newtown. — Decision respecting the meadows on 
Mespat Kill. — Overseers and Constable and their duties. — First mihtia officers 
under the English. — Swine driven to the South Bay to prevent damage to corn 
crops. — An instance. — Rules concerning fences, fields and highways. — The town 
buy the Indian reservation. — The Indian deed. — Some conjectures as to what 
tribe of Indians inhabited Newtown. — Gov. NicoH's patent to the town. — Ja- 
maica paid for Seller Neck, and these meadows divided. — The town without a 
meeting-house or a pastor. — At a militia drill the people resolve to have a mi- 
nister if possible. — Nature of the militia service. — The constable's house burnt. — 
Precautionary measures. — Improvement of the public land. — Surveyors chosen. 
— Road laid out through Hempstead Swamp. — Several landholders there. — 
Sickness at the English Kills. — Scudder's Pond. — Regulations respecting the 
public land. — Encouragement to mechanics and tradesmen. — Rev. Mr. Leverich 
recalled to the town. — Smith's Island occupied by order of the Purchasers. — 
Bushwick complains to the Court of Sessions. — Suit carried to the Council. — 
Referred to the Assizes. — Decided in Bushwick's favor. — Arbitrary course of 
the Colonial Government. — Newtown and others petition for redress. — It effects 
but little. — Roads laid out at the Dutch and English Kills. — Ferry and bridge 
over Newtown Creek. — Accidents occur on the latter. — Ordered to be repaired. 
— The first church erected in Newtown. 1664 to 1671. 

King Charles II. having asserted a right to Long Island, 
the summer of 1664 witnessed the entire conquest of New 
Netherland by the English. His Majesty aiming at the total 
extinction of the Dutch power in North America, and having 
first purchased the claim of the Earl of Stirling in Long Island, 
executed an extensive grant of territory, including the whole 
of New Netherland, to his brother James, Duke of York and 
Albany, by letters patent, dated March 12tli, 1664. His High- 
ness, the Duke, thereupon despatched Col. Eichard Nicoll to 
take possession of his new dominions, who in the month of 


August entered the harbor of New Amsterdam with a naval 
force, and demanding, received the surrender of the place, to 
which he gave the name of New- York. The whole of Long 
Island was now freely yielded up by Connecticut to NicoU, 
who held the commission of deputy governor. 

The distracted state to which the country had been reduced, 
under her late masters, rendered it necessary that the several 
portions of it should be properly organized under one system 
of civil government. With this intent Gov. Nicoll addressed 
a circular letter to the several towns,' directing the inhabitants 
to elect delegates to a convention to be held at Hempstead, on 
Feb. 28th, 1665, to settle the affairs of the province. 

This assembly met, and the town of Hastings was repre- 
sented by Eichard Betts and John Coe. The inhabitants of 
the out-plantations, who were yet a separate community, also 
voted for delegates to this assembly, uniting for this purpose, 
it is presumed, with the town of Flushing.' 

A code of laws, previously framed and agreeing with those 
then in practice in New England, save that they were less 
severe in matters of conscience and religion, were with sundry 
amendments, passed, and promulgated, and distinguished as 
the "Duke's Laws." A variety of concerns, affecting more or 
less the well being of the community, were acted upon. The 
province was erected into a shire, called after that in England, 
Yorkshire, which was subdivided into districts termed, re- 
spectively, the East, North, and West Eidings. Hastings was 
included in the West Eiding of Yorkshire, and the township 
was enlarged by the addition of the out -plantations, comprising 
the Poor Bowery, Hellgate-Neck, etc. The territory thus 
brought within the jurisdiction of the town was equal to about 
one-third of its previous area, and the township as thus consti- 
tuted received the name of " the New Towne," an appellation 
by which it had been previously known to some extent. That 
of Hastings was abandoned. 

As one object of the Hempstead convention was to deter- 

^ Major Daniel Whitehead deposes, Jan. 10th, 1704, "that at the time of 
the coming of Coll. Nicoll, Esq. then Governor of the province of New- 
York, his father and he, then living at Mespatt Kills, (then not belonging to 
Newtown, they then being distinct from the town of Newtown,) chose depu- 
ties to send to the general meeting at Hempstead, as other towns did." 


mine the limits of the several towns, the boundary between 
Newtown and Bushwick was considered on the 4th of March, 
when the latter town assumed the position of plaintiff, feeling 
herself aggrieved at the efforts of Newtown, to occupy the 
meadows at the English Kills and the upland lying south of 
them. After a hearing of their respective claims, the follow- 
ing decision was rendered : — "The meadow ground in question 
between Bushwick and New Towne, shall remain to the inha- 
bitants of the town of Bushwick, as properly, and of right 
belonging to them ; that is to say, the meadoio lying on the west 
side of the most ancient Dutch house^ situate on the east side of the 
head of Mespat Kills, and the inhabitants of New Towne are no 
way to molest the said town of Bushwick, in the peaceable en- 
joyment thereof. Touching the upland, the bounds specified 
in the Middelburg deed, will sufficiently regulate the same." 

This appears to have been a compromise of the question, 
the assembly conceding the meadows to Bushwick, but to 
Newtown the upland, as bounded in their Indian deed. So 
well pleased were the inhabitants of Bushwick with this de- 
cision, that they entered it in the Dutch language upon their 
records ; but strange to tell, two years later, resuming their old 
claim, they succeeded in obtaining a patent from Gov. Nicoll, 
which embraced both the meadows and the upland in question. 

The Duke's Laws, by which the province was now to be 
regulated, erected an overseers' court in the several towns, 
whose j urisdiction should extend to actions of debt or trespass 
under five pounds ; — a court of sessions to be held in each riding 
triennially, for the adjudication of all actions or cases from the 
value of five to twenty pounds, as well as actions of assault 
or battery, breach of the peace, or crime; — a court oi oyer and 
terminer^ when required, for the more speedy trial of capital 
offenders, who otherwise awaited the sitting of the court of 
assi?:e, which was to be held annually in the city of New-York, 
and was a court of equity and the supreme court of the pro- 
vince. In this court was vested the legislative power, but 
being composed of the governor, and the justices who received 
their appointment from him, the people were still in truth 
without a voice in the enactment of the public laws, a fact that 
was no sooner understood by them, than it created the utmost 


It will be acceptable to my readers, I presume, to learn 
some of the leading provisions of the legal code now intro- 
duced, and by which the affairs of Newtown continued to be 
regulated till 1683. It enjoined upon each town or parish to 
build a church sufficient to accommodate two hundred persons ; 
and each inhabitant was required to pay his proportion of the 
minister's salary agreed upon, yet they were to enjoy liberty 
of conscience, and neither to be imprisoned, fined, nor at all 
molested for differing in judgment in matters of religion, pro- 
vided they did not deny Christianity. 

For the orderly management of all town affairs, including 
the building and repairing the church, maintaining the minister, 
and providing for the poor, it was directed that eight of the 
most able men of each town or parish be appointed overseers^ 
who were required to be " men of good fame and life, chosen 
by the plurality of voices of the freeholders in each town, 
whereof four shall remain in their office two years successively, 
and four shall be changed for new ones every year ; which 
election shall preceed the election of constable in point of 
time, in regard the constable for the year ensuing is to be cho- 
sen out of that number which are dismist from their office of 
overseers." Before entering upon their office, they took the 
oath of allegiance, in the presence of the minister and the old 
overseers and constable, and then were presented by the said 
constable and overseers to the court of sessions next succeed- 
ing their election, and with the new constable took the oath of 
ofl&ce, which was usually done at the June sessions. They 
were authorized, together with the constable, to hold town 
courts weekly or monthly, as was required, where six with the 
constable, or seven in his absence, were a competent jury, and 
upon an equal division, the constable had the casting voice. 
They were to report twice a year to the sessions, "all such 
abominable sinnes " as came to their knowledge, and had not 
been punished, including prophane swearing, sabbath-break- 
ing, and drunkenness. They were frequently to admonish the 
inhabitants to instruct their children and servants in matters 

1 In Sept. 1666, the court of assize ordered that the overseers in each 
town be reduced to four, and that they have the same authority that the eight 
possessed ; any two of them, with the constable, being empowered to hold 
town courta. 


of religion and the laws of the country, and to bring np their 
children and apprentices in some honest and lawful calling or 
employment. They made all assessments or rates, which usu- 
ally consisted of three, namely, the minister's rate, the town 
rate, and the country rate, the latter for the support of the 
general government. They also appointed from time to time, 
two persons to be inspectors of pipestaves, a common article 
of manufacture and export at that day ; and they were like- 
wise empowered to appoint a sealer of weights and mea- 
sures, and a public packer or inspector of meat and fish, bar- 
reled for exportation. Any one of the overseers might act 
as constable, if the latter was indisposed, or on any emergency, 
provided he carried with him the staif of the office. From 
among the overseers, the constable selected the jurors who 
attended the courts of session and assize. And in all mat- 
ters, such as the disposing, building upon, planting, and the 
like, of their lands and woods, granting of lots, election of 
officers, assessing of rates, &c. a majority of the overseers, 
with the consent of the constable, were empowered to ordain 
such "peculiar constitutions" as were necessary for the wel- 
fare of the town, provided they were not of a criminal nature, 
and the penalties did not exceed twenty shillings for one 
offence, and were not repugnant to the public laws, and were 
confirmed by the court of sessions. 

The constable was ordinarily chosen on the first or second 
day of April, yearly, by the major vote of the freeholders in 
the town, and was presented in person by the old constable 
and overseers to the next court of sessions ensuing, when he 
was sworn into office, the insignia of which was a staff about 
six foot long, with the king's arms on it. Thence he was re- 
quired to attend each sitting of the court of sessions, unless 
an overseer, bearing the staff, should supply his place, or he 
be excused by the justices on the bench; under a penalty of 
five pound for every day's absence. The constable was to 
whip and punish offenders, raise the hue and cry after murder- 
ers, manslayers, thieves, robbers, and burglars; and also appre- 
hend without warrant such as were overtaken with drink, 
swearing, or sabbath-breaking, and vagrant persons, or night- 
walkers, provided they be taken in the manner, either by the 


sight of the constable or by present information from others. 
He could command the help and assistance of any other per- 
son upon a penalty for their refusal ; and could, without war- 
rant, if the case was urgent, search any house or place suspected 
to be the receptacle of stolen goods, or the person of an offender. 
It was his business, where cases of debt or tresjDass under five 
pounds arose between neighbors, to nominate two indifferent 
persons as arbitrators He was to collect all fines and amerce- 
ments; and distrain for rates where they were refused to be paid. 
He, with the concurrence of two overseers, was to satisfy every 
person, either Christian or Indian, for the killing of wolves, to 
the value of an Indian coat for each wolf, to be paid out of the 
public rate; evidence being produced that the animal was 
killed on Long Island, and not elsewhere; and the constable 
and overseers were to cause the heads to be nailed over the 
door of the constable, there to remain, as also to cut off both 
the ears, in token that the head was bought and paid for. The 
constable was authorized to "famish the Indians with such 
quantity of powder and shot as may be thought necessary for 
their Idlling of wolves, and provisions ; and also may permit 
them to have their guns mended." * 

Actuated by a very proper desire to become acquainted 
with the laws by which they were in future to be governed, 
the people of Newtown, at their next meeting, held on March 
15th, 1665, for the election of town officers, resolved to provide 
themselves with a "law book." This code instituted regula- 
tions for the embodiment and discipline of the militia, equally 
minute and curious, and which will be noticed hereafter. In 
keeping therewith. Gov. Nicoll, on the 21st of April, issued 
commissions to the of&cers of Newtown, constituting Thomas 
Lawrence, captain, Kalph Hunt, lieutenant, and Gershom 
Moore, ensign. 

Part of the advantage anticipated from the interest secured 
in the meadows at the south side of the island, was the privi- 
lege of driving thither the swine of the village, where in com- 
mon herds they might roam upon the beach, and subsist on 
the shell-fish that it afforded ; while the corn-fields would tlius 

1 "A wolf killed by Peter, the Indian, the 9th of June, 1667." Newtown 
Records, A. 71. 


be preserved from tlieir depredations, whicli " in regard their 
fences were defective," had hitherto proved a great annoyance, 
and the cause of much litigation in the town court. Accord- 
ingly, "about the beginning of harvest," Caleb and Eleazar 
Leverich, with others of the inhabitants, drove their hogs 
thither, but those of William Blomfield, one of the company, 
could not be found at the time appointed, but were finally dis- 
covered in the corn of Francis Kitfield, employing themselves 
most assiduously. On inspection, it was found that the fence 
opposite Kitfield's corn " was no fence, but boughs and rotten 
sticks," yet it was supposed " that it might have kept out such 
swine that had not a taste of the corn." Damages were laid 
by Kitfield, at ten bushels of peas, and recovered. 

Similar events, which tended to set neighbors at variance, 
induced the overseers to adopt a set of rules "■ for the well- 
subsisting of the town concerning fences, fields, and highways," 
which, being approved by the court of assize, Sept. 12th, 
1665, were entered upon the records of the town court. They 
provided that all fences of common fields should be kept up 
and in repair constantly, in winter as well as in summer ; and 
all other fences to be set up and completed by the first of 
March, yearly. Any person found guilty of letting down any 
bars or fence, or setting open any gate to the damage of his 
neighbor, should repair damages, and be punished or fined at 
the discretion of the court. Trees felled upon the highway 
were to be removed within forty-eight hours ; and owners of 
lots were to stub and clear the highway in front of their land 
to the width of eight rods, or where there were lots on both 
sides, to the middle of the street, "for a highway both for 
carts and cattle to pass." This was to be done by the last of 
April, in default of which, others were to be hired to do it at 
the expense of those so negligent. 

In the meantime, some progress having been made in the 
settlement of the Indian reservation, the inhabitants, in 1666, 
prepared to effect the purchase of this land from the Indians. 
At their desire, Capt. Eichard Betts went to New-York, on 
June 23d, and obtained the governor's licence for this purpose, 
and sixteen days after, the purchase deed was executed, and 
acknowledged by the chiefs before the governor, and head men 
of Newtown, and the Indian title to the territory -extinguished 


for the sum of seventy-six pounds, nine shillings. The deed 
was as follows : — 

Know all men by these Presents, that We, Rowerowestco and Pom- 
waukon, do acknowledge and confess that we have firmly and jointly sold, 
alienated and made over all our lands from us, our heirs, executors, admi- 
nistrators and assigns, to the inhabitants of Newtowne, alias Middelburg, to 
them and their heirs for ever, as their own proper and free land or lands, im- 
munities, appurtenances, privileges and all whatsoever did unto the afore 
Sachems or Indians belong: from a small creek called by the Indians Cana- 
paukah, where Burger's mill stands ; from thence, going upon a straight line 
north-eastward to a certain creek called Sackhickneyah, where Wessel's mill 
stood: so bounded by the Bay side till it come to the mouth of Flushing 
creek, so commonly called : so running towards the south-east bounded by 
the creek side, till it extends itself to the south side of the hills upon the 
line: from thence running upon the line westward by the south side of the 
hills, till it meet with the south line which is extended from the west branch 
of Mespat Kills, called Quandoequareous, by a Dutchman's land, called Hans, 
the Boore : from thence to the mouth of Mespat Kills, by the Indians so 
called : these aforesaid bounds or tract of land with all the appurtenances 
thereunto belonging, we, the aforesaid Indians have sold in the year one 
thousand, six hundred, fifty and six, unto the aforesaid inhabitants : only we 
reserved the privilege of a certain part of upland lying on the south side of 
the aforesaid town, for our use for hunting, and sold them only the grass for 
mowing and feed and timber , and have really and fully sold them and theirs 
for ever the feeding, mowing and timber of tlie foresaid land ; and were firmly 
bound and engaged in our bill of sale, never to sell or dispose of the said 
privileges which we had there reserved, to any other but to the inhabitants 
of Newtowne : — therefore, we the said Indians, according to our words and 
obligations, do here by these presents manifest ourselves to have received 
full satisf;iction of the foresaid inhabitants, for the privileges we then reserved 
in the foresaid tract of land, and do really and absolutely give them and 
their heirs for ever, as full right and title to all the privileges of the snid tract 
of land, as we can or may of any of our lands that we have or shall sell : 
denying ourselves of any interest therein, or any claims of any other whatso- 
ever of all the lands, appurtenances or privileges within the said bounds, we 
say, we have really sold as aforesaid to the inhabitants of Newtowne, as their 
own proper free lands: we say from us, our heirs, to them, their heirs, for- 
ever. Whereunto we have set to our hands, this 9th of July, 1666, and iH 
the 12th year of his Majesty's reign, 

PoMWAUKON, X his mark. 
Rowerowestco, X his mark. 
Signed, sealed, in the presence of us, 

John Pounds, 

John Napper, 

Armorehern, X his mark. 

Chawescome, X his mark. 


Recived of the inhabitants of Newtowne, full satisfoction for all the fore- 
said lands which herein is specified, we say received by us the 9th of July, 
1666, the sum of fifty-five pounds for the first payment; the second and last 
payment, now paid, twenty-one pounds, nine shillings. 

PoMWAUKON X his mark. 
RowEROwESTCo X his mark. 
Recorded in the office of New-York, the 13th of July, 1666, by me, 

Matthias Nicoll, Secretary} 

Careful inquiry as to what tribe these chiefs belonged has 
resulted in a reasonable probability that they, as well as those 
who sold Hellgate Neck to William Hallett, were of the Ca- 
narsee tribe, a clan of reputed power, whose jurisdiction 
extended over the whole of King's county, the islands in 
Hellgate, and says Ocallaghan, some part of Newtown. 

The extinction of the Indian title to the soil forms an inte- 
resting epoch in the history of the town. The red man was 
no longer able to withstand the advance of civilization ; the 
country began to wear marks of human thrift that made it 
uncongenial with his ideas of wild solitude and savage life ; 
his hunting-grounds invaded, the deer and the beaver driven 
from their haunts, he must needs seek for himself a new home 
in the unbroken forests. It is probable that the most of them 
vacated the town at about the period of their last sale to 
the whites, though there is evidence that scattering ones re- 
mained for a number of years later, some of whom had their 
wigwams at Mespat Kills. But the memory of these has long 
since perished. Occasionally an exhumed relic reminds us 
that they once lived. The rude implements which they used 
in the pursuits of peace and the prosecution of war, are the 
only existing mementoes of the red men of NeAvtown. These 
consist chiefly of stone axes and arrowheads, and arrows of 
reed. The late Judge Furman, of Maspeth, had a handsome 
collection of them, procured in that neighborhood. Upon the 
property of Mr. Jackson, at the Poor Bowery, was an exten- 
sive deposit of burnt shells, the remains of their clam-roasts, 
from which Mr. Fish, former proprietor of the farm, is known 
to have carted scores if not hundreds of loads, to fertilize his 
land : and on the property of Mr. Kouwenhoven, adjoining, 

1 Sec'y of State's Office, Albany, Deeds ii. 135; also entered in New- 
town Records, ii. 261. 


there formerly existed a burial place, where, in nurabers, the 
remains of the red men sleep their last sleep, though every 
outward appearance of a sepulchre for the dead is now oblite- 

Having thus extinguished the Indian title to all their lands, 
and received a full acquittal from the natives, the inhabitants the 
succeeding autumn, proceeded to secure the governor's letters 
patent for the township.' On the 6th of October, they appointed 
Thomas Lawrence, Ralph Hunt, and John Burroughes to get 
a draft of the bounds of the town,^ and obtain a patent, pro- 
mising to bear the expense according to their respective free- 
hold. On March 1st, 1667, the inhabitants made choice of 
several trusty citizens to be named as patentees in behalf of 
the whole town, and the same month the gentlemen entrusted 
with the business obtained the following instrument under 
the governor's signet. 

Richard Nicoll, Esq., Governor-General under his Royal Highness 
James, Duke of York and Albany, and of all his Territories in America; To 
all to whom these presents shall come, sendeih greeting : Whereas, there is 
a certain town in the West Riding of Yorkshire, upon Long Island, situated 
and lying on the north-west of the said island, commonly called and known 
by the name of New Towne, now in tlie tenure or occupation of several 
freeholders and inhabitants, who having heretofore made lawful purchase of 
the lands thereunto belonging, have likewise manured and improved a con- 
siderable part thereof, and settled a competent number of families thereupon; 
Now for a confirmation unto the said freeholders and inhabitants in their en- 
joyment and possession of the premises, Know ye, that by virtue of the 
commission and authority given unto me by his Royal Highness, I have 
ratified, and confirmed, and granted, and by these presents do ratify, confirm, 
and grant unto Capt. Richard Betts, Justice of the peace, Capt. Thomas 
Lawrence, Capt. John Coe, John Burroughes, Ralph Hunt, Daniel White- 
head, and Burger Joost, as patentees for and on the behalf of themselves and 
tlieir associates, the freeliolders and inhabitants of tlie said town, their heirs, 
successors and assigns, all that tract of land which already hath been, or that 
hereafter shall be purchased for and on the behalf of the said town, whether 
from the native Indian proprietors, or otherwise, within the bounds and limits 
hereafter set forth and exprest, vizt. — That is to say, to be bounded east by 
Flushing creek ; north by the Sound ; south by Jamaica line, which runs on 

1 For a list of the freeholders at this period, see Appendix G. 

* An original draft of Newtown, drawn by John Burroughes, is extant, and is 
supposed to be the one referred to in the text. It is rudely drawn, and embraces 
plans of Seller and Plunder's Neck. The localities, Dominie's Hook, Hallett's 
Cove and Hewlett's Island are also noted. 


the south side of the hills ; and west by Mcspat Creek or Kills ; from the 
westerinost branch thereof to extend upon a south line to the south side of 
the hills ; from whence to run eastward along the said south side of the hills 
till it meet with the south line, which comes from the Iiead of Flushing creek 
aforementioned; all which said tract of land within the bounds and limits 
aforesaid, and all or any plantation thereupon, from henceforth are to belong 
and appurtain to the said town ; together with all havens, harbors, creeks, 
waters, rivers, lakes, fishing, hawking, hunting, and fowling, and all other 
profits, commodities, emoluments, hereditaments to the said land and premi- 
ses within the limits and bounds aforementioned and described, belonging 
or in any wise appurtaining ; and also one-third part of a certain neck of 
meadow ground called Seller Neck, as it is now laid out and described, lying 
within the limits of Jamaica, and to have free egress and regress, with liberty 
of cutting and felling of timber or trees for fencing, and as occasion serves, 
to make one or more highways through the upland belonging to Jamaica 
aforesaid, to pass to their said meadow at Seller Neck, or any other meadow 
to them appertaining at the soiith; to have and to hold all and singular the 
said lands, hereditaments and premises, with their and every of their appur- 
tenances, and of every part and parcel thereof, to the said patentees and tiieir 
associates, their heirs, successors and assigns, to the proper use and behoof 
of the said patentees and their associates, their heirs, successors and assigns, 
for ever ; Moreover, I do hereby ratify, confirm and grant unto the said pa- 
tentees and tlieir associates, their heirs, successors and assigns, all the privi- 
leges of a town in this government, and that the place of their present habi- 
tation shall continue and retain the name of New Towne, by which name 
and title it shall be distinguished in all bargains and sales, deeds, records and 
writings ; the said patentees and their associates, their heirs, successors and 
assigns, rendering and paying such duties and acknowledgments as now or 
hereafter shall be constituted and established by the laws of this government, 
under the obedience of his Royal Highness, his heirs and successors. Given 
under my hand and seal, at Fort James, in New-York, on the Island of Man- 
hattans, the 6th day of March, in the 19th year of the reign of our sovereign 
lord Charles the Second, by the grace of God, of England, Scotland, France 
and Ireland King, Defender of the Faith, and in the year of our Lord God, 
1666. [1667 New Style.] 


Tliis spring also witnessed tlie payment of a debt due Ja- 
maica for the tliird of Seller ISTeck, a receipt for wliicli was 
obtained and deposited with the town records. Cotemporary 
with this, a partition of the said neck was effected by the three 
towns to which it belonged, and on the 3d of July following, 
the people of Newtown made an allotment of their portion to 
such of their number as were interested therein. 

Pursuant to a decision of the Hempstead assembly, passed 


Marcli 4tli, 1665, the town-house had been surrendered to 
Mrs. Dought}^, as relict of the Eev. John Moore, and the return 
of the Eev. William Leverich to Huntington, at about the 
same time, had left the township destitute of stated ministerial 
services, a state of things deeply regretted by the pious portion 
of the community. A militia drill was at hand, and on May 
29th, 1667, the merry beat of the drum called the inhabitants 
to muster for parade, each equipped with musket or match- 
lock, and bandoleers after the fashion of those times. These 
occasions, in iNewtown, partook somewhat of the gravity that 
marked their occurrence in Kew England, where they were 
begun and ended with public prayer. Thus a " training day," 
then devoid the revelry that now characterizes it, was not an 
unbefitting occasion to discuss rehgious affairs. Indeed this 
preparation for their temporal security seemed to call to mind 
their souls' danger, while destitute of a spiritual leader. The 
subject was introduced, and resulted in the passage of a reso- 
lution to have a minister if they could procure one. But in 
the infancy of our country, preachers of the gospel were scarce, 
and not easily obtained, and whatever means were taken in 
the above instance, to carry out the wish of the people, failed, 
and they were left for about two years dependent upon such 
wholesome instruction as the pious fathers of the village were 
enabled to impart as they assembled in social meeting for 
praise and prayer. And when we consider that their piety 
had its birth in an age of trial, and was nurtured in the lap of 
persecution, it is not marvellous that in this wilderness home, 
even under adverse circumstances, the flame of Christian de- 
votion should continue to animate them, and exhibit itself in 
their eflbrts to secure the means of grace for themselves and 
offspring. May their descendants prize their religious privi- 
leges not the less. 

Having alluded to one of their martial exercises, it may be 
well in this connection to take a glance at their military system. 
The inhabitants were organized into a single company, under 
a captain, lieutenant and ensign, which officers were elected 
by the company and commissioned by the governor. They 
were required to be "persons of best quality, such as are most 
complaisant to their men, of great courage to all virtuous 
actions, and only fearful of infamy." 


All male persons above the age of sixteen, except certain 
judicial and professional characters, including the minister, 
constable, and schoolmaster, were required to do military duty 
four days in the year at the company drill, and once at the 
general training of the riding. Each was required to provide 
himself with " a good serviceable gunn, allowed sufficient by 
his military officer, to be kept in constant readiness for present 
service, with a good sword, bandoleers, or home, a worme, a 
scowerer, a priming wire, shot bag, and charger ; one pound of 
good powder, four pounds of pistol bullets, or twenty-four 
bullets fitted to the gunn, four fathom of serviceable match 
for match-lock gunn, or four good flints fitted for a fire-lock 
gunn." At their trainings they were " instructed in the comely 
handling and ready use of their armes, in all postures of warre, 
to understand and attend all words of command." In addition 
to this was the service of " watching and warding, when they 
are thereunto required and warned by their officers," this spe- 
cies of service being called for by the peculiar dangers and 
alarms to which, as the inhabitants of a new country, they 
were exposed. 

Such, briefly, was the military service in Newtown at 
that early day, as enjoined by the laws of the province, for 
default of which fines were levied by the civil officers of the 
town, and applied to furnishing the company with halberds, 
or battle-axes, drums, and colors. Disorderly conduct upon 
parade, or upon watch or ward, was punishable by the com- 
missioned officers of the company, by " stocks, riding wooden 
horse, or other military ]3U.nishments ;" or they could turn the 
offender over to the civil authority. On one occasion, a com- 
plaint being made by Thomas Eoberts against Henry Jansen 
for breaking a drum, the town court pronounced this curious 
verdict: "The judgment of the court is that the defendant 
shall procure another drum rim as good as that was before it 
was broken ; and for his contempt for not appearing, that he 
pay all costs of court, and six shillings to Lieut. Moore and 
Thomas Eoberts, ybr_/ia:m^ another drumy 

During the present and the succeeding year, the settlers 
seem to have given increased attention to the cultivation and 
improvement of their lands. This summer eleven landholders, 
oil the north side of the village, enclosed their premises in a 



single field, in wliicli tliey raised their usual crops. By tliis 
neighborly arrangement they secured great economy of labor 
in the construction of fences ; but as much depended upon the 
faithfulness with which each performed his part of the work, 
a formal agreement was first made, signed and recorded, by 
which each person was required to set up and maintain his 
share of the fence, under a penalty for neglect. Their agree- 
ment is dated Jan. 4, 1666-7, and undersigned by John Bur- 
roughes, Francis Doughty, Ealph Hunt, John Lauronson, 
James Lauronson, John Stevenson, Daniel Bloomfield, Eichard 
Osborn, John Keeder, Jonathan Hazard, and John Moore.* 

The main articles of produce to which the farmers of New- 
town gave their attention at this period, were wheat, peas, rye, 
Indian corn, and tobacco, the last being a staple commodity. 
Attention had also been given to the culture of fruit trees, and 
luxuriant orchards of apples, pears, and peaches, began to 
repay the toil of the husbandman, and to yield quite as abun- 
dantly as the orchards of Europe, whence these productions 
had been imported by the settlers.^ 

Plans being laid, the succeeding winter, by some of the 
inhabitants, for the occupation of more land, the town thought 
it expedient to resolve, in public meeting, Jan. 31st, 1668, " that 
whosoever shall now or hereafter take up land shall not build 
anywhere but on their homelots, without the town's consent." 
This measure was evidently designed to prevent the settlement 

' On Dec. 10th, 1667, tlie town court authorized Richard Owen to impound 
the cattle, &c. that should be found in the common field, and to receive for 
his services 12 pence each for horses, 6 pence a head for neat cattle, and for 
swine 4 pence a piece. The following is an imperfect list of pound-keepers 
in Newtown village from that date up to the Revolution : — Henry Sawtell, 
appointed July 6th, 1669; Gershom Hazard, May 5th, 1699; Benjamin Se- 
verens, Feb. 4th, 1711, whose widow kept it after his death; Capt. Samuel 
Fish, Jr. April 6th, 1742 till 1757; James Wood, April 5th, 1757; Samuel 
Fish, Jr. April 4th, 1758, till 1767; Abraham Rapelye, 3d, April 5th, 1768; 

Abraham Riker, Jr. April 4tli, 1769; Samuel Morrell, April 3d, 1770; 

Bloodgood, April 2d, 1771; Samuel Wainwright, April 7th, 1772 till 1782; 
Elizabeth Wainwright, April 1st, 1783. 

' The far-famed Newtown Pippin, which, " when perfectly matured, is con- 
sidered by some the finest apple in our country," was first cultivated in an 
orciiard near Newtown village by one of the Moore family. Last winter 
they sold in England at 5 cents each, or $20 a barrel, wholesale. 



from becoming scattered, that tHe inliabitants miglit be in a 
situation for united actioii ^ " any case of emergency ; and it 
was probably suggested by an alarming fire that occurred 
about this time on the premises of Ralph Hunt, the constable, 
by which his dwelling, barn^ out-houst-s, and all his effects were 
consumed, together with a quantity of coiv^''ta'J;. had been col 
lected of the inhabitants as public rates. ^ .T]ie discharge of a 
gun was understood to be the signal of alai-m when danger 
was near, and a fine of ten shillings was declarev"" against any 
one who should shoot off a gun after sunset, excepi": for the 
above object. The frequent taking up of land, rendered it 
necessary to appoint permanent surveyors, and at the before- 
named meeting, on January 1st, Ralph Hunt, Daniel White- 
head and John Burroughes were chosen to this office, and their 
fees were established at two pence an acre. The spring brought 
with it employment for these gentlemen. On the 23d of 
April a highway was laid out, running " about north-west and 
south-east," through Hempstead Swamp, and apportionments 
of woodland on either side of the way were made to Thomas 
Morrell, Gershom Moore, Henry Sawtell, Richard Fidoe, Tho- 
mas Pettit, Nathaniel Pettit, each ten acres, and to Jonathan 
Strickland six acres. Thus are we introduced to several of 
the earliest landholders in this section of the township, then a 
dense wilderness, but now including some of the best farms 
within the limits of the town. 

Amid their honest toil the husbandmen of Newtown were 
not exempt from the common discouragements and afflictions 
incident to our nature. This fall the families about the Eng- 
lish Kills were visited by a distressing sickness, which is 
supposed to have been fever and ague. A pond of stagnant 
water was suspected as a principal cause, and the attention 
of the town court being directed to it, the following order 
was issued on October 2d : — " Whereas there hath been com- 
plaint made to this court against John Scudder, Sen. by several 
of the inhabitants, for making a dam, which hath, and still 
doth stop the passage of the water, at or near to Fowler's Bridge 
or run, which is a great annoyance, and it is conceived a great 
cause of so much sickness among them ; the court doth there- 
fore order that the said John Scudder shall forthwith cut the 
said dam, whereby the said water may have free passage 

80 A N N A L S O F N E W T OWN. 

through it ; under the penalty of five pounds sterling." _This 
pond long retained the name of ^ ^adder's Pond, and obtained 
notoriety in connection with the boundary quarrel between 
Newtown and Bush wick. It eventually went in possession of 
the Schenks, who owned a grist-mill there, only the ruins of 

which now raTiliK ; 

As the season Ivad again arrived for activity in the woods, 
to ply the rinffjvig axe, cut fuel, make clearings, erect fences, 
and prepare f r the approaching seed-time, the inhabitants were 
led to adopt, during the winter of 1668-9, several measures 
for the encouragement of labor. It was resolved that any in- 
habitant might take up and cultivate any of the common land 
in the woods for five years, provided he would then sow it 
with hay-seed, and throw it in common again. Liberty was 
given the inhabitants to fell timber for their use in any of the 
unfenced lands ; but to prevent an abuse of this j)rivilege they 
Avere prohibited from carting such wood or timber to the water 
side, "for strangers of another town," under a penalty of ten 
shillings per load. To ofier an inducement for some j^ersons 
to undertake the clearing of Juniper Swamp, it was agreed 
that any inhabitant might take and clear land there to the ex- 
tent of thirty rods wide through the breadth of the swamp, 
and it should be his own. It was moreover resolved that all 
the common meadow belonging to the town should be equallv 
laid out to the several purchasers, reserving, however, forty 
acres of Trains Meadow " for poor men which have no mea- 
dow." The liberty of cutting timber or fuel on the common 
land, to sell, was afterwards confined to such only as should 
plant "two acres of corn." And in 1676, it was found necessary 
for the preservation of the timber, to enact that none of it 
except firewood should be transported out of the town. 

Although agriculture was at this period the leading em- 
ployment of the inhabitants, yet they in most instances united 
Avith it some useful mechanical branch. That was an age when 
necessity largely developed social and domestic resources; 
when the well-regulated farm contained within its OAvn bounds 
the elements of a comfortable subsistence, and every neighbor- 
hood formed an independent community. But yet due encour- 
agement Avas given to honest craftsmen to settle among them. 
Such Avere gratuitously supplied Avith land for cultivation, and 

A N X A L S OF N E W T O W N , 


received the usual privileges of citizens, though there was not 
unfrequently annexed this or a similar provision : " that he do 
work for the town's people as cheap as we can have it of other 
workmen." ' The benefit of attracting into their society skill- 
ful mechanics and men of useful professions, seems to have 
been duly appreciated, and such persons were preferred to any 
other. Hence, in 1674, when it was found expedient to with- 
hold the giving of any more land to strangers "till all the 
inhabitants have their proportions," this saving clause was 
made in their vote, " except it be to some useful tradesmen." 

Newtown was still destitute of a minister. During the 
summer of 1668 effort had been made to obtain some " able 
orthodox dominie " from New England, and the people declared 
themselves willing to provide "a comfortable maintenance, 
with other conveniencies." But this proving ineffectual, atten- 
tion was again directed to the Eev. William Leverich, and it 
was resolved, on Dec. 2d, of the last named year, to invite him 
to become their pastor, in case he was not under other engage- 
ments. At the desire of the town, several of the leading citi- 
zens, in conjunction with the constable and overseers, drew up 
and submitted proposals to Mr. Leverich, which he accepted. 
Preparatory to his removal to Newtown he purchased the 
residence of Jonathan Hazard, near that village, April 13th, 
1669. Several days after he disposed of his estate in Hunt- 
ington, and soon entered upon his new charge, in connection 
with which he was destined to end his ministerial labors. 

This year was marked by a revival of the dispute between 
Newtown and Bushwick, respecting the meadows at Mespat 
Kills. The latter town, not content with the decision passed 
at Hempstead, had obtained a patent from Gov. NicoU, Oct. 
25th, 1667, covering a large part of the meadows in contro- 
versy, together with some twelve hundred acres of upland 
within the Newtown patent. Newtown then resumed its origi- 
nal claim ; measures were taken to allot all the unappropriated 
meadow land in the township, and on March 11th, 1668, all 
the public interest in Smith's Island, derived "either by pur- 

' These were the terms accompanying a gift of land in 1679, to Francis 
Combs, a cooper. He died in 1700, and his two sons, Francis and Thomas, 
afterwards removed to Hopewell, N. Jersey. His daughter Elizabeth mar- 
ried Robert Blackwell, au uncle of Col. Jacob Blackwell, of the Revolution, 


cliase or patent," was given unto James Way and John Hart. 
These proceedings stirred up the ire of Bushwick, and at the 
opening of the court of sessions, at Gravesend, March 17th, 
1669, the inhabitants entered a complaint, and petitioned for a 
settlement of their title. But that body declined to act, upon 
the gTOund that one of its members, Capt. Betts, was interested, 
and referred it to the governor, should the parties, whom 
the court earnestly advised to conclude among themselves a 
friendly agreement, fail of affecting that object. 

Meanwhile, to relieve the uncertainty of the dwellers on 
the disputed lands, who knew not in which township to regard 
themselves, the governor, in May, directed that Hendrick 
Smith, and others, residing there, should " attend the general 
training, and other military duties," in Bushwick, because "the 
military company of Newtown will be of a competent number 
without them, and those of Bushwick being far inferior in 

No agi'eemcnt taking place, the parties, pursuant to an 
order from the governor, presented their cause for trial before 
the council of the province, on the 28th of June, when Capt. 
Richard Betts, Capt. Thomas Lawrence and John Burroughes, 
appeared on behalf of Newtown. The counsel employed by 
Bushwick founded their claim on the order issued by Governor 
Stuyvesant, directing that Bushwick have the meadows "if 
not formally granted to others," and on the decision given in 
their favor at Hempstead. In defence, Newtown plead their 
Indian purchase, and its confirmation by Gov. Nicoll, to Avhich 
were added the depositions of Eobert Jackson and Richard 
Gildersleeve, Jr. that the meadow in dispute "was laid out a 
long while since for Newtown, before Bushwick was a town." 
Robert Coe, and Richard Gildersleeve, Sen. former magistrates 
of Newtown, also testified that they laid out the said meadow 
for Newtown, by virtue of an order received from Gov. Stuy- 
vesant. The evidence strongly favored the claim of Newtown, 
but the council, apparently unable to determine the question, 
referred it to the court of assize. 

In preparation for the further prosecution of this affair, 
Capt. James Hubbard, of Gravesend, was emploj'ed to make a 
survey of the disputed bounds, the draft of which is still pre- 
served, and purports to be a "description of Mispath Kills, 


soe farre as to point out y° setuation of y'' place, for som ffar- 
ther information of two houses formerly inhabited, y" one by 
Hance y^ Boore w*^^ were Hance Hansonn, j^ other called 
y*^ Poles house." The latter stood on or near the spot now 
occupied by the dwelling of Underhill Covert, and is presumed 
to have been the "ancient Dutch house" mentioned in the 
Hempstead decision. 

The subject came up for trial at the assizes, the supreme 
court of the colony, on Nov. 4th. Bushwick, the plaintiff, 
based her claim, as before, upon Stuy vesant's order, and the 
decision at Hempstead. In behalf of the defence, Mr. Eobert 
Coe, the high sheriff, deposed that the meadow was laid out for 
Newtown, and that they paid rates for it with their other land ; 
and Kichard Gildersleeve, Sen. testified that he, with Mr. Coe, 
aforesaid, had an order from Gov. Stuyvesant, to lay out the 
meadow in dispute for Newtown, and that his son paid part of 
the purchase thereof from the Indians. After a full hearing 
of the parties, the right of Newtown being plead by their own 
townsman, John Holden, the case was submitted to a jury of 
twelve, who gave in their decision in favor of the plaintiffs, 
the defendants to sustain the costs of suit ; and the court con- 
firmed the verdict. 

While these things were pending, the English towns were 
awaking to a sense of the great injustice which they were suf- 
fering, in being debarred the privileges of a representative 
government. In September, 1669, a convention was held at 
Jamaica, at which Lieut. John Ketcham attended on behalf of 
Newtown. The result was the presentation of petitions by the 
several English towns to the court of assize, the burden of 
which was their exclusion from a share in public legislation in 
the persons of their rciDresentatives. But nothing satisfactory 
resulted from this effort, though a few trifling concessions were 
made, which had the effect of soothing the public mind for the 
time being. 

At this period, the ill condition as well as the limited 
number of the public roads in the vicinity of the Dutch and 
English Kills, subjected the farmers to serious inconvenience. 
In pursuance of their petition, the town court, on March 8th, 
1670, appointed Mr. Burger, Mr. Wandell, John Parcell, and 
Capt. Lawrence, to superintend the laying out of convenient 


highways at the several kills, to be cleared by the last of this 
instant, March. They were moreover directed to observe that 
all fences be kept in good repair, and " to take care of all ways 
and fences to the poor's bowery, and Peter Cornelius his mill." * 
The court of sessions, which met in June following, directed 
the immediate execution of this order, and a report to ,be 

At this time there was " a ferriage at Mespat Kills, for the 
accommodation of strangers." It was kept by Humphrey 
Clay, of Bushwick. The creek was crossed above by a bridge 
on the old highway leading from Brooklyn to Newtown, and 
both the road and the bridge being sadly out of repair, causing 
not only inconvenience, but danger to life and limb, the sub- 
ject engaged the attention of the same court of sessions, who 
issued the following order : 

" Upon complaint of Ealph "Warner and divers others, 
concerning the insufficiency of a certain bridge by the Cripple- 
bush in the usual road betwixt Newtown and the Ferry, 
whereby great misfortunes have happened to several passen- 
gers, the court have thought fit and ordered that the constables 
and overseers of the several towns of Newtown, Brooklyn, 
and Bushwick, do appoint two persons out of each of their 
towns to view the said bridge ; and the town within whose 
bounds it shall be found to be, is forthwith to cause it to be 
repaired fit for travellers to go over without further danger ; 
and it is likewise ordered that the inhabitants of the respective 
towns aforementioned, do cause the roadway betwixt Newtown 
and Brooklyn to be cleared ; their several new fences having 
blocked up the usual old way, which causes many inhabitants, 
as well as strangers, to lose themselves in the woods." 

While attention was thus directed to the temporal comfort 
and prosperity of the people, their moral and religious im- 
provement was hindered, the town being destitute of a suitable 
house for public worship. The Eev. Mr. Leverich was strait- 

' This mill stood on the site of that now of Mr. Jackson, and had been 
recently erected by the ancestor of the Luyster family, Pieter Cornelissen 
Luyster, who bought the ground upon which it stood, from the deacons of 
the Dutch church, at New-York, and obtained the governor's confirmation 
July 16th, 1668. He however sold the premises "by publique outcrye," in 
New- York city, June 11th, 1670, to Capt. Thomas Delavall. 



ened in his labors, and seems to have meditated a removal, 
for the people having met on Dec. 13th, to consider the state 
of their religious affairs, " voted that Mr. William Leverich 
shall continue at this town to preach the word and be our 
minister," and also appointed persons, with the constable and 
overseers, to " agree with Mr. Leverich for his maintenance." 
They further resolved, "that a rate of forty pounds shall be 
made, for the building a meeting-house, the one-half to be paid 
in corn, the other half in cattle." Arrangements were forth- 
with entered into for the erection of the first church edifice 
that graced the village of Newtown, which enterprize was 
among the chief concerns of 1671. It was built upon '' a small 
gore of land," appropriated for the purpose, by Ralph Hunt,' a 
respectable resident of the town ; and this church remained 
for about forty years, the site being now occupied by the 
large house at the south corner of the main street and the Ja- 
maica road, formerly known as the " Corner House," and re- 
cently owned by Peter Duryea. 

' Ralph Hunt was a useful citizen, as the records abundantly prove. He 
served long as a town surveyor, and as an overseer ; and during the reOccu- 
pation by the Dutch, held the office of schepen, or magistrate. He died early 
in 1677, leaving sons Ralph, Edward, John, and Samuel, and daughters Ann 
and Mary — the former then the wife of Theophilus Phillips. Of the sons, 
Ralph and Samuel settled in Jamaica. John was a magistrate in Newtowrt 
for some years, and left a son Ralph, and perhaps others. Edward became a 
man of estate, and died in Newtown in 1716, having five sons, and as many 
daughters — to wit: Edward, born February 4th, 1684; Richard, Ralph, Tho- 
mas, Jonathan, Sarah, Martha, Elizabeth, Hannah, and Abigail. The two 
sons last named continued in Newtown, but Edward and Richard settled in 
Hunterdon county. New Jersey. Of some one branch of this family, early 
transferred from Long Island to New Jersey, was Oliver Hunt, the grand* 
father of Col. George W. Hunt, of White Pot. 


JJe^vtown requests Gov. Lovelace to ordain arbiters between them and Cushwiclt.—- 
Referred to the Sessions. — It affects nothing. — Tlie governor appoints arbitra- 
tors. — They render a decision which is confirmed. — The boundary. — Newtown 
demands pay for their land as the terms of compliance^ — War between England 
and Holland. — New-York recaptured by the Dutch. — Newtown makes obei- 
sance to the States General. — Magistrates chose^i. — Inhabitan'ts reluctantly 
swear allegiance. — The return of peace ends the Dutch rule. — English govern- 
ment restored. — Andross' proclamation sent to Newtown. — Mr. Burroughes, the 
town clerk, replies to it. — His letter gives offence. — The governor institutes an 
inquiry about it. — A town meeting. — 'Burroughes writes another letter. — ^^Court 
■of Sessions report on the affair. — Burroughes arraigned -before the Council. — A 
harsh sentence iutiicted upon him. — Appearance of a new stct of Quakers at 
the English Kills. — Their irregularities. — A complaint against them, and verdict. 
— Thomas Case and two others brought before the Sessions. — Discharged under 
bonds to appear at the Assizes. — Mrs. Case interrupts the congregation at New- 
town while engaged in worship. — The Quakers tried at -the Assizes. — Another 
excitement. — Fear of hostilities from the Indians. — The church enclosed with 
palisades, and other precautions taken. — The cause of apprehension ceases. — 
A public Packer chosen. — Thomas Case goes down the Island preaching. — Is 
arrested, and impri^oned in New-York. — Death of Rev. Mr. Leverich. Steps 
taken to build a parsonage house, and to procure a minister. — Trains M-eadow 
and others divided. — Land appropriated for a parsonage farm. — Rev. Morgan 
Jones engaged to preach. — Finds difficulty in collecting his salary. — He re- 
moves to Staten island. — A chaisge m iShe mode of sustaining the mir.istry. — 
Sundry occurrences.^A census taken. 1671 to 1683. 

The boundary question was still in agitation between Busli- 
"wick and Newtown, and the latter town, anxious to have their 
limits permanently fixed, presented a request to the governor 
'cind council to appoint some indifferent persons to view and 
ilay out the bounds between them and their neighbors of Bush- 
wick. The council referred the case to the court of sessions, 
before which the parties in dispute had a hearing in Bee. 1671. 
It resulted in the appointment of Capt. James Hubbard, Mr. 
Hichard Cornell, Capt. Elbert Elbertsz Stoothoff,^ and Capt. 

' Capt. Elbert Elbertsz Stoothoff emigrated in 1637 from Nieukerken, 
settled at Flatlands, a»d there lived till the beginning of the next century. 
He was long a justice of the peace, and held other honorable offices. He 
was twice married, Jirsl, in 1645, to Aeltie Cornells, widow of Gerrit Wol- 
tTertse Van Couwenhoven; and secondly, in 1683, to Sara Roelofse. He was 
the common nneestor of all tkose aiixMig us now bearing the name of 


Jacques Cortelyou, to visit and review tlie lands in dispute 
and "endeavour a composure betwixt them." It was now 
iioped that parties would agree, but the summer of 1672 found 
them still at variance. They were willing to make some con- 
cession, and again the inhabitants laid several applications 
before the governor, who thereupon issued his commission, 
June 26th, to the gentlemen nominated by the court of ses- 
sions, and with them Thomas Delavall, Esq., and Mr. Matthias 
Nicoll, two members of the council, to take a careful observa- 
tion of the premises, advise with the respective parties, and do 
their "utmost to effect a conciliation. Those gentlemen (Elias 
Doughty, Esq. of Flushing, acting instead of Mr. Cornell,) 
immediately entered on their commission. Authorized depu- 
tations from the respective towns met them on the premises, 
and at length an agreement was effected. Bushwick conceded 
Smith's Island, and Newtown yielded the large tract of upland 
to the southward, mentioned in Bushwick patent. The com- 
missioners reported this gratifying result to Gov. Lovelace on 
the 28th of June, and his excellency was pleased to confirm 
the proceeding, as follows : — " All the valley or meadow ground 
on the westernmost side of the creek of Mcspat Kills, shall be 
and belong to the inhabitants of Boswyck, that is to say, from 
the mouth of the said creek to run throvigh and part the mea- 
dow ground or valley about the middle, so to go on in the 
western branch of the said creek, to a certain pond into which 
the creek runs, called Scudder's Pond, near whereunto the 
fence of Ilendrick Barent Smith now stands, and that Smith's 
Island, commonly so called, and all the valley or meadow 
ground on the east side of the creek adjoining or contiguous 
to the said island, shall be and remain to the inhabitants of 
Mespat Kills or Newtown, although expressly mentioned in 
the patent of Boswyck, for that it seems more properly to be 
within the limits of Newtown ; in consideration whereof, and 
in lieu of six hundred rod, mentioned in their patent, to run 
into the woods upon a south-east and by south line, as also for 
an enlargement of their bounds as to the upland, of which 
they have occasion, the inhabitants of Boswyck shall have 
and enjoy all the land whether upland or other, beginning from 
the fence aforementioned, near Scudder's Pond, to run upon 
a south south-east line till it comes to the hills ; that is to say, 



all the land in the western side thereof, including the planta- 
tion, both u|3land and meadow ground, belonging to the said 
Hendrick Barent Smith, within the limits of their said town, 
or so much thereof as shall be within the line aforesaid, and 
that the said Hendrick be a member of said town," 

When the result became known to the people of Newtown, 
no little dissatisfaction was expressed at the terms of the com- 
promise. A meeting was held on the 23d of August, and a 
deputation appointed to wait upon the governor, and inform 
him that unless Bushwick should satisfy them for the expense 
incurred in the purchase of the land ceded to them by the 
committee, they were unwilling to yield it, but intended to 
hold possession " according as it was confirmed by Governor 

Early in the succeeding year, 1673, the startling news 
was received that England and Holland were again involved 
in a war. Orders arrived to Gov. Lovelace to put the pro- 
vince in a state of defence, but so inefl&cient were the means 
toade use of to fortify the city of New- York, that a Dutch 
squadron under Commodores Binckes and Evertsen, returning 
from a predatory visit to the West Indies, entered the harbor, 
and on July 30th captured the place with very little opposi- 
tion. Most suddenly and unexpectedly the inhabitants found 
themselves under their old masters. Capt. Anthony Colve 
was appointed governor by the naval commanders, and imme- 
diately began to reinstate the Dutch government. He issued 
his proclamation to the several towns to come and make their 
submission to the States General. 

Newtown prepared to obey "the order, and deputed Lieut, 
John Ketcham and John Burroughes, who on the 22d of 
August, new style, presented themselves before "the lords, 
commanders, and the noble military council," in the fort 
at New-York, bearing with them the English colors, and a 
constable's staff, in token of their submission, and at the same 
time petitioning for the uninterrupted enjoyment of their priv- 
ileges. In answer they were assured that they should be 
allowed the same immunities as were granted the inhabitants 
and subjects of the Dutch nation. They were directed to no- 
tify their town of " Middelburg " to nominate six persons, from 
whom the honorable court should select three for magistrates, 


and also to appoint two deputies to unite with others of " Eust- 
dorp, Heemstede, Vlissingen, and Oyster Bay," in the presenta- 
tion of three nominees for the office of scout, or sheriff, and 
three for that of secretary, which two latter officers were to 
have authority over these five named towns, now to be united 
in one jurisdiction for the better subserving of the ends of 
justice. The town complied with this order on August 24:th. 
The candidates for the magistracy were Gershom Moore, Eich- 
ard Betts, Jonathan Hazard, John Ketcham,' Ealph Hunt, and 
John Burroughes, of whom the court, on the 31st, confirmed 
Messrs. Betts, Hazard and Hunt, who were sworn into office 
on the 6th of September. 

In the meantime, Capt. William Knift, and some others, 
had been despatched to the towns and villages to administer 
the oath of allegiance to the inhabitants. On the last day of 
Auo-ust, they came to Newtown, which at that time numbered 
ninety-nine adult male residents, but only twenty -three could 
be found, the rest being absent. The former accepted the 
oath with due formality, while their names were written down 
by Capt, Knift's clerk. Directions were left with the magis- 
trates to administer it to the rest of the inhabitants, and forty- 
eight more were sworn on the 13th of September. Four Qua- 
kers scrupled to take the oath, but promised fealty. These 
were Samuel Scudder, John Way, John Scudder, Jun. and 
Nathaniel Pettit. 

Written instructions were soon after received from the new 
governor, for the guidance of the magistrates in the future go- 
vernment of the town, though in some minor concerns at least 
the people continued to dispense their affairs according to the 

' ' Lieut. John Ketchara was the progenitor of a considerable family, now 
extinct in Newtown, but to be found in other places. He first appears at 
Ipswich, Mass. in 1648, but removed a few years after to Huntington, L. I., 
which town he represented in the Hempstead assembly, in 1665. Coming 
to Newtown in 1668, he was the next year elected constable, from which 
time he was much in public life and enjoyed a large share of popular confi- 
dence. He bought the purchase right of Edward Jessup in the Newtown 
lands, and owned the farms now of Geo. I. Rapelye and Benj. Moore, 
near Newtown village. He died in 1697. His sons were John, who con, 
tinued at Huntington; Philip, who remained in Newtown, and left issue; 
Lieut. Samuel, who also left a family in this town; Nathaniel, who removed 
to Westchester county; and Joseph, who settled at Christian;), in Delaware' 


laws before in force. In fact the transient rule of tlie Dutcli 
afforded time to introduce but few legislative changes. On the 
5th of May, 1674, in pursuance of an order from Gov. Colve, 
Newtown elected Capt. Eichard Betts, a gentleman of great 
popularity, to sit at Jamaica, with magistrates from the associ- 
ated towns, as a court of justice for the trial of civil or criminal 
causes, without the right of appeal, except they exceeded the 
sum or penalty of 240 florins. 

In the early part of this year a treaty of peace was con- 
cluded between England and Holland, which provided that 
this province should be restored to the English in exchange 
for Surinam ; and the new governor, Sir Edmund Andross, 
arriving at New- York, October Slst, received the surrender of 
the place, and by proclamation restored the English form of 
government. The Duke's laws were therein revived and con- 
firmed, together with such grants and privileges as had previ- 
ously been enjo3^ed under his Royal Highness ; all legal judicial 
proceedings during the late Dutch government were pronounced 
valid, while the inhabitants were secured in the possession of 
their lawful estates and property. An order was also issued 
on the 4th of November, reinstating in office for the period of 
six months, the magistrates, constables, and overseers who were 
serving when the Dutch came into power. 

The people of Newtown, on receiving a copy of this j)ro- 
clamation, resolved to send a reply to his excellenc}^ John 
Burroughes, the clerk, in performing this duty on the 16th of 
November, embraced the occasion to speak of the grievances 
they had endured by reason of the arbitrary course of the 
former English government. The court of assize shared the 
censure of Burroughes as with honest freedom he expressed 
the views and feelings of himself and townsmen. But Andross, 
who possessed a most irritable disposition, and was withal 
wholly averse to such freedom of speech, took umbrage at the 
plainness of Burroughes. He forthwith issued a warrant to 
Capt. Betts, residing at the English Kills, which after inform- 
ing him that he had received a paper from the clerk of New- 
town " wherein there are divers unbeseeming and reflecting 
expressions, particularly upon the authority |of the general 
court of assizes," proceeded to direct him " to make inquiry 
and examine into the matters of the said paper, whether it be 

ANNA19 or NEWTOWN* 9\ 

the act of the said town, or the contrivance of some particulay 
persons," and to make report to the next court of sessions, to 
be held at Gravesend,, on Dec. 17th. 

Capt. B'etts set about the investigation. A town-meeting 
was called Dec. 5th, and it being "-put to vote whether the 
town sent the address to the governor,- the town generally 
voted that it is their act : that is to &aj, the copy of the paper 
which came from the governor being read in the public meet- 
ing, voted that the town are willing to send an answer to 
the governor's proclamation, with thankfulness for his care 
towards us." Upon the strength of this somewhat enigmatical 
vote, Mr, Betts proceeded to prepare an excuse for his towns- 
men, while Burroughes, feeling himself as fully sustained, 
addressed another letter to Andross, on Dec. 8tli, similar in 
tone to the former. 

After the sitting of the court of sessions, both these letters 
were read before the members of the council, Jan. 8th, 1675, 
who thereupon directed that their author be summoned before 
them, together with the constable of Newtown, Jonathan Ha- 
zard, to whom a warrant was issued authorizing the arrest of 
Burroughes. On Jaa. 15th, Hazard, with the clerk in his 
custody, appeared before the governor and council. After 
some deliberation, "the constable was discharged, and the 
fault of the town passed by upon the favorable recommenda- 
tion of the court of sessions, at Gravesend, to whom Mr. 
Eichard Betts, a member of that court, had, in obedience to 
the governor's order, made report of the error of the town, 
and their acknowledgment thereof" But no plea availed for 
Burroughes. After a consideration of his case, it was ordered, 
" that he, the said John Burroughes be forthwith committed 
into the custody of the sheriff of this city, to remain in prison 
until some time on Monday next, then to be brought to the 
whipping-post, before the city hall, and being fastened there- 
unto, to stand an hour, with a paper on his breast setting forth 
the cause thereof to be for signing seditious letters in the name of 
the town of Newtown, against the government and court of assizes, 
and that he be rendered incapable of bearing any office or 
trust in the government, for the future." 

Monday, Jan. 18th arrived, and at eleven o'clock, Mr. Bur- 
roughes, then fifty-eight years of age, was brought from his 


prison by Sheriff Gibbs, pursuant to Gov. Andross' warrant, 
and submitted to the humihating sentence aforesaid, exposed 
to the gaze of the populace, and in presence of the common 
council of the city, who had been requested to attend. As 
Burroughes' letters have not been discovered, it is difficult to 
comment justly upon this proceeding. He probably handled 
the court of assize with some severity, having himself had a 
personal rupture with that body some years before ; but if he 
was seeking to stir up sedition, it must be admitted that he 
took a very unusual and honest method to promulge his senti- 
ments and enlist partisans. But the truth is, Andross was "an 
arbitrary tyrant over the people committed to his care," and 
therefore determined to crush, by the imposition of galling 
penalties, every attempt on their part to make known their 
grievances or assert their just rights. 

The spring of this year was marked by the omission of the 
usual election for constable and overseers, and the old ones 
continued to serve till after the June sessions. The reason 
assigned at that court was, as recorded on the minutes, "noe 
new election, having not timel}^ notice." However, several 
regulations were made, in April, for the public convenience, 
namely, that swine should no longer run in the streets, and 
"that all the streets and lanes shall be fenced, and gates made 
convenient for travellers.' 

But the year 1675 was marred by events even more pain- 
ful than the indignity offered to their town-clerk. At the 
English Kills there resided several individuals holding the 
religious opinions of the Friends or Quakers, and who had 
without doubt received the articles of their faith from the lips 

1 The farmers early adopted the practice of setting up gates on the public 
roads crossing their land, so as to exclude strange cattle, and prevent their 
own from straying. The privilege to do this was usually obtained by a 
town vote. The first instance I notice, was in 1664, when John Ramsden 
was permitted " to hang two gates in the highway that goeth to Stevens' 
Point across liis land, provided that he doth not damnify the highway, but 
that all as have occasion thereof have free passage to drive cattle or cart 
without damage." A like privilege was granted to others on sundry occa- 
sions, and these gates were maintained in most case«;, I believe, until within 
a few years, and in several instances are still kept up. It was accounted a 
serious breach of courtesy, if not a violation of the farmers' rights, for a per- 
son to pass these gates without closing them behind him. 


of the distinguislied George Fox during his recent visit to 
Long Island. Among them was Thomas Case who assumed 
the office of a preacher, and at his house at the Kills the 
faithful were wo-nt to convene for worship. He "set up a 
new sort of Quakerism," and labored with great zeal to pro- 
mulgate his views, not unfrequently continuing his meetings 
for many days in succession. But alas ! what extravagancies 
will men entertain. Inspired with a fancied holiness of his 
character and office, he "asserted that he was come to perfec- 
tion and could sin no more than Christ." Nay more, he de- 
clared himself to be God, but afterwards qualified it and said 
he was of God. And he maintained that when he should 
die, he would rise again the third day. Against the people, 
and often against particular individuals, he would denounce 
the judgments of the Lord. On one occasion he significantly 
remarked to John Woollstoncroftes, that he perceived a great 
smell of brimstone. To which the latter retorted, "he was 
afraid Case was going that way." One of his adherents 
claimed to have the gift of languages, and Case, on certain 
occasions, pretended to raise the dead. Among other vile 
principles they condemned marriage, and said it was of the 
devil, perverting that text of Scripture, " The children of the 
resurrection neither marry nor are given in marriage." 

Most strangely were the meetings at Case's house con- 
ducted ; some singing or making odd noises, and either mov- 
ing about "in a dancing quaking manner," or "lying like 
dogs, hogs and cows." Attracted by Case's preaching and 
novelties, both men and women were led to forsake their 
families and neglect their household duties. This soon caused 
trouble. William Smith complained to the town court. May 
16th 1674, in substance, that his helpneet had become no 
longer such, by reason of her constant presence at these meet- 
ings. Upon which the court ordered, " that Thomas Case shall 
not entertain "William Smith's wife in his house unknown 
unto her husband, as he will answer the contrary." This 
public proceeding gave occasion for an audible expression of 
secretly cherished prejudices. William Albertus protested 
that "the Quakers should have no right in court." However 
illiberal such sentiments, it must be admitted that the fanati- 
cal conduct of Case and his sect was calculated to excite them. 



The conduct of the Quakers was at length declared to be 
a disturbance of the peace, a public scandal. Case and two 
of his adherents, Samuel Scudder and Samuel Furman were 
reported to the court of sessions, held at Gravesend, June 15th, 
1675, whose action thereon is thus recorded. " The court hav- 
ing taken into consideration the miscarriages of Samuel Scud- 
der and Thomas Case, Quakers, by disturbing and seducing 
the people and inhabitants of this government, contrary to 
the peace of our sovereign lord, the king, do therefore order 
that they forthwith give security to the value of forty 
pounds each, before Mr. Justice Betts, for their good beha- 
viour and appearance at the assizes." Samuel Furman was 
bound over in the sum of twenty pounds, and charged "to go 
home about his occasions, and not to disturb the people." 

The excitement already produced was now heightened by 
the improper conduct of Mary, wife of Thomas Case. En- 
tering the church at Newtown on Sunday afternoon, Sept. 5th, 
she thus addressed Mr. Leverich, who was in the pulpit : 
" Come down thou whited wall, thou art one that feedest 
thyself and starvest the flock." She was led out of the meet- 
ing by Samuel Moore, the constable, and persuaded to be 
quiet, but this interruption of public worship was deemed 
too serious an offence to be passed by, and Mr. Moore pre- 
ferred a complaint against her at the assizes in October, at 
which time Case and Scudder were also arraigned for trial. 
The witnesses against them were Capt. John Coe, Thomas 
Wandell, David Jennings, John Woollstoncroftos, Jonathan 
Hazard, James Way and Thomas Morrell, the two latter 
being " half Quakers." To the charges brought against her, 
Mrs. Case could only reply that she " went in obedience to 
the Lord, to declare against Mr. Leverich's doctrine." But 
the divine agency in this affair being not so apparent to the 
court, she was lined five pounds. Samuel Scudder, when 
charged with having written a " scandalous letter " to Mr. Le- 
verich, acknowledged it, and was sentenced to pay a fine of 
six pounds or suffer two months' imprisonment, and then 
to be of good behaviour in the penalty of twenty pounds.* 

' Samuel Scudder was the son of John Seudder, who was born in 1619, 
and came from London to New England in 1635, and thence to Mespat Kilb 
prior to 1660- He died near the close of that century. His sons were the 

ANNALS O F N K W T O W N . 95 

Thomas Case was fined twenty pounds, and bound for liis 
good conduct till the next assizes under a penalty of forty 
pounds, " and in case of his pursuing his evil practices to the 
disturbance of the government, or be found amongst any con- 
course of those which do the like either at- home or abroad " 
he was to be imprisoned without bail or mainprize. 

But the year 1675 was not to pass without a third excite- 
ment among the inhabitants of Newtown. This was caused 
by the opening of an Indian war in New England which 
awakened painful apprehensions in the province of New- 
York, lest the Long Island Indians, influenced by King Philip, 
the shrewd and powerful sachem of the Wampanoags, and 
joining the hostile confederacy which this chief was exerting 
himself to effect among the eastern tribes for the destruction 
of the English settlements, might carry their savage warfare 
into the towns and villages of this province. Great alarm en- 
sued, and prudence demanded the immediate adoption of de- 
fensive measures. The council at New- York having issued a 
proclamation in which they endeavoured to allay the fears 
of the inhabitants by assuring them of the falsity of "the 
late reports of Indians' ill intents," advised each town on Long 
Island to prepare some place of security to which they might 
flee for safety, should the enemy make his appearance. 

The people of Newtown, who shared largely the pre- 
vailing alarms, assembled on October 2d. They selected the 
meeting-house as the most commodious and defensive posi- 
tion, and resolved to surround the building with a stockade at 
the distance of twelve feet from the wall, and to erect two 
flankers ; the work to be commenced on the eleventh instant 
and to be completed, "with all expedition," between that and 
the sixteenth of the month. Every man was to lend a hand 

said Samuel, and Joliii, the first of wliom married Phebe, daughter of Ed- 
mund Titus, of Westbury, L. I., and died in 1689. His son Samuel died an 
old man. Aug. 31st, 1764, having issue, Samuel, Mary, who married Peter 
Renne, Sarah, who died single, and Deborah, who married Daniel Denton of 
Elizabethtovvn, N. J. Samuel, last named, married twice, but died witiiout 
issue, Aug. 31st, 1771. John Scudder, son of John 1st, married in 1669, 
Joanna, daughter of Captain Richard Betts, and died in 1732, aged about 87, 
His son Jolin settled at Elizabethtown, N. J. where he died in 1739, leaving 
sons John, Thomas, Richard and Samuel, whose descendants there are highly 


till the work of defence should be finished, and a fine of four 
shillings a day was to be imposed on each absentee. 

For further security a military watch was maintained in 
the village, which the same month was ordered by the gover- 
nor to be increased to a " double and strict watch " in the 
several towns, a report having reached New-York that the 
neighboring Indians were embodying in force, and designed 
the next moon to lay waste the settlements along the Connec- 
ticut shore as far west as Greenwich. The court of assize 
prohibited the promiscuous sale of spirituous liquor, powder 
and ball to the natives, and to prevent those of Long Island 
from crossing to the main and holding intercourse with the 
hostile Indians, it was further directed that all canoes on the 
north shore of Long Island, east of Hellgate, should be se- 
cured by the constables of the several towns on the island, 
and deposited near their blockhouses. Owing in some mea- 
sure to these precautions, the waves of savage warfare did not 
reach the shores of Long Island. The brave Philip, the mov- 
ing spirit in the New England war, and whose very name was 
a sound of terror to the colonists in this province as well as 
New England, was slain, after a fierce and lengthened struggle 
to avenge the wrongs which his countrymen had experienced 
from the whites, and to sweep off these invaders, who, he fore- 
saw, must eventually extend their ambitious sway over the en- 
tire dominions of the red men. The fall of this celebrated 
chieftain, and the dispersion and ruin of the hostile tribes, ter- 
minated the war, restored public tranquillity in the provinces, 
and quiet to the circles of Newtown, so late the scene of 
gloomy apprehension. 

The events just recited did not prevent a due attention to 
public concerns of a more pacific nature. At a meeting of 
the town court on March 29th, 1676, and in consequence of a 
recent requisition of the court of assize, Theophilus Phillips 
was chosen to the ofiice of packer^ to inspect all provisions 
put up in the township for exportation ; this being the first 
appointment of this kind in the town. At an annual town 
meeting, which took place on the day succeeding the last men- 
tioned date, James Way, of the English Kills, a professed 
Quaker, was elected to the office of overseer. This affords 
evidence that the staid and sober portion of that sect enjoyed. 


equally with otlier men, tlie confidence and respect of tlie 
community. It was only tlie wild fanatic wlio distracted so- 
ciety and set authority at defiance, that forfeited that respect. 
Of this class was the misguided Case, whom we last saw ar- 
raigned before a legal tribunal. The discipline then adminis- 
tered was but a temporary check to his zeal. He still held 
meetings at his house, to which those of his sect loved to re- 
sort. As an itinerant also he visited the neighboring towns, 
proclaiming his tenets and his warnings in the several villages. 
But while he preached at Matinnecock, in May, 1676, he was 
suddenly arrested by the constable of Oyster Bay, pursuant to 
an order from Gov. Andross. The charges made against him 
are thus expressed in the warrant for his arrest : he " doth 
continue his extravagant, illegal courses, to the great scandal 
and disturbance of this colony and government, and hath par- 
ticularly deluded and drawn away Ann, the wife of John 
Eogers, and Susannah, daughter of Henry Townsend; and 
notwithstanding the demand and endeavour of the husband 
and father, still deludes, deters and detains them from return- 
ing, and continuing to their duty ; and publicly from place 
to place, hath and utters many unfit gestures and words 
against the law of God and authority, to a general scandal 
and disturbance." 

Again the unfortunate Quaker was immured in a cell, at 
New- York, and even here he preached with unabated ardor 
to crowds who came to visit him. The court of assize consi- 
dering his case, ordered the last fine to be levied by execution, 
and offered him his liberty if he would give new security of 
the like sum of forty pounds, for his good behaviour. This 
he refused to do, and was recommitted to jail, where he lay 
several months longer, but remained firm in his contumacy. 
At a special court, held Jan. 12th, 1677, the following order was 
taken : " Whereas Thomas Case doth refuse to give securitv 
for his good behaviour, according to the order of the last 
general court of assizes ; it is ordered, that in regard thereof, 
and the great concourse of people resorting to him in prison, 
to the great disturbance of many of the neighborhood, he shall 
be so restrained as that no person shall be admitted to come 
to him as formerly, only the ofiicers to supply him with his 
necessary provision of meat, drink, &c." How Case was libe- 


rated does not appear, and I leave him without farther com- 
ment upon his erratic course, or the stern necessity for the 
interposition of the civil authority. As for his sect, it spread 
even to New England, and into New Jersey, and was widely 
known as " Case's Crew." Writers of that day give a most 
unfavorable account of them, and they were disowned by the 
more consistent Quakers, to whom they proved a source of 
great annoyance and vexation.' 

The year upon which we have entered spread a mantle of 
gloom over the township. Their pastor, the Eev. William 
Leverich, died in the early part of 1677. Mr. Leverich ranked 
high among the divines of his day, as an indefatigable laborer 
in the cause of religious truth, to which he brought the highly 
important qualifications of an ardent piety and extensive learn- 
ing.* His loss was therefore deeply felt by the people of his 
charge, who convened a meeting on July 28th, to make pro- 
vision for the future sustaining of the public worship of God 
in their midst. After a formal vote to obtain a preacher of 
the gospel, it was resolved that a house should be built, "for 
the accommodation of a minister," upon land that had been 

" Thomas Case lived at Fairfield, Conn, in 1661, and having prior to that, 
married Mary, widow of Peter Meacock, of Newtown, he removed liither 
within two or three years. He survived his adversities, and died in 1692, 
on his farm, at the English Kills, now owned, I believe, by Edward Waters. 
Having no issue, he left a large estate to his n&phew, William Case, son of 
his brother William. John Case, a resident for a time at Mespat Kills, 
whence he removed to Simsbury, Conn, was probably another brother of 
Thomas. His said brother William died in 1727, having had issue William 
aforesaid, who died in 1716; Thomas, y/ho succeeded to his father's farm 
in Newtown, but I believe finally removed to Salem county, New Jersey; 
and daughters Mary, Meribah, Elizabe'h, Abigail, and Martha, to whom the 
father left all his title and interest in "Mtrtin's Vineyard." 

* An interesting relic of Mr. Leverich exists in the town clerk's office. It 
is a volume of between six and seven hundred pages, about one hundred of 
which are occupied by a running commentary on the first fourteen books of 
the Old Testament, written by his hand, but in part copied from the com- 
mentary of the learned Piscator. The book seems to have been originally 
intended by Mr. Leverich as an index to the subjects he should meet with in 
the course of his study, the pages being numbered and headed with a great 
variety of subjects, written in Latin and arranged alphabetically. But the 
design was not carried out, and after the decease of Mr. Leverich the book 
was given to the town for public records. 


appropriated the previous January "for a minister's lot," 
situated "between the bridge and Content Titus," the same 
being identical with the ground on which the building, late 
the town-house, now stands. Having in mind the controversy 
about the former town-house, they expressly declared that this 
house was "not to be anyways sold or given to any man." 
Yet, for any intimation that appears to the contrary, their pul- 
pit was vacant for several years, though an ineffectual attempt 
was made in 1678 to obtain the Eev. Jeremiah Peck, of Water- 
bury, Connecticut. 

The large extent of common land held by the purchasers, 
and those who had acquired purchase rights, had not been 
suffered to lie untouched and unproductive. From time to 
time, as there was need, these met and made grants of land 
to individual applicants, or authorised the making of new 
dividends or allotments among themselves, which dividends 
were always proportioned to the amount of the " purchase 
right " of each. But, as every one consulted his convenience 
as to the time of taking possession of and improving his quota 
of land, the first allotment appears not to have been wholly 
taken up till 1678. During this year a considerable distribu- 
tion was made. Early in the spring, the fresh meadow land 
lying on the west side of the village, and called Smith's Mea- 
dow, was laid off into lots and apportioned to nine or ten in- 
dividuals. Late in the season Trains Meadow, which hitherto 
had also lain in common, was divided into thirty one lots of 
various sizes, and distributed among the freeholders. And 
the same year fifty acres of land in Foster's Neck, on " the 
highway which goes to the salt meadows," were "sequestered 
and appropriated to and for the use of the minister of said 
town and his successors for ever." These surveys were per- 
formed by Jonathan Hazard and Theophilus Phillips, the 
town surveyors. But these several appropriations were un- 
equal to the increasing demand; and on Sept. 13th, 1679, it 
was resolved to have "a second division of the town's land." 
This allotment was made at the rate of two acres to a shil- 
ling purchase right. 

After a long and serious interruption of public religious 
worship, it was with great satisfaction that the services of 
Rev. Morgan Jones were obtained in the spring of 1680. 


After trial, it was resolved, in a town meeting, April 8d, to 
engage him for a year ; and tlie constable and overseers ac- 
cordingly entered into an agreement with him for the above 
term, to date from the tenth of the previous March, at the 
salary of fifty pounds; the town engaging "to fit the house 
up " for his residence, and fence the grounds about the 

Mr. Jones was the son of John Jones of Bassaleg, in 
Monmouthshire, England, who, there is cause to believe, 
was nearly related to Col. John Jones, one of the judges 
of Charles I, and brother-in-law to Oliver Cromwell. From 
following the plough, Morgan became a student at Jesus 
College, Oxford, where he was educated, and was by distinc- 
tion known as Senior Jones. He settled in the ministry at 
Llanmadock, in Grlamorganshire, Wales ; but, on the passage of 
-the act of uniformity in 1662, refusing to bend his conscience 
to its terms, he suffered ejectment from his parish, a noble 
tribute to his piety. The severer measures which followed, 
probably led Mr. Jones to take refuge in America. Here he 
met with a varied fortune. At one time he is found pursu- 
ing an humble vocation in New England, at another ofiiciating 
as chaplain under Major General Bennet in Virginia. While 
in the latter service he met with some curious adventures 
among the Tuscarora and Doeg Indians.' 

' The following account of these adventures was written by Mr. Jones at 
the desire of his friend Dr. Lloyd, of Pennsylvania, and was afterwards 
published in England in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1740, and Owen's 
British Remains ; also in Rivington's N. Y. Gazette of October 25th, 1777. 

These presents may certify all persons whatsoever, that, in the year 1669, 
I being then an inhabitant in Virginia, and Chaplain to Major General Ben- 
net, Sir William Berkeley sent two ships to search the place which then wag 
called the Port Royal, but now South Carolina, which is sixty leagues to the 
southward of Cape Fair ; and I was sent with them to be their minister. 
Upon the 8th day of April we set out from Virginia, and arrived at the har- 
bor's mouth of Port Royal the 19th of the same month, where we waited 
for the rest of the fleet that was to come from Barbadoes and Bermuda with 
one Mr. West, vi'ho was to be deputy governor of the said place. As soon as 
the fleet came in, the small vessels that were with us went up the river to a 
place called the Oyster Point, for we durst not go up with the great ships 
because of the bar of sand that was before the harbor's mouth. After we 
were seated, I stayed there between seven and eight months, till Ihe 10th of 
November following; at which time being almost starved for want of provi- 


The ministry of Mr. Jones at Newtown had continued 
one year, when trouble arose respecting the collection of his 
salary. This originated in a disrelish of the established law 
of the province, which, while securing to each town the privi- 
lege of choosing its own minister by a major vote, enjoined 
upon every inhabitant to contribute his proportion of the 
salary agreed upon between the minister and the town autho- 
rities. Many regarded this law as unjust, and not without 
reason. Here were individuals differing widely in their reli- 
gious creeds, and yet required so far to compromise their dif- 
ferences as to help sustain a clergyman whose preaching a 
portion could attend only with violence to their consciences. 
Others again, not understanding English, could derive little 
profit from a service in that tongue. 

Some, therefore, refused to pay the minister's tax, " as they 
were rated according to their possessions ;" and against these 
Mr. Jones, who had now left the town, having accepted a call 
from Staten Island, preferred a complaint through the consta- 

sions, I and five more took our flight from thence, and travelled through the 
wilderness till we came to the Tuscarora country, where the Tuscarora In- 
dians took us prisoners, because we told them we were bound for Roanoke, for 
they then had wars with the English at Roanoke ; and they carried us into their 
town that night and shut us in a house by ourselves, and the next day held 
a machcomoco, which, after it was over, their interpreter came to us, and told 
us that we must fit ourselves to die next morning. Whereupon being some- 
thing cast down, and speaking to this effect in the British tongue, " Have I 
escaped so many dangers, and must I now be knocked on the head like a 
dog?" an Indian came to me, who afterwards appeared to be a war-captain 
belonging to the Sachem of the Doegs, (whose original I found must needs 
be from the Welsh,) and took me up and told me, in the British tongue, I 
should not die ; and thereupon went to the Emperor of the Tuscaroras, and 
agreed for my ransom and the men that were with me, and paid it the next 
day. Afterwards they carried us to their town, and entertained us civilly for 
four months; and I did converse with them of many things in the British 
tongue, and did preach to them three times a week in the British tongue» 
and they would usually confer with me about any thing that was difficult to 
them ; and when we came from them, they showed themselves very civil 
and courteous to us. They are seated upon Pantigo river, not far from Cape 
Atros. This is a recital of my travels among the Doeg Indians. 

Morgan Jones, 

The son of John Jones, of Basleg, 

near Newport, in Monmouthshire. 
New-York, March 10, 1685-6. 


ble of Newtown, to the court of sessions, wliicli court directed 
that the law be duly enforced against the delinquents. 

The call for a system of free contribution for the sup- 
port of the ministry now became urgent, and the inhabitants 
assembled in town meeting December 17th, 1681, to consider 
this matter. The result did credit to their judgment, for by 
" a general vote " they declared in favor of sustaining the mi- 
nistry by "a free-will offering, what every man will give." 
This forms a point of interest in the progress of liberal senti- 
ments in this town, and the future arrangements with their 
clergymen were made upon the above basis. 

Several minor events of this date may be briefly noticed. 
At the town meeting above mentioned, Justice Betts and three 
other citizens were appointed " to examine concerning the 
town's rights and business, and see that there be an orderly 
record kept." And persons having " any writing that concerns 
any of the town's affairs " were requested immediately to 
hand in the same to Content Titus, the constable. On July 
26th preceding, the " South Fresh Meadows " were allotted to 
twenty-four persons " concerned in those meadows," most of 
them being present. In August, 1682, an election of consta- 
ble took place, pursuant to an order of the court of sessions, 
directing " Brooklyn and Newtown to make a new choice ac- 
cording to law." During this year measures were taken to 
survey and estimate all the inhabitants' lands, to ascertain 
whether they had more or less than their due quantity. In ear- 
lier days the work of laying out land had often been loosely per- 
formed, both for want of skill in surveying, and because of the 
superabundance of territory. But by the increase of inhabitants 
the soil had now acquired a greater value, and it became im- 
portant to observe more precision in this matter, and to correct 
as far as possible the mistakes of former years. The growth 
of the town, in population, in flocks and herds, &c. is exhi- 
bited by a census taken the next year, 1683, from which it ap- 
pears that it then contained 90 male heads of families ; 1563 
acres of land in occupation ; 109 horses ; 28 colts between one 
and four years old ; 107 oxen ; 340 cows ; 360 young cattle 
between one and four years ; 464 sheep ; and 100 swine. 
This shows commendable progress in the thirty or forty years 
which had intervened since the country was a wilderness. 


The people intent on political freedom. — Petition to the Duke of York. — A General 
Assembly convened. — Adopt a Charterof Liberties. — Legislative changes. — Town 
governinent remodelled. — Commissioners' Court erected. — Offices of Supervisor 
and Assessor instituted. — Rev. Mr. Jones returns to Newtown. — Efforts to settle 
the outbounds. — Gov. Dongan proposes to grant a new charter. — Revival of the 
boundary dispute. — The Governor and Council confirm the arbitration of 1672. — 
Newtown dissents. — The Governor offers to confirm their old patent. — It is 
agreed to. — Dongan's patent to Newtown. — It fi.xes the tenure of their lands, 
and secures the Purchasers' rights. — Tuder's patent. — The Rev. Mr. Jonea 
leaves the town. — Settlement with him. — His character. — Troubles with Flat- 
bush about limits. — Allotment of land along the south bounds. — Political discord 
in the province. — Dread of Popery. — News of the revolution in England — 
Capt. Jacob Leisler seizes the fort at New-York. — Newtown sympathizes with 
the Leisleriaus. — Help garrison the fort. — Committee of Safety chosen. — Sa- 
muel Edsall a member. — Leisler made Commander-in-chief. — Newtown elects 
new civil and military officers. — Leisler becomes Lieutenant-governor. — Mr. Ed- 
sall made one of his Council. — Newtown militia divided into two companies. — 
New officers chosen. — Burning of Schenectady. — Militia ordered from Queen's 
county to reinforce the Albanians. — Leisler's authority resisted. — I'roops march 
against the rebels in Queen's county. — Proclamation issued at Newtown. — Re- 
bels forced to fly. — Violent excitement among them. — They state their case to 
the King's secretary. — They prevail. — Arrival of Gov. Sloughter. — Execution 
of Leisler and Milborue. — Mr. Edsall and others imprisoned, but escape with 
their lives. — Permanency given to the Provincial Government. — Royal patents 
confirmed. — Surveyors of Highways originated. 1683 to 1691. 

The province of New- York liad long suffered grievances 
of a very serious character, arising from the undue authority 
vested in the chief magistrate of the colony, and the popular 
feeling upon this subject now exhibited itself in the form of a 
petition to the Duke of York, asking for such a modification 
of the government as would secure to the people a share in 
public legislation. His Eoyal Highness prudently assented, 
and Col. Thomas Dongan arrived at New- York in August, 
1683, with a governor's commission and special instructions to 
convene a popular legislative assembly. 

The founders of Newtown brought with them to the wilds 
of America the essence of democracy. Deeply imbued with a 
spirit of independence, we behold them constantly struggling 
to inhale a purer liberty than the political atmosphere of either 
the Dutch or English administrations afforded. It was with 


no ordinary sensations of delight therefore that they received 
the warrant of the high sheriff, dated Sept. 29th, authorizing 
them to join in electing deputies to the proposed assembly. 
The freeholders met on Oct. 1st, and appointed Capt. Eichard 
Betts, Samuel Moore, Eobert Blackwell, and Jonathan Hazard, 
to go to Gravesend the next day, and unite with committees 
from the several towns of the riding, in the choice of dele- 
gates to the said assembly, which was to convene at New- 
York on the 17th of the same month. 

The meeting of this legislature, which consisted of the 
governor and council, and seventeen members chosen by the 
people, marked an era of the triumph of popular rights in 
this colony of no mean estimate. Its transcendent act was the 
adoption of a " charter of liberties," which provided for the 
holding of a general assembly triennially, at least ; the mem- 
bers of which (Queen's county being entitled to two) were to 
be chosen by the major vote of the freeholders, so understood 
by the laws of England ; which body, with the concurrence of 
the governor and council, was to enact all public laws, and 
without its consent no tax, tallage, assessment, custom, loan, 
benevolence or imposition whatever, could be levied on any 
of his Majesty's subjects in the province. It moreover conced- 
ed in all cases the right of fair trial by a jury of twelve, and 
in addition to other wholesome specifications, provided that 
no person professing faith in God by Jesus Christ, should be 
in any way molested or called in question for any difference 
in opinion or matter of religious concernment, who did not 
actually disturb the civil peace of the province. 

Other changes which were thought necessary to the welfare 
of the country were instituted. The ridings were abolished, 
and the province divided into counties, Newtown being in- 
cluded in Queen's county, which still remains as then orga- 
nized. In these, full provision was made for sustaining the 
demands of justice ; the court of sessions was to meet twice a 
year, and the court of oyer and terminer annually. And in 
each town a primitive tribunal entitled the commissioners^ 
court, was ordered to be held on the first Wednesday in every 
month, "for the hearing and determining of small causes, and 
cases of debt and trespass, to the value of forty shillings or 
under ;" taking the place of the overseers' court. The form 


of town government was further modified by the introduction 
of the office of assessor, and supervisor ; the latter to have the 
supervision of the public affairs and expenditures of the town. 
Of these, two of each continued to be annually chosen in New- 
town for some years after. The laws establishing these offices 
and the court of commissioners was passed on Nov. 1st. 

On the publication of these laws, the people of Newtown 
testified their high gratification by seasonable measures to 
carry them into efiect. On Jan. 15th, 1684, they elected 
Jonathan Hazard, Gershom Moore, and Samuel Moore, "com- 
missioners, to sit as a town court, to try all causes of diffe- 
rence between man and man, as shall come before them." Two 
days after, the commissioners appeared before Justice Elias 
Doughty, and took the oath of office, at which time also, 
Theophilus Phillips was chosen clerk of the court and mar- 
shal.' By a law passed Nov. 4th, 1685, the jurisdiction of this 
court was extended to causes of £5, or under, and to be in 
force seven years and no longer, but before the expiration of 
this period, the court of commissioners had ceased to exist. 

In the meantime the Kev. Jones having for a year " honest- 
performed his part " at Staten Island, had met with the same 
discouragements there which he experienced at Newtown. The 
French and Dutch inhabitants were averse to paying a minister 
whose language they could not understand. Some of them, as 
a pretext for non-payment, even tried to impugn Mr. Jones' 
character. They declared him a man of "ill-life and conver- 
sation." But this was rebutted by Justice Still well on behalf 
of the English. He had never heard of it ; Mr. Jones had 
been recommended by Sir Edmund Andross, and a majority 

» Theophilus Phillips had two brothers, Joseph and Daniel, residing in 
Newtown, and a sister who married Capt. Henry Mayle of the Island of 
Nevis, and afterwards of this town. They are supposed to have been grand- 
children of the Rev. George Phillips, first minister of Watertown, Mass. 
Mr. Phillips, first named, filled various public stations, and was town clerk 
for twelve years prior to his death, on Jan. 26th, 1689. He was a highly useful 
man. He was thrice married, and by his first wife, Anna, daughter of Ralph 
Hunt, had three sons, to wit, Theophilus, born May 15th, 1673 ; William, born 
June 28th, 1676, who in 1698 became a freeman of New-York; and Philip, 
born Dec. 27th, 1678, who, with Theophilus, removed to what is now I,awrence 
township, in Mercer county. New Jersey, of which place their descendants are 
now among the most respectable inhabitants. 


of the people were satisfied witli him. The court of sessions 
was appealed to, and ordered his salary to be collected. He 
now returned to Newtown, and agreed to accept " a free-will 
offering" for his services. On February 28th, 1684, the town 
resolved "that Mr. Morgan Jones shall be schoolmaster of our 
town, and will teach on the Sabbath day those that will come 
to hear him, allowing him for exercising on the Sabbath day 
Avhat every man will please." 

Meanwhile, though much had been effected through the 
industry of the inhabitants, towards the appropriation and 
improvement of their lands, about nine-tenths of the town- 
ship yet lay in common, and unproductive. Attention was 
directed to the outbounds adjoining the several Dutch towns, 
and particularly to "the land lying next to Bushwick and 
Bedford," as far south as the hills ; their claim to which they 
yet maintained, on the ground of their "purchase and patent." 
The most direct way to secure this valuable land seemed to 
be to place it under cultivation ; and the purchasers met on 
March od, 1684, and resolved to allow any of the inhabitants 
to locate there who were willing to do so. Several gentle- 
men, namely, Mr. Doughty, Edward and Thomas Stevenson, 
Samuel Moore, Eichard Betts, Jun. and Jeremiah Burroughs, 
were appointed " to look out for a place of settlement towards 
the outside of our bounds, next the Dutch," on the succeeding 
day. Four days after, the purchasers allotted twenty acres of 
land apiece to eight of their townsmen who were making pre- 
parations to settle upon the hills, adjoining the Dutch, on con- 
dition that they should make immediate improvement. And 
on the same date it was concluded to make another general 
division of land, in quantity half as much as the last dividend, 
or at the rate of one acre to a shilling purchase right. 

It was while the purchasers were putting forth efforts to 
promote the actual occupation of their outbounds, that they 
received an order from the council-chamber at New- York, re- 
quiring them to bring in their patent and Indian deeds, on 
the 21st of April, for examination preparatory to granting 
them a new charter; an object which Gov. Dongan, by virtue 
of royal instructions, proposed to effect in respect to all the 
towns, for the purpose of definitely fixing the amount of an- 
nual render, or quit rent, to be paid the government in acknoV- 


ledgment for tlieir lands. A revival of the dispute respecting 
their boundaries being now inevitable, the purchasers appoint- 
ed nine of their number to sustain their rights, by legal pro- 
cess, or otherwise, against the neighboring^ towns, which was 
scarcely done when the council issued its order to the inhabi- 
tants of Newtown, Bushwick, and Brooklyn, severally to 
delegate a comnaittee of three, to effect an agreement as to ' 
the limits and bounds of their several townships, and to make 
a report thereon. Kewtown, on April 23d, appointed their 
committee, with full power to act, and also " to dispute our 
case as to the premises before the honorable governor and 
council, if need require ;" while another committee was chosen 
to wait upon Gov. Dongan, and confer respecting " the con- 
firmation of our patent to us and our heirs for ever." It is 
almost needless to remark that the interview of the three com- 
mittees found them widely at issue upon the subject of their 
boundaries, the Newtown men stoutly urging their right to all 
the land covered by their Indian deed, and confirmed to them 
by Gov. Nicoll's patent, which was of a prior date to those of 
both Brooklyn and Bushwick. Upon report of their difference 
to the governor, his excellency directed them to produce their 
evidences before the council, on April 28th, which was done ; 
and that body, after a consideration of the whole question, 
with the decisions of the several English governors, was pleased 
to approve the arbitration made in 1672. Disappointed with 
the issue of this investigation, Newtown dropped the subject 
of their new charter until the following year, when an inter- 
view was had with the governor, in the month of November, 
with reference to the confirmation of their patent, and the 
amount of quit rent to be stipulated. But again the matter of 
boundaries could not be evaded. The governor proposed 
(deputies from Bushwick and Brooklyn being also present) 
to grant a special commission to the judges to try the case 
before a jury half of Dutch and half English, Capt. J. Van 
Cortlandt to be foreman ; but the men from Bushwick declared 
themselves unauthorized to accept the proposition. 

No settlement of this vexed question being likely to occur, 
whereby the issuing of patents to the towns interested was 
stayed, and the government deprived of the emolument which 
attended the granting of these instruments ; the council, at a 


subsequent meeting, with a view to evade the controversy, and 
by consent of deputies from the said two towns, ordered that 
the patents to Newtown and Bushwick should be drawn after 
the manner of their old patents, and dated the same day. 

It was about the beginning of the new year, 1686, when 
Newtown received a draft of the proposed confirmatory char- 
ter. On inspection it was found to require amendment, and it 
was not till the month of September following that the inha- 
bitants were fully agreed on the verbal construction of the in- 
strument. Their improved draft being allowed by the gover- 
nor and council, the new charter, engrossed on parchment, and 
having the governor's signature and the impress of the pro- 
vincial seal, was soon after received, and read as follows : 

Thomas Dongan, Captain-General, Governor and Vice-Admiral of New- 
York and its dependencies, under his Majesty James the Second, by the grace 
of God, of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the 
Faith, Supreme Lord and Proprietor of the colony and province of New- 
York and its dependencies in America, &c. To all to whom these Presents 
shall covciQ, greeting : Whereas the Honorable Richard Nicoll, Esq. formerly 
governor of this province, upon application to him made by tlie inhabitants 
of Newtown, on Long Island, in the year of our Lord sixteen hundred 
sixty-six, did grant unto them a liberty or licence under his hand, bearing 
date the three and twentieth day of June, in the same year, therein authoriz- 
ing and empowering them to make what purchase they should think fit of 
the lands situate between Mespat Kills and the head of Flushing creek, on 
Long Island, aforesaid, and which tract of land the said inhabitants long be- 
fore had been and then were settling and improving ; And whereas the 
inhabitants of Newtown, in pursuance of the said licence, in the same year, 
did, in due form of law, purchase of an'd from the Indian natives all the said 
tract of land situate between Mespat Kills and Flushing creek aforesaid, to- 
gether with all and singular the appurtenances to the same belonging or in 
any wise appertaining, to hold unto the said inhabitants of Newtown, their 
heirs and assigns for ever, as in and by the said recited licence, and a certain 
deed or writing under the hand and seal of Pomwaukon, the Indian owner of 
the said tract of land and premises, bearing date the 9th day of July, in the 
said year of our Lord, sixteen hundred sixty-six ; And Whereas the 
said Richard Nicoll, upon farther application made to him by the said inhabi- 
tants of Newtown, in consideration of the premises, and for divers other 
good causes and valuable considerations, by virtue of the power and authority 
in him then being by force of his commission from and under his said Majes- 
ty, then his Royal Highness James, Duke of York and Albany, &c. did, in 
and by a certain patent under his hand and seal, 'bearing date the sixth 
day of March, sixteen hundred sixty-six, grant and assure to Capt. Richard 


Betts, Capt. Thomas Lawrence, Capt. John Coe, John Burroughes, Ralpli 
Hunt, Daniel Wliiteliead, and Burger Joost, as patentees for and on the be- 
half of themselves and their associates, the freeholders and inhabitants of 
Newtown aforesaid, their heirs, successors and assigns, all that the said 
tract of land herein mentioned to have been purchased from the Indian na- 
tives as aforesaid, bounded on the east by Flushing creek and a line to be 
drawn from the head thereof due south, extending to the south side of the 
hills ; on the north by the Sound ; on the west by the said Mespat creek 
or kills, and a line to be drawn from the most westerly branch thereof due 
south, extending unto the south side of the said hills; and on the south by 
a straight line to be drawn from the south point of the said west line, alongst 
the south side of the said hills, until it meets with the said east line fore- 
raentioned to extend from the head of Flushing creek as aforesaid, as also all 
that one third part of a certain neck of meadow called Seller Neck, situate, 
lying and being within the bounds of Jamaica, upon the south side of Long 
Island, as also liberty to cut what timber within the bounds of Jamaica afore- 
said they should have occasion for, for the fencing of the said neck, and to 
make and lay out to themselves what highway or highways they should think 
fit, for their free and convenient egress and regress, to or from the aforesaid 
neck or parcel of meadow, together with all and , singular the havens, har- 
bors, creeks, quarries, woods, meadows, pastures, marshes, waters, rivers, 
lakes, fishing, hawking, hunting, and fowling, profits, commodities, emolu- 
ments, hereditaments, and appurtenances to the said tract of land and pre- 
mises belonging or in anywise appertaining; To hold unto the said paten- 
tees and their associates, their heirs, successors, and assigns for ever, at and 
under such duties and acknowledgments as then were or thereafter should 
be established by the laws of this government under the obedience of his 
Royal Highness, his heirs and successors ; and further, in and by the said pa- 
tent the said Richard Nicoii did ratify, confirm and grant unto the said paten- 
tees, their associates, their heirs, successors and assigns, all the privileges 
belonging to any town within this government; and that the place of their 
habitation continue and retain the name of Newtown, by which name and 
style to be distinguished and known in all bargains, sales, deeds, records, and 
writings whatsoever, as in and by the said patent remaining upon record, re- 
lation being thereunto had, may more i^Uy and at large appear; And 
WHEREAS the said patentees and the present freeholders and inhabitants of 
the said town of Newtown, hereafter named, have, according to the custom 
and practice of this province, made several divisions, allotments, distinct set- 
tlements and improvements of several pieces and parcels of the above recited 
tract of land within the limits above recited, at their own proper cost and 
charge ; And whereas the present inhabitants and freeholders have made 
application unto me by William Lawrence, Joseph SackettJ" John Way, and 
Content Titus, persons deputed by them, for a more full and ample confir- 
mation of the above said tract or parcel of land and premises contained in 
the aforesaid patent ; Now, for a confirmation unto the present freeholders 
and inhabitants of the said town of Newtown, their heirs and assigns, in the 
quiet and peaceble possession and enjoyment of the aforesaid tract of land 



and premises, Know te, that I, tlie said Thomas Dongan, in consideration 
of the premises, and for divers other good and lawful considerations, by 
virtue of the commission and authority in me now being, from and under his 
said Majesty, and power in me residing, 1 have ratified, confirmed and grant- 
ed, and by these presents do ratify, confirm and grant unto Captain Rich- 
ard Betts, Thomas Stevenson, Gershom Moore, Jonathan Hazard, Samuel 
Moore, Daniel Bloomfield, Caleb Leverich, Edward Stevenson, Joseph Sack- 
ett, Samuel Scudder, Robert Field, Sen. Thomas Wandell, John Ketcham, 
Thomas Pettit, John Way, Robert Field, Jun. Jonathan Strickland, John 
Smith, Josias Furman, Sen., George Wood, Sen. Nathan Fish, Edward Hunt, 
Jeremiah Burroughs, Richard Betts, Thomas Betts, John Scudder, Jun. Jo- 
nathan Stevenson, Thomas Case, John Albertus, James Way, Cornells Jan- 
sen, Abram Joris, John Coe, Samuel Fish, Joseph Burroughs, William Os- 
born, John Burroughs, Thomas Robinson, Jane Hays, Jacob Reeder, John 
Reeder, Richard Owen, Wouter Gysbertsen, John Pettit, Thomas Morrell, 
John Roberts, Isaac Swinton, Elias Doughty, Thomas Lawrence, William 
Lawrence, John Lawrence, William Hallett, Sen. William Hallett, Jun. Sa- 
muel Hallett, Hendrick Martensen, Robert Blackwell, John Parcell, William 
Parcell, Joris Stevensen, Thomas Parcell, Steven Jorissen, John Bockhout, 
Eno-eltie Burger, Thomas Skillman, John Woolistoncroftes, Jan Jansen 
Fyn, Jane Rider, Peter Bockhout, Johannes Lourensse, Richard Alsop, John 
Allene, John Denman, John Rosell, Hendrick Barent Sniith, Henry Mayle, Sen, 
Henry Mayle, Jun. Joseph Reed, John Reed, Joseph Phillips, Theophilus Phil- 
lips, Roelof Pietersen, Benjamin Severens, Gershom Hazard, Anthony Gleane,^ 
Jacob Leonardsen vander Grift, Luke Depaw, Francis Way, John Wilson, 
Nathaniel Pettit, Moses Pettit, John Furman, Stoffel Van Laer, Samuel Ketch- 
am, John Ramsden, Rynier Willemsen, Abraham Rycke, Jan Harcksen, 
Philip Ketcham, Benjamin Cornish, Francis Combs, Isaac Gray, Josias Fur- 
man, Jun. Henry 'Sawtell, Thomas Etherington, Content Titus, Lambert 
Woodward, Nathaniel Woodward, Joseph Reeder, Jeremiah Reeder, John 

' Anthony Gleane had served in the time of Gov. Nicoll, as a drummer in the 
garrison at New-York. He bought a small estate in Newtown, married" Esther, 
widow of Samuel Sallis, and died here in or about 1691, aged 60 years. Many 
years later his house was still standing somewhere between the premises of Mr. 
Mack and Mr. Bretonniere. He left sons, William, Thomas and Anthony, the 
first of whom died in 1704, having served as town clerk, and as a church warden 
of the Jamaica parish. His two brothers removed to Flushing, where Antliony 
died. May lOth, 1734, leaving a large personal property as appears by the original 
inventory, now in possession of his great grandson, Mr. John Glean, of Saratoga, 
New-York. He left sons, William, born 1709, Anthony, born 1715, and James, born 
1718, the first of whom remained on the paternal farm in Flushing till his death. 
The others settled in New-York, where the descendants of Anthony still reside. 
James died at Pittstown, New-York, aged 75 years, Aug. 15th, 1793. His son 
Anthony was a valiant soldier of the Revolution, and was in the service during the 
whole war, after which he settled upon a farm at Saratoga, in this state, sus- 
taining the reputation of a respectable and good man- He died in his 92d year, 
May 1st, 1842, leaving issue, John, Oliver and Hannah. 


Bull, John Fish, John Moore, Thomas Sforrell, Jun. the present freeholders 
and inhabitants of the s;iid town of Newtown, their heirs, successors and 
assigns for ever, all and singular the before recited tracts, neck and parcels 
of land and meadows mentioned and set forth limited and bounded as afore- 
said, by the afore recited patent, together with all and singular a certain neck 
or parcel of land called Plunder's Neck, situate likewise on the south side of 
Lqng Island, having on the east Jamaica limits, on the west a small brook, as 
also all and singular the houses, messuages, tenements, fencings, buildings, gar- 
dens, orchards, trees, woods, undervv'oods, pastures, feedings, common of pas- 
tures, meadows, marshes, lakes, ponds, creeks, harbors, rivers, rivulets, brooks, 
streams, easements, and highway or highways, as also all and singular the is- 
lands, mines, minerals, (royal mines only excepted) fishing, hawking, hunting, 
and fowling, and all other franchises, profits, commodities, emoluments, here- 
ditaments, and privileges whatever to the said tracts of land, meadow, and 
premises belonging or in any wise appertaining ; To have and to hold all 
and singular the said tracts of land and premises with their and every of their 
appurtenances to the several and respective uses following, and to and for no 
other use, intent and jiurposes whatsoever, that is to say, as for and concerning 
all and singular the several and respective parcels of land and meadow, (part 
of the granted premises,) in any wise taken up and appropriated by virtue of 
the said before recited deed or patent, before the day of the date hereof, unto 
the said Capt. Richard Betts, Thomas Stevenson, Gershom Moore, Jonathan Ha- 
zard, Samuel Moore, Daniel Bloomfield, Caleb Leverich, Edward Stevenson, 
Joseph Sackett, Samuel Scudder, Robert Field, Sen. Thomas Wandell, John 
Ketcham, Thomas Pettit, John Way, Robert Field, Jun. Jonathan Strickland, 
John Smith, Josias Furman, Sen. George Wood, Sen. Nathan Fish, Edward 
Hunt, Jeremiah Burroughs, Richard Betts, Thomas Betts, John Scudder, Jun. 
Jonathan Stevenson, Thomas Case, John Albertus, James Way, Cornells Jan- 
sen, Abram Joris, John Coe, Samuel Fish, Joseph Burroughs, William Osborn, 
John Burroughs, Thomas Robinson, Jane Hays, Jacob Reeder, John Reeder, 
Richard Owen, Wouter Gysbertsen, John Pettit, Thomas Morrell, John Ro- 
berts, Isaac Swinton, Elias Doughty, Thomas Lawrence, William Lawrence? 
John Lawrence, William Hallett, Sen. William Hallett, Jun. Samuel Hallett, 
Hendrick Martensen, Robert Blackwell, John Parcell, William Parcell, Joris 
Stevensen, Thomas Parcell, Steven Jorissen, John Boekhout, Engeltie Burger, 
Thomas Skillman, John Woollstoncroftes, Jan Jansen Fyn, Jane Rider, 
Peter Boekhout, Johannes Lourensse, Richard Alsop, John Allene, John 
Denman, John Resell,^ Hendrick Barent Smith, Henry Mayle, Sen. Henry 
Mayle, Jun. Joseph Reed, John Reed, Joseph Phillips, Theophilus Phillips, 
Roelof Pietersen, Benjamin Severens, Gershom Hazard, Anthony Gleane, 
Jacob Leonardsen vander Grift, Luke Depaw, Francis Way, John Wilson, 
Nathaniel Pettit, Moses Pettit, John Furman, StofFel Van Laer, Samuel 
Ketcham, John Ramsden, Rynier Willemsen, Abraham Rycke, Jan Harcksen, 

1 Nathaniel Rosell, a son of John abore mentioned, settled at Hopewell, New 
Jersey, where his descendants remain ; the oldest male representative of the family, 
at present, is Major Nath. Beakes Rossell, U. S. A. 


Philip Ketcham, Benjamin Cornish, Francis Combs, Isaac Gray, Josias Fur- 
raan, Jun. Henry Sawtell, Thomas Etherington, Content Titus, Lambert 
Woodward, Nathaniel Woodward, Joseph Reeder, Jeremiah Reeder, John 
Bull, John Fish, John Moore, Thomas Morrell, Jun. the said several and re- 
spective present inhabitants and freeholders of the said town of Newtown, 
to their several respective uses and behoofs, and to the use and behoof of 
their several and respective heirs and assigns, for ever; and as for and con- 
cerning all and every such parcel or parcels, tract or tracts of land and mea- 
dow, remainder of the granted premises, not yet taken up or appropriated to 
any particular person or persons, by virtue of the before recited deed or 
patent, before the day of the date hereof, to the use and behoof of the said 
Capt. Richard Betts, Thomas Stevenson, Gershom Moore, Jonathan Hazard, 
Samuel Moore, Daniel Bloomfield, Caleb Leverich, Edward Stevenson, Joseph 
Sackett, Samuel Scudder, Robert Field, Sen. Thomas Wandell, John Ketcham, 
Thomas Pettit, John Way, Robert Field, Jun. Jonathan Strickland, John 
Smith, Josias Furman, Sen. George Wood, Sen. Nathan Fish, Edward Hunt, 
Jeremiah Burroughs, Richard Betts, Thomas Betts, John Scudder, Jun. Jona- 
than Stevenson, Thomas Case, John Albertus, James Way, Cornelis Jansen, 
Abram Joris, John Coe, Samuel Fish, Joseph Burroughs, William Osborn, 
John Burroughs, Thomas Robinson, Jane Hays, Jacob Reeder, John Reeder, 
Richard Owen, Wouter Gysbertsen, John Pettit, Thomas Morrell, John Ro- 
berts, their heirs and assigns, for ever, in proportion to their respective pur- 
chases thereof made as tenants in common, without any let, hindrance, or 
molestation, to be had or reser\'ed upon pretence of joint tenancy or survi- 
vorship, any thing herein contained to the contrary in anywise notwithstand- 
ing, and I do hereby ratify, confirm and grant unto the inhabitants and free- 
holders of the said town, all the privileges belonging to any town within this 
government, and I do also give and grant for and in behalf of his said Ma- 
jesty, his heirs and successors, free and lawful power, ability and authority, 
that they or any of them, any messuages, tenements, lands, meadows, feedings, 
pastures, woods, underwoods, rents, reversions, services, and other heredita- 
ments whatsoever, within the said Queen's county, which they hold of his 
said Majesty, his heirs and successors, unto the aforesaid freeholders and in- 
habitants of the town of Newtown, shall and may give, grant, sell, bargain, 
alien, enfeoff, and confirm, to be holden of his most sacred Majesty, his heirs 
and successors, in free and common socage, according to the tenure of East 
Gi-eenwich, in the county of Kent, in his Majesty's kingdom of England; 
yielding, rendering and paying therefore, yearly and every year from hence- 
forth, unto our sovereign lord the King, his heirs, successors and assigns, or 
his or their receiver, commissionated or empowered to receive the same, on 
the five and twentieth day of March, yearly, for ever, the chief, or quit rent 
of three pound four shillings, current money, of this province of New-York, 
in full of all rents, or former reserved rents, services, or acknowledgments 
and demands whatsoever.' In testimony whereof, I have caused these pre- 

' This quit rent contiuued to be paid to the " King's collector, at New- York," 
till the close of the Revolution, after which the people of the state, being considered 


sents to be entered upon record in the secretary's office of this province, and 
the seal of the said province to be hereunto affixed, this 25th day of Novem- 
ber, Anno Dom. sixteen hundred eighty-six, and in the second year of his 
Majesty's reign. THOMAS DONGAN. [seal.] 

In this patent the boundaries are defined with a little more 
explicitness than in that of Gov. Nicoll. Bushwick having 
withdrawn her consent to have a patent of a date parallel with 
that of Newtown, procured one a year or more later, confirm- 
ing the arbitration of 1672. It gave strength to that decision, 
and had a manifest influence on the final determination of this 

As will be observed, this patent reserves to the forty-six 
individuals first named therein, being original purchasers of 
the township, or possessed of purchase rights, the exclusive 
control of the unappropriated land within the purchase lines ; 
the exercise of which right subsequently became a cause of 
dissatisfaction among the remaining inhabitants. In that sec- 
tion of the town formerly known as the out-plantations, very 
little vacant land remained, but this was government property. 

to have taken the place of the crown, a law was passed by the legislature, in 1786, 
providing for the collection of the arrears of quit rent, which had accrued on the 
numerous patents granted by the colonial governors. Newtown did not, however, 
avail herself of the terms of commutation proffered in the said act. It was not till 
the year 1815, that the arrearages which had been accumulating upon her patent 
since March 25th, 1783, were liquidated. In the above year, notice was given the 
town, that pursuant to a law of the state, passed Oct. 14th, 1814, authorizing the 
peremptory sale of such patents as yet remained subject to quit rent, the public 
land of Newtown would be set up for sale on a given day, by the comptroller, at 
Albany. Steps were immediately taken at a special meeting of the people of New- 
town, on August 19th, to arrest this measure, and cancel their arrears of quit rent. 
James Hedenberg, as the town's agent, proceeded to Albany, and obtained the 
postponement of the sale, and a few days after, to wit, on Nov. 22d, 1815, the 
same person paid into the hands of the comptroller, in three per cent, stock, the 
sum of $347 81 cents, and the town was released from all further demand on the 
score of quit rent. 

This exaction of the quit rent premises the validity of the early colonial patents, 
but this point is clearly admitted by the constitution of this state, which annuls all 
colonial grants and charter^ made subsequent to Oct. 14th, 1775, but affects none 
given previous to that date. The Newtown patents and Indian deed were all iu 
existence as late as 1756, when they were delivered into the keeping of Justice 
Philip Edsall. They and some other valuable papers, are not now to be found. In 
1816, as appears by the town books, Thomas Cumberson and Thomas H. Betts 
were appointed " to go to Westchester in search of records belonging to this town," 
but I understand that this missiou was not performed. 


The principal, if not the only tract, lay in Hellgate Neck, and 
was bounded on the south by the line of the Indian purchase, 
to the eastward by the poor's bouweries, to the westward by 
the lines of the patents belonging to the inhabitants of Mespat 
Kills, and to the north by the lands of William Hallett. On 
the 18th of March, 1686, John Tuder, of New- York, an at- 
torney-at-law, and subsequently recorder of the city, applied 
to the council for the above described land, which was grant- 
ed him, and a patent issued July 22d, following, reserving an 
annual quit rent of one bushel of winter wheat. Two years 
after, Mr. Tuder sold his patent to three of the inhabitants 
of Newtown ; it was subsequently divided, and is now in- 
cluded in the forms of the late Isaac Eapelye, Cornelius Purdy, 
and the heirs of Charles Eapelye, deceased. 

The Rev. Morgan Jones had again changed his ministerial 
relations. The people of Eastchester had long desired to have 
him, and, perhaps, had enjoyed his services for a few months 
in the fall and winter of 1683. They now offered liberal in- 
ducements, and he began to officiate there August 3d, 1685. The 
original agreement with him at Newtown never having been 
fulfilled, either as respected his salary or the fitting up of his 
residence, he applied to the governor and council for redress. 
A summons to the town authorities to appear and answer, was 
sufficient; they satisfied Mr. Jones, and on April 28th, 1686, 
he gave them receipts in full.^ 

Of his services in Newtown little is known beyond what 
has been related. His administration of baptism and the mar- 
riage vow is incidentally mentioned. He was a ready speaker, 
and of a conciliatory disposition, but different accounts are 
given of his character and qualifications. Dr. Calamy, in 

^ These receipts are entered, by his own hand, in the town records, the 
last of which reads literatim as follows : 

Whereas, I, Morgan Jones, have officiated for some time as a minister, in 
Newtown, without any agreement for a certain salary with the town, upon 
y" promise of some particular persons of the towi^ to allow me some small 
pension of y"" own accord, I do hereby freele acquitt and discharge y'' town of 
Newtown of all salarys, moneys, goods, wares, land, or y'evcr I have claimed 
for such my ministry, reserving to myself the power of demanding and re- 
ceiving of ye particular persons, y** several summs y<^'> they promised me. In 
witness whereof, I have hereto sett my hand, this 28th Aprile, 1686. 

Morgan Jones. 


speaking of Mm wliile settled in Wales, intimates tliat lie 
wanted capacity, but was honest. But Dr. Mather in his Mag- 
nalia, sets him in a positively bad light, yet I attach but 
little importance to his statements about Mr. Jones, because 
they are not only improbable and puerile, but are given at 
second hand, and not on the personal knowledge of the doctor, 
whose credulity was equal to his learning. The history of Mr. 
Jones, so far as known, affords nothing positive against him; 
and it may be stated in his favor, that he enjoyed the acquaint- 
ance and confidence of Dr. Thomas Lloyd, of Pennsylvania, 
and his brother, Charles Lloyd, Esq. of Dolobran, Wales, 
who were his college mates at Oxford. 

In the meantime, the eff'orts of the last few years to pro- 
mote the settlement of the southern borders of the township, 
had stirred up the jealousies of the people of Flatbush, who 
claiming the land as far north as the hills, obtained a patent to 
that effect, ISTov. 12th, 1685. This embraced plantations made 
by inhabitants of Newtown. Over these, Flatbush began to 
extend authority, and in December of the present year, news 
came that the farmers there had met with serious interruption. 
Jonathan Hazard and Edward Stevenson were forthwith de- 
spatched to Flatbush, to demand "why they disturb our 
inhabitants;" and, if need be, inform the governor. Means 
were also taken to secure their borders, and to this end 
Mr. Philip Wells was engaged to run out the boundaries of 
the township, and the line of the Indian purchase on the 
north-west, which was accomplished in the spring of 1687, 
and the draft deposited in the town clerk's office. They next 
proceeded to lay out lots along the whole extent of their south 
bounds, extending back from said bounds sixty rods, and in 
breadth fifteen rods each ; to be given to every freeholder in 
the township who had paid " scot and lott," (or town charges,) 
for the last two years ; on condition that they should not sell 
the same to residents of other towns ; and that those lying to 
the westward of John Scudder's land (where Bushwick's 
claim began) be occupied immediately. The allotment was 
made on April 6th, 1687, in which the inhabitants of Hellgate 
Neck and vicinity shared, and these lots were for many years 
denominated the Draught Lots, or the Little Lots. 

Kesistance to these measures was expected, and Messrs. 


Kicliard Betts and Jonatlian Hazard were empowered to de- 
fend the township against any encroachments of the adjoining 
towns upon their " purchase and patent." But the people of 
Newtown, having thus entrenched themselves, the attacks of 
their neighbors seem to have been for several years suspend- 
ed. Indeed, paramount interests now demanded the public 

The expectations of an enlightened liberty, awakened in 
1683, had ended in fell disappointment, the course of events 
having fully proved that the advances then made towards a 
popular government were designed merely to conciliate public 
feeling. After the third annual assembly these popular bodies 
were expressly prohibited by the Duke of York, who, having 
ascended the throne of England, under the title of James II. 
disclosed his true character in his endeavors to establish an 
arbitrar}- government here, and introduce the Roman Catholic 
religion among the protestant inhabitants of New-York, by 
the appointment of papists to the principal offices of trust and 
influence. The state of things in Europe clothed these designs 
with terror. There the sword of persecution was unsheathed, 
England still bled under its stroke, and Lewis XIY. had but 
just revoked the edict of Nantes, whereby the protestants of 
France were again subjected to prison and the stake, or sought 
security in flight ; a considerable number of these exiled Hu- 
guenots seeking a home in this province. With these facts 
fresh in mind, and the victims of papal intolerance before their 
eyes, the intelligent people became greatly alarmed for the 
safety of their country and religion. 

Such was the gloomy posture of affairs at New-York, in-s 
1689, when the public mind was suddenly and happily relieved 
by the news of the abdication of James 11. and the succession- 
of William and Mary, who were protestants, to the throne of 
England. The citizens of New-York, regarding with suspi- 
cion the minions of King James, who yet held the reins of the 
provincial government, and incited by a report, then current, 
that the catholics intended to rise and massacre the protes- 
tants, assembled in arms, on June 2d, seized the fort, and 
placing at their head Capt. Jacob Leisler, a respected merchant, 
and commander of one of the train bands, undertook the go- 
vernment of the province, in the name of King William. 


The coramimitj at Newtown, having experienced like 
fears with the populace at New-York, were no less rejoiced at 
the news of the revolution in England, and the fall of the 
unprincipled James; while, for the most part, they heartily 
acquiesced in the popular movements just mentioned. At a 
meeting of part of the inhabitants, held on June 11th, Capt. 
Eichard Betts and Lieut. Samuel Moore were delegated to a 
convention to be held in the city, with instructions " to act as 
they should see cause for the good and benefit of the country." 
The town further resolved, June 15th, to provide and main- 
tain two soldiers to strengthen the garrison at New- York. 
They also sent delegates to Jamaica, for the purpose of elect- 
ing two persons to represent the county in a committee of 
safety, which it was proposed to form for the direction of 
public affairs at this critical juncture. One of the members 
of said committee, chosen for Queen's, was "loyal Mr. Samuel 
Edsall," of Newtown, who was thus styled because of his 
warm attachment to the cause of the revolution, and the lead- 
ing part that he acted. 

The committee of safety, having convened at New-York 
on June 26th, appointed Capt. Leisler commander-in-chief of 
the province, and instituted such regulations as were deemed 
requisite to preserve the public peace and security, including 
sundry changes in the civil and military departments. Pur- 
suant to orders, the people of Newtown proceeded to a new 
election of town officers, Oct. 2d. Capt. Gershom Moore, 
Lieut. Samuel Moore, and Ensign Joseph Sackett, were re- 
elected to their respective ofl&ces in the militia ; Samuel Edsall 
was appointed justice of the peace; and Content Titus, Jona- 
than Hazard, and Jeremiah Burroughs, were chosen commis- 
sioners of the town court, of whom the last named was also 
appointed town clerk in the stead of Daniel Phillips. Ben- 
jamin Severens retained his place as constable, being at this 
time deputy sheriff of Queen's county. Delegates to a county 
committee for the choice of a sheriff, were also appointed, 
one of whom, John Coe, was chosen to fill that office, and was 
commissioned by Leisler, on Dec. 13th. 

In the beginning of winter, despatches were received from 
the royal government, in England, of such a nature as, in the 
opinion of the committee of safety, to warrant Capt. Leisler 


in assuming the title of lieutenant-governor, wliicli he accord- 
ingly did, and selected a council, who entered upon their office 
December 11th, and of which Mr. Edsall was the member for 
Queen's county. William and Mary were immediately pro- 
claimed king and queen at New-York, and in the several 
county towns, while the lieutenant-governor and council ex- 
erted their energies to establish the authority cf their new 

This, however, was not so easy a task ; for while the bitter 
opposition of the friends of the late king threatened to rend the 
province in sunder, the inroads of the French, on the northern 
frontiers, were creating the most lively apprehensions. To meet 
this two-fold danger, Leisler sought to strengthen and increase 
the military force of the province. By his order the militia of 
Newtown, which, even in the spring of 1687, could muster 
" 125 men, armed with firelocks," was divided into two com- 
panies, of one of which the officers were Capt. Content Titus, 
Lieut. Jeremiah Burroughs, and Ensign Eobert Coe; and of 
the othfer, Capt. Samuel Moore, Lieut. Joseph Sackett, and 
Ensign Gershom Moore. These were commissioned by Leisler, 
and were instructed to exercise their companies in arms, and 
maintain good order and discipline ; the tactics then practised 
in the town being, as expressed in a late return, "distance, 
facings, doublings, counter-marchings, wheelings, and firings." 

Early in 1690, the alarming intelligence reached New- York 
of the burning of Schenectady, and the cruel massacre of its 
inhabitants by the French army and their Indian allies, on the 
night of Feb. 8th. And the people of Albany, apprehending 
a visit from the enemy, earnestly begged a reinforcement of 
troops for their protection. Sympathizing with his fellow- 
citizens in their peril, Gov, Leisler, on Feb. 16th, despatched 
Mr. Edsall to Newtown, with an order to Major Thomas Law- 
rence, who commanded all the forces of Queen's, to expedite 
the raising of fifty men in said county, for this service. 

As has been already hinted, Leisler and his coadjutors had 
experienced violent opposition from the friends of the late ad- 
ministration, who, though they pretended allegiance to Wil- 
liam and Mary, denied the legality of the proceedings by 
which Capt. Leisler had been elevated to the chief seat of 
power. Albany had shown the most formidable array of 


opposition, but having yielded from apprehension of a worse 
evil, Queen's county seemed now to be the chief seat of dis- 
affection. Autumn of 1690, found the rebel party there, 
"without any provocation," mustering in arms, and avowing 
their intentions to maintain their rebellion by violence. To 
quell this faction Major Milborne was sent over to the island, 
October 28th, with a military force, and instructions to prose- 
cute the insurgents " with all violence and act of hostility," 
until they should be wholly subdued. At Newtown, the same 
day, a proclamation was issued, of which the following is a 

"Forasmuch as there are many seditious persons, who 
without any provocation have taken up arms, and appeared 
in a rebellious manner against his Majesty's authority, with- 
in this county, called Queens, upon Long Island, and under 
specious pretences have drawn aside, and caused certain num- 
bers of his Majesty's liege subjects to abet with them, contrary 
to their allegiance and bounden duty, and the peace of our 
lord the King, his crown and dignity, and the security and 
welfare of the good inhabitants thereof: — These are in his 
Majesty's name, to forbid, forewarn and advertise all persons 
within this province, that they in no wise aid succor, comfort, 
abet, consent to, or anywise adhere unto the said rebels, or 
any of their associates, but upon notice hereof that all such 
who have unadvisedly been herein concerned, do forthwith 
withdraw from them, and return to their allegiance and re- 
spective habitations, where they shall be preserved in their 
rights and properties, and peaceable enjoyment thereof; as 
they will answer the contrary at their utmost perils." 

Two days only had elapsed when news was received that 
"the rebels had been forced to fly by the forces sent to sup- 
press them." In order that none of them might escape, Mr. 
Edsall and Capt. Wilhams were despatched by water, with 
volunteer troops, to scour Flushing Bay and Long Island 
Sound, examine all vessels, land and search suspected houses, 
and seize the person and papers of those guilty of rebellion. 

In this highly excited state of public feeling both parties 
anxiously awaited 'news from England. Leisler and his 
friends expected the royal approval, while their opponents, 
as heartily wishing for their condemnation, made strenuous 


efforts to accomplisli this object, by means of bigbly exagge- 
rated and false statements, wliicli were transmitted to England 
to bias the royal mind against tbe people's governor. The 
disaffected persons in the towns of Hempstead, Jamaica, Flush- 
ing, and Newtown, wrought up to the highest pitch of exas- 
peration, convened a meeting on Nov. 7th, and addressed a 
memorial to their Majesties' secretary, complaining in the 
most vehement terms of Leisler's proceedings, who they re- 
present as having taken to himself the " most wicked and 
poorest of the sons of men, the chiefest of whom were Jacob 
Milborne and Samuel Edsall. These two base villains, with 
their collected rabble, in a barbarous and inhuman manner 
came over from New- York to Long Island, and there did 
break open, plunder and destroy the houses and estates of 
their Majesties' subjects, in a most rude and barbarous man- 
ner, not regarding age or sex, stripping our wives and daugh- 
ters of their wearing apparel, carrying away all that was 
portable, shooting at and wounding divers poor Englishmen, 
(some deem£d mortal,) and then went so far as to sequester our 
estates, giving no reasons for so doing, other than that we 
would not accept commissions from the pretended lieutenant- 
governor; for which a hundred and four of us are driven 
from our estates, men of the chiefest and best estate on Long 

Leisler had gone too far. Intending all for good, his zeal 
to restore order in the province, had led to an extremity of 
means, highly injudicious and fatal. His power now began to 
wane. Early in 1691, Major Ingoldesby arrived with soldiers 
from England, and demanded possession of the fort, but show- 
ing no orders, Leisler refused to surrender it. Ingoldesby 
besieged the fortress, and summoned the citizens to repair to 
his standard. He directed Capt. Samuel Moore of Newtown 
to publish his authority, and stand ready to aid him. On 
March 19th, Gov. Henry Sloughter arrived, and a well-meant 
but unfortunate delay on the part of Leisler to deliver up the 
fort, confirmed in the governor's mind the report of his ty- 
ranny and usurpation. The enemies of Leisler, though few 
in number, embodied the aristocracy, and their representations 
had weight. They obtained his commitment on a charge of 
high treason, and being, together with his son-in-law and 


secretary, Jacob Milborne, in a summary manner tried and ad- 
judged guilty, both, were executed at New-York, on May IGtli, 
following. " So fell Capt. Leisler and Mr. Milborne," says a wri- 
ter of that day, " men of known integrity, honesty, and loyalty, 
and by a pretended course of law, contrary to all law condemn- 
ed, where their judges were, most of them, violent enemies of 
the happy revolution, and therefore resolved to revenge them- 
selves on these gentlemen, who were the most early and zea- 
lous instruments of it, and who had first expended great part 
of their estates, and then suffered martyrdom for King Wil- 
liam and Queen Mary, their religion and laws," Leisler's 
council and other adherents, among whom were Samuel Ed- 
sall and John Coe, were imprisoned, but escaped witb their 
lives. Mr. Edsall was tried and acquitted by the same court 
that convicted Leisler. 

The administration of Gov. Sloughter was distinguished 
for a re-construction of tlie government of New-York, laying 
its foundation upon a permanent basis, whicb continued unin- 
terrupted down to the American Kevolution. The governor 
possessed the executive power ; the legislative was vested in 
the governor, council, and general assembly, (the two former 
appointed by the king, and the latter composed of deputies, 
chosen by the freeholders of each, county,) whose sessions 
should be held annually, their acts being subject to the ap- 
proval of his Majesty. The first and only general assembly 
convened under Gov. Sloughter, met in the spring of 1691, 
Their efforts were exerted to restore and establish good go- 
vernment, and thougb they declared that all the laws con- 
sented to by the assemblies under James, Duke of York, with 
the liberties and privileges granted to the people, were null 
and void, not being ratified ; they nevertheless passed a law, 
on the Gth. of May, which, after mentioning the great damage 
which, had accrued to the province from the recent disorders, 
proceeded to confirm in the fullest manner, " all the charters, 
patents, and grants, made, given and granted, and well and 
truly executed, under the seal of this province, constituted 
and authorized by their late and present Majesties, the Kings 
of England, and registered in the secretary's office, unto the 
several and respective corporations or bodies politic of the 
cities, towns, and manors, and also to the several and respec- 


tive freeliolders witliiii tliis province." Courts of common 
pleas and general sessions were organized in the several conn- 
ties, Tlie municipal or town government underwent a re- 
vision, and assumed more nearly its present form ; the com- 
missioners' court ceased, and its duties devolved upon the 
justices; the supervisors were reduced to one in each town,* 
and three surveyors of highways were added to the usual 
town officers. Newtown first chose the latter in 1700. 


Proposed to erect a fulling-mill. — Wolves. — Wolf Stream. — Wolf Swamp. — Nar- 
row Passage. — Three towns complain that Newtown is encroaching on their 
territory. — Parties summoned before the council. — A general survey agreed 
upon. — Newtown alarmed at the passage of a law for tjie introduction of 
Episcopacy. — They send to New England for a minister, and obtain the Rev. 
John Morse. — Steps taken to enlarge the Church. — A Bill passes the Assembly 
to except Newtown out of the above law, but the Governor refuses to sanction 
it. — Survey being completed, the boundary dispute engages the attention of 
the Council. — They refer the parties to the common law. — Newtown proceeds 
to occupy their west bounds. — Migrations to New Jersey. — A new parsonage 
house bought. — Ezekiel Lewis, schoolmaster. — Quit rent. — Steps to ordain the 
Rev. Mr. Morse. — A census taken. — Mr. Morse's death. — A new town-house 
built. — Rev. Robert Breck engaged to preach. — Dissatisfaction among the in- 
habitants of Heligate Neck respecting the common land. — Their bills before 
the Assembly are defeated. — Put a bill in chancery, but without success. — 
They petition the Governor and Council. — The case investigated. — Report. — 
The complaint dismissed as frivolous. — Mr. Breck disconcerted by the efforts 
of Lord Combury to establish the Church of England. — His oppressive acts. — 
The church at Newtown taken possession of by the Episcopal clergyman. — 
The people obliged to succumb. — Rev. John Hampton arrested for preaching 
at Newtown. — Trials endured by the Dissenters. 1691 to 1707. 

Measures were taken this year by two enterprizing citizens 
of the town, to erect a fulling-mill on the stream that empties 
at Fish's Point. The town favored the project, and passed 
the following, June 27th, 1691 : " Voted, that Thomas Ste- 

' This office was abolished Oct. 18th, 1701, and the justices, or any five of 
them in each county, were empowered to audit its accounts, and appoint its 
treasurer; but on June 19th, 1703, the office of supervisor was revived by 
law, and has existed ever since. 


venson and Edward Stevenson sliall liave the stream or brook 
tliat is commonly called Lodowick Brook, as tlieir own right, 
to have and to hold to them and theirs for ever, with what 
convenience of land can be spared (not infringing the high- 
way) for the building of a fulling-mill, with which they are 
to do the town's work first, and as reasonable as other work- 
men do, and to keep the same in repair." 

Twenty years from this date, to wit, on Oct. 16th, 1711, 
Thomas Stevenson and John Stevenson (son of Edward) sold 
to Jesse Kip, at that time the proprietor of the grist-mill at 
Fish's Point, all their interest in the above premises. This 
fulling-mill remained for many years, but every vestige of it 
has now disappeared, though the locality still retains the 
name of the Fulling-mill Dam. This was one of the first 
fulling-mills erected in this province. The costliness of im- 
ported cloths had induced the practice of making domestic 
woollens, and the raising of sheep for that purpose. The de- 
predations of wolves offered, however, a serious impediment 
to the safe rearing of flocks, and though the inhabitants of 
this town were less annoyed by these midnight prowlers than 
their neighbors of the adjoining towns, they found it neces- 
sary, in February, 1692, to offer twenty shillings a head for 
every wolf killed within the limits of the town. By the aid 
of "wolf-pits," made near the haunts of these animals, many 
were entrapped and killed. Their destruction became neces- 
sary not only for the preservation of the stock and cattle, 
but even for the personal safety of the inhabitants, whom they 
would sometimes attack. It is related that one of the New- 
town farmers, going at the dusk of evening to turn loose his 
horses, was beset by a number of these animals from a neigh- 
boring swamp. Springing upon a stump, he lashed them 
lustily with the halters, and succeeded in driving them oif. 
At an early period, a run of water emptying into Trains 
Meadow, bore the name of Wolf Stream, doubtless because 
infested by these animals ; and the swamp from which it issued, 
lying on the east side of the Narrow Passage, still retains the 
name of Wolf Swamp. The " Narrow Passage that goes into 
Hellgate Neck," (a name early applied to the road leading 
across the swamp a little distance south of Middletown,) was, 


according to tradition, originally a dam thrown up by the 

The discontents which the continued efforts of Newtown, 
for the last five years, to occupy all the land within the lines 
of their Indian purchase had fomented in the adjoining towns, 
now broke forth in loud complaint, in which Bushwick, Brook- 
lyn and Flatbush participated, and the people of Newtown, 
having intimation that a combination of the above towns was 
being formed against them, resolved, on Dec. 13th, to raise 
and appropriate the sum of twenty pounds, for the defence of 
their patent, Thomas Betts and Edward Stevenson being at 
the same time chosen to conduct the business, and employ one 
or more lawyers to aid them. Two days after, a joint petition 
was presented to Gov. Fletcher, by the towns of Brooklyn, 
Bushwick, and Flatbush, complaining that the people of New- 
town "build houses on their outlands," and praying his ex- 
cellency in council, "to examine both their pretences, for an 
accommodation to save the charges in the law." 

Notice being given the purchasers of Newtown, all i^arties 
appeared before the governor and council, on Dec. 22d, and 
after an inspection of their several patents and pajoers, his 
excellency was of opinion, " that the controversy cannot be 
better decided th[m by a survey of their townships by the 
sworn surveyor, according to the meers and bounds of their 
several jDatents, beginning with the eldest patent, and that 
indifferent persons of note and integrity be present at the 
surveying of them, and that the several surveys be brought 
upon one plot or draft, to be decided and determined accord- 
ingly, by his excellency the governor and council ; which, if 
both parties will agree unto, the surveyor is ordered to have 
a warrant directed to him, for the doing thereof, at their equal 
charge." This proposal being finally acceded to by the several 
parties, a warrant was issued on Feb. 6th, 1693, to the sur- 

1 The passer by this spot cannot fail to notice the stately chestnut stand- 
ing by the roadside, and casting its grateful shade over this ancient highway. 
This tree measures twenty-five feet in circumference at the base, and full 
fifteen at the distance of six feet above. Its majestic proportions indicate for 
it an existence coeval with the red man who, centuries ago, was undisputed 
lord of the then surrounding wilds. 


vejor general, wlio entered upon the work, in the execution 
of which two years elapsed. 

The year 1693 was signalized by the introduction of a theme 
far more engrossing to the religious community. This was 
the passage, Sept. 22d, of a law districting Queen's county 
and several others into ecclesiastical parishes, and providing 
for the annual election, in each such parish, of two church- 
wardens, and ten vestrymen, to superintend the affairs of the 
church, and endowed with power to call a minister, and, with 
the justices, to lay a yearly tax upon the inhabitants, for his 
support. The towns of Newtown, Jamaica, and Flushing, 
were constituted a single parish, whose inhabitants were re- 
quired to furnish the sum of sixty pounds annually, for the 
support of a clergyman, to reside at Jamaica. 

Although a direct reference to any denomination had 
been carefully avoided, the dissenters were not slow to fathom 
the designs of government, which aimed at nothing else than 
the establishment of the Church of England in this province. 
Much apprehension was therefore excited. Newtown regarded 
herself as particularly aggrieved, for, waving the too obvious 
intention to thrust upon them a religious establishment re- 
pugnant to their feelings, they had hitherto enjoyed the ex- 
clusive services of their own minister, living among them, and 
sustained by their free contributions. To be now subjected 
to an additional tax for the support of a clergyman, resident 
in another township, they regarded as burdensome and odi- 
ous. It being proposed to petition the assembly to repeal the 
obnoxious law, Messrs. Content Titus and Daniel Bloomfield 
were deputed, early in 1694, to attend a meeting, held at Ja- 
maica, for that object. 

Unhappily the congregation at this date was destitute of 
a minister, but means were at once concerted to procure one. 
" The town will call a minister to preach the gospel amongst 
us upon liking," was the expression of a meeting held on April 
12th. A letter was prepared for Content Titus, who was sent 
to New England in quest of a clergyman, and during his ab- 
sence, in July, it was resolved that the minister, on his arrival, 
should be "entertained" at the house of Justice Samuel Ed- 
sall, until the town house or parsonage could be repaired and 
made ready for his reception. 



The mission of Capt. Titus was snccessfuL He secured 
the services of Mr. John Morse, a youthful student of divinit}^, 
who removed to Newtown, and entered upon his work of im- 
parting religious instruction. He was the son of Ezra Morse, 
a worthy cooper of Dedham, Massachusetts^ where he was 
born, March 31st, 1674.* He graduated at Harvard College, 
in 1692. After trial, the town resolved, Sept. 15th, to retain 
him, and six persons were appointed to treat with him as to 
his settlement. A subscription was made for his support. It 
was also determined to enlarge the church, and Messrs. John 
Coe and Content Titus were empowered to employ mechanics 
and superintend the work till completed. 

Meanwhile, Queen's county had effected nothing to avert 
the grievances apprehended from the recent law for the set- 
tlement of a ministry. The people of Newtown, therefore, 
resolved, on Jan, 5th, 1695, to petition the next assembly, 
on their own account, " to repeal the act of vestryman and 
annual salary to be paid by the whole county for two minis- 
ters." Upon the meeting of that body, the subject was intro- 
duced by Capt. Filkin, a representative from King's county, 
in the form of a bill entitled, " A bill for exempting Newtown, 
in Queen's county, on the Island of Nassau, out of the pains, 
penalties, forfeitures, and demands in an act for settling a 
ministry, and raising a maintenance for them, in the city of 
New- York," &c. After a third reading, and the hearing of a 
report "about the minister of Newtown," prepared by a com- 
mittee of the house, the bill was passed on April 9th. But on 
its presentation to the governor, he refused to sanction it. 
This measure being thus defeated, the people of Newtown 
were left to anticipate the enforcement of the unjust act for 
the settlement of a ministry. 

In the meantime, preparation had been made for the trial 
of the boundary question before the council. Two able law- 

* The time of Mr. Morse's birth has been a matter of considerable disa- 
greement, but the above is the true date taken from the Dedham records, and 
kindly furnished me by Mr. D. P. Wight, of that place. The "Memorial of 
the Morses," by the Rev. Abner Morse, of Sherburne, Massachusetts, mis- 
states the time of his birth ; but the author, in a letter with which he has 
favored me, since the publication of the Memorial, acknowledges hia mis- 
take, and tho correctness of the Dedham register. 


yers, Emot and Nicoll, were employed by Newtown, the latter 
of which gentlemen informed the council, Jan. 31st. 1695, that 
the survey of the disputed boundaries was completed, and re- 
quested that a day might be appointed for the appearance of 
the inhabitants, with their several deeds and writings, in order 
to a decision of the controversy. A day was thereupon fixed, 
but when it came, the agents of Newtown alone appeared. 
At the second appointment, deputies from Brooklyn presented 
themselves, but the other towns kept aloof, having evidently 
changed their purpose to submit the decision to the council. 
The board proceeded, however, to an examination of the evi- 
dences, but finally adjourned the suit without coming to any 
conclusion. After a month's delay, the inhabitants of New- 
town again, on April 4th, besought the governor for a deter- 
mination of the dispute according to the evidence of title 
presented before him. His excellencj'' in council now replied, 
that as it was a matter of common right, cognizable at com- 
mon law, and which therefore could not be decided by himself 
and council, without the concurrence of all the parties, he 
should refer them to the common law. 

But as the Dutch towns had already declined a resort to 
law, on the plea of expense, the dispute remained where it 
was, and Newtown proceeded, unmolested, to secure their 
west line, by laying off lots along the same, from the end of 
the Little Lots northward, which were distributed to the seve- 
ral purchasers, and such as held purchase rights, with the 
pledge to defend any one of their citizens, settled or to settle 
upon their south and west bounds, who should be sued or 
otherwise molested by the neighboring towns. The increasing 
value of land probably stimulated the people of Newtown to 
action in this matter. At the same time it doubtless encou- 
raged an inclination, now beginning to be felt by the inhabi- 
tants, to migrate to New Jersey, where the cheapness of the 
land, as well as the freedom from taxation, offered peculiar 
advantages to the young and enterprizing. And from this 
period onward, that state received from Newtown valuable 
additions to its population. 

Amid other affairs, the people of Newtown were not in- 
sensible to the wants of their minister, who had evidently 
secured the good will of his congregation. It was resolved, 


on April 17th, to build a new stone "parsonage house," on 
land to be bought for that purpose. But the committee, to 
whom this business was entrusted, found it more expedient to 
purchase, in the course of the summer, a house and lot, of 
twelve acres, from Samuel Coe, for the sum of seventy -five 
pounds, to pay which, they made sale of some of the common 
land. The town approved of this measure, and the premises 
were delivered unto Mr. Morse for his use, during his ministra- 
tions among them. This matter arranged, Mr. Ezekiel Lewis, 
subsequently a distinguished lawyer of Boston, and who had 
this year graduated at Harvard College, was engaged, Dec. 
18th, to officiate for a twelve-month, as schoolmaster, for whose 
accommodation the town-house was to be put in a state of re- 
pair. These events bespeak for the inhabitants an intelligent 
enterprize, and for a year no event of note transpired to 
destroy the harmony of the community, or interrupt the 
orderly operation of their affairs. There was some talk of a 
revival of the boundary dispute, but nothing eventuated from 
it. The quit rent having for several years been suffered to 
fall in arrears, it called forth a sharp letter from the high 
sheriff, "in his Majesty's name," requiring the inhabitants to 
pay the King's dues, or he should "take such methods as 
would not be well pleasing to them." This was answered by 
a prompt payment. 

The Kev. Mr. Morse increased in favor with the people of 
his charge. It was now deemed proper that he should be 
regularly ordained in the ministerial office, that service yet 
remaining unperformed. The people assembled to consider 
the subject, on May 15th, 1697. After expressing their desire 
that Mr. Morse should "be ordained as the pastor and teacher 
of our church, according to the rule of the gospel," a com- 
mittee of fourteen persons was appointed to confer with him 
in relation thereto. Another want was favorably considered 
on that occasion. Never, on the Sabbath morning, had the 
sound of the church-goiog bell awakened the surrounding 
hills, nor its solemn peals turned the footsteps of devout wor- 
shipers toward the sanctuary. It was now resolved, "to 
buy a bell for the town of about ten pound price," a measure 
which there is reason to believe was executed. It is easy 
to fancy the agreeable effect produced when, for the first 



time, it spoke from tlie belfry to the startled ears of the 

. The result of the conference had with Mr. Morse by the 
committee, in reference to his ordination, is thus piously stated 
in the town records under date of Wednesday, Sept. 9th : — 
" Whereas Mr. John Morse hath consented to be ordained to 
the work of the ministry, at the solicitation of those persons 
deputed by the town to treat with him about that affair; 
it is therefore voted and agreed that we do accept him as our 
minister^ to dispense to us in things spiritual, according to the 
mind of Christ and order of the gospel ; and we do and shall 
readily submit ourselves to him in the Lord, as such, and to 
all his ministerial dispensations and spiritual administrations 
amono; us, accordino- to the mind and will of God, as God shall 
assist and direct him." From these proceedings it may be 
inferred that Mr. Morse's ordination was duly performed, but 
it cannot be asserted as a fact, because no further reference to 
it is found. It is said that from the usages of those times he 
could not have been ordained without a church, but whether 
a church had been organized here at this date, does not clearly 
appear. It is worthy of note, that until the first action in 
reference to Mr, Morse's ordination, the word church does not 
occur in the town records, the church edifice being always 
called the meeting-house. In this instance it evidently refers 
to the people, and the last quotation from the records, express- 
ing their desire to submit themselves to Mr. Morse's "minis- 
terial dispensations and spiritual administrations," certainly 
bears the complexion of a church covenant. 

Few events are recorded of the two years which now 
succeeded. Threats of the neighboring towns to prosecute 
the boundary suit before the supreme court, gave rise to some 
measures for the defence of the township, but they were not 
called into requisition. In 1698 an estimate was made of the 
population of the town, which shows that it then contained 
183 white inhabitants, of which 153 were heads of families. 
There were 93 negro slaves, being an increase of 44 within 
the last eleven years. 

After a ministry of from five to six years in Newtown, 
Mr. Morse, owing to the inadequacy of his support, contem- 
plated a removal to some other field of labor. Therefore, on 


Feb. 26tli 1700, lie disposed of an estate wlaieli lie owned 
in Hempstead Swamp, to Casper Joost Springsteen, of "West- 
chester.' Unwilling, however, to part with their pastor, to- 
wards whom a lively attachment existed, a meeting was con- 
vened, on July 4th, and a comimittee appointed to adopt 
means for the speedy collection of the money due him, "and 
also," says the record, "to discourse with Mr. John Morse, to 
see how his mind stands affected; and to know whether he 
will preach amongst ns till we can see if the sum demanded 
by him, can be gathered or not, and then to make a return 
to the town ; and moreover, to take care of the parsonage till 
further orders from the town." These efforts availed, upon 
the promise, it would seem, of making a more comfortable 
provision for him, for it was resolved, August 28th, to make- 
an addition to the parsonage farm, and to erect " a town-house 
of twentj'-four feet long and twenty feet wide, two stories 
high, completely finished, for the minister of the said town 
to live in, while minister of the town aforesaid, and to be set 
upon the toAvn lot, joined to the house that is there now 
standing." This building was completed in the course of 
several years, under the superintendence of Content Titus, 
Edward Hunt, and Peter Berrien, towards which these gen- 
tlemen advanced sums of money from their private funds. 
But Mr. Morse did not realize the benefit which the above 

' Joost Casperse Springsteen, with his brother, Johannes, and their widowed 
mother, Geesie Jans, arrived at New Amsterdam, in 1652, from Groningen, and 
in 1660 tliey joined in the settlement of Bushwiek. From these have all the 
Springsteens of this country descended. Joost married, on June 10th, 1663, 
Catharine, daughter of Abraham Lothie, and widow of Peter Praa. He after- 
wards married a second wife, Magdalena Jansen, and was living in 1687. His 
son Casper married Maria, daughter of Derick Storm, and having lived awhile 
in Westchester, came to Newtown, in 1700, where he died May 21st, 1729, 
leaving issue, Joost, Derick, who settled in Kent county, on the Delaware, 
Abraham, David, and Gertrude the wife of William Miller. Joost was the 
father of Jacobus Springsteen, who gave the site for the White Pot school- 
house. David served as a deacon, and "kerkmeester" of the Dutch church, 
and died Oct. 14th, 1763, leaving, among other children, a son, David, born 
Sep. 1st, 1725, who inherited the paternal estate at Hempstead Swamp, (now 
occupied by Richard Spragg, Jun.) and married Barbara Bloom, of the Wall- 
about. He died May 29th, 1803. His only son, David, fell heir to a new 
house, erected by his father; and his son, Michael S. Springsteen, now occu- 
pies the same. 



measures were designed to confer, for he died, after a severe 
illness, in tlie montli of October, 1700. He left no family, 
and by will conferred liis estate upon Ms youngest brother, 
Seth Morse, of Dedham, for whom he had acted as guardian 
since the death of his father, in 1697. The town, sensible of 
their loss, immediately voted to obtain a minister forthwith, 
but there is no evidence that they were successful until the 
following year. On the 20th of March, 1701, a committee 
was appointed to write to New England for a supply for their 
pulpit, which resulted in securing the services of the Eev. 
Eobert Breck, a young but promising graduate of Harvard 
College, which institution he had left the year previous. He 
was born at Dorchester, Massachusetts, Dec. 7th, 1682, being 
the son of Capt. John Breclv, a very worthy citizen of that 
place. Mr. Breck zealously entered upon his labors in New- 
town, and it was voted to give him possession of the parson- 
age, or the income to be derived from the rent of it, whichever 
he should prefer. He continued here between two and three 


The previous year had given publicity to a dissatisfaction 
of certain inhabitants of Hellgate Neck, because they were 
excluded from a voice in the disposal of the common land 
of the town; a right which the original purchasers, their 
heirs or assigns, had hitherto continued exclusively to enjoy. 
A bill was accordingly brought before the Assembly, on 
the 30th of October, 1700, entitled "An Act for quieting, 
settling and confirming the legal rights and possessions of 
Thomas Lawrence, William Lawrence, Robert Burges, Ber- 
goon Bra-^aw, Hendrick Martensen, George Van Alst, John 
Lawrence" Andrew Van Alst, Johannes Van Alst, John Par- 
cell, and other ancient freeholders, possessors of land, and 
inhabitants of Hellgate Neck, within the bounds of Newtown, 
on Long Island, now called the Island of Nassau, and vacating 
*all under patents, privately obtained, of any of the said land, 
acrainst the just rights of the said freeholders, and other the 
inhabitants of Newtown, having rights." After a third read- 
ing, this bill was rejected, on the first of November. 

The same bill, or one with a similar title, was introduced 
to the assembly, Sept. 23d, 1701, and submitted to a committee 
which reported in favor, provided that nothing therein con- 


tained should be understood to affect the patents of the towns 
of Flatbush and Brooklyn, with which the people of Newtown 
were yet at issue. The bill accordingly passed the assembly, 
on the 14th of October, but it met with defeat in the council. 
Upon this second failure, a bill was filed in the court of 
chancer3\ The purchasers of Newtown took prompt measures 
to resist this procedure, and met, on Feb. 9th, 1702, the re- 
cord of which meeting states that Capt. Thomas Lawrence, 
and certain other persons, " have put a bill in chancery against 
several of the freeholders' patents within the township of New- 
town, and as is supposed, against the patent that includes the 
whole town, in order to destroy the said patents, and make 
them void, and of no effect ;" to prevent which, the town chose 
a committee of three, to employ counsel, and act in their de- 
fence. The means thus taken were successful, and the resi- 
dents of Hellgate Neck, not to be thwarted in their purpose, 
drew up the following petition, and presented it to the gover- 
nor and council, on the 11th of May, 1703. 

To his Excellency Edward Viscount Coeneury, her Mnjesty's Cfiptain 
General and Governor-in-chief of the province of New-York, and territories 
depending thereon, in America ; and Vice-Adniiral of the same, &c. in 

The humble petition of several of the freeholders and inhabitants of the 
town of Newtown, in Queen's county, on the Island of Nassau, sheweth ; 
That Richard Nicoll, Esq. in the year 1666, being governor general of this 
province under the Duke of York, granted unto Capt. Richard Betts, Capt. 
Thomas Lawrence, and others, as patentees for and on the behalf of them- 
selves and their associates, the freeholders and inhabitants of the said town, 
their heirs, successors, and assigns, a parcel of land then commonly called 
by the name of the town of Newtown; bounded, as in the said patent is 
more particularly expressed given to the said patentees and their associates, 
their heirs, successors, and assigns, for ever. That your excellency's peti- 
tioners, or those they claim under, being at and before the time of the grant- 
ing of the said patent, actually possessed of and entitled to houses, lands, 
tenements, and hereditaments within the bounds of the said patent, as well as 
several other persons, and thereby equally entitled with them to such lands 
which were then unpossessed and remained in common, hoped and behoved 
to have had the advantage of the said patent in common amongst the rest of 
tlie patentees; but so it is, may it please your excellency, that Samuel 
Moore, Thomas Stevenson, Joseph Sackett, Edward Hunt, and John Way, 
with several of the inhabitants of the said town, of their own heads, without 
any power or authority for their so doing, have from time to time, as they 
think fit, assembled and met together, and given away, sold, and disposed of 


great parts of the said town lands lying in common as aforesaid, without the 
consent of your excellency's petitioners, or without any allowance to thera 
for their right and interest therein, contrary to all justice and equity. Your 
excellency's petitioners therefore humbly pray, that your excellency in coun- 
cil will please to order the said persons to be summoned before your excel- 
lency, and require them to bring with them all such books, papers, or other 
things, as are in their, or either of their custody, possession, or power, relat- 
ing to the premises, in order that the same may be fully discovered, and 
that your excellency being particularly informed of the hardships your peti- 
tioners lie under, may grant them such redress, as in your wisdom you 
shall think fit. And your excellency's petitioners, as in duty bound, shall 
ever pray, &c. 

William Lawrence, Daniel Lawrence, 

John Lawrence, Jonathan Lawrence, 

John Van Alst, Syrach Titus, 

George Van Alst, Peter Lott, 

William Parcell, Teunis Titus,* 

John Parcell, William Post, 

Jacob Fyn, John Coe, 

RoELOF Pietersen, Jacobus Harcks, 

Thomas Skillman, John Hart, 

Cornelius Bries, Robert Coe, 

Andrew Van Alst, Jonathan Coe, 

Peter Peaa, David Coe. 

Pursuant to the prayer of the petitioners, the council sum- 
moned the clerk of Newtown to produce the books and papers 
of the town, which were given into the hands of three gentle- 
men of the council, to examine the same, and report "how 
far the said books and papers do make out the allegations con- 
tained in the petition." These gentlemen rendered a report, 
on Jan. 6th, 1704, upon which the council directed a second 
examination of the records to be made by a new committee, 
who in time gave in the annexed statement : 

' Capt. Titus Syrachs de Vries, who was part owner of a grist-mill at 
New Utrecht in 1660, and died at Flatbush in 1690, was the father of 
Syrach and Teunis Titus. They were therefore not of the English family 
of Titus. Both were married, and Teunis removed to Mansfield, New Jer- 
sey. The ultimate history of Syrach is not ascertained. I believe he was 
a brother-in-law to Capt. Cornelius Luyster. His brother, Francis Titus, 
settled in Bushwick, married Antie Fontyn, widow of Maurits Covert, and 
was the ancestor of the Dutch family of Titus, (sometimes called Tetus,) 
quite numerous in the above town a few years since. 


To his Excellency Edward Viscount Cornbury, Captain General, &c. 
in council : 

May it please your lordship; In obedience to your excellency's order 
in council of the 13th of January last past, we have inspected the books and 
papers of the town of Newtown, in Queens county, and examined the report 
made by Rip Van Dam, Gerard Beekman, and Caleb Heatlicote, Esquires, 
members of his Mnjesty's council for this province; and have carefully ex- 
amined the allegations of the petitioners and those petitioned against, by 
which we find, that before the granting of Col. Richard Nicoll's patent to 
the town of Newtown, a society of people had purchased and did occupy and 
enjoy a parcel of land commonly called and known by the name of the town 
of Middelburg, and that the said Col. Richard Nicoll, by liis patent bearing 
date the sixth day of March, one thousand, six hundred and sixty-six, did 
confirm to them the said purchase, and adjoin certain out-plantations, not any 
ways concerned in the purchasing the aforesaid tract of land, and made them 
all one township, without any distinct reservation of the properties of the 
said purchasers entire to themselves, notwithstanding which, the inhabitants 
of Middelburg (afterwards called Newtown) have acted distinct as to the 
sale and disposal of the lands purchased by them, or those under whom they 
claim, and have by tliemselves, at their own proper charges, maintained suits 
at law to defend the bounds and title to their said purchase, without any con- 
tribution from the out-plantations; and we do further find tiiat the Lawrences 
and Coes, and some few others of the petitioners, were original purchasers 
of the said town of Middelburg, and have had their proportionable share of 
the said purchase laid out to them ; and particularly, that the fother of Wil- 
liam Lawrence, one of the petitioners, hath transferred his right in the said 
purchase, to one George Wood, as appears by the books of the said town. 
That it appears to us that the matters complained of now by the petitioners, 
were stirred in Col. Dongan's time, who by iiis patent, dated the five-and- 
twentieth day of November, one thousand, six hundred and eighty-six, like- 
wise makes them one township, but reserves to the original purchasers of 
the town of Middelburg, their distinct right to the said lands, to them and 
their heirs only ; and we do further find that the books of the town of New- 
town have been very imperfectly kept, but that on the whole it does appear 
to us, that the said patent granted by the said Col. Dongan, was issued on 
mature consideration, and that ever since the granting thereof, the patentees 
have acted according to the settlement of the said patent, and that all parties 
have rested satisfied under the said grant, without any complaint made by 
them, until the exhibiting of the said petition. They do not seem to us to 
be guilty of the matters therein alledged against them, all which is neverthe- 
less most humbly submitted to your excellency, by, my lord, your excel- 
lency's most faithful and obedient servants. 

Sa. Sh. Broughton, 
Thomas Wenham, 
Matthew Ling. 

New-York, the 3d day of February, 1703-4. 


A final hearing of tlie parties being had before the council, 
on Feb. 10th, 1704, that body decided that the subject matter 
of the petition was frivolous, and it was therefore rejected, to 
the great satisfaction of the purchasers. 

But discords of a more serious import were abroad. The 
ministry of Mr. Breck occurred at an inauspicious period, 
when Governor Cornbury, in his impetuous zeal to extend 
the Church of England, gave sore trouble to the dissenting 
churches, by repeated acts of opposition and intolerance. These 
had hitherto enjoyed comparative quiet, owing to the fact, that 
for nine years, the act for the settlement of a ministry, passed 
in 1693, had lain dormant, "because," says one, "we had no 
Church of England minister to reap the benefit of it." But 
Lord Cornbury, in pursuance of special instructions from the 
Queen, instituted a new era in ecclesiastical affairs, and with a 
view to the speedy introduction of Episcopacy, he directed the 
before-named law to be put in force. Accordingly, on Jan. 
12th, 1702-3, the first election of church officers took place in 
the Jamaica parish, consisting of two wardens and ten vestry- 
men. In this body, Newtown was represented in the persons 
of William Glean, churchwarden, and John Coe, Content Ti- 
tus, Joseph Sackett, and John Berrien, vestrymen. These 
gentlemen were all non-conformists, as was the case with the 
entire vestry.* Here was presented an anomaly ; dissenters 
set to watch the interests of Episcopacy. We must revert 
to the events of the previous year, to see how well they were 
prepared to discharge their trust. 

To escape a remarkable mortality with which the city of 
New- York was visited in the summer of 1702, Lord Cornbury 
and his council retired to Jamaica, and his excellency, through 
the politeness of the Presbyterian minister, the Kev. John 
Hubbard, took up his residence in the parsonage. As a poor 
return for this kindness, the governor ejected Mr. Hubbard 
from his pulpit, and placed there the Eev. John Bartow, an 
Episcopal clergyman of Westchester, and to the Episcopal 
party, Cornbury, on leaving the village, also resigned the 

* The other members of this first vestry were Nehemiah Smith, warden, 
and Hope Carpenter, Nathaniel Denton, Thomas Smith, William Bloodgood, 
Thomas Willett, and David Wrisht. 


parsonage liouse. The effect of this base proceeding upon the 
minds of the community was most imbittering, and it was 
while all were yet keenly impressed with a sense of the in- 
jur}^ inflicted on their minister, that the parish officers entered 
upon their duties. The ministry act, both as originally under- 
stood, and as further explained by a vote of the assembly, in 
1695, offered no impediment to the call and settlement of a 
dissenting protestant clergyman, and the vestry immediately 
invited Mr. Hubbard to officiate as parish minister. But he 
had not long enjoyed the station, when Cornbury arbitrarily 
interposed his authority, and on the 4th of July, 1704, in- 
ducted the Eev. William Urquhart in the parish, without the 
call and approbation of the vestry, and to him, by order of the 
governor, the church and parsonage were delivered up. 

Newtown, as comprised within the Jamaica parish, shared 
largely of these grievances. But Mr. Breck, says Dr. Allen, 
was a strong disputant, a strenuous asserter of the privileges 
of the churches, and an opponent of Episcopal claims. Unit- 
ing with his piet}^ a singular courage and resolution, he boldly 
asserted the principles of the non-conformists, notwithstanding 
the threatening and other ill-treatment which he experienced. 
Thus he sustained his ground several j^ears. But, whether or 
not he grew weary of strife, or, what is not improbable, was 
peremptorily silenced by the governor, he finally took his de- 
parture, and returned to Massachusetts.' And the Newtown 
church, which had been " lately repaired, by a tax levied on 

' Mr. Breck was ordained Oct. 25th, 1704, over the church at Marlbo- 
rough and after a ministry of twenty-six years, he died, Jan. 6th, 1731, aged 
forty-eight. His wife was Elizabeth Wainvvright, of Haverhill, Massachusetts, 
whom he left a widow with four children, one of whom, Robert, was after- 
wards minister of Springfield. Mr. Breck was a man of vigorous talents, of 
quick perception, a tenacious memory, solid judgment and extensive learning. 
Of the Hebrew he was a perfect master. He was also well versed in philo- 
sophy, mathematics, antiquities, and history, and his extensive knowledge he 
was ever ready to impart to others. He was a close, methodical, orthodox 
preacher, as well as a prudent and faithful pastor. Though usually grave 
and meditative, he was yet at times cheerful, and in conversation entertaining. 
A perfect stranger to covetousness, he was " given to hospitality." Resigned, 
in severe pain, his end was peaceful. Such was the esteem in which he was 
held, that in his sickness, a day of public fasting was kept for him, and his 
death was commemorated by sermons in several churches. — Allen's Biogra- 
phical Dictionary. 


the inliabitants," was, tlirougli the favor of Lord Cornbury, 
given up to the Eev. Mr. Urquhart, soon after his induction 
in the Jamaica parish. 

The people of Newtown now discovered that it was vain 
to hope for the preservation of their rights under the mal- 
administration of the bigot Cornbmy. Sustained by the strong 
arm of government, the rites of the Church of England were 
ushered in upon them, and the burdensome tax imposed for 
its support. Their pulpit, occupied once a month by the rector 
of the established church, in performing the tour of his parish, 
was at other times vacant, except when the services of some dis- 
senting preacher were secured for the Sabbath. But Cornbury 
soon prohibited these from preaching within the bounds of his 
province, except by a special licence from himself; a requisi- 
tion wholly illegal, and with respect to dissenters, without pre- 
cedent in the colonies. We shall now observe the enforcement 
of this new rule. 

It was early in the year 1707, that Francis Makemie and 
John Hampton, two Presbyterian ministers, arrived in the 
province, from the south, on their way to New England. Mr. 
Hampton visited Newtown, and at the solicitation of the people, 
preached from their pulpit, on Sunday, Jan. 20th, giving no- 
tice that his associate, Makemie, would discourse in the same 
place, on the following Wednesday. The latter had remained 
in the city, to preach to a small band of Presbyterians, who^ 
having neither a pastor nor a church, were wont to assemble 
themselves, every Sundaj^, at a private house, for the worship 
of God. Mr. Makemie, having administered to the spiritual 
comfort of this little flock, proceeded, the next Tuesday, to New- 
town, for the purpose of meeting his appointment there, but 
had no sooner arrived at that village, than he and Mr. Hamp- 
ton were arrested by Thomas Cardale, the high sheriff, pursu- 
ant to Lord Cornbury's warrant, for preaching without a licence 
from his lordship, who had been informed that they had also 
"gone into Long Island, with intent there to spread their 
pernicious doctrine and principles, to the great disturbance of 
the church by law established, and the government of this 

As it was late when they were arrested, they remained 
prisoners upon parole, at the houses of two neighbors, for that 


niglit, and the next day, were led in triumph to Jamaica, and 
thence, on the day after, to New- York. In an interview which 
ensued with Lord Cornbury, he was rude and insulting, while 
they exhibited a courage and self-possession which conscious 
innocence alone could have inspired. . Mr. Makemie was well 
versed in law, and made a noble defence of their conduct, but 
Cornbury overruled all. The friendless clergymen were given 
into the custody of the sheriff of New- York, and after a con- 
finement of more than six weeks, Mr. Hampton was dis- 
charged, no evidence against him being offered to the grand 
jury ; but Mr. Makemie stood trial before the supreme court, on 
^the 6th of June, and was honorably acquitted, though with 
heavy costs.' 

"If any," writes Livingston, just after, "want information 
concerning the sufferings of other dissenters, both in their per- 
sons, estates, and religious liberties, I recommend them to the 
body of inhabitants of Jamaica and Newtown." This was 
truly a period of much distress with the people of Newtown, 
whose oppressions were almost a counterpart of those endured 
by their puritan fathers and kindred when in Britain they felt 
the iron rod of ecclesiastical domination. This page in their 
history illustrates the disastrous consequences of entrusting 
the tender concerns of religion to the rude arm of secular 
power. Fatal day was it for Episcopacy w}ien she fell into 
the hands of such blind zealots as Lord Cornbury and his co- 
adjutors, who were indeed fitted to ruin, but not to benefit the 
cause of religion. And hence the inhabitants of Newtown 
learned to entertain the strongest aversion, if not a rancorous 
prejudice, to the surplice and the ritual. It should be a matter 
of devout thankfulness with the members of this highly re- 
spectable persuasion as it exists among us at the present day, 
that they are no longer encumbered by an unholy alliance 
with the civil government. 

.' The Rev. John Hampton, whose labor of love at Newtown was arrested 
so abruptly, emigrated to Maryland, in 1705, in company with Mr.- Makemie 
and the Rev. George Macnish, afterwards of Jamaica, Long Island. The 
same year, he united with these and three other clergymen, in organizing 
tlie Presbytery of Philadelphia, the first Presbyterial judicatory formed in 
America, and of this body Mr. Hampton continued to be an influential and 
highly efficient member. After a ten years' ministry to the church at Snow- 
hill, in Maryland, he was forced by ill health to resign his pastoral relation, 
in 1718, which event he sumved less than three years. 


Boundary dispute. — Newtown seemingly victorious. — A riot on the border. — Re- 
ported to the Council.— Parties called before them. — Line to be run over.— 
Newtown patent is the oldest.— Preparation for defence.— Lord Cornbury insti- 
tutes a survey, and puts a new limit to Nev/town's claim. — They now object 
to a decision by the Council ; but Cornbury is determined to proceed. — Opinions 
of his Councillors taken. — The Governor postpones his judgment. — Murder of 

William Hallett and his family. — The murderers tried and executed Locality 

of this tragedy. — Bushwick seeks a new patent. — Cornbury resumes the dispute - 
and passes a decision. — He confirms Bushwick's patent. — He makes extravagant 
grants of land within the Newtown purchase lines. — Settlement of the Rev. 
Samuel Fumroy. — Expeditions to Canada. — Census of the town. — Boundary 
troubles. — The new patentees eject several inhabitants of Newtown. — The 
town takes up their defence. — Death of Capt. Betts, the last of the Purchasers. 
— A new mode of settlement proposed. — Bill before the Asseianbly. — Trouble in 
collecting taxes on the south bounds. — Mr. Pumroy joins the Presbytery of Phila- 
delphia, and his church becomes Presbyterian. — A new church edifice erected. 
— A bill for the settlement of the boundary question passes the Assembly, though 
stoutly opposed. — Defeated in the Council. — An agreement effected with Flat- 
bush. — The " Fauconniers." — Trustees censured ; their accounts examined. — 
Troubles with the Fauconniers continued ; but the issue involved in uncer- 
tainty. , 1706 to 1720. 

The last legal proceedings touching the controversy with 
the three Dutch towns, left the people of Newtown apparently 
the victors, and for more than ten years nought had transpired 
to lessen their advantage. On the contrary, holding to the " let- 
ter of their patent," and pursuing what seems to have been a 
favorite policy, they had kept the field and striven to preoc- 
cupy the lands in dispute. This so chafed and inflamed the 
feelings of their Dutch neighbors, that, in the spring of 1706, 
a party of the latter proceeded in a riotous manner to vent 
their wrath upon the dwellers on the disputed territory. News 
of this disturbance reached the ears of Gov. Cornbury, who, on 
April 18th, informed his council of "a riot committed lately 
in Queen's county, by some of the inhabitants of King's coun- 
ty, occasioned by the uncertainty of the bounds of Newtown, 
Flatbush, Brooklyn, and Bushwick ; " and his excellency un- 
derstanding that all parties were willing to submit their diffe- 
rences to that board for decision, the council directed that they 
be summoned to appear. But, on the meeting of the parties, 
the same month, the counsel for Bushwick stated that his 


clients objected to a decision of tlie question by that board. 
At the same time, the trustees of Flatbush presented a peti- 
tion "setting forth that they claimed no right to the lands 
whereon the riot was committed ; but that the town of New- 
town, having encroached on their lands, prayed thereb}^, that 
the lines of the said town of Newtown, on which they are 
bounded, might be run in the presence of some of the honor- 
able board." Newtown agreeing to this, and also to abide 
the decision of the council, it was ordered that the surveyor 
general run the line between these two towns, in the presence 
of Col. Wenham and Mr. Phillipse, two members of the 
council. It was likewise ordered, "that for preventing fu- 
ture riots and unlawful disputes, the bounds of Newtown 
patent, which is of the oldest date, be esteemed to be within 
the limits of Queen's county, till the matter in controversy 
be determined, and that no waste be committed on the pre- 
mises, till the determination thereof." On the 6th of May 
ensuing, the people of Newtown vested Thomas Stevenson, 
Joseph Sackett, Sen. Eichard Alsop, and William Hallett, 
Jun. with ample power to act in their behalf against the 
three opposing towns, and to determine their disputes, " either 
by law, or compliance of themselves, or by arbitration, which 
shall be thought properest and shall be advised by their coun- 
sel learned in the law." 

Though on the point of an accommodation with Flatbush, 
it appears that nothing permanent was effected ; however, the 
dispute seemed now to transfer itself to the parts adjacent to 
Bushwick, where the people of Newtown were to encounter a 
more potent adversary. Gov. Cornbury, who had been dis- 
tinguished above all his predecessors, for the profuse prodi- 
gality with which he disposed of the public lands of the pro- 
vince, conceived the idea, that there was a tract of ungranted 
land lying between the Newtown and Bushwick patents. By 
his order, Peter Cortelyou set about the investigation of this 
fact, and made a survey of the disputed lands. Eunning the 
west line of Newtown patent from near the house of John 
Denman^ in a south-east direction, till it met the north-west 

' The location of John Denman's house is uncertain, but it was probably 
that before referred to as "the Pole's house," which I have said stood on or 


corner of Jamaica patent, lie thus left between Newtown and 
Bushwick some twelve linndred acres of land, wliicli would 
fall to the government, should the survey be confirmed. 

None of the inhabitants of Newtown were present at this 
survey, but both towns were now summoned before the gor 
vernor in council, and an examination made of their several 
surveys, patents, and evidences, though the counsel for New- 
town declared that they were not empowered to lay their cause 
before that body for adjudication. They were thereupon di- 
rected to obtain such power. But the case had now assumed 
a new and unforeseen aspect; the people of Newtown per- 
ceived the danger of submitting to a decision by the council, 
now so valuable a bait was presented, and they publicly re- 
solved, Dec. 27th, that they were "not willing to leave the 
abovesaid difference to that board." But Lord Cornbury, with 
views the opposite of those expressed by his predecessor, 
Fletcher, determined to proceed in the matter, notwithstand- 
ing the dissent of both the parties. Graham and Cortelyou, 
having explained their respective surveys to the council, were 
directed again to run out the lines of the two towns, in the pre- 
sence of Messrs. Beekman, Van Dam, Wenham, and Pliillipse, 
or any three of them. This having been done, his excellency 
declared his intention to decide the controversy between New- 
town and Bushwick, on a given day, and desired the gentle- 
men of the board to prepare to give their opinions thereon. 

On Sept. 10th, 1707, deputations from both towns attended, 
at the council-chamber, and the conflicting claims were argued 
by the respective attornies, at the conclusion of which. Lord 
Cornbury solicited the views of his council, which were given 
thus. Messrs. Phillipse, Beekman, and Van Dam, expressed 
the opinion "that the town of Bushwick have a good title 
to the lands in their patent, according to the boundaries 
thereof." On the contrary, Mr. Barberie urged " that the 
patent of Newtown, not on record, ought to subsist, and 
that the vacant land ought to be divided between the said 
towns." Differing from all these, Messrs. Mompesson and 

near the spot occupied by the dwelling of Underhill Covert. Denruan owned 
a farm of one hundred and seventy acres in this vicinity, which included the 
lands of Underhill Covert and Georire Debevoise. This form was .sold in 
1717, by Denman's heirs, to Richard Hallett, and from him has descended to 
the present proprietors. 




Wenliam contended that the statute of Charles I. taking away 
the jurisdiction of the privy council over estates, made it clear 
"that the matter in dispute does not lie before this board," 
Amid these diverse views his excellency preferred to post- 
pone his decision, and stated that he would take a day to con- 
sider the case. 

But the subject not being immediately resumed, there oc- 
curred in the interim a shocking tragedy, which arrested and 
absorbed the attention both of the authorities and the inha- 
bitants at large. The ])articulars, as drawn partly from ac- 
counts written at the time, and partly from well accredited 
tradition, are these : — Upon property now forming the estate 
of Peter Marks, deceased, very near the present settlement of 
Middletown, there lived a thrifty farmer, William Hallett, Jun. 
who held a portion of the land which his paternal grandfather 
had purchased of the natives. Near neighbors there were 
few or none, but his domestic hearth was enlivened by the 
presence of five children and a fond wife, who was expected 
soon to add another to their store of conjugal comforts. In 
the family were two colored slaves, a man and a woman, the 
former an Indian. Incensed, as was said at the time, "be 
cause they were restrained from going abroad on the Sab- 
bath," the woman meditated revenge, and assured her hus- 
band that if he would only kill the whole family, then the 
farm and everything pertaining to it would become his 
own. He at last yielded to the wicked suggestion, and accom- 
plished the atrocious deed while his victims were asleep. It 
was on Saturday night, the 24th of January, 1708. Hoping 
to screen themselves from suspicion, they concluded to be the 
first to announce the tragedy, and with this intent the female 
fiend, the prime instigator of the deed, set out early the next 
morning for Hallett's Cove. Entering a house, her first ex- 
clamation was " Oh, dear ! they have killed master and missus 
and the children with an axe, and only Sam and I have 
escaped." The truth however was too palpable, and the guilty 
creature soon confessed who was the real murderer. Both 
were straightway arrested, and lodged in Jamaica jail. Tidings 
of the affair v/ere at once sent to Gov. Cornbur}^, who imuiedi- 
ately issued a special warrant to the judges, before whom, at Ja- 
maica, the prisoners were arraigned for trial, and being found 



guilty, were executed on the plains east of tliat village, on 
Monday, Feb. 2d, in the presence of a large concourse of spec- 
tators. The woman was burnt at the stake ; her accomplice 
was hung in gibbets, and placed astride a sharp iron, in which 
condition he lived some time, and in a state of delirium which 
ensued, believing himself to be on horseback, would urge for- 
ward his supposed animal with the frightful impetuosity of a 
maniac, while the blood oozing from his lascerated flesh stream- 
ed from his feet to the ground. How rude the age which could 
inflict such tortures, however great the crime committed. 

A letter written in New-York, on Tuesday, Feb. 10th, fol- 
lowing, states that the criminals were "put to all the torment 
possible for a terror to others, of ever attempting the like wick- 
edness; several other families were designed for the slaugh- 
ter, had they succeeded in this without discovery ; on Saturday 
last, two negro men were also executed at Jamaica, as acces- 
sories to this barbarous murder, and several others are in 
custody ; our chief justices, judges, and attorney-general, are 
indefatigable in the discovery of this negro plot and bloody 
murder, and are still sitting at Jamaica in prosecution thereof." 

Mr. Hallett w^as the son of Capt. William Hallett, then one 
of his Majesty"'s justices of th-e peace. He was in the prime of 
life, and had served the town in various public capacities. The 
event which so prematurely terminated his life and those of 
his family, produced a strong sensation in the province, and a 
law Avas passed shortly after, making mention of the occur- 
rence, and entitled, " An Act for preventing the conspiracy of 
slaves." The dwelling Avhere the murder was committed is 
still remembered by many, it having remained until the be- 
ginning of the present century. It was built of brick, and 
stood in the hollow on the west side of the road, opposite the 
late residence of Mr. Marks, and within a few feet of the small 
house now erected there. The well which belonged to these 
premises still remains in use. With this spot the juveniles 
were wont to associate the idea of ghosts and hobgoblins ; it 
was noted as the scene of marvelous appearances, witnessed 
by the timid traveller at the dim mysterious hour of twilight, 
and was often pointed at by the passing schoolboy as "the 
haunted house," 

When the excitement which this sanguinary aflair had 


produced in Newtown was somewhat alla3^ed, Gov. Cornburv, 
on April 23d, resumed tlie consideration of the dispute exist- 
ing between that town and Bushwick, with the intention of 
passing final judgment. The day previous, the inhabitants 
of the latter town had sent in a petition praying for a con- 
firmation of their patent. Lord Cornbury, after briefly advert- 
ing to the controversy, and the j^revious action of the board 
upon it, proceeded to state as his opinion, "that if the dis- 
pute in law between the said towns concerned the propriety 
of their lands, that then the law ought to determine it ; but 
the dispute now appearing to him to be of another nature, viz. 
whether Newtown patent not on record is good ; his excellency 
said that by what had appeared to him he has cause to believe 
that there has been some sinister practice used therein, which 
if allowed in this case, may prove of pernicious consequence 
in other cases ; and therefore is of opinion that the town of 
Bushwick ought to have a patent of confirmation according to 
the boundaries of their old patent." 

The " Newtown patent not on record," twice alluded to, 
referred, it is presumed, to the Indian deed of 1656. As Bush- 
wick based her claim primarily on Gov. Stuyvesant's order, in 
1661, authorizing the occupation of the land in dispute, it is 
to be inferred that the "patent" above mentioned, was of a 
date antecedent to this. Yet our records afford no intimation 
that Newtown enjoyed a patent under the Dutch, nor any 
prior to that of Gov. Nicoll. Besides, it was a fact understood, 
that no patent was issued from the secretary's office without 
first being recorded.' Hence it is rendered nearly certain that 
the Indian deed of 1656, which was not recorded, is the docu- 
ment called a "patent" in the council minutes, perhaps an 
error of the recording clerk. It was to this deed that the peo- 
ple of Isewtown had uniformly referred as the legal proof of 
their right to the soil, from which, in equity, they derived 
a far better title than a charter from the Dutch government 

' Mr. Berrien, on entering upon the oflice of town clerk, in 1704, find 
giving a receipt for tlie public boolis and papers received by him, enumerates 
" the Indian purchase," and " the old and new patent." This seems to esta- 
blish the point that Newtown had but tico patents, namely, those of Nicoll 
and Donn-an. These are recorded in the Secretary of State's Office, i. 105, 
and vi. 10, of original books of Englibh patents. 


could have conferred. As that deed was doubtless obtained 
without the consent of Stuyvesant, this, probably, is what 
Cornbury was pleased to call "some sinister practice." 

Pursuant to the governor's decision, a new patent was is- 
sued to the town of Bushwick, August 12th, 1708, confirming 
that of Gov. ISTicoll, but making no reserve of Smith's Island 
in favor of Xewtown, as was awarded by the arbitrators, and 
approved by the governors Lovelace and Dongan. But we 
have yet to behold the crowning act of Lord Cornbury re- 
garding this affair. He had trampled upon the religious rights 
of Newtown, and would now show them that their estates 
were equally at his merc}^. Not content with yielding to 
Bushwick all the territory she had claimed, and assuming the 
correctness of Cortelyou's survey, he determined to dispose of 
the twelve hundred acres of land thus left unappropriated, as 
a munificent gift to certain of his personal friends. On the 
27th of September, be gave a patent for this tract to Mrs. Ann 
Bridges, widow of the late ckief justice of the province, John 
'Bridges, doctor of laws; Kobert Milward, attorney at law, 
who, with Dr. Bridges, had accompanied Lord Cornbury to 
this country ; William Huddleston, Adrian Hoogland, Peter 
Praa,* Benjamin Aske, and "William Anderson. Eight days 
before, Cornbury had given to Elias Boudinot the triangular 
j)lot of land lying in the extreme southwest corner of New- 
town's claim, and cut off by the Bushwick patent. And on 
the 80th of the same month, he granted to William Bond, 
who had been in the employ of the council as a surveyor, the 
two small islands in the Sound known as the Brothers, which 
by the act of 1691, were made a portion of Queen's county. 

1 Capt. Praa sold out his interest in the patent (two days after it was 
granted) to Charles Crommelin, of Nevv-Yorlc. The latter, and his father, 
Daniel Crommelin, were Huguenots, who had been dragooned out of FraKce 
for their religion. They became wealthy merchants in New-York, and were 
admitted to freeraanship in 1698. The elder Crommelin was a part owner 
of the Wawayanda patent in Orange county, wliere, in 1716, he made a set- 
tlement, calling it Greueourt, after a village in the circle of Grey, in Upper 
Saone, France. .He died in the city of New-York, aged seventy-nine years, 
March 22d, 1725, and his remains, with those of his son Charles, rest to- 
gether in Trinity Chureh yard. The latter married Hannah Sinchiir, in 1706, 
and died, aged sixty, in 1739. His descendants are of reputable standing 
among us at the present day. 


Thus summarily and by a most flagrant breacli of the pa- 
tented rights of Newtown, were consummated acts of the gross- 
est dishonesty, in behalf of persons of whom better things 
might have been expected, for most of the grantees were warm 
supporters of the Church of England, and several were vestry- 
men of Trinity Church. It was by such means as these that 
Cornbury sought to secure "friends of the mammon of un- 
righteousness," for he saw his impolitic administration about 
to expire. These were some of the last drops added to the 
chalice of his iniquity. So odious was he, that the provinces 
of New- York and New Jersey united in complaints to the 
Queen, and obtained his recall. 

In anticipation of his removal, the people began to breathe 
and the inhabitants of Newtown to enjoy with less restraint 
their religious privileges. Having been for a considerable 
period without a pastor, the people, in July, 1708, to the 
number of " some scores," drew up and signed an invitation 
to the Rev. Samuel Pumroy, of JSTorthampton, Mass. then on 
a visit to their town, " desiring him to take the care of them as 
a minister of Christ ; promising subjection to his doctrine and 
discipline, according to the rules of the gospel." Mr. Pumroy 
took the call into consideration, and at an appointed time gave 
a favorable reply. The following autumn, the congregation 
sent two of their number to New England, with whom he and 
his wife and child came to Newtown, where they arrived safely, 
on the 18th of Scpteml)er. 

Mr. Pumroy was the youngest son of Deacon Medad 
Pumroy, a distinguished citizen of Northampton, Mass. and 
a member of the general court of that colony. He married, 
in 1685, as his second wife, Abigail, daughter of Elder John 
Strong, and widow of the Pev. Nathaniel Chauncey, the only 
issue of which marriage was Samuel Pumroy, born at North- 
ampton, Sept. 16th, 1687. In 1705, at the age of eighteen, he 
graduated at Yale College, and on July 23d, 1707, married 
Lydia Taylor, of his native place. He was nearly allied to 
several noted divines of that day, being a half-brother to Rev. 
Nathaniel Chauncey, of Durham, whose sister Sarah, born in 
1683, married the Rev. Samuel Whittlesey, of Wallingford, 
and was the mother of Rev. Chauncey Whittlesey, an eminent 
minister of New Haven. 


He soon enlisted tlie affections of his people, wlio at a 
meeting held Feb. 18th, 1709, resolved, "that Mr. Pumroy 
shall be settled in the town, and have the town housing, and 
all the lands and meadows that belong to the housing, for his 
use as long as he shall be our minister." For his further sup- 
port, a subscription list w^as drawn up early in the succeeding 
fall, to which over fifty persons subscribed such sums as they 
could afford. And ©n the 30th of November, 1709, "at the 
earnest request of the members in full communion, and the 
rest of the congregation," Mr. Pumroy was ordained a minis- 
ter of the gospel of Christ, and a pastor of the church at New- 
town. The ordination service was performed at Northampton, 
his native place, " before a great congTegation," by the Eev. 
Solomon Stoddard, of that town, the Eev. John Williams, of 
Deerfield, and the Eev. William Williams, of Hatfield. 

Aside from the foregoing, the year 1709, and the two 
which followed, afford but few notable occurrences. The 
continuance of Queen Anne's war, led to several requisitions 
upon Queen's county for troops to aid in expeditions to Cana- 
da. A number, chiefly apprentices and servants, were induced 
to enter this service, and suffered many hardships on the fron- 
tiers, but were not engaged in any military encounters. 

In 1711, a census of the town was taken, and showed the 
population to be 1003 souls, of whom 164 were negro slaves. 
Of the latter, 100 were above the age of sixteen years, namely, 
52 men and 48 women. The white inhabitants were thus 
classified: — males, 190 over sixteen years, and 227 under that 
age ; and of females, 207 above sixteen, and 215 under. 

The vexatious controversy in which Newtown and the 
adjoining towns were involved, seemed as far as ever from 
adjustment. Newtown exhibited an unflinching purpose to 
contest the validity of Cornbury's grants, and had taken 
prompt measures to maintain to the letter the bounds of her 
Indian purchase, though she now found new opponents in the 
persons of the patentees, Ann Bridges and company. Assert- 
ing their ill-gotten rights, the latter entered suits against such 
of the inhabitants of Ne^vtown as were settled on their patent, 
and succeeded in ousting them. The town imdertook their 
defence, and on May 23d, 1712, deputed Judge John Coe and 
Eichard Alsop to appear at court, in New-York, in behalf of 


the persons ejected ; wliicli gentlemen, together with Robert 
Field/ and Capt. Joseph Sackett, were also bj a vote then 
talcen, and hy an instrument in writing, dated on Oct, 23d 
succeeding, fully empowered to treat with the neighboring 
towns, and settle all differences as to boundaries. In 1713, 
they added to the above persons Thomas Stevenson, Joseph 
Sackett, Jun. and Peter Berrien, and levied a tax of a hundred 
pounds on the purchase lands, for the defence of the township, 
because, says the record, "the inhabitants of the towns of 
Flatbush, Brooklyn, and Bushwick, one Elias Boudinot, and 

' The Fields, of Newtown, were of respectable English origin, and are 
believed, by those who have investigated the subject, to have sprung from 
the ancient family of De La Feld, or Delafield, after their removal to Eng- 
land, from the Vosges Mountains, in France, as stated in Burk's Landed 
Gentry. The first of the family in this town was Robert Field, whose father, 
Robert, was a patentee of Flushing, in 1645. As early as 1670, the younger 
Field was a landholder of Newtown, where he subsequently held tlie otiice 
of overseer. He died, April I3th, 1701, leaving four sons, Robert, Nathaniel, 
Elnatiiajn, and Ambrose, Robert, the person named in the text, married, in 
1690, Phebe, widow of Samuel Scudder, He was a prominent member of 
the society of Friends, and owned tiie farm, now of the widow Vanderveer, 
near Newtown viUagc, which at his death, Jan. 28th, 1735, without issue, he 
left to his nephew, Robert Field. His brother, Elnathan, died aged, on Jan, 
3d, 1754. He had issue, Robert, Benjamin, Elizabeth and Susannah, who 
became in succession the wives of John Sackett, Phebe who married John 
Coe, and Mary, wlio married Robert Coe, Benjamin owned the farm now 
of Col. Hunt, at White Pot, and had one son, the late Hezekiah Field. Ro- 
bert, the son of Elnathan, was born May 12th, 1698, inherited the farm of his 
uncle Robert, married Elizabeth Hicks, and died Sep. 19th, 1767, having had 
issue, Elnathan, Robert, Thomas, Benjamin, Jacob, Stephen, Whitehead, Abi- 
gail, who married Samuel Moore, and Deborah, who married successively 
Daniel Betts and Waters Smith. Of these sons, Elnathan and BenjainiJi re- 
moved to ]\Iiddletown, N. J. wiiere they left families. Whitehead had sons, 
Daniel and Austin. Jacob married Charity, daughter of Thomas White- 
head, and died in his 82d year, April 26th, 1815, His children were Mary, 
who married Samuel Blackweli, Elizabeth, Henry, and Jacob, whose widow 
survives. Stephen, the sixth son of Robert and Elizabeth, remained on the 
paternal farm, married Helena, daughter of Thomas Whitehead, and had 
issue, Frances, Deborah Smith, now the widow Van Dam, Sarah, who mar- 
ried Thomas Keeler, Waters, Hannah, now the widow of Jacob Field, Rich- 
ard, and Stephen. The latter, born Oct. 1st, 1774, married Sarah, daughter 
of Samuel Blackweli, and died April 15th, 1828, having issue, Abigail, Hellen, 
wife of Cornelius Luyster, Sarah Marin, now deceased, Robert M. of New- 
York cily, Stephen, and Cornelia, 



Ann Bridges, witli divers other people, have and are endeavor- 
ing to encroach upon the right of the purchase and general 
patent of said town of Newtown, by entering writs of eject- 
ment upon the people of said town, and by suing them in 
actions of trespass and otherwise." To provide further means 
for conducting the public suits, the above committee were em- 
powered to sell "the town-house and land adjoining to it." 
Subsequently, considerable public land, and finally all that re- 
mained unoccupied, was sold for the same object by order of 
the purchasers. The last survivor of the original purchasers, 
Capt. Eichard Betts, died on Nov. 18th, of this year, at the 
patriarchal age of a hundred years. None in the township had 
been so eminent as he, for commanding influence and valuable 
public services. His remains were interred on his own estate, 
at the English Kills, on the 20th, with a funeral service by 
Mr. Foyer, rector of the Jamaica Parish. 

It was now proposed to obtain the passage of a law pro- 
viding for the settlement of this tedious controversy. Pursu- 
ant to a petition of the justices and other freeholders of Queen's 
county, presented to the assembly, May 6th, 1714, a bill was 
introduced the next day, entitled "An Act for the ascertaining 
of the bounds of Queen's county." But this bill died in the 
hands of a committee, to whom on its second reading it was re- 
ferred, with power to send for persons, papers, and records ; 
they never reported. 

Meanwhile the dispute abated not in violence. There 
arose a difficulty in collecting taxes from residents on the 
contested lands. The freeholders of Newtown, on April 5th, 
1715, voted to "bear the collector harmless" in gathering the 
rate from William Howard, widow Sarah Betts, Eichard Betts, 
and others, living on the tract claimed by Flatbush. The first 
of these having some years previous, seated himself in a log 
hut on the south side of the hills, had alread}?" experienced 
rough treatment from his Dutch neighbors, who, when he was 
preparing to raise a new house on the site of that now occu- 
pied by his aged descendant of the same name, came over in 
a body, and burnt his frame. Not discouraged, Howard pro- 
ceeded to erect another house. Now the trustees of Flatbush 
demanded taxes of him, and in default thereof, seized and 
held possession of his premises. The justices of Queen's 


county interfered, and in turn were prosecuted by the trustees 
of Flatbush. Newtown voted to defend tlie justices, and re- 
pay the damage which they might sustain. Thus fuel was 
added to the flame of contention. 

Turn we now to more interesting events of this year. As 
a majority of the Newtown people were Congregationalists in 
sentiment, so had they always maintained an intercourse with 
the New England churches of that persuasion, and conducted 
their religious affairs mainly after the plan of those churches. 
And up to the coming of Mr. Pumroy, the settling of ministers, 
as well as all other ecclesiastical business, was transacted by 
the inhabitants in public town-meeting. And it is clear that 
at his settlement the church was Congregational. But a 
change in this respect was now instituted, to which several 
causes probably contributed. AVhile the abuses which had 
been witnessed and endured, resulting from the interference 
of the civil authority in matters ecclesiastical, tended to pro- 
duce disgust at the coalition of church and state, danger may 
also have been apprehended from the increase of Episcopal 
influence in the councils of the congregation. But it was per- 
haps more directly owing to the efforts of the Eev. George 
Macnish, a Scotch clergyman, then settled at Jamaica, that 
this church was led to yield their old form of church govern- 
ment, and adopt that of the Presbyterians. He was a leading 
member of the Presbytery of Philadelphia, and " through his 
influence," Mr. Pumroy was led to make an application, Sept. 
23d, 1715, for admission to that body, then in session at New 
Castle, which is thus noticed in their minutes: — "The Eev. 
Mr. Samuel Pumroy, minister at Newtown, on Long Island, 
offered himself to be a member of this Presbytery, and was 
heartily and unanimously accepted, he promising subjection 
to the Presbytery in the Lord." From this date, therefore, 
this church, it is presumed, began to assume the characteristics 
of Presbyterianism, though some years elapsed before a session 
was constituted. 

Already was it contemplated to erect a new church, for 
in the lapse of years that built in 1671, had become much 
dilapidated. The site of the present edifice was selected, 
and Jonathan Fish, who owned the premises, presented a 


deed/ May lOth, 1715, for a lot four rods square, to Robert 
Wilson, Thomas Hazard, James Eenne, and Silas Titus, as 
trustees on behalf of the " Dissenting Presbyterian congrega- 
tion of Newtown." Possession of the premises was received 
March 22d, 1716, and the erection of the church followed. 
But it appears that the building was not wholly completed, or 
at least was not furnished with a pulpit, till the year 1741. 
This was a smaller edifice, and of simpler architecture than the 
one now occupying its place, and was adorned with a spire, 
in which a small bell was suspended. It remained till the 

The attempt to effect an arrangement of the boundary dis- 
pute by an act of assembly, was repeated in 1717. The inha- 
bitants of Newtown having resolved upon this course, at 
their instance, a bill was introduced in that body, October 8th, 
entitled " An Act for the better ascertaining the division line 
between King's and Queen's county, on the Island of Nassau." 
Remonstrances against this measure poured in from Flatbush, 
Brooklyn, Bushwick, and the proprietors of the patent granted 
to Ann Bridges and company. Moreover, effectually to frus- 
trate the object proposed by the above bill, they caused ano- 
ther to be introduced for uniting King's and Queen's counties, 
under the name of King George's county, which received a 
very favorable consideration. But the objections to the first 
bill were deemed insufficient, and the assembly, on Nov. 28th, 
passed it. And now there was hope of a settlement ; but it 
soon vanished, for on the presentation of the bill to Gov. 
Hunter, he refused to sanction it. 

In the interim, a reconciliation with Flatbush was hap- 
pily effected. On the 30th of October, Peter Striker, Daniel 
Polhemus, and Engelbert Lot, trustees of that town, and 
Joseph Sackett, Robert Field, and Richard Alsop, on behalf 
of Newtown, passed deeds, in which the division line of the 
said towns was declared to "begin at the north-west corner 
of the bounds of the town of Jamaica, in Queen's county 

' Tliis deed is recorded in "Newtown Great Book of Records," p. 33. The 
site of the old church, which was on the opposite side of the street, is alluded 
to in the town records, under date of 1710, as "the meeting-house commons," 
.ind again, in 1726, as "a small gore of land whereon formerly stood the old 
Presbyterian meeting-house." 


aforesaid, and tlience westerly, as the hills run, along the top 
thereof, so that the sonth side of the said hills shall be for ever 
accounted to be in the bounds of the town of Flatbush afore- 
said ; including all the lands now in the possession of William 
Howard, Claes Simonse, Simon Losee, Peter Lot, and Sarah 

The breach with Flatbush being healed, a special commit- 
tee was appointed, iu 1718, to treat with the trustees of Brook- 
lyn, but with what result is not known. However, the main 
difficulty was now with the " Fauconniers," as the patentees of 
1708 were called, from Peter Fauconnier, Esq. an attendant 
of Lord Cornbury to this country, in 1702, 'and afterwards a 
New- York merchant, and receiver-general of the province, 
who, having in 1717 purchased Milward's interest in the pa- 
tent, had become a leading member of the company. Yet 
nothing decisive was done. The purchasers of Newtown 
expressed dissatisfaction with their heavy expenditures, and 
were disposed to censure the trustees for an extravagant use 
of the public money. On Aug. 26th, 1720, those living with- 
in the purchase lines met and appointed a new board of trus- 
tees, consisting of Joris Brinckerhoflf, Thomas Hazard, Nicho- 
las Berrien, Eobert Coe, Elnathan Field, and Josias Furman. 
These were instructed to examine the accounts of all the trus- 
tees for the last eight years, and allow or disallow the same ; 
and to make an assessment to cancel the debts contracted in 
behalf of the purchasers. For seven years after this date, 
there is trace of continued troubles with the Fauconniers ; it 
then ceases to be mentioned, and the final issue of the dispute 
with them is involved in doubt. The silence of the supreme 
court records, journals of the assembly, and council minutes, 
seems to indicate a more private mode of settlement. It may 
be that the rights of the patentees being acquired by the inha- 
bitants of Bushwick, the two interests became merged in one. 
Certain it is, the controversy now reassumed the form of a dis- 
pute "between the townshij) of Boswyck and the township 
of Newtown." Yet nothing worth noting was done for many 


Social and personal enterprize awakened. — The Friends erect a Meeting-house. — 
Education advancing. — School-house built at Middletown. — Agriculture. — Pro- 
duce. — Mechanics. — Manufactures. — Trade. — Manners. — Dress. — Socialities — 
Dutch and Episcopal churches erected. — School-houses built at Berrien's Neck, 
White Pot, and the English Kills. — A new Town-House. — The learned profes- 
sions. — Physicians. — Grist-Mill built at Hallett's Cove. — Fatal casualties. — Sla- 
very. — Opening of the French war. — Battle of Lake George. — Exile of the 
French Neutrals ; one family arrives at Newtown. — A hurricane sweeps over 
the town. — Troops quarter here. — French officers on parole. — Abercronibie's 
Defeat. — Capture of Fort Frontenac. — Col. Isaac Corsa. — The 44th Regiment 
winters at Newtown. — Capt. Morse of this town has a command at the siege of 
Fort Niagara. — The next year is at the capture of Montreal. — End of the 
war. — Further account of the Neutrals. — Effects of the French war. — Classi- 
cal School opened at Hallett's Cove. — Teacher's card. — Boundary question re- 
vived. — A bill passes the Assembly appointing commissioners to settle it. — Their 
report. — The dispute ended. — Several carpenters remove to St. Croix. 

1720 to 1775. 

The period between 1720 and 1755 was one of mucli social 
and personal enterprize, and the incident with which it is made 
up is nearly all directly illustrative of this fact. There was 
little to paralize honest effort and divert from useful pursuits. 
The " time of the Indian wars," long a fearful epoch in the 
town's history, now served but as a theme to beguile the win- 
tery evening ; no outward foes were dreaded, and a sense of 
public security in respect to civil and religious rights, pervaded 
the now well-regulated society. And industry had brought 
the means of successfully prosecuting many plans for private 
and public good. 

The Friends, or Quakers, who hitherto had held connection 
with the society at Flushing, having increased to a goodly 
number, resolved to erect a house of worship in the village 
of Kewtown. On Feb. 25th, 1720, Robert Field, a leading 
member of that persuasion, bought of Benjamin Moore about 
half an acre of ground, on the corner now occupied by the re- 
sidence of Robert Mack, which he conveyed, July 5th, 1722, 
to Joseph Rodman, Richard Betts, and Richard Hallett, " in 
trust for and in behalf of the people of God called Quakers," 


and a meeting-house was immediately erected thereon, where 
the Friends long continued to hold their convocations. 

The subject of education was also exciting more attention, 
but by education must be understood those few and simple 
attainments which the mass of the people were wont to regard 
as a competency ; in most instances not extending beyond the 
ability to read, write, and cast plain accounts, and, in the case 
of girls, no further than " to read English in the Bible." These 
seemed sufficient for the exigencies of the time and place, and 
many of the honest yeomen were themselves without even 
these meagre acquirements. The village had occasionally en- 
joyed the services of a school-master, and the situation was 
now filled by Mr. George Eeynolds, who appears to have oc- 
cupied the town-house, as a vote was passed April 5th, 1720, 
to rent him these premises. Here, to the village school, re- 
sorted a troop of ruddy-faced urchins from the surrounding 
neighborhood, - but the families in distant parts of the town 
could hardly share its benefits. Feeling the deprivation to 
which their children were subject, several of these formed the 
bold design of starting another school, at what has since borne 
the name of Middletown, and associating, built a school-house 
upon a piece of ground appropriated for the purpose by Jo- 
seph Hallett. On the 20th of May, 1721, this gentleman exe- 
cuted a deed, admitting Samuel Hallett, Samuel Moore, Joseph 
Moore, Thomas Skillman, and Isaac Bragaw as joint owners 
with himself of the said premises, which he describes as " thirty 
foot long and twenty foot broad, in my lot lying next to George 
Brinckerhoif 's wood-land, for the use and benefit of a school- 
house, now erected and standing thereon by the roadside from 
Hallett's Cove to Newtown ; to be equally enjoyed by them 
and their heirs severally, and me and my heirs, for ever, hav- 
ing, all and every of us, our heirs, and every of them, the 
same equal share, right and title to the above said land and 
school-house, and full power and authority to send what num- 
ber of children we shall think fit." This was looked upon as 
a hazardous undertaking, and one which none, for many years, 
were found ready to incur the expense of imitating.' Indeed, 

1 This house having been sold some years since, now forms the kitchen 
to the dwelling lately occupied by the widow Tiiton. An incident connected 
with it, which occurred about forty years ago, created quite a stir at the time. 


the advantages of education and intelligence were as jet too 
little understood to be valued, except so far as they seemed 
to bear on the promotion of business and the acquisition 
of wealth. 

The inhabitants were given to agriculture, and had pur- 
sued it so assiduously that in 1723, all the land in the town- 
ship had been taken up, except a few small parcels which were 
then directed to be sold to defray the expense of their public 
suits. jBut^ husbandry was then quite a different thing from 
what it now is. The art of cultivating the soil was but imper- 
fectly understood, and farming implements were few in number, 
rude and clumsy. Yet these disadvantages were counterba- 
lanced by the great fertility of the soil, which produced abun- 
dant crops many years in succession, without requiring manure. 
Wheat was the favorite article of culture, and received the most 
attention, but enough of rye, barley, corn, hemp, flax, and to- 
bacco, were raised for home consumption, besides a variety of 
fruits and vegetables, including that most valuable one, the 
potatoe, with which the first settlers were wholly unacquainted. 
But domestic fowls and hive bees, had been reared from the 
beginning of settlement. Much land was left for grazing and 
browsing, for the farmers also raised a considerable number of 
horses, cattle, and sheep, from breeds originally brought from 
New England and Holland. Such as lived convenient to the 
water, conveyed their produce to market in a canoe or peri- 
auger, one of which they usually owned. Produce brought 
low prices. In January, 1730, wheat sold in this tov/n at 
3*. 3c?. per bushel; barley at 3s.; flax at 9d. per pound ; butter 
at I5. and wood 3s. 6d. a load. Common labor was worth about 
35. a day, then considered a round price, but there were few 
laborers to be hired even at that rate. 

But though husbandry prevailed over every other occupa- 

This was the discovery by one of the school-boys, of a bag of gold to the 
value of $840, which had belonged to one John Keavns, who had taught 
school here during the Revolution. The money was taken possession of by 
the teacher, whose name was Neal, but the neighbors hearing of it, collected, 
and took him before William Leverich, Esq. by whose order the money was 
forced from him. Owing, Iiowever, to some irregularity in the proceeding, 
Neal prosecuted the several persons engaged in searching him, including the 
justice, and recovered damages for assault and battery; while N. Moore, as 
administrator of Kearns, sued and obtained the money. 


tion, there seems to liave been no lack of mechanics. In 1662, 
the town thought itself fortunate in having two tailors, one 
carpenter, a cooper, a mason, and a blacksmith. Since that 
time, mechanics had multiplied, with the increase of popula- 
tion, and in addition to the above trades, there are found 
wheelwrights, woolcombers, butchers, saddlers, and weavers, the 
latter by far the most numerous. The government discouraged 
manufactures, and hence there were few if any in the town, 
beyond what the inhabitants had use for. Most families made 
coarse woollen cloth, and linen, for their own wear, which was 
woven by the itinerant weavers who came to their houses for 
that purpose ; for every flxmily had its own loom as well as 
spinning-wheels. Two, if not three grist-mills were in opera- 
tion, and in 1720, Eichard Alsop projected the erection of 
another, at the English Kills, on the small creek that separated 
•his farm on the east from that of William Case, but whether it 
was really built does not appear. At this day, the process of 
flour making differed from the present mode, in that the flour 
after being ground, was bolted by hand. Coe's mill was at 
this time provided with bolting-mills, separate from that 
which did the grinding. At a quite early day, William Hal- 
lett established a lime-yard at Hallett's Cove. In the same 
vicinity, on the north side of the Ridge, clay was dug, from 
which bricks were made, in considerable quantities, by the 
Halletts. In 1721, William Vallence set up a bark-miU and 
tannery in the village, adjoining the Horsebrook, A starch 
factory was also put in operation in the same place, and at the 
head of Flushing Bay, Joris Rapelje conducted an extensive 
brewery, being the " chief brewer of the town," 

Trade was principally by way of barter. This was con- 
venient and necessary as money was scarce. At an early dav, 
there was absolutely none, except wampum, or Indian shell 
money, which was the circulating currency. Therefore, nearly 
everything was paid for in produce, including wages and rates 
or taxes. In 1661, a person gives for a house and land "six 
hundred weight of tobacco, a thousand clapboards, and half a 
fat of strong beer," Another exchanges "a negro boy" for 
land. Even at the date under which I write, there was very 
little silver afloat, but its place was partially supplied by the 
paper bills of the province. As the wants of a family were 


comparatively few, and these chiefly supplied by their indus- 
try, from the products of their own farm, there was but little 
occasion to patronize tlie store-keeper, and their few groceries 
were usually obtained in New-York, on market days. Hence 
the first notice of a merchant in Newtown is in 1722, Nathan- 
iel Hazard having opened a store ; but, probably for want of 
encouragement, he soon discontinued it, and removed to New- 
York, and subsequentl}'- to Philadelphia. 

The state of society in the township at this day was cha- 
racterized by an honest plainness. The toils of many yearg 
had brought comfort and plenty, but few luxuries. Their 
dwellings were now more spacious and of substantial build, 
and the days of thatched roofs were passing away. The furni- 
ture was such as necessity, not fancy, suggested. There were 
beds in abundance, and a good store of homespun linen and 
blankets ; there were durable oak tables, and chairs of the 
same material and strength ; and there were massive walnut 
wardrobes, of which some continue until now, and may for 
centuries to come. Floor-carpets were a superfluity almost if 
not quite unknown. The table was set with pewter platters 
and plain earthen ware. Some few could display china and 
even pieces of silver plate, but they were rare. And the sim- 
plicity of manners is shown in that until recently very few 
families used table-forks, but ate with their fingers. Tea was 
just beginning to be known among the more polished and 
wealthy. The popular dress was homespun linsey-woolsey, 
and the economy of the times appears in the fact that when a 
coat became the worse for wear, it was sent to the tailor's to be 
turned. A black or grey coat of the above material ; tight 
breeches and hose, the former made usually of leather and 
fastened with huge buckles at the knee ; a capacious beaver 
hat, and stout shoes ornamented with brass or silver-plated 
buckles ; — these, in the main, composed the usual dress suit of 
the more affluent farmer. But the major part of the inhabitants 
at that day were singularly plain in attire, in maimers, and in 
speech ; yet did they manifest for each other a degree of genu- 
ine friendship now rarely observable. For instance when one 
had cut his winter store of wood, his neighbors stood ready to 
aid with their teams in carting it home ;; or if he needed help 
in his harvesting, it was cheerfully given, and. as cheei fully 



reciprocated wlien there was occasion. And the corn-husking, 
and the spinning-frolic, evinced the same neighborly feeling. 
At the latter, the wives and daughters attended with their 
wheels, and there was a merry hum of spindles and mingling 
of voices, till the flax or wool of the hostess was converted into 
thread. Ah ! by -gone doys of true social happiness ! 

A leading feature in the character of the inhabitants was 
their attachment to the ways of virtue and religion. A Ee- 
formed Dutch church had been organized, and in 1733, they 
began to erect a house of worship on the present location, 
which was given them for that purpose by Peter Berrien. 
The members of the Church of England emulating this lauda- 
ble example, applied to the town the same year for a building 
spot, whereupon a plot twenty rods square lying " between 
the town-house and the starch-house " was assigned them, and 
their church was erected two years after, being the ancient 
edifice still remaining. At this era, therefore, the village was 
adorned with four church edifices, where the respective con- 
gregations met on holy-day to render homage to their common 
benefactor. Their particular history must be reserved for a 
future chapter upon the ecclesiastical annals of the township. 

With this display of Christian effort, came other evidences 
of an increase of general intelligence ; education, the hand- 
maid of true religion, was advancing. In the year 1734, 
several individuals living in Hellgate Neck, combined and 
erected " a small house for a school to be kept in for the edu- 
cation of their children." It was located on the river road, 
near Berrien's Point, where John Lawrence had presented 
" one square rod of land " as a site for the building, and for 
which premises he, on Feb. 21th, 1735, gave a deed to his as- 
sociates, Joseph Moore, Thomas Lawrence, Cornelius Berrien, 
William Leverich, and Hendrick Wiltsee. A school-house, 
(of late used as a dwelling,) occupied the above spot until re- 
cently. This plan having now commended itself, became 
popular, and was followed, within a few years by similar 
efforts. The residents south of Newtown village took mea- 
Bures, in 1739, to build a school-house a little west of White 
Pot, on a plot of ground "twenty foot square" given by Ja- 
cobus Springsteen, who, on April 21st of the above year, exe- 
cuted a deed for the same to his " loving friends," Daniel Ste- 



venson, Benjamin Coe, Gabriel Furman, Nowel Furman, David 
Springsteen, Ezekiel Furman, William Van Duyn, Jeromus 
Remsen, Jacob Skillman, Rem Remsen, Abraham Morrell, 
Joseph Furman, Edward Titus, and Dow Suydam, who were 
all farmers, residing thereabouts. A stone school-house was 
erected, which afterwards gave place to a wooden one, and 
that has in turn been supplanted by a third erection, being the 
present house. The people near the English Kills were not 
behind their neighbors in efforts to advance education. About 
this period they erected a school-house, near the residence of 
Richard Betts, where a new house has since been built, com- 
monly known as " the brook school-house." Jacob Reeder was 
the preceptor here for a long period ; a useful man in his day, 
and the town clerk for above thirty years. In the year 1740, 
another school-house was erected "near the bridge at New- 
town," the villagers being assisted by contributions from libe- 
ral persons in other parts of the town. At this date, therefore, 
five school-houses, located at various points, testified to the 
growing desire of the inhabitants to furnish the means of edu- 
cation for their ofispring. And how opportune and provi- 
dential a provision for those who, destined for the times that 
tried men's souls, required all the force of character which 
education imparts, to lead them to right action in matters 
vitally affecting their own and succeeding generations. 

The delapidated state of the town-house led to measures, 
in 1744, to build a new one, and on April 20th of that year, 
the inhabitants voted an appropriation for it ; at which time 
also, the old town-house was set up at public vendue, and 
struck off to Capt. Samuel Fish for one pound twelve shillings. 
The plan of the new building was also determined, and the 
trustees were directed to proceed in the erection, but it was 
not completed till 1747. It was rented, " reserving privilege 
for the town to meet in said house from time to time." It was 
a two story building, enclosed with shingles, instead of clap- 
boards, and stood upon ground adjoining the old town-house, 
which latter occupied the place of the present building.' 

' On April 5th, 1803, the trustees of the town, N. Moore, and W- Leve- 
rich, were authorized to buy material for a new town-house in Newtown, 
and under their direction the building was finished, during the summer of 
1805, and yet remains. It is now private property, having been sold on June 


Little to interest, marked the years wliicTi immediately 
ensued. The farmer, surrounded by ease and plenty, quietly 
pursued his vocation; his sons, if too ambitious and enter- 
prizing to follow the plough, went abroad to seek a more ex- 
tensive means of business. Others aimed at usefulness in the 
learned professions. Of lawyers, there were none in the town, 
and their services were seldom needed. There were always 
from the first settlement persons competent to transact busi- 
ness relating to the transfer of lands. Peter Berrien, who had 
died recently, had done great service in this respect, for which 
he was peculiarly fitted, being a scholar, a superior penman, 
a skillful surveyor, and equally conversant with the Dutch and 
English languages. Most of the deeds and many public writ- 
ings of that day are in his hand. The first minister of the 
gospel born in this town was the Kev. Samuel Sackett, whose 
ministry was spent in Weschester county. Of the physicians, 
up to this period, it is to be regretted that little can be said be- 
yond a mere mention of their names. The first noticed is 
James Clark, "surgeon," at Mespat Kills, in the Dutch adminis- 
tration. Between that and the close of the century, were, in 
succession. Dr. Folcks, Dr. John Greenfield, and Dr. Hazard. 
Since 1720, Doctors Evan Jones, Berrien, Hugh Eogers, Tho- 
mas Sackett, and Joseph Sackett, are found officiating in the 
best families. Dr. Jacob Ogden, of Jamaica, also practiced 
considerably in this town during his life. 

In 1753, Capt. Jacob Blackwell and Joseph Hallett put up 
a grist-mill upon Sunswick Creek, at Hallett's Cove, which 
was furnished with "two run of stones and bolting conveni- 
ences." Whether the bolting apparatus was driven by the 
mill wheel, or by hand, after the old manner, does not appear. 
As the dam necessarily obstructed the passage of boats on the 
creek, a canal (the course of which is still traceable,) was 
opened some distance above, across to the river, with a gate 
at either end, for the convenience of George Yan Alst, John 
McDonnaugh, and John Greenoak, to pass and repass with 
" canoe or periauger." In 1756, Capt. Blackwell became sole 
proprietor of the above mill, and some years later sold it to 

12th, 1849, by virtue of an act of the legislature and a vote of tlie inhabitants 
of the town ; but a new town-hall and prison has been erected in the village 
during the present year. 


Hendrick Suydam, who conducted it during the Eevolution, 
and for many years after. ^ 

The year 1753 was attended with a melancholy disaster. 
On Jan. 27th, three children and a negro of John Parcell's 
were drowned coming from New- York. But a greater calamity 
happened in 1754. January of that year was unusually warm 
and pleasant until Monday the 21st, when about noon a violent 
gale set in from the north-west, and the temperature changed to 
piercing cold. Eight persons from Newtown, in a canoe and 
periauger, had gone a clamming in Jamaica Bay. Night closed 
in, but they returned not to relieve the anxiety of their farailiea 
and friends. The next morning the neighbors turned out, but 
owing to the great quantity of ice, were prevented from mak. 
ing a thorough search until Friday, when the joeriauger was 
discovered driven on an island of sedge. On approaching it, a 
most afflictive sight was presented ; there were the bodies of 
Samuel Leverich, Amos Eoberts, William Sallier, and Thomaa 
Sallier, congealed in death, the steersman sitting in an erect 
posture at the helm. The three former were men of families. 
The next Sabbath, the canoe was seen, but because of the ice 
could not be reached ; in which were supposed to be the lifeless 
bodies of the other persons missing, namely, a servant-man in 
the employ of John Way, and " three valuable negroes," two 

' John Greenoak, the ancestor of that family, came to Newtown early in 
the last century, from England, and married (Mary Lawrence in 1717, who, 
after Mr. Greenoak's de.ath, became the wife of Joseph Hallelt, Esq. in 1728. 
His son, John Greenoak, located on the farm near Hallett's Cove, now owned 
by the Messrs. Higgins, carpet manufacturers. He married first, Jemima d.iugh. 
ter of Samuel Hallett, secondly, Elizabeth Fish, an aunt of the late Bishop 
Moore, and thirdly, Rebecca Clement, who survived him. He died in 1792, 
having four sons, John, Edward, Nathaniel, and Samuel, and three daughters, 
viz. Mary who married Ludiam Haire, Frances who married Mr. Dotten, and 
Sarah who married Melancton Lawrence. Samuel and Nathaniel Greenoak 
both died single. Edward succeeded to the paternal farm, married Sarah 
daughter of Richard Hallett, and had several children, of whom two survive, 
namely, David-Titus and Eliza. John Greenoak, last mentioned, acquired an 
estate at Hallett's Cove, now the residence of H. F. Blackwell. He married 
June 8th, 1775, Lydia, daughter of Robert Hallett, and died, aged 68 years, 
Auc. 22d, 1821, his widow surviving nine years. Their children were ElizO' 
beth, who married Chas. Welling; Sarah, who married Thos. Paynter; John; 
Phebe, widow of Jeromus I. Rapelyo ; Lydia, the wife of Thos. F. Fish, of 
Newburgh ; Deborah, who died single ; Matilda, married successively to Jas. 
Suydara and Rev. Wm. Cruickshank ; and Maria, who m. Thos. Lawrence. 


of whom were slaves, one belonging to Jolin Way and the 
other to John Burroughs. 

The existence of slavery in this town, hitherto but incident- 
ally mentioned, demands a more direct notice. It originated 
in the scarcity and consequent high price of white labor. Its 
introduction was coeval with the planting of the town, and ex- 
tended not only to the negro but to the free-born Indian, 
brought hither from the South. None seemed to view it as 
wrong, and slaves were found even in the ministers' families. 
But while they were bought and sold as a chattel, and though 
several instances of bru,tality towards them are recorded, their 
lives were protected by law, and to the credit of our fathers 
be it said, they usually treated their slaves with much hu- 
manity. In infancy they were baptized, and at a suitable age 
were allowed to marry, the bans being regularly performed 
by a minister or magistrate, and often solemnized by a very 
respectable wedding. They were well fed and clothed, and ex- 
empted from labor on Sundays and holydays. Indeed, in a 
majority of cases they were taught, both by precept and ex- 
ample, to love the ways of virtue and religion. At almost 
every marriage a male or female slave was the immediate por- 
tion of the young folks on the commencement of house-keep- 
ing, and thus attachments, which had been formed in childhood, 
subsisted between master and slave, which tended greatly to 
favor the latter in his servitude. Under these circumstan- 
ces slavery had increased. At this date, 1755, according to 
returns made by the commanders of the two militia districts, 
Captains Jeromus Eapelje and Jacob Blackwell, the town con- 
tained 163 slaves above the age of fourteen years — that is, 
ninety-one males and seventy-two females. 

From the foregoing review of the characteristics of this 
time, we turn to consider that exciting drama, the French and 
Indian war, a seven years conflict between the Anglo-American 
colonies and the French of Canada ; in whose incidents and conse- 
quences Newtown was so far involved as to require some account 
of it to be given. The encroachments of the French upon our 
northern frontier led, in 1755, to the planning of several expe- 
ditions for their chastisement. Of two of these I will briefly 
speak, that against Nova Scotia, and that which under Maj. Gen. 
William Johnson was designed to reduce Crown Point, a for- 


midable post of the enemy on Lake Ohamplain. In addition 
to the regular troops employed in the latter enterprize, this 
province furnished a regiment of eight hundred men, who 
were enlisted during the months of May and June in New- 
York city, " and in the towns adjacent." Hence it is supposed 
that Newtown contributed her quota toward this regiment, 
which, in command of Col. William Cockroft, of New- York, 
proceeded to join Gen. Johnson, who had taken post at the 
south end of Lake George. On Sept. 8th, Johnson was imex- 
pectedly attacked by a powerful French army, under Baron 
Dieskau, but they were repulsed and routed with heavy loss, 
Dieskau himself being wounded and captured. The New- 
York regiment acted with distinguished bravery, and lost 
several men in the engagement. News of the battle of Lake 
George was received at New- York with applause, and the in- 
habitants of Queen's county signified their approbation by 
sending a thousand sheep to the army. 

The design against Crown Point was suspended for the 
present, but the expedition which had proceeded to Nova 
Scotia, under Winslow and Monckton, was successfully prose- 
cuted. And of its stern consequences, the citizens of New- 
town were to have an impressive exhibition. The French in- 
habitants of that province were a simple, industrious and 
pious people, unalterably attached to their religion and king. 
When ceded to Great Britain, in 1713, they were permitted to 
hold their lands under a simple oath of allegiance, it being 
agreed that they should be exempt from bearing arms, and be 
regarded as neutrals. But now not only were they accused of 
secretly furnishing intelligence and supplies to the hostile 
French and Indians, but 300 of them actually joined the 
French forces at Fort Beau-sejoar, and those who had not 
taken up arms, refused to take the oath of allegiance. For this 
rebellion the British government resolved to inflict a severe 
chastisement, namely, to strip them of all their possessions ex- 
cept their money and household goods, and send them in exile 
to the English colonies. Accordingly, the forces of Winslow 
and Monckton seized and imprisoned the inhabitants to the 
number 1900, and laid waste their country to prevent their 
subsistence, devoting their farm-houses and villages to the 
flame. Many fled, terror-stricken, to the woods, either to die 


from starvation, or avoid such a fate by a voluntary return 
and surrender to their conquerors. At the point of the bayo- 
net they were embarked in British transports, and turned a 
last look on their loved but now desolate homes. A hundred 
and fifty of them arrived at New- York, in May, 1756, to be 
distributed in the several towns in the province. Among 
these wretched exiles was one Seres Etben, who with his wife 
and eight children found an asylum in Newtown. The jus- 
tices took them in charge, and procured them board in the 
village, at the inn of Samuel Fish, Jun. better known as " the 
corner house," where they were sustained for a considerable 
time, at the public expense, strangers in a strange land, the 
objects of deep commiseration to the humane inhabitants, and 
the dejected victims of a cruel state policy. The justices were 
subsequently authorized to bind out as apprentices such of 
them as were of proper age. 

Thus did Newtown share the results of the opening cam- 
paign against the French. At the time the neutrals arrived, 
preparations were making for another, and Captains Williams 
and Potter were engaged in raising companies in the counties 
of Suffolk and Queen's. These repaired to the military posts 
near Lake George, but the season Avas spent in erecting or 
strengthening Fort William Henry, at the head of the above 
lake, and Fort Edward, on the Hudson. 

While the rude alarms of war were thus agitating the pro- 
vince, a destructive tornado swept over Newtown, as if nature 
vied with man in presenting a picture of utter devastation. It 
occurred on Saturday, July 4th, at about six o'clock, in the 
afternoon. Beginning near Hellgate, it ran south, straight 
across the entire island, some fifteen miles, its path, in breadth, 
not exceeding eighty rods. It made terrible havoc, destroy- 
ing nearly everything in its course. The largest oak and 
hickory trees were torn up by the roots, split into innumera- 
ble pieces, and many large limbs, of several hundred weight, 
carried the distance of nearly half a mile from the woods. 
Several houses were damaged, six barns destroyed, and up- 
wards of eighty acres of timber ruined. A grindstone near 
Capt. Eichard Langdon's, in Newtown, weighing over a hun- 
dred and fifty pounds, was removed, with its frame, twelve or 
fifteen feet, and thrown into his garden. Capt. Langdon's barn 


was shattered to pieces, and even the heavy timbers carried to 
an incredible distance. Limbs of trees, leaves, shingles, &c. 
fell in showers, in some places, nearly a mile from the course 
of the wind ; two apple-trees, with a great quantity of earth 
sticking to their roots, were removed whole upwards of thirty 
rods. The tornado did not last to exceed half a minute, but 
the damage done by it was estimated at between two and three 
thousand pounds. No gale so violent had ever been known 
in this part of America. It was " a great harricain of wind," 
writes one of the people of Newtown. 

The winter succeeding the fruitless campaign of 1756, a 
detachment of the king's regulars was quartered at Newtown, 
and their presence was not agreeable to the people, who were 
" of divers opinions " as to the mode of billeting them. At 
the return of the season for military operations, these troops 
left the town, and probably formed a part of the force that 
soon after sailed from New- York, on an intended expedition 
against Louisburg, in the island of Cape Breton. At this date, 
the fate of war had thrown into our hands a considerable 
number of French officers, who were permitted to enjoy their 
liberty, within certain limits, on parole of honor. Several of 
them arrived at Jamaica, in August, 1757, under conduct of 
the sheriff of the county, and some were provided with board 
at Hinchman's tavern, while others were sent to Newtown, 
whither they and their baggage were conveyed by Benjamin 
Waters, the constable. The next month, those at Hinchman's 
were distributed in private families. Nathaniel Moore took 
two of them, with their baggage, to his residence, in Newtown, 
and Eichard Penfold and William Lawrence received each 
the same number into their houses. Others continued to come, 
and in this and the succeeding year the families of Cornelius 
Berrien, William Sackett, William Sackett, Jun. Joseph Law- 
rence, Thomas Hallett, Joseph Betts, and Andrew Eiker, were 
the abode of French officers, for a longer or shorter period. 
Their expenses were borne by the government, which allowed 
seven shillings a week for their board, embracing simply 
lodgings and victuals. Some of them whiled away their cap- 
tivity by hunting the game in which the township abounded, 
and which was little regarded by the inhabitants. 

The year 1758 was signalized by a grand but ill-fated at- 


tempt of Gen. Abercrombie, witb sixteen thousand soldiers, to 
reduce Fort Ticonderoga, on Lake Champlain. Two hundred 
and ninety men from the several towns in Queen's county, 
were engaged in this expedition ; in the company of Capt. 
Eichard Hewlett, Ephraim Morse of Newtown, and Dow 
Ditmars of Jamaica, held commissions as first and second lieu- 
tenants. Abercrombie attacked the French fortress, on July 
8th, but was repulsed with the loss of two thousand killed and 
wounded, including many of the New- York provincials. The 
dishonor of this defeat was in a measure retrieved by the suc- 
cess of Col. Bradstreet, who immediately after was detached 
with three thousand men, including all the New-York troops, 
against Fort Frontenac, (now Kingston,) on Lake Ontario. 
That fortress surrendered to Bradstreet, on Aug. 27th, the 
achievement being greatly facilitated by the daring and ala- 
crity of Col. Isaac Corsa,' of Queen's county, who had been 
recently promoted, having shown much activity in the three 
previous campaigns. He volunteered, with his Long Island 
men, to erect a battery on the night of the 26th, in the midst 
of the enemy's fire, which opened in the morning, cannonaded 
the fort, and forced a capitulation. The fortress was demo- 
lished, and the victors, laden with booty, returned, by way of 
Oswego, to the Oneida great carrying place, (now Rome,) 
where part of the New- York troops and others had remained 
to erect Fort Stanwix. With their aid the works were com- 
pleted by the end of November, and an important military 
post established. In this campaign, nearly every fifth man in 
the province had performed actual service. Owing to their 
severe duties and hardships very many lost their lives, and 
the New- York battalions reached their homes greatly broken 
down and reduced in numbers. The regular troops went into 
winter quarters; the 44th, or Gen. Abercrombie's regiment, 
Lieut. Col. Ayres, commandant, at Newtown. This num- 
bered not far from eight hundred men, and their presence 

^ Col. Corsa was small of stature and juvenile in appearance, though an 
intrepid officer. In the Revolution he was a loyalist, and at its close resided 
some years at the English Kills, on the estate of his deceased brother-in-law, 
Walter Franklin, whose sister Sarah he had married. He died at Fhishing, 
in his 80th year, May 3d, 1807, beloved as a man and a Christian. His only 
child, Maria-Franklin, married John I. Staples, who is yet living. 


causing tlie inhabitants "heavy charges and unequal burdens," 
the assembly passed an act authorizing a tax upon the whole 
of Queen's county, for the relief of this town and Jamaica, 
where Col. Frazier's Highlanders were quartered. 

Among the important victories of 1759, the reduction of 
Fort Niagara, an ancient stronghold of the French, at the 
mouth of the Niagara river, deserves our particular notice, 
because there were there three hundred men from Queen's 
county, one third of whom were under the command of 
Ephraim Morse, of Newtown, who received a captain's com- 
mission, on April 30th of this year. His lieutenants were 
George Dunbar and Roelof Duryea, and exclusive of these 
three officers the company consisted of 97 men, the majority 
of whom were foreigners by birth. In March, the 44th regi- 
ment left their cantonment in Newtown, and embarked for 
Albany, whither Capt. Morse and his command followed about 
the middle of May. From there the whole army took up its 
march through the western forests, and being joined on the 
way by Sir William Johnson, with a large body of Indians, 
arrived at Fort Niagara. They invested the works on all 
sides, and though an accidental explosion killed Gen. Pri- 
deaux, the commander-in-chief, Johnson vigorously prose- 
cuted the siege, and forced the garrison to surrender, on July 
25th, first defeating a large French force, which, under Gen, 
D' Aubrey, had hastened to its relief from the neighboring 
posts. But the victory was not gained without a severe loss ; 
the colonel of one of the New-York battalions was killed, and 
the commander of the other wounded, and of the privates in 
both, nine were killed and forty-two wounded. During the 
siege, Capt. Morse and his company did important service, 
working at night in the trenches, standing guard, &c. A few 
of his men were drafted with those left to garrison the fort, 
the rest of the provincials returned, and were discharged, on 
Nov. 10th, About six hundred prisoners were brought to 
New- York. The recent victories were the theme of general 
rejoicing, and were publicly celebrated at Jamaica, by the peo- 
ple of Queen's county, on Tuesday, the 6th of November. 

Capt, Morse held a command of a hundred and ten men in 
the campaign of 1760, and Roelof Duryea and Abraham Rem- 
sen were his lieutenants. They were present at the surrender 


of Montreal, Sept. Stli of that year, wliicli event completed 
the conquest of Canada, The next year, a large armament, 
fitted out at New- York, subdued the French power in the 
West Indies, and thus terminated the old French war. The 
favorable issue of this struggle, and the return of fathers, bro- 
thers, and sons, to the bosom of their families and the pursuits 
of peace, must have awakened grateful sensations in the do- 
mestic circles of Newtown. But ah ! some there were, tenderly 
loved, long and fondly expected, who returned not. They 
went to rest on the battle plains of the north, their requium 
was the clangor of arms, or the moaning winds that swept 
those dense and dreary forests. 

The ultimate history of the French neutrals, who had been 
thrown upon the charities of the Newtown people, has not 
been ascertained. They had continued to experience the pub- 
lic sympathy ; and at the annual town meeting in 1758, the 
justices were authorized to "fix the place to build a house for 
the neutral French." But they drooped under their misfor- 
tunes, and; within a short period, death made several breaches 
in their number ; Doctor Thomas Sackett attending them dur- 
ing sickness. One of them, called " French John," was acci- 
dentally drowned June 28th, 1761. Of these neutrals in gene- 
ral, it is recorded that "after they had been dispersed in these 
provinces, they were watched with a jealous eye, and often 
suspected during the war of communicating intelligence to 
their friends. It was found difficult to assimilate them to our 
population ; their antipathy to our people, our religion, man- 
ners, and even our language, was unconquerable. Many of 
them pined away and died, some found opportunity to escape 
to France, and all who remained continued strangers and ex- 
iles among us, till death relieved their sufferings." 

The effects of the French war was, in some respects, very 
deleterious upon the habits and morals of this town. Not only 
did it excite a martial and a restive spirit in the minds of 
youth, but the influence exerted by the foreign soldiery and 
the French officers was most pernicious — the former exhibit- 
ing all the vices that usually prevail in a camp, the latter 
breathing the poisonous breath of infidelity. Wonder not, 
then, that horse-racing — a thing hitherto unknown in this 
town — was introduced, nor that the simple manners of the peo- 


pie should liave been mucli perverted and corrupted. It can- 
not be questioned, however, that a new spirit of enterprize, 
and an increased thirst for knowledge, was awakened. An 
English and classical school was established at Hallett's Cove, 
under the patronage of the leading inhabitants there. The fol- 
lowing is the teacher's card, as published in the New- York 
Mercury of April 26th, 1762: 


This is to give notice to all whom it may concern, That William Rudge, 
late of the city of Gloucester, in Old England, still continues his school at 
Hallett's Cove, where he teaches Writing in the diflerent hands. Arithmetic 
in its different branches, the Italian method of Book-keeping by way of 
Double Entry, Latin, and Greek. Those who choose to favor him may de- 
pend upon having proper care taken of their children, and he returns thanks 
to those who have already obliged him. The school is healthy and pleasantly 
situated, and at a very convenient distance from New-York, from whence 
there is an opportunity of sending letters and parcels, and of having remit- 
tances almost every day by the pettiaugers. Letters will be duly answered, 
directed to the said William Rudge, at Hallett's Cove. 

We, who have subscribed our names, being willing to continue the school- 
master, as we have hitherto found him a man of close application, sobriety, 
and capable of his office, are ready to take in boarders at j£l8 per annum. 

Jacob Blackwell, John Greenoak, Richard Berrien, 

Jacob Hallett, Jun. Samuel Hallett, Jun. Richard Penfold, 

Thomas Hallett, William Hallett, William Hallett, 

Jacob Hallett, Richard Hallett, John McDonnaugh. 
Jacob Rapelje, 

The yet unsettled question of boundary between the towns 
of Newtown and Bushwick now excited attention. While the 
limits of the said townships were controverted and unsettled, 
no private suit, involving the right to property located within 
the disputed tract, could be determined by a course of law in 
the ordinary courts of justice. Mainly upon this considera- 
tion, and through the influence of Bushwick, a bill was pre- 
sented to the assembly on Sept. 27th, 1764, to authorize cer- 
tain gentlemen, named therein, to agree upon and run out the 
division line of King's and Queen's county, so far as related to 
the townships of Bushwick and Newtown. A copy of the bill 
was sent to Philip Edsall, Esq. clerk of Newtown, who was di- 
rected to present the objections to its passage, if any existed. 
Mr. Edsall soon after acquainted the assembly that he had 


many reasons to offer against the bill, and requested time to 
prepare them. This was given, and he again appeared in the 
assembly chamber on the 9th of October, with the documents 
deemed necessary to vindicate his assertion and the rights of 
his town. Deputies from Bushwick were also there. The two 
were widely at issue, but finally agreed to defer the matter till 
the next session of the assembly. Mr. Edsall, on his return, 
consulted with his colleague in the magistracy, Thomas Betts, 
Esq. and the two called the town together October 16th, " to 
fall upon measures to defend themselves against the unreason- 
able pretences of the people of Bushwick." A board of trus- 
tees was appointed to defend the town, consisting of Nathaniel 
Fish, Samuel Fish, Jun. James Way, Philip Edsall, Joseph 
Lawrence, and James Culver. 

The subject was resumed in the assembly during the fall of 
1765, and again postponed. On Dec. 23d, 1767, Abraham 
Schenk, Esq. a member from King's county, who had presented 
the former bill, introduced another of similar import, which, 
after amendment, became a law on Jan. 13th, 1768. It was 
entitled, " An Act, authorizing certain persons therein named, 
to settle the line of division between the counties of King's 
and Queen's, as far as the townships of Bushwick and Newtown 
extend." The commissioners specified were the Hon. John 
Watts, William Nicoll, and William Nicoll, Jr. Esqrs. who 
were fully empowered to summon the parties in controversy 
before them, examine their evidences, and ascertain, agree 
upon, and run out the said division line, within a year from 
the passage of the bill, and thence within six months to cause 
a survey thereof to be recorded in the secretary's ofiice ; and 
which should for ever thereafter be deemed and taken as the 
division line between the said two towns, and the counties in 
which they were respectively located ; provided, moreover, 
that nothing contained in this act should be construed to affect 
any person's title, any more than if the said act had never 

The above gentlemen fulfilled their commission within the 
specified time. Having reviewed the proceedings of former 
years, they approved and adopted the arbitration made in 
1672. Their report, with a survey of the line, is still on file in 
the secretary of state's office. " William Nicoll, the elder, 



agreed to this report, but died before the execution thereof," 
It was as follows : 

Pursuant to an act of the governor, council, and general assembly, ap- 
pointing John Watts, William Nicoll, and William Nicoll, Jun. Esqrs. or the 
major part of them, or the survivors or survivor of them, commissioners to 
settle, run out, and ascertain a line of division between the counties of King's 
county and Queen's countj', as far as the townships of Bushwick and New- 
town extend: — we the said commissioners having called the parties before 
us, and duly heard and considered their several proofs and allegations, do 
adjudge and determine that the division line aforesaid shall be and begin at 
the mouth of Maspeth Kills or Creek, over against Dominie's Hook, in the 
deepest part of the creek, and so run along the same to the west side of 
Smith's Island, and so along the creek on the west side of that island, to and 
up a branch leading out of the creek to the pond or hole of water near the 
head of Mr. Schenk's mill-pond, and from thence easterly to a certain rock, 
commonly called the Arbitration Rock, and marked N. B., a little westward 
of the house of Mr. Joseph Woodward, [now of James Schoonmaker, dec.,] 
and from the said rock running south, twenty-seven degrees east, to a henp of 
stones with a stake in the middle, known by the name of the Arbitration 
Heap, and from thence in the same direct line up the hills or mountains until 
it meets the line of Flatbush, as the same is described by the survey and 
card hereunto annexed. In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands 
and seals this tenth day of January, Anno Domini, 1769. 

Jno. Watts, [seal.] 

Sealed and delivered in the presence of us, W. NiCOLL. [SEAL.] 


John S. Roome, 

The survey was performed on Jan. 7th, by Francis Mars- 
chalk, and thus describes the boundaries: — "Beginning at a 
certain rock, commonly called the Arbitration Rock, marked 
N. B., said rock lies N. 16'' 3' W. 4 chains 50 Hnks from the 
northerly corner of the house formerly the house of Frederick 
Van Nanda, and now in possession of Moses Beegel/ running 
from said rock S. 27'^ E. 155 chains, to a noted heap of stones, 
with a stake in the middle, known by the name of Arbitration 
Heap, and from thence in the same direct line up to the hill 
or mountain until it meets the line of Flatbush." 

' This house is that now occupied by Mrs. Onderdonk. Arbitration Rock 
has disappeared. It stood in the meadow lying opposite this house, on the 
other side of the road, and early in the present century was blown to pieces, 
and removed, by individuals who probably knew not its value as an ancient 
and important landmark. 


And thus ended a dispute which had continued for more 
than a century. The bitterness of feeling, and the expensive 
litigation tliat it occasioned, was scarce to be compensated for 
by any benefit that might accrue to either party. The result 
was not very unwelcome to the people of Newtown, who, 
years before, had expressed a willingness to accede to the 
arbitration of 1672. Their untiring efforts to settle the land 
probably gave them the advantage in the end.^ 

Several incidents of this period may be added. In 1768, the 
dwelling of widow Kapelje (now E. J. Woolsey's) was burnt. 
On Mar. 10th, 1770, Capt. Samuel Hallett's house, near the 
Cove, was destroyed by fire; loss, £1800. On Mar. 5th, 1772, 
snow fell two feet and a half deep, and was followed by three 
or four severe storms' This had scarce been equalled in the 
history of the town since 1740-1, a winter excessively cold, 
when snow fell, Dec. 16th, and lay till April. Extreme 
droughts occurred in 1761 and '62, a very wet season in 1763, 
and on July 3d, 1766, " the greatest rain that had been known 
in that age." Earthquakes were felt here Dec. 7th, 1737, Nov. 
18th, 1755, and June 18th, 1773. The first was "attended 
with a very great noise," says Mr. Pumroy, who calls it " a 
great earthquake," but adds, " through the wonderful goodness 
of God to us, no great damage was done by it in this town." 
After the French war several young men, Avho were carpenters, 
removed from Newtown to Santa Cruz, in the West Indies, 
where they found a profitable business. Among these were 
Richard Gosline, Gilbert Woodward, Vernon Moore, and Wil- 
liam and Joseph Hallett, all of whom died in that island. A 
singular fatality attended the two latter, who were cousins, one 
being crushed by the fall of his house, " on the ever memorable 
31st of August, 1772 ;" the other, Joseph, much respected in 
the island for his modesty and diligence in business, died Jan. 
25th, 1775, from an accidental blow of a lever, received the 
day previous while working at a wind-mill. 

' A re-survey of this partition line was made by Hendric-k Beegel, after 
the Revolution, and only a few years since was repeated, and nionunients 
erected, by the supervisors of the several towns, Mr. Debevoise being at that 
time the supervisor of Newtown. Guided in this work by the recollections 
of aged persons, one of whom had ass-isted at Beegel's survey, and having no 
knowledge of the survey of 1769, it remains to be seen how well they agree. 


Remote and immediate causes of the American Revolution. — The colonies forced 
into resistance. — First Continental Congress — Newtown adopts its recommenda- 
tions. — Appoint a committee of correspondence. — They pass a series of resolu- 
tions. — A portion of the inhabitants disown these measures. — Call to elect 
delegates to a Provincial Convention. — Whigs carry the election. — Bloodshed 
at Lexington. — Increasing opposition of Queen's county to liberty. — The chief 
loyalists summoned to appear before the Convention. — It is disregarded. — The 
Convention declares them put out of its protection, and lays the state of Queen's 
county before Congress. — Action of the latter thereupon. — Col. Heard marches 
through Newtown to disarm the Tories. — Carries several of their leaders to 
Philadelphia. — They are sent back and confined at New- York. — Lt. Col. Seers 
pursues the disaffected in Queen's county. — Gives an oath to leading Tories at 
Newtown. — Organization of the militia. — Officers' names. — Capt. Riker recruit- 
ing. — Militia provided with ammunition. — A fast day. — John Moore, Jun. " in- 
sults the United Colonies." — He is taken to New-York. — Soon discharged. — 
Declaration of Independence. — Militia called out to protect the stock. — New- 
town militia march to Brooklyn. — British land on the Island. — Gen. Woodhull 
engaged driving off the stock. — His perilous situation. — He is taken prisoner by 
the enemy. — Some of the troop captured. — Narrow escape of Garret Remsen. — 
British Light Horse enter Newtown. — Cruel fate of Jonathan Coe. — The Light 
Horse pursue Dr. Riker. — He escapes. — Tory animosity — Most of the British 
forces encamp in Newtown. — Cannonading at Hellgate. — Farmers plundered 
and Whigs seized. — Newtown militia return. — The officers in exile. — Anecdote. 
— Movements of the British troops. — They leave Newtown and pursue the 
American army. 1774 to 1776. 

The American Eevolution now opened, during which, for 
the space of seven years, Newtown was to be ravaged and 
made desolate by a scourge as dreadful as a visitation of fam- 
ine or pestilence. Her fertile territory a prey to hostile armies, 
but not the scene of battles, she nevertheless heard with anxi- 
ous interest every rumble from the fields afar, where freedom 
gained its triumphs. To the simple detail of her history du- 
ing this period let us proceed. 

The Revolutionary spirit was not the creature of a day, 
nor an impulse of mushroom growth. " Those principles and 
feelings," says an eminent statesman, "ought to be traced back 
for two hundred years, and sought in the history of the coun- 
try from the first plantations in America." The observation is 



just, and the local causes wLicli in every part of tlie country con- 
tributed to awaken the spirit of bold resistance to the oppres- 
sions of England, are fairly represented in the annals of that 
community whose history we are reviewing. Their repeated 
endeavors to cast off the burdens imposed by their royally- 
constituted rulers, were but the first feeble throbbings of inde- 
pendence. These strengthened with every defeat, and every 
fresh indignity that they sustained. Thus was fostered, slowly 
and insensibly, but by a sure process, a tenacious regard for 
their rights, a watchful desire for their preservation, a jealousy 
of and a lessened afiection for the mother country, eminently 
calculated to prepare them to enter with spirit into the contro- 
versy with Great Britain that led to the war of Independence. 
The policy of England toward her American colonies, from 
the first, humiliating and oppressive, became, in the course of 
years, more and more crushing. Already the restrictions upon 
their manufactures and the control of their commerce poured 
a large revenue into her coffers, but this was too meager for 
greedy royalty, and it was resolved to enhance it by resorting 
to a system of taxation. This iniquitous policy, introduced in 
1764, resulted in a series of parliamentary acts that sapped the 
prosperity of the colonies and created a general consternation. 
Some of these acts so effected navigation as nearly to destroy 
their lucrative trade with the West Indies. Duties were im- 
posed upon refined-sugar, tea, coffee, indigo, glass, paints, 
writing-paper, parchment, and many other articles of foreign 
produce imported by the colonists. Other laws passed, equally 
calculated to retrench the privileges and harass the feelings of 
the Americans. The excitement produced by these measures 
■was immense ; every house-keeper deprecated the wanton in- 
crease in the price of articles of domestic consumption ; the 
merchant was sorely affected by the stagnation of trade, and 
the fatal blow given to commerce ; while the farmer, mechanic, 
and men of every profession, were involved in the general dis- 
aster, and beheld with indignation the baleful effect of Britain's 
assumed right to bind and tax them at her will. From north 
to south went forth the cry of injured justice, and petitions and 
remonstrances, almost numberless, were sent to the king and 
parliament, praying redress. These were unheeded, nay, spurn- 
ed ; and as a necessary report, a continental congress, composed 


of delegates from the several provinces, was convened at Phila- 
delphia, Sept. 4th, 1774, to concert suitable measures of resist- 
ance to the oppressions of the mother country. This patriotic 
body entered into an association by which they pledged them- 
selves, in the name of the freemen they represented, not to im- 
port or consume tea, or any articles from the British possessions 
until the repeal of the revenue acts, and advised the appoint- 
ment of committees in the several counties and towns, to aid 
by mutual correspondence and otherwise, in carrying out the 
objects of the association.' 

This date found the people of Newtown split into two 
parties. It is difficult to say which of these was loudest in 
protestations of loyalty to King George III. whom all acknow- 
ledged as their rightful sovereign. Furthermore, few, if any, 
were found to deny the existence of the grievances before re- 
cited. But the widest difference of opinion prevailed as to the 
proper means of obtaining redress. The weaker party (re- 
spectable, nevertheless, both in number and character,) urged 
the most pacific measures, and condemned the formation of 
congresses and committees, as, not only illegal, but disrespect- 
ful toward their representatives, composing the general assem- 
bly of the province, in whom alone they reposed the business 
of vindicating the popular rights. 

But a majority of the inhabitants scouted at such modera- 
tion at a crisis which threatened their dearest liberties. In their 
view, forbearance had truly ceased to be a virtue, and hence, 
no sooner had the resolves of the congress been received at 
Newtown, than these hastened at the call of their supervisor, 
Jeromus Eemsen, Jun. to testify their approbation of, and to 
adopt their recommendations. On December 10th, a very large 

1 The following incident shows the firmness and spirit with which even 
the matrons of Newtown espoused the cause of king or country. Mrs. Fish, 
mother of the Rev. Peter Fish, spending a social afternoon with her neighbor 
the wife of Capt. Jeromus Rapelje, at the tea table the good hostess had 
prepared to serve up a dish of her choicest tea, not acknowledging the right 
of congress to deprive her of her much loved beverage, But her guest, 
having opposite views, declined to take any tea, and on its being insisted 
upon, replied: — "Cousin Wyntie, I cannot do it, it's against my principles." 
Overcome by a sense of their unhappy position, both fell to weeping. Mrs. 
Fish swerved not from her purpose, though the two friends lived to drink tea 
together in more auspicious times. 


number of respectable freeholders assembled in the town- 
house at Newtown. A series of " spirited and well-adapted 
resolves," passed a few days previous by their neighbors of 
Jamaica, were read by one of the gentlemen and unanimously 
responded to, after which they appointed the following persons 
to act as a committee of correspondence, and to observe that 
the association formed by congress be strictly adhered to with- 
in the limits of the town. The said persons were Jacob Black- 
well, Eichard Alsop, Esq, Daniel Kapelje, Esq, Philip Edsall, 
Thomas Lawrence, Daniel Lawrence, Jonathan Lawrence, 
Samuel Moore, William Furman, William Howard, Jeromus 
Remsen, Jun, Samuel Riker, John Alburtis, Abraham Brinck- 
erhoflf, James Way, Samuel Morrell, and Jonathan Coe, After 
some delay, occasioned by the small pox in Col. Blackwell's 
family, this committee met at Newtown, and adopted the fol- 
lowing : — 

QueerCs County, 29<A Bee. 1774. 
At a meeting of the committee chosen by the freeholders of the town- 
ship of Newtown, the said committee having seriously considered the conse- 
quences that must evidently flow from the several acts of the British Parlia- 
ment to raise revenue in America ; and likewise that of having power to bind 
the people of these colonies, by statute, in all cases whatsoever; that of extend- 
ing the limits of the admiralty court, whereby the judges of said court are 
empowered to receive their salaries and fees from effects to be condemned 
by themselves, and his Majesty's American subjects deprived of the right of 
trial by jury ; that of requiring oppressive security from the claimants of 
ships or goods seized, before they shall be allowed to defend their property; 
that of empowering the commissioners of customs to break and enter houses 
without the authority of any civil magistrate ; that of stopping the port of 
Boston, and changing the form of government in Massachusetts Bay, and 
the Quebec bill ; ^ all of which, as appears to us, are intended absolutely to 
deprive his Majesty's most dutiful and loyal subjects, the inhabitants of the 
American colonies, of their most inestimable rights and privileges, by subju- 
gating them to the British Parliament, and driving them to the dire necessity 
of submitting to have their property taken from them without their consent ; 

1 Owing to the destruction of several cargoes of tea by the indignant people of 
Boston, the Parliament, in retaliation, passed the Boston Port Bill, an act precluding 
that port from the privilege of discharging or shipping any kinds of merchandize. 
By another bill they essentially altered the charter of Massachusetts, making the 
appointment of the council, justices, judges, &c. dependent upon the crown. 

The Quebec Bill extended tiie limits of Canada so as to border on the western 
frontiers of the United Colonies ; and was especially designed to prevent the Cana- 
diaos from having any sympathy with the political movements in these colonies. 



which we conceive is one of the most deplorable situations to which a free 
people can be reduced, and absolutely repugnant to the constitution of Great 
Britain ; therefore, 

Resolved, 1, That we consider it as our greatest happiness and glory to 
be governed by the illustrious House of Hanover, and that we acknowledge 
and bear true and faithful allegiance to King George the Third, as our right- 
ful sovereign, and under his protection have a right to enjoy the privileges 
of the constitution of Great Britain, as founded on the Revolution principles, 
in as full and ample a manner as our fellow subjects residing there ; that we 
consider ourselves, one people, connected by the strongest ties of interest and 
affection, and that we lament, as our greatest misfortune, any occurrence 
which shall have a tendency to destroy that mutual confidence which the 
mother country and her colonies should repose in each other. 

Resolved, 2, That we conceive it to be a fundamental part of the British 
constitution that a man shall have the disposal of his own property, either 
by himself or representatives; and as we are not, and, from our local cir- 
cumstances, cannot be represented in Parliament, we consider all acts, by 
them, imposing taxes on the colonies, as subversive of one of the most valu- 
able privileges of the English constitution, and having a direct tendency to 
alienate the affections of the colonists from their parent state. 

Resolved, 3, That it is our indispensable duty to transmit, unimpaired, to 
posterity, all our most valuable rights and privileges, as we receive them 
from our ancestors ; particularly that most inestimable right of disposing of 
our own property, either by ourselves or representatives. 

Resolved, 4, That as some mode of opposition to acts of Parliament, im- 
posing taxes in America, has been, by the inhabitants of the different colonies 
on this continent, thought necessary, to secure our invaded rights and pro- 
perties; which mode has been left to the determination of the delegates, 
sent by each colony, and met in congress, at Philadelphia, in September last ; 
they having, among other articles of their association, recommended that a 
committee be chosen in every county, city, and town, whose business it 
should be to observe the conduct of all persons, touching said association; 
and as we are willing to establish harmony and union, we will, so far as our 
influence extends, endeavor that the measures, adopted and recommended by 
said congress, be strictly adhered to in this town. 

Resolved, 5, As we highly approve of the wise, prudent, and constitu- 
tional mode of opposition, adopted by our worthy delegates in general con- 
gress, to the several late tyrannical and oppressive acts of the British Parlia- 
ment, we therefore render our sincere and hearty thanks to those gentlemen, 
for their patriotic spirit, in so cheerfully undertaking the difficult and arduous 
task ; for their faithfulness in council, and great wisdom in drawing conclu- 
sions, which, through the influence of Divine Providence, we trust will be 
the means of securing to us our liberties and privileges, as freeborn English- 
men, and again restore harmony and coufidenGe throughout the British em- 
pire, which is the hearty wish of all the friends to liberty and foes to 
oppression. Signed, by order of the committee, 

Jacob Blackwell, Chairman. 



Some of the gentlemen composing the ahove committee 
declined serving ; Col. Blackwell was soon after called to fill 
a more elevated station, and from these and other causes the 
committee became reduced to seven persons, namely-j Jonathan 
Lawrence, chairman, Mr. Edsall, deputy chairman, and Messrs. 
Riker, Morrell, Moore, Remsen, and Furman. These gentle- 
men discharged with vigor the delicate and responsible duties 
assigned them, till their services ceased to be needed in that 

The publication of their manly resolutions, the energetic 
tone in which these asserted the public rights, the injuries 
which those rights had sustained, and the determination to 
enforce redress, aroused the loyal feelings of the advocates of 
peace. Though, too impotent to arrest the course of things, 
they resolved to publish to the world their unqualified disap- 
proval of the late rash proceedings, from which they appre- 
hended the most disastrous consequences. Only a few days 
elapsed when the following appeared in Rivington's Gazette : — 

Newtown, on Long Island, Jan. 12th, 1775. 
Mr. Rivington: — 

Reading in Mr. Holt's last Thursday's paper, certain resolves signed by 
Jacob Blackwell, chairman, entered into by some inhabitants of Newtown, 
approving of the proceedings of the continental congress; you are hereby 
requested to inform the public that we the subscribers were no way con- 
cerned in those resolves, neither do we acknowledge any other representa- 
tives but the members of the general assembly of the province. 

John Shoals, 
William Weyman, 
John Mooke, Jun. 
Hendrick Brinckerhoff,' 
Jeronimus Rapelje, 
Daniel Rapelje, 
Cornelius Rapelje, 
Martin Rapelje, 
Oliver Waters,* 
D. Rapelje, 
Abraham Rapelje, 
Daniel Luyster, 
Garret Luyster, 
Jacobus Lent, 
Jacobus Riker, 
Nathaniel Moore, 
John Moore, 
W. Cornell, 
James IIallett, 

John McDonnaugh, Jun. 
John McConnell, 
John Parcell, 
William Hallett, Jun. 
Richard Hallett, 
Albert Brinckerhoff, 
John McDonnaugh, Sen. 
Isaac Van Alst, 
Bragaw Van Alst, 
Silas Pratt, 
John Van Alst, Jun. 
John Van Alst, Sen. 
George Van Alst, 
Peter Bragaw, Sen. 
Isaac Meserole, 
"" Abraham Polhemus, Sen. 
^Abraham Polhemus, Jun* 
Charles De Bevoise, 
John De Bevoise, i 

Richard Alsop,* 
Richard Bragaw, 
Hendrick Jacobs, 
Tunis Brinckerhoff, 
John Bragaw, 
John Morrell, Sen. 
Nathaniel Provost, 
Daniel Rapelje, 
Samuel Moore, Sen.« 
Bernardus Bloom, 
Dow Van Duyn, 
Jer. Remsen, 
John Suydam, 
George Rapelje, Jun. 
Abraham Rapelje, Jun. 
Joseph Burroughs, 
Daniel Rapelje, 4th. 
Samuel Moore, 3d. 

* Those with a star affixed, were justices of the peace. 



Undaunted by the clamor of opposition, the friends of li- 
berty in Newtown responded to a call of the New- York com- 
mittee, inviting them to send a representative to a convention 
to be held in that city, for the purpose of choosing delegates 
to a second general congress. The loyalists exerted themselves 
to defeat the election of deputies, and industriously circulated 
a paper entitled the "Queen's County Freeholder," which "le- 
velled its whole force at the very essence of a continental con- 
gress." The whigs, on the other hand, were not idle. In order 
to counteract the pernicious influence of the above publication, 
and incite the people to action at this momentous time, the 
following eloquent appeal " To the Freeholders of Newtown," 
was prepared and issued on April 3d, 1775, the day of election. 

My Friends and Felloio- Townsmen, 

We are now called upon to oppose the encroachments which, for some 
time past, have been made upon our rights and liberty. The question before 
us is, whether, or not, we shall elect a deputy to represent us in our p'-ovincial 
convention, to be held at New-York, on the 20th inst. with the deputies from 
the different towns and counties in this colony, for the purpose of appointing 
delegates to meet on the 10th of May next, at Philadelphia, in another conti- 
nental congress, as recommended by the last, and adopt such constitutional 
measures as they shall judge most efficacious to frustrate the tyrannical and 
wicked designs of a corrupt and arbitrary ministry. But if we join those 
hirelings and tools of state, who aim at preventing the choice of delegates to 
the congress, our conduct may rivet the chains, not only upon ourselves, but 
on our posterity, to whom we should strive, if possible, to leave a better in- 
heritance than that we received from our ancestors. Let us give generations 
yet unborn no cause to curse the transactions of this day. 

My dear Feliow-Townsmen, think and act for yourselves. Be not led 
away by designing men. Beware of the delusive arguments of that base, 
mercenary writer who styles himself a " Queen's County Freeholder," and 
with the treachery of the old serpent, endeavors by false hopes of imaginary 
advantages to tempt you into a breach or neglect of duty, which will, in its 
consequences, entail destruction upon yourselves and your offspring. Let not 
the fair speeches and specious pretences of an insidious enemy in the disguise 
of a friend, amuse you to neglect the present opportunity of preserving your- 
selves and your country, or, as it was fabled of the Syrens of old, lull you 
by their singing, to rest upon your oars in a tempestuous ocean, and listen to 
their voices, at the only time when you might escape shipwreck and death. 

" The Syrens' music charms the sailor's ear, 
" Yet he is ruined if he stops to hear." 

This pretended Freeholder's attachment to that party who are in fact 
mere tools to the ministry, induced him to avoid touching on the merits of 



the cause ; but to dissuade you from adopting the measures recommended by 
the late general congress, was not ashamed to have recourse to those arts, 
the flimsy texture of which has often been exposed. He tells you our gene- 
ral assembly has petitioned his Majesty. But, my abused countrymen, do 
you I<now what they have petitioned for? Surely he cannot mean that they 
have petitioned for the redress of American grievances, felt to be such by 
every British colony, and so voted unanimously by the continental congress. 
My dear Fellow-Tovi'nsmen, the enemies of our devoted constitution have 
long considered it as an obstacle to their design of establishing an arbitrary 
government over the whole British empire, the first essay of which they are 
now attempting in the colonies. Bribery and corruption are become so pre- 
dominant, that every patriot ought to be always on his guard, lest seducers 
should, in this grand conflict against the iron hand of tyranny, find means to 
mislead him. It is not attempted to brand with opprobious epithets, and to 
name the few individuals who, deluded by selfish motives, have raised the 
cry against the generous asserters of our rights ; those men are left to the 
justice of the great Disposer of events. But we anxiously look for that time 
when a test of distinction will be drawn between the friends to the Hanove- 
rian line of British kings, and the tools of state, who would, by one single 
stroke, destroy our liberty and deprive us of our property. 

In the spirit of tliis soul-stirring appeal, the whig inhabi- 
tants attended the poll to the number of exactly one hundred, 
forming a large majority of the freeholders, and elected Col. 
Jacob Blackwell deputy from said town. The following are 
the names of the voters : — 

Nathaniel Bailey, 
William Bailey, 
Cornelius Berbien, 
Richard Berrien, 
Anthony Betts, 
James Betts, 
Richard Betts, 
Thomas Betts, 
William Betts, 
Charles Boerum, 
Jacob Boerum, 
Joseph Boss, 
Abram. Brinckebhoff, 
Geo. Brinckerhoff, Jun. 
James Burroughs, 
John Burroughs, 
Thomas Burroughs, 
John Burtis, 
Paul Burtis, 
Samuel Burtis, 
Benjamin Coe, 
Benjamin Coe, Jun. 
John Coe, 
Jonathan Coe, 
Robert Coe, 
Samuel Coe, 

Johannes Cornell, 
Benjamin Cornish, 
John Culver, 
Thomas Cumbebson, 
Abraham Devine, 
Philip Edsall, Esq. 
Philip Edsall, Jun. 
Samuel Edsall. 
Benjamin Field, 
Benjamin Field, Jun. 
Robert Field, 
Stephen Field, 
John Fish, 
Jonathan Fish, 
Samuel Fish, 
ezekiel furman, 
Gabriel Furman, 
Howard Furman, 
Jonathan Furman, 
William Furman, 
James Gosline, 
John Gosline, 
LUDLAM Haire, 
Jacob Hallett, Jun. 
Samuel Hallett, 
Morris Hazard, 

Rev. Simon Hoeton, 
Edwabd Howard, 
William Howard, 
Capt. Daniel Lawrence, 
Capt. Jona'n Lawrence, 
Joseph Lawrence, 
Richard Lawrence, 
Samuel Lawrence, 
Capt. Thomas Lawrence, 
William Lawrence, 
Elnathan Levebich, 
John Leverich, Jun. 
Abraham March, 
John McDonnaugh, Jun. 
Capt. Samuel Moobe,'^ 
Jonathan Morrell, 
Joseph Morrell, 
Samuel Morrell, 
Benjamin North, 
Thomas North, 
Jacob Parcell, 
John Parcell, 
Nathaniel Pettit, 
Stephen Pettit, 
Richard Rapelje, 
Christopher Remsen, 


Jeromus Remsen, Jonathan Roberts, William Van Duyn, 

Jekomus Remsen, Jun. William Sackett, Samuel Waldron, 

Luke Remsen, John Shannan, James Way, 

Rem Remsen, John Suydam, John Way, 

Samuel Renne, Edward Titus, John Way, Jun. 

Abraham Riker, Francis Titus, Lambert Woodward, Jun. 

Peter Riker, Dow Van Duyn, Philip Woodward, 
Samuel Riker, 

It is a remarkable fact, that while the body of the ^STew- 
town people were in favor of deputies, every other town in 
Queen's gave its voice against deputies. Owing to this cir- 
cumstance, Mr. Blackwell, and the other deputies, were not 
deemed entitled to a vote in the convention, but were privi- 
leged to give advice; in which they themselves cheerfully 
concurred. Accordingly, they gave in their written assent to 
the delegation to congress, in behalf of themselves and those 
freeholders of Queen's county at whose request they had at- 
tended the convention. 

Meanwhile, events tended to a crisis ; actual hostilities had 
commenced, and blood been shed at Lexington. The opposi- 
tion of the loyalists in Queen's county grew formidable. At the 
poll, opened at Jamaica, Nov. 7th, for the election of deputies 
to another convention, the county declared three to one against 
deputies. Not only so, but the leaders among the disaffected 
began to utter threats, and to procure guns and ammunition, 
and array themselves in arms, to oppose the measures taken 
by the United Colonies for the preservation of their liberties. 

The convention having met at New-York, received the re- 
sult of the election, and intelligence of the hostile attitude of 
the inhabitants, with marked displeasure, and resolved that 
such conduct was inimical to the common cause of the colo- 
nies, and ought not, by any means, to be suffered. They sum- 
moned the inhabitants of the county to appear, by committee, 
before them, on the 19th of December, to give satisfaction. 
They also directed a special summons to twenty-six persons, 
charged as leaders among the disaffected, requiring them to 
appear and answer on the above date. Among the latter 
were seven of the inhabitants of Newtown, namely, Nathaniel 
Moore, John Moore, Sen. Capt. Samuel Hallett, John Moore, 
Jun. William Weyman, John Shoals, and Capt. Jeromus Ea- 

No regard being paid to these summons, the convention re- 


solved, Dec. 21st, that tlie persons voting against deputies had 
been guilty of a breacli of the general association, and were 
thereby put out of their protection ; and it was further ordered 
that their names be given to the public in printed handbills. 
Hesitating themselves to use force against the delinquents, the 
convention transmitted a list of them to congress, asking its 
advice and assistance. On Jan. 3d, 1776, that body, after ex^ 
pressing its high disapproval of the course pursued by the de- 
linquents, resolved that as they had refused to defend their 
country, they should be excluded from its protection, and pre- 
vented from doing it injury. They therefore directed Col. 
Heard, of Woodbridge, N. J. to take with him a competent 
force, and disarm every person in Queen's county who voted 
against sending deputies, and also apprehend and secure the 
twenty-six persons named as principal men among the dis- 

In pursuance of these orders. Col. Heard left Woodbridge, 
on Jan. 17th, with about six hundred militia, and was joined 
at New- York by Stirling's battalion of near three hundred. 
On Friday morning, the 19th, they crossed at Hellgate ferry, 
and proceeded through the township, scouring the several 
roads, visiting the farmhouses and dwellings of the disaffected, 
and disarming such as they could find of those who, by voting 
against deputies, had declared themselves enemies to their 
country. Numbers of the inhabitants were deprived of their 
side-arms, guns, powder, and lead, and required to subscribe 
an oath that those delivered up were all they possessed, and a 
declaration that they would obey the orders of the congress, 
and act in conjunction with the inhabitants of the provinces, 
in the defence of American liberty. This was done in some 
instances with great reluctance, though the troops met with no 
direct opposition. At Middletown, the schoolboys were drawn 
up by their teacher at the roadside, and made their obeisance 
to the soldiers as they passed ; an incident calculated to excite 
their parental feeling, turn their thoughts to the group that 
encircled their own domestic hearth, and impel them to do 
their duty. Arriving at Jamaica, they took into custody some 
of the principal tories, disarmed others, and thence proceeded 
on their mission through the county. 

Col. Heard was indefatigable, treated the inhabitants with 


the utmost civility, and displayed great skill and prudence in 
the execution of his duty. He secured the persons of Nathaniel 
Moore, Capt. Samuel Hallett, William Weyman, and John 
Shoals, of Newtown,' whom he conveyed, with other prison- 
ers, nineteen in all, to Philadelphia, and on Feb. 6th, presented 
them before congress. This body sent them back to be exam- 
ined by the New- York convention; Arriving again at New- 
York, they were put under guard in a house of their own 
selecting in the city, under surveillance of Col. Lasher, and 
letters were sent to the town committees to collect the evi- 
dence of their guilt. Soon after, they petitioned for their 
liberty, stating that they had been at great expense in their 
journey to and from Philadelphia, and were now confined at 
their own charge, and denied the pleasure of visiting their 
families ; they were willing to give security and pledge their 
honor to appear before the convention when desired to do so. 
Their case was deferred for several days, when renewing their 
petition, they were discharged from custody, on Feb. 16th, 
after paying all expenses and giving bonds for their peaceable 
deportment and appearance if summoned. 

But, notwithstanding the vigilance of Col. Heard, in his 
attempt to disarm the loyalists of Queen's county, he was but 
partially successful, for many concealed their best guns and 
gave up the poorer ones, while other persons fled or secreted 
themselves. In March, it was resolved to secure the whole 
body of tories on Long Island, in order to put the city of 
New- York and its environs in a state of defence, it being 
greatly apprehended that the king's troops would attempt to 
get possession of the province in the course of the spring. 
Accordingly^ by Gen. Lee's order, Lt. Col. Seers made an ex- 
pedition into Queen's county. On March 6th, he arrived at 
Newtown^ with a captain's company, and " tendered the oath 
to four of the greater tories, which they swallowed as hard as 
if it were a four-pound shot they were trying to get down." 
The next day he proceeded on to Jamaica. 

In further prosecution of the defensive measures above 
alluded to, the convention, on March 7 th, advised the irame- 

' Inquiries were made after Capt. Jeromus Rapelje, one of the proscribed, 
but he had died four days before Heard landed in Newtown. It is said that 
his family> apprehensive of violence to his remains, buried him in great haste. 


diate organization of the militia, under competent of&cera. 
Newtown consisted of two beats, the north and south. In the 
former a company was formed under Capt. Jonathan Law- 
rence, and in the latter another under Capt. Abraham Eemsen, 
the first containing 107, and the other 86 men, subject to bear 
arms/ The Newtown troop of light horse, consisting of 44 
men, was commanded by Capt. Eichard Lawrence, and after- 
wards by his brother, Capt. Daniel Lawrence, who was now 
first lieutenant; Samuel Kiker was second lieutenant, Jona- 
than Coe, cornet, and Peter Kapelje, quarter-master. On the 
resignation of Capt. E. Lawrence, from infirmity, some time 
after, and his brother taking the command, Eiker and Coe 
were promoted one grade, and Thomas Betts succeeded to the 
cornetcy. Capt. Abraham Eiker, of the New- York conti- 
nental line, who, the previous fall, at the storming of Quebec, 
had held a command composed in part of Newtown men, was 
now busy raising a company, and several months of the spring 
and summer were consumed in completing it. Being very im- 
perfectly equipped, the Jamaica committee furnished them with 
thirty old muskets, which were put in order at Newtown, un- 
der the direction of Capt. Eiker. This company was attached 
to the regiment of Col. Eitzema, which formed a part of the 
brigade of Maj. Gen. Lord Stirling. The militia of Queen's 
county being destitute of ammunition, Capt. Jonathan Law- 
rence was furnished with 10,000 cartridges and 1000 flints, to 
be distributed among them. Newtown began to resound with 
the din of warlike preparation. 

While these military demonstrations were making, the 
town committee was doing its utmost to quell the turbulent 
spirits of the disaffected, and maintain the authority of con- 
gress. That body had appointed May 17th, as a general fast 
day, but when the whigs of Newtown sought in humility to 

' The subaltern commissioned officers of the north heat company, were 
William Sackett, 1st lieut. William Lawrence, 2d lieut. and Jesse Warner, 
ensign ; but on the promotion of Capt. Jonathan Lawrence to a majority, on 
Aug. 10th, 1776, William Lawrence succeeded to the command of the com- 
pany. The subalterns in the south beat company, were Benjamin Coe, 1st lieut. 
Robert Furman, 2d lieut. and Benjamin North, ensign. Capt. Abraham Rem- 
sen was raised to the rank of major soon after, when Coe, Furman and North 
were each elevated one grade, and Jonah Hallett received the ensigncy. 


supplicate the favor of Heaven on their efforts for freedom, 
there was seen upon the premises of John Moore, Jun. one of 
the persons accused of taking a prominent stand with the loy- 
ahsts, a king's standard hoisted on a pole, as if in derision of 
the solemn occasion. Notice was taken of it, and complaints 
of this "fresh insult" to the United Colonies, were made to 
the town committee by Waters Smith, Esq. Capt. Nathaniel 
Woodward, and several other inhabitants. The committee 
waited upon Mr. Moore, on the 27th, and beheld for them- 
selves the verification of the charge ; the emblem of royalty 
still floated in the breeze. It was taken down, and secured, 
with the person of Moore, whom they examined, but obtain- 
ing no satisfaction, they ordered Capt. Abraham Kemsen to 
conduct him under guard to the convention at New- York. 
Moore was accordingly taken to the city a prisoner and pre- 
sented to the convention, together with the flag in question, 
and a letter from Capt. Lawrence setting forth his offence. On 
his examination Moore stated that a parcel of schoolboys, 
who went to school in Newtown, hoisted the colors on his 
field; he first saw them hoisted on a fast day, and the 
boys told him that they got the colors of a lad from New- 
York, now in Newtown, whose name is Moore ; that he order- 
ed them down on the fast day, but not afterwards ; as children 
put them up, he did not imagine that men would notice it ; 
that he had not signed the general association, nor was it offer- 
ed to him to sign. Being asked if he would defend the United 
Colonies by force of arms, he answered that he did not choose 
to fight, and never meant to, if he could avoid it, and would 
avoid it as long as he could. On a consideration of his case, 
the convention permitted him to go upon parole in the city, 
he promising to attend at the city hall from day to day, ready 
to obey their direction, and not to depart the city without 
leave. The next day, on his request, his parole was extended 
to his own house, and he returned home. The convention or- 
dered a letter of thanks to be signed by the president, and 
forwarded to the Newtown committee. 

The excitement which at this juncture pervaded all circles, 
was heightened by the news that the general congress at Phi- 
ladelphia, had, on the 4th of July, dissolved their connection 
with the mother country, renounced the authority of both king 


and parliament, and declared the colonies Free and Independent 
States^ binding themselves, by a solemn compact, to defend 
their liberties with their lives, fortunes, and sacred honors. 
Copies of this important document were received, and read at 
the head of each company in Newtown. It was a scene of 
varied emotions and absorbing interest. Hitherto the cause of 
the colonies had been that of British subjects contending for 
the honor and preservation of the English constitution against 
a corrupt parliament. Now all kingly allegiance was renounced, 
and the contest was to be waged for an absolute independence 
of Great Britain. Wholly unprepared for so ultra a step, num- 
bers turned their backs upon liberty, while others clenched 
more firmly their muskets, ready to seal with their blood, if 
need be, their attachment to freedom's cause. 

That blood must soon flow was now evident, for the British 
troops had made a landing on Staten Island, and their nearer 
approach was expected. The convention, on July 20th, or- 
dered out one-fourth of the militia of Long Island, for the 
purpose of collecting the stock into convenient places, so as 
to be driven, when necessary, from the coast into the interior 
of the Island, to prevent its falling into the enemies' hands, 
and thus afford them supplies. Five days after, in compliance 
with this order, a quarter of the Newtown militia was drafted, 
under Capt. Benjamin Coe, of the south beat company ; the 
light horse with the foot, a circumstance which they did not 
relish, having been to the expense of equipping themselves as 
troopers. The company thus formed numbering forty-four 
men,' was attached to the regiment of Col. Josiah Smith, of 
Brookhaven, of which Capt. Abraham Eemsen, of Newtown, 
had been appointed major ; and forming part of Gen. Na- 
thaniel Woodhull's brigade, to whom the duty of protecting 
the stock on Long Island had been particularly assigned. 

Information that the enemy were reembarking, v^ith evi- 
dent intent to land on Long Island, induced the convention to 
order Col. Smith to march with his regiment and join the 
brigade of Gen. Greene, at Brooklyn, and these instructions 
were communicated to Col. Smith, on the 9th of August. The 

' For their names see section 103 of Onderdonk'a Revolutionary Incidents, 
a valuable repository of facts pertaining to Long Island during the Revolution, 
and from which I have drawn largely in preparing this portion of my work. 


day following, one-half of the militia of King's and Queen's 
was directed immediately to be formed into one regiment, un- 
der command of Col. Jeromus Eemsen, of Newtown, and re- 
pair to the same place. Both of these orders were promptly 
executed, and the two regiments, which included within their 
ran.ks nearly all the Newtown militia, took up positions with- 
in the American lines, at Brooklyn, where they were employed 
in throwing up entrenchments and standing guard at the out- 
posts and ferries. 

The British forces had now landed at New Utrecht, and 
their assault upon our troops being hourly expected, (the issue 
of which seemed very dubious,) the convention, on August 
24th, ordered the whole militia of Queen's county, with the 
troop of horse, to be called out, and all diligence to be used to 
prevent the stock from falling into the hands of the enemy ; 
that the captain of the King's county troop (Lambert Suydam) 
join them, and that the inhabitants of Queen's, not subject to 
militia duty, assist when ordered. Gen. Woodhull hastened 
to forward the execution of these orders, and early on the day 
of the disastrous battle of Long Island, (Aug, 27th,) with a 
command of less than a hundred men furnished him the day 
previous by Col. Potter, of Huntington, was scouring New- 
town, and collecting the cattle, three hundred head of which 
he took off the same day to Jamaica, whence they were driven 
eastward to the Hempstead plains. His party was reinforced 
during the day by forty militia of the regiment of Queen's, 
and fifty troopers from Newtown and King's county. His po- 
sition was now becoming critical. The American army were 
driven within their lines at Brooklyn, scouting parties of the 
enemy were not far distant, and his force was constantly di- 
minishing, because of the anxiety of the militia to reach their 
homes and protect or remove their families. He had expected 
that the regiments of Smith and Remsen would be detached 
to his aid, but this was now become impracticable, as the 
British troops had cut off his communication with the camp 
at Brooklyn. 

The next day, being the 28th, Woodhull ordered the rem- 
nant of his men, about ninety in number, to move off to the 
eastward with the stock, while he remained at Jamaica, in ex- 
pectation every moment of further orders from the convention, 


for whicli he had despatched his brigade-major, Jonathan Law- 
rence. But alas ! he lingered too long. In the afternoon, no 
word arriving, he followed slowly on after his men, but halted 
during a heavy shower two miles east of Jamaica. The late Ma- 
jor Robert Moore, of Newtown, who was then a young man, and 
had been with Gen. Woodhull, was at the house of Mrs. Cebra, 
in Jamaica, keeping the females company during the shower, 
when a detachment of the 17th Light Dragoons, under Capt. 
Oliver Delancey, entered the village, amid thunder, lightning, 
and a violent rain, in pursuit of Woodhull's party. They 
reined up at Mrs. Cebra's to inquire for Col. Robinson, an ac- 
tive whig partizan. Moore came to the door, when, mistaking 
him for the colonel, they nearly cut off his hand with a sabre 
blow. On finding their prey had escaped, they hastened on 
eastward. At Carpenter's inn they took Gen. Woodhull pri- 
soner, cruelly wounding him with their swords. But the un- 
timely fate of this gallant officer is too well known for rehearsal 
here. Several of the citizens of Newtown, namely, Richard 
Bragaw, George Brinckerhoff, Abraham Devine, and Ludlam 
Haire, all of whom had been with Gen. Woodhull, driving 
stock, were also surprised and captured at Hinchman's tavern, 
Jamaica, and taken from thence to a British prison-ship, where 
they were urged to enlist, but, by bribing a friend to govern- 
ment, were released. 

Newtown was now open to the enemy, and many of the 
whig families, alarmed at their defenceless condition, fled in 
the utmost confusion, taking with them such of their effects 
as were of most value or could be gathered in the haste of the 
moment. A number of scattering troops had posted them- 
selves, the previous day, on the ridge of hills between New- 
town and Jamaica ; entered many houses, taking victuals and 
drink, but as yet had not plundered. About three o'clock in 
the afternoon of the 28th, and while it was raining, two High- 
land foot soldiers, armed with muskets, and conducted by 
James Marr, a Scotchman and loyalist living at Dry Harbor, 
approached the house of Jeromus Remsen, Sen. at Hempstead 
Swamp, (now James Weeden's,) who, with his family and his 
daughter, the wife of Barent Johnson, of Brooklyn, was sit- 
ting at the front door. They said they had come to search for 
rebels, and being told that there were none there, they replied 


with a profane epithet that tliere ivere rebels there, (alluding 
to Mrs. Johnson and her children,) and if they continued to 
harbor them, they would come again and plunder the house. 
All this while, Garret Kemsen, who was one of the troop, lay 
asleep with his uniform on, in an adjoining bed-room. Hav- 
ing been Avith Woodhull, driving stock, he had come in about 
eleven o'clock, overcome with fatigue, and had lain down to 
obtain some rest. His wife woke him after the Highlanders 
left, and warned him of his danger. Hastily putting on a 
great coat, he went out of the back door, escaped to Harlem, 
and was seven years in exile. 

Early the following morning, Aug. 29th, the British light 
dragoons, from Jamaica, entered the town. They overtook 
Lieut. Jonathan Coe and Hezekiah Field, of the troop, who 
the day before had returned from driving stock to White Pot, 
and were now starting to cross the Sound. They were pasS' 
ing through a field, probably to elude observation, and Lieut. 
Coe had thrown his epaulet fc in the bushes, but they were re- 
cognized ; the light horse leaped the fence and seized them. 
They were mounted behind their captors, and amid a profusion 
of insult and abuse, were carried to Flatbush jail, where the 
unfortunate Coe died of dysentery, having suffered much for 
want of food and attention. His body was thrown in a hole, 
and refused the rites of Christian burial, though his friends 
requested it for that purjDose. 

The light horse scoured the town, and while it was yet 
early, guided by one George Eapelye, a loyalist, came along 
the Poor Bowery, and halted at Jacobus Lent's (late Isaac Ra- 
pelye's,) to get some bread. Brandishing their naked swords, 
they declared that they were in pursuit of that d — d rebel, 
Doctor Eiker. The doctor had spent the night in visiting 
different sections of the town, tearing down Howe's proclama- 
tions, that none might be misled, and induced, at this critical 
juncture, to remain and accept British protection, instead of 
hasting to the support of the American arms. The females at 
Mr. Lent's were terrified at the ferocious appearance of the light 
horse, and observing the haste and greediness with which they 
broke and ate the dry bread, Balche, a colored bondwoman, 
innocently inquired of her mistress whether they would not 
eat them. They dashed on towards Hellgate, but the doctor 



had escaped in a boat to Barn Island, and tlins eluded tliese 
demons in human form. 

The tories, in the excess of their triumph, assuming the 
character of informers against their whig neiglibors, made 
themselves greatly helpful to the invading foe. They were 
to be distinguished by a badge of loyalty which they wore ; 
a red ribbon tied around their hat, or a red flannel rag tucked 
under the hat-band. Estranged by the violence of party strife, 
and as if animated by the very author of evil, they vented 
their malice in open persecution of those with whom they had 
before lived in neighborly intercourse. On the night of Aug. 
29th, the horses of Mrs. Johnson, before named, were taken out 
of her father's pasture, in Hempstead Swamj^. The next 
morning, Aert Van Duyn and his brothers passed the door, 
and Mrs. J. asked Aert what he had done with her horses, 
(for the blacks had told her that he took them.) He replied, 
that they were d — d rebel horses, and he had entered them 
into the British service. They were never recovered. That 
day, Abraham Eemsen, of Brooklyn, visited the house, and 
Mrs. Johnson, fearing to remain after the threats of Marr and 
the soldiers, embraced the occasion to return with him in the 
afternoon, to Brooklyn. At the Quaker meeting-house, near 
Maspeth, they met a portion of the British army, under Maj. 
Gen. Eobertson, coming from Brooklyn through Bedford and 
Cripplebush, on their way to Hellgate, to oppose Gen. Lee, 
reported to be landing there with an army. The troops drove 
before them large quantities of cattle, collected on the road, 
which they took to Newtown village. Here the army en- 
camped for the night on a tract of vacant land owned by 
Benjamin Betts, up the Dutch lane. But that first night of 
their presence was stained by excesses perpetrated by the sol- 
diery, for which Gen. Eobertson the next day issued the fol- 
lowing apology: — "Major Gen. Eobertson, responsible for the 
actions of those he commands, takes upon himself the respon- 
sibility of satisfying the people of the village for the depreda- 
tions committed last evening by part of the 1st brigade, who 
came for water. He hopes for the future his troops will ab- 
stain from a crime which disgraces even victory, and defeats 
the king's intention to protect and reclaim his American 


Continuing his march to Hallett's Cove, and finding no 
enemy, Robertson took up bis quarters at William Lawrence's 
(late Whitfield's, and now S. A. Halsej's) for two weeks, and 
encamped his army of 10,000 men, in tents, on the hill and in 
Hallett's lot. The loyalists furnished wagons to transport the 
baggage and cannon towards Newtown or Hellgate, and other 
teams were impressed by the British, who kept pouring into 
the town, till, with the exception of two brigades of Hessians, 
left on the heights of Brooklyn, under Gen, De Heister, and 
one brigade of British, at Bedford, nearly the whole English 
army were in the town. In the neighborhood of the village, 
Lord Perc}^, who had commanded part of the right wing of 
the royal army in the late battle at Brooklyn, was encamped ; 
also. Gen. Grant, with the 4th brigade. Gen. Sir William 
Howe, Knight Baronet, commander-in-chief of the king's 
forces, had his quarters in the village, at the "Big House" of 
Samuel Eenne, now Bretonniere's. Here, on Sept. 8d, he 
wrote a letter to Lord Germain, in England, giving him a par- 
ticular account of the battle of Long Island, with returns of 
the killed and wounded of the royal army, and the prisoners 
and ordnance captured from the Americans. Howe had im- 
mediate command of the 23d regiment, or Royal Welsh Fusi- 
leers. The hill in the rear of his quarters was covered with 
his tents, and vestiges of an encampment yet remain. 

But another considerable portion of the army, consisting 
of the entire first division, took up its position in the vicinity 
of the Newtown Creek. It embraced the light infantry, un- 
der Brig. Gen. Leslie, the British reserve, under Lt. Gen. Earl 
CoruAvallis and Gen. A^aughan,' and the Hessian grenadiers, 
and chasseurs, under Col. Donop ; the whole commanded by 
Lt. Gen. Sir Henry Clinton, K. B. whose quarters were at the 
house of Nathaniel Moore, (now S. B. Townsend's) on the road 

> The light infantry consisted of four battalions, under Majors Musgrave, 
Straubenzee, Maitland, and Johnstone. The British reserve included all the 
grenadiers of the array, (i. e. four battalions under Colonels Moncton, Mea- 
dows, Major March, and Major Stewart,) together with the 33d regiment, 
Cornwallis's, and the distinguished 42d, or Royal Highland regiment, Lt. Co!. 
Sterling, wliom I shall have occasion especially to notice hereafter. Major 
March encamped his batt^ilion on the farm of John Morrell, now owned by 
his grandson of the same name. 


from Middletown to tlie Poor Bowery. Clinton'^s regiment 
was tlie 84tli, or Eoyal liigliland Emigrants. 

The East river now only separated between these hos- 
tile legions of Britain and the army of Washington. Two 
such combatants were not calculated to remain inactive in 
such close juxtaposition, longer than was required to recover 
from the confusion of the recent battle. Indeed no sooner had 
Gen. Kobertson made an encampment at Hellgate, and his can- 
non arrived, than a battery was erected on a point of land at 
Hallett's Cove, which opened on Sunday, Sept. 1st. at Horn's 
Hook, on New-York Island, and being returned in a spirited 
manner, an incessant firing was kept up on both sides the 
"w^hole day, during which the enemy threw above a hundred 
shells, killing one of our men and wounding several. Some 
of the American shot fell on the land of William Lawrence,, 
but it is not known what damage the British sustained. This 
cannonading continued for several days, by which the enemy 
was so emboldened that on Tuesday they crossed in considera- 
ble numbers to Blackwell's Island, but the shot from our bat- 
teries proving too warm for them^ they soon recrossed the river. 

In the meantime, squads of soldiers penetrated every bye- 
toad and visited each farm-house in search of plunder, and to 
secure the persons of the leading whigs. A band of these 
marauders from the encampment of Gen. Eobertson, dressed 
in uniform, but unarmed, entered the door-yard of Jacobus 
Eiker, (since Charles Eapelye's) for whom they inquired, but 
he was not at home. One of them then cried out that Lieut. 
Eiker was a d — d rebel, mistaking this for the residence of 
Lt. Samuel Eiker, who, as an active committeeman, had in- 
ciirred the hatred of the tories. Then they proceeded to kill 
the fowls, and toss them into a riding-chair that stood under a 
shed in the door-yard, and completing the load with a valua- 
ble fish-seine, milk-jDans, &c. they drew the whole off to the 
camp. While the soldiers were thus employed, an English 
surgeon was pacing back and forth in the room, who said to 
Mrs. E. " You see, I take nothing, madam." But after he was 
gone, they missed the silver buckles from a pair of high-heeled 
shoes that hung upon the cupboard. By and b}^, a party re- 
turned, and proceeded down into the cellar, where Mr. Eiker, 
who was now at home, quickly followed them, and seized one 


by the collar, sajdng, " Out of tliis, you liave no right here," 
at the same time warmly remonstrating with the sergeant, 
who was sitting leisurely on the cellar-door without. After a 
parley, the latter called the men out, and they left, Mr. E. 
then repaired to the 'camp, and was fortunate enough to re- 
cover his chaise and some other articles, but not the poultry. 
Thomas Cumberson was employed at his wood-pile, when 
a party of soldiers was observed approaching the house. His 
wife entreated him to come in to avoid difficulty. He, how- 
ever, preferred to continue his work, hoping that his san^j froid 
would save him. But not so, they seized him, with two of his 
horses, and stript the premises of every eatable, leaving his 
family destitute of bread. He was carried a little beyond 
Middletown, and put under guard in a hen-coop. From thence 
he was taken to Flatbush, but was released by order of Sir 
Henry Clinton, through the entreaties of Mrs, Cumberson, who 
in person applied to the general, at his quarters, at N. Moore's. 
Of course Mr. C. saw no more of his horses. Eichard Law- 
rence, who had been captain of the troop, was seized and 
incarcerated in the Provost jail, at New- York, where he was 
kept for a long time, contracting an illness which caused his 
/death. William Sackett was arrested and taken to the "cor- 
\ner house" in Newtown, but contriving to make the guard 
arunk, he slipt away, and was not again called upon. Benja- 
min Cornish was suspected of being a whig, (as in truth he 
was,) and this was accounted sufficient reason for robbing him 
of his cattle and stock. 

The Newtown militia had nearly all returned to the town. 
After the retreat to New- York from the battle of Long Island, 
Col, Smith's regiment was ordered to Horn's Hook, opposite 
Hallett's Cove, to await further orders, and Col, Eemsen was 
authorized to grant furloughs to his men to visit or remove 
their families from Long Island — none to carry arms with 
them. But owing to their impatience to get home and shield 
their families from abuse, their term of enlistment had no 
sooner expired (Aug. 31st,) than these regiments disbanded 
themselves, and nearly all crossed to Long Island, reaching 
their homes in time to save their property from confiscation. 
Personal safety compelled the officers to act otherwise, and 
thus their families remained exposed to the insolence of the 


enemy, or effected tlieir escape as best tliey could, and rejoined 
tlieir Imsbands and fathers within the American lines. Capt. 
"William Lawrence, of the north beat militia, was an excep- 
tion. He was ill at his own house when the enemy took pos- 
session of the town. The loyalists insisted he was playing 
sick, and had him examined by a Hessian surgeon, who pro- 
nounced it no sham, exclaiming in reference to the false 
charge, " How much people lie in dis country." Capt. Coe, 
in distressed circumstances, followed the convention to Fish- 
kill, whence he proceeded to Warwick, in Orange county, and 
there resided with his family during the war. Daniel Law- 
rence, captain of the light horse, was also in exile seven years, 
and lived at Milford, Major Eemsen fled to Eockland county, 
Col. Eemsen and Dr. Eiker to New Jersey, and Major Jona- 
than Lawrence to Dutchess county. Col Blackwell had fled to 
New Jersey, and at the venerable stone house, in Eavenswood, 
then his residence, aTid now belonging to the Heyer estate, 
may still be seen the mark of the broad arrow /f\ branded 
upon the front door by the British, to denote that it was the 
property of a rebel, and as such, confiscated to the crown. 
Col. Blackwell returned under Howe's proclamation, but he 
suffered much indignity. Many other whigs, more or less 
noted, exchanged the comfort and all the endeared attach- 
ments of home, for penurj^ and a tedious exile. 

The British forces now prepared to remove from Newtown, 
Gen. Howe intending to make a demonstration against New- 
York. On the 15th of Sept. in the morning, three ships of war 
passed up the North river, to draw the attention of the Ame- 
ricans to that side, while the British first division under Clin- 
ton, embarked in flatboats, at the head of Newtown creek, and 
landed about noon at Kip's Bay, protected by the fire of two 
forty gun ships and three frigates. The same day, the Ameri- 
can army retreated to Harlem, and the enemy were in posses- 
sion of the city of New- York, to hold it for seven years. Soon 
after this movement, and in part execution of the plan to cut 
off the retreat of the American army. Gen. Eobertson's forces 
took up their march from Hellgate, passed around the Head 
of the Fly, to Flushing, and thence to Whitestone, preparatory 
to crossing to Westchester. His position at Hellgate was taken 
up by the Hessians, under Gen. De Heister. He and Gen. 


Clark were quartered at the liouse of William Lawrence. These 
Hessians made use of Jacobus Eiker's oven, (in whose house 
one of their number, Ensign De Sacken, aid-de-camp to Maj. 
Gen. De Bischausen, was billeted,) and there baked great quan- 
tities of bread for their men, being sometimes thus emjjlojed 
several days and nights in succession. 

The Hessians remained three Aveeks, when the hostile troops 
were again put in motion. On the 12th of October the guards, 
light infantry, and reserve, together with Col. Donop's corps of 
Hessian grenadiers and chasseurs, embarking in boats at Tur- 
tle Bay, on New- York Island, passed up the East river, and 
pressing through the dangerous navigation of Hellgate, enve- 
loped in a thick fog, landed on Throg's Neck at about nine 
o'clock in the morning. The same day the Hessians, under 
Gen. De Heister, embarked at Hellgate in flatboats and other 
craft, and proceeded to the same place, while the 1st, 2d, and 
6th brigades crossed from Whitestone and joined the gathering 
forces. On the 28th of the same month occurred the battle 
of White Plains. Generals Clinton and Heister led on the 
royal forces, and met with a brave resistance from the Ameri- 
cans, under Gen. Washington. Several hundred fell of both 
parties, but neither could claim any decided advantage. But 
we must leave the hostile armies in their sanguinary career, 
and confine our attention to events more particularly connected 
with the territorial limits assigned us. 


Queen's county petitions for a restoration to royal favor. — Granted. — It affords tio 
great protection. — Presbyterian church desecrated and finally demolished. — A 
deserter executed. — The Dutch church spared for a time. — Dominie Froeligh, 
being a Whig, is forced to flee. — The Episcopal church respected. — Friends dis- 
turbed while in silent meeting. — Camp fever prevails. — The militia reorganized. 
— Officers' names. — James Marr ; how he filled his pockets. — Officers of the 
Troop. — Their excursions. — Delancey's Brigade. — Refugee's occupy the farms 
of exiled Whigs. — Villany of the new-raised corps. — They rob William Furman. 
— Incident of Bergoon Van Alst. — Joseph Hallett's house robbed. — Vessels 
winter in Newtown Creek. — Notices of the Maryland Loyalists, and the Royal 
Highlanders. — Address to the latter on their leaving the town. — The reply. — 
They winter in Newtown afterwards. — Trouble Samuel Waldron. — One of 
them shot by Cor. Rapelye. — Precautions of the farmers. — Refugees steal cattle 
in Westchester. — Hessians. — Incidents of the hard winter. — Col. Willard. — Loss 
of the Huzza frigate. — British forces in Newtown.^-Visits from Whaleboatmen. 
— Highlanders and other troops in the town. — Notice of several Refugees of cha- 
racter. — Tho. Cumberson mortally wounds a robber. — Tho. Woodward kills a 
soldier. — A highway robbery. — Daring robbery at Dominie's Hook. — Petty 
thefts. — Martial law in force. — Severe trials of the farmers. — Their troubles 
end. — Joy of the Whigs at the prospect of Independence. — Alarm of the Loyal- 
ists. — Many of them retire to Nova Scotia. — Newtown evacuated by the Bri- 
tish troops. — Public rejoicing. — Town officers regularly chosen during the war.^^ — 
The first election after the Peace. — Physical and moral effects of the Revo- 
lution. 177G to 1783. 

Newtown witli its environs was now in tlie power of an 
inliuman foreign soldiery, its leading whig inhabitants were 
in prison or exile, and their property seized by the enemy, to 
be ravaged at their will. Under these adverse circumstances 
the remainder were constrained to join with the loyalists in a 
petition, now being circulated, that Queen's county might be 
restored to royal favor. Prudence indeed suggested that steps 
should be taken to conciliate the inflamed feelings of the royal 
troops, when they should return to winter quarters on the 
Island. Their brief stay had been marked with j)illage and 
devastation ; ' what would a winter residence effect, if nothing 

' I cannot, perhaps, better illustrate this than by inserting the following, 
found among the Alsop papers. This, be it remembered, is but a single 
case : — 



Sea and 

were done to secure their friendship ? Nearly thirteen hundred 
freeholders and inhabitants of the county signed the said pe- 
tition, setting forth their loyal disposition, and praying that 

Losses and Damage Richard Alsop, Esq. sustained by Ms Majesty's 
Land Forces, betioeen y' \sL and 24//i of Sept. A. D. 1776, vizt 

8 Grown Cattle, worth £6 pr, ps. 

7 oi a smaller size, at £4 10s. pr. ps. . 
6 Calves, at £l 10s. pr. ps. ... 
4 Horses, 2 at £15, and 2 at £12 pr. ps. 

8 Large Hogs, at £2 10s. pr. ps. 
. 7 Shotes, at 16s. pr. ps. and 6 Pigs, at 6s. pr. ps 


1000 Rails, at 30s. pr. hundred, .... 
180 Posts, at 50s. pr. hundred. 

Damage to a Riding Chair and 2 Wagons, . 
10 bushels of Wheat, at 8s. pr. bushel, 
30 ditto of Rye, at 5s. pr. bushel, . 
12 loads of Straw, at 10s. pr. load, 
6 tons of Clover and Timothy Hay, at £6 pr. ton, 
20 bushels of Indian Corn, at 5s. pr. bushel, 
20 bushels of Onions, at 5s. pr. bushel, . 
40 bushels of Potatoes, at 4s. pr. bushel, . 
Boards and Garden Fence, . 
Fruit of sundry kinds, .... 
6 Iron Pots, £3, and 1 Frying Pan, 9s, . 
12 Pewter Plates, 24s. and 1 Dripping Pan, 20s. . 
2 Large Knot Bowls, 30s. 4 Pails, iron hoop'd, 24s 
2 Wash Tubs, 12s. 1 Lye Tub, 16s. 1 Table, 20s, 
10 Bowls, Queen's ware, 7s. 6c?. 6 Drinking Glasses, 9s 
1 pr. Stockings, 8s. 1 Woman's Cap, 12s. . 

1 Handkerchief, 13s 

4 Silver Tea-spoons, 20s. 1 Silver Table-spoon, 16s. 
1 Hive of Bees, 20s. 1 Smoothing Iron, 4s. . 
1 Wheat Sieve, 14s. 5 Bags, 15s. 
1 Calico Gown, 30s. 1 Apron, 10s. 1 Blanket, 8s. 
1 pr. Leather Breeches, 20s. 1 Great Coat, 16s. . 
1 Petticoat, 20s. Sundry Children's Clothes, 20s. . 
1 Large China Bowl, 10s. 3 Wood Axes, 20s. . 
Cabbages, 30s. Turnips, 40s 

£326 15 6 

This list is valuable, as exhibiting the prices of produce and other articles 

at the opening of the war. It is computed in New-York provincial currency, 

a shilling, being as now, the eighth of a dollar, and a pound, two dollars and 

a half. — Compiler. 


J. d. 


. 31 



. 64 


. 7 



. 15 



. 7 


. 7 



. 36 


. 5 


. 2 


. 3 




. 2 





16 6 






. 1 




. 2 




. 2 



. 3 



the county might be declared at the king's peace. It bore 
date Oct. 21st, and was presented to the commissioners for 
restoring peace to his Majesty's colonies, from whom it met 
with a very gracious reception. 

But the proffered protection much resembled that of the 
wolf to the lamb. All the ancient prejudices and inveterate 
hatred toward the Presbyterians were revived. Their uniform 
adhesion to the cause of liberty drew down upon them, as a 
religious sect, the particular virulence of the British and to- 
ries. The leading men of the Presbyterian congregation in 
Newtown had fled within the American lines, and public wor- 
ship was suspended in their sanctuary. Embracing the occa- 
sion to vent their hatred, a few young tories, shortly after the 
British got possession, went one night with a saw, and a rope 
taken from the well of Alexander Whaley, and actually sawed 
off the steeple of the church.' The edifice was then devoted 
to the purpose of a prison and guard-house, the pews being 
removed, and while thus used, an English soldier was con- 
fined there for desertion, and afterwards hung upon a pear- 
tree in a neighboring orchard, now owned by John Leverich. 
At length the building was demolished, and the siding, &c. 
used for making huts for the soldiers on Eenne's place. A 
pillar on which the pulpit had stood was converted into a 
horse-post at the town-house. Thus despoiled of their sanc- 
tuary, many of the Presbyterians, during the war, attended 
the Rev. Mr. Burnet's church, at Jamaica. 

The Dutch congregation were more favorably treated by 
the British and Hessian troops, and it was owing probably to 

1 j)r, w****** 51**** J**** ]y£**** Q***** \y***** and D**** V** 
W*****, were the leaders in this transaction. Some years after the peace, a 
tall steeple in New-York required to be cut off and lowered. So critical an 
operation naturally elicited remark, and happened to become the subject of 
conversation, one evening, in a circle where the doctor was present. One of 
the company, Capt. Rutgers, venturing a joke at the expense of his medical 
friend, observed that he knew a person that could do the job in question. 
"Who is if?" asked another. "Why, Dr. M." was the reply. "But he is 
not a carpenter," returned the other. " No matter for that," said Capt. Rut- 
gers, " only give him a hand-saw and a well-rope, and he'll have it off while 
you are asleep." The joke was too keen to be relished by the doctor, whose 
face colored at the allusion, and he simply remarked of tlie act referred to, 
that some persons imputed it to him. 


the influence of certain Dutcli families, wlio were loyalists, 
that tlieir church escaped for a time their polluting hands. 
Service, however, was not very regularly performed. Domi- 
nie Froeligh, the pastor, had been an ardent whig, and in his 
public ministrations often prayed the Almighty to strike the 
fleets of our invaders with his bolts and sink their soldiers 
in the seas, so that they might never set hostile foot on our 
shores.* On the approach of the British, he fled from his resi- 
dence in Jamaica to Newtown, and lay concealed one night in 
the house of Mr. Eapelje, at Hellgate, who set him across to 
the Main. During the earlier part of the war. Do. Boelen 
ofiiciated in Newtown, and after him. Dominies Schoonmaker 
and Rubell occasionally preached, in making the tour of the 
county, and performed the ordinances of baptism and mar- 
riage as required. But at a later period in the war the British 
forgot their former lenity to the Dutch. Being in want of a 
powder magazine, they took possession of their church, and 
stored there a large quantity of gunpowder in barrels. While 
it was thus used, the family of the widow Wainwright, who 
kept the town-house, opposite, was in constant fear, and espe- 
cially when a thunder-storm occurred, lest the lightning should 
set the church on fire, and cause an explosion. 

The Episcopal church was seriously affected by the com- 
motions which immediately preceded the entrance of the ene- 
my. After the visit of Col. Heard, Mr. Bloomer administering 
the sacrament at Newtown, "had but four or five male com- 
municants, the rest having been driven off, or carried away 
prisoners." Independence being declared, Mr. B. was enjoined 
to omit the customary prayers for the king and royal family. 
Knowing the consequence of a refusal to do this, and in pros- 
pect of relief from the king's troops, who were at Staten Is- 
land, he closed his churches for five Sabbaths, when the 
expected relief came. Thence Mr. Bloomer officiated regu- 
larly, and the congregation was sustained by the attendance 
of British officers and prominent loyalists. 

The quiet demeanor and peaceful principles of the Quaker 

1 It is a noteworthy fact, that a British fleet of 43 sail, five days out from 
Cork, and bound for Boston, with 2500 troops, met with a terrible storm, 
Feb. 18th, 1776, which dispersed the vessels, and forced them to seek the 
nearest ports. This delay was altogether favorable to the Americans. 


could not shield him from insult. On one occasion, when 
the Friends were in meeting at Maspeth, the British soldiers 
amused themselves with firing several shots through the 
house, one of which came near kilHng Mrs. Sarah Betts. 
She had just taken her seat, when a ball whistled over her 
head and pierced the weatherboard on the opposite side of 
the house. The bullet-holes were long to be seen. Such were 
some of the indignities to which the good people of Newtown 
were subjected. Added to the wide-spread confusion and dis- 
tress which the enemy introduced, the camp fever broke out 
among the troops the first winter, and being communicated to 
the inhabitants, numbers of them died. 

Now that the British had possession of Long Island, it be- 
came necessary to guard agaitist predatory incursions of the 
Americans, to which the Island would be peculiarly exposed 
in the summer season, Avhen the English troops were absent 
upon service. The defence of the Island must necessarily 
depend in a good degree upon the militia, and they were 
therefore organized and placed under suitable regulations. In 
Newtown the following new ofiicers were chosen. In the 
north beat, George Rapelye, (son of John,) captain; Daniel 
Eapelye, (son of Abraham,) lieutenant; and Jeromus Kapelye, 
(son of Jeromus,) ensign. The south beat comjjany was com- 
manded by Capt. Dow Van Duyn, of Hempstead Swamp, one 
of whose subalterns was James Marr, before noticed, who after- 
wards succeeded Van Duyn in the command. Marr was a hot- 
brained loyalist, beyond which he had little to recommend 
him even to the British. At a later period of the war, the 
militia of Long Island were called out to aid in constructing 
fortifications at Brooklyn, and Marr commanded a detachment 
from Newtown. But not a few of the militia commuted with 
him for their time, and for a clever fee were permitted to stay 
at home, by which means the crafty Scotchman considerably 
increased the size of his purse. 

The commissioned officers of the Newtown light horse, 
under the British, were Cornelius Rapelye, (son of Daniel,) cap- 
tain ; Daniel Rapelye, (son of John,) lieutenant ; Daniel Lent, 
cornet ; and Cornelius Rapelye, (son of Jeromus,) quarter-mas- 
ter. The troop made occasional tours down the Island, dur- 
ing the war, to protect the inhabitants against the attacks 


of tlie wlialeboatmen and otliers. One of these was in De- 
cember, 1777, when news having been received that 200. 
Americans from Connecticut had landed at Setauket, on a 
hostile visit, a considerable force was despatched to give them 
battle. Col. Hamilton, who commanded the militia of Queen's, 
proceeded thither from Newtown, at the head of the troop of 
horse, but the enemy had departed. These excursions proved 
a mere pastime with the young troopers, and the only victories 
of which they are known to have boasted were those achieved 
over the feathered gentry of the farmers' barn-yards. The 
officers of militia above named, (foot and horse,) were not in 
the end benefitted by their commissions, for having thereby 
become active partizans of royalty, they nearly all found it 
prudent to leave the country at the peace, though the most of 
them returned again. 

Not only was the militia of Long Island organized for its 
defence, but measures were taken immediately after the Island 
was captured by the British, to raise a brigade of provincials 
from among the numerous loyalists who had left their homes 
in New-York and New England, and taken refuge here, from 
the apprehended vengeance of the whigs. This brigade was 
commanded by Gen. Oliver Delancey, and its special duty was 
to defend the Island, apprehend or drive off all concealed 
rebels, and reestablish order and government. Fitting instru- 
ments, truly ! for they had the name of being preeminently 
lawless and notorious thieves. In the winter of 1777-8, they 
were stationed at Newtown, or the Head of the Fly, and then 
numbered over 600 men, in three battalions. Several of their 
officers were Newtown men, and at a certain time, the corps 
occupied the huts back of Bretonniere's. These huts were 
also used as a hospital for invalid soldiers. 

Newtown not only swarmed with troops, but she became 
the abode of many of the refugees who had fled to Long Is- 
land, as before stated. Being generally in destitute circum- 
stances, such as did not enlist in the military service found 
employment in other ways, as best they could. In autumn, 1778, 
they petitioned the king's commissioners for permission "to 
enclose and cultivate, for their OAvn benefit, portions of the 
cleared woodlands and other uncultivated land of persons not 
under protection of government, on Long Island, and to erect 


temporary habitations thereon." The execution of this busi- 
ness, and the obtaining of signatures in Queen's county, was 
intrusted to Col. Moses Kirkland, an influential refugee from 
South Carolina, who, in October attended at the inn of Abra- 
ham Kapelye, the "corner house," in Newtown, to receive the 
names of the refugees.* The petition was granted, and the 
following spring permits were issued on their presenting a cer- 
tificate of character at the ofiice of police in New-York. In 
1780 Philip J. Livingston, himself a refugee, and occupying 
the farm of Major Jonathan Lawrence, at Hell gate, was ap- 
pointed to answer applications of this nature. 

Large numbers of the refugees enlisted in the New-raised 
Corps, as were called the provincial forces, embodied by order 
of Sir William Howe " to suppress the unnatural rebellion." 
In not a few cases they proved themselves consummate vil- 
lains, ready for plunder and blood. An illustration or two 
may be adduced. One night a brace of refugees entered the 
house of William Furman, Sen. at the Head of the Fly, 
(late Abiathar Ehodes' residence,) who being an executor of 
Robert Coe's estate, was supposed to be in possession of a 
large sum of money. He was robbed of $1600, and badly 
beaten as he lay in bed (where he was ordered to remain) to 
force him to make farther disclosures. The villains then ab- 
sconded, while Mr. Furman, covered with blood, ran to a 
neighbors to spread the alarm, but the robbers escaped. They 
were detected at Brooklyn ferry, from the peculiarity of the 
coin. Mr. Furman appeared before the British authorities at 
New-York, and identified some of the pieces, yet none of the 
money was ever restored. After the peace, he was sued by 

' Col. Kirkland is described as a stout, corpulent man, about five feet ten 
inches high, swarthy complexion, and then aged between fifty and sixty. He 
had been the owner of a plantation and some forty slaves, in the back country 
of South Carolina, but being proscribed for his active loyalty, he fled from 
his estate, and sailed for Boston. On the passage he was captured (Dec. 
1775) by an American armed vessel, sent to Philadelphia, and lodged in 
prison, where he remained till the 7th of May succeeding, when he broke 
jail in the evening, and evading all pursuit, found safety among the king's 
forces. It is stated in Holt's Journal, that at the capture of a part of De- 
lancey's 1st battalion, which was taken near Savannah, Sept. 30th, 1779, 
through a daring stratagem of Col. White, of the Georgia line, Kirkland was 
found among the prisoners. His ultimate fate I have not learned. 


tlie heirs of Coe, and acquitted in tlie court of errors. At 
another time, a party of a new-raised corps, then occupying 
huts on John Bragaw's j^lace, visited the pig-pen of Bergoon 
Van Alst, at the Dutch Kills. Van Alst was aroused from 
his bed, for it was night, and repairing to the garret, fired 
upon them from the window. They returned a volley, and 
renewed their efforts to get the pigs out of the pen, but Van 
Alst, nothing daunted, fired again and again, drawing aside 
as he discharged his piece, and actually drove them off before 
they had secured the bacon. On another occasion, the house 
of Joseph Hallett was broken open by six persons, who car- 
ried off a purse of ten guineas, with a gold and a silver watch. 
This robbery was committed on the night of Oct. 15th, 1778. 
Thieves and burglars infested the township. 

The succeeding winter Newtown presented an unusually 
animated appearance. Fears being excited that Gen. Wash- 
ington meditated an attack upon New-York, Sir Henry Clin- 
ton took active measures to strengthen that place. For the 
preservation of the shipping, as well as the safety of the city, 
he directed all vessels intending to winter at New- York, and 
not in the service of government, to be removed to Newtown 
Creek. Here a great many craft found a secure harbor for 
the winter. In the township a large number of British troops 
were barracked. There was the 17th regiment of Light Dra- 
goons, the same that so inhumanly murdered Gen. Woodhull, 
and who, during the preceding summer, had'been engaged at 
the battle of Monmouth. The Maryland Loyalists, Lt. Col. 
Chalmers, lay at the Head of the Fly, and the •±2d regiment, 
or Eoyal Highlanders, Avere at Hempstead Swamp, their 
guard-house being at Capt. Van Duyn's, now D. S. Mills'. 

The Maryland Loyalists were encamped divers times in 
Newtown. On one occasion, two of their officers, Lieut. Levin 
Townsend and Adjutant James Henly, quartered at William 
Leverich's, (since Wm. Sackett's property.) The festivities 
which were indulged in during the winter months, and served 
to relieve the tedium of the camp, are thus warmly alluded to 
some years after, by the commanding ofiicer, then in Ireland, 
in a letter to a friend in America : — " I felt," he remarks, 
"great regret at leaving New-York, where I had enjoyed the 
pleasures of social friendship, amid a circle of worthy inhabi- 


tants — yes, I look back often with, heartfelt satisfaction, on the 
delightful scenes, the heightened joys that filled np every day, 
even in the severity of winter months, in the sweet village of 
Newtown, on Long Island, where we frequently had our quar- 
ters and cantonments. I hope I may be indulged this small 
tribute of grateful remembrance and affection for many agree- 
able families of that place ; to the Moorea^ of that neighbor- 
hood, I am particularly indebted, a family ancient and respect- 
able; to the charms of their company, to the hospitable 
attentions of their numerous connections, I owe many happy 
hours of festivity and innocent mirth. The Eev. Benjamin 
Moore had been long eminent in his pastoral functions, as a 
minister of the Episcopal church ; he is a clergyman of most 
amiable manners, humane, benevolent, affectionate; as much 
revered in private life as he is admired and distinguished in 
the pulpit. You will pardon this honest warmth of a suscep- 
tible heart. I could not omit this small tribute of gratitude 
for numerous proofs of affectionate esteem conferred on me 
by a worthy people." ' 

The Eoyal Highland Regiment, Lt. Col. Thomas Sterling, 
commandant, had seen long and arduous service in America, 
during the French and Indian war. Early in 1776, after re- 
cruiting in Scotland, it took ship at Cork for America, being 
composed of 1168 men, and wearing a red uniform faced with 
blue, with belted plaid and hose. They formed part of the 
reserve at the battle of Long Island, shared in the capture of 
Fort AVashington, and also in that of Fort Montgomery, and 
during the last campaign, 1778, accompanied the expedition 
of Maj. Gren. Gray, down the Sound, to annoy the settlements 
along the Connecticut shore. Part of the regiment helped to 
form a detachment which attacked Elizabethtown, in Febru- 
ary, 1779, of which enterprise Col. Sterling had the command. 
Being chosen soon after to go on a predatory expedition to 
Virginia, the Highlanders prepared to break up their winter 
encampment in Newtown. On the morning before this took 

1 This regiment left New- York, Sept. 16th, 1783, in the transport ship 
Mcartha, for St. John, in the B.ay of Fundy, but being wreclied near Cape 
Sable, on the night of the 21st, more than half the corps perished in the 
waves. The particulars are fearfully depicted in the letter above quoted, as 
published in the New-York Museum of February, 1800. 


place, the principal inhabitants presented the following address 
to tlieir commander, April 28tb. 

" The inhabitants of Newtown beg leave to make their 
hearty and grateful acknowledgements to Col. Sterling and 
the ofiicers of the 42d regiment, for their very equitable, po- 
lite, and friendly conduct, during their winter stay among 
them. They will ever entertain an affectionate esteem and 
regard for them, and will never forget that they have been 
treated with all the justice and cordiality due to fellow-subjects 
and citizens. They at the same time request the favor of Col. 
Sterling to return their sincere thanks to the regiment in gen- 
eral, for their regular, orderly, and honorable behavior, so con- 
formable to the true character of gentlemen and soldiers. 
They part with the 42d regiment with regret, and wish them 
glory and success."* 

After embarkation, Col. Sterling indited the following re- 
ply, dated on board the Nestor transport, May 1st. 

" Gentlemen : — It gives me a very sensible pleasure to 
find the orderly and good behavior of the 42 d regiment, under 
my command, during their winter quarters in Newtown, has 
drawn so honorable an acknowledgement from the inhabitants 
of that district. It has ever been my wish and study to pro- 
tect the peaceable subject to the utmost of my power, at a 
time when the civil law, owing to this unhappy rebellion, is 
suspended from giving that protection so enviable and so much 
to be wished for, by every one who has tasted the sweets of it. 
I beg to assure the inhabitants of Newtown of every protec- 
tion in my power as a soldier, and of every good wish as a 
fellow-citizen, for their welfare and happiness." 

The above address of the inhabitants doubtless emanated 
from the loyalists, who, during this seven years' reign of ter- 
ror, had everything in their own way. And it is pitiful to 
observe among the names appended to the address, not a few 
who are known to have been undoubted whigs, at heart, and 
who could not utter a serious aspiration for the glory and suc- 
cess of their country's enemies, but in this, as in other in- 
stances, were forced into mortifying concessions to the wishes 
and movements of the tories. 

' To this address 93 names were appended, for which, see Onderdonk's 
Revolutionary Incidents of Queen's Co. p. 135. 



The Highlanders proceeded with the forces under Sir Geo. 
Collier and Gen. Matthews, to Virginia, spreading ruin where- 
ver they went, by burning houses, vessels, naval stores, and 
magazines of provisions. They then returned to New-York, 
satiated with "glorj'- and success," but toward the close of the 
same year again embarked with Gen. Clinton for South Caro- 
lina, shared in the reduction of that province, and returned to 
New-York the next summer. 

This regiment wintered in Newtown subsequently, and 
circumstances are related which show that they were given to 
the same lawless practices that disgraced the foreign troops in 
general. During one of their encampments at Hempstead 
Swamp, some of them were billeted in the house of Samuel 
Waldron, now the residence of Edward Tompkins, Esq. They 
were insolent and annoying in the highest degree. Whenever 
they had occasion to shoe their horses, they would, without 
ceremony, enter the blacksmith-shop, and make free use of 
the forge and iron, not allowing Mr. Waldron any compensa- 
tion for his serious interruptions and loss. They stole all of 
his cows but one, which was saved only by shutting it up in 
a bed-room in the house. Of course he got nothing for them. 
In one instance, the enclosure was broken open at night, and 
a cow taken. It was driven a short distance, killed, and the 
quarters carried to the camp. The next day Waldron traced 
them by the blood, and entered a complaint. "Point them 
out," said the officer, " and I will flog them." Waldron told 
him this was impossible, as he did not witness the deed, 
though the trail of blood made it evident that some of his 
men were the offenders. He requested pay for his cow, which 
the Scotchman refused, but offered him a dollar for the head, 
to feed his dog. Indignant at such villany, Waldron retraced 
his steps homeward, but was .followed by a servant, who threw 
down a dollar, and carried away the cow's head. 

It seems that these Highlanders were addicted to cow- 
stealing, but in another instance one of their number met 
with an awful retribution. At the time referred to, they lay 
in Trains Meadow, on the land of John Leverich, (where the 
widow of Eichard now lives,) and occupied huts back of the 
barn. Two of the soldiers, on a certain night, crossed the 
meadow, and entered the barn-yard of Cornelius Eapelye, (now 


Purdy's,) for tlie purpose of stealing his cattle. Tliey were 
heard by the negroes, and they alarmed their master, who went 
out with his carbine, (for he commanded the troop of horse,) 
and ordered them off. To this they gave no heed, when Ea- 
pelye fired, but without effect, and hastened to the house to 
reload. With this, one of the S.cotchmen jumped over into 
the road, wliere the blacks, Sam and Fronce, were stationed, 
the latter armed with an old Queen Anne's piece. Sam im- 
mediately clenched him, and being the best fellow, began to 
force the soldier towards the house, a j^risoner, Fronce aiding 
by pushing him with the breech of his gun. At this moment, 
his accomplice ran to his rescue, and with an uplifted hatchet 
was about to split the skull of Fronce, when the latter turned, 
presented the muzzle of his gun to the Scotchman's breast, 
and fired. The ball pierced his heart, and he fell dead upon 
his face. The other was secured, and in the morning taken 
before the commanding officer, who justified Eapelye and his 
men, but expressed a wish that the survivor had been the 
victim, as he was a noted scamp, while the one shot had pre- 
viously sustained a good character. If this were so, what a 
lesson it conveys. The first indulgence of bad company may 
prove one's ruin.' 

Thus it will be seen that stern justice sometimes arrested 
these plunderers in the very act of their villany. The farmers 
indeed soon learned to be prepared for them. Each kept 
loaded guns in his house, often a number ; the utmost precau- 
tion was used to secure their out-buildings and barn-yards, and 
a watch placed at night over their crops approaching to matu- 
rity. An alarming sense of insecurity prevailed, for none 
knew at what unsuspecting hour of night a band of maraud, 
ing soldiery might steal upon them, to rob, perhaps to murder. 
Much of the crime perpetrated was justly chargeable upon the 
refugees. And their depredations were not always confined to 
midnight theft; occasionally they sallied forth upon a more 
open and daring expedition. On June 29th, 1779, a party of 

^ The Royal Highlanders remained in America till the peace. In 1801 
their regiment formed one of those that repulsed the Frencli on the shores 
of Aboukir, in Egypt, and covered the landing of the English army under 
Sir Ralph Abercrorabie. They were recently stationed in Bermuda, where 
their precision in militaiy tactics during parade excited special admiration. 


them crossed, to Westcliester, and "witli the assistance of a guard 
ship below City Island, and without sustaining any injury, 
brought off 50 milch cows, 12 or 14 horses, and 150 sheep, which 
they drove to Jamaica Plains. On another occasion, as the owner 
of a fine meadow arose in the morning, she found 15 horses 
turned into it to graze, which had been stolen from the Main. 

We have beheld the proj^erty of exiled whigs given up to 
the use of refugees. Of course the British commanders did 
not hesitate to appropriate to the use of the army anything 
their premises afforded. In the fall of 1779, the Prince of 
Hesse's Infantry, Capt. Aldenberg, were quartered at John 
Morrell's, Dutch Kills, and another corps of Hessians near Ja- 
cobus Piker's. These last had orders to cut fuel on the wood- 
land of William Lawrence and Peter Rapelje, both of whom 
had been rebel officers. The season which succeeded was, from 
its inclemency, denominated the " hard winter." Snow covered 
the ground to a great depth, concealing the fences, and there 
was a beaten road from Lawrence's (now Woolsey's) Point, 
across the Sound to Westchester. Taking advantage of this 
easy communication, the British crossed to the Main, and made 
the farmers bring over their hay to Long Island. At this time 
Col. Abijah Willard, a commissary in the British service, 
quartered at J. Biker's, kept two men with a horse and sled 
employed during the winter cutting and drawing wood from 
the swamp of Major Jonathan Lawrence. He kept a prodi- 
gious fire burning in his room. 

Col. Willard was in person large and portly. He had been 
a man of some distinction in Lancaster, Mass. but having ac- 
cepted a seat in the council of that province by royal appoint- 
ment, it gave such offence to the people, that they assembled, 
seized Willard, and condemned him to Newgate prison, in 
Simsbury, as a traitor to his country, bat finally released him 
on his promise under oath not to sit or act in the said council. 
When the crisis came which put every man's sentiments to 
the test, Col. Willard clung to royalty, accepted a command in 
the British service, and proved himself an active partizan be- 
fore he came to Long Island. Here he held the post of com- 
missary, and drew large pay. He is represented as a gentle- 
man in manners and character, though fully imbued with that 
deep hatred against the anti-loyalists which his principles and 


former treatment were calculated to produce. During the 
campaign of 1779, he accompanied, as a volunteer, an expedi- 
tion of the Associated Loyalists, which ravaged the shore of 
Connecticut, making incursions upon the villages of Norwalk, 
Green Farms, Mill River, &c. "occasioning," say they, "new 
troubles to our enemies." It may be added, that Col. Willard 
settled in New Brunswick, at the peace ; was a member of the 
council of that province, and died in 1789, aged 67. His 
family afterwards returned to Massachusetts. 

Among the incidents of 1780, may be mentioned the loss 
of the English frigate Huzza, which in attempting to pass 
Hellgate, late in the fall, bound for New England, with pay 
for the British army, struck the Pot Rock, and floating as far 
as Morris's Island, there filled and sunk in deep water, carry- 
ing down several of the crew, who were drowned.' 

This fall and winter Newtown, as usual, presented the scene 
of a military camp. The Royal Artillery, with their cannon 
and horses, were here, as they had also been in the previous 
year. So was the 33d regiment. Lord Cornwallis's. This 
regiment is known to have occupied huts on the land of John 
Bragaw, (now Wm, Gosman's,) near the Dutch Kills, and it 
was probably at this time ; for there is an order dated Dec. 
20th, 1780, directing John Bragaw and five of his neighbors 
to cart the provisions of said regiment till further orders. 
Very likely, too, they were the grenadiers called Macaronis, 
from their neatness, who, according to Mr. Onderdonk, lay at 
the Kills. They are represented as large, noble looking fel- 
lows ; one of their captains, Hildebrand Oakes, was billetted 

' Since the Revolution several attempts have been made to raise or searcli 
this vessel, under tlie impression that the military chest had not been re- 
moved. As far as disclosed, nothing has been recovered except fragments of 
the wreck, a few pieces of cannon, some cases of bottled wine spoiled by 
sea water, &c. A specimen of cannister-shi t taken up from the ruins is in 
possession of the compiler, who visited the spot during a recent attempt to 
explore the wreck. She lies in very deep water, has fallen to pieces, and 
is nearly imbedded in mud. It is said that this vessel lay anchored in Hal- 
lett's Cove one or two days before she attempted to pass the Gate, and that 
circumstances favored the belief that the money she contained was smuggled 
ashore during that time, and then the vessel j)urposely run upon the rocks to 
sink her and conceal the embezzlement. If this be true, much useless labor 
has been expended upon the wreck. 


i fi Mr, Bragaw's family, a portly, handsome man, wlio, after 
the war, returned to England, and became a distinguished 
officer in the British service. This regiment was destitute of 
the usual facings upon their coats, of which they had been 
deprived, as was said, for having lost their colors in an en- 
gagement. Their huts were fifty feet long and of a rectangular 
form, thus, j | being open at the south to admit the sun's 

rays, the roof thatched, and the three sides sodded up to the 
eaves, to keep off the north-west wind. The inner wall was 
of square hewn logs, and in the centre of the enclosure formed 
by the huts, the soldiers were wont to parade and perforin 
military evolutions. Those huts were also occupied for a time 
by the new-raised corps. 

The 87th regiment, grenadiers. Col. Sir Eyre Coote, K. B. 
which was encamped at Hellgate in the spring of 1780, lay 
the succeeding winter at Capt. Thomas Lawrence's, on Flush- 
ing Bay, now Daniel Lent's. This shore had to be closely 
guarded to prevent the approach of whaleboatmen, and other 
hostile vessels, from the north side of the Sound. The 
whaleboatmen were Americans, living on the Connecticut 
shore, (many of them refugees from Long Island,) who had 
commissions from the governors of New- York and Connecti- 
cut to cruise against British vessels in Long Island Sound. 
The number, boldness, and dexterity of these soon made them 
a formidable foe. Their boats were sharp at each end, of the 
lightest material, and exactly fitted to their employment. In- 
festing the bays and inlets, and always on the look-out, they 
would dart out of their lurking-places and board market-boats, 
and even cut off the detached vessels of a convoy. They ex- 
tended their visits to the shores of Long Island, for the jDurpose 
of carrying off British goods, or seizing the persons of noted 
loyalists, so as to exchange them for whig prisoners. 

But this species of warfare at length degenerated into 
downright robbery ; families living near the shore on Long 
Island, whether whig or loyalist, were indiscriminately plun- 
dered of their money and goods, and often cruelly treated to 
force them to tell where their treasure was secreted. As a de- 
fence against them, a British guard ship was usually stationed 
at or near Hiker's Island, and the Newtown shore was further 
secured by guards posted at Lawrence's Point and the Bowery 


Bay. Notwithstanding this, the whaleboats would often ven- 
ture into Flusliing Bay at night. Twice they made fruitless 
visits to the premises of John Fish, who kept the mill, now 
Jackson's. Once they were driven oif by his son-in-law, Wil- 
liam Palmer, who fired upon them through the door. On 
another occasion they entered the house and demanded from 
Fish his money. He denied having any, upon which they tied 
the old man to a chair, placed the shovel in the fire, and were 
about to torture him into a confession, but before they had 
effected their purpose, an alarm was given to certain British 
officers quartered on the other side of the creek, when the 
robbers decamped and took to their boat. They were said 
to be refugees from Morrisania.' In June, 1781, two >vhale- 
boats, commanded by Blacker and Jones, appeared off Barn 
Island, but on seeing a signal given to Adjutant Dunn of the 
Royal Garrison Battalion, posted at Hellgate, they thought 
proper to steer off, which they did under a fire from several 
Hessian grenadiers belonging to Col. De Linsing's regiment du 
Corps, and a party of refugees on Barn Island. Newtown 
was visited by these depredators less frequently than the more 
easterly towns on the Island, as she was better protected 
against their approaches, by the presence of British troops. 
In the fall of 1781 the Royal Highland Regiment was 
quartered at Newtown, also the Associated Refugees or King's 
American Regiment, Col. Edmund Fanning, a corps of loyal 
refugees, as their title indicates.^ The Garrison of Pensacola 
wintered at the same place. The Royal Garrison Battalion, 
(composed, I believe, of invalid soldiers, unfit for field service,) 
having been transferred, in July, to Brooklyn fort, the Royal 

' It was a common practice to bury money to save it. Mr. Fish buried 
part of his in the cellar. It was forgotten, and accidentallv discovered a few 
years since. Several years ago a pot of coin was found on the premises 
now of Mr. Kneeland, which was believed to have been buried during the 
Revolution by the Brinckerhoff's, who then resided there. 

^ This corps of 460 men was raised in 1777, at an expense of over £2500, 
subscribed by New-York city, King's, Queen's, and Richmond counties. The 
late David Purdy, of Newtown, received an ensign's commis^^ion in this regi- 
ment, and afterwards arose to a captaincy. They were engaged at the battle 
of Rhode Island, Aug. 29th, 1778, when Ensign Purdy was wounded in the 
shoulder by a musket-ball. The next year they raviiged the shore of Con- 
necticut, as I have before noticed. 


Forresters, Lt. Col. Jolin Conolly, commandant, were stationed 
near Hellgate, where they passed the winter. One of their offi- 
cers, Lieut. Barry, died of a violent fever, in October, and was 
interred at Hallett's Cove, with the honors of war. A part of 
the British Legion lay at Hellgate this fall, and a division of 
the Queen's Eangers wintered on the farm of George Brincker- 
hoif, now William Bragaw's. 

Of the loyal refugees who took shelter in Newtown, it is 
but justice to say that some were most worthy men. Of this 
number was Dr. Samuel Cutler, a ph3^sician from New Eng- 
land, who had travelled extensively in Europe, in pursuit of 
knowledge, and had been a member of the faculty at Edin- 
burgh ■ Hospital. His learning, combined with great benevo- 
lence, acquired for him a considerable practice in Newtown 
during the war, at the close of which he returned to New 
England. Zacheus Cutler, a cousin of the former, was also 
a refugee in Newtown. His estate in New Hampshire had 
been confiscated to the cause of freedom. Being a merchant, 
he went to London before the peace, to purchase a stock of 
goods, with a view to establish himself in trade in the city of 
New- York, but he perished at sea on his returning voyage. 
Dr. Josiah Pomeroy, a proscribed refugee from Hatfield, Mass. 
also came to Newtown, and followed his profession of medi- 
cine. Another refugee of character boarding here, was Capt. 
James Cox, an Englishman, who had lived in Virginia. At 
the peace he went to Nova Scotia, and was the proprietor of 
a line of schooners which ran between Shelburn and New- 
York. He afterwards returned to the latter city, and died 
of yellow fever. Another refugee was Peter Fitzsimmons, a 
merchant, who, after the war, retired to St. John, New Bruns- 
wick. In the spring of 1782 he opened a tavern at the house 
of widow Betts, at Hallett's Cove, (now Grant Thorburn's,) 
which was announced in an advertisement in Eivington's Ga- 
zette. He informed the public that " he also has the ferry on 
the opposite side of Horn's Hook, and keeps horse-boats and 
small boats for passengers. Ferriage for man and horse, 25. 
horse and chair 4s. cattle 2s. passengers Is." This tavern, 
and another at the English Kills landing, called the Queen's 
Head, and "the corner house," at Newtown village, were much 
resorted to by the soldiery, refugees, and other loyalists. 

A striking instance of the manner in which the perpetrator 



of crime is often "suddenly destroyed, and that witliout reme- 
dy^" occurred a little before the peace. Thomas Cimiberson' 
was awakened by a knocking at his door, by some persons 
who asked the way to Hallett's Cove. They then wanted to 
come in and get something to eat, but this he refused, as the 
hour was unseasonable. They left the door, uttering threats. 
Suspecting they might return again, Cumberson dressed him- 
self, and stood his loaded gun by the bed. In a short time, 
without notice, the door was forced open by a stone as large 
as a man could well manage. The robbers then rushed in 
upon him, and one cried out, "Now, you rascal, we've got 
you." He fired instantly, and lodged the load in the fellow's 
abdomen, and sung out as to a friend present, "Hand the 
other gun, or fire yourself." Thereupon all three decamped. 
The wounded man essayed to mount his horse, but failed. He 
however snapped his pistol at Cumberson, who had followed 
him out of doors and was looking on. Finally, he begged to 
be led into the house. Cumberson told him he had been in 
once. " Yes, to my sorrow," said the wounded man, throwing 
down his pistol, and falling on the ground. He at first refused 
to give the names of his associates ; but on being told by a 
British surgeon who had been sent for, that he had but a short 
time to live, he confessed all. His name was Michael Hagan, 
and he was about eighteen years of age. Three of them had 
deserted from the British camp at Flatbush, and come over to 
the English Kills, where they broke open the king's stables, 
(on the premises late of Judge Jones,) and stole three wagon- 
er's horses. His two accomplices, Docharty and Lyons, rode 
off to Hallett's Cove, where, stealing a boat, they crossed the 
river, and were never heard of afterwards. The next morn- 
ing the wagoners came in pursuit of their horses, and found 

^ Thomas Cumberson (whose father emigrated from England) occupied 
the place owned of late by his son Thomas, though the house has been re- 
built since the Revolution. He married, in 1759, Elizabeth, the daughter of Ben- 
jamin Cornish, and died in 1784, aged 48. His children were Philetus, Jemima, 
Nathaniel, Elizabeth, Cornelius, Thomas, Benjamin, Catharine, and Jonah. 
Philetus entered the American naval service in the Revolution, was taken by 
the enemy, and carried to the West Indies. His fate remains a mystery. His 
brother Thomas, whose accurate memory supplied more than one page in 
these annals, was a rare example of good sense, integrity, and respectability 
in an humble sphere. He died March 31st, 1849, in his 74th year. 


the one still tied to the door-yard fence. They proceeded to 
Hallett's Cove, where they recovered the others, and returned 
to their quarters. The wounded man having survived about 
eight hours, died in great agony, and was sewed up in a blanket 
of Mrs. Cumberson's, and buried north of the house, in the 
woods, by several soldiers who were sent for the purpose from 
a neighboring encampment. 

Other instances occurred where a similar retribution over- 
took the guilty. The barn of Thomas Woodward, a Avorthy 
inhabitant, who lived where Mr. Vietor now does, in Newtown 
village, was used by the enemy as a hospital for the sick sol- 
diery. On a winter's night Mr. Woodward was aroused by a 
noise among his ducks, at the rear of the house. Opening the 
back door, he could see no one, for the night was foggy. He 
however discharged his gun at a venture, expecting only 
to frighten the intruder, but the next morning a soldier was 
found dead a short distance from the house, with a duck under 
his coat. The soldiers were so exasperated at Woodward, that 
he continued to be in great fear for his life. It has been said 
that he was not called to account for this deed, but from the 
nature of the act, and the wrath excited, such an omission 
would have been extraordinary. Besides, I find him arraigned 
"a prisoner" before a court-martial, April 26th, 1782, though 
unfortunately the offence is not stated. He was favored in 
this case by the intercession of Serj. Major B. Rathbone, of 
the grenadiers, who had quartered at his house. 

The boldness of robbers rendered travelling by night par- 
ticularly dangerous. On the evening of Christmas, in 1782, a 
couple of young men, John Rapelye and William Garden, 
returning homeward with ladies in a sleigh, were stopped near 
Newtown village, somewhere between the residences of John 
Penfold and William Leverich, by two men supposed to be 
soldiers, and the gentlemen robbed of their money and a silver 
watch. Alarm was given, and a party went out in pursuit of 
the robbers, but they were not found. Capt. George Rapelye, 
father of one of the young men, offered a reward for their de- 
tection, but without success. Another robbery equally daring 
occurred on April 2d of the following year. As Jacob Bennet, 
who lived on the hill at Dominie's Hook, was rowing home- 
ward from market, his negro observed a strange boat on the 


shore, a little way from the house, and said to his master, 
" There must be robbers at our house, let's scuttle the boat." 
It was no sooner said than done. As they drew near the 
house, the robbers (who had already tied up the aged father, 
and forced him to show his money,) came out, and ordered 
them to land, or they would be fired on. Disregarding the 
threat, Bennet put about for the Bushwick shore, and gave 
the alarm. The robbers now fled to their boat, to escape, but 
as they put off she filled. They then made for the meadows, 
and hid in the sedge £1000 they had taken, being the property 
of Mr. Bennet and his son-in-law, Capt. Geo. Hunter. The 
robbers were refugees, and one of them was taken up a day 
or two after, and lodged in the main guard. Capt. Hunter 
offered fifty guineas for the arrest of the others. 

Instances of petty theft, such as the following, were almost 
innumerable. Howard Furman had a heifer stolen and found 
her fifty yards off, with her hind quarters cut out, the rest 
being left. Aaron, his son, lost some ducks, but on complain- 
ing and pointing out the thief, he was punished! which was 
the extent of the satisfaction obtained in such cases. J. Rem- 
sen, who lived a mile and a half south of Newtown village, 
hearing some soldiers in his cow-yard, fired, and put shot into 
three of them. William Howard had his cows penned up be- 
fore his house, bars wedged, the front door open, and a person 
sitting up all night to watch, and yet they were stolen ! Sam- 
uel Waldron one night discovered some soldiers digging his 
potatoes. He went out with his gun, but no one was to be 
seen. Thereupon, to assure them that he was armed, he dis- 
charged his piece in the air, when up jumped the potatoe 
thieves from among the bushes, and scampered off at a speed 
that defied pursuit. When soldiers lay near, corn and pota- 
toes were often watched at night. In the woods of John 
Alburtis, near Newtown village, (now J. Penfold's,) the sol- 
diers had barrels sunk in the ground, for the reception of stolen 
articles, as has been supposed, though others are of opinion 
that they were water casks. Their dexterity in stealing eluded 
detection in most cases. Farmers were even forced to take 
in their rail-fences in winter, to save them from being stolen 
for fuel. 

Thus was Newtown a prey to depredation, alarm, and cru- 


eltj, for the space of seven long years. The civil courts were 
suspended, and martial law prevailed, as crime emanated to a 
great extent from the soldiery. In other cases complaints of 
a civil or criminal nature were entered to the British authori- 
ties, at New- York. But as this was found to occasion the in- 
habitants serious inconvenience and delays. Gov. Robertson, 
in 1780, established a police on Long Island, having an ofl&ce 
at Jamaica, open weekly, on Tuesdays and Wednesdays, for 
the administration of justice " on principles of equity." It was 
seldom, however, that justice, in its true sense, could be obtain- 
ed by the down-trodden and oppressed inhabitants. It is true, 
that for the encouragement of farmers to raise plentiful sup- 
plies of produce for his Majesty's service, the British generals 
Howe and Clinton had both, by proclamation, forbid all per- 
sons damaging or destroying fences, or taking away cattle, 
stock, or other produce, from their owners, under penalty of 
severe punishment, on complaint being made to the nearest 
commanding officer. Yet when complaints were entered against 
the soldiery, how seldom was the guilt of the offender esta- 
blished, in the estimation of the officer. Ever ready to screen 
their men, they winked at their crimes, insomuch that it became 
a by -word among them, " You are not punished for stealing, 
but for being found out." Still rarely was the loss of the 
farmer repaired. 

As a security against midnight marauding, the farmers 
were glad to have the British officers quarter in their houses, 
for they were usually attended by one or more soldiers as a 
safeguard, one of whom, during the day, constantly paraded 
with his loaded musket to and fro before the door. At night 
they slept in the kitchen, barn, or other parts of the premises, 
and protected them from robbers. And though an officer was 
entitled to one or more of the best rooms in the house, he 
usually paid well for his board, the customary price being 205. 
per week, and his rations, which latter helped to supply the 
table. And payment was in gold and silver. These conside- 
rations served to make their presence tolerable.' The billeting 

' In addition to those already noticed, Gen. Warren was quartered in the 
house at the English Kills recently occupied by Hon. D. S. Jones; Maj. 
Humphreys at the town-house; Capt. Raymond at D. Van Duyn's; (now D. 
S. Mills,) Maj. Thomas Barclay, of the Loyal Americans, at Rich. Berrien's, 


of privates in the whig families was a great nuisance. The 
troops were accustomed, on the approach of winter, to strike 
their tents, and take shelter in huts, or else in neighboring 
farm-houses. The mode of billeting was as follows. The com- 
manding officer having obtained from the magistrates or other 
intelligent sources, a list of the inhabitants, together with in- 
formation as to how many persons each family could accom- 
modate, the soldiers, in squads of the proper number, usually 
from ten to twenty, were furnished with tickets directing them 
to the quarters assigned them. The first notice you had that 
your house would be wanted, was, " Well, madam, I've come 
to put a billet on your house." And it was of no use to ob- 
ject. The family was allowed one fireplace. The soldiers 
i generally selected the kitchen as their apartment. Then some 
fence or out-building was stript of its boards, and hammocks 
constructed around the room, commonly in three tiers, one 
above the other. And from this beginning the family became 
subject to a series of losses and annoyances which were hard 
to be borne and yet unsafe to murmur at. The effect was 
most pernicious upon the slaves, who either ran away or be- 
came less respectful to their owners, when they saw them 
lorded over by British officers. And it is pitiable to think, 
how, under the domination of these petty tyrants, the spirit 
of the man was crushed, and a feeling of inferiority, and a 
demeanor nearly allied to a crawling servility, substituted. 
For these officers expected the utmost condescension. In ad- 
dressing one, your head must be uncovered and your hat held 
under the arm. And if a farmer in passing should neglect 
to doff his beaver, he might depend on a caning, though the 
Britain would scarcely deign to notice him, much less return 
the civility. Oppressed, sometimes, beyond the power of en- 
durance, collisions would happen between the inhabitants and 
the officers. Once an altercation took place between Howard 
Furman and a Hessian officer. The latter called Furman a 
d — d rebel, and he retorted, when the Hessian drew his sword. 

(now Mrs. Denton's,) and at W. Leverich's, (now Wilcox's,) Trains Meadow. 
At the latter place, Col. Richmandt, a German, was also quartered. Lieut. 
Thompson, of one of the new-raised corps, was at J. Riker's ; Dr. Harper, sur- 
geon of the Garrison Battalion, at Joseph Burroughs', (now Jona. Randel's,) 
in 1780. 


Furman, who had done service in the French war, was not to 
be frightened, and picking up a stick of wood, at it they went. 
But the affray was happily checked, yet not till Furman had 
lost a forefinger by a stroke of the sword. In general, how- 
ever, the Hessians, of&cers as- well as soldiers, were much 
better disposed towards the inhabitants than the British, or 
new-raised corps, who were insolent, domineering, and blood- 

Farmers were also subject to many severe regulations and 
burdens, imposed by the higher authorities. They were re- 
quired to furnish from year to year, for the use of the army, 
the greater portion of their hay, straw, rye, corn, oats, vege- 
tables, and fresh provisions, »nder pain of being imprisoned, 
and having their crops confiscated. And the haste with which 
they were sometimes obliged to thrash out and deliver their 
grain or straw at the forage magazine, was peculiarly embar- 
rassing. But it was for his Majesty's service; and to this 
every consideration of individual comfort or economy must 
yield unhesitatingly. In like manner, those who owned wood- 
land, were obliged to cut and deliver their share of fuel, and 
if they were unwilling, others were authorized to do it, and 
the owner was fortunate if he got paid for it. Such as de- 
clined to sell their wood were in danger of having it seized 
and confiscated.' And the farmer being thus forced to a 
delivery and sale of his produce, the commissary or bar- 
rack-master weighed or measured it, and then rendered pay- 
ment according to the prices fixed by the king's commissioners. 
K he demanded more, it was at the risk of losing the whole. 
Owing to the great and constant demand of the army, the 
necessaries of life often became exceedingly scarce and high. 
In the hard winter, when the magazines became nearly ex- 
hausted, wheat brought 265. a bushel, rye and corn 10s. and 
buckwheat 8s. Potatoes ran up to 18s. and half a guinea per 
bushel, butter to 8s. and 10s. per pound. Turkeys sold for 
half a guinea. Wheat flour, 80s. or $10 per hundred weight. 
Other eatables in proportion. But high prices were of but 

- Capt. Geo. Rapelye served as commissary of fuel from the earlier part 
of the war till its close, under whose directions immense quantities of timber 
was cut to supply the wood-yard at Newtown, whence it was carted to the 
encampments as required. 


little avail to tlie farmer, whose supplies had already perhaps 
been reduced by pilferers or foraging parties of the enemy to 
less tlian enough to meet the wants of his own family. Fur- 
thermore, the inhabitants were obliged, when called upon, to 
furnish teams to cart wood, or perform other public service, 
sometimes under pay, but often without receiving any compen- 
sation. And then it became necessary to obtain written per- 
mission to do this and do that The small craft in which the 
farmers were accustomed to send their produce to market, were 
required to have a pass from the commanding officer on Long 
Island, or the military colonel of the county. Neither were 
they permitted to sail after dark or before sunrise in the morn- 
ing, as the guard boats were directed to seize all such as did 
so. Neither could they purchase and carry home for family 
use any goods, wares, or provisions, without first obtaining a 
permit at the superintendent's office. New- York. It is not to 
be wondered at, that smarting under such indignities as have 
been enumerated, and oppressed with the conviction that the 
authors of them were subverting their liberties and spreading 
devastation and death over their beloved land, feelings of fixed 
and bitter enmity should have been engendered, which were 
only stifled from conscious impotence and want of power to 
resent them. But the period of their deliverance was now at 

It is not within my province to detail the military opera- 
tions of the glorious Revolution, which resulted in the inde- 
pendence of the United States. The anguish, the sacrifices, 
the self-devotion, the brilliant achievements, are fresh in our 
memories, and engraven on the heart as with a pen of iron. 
Newtown had some faithful rej3resentatives in the council-hall, 
and in camp, and battle-field, who eagerly looked forward to 
the joyful termination of their toils and sufferings. One of 
these, a surgeon in the army, in reviewing the untoward oc- 
currences which had expelled him and his companion from 
their native town, thus consoles her by a letter. " The great 
Disposer of all events has wisely excluded our aspiring natures 
from sifting the designs of His providence, but has given us 
sufficient encouragement while in the line of duty, to rest our 
humble dependence thereon, assuring us that all things work 
together for good to them that believe. Let iis therefore be 


zealous in our endeavors to answer the great objects of our 
creation, and be resigned to the will of Heaven in all things ; 
and I make no doubt, when He has answered His divine pur- 
poses for which these trials have been sent, that we shall be 
again restored, and our property secured to us." Again, under 
brighter prospects, he writes — " I now begin to anticipate the 
pleasure of revisiting our native place in triumph, with credit 
and applause. Independence, gloriously obtained, will make 
ample restitution for all the toil and labor, the blood and trea- 
sure, that have been expended in the purchase." 

Such were the bright expectations that the Newtown 
whigs, both at home and in exile, began to cherish at the 
prospect of American Independence. On the other hand, that 
portion of the inhabitants who from honest motives but false 
views had been led to take a decided and active part in sup- 
port of royal authority, were sunk in the depths of despond- 
ency at the utter prostration of their hopes. And when, about 
the first of August, 1782, news arrived that Great Britain had 
virtually acknowledged our independence, it fell upon their 
ears like the knell of death. They were seized with conster- 
nation at an event which pronounced upon them the sentence 
of banishment. In their espousal of the British cause, some, 
with indiscreet zeal, had pursued an uncalled for severity to- 
ward their rebel neighbors, directly calculated to imbitter their 
feelings ; all had made themselves too conspicuous to hope to 
escape the retributive vengeance of the exasperated whigs, 
into whose hands the preponderance of power was now thrown 
by the reverse of fortune. Where would be their safety when 
the king's troops should have gone ? In this dilemma, num- 
bers of these individuals in Newtown set about the arrange- 
ment of their affairs, and prepared to leave the land of their 
birth and take up a residence in the British dominions, the 
province of Nova Scotia having been especially designated 
by the English government as a home for their loyal Ameri- 
can subjects. A brig, schooner, and other vessels received 
their effects, and bidding adieu to kindred and home, they 
embarked at New-York, passed down the Sound, and bent 
their course for the barren and inhospitable shores of Nova 
Scotia, whither thousands of loyalists from' this and other 
states retired the same year. The departure of the foreign 


troops had been delayed tliat the embarkation of the loyalists 
might be first effected, and late in 1783 the king's army pre- 
pared to take its final leave. The troops in Newtown gradu- 
ally drew off towards Bushwick, making their last encamp- 
ment in the Cedar Lots on the road to the Penny Bridge, or 
Waterville, where the ground was left strewed with rubbish. 
The Hessian regiment de Knoblauch, Col. De Porbeck, had 
recently removed from Herrick's, in North Hempstead, and 
was encamped at the Fly, where they held a court-martial, in 
the month of August, to wind up the affairs of the regiment. 
They now took up their line of march, and proceeded through 
Newtown, their blue uniform, with white facings, and unique 
equipments, attracting the gaze of the inhabitants for the last 
time ; a people more deserving of pity than resentment, be- 
cause they had been basely sold into a service, of the demerits 
of which they were quite ignorant. On the evacuation of 
New-York, Nov. 25th, Jonathan Lawrence, Jun. and other 
young men of Newtown, rode down to that city, and joined 
the escort of Gen. Washington, on his taking possession of 
the town with the American army. 

It was a proud day for Newtown when her patriotic sons 
were permitted to return to her embrace from a tedious exile ; 
what inexpressible emotions were enkindled at that first re- 
cognition of long-separated friends. The warm grasp of the 
hand given in silence, the tear on the careworn cheek, alone 
told their mutual joy and gratitude. They met on freedom's 
soil; this gave it zest. Heartfelt were the rejoicings at the 
consummation of our liberty. On Monday, Dec. 8th, the 
whigs of Newtown joined with others from all parts of the 
county in celebrating the event at Jamaica. The day was 
observed with appropriate ceremonies ; it was pleasing to 
view the different expressions of joy and gratitude visible in 
every countenance. The residents of the Dutch Kills also 
celebrated the peace at the stone-house, then a tavern, late 
Abraham Rapelye's. Thirteen lamps, corresponding in num- 
ber to the states, illumined the room, and other preparations, 
in keeping with the occasion, testified to the universal joy 
that the event had inspired. It was indeed a season for mu- 
tual congratulation and thanks to the God of battles, who had 
crowned the American arms with ultimate success, and con- 



ferrecl upon these States the blessings of civil and religio"us 
liberty. But observe and see, some of Newtown's most wor- 
thy citizens are not present to participate in these rejoicings. 
They occupy no place at the festive board, nor lend their 
voices to swell the loud huzza. In the pride of manhood, and 
with a devoted patriotism, they entered the conflict with the 
hostile legions of Britain. Where are they ? Hark ! from 
sickly dungeon, the camp, and the field of deadly strife, the 
answer comes back with a solemn cadence, " Here they per- 
ished." Noble hearts, sacrificed on freedom's altar, and yet 
no monumental stone testifies the exalted estimation and the 
undying gratitude which attaches to their memory ! 

Municipal government was maintained in Newtown (at 
least in form) during the whole period of the war, the annual 
election of town officers being regularly observed. On the 
22d of Dec. 1783, the first town officers were chosen in the 
name of the people of the state of New-York. Samuel Eiker 
was elected supervisor; John Morrell and Joseph Gosline, 
trustees ; William Howard, John Gosline, William Lawrence, 
and Richard Bragaw, assessors; John Gosline, constable and 
collector ; Philip Edsall, town clerk ; &c. all to remain in office 
till the next annual meeting in April, As may be supposed, 
the town's finances had suffered, and the following year the 
old trustees were called to account respecting the moneys that 
had accrued during the war, from renting the town-house and 
land. It was also resolved that all contracts entered into by 
individuals while the British had possession should remain 
binding, and a committee was chosen to examine such as were 
of a public nature, and see them duly executed. By the adop- 
tion of wise and prudent measures adapted to the peculiar state 
of their affliirs, the people of Newtown sought to repair the 
ruin that on every side prevailed, and restore good order and 
prosperity to the township, happy in the reflection that they 
were a free people. 

Only years of toil and much expense could make good the 
damage inflicted on tlie premises of the whigs while in exile. 
Their dwellings and outhouses dilapidated, fences destroyed, 
and acres upon acres of valuable timber cut and removed. 
Biker's Island was stript of a grove of fine trees, not one then 
remaining. Few were fortunate enough to obtain any indem- 

ANNALS OF N K W T O W N . 228 

nification for tlioir losses. The rarm of the late Judge Coe 
(now Abraham Wliitson's) was, from the year 1777 to 1783, 
in possession of the family of Lieut. Alex. Grant, of the 42d 
regiment, who was killed at the battle of Fort Montgomery. 
But as Grant fortunately left property in New- York, the state, 
in 1785, allowed Mr. Coe to tile a declaration against Grant's 
heirs, so that Coe was compensated for the waste and injury 
of his farm. Numerous prosecutions for trespass took phice 
and some of the inhabitants were fined for having by order 
of the British cut timber on tlicir neighbors' woodlands, not 
being permitted to plead the military order of the enemy in 
extenuation. This was obviousl}'- unjust. The only property 
in Newtown confiscated by the state was the farm of Capt. 
Dow Van Duyn. It was sold by the commissioners of for- 
feiture, in 178-1, to Thomas McFarran, a merchant of New- 
York, was afterwards bought by Dr. Isaac Ledj^ard, and is 
now the property of David S. Mills. 

But the demoralizing effect of the Revolutionary period 
was more to be deplored than the waste of property. Says 
one, religion was entirely down. Its movement was rather 
retrograde than otherwise, while a loose rein was given to 
passion. The Sabbath was desecrated ; that sacred day was 
often ushered in, not by the solemn peal of the church bell, 
but by the beat of the reveille, and the tramp of British rank 
and file. In the camp profimity and debauchery prevailed. 
A body of troops which in the summer before the evacuation 
occupied the rising ground east of A. Paynter's, at the Dutch 
Kills, were accustomed to drink a hogshead of rum every 
three days. The moral contagion spread, and many learned 
to imitate the dissipation to which they thus became familiar- 
ized. And then the malignancy of party feeling which ex- 
isted was most lamentable. AVcU was it that the active lo3'al- 
ists retired, for the long-smothered anger of the whigs burst 
forth like a volcanic eruption, and sent its torrents of popular 
indignation as burning lava over the land. It was not till the 
fury of the storm was spent that many of the objects of it 
ventured to return to the States. But the whigs could not 
easily forget the wrongs they endured in the day of their 
weakness, while the loyalists, chagrined and mortified at their 
defeat, cherished in their hearts much of their former ani- 


mosity. This asperity of feeling was not confined to the arena 
of politics, but was "carried into private life, and produced 
grievous alienations among kindred, severing all the tender 
ties of friendship and neighborly kindness. The social and 
domestic circles of Newtown felt for years the blighting influ- 
ence of these deep-seated feuds ; indeed the alienations thus 
cherished only terminated in many instances at the grave, and 
died as the generation itself passed away. " Tantx molis erat 
Bomanam condere gentem." 


Presbyterian Church. — Its Iiistory under the Reverend Samuel Pumroy, George 
Macnish, Simon Ilorton, Andrew Bay, James Lyon, Peter Fish, Elihu Pal- 
mer, Nathan Woodhull, Peter Fish, William Boardman, John Goldsmith. — 
Presbyterian Church organized at Astoria; Rev. Frederick G. Clark.— Re- 
formed Dutch Church. — Its ministers, Dominie Van Basten, Johannes H. 
Goetschius, Thomas Romeyn, Hermanns L. Boclen, Solomon Froeligh, Rynier 
Van Nest, Zachariah H. Kuypers, Jacob Schoonmaker, Garret J. Garretson, 
Thomas C. Strong. — Sister Church at Astoria ; Rev. A. H. Bishop. — EpiscorAi. 
Church. — Its rectors, Rev. William Urquhart, Thomas Poyer, Thomas Colgan, 
Samuel Seabury, Joshua Bloomer, William Hammel, Henry Van Dyke, Abra- 
ham L. Clarke, William E. Wyatt, Evan M. Johnson, George A. Shelton. — 
Sister Church at Astoria ; Rev. Samuel Seabury, John W. Brown, Tapping R. 
Chipman. — New Episcopal Churches at Maspeth and Ravenswood. — Notices 
of the Friends, Baptists, and Methodists. 

No candid mind can review the preceding history without 
discerning that the people of Newtown owed much of the pros- 
perity, social and public, which they enjoyed, to the conserva- 
tive influence of religious principles in their society. Religion 
and her institutions were dear to them, as, witness the concern 
manifested when unhallowed rulers endeavored to invade 
them. Piety had been nurtured with tender care, when, amid 
the hardships of a wilderness, they most needed its solace. It 
exerted a controling influence over the morals of the commu- 
nity in succeeding times ; gave a healthful tone to their public 
acts, and in all their checkered history is happily visible. If 
BO, it becomes important to take a view of the religious his- 


torj of the town subsequent to tlie time when it ceased to be 
treated of in connection with the civil annals. 


At the settlement of Mr. Pumroy his church comprised 
only eight members in full communion, but it was eminently 
increased and prospered under the ministry of that gentleman. 
After his union with the Presbytery of Philadelphia, Mr. 
Pumroy exerted himself in connection with other clerical 
brethren for the dissemination of Presbyterianism on Long 
Island, and when the growth of that denomination in this 
country required the formation of additional presbyteries, he 
united, in 1717, with Messrs. Macnish of Jamaica, and Phillips 
of Setauket, in organizing Long Island Presbytery ; the first 
association of the kind in this province, and to which all the 
Presbyterian churches of Westchester and New-York city, as 
well as Long Island, were for many years subject. 

As yet, however, the church at Newtown was destitute of 
that distinctive feature of Presbyterianism, the office of ruling 
elder ; and the sole charge of its spiritual concerns rested upon 
the pastor. This continued till 1724, when, at the suggestion 
of Mr Pumroy, three ruling elders were chosen, and of which 
he gives us the following account. " Whereas, some time ago 
the Rev. Mr. Samuel Pumroy, pastor of the church of Christ, 
in Newtown, did complain to the church, of his wanting some 
assistance in the business of governing thereof; there was by 
him nominated to the church and congregation Content Titus, 
James Renne, and Samuel Coe, to serve in the affairs relating 
to the church, as ruling elders ; and desired if there were 
any person or persons that had anj^thing to object against any 
of them, their taking upon them that office, and their subjec- 
tion to them as officers of authority in the business of govern- 
ment, that they would signify it to the said Mr. Pumroy, in 
some convenient time. This was repeated afterwards. After 
a considerable time, (nothing being objected,) Mr. Pumroy, 
upon the Lord's day, after the evening sermon, did rehearse 
the above declaration, and not one person opposing the mo- 
tion and purpose, did propose to the men in nomination 
whether they were freely willing to undertake the office. 



They answered they were willing to do what service they 
were able to do for Christ in his church. Upon which, after 
prayer, they were solemnly appointed to the office of ruling 
elders, and did engage and promise to take care of this branch 
of the Lord's vine, as far as God should enable them. The 
members of the church were also required and exhorted to 
acknowledge them as men in authority, and to subject to them 
in their government in the Lord. This was done upon the 
28th June, 1724.'" 

The session met for the first time on July 15th, and their 
earliest care was to admonish the wayward and encourage the 
faithful. On their recommendation the 22d of the same month 
was observed by the congregation as a day of public thanks- 
giving, " having been blest with a good and great harvest 
and a plentiful rain immediately after." Thence it continued 

' The following is a list of the eld 

Content Titus. 
Samuel Coe. 
James Renne. 
Silas Titus. 
Cornelius Berrien. 
Philip Edsall. 
Samuel Fish. 
John Alburtis. 
Benjamin Coe. 
Jacob Palmer. 
Richard Bragaw. 
Jesse Leverich. 
Edward Howard. 
William Leverich. 
Charles Palmer. 
Adrian Van Sinderen. 
William Howard. 
Simeon Benjamin. 
Benjamin Howard. 
Jacob Palmer Leverich 
Andrew B. Ryerson. 
Samuel Leverich. 
Abel Sam mis. 
Thomas Divine. 
William Raiman. 
John L. Riker. 
Julius C. Wrio-ht. 

Chosen 1724. 

Serving, 1740. 
" 1742. 

" 1756. 

" 1767. 
<i » 

Chosen 1791. 

" 1794. 
Serving 1812. 

Chosen 1820. 




ers of this church : — 

Died Jan. 17, 1730, aged 86. 
Rem'd to Rockland co. N. Y. 1734. 

Died Aug. 5, 1759. aged — 

" Nov. 2, 1748. " — 

" Jan. 14, 1758, " 50. 

" Feb. 21, 1791, " 78. 

" July 9, 1767, " 78. 

" Oct. 6, 1780, " 46. 

" Mar. 9, 1821, " 79. 

" Aug. 5, 1819, « 79. 

" Mar. 27, 1818, " 70. 

« Oct. 3, 1829, " 73. 

" M:iy 14, 1815, " 48. 

" May 20, 1831, " 71. 

" Aug. 30, 1822, " 32. 

" Aug. 27, 1843, " 71. 
Now serving. 

Removed to Elmira, N. Y. 1829. 

Died Sept. 14, 1833, aged 61. 
Now serving. 

Removed to Southport, N. Y. 1837. 
Died Aug. 26, 1843, aged 56. 
Now serving. 


to be the custom of the church once a year, near the holydays, 
and sometimes oftener, to keep a thanksgiving day, with reli- 
gious services, and a suitable discourse by the pastor. The 
state of the church was much improved, as its affairs pro- 
ceeded more orderly. Better to secure the regular and decent 
observance of Christian ordinances, and that a record thereof 
might be kept, it was ordered, in session, Aug. 30th, 1725, 
"that James Kenne' take care to have a book bought for the 
church records, also that he buy a small bason, two platters, 
and a napkin, for the use of the church ; and that with the 
money of the church that is in his hands." The book was 
procured, is yet extant, and contains valuable records. 

Mr, Pumroy sustained the character of a systematic, learned 
and eminently pious man. He is said to have prepared a 
number of youth for admission into college, and he labored 
with "approbation and great satisfaction" to his people. Dur- 
ing his ministry the Lord's Supper was celebrated once in 
about four months, accom.panied by a sermon, and preceded 
by preaching on Friday evening. Days set apart for fasting 
and prayer, (Wednesday being usually selected,) were also 
observed from time to time, which occasions Mr. Pumroy 
endeavored to improve to the spiritual good of his flock. 

Mr. Pumroy's pecuniary support was the contributions of 
his people, and the profits of the parsonage property, which 
at this time consisted of the dwelling-house, bought of Mr. 
Coe in 1695, and an adjoining farm, fifty acres " laid out for 
the parsonage" in 1678, but increased to seventy-four acres in 
1700. During Mr. Pumroy's settlement, these premises, by 
authority of the town, were secured to the Presbyterian 
church, by two several deeds, one from Mr. Coe, the other 
from the purchasers. Here Mr. Pumroy resided during his 

- James Renne, whose descendants are yet to be found among us, was of 
French birth or extraction, and by trade a tailor. He was one of the first 
trustees of this church, as well as an elder, and in both capacities he served 
long and faithfully. For seventeen years he was a trustee of the town. Mr. 
Renne died Aug. 5th, 1759. He was twice married, and by his first wife, 
Sarah, daughter of Jonathan Hazard, had issue James, John, Peter, Margaret, 
who married John Burroughs ; Elizabeth, who married Joseph Burroughs ; 
Mary, who married Eliakim Anderson ; and Hannah, who married Alexander 
Sloan. Peter Renne settled in Dutchess county. 


ministry. Losing his wife Lydia, Feb. 8d, 1722, lie married, 
three years after, Elizabeth the daughter of Eev. Joseph 
"Webb, of Fairfield, Ct. who survived him twenty-four years.* 
Mr. Pumroy, (says a notice of his death,) " preached his last 
sermon on the 20th day of May, 1744, his text was in the 
first of John, 2d chapter and the 15th verse. He was taken 
amiss the same evening, departed this life the 30th day of 
June following, about 8 o'clock in the morning, and was in- 
terred the first day of July, at the burying-place in Newtown, 
and has left his dear bosom friend and congregation to bewail 
an unspeakable loss." His tombstone in the old public grave- 
yard bears the following inscription : — 

Here lies the body of y^ Reu"* 

Mr. Samuel I'uinroy who dep''. 

This life the 30"' of lune 1744, 

In the 67"' year of his age. 

Kind earth keep safe my sleeping dust, 

Till Christ shall raise it with the lust; 

My ministerial work is done 

For you dear people of Newtown. 

Years almost thirty-six I try'd 

To spouse you for Christ lesus bride. 

If you do still refuse to hear, 

Gainst you at last I must appear, 

When Christ shall come to raise the Dead 

And call me from this gloomy bed. 

The Eev. George Macnish, an only son of the former pas- 
tor of Jamaica, of that name, was called the same year to 
supply the place made vacant by the demise of Mr. Pumroy. 
Mr. Macnish occupied the parsonage house. He labored about 
two years in this congregation, but subsequently settled in the 
town of Walkill, Orange (then Ulster) county, N. Y. at which 
place his father had owned an extensive tract of land. 
There he ended his days, in 1779, aged about 65 years, having 
ministered for a time in the church at Goshen. His wife was 

^ Mr. Pumroy's children were Catharine, born May 4th, 1708, who married 
Jacob Riker, Abigail, born July 8th, 1710, who married Jonathan Hazard; 
Noah, born Nov. 20tli, 1712, who died in infancy; Lemuel, born May 23d, 
1716, wiio died in the Island of Curacoa, Oct. lltli, 1737; and Elizabeth, born 
Nov. leth, 1717, who married Philip Edsall, Esq. 


Mary Fitcli, whom lie married in 1738, aud their descendants 
are yet residents of Orange county. 

Mr. Macnish was succeeded at Newtown by the Eev. Si- 
mon Horton, who was installed pastor of this church in 1746. 
He was the son of Mrs. Elizabeth Horton, daughter of Simon 
Grover, a resident of Southold, L. I. who died in 1706, and 
from whom he derived his name. He was born (probably at 
the above place) on March 30th, 1711, graduated at Yale Col- 
lege in 1731, and was ordained to the work of the ministry, 
by the Presbytery of East Jersey, in 1734. The union of this 
presbytery and that of Long Island in 1738, under the name 
of the New- York Presbytery, probably led Mr, Horton to form 
an acquaintance with the Newtown congregation, and opened 
a door for his subsequent settlement here, previous to which 
he was located at Springfield and Connecticut Farms, N. J. 
He was a man of unquestioned piety, and always sustained a 
good character and standing. But after a ministry here of 
more than a quarter of a century, and having spent the ardor 
of his youth, a portion of his charge began to complain that 
his preaching had become dull and unattractive. Others, it is 
said, murmured at his close attention to the employments of 
the farm. Mr. Horton was apprised of this discontent, and it 
is a fact very creditable to him, that upon making this dis- 
covery, he prudently took his dismission, and removed from 
the parsonage to a residence of his own adjoining.' 

He was succeeded by the Eev. Andrew Bay, from Albany, 
in 1773. Mr. Bay is represented as "a broad Scotchman," 
but it is uncertain whether he was licensed and ordained at 
home or in this country, where he first appears in 1748, as a 
member of the New Side Presbytery of New Castle. Thence 
for nearly twenty years he was settled successively at Marsh 

• Mr. Horton lost his wife Abigail May 5tl), 1752, and on Jan. 7th, 1762, 
he married Elizabeth, daugliter of Samuel Fish, Esq. who also died Jan. 13th, 
1767. Phebe, his only child who arrived to years of maturity, married the 
late Hon. Benjamin Coe, of Newtown. Mr. Horton was in exile during the 
Revolution, living with his son-in-law at Warwick, Orange county, with 
whom he returned to Newtown in the fall of 1783. Here he closed his life 
at the residence of Judge Coe, May 8th, 1786, aged 75 years. In person 
Mr. Horton was of a middle size; and of a solemn deportment. He enjoyed 
good health till the close of life. 


Creek, Pa, and Deer Creek, (now Churcliville,) Maryland. In 
1768, he was requested by the synod to spend six Sabbaths in 
the vicinity of Albany, the Scotch settlements in Montgomery 
and Washington counties. His services in these parts proved 
so acceptable, that he was retained at Albany, where he con- 
tinued five years, and at their expiration entered upon his 
labors at Newtown, as above stated, where he was duly in- 
stalled pastor. Several authorities agree in pronouncing Mr. 
Bay a highly talented and eloquent j^reacher. But his mi- 
nistry at Newtown ended unfortunately. Falling into discredit 
with his people, an application was made to the New- York 
Presbytery for his dismissal. " The congregation generally 
seemed disaffected with Mr. Bay, and for various reasons urged 
his removal." On June 20th, 1775, the presbytery met at 
Newtown, to examine the grounds of complaint, but Mr. Bay 
evaded such an inquiry by agreeing to submit to a decision of 
the congregation. The next day a ballot being taken it was 
found " that more than two to one voted for his dismission ; 
and that some of those who chose his continuance for them- 
selves, seemed of opinion that it would not be for the edifi- 
cation of the congregation that he should be continued with 
them." The presbytery thereupon dissolved his pastoral rela- 
tion the same day. On reflection, Mr. Bay thought proper to 
appeal from this judgment to the synod ; but that body sus- 
tained the action of presbytery, on which Mr. Bay appeared 
in synod May 28th, 1776, and "in a solemn manner" re- 
nounced their connection. 

While his case was before the presbytery, " many charges 
were implied against Mr. Bay's prudential and moral charac- 
ter," though the elders declined to prefer a formal complaint. 
There is much reason to believe that he indulged to excess in 
the intoxicating cup, thereby tarnished his good name and de- 
stroyed his usefulness. He is said to have died soon after, at 
the parsonage, where his family continued to reside after the 
church was broken up and dispersed by the Revolutionary 
troubles. How appropriate the divine injunction, "Let him 
that thinketh he standeth take heed lest he fall." 

At the close of the struggle for Independence the church 
was re-gathered. Only five members appeared at their first 
meetings. These were Benjamin Coe, Philip Edsall and his 



wife, and Benjamin Cornish and his wife. The enemy having 
destroyed their meeting-house, the Dutch congregation kmdly 
gave them the use of their edifice once a fortnight, the Dutch 
rarely having service as often as this. The church was now in- 
corporated conformably to the terms of a law passed April 6th, 
1784, entitled " An act to enable all religious denominations 
in this state, to appoint trustees, who should be a body corpo- 
rate, for the purpose of taking care of the temporalities of 
their respective congregations, and for other purposes therein 
mentioned." On May 4th, after the passage of this act, the 
congregation met (two justices of the peace, William Law- 
rence and Daniel Lawrence presiding,) and elected a board 
of trustees, consisting of Capt. Thomas Lawrence, WiUiam 
Sackett, Peter Alburtis, William Leverich, and Dr. John B. 
Riker, to whom were intrusted the management of the revenue 
and real estate of the church. 

The Rev. James Lyon, from New Jersey, was engaged to 
supply the Newtown pulpit after the peace. Mr. Lyon, who 
is thought to have been of Irish birth, was graduated at Prince- 
ton College in 1759 ; was licensed to preach the gospel by the 
Presbytery of New Brunswick in 1762, and ordained by the 
same body Dec. 5th, 1764, to go to Nova Scotia, where he 
labored in the ministry for several years, and then returned. 
His engagement at Newtown was not protracted, though he is 
still spoken of with kind regard, and left behind him at least 
one soul to date her conversion, under God, to his faithfulness. 
He left in the spring of 1785, and his after history I have not 
been able to learn. 

He was succeeded by the Rev. Peter Fish, who commenced 
preaching at Newtown in May, 1785. He was the son of Na- 
thaniel Fish, of this town, where he was born Nov. 23d, 1751. 
Says one, " he was an Abijah from his youth ;" manifesting an 
early piety that seemed to point to the gospel ministry as a 
most befitting vocation. His first religious impressions were 
received under the preaching of the Rev. Mr. Whitefield, when 
he was about thirteen years of age. He graduated at New 
Jersey College in 1774, and was licensed to preach by the 
Presbytery of New- York in 1779. On Oct. 20th, 1785, he 
was appointed by the same presbytery stated supply at New- 
town. It was owing probably to the feebleness of his health 


that he was not a settled pastor until after he left this town. 
The congregation here were from the first very solicitous that 
he should assume the pastoral relation, but he declined, though 
he continued to serve their pulpit till November, 1788, and 
with his family occupied the parsonage house. It was during 
his ministry, namely, in 1787, that the present church edifice 
was begun to be erected, under the direction of John Ketcham, 
builder, but before its completion the people were left desti- 
tute of a minister by the removal of Mr, Fish to Connecticut 
Farms, N, Jersey, where he was ordained and installed March 
25th, 1789. 

During an interval that ensued, the congregation enjoyed 
the preaching of Elihu Palmer. He was born in 1763, in or 
near Norwich, Conn, and graduated at Dartmouth College in 
1787, having sustained a good reputation for integrity and 
literary proficiency. He studied divinity a short time with 
the Rev, Dr. John Foster, of Massachusetts, and soon after 
made an engagement to preach at Newtown. He displayed 
good qualifications for the sacred office; a strong, musical 
voice, eloquent and solemn in his address, and evincing much 
ardor and sincerity. But it was soon discovered that his views 
were far from orthodox. While staying a short time at the 
house of Dr. Riker, during the operation of an inoculation, 
he was engaged one evening in study, when he repeated the 
lines of Dr. Watts which begin with 

" Lord I am vile, conceived in sin, 
" And bora unholy and unclean ;" 

setting forth the doctrine of original sin. Then turning to 
Mrs. R. he declared that he did not believe a word of it, no, 
not one word, he repeated with emphasis. Surprised at this 
announcement, she advised him not to give utterance to such 
sentiments in public, for the people would not hear him. His 
preaching, however, soon gave dissatisfaction, and after a stay 
of six months he not only left the congregation, but renounced 
the Presbyterian ministry, and associated himself with the 
Universalists, and next became an avowed Deist. The asser- 
tion formerly made that Palmer was converted to Deism while 
in Newtown, by Dr. Led3^ard, is said to be incorrect. 

After an attempt to preach against the divinity of our Sa- 
vior, in the city of Philadelphia, from which he was forcibly 


restrained by the good people of that place, Palmer relinquished 
his profession as preacher for that of the law, and after due 
preparation was admitted to the bar in Philadelphia, But ere 
long Providence visited him in judgment. In 1793, the yel- 
low fever swept over that city, causing the death of his wife 
and the total loss of his sight. Now being obliged to quit the 
practice of law, he resumed his oflice as a preacher of Deism, 
and travelled in different parts of the United States, dissemi- 
nating his views with great zeal and boldness, and acquiring 
the unenviable reputation of being one of the most notorious 
advocates of Deism that has ever appeared in this country. 
His career was terminated by death in his 42d year, April, 
1806, at Philadelphia. It has been asserted that Palmer bore 
a good moral character, but however true this may have been, 
his case affords a melancholy instance of perverted talents and 
shameful apostacy. 

The Newtown church were more fortunate in the choice of 
their next minister, the Kev. Nathan WoodhuU, who was called 
on the recommendation of Mr. Fish. He was the son of Capt. 
Nathan Woodhull, of Setauket, where he was born, April 28th, 
1756, his mother, Joanna, being a sister of the Eev. William 
Mills, minister at Jamaica. Mr. Woodhull graduated at Yale 
College in 1775, and entered upon agriculture at Southold, 
but giving his mind to theology, he was ordained and settled 
at Huntington, Dec. 22d, 1785. From here he took his dis- 
mission in 1789, and in February, 1790, received an invitation 
to preach for one year in Newtown, which he accepted. He 
was, however, regularly installed as pastor of that church on 
Dec. 1st of that year. The new edifice for public worship was 
finished the year after, and dedicated on Dec. 21st, 1791, by a 
day of public thanksgiving and religious exercises. The Rev. 
Dr. Rogers, of New- York, who ever manifested a special inte- 
rest in this church, preached on the occasion from the first 
verse of the 97th Psalm, 

Here Mr. "Woodhull labored for twenty years. He was 
much admired on account of his fine personal appearance, his 
gentlemanly and winning manners, his vivacity in conversa- 
tion, and his talent for popular pulpit address. He also pos- 
sessed great purity of character, was faithful in pastoral duty, 
" given to hospitality," and enjoyed, in a high degree, the con- 


fidence and affections of his parishioners. Being of a suscep- 
tible nervous temperament, there were occasions, during the 
later years of his life, when this physical infirmity partially 
unfitted him for official duty. He died, universally regretted, 
March 13th, 1810. By his wife Hannah, daughter of Stephen 
Jagger, of Westharapton, who survived him nine years, he had 
seven children, now all deceased, one of whom, Ellen, married 
the Kev. John Goldsmith. His only son, Ezra C. Woodhuil, 
was born at Newtown, May 11th, 1790 ; married a daughter 
of Joseph Howland, Esq. of New-York, and died in Brooklyn, 
March, 17th, 1831, leaving issue. 

The Rev. Peter Fish, who had formerly preached here, suc- 
ceeded Mr. Woodhuil as a supply. Mr. Fish having preached 
ten years at Connecticut Farms, removed to the Holland Pa- 
tent, state of New- York, where he labored for a season, but 
being in poor health, he purchased a place in Newtown and 
removed hither in the spring of 1807, with the intention of 
seeking repose from the arduous duties of the ministry. But 
on the death of Mr. Woodhuil it was agreed. May 1st, 1810, 
to engage him to preach for the congregation till presbytery 
met, or longer if necessary. Mr. Fish accepted the invitation, 
but the labors of this good man were suddenly terminated by 
his death, on Nov. 12th, 1810, in his 59th year. He possessed 
through life a delicacy of constitution that greatly restricted 
his usefulness. In person he was tall and spare. 

The Rev. William Boardman was the next pastor of this 
church. He was born at Williamstown, Mass. Oct. 12th, 1781, 
and was educated at the college in that place. He was or- 
dained and installed pastor of the Presbyterian church at Du- 
anesburgh, N. Y. in 1803, from whence he removed to this 
cliurch, in which he was installed Oct. 22d, 1811. Immedi- 
ately after his settlement the church was blessed with a revival 
of religion, in which a large number of persons became hope- 
fully converted. He was a man of ardent and active piety, and 
died deeply lamented by his people, March 4th, 1818. His 
wife, whom he married in 1804, was Rachel, daughter of 
Abraham Bloodgood, Esq. of Albany. It was during his mi- 
nistry that the parsonage farm which Mr. Woodhuil and his 
predecessors had occupied for more than a century, was sold, 
having been found a serious burden to their pastors, consum- 


ing mucli of the time and labor required by the duties of their 
sacred calling. The trustees were empowed to dispose of this 
property by a special act of the legislature, passed March 8th, 
1811. It is now owned by Robert Thompson. The church 
then purchased, May 3d, 1817, the " Union Hotel," commonly 
called the " corner house," with eleven acres of land attached, 
which became, for a certain time, the parsonage house, and 
here Mr. Boardman resided. 

After the trial of several candidates, the congregation unit- 
ed in a call to the present pastor, the Rev. (now Dr.) John 
Goldsmith, who was born April 10th, 1794, being the son of 
the Rev. Benjamin .Goldsmith, of Riverhead. He graduated 
at Princeton, in 1815, and was installed over this congregation 
Nov. 17, 1819, having now officiated in this charge thirty-two 
years, with much acceptance and numerous marks of divine 
favor upon his labors. 

After Mr. Goldsmith's settlement the "corner house" waa 
disposed of, the church retaining a portion of the land, on 
which the present parsonage house was erected, in or about 
the year 1821.' It is a fact really remarkable, that eight minis- 
ters of this church have here terminated their labors and their 
lives, and the monuments of five of them, namely, Pumroy, 
Horton, Woodhull, Fish, and Boardman, are yet remaining in 
the burial grounds of the town. 

Within a few years a Presbyterian church has been orga- 
nized at Astoria, and a church edifice erected, the corner stone 
of which was laid on Nov. 30th, 1816, with an appropriate ad- 
dress by the the pastor elect, the Rev. Frederick Gorham Clark, 
who was afterwards installed, and still retains the charge. 


No church of this denomination was organized in Newtown 
till nearly four score years after its settlement ; a circumstance 
explained by the fact that the Dutch inhabitants were lew, and 

' It was in an orchard which covered the ground now occupied by this par- 
sonage, that that eminent .ind godly divine, the Rev. George Whiteficld, 
preached, on his visit to Newtown in the summer of 1764. He is s;iid to 
have had a very numerous auditory on that occasion, who were powerfully 
affected by his discourse. 


nearly all located on the northern and western borders of the 
town, whence they found easy access by water to the churches 
at New-York, Bushwick, or Ilarlem, In the year 1686 the fami- 
lies of Arnout Webber, Ilendrick Wiltsee, Abraham Rj^cken, 
Ilarck Krankheyt. and Tennis Cornelissen, all residing at or 
near the Poor Bowery, attended the ministrations of Dominie 
Selyns in New-York. Such families as lived more inland, 
though not possessing equal facilities for attending divine ser- 
vice, were no neglecters of the sanctuary, for our Dutch fathers 
valued the institutions of religion not less than their puritan 
townsmen. And the writer has been assured that it was no 
rare occurrence for those devout Dutchmen, and the practice 
of his own ancestor with the rest, to set out on Sabbath 
morning, each with his good vroiv, and perhaps an infant child, 
and proceed afoot to the distant village of Flatbush to join in 
religious service, and even then esteeming it a precious privi- 
lege. When a congregation was formed at Jamaica many of 
the Dutch residents within the Newtown limits were connected 
with it and contributed toward the erection of the church 
there in 1715. Thence they enjoyed the preaching of the col- 
legiate pastors of King's county, who supplied this church for 
many years. 

But in the increase of population it became desirable to 
form a church at Newtown. The precise date when this was 
done is not ascertained, though "it is probable the organiza- 
tion did not take place until shortly before measures were 
adopted for the erection of a building." The year 1731 wit- 
nessed the first efforts to effect the latter object, as appears 
from the following record of a meeting called for that purpose. 
" In the year of our Lord Jesus Christ 1731, on the 2d of De- 
cember, the members of the Reformed Low Dutch congrega- 
tion of Newtown, in Queen's county, on Nassau Island, and 
some others, have convened in the house of Samuel Fish, Jun. 
and have resolved in peace and love to build a church or house 
of God, 50 feet in length and 40 feet in breadth, in said town, 
on the ensuing year, (provided the necessary funds be raised,) 
and that the said church shall be built on the land of Peter 
Berrien, near the town-house, he having promised to convey a 
plot of ground to the congregation, of 70 feet in length and 60 
in breadth, for their use. Therefore, to carry the above into 


effect, certain persons have been appointed by the said meet- 
ing to go round and obtain from individuals iu said congre- 
gation subscriptions for the above mentioned purpose, request- 
ing earnestly the members of said congregation and others 
who may be pleased to further this object, to be liberal and 
generous in their subscriptions and promises ; to the end said 
work may be speedil}'' commenced and finished." 

Encouraging advance having been made in obtaining sub- 
scriptions, (amounting in the end to £277 125.) the congrega- 
tion, on May 27th, 1732, appointed " their brothers and faith- 
ful friends" Abraham Kemsen, Isaac Bragaw, Joris Eapelje, 
Abraham Lent, Nicholas Berrien, and Abraham Brinckerhoff, 
a committee to superintend the building of the church, who 
forthwith entered upon arrangements for the work. On the 
8d of April, 1733, Peter Berrien made good his offer, and con- 
veyed by deed,' to Elbert Luyster and Abraham Eiker, Jun. 
trustees on behalf of the congregation, the before named plot 
of ground, as a site for the edifice. The undertaking progress- 
ed as fast as a work of that kind was wont to do in those days, 
when much depended on the voluntary labor of the members 
of the congregation in preparing and transporting materials ; 
and on the 30th of August, 1735, the building committee re- 
ported that they had brought the edifice to a state of comple- 
tion, and readiness for divine service. The singular architecture 
of this church, which was taken down only a few years since, 
is yet familiar to many. It was built of wood, and in shape 
an octagon, the favorite style for a church among the Dutch 
at that day, and a form confessedly suited for easy speaking. 
The roof ascended from all sides to a point in the centre, which 
was surmounted by a cupola. Inside, at the back end of the 
building, stood the high narrow pulpit, with its sounding board 
projecting above it, while rows of seats or chairs extended 
across the main body of the church, for the convenience and 
comfort of the worshipers. 

The building committee also submitted the following curi- 
ous but sensible rules for the disposal and occupancy of the 
seats. " The inhabitants of Newtown shall have the first choice 
of the seats, the highest subscribers and payers towards the said 

1 Recorded in " Newtown Great Book of Records," pp. 297, 298. 



buildino- having the preference and first choice in said seats, 
and in the same manner from the highest to the lowest sub- 
scriber and payer in regular order, until every one is pro- 
vided with two seats; and in cases where equal sums have 
been paid", lots shall be drawn for the first chjoice, unless 
friendly arrangements be made between themselves," " "When 
there shall be preaching in the church, those who own seats 
shall move and give room for one another, the first seated 
moving and giving room for those Avho come in after them, 
(both males and females,) in order to preserve love, politeness 
and friendship in our said church.". Accordingly the allot- 
ment of seats was made in March, 1736. On the 26th of 
June following, the first "kerck-meesters," or church wardens, 
were chosen, consisting of Thomas Skillman, Peter Berrien, 
and Petrus Schenk. 

Owing either to the difficulty of procuring a minister of 
the gospel, or an inability to sustain one, this church, during 
several years, was destitute of a pastor, and dependent for oc- 
casional preaching and administration of the sacraments upon 
the Dutch ministers of King's county and the city of New- 
York. But, at a meeting held at Flatbush, July 23d, 1739, 
the congregation united with three other churches of Queen's 
county, those of Jamaica, Success, and Oyster Bay, in engaging 
the ministerial services of Dominie Van Basten, for one year, 
at the salary of £75. From this period these churches con- 
tinued to form one collegiate charge till the year 1802. 

Nothing is known of the transient services of Mr. Yan 
Basten. He was succeeded by the Rev. Johannes Henricus 
Goetschius, of Pennsylvania, to whom a call was given in Oc- 
tober, 1740. Early in the following year Mr. Goetschius was 
settled over these churches, and on Sept. 1st succeeding, agents 
appointed by the four congregations (Abraham Lent and John 
Wyckoff, from Newtown) united in buying a parsonage house 
at Jamaica, being the premises opposite the residence of Dr. 
Schoonmaker, and still known as the old parsonage. On No- 
vember 1st, of the same year, Mr. Goetschius administered the 
Lord's Supper to the members of the Newtown church and 
other christian brethren from the adjacent towns, for the first 
time. Ninety communicants were present, and their names are 
yet treasured up in the archives of the church. 


Mr. Goetscliius was a native of Zurich, in Switzerland, and 
wlien quite young emigrated to this country with his fatiier, 
Henricus Goetschius, who was also a clergyman. His know- 
ledge of the learned languages was acquired at the University 
of his native place, but his education was finished after his 
arrival here, under the tuition of the Rev. Mr. Dorsius, and 
he was licensed and ordained to the gospel ministry by the 
the German Reformed Church in Pennsylvania. After his 
ordination he preached for a time with much acceptance in the 
Reformed Dutch churches of North and Southampton, in that 
state, whence he was called to of&ciate in Queen's county. 

Soon after his settlement here a revival of religion com- 
menced, but it excited violent opposition from some who 
denominated Mr. Goetschius an enthusiast. Special offence 
was taken at a discourse which he delivered from the words 
of Paul in Acts 17th chapter and 23d verse. *' Shall this 
young stripling," asked some of the seniors in the church, 
" come and tell us that we have so long served an unknown 
God ?" His opponents also disputed the validity of his ordi- 
nation, because it had been performed neither in nor by au- 
thority from Holland, for at that time there was existing in 
the Dutch Church an unhappj^ controversy upon this subject, 
which gave birth to what were called the coetus and confer- 
entie parties. The latter upheld the authority long claimed 
and exercised by the classis of Amsterdam over the American 
churches, in the ordination and settlement of their pastors, 
while the coetus maintained that in consequence of the incon- 
venience of sending to Holland for ministers, and the increase 
of the churches in this country, this power should be exercised 
by the ministers here. To the coetus party was imputed the 
better piety, and to that Mr. Goetschius belonged. The oppo- 
sition to him became violent, the church door was shut upon 
him in Jamaica, and he preached for some time in barns, pri- 
vate houses and under shad^^ trees. It is said that to quiet the 
minds of the people he consented to be ordained a second 
time. But he finally removed, and in 1748 took charge of the 
churches of Hackensack and Schraalenburgh in New Jersey. 
Here his labors were blessed with a special out-pouring of the 
Holy Spirit, the gracious effects of which are visible in those 
churches to this day; and here he died in 1774, in the 57th 


year of liis age. He was thrice married, and liad sixteen chil- 
dren, one of. whom, named Salome, became the wife of the Eev. 
Henrj Schoonmaker, and was the mother of the present vener- 
able Eev. Dr. Schoonmaker. In person, Mr. Goetschius was a 
little below the middle size, and of a vigorous constitution. He 
was somewhat inclined to be abrupt in speaking, but his lan- 
guage was clear and expressive ; and though a Boanerges when 
denouncing the curses of the law, his addresses to the saints 
were tender and full of consolation. 

Doubts had arisen in the minds of some of the members of 
the church at Newtown, as to the validity of the baptisms per- 
formed by Do. Goetschius, and it appears that, after his depar- 
ture, the Rev. Henricus Boel, of New- York, visited NcAvtown 
and re-baptized many of the children that Do. Goetschius had 
baptized, in some instances seven years before. Do. Boel offi- 
ciated in Newtown repeatedly for several j^ears, when the Eev. 
Thomas Eomeyn was called to the four associated churches. 
He was the son of Nicholas Eomeyn of Pompton, N. J. where 
he was born March 9tli, 1729. He began to study theology in 
1747, and graduating three years after at Princeton college, 
went to Europe and was ordained by the classis of Amsterdam 
Sept. 3d, 1753. Eeturning to New-York, August 29th, 1754, 
he immediately accepted a call from Queen's county. Faith- 
fully he labored in this part of his master's vineyard till Sep- 
tember, 1760, when he removed to Minisink, on the Delaware, 
and thence, eleven years after, to Caughnawaga, N. Y. and 
remained pastor of that church till his death, Oct. 22d, 1794, 
departing with a firm reliance upon the promises of God, and 
in the truths of the gospel he had for more than forty years 

The Eev. Hermanus Lancelot Boelen, from Holland, be- 
came minister of the collegiate churches of Queen's in the year 
1766. He was a man of small stature, a widower, and accom- 
panied by his daughter. He was regarded as a talented and 
sincere man, but being a pure Dutchman, his language was not 
easily understood by the people, and it is said that this was 
eventually a cause of his leaving here. His voice was so 
powerful, that on a still day his preaching could be distinctly 
heard at the house of Charles Eoach, now the premises of Al- 
mond D. Fisk. During Mr. Boelen 's ministry, the unhappy 



breach which had long existed between the coetus and confer- 
entie parties, to the great distraction of the churches, was 
finally healed by a convention of ministers and elders, who 
met at New York, October 15th, 1771, and adopted a plan 
of union and church government, by which confidence and 
peace were again restored. At this convention Jacob Ra- 
pelje, an elder of the Newtown church, was the lay repre- 
sentative of the collegiate churches of Queen's. Do. Boelen 
did not attend the convention, and probably disapproved of 
the separation from the mother church. He appears to have 
given up his charge in 1772, and after living a few years in 
Flatlancls, being somewhat advanced in life and unwilling to 
leave his daughter in a strange land, in case of his demise, he 
returned to Holland, carrying with him the esteem of many 

During the vacancy which followed the departure of Do. 
Boelen, the Newtown church enjoyed occasional preaching 
by Messrs. Rubel and Van Sinderen, of King's county, and 
De Ronde and Livingston, of New- York. The associated 
churches extended a call to the Rev. Rynier Van Nest, Dec. 
13th, 1773, which was not, however, accepted. In 1775, the 
year previous to the commencement of the Revolutionary war, 
the services of the Rev. Solomon Froeligh were secured. In 
the origin of this contest Mr. Froeligh openly avowed whig 
principles. He was, therefore, forced to flee his pulpit on the 
entrance of the British army in Sept. 1776, and during the 
period of revolution which succeeded, the church was without 
a settled pastor, but enjoyed the services of their former mi- 
nister. Do. Boelen, with some degree of regularity from 1777 
to 1780. Thence, for nearly two years, public worship seems to 
have been suspended, at least there are no baptisms recorded 
during that time, and, no doubt, it was then that the church 
was used as a powder magazine. After this there were occa- 
sional services by Schoonmaker, Rubel and Van Sinderen, till 
peace took place. In 1783, Do. Froeligh visited his churches, 
but declined to remain. He settled in the churches of Hacken- 
sack and Schraalenburgh, as successor of Mr. Goetschius, and 
was appointed professor of divinity by the general synod of the 
Reformed Dutch Church, in which capacity he trained many 
young men for the ministry. He was for many years a man 


of high standing and influence, and died Oct. 8th, 1827, in the 
78th year of his age, and the 58d of his ministry. 

The Eev. Eynier 7an Nest was the next pastor after the 
Ee volution. He was born in Somerset county, N. J. in 1738, 
being the son of Peter Van Nest, a man known throughout 
that region for his deep toned piety. Blessed with the influ- 
ence of such a parent, i^ynier early became the subject of di- 
vine grace, and gave himself to the work of the ministry. He 
was educated chiefly under the care of his pastor, the Eev. 
John Frelinghuysen, obtained licence to preach in or about 
17(30, and was first settled at Shawangunk, Ulster county, 
where he married Catherine, widow of the Eev, Mauritius 
Goetschius. From there he was called to Queen's county in 
1785, where he continued to officiate till 1797, proving himself 
" a good man and full of the Holy Ghost." He removed from 
here to the church at Schoharie, N. Y. in which place he con- 
cluded his active public life. Finding his labors too heavy for 
his advanced years, he resigned his charge and retired to his 
native place, where he closed his life, July 9th, 1813, in his 
76th year. Mr. Van Nest is worthy to be classed among the 
good. The principle of grace was so exhibited in his actions 
as to excite the respect and confidence of all. He held a repu- 
table position in the Dutch Church, often appearing in her 
councils-, and for a long time occupied the post of trustee in 
Queen's, now Eutger's College. His j^reaching was of an in- 
structive and impassioned cast, and though he does not seem 
to have succeeded so well with the English as with his mother 
tongue, the lovers of Dutch preaching always spoke of his ef- 
forts with the kindest interest. 

In 1794 the churches of Queen's procured the Eev. Zacha- 
riah H. Kuypers as a co-laborer with Mr. Van Nest, and he 
was ordained at Success, on July 13th of the above year. He 
was the son of Eev. Warmoldus Kuypers, of Hackensack, 
N. J. and was born at Ehinebeck, N. Y. Feb. 19th, 1771. He 
ofiiciated in Newtown till 1802, and at Success till 1825, and 
then removed to New Jersey, where, after some years of labor, 
he laid aside the duties of the ministrj^ He died in the city of 
New-York, Oct., 1850, in the ripeness of age and fullness 
of joy, having walked as a consistent and amiable minister of 


• On the 20tli of April, 1802, at the desire of the four colle- 
giate churches, the classis of New-York dissolved the com- 
bination that had existed between said churches, and on the 
same date approved a call which the congregations of New- 
town and Jamaica had extended to the Eev. (now Dr.) Jacob 
Schoonmaker, who had served their pulpits since February of 
that year. Mr. Schoonmaker was ordained at Newtown on 
the 2-ith of October succeeding. He had graduated at Colum- 
bia College three years previous. lie was born May 11th, 
1777, at Acquacknonk, N. J. where his father, the Rev. Henry 
Schoonmaker, was a pastor for more than forty years. 

The Rev. Garret J. Garretson was settled as a co-laborer 
with Dr. Schoonmaker in the two collegiate churches, on Jan. 
6th, 1835. Mr. Garretson was born at Hillsborough, N. J. 
June 29th, 1808, being son of John Garretson, Esq. of that 
place. He graduated at Rutger's College in 1829, and study- 
ing divinity with Dr. Philip Milledoler, settled in 1830 as first 
pastor of the Dutch church at Stuyvesant, Columbia co. N. Y. 
from whence he came to Newtown. His first wife was Miss 
Ellen Van Liew ; at Newtown he married his second, and pre- 
sent wife, Catharine, daughter of Daniel Rapalje. • In June, 
18-19, he resigned his charge here, and accepted a call from the 
Reformed Dutch church at Lodi, N, Y. whither he removed, 
carrying with him the affections and well»wishes of his people. 
His resignation was soon followed by the withdrawal of his 
venerable associate, Dr. Schoonmaker, from his pastoral charge 
in Newtown, owing to the desire of this church to be separate 
from that of Jamaica, % measure evidently demanded by the 
great increase of the congregation. And it is gratifying to 
know that this separation between pastor and people was made 
from proper motives and with mutual good feeling. Dr. Schoon- 
maker delivered his farewell discourse at Newtown, on Sun- 
day morning, October 1-lth, 1849, from the text, "In all places 
where I record my name I will come unto thee and I will bless 
thee." The occasion was deeply afiecting, as "vvould naturally 
be the severing of a pastoral tie of nearly a half-century's con- 
tinuance. How great and solemn the changes of such a period. 
Dr. Schoonmaker has out-lived all the church officers and 
members who first welcomed him here. Not a single one sur- 


vives. Many of the living wi]! remember Avith gratitude lii^ 
prudent counsels and his faithful labors. 

The congregation, after their disunion from that of Jamaica, 
called their present pastor, the Eev. Thomas C. Strong, late of 
Ulster county, IST. Y. who was duly installed Dec. 12th, 1849. 
He is a son of the Eev. Dr. Thomas M. Strong, of Flatbush. 
Preparations are now making to enlarge the church edifice. 
Early in the ministry of Dr. Schoonmaker, the old church was 
repaired, but it was finally taken down on the 4th of Sept. 
1831, having stood ninety-eight years, and the corner stone of 
the new one laid on the 16th Sept, by Mr. Francis Duryea, one 
of the elders of the church, with an appropriate address by the 
pastor. The new edifice was dedicated to the worship of God 
on Sunday, July 29th, 1832, a discourse being delivered by Dr. 
Schoonmaker, from 1st Chronicles, 29th chapter, 16th and 17th 
verses. The bell of this church was cast at Amsterdam, in 
Holland, in 1792, as appears by an inscription upon it. 

With a view of promoting religion in their midst, a few re- 
residents at Hallett's Cove, belonging to several denominations 
of christians, erected there a house of worship, in which they 
were generously sustained by the contributions of the friends 
of religion round about. The corner stone was laid Oct. 6th, 
1836, and the building dedicated June 11th, 1837. Messrs. 
Goldsmith and Garreteon, of Newtown, supplied the pulpit al- 
ternately on the afternoon of each Sabbath for a length of time. 
After two years the few christians who had been wont to at- 
tend here, resolved themselves into a Reformed Dutch congre- 
gation, and making application to the classis July 2d, 1839, a 
committee was appointed to organize a church, which was ac- 
complished on July 11th succeeding, and consisted of eight 
members, three of whom were from the Newtown congrega- 
tion, and the rest chiefly from New- York. The Rev. A. Ha- 
milton Bishop was ordained its pastor Nov. 11th, 1840, and 
yet remains in the charge. 


At the first efforts under the governors Fletcher and Corn- 
bury to introduce the Church of England in this province, the 
religious preferences of the people were of quite another cast, 
and clearly averse to the forms and doctrine of the established 


churcli. Hence, so little progress was made for some years, 
that, but for the countenance and support rendered by the go- 
vernment, the enterprise must have failed ; at the same time, 
the harsh means used by the provincial governors to force the 
people into conformity, only "alarmed the dissenters, and in- 
creased their prejudices against the Church." 

The Eev. Mr. Urquhart, of the Jamaica parish, whose mi- 
nistry began in 1704, had the most difficult task of any Episco- 
pal missionary in the province, for, though accounted a very 
good man and unusually industrious in the discharge of his 
duties, yet " having a Presbyterian meeting-house on the one 
hand, and the Quakers on the other," and receiving very little 
assistance from his parish, his work went on very heavily. " He 
gained not many converts," says Col. Morris, " yet his conduct 
was so good that I don't think he lost any." His chief support 
was an allowance of £50 per annum from the Society for Pro- 
pagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts, under whose patronage 
and direction were the several Episcopal rectors in this country 
down to the close of the American Kevolution. 

The ministry of his successor, the Kev. Thomas Poyer, who 
was inducted July 18th, 1710, was marred by unhappy conten- 
tions respecting the church and parsonage at Jamaica, as well 
as the salary authorized by law to be paid him by the parish ; 
the continuance of which dispute, till* near the close of his 
ministry, hindered the mission, though the members of the 
congregation wrote to the venerable society, expressing their 
joy that, notwithstanding these events, their congregation had 
very considerably increased, through " the singular care, pains, 
and industry of their laborious minister, Mr. Poyer." And it 
appears that during the first five years of his ministry, the 
communicants doubled in number, and now amounted to above 
sixty in the three towns where he officiated alternately. There 
is happy evidence that Mr. Poyer was a diligent, self-denj-ing 
christian. He spent his strength in this field, and oppressed by 
the peculiar trials of his station and the infirmities of old age, 
death aftbrded him sweet relief Jan. 15th, 1732. 

His successor was the Eev. Thomas Colgan, who had ar- 
rived here from England in 1726, sent out by the society to of- 
ficiate at Rye. He entered upon his mission, but, at the earnest 
desire of the congregation of Trinity Church, New-York, who 


were " very much pleased with his preaching, and reading di- 
vine service," the society authorized his removal to that city, 
where he became catechist to the colored people, and assis- 
tant to the Eev. Mr. Vesey, rector of that parish. In 1732 he 
was transferred to the mission at Jamaica, through the recom- 
mendations of the rector and vestry of Trinity Church, receiv- 
ing thereafter the same allowance from the venerable society 
as his predecessors had enjoyed. He found the parish sadly 
declining, not more than twenty or thirty persons attending 
divine worship, but in the course of a year the attendance in- 
creased to two hundred, or more, Mr. Colgan proving himself 
to be " a laborious and worthy missionary." Two j^ears after 
his settlement, he himself writes to the venerable society after 
this wise: "Now our church is in a flourishing state, and by 
the blessing of God, many are added to it ; now we are at 
peace with those several sectaries that are round about us, and 
I hope that, by God's help, peace will subsist amongst us. To 
sow the seeds thereof shall be my endeavour ; to be of a lov- 
ing charitable demeanour to all men, of whatever persuasion in 
matters of religion, shall be, by God's help, my practice, that 
so discharging my duty herein, I may contribute my mite to 
the good of the Church of Christ." It is easy to foretell the 
result of labors prosecuted in this truly Christian spirit, hence 
the distinguished success which attended his ministry. Prac- 
tical piety was materially promoted, and Mr. Colgan, in speak- 
ing of his flock at Newtown, remarks, " They are a people 
who, by their lives and conversation, adorn their religion and 
profession, and I have hopes that others, seeing their good 
works, will be induced to follow their example." 

The members of the congregation increased so much in 
number and means in the three towns embraced within his 
parish, as to be able to erect churches in the several villages 
of Jamaica, Newtown and Flushing. The prudent bearing 
of Mr. Colgan seems to have done much to reconcile opposing 
sects and dissipate denominational prejudices. And it is gra- 
tifying to know that this was so far effected, that when the 
Episcopalians contemplated the erection of a church edifice in 
Newtown, and applied to the town for a piece of ground as a 
site for their edifice, the people willingly complied with their 


application. A deed' for a part of tlie town lot was drawn 
up, April 19tli, 1733, to which the signatures of ninety of the 
freeholders were secured. These were obtained by Joseph 
Moore, a gentleman of known liberality, who, at the desire of 
the church, spent three days in riding about the town for that 
purpose. Two years elapsed before the building was com- 
menced, but subscriptions were obtained to the amount of 
£221 2s. 4d Early in the spring of 1735,'''materials being pro- 
cured, the builders began the work, and on the 8th of May 
the frame was raised, on which occasion a table was spread out, 
and good cheer marked the pleasure caused by the circum- 
stance. News of the erection of the church was transmitted 
to the society in England by Mr. Colgan the same year. The 
interior of the building was not immediately completed, and 
five years passed before it was furnished with pews. A meet 
ing was held, March 10th, 1740, to consider this deficiency, 
the following record of which is taken from a memorandum 
book of Joseph Moore, above named, who was on the build- 
ing committee.^ " At a meeting at the church at Newtown, 
of the overseers of the church and the most part of the church 
people belonging to that society, met about seating of the 
church ; it was agreed upon by all that w^ere there that the 
seats should be made through the four quarters of the house, 
and then the overseers had liberty to choose their seats, and 
so they did, and all the rest that were entitled to a seat, and 
numbered them. James Hazard, Esq. on the right hand as 
you go in at the door, number one, Joseph Moore number tioo, 
William Sackett number three^ Benjamin Moore number /owr, 
Kichard Alsop number /ve; this is the first quarter. The se- 
cond quarter is the north-east corner of the house ; Joseph 
Sackett, Esq. his seat is number one, John McDonnaugh and 
Charles Palmer and Thomas Morrell's seat is number tioo^ Sam- 
uel Washburn, and Samuel Moore younger's seat is number 
three^ Samuel Hallett Jun's seat is number four, Capt. Samuel 

1 This deed is recorded in " Newtown Great Book of Records," p. 332. 

" Mr. Moore's bill of refreshments at the raising runs thus : " The charge 
of raishig tlie church was to me one gammon that weighed nineteen pound, 
four loaves of bread and five gallons of cider, and one quarter of veal with 
crust, and three fowls, and one bottle of mustard, and a pound and a half of 


Moore's seat is number five. The third quarter is the north 
nor'west part of the house ; William Moses Hallett's seat is 
number one, John Hallett's seat is number two, Thomas Hal- 
lett's seat is number three, Jacob Blackwell's seat is number 
four, Joseph Hallett, Esq. his seat is number five. There's no 
more seats nor ground taken up in the church." 

In 1741, Mr. Colgan reported to the society that the three 
churches under his care were in a flourishing condition, and 
the members of them leading a good life and conversation. 
Years rolled on, and while Mr. Colgan was still able to bear 
testimony to the continued prosperity of his churches, death 
ended his labors in December, 1755, causing gseat sorrow, for 
he was "a gentleman that was much esteemed by all his ac- 
quaintance." He appears to have been a truly good man, and 
his death was regarded as a great loss to the church. His clear, 
distinct and loud voice never failed to reach the remotest hear- 
er in the largest assembly, and he was withal a pleasing and 
popular preacher.' 

At the death of Mr. Colgan, the old feud which had ex- 
isted in the Jamaica parish between the Episcopalians and 
dissenters was partially revived. The latter forming still a 
majority in the vestry, made choice of the Eev. Simon Horton, 
of the Presbyterian church, and presented his name to Gov. 
Hardy, for induction into the parish. " But the governor, 
in obedience to his instructions from his Majesty, would not 
admit him into that cure, because he could not procure a cer- 
tificate under the Episcopal seal of the Bishop of London of 
his conformity to the Church of England ; and when no per- 
son thus qualified, had been presented to the governor, after 
more than six months, his excellency was pleased to collate to 
the cure of the church, the Eev. Samuel Seabury, Jun." He 
was also in the employ of the society, and the first rector of 

' Mr. Colgan left a widow, Mary, (whose maiden name was Reed,) and 
children, Reed Colgan who, in 1764, was in the West Indies; John, who 
died unmarried in 1758; Fleming, Thomas; Mary, who married Christopher 
Smith ; Jane, who married Wynant Van Zandt, and Sarah, who married 
Thomas Hammersley. Thomas and Fleming Colgan lived at Jamaica till 
after the Revolution. The Rev. Colgan had two brothers in this country, 
namely, John and Fleming ; the last, a sea captain, lived in New-York, and 
died childless in 1771, leaving his estate to his eldest brother, John, and the 
childrea of his brother Thomas. This name still exists in New-York city. 



American birth, being a native of New London, and the son 
of Eev. Samuel Seabury. He was born in 1728, graduated at 
Yale College, took holy orders at London in 1753, and on his 
return to this country, settled at New Brunswick, but removed 
hither in 1757 as above stated. 

It seems that Mr. Seabury's labors did not meet with the 
success that he desired. In 1759 he writes, " Preaching once 
in three weeks at a place, I find by experience, will do little 
more than keep up the present languid sense of religion, and 
was it not for the steady tho' slow increase of the congregation 
at Newtown, I should be almost discouraged," The irregular 
observance of divine worship had been a source of regret to 
the Episcopalians at Newtown, so much so, that it was now 
resolved to obtain an act of incorporation by which they might 
be empowered to call a clergyman, separate from the rest of 
the parish. With this intent a petition was presented to the 
governor in council on the 2d of September, 1761, signed by 
thirty-four members of the congregation,' and setting forth that 
the inhabitants of Newtown, in communion of the Church of 
England, had long labored under great inconvenience from 
the want of a due and regular administration of divine service 
in the said town, and that it had been found, by experience, 
very discouraging to the cause of religion, that the public wor- 
ship of Almighty God had so seldom been performed there, 
one pastor having hitherto ofiiciated to the different Ej^iscopal 
congregations in the three towns of Jamaica, Newtown and 
Flushing. That the aforementioned inhabitants had, therefore, 
at a very great expense, erected a decent church in the said 
town and dedicated the same to the worship of God, according 

' James Hazard, 
Richard Alsop, 
William Sackett, 
Samuel Moore, 
Jacob Blackwell, 
William Hazard, 
Jacob Hallett, 
Richard Alsop, 4th, 
John Moore, 
John Moore, Jun. 
Samuel Moore, Jun. 

Charles Palmer, 
William Sackett, 3d, 
Thomas Sackett, 
Samuel Renne, 
Samuel Culver, 
Robert Morrell, 
William Weyman, 
William Hallett, Jun. 
James Hallett, 
Thomas Hallett, 
Sam.uel Hallett, Jun. 
Thomas Morrell, Jun. 

Joseph Hallett, 
Samuel Hallett, 
John Greenoak, 
Richard Hallett, 
William Hallett, 
John McDonnaugh, 
Robert Hallett, 
Samuel Washburn, 
Nathaniel Moore, 
Samuel Moore, 3d, 
Nathaniel Moore, 


to the rites and ceremonies of the Church of England as by 
law estabHshed, bj the name of St. James' Church, and obtained 
about a quarter of an acre of land adjoining thereto for the 
use of a cemetery, and were determined to make a suitable pro- 
vision for the support of a minister or pastor, to be called and 
appointed to the care of the said church, that religious duties 
for the time to come may be duly and regularly celebrated 
therein ; but that they cannot carry on this good design to ad- 
vantage except they be incorporated, and thus empowered to 
receive, dispose of and improve the donations and contribu- 
tions that may be given for this purpose by pious and cha- 
ritable people. 

Under these representations, Lt. Gov. Colden granted them 
letters patent, dated Sept. 9th, 1761, constituting them a body 
politic, with the following privileges, namely : joower to call 
a minister of the Church of England, who, with two church- 
wardens and six vestrymen, annually chosen on Tuesday in 
Easter, and entering immediately on their respective offices, 
should superintend the affairs of the church, the minister and 
wardens, or any two of them, with a majority of vestrymen, 
forming a quorum for the transaction of business ; and to have, 
moreover, a common seal, with power to break or change the 
same ; their real estate, or property, not to exceed the yearly 
rent of £500 above the present church and cemetery property ; 
their said property to be held in free and common socage, pay- 
ing to the government an annual rent of one shilling, in lieu 
of all other demands on the -premises;* not, however, exempt- 
ing any from paying a share towards the support of the cler- 
gyman of the parish of Jamaica, as required by law. Further- 
more, James Hazard and Richard Alsop were appointed ward- 
ens, and Samuel Moore, Jacob Blackwell, William Hazard, 
Jacob Hallett, Richard Alsop, fourth, and William Sackett, 
third, vestrymen, to serve till the annual election should occur. 

Only a few days after, namely, on Sept. 29th, 1761, Dr. 
Jacob Ogden, of Jamaica, gave the church a deed for the house 
and ground previously occupied by AVilliam Sackett, Esq. who 

^ Probably out of courtesy this quit rent was never collected, and the 
charter was finally relieved of the obligation, pursuant to a law of 1815, by 
which the comptroller was authorized to cancel on his books the quit rent 
charged on all patents to churches. 



had recently deceased, leaving the same, by will, to Dr. Og- 
den, obviously in trust for tlie church. These premises now 
contain, with other buildings, the present Episcopal parsonage 
house and the new church. But it appears that for some rea- 
son, the church failed at that time to prosecute the design of 
calling a separate minister, though the distribution of the rec- 
tor's services continued to be the source of much dissatisfaction, 
and finally causing a separation of the churches. Mr. Seabury 
continued over the parish till 1766, when he removed to St. 
Peter's Church, Westchester. He had long been of opinion that 
without a resident bishop, the churches in America could not 
prosper. After the Revolution he was elected to the episco- 
pate, went to Europe, obtained ordination in Scotland, and then 
returned home to resume his parish duties at New London, 
where he had been settled, being the first Episcopal bishop in 
the United States. He died in his 68th year, Feb. 2oth, 1796. 
The society in England had paid £50 a year to the suc- 
cessive rectors up to Mr. Seabury, and the ministry act al- 
lowed them £60 per annum from the parish. But as great 
trouble had been experienced in collecting the latter, the so- 
ciety at first refused either to provide a successor to Mr. Sea- 
bury or make any allowance for one. Eventually, at the 
request of a few influential persons in Jamaica, the society 
appointed the Rev. Joshua Bloomer to the station, the three 
congregations having agreed, prior to his departure from Eng- 
land, to pay him £50 per annum. The society consented to 
allow him £30. He arrived and was inducted into this parish 
May 23d, 1769. 

Mr. Bloomer had graduated at King's College, New-York, 
in 1758, and the following year accepted a captaincy in the 
provincial forces raised in Westchester county, for operation 
against Canada. His services in this campaign gained for him 
a majority, and in that rank he participated in the military 
scenes of 1760. After the war he became a merchant in 
New- York, but relinquished that pursuit for the study of divi- 
nity, and in 1765 Avent to England for ordination. On entering 
upon his duties in the Jamaica parish he sent home to the 
society a favorable report of his people, and again, more than 
a year after, he wrote that he had been happy in their afiec- 
tions since the day of his arrival, that they were constant in 


their attendance on public worship, and lived in the fear of 
God, that he officiated in course at the three churches, and 
expounded the scriptures in the week, and endeavored to cul- 
tivate peace and love with the other denominations. In 1778 
he wrote that his congregations were in a prosperous condition 
and had entered into a voluntary contribution for the enlarge- 
ment of the churches of Newtown and Flushing. Soon after 
this began the stormy period of the Eevolution, but except the 
slight interruption which took place just before the entrance of 
the enemy, Mr. Bloomer remained in the constant discharge of 
his duties, officiating regularly in the three churches, being 
assisted at Newtown in 1780 by the Eev. John Sayre, from 
Fairfield, Ct. He reported to the society, in 1782, that the at- 
tendance upon his ministrations was good. After the war the 
venerable society withdrew its support from the missions in 
this country, and Mr. Bloomer was left dependent on his parish- 
ioners. At the first meeting in the United States to form the 
Episcopal churches into one body he was present and took part. 
Mr. Bloomer died at Jamaica, June 23d, 1790, aged 55 years. 
He was of a large commanding figure, and his surplice is still 
preserved in the Newtown church. His immediate successor 
was the Rev. William Hammel, to whose salary the Newtown 
congregation contributed £40. But becoming very infirm in 
health, and losing his sight, he was compelled to resign in Au- 
gust, 1795, though he survived till a few years since, support- 
ed in part by the benevolence of Trinity Church, N. Y. 

During the Revolution the churches had purchased a glebe 
in the village of Jamaica, about which some dissatisfaction 
now arose, and this with other causes eventuated in a disunion 
of the parish; Newtown withdrew from the other churches and 
put in execution the long cherished design of calling their own 
rector. The Rev. Henry Van Dyke was obtained and induct- 
ed into this parish in 1797, where he officiated for five years, 
and then removed in 1802. In April, 1803, the churches of 
Newtown and Flushing formed a union and called the Rev, 
Abraham L. Clarke, of Rhode Island, who had graduated at 
Yale College in 1785. Each was to raise £150 for his sup- 
port. He served the two congregations till 1809, when the 
connection between these parishes was dissolved and Mr, 
Clarke continued at Newtown. He died after a lingering ill- 



ness, Dec. 31st, 1810, aged 42 years. The vacancy was filled 
in 1812 by the Rev. (now Dr.) William E. Wyatt, a graduate 
of Columbia College in 1809. But he was soon after called to 
the rectorship of St. Paul's church, Baltimore, which connec- 
tion he yet sustains with honor and ability. 

The Rev. Evan Malbone Johnson was the next rector; 
born at Newport, Rhode Island, June Gth, 1792. He complet- 
ed his education at Brown University in 1812. In 1814 he 
settled here and remained till 1827, when he removed to St. 
John's church, Brooklyn, which he had caused to be erected 
in the preceding year, and where he has ever since continued. 
His first wife was Maria L. daughter of Rev. John B. John- 
son, and his second is Maria, daughter of David Purdy, de- 
ceased, of Newtown. 

The present rector. Rev. George A. Shelton, was born in 
1800, being the son of the late Rev. Philo Shelton, of Trinity 
church, Fairfield, Conn. Having graduated at Yale in 1820, 
he settled here March 18th, 1827. The old church edifice 
erected in 1735 was repaired in 1760, and the steeple rebuilt 
from the ground, at a considerable expense. The church was 
enlarged just before the Revolution, and was again repaired 
in 1816. But of late, becoming unsuited to the wants and 
feelings of the congregation, it was decided to build another ; 
and divine service was held in it for the last time on Sunday, 
July 16th, 1848, upon the morning of which day an approi)ri- 
ate historical discourse was delivered by the pastor. The new 
building, then just finished, was immediately opened for divine 
service, though it was not formally consecrated till Thurs- 
day, Nov. 15th, 1849. This edifice, built in the gothic style 
of architecture,is an ornament to the village. A town clock 
occupies one of its spires. 

A sister church was erected at Hallett's Cove in 1828, and 
incorporated several years after by the title of St. George's 
church. Its first pastor was the Rev. Samuel Seabury, who 
left after a brief stay, and is now rector of the church of the 
Annunciation, in the city of New- York. The congregation 
being too feeble to sustain a pastor, Mr. Shelton, of Newtown, 
consented, in 1832, to devote to them a portion of his labors, 
and officiated for between four and five years, when the church 
having increased, were enabled to call the Rev. John W. Brown, 



who was inducted into this charge Oct. 1st, 1837. Mr. Brown 
was the son of John Brown, of Schenectady, N. Y. and a gra- 
duate of Union College. lie was a man of high intellectual 
attainments, and was greatly beloved by his congregation for 
his fervent but unobtrusive piety. But disease stole upon him, 
and to recover his health he left home in November, 1848, 
on a voyage to the Mediterranean. At Malta his illness in- 
creased, and he died in that island April 9th, 1849, aged nearly 
35 years. The vacancy in the rectorship of the Astoria church 
occasioned by this afflictive event, has been filled by the indue 
tion of the Bev. Tapping Eeeves Chipman, from Le Eoy, N. Y 
Within several years an Episcopal society has been orga 
nized at Maspeth, and a chapel erected, under the name of St, 
Saviour's church. The Rev. Wm. Walsh is rector. The late 
Judge Jones contributed greatly to the establishment of this 
church, of which he was senior warden at the time of his de- 
cease. A neat Episcopal chapel, called St. Thomas's church, 
has been lately built at Ravenswood, and is under the charge 
of the Rev. E. R. T. Cook. 

The FRIENDS or QUAKERS, as before stated, erected a 
meeting house in 1722, in the village of Newtown, on the pre- 
mises now owned by Mr. Robert Mack, which they occupied 
many years as a place of worship, and the adjoining ground as 
a repository for their dead. It was in this edifice that Capt. 
Thomas Chalkley (a Avorthy successor of Fox, if we may judge 
from his arduous labors in different parts of the world,) 
preached on several occasions. His first visit was made in the 
summer of 1724, when he attended " the general meeting of 
Friends," held at Newtown. It " was so large that the meet- 
house could not contain the people." Chalkley revisited the 
Island in the year following, and arriving at the house of 
Richard Hallett, at the Kills, there held an evening assemblage, 
and the next day " a large meeting at Newtown, to the edifi- 
cation of Friends and other sober people." He also held services 
at Hellgate and at the widow Stevenson's, likewise at the widow 
Way's and widow Alsop's, at the Kills. He was last in New- 
town in 1735, and died at Tortola in 1741, aged 66 years. To 
the encouragement afforded by his visits and labors must be 
attributed in some degree the firm hold which the Quakers 
maintained in thifi town for a considerable period. 


As the Friends mostly resided in the vicinity of the Eng- 
lish Kills, they concluded to change their place of worship. 
The meeting-house at Newtown was sold, and on May 16th, 
1760, James Way presented the society with a plot of land 
eight rods square, near the English Kills, where they erected 
a house of worship, which was occupied as such during the 
war of the Eevolution, and for a long time after, by a respec- 
table congregation. But now they are reduced to nothing, 
and nearly half a century has elapsed since stated meetings 
were held at the Maspeth meeting-house. In reflecting upon 
this sad decline, and the forlorn condition of the venerable 
edifice, still standing, and quite unused except as a school- 
house, one whose life has been passed in this vicinity, and with 
sympathies entwined about this interesting spot, thus re- 
marks, " And what if I say that the present state of the pre- 
mises is a shame and reproach to the society — forsaken — deso- 
late — a common — a prey — a melancholy ruin : the unhappy 
result may be ascribed to internal discord, or a partial disre- 
gard of that laconic, yet all important injunction, mind the 
light; which is most emphatically enjoined by the worthy 
founder of the principles that they openly professed to follow." 
A tale not less sad may be told of the old meeting-house and 
premises in Newtown village. The house having stood 122 
years, and been long used as a dwelling, was consumed by fire 
Dec. 21st, 1844. The burying ground attached is desecrated, 
and the spot where repose the bones of many of the patriarchs 
of this sect in this town, is now undistinguishable and almost 

The BAPTIST society of Newtown, like that of the 
Friends, has become extinct, after a career more brief than 
the former. Its history affords few items of special interest. 
The society was formed in 1809, and a house of worship erect- 
ed soon after. But the church did not prosper, seldom enjoyed 
stated preaching, and the voice of praise and prayer may be 
said to have wholly ceased in their sanctuary. 

The METHODISTS erected their first church upon Long 
Island in the year 1785, in the southern part of this town, at 
what is now called Middle Village. It is yet standing, though 


converted into a dwelling. In 1836 a new edifice was built 
about a quarter of a mile from the former site, and directly 
upon the Williamsburgb and Jamaica turnpike road. This 
was effected chiefly through the liberality and personal effort 
of Mr. Joseph Harper, (father of Mr. Harper, late mayor of 
New- York,) who was born and resided over 80 years in this 
immediate vicinity, till his decease several years since. In 
1839 a small Methodist Episcopal church was erected at New- 
town village, and in 1843 a house of worship of the same de- 
nomination was built at Astoria, which was dedicated on Sept. 
21st of that year. For a certain period the three churches 
above enumerated formed one circuit or combined charge, but 
that of Astoria withdrew several years since. Those of Mid- 
dle Village and Newtown are still connected, the pastor resid- 
ing at the latter place. 

" Gratice Deo pro luce verhisui^ et lahorihus servorum suorum 
doctorum et piorumJ^ — Rev. Wm. Leverich. 


The era subsequent to the Revolution has been prolific of 
instructive and pleasing incident connected with the locality 
under notice; but aside from the continuation of its church 
history, and other facts too closely linked to preceding times 
to be omitted, it has been deemed inexpedient to attempt a 
detail of events during this comparatively recent period. 
A mere glance, therefore, at some of the changes of later 
days, and the present condition and prospects of the town- 
ship, will close this division of the volume. 

The intelligent farmer, who places a due estimate upon 
the service rendered his profession by modern science and art, 
must experience great satisfaction, whether he review the pro- 
gress of the past, or scan the prospective advance and success 
of this noble department of human enterprise. In this town 
a marked improvement in agriculture was observable within a 
few years after the war of Independence ; but the more recent 
achievements in all that pertains to the culture of the soil have 
wrought a surprising change. Through a more enlightened 
mode of husbandry, including the introduction and skilful use 
of foreign manures, the improved construction of farming im- 
plements, and the process of sub-soil draining, not only has 
every department of vegetation been greatly accelerated, but 
considerable tracts of marshy land, once regarded as unsuscep- 
tible of cultivation, have been reclaimed and made highly 
productive. And consequently, out of 16,800 acres, which 
the township is computed to contain, some 11,000 have been 
made arable. The remainder, apart from the woodland, is 
chiefly low swampy soil, unfit for present cultivation, but in 


some instances furnishing a superior quality of turf or peat, 
heretofore extensively used as fuel. This article came into use 
after the Eevolution, owing to the woodland having been des- 
troyed by the British. In later years the re-growth of the 
woods and the introduction of coal have caused turf to fall into 
disuse, though, on the failure of these, it would necessarily re- 
sume its importance, and it is even now valuable as a manure 
after being reduced to ashes. The peat bogs of Newtown are 
allowed to be the most valuable of any on the west end of 
Long Island, 

Although a large share of attention has been paid for a 
long time, by the farmers of this town, to the raising of 
garden and field vegetables for the New-York market, this 
department of husbandry has been much enhanced of late 
years, both in the amount and variety of produce raised. In- 
deed the importance of this town to the great metropolis, as 
aiding to supply its inhabitants with wholesome vegetables 
in their season, cannot be overrated. Husbandry is not, how- 
ever, necessarily restricted to this branch, as the town affords a 
superior location for florists and dairymen. The milk estab- 
lishment of Mr. David S. Mills, one of the most extensive in 
the country, has been in successful operation for years, and 
commends this as a profitable mode for the application of 
rural enterprise. 

The introduction of turnpike roads,* the establishment of 
daily stages and steamboat communication with the city of 
N. York, have increased the facilities for travel and the trans- 
portation of produce to a remarkable degree beyond the for- 
mer sluggish locomotion over poor roads, or in scows, horse- 
boats, and market craft. And the present year, the construc- 
tion of a plank road from Newtown village to William sburgh 
has greatly facilitated communication with New- York, and 
must prove a highly important and beneficial work, answer- 

> The Flushing and Newtown Turnpike and Bridge Company, chartered 
May 21st, 1801, was the first within the limits of this town. In the course of 
several years they constructed a bridge over Flushing creek, (the first which 
crossed it,') and laid a turnpike thence to Newtown village. This was follow- 
ed by the Newtown and Bushwick Bridge Company, which continued the 
line of road to Williamsburgh. Since that period several other turnpikes 
have been constructed in various sections of the town. 


ing valuable purposes, even though, a railway should be laid 
through this town, for, in the progressive spirit of this age, the 
day is perhaps not far distant when the iron-horse will traverse 
the township, conveying its business-men and its products in 
a few brief minutes into the very centre of trade. 

The proximity of New-York city has ever operated favor- 
ably for the wealth and prosperity of this town. A distin- 
guished visitor in 1804, observed this effect as " abundantly 
conspicuous in the wealth of the farmers and in the beauty of 
the villas." Yet, at this date, there existed but few of those 
costly mansions that now adorn the township, and particu- 
larly the northern and western borders of it, the result chiefly 
of the taste and enterprise of New-York merchants. One of 
the first, if not the very first of these erected in the vicinity 
of Hellgate, was that built in 1792, by Mr. John Delafield, a 
distinguished merchant of New- York, who, in the preceding 
year, had purchased the Blackwell farm. This building, fash- 
ioned after the English style, was recently occupied by the 
" Sisters of the Sacred Heart," a catholic order, but it is now 
the residence of Mr. Brooks. 

At the beginning of the present century, the settlement at 
Hallett's Cove did not exceed half a dozen buildings. But 
the increase of population and business at this place, within a 
few years, has been quite remarkable. Its local advantages, both 
for residence and various business purposes, are indeed sufficient 
to ensure its growth, yet its prosperity must be greatly attribut- 
ed to the enterprise of certain leading inhabitants, whose untir- 
ing efforts to build it up are worthy of special praise. The vill- 
age was incorporated under the name of Astoria, April 12th, 
1839, the charter providing that the corporation consist of five 
trustees, three assessors, a treasurer, collector and clerk ; with 
powers and privileges corresponding to those previously granted 
by charter to the village of Angelica, in this state. The erection 
of several imposing church edifices, the laying out of streets 
and avenues, adorned with many neat and even beautiful pri- 
vate residences, has greatly added to the convenience, attract- 
iveness and importance of the place. And consequently its 
population, which in 1840 was 750, has since tripled, and ac- 
cording to the last year's census was 2,250, within the charter- 
ed limits. The recent opening of several new streets, south 


of the village, and the offer of desirable building lots upon 
moderate terras, must ensure a more rapid growth of this place 
during the years to come. In, or near the village are several 
floral gardens and nurseries, an extensive carpet factory, and 
other manufacturing establishments ; most of the manufactures 
of the town centring here, the principal exceptions being the 
essence and chocolate factory of Mr. Eey at Middle Village, the 
rope-walk of Mr. Murch at Newtown, and the iron foundry of 
A. D. Fisk near the English Kills, where are made the some- 
what celebrated metallic coflEins. For manufacturing purposes, 
so far as steam power can be applied, Astoria is unequalled in 
situation ; while to men of wealth seeking retired country re- 
sidences, in a pure atmosphere, amid a delightful scenery, and 
easy of access from their places of business, this village and 
that of Ravenswood, with their environs, offer some of the 
most inviting localities to be found around New- York. These 
villages are also furnished with good schools, while, in respect 
to the important matter of health, not only this vicinity, but 
the town at large, will compare favorably with any in this 
state. According to the last census, the number of deaths that 
occurred in the town during the twelve months next preceding 
the time of taking the census, was only seventeen^ less than one 
quarter per cent of the population ! a smaller ratio than was 
exhibited by any other town in the whole southern district of 
New- York, except Southold in Suffolk county. The bill of 
ordinary mortality being allowed to be proper data from which 
to judge of the salubrity of a place, the above result leaves 
this town with scarce a rival in this respect. 

Growth and enterprise are visible upon the whole surface 
of this township. The pleasant hamlets of Middle Village and 
Maspeth are of comparitively recent origin ; the former is no- 
ted as containing the first Methodist church erected on Long 
Island. Maspeth is classic ground, in times past the nursery 
of poetry and genius. Here, in a " sweetly rural calm retreat, 
isecure, secluded," was produced the clever poem of " Eural 
Hours." And here is another spot at which to linger for a mo- 
ment, the residence of the late Judge Jones. At an early day 
it was the abode of Joseph Sackett, Esq., a worthy judge of 
common pleas, who died at a venerable age twenty years be- 
fore the Revolution ; then of Walter Franklin, an opulent 



New- York merchant, till his death in 1780, and after him Col. 
Isaac Corsa, renowned for his chivalry in the French war. 
And then the eminent statesman, Hon. De Witt Clinton, hav- 
ing married the daughter of Mr. Franklin, and niece of Col. 
Corsa, made this favored mansion his country residence for a 
considerable portion of his life, and here "planned for matur- 
ing the stupendous undertaking of uniting the waters of the 
Erie with the Ocean." I need not name other sterhng men 
who have honored Maspeth as their residence ; nor dwell 
upon the new interest imparted by the recent establish- 
ment here of the beautiful cemetery of Mount Olivet. Tliis 
locality has had its changes. Once it was a community of 
Quakers; now has this sect scarce a representative. Their 
meeting-house deserted by those who, half a century since, 
were wont to gather in pious concourse here, stands their only 
monument and a melancholy witness of earthly mutability. 
One cannot contemplate these and similar changes without 
deep interest. What a revolution has been produced in the 
customs of social and domestic life, by the abolition of 
slavery,^ the introduction of foreign fabrics and luxuries, of 
new implements, machinery and forms of industry, the disuse 
of the Dutch language, the spread of education- and intelli- 

* Slavery did not cease in this state till July 4th, 1827, though emancipation 
began soon after the Revolution. Most of the slaves hailed the event with joy, 
many of them deserting their homes in anticipation of it. Others preferred to stay 
with their masters. " I shall never forget," says Judge Furnian, "the quaint re- 
mark of two aged slaves, when my grandfather went to the kitchen and informed 
them that they were now both free and at liberty to go where they pleased. The 
poor old woman began to shed tears, while old Simon, who sat quietly smoking his 
pipe, began, ' Why Dinah, what are you crying about? Old massa wont turn us 
out doors; will you old massa?' ' Why Simon, you are now as free as I am, but 
if you both wish to continue with me, this shall be a home for you.' On which 
Simon, laughing and displaying his ivory, replied very significantly, ' Well, old 
massa, you have had de flour, I guess you must hab de bran too.' The old gentle- 
man could not help smiling, or crying, or perhaps both, as he left the kitchen." 

2 The cause of education was much promoted after the Revolution by the 
erection of school-houses in various districts, and the establishment of academies of 
a higher grade at Newtown, the latter under the charge respectively of the Pres- 
byterian and Episcopal clergymen. Since 1814, when commissioners and inspec- 
tors of common schools were first chosen, and the town divided into school districts, 
it has enjoyed the advantages of the present excellent common-school system of 
this state. Mr. Charles Cook has served the town as superintendent of schools 
since 1844. 


gence, the increased means of intercourse, the wonderful im- 
petus given to benevolent and religious as well as secular enter- 
prise, and the influx of inhabitants. The population of the 
town has been greatly augmented within a few years. At the 
first general census in 1790, the inhabitants numbered but 
2,111, and for forty years thereafter the increase was only 499. 
But for the next twenty years, namely, from 1830 to 1850, the 
additional increase was 4,597; the population at the latter date 
amounting to 7,207, having more than doubled within fifteen 

In review of the past, truly marvelous does the progress 
appear, and with the inventive spirit of the present who can 
predict what the teeming future shall develop. But mere 
change is not improvement, though it oft usurps the name ; nor 
every novelty a real good, though so eagerly grasped at ; and 
while, in every sphere of life, progress should be the watch- 
word, we should not only be wary of rampant speculation, but 
deprecate innovation upon the wholesome customs of the olden 
time, where the motive is a love of novelty, or the demand of 
fashion, and the utility doubtful. The annals of our fathers 
teach us exemplary lessons of industry, simplicity, prudence, 
and piety ; let us emulate their good deeds and virtues, and 
our reward shall be ample, even an approving conscience, the 
respect of men, and Heaven's benediction. 


Scconlr |3 art. 



In order to condense the matter embraced in the following genealogies, 
certain abbreviations have been used, namely, 

cli. for child or children. 

b. for horn. 

m. for married. 

unm. for unmarried. 

d. ibr died. 

dec. for deceased. 

dau. for daughter. 

a. for aged, 

JT. or yrs. for year or years. 

The genealogies are, for convenience, divided into sections, indicated by 
numbers. A section generally mentions, first, the parents; secondly, the 
names of the children, and who the daughters married; and thirdly, such of 
the sons and their descendants as require but brief notice. When several 
sons are thus treated of in the same section their names are usually put in 
italic letters, to denote the relationship. The other sons, if again mentioned, 
have each a numeral affixed to his name, indicating the section where he is 
further noticed. By attending to these numbers which point to the recur- 
rence of the name in a new section, and also those used in the latter to refer 
back again to the parent, the lineage can be readily traced either backward 
or forward. 

Many of the original Dutch settlers in this country were destitute of 
family or surnames, while others who had them, frequently neglected to use 
them, and instead adopted their patronymic, or, in other words, formed a sur- 
name of the christian name of the father, usually (but not always) adding to 
it either sen, se, s, sz, or z, all of which when thus used had the same mean- 
ing and signified son. Hence, for example, the name Joris Jansen was un- 
derstood to mean Joris the son of Jan, and Pieter Claesz, Pieter the son of 
Claes. The effect of this custom, after the ^econd generation, was to create 
confusion by producing as many surnames or patronymics in the several 
branches of a family as they had baptismal names. It was probably to cor- 
rect this evil and preserve the identity of fjimilies that the Dutch inhabitants, 
about the beginning of the eighteenth century, dropped this custom, and 
either resumed their proper surname, or adopted one, or else retained the pa- 
tronymic then in use by the family, as a permanent name for themselves and 
offspring. These remarks will serve to explain much of what follows. 



Names have commonly been spelled as the persons themselves wrote 
them, 60 far as that could be ascertained, from their signatures, or other re- 
liable sources. This will exhibit the changes they have undergone. 

As Dutch christian names have in many cases been retained, a list of thos^ 
most used, is annexed, with their corresponding iilnglish. 

Adriaen, or 
Anuekeii, i 
Anuetie, or > 
Antie, ) 

Antony, or ) 
Teunis, $ 

Belitie, . 

Catrina, ^ 
CatrjDtie, f 
Trj-utie, or C 
Tryn, ) 

Christina, ) 

Christyntie, or / 
Styntie, j 

Christoffel. or ) 
Stoffei, S ' 



J feminine 
( of Claes. 

Dirck, or ) 
Derick, ^ 
Elizabet, or } 
Betie, S * 

Gerardieiia. i 
Gerardientie, or /■ 
Dientie, ) 


. Aleita. 



I Ann, 
< Anne, or 
f Anna. 


. Bernard. 
. Charles. 



, Christopher 







Geertie, . . . • 



Hans, (abbreviation of 

Latin Johannes,) . 
Heyltie, or \ 
Hilletie, i ' ' 
Jacobus, . 

omina, or ) « 
Jacomyntie, ) 

Jannetie, or } 
Janneken, ^ 



Metie, or 


Margrietie, or } 

Grietie, ^ 

Maria, or i 

Marritie, S 

Matthys, or \ 

Thys, ^ • 

Neeltie, (Nelly,) • 


Pietertie, or ) fem. of 

Pieterneila, \ Pieter. 

Sara, ... 


Willem or ? 

Wilhelmus, S 

Willemtie, or ) fem. of 

Wilhelmiua, ^ Willem. 

. Grace. 

. John 

. Henry. 

. James. 

. John. 


i George, or 
I Justus. 
. George. 

. Margaret. 

. Matthias. 

. Peter. 




This numerous and reputa- 
ble family is descended from 
tliat of de Eapalie, wliich, as 
early as the eleventh century 
possessed large estates in Bre- 
tagne, and ranked among the 
arriere-ban of the French nobi- 
lity. Some of its members were 
distinguished as military leaders 
in the crusades, others were ce- 
lebrated for political eminence 
and professional talent. But in 
the religious wars of the sixteenth century, being known as 
Protestants, they became the victims of Papal animosity and 
were scattered and expelled from France. The family subse- 
quently gained prominence in Switzerland and Belgium, where 
they acquired large possessions and continue to the present 
time. Their ancient coat of arras, above given, are intended 
to represent the noble birth and origin of the family, and their 
reputation for firmness and fidelit}^ 

1. Joris Jansen de Eapalie, one of this proscribed Hugue- 
not race, " from Eochelle in France," was the common ances- 
tor of all the American ftimilies of this name.* He came to 
this country with other colonists in 1623, in the Unity, a ship 
of the West India Company, and settled at Fort Orange, now 
Albany, where he continued three years. In 1626 he removed 
to New Amsterdam, and resided there till after the birth of his 
youngest child. On June 16, 1637, he bought from the Indians 

* The practice which afterwards obtained, of writing the final syllable of 
this name with a j, was a Dutch perversion of the original orthography. 

Some assert that Joris Jansen de Rapalie, and Antony Jansen Van 
Salee, of Gravesend, were brothers, and their family name, Jansen. Our 
early records do not corroborate this statement, but go very far to disprove 
it. The whole seems to be a mere assumption from the occurrence of Jansen 


a tract of land computed at 835 acres, called Eennegaconck, 
now included within the town of Brooklyn, and comprehend- 
ing the lands occupied by the U, S. Marine Hospital. Here 
Mr. Eapalie finally located, and spent the remainder of his life. 
He was a leading citizen, acted a prominent part in the jjublic 
affairs of the colony, and served in the magistracy of Brook- 
lyn. He died soon after the close of the Dutch administration, 
his widow, Catalyntie, dau. of Joris Trico, surviving him many 
years. She was born in Paris, and died Sep. 11, 1689, a. 84. 
Their ch. as taken from the original family record preserved 
in the library of the New- York Historical Society, were as 
follow, to wit, Sara, b. June 9, 1625, m. successively to Hans 
Hansse Bergen and Tennis Gysberts Bogart ;* Marritie, b. Mar. 
11, 1627, m. Michael Vandervoort; Jannetie, b. Aug. 18, 1629, 
m. Rem Vanderbeeck ; Judith, b. July 5, 1635, m. Pieter Van 
Nest; Jan, b. Aug. 28, 1637, m. but died in 1662 without sur- 
viving issue ; Jacob, b. May 28, 1639, who was killed by the 
Indians; Catalyntie, b. Mar. 28, 1641, m. Jeremias Westerhout; 

in their names ; which, however, proves not a family identity, but simply in- 
dicates that the father of each had borne the common name of Jan or John. 
It has also been set down as veritable history, that said Antony Jansen Van 
Salee was the progenitor of a large family of Johnsons upon Long Island 
and elsewhere., of which is Hon. Jeremiah Johnson of Brooklyn. This is an 
error. Gen. Johnson, as clearly appears from existing records, is a descend- 
ant, in the fourth generation, of Jan Barentsen van Driest, who came in 1657 
from Zutphen in Guelderland, and settled at Gravesend. See an article on 
Antony Jansen van Salee in the Brooklyn Daily Eagle of Feb. 20, 1851. 
The valuable work on American Genealogy, by Holgate, contains very se- 
rious mistakes respecting the Johnson and Rapelye families, which only those 
acquainted with the ditficulties of genealogical investigation will know how 
to excuse. 

* This lady, say our early records, was " the first-born Christian daughter 
in New Netherland." In honor of this, the Dutch authorities presented her 
a tract of land at the Wallabout. This circumstance has probably given rise 
to the belief that she was born at the latter place, but the statement in the 
text (based upon the N. Y. Documentary Hist, iii, 60, and other records,) 
shows that her parents were living at Albany at the time of her birth ; nor 
did they settle at the Wallabout till more than twenty-five years after. Sara 
early became a church member in New- York, but united with the church at 
Brooklyn by cortificate in 1661. Shed. a. about 60. Her lineal descendants 
are numerous, and include the Polhemus family of Newtown, the Bergens of 
King's county, and a part of the Bogart family. 


Jeronimus,2 b. June 27, 1643 ; Annetie, b. Feb. 8, 1646, m. 
Marten Reyerse and Joost Fransz ; Elizabet, b. Mar. 28, 1648* 
m. Dirck liooglandt; and Daniel,^" b. Dec. 29, 1650. 

^ 2. Jeronimus Rapalje became a man of some prominence 
a justice of the peace and a deacon of the Brooklyn church! 
He m. Anna, dau. of Teunis Denys, and had ch. Joris, b. Nov*. 
5, 1668 ; Teunis,^ b. May 5, 1671 ; Jan.« b. Dec. 14, 1673 ; Fem- 
metie, b. Oct. 5, 1676, m. Jan Bennet ; Jacob, b. June 25, 1679 • 
Jeronimus, b. Mar. 31, 1682 ; Catalina, b. Mar. 25, 1685, m! 
Peter Dumond, of Raritan, N. J. Sarah, b. Nov. 4, 1687, m' 
Hans Bergen ; and Cornelius, b. Oct. 21, 1690. Of these JwL 
m. July 27, 1694, Nelly, dau. of Jan Couwenhoven, and d. at 
Cripplebush in 1697; issue Antie, b. 1696, who m. Johannes 
Lott. Jacob m. Sarah, dau. of Abm, Brinckerhoff, settled at 
Raritan, N. J. and had sons, Abraham, George, Jacob, and per- 
haps others. Cornelius m. Joanna, dau, of the Rev. Vincentius 
Antonides, resided in New- York, and left only female issue. 
His dau. Title, m. Hendrick Smith, and Catalina m. John De 
Graw. Jeronimus m. Hilletie, dau. of Hendrick Van Vechten 
and served twenty-five years as a trustee of the town of Brook, 
lyn ; occupying the ancestral farm at the Wallabout, which he 
sold to his son-in-law, Martin Schenck, in 1755. He d. Feb. 8 
1762, and his widow, a. 91 yrs. July 10, 1775. They had 
ch. Antie, m. Martin Schenck, Catalina, m. Johannes Alstyne, 

Jannetie, m. Aris Remsen, m. Rem Remsen, and Jero- 

mus, who married Jane, daughter of Jacobus Lefferts, and d. 
1754, having issue Jeromus, who d. childless, and Jane, who 
married Thorn. 

3, Teunis Rapalje, son of Jeronimus,^ m. Sarah Van Vech- 
ten, and lived upon the farm in the town of Brooklyn, now 
owned by the heirs of Folkert Rapelye. He was a deacon of 
the Brooklyn church, and d. in 1723, a. 62. He had ch. Jer- 
omus, George,'' Derick, Teunis, Folkert,-^ Jane m. Remsen, and 
Sarah, who m. Jacobus Van Nuyse. Teunis was a blacksmith at 
Bushwick, and d. in 1734, leaving issue, Sarah, Ann, and Jane. 
Jerorims m. in 1719 Aeltie, dau. of Cornelius Van Arsdalen, and 
with his brother Derick, or Richard, settled near New Bruns- 
wick, N. J. Jeromus d. there in 1775. His ch. were Cornelius, 
Teunis, and Sarah. Richard d. during the Revolution, having 
by his wife Antie, sons George, and Jeromus. 



4. George Eapalje, son of Teunis,^ m. Elizabetli dau. of 
Joris Eemsen, of Brooklyn, and died upon liis farm at Bedford 
in 1732 ; issue, Sarah, b. May 12, 1722, m. George Jansen ; 
George, b. June 14, 1724 ; Teunis, b. May 22, 1726 ; Rem b. 
Aug. 3, 1728 ; and Phebe, b. Oct. 9, 1731. Teunis m. Catharine 
Stockholm, Mar. 12, 1757, and had ch. Elizabeth, m. Jacob Ker- 
sliow ; Margaret, m. John Ditmars ; Catharine, m. Stimpson ; 
and Sarah, who m. John Sprainger. Rem m. Mar. 14, 1751, 
Ellen, dau. of Abel Hardenbrook, and amassed a fortune 
in mercantile pursuits in New- York. He d. at Pelham, West- 
chester CO., in 1805, in his 77th yr. He was the father of 
the late George Rapelje of New- York, distinguished for his 
wealth. The latter was b. in Ne^y-York, Aug. 9, 1771, educated 
at Columbia College, and m. July 19, 1798, Susan-Eliza, dau. of 
Bishop Provost. He published a book of travels in 1834. 

5. Folkert Rapalje, son of Teunis,-^ was b. in 1719, m. Oct. 
19, 1742, Matilda, dau. of Cornelius Polhemus, and remained on 
the paternal farm at Cripplebush. He had ch. Teunis ; Sarah, 
m. Charles Titus ; Cornelia, m. Johannes Eemsen ; and Ann, who 
m. Nicholas Wyckoff. Teunis m. Susan, dau. of Joseph Hege- 
man, and had issue, Folkert ; and Sarah, who m. the Hon. Jere- 
miah Johnson, of Brooklyn. Folkert, last named, had by his 
wife Agnes, dau, of Charles Debevoise, sons, Charles, John, 
Joseph, and Jeremiah- Johnson. 

6« Jan Rapalje, son of Jeronimus,^ m. Annetie, dau. of 
Coert Van Voorhees, and was a farmer on a portion of the 
family estate in Brooklyn, which, at his death in 1733, he left 
to his eldest son, George.'^ He had other ch. Jeromus,^ and John, 
to the first of whom he gave a farm in Flushing, and to the lat- 
ter a share of his personal estate. John Eapalje (believed to 
be the same) m. Maria Van Dyke in 1737. 

7. George Eapalje, son of Jan,^ m. Diana, dau. of Gerrit 
Middagh. He d. prior to 1764, and she in 1789, a. 91. Their ch. 
were John, Garret, Cornelia, m. Abraham Lott, and Anna, who 
m. Gerardus Duyckinck. Garret was b. at Brooklyn, May 31, 
1730, and m. Hellen Denys, of New Utrecht. He was a New- 
York importing merchant, and finally removed to New Or- 
leans. He had ch. Isaac, Diana, m. John Fisher and Lemuel 
Sawyer, and Anna, who m. Jacob Wilkins and Charles Smith. 
t/oAn, elder son of George, was b. in 1727, m. June 29, 1748, 


Catrina, dau. of Rutgert Van Brunt, of New Utreclit, and arose 
to some importance, enjoying a seat in the Provincial Assem- 
bly, and sustaining a character highly upright and respectable. 
But adhering to the British cause in the Revolution, his valu- 
able lands, lying between Fulton-street and the navy yard, 
Brooklyn, were confiscated and sold by the state. At the 
peace, Mr. Rapalje, after petitioning in vain for a revision 
of his attainder, retired to England and was compensated for 
his losses by the British government. He d. at Kensington, 
in his 74th yr. Jan. 19, 1802. He had ch, John, who d. a ba- 
chelor in 1819, at Brooklyn ; and Jane, who m. in 1777, Lt. 
Col. Edward G. Lutwyche, of the British army. She d. at 
Brooklyn in 1783, a. 23 yrs. and her dau. Catharine Lutwyche, 
m. George Weltden, late of the city of London. 

8. Jeromus Rapalje, son of Jan,^ inherited a farm at Flush- 
ing, as before stated, w^here he d. m 175-4. He was twice m. 
and left ch. John,9 Richard, Stephen, Ann, Ida, and Elizabeth. 
Richard m. Ann, dau. of Samuel Waldron, of Newtown, and 
d. in his 58th yr. Sep. 8, 1789, leaving no ch. Stephen^ his half 
brother, became a freeman of New- York in 1769, and a pros- 
perous merchant. In the Revolution he was an active friend 
of his country. He d. in New-York, Aug. 30, 1812, a. 65. 

9. John Rapalje, son of Jeromus,^ was b. in 1722, and d. at 
Jamaica, at about the age of 50 years. He was m. twice, and 
by his first wife, Elizabeth, dau. of Abm. Brinckerhoflf, had ch, 
Catharine, m. Teunis Brinckerhoff, Jeromus, Abraham-Brinck- 
erhoflP, Aletta, m. James Debevoise, and Richard. The sons 
settled at Fishkill, N. Y. where some of their descendants re- 
main. Richard had issue Richard and Catharine. Abraham 
B. was the father of Abraham B. and William Rapalje. ot 
Onondaga co. N. Y. Stephen, surgeon in the navy, and Rich- 
ard, of Louisville, Ky. Jeromus had issue Sarah, John, of 
Fishkill, Abraham B. and Sylvanus Rapalje, Esq. of New-York. 

10. Daniel Rapalje, the youngest child of Joris Jausen de 
Rapalie,^ was b. in the city of New- York, Dec. 29, 1650, and 
m. May 27, 1674, Sarah, dau. of Abraham Klock. He was a 
man of high respectability, and an elder of the Brooklyn 
church. He d. at Brooklyn Dec. 26, 1725, and his widow on 
Feb. 28, 1731, a. 79. Their ch. were Joris,^! Daniel, Catharine, 
m.- Joseph Van Cleef, Annetie, Mary, m. Elbert Hegeman, and 


Sarah, who m. Peter Lujster. Daniel, last named, was b. Mar. 
5, 1691, and m. Oct 17, 1711, Aeltie, dau. of Johannes Cornell, 
at which time he lived in Brooklyn, but he afterwards removed 
to Newtown, and bought the farm on Flushing Bay, now oc- 
cupied by Mrs, Aletta Strong. He d. here Mar. 19, 1737, his 
wife having d. on May 20, 1736, a. 44. Their ch, were Daniel, 
Johannes, Joris, Lammetie, m. Hendrick Brinckerhoff, Sarah, 
m. Isaac Brinckerhoff, Margaret, m. Jacobus Lent, Aletta, Mary, 
Catharine, and Ann. Daniel Rapalje, the eldest son, bought the 
paternal farm in 1745, and became a leading man and a magis- 
trate of Newtown. He was twice married, and by his first 
wife, Ruth, dau. of Samuel Fish, whom he m. Nov. 11, 1737, 
had an only ch. Aletta, b. Oct. 10, 1753, who inherited all his 
estate and m. Simon Remsen, father of Mrs. Strong above- 
named. The aforesaid Johannes Rapalje, second son of Daniel 
and Aeltie, was the father of Major Daniel Rapalje, who was 
b. in 1748, m. Agnes, dau. of Johannes Bergen, and became a 
farmer at New Lots. On the opening of the Revolution he 
espoused the whig cause, served as a lieutenant of the Kings 
CO. troop of horse, and was in exile during the war. Mr. Ra- 
palje d. at New Lots in 1796. His ch. were John, Daniel, Simon, 
and Michael. John m. Charity, dau. of Abm. Van Sickelen, 
and had issue, Cornelia, wife of Stephen I. Lott, and Daniel L 
Simon Rapalje m. Hellen, dau, of Nich. Williamson ; issue, 
Williamson Rapalje, now occupying the old homestead of Ma- 
jor Rapalje at New Lots ; Daniel, who d. a young man, and 
Eliza, wife of Walter Bowne, of Flushing. Daniel Rapalje, son 
of Major Daniel, was b. Aug. 26, 1772, and for forty years past 
has been a resident of Newtown and proprietor of the mill on 
Flushing Creek, formerly owned by David Titus, and pre- 
viously for more than a century, by the Coe family. His wife is 
Rensie, dau. of Joost Wyckoff, and their ch. are Daniel-Luys- 
ter; Sarah-Luyster, m, to Benj, F, Willett; Agnes; Cathar- 
ine, wife of Rev. Gr. J. Garretson ; and John D. Rapalje. 

11. Joris Rapelje, (as he wrote his name,) the son of Daniel,^" 
was b. at Brooklyn, Mar. 4, 1675, at which place he followed 
the business of a brewer, and held the office of " lieutenant of 
his Majesty's forces." He m. Agnes, dau. of Cornelius Berrien, 
of Newtown, to which town Mr. Rapelje removed about 1711, 
and bought the farm of his dec. brother-in-law, John Berrien, 


at the head of Flushing Bay, then comprising some 200 acres, 
but since cut up and divided, Mr. C. Hendrickson now occu- 
pies the house in which Joris Eapelje lived. He conducted a 
large brewer}^ here. He d. Jan. 19, 1741, and his widow Nov. 
3. 1756, a. 81. Their ch. were Daniel ;i~ Cornelius ;i'^ Abraham ;i^ 
Jane, m. John Debevoise; John ;^'-^ Jacob ;~~ and Jeromus.^^ 

12. Daniel Eapelje, the eldest son of Joris,^^ was b. Nov. 12, 
1699, and m. Mary, dau. of Cornelius Luyster, who dying Sep. 
80, 1782, a. SQ, he m. secondly. Eensie, widow of Peter G. 
Wyckoff, and dau. of Martin Schenck. She d. in her o8th yr. 
Sep. 26, 1760. After living at Ilellgate and in Flatlands, Mr.- 
Eapelje settled upon the fiirm in Newtown, now of Dow D. 
Eapelje, and was for many years an elder of the Dutch church. 
He d. Oct. 18, 1776. His ch. were George, b. Jan. 28, 1722 ; 
Sarah, b. Ap. 8, 172-4, m. Isaac Bogart ; Agnes, b. May 28, 
1727, d. Aug. 22, 1740 ; Mary, b. Nov. 10, 1729, m. Isaac Bra- 
zier; Cornelius, b. Jan. 16, 1732; Martin,!^ b. May 23, 1784; 
Jane, b. Mar. 14, 1736, m. Hendrick Eiker ; Daniel, b. Aug. 81, 
1738, d. Aug. 31, 1757 ; Nelly, b. July 4, 1740, m. Jeremiah 
Eemsen ; and Agnes, b. May 9, 1744, who d. Oct. 17, 1767. 
George became a farmer at New Lots, where he d. in 1779, 
leaving a son Daniel, who d. single, and dau. Mar}'-, wife of 
Elbert Snediker, and Phebe, wife of Martin Johnson. Cornelius 
m. May 25, 1756, Cornelia, dau. of John Wyckoff, of Newtown, 
and in 1758 bought the farm of his dec. father-in-law, being 
that now occupied by Cornelius Purdy. Capt. Eapelye, a ge- 
nerous neighbor and esteemed citizen, d. in his 51st yr. Feb. 9, 
1782, but his widow survived till Jan. 26, 1824, when she d. in 
her 91st yr. Their ch. were Mary, b. Aug. 5, 1757, m. David 
Purd}^, and Adriana, b. Aug. 16, 1766, who ra. Jacobus Suy dam. 
13. Martin Eapelye, son of Daniel,^- m. Jan. 28, 1763, Eli- 
zabeth, dau. of John Lequier, and OAvned the paternal farm, 
now that of Dow D. Eapelje. He d. Feb. 4, 1816, in his 82d 
yr. his wife having d. in her 49th yr. Sep. 18, 1791. His ch. 
who reached maturity were Elizabeth, b. May 22, 1766, m. 
Peter Cortelyou ; John, b. Dec. 16, 1768 ; Eensie, b. Jan. 7, 
1771, ra. Daniel Lent and Bernard Eapelye ; Abraham, b. Feb. 
17, 1774, did not marry ; Agnes, b. June 20, 1779, m. Nathan- 
iel Lawrence, and Daniel, b. Sep. 30, 1781, who d. single. John 
m. Mary, dau. of Daniel Lawrence, May 3, 1798, and d. in his 


58th yr. Aug. 11, 1826, being the father of Martin Rapelye, of 
Harlem, and John L. Rapelye, of Astoria. 

14. Cornelius Rapelje, second son of Joris,^^ was born in 
1702, and m. Nov. 30, 1727, Aletta, dau. of Joris Brinckerhoflf. 
He owned and occupied the farm at Hellgate, late of Squire 
John Lawrence, and now of Edward J. Woolsey. He was for 
some years in the commission of the peace, and d. July 25, 
1760. Mrs. Rapelje d. in her 85th yr. Jan. 22, 1790. Their 
ch. were Agnes, b. Oct. 5, 1728 ; George, b. Sep. 5, 1730 ; 
Daniel, b. Mar. 19, 1733 ; Abraham, b. Nov. 5, 1735 ; Corne- 
lius, b. June 9, 1738, (all of whom except Daniel d. unm.) Ann, 
b. Aug. 21, 1741, m. Col. Jeromus Remsen ; and Jane, who m. 
John Duryea, of Jamaica. 

15. Abraham Rapelje, third son of Joris,^^ was b. May 19, 
1705, and m. May 14, 1731, Anna, dau. of Joris Brinckerhoff. 
In 1737 he bought the farm near Fish's Point, now divided 
between his grandsons Abraham and John I. Rapelye, on which 
he resided till his death, Feb, 7, 1777, having served as a dea- 
con and elder of the Dutch church. Mrs, Rapelje d. a. 64, Oct. 
8, 1776. Their ch. were thirteen in number, eleven of whom 
survived infancy, namely : George, ^^ b. Feb. 18, 1732 ; Abra- 
ham, b. Dec. 1, 1732 ; Anna, b. Feb. 12, 1738, m. George De- 
bevoise ; Agnes, b. Ap. 21, 1740, m. Martin Schenck ; Sarah, 
b, Ap. 3, 1742, m, Johannes Debevoise ; Jannetie, b. July 2, 
1744, d. July 27, 1763 ; DanieV^ b. Mar. 24, 1746 ; Isaac/s ^^ 
Feb. 5, 1748 ; Aletta, b. June 2, 1750, m, Abraham Polhemus ; 
Jacob, b. Oct. 17, 1752 ; and Susannah, b. May 17, 1754, who 
d. of camp fever, Dec. 28, 1776. Abraham m. Jane, dau. of 
Elbert Luyster, but had no issue. He lived on the place owned 
by the late Aaron Furman, and d. of camp fever, Dec. 8, 1776. 
His widow d. in her 64th yr. Sep. 13, 1799. Jacob m. Maria, 
dau. of Dow Ditmars, of Jamaica, and d. in his 57th yr. Sep. 
2, 1809. His only ch. that reached maturity was Susan, who m. 
the Rev. Gabriel Ludlow, now of Shannock, N. J. 

16. George Rapelye, son of Abraham,i^ m. Oct. 18, 1753, 
Elizabeth, dau. of Roelof Schenck, of Cow Neck, at which 
place he settled. He d. in his 83rd yr. Jan. 12, 1815, and his 
widow on Nov, 5, same yr, also in her 83d yr. Their ch, were 
Susannah, b, Oct. 20, 1754, d. June 16, 1777 ; Anna, b, Sep. 
7, 1756, m. Hendrick Brinckerhoflf ; Ehzabeth, b. July 21, 1759, 


m. John Luyster; Abraliam, b. Jan. 25, 1763 ; Jane, b. Mar. 3, 
1765, ra. Joseph Hegeman ; Sarah, b. Feb. 3, 1767, m. George 
Onderdonk;* Roelof, b. Oct. 30, 1770 ; aad Jacob, b. Aug. 24, 
1772, who m. Aletta Brinckerhoff, but d. without issue, Aug. 23, 
1825. Roelof m. Phebe Snediker, and d. Ap. 22, 1823, leaving 
ch. Abraham ra. Maria, dau of Martin Schenck, and secondly 
Ida Monfort. He d. in his 63d yr. Feb. 23, 1826, and his 
son Cornelius now occupies his estate in North Hempstead. 

* The Onderdonk family is descended from Adriaen Onderdonk, a Dutch 
emigrant to New Castle, Del. His son Andries removed, with others of the 
family, to Long Island, and m. Nov. 11, 1683, Maria, dau. of Dirck Janse Van 
der Vliet; settled in the town of Jamaica; had issue, Adriaen and Andries, 
and dying soon after, his widow, in 1687, m. Jacob Vanderbilt. Adriaen b. 
1684, m. Sarah Snediker and had issue, Andries, Gerrit, Abraliam, Adriaen, 
Isaac, Jacob, Elsie, Hendrick, Maria, John, and Sarah, most of whom settled 
in Rockland co. and N. Jersey, and left a numerous posterity. Andries On- 
derdonk, b. 1686, m. in 1706, Gertrude Lott, and d. in 1758; issue, 1 Maria 
m. Jacobus Monfort, 2 Catharine, m. Daniel Hegeman, 3 Andries, 4 Ger- 
trude, m. Jacobus Hegeman, 5 Annetie, 6 Dorothy, ni. Adrian Hegeman, 
7 Sarah, m. Thomas Dodge, 8 Hendrick, 9 Adrian, 10 Peter. These were of 
the second generation born on Long Island. 

3d Generation. 

Andries,'^ b. 1711, m. in 1732, Sarah Remsen, and removed to Tappan ; 
issue, 1 Andrew, 2 Aeltie, 3 Gertrude, m. Adrian Smith, 4 Phebe, m. Onder- 
donk, 5 Maria, m. John Riker, 6 Antie, m. John Gesner. Hendrick,' b. 1724, 
m. 1750, Phebe Tredwell; issue, 1 Benjamin, 2 Gertrude, m. Lambert Moore> 
3 Phebe, 4 Andrew, m. Mary Magdalen Moore, 5 Sarah, m. D. R. Floyd 
Jones, 6 Henry, 7 Maria, 8 John, 9 Phebe, 10 William, 11 Samuel, 12. Ben- 
jamin. Adrian,^ b. 1726, m. 1755, Maria Uegemnn; issue, 1 Gertrude, m. Peter 
Luyster, 2 Sarah, 3 Sarah, m. Tliomas Thorne, 4 George, 5 Maria, m. Abm. 
Hoogland, 6 Joseph, 7 Lott, 8 Phebe, 9 Catharine, 10 Susannah, m. Dan Ma- 
ther, 11 Andrew. Peter,^° b. 1730, m. 1751, Elizabeth Schenck; issue, iMa- 
aria, m. Daniel Bogart, 2 Andrew, 3 Gertrude, m. Abm. Brinckerhoff, 4 Eliza- 
beth, 5 Minne, 6 Jane, 7 Catharine, m. Jacobus Hegeman, 8 Antie, 9 Peter. 

4lh Generation. 

Andrew,^ b. 1734, at Tappan, m. Rider; issue, Sarah, ni. Cornelius Bogart. 
Henrij,'^ b. 1760, m. 1795, Sarah Van Kleek; issue, Henry-Livingston. John,« 
(Doctor) b. 1763, m, 1788, Deborah Ustick ; issue, 1 Henry-Ustick, 2 William, 
3 Susannah, 4 Benjamiii-Treadwell, 5 Elizabeth, 6 Phoebe, 7 Mary. George,* 
b. 1761, m. 1796, Sarah Rapelye ; issue, 1 Catharine, m. Dow J. Dit-^ 
mars, 2 Jacob, 3 Maria-Hegeman, m. her cousin Henry Onderdonk, Jr. 
4Elizabeth-Schenck, m. her cousin Horatio G. Onderdonk. Joseph,*^ b. 1766, 
m. 1789, Dorothy Monfort; issue, 1 Maria, m. Elbert Hegeman, 2 Catharine, 
m. Thomas Skill man, 3 Adrian, 4 George, 5 Andrew-Lott, 6 Elizabeth. 
1 Ramy, Junior, 8 Andrew-Lott, 9 Horatio-Gates, 10 James-Monfort. Lott,^ 


17. Daniel Kapelje, son of Abraham,^^ m. Dec. 11, 1772, 
Elizabetli, dau. of Abraham Polhemus, and resided on the 
place now of William Levericli. He d. in his -tSth yr. Jan. 
19, 1794, and his widow Aug. 29, WU, in her 89th yr. Their 
ch. were Anna, b. Dec. 26, 1773, m. Jacob Eapelje; Margaret, 
b. Nov. 12, 1775, m. Abraham Snediker and Hendrick Suy- 
dam; Abraham, b. Dec. 14, 1777; Elizabeth, b. Dec. 11, 1780, 
m. Abraham Eemsen ; and Isaac, b. Dec. 23, 1782. The latter 
m. his cousin, Margaret, dau. of Jacob Polhemus, and for nearly 
half a century occupied the farm at the Poor Bowery, formerly 
in the Lent family, where he d. Oct. 20, 1850. His surviving 
ch. are Ann E. Gertrude, Jacob P. and Aletta V. His brother 
Abraham, m. Agnes, dau. of Martin Schenck, and resided at the 
Dutch Kills. He d. Feb. 1, 1837, his wife having d. in her 52d 
yr. Oct. 13, 1832. Their ch. were Daniel, Martin, Polhemus, 
Isaac, Agnes, Elizabeth, and Maria. 

b. 1768, m. 1794, Susannah Schenck; issue, I Catharine, m. Abni. Ditmars, 
2 Abin.-Sehenek, m. Ann Tredvvell, 3 Maria, 4 Henry, 5 Andrew. Minne,^ b. 
1764, m. first, 1794, Catharine Schenck; issue, 1 Elizabeth, m. Eldert AHen, 
2 Peter, 3 A^ra.-Schenck, 4 Maria, ra. William Hoogland ; then m. Phebe 
Piatt, widow of Daniel Hegeman ; issue, 5 Catharine, m. Warren Mitchell, 
6 Jane, m. Martin Schenck, 7 Matilda, m. Rev. Wm. R. Gordon. 

5/^ Generation. 

Henry-Livingslon,h. 1196, m. 1817, Charlotte Foot; isswe, Henrj'-Livings- 
ton. Henry-Ustick, b. 1789, and elected Bishop of Penn. 1827, m. 1811, 
Elizabeth Carter; issue John-Henry, Anne C, Susan, Elizabeth, Mary, Jane 
M., Gertrude P., Hellen. William,^ b. 1790, m. 1814, Maria Holmes, issue, J. 
Remsen, William U., Maria H., Andrew, drowned 1843, Henry, and Catharine 
F. BenJa?nin-TreadweU,*h. 1792 and elected Bishop of New- York 1830, m. 
1813, Eliza H. Moscrop; issue, Elizabeth C, Henry M., William H., John C, 
Benjamin A., and Hobart. Adrian,^ b. 1795, m. 1819, Ann Wyekoff; issue, 
Dorothy-Ann, Gertrude. Henry Onderdonk, Jr? b. 1804; principal of Union 
Hall Academy, Jamaica, and author of Revolutionary Incidents of Long Isl- 
and, m. 1828, his cousin, Maria Hegeman Onderdonk ; issue, Elizabeth, and 
Adrian. Horatio-Gates? b. 1808, m. 1830, his cousin Elizabeth Sciienck On- 
derdonk; issue, Sarah, Maria, Josephine-Dorothy, Anna, Catharine-Elizabeth, 
Andrew. James-Monforl,^" b. 1811, m. 1837, Jane Hegeman; issue, Joseph, 
John, Mariana, Dorothea, Cornelia. Henry,* b. 1802, m. 1839, widow Mary 
Webb; issue Mary-Matilda, Henrietta-Virginia. Peter,^ b. 1798, m. 1823, Eliza 
Hoogland; issue, Cornelia, Caroline, Benjamin, William, Peter. Abraham- 
Schenck,^ h. lS01,m. 1824, Phebe Remsen, issue; Sarah-Jane, Minne, and 

N. B. The plan of this genealogy, as will be seen, differs from that observed in 
other cases. On a little examination, however, it will appear quite simple. 



18. Isaac Rapelye, son of Abraliam,^^ m. Jane, dau. of Carel 
Debevoise, and lived on the paternal farm at Fish's Point, 
where he d. in his 89th yr. Dec. 20, 1836, Mrs. Rapelye hav- 
ing d. in her 63d yr. Aug. 30, 1816. Their ch. were Abraham,^ 
Charles, John I., Isaac, Anna, Ellen, Agnes, Jane and Eve. Of 
these Abraham and John I. occupy portions of the paternal 
farm. Isaac, late a physician at Brooklyn, is now dec. Charles 
b. Aug. 12, 1786, m. Catharine M. Pearsall, of N. Hempstead, 
who dying, he m, secondly, Lavinia, dau. of David Purdy. In 
1830 he bought the farm previously owned by Daniel Riker, 
Esq. where he d. Jan. 6, 1834, his estate being now in the pos- 
session of his ch. namely, David P., Isaac C, Catharine M., 
and Lavinia P. Rapelye. 

19. John Rapelye, fifth child of Joris,'^i was b. June 11, 
1711, and m. Jan. 12, 1733, Maria, dau. of Abraham Lent. In 
1743 he and his brother Jeromus bought the paternal estate, 
which they divided, John retaining the farm now occupied 
bv Robert Willett. He d. of consumption, Feb. 11, 1756. His 
widow d. a. 90 yrs. Nov. 21, 1800. Their ch. were George,2i b. 
Oct. 27, 1733 ; Anna Catrina, b. Aug. 10, 1736, m. Jacobus 
Riker ; Abraham,^" b. Nov. 21, 1739 ; and Daniel, b. Aug. 15, 
1745. The latter m. in 1785, Ellen, dau. of William Livesay, 
and d. in New- York, Jan. 9, 1828 ; his wife having d. in 1815. 
Their ch. were John ; George, of New- York ; Harriet, the 
wife of John I. Staples ; Catharine ; and Ellen, wife of Gen. 
John Lloyd, of New-York. 

20. Abraham Rapelye, son of John,!^ m. June 22, 1/64, 
Nelly, dau. of John Bragaw, and kept the inn at Newtown 
village, known as the " corner house." He d. a. 59, Nov. 2, 
1798, and his widow in her 63d yr. Feb. 7, 1807. Their ch. were 
Jane, m. William Garden, afterwards Col. Garden, of York 
CO. N. B. ; Maria, m. Isaac Schenck ; John, Margaret, Abraham, 
Daniel, George, (all five of whom d. unm.) Isaac, d. an infant, 
Andrew b. Oct. 11, 1782, who left issue; and William-Garden 
b. July 4, 1785, now a resident of New-York. 

31. George Rapelye, eldest son of John,i^ ni. May 19, 1756, 
Mary, dau. of Bernard Bloom, of Newtown. After the Revo- 
lution he settled at Communipau, and on Mar. 22, 1791, was 
accidentally drowned in coming to New-York. His remains 
were recovered, and buried at Communipau. His widow d. 


June 4, 1819, a. 86, and was interred at Newtown. Their ch. 
were Jolin, b. Feb. 7, 1767 ; Bernard, b. Aug. 27, 1759 ; and 
George, b. Mar. 14, 1763. The latter m. Anne, dau. of Paul 
Vandervoort, and being knocked overboard by the boom 
of a vessel, was drowned in the East river, May 28, 1789, 
leaving issue two sons, George and Paul, the first of whom 
was also drowned at New- York several years after. Thus, 
by a singular fatality, a father, son, and grandson, each 
bearing the same name, met a watery grave. Paul Kapelye 
occupies the farm upon Newtown creek, formerly Thomas 
Alsop's. John m. Lemma Boice. He bought and occupied 
the farm of Capt. William Weyman, in Newtown, being that 
now divided between his son George I. Rapelye and son-in- 
law, Benjamin Moore. He d. a. 72, April 5, 1829, and his con- 
sort a, 68 yrs. Sept. 15, 1832. Their ch. are George I. ; Jacob, 
living in Brooklyn ; Jane, wife of Benjamin Moore ; and Mary. 
Bernard m. Nov. 23, 1783, Deborah, dau. of Joshua Gedney, 
at whose death he m. secondly Eensie, dau. of Martin Eapelye 
and widow of Daniel Lent. He d. a. 78, in 1837, having had 
by his first marriage two ch. who attained maturity, to wit, 
George-Bernard, now of New-York city, and Charles, dec. 

33. Jacob Kapelje, sixth child of Joris,^^ was b. Mar. 18, 
1714, and m. Catharine Lott, May 16, 1740. He resided at 
Hellgate, on the premises now owned by Mrs. Polhemus, and 
erected the stone- house yet standing on that farm. Mr. Eapelje 
was a leading man both in civil and church affairs. He was 
supervisor of Newtown for eighteen years in succession, and 
long served in the eldership of the Dutch church. At the 
opening of the Revolution, though all his brothers then living 
were loyalists, he warmly advocated the rights of his country, 
but did not live to witness its triumph. He d. May 18, 1776, 
and his widow on July 7th following, in her 56th yr. His ch. 
who reached adult years, were Agnes, b. Mar. 15, 1746, m. Martin 
Schenck ; Peter, b. Dec. 19, 1750; George, b. Feb. 10, 1753, d. a 
young man ; Sarah, b. Feb. 17, 1755, m. George Brinckerhoff ; 
Jacob, b. May 21, 1757; and Catharine, b. Jan.l8, 1760, m. Isaac 
Snediker. Peter was a whig, and quarter-master of Newtown 
troop of horse at the opening of the Revolution. He m. Dec. 
29, 1791, Bregie, dau. of Dow Ditmars, and settled at New Lots, 
where he d, Ap. 25, 1802, having had issue Jacob, Peter, 


and Dow-Ditmars, the last of whom resides in Newtown, and 
the two former at New Lots. Jacob Rapelje, son of Jacob^ 
m. Ann, dau. of Daniel Rapelye. He lived upon the farm now 
occupied by his son, Peter Eapelje, in Hellgate Neck, where he 
d. in his 63d yr. Jan. 23, 1820. His widow still survives. Their 
eh. who reached maturity, were Catharine, b. Sep. 26, 1791 ; 
Elizabeth, b. May 9, 1793 ; Maria, b. Aug.l6, 1796; Daniel, b. 
Dec. 2, 1798, d. Nov. 1, 1828 ; Sarah- Ann, b. Mar. 2, 1801 ; 
Peter, b. June 28, 1805 ; Jacob, b. Ap. 20, 1807, d. en route 
for California, June 29,1849 ; George, b. Jan. 7, 1809 ; and 
Margaret, b. Aug. 27, 1815. 

23. Jeromus Rapelje, the youngest child of Joris,^^ was b. 
Sep. 14, 1717, and m. Dec. 1, 1738, Wyntie, dau. of Abraham 
Lent. As before stated he bought the homestead, half of 
the paternal farm on Flushing Bay, his part including the 
lands now in the possession of Cornelius Hendrickson and 
the heirs of Col. Williams. He continued the brewery dur- 
ing his life, and his son Jeromus after him, but the build- 
ing has since been removed. He held a commission as 
captain of militia, was a resolute, energetic man, and a warm 
loyalist. He d. Jan. 15, 1776, and his widow Sep. 7, 1796, a. 
80. Capt. Rapelje is said to have been a person of large 
and heavy frame, and his consort as remarkable for her di- 
minutiveness. Their ch. were George, b. Dec. 12, 1739 ; Abra- 
ham b. Dec. 10, 1741 ; Daniel, b. Nov. 27, 1743, d. Sep. 9, 1762 ; 
Jacobus, b. Feb. 15, 1746, and killed by the fall of a limb in 
the woods Nov. 27, 1767 ; Cornelius, b. Aug. 10, 1748 ; Jero- 
mus,2'i b. Aug. 23, 1751 ; and John, b. Mar. 9, 1755, and d. Sep. 
9, 1776. George m. Nov. 23, 1764, his cousin, Aletta, dau. of 
Jacobus Lent, He d. in his 50th yr. Aug. 4, 1789, and his 
widow Dec. 23, 1810, in her 64th yr. They had issue Jeromus ; 
Margaret, m. David Springsteen ; Jacobus-Lent, living at New 
Lots ; and Daniel, who, with his brother Jeromus, removed to 
Canada. Abraham m. Dec. 6, 1767, Cynthia, dau. of Abraham 
Bogart, of Bushwick, and bought the farm of his father-in-law 
in that town, where he settled, and d. aged 39, Dec. 24, 1780, 
leaving two ch. Abraham, who m. Sarah, dau. of Peter Wyc- 
koflf, and Wyntie, who m. Henry Van Allen. . Cornelius m. Nov. 
17, 1780, Maria dau. of his cousin Jacobus Riker, and was a 
man of exemplary life and an office-bearer in the Dutch 


cliurch. He d. at Hallett's Cove, in his 80tli yr. Jan. 81, 
1828, and liis pious and amiable widow July 24, 1832, in 
her 71st yr. Their eh. were Grace, b. Aug. 20, 1782, widow 
of John Trafford; Jeromus, b. May 27, 1788, d. Sep. 12, 1818; 
Jamcs-Eiker, b. Jan. 3, 1790, now of New- York city ; and 
George, b. Feb. 15, 1793, who d. in New-York, April 18, 1850. 

24. Jeromus Eapelye, son of Capt. Jeromus,^^ m. Sep. 1, 
1775, Heyltie, dau. of John Bragaw, who dying Mar. 28, 
1788, in her 35th yr. he m. secondly Lanah, dau. of John 
Folk. He remained on the paternal farm till his mother's 
death, afterwards lived at Newtown, d. in his 80th yr. Mar. 
10; 1831, and his widow on Oct. 13th succeeding, a. 63. His 
ch. by his first marriage were Jeromus I ; Jane, wife of Syl- 
vanus Morris ; John, of Hopewell, N. Y. ; and Wyntie-Lent, 
who m. first John Wiltsee, and is now the widow of John 
Storm. By his second marriage Jeromus had issue, Abra- 
ham, George, Hellen-Bragaw, and Joseph-Ford, all living. 
Jeromus I. Eapelye m. Ap.. 14, 1804, Phebe, dau. of John 
Greenoak, and d. in his 67th yr. Feb. 26, 1843. His ch. 
were Jerome, now of Astoria, and John-Greenoak, dec. 

In closing this genealogy it will be appropriate to add a 
remark written sixteen years ago, by a learned gentleman, 
concerning this family. He says " Their general character 
for honesty, hospitality, industry, sagacity, talent, and perse- 
verance, stands pre-eminent in the estimation of their fellow 
citizens ; indeed they seem, in a great measure, to have re- 
tained through the lapse of more than two centuries the 
characteristic gaiety, tact, and intelligence of their French 
origin, combined with the good sense, economy and neat- 
ness of their Dutch progenitors." 


Altliougli extended and well 
written accounts of this family 
have already appeared in Thomp- 
son's Long Island and Hoi gate's 
American Genealogy, it is deem- 
ed indispensable that a memoir 
of the family be presented here, 
inasmuch as they have occupied 
a very important place in the 
history of this town. The follow- 
in o- is mainly drawn from the 
above sources, containing, how- 
ever, important amendments and additions. 

The first ancestor of this family, of which we have any 
knowledge, was Sir Robert Laurens, of Ashton Hall, m 
Lancastershire, England. It was this individual who accom- 
panied Richard Cc^ur de Lion in his famous expedition to 
Palestine, and who signalized himself in the memorable siege 
of St. Jean d'Acre, in 1191, by being the first to plant the 
banner of the cross on the battlements of that town, for which 
he received the honors of knighthood from King Richard, and 
also, at the same time, the coat of arms above represented. 
After this the family became eminent m England. In Faulk- 
ner's History of Chelsea, &c. he says, "The Lawrences were 
allied to all that was great and illustrious; cousins to ^le am-^ 
bitious Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, to the Earl of 
Warwick, to Lord Guilford Dudley, who expiated on he 
scaffold the short lived royalty of Lady Jane Gray ; to the 
brilliant Leicester, who set two queens at variance, and to Sir 
Philip Sidney, who refused a throne." 

A large number of the families bearing this name m the 
United States are descended from three brothers, John, Wil- 
liam and Thomas Lawrence, who emigrated from Grea St. 
Albans, in Hertfordshire, during the political troubles that led 
to the dethronement and death of Charles I. In corroboration 
of their descent from Sir Robert Laurens we find on the 
seals appended to some of their wills now on file at New-York, 


and on old plate still possessed by their descendants, the 
same coat of arms as were granted to that knight. 

John and William Lawrence were the first to emigrate. 
The former, then a youth of seventeen, with his said brother, 
aged twelve, and his sister Maria, a child of nine years, em- 
barked in the ship Planter, April, 1635, and landed in Massa- 
chusetts. Thence they subsequently came to this province. 
John was one of the six persons to whom the patent of Hemp- 
stead was granted by Gov. Kieft in 1644. In the following 
year he and his brother Williani, with several others, obtained 
the patent of Flushing, at which place John Lawrence estab- 
lished his residence, but soon after removed to New Amster- 
dam, where he held important public stations, both under the 
Dutch and English. He was appointed an alderman of New- 
York when the English government was first established in 
that city, in 1665 ; was afterwards mayor, and for a long term 
of years a member of the council. In 1692 he was appointed 
a judge of the supreme court, which office he held till his death 
in 1699. His will, on file in New- York, written in his own 
hand, states that he was then more than eighty years old. He 
had six ch. to wit, Joseph, John, Thomas, Susannah, Martha 
and Mary ; all of whom, except Thomas, married, but none 
left issue that reached maturity, save Mary, who m. William 
Whittingham, and was the mother of Mary, wife of Gov. 
Saltonstall, of Connecticut, a lady distinguished for her 
literary acquirements, and the gifts she bestowed upon 
Harvard and Yale Colleges. 

William Lawrence, the next younger brother of John 
Lawrence, also left Flushing, and resided for a season in Mid- 
delburg or Newtown, of which he was a purchaser in 1656, 
but he returned several years after to the first named town, 
and bought Lawrence's or Tew's Neck, where he continued to 
reside during life. His letters addressed to Stuy vesant and his 
council in 1662 and '3 are ably written, evincing his energy 
and decision of character, and are evidently the production of 
a man of superior mind and liberal education. He served in 
the magistracy under the Dutch ; while under the English he 
held both civil and military offices upon Long Island. Capt. 
Lawrence d. in 1680, a. 57, and the inventory of his estate on 
file in New- York shows that his sword, plate and other person- 


als alone amounted to £4,432 sterling. He was twice married. 
By his first wife he left issue William, John, and Elizabeth, 
who m. in 1672 Thomas Stevenson, of Newtown. In 1664 
he m. for his second wife Elizabeth, dau. of Richard Smith, 
Esq. patentee of Smithtown, by whom he had issue Mary, -- 
Thomas, Joseph, Richard, Samuel, Sarah, and James. After 
his decease his widow m. Sir Philip Carteret, governor of New 
Jersey. His eldest son, Major William Lawrence, d. at Flush- 
ing in 1719, leaving several sons, of whom the youngest, 
Stephen Lawrence, was the father of Leonard and grand-fa- 
ther of Gilbert Lawrence, now occupying the old family man- 
sion upon Lawrence's Neck. Joseph Lawrence, the fourth son 
of Capt. William Lawrence, was the father of Richard Law- 
rence, father of the late Effingham Lawrence who was b. Feb. 
11, 1785, and removed to the city of London, where he d. May 
17, 1806, leaving issue William E., John, Effingham, Edward- 
Billop, and Catharine-Mary, who, in 1816, m. Sir John T. Jones, 
Bart. His brother, Joseph Lawrence, b. Aug. 23, 1741, was a 
member of the New- York assembly in 1785, and was the father 
of the late Judge Effingham Lawrence, of Flushing, and of 
Henry Lawrence, the father of Hon. Cornelius W. Lawrence, 
of New- York. John Lawrence, the brother of Joseph, last 
named, was b, Feb. 22, 1732, and his son Effingham Lawrence, 
was the father of Watson E. Lawrence, Esq. of New Haven, 
and Judge Effingham»W. Lawrence, and the Hon. John W. 
Lawrence, of Flushing. For a fuller account of the poste- 
rity of Capt. William Lawrence, of Flushing, see the works 
cited at the beginning of this memoir. 

1. Thomas Lawrence, the youngest of the three brothers 
first named in this article, not being mentioned among the 
passengers of the ship in which his brethren came to this 
country, is supposed to have joined them after their emi- 
gration hither. He lived awhile at Flushing, but in 1656 
bought a house and lot in Newtown, to which place he 
removed and took part in buying the town lands from the 
Indians that same year. Afterwards, by purchase from the 
Dutch settlers, he became proprietor of a number of cultivated 
farms extending along the East River from Hellgate Cove to 
the Bowery Bay. On receiving the news of the Revolution in 
England of 1688, and the removal of Sir Edmund Andross 


as governor of Massachusetts, the family of Thomas became 
decided actors in asserting the principles which had prompted 
his departure from England. Though advanced in years, 
Capt. Lawrence accepted the command of the forces of 
Queen's county, to which he was commissioned by Gov. 
Leisler, with the rank of major, Dec. 80, 1689. In Feb. 
following he was intrusted with the raising of troops in 
Queen's county to aid in defending Albany against the 
French, and again in July of the same year, he was commis- 
sioned to proceed to Southold with a military force, to protect 
his Majesty's subjects there against the apprehended attacks of 
French cruisers. Major Thomas Lawrence d. at Newtown in 
July, 1703. His descendants are very numerous, residing in 
Connecticut, New- York, New Jersey, and other states of the 
Union. He left a wid,ow, Mary, and live sons, to wit, Thomas, 
William, John, Daniel and Jonathan. His dau. Sarah m. Joseph 
Winslow and Charles Le Bross ; Elizabeth, another dau. m. 
John Saunders. Of the sons Thomas and Jonathan, and their 
descendants, an account is given in Bolton's History of West- 
chester. William was appointed one of the council of the pro- 
vince under Gov. Leisler ; an office which he subsequently 
held from 1702 to 1706, by a commission from Queen Anne, 
The sad fall of Leisler, involving the members of his council 
in its effects, Wm. Lawrence, with the rest of them., was seized 
and committed on a charge of high treason. John Lawrence, 
his uncle, who, from the caution of age, or a disapprobation 
of Leisler's proceedings, had never countenanced his eleva- 
tion, was appointed on the commission with Sir Thomas 
Robinson, Col. William Smith, and others, to try those poli- 
tical offenders. These proceedings do not appear, however, 
to have interrupted the mutual confidence and affection of the 
uncle and nephew. William Lawrence m. in 1676, Anna dau. 
of Samuel Edsall, Esq. and left a son, William. The latter 
owned the farm now of Geo. Kouwenhoven, m. May 26, 1727, 
Elizabeth, dau. of Samuel Hallett, and had issue William, 
Samuel, and John. He d. Dec. 11, 1731. 

3. John Lawrence, son of Major Thomas Lawrence,^ was 
captain of the Newtown troop of horse in Leisler's time, with 
his brother Daniel as cornet ; and was soon after appointed 
high sheriff of the county, to which place he was also chosen 


in 1698. Of all the brothers he alone permanently remained 
at Newtown. He m. Deborah, dau. of Richard Woodhull, one 
of the patentees of Brookhaven. He d. Dec. 17, 1729, and his 
widow Jan. 6, 1742 a. about 83. They left three sons, Thomas, 
John,3 and Nathaniel. Thomas m. Jan. 5, 1730, Deborah, dau, 
of Teunis Wiltsee, of Newtown, and removed to Westches- 
ter county, where he left sons, Thomas and Nathaniel. His 
brother Nathaniel^ who also left Newtown, m. on May 23, 
1728, Susannah, dau. of Thomas Alsop, of the last named 
place, and had sons, Nathaniel, Richard, and John. 

3. John Lawrence, son of Capt. John Lawrence,^ was b. at 
Newtown, Sep. 9, 1695, and m. Dec. 8, 1720, Patience, dau. of 
Joseph Sackett, Esq. He was a wealthy farmer, possessing 
great perseverance and intelligence, and served in the magis- 
tracy of the county for many years. He d. May 7, 1765, and 
his widow in her 72d yr. Oct. 24, 1772. Their ch. who reach- 
ed maturity were John, b. Sep. 22, 1721 ; Joseph,^ b. Mar. 21, 
1723 ; Richard, b. June 20, 1725 ; Nathaniel, b. July 13, 1727 ; 
■Wiiliam,5 b. July 27, 1729 ; Anna, b. Nov. 20, 1731, who m. 
William Sackett ; Thomas,^ b. Nov. 21, 1733 ; Samuel, b. Sep. 
27, 1735 ; Jonathan,'' b. Oct. 4, 1737; and Daniel, b. Nov. 26, 
1739. Of these, Nathaniel d. unm. a. 34, Oct. 24, 1761, at St. 
Eustatia, in the West Indies, where he was settled and success- 
fully engaged in trade. John became an eminent and wealthy 
merchant in New-York. He m. Catharine, dau. of the Hon. 
Philip Livingston, but had no issue by this marriage. He d. 
Aug. 5, 1764, in his 43d yr. being at the time alderman of the 
Dock ward. His funeral was attended by the different clergy, 
and the celebrated Whitefield, then in this country, pro- 
nounced his funeral sermon and seemed to be particularly 
affected himself, a friendship having long subsisted between 
them. His brother Richard m. Amy, dau. of Cornelius Ber- 
rien, but had no issue. In 1776 he held a commission as 
captain of the Newtown troop of horse, and falling into the 
hands of the royalists, was sent to the Provo', where he was 
for a long time confined, and there contracted a fatal illness. 
The devotedness to their cause which pervaded the body of 
whigs, is illustrated by the closing scene of this gentleman. 
The capture of Cornwallis occurred but a short time before 
his decease, and while languishing upon his sick bed, the news 



of the capitulation was communicated to him. Assuring him- 
self of the truth, he declared his readiness to die, now that the 
ultimate triumph of his country was secured. His death took 
place at Newtown, Nov. 21, 1781, in his 57th yr. His brother 
Samuel was a man of great probity and imperturbable courage, 
united with much goodness of heart, but the early loss of his 
wife (Elizabeth, dau. of Jonathan and Letitia Hazard,) the 
death of his only child, and the confinement and bodily injury 
which he was subjected to during the possession of Long 
Island by the Britsh troops, probably tended to increase the 
peculiarities that strongly marked his character. These politi- 
cal injuries left in him a deep-rooted hostility towards the 
British government, which time had no effect in softening, 
and none of his prayers were more unfeigned, nor probably 
more frequent, than those for its overthrow. He was drown- 
ed in Hellgate, Aug. 22, 1810, a. 75. His brother, Col. Dayiiel 
Lawrence, also a zealous whig, was an exile from his home 
from 1776 to 1783 ; and served as a member of assembly from 
Queen's, by appointment of the convention of 1777, from that 
year till the termination of the war. He m. Miss Eve Van 
Horn, a lady of a highly respectable family in the city of 
New- York, and d. on his estate, at Lawrence's Point, Nov. 7, 
1807, a. 68. His ch. were John, d. unm. ; Nathaniel, m. Agnes, 
dau. of Martin Rapelye ; Daniel, d. unm. ; Abraham ; Catha- 
rine, m. Elbert Luyster; Anna, m. Thomas Bloodgood, and 
Mary, who m. John M. RajDelye. 

4. Joseph Lawrence, son of John Lawrence,^ m. Patience, 
dau. of Benjamin Moore, and aunt of the late Bishop Moore, 
of New-York', and was universally respected. He d. at New- 
town, Jan. 28, 1793, in his 70th yr. His son Kichard, b. Mar. 
3, 1764, went to Edinburgh to complete his medical education, 
and after his return m, Mary, dau. of John Moore of Newtown, 
where he practised his profession. He d. without issue, July 
26, 1804. His sister Anna, b. Nov, 27, 174:9, m. Samuel 
Riker, Esq. 

5. William Lawrence, son of John Lawrence,^ m. May 14, 
1752, Anna, dau. of Isaac Brinckerhofif ; after whose death 
he m. April 14, 1771, Mary, dau. of Charles Palmer. He was 
for many years a magistrate, and filled the station with useful- 
ness. On the capture of Long Island, in 1776, part of his 


house in Newtown was made the head-quarters of the British 
and Hessian generals, and himself and family were subjected 
to many of the exactions and vexations which those who had 
rebel predilections experienced from the invaders. He d. in 
his 65th yr. Jan. 13, 1794. He had issue (with six that d. in 
childhood,) Dientie, b. Mar. 19, 1756, m. Abraham Lent ; John, 
b. July 5, 1758 ; Catharine, b, April 26, 1763, now widow of 
Cornelius Luyster; Richard, b. July 11, 1765; Isaac, b. Feb. 
8, 1768 ; AViiliam, b. May 17, 1770 ; and Jane, b. Aug. 3, 1783, 
who m. Hendrick Suydam. William d. on his plantation in 
Demarara ; issue, James Van Horn Lawrence. Isaac was the 
late president of the U. S. Bank in New-York. As an exam- 
ple of unassuming wealth and a kind hearted liberal em- 
ployment of it, this gentleman stood eminent in the communi- 
ty. He was educated at Princeton, and was destined for the 
church, but a feebleness of constitution obliged him to adopt 
a more active life. Entering upon commerce in New-York he 
became one of our most prosperous merchants. In 1817 he 
was selected as president of the N. Y. branch of the late bank 
of the United States, which office he held till the expiration 
of its charter in 1836. He d. July 12, 1841, a. 74. His wife 
was Cornelia, dau. of the Rev. Abm. Beach, D. D and his oh. 
were William-Beach, now lieutenant-governor of Rhode Isl- 
and ; Cornelia A. m. James A, Ilillhouse ; Harriet, m. Dr. John 
A. Pool; Isaphene C, m. Dr. Benj. McVickar; Julia B. m. 
Thomas L. Wells ; Maria E. m. Rev. W. I. Kip ; and Hannah 
E. m. Henry Whitney. Eichard, usually styled Major Law- 
rence, m. his cousin, Sarah, dau. of Capt. Thos. Lawrence. He 
was an eminent merchant in New- York, but becoming blind, 
he retired to Newtown, and d. upon his farm at Hellgate, Sept. 
21, 1816, a. 51. His ch. who reached maturity were Thomas, 
William, Peter-Manifold, dec, Ann-Eliza, wife of Lambert 
Suydam, Esq. ; Richard, dec., and Isaac. John Laivrence^ 
(familiarly called the commodore^ from his having served as an 
officer on board the American frigate Confederacy, Capt, 
Harding,) m. Elizabeth, widow of Nath. Lawrence, and dau. 
of Judge John Berrien ; and secondly Patience, dau. of Samuel 
Riker,"Esq. He d. in New- York, Aug. 29, 1817, a. 59, and 
she in her 73d, yr. Feb. 22, 1851. His ch. were Madison, 
Samuel-Riker, Louisa, m. John Campbell; Jane-Riker, m. 


Benj. F. Lee ; Julia, m. John P. Smith, and Patience, who m. 
Timothy G. Churchill. 

6. Capt. Thomas Lawrence, son of John Lawrence,^ was 
appointed at about the age of twenty-five, to the command of 
the ship Tartar, of eighteen guns, and made several cruises in 
her from New-York during the old French war. His wife was 
Elizabeth, dau. of Nathaniel Fish, whom he m. Aug. 81, 1760. 
Possessed of wealth, he settled on a farm on the shore of 
Flushing Bay, previously owned by his father-in-law. He was 
appointed a judge in 1784, and was distinguished for great 
decision of character, and by all the punctilious observances 
which characterize the eleves of the old school. He d. Dec. 3, 
1817, a, 84, His ch. who reached maturity were Nathaniel, b. 
July 11, 1761 ; Sarah, b. Sept. 20, 1765, m. Major Eichard 
Lawrence ; Thomas, b. Jan. 12, 1770 ; Mary, b. Aug. 15, 1773, 
m. Adrian Van Sinderen, Esq. ; Elizabeth, b. Sept. 16, 1775, 
m. John Wells, Esq. ; John T. b. Aug. 18, 1780 ; William, b. 
Feb. 11, 1788, d. unm. and Jane-Fish, b. Aug. 6, 1785, who d. 
unm. John T. m. Eliza, dau. of Simon Remsen. Thomas m. 
Maria, dau. of Rev. Nathan Woodhull. Nathaniel, after he had 
left Princeton college, and while under lawful age, entered the 
North Carolina line of the regular American army, as a lieute- 
nant. He was made prisoner by the enemy after behaving 
with great gallantry. In 1788 he was chosen from Queen's to 
the convention which ratified the constitution of the United 
States. He also held the of&ce of attorney -general of this state 
from Dec. 24, 1792 to Nov. 30, 1795 ; and represented Queen's 
county in the assembly in 1791, '2, '5 and '6. He d. at Hemp- 
stead, July 5, 1797, a. 86. His wife was Elizabeth, dau. of 
John Berrien, Esq. and his only ch. Margaret, is the wife 
of Rev. Philip Lindsley, D. D. president of Nashville Uni- 

7. Jonathan Lawrence, son of John Lawrence,^ having 
acquired wealth in mercantile pursuits in New- York, retired 
from business at about the age of thirty-four, and purchased a 
residence at Hellgate, which had belonged to his great-grand- 
father. Major Thos. Lawrence, and since comprising the farms 
of Squire John and Major Richard Lawrence. (See page 87.) 
On the opening of the Revolution Mr. Lawrence espoused 
with much zeal the cause of his oppressed country, and his 

A K N A L 8 OF K E W T W N . 289 

efforts and tlie influence of his brotliers and relatives in New- 
town, essentially contributed to redeem tlie town from tlie ill- 
timed loyalty which distinguished most of the other portions 
of the county. In 1775 he was apjDointed a member of the 
provincial convention which met at New- York, and the next 
year he was again deputed to that body, and was afterwards 
elected to the convention which formed the first constitution of 
this state. On the adoption of the constitution and organiza- 
tion of the state government in 1777, Mr. Lawrence was ap- 
pointed one of the senators for the southern district, in which 
capacity he served during the remainder of the war, when not 
absent upon any other service. The various appointments and 
commissions executed by him during his connection with the 
legislature were of the most valuable character. At the peace 
he returned to his native town, much impoverished by the 
casualties of the war. He again commenced business in New- 
York, in a degree repaired his fortunes, and enjoyed the con- 
fidence and respect of his fellow-citizens till his death, Sept. 4, 
1812, a. 75. A more full and interesting memoir of Mr. Law- 
rence is contained in Thompson's Long Island. He was twice 
m. first on Mar. 16, 1766, to Judith, dau. of Nath'l Fish, who 
d. a 18 yrs. Sept. 28, 1767 ; secondly, on Aug. 7, 1768, to Kuth, 
dau. of Andrew Eiker, who survived him, and d. a. nearly 72 yrs. 
Oct. 9, 1818. His ch. were Jonathan, b. June 20, 1767; Judith, 
b. June 27, 1769, m. John Ireland ; Margaret, b. Jan. 13, 1771 ; 
Samuel, b. May 23, 1773, who d. at his residence at Cayuta Lake, 
N. Y. Oct. 20, 1837, having been a representative both in the 
state assembly and in congress, and in 1816 a presidential 
elector ; Andrew, b. July 17, 1775, who, while in command of 
a merchant vessel, d. at Factory Island, one of the Isles de 
Los, on the coast of Africa, April 18, 1806 ; Eichard M. b. Jan. 
12, 1778 ; Abraham-Riker, b. Dec. 18, 1780, late of the board 
of aldermen. New- York ; Joseph, b. May 5, 1783 ; John L. b. 
Oct. 2, 1785 ; and William-Thomas, b. May 7, 1788, now of 
Tompkins co. N. Y. late a member of congress, and formerly 
a judge of the county court; m. Margaret, dau. of Eembrandt 
F. MuUer. Jonathan, now dec. m. Elizabeth Eogers; issue, 
Henry W., William A., Jonathan, Eichard, Isabella, d. unm., 
Judith, d. young, Margaret, m. Barzillai Schlosson, and 
Adriana, who m, Wm. S. Whittemore. Joseph m. July 6, 



1812, Mary, dau. of Capt. John Sackett, and d. at Blooming- 
burgh, N. Y. on his way to his family residence at Cayuta 
Lake, April 28, 1817. His widow and children reside at New- 
town, the latter being Andrew, Elizabeth A, m. Jas. Moore, 
Mary E. widow of Dr. J. P. Stryker, and Joseph A. John L. 
Lawrence, an ornament to the legal profession, was recently a 
member of the state senate, and at the time of his decease, July 
24, 1849, was city comptroller. He m. in 1816, Sarah* Augusta, 
only dau. of Gen. John Smith of Mastic, L. I. and grand- 
daughter of the lamented Gen, Nath'l Woodhull ; issue, John 
S., Elizabeth, m. Alfred N. Lawrence ; Margaret, m. Jas. W. 
Walsh ; Sarah, Anna M., Eichard, d. unm., "William T., 
Charles W., Abraham E., Lydia, and Mary, dec. 


This respectable and extensive 
family is of Flemish extraction, and 
was anciently located in the city of 
Ghent, in the Netherlands, where its 
members are mentioned as free born 
citizens or patricians of that city, 
and among whom Andries Brinck- 
erhoff, senator and syndic in 1307, 
is particularly noticed in the annals 
of those times. From Ghent the fami- 
ly extended itself in the sixteenth 
century to Holland, Friesland, and Lower Saxony, probably 
compelled to make this remove by the galling severity of 
the Spanish government, which, during that century, forced 
into exile thousands of the inhabitants of Ghent and other 
places in Flanders. In the above-mentioned provinces the 
Brinckerhoflfs became established, and their descendants enjoy 
much distinction there at the present day. 

1. Joris Dericksen BrinckerhofF, the ancestor of the entire 
American family, was from the county of Drent or Drenthe, 
in the United Provinces, and having lived some time at 


Flushing, a sea-port in Zealand, emigrated to this country in 
1638,* and with his wife Susannah, (whose maiden name was 
Dubbels,) settled in Brooklyn, where Mr. Brinckerhoff obtain- 
ed a grant of land by brief dated Mar. 23, 1640. He was a 
man of Avorth, and was an elder of the Brooklyn church at 
the time of his death, which happened Jan. 16, 1661. Ilis 
widow survived many yrs. His ch. were Derick, Hendrick, 
Abraham,-'' and Aeltie, who m.Wm. Van Couwenhoven. Berick 
was slain by the Indians and left no issue. Hendrick m. Claesie 
Boomgaert and settled on the eastern bank of the Hackensack 
river, in New Jersey, where he bought a tract of land June 17, 
1685. He did not long survive his purchase. He left sons, 
Cornelius, Derick, and Jacobus, whose descendants, now con- 
siderably scattered, write their name Brinkerhoff ; omitting the 
letter c, which was dropped by this branch of the family many 
years ago, and is now also disused by a few others not of this 
branch. Of the three sons above-named, Cornelius, the eldest, 
settled at Communipau, and d. in 1770, leaving sons, Hendrick, 
and Hartman, who were ancestors to the B. families of Bergen. 
Derick and Jacobus bought the paternal estate. The former 
has descendants at Hackensack and Schraalenburgh. 

2. Jacobus Brinckerhoff, like his grandfather Joris,^ was a 
person of character, and a member of the Dutch church. He 
d. in 1769 or '70. ]^y his wife Agnietie, he had issue Hen- 
drick, George,^ Jacob, and Maria, who m. Elias Houseman, 
Hendrick d. in 1760, having had five ch. namely, Jacobus, 
(grandfather of the Rev. James C Brinkerhoff,) Nicausie, 
(grandfather to the wife of Rev. Cor. T. Demarest, of English 
Neighborhood,) George, (grandfather of George, formerly she- 
riff of Bergen co.) Hendrick, and Ann, who m. Henry Ver- 
bryck. Jacob d. in 1771, having had issue Agnietie, m. Daniel 
Haring ; Lucas ; Nautie (Hannah) m. John Christie ; Jacobus, 
Hendrick, Albert, and George. Jacob, a son of Albert, now 
occupies the old homestead of the family on the Hackensack 
river, nearly two miles below the village of that name. 

3. George Brinkerhoff, son of Jacobus,- was born near 

* The places of their residence in Europe, and date of emigration are de- 
rived from a MS. account of the family, compiled more than thirty years since 
by the late Is:iac Brinckerhoff, Esq. of Troy, who appears to have drawn hia 
information from authentic sources. 


Hackensack, Oct. 9, 1719, m. Martina Bogart, and prior to the 
Revolution removed to Adams co. Pa. His wife d. Feb. 5, 
1782, a. 54, and lie at a very advanced age, Jan. 3, 1810. Tlieir 
ch. were James, Roelof, Henry, d. unrn., Gilbert, Jacob,^ Jobn, 
and George, the latter a clergyman of the Dutch church, and 
father of Hon. Geo. H. Brinkerhoff, of Niles, N. Y. John 
left descendants in Adams co. Pa. Oilhert also had issue. 
James d. in Niles, where two of his sons, George and James, 
now reside. Roelof di. at Owasco, N. Y. His ch. were David 
R. a member of the convention which revised the constitu- 
tion of this state in 1821, and who d. at Auburn, greatly 
respected ; George R. late of Owasco, a justice of the peace ; 
Henry R. a major-general of militia and member of assem- 
bly of this state, who removed to Huron co. Ohio, was 
elected to congress in 1843, but d. before taking his seat ; 
James R. d. unm. ; Martina, m. Col. JohnL. Hardenbergh, of 
Auburn ; Margaret, m. Richard Parsell ; and Hannah, who m. 
Dr. Josiah Bevier, late of Owasco. 

4. Jacob Brinkerhoff, son of George,^ was b. Feb. 25, 1756, 
and m. Hannah Demarest, of Hackensack, Feb. 25, 1779. He 
served in the Revolutionary army. In 1793 he removed 
from Pennsylvania to Owasco, N. Y. where he d. Nov, 13, 
1829. His widow d. April 1, 1840, a. 81. They had issue 
George J. ; Margaret, m. Peter Seborn ; David J. d. unm, ; 
Martina, m. Geo. Post ; Henry J. ; Isabella, m. John Decker ; 
James ; Jacob, dec. ; Peter ; Maria, d. unm. ; and John J, of 
Owasco, formerly member of assembly. Henry J. d. at Ply- 
mouth, Ohio, and was the father of Hon. Jacob Brinkerhoff, 
of Mansfield, in the above state, late a member of congress. 

5. Abraham Jorisz 'Brinckerhoflf, son of Joris,^ was b. at 
Flushing, in Holland, in 1632, as we learn from the MS. 
account of the family before mentioned. He obtained a pa- 
tent for land at Flatbush, but located in Flatlands, where 
he served as an elder of the church, and was chosen a ma- 
gistrate in 1673. He had m. May 20, 1660, Aeltie, dau. of 
Jan Stryker and sister to the wife of Cor. J. Berrien ; and 
about the time that Mr. Berrien came to Newtown Mr. 
Brinckerhoflf removed hither also, having bought the large 
farm on Flushing meadow, now owned by W. T. Hendrick- 
son. Here he d. about 1714. His ch. were Joris,^ John^ 


Derick,^! Garret, Ida, m. John Monfort ; Susannah, m. Martin 
li. Schenck; Sarah, m. successively, Jacob Rapelje and Ni- 
cholas Berrien ; Margaret m. Theodorus Van Wyck, and 
Lammetie, who m. Johannes Cornell. Oarret, b, 1681, set- 
tled on a farm in Flushing, given him by his father in 1711, 
but his descendants are not clearly traced, though they are 
believed to have located in Oyster Bay. John settled in Flush- 
ing, and d. in 1707. His son John, b. Mar. 15, 1703, resided 
near Newtown village, and d. Aug. 31, 1758. His ch. were 
(by his first wife Marritie Ryder,) John, b. July 15, 1728; 
Stephen, b. Mar. 6, 1731 ; Catharine, b. Feb. 6, 1734, m. Abra- 
ham Lent ; Elizabeth, b. July 23, 1741, m. John A. Briucker- 
hoff; and (by his second wife Anna, dau. of Abm. Lent,) 
Mary, b. Nov. 15, 1742, who m. Baldwin. I believe this entire 
family removed to New Hackensack. Stephen m. Maria Wal- 
dron in 1755, and d. in Dutchess co. between 1776 and '79 ; 
issue, John, Mary, and Aletta. 

6. Joris Brinckerhoff, son of Abraham,^ was b. Mar. 1, 1664, 
and early joined the Flatlands church. He succeeded to the pa- 
ternal estate on Flushing Bay, and acquired several other farms 
which, by deeds dated Mar. 2, 1726, he distributed ^ong his 
sons. He d, Mar. 27, 1729. His wife, Annetie, dau, of Tennis 
Jansz Coevers,* d. June 11, 1750, a. nearly 85. Their ch. were 
Sarah, b. Dec. 18, 1691, m. Rem Adriaense; Susannah, b. Mar. 
4, 1693 ; Abraham, b. Dec. 10, 1694 ; Teunis,^ b. Mar. 29, 1697 ; 
Isaac,8 b. April 26, 1699 ; Aeltie, b. April 13, 1704, m. Cor. 
Rapelje; Neeltie, b. July 22, 1706; Hendrick,^ b, Jan. 2, 
1709; and Antie, b. Oct. 4, 1712, who m. Abm. Rapelje. 
Abraham had a farm now owned by Mrs. McMurray and 
others. He d. May 6, 1767, a. 72. His ch. were Abraham, 
m. Elizabeth, dau. of Abm. Brinckerhoff, but d. without issue 

* This was the common ancestor of the Covert family in this country. 
He emigrated in 1651 from Heemstede, in Holland, and settled at Bedford, 
L. I. subsequently serving as an elder in the Brooklyn church. He and his 
consort, Barbara Lucas, were both living in 1690. Their children (all church 
members, with possibly one exception,) were Hans, Lucas, Maurits, Marritie, 
who in. Jean MesuroUe, (whose father Jean, ancestor of the Meserole family, 
came from Picardy, France, in 1663 ;) Aeltie, m. Wm. Post ; Sarah, m. Arent 
Fredericks, and Annetie, who m. Joris Brinckerhoff. Each of the sons left 
issue, and their descendants are now numerous and scattered over several 
states of the Union. 


in 1780, a. 53 ; Ann, m. Theodorus Polhemus ; Sarah, m. 
Johannes BrinckerhofF; Elizabeth, m. John Eapelje, and Mary, 
who m. William Bloodgood. 

7. Tennis Brinckerhoff, son of Joris,*^ m. Elizabeth Ryder, 
Nov. 24, 1721, and occupied the farm now of Mr. Knecland, 
at Dutch Kills. He became an elder of the Dutch church in 
1748, and for many years was a justice of the peace. He d. at 
the Kills, Jan. 16, 1784, in his 87th yr. his wife having d. in 
her 46th yr. Oct. 24th, 1745. His ch. were Elizabeth, b. May 
10, 1724, m. John Fish ; and George, b. October 17, 1726, who 
ra. Dec. 18, 1746, Catharine, dan. of Elbert Herring and grand- 
daughter of Abraham Lent. He had issue, Elizabeth, b. Oct. 
6, 1747, m. Simon Bloom ; Elbert, b. Jan. 4, 1751 ; Tunis, 
b. Dec. 27, 1757 ; and George, b. Jan. 18, 1765. Mr. Brincker- 
hoff owned the farm now of Samuel Waldron, but after the 
Revolution he removed to Hopewell, Dutchess co. and left this 
farm to his grandson George, son of Elbert, He d. Dec. 5, 
1797, and his widow July 11, 1807, in her 79th yr. His 
sons Tunis and' George moved to Dutchess co. in 1783. 
Tunis m. Jane, dau. of John Bragaw, and d. Feb. 3, 1790, in 
his 33d 3». His descendants live in the town of La Grange, 
in the above county. Qeorge m. Jan. 9, 1785, Elizabeth, dau. 
of John Wiltsie, d. a. 69, July 8, 1834, and had issue, Marga- 
ret, Avho m. Isaac Adriance, and sons, Tunis and John, re- 
siding at Fishkill ; the former, who was b. May 12, 1791, 
and m. Sept. 28, 1814, Maria Van Wyck> is the father of T. 
Van Wyck Brinkerhoff of that place. This gentleman, whose 
praiseworthy efforts have done much to preserve the history 
of the B. family, is in possession of an antique writing desk, 
to which tradition ascribes a Holland origin, it being said 
to have been brought over by Joris Derickscn Brinckerhoff 
himself Elbert m. Antic Storm, and d. on the paternal form 
Jan. 23, 1780, a, 29, leaving issue George, and Catharine, now 
widow of Cor. R. Remsen. George m. Rebecca, dau. of Abm. 
Berrien, and d. June 26, 1808, a. 35, and his widow Oct. 6, 
1843, a. 67. Their ch. were Mary B. b. Mar. 30, 1795, m. 
David Moore ; Ann S. b. Dec. 25, 1797, widow of James H. 
Kolyer; Catharine R. b. Oct. 15, 1798, m. Wm. L. Riker 
and Jeremiah Simonson; Grace B. b. Aug. 25, 1800, wife 
of Charles Cook; Pelatiah W. b. Sept. 22, 1802, wife of 



And. B. Ryerson ; and George-Borricn, b. June 29, 1806. The 
latter, Geo. B. Brinckerhoff, Esq. of Newtown, m. Sarali-Ann, 
dau. of Johannes Kolyer. 

8. Isaac Brinckerhoff, son of Joris,*^ m. his cousin Diana, 
dau. of Derick Brinckerhoff. He occupied a farm conveyed to 
him by his father, Mar. 2, 1726, being that now owned by 
Wm. Bragaw, near the Narrow Passage. lie d. suddenly 
June 4, 1745, in his 47th yr. His widow d. Sept. 13, 1749. 
Their ch. were Anna, b. May 6, 1733, m. Wra. Lawrence ; 
Aeltie, b. June 18, 1735, m. Cor. Van Wyck ; Sarah, b. May 
11, 1738, m. Thos. Carman, and George, b.^Oct. 18, 1739. The 
latter succeeded to the paternal farm and was thrice married ; 
first, to Susannah Fish, -vvho d. July 18, 1772, a. 30 ; secondly, 
to Sarah, dau. of Jacob Eapelje, who d. Mar. 17, 1787, a. 32 ; 
and thirdly, to Elizabeth, dau. of Charles Palmer, who survived 
him, and d. in her 96th yr. Mar. 16, 1847. Mr. Brinckerhoff 
was a well esteemed citizen, and was a whig during the Re- 
volution. British troops often encamped on his premises. He 
d. April 17, 1802, in his 63d yr. He had issue (by his first 
wife,) Susannah, m. John Storm, (and by his second wife,) Ca- 
tharine, m. Thomas Alsop, and Diana, who m. Jacob Storm. 

9. Hendriek Brinckerhoff, son of Joris,'' m. Lammetie, dau. 
of Daniel Rapalje, and succeeded to the homestead on Flush- 
ing Bay, (now W. T. Hendriekson's,) where he resided till his 
death, in 1777, a. 68. He was a pious and exemplary man, an 
elder of the Dutch church at Newtown, and a magistrate for 
many years. His ch. were George, Daniel, ^° Abraham, Tunis, 
Jacob, d. unm. Johannes, Isaac, and Aeltie, who m. Richard 
Cooper. Oeorge, b. 1732, m. in 1753, Ida Monfort, and had is- 
sue, Hendriek, Lammetie, d. unm., and Abraham. The latter 
b. 1760, ra. in 1793, Hannah Laton, and d. Sept. 23, 1823 ; 
issue, George, David, Abraham, Henry, and Ida, who m. John 
Chapman. Abraham m. Sarah Onderdonk, and had eh. John, 
Isaac, Lammetie, Cornelius, who m. but had no issue, and Ann, 
who m. John Ludlum. John m. Rebecca Lott in 1791, and 
had issue, Margaret, b. 1792 ; Sarah, b. 1794 ; Abraham, b. 
1798 ; John, b. 1803 ; Cornelius, b. 1806 ; Hendriek, b. 1808 ; 
Isaac, b. 1810 ; and Ann-Eliza, b. 1813 ; all living and married. 
Tunis m. Catharine, dau. of John Rapelye, and had ch. Hen- 
driek, John, Elizabeth, Ann, Aletta, Jacob, and James. Johannes 


m. Sarali, dau. of Abraham Brinckerhoflf, settled at New 
Hackensack, in Dutchess co. and d. Nov. 23, 1764, in his 28th 
yr. His widow, a pious and excellent woman, returned to 
Newtown with her only child, Hendrick, and afterwards m. 
Elbert Adriance. Hendrick m. Elizabeth, dau. of Eem Hege- 
man, and had issue, Elbert A. now of New-York ; Sarah, m. 
Abm. Snediker ; Ida, m. Isaac T. Eeeves ; Eliza, m. David 
Hendrickson, and Aletta, who m. Jason Beebe. Isaac b. 1743, 
m. Annetie Bennet, and was a farmer at the Head of the Fly. 
He was constable of Newtown from 1775 till '80, and served 
as an elder in the Dutch church, Jamaica. He d. Dec. 6, 1815, 

a. 72, and his widow in her 75th yr. Dec. 11, 1820. They had 
ch. Annetie, b. Feb. 7, 1772, m. Jacob Brinckerhoff ; Aletta, 

b. Jan. 12, 1776, d. unm., and Hendrick, b. Sept. 15, 1780, who 
succeeded to the paternal farm, was also an elder of the Jamaica 
church, and d. Sept. 22, 1828. He had issue, (by his first wife 
Sarah Snediker,) Isaac, Elbert, and Anna, (and by a second wife 
Phebe Bloom,) Hendrick, Sarah-Maria, and Aletta- Magdalene. 

10. Daniel Brinckerhoff, son of Hendrick,^ was b. Oct. 26, 
1734, m. April 3, 1756, Ann Monfort, and d. Sept. 28, 1781. 
His widow d. Oct. 8, 1793, a. 61. Their ch. were Hendrick, b. 
June 19, 1757 ; Abraham, b. Mar. 27, 1760 ; Jacobus, b. June 

, 5, 1762, d. Dec. 4, '62 ; Sarah, b. Mar. 17, 1764, m. Wm. Baton ; 
Jacob, b. Aug. 27, 1766 ; Lammetie, b. Dec. 5, 1768, d. Oct. 
15, '69 ; Daniel, b. Aug. 26, 1770 ; Peter, b. Jan. 21, 1774 ; and 
Aletta. b. Oct. 8, 1779, who m. Jacob Rapelye. Hendrich m. 
but d. without issue. Abraham I), m. in 1782, Gertrude, dau. 
of Peter Onderdonk, and secondly Deborah, dau. of .John 
Lawrence, a grandson of William, son of Major Thos. Law- 
rence, of Newtown. He d. Mar. 30, 1843, a. 83, having had 

^ssue, (by his first wife,) Elizabeth, m. Griffin Sands ; Ann, m. 
John Wright ; Jane ; Daniel, now of Williamsburgh, L. I. ; 
Sarah, m. Derick Brinckerhoff: Gertrude; Peter d. young; 
Hendrick, d. unm. ; (and by his second marriage,) Aletta, and 
Charlotte who m. Styles P. York, Tarrytown. Jacob succeed- 
ed to the paternal farm at Manhassett, L. I. being that now 
owned by his only surviving child, Daniel. He m. in 1793, An- 
netie, 'dau. of Isaac Brinckerhoff, and d. July 28, 1841, in liis 
75th yr. having been an elder of the Manhassett church. 
Daniel m. in 1792 Maria, dau. of John Luyster, and d. Sept. 


20, 1828, a. 58 ; issue, John, and Jane-Smith, who m. Nicholas 
Bennet. Peter resides at Lakeville, L I. ; no issue. 

11. Derick BrinckerhofF, son of Abraham,^ was b. Mar. 16, 
1677, m. in 1700, Aeltie, dau. of John Couwenhoven, and be- 
came a farmer in Flushing, where he enjoyed a commission as 
justice of the peace. He was connected with the Dutch church 
at Newtown, His wife d. in her 62d yr. Mar. 9, 1740, after 
which he again m. but had no further issue. He d. April 26, 
1748. His ch. were Abraham,^^ John, Joris,^^ Jacob and Isaac, 
twins, Diana, m. Isaac Brinckerhofi" ; Aeltie, m. Wra. Hoog- 
land, and Susannah, who m. Cornelius Luyster. Of these sons, 
Abraham, John, Isaac and Jacob settled in Eombouts Precinct, 
now Fishkill, Dutchess co. on 1000 acres of land purchased of 
Madam Brett. Jb/m, styled colonel, m. Jane, dau. of Johannes 
Van Voorhees, and d. in 1785, a. 81. He gave his farm to his 
grandson, John B. Van Wyck, son of his dau. Aeltie, wife of 
Dr. Theodoras Van Wyck. He left another farm to his grand- 
son Adrian Brinckerhoff. Jacob m. Elizabeth, dau. of Abra- 
ham Lent, and d. at Fishkill, in 1758, a. 44, leaving issue Ann- 
Catharine, m. Johannes De Witt, and Derick. The latter m. 
Catharine Van Vlack and located at the Dutch Kills, His ch. 
were Elizabeth, m. Abm. Paynter ; Aaron ; Catharine, m. Eay- 
nor Willett ; and Jacob, now of New- York. Aaron was the 
father of Andrew Bragaw Brinckerhoff, of New-York, lumber 
dealer. Isaac^ b. Jan. 12, 1714, m, Feb. 28, 1737, Sarah, dau. of 
Daniel Rapalje. He d. on his farm at Fishkill, April 22, 1770. 
His widow d, in 1793, a. 74. Their ch. were Derick, and Aletta 
who m. Gen. Jacobus Swartwout. Derick, b. May 21, 1739, 
became a merchant in New-York city, and m. May 20, 1761, 
Rachel, dau. of Cor. Van Ranst. He was a member of the 
Dutch church, and at the Revolution, being a whig, fled to 
Fishkill, and d. Nov. 17, 1780. His ch. were Isaac, Cornelius, 
Jacobus, d. in infancy, John, Sarah, m. Gerrit H. Van 
Wagenen; Gertrude, d. unm. ; Catharine, who alone survives ; 
and Mary-Godby, who d. single. Of these, Isaac, b. Mar. 14, 
1762, m. Sophia Quackenbush, and d. at Troy, Dec. 29, 1822, 
having had ten children, one of whom is Walter, of New- York 
city, and another, Isaac, is a surgeon in U. S. navy, Corne- 
lius, b. Mar, 5, 1770, m, Mary, dau. of Dr, Jos, Chapman, and 


d. Mar. 10, 1813 ; his son, William C. now residing in New- 
York. John, b. Oct. 17, 1778, m. Gertrude, dan. of Abm. 
Schuyler, of Albany, where Mr. B. d. Mar. 10, 1835. His son, 
Dr. John BrinckerhofF, lives at Chicago, 111. 

12. Joris BrinckerhofF, son of Derick,^^ was b. in 1705, and 
became a merchant in New- York. He joined the Dutch church 
in 1726, and subsequently served for ten years as a m.ember of 
the city council. He was twice married, and d. in 1768, a. 63, 
leaving ch. Derick, Abraham, and Lucretia, who m. Jacobus 
LefFerts. Derick^ b. 1729, a merchant, church-member, and 
alderman, m. in 1766, Catharine, dau. of Christopher Abeel, 
and d. at Fishkill, in 1775 ; issue, George, Elizabeth, m. Fash, 
and Catharine, who m. Harry Peters. Abraham, b. 1745, half 
brother of Derick, was a merchant, and m. Dec. 17, 1772, 
Dorothy, dau. of Peter Remsen ; he d. in Broadway, Mar. 7, 
1823, in his 78th yr. His ch. were Peter, (several of Avhose 
children reside at Albany ;) Maria, m. John H. Remsen ; 
George ; Abraham, (whose family mostly reside at Free- 
hold, New Jersey ;) Lucretia L. m. John S. Schermerhorn ; 
James, and Jane. 

13. Abraham BrinckerliofF, eldest son of Derick,^^ pre- 
deceased his father, but the date of his death is not ascertain- 
ed. By his wife, Femmetie, he had issue, Derick, John A., 
Abraham, d. without ch. ; Elizabeth, m. Abm. Brinckerhoff"; 
Aeltie, m. Abm. Adriance ; Diana, m. Rudolphus Swartwout, 
and Antie, who m. Abm. Lent. John A. m. Elizabeth, dau. 
of John Brinckerhoff, and d. in the Revolution ; issue, Phebe, 
m. James Humphrey ; Abraham ; Elizabeth, m. Smith ; 
George ; Isaac, d. unm., and Derick. The latter left sons, 
John, Abraham, Isaac, George, and William. Deride, entitled 
colonel, m. Aug. 27, 1747, Geertie WyckoflP, of Flatlands, and 
was an extensive miller at Fishkill. His ch. were Abraham, 
Jacob, and Phebe, who m. Col. Aaron Stockholm. Abraham 
m. Sarah Brett; issue, Gertrude, m. Gen. John Van Wyck ; 
Catharine, m. James Bailey ; and Derick, who m. twice and had 
issue Abraham, Robert, Sarah, Matthew, James, and Catharine. 
Jacob, son of Col. Derick, was b. June 7, 1754, m. Oct. 23, 
1774, Dientie Van Wyck, and d. Aug. 12, 1818. His ch. were 
Gertrude, Aletta, Maria, Elizabeth, Derick, Hannah, Phebe, 
and Diana ; of whom Derick, b. Oct. 19, 1786, ra. Mar. 24, 



1813, Sarah, dau. of Abraham D. Brinckerhoff, and resides 
at Fishkill, having had issue Gertrude, Diana, Kichard-Henry, 
Sarah-Jane, Cordelia and xYbrahain. 


We arc informed by writers 
on European genealogy, that 
the Hikers were originally a 
German family, located at a 
very remote period in Lower 
Saxony, where they enjoyed a 
state of allodial independence, 
at that day regarded as consti- 
tuting nobility. They there pos- 
sessed the estate or manor of 
Rycken, from which they took 
their name, then written von 
Rycken, indicating its territorial derivation. Subsequently 
the name suffered various changes, being found written de 
Rycke^ de Ryk, Rieclce, &c. and in America finally assuming 
its present form. 

Hans von Rycken, the lord of the above manor, and a 
valiant knight, Avith his cousin, Melchior von Rycken, who 
lived in Holland, took part in the first crusade to the Holy 
Land, in 1096, heading 800 crusaders in the army of Walter 
the Penniless. Melchior lived to return, but Hans perish- 
ed in that ill-fated expedition. The coat of arms first borne 
by the family are represented above, and are thus to be ex- 
plained ; the color of the shield (azure) is emblematic of the 
knighthood, the horns indicate physical strength, the golden 
stars a striving for glory, and the white roses are symbols of 
discretion and fidelity. But in the year 1225 the descendants 
of Hans von Rycken adopted as a new coat of arms the es- 
cutcheon of their fee-farm, Barrenhop, which name signifies in 
Low-Saxon a heap of bears, and hence there were bears' heads 


in their arms and crest. Their posterity is now most numerous 
in Lower Saxony, Holstein and Hamburg. In time the descen- 
dants of Melchior von Rycken extended themselves from Hol- 
land to the region of the Ehine, and into Switzerland, and from 
these originated a branch of the family which became distin- 
guished in the city of Spire, to one of whom, a patrician of 
that city, the emperor, Lewis Fifth, in the year 1329, in 
consideration, as we are told, of the self-acquired honors and 
estates of his family, presented a new armorial device, the 
shield bearing crossed spears and a fish. This branch of 
the family wrote its name Richer^ by which as well as by 
its escutcheon, it continued to be distinguished. 

As regards the American portion of the Riker family, I 
am, with present information, disposed to believe them de- 
scended from a branch of the family of considerable wealth 
and importance at Amsterdam, where they had occupied 
places of public trust for two centuries, until the Spanish 
war occasioned a great reverse in their fortunes. In this 
war Capt. Jacob Simonsz de Rycke, a wealthy corn mer- 
chant of the above city, and a warm partizan of the Prince 
of Orange, distinguished himself by his military services. Jt 
has been conjectured that he was the grandfather of Abra- 
ham de Rycke, the head of the family in America, from the 
early occurrence of the name of Jacob in the family here,* 
and since tradition states that their ancestor was an early 
and zealous supporter of William of Nassau, when that 
prince took up arms in defence of Dutch liberty, and that 
the family, for several successive generations, during the long 
and sanguinary struggle with Spain, followed a military career. 

* Notices of the Riker family, contained in Knapp's Treasury of Know- 
ledge and Thompson's Long Island, state that the father of Abraham was 
named Gysberl, who locating early at the Poor Bowery, obtained a grant of 
land, &c. I have failed to tind a particle of documentary evidence in favor 
of this statement, which probably refers either to Hendrick Harmensen, the 
father-in-law of Abraham, (see pages 21, 22,) or to Abraham himself who 
afterwards settled there ; and though a Gysbert Riker appears among the 
early emigrants to New Netherland, our records warrant the belief that he 
was not the father of Abraham. If we may judge from that almost unerring 
guide among the Dutch at that day, the names of the elder grandsons, we 
may conclude with much confidence that the father of Abraham was named 
Jacob, who probably never came to America. 


But it remains for future research to remove the uncertainty 
which envelopes this era of the family history. 

When New Netherland invited the virtuous and the dar- 
ing to seek a home in her wilds, several of the Rikers joined 
the adventurers coming hither. These were Abraham, Grys- 
bert, Rynier, and Hendrick Rycken^ the last of whom came 
out a few years after the others, and was the ancestor of the 
Suydam family, his sons assuming that name. Gysbert owned 
land at the Wallabout, and is last named in 1640, and Rynier 
was an intelligent merchant in New Amsterdam, named as a 
ohurch member in 1649, and living in the Waal Slraat in 1665 ; 
but it is not known that either of these two left issue. In ad- 
dition to these, our records mention " Hendrick Rycken, skip- 
per, under God, of the ship Sphiera Munda," who, trading on 
this coast in 1658, was compelled by misfortune to touch at 
New Amsterdam, where he shipped a quantity of beavers and 
tobacco for the European market. There is no further notice 
of this skipper, and though possible, it is hardly to be suppos- 
ed that he afterwards abandoned the sea, took up a residence 
here, and was identical with the Suydam ancestor. 

1. Abraham Rycken, or de Rycke, as his name is indiscri- 
minately written in our early records, was the progenitor of 
the present Riker families in New- York, New Jersey, and 
other parts of the Union ; his descendants, in the third gene- 
ration, having assumed the present mode of spelling the name. 
He is presumed to have emigrated in 1638, as he received in 
that year an allotment of land from Gov. Kieft, for Avliich he 
afterwQirds took out a patent, dated Aug. 8, 1640. This land was 
situated at the Wallabout, and now either joins, or is included 
within the farm of the Hon. Jeremiah Johnson. In 1642 Riker 
is found in New Amsterdam, where he continued to live many 
years upon premises of his own, on the Heeren Gracht, now 
Broad-street. He was probably engaged in trade, for it appears 
.that in 1656 he made a voyage to the Delaware river for the 
express purpose of purchasing beaver skins, then a leading 
article of traffic. The voyage proved an unlucky one, for, as 
they were ascending the Delaware at night, the bark stranded 
near the falls of that river. She was unloaded and after some 
time got afloat, during which operation the passengers abode 
in tents on shore. Riker visited Fort Casimir, near the present 



New Castle, and returned, unable to get any peltry. He and 
his wife, Grietie, a dau. of Hendrick Harmensen, were members 
of the Dutch church, as appears by a list dated 1649, and most of 
their children were baptized in the church within Fort Amster- 
dam. In 1654 Riker obtained a grant of land at the Poor 
Bowery, to which he subsequently removed, afterwards adding 
to his domain the island known as Riker's Island. (See pages 
36, 64, 65.) Having attained to more than three score years 
and ten, he d. in 1689, leaving his farm by will to his son 
Abraham.* His ch. were Ryck-Abramscn, the eldest, who 
adopted the name of Lent, (see Lent genealogy ;) Jacob, b. 
1640, d. in infancy; Jacob, b. 1643; Hendrick, b. 1646, d. 
^ young; Mary, b. 1649, m. Sibout H. Krankheyt, afterwards 
of the manor of Cortlandt ; John, b. 1651 ; Aletta, b. 1653, m. 
Capt. John Harmense, also of the manor of Cortlandt ; Abra- 
ham,2 b. 1655, and Hendrick, b. 1662. The latter also adopt- 
ed the name of Lent. John m. in 1691, Sarah Schouten, widow 
of Paulus Vanderbeeck, and their son Abraham, b. 1695, set- 
tled in Essex co. N. J. where his descendants are to be found. 
Jacob united with his brother Eyck and others in buying 
Ryck's Patent, in Westchester co. but sold his interest in 1715 
to his nephew Hercules Lent. He was then living at " Upper 
Yonkers," and is said to have d. without issue. 

2. Abraham Riker, son of Abraham,^ was b. in 1655, in 
New Amsterdam, and on Jan. 10, 1682, m. Grietie, dau. of Jan 
Gerrits Van Buytenhuysen, of New- York, by his intermarri- 
age with Tryntie, dau. of Jan Van Luyt, of Holland. He 
proved to be a man of intelligence, and inheriting the pater- 
nal estate, added considerably to the extent of his lands, his 
most important purchase being that of a third of the Tuder 
patent, on Nov. 2, 1688. (See page 114.) His estate he settled 
on his sons, Abraham and Andrew, Nov. 10, 1733, and hav- 
ing been for a number of years entirely blind, he suddenly re- 
covered his sight, and almost immediately expired, Aug. 20, 

*His will, dated Mar. 9, 1688-9, and the inventory of his personal estate, 
taken on April 5, succeeding, are recorded in the county clerk's office, Jamaica, 
in Deeds, liber A. page 36. An ancient copy of the will, and also the origi- 
nal Dutch patents to Riker for his said farm and island, are still in posses- 
sion of his descendant, John L. Riker, Esq. through whose kindness I have 
inspected thera. 


17-16, in his 91st yr. A rude slab marks his grave in the family 
cemetery at the Poor Bowery.* Mrs. liiker d. Nov. 15, 1732, 
a. 71. Their ch. were Catharine, Margaret, Mary, Abraham,^ 
John,^ Hendrick,^ Andrew,^" and Jacob. Of the daughters, 
Mary m. Hasuelt Van Keuren, of Kingston. Margaret m. in 
succession Peter Braisted, Thomas Lynch, and Anthony 
Duane, father of the Hon, James Duane, afterwards mayor of 
New- York. She had no ch. and d. Jan. 8, 1775, in her 90th 
yr. An interesting obituary of this lady is contained in Riv- 
ington's N. Y. Gazette, of Jan. 12, '75. Jacoh^ the youngest 
son, b. in 1702, m. May 25, 1729, Catharine, dau. of Rev. Sam'l 
Pumroy, and settled in New- York, where for many years he 
conducted a bakery in Beekman-street. When that city be- 
came a prey to the enemy in the Revolution, he retired, first 
to Lono; Island and then to Rhinebeck, where he d. in 1778. 
His ch. who attained to adult years, were Lydia, b. 1732, ra. 
Capt. Isaac Sheldon; Abraham, b. 1734; Margaret, b. 1710, 
m. Capt. Abm. Riker; Catharine, b. 1742, m. successively 
Capt, Dennis Candy, and Cornelius Bradford ; and Elizabeth, 
who m. Capt. Geo. Collins. Abraham, the only son, pursued 
his fjxther's occupation, and m, Oct, 29, 1757, Sarah, dau, of 
Henry Rousby, a son of Christopher Rousby by his intermar- 
riage, in 1703, with Sarah, widow of the noted Capt, Wm. 
Kidd. Mr. Riker d. respected, during the Revolution. His 
widow, a lady of intelligence and exemphiry piety, (as was also 
her grand-mother, Sarah,) d. in 1802, a. 62. They left issue, 
Sarah, b. 1768, m. John Walgrove, ornamental painter, and 
father of Effingham W. Walgrove, of Dobb's Yqvvj, N. Y. ; 
Emma, b, 1772, m. AVm. Whitehead, Esq. late president of the 
Commercial Bank, of Perth Amboy ; and John, b. 1780, who 
removed to Philadelphia. 

3. Abraham Riker, son of Abraham,^ was b. in 1691, m. 
Geesie, dau. of Johannes Van Alst, of the Dutch Kills, and 
located upon that part of his father's estate which included a 

* This yard was early appropriated by the Rikers and Lents, and in all 
subsequent sales of the farm on which it is located, it has been duly roserv- 
ed to those families. The late worthy owner of the farm, Mr. Isaac Rapelye, 
generously enlarged the ground by the gift of a strip of land adjoining. The 
premises now contain many graves of the departed ; may no ruthless hand 
ever disturb their gentle repose. 


third of the Tuder patent. The tenement which he erected 
yet remains, and forms the centre room of the house standing 
on these premises, now owned by the heirs of Chas. Rapelye, 
dec. Mr. Riker took an active part in the erection of the first 
Dutch church built at Newtown, and was one of the trustees 
to whom the deed for the church plot was executed. Of this 
church he and his wife were members, and he, subsequently, at 
the time of his death, a ruling elder. He was a consistent 
christian, and noted for the uniform gentleness of his man- 
ners. His wife d. Oct. 20, 1758, and he Feb. 23, 1770, in his 
79th yr. He had ten ch. to wit, Aletta, d. unm. Nov. 30, 1752, 
a. 33 ; Johannes, d. 1741:, a. 23 ; Margaret, m. John Bragaw ; 
Abraham, Peter, Grace, m. Richard Berrien ; Andrew,'' Joris, 
d. Feb. 8, 1753, a. 20 ; Jacobus,^ and Hendrick.*^ Abraham^ 
who d. Sep. 17, 1758, a. 33, is reputed to have possessed un- 
usual talents and a remarkable flow of humor and wit. He 
devoted a part of his life to teaching. Peter acquired consi- 
derable property in New- York as a ship-blacksmith, and was 
a gentleman highly respected. Being devoted to liberty, he 
spent the period of the Revolution within the American lines. 
For some years before his death he was an elder of the Brick 
church, now Dr. Spring's. He m. successively, Esther Brasher, 
and Jane, dau. of Daniel Bonnett, but left no issue. He d, 
during a temporary abode at the house of Jesse Leverich, Esq. 
Oct. 29, 1799, a. 72. Mrs. R. d. Jan. 25, 1808, a. 76. 

4. Andrew Riker, son of Abraham,'^ was b. in 1730, re- 
moved to New- York, and wrought successfully at the anvil. 
He m. May 9, 1755, Elizabeth, dau. of Peter 0. WyckofP, of 
Flatlands. She d. Mar. 5, 1779, in her 48th yr. Two years 
after the peace of 1783 Mr. Riker bought the half of Riker's 
Island, erected a house there, and made it his residence, sub- 
sequently purchasing the other half of tlie Island. Here he 
d. in his 86th yr. Nov. 14, 1815, leaving the Island to his sons 
Abraham and Peter, who, with a dau. Elizabeth, who m. Henry 
Lent, were his only ch. Abraham,, b. May 10, 1756, was em- 
ployed during the Revolution as an artificer in the continental 
shops at Peekskill. Here he m. Mar. 9, 1779, Mary, dau. of 
John Delanoy. The latter part of his life was spent on Riker's 
Island, where he d. Jan. 28, 1843, and his wife Apr. 12, 1841, 
in her 82d yr. He had issue, Peter, d. unm. Nov. 10, 1829, a. 


49 ; Elizabeth, m. successively, Beuj. Welch and And. Van 
Horn ; John, d. unm. Feb. 14, 1823, a. 87 ; and Abraham. The 
latter, b. Nov. 30, 1789, m. Harriet, dau. of Thos. Dickerson, 
and d. in New-York, Mar. 14, 1823 ; issue, Harriet, Hannah, 
and William. Pet&\ b. May 25, 1760, m. May 19, 1782, jMary, 
dau. of Capt. Edward Kelly, who d. in the south seas while 
commanding a whaleman. Peter removed with his father to 
Riker's Island, where he lived nearlj'- sixty years. His Avife d. 

a. 64, May 25, 1827, and he on Feb. 5, 1851, in his 91st yr. 
being at the time, I believe, the oldest member of the Riker 
family. His ch. were Andrew, b. April 1, 1784, d. at Wil- 
liamsburgh, L. I. June, 15, 1851 ; Hannah, b. June 16, 1787, 
m. Jacob I. Mott, of Tarrytown, N. Y ; Edward, b. Sep. 4, 
1789, a resident of New- York city ; Henrj^, b. Jan, 3, 1792, 
now of Newtown; Wm.-Charles, b. Aug, 22, 1795, d Aug. 
11, 1837, without issue ; and Robert, b. Sept. 18, 1798, and 
living at Tarrytown, 

5. Jacobus Riker, son of Abraham,'' was b, in 1736, and 
named after his uncle. Jacobus Van Alst. He remained on 
the paternal farm at Newtown, m. Feb. 20, 1761, Anna-Catrina, 
dau. of John Rapelje, dec. and after his father's death bought 
the homestead. May 1, 1770. In the Revolution Mr. R. de- 
sired to take no part, and only b}^ circumstances and influ- 
ences peculiarly adA'crse was he forced, like many others, 
to yield an apparent compliance with loyalist measures. 
But his observation and own bitter experience, during that 
reign of terror, had the effect of attaching him firmly to the 
republican party, with which, from the peace of 1783, he 
uniformly acted in exercising the right of suffrage. He was 
a man of considerable ingenuity, and thoroughly Dutch in lan- 
guage and habits. Living in the practice of useful industry, 
prudence, and strict integrity, he enjoyed the respect and con- 
fidence of his fellow-townsmen. Truly pious, he served several 
years in the eldership of the Dutch church at Newtown, Death 
overtook him suddenly in his 73d yr. Aug. 26, 1809. His wi- 
dow, an amiable christian, d. July 1, 1815, a, 80 yrs, save one 
month. They had issue, Maria, b. Mar, 29, 1762, m. Cor, Ra- 
pelye ; Grace, b. Aug. 9, 1764, d. Oct. 6, 1776 ; John-Rapelye, 

b. Dec. 24, 1766, d. upon the homestead unm. Dec. 8, 1796; 
Abraham, b. May 6, 1769, d, Oct. 22, 1774; and Daniel, b. 


Mar. 7, 1771. The latter was named after his maternal uncle, 
Daniel Rapelje. While a youth his father entertained some 
thought of giving him a medical education, Dr. Samuel Cutler, 
then a boarder at their house, offering to furnish him letters of 
introduction to eminent physicians in Great Britain, but the 
offer was at length declined, and Daniel was destined to an 
agricultural rather than a professional life. He m. in Feb. 
1791, Deborah, dau. of William Leverich, and (with the excep- 
tion of two years, between 1795 and 1797, when he resided 
successively at Middletown and Bushwick,) continued to live 
on the paternal estate, which became his own at the demise of 
his father. On June 7, 1808, he was appointed a justice of the 
peace for Queen's county by a special commission, and for 
nearly eighteen years performed its duties without having a 
single decision reversed by a higher court. In Jan. 1827, he 
sold his farm (now owned by the heirs of Chas. Eapelye,) and 
removed to the city of New- York, where he resided till his 
death. Having lost his wife Apr. 9, 1818, in her 46th yr. Mr. 
Eiker m. May 1, 1831, Ann-Eliza, dau. of Isaac Martin, dec. 
He d. suddenly on Sept. 16, 1850. His ch. Avere James, b. 
Dec. 25, 1791 ; William-Leverich, b. Dec. 8, 1793 ; Maria-Ea- 
pelye, b. Dec. 22, 1795, m. Nov. 2, 1825, Samuel Valentine, 
and d. Mar. 3, 1828; Patience-Stanton, b. Feb. 25, 1798, m. 
Mar. 4, 1841, John T. Welling ; John-Eapelye, b. Jan. 26, 1800 ; 
Ann-Catharine, b. May 1, 1803, d. unm. Oct. 31, 1826; Joseph- 
Lawrence, b. Aug. 17, 1805, d. unm. Oct. 27, 1823; Hannah- 
Eliza, b. Mar. 20, 1807, m. May 17, 1826, George Elder ; Susan- 
Ann, b. Jan. 10, 1832, m. Nov. 13, 1850, Isaac Webb ; and 
Daniel, b. July 26, 1836, who d. Dec. 7, 1844. John E. Eiker 
d. Feb. 4, 1824, a. 24, leaving issue, Maria, and John. "William 
L. Eiker, m. Feb. 16, 1819, Catharine-Eemsen, dau. of George 
Brinckerhoff, and d. Mar. 8, 1828, in his 35th yr. His ch. are 
Daniel, Evelina, and William L. James Eiker, the eldest child 
of Daniel Eiker, Esq. entered upon a clerkship in New- York 
in 1806, and in 1813 began business in Pearl-street as a grocer, 
which he continued at various locations till 1846, when he re- 
tired ; the next year built a residence at Harlem and removed 
thither in 1848. In 1832 Mr. E. enjoyed a seat in the city 
council. He m. Dec. 29, 1814, Elizabeth, dau. of John Van 


Arsdale,* a discreet, amiable and pious companion, who d. in 
her 44th yr, Oct. 10, 1834 ; by which marriage Mr. R. has six 
ch. namely, Mary-Jane, Ann-Catharine, James, John-Lafay- 
ette, Daniel J. and Charles-Bodle. Ann C. m. Nov. 6, 1839, 

* The Van Arsdale family derive their origin from Jan Van Arsdale, a 
knight of HoUand, who, in 1211, erected the castle (now county house) Ars- 
dale, and from it took his name. His armorial bearings now constitute the 
public arms of the bailiwick of Arsdale. From him descended " Symon 
Jansen Van Arsdalen," (as his signature is,) who emigrated to New Amster- 
dam in 1653, and located at Flatlanda, where he served as a civil magistrate 
and an elder of the Dutch church ; and our records prove him to have been a 
person of means, education, and influence. He d. about 1710, leaving sons 
Cornelius and John, from whom theentirc Van Arsdale fiimily in this coun- 
try have sprung. Cornelius left six sons, who all removed to New Jersey, 
and one of whom, named Philip , was the grandfather of the late Elias Van 
Arsdnle, Esq. of Newark, N. J.Vnd also of the })resent Dr. Peter Van Ars- 
dale of New- York city; anotTier named John, was the father of Simon, grand- 
father of the Rev. Cor. C. V;in Arsdale. John Van Arsdale, the son of Sy- 
mon Jansen, was a leading member of the Dutch cliurch, and d. in the town 
of Jamaica, leaving also six sons, one of whom, Christopher, removed with 
several of his brothers to New Jersey, and had three sons, John, Okie, and 
Cornelius. Of these the first was b. on Long Island, and d. at Murderer's 
Creek, Orange co. N. Y. in 1798, a. 76. His son John, the person named in 
the text, and the great-grent-trrandson of Symon Jiinsen Van Arsdalen, was b. 
at the latter place, Jan. 5, 1756. He served in the American army during nearly 
the whole of the Revolution. Being wounded and miide a prisoner at the 
battle of Fort Montgomery, he endured a distressing captivity of nine months 
in New-York, from which lie was relieved by exchange, July 20, 177^. The 
next year he accompanied Gen. Clinton's expedition against the Iiidinns in 
western New-York, and served in every successive c;imp;iign till 1782, in 
which year he was nearly eight months a sergeant under Cnpt. Hardenbergh 
of Weisenfelt's regiment, with which he closed his service. He m. June 16,' 
1783, Mary, dau. of David Crawford, a respectable farmer of Orange co. 
whose father, James' Crawford, came to America in 1718, with certificate of 
recommendation from the Presbyterian church of Golan, in Ireland. Mr. Van 
Arsdale, after his marri.ige, sailed a packet on the North and Enst rivers for 
thirty years, then served for twenty as wood inspector in the city of New- 
York. Having survived his partner four years, he d. Aug. 14, 1836, and was 
interred with military honors by the veteran corps, of which he w;is then first 
captain-lieutenant. He was n man of singular bodily activity, of great re- 
solution, and generous even to a fault. His ch. who survived childhood were 
Eliztibeth, b. in New-York, April 10, 1791, who m. Jnmes Riker; David, b^ 
Sept. 1, 1796; Deborah, b. Aug. 12, 1801, now widow of John Phillips; 
Jane, b. Mar. 20, 1804, widow of Jacob G. Theall ; and Mary, b. Oct. 9, 1808/ 
who m. Capt. Andrew Dorgan, of Mobile, Ala. and d. Oct. 4, 1849. 


William W. Bodle, son of the late Hon. Charles Bodle, of 
Bloomingburgh, N. Y.* 

6. Hendrick Kiker, son of Abraham,^ was b. 1738, m. Apr. 
26, 1760, Jane, dau. of Daniel Kapelje, by his intermarriage 
with Kensie, widow of Peter Gr. Wyckoff, and mother of Eliza- 
beth, wife of And. Kiker, The same year of his marriage he 
became a freeman of New-York, and for many years was 
a cabinet-maker in Pearl-street, In the Eevolution, being 
known to have rebel predilections, he did not escape ill- 
treatment by the enemy. In 1788 he was made a com- 
missioner of the alms-house and bridewell, which office he re- 
tained for a series of years. Hendrick Eiker was extensively 
known and respected ; a good hearted, upright man, and a ge- 
nuine Dutchman. His wife d. July 13, 1803, a. 67, and he 
Mar. 16, 1807, a. 69. His ch. were Eensie, (called Nancy,) b. 
Oct. 23, 1762, d. unm. ; Abraham, b. Dec. 27, 1764, d. unm. ; 
Grace, b. Mar. 13, 1769, m. Mar. 28, 1795, Cornelius Hert- 
tell ; Daniel, b. July 17, 1771 ; Jane, b. Apr. 3, 1774, m. Aug. 2, 
1793, Capt. John O'Brian, (and were the parents of Jane K. 
widow of the late distinguished artist Henry Inman,) and Peter, 
b. Feb. 8, 1777. The latter, a silversmith, m. May 24, 1806, 
Sarah, dau. of Col, Edward Meeks. He d. of apoplexy May 
28, 1821, and his widow Oct. 11, 1830, a. 48 ; issue, Joseph- 
Lopaz Dias, Sophia-Josephine, dec. and Sarah- Ann. Daniel, 

* This gentleman was the grandson of Daniel Bodle. who emigrated from 
Armagh co. Ireland, in 1742, and settled at Little Britain, Orange co. N. Y. 
where he m. Elizabeth, widow of Jas. Graham, and dau. of Wm. Thompson. 
This lady was an own cousin to the mother of Gov. George Clinton. By 
this marriage Mr. Bodle had issue, William, Patrick, Samuel, and Alexander, 
whence come all the Bodies of this state. He d. aiiout 1786, a. 94. Hi» 
son William, b. Mar. 31, 1746, m. Sarah, dau. of Jonathan Owen, and became 
a leading citizen of Orange, for a long period serving both as a civil magis- 
trate and an elder of the Goshen Presbyterian church. He was generally 
respected for his integrity and high moral excellence. In 1826 he re- 
moved to Tompkins county, N. Y. where he d. Jan. 23, 1838 ; his sons Jona- 
than, William and James, having also located in that county. His dau. Mary 
is now the widow of Nath"! Tuthill. His son, Charles Bodle, was b. July 1, 
1788, and m. Esther, dau. of Samuel Wood. As a civil magistrate, an ami- 
able friend and, Mr. Bodle was endeared to all his acquaintances. 
He represented his district (the counties of Ulster and Sullivan) in the first 
session of the twenty-third congress, was prevented by illness from appear- 
ing at the second session, and d. much lamented, Oct. 31, 1835. 


son of Hendrick, visited France and Copenhagen in 1795, with 
his brother-indaw, Capt. O'Brian, afterwards became a mer- 
chant in New- York, and m. Apr. 28, 1804, Helen, dau. of Abm. 
Polhemus. In 1819 he was appointed overseer of the alms- 
house, which post he filled with credit till his death in his 67th 
yr. Mar. 24, 1828. His ch. were Jane E. m, Eobert M. DeWitt, 
Abraham P., Christina T. m. Wm. B. Kellum, Henry, Edgar, 
Elizabeth, m. Altheus Y. Stocking, Ann P. and Helen, m. to 
Harvey Stocking. 

7. John Piker, son of Abraham,- m. Geertie, dau. of Teunis 
Wiltsee of Newtown, and after living some years at the latter 
village removed, in 1744, to Closter, then Rockland co. N. Y. 
and now Bergen co. N. J. where he had bought a farm. The 
next year he erected a house on the spot where his grandson, 
Jacob Riker, now resides. Mr. Riker and his partner were 
members of the Dutch church, and they yet live in the memo- 
ry of their descendants as devout christians. He survived his 
partner two years, and d. in 1783, a. over 90. He left issue, 
Abraham,^ John, Gerardus, Deborah, m. Dan'l Martine, Mar- 
garet, m. Cor. Blauvelt, Mary, m. John Bell, Elizabeth, m. Abm. 
Blauvelt, and Catharine, who m. John Lawrence and John Ry- 
der. Gerardus m. and before his father's death, removed to 
Kentucky ; he has descendants living in Indiana. John, b. 
Oct. 25, 1736, served both in the French war and as a patriot 
in the Revolution. At the age of fifty he m. Margaret Blauvelt. 
He owned the paternal farm, was a kind and worthy gentleman, 
and d. Oct 6, 1828, a. 92. His ch. were Jacob and Gertrude, 
twins, and Abraham. Gertrude m. Michael Hines. Abraham 
m. Grace Gracie. Jacob, b. Aug. 19, 1786, m. Leah, dau. of 
Martin Paulas, and resides on the ancestral estate at Closter. 

8. Abraham Riker, son of John,"^ was b. Nov. 25, 1721, and 
inherited that part of his father's estate now owned by Peter 
R. Haring. In the war of Independence he was a warm friend 
of liberty, and most of his sons did service in the militia. He 
was withal an eminent christian, and d. Feb. 9, 1820, at the 
patriarchal age of 98 yrs. By his wife, Elizabeth Concklin, he 

had issue, John, b. — ; Sophia, b. Oct. 20, 1750, m. John 

Johnson ; Elizabeth, b. Nov. 9, 1751, m. John Nagle ; Abra- 
ham, b. May 22, 1753 ; Margaret, b. Nov. 24, 1754, m. John 
Sneden ; Matthias, b. Sep. 10, 1756 ; Gerardus, b. Apr. 13, 1758 ; 


Maria, b. Jan. 29, 1760, m. John Banta ; James, b. Oct. 5, 1761 ; 
Henr}^ b. July 25, 1764 ; Peter, b. Sep. 3, 1766 ; Samuel, b. 
May 19, 1768 ; and Tunis, b. Aug. 10, 1770. Of these John 
m. Maria, dau. of Andries Onderdonk, of Tappan ; he and his 
only son Henry, are now dec. Abraham removed to New- 
York after the Revolution, as did all his brothers except Peter. 
He m. Elizabeth, dau. of Jacobus Van Valen, and d. at Hoboken, 
May 21, 1825, a. 72. He had issue, John, Sarah, ra. John Y. 
W. Warner, Abraham, and James, who d. without issue. 
Abraham m. Sarah J. Vincent, and d. June 19, 1825, a. 42, 
having ch. Margaret, Abraham, Elizabeth, and Sarah. John 
m. Esther Davis, and d. in New- York a few years since ; issue, 
John, formerly chief engineer of the fire department, Henry, 
Edgar, now of New Haven, Augustus, James, William, Eliza- 
beth, d. young, Sarah, m. Henry Mallory, and Mary, who m. 
Westwood W. Wright. Matthias m. Ann, dau. of Henry 
Nagle. He d. in New-York, Sep. 8, 1837, a. 81. His children 
were Henry, and John ; the latter m. Mary, dau, of Thos. Dema- 
rest, and d, in New-York, Aug. 28, 1828, a. 50, having issue, an 
only dau. Ann. Gerardus d. in New-York, Oct. 31, 1833, in 
his 76th yr. By his wife Margaret, dau, of Wm. Nagle, he had 
but one ch. that reached mature years, namely, William, who 
m. Elizabeth, dau. of Jacob Woolsey, and distinguished him- 
self in the war of 1812 by his attempts to blow up the British 
armed vessels in Long Island Sound. He d. in New- York, Jan. 
20, 1827, a. 49, and left one son, Gerardus. James m. first 
Ann-Dorotli}^, dau. of And, Zimmerman, and secondl}^, Mary, 
dau. of David Hustace and widow of Gabriel Briggs. He is 
living at a venerable age, having had issue as follows, 
John J., Ann D. m. Cor. Haring ; Sophia, m, Wm, Berrien ; 
Susan, Abigail, James, William H, and Elijah H, John J. m. 
Eliza W. dau, of Wm. Berrien, and d, Sep, 2, 1850, a, 57, leav- 
ing several ch. Henry came to New-York, but afterwards re- 
moved to North Carolina, m. and d, at Beaufort. His only ch. 
Abraham, is thought to be living in Savannah, Geo. Peter re- 
mained on the paternal farm at Cioster, and m. Margaret Mabie. 
He d. April 21, 1844, in his 78th yr. and his only ch. Elizabeth, 
m. Jacob D. Haring, Samuel m, Rachel Moore, of English 
Neighborhood. He d. at New-York, of yellow fever, Oct. 8, 
1799, in his 32d yr. having issue, Mary, and Elizabeth, who 


botli m. Tunis m, Ellen Moore, sister of Samuel's wife. Many- 
years since he removed from New-York city to Tioga co, in 
this state, where he is still living, or was recently. In the war 
of 1812 he held the commission of major in the militia. He 
has had issue, Abraham, Thomas, Samuel, Anthony, Perry, 
James, Maria, Jane and Eliza. 

9. Hendrick Riker, son of Abraham,^ removed to New- 
York, where he m. Oct. 20, 1722, Elizabeth, dau. of John Peek. 
He was a blacksmith at Burling slip, where he owned property. 
He was connected with the Dutch church, and in 1756 was 
elected alderman of the Out ward, but soon after resigned. He 
d. July 27, 1761, a. about 65. His widow d. at a country seat 
on Chatham square, north side of James street, Aug. 6, 1791, a. 
92 yrs. Their ch, who attained adult years, were Abraham, b. 
1723, d. Sep. 8, 1742; John, b. 1725; Henry, b. 1740, and 
James, b. 1742. James studied law and was admitted to the 
bar Apr. 3, 1763. On June 5, succeeding, he m. Mary, dau. of 
Capt. Viner Leaycraft, but had no issue. Mr. Riker pursued 
his legal vocation in New-York, having his office at the corner 
of James and Chatham streets. He d. Feb. 20, 1792, a. 50. 
Emry chose " a life on the ocean wave," and long commanded 
a New-York merchantman. He m. but had no issue that sur- 
vived infancy. Where he d. is uncertain; his will, dated June 
8, 1781, was proved Feb. 15, 1790. John m. Dec. 10, 1747, 
Dorothy, dau. of Rem Remsen, and wrought many years at 
the anvil at Burling slip, and having amassed a fortune retired 
to the country seat on Chatham square. His wife d. Nov. 2, 
1785, and he Jan. 23, 1806, in his 81st yr. He was a good man, 
and was sincerely respected. At family devotion it was his 
custom to read two chapters from the scri})tures, one in Dutch, 
the other in English. Of his ten children but five reached ma- 
turity, namely ,Henry, b. 1748, John, b. 1755, Jeromus, b, 1760, 
James, b. 1763, and George, b. 1768. Henry received the com- 
mand of a vessel, and it is said d. in the West Indies. George 
removed in 1818 from Chatham square to Greenwich, on New- 
York island, where he d. unm. Sep. 8, 1827, a. 59. James m. 
in 1793, Margaret, dau. of Lamb Turner, and was for a time 
a merchant, and then a clerk in the Naval and Surveyor's offi- 
ces. He d. in 1800, or the year preceding, leaving issue, Mar- 
garet, and John-Turner. Jeromus, though at first engaged in 


mercantile business witli James, spent most of his life in the 
easy enjoyment of the wealth derived from his father. He re- 
sided with his brother George, and d. at Greenwich unm. Apr. 
6, 1824, a. 63. His brother John, a sail-maker, m. Martha, dau. 
of Henry Eelyea, an amiable woman, who survived him many 
years. He d. of yellow fever, Oct. 11, 1795, in his 4:1st yr. 
His ch. were John^ Dorothy, m. James Patton, Elizabeth, m. 
Capt. John Hacker, Phebe, m. John Wade, and Ann who m. 
John I. Decker. 

10. Andrew Eiker, son of Abraham," was named after his 
uncle, Andrew Buytenhuysen. He inherited the homestead at 
the Bowery Bay, and m. Nov. 13, 1733, Jane, widow of Capt. 
Dennis Lawrence and dau. of John Berrien, Esq. Both were 
members of the Dutch church, and their house was much fre- 
quented by the dominies. Mr. Biker d. Feb. 12, 1763,* in his 
64th yr. and his widow in her 73d yr. Sep. 26, 1775. Their 
ch. were Margaret, who d. unm. Apr. 3, 1760, a. 25 ; John-Ber- 
rien, Abraham, SamueV^ and Buth, who m. Major Jona. Law- 
rence. John Berrien Biker, b. in 1738, received an education 
at Princeton College and became eminent as a physician. He 
located in Newtown, and m. in Nov. 19, 1771, Susannah, dau. 
of Nath'l Fish. In the difficulties with Great Britain he es- 
poused the cause of his oppressed country, and before hostili- 
ties began exerted himself to promote the measures of resistance 
to British tyranny. He fled from Newtown when the enemy 
entered, and joined the army under Washington, with which he 
continued as surgeon during the entire period of the war. On 
several occasions he performed most valuable service as a guide 
to the army. His commission as surgeon of the 4th battalion 
of New Jersey troops, bearing date Feb. 18, 1777, is yet pre- 
served. At the peace he resumed the practice of his profession 
in his native town, where he lived respected and eminently 
useful till his death on Sep. 5, 1794, in his 57th yr. Dr. Biker's 
widow d. in New- York, Dec. 6, 1836, in her 83d yr. His ch. 
neither of whom married, were John, b. Sep. 29, 1772, who 
commanded a merchant ship, and d. at Hamburg, Nov. 3, 

*The tomb-stone of Andrew Riker dates his death on April 11, 1762, 
but the Presbyterian church record, doubtless a more reliable authority, gives 
it as in the text. 


1797 ; Nathaniel, b. Apr. 17, 1775, who practised as a physi- 
cian both in Newtown and New- York, and d. at sea in return- 
ing from the West Indies, Aug. 24, 1802 ; Jane, b. June 24, 
1780, and Abraham, b. Feb. 4, 1785, for eighteen years a re- 
spected druggist in New- York, where he d. Feb. 6, 1826. 
Abraham Biker was b. in 1740, and m. Sep. 2, 1766, his cousin 
Margaret, dau. of Jacob Riker. He remained in Newtown till 
the Revolution, when he received a captaincy in the American 
army, and was present at the fall of Montgomery, at Quebec. 
The next year he was placed at the head of a company in the 
2d New-York continental regiment, and in several engagements 
acquired the reputation of an active and intrepid officer. His 
regiment sustained the brunt of the action and a heavy loss at 
the battle of Saratoga. The next spring, at Valley Forge, 
Capt, Riker was seized with the spotted fever, which termi- 
nated fatally. May 7, 1778, in his 38th yr. His death scene 
was affecting. He signified his willingness to die, but express- 
ed with great feeling his regret that he could not live to wit- 
ness the freedom of his country. His widow d. at Orange, 
N. J. Nov. 19, 1835, a. 95 yrs. Their only child, Jane, b. 
1768, m. June 8, 1791, the Rev. (since Dr.) Asa Hillyer. 

11. Samuel Riker, son of Andre w,^*^ was b, Apr. 8, 1743. 
After serving a clerkship at mercantile business in New- York, 
he returned to the family estate, which he ultimately purchas- 
ed. He was justly esteemed for his integrity, usefulness and 
love of liberty, having, from the first, taken part against the 
usurpations of the crown. In 1774 he was chosen as one of 
the Newtown committee of correspondence, in which capacity 
he was actively engaged till forced to flee before the approach 
of the British troops. He ventured to revisit the town with 
an intention of rejoining the American army, but while con- 
cealed at the house of his father-in-law, finding himself disco- 
vered, he saved himself from violence by a voluntary sun^en- 
der to the commanding officer. After the war he was much 
engaged in public life, and for several years held the supervi- 
sorship. He was in the state assembly in 1784, and the last 
public act of his life was to represent his district in congress, 
in 1808-9, having also on a previous occasion had a seat in that 
national body. He possessed a well-informed and vigorous 
mind, and a memory remarkably retentive. He was exceed- 


ingly careful in his attentions and kindness to his friends and 
the poor. Mr. Kiker d. in the full possession of his mental facul- 
ties, May 19, 1823, a. 80. His wife was Anna, dau. of Joseph 
Lawrence, whom he m. Jan. 17, 1769. She d. Jan. 5, 1833, a. 
83. Their ch. were Joseph-Lawrence, b. Mar. 26, 1770, who 
adopted a maritime life, and d. unm. at the Island of Jamaica, 
July 20, 1796; Andrew, b. Sep. 21, 1771 ; Kichard, b. Sep. 9, 
1773 ; Abraham, b. May 24, 1776 ; Patience L. b. May 10, 1778, 
m. John Lawrence ; Samuel, b. Mar. 3, 1780 ; Jane-Margaret, 
b.Apr. 4, 1782, m. first John Tom, and secondly Dr.Wm, James 
Macneven; Anna-Elvira, b. May 1, 1785, wife of Dr. Dow Dit- 
mars, and John L. b. Apr. 9, 1787. Andrew commanded a 
vessel, and was successively in the European and East India 
trade. In the last war with England he engaged in privateer- 
ing, and in command of the Saratoga and the Yorktown was 
eminently daring and successful, but in the end was himself 
captured oflp New-Foundland. He was soon parolled. After 
the war he continued his sea life, but while absent on a voyage 
to St, Domingo he d. at that island, Oct. 17, 1817, a. 46. By his 
wife, Margaret, dau. of Nath'l Moore, whom he m. Feb. 6, 
1802, he had issue Nathaniel M., Samuel and Andrew, both 
dec. Martha M., Anna, Abraham, dec. and Margaret. The re- 
sidence of Capt. Riker, in Newtown, is now owned by his son- 
in-law, J. C. Jackson, and appropriately called Oak Hill. 
Richard was educated chiefly under the tuition of the Rev. Dr. 
Witherspoon, of Nassau Hall, N. J. In 1791 he entered the 
office of the elder Jones, and was admitted to the bar in 1795. 
He received the appointment of district attorney of New- York 
in 1802, and in 1815 was made recorder of the city, which he re- 
tained, with short intermissions, till 1837. " Of the eminent 
talents and profound judicial knowledge of the late recorder lit- 
tle need be said ; they are both extensively known and univer- 
sally acknowledged. The able manner with which he presided 
for so long a period in the court of sessions in New- York, and 
the extraordinary qualities he displayed in the discharge of his 
onerous and important duties, are conclusive evidence of his 
great attainments and high moral worth." He enjoyed uncom- 
mon health through a long life, and d. Sep. 26, 1842, in his 
70th yr. On Apr. 23, 1807, he m. Jennet, dau. of Daniel Phoe- 
nix, Esq. and left issue, Daniel P., Ann E., Elizabeth P., Jennet, 


yohn H., and Kebecca P. Riker. Abraham remained on the 
paternal farm. In the war of 1812 he held the command of 
captain of marines under his brother Andrew. He was ac- 
cidentally drowned in the East river, Aug. 25, 1821, in his 
56th yr. By his wife Hannah Pierson, he had issue, Han- 
nah, Alpheus B., Mary B., and Abriana. Samuel was educa- 
ted at Columbia College, and pursued the legal profession for 
some ten years in New- York, but his hopes of usefulness and 
eminence were arrested by consumption, which terminated his 
life Sep. 17, 1811, in his 32d yr. He was m. but left no issue. 
John L. Riker, the youngest of these brothers, received his 
education at Erasmus Hall, L. I. at sixteen entered the ofiice 
of his brother Richard, with whom he studied law five years, 
and then began the practice of his profession in New- York, 
which he yet continues, enjoying the confidence and esteem of 
his fellow-citizens. He resides at Newtown, upon the paternal 
estate. Mr. Riker m. in succession Maria and Lavinia, daugh- 
ters of Sylvanus Smith, Esq. of North Hempstead, and has is- 
sue, Henry, Sylvanus S., Mary A., Lavinia, John, Samuel, 
Richard, Daniel S., Jane, William J. and Julia L. Riker. 


This family is of common origin with the preceding one, 
being descended from Ryck and Hendrick, the eldest and 
youngest sons of Abraham Rycken, who, for some reason not 
clearly ascertained, renounced their own cognomen and assum- 
ed that of Lent. It may be the latter was suggested because 
of some connection existing with an old noble family of Bruns- 
wick bearing that name, or perhaps some portion of their 
family had resided in a place so called, and the name have 
been adopted for this reason, as was quite customary in those 
days. The last idea accords with a tradition to that effect 
current in the family fifty years ago, and which receives 
strength from the fact that in certain old records that have 
been consulted, the above names appear written Hendrick van 
Lent, &c. the Dutch van signifying of or from. And there is 


also some reason for the belief that it was their maternal grand- 
father who came from Lent, and that he is the person intended 
in a letter to Gov. Stuyvesant, in 165-i, from his superiors in 
Holland, where allusion is made to one " Hendrick Harmensen 
van Lent," a soldier sent to Curacoa, but who was not to be 
found there, (see page 22, note.) 

Hendrick Lent, the youngest son of Abraham Rycken, was 
b. in 1662, m. Catriua, dau. of Jan Van Texel, (now Van 
Tassel,) and removed to AVestchester co. His descendants are 
still to be found in the town of Yonkers. His ch. were Abra- 
ham, John, Hendrick, Anna, Margaret, Cornelia, and Aletta, 
Abraham, b. 1684, m. Maria De Pew, and had sons, Hendrick, 
b. 1707, Abraham, b. 1713, John, b.l718, and Jacob, b. 1725. 
Hendrick m. Sarah Beesley, and had sons, Hendrick, b. 1718, 
John, b, 1723, and Abraham, b. 1726. Jb/iw, m. Mary De 
Ronde, and their sons were Hendrick, b. 1716, "William, b. 
1717, John, b. 1718, and Jacob, b. 1723. 

1. Ryck Abramsen Lent, eldest son of Abraham Rycken, 
m. Catrina, dau. of Harck Siboutsen,* and in 1685, in union 
with several others, bought from the Indians an extensive tract 
of land in the upper part of Westchester co. He settled upon 
this tract which thence took the name of Ryck's Patent. From 
the fact that in his will he is styled a miller, it is supposed that 
he became engaged in milling operations. He served as an 
elder of the Sleepy Hollow church, was much respected, and 
d. at a good old age» His will was made Mar. 30, 1720 and 
was proved Mar. 28, 1723. His children were Elizabeth, m. 
Thomas Heyert, Abraham,- Ryck, Harck, Margaret, m. Tho- 
mas Benson, and Catharine, who m. Joseph Jones, liyck^ b. 
1678, m. Mary Blauvelt and predeceased his father, leaving 

* Harck Siboutsen m. at New Amsterdam, in 1642, Wyntie Teunis, from 
Naerden. He owned prbperty near the Heeren Gracht, adjoining Abra. 
Rikcr. In or about 1650 he removed to the Poor Bowery, where he d. be- 
tween 1681 and '84. (See pages 36 and 236.) His widow survived him 
many years. They had sons Sibout, Teunis, John and Jacobus, the last of 
whom obtained the paternal farm in Newtown, and m. but dying without is- 
sue Feb. J8, 1729, in his 70th yr. left his farm to his nephew, Abm. Lent, by 
testamentary devise. His three brothers settled in the manor of Cortlandt, 
Westchester co. assumed the name of Krankheyt, (now written Kronkhite or 
Cronkhite,) and have many descendants there. 


sons John, b. 1705, Hercules, b. 1707, and Ryck, b. 1709. 
Harck^ or Hercules, b. 1681, m. Cornelia, dau. of Jacob Van 
Wart, and by several purchases became the owner of the 
whole of Eyck's Patent, which before his death he divided 
between his children. He d. in 1766, being blind and aged. 
His ch. were Jacob, b, 1701, Eachel, b. 1703, m. James Lamb, 
Catharine, b. 1705, m. Henry De Eonde, Christiana, b. 1708, m. 
John Lamb, Elizabeth, b. 1710, Hendrick, b. 1712, and Abra- 
ham, b. 1715. The descendants of these arc now numerous in 

2. Abraham Lent, son of Eyck,^ was b. Mar. 10, 1674, 
and m. late in 1698, Anna-Catrina, dau. of Adolpli Meyer, 
Esq.* After living some years in Westchester he returned to 
Newtown in 1729, and took possession of a farm left him by 
his uncle, Jacobus Krankheyt, being that now forming the es- 
tate of Isaac Eapelye, dec. Mr. Lent was a leading member 
of the Dutch church. He d. Feb. 5, 1746, and his widow, July 
21, 1762, in her 86th yr. Their ch. were Eyck,^ Adolph, Isaac, 
Abraham, Jacob, Jacobus,^ Catrina, m. Elbert Herring, Eliza- 
beth, m. Jacob Brinckerhoff, Maria, m. John Eapelje, Wvntie 
m. Jeromus Eapelje, and Ann, who m. John Brinckerhoff. Of 
these, Abraham m. Margaret, dau. of John Snediker. Isaac m. 
Sarah, dau. of Peter Luyster, and probably settled in Fishkill. 
Adolph^ b. 1703, removed to Eockland co. where his descen- 
dants are still found. 

3. Eyek Lent, son of Abraham,^ m. Dec. 26, 1722, Corne- 
lia Waldron, of Harlem, He d. in Westchester, in 1732, leav- 
ing issue, Abraham, John, Catharine, m. John Deits, and Mar- 
garet, who m. Theodorus Snediker. Abraham settled in Duchess 
CO. m. Ann, dau. of Abm. Brinckerhoff, and had ch. Abraham, 
and Cornelia, who m. Isaac Lent, of Tuckahoe. Abraham, last 
named, m. Margaret Waldron, of Harlem, was for many years 
associated with David Barkins in mercantile business at Fish- 

* Adolph Meyer came from Ulfon, in Westphalia, and locating at Harlem, 
m. in 1671, Maria, dau. of Johannes Vervcelcn, of that phice, a young lady 
born at Amsterdam. He was much in public life, and in 1694, sat in the 
common council. He d. in 1711 or '12. His ch. were Johannes, Hendrick, 
Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Adolph, Anna-Catrina, aforesaid, Maria, m. Samson 
Benson, and Anneke who m. Zachariah Sickels. These have a numerous 
posterity at Harlem and elsewhere, including the families of Myers, Benson, 
Sickels, and by intermarriage those of Adriance, Kenyon, &e. 



kill, and had sons, John- Abraham, David-Barkins, of Pough- 
keepsie, and Peter Waldron Lent, of New -York. John was a 
captain in Braddock's expedition during the old French war. 
He was also present at the fall of Wolf, and is represented as 
possessing great energy and resolution. His old cutlass is still 
preserved. Going to North Carolina, in the prosecution of his 
business, as a master-builder, he there d. in or about 1768. By 
his wife Ann, dan. of Adrian Hoogland, of New- York, he had 
issue, Ann, m. John Lawrence, Cornelia, m, Edward T. Young, 
of N. Carolina, Catharine, m. Wm. Eayburgh, of Baltimore, 
James- Webber, and John. The latter, a silversmith, m. Sarah, 
dau. of Thos. Oglevie, and left sons, Abraham and John. 
James W. Lent, aforesaid, b, Aug. 24, 1761, served his coun- 
try during the Eevolution, after which he engaged in mercan- 
tile business in New- York. In 1784 he m. Elizabeth, dau. of 
Nath'l Macaul. For nine years he was inspector of pot and 
pearl ashes, and for about the same period held the office of 
county register. He d. Aug. 4, 1849, and his only surviving 
son is Geo. W. Lent of New- York. 

4. Jacobus Lent, son of Abraham,^ was b. July 3, 1714, and 
m. Margaret, dau. of Daniel Eapalje. He succeeded to the 
paternal farm, and was a much esteemed citizen and an elder 
of the Newtown Dutch church. He d. Dec. 13, 1779, and his 
widow in her 74th yr. Sep. 11, 1794. Their ch. were Abra- 
ham,5 b. Feb. 15, 1745, Aletta, b. Apr. 24, ;1747, m. Geo. Rap- 
elye, and Daniel, b. May 31, 1754. The latter m. Dec. 9, 1792, 
Rensie, dau. of Martin Rapelye, and was the last of the family 
who occupied the Lent estate at the Poor Bowery. It was sold 
just prior to his death, which happened Apr. 20, 1797. Daniel, 
his only child that survived infancy, was b. Aug. 30, 1797, m. 
June 6, 1821, Jane-Catharine, dau. of Cor. R. Remsen, and now 
resides upon the estate on Flushing Bay formerly owned by 
Capt. Thos. Lawrence. His ch. are James-Rapelye, (now a 
minister of the Reformed Dutch church,) Cornelius-Remsen, 
Charles-Henry, and Eliza-Catharine. 

5. Abraham Lent, son of Jacobus,'* m. Diana, dau. of Wm. 
Lawrence, Esq. and occupied for some years a portion of the pa- 
ternal farm, but d. at the residence of his son-in-law, in Trains 
Meadow, Apr. 13, 1816, a. 71 yrs. His widow d. Mar. 20, 
1833, a. 77. They had issue, James, Anna, m. Anthony Bar- 


clay,* and Margaret, wlio d. single. James Lent was b. at 
Newtown in 1782, and m. Miss Jane Bull of Connecticut 
Having been for some years a merchant in New York, he re- 
tired to his native town, and bought the estate of Col. Daniel 
Lawrence, dec. now Woolsey's Point. Possessing fair talents 
and a reputation for strict integrity, Mr. Lent ofl&ciated for 
some years as first judge of Queen's co. and in 1829 was chosen 
to represent his district in congress, to which being elected 
for the third time, he d. at the city of Washington, while dis- 
cEarging the duties of that responsible station, Feb. 22, 1833, 
in his 51st year. 


It appears from Dutch annals, that there is a family bear- 
ing this name, of great antiquity in Holland or the Nether- 
lands, where, as early as the eleventh century, they held large 
estates. But no evidence is as yet presented to favor the be- 
lief that the American family of Suydam is descended from 
the former, as the latter appear to owe their name to a custom 
in vogue among our Dutch fathers of assuming the title of the 
place in Europe whence the family had emigrated. Their first 
ancestor in this country was Hendrick Eycken, as his name is 

* Anthony Barclay d. in Newtown, where he had resided] many years, 
Aug. 23, 1805, a. 43. He was the father of the present Henry Barclay of 
this town, and the grandson of the Rev. Thomas Barclay, from Scotland, 
who settled at Albany in 1708 as missionary of the Society for Propagating 
the Gospel. Henry, son of the latter, took holy orders, and after a ten years' 
ministry among the Mohawk Indians, succeeded to the rectory of Trinity 
Church, N. Y. in 1746, where he labored with assiduity till his death, sus- 
taining a most excellent character. He was honored with the title of doctor 
of divinity. His death took place in his 53d yr. Aug. 20, 1764, By his wife 
Mary, dau. of Anthony Rutgers, he had issue, Thomas, Anthony, Ann.n- 
Dorothea, m. Col. Beverley Robinson, Cornelia, m. Col. Stephen De Lancey, 
and Catharine. The youngest son was Anthony Barclay of Newtown, before 
named, and the elder was the late highly esteemed Thomas Barclay, British 
Consul General in the United States, which ofBce is now ably filled by his 
son Anthony. 


usually written, or, as his own signature is, " Heyndryck 
Rycken," a member of the Riker family, as stated on page 301, 
and who came hither in 1663. He was "from Suydam," our 
early records inform us ; but. unless either Schiedam or Saar- 
dam be intended, (which is perhaps to be questioned,) I am in 
doubt as to its locality. 

1. Hendrick Eycken was a smith, and located in the sub- 
urbs of New Amsterdam, at what was called the Smith's Fly, 
where he purchased a house and land in 1678. But being an- 
noyed (as tradition in the Suydam family states) by the snakes 
which then infested the low lands in that vicinity, he removed 
to Flatbush, and with his wife, Ida Jacobs, united with the 
church there in April 1679 ; afterwards disposing of his city 
property to Dirck Van der Cliff, from whom Cliff street took 
its name. Rycken subsequently acquired a large estate at 
Flatbush and other places, and enjoyed a very respectable 
standing among men of that day. He d. in 1701. In his will 
he enjoins upon his wife a careful attention to the religious 
education of his children. These were Jacob,- Hendrick,*' 
Ryck,8 Ida, Gertrude, and Jane. It is a curious though well 
established fact, that, about the year 1710, the sons of Hen- 
drick Rycken adopted the name of Suydam, and from these 
three persons all the Suydams in this" and the adjoining states 
are descended. 

2, Jacob Suydam, son of Hendrick,^ was b. in 1666, re- 
mained a farmer and smith at Flatbush, and lived where the 
old brewery stood, near that village. His wife was Seytie 
Jacobs. He was a person of intelligence and influence, and 
served as supervisor in 1706 and 1717. He d. in 1738, a. 
71, having issue Jacob, Hendrick,'* Johannes, Jan,* Ryck, Cor- 
nelius,^ Dow, Ida, Adriana, Gertrude, Isabella, Jane, and Sey- 
tie. Of these, Jacob left no issue. Jan had a son Jacob, who 
d. childless. Johannes settled at Bay Side, in Flushing, and d. 
in 1791, in advanced yrs. having by his wife Cornelia, issue, 
Seytie, m. Areson ; Jane, m. Eldred ; Ida, m. Thorne ; and 
Jacob, b. 1731, who fell heir to his father's farm, which is be- 
lieved to be now possessed by his descendants. Rych removed 

* The names of Jan and Johannes, though in fact the same, one being 
the Dutch and the other the Latin for John, were sometimes borne by 
brothers, as in the above case and several others which I have noticed. 



to Somerset co. N. J. where he d. in 1798, a. 95, having by his 
wife Mary, issue, Peter, Jacobus, Abraham, Isaac, Eyck, Mary, 
m. Lawrence Van Cleef, and Ida who m. Peter Pumyea. Of 
wliom Eyck d. unm. ; Isaac had issue Peter, John, and Ann ; 
Abraham had issue Joseph, Peter, Maria, and Ann ; Jacobus 
had issue John, Peter, Ryck, Joseph, Jacob, and Jane; and 
Peter had issue Ryck, Lawrence, Peter, Abraham, Ann, and 
Jane. Dow Suydam m. Sarah Vanderveer, and settled at 
Hempstead Swamp, in Newtown, on land obtained of his 
father in 1736, being now the estate of Rem Suydam, dec. 
He was the first of the name who located in this town. Prior 
to the Revolution, he sold his farm to his nephew John Suy- 
dam, and left Newtown, living in various parts'of the Island 
during the war, and suffering on account of his whig prin- 
ciples? Having survived his consort 37 yrs. he d. at the house 
of his son John, in Jamaica, in 1794, a. 87. His ch. were Sey- 
tie, m. Garret Martence, Jacob, and John. Jacob m. Mary, 
widow of Peter Totten, but left no issue. John, b. 1740, m. 
Phebe, dan. of David Sprong, and in 1783 bought the farm of 
Dow Ditmars of Jamaica, where he resided till his death m 
1789. His widow d. in 1822, in her 76th yr. His farm is 
now divided between his two ch. Sarah, wife of Hendnck 
Lott, and Barnard Vandewater Suydam, the last of whom m. 
Leah, dau. of Minne Suydam, and has one surviving child, 
namely Sarah, wife of Daniel Rapelye Suydam, of Jamaica. 

3. Cornelius Suydam, son of Jacob,^ settled m Oyster Bay, 
and d in 1759, his wife Margaret, dau. of Ferdinand Van 
Sickelen, surviving him. His ch. were Jacobus, Ferdinand, 
Jan Minne, Johannes, Cornelius, Hendrick, Seytie, Geertie, m. 
Jacob Voorhees; Jane, m. Wm. Simonson ; Adriana, m. John 
Williamson, and Ida. All of these sons married, except Fer- 
dinand, and most of them have posterity at Oyster Bay. Minne 
m Catharine, dau. of Mouris Simonson, and d. at the above 
place. Mar. 12, 1818, in his 81st yr. His ch. were Cornelms, 
b 1769 ; Cornelia, b. 1771, m. Rev. AVm. P. Kuypers ; Marga- 
ret b 1775, d. unm. ; Leah, b. 1778, m. Barnard V. buy- 
dam, and Mouris, b. 1782, some of whose children now occupy 
the homestead at Oyster Bay. His elder brother Corne lus 
m in 1799, Ida dau. of Daniel Rapelye, and had issue Catha- 
rine m. first, Hewlett T. Coles, and is now wife of Daniel 


Smith ; Sarah- Ann, m. Hanmer Ludlow, of Newtown ; Cor- 
nelia, wife of Isaac Hendrickson ; and Daniel E. of Jamaica. 

4. Hendrick Suydam, son of Jacob,- was b. in 1696, and 
m. in 1719, Geertie dau. of Evert Van Wicklen. He lived at 
Flatbush, and d. in 1774. His ch. were Evert, Jacob, who d. 
a bachelor, Hendrick, John,^ Seytie, m. Evert Hegeman ; Me- 
tie, m. Samuel Garretson ; Pieternella, m. Jacobus Vanderveer, 
and Geertie. Hendrick m, Maria Ammerman, and d. on his 
farm in Flatbush, May 16, 1791, in his 61st yr. having issue 
Jane, m. Abm. Ditmars, and Gertrude who m. Cor. Bergen. 
Evert^ b. Mar. 25, 1720, m. Maria Bogart of the Wallabout, and 
lived as a farmer in New Utrecht, where he d. Oct. 14, 1797. 
His ch. were Hendrick, b. June 4, 1751, was twice m. and d. 
at Bedford, Dec. 15, 1819 ; Catharine, b. July 26, 1753, m. 
Jacques Barkuloo ; Tunis, b. Nov. 21, 1755 ; Geertie, b. May 
21, 1758, m. Jacob Stellenwerf ; Evert, b. Jan. 8, 1760, who 
m. and d. at New Lots ; and Anne, b. Mar. 18, 1764, who m. 
Ferdinand Bennet. The said Tunis m. Ida Voorhees, and d. 
in New Utrecht, Aug. 7, 1828, his son Evert now occupying 
his estate. 

5. John Suydam, son of Hendrick,^ was b. 1737, m. Fem- 
metie dau. of Kem Hegeman, and became a farmer at Hemp- 
stead Swamp, having bought the farm of his uncle, Dow 
Suydam. He was a good man, and repeatedly served as an 
elder in the Dutch church at Newtown. His wife d. in her 
62d yr. Mar. 16, 1799, and he, a. nearly 72 yrs. Jan. 11, 1809. 
Their ch. were Nelly, m. Capt. Johannes Lott ; Hendrick, d. 
unm. ; Geertie, m. Timothy Nostrand,* and Eem. Rem was 
b. Jan. 22, 1767, and remained on the paternal farm, now oc- 
cupied by his widow, Maria, dau. of Martin Johnson, whom 
he m. Nov. 30, 1798. He d. Nov. 22, 1829. His ch. (except 
three who d. young) were, Phebe-Hegeman, b. Sep. 18, 1799, 

* The family of Nostrand, or Van Nostrand, on Long Island, derive origin 
from Hans Jansen, who came over in 1640 from Noortstrandt in Holstein, 
and whose sons adopted the name of tlie place whence iheir ftither emigrat- 
ed, which time has reduced to the present orthography. Hans m. in 1652 
Janneken Gerrits van Loon, and d. at Flatlands in 1690. His will is record- 
ed both in New- York and Brooklyn. He left sons John, Gerrit, Peter, and 
Folkert, whose descendants, now greatly multiplied, form, in point of means 
and respectability, a valuable part of our population. 


m. Dorainicus Snediker and Jona. Burnet ; Catalina-Johnson, 
b. Aug. 25, 1803, wife of Dow D. Eapelje ; John, b. Feb. 7, 
1806, d. unm. Mar. 3, 1844 ; Maria-Johnson, b. Aug. 18, 1808, 
m. Matthew Van Zandt ; Nelly, b. Nov. 29, 1810, m. Ansel 
H. Concklin ; Martin-Johnson, b. Apr. 7, 1813, m. Henrietta, 
dau. of Eev. Dr. J. Schoonmaker ; Gertrude, b. Mar. 17, 1817, 
m. John E. Briggs ; George and Henry, twins, b. Dec. 11, 
1821, the last of whom m. Ellen, dau. of Benj. Hegeman. 

6. Hendrick Suydam, second son of Hendrick Eycken,^ 
became a farmer at Bedford, in Brooklyn, where he bought a 
farm of his father in 1698. He died subsequent to 1743. By 
his wife, Bennetie, he had ch. Lambert, Hendrick,''' and Elsie, 
who m. John Lott, of Platlands. Lambert, the eldest son, re- 
mained a farmer at Bedford, and m. Abigail Lefferts. In 
1749, he was commissioned captain of the King's co. troop of 
horse. He d. in 1767, and his widow m. Nicholas Veghte, 
Esq. in 1772. Capt. Suydam's ch. were Hendrick, d, at Bed- 
ford, unm. Dec. 26, 1789 ; Bennetie, d. single, in her 90th yr. 
Feb. 1, 1826 ; Jane, m. Gilliam Cornell ; Ida, m. Martin 
Schenck ; and Jacobus, who was b. at Bedford, Dec. 4, 1758, 
and m, Adriana, dau. of Capt. Cor. Eapelye. Having en- 
gaged successfully in commerce in the city of New York, he 
finally retired, and resided several years at Bedford ; but, in 
1794, bought the estate of Wm. Lawrence, dec, in Newtown, 
(late Whitfield's, and now S. A. Halsey's property,) where he 
lived respected till his death, June 11, 1825, having served as 
an elder in the Dutch church. Mrs. S. d. in her 74th yr. Oct. 13, 
1840. Their ch. were Cornelia, now widow of Abm. Polhemus, 
Lambert, Cornell us-Eapelye, Abigail, Adriana, James, Jane- 
Maria, m. Geo. Eapelye, and Henry. Of these, Lambert, b. at 
Bedford, Mar. 5, 1791, m. in 1818, Anne E. dau. of Maj. Eich. 
Lawrence, and is now the president of the Union Mutual In- 
surance Co. in the city of New York. Cornelius E. b. July 
31, 1793, m. Jane E. dau. of the late Cornelius Heyer, and d. 
lamented, Nov. 12, 1845. James, b. Mar. 12, 1798, m. Char- 
lotte A. second dau. of Cor. Heyer ; and Henry, b. May 23, 
1803, ra. Elizabeth, dau. of the late Nath'l L'Hommedieu. 

7. Hendrick Suydam, son of Hendrick,^ was b. Dec. 2, 1706, 
m. Geertie Eyerson, of the Wallabout, and was a farmer and 
smith at Bedford, where he d. July 16, 1768. His widow d. 


Dec. 7, 1770, a. 64. Their cb. were Hendrick, Jacob, Lam- 
bert, and Christiana, who d. unm. Lambert was b. Aug. 30, 
1743, and lived at Bedford. Like his uncle Lambert, he was 
commandant of the King's co. horse, and at the opening of the 
Eevolution, being a whig, did essential service. He m, Apr. 
10, 1766, Sarah, dau. of Joseph Hegeman, who dying in her 
40th yr. July 28, 1784, he m. secondly, Sep. 20, 1786, Anna, 
widow of Barent Johnson, of the Wallabout. She d. Oct. 26, 
1793. Capt. Suydam d. Apr. 1, 1833, a. 89. His ch. who 
reached maturity, were Hendrick, b. Mar. 13, 1767 ; Ger- 
trude, b. Mar. 23, 1771, now widow of Peter Wyckoff;* Maria, 
b. Nov. 25, 1782, m. Daniel Lott ; and Anna, b. May 15, 1789. 
Hendrick, last named, m. Gertrude, dau. of Rem Van Pelt ; 
issue a son Lambert. He then m. secondly, Margaret dau. of 
D. Eapelj-e, and widow of Abm. Snediker ; further issue, 
Abraham, Charity, Hendrick, Sarah A. and Daniel R. Jacob 
was b. Feb. 3, 1740, settled at Bushwick, and m. Elizabeth 
Leaycraft, Apr. 14, 1764. Mr. S. was a worthy and respected 
citizen, and d. in the above town, July 27, 1811, a. 7L His 
ch. who attained mature age were George, b. June 20. 1767, 
m. Jane Voorhees, and d. at Gravesend ; Gertrude, b. June 25, 
1770, m, Adrian Martence ; Jacob, b. Mar. 3, 1773, m. Corne- 
lia Farmer, of Brunswick, N. J. ; and Hendrick, b. May 1^, 
1778, who m. Helen, dau. of John Schenck. Hendrick^ eldest 
son of Hendrick, was b. in 1732, and m. June 15, 1753, Re- 
becca Emans of New Utrecht. He removed from Bedford to 
Flatbush in 1759, and lived in good repute till his death, July 
9, 1805, a. 73. His wife d. Oct. 25, 1797, a. 68. They had 
sons Hendrick and Andrew, the first of whom d. in his 74th 
yr. May 24, 1828, having issue Rebecca, Ida, wife of John 
Vanderveer, Jeromus, Henry, dec, and Cornelius. Andrew, 

* The common ancestor of the Wyckoff family in this country was 
Pieter Claesz Wyckoff, who emigrated from Holland in 1636, and settled at 
Flatlands. Of this town he was a magistrate in 1662, and also one of the 
patentees named in the town charters in 1667 and 1686. His wife was 
Grietie, dau. of Hendrick Van Ness, and his sons were Claes, Hendrick, Cor- 
nelius, John, Gerrit, Martin, and Peter Wyckoff. It is not in my plan to 
trace the descendants of these, now as the stars for multitude ; though It 
would be no very difficult matter to form, from existing materials, quite a 
complete history of this highly respectable family. 


above-named, d. Dec. 11, 1831, in his 74tli yr. and bis only cb. 
is Sarab, wife of Jobn Ditmars of Flatbusb. 

8. Eyck Suydani, youngest son of Hendrick Rycken,i was 
b. in 1675, and resided at Flatbusb. From 1711 till bis death, 
be served repeatedly as supervisor of tbat town, and was also 
for some years a judge. He was m. twice, and d. in 1711. Ili.s 
cb. were Hendrick, Jobn,» Ryck, Ida, Anna, Gertrude, Jane, 
Cbristiana and Mary. Byck, usually called Ricbard, settled in 
Freebold, Monmoutb co. N. J. m. Sarab dau. of Jobannes 
Luyster, and d. in 1750. His cb. were Ricbard, Elizabeth, 
Jane, Lucretia, and Sarab. Ricbard m. Jemima Wall, resided 
near wbat is now Keyport, and d. in 1799, leaving sons Ricb- 
ard, wbo lived in New-York ; Garret, who retained the bomo- 
btead, and Humphrey, wbo removed to Canada. Hendrick is 
believed to have been the father of Cornelius Suydam, wbo d. 
in Somerset co. N. J. in 1771, having sons Charles, Hendrick, 
Cornelius, and Jacob. Cornelius inherited the homestead on 
the Raritan river. Charles located in Piscataway, Middlesex co. 
and d. in 1799. He bad sons Okie, Cornelius, Charles, Jacob, 
and Henry ; the first of whom was the father of the late emi- 
nent lawyer, Jobn Suydam of Kingston, N. Y. 

9. John Suydam, son of Ryck,^ d. in Brooklyn about the 
close of the Revolution. He had issue Ryck, Ferdinand, Hen- 
drick, ^^ Rynier, and Maria, who m. successively Crawley, 
Freeke, and Bell, and was the mother of the late John C. 
Freeke of Brooklyn. Ryck d. at Red Hook in 1761 ; issue 
Catharine, m. John Reid, (grandfather of Rev. Jobn Reid Mo- 
sier, of Geneva, N. Y.) and Jane, who d. unm. Ferdinand was 
supervisor of Brooklyn from 1784 till 1800, m. Maria dau. of 
Geo. Debevoise, and had cb. John F. dec, Maria, d. unm., 
Phebe, m. Henry J. Wyckoff, Ida wbo d. single, and Jane. 
Rynier m. Elizabeth dau. of Peter Clopper, Esq. and d. in 1833, 
in bis 91st yr. having issue several daughters. 

10. Hendrick Suydam, son of John,^ was b. in 1736. Prior 
to the Revolution, be removed to Hallett's Cove, and bought 
the mill on Sunswick Creek, which be conducted during the 
rest of his Hfe. Mr. Suydam served as an elder of the Dutch 
church, Newtown. " Urbanity of manners, ' using hospitality 
without grudging,' characterized bis life ; he lived esteemed, 
loved, revered,"^ill his death, Feb. 9, 1818, a. 81. He was 


thrice m. ; first on Aug. 30, 1762, to Letitia Sebring, who d. 
Feb. 14, 1765; secondly to Harmtie Lefferts, who d. childless; 
and lastly, on Aug, 3, 1770, to Phebe dau. of Sam'l Skidmore. 
She d. Apr. 11, 1832, a. 87. Mr. S. had thirteen ch. of whom 
the following reached maturity, namely : John, b. May 14, 
1763; Letitia, b. Sep. 30, 1771, m. Capt. Peter Manifold; 
Samuel, b. May 21, 1773, d. Sep. 23, 1797 ; Jane, b. Mar. 9, 
1776, now widow of Isaac Heyer, late a distinguished mer- 
chant; Hendrick, b. Mar. 22, 1779 ; Mary, b. Sep. 5, 1780, m. 
Henry Whitney and Adrian Van Sinderen, Esq. ; Harriet, b. 
Sep. 1, 1782, now Mrs. Stephen Whitney of New-York ; Rich- 
ard, b. Aug. 4, 1784; Ferdinand, b. Sep, 13, 1786, and James, 
b. Mar. 9, 1788. Of the above sons, all became merchants in 
New- York, except James ^ who remained on the paternal estate 
at Hallett's Cove, m. Matilda, dau. of John Greenoak, and d. 
Sep. 17, 1834, without issue. Ferdinand^ one of the late firm 
of Suydam, Sage k Co. m. Eliza dau. of Anthony L. Under- 
hill, and d. Mar. 24, 1851, having issue Henry L., Ferdinand, 
and Charles. Richard m. in 1811, Rachel E. Henderson of 
Lancaster, Pa. and has ch. Mary A., Caroline, Adaline, Jane, 
and Louisa. Hendrick m. in 1802, Jane dau. of Wm. Law- 
rence, Esq., and has issue Mary, Aletta, Samuel, Elizabeth, 
William L. dec, Julia, Cornelia, and Margaret. John m. in 
1800, Jane Mesier of Poughkeepsie, amassed a fortune, and d. 
much lamented, some 3'^ears since, leaving issue Maria, m. to 
Philip M. Lydig, Henry, Peter-Mesier, John R., Letitia, Eliza, 
dec, David L., James A., and Jane, now Mrs. William Remsen. 

A^^ ^^j^c-n M^c-d, 

Fac-simile of tie signature of Heyndrvck Ryckkn, ancestor of the SuTDAM FAifitY. 




The several families of English ex- 
traction bearing this name, are said to 
find a common head in Thomas De 
Moore, who came from Normandy with 
William the Conqueror in the year 1066, 
and whose name is enrolled in the ancient 
list taken at their embarcation at St. 
Valery, and also in the list of those who 
survived the memorable battle of Hast* 
ings, fought on October 14th, in the 
above year, in which he had a consider- 
able command. From him two English 
families of distinction claim descent, 
namely, those' of the Earls of Mount-Cashell and Drogheda. 
1. Eev. John Moore, the more immediate ancestor of the 
Newtown family, was, doubtless, of English birth, though it is 
unknown when or from whence he emigrated. He was an In- 
dependent, and the first minister of the town, having been 
" permitted in New England to preach, but not authorized to 
administer sacraments." After this' mode he officiated "for 
many years," till his death in 1657. He was reputed a good 
preacher. In consequence of his interest in the purchase of 
Newtown from the Indians, the town awarded eighty acres of 
land to his children, thirty years after his decease. For more 
of his history see the preceding pages. Soon after his death 
his widow m. Francis Doughty, son of the Eev, F. Doughty. 
Mr. Moore left issue John, Gershom, Samuel,- Joseph, and 
Elizabeth, who m. Content Titus.* Joseph removed to South- 

* Capt. Content Titus was b. ut Weymouth, Mass., Mar. 28, 1643, be- 
ing the son of Robert Titus, a respectable husbandman, who, with his wife 
Hannah, emigrated from near Stansted Abbey in Hertfordshire, Eng. in 1635, 
and settled first at Weymouth, and then at Seekonk, whence they removed, 
in or about 1650, to Oyster Bay, L. I. From Robert, through his sons John, 
Edmund, Samuel, Abie), and Content, has descended a numerous posterity 
on Long Island and elsewhere. Content, having lived at Huntington, came 
to Nowtown in 1672, and in the aforesaid year bought the nrcmUo.: oriv^n to 


ampton, L. I. where he d. in 1726, his posterity still remaining 
at that place. Gershoin m. Mary, the widow, I believe, of 
Jonathan Fish. He was a useful man, and d. in or about 1691, 
leaving sons Gershom and Jonathan. John left sons John, b. 
1668, and Thomas, b. 1670. Several of the sons of Gershom 
and John Moore are believed to have removed to New- Jersey. 
2. Samuel Moore, son of Eev. John,i became a grantee of 
land at Newtown village in 1662, and afterwards purchased an 
adjacent tract, previously owned by his father, and which is 
now included in the premises of John J. Moore. In 1684 he 
bought from Wm. Hallett, Sen. a farm near the Poor Bowery, 
(part of which is now the property of S. H. Moore) to which 
■he removed. Capt. Moore held various public offices, and 
served in the magistracy for a series of years. He d. July 25, 
1717, and his widow, whose maiden name was Mary Reed, d. 
May 4, 1738, a. 87. His ch. were Samuel,^ Joseph,^^ Benja- 
min,s Nathaniel, Mary, m. Nath'l Woodward; Margaret, ra. 
Pretton ; Elizabeth, m. Hicks, and Sarah, who m. Daniel Coe. 
Nathaniel settled at Hopewell, N. J. where his posterity yet 
remain, as I am informed. 

his father-in-law, the Rev. Mr. Moore. At his death Mr. Titus left this property 
to his son Robert, who sold it in 1731 to Wm, Sackett,and it afterwards be- 
came the Episcopal parsonage. (See the history of these premises, pp. 40,45, 
49, 75, 250.) Mr. Titus proved a most valuable citizen, and so vigorous were 
his faculties at fourscore years, that he was then chosen an elder of the Presby- 
terian church. He d. Jan. 17, 1730. In the southwest corner of the ancient 
public burial ground at Newtown, stands a rude stone that marks his grave, 
bearing the simple inscription, " Content Titus." He left issue Robert, 
Silas, John, Timothy, Hannah, d. unm. ; Phebe, m. Jonathan Hunt ; and Abi- 
gail, who m. George Furniss. Robert removed, in 1731, to New Castle co. 
Del. ; and Timoihy settled at Hopewell, N. J., where his posterity is still 
found. Silas remained in Newtown, m. in 1715, Sarah dau. of Edw. Hunt, 
and having served as a trustee of the town and an elder of the Presb. church, 
d. Nov. 2, 1748. His ch. were Ephraim, who settled at Hopewell, afore- 
said ; Edward, John, Sarah, m. Francis Cornish and John Leverich; and Su- 
sannah, who m. Nowell Furman. Edward m. in 1741, Elizabeth, dau. of 
Benj. Cornish, and d. in 1780 on his estate at Fresh Ponds, now Nicholas 
WyckofTs. He had issue Susannah, m. Jona. Furman ; Abigail, m. Daniel 
Wiggins ; Hannah, m. Daniel North ; Amy, m. Richard Leverich ; Judith, 
m. Luke Remsen ; and James, who m. Jane dau. of John Debevoise, and had 
issue Edward, b. 1800, and late of Williamsburgh, L. I. dec; Eliza-Jane, b. 
1801 ; and John Titus, b. 1803, and now living at the last named place. 


3. Samuel Moore, son of Samuel,- also dntitled captain, m. 
Apr. 1, 1705, Charity, dau. of Wm. Hallett, Esq. and occupied 
the farm now of Sam'l B. Townsend, which passed out of the 
family but a few years since. Capt. Moore d. Jan. 3, 1758, 
leaving issue SamueV b. Apr. 22, 1709; Charit}^, b. Feb. 19, 
1713, m. Fitch; Sarah, b. Dec. 25, 1714, m. Tucker; William, 
b. Feb. 20, 1717; Mary,b. July 15, 1719, m. Eichard Williams; 
John,5b. Dec. 23, 1721; Nathaniel, b. Apr. 8, 1723; Augus- 
tine, b. Apr. 28, 1724 ; Pelatiah, b. June 9, 1726, m. Joseph 
Titus; and Elizabeth, b. May 17, 1729, who married Benjamin 
Moore of Pennington. William^ a schoolmaster and surveyor, 
d. single in 1752. Augustine m. and had issue only Augus- 
tine, who d. unm. Nathaniel m. Mrs. Rebecca Barnwell, dau. 
of Jacob Blackwell, and succeeded to the paternal farm, now 
S. B. Townsend's. He d. Apr. 3, 1802, a. 79, his wife having 
d. June 6, 1790, a. 67. Their ch. were Charity, m. Daniel 
Hallett; Mary, m. Abm. Berrien; Nathaniel, and Rebecca, 
who became the wife of Stephen Hallett. Nathaniel m. June 
19, 1783, Martha, dau. of Joshua Gedney, and had issue 
Samuel, d. unm. ; Joseph W. now a merchant at Mobile, Ala. ; 
Margaret, m. successively Capt. Andrew Riker and James 
Perrott; Rebecca, m. Cornelius Purdy, and Elizabeth, who 
m. Robert Blackwell. 

4. Samuel Moore, son of Samuel,^ m. his cousin Sarah, dau. 
of Benj. Moore, who, dying Mar. 22, 1750, he m. xinna Bates, 
Dec. 6, 1755. He was some years in the commission of the 
peace, and d. Dec. 11, 1767, in his 59th yr. His ch. by his 
iirst wife were Samuel, Vernon, and Thomas; and by his 
second. Amy, Anna, Daniel, Sarah, Elizabeth, and Richard; 
all of whom d. unm., except Samuel, Richard, and Sarah. The 
latter m. Thompson. Richard m. Catharine, dau. of Cor. 
Berrien, was by occupation a cooper, and resided in New- 
York. His ch. who survived infancy were Anna, m. Zebulon 
Grant; Cornelius, m. but had no issue; Jane-Eliza, Strong- 
Vernon, and William-Bates. The latter m. Elizabeth Cortel- 
you, and had issue William-Berrien, Catharine, Richard-Riker, 
Elizabeth, Virginia, Angeline, Edward C. Henry, and Cor- 
nelius. Strong V. Moore, aforesaid, m. Martha Jadwin ; issue 
Jane E., Anna M., Strong V., Richard P., Rebecca J., Martha 
A., Charles L., Sarah C, and Cornelius B. Samuel^ usually de- 


signated as Samuei Moore 8d, m. Jan. 18, 1769, Amy, dau. of 
Wm. Leverich, after whose death, he m. Anna Lawrence. He 
was an intelligent man, and devoted his life to school-teaching. 
For fifteen years he was clerk of Newtown, his father having 
previously filled that ofiice nine years. His sons by his second 
marriage were Samuel and James-Lawrence ; and by his first, 
William ; now all dec. and only the latter leaving issue. 

5. John Moore, son of Samuel,^ m. Patience, dau. of Joseph 
Moore. He d. Mar. 7, 1806, a 84. His ch. were Joseph, b. 
Feb. 12, 1750 ; Augustine, b. Apr. 9, 1752, d. Nov. 23, '69 ; 
David, b. Sep. 10, 1756 ; and Jemima, b. Jan. 21, 1763, who 
m. Jesse Fish. Joseph m. Sarah, dau. of Benj. Moore of Tren- 
ton, and had issue Mary, d. single; and Catharine, who m. 
Benjamin Titus. David m. May 24, 1780, Jemima, dau. of 
Capt. Samuel Hallett, and succeeded to his father's estate, now 
owned by S. H. Moore. Here he d. Jan. 12, 1823, a. 66, and 
his widow, June 20, 1846, a. 86. They had twelve ch. to wit, 
Patience, b. Aug. 15, 1781, d. Jan. 1, '82 ; Susannah, b. Mar. 
28, 1783 ; Thomas, b. June 12, 1784, d. Sep. 21, 1828, being 
the father of David and Cornelius Luyster Moore ; Anna, b. 
Mar. 16, 1786, m. Peter Luyster ; Samuel-Hallett, b. Jan. 11, 
1788, d. unm. June 26, 1813 ; Joseph, b. May 15, 1790, has no 
issue; David, b. Aug. 22, 1791, m. Mary B. dau. of Geo. 
Brinckerhoff, and resides at Brooklyn ; Patience, b. Dec. 30, 
1793, now widow of Col. E. Leverich ; Sarah, b. Nov. 12, 1796, 
present wife of Peter Luyster, Esq. aforesaid; John, b. Sep. 
26, 1798 ; Martha, b. Apr. 26, 1800, d. unm. Aug. 21, 1824[; 
and Elbert-Luyster, b. Jan. 4, 1802, d. single, Dec. 13, 1822. 
John Moore, last named, m. Martha- Ann, dau. of Gerdon Man- 
warring, and has surviving ch. Samuel-Hallett, Yan-Zandt- 
Mumford, Elbert-Luyster, and Mary- Ann. 

6. Joseph Moore, son of Samuel Moore," was b. Dec. 11, 
1679, and came in possession of that part of his father's estate 
near the Poor Bowery, which was subsequently purchased by 
John Moore, the great-grand-father of S. H. Moore, its present 
owner. He m. successively Elizabeth and Sarah, daughters 
of Jos. Sackett. He d. suddenly July 10, 1756, and his widow 
Sep. 25, 1760, a. 71. His ch. were seven by his first marriage, 
and eight by his second, to wit, Sarah, b. Sep. 29, 1706, m. 
Benjamin Fish; Joseph, b. Sep. 28, 1708, d. (unm. it is 


believed,) Nov. 10, 1757 ; Nathaniel, b. Jan. 1, 1710, d. young ; 
Mary, b. Nov. 14, 1712, m. John Davis ; Abigail, b. Apr. 10, 
1715, m. Samuel Washburn ; Sackett and Benjamin,''' twins, b. 
Sep. 3, 1716; Anna, b. Mar. 21, 1718, died single Dec. 1, 
1769; EUzabeth, b. Mar. 28, 1720, m. Joseph Baldwin; 
Patience, b. Feb. 5, 1722, m. John Moore ; Samuel, b. Jan. 15, 
1724; Martha, b. Mar. 20, 1726, m. Joseph Titus; Nathaniel, 
b. Jan. 15, 1728 ; Phebe, b. Mar. 28, 17S0, m. Burroughs ; and 
Jemima, b. October 18, 1732, who d. unm. Apr. 11, 1758. 
Nathaniel m. Joanna Hall, and d. Sep. 29, 1781, in his 54th 
yr. having issue Nathaniel, who ra. but had no ch. ; and Sarah, 
who m. Benjamin Waite. Sackett m. and removed to Hope- 
well, N. J. where he d. in his 37th yr. Aug. 18, 1753. His 
ch. were Joanna, m. Smith; Joseph, Jesse, and Sackett. 
Samuel, entitled captain, m. Abigail, dau. of Eobert Field. He 
espoused the whig cause in the Revolution, and was an active 
member of the Newtown committee. He managed to remain 
after the British came, and d. in or about 1782. His widow 
d. Jan. 15, 1805. Their ch. were Robert (Major), d. a bachelor 
Feb. 2, 1843, in his 86th yr. ; and Sarah, who m. Samuel 

7. Benjamin Moore, son of Joseph,^ m. Mary Hart of New 
Jersey, to which state he removed, and settled in Trenton 
township. Mrs. Moore d. Dec. 5, 1789, and he on June 5, 
1792, in his 76th yr. Their ch. were Israel, Wilham-Sackett, 
and Sarah, who m. Joseph Moore. Israel m. Catharine Car- 
penter, and d. Mar. 8, 1829, in his 78th yr. ; issue Sarah, d. 
single ; Elizabeth, who m. Josiah Hart ; and Aaron, residing 
in N. Jersey. William S. m. Elizabeth, dau. of Benj. Moore 
of Hopewell, N. J. by his intermarriage with Eliz., dau. of 
Sam'l Moore of Newtown. He d. at Trenton, Feb. 3, 1825, a. 
65 yrs. His ch, are Benjamin; Maria, now Mrs. Benj. Fish 
of Trenton; Ann, m. Capt. Lewis Parker; Eliza., and William 
I. Moore, residing at Danville, 111. 

8. Benjamin Moore, son of Samuel,^ came in posses- 
sion of the property near Newtown village, previously owned 
by his grand-father, Rev. John Moore, and now the resi- 
dence of John J. Moore. He m. Dec. 27, 1710, Anna, dau. 
of Joseph Sackett, and d. Mar. 22, 1750. His widow d. Sep. 
30, 1757, a. QQ. Their ch. were SamueV" b. Dec. 5, 1711 ; 


Marj, b. Jan. 10, 1714, ra. James Eenne, 2d ; Anna, b. Nov. 
5, 1715, m. Thos. Hallett; Sarah, b. May 17, 1718, m. Samuel 
Moore ; Benjamin, b. Mar. 23, 1720 ; John, b. June 28, 1723, 
d. young; Elizabeth, b. Jan. 10, 1725, m. Wm. Hazard;* 
Patience, b. Oct. 18, 1727, m. Jos. Lawrence, and John,^ b. 
July 5, 1730. Benjamin, a young physician of promise, d. in 
-the West Indies in or about 1745. 

9. John Moore, son of Benjamin,^ remained on the home- 
stead, and m. May 2, 1752, Hannah dau. of Thos. Whitehead. 
She d. in her 44th yr. Aug. 4, 1772. Mr. Moore survived till 
Oct. 18, 1827. He was in his 98th yr. His ch. were Eliza- 

* The Hazards were, prior to the Revolution, one of the most promi- 
nent families in Newtown. Their ancestor, Thomas Hazard, came from 
Wales, and was admitted to freemanship at Boston in 1636: in 1652, he be- 
came one of the founders and first magistrates of Newtown. He had several 
sons, one of whom, Robert, settled in Rhode Island, and originated the Haz- 
ards, so highly distinguished in the annals of that state. Jonathan, another 
Bon, remained at Newtown, m. Hannah, dau. of Jas. Lauronson, acquired a 
larwe property, and filled various offices. He d. in 1711, having had issue 
Thomas, James, Nathaniel, Elizabeth, m. Edward Hunt, and Sarah, who m. 
James Renne. Thomas, styled captain, was supervisor of Newtown from 
1720 till his death, which occurred Aug. 31, 1733, at the age of 51, occasioned 
by a fall from his horse. By his wife Mercy, dau. of Thos. Betts, he had ch. 
Thomas, Daniel, Samuel, John, and Jonathan ; the last of whom settled in 
Orange co., N. Y. Daniel, a sea captain, d. in New-York in 1747, and his 
only son, Thos. Hazard, Esq. d. in the same city in 1787, a. 43. His ch., as 
their births are recorded, were William-Howard, b. 1770 ; Charles-Smith, b. 
1772 ; Frances S. b. 1773, and Benjamin, b. 1774. James, for fifteen years 
a judfe of common pleas, occupied the farm now of John Duryea, in New- 
town. The family vault on this estate fell into decay, and was filled up a 
few years since. Judge Hazard d. Apr. 25, 1765. His ch. were Rebecca, 
m. Robert Morrell ; William, and Jonathan : the latter m. Abigail Pumroy, 
and left a son James, b. in 1752. William was a prominent citizen of New- 
town, m. Miss Moore, as above, and d. Aug. 25, 1773, a. 68. He left several 
daughters, and a son Morris, who was the grandfather of Mr. Wm. H. Haz- 
ard, of New-York, shipping merchant. Nathaniel, a merchant, finally remov- 
ed to Philadelphia, and d. in 1749. He had issue Njithaniel, Samuel, Hannah, 
m. Rev. Sani'l Sackett, and Sarah, who m. Capt. Dan'l Hazard. Nathaniel 
was a successful merchant in New-York, d. in or about 1764, and left- sons 
Nathaniel, Samuel, and Joseph, besides daughters, one of whom, Elizabeth, 
m. Joseph Hallett, father-in-law of the late Major John Delafield. Nathaniel, 
last named, m. Mary, dau. of Col. Jos. Robinson, and d. in 1798 ; issue, Ma- 
ria'and Nathaniel. Samuel, son of Nathaniel, was the father of the late Eben- 
ezer Hazard, Esq. of Philadelphia, a former Post-master General of thft 
United States and, editor of valuable contributions to American history. 


beth, b, Apr. 23, 1753, d. unm. Aug. 25, 1827 ; James, b. July 
24, 1754 ; Daniel, b. July 19, 1756, cl. Sep. 25, '61 ; Anna, b. 
Mar. 11, 1761, m. John McVickar, father of the Rev. Dr. 
McVickar, of New-York; Patience, b. Nov. 9, 1762, m. John 
Charlton Dongan ; Mary, b. Mar. 19, 1764, m. Dr. Rich. Law- 
rence and Wm. Stewart ; Benjamin, b. Jan. 25, 1766 ; Daniel- 
Sackett, b. June 17, 1768, and Abigail, b. Jan. 11, 1770, who 
m. Thomas Billopp, a New- York merchant, who afterwards 
perished in the Miranda expedition, in 1806. Benjamin had 
issue James, Uretta, and Richard. James m. Elizabeth, dau. 
of Capt. Sam'l Hallett, and d. Feb. 25, 1799, a. 44, having ch, 
Maria, Eliza, Jane, John, and Hannah. Daniel- Sackett owned 
the paternal residence near Newtown village. He chose a sea 
life, and was for many years a successful and respected ship- 
master. Capt. Moore d. in his 61st yr. Sep. 20, 1828. He m. 
successively Hannah, dau. of David Titus, and Hannah, dau. 
of Jacob Moore, and by the latter had issue Elizabeth, m. 
Jacob P. Leverich ; John-Jacob, William, Sarah, now Mrs. 
Henry Barcla}^ ; Mary, m. Charles Judson ; James, Frances, 
and Benjamin," 

10. Samuel Moore, (styled lieut.) son of Benjamin,^ was a 
respected farmer near Newtown village, owning the property 
now of John Penfold, (south side of the high- way,) on which 
he erected the house still standing. He m. Sarah Fish, who 
survived him, and d. a. 79, June 17, 1796. He d. Apr. 7, 1788, 
in his 77th yr. His ch. were Benjamin,^^ Jacob, Williamj^- 
Sarah, m. Thomas Barrow ; Patience, m. David Titus ; and 
Judith, who m. the Rev. Thos. L. Moore. Jacob m. in succes- 
sion Hannah and Elizabeth Waters, the latter on June 2, 1781. 
He d. July 22, 1825, a. 74, having (by his last wife) issue Han- 
nah, m. Capt. D. S, Moore; Benjamin, and John, who d, a 
young man. Benjamin m. Jane, dau. of John Rapelye, and 
owns part of the farm of his late father-in-law in Newtown. 
His ch. are Mary-Jane, Elizabeth, John, and Lemma- Ann. 

11. Benjamin Moore, son of Samuel, ^"^ was b. at Newtown, 
Oct. 5, 1748, and received a liberal education at King's (now 
Columbia) College, N. Y. of which institution he afterwards 
became an honored president. After pursuing theological stu- 
dies, he went to England, in 1774, and was ordained to the 
Episcopal ministry ; and, after his return, officiated as assistant 



minister of Trinity Church, till, on the resignation of Bishop 
Provost, he was appointed rector, in 1800. The next year he 
was elected bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the 
state of New-York, and continued to perform the duties of 
this high vocation till his death, Feb. 27, 1816, in his 68th yr. 
He was a man of deep learning, true benevolence, and exem- 
plary piety. Bishop Moore m. Apr. 20, 1778, Charity, dau. of 
Maj. Clement Clark, of NcAV-York, and his only child is 
Clement C. Moore,' Esq. of this city. 

13. William Moore son of Samuel, ^° and brother of the 
bishop, was b. at Newtown, Jan. 17, 1754. Adopting the 
study of physic, he went to Europe in 1778, and two years 
after graduated at Edinburgh doctor of medicine. He returned 
home, and, for more than forty years, continued unremittingly 
engaged in the arduous duties of an extensive practice. For 
many years, he was president of the New-York Medical So- 
ciety, and a trustee of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, 
as well as a vestryman of Trinity Church. " Seldom, indeed," 
remarks Dr. Francis, " has it happened that the two professions 
were adorned with such attainments, and such private excel- 
lence, as were exhibited in the instances of Dr. Moore and 
his brother Benjamin, the late pious and venerable bishop of 
the church." Dr. Moore d. in his 71st yr. Apr. 2, 1824. He 
m. Feb. 4, 1782, Jane, dau. of Nathaniel Fish, of Newtown, 
and had issue Nathaniel F. late president of Columbia Col- 
lege ; Maria-Teresa m. Henry C. De Eham, merchant ; Samuel 
W., physician ; Jane, m. Henry Major, merchant ; Susan, dec, ; 
Benjamin, also dec. ; Sarah, m. Edward Hodges, prof of mu- 
sic ; and William, of the mercantile firm of De Eham & Moore, 


Writers on English surnames inform us, that this family 
derive their name from the village of Alsop, in Derbyshire ; 
where, says a la^e English work, " there are numerous Alsops 
of every grade in society." Some distinguished persons of the 
name lived in the seventeenth century, and among these, 



several Episcopal divines Avho were ejected from tlieir cures >:;. i 
under the act of uniformity. Of a period somewhat eailier "^ \J 
was Richard Alsopp, lord mayor of London, in 1597. A name- 
sake of the latter, and perhaps a descendant, Richard Alsop, ^ -^ 
was the originator of the Newtown family, who Avas induced "~^ Vf^ 
by his uncle, Thomas Wandell, to locate in this town. Mr. 
Wandell, according to reminiscence in the Alsop family, had 
been a major in Cromwell's army ; but, having some dispute 
with the protector, was obliged to flee for safety, first to Hol- 
land, and thence to America. But some doubt of this may be 
justly entertained; because Mr. Wandell was living at Mespat 
Kills in 1648, which was prior to the execution of King 
Charles, and when Cromwell enjoyed but a subordinate com- 
mand in the parliamentary army. Mr. Wandell m. the widow 
of Wm. Herrick, whose plantation on Newtown Creek, (origi- 
nally patented to Richard Brutnell,) he bought in 1659, after- 
wards adding to it fifty acres, for which Richard Colefax had 
obtained a patent in 1652. On this property, since composing 
the Alsop farm, Mr. Wandell resided. He was selected, in 
1665, as one of the jury for the trial of Ralph Hall and his wife 
for witchcraft, (the only trial for witchery in this colony,) and 
shared the honor of acquitting the accused. Some years later, 
he made a voyage to England, returning by way of Barbadoes, 
and, it is supposed, brought with him from England his sister's 
son, Richard Alsop, who, about this time, came to America, 
and was adopted by Mr. Wandell as his heir, he having no 
issue. He d. in 1691, and was interred on the hill occupied by 
the Alsop cemetery. Many years [after his death, the silver 
plate of his cofiin was discovered, in digging a new grave. 

1. Richard Alsop, while yet under age, received a commis- 
sion in the Newtown troop of horse. Inheriting the estate of 
his uncle Wandell, he continued to reside upon it during life. 
He d. in October, 1718, a. about 58 ; but his widow, Hannah, 
(who, tradition saith, was a Dutch lady, whom he courted 
through an interpreter,) attained her 91st yr. and d. Aug. 23, 
1757. Their ch. were Thomas, Richard, "* John, 2 Hannah, m. 
Jos. Sackett ; Deborah m. Capt. John Sipkins and Nath'l Haz- 
ard ; Amy, m. Jona. Wright ; Elizabeth, m. Phineas Mcintosh, 
and Susannah, who m. Nath'l Lawrence. Thomas was b. Sep. 
7, 1687, and m. Feb. 5, 1708, Susannah dau. of Robert Black- 


well. He served for some years as a magistrate in Newtown, 
but subsequently entered into mercantile pursuits in New- 
York, where he d. in Sep. 1743, having the previous year lost 
his wife and three of his daughters. He left ch, Eichard, Kob- 
ert, Thomas, '.Mary, wife of James Way, Lydia, and Sarah, 
who m. John Leggett of Westchester, The three sons became 
Quakers. Kobert remained many years at Newtown ; Thomas 
located in Hempstead, and Eichard, at Oyster Bay. 

2. John Alsop, son of Eichard,^ m. in Dec. 1718, Abigail 
dau. of Jos. Sackett. He adopted the profession of law, and 
located at New AVindsor, in Orange co. ; but afterwards re- 
turned to New- York, became a freeman of that city, in 1749, 
and there continued his legal pursuits during life. He d. Apr, 
8, 1761, a. 64. . Mrs. A. d. in her 57th yr. Dec. 8, 1752. Of 
their two daughters, Euphemia and Frances, the first m. Tho- 
mas Stevenson, and the latter d. single. Their tAVO sons, John 
and Eichard,-^ were bred as merchants, and were successfully 
engaged together in the cloth and dry good line. John be- 
came eminent as a politician, represented the city in the colo- 
nial legislature, and was a delegate to the first continental 
congress in 1774. He was not in congress, as has been sup- 
posed, when the independence of the American colonies was 
declared, but was at that time a member of the New- York 
convention, and, on the adoption of the above measure by 
the latter body, he resigned his seat. He survived the Eevolu- 
tion ; was for several years a vestryman of Trinity Church, 
and d. Nov. 22, 1794. Mr. Alsop m. June 8, 1766, Mary Fro- 
gat, who d. Apr, 14, 1772, a, 28, and by whom he had an only 
ch, Mary, a most estimable lady, who m. Mar, 30, 1786, the dis- 
tinguished Eufus King, father of the Hon. John A, King, and 
Charles King, president of Columbia College. 

3, Eichard Alsop, the younger son of John Alsop,- after 
serving his time in the mercantile house of Philip Livingston, 
and engaging in business on his own account, as before men- 
tioned, removed to Middletown, Ct. and m. Miss Mary Wright, 
by whom he had eight children. He d, at that place, Apr, 10, 
1776, in his 50th yr. His sons were Eichard, Joseph- Wright, 
and John, the last of whom d. a bachelor, JRichard, b. Jan. 23, 
1761, was bred a merchant, but devoted himself chiefly to 
literary pursuits, and excelled as a poet. He d, at Flatbush, 


Aug. 20, 1815. (See Thompson's Hist. Long Isl. ii. 212.) His 
cb. were two daughters, (the younger of Avhom m. Francis J. 
Oliver, Esq. of Boston,) and one son, Richard, an eminent 
merchant of Philadelphia, and founder of the well known 
houses of Alsop & Co., Valparaiso, Chili, and Lima, Peru. He 
d. May 29, 1842, without issue. Joseph W. Alsoji, b. Mar. 2, 
1772, d. Oct. 16, 184-1. His [ch. are Lucy W. m. to Henry 
Chauncey, of the firm of Alsop & Chauncey, New- York ; 
Charles R., Esq. of Middletown, Ct. formerly mayor of that 
city ; Joseph W. of the commercial firm above-named ; Clara 
P. ; Elizabeth W. m. to Geo. H. Hoppiu of Providence, R. I. ; 
and Mary W. wife of Dr. Thos. D. Mutter, of the Jefferson 
Medical College, Philadelphia. 

4. Richard Alsop, son of Richard,^ was b. in 1695, and en- 
tered into mercantile life in New-York, where he was admitted 
to freemanship in 1727. He subsequently bought the paternal 
farm in Newtown, on which he afterwards resided ; and for 
twenty years was a justice of the peace. He m. Elizabeth, dau. 
of John Crooke, Esq. through whom he became possessor of a 
share in the Great Nine Partners, in Dutchess co. He d. sud- 
denly, Nov. 21, 1764, in his 70th yr. and his widow in her 73d 
yr. Mar. 29, 1776. Their ch. who attained maturity were 
Richard,^ Elizabeth, d. unm., Hannah, m. Dr. Jos. Sackett, and 
Mary, who m. George Willocks Leslie, a Scotch gentleman of 
distinction, whose death occurred at Jamaica, Apr. 26, 1774. 

5. Richard Alsop, son of Richard,"* was b. Oct. 6, 1730, and 
was usually designated as Richard 4th. He fell heir to his 
father's estate, and became a highly respected and influential 
citizen of Newtown, serving in the magistracy many years. 
On Nov. 22, 1766, he m. Abigail dau. of Thos. Whitehead. 
He d. in his 60th yr. Apr. 5, 1790, and Mrs. A. in her 81st yr. 
Jan. 12, 1821. Of nine ch. only five survived infancy, to wit, 
Elizabeth, b. Nov. 20, 1772, d. Jan. 26, '94 ; Richard, b. Sept. 
2, 1774, d. Aug. 8, '98; John, b. Feb. 5, 1779; Hannah, b. 
Sep. 22, 1780, m. Patrick G. Hildreth, of New- York, lawyer ; 
and Thomas, b. Mar. 25, 1785. Thomas, who alone survives, 
shared his father's estate, being that portion now owned by 
Paul Rapelye. After leaving Newtown and living some years 
in New- York, he removed in 1848, to Jacksonville, East Flo- 
rida, to reside with his son William, a merchant at that place. 



Bj his wife, Catharine, dau. of Geo. Brinckerhoff, Mr, Alsop 
has had issue, Eliza, m. first Joseph A¥ood, and now the wife 
of Alex. Leaird of N. Y. ; Eichard, dec. ; George B. of Ala- 
bama; John, of N. y. ; Thomas E. d, young; Catharine M. 
wife of Dr. Marinas H. Van Dyke, a grandson of Eev. Henry 
Van Dyke, and William, before named. John Alsop succeeded 
to the paternal dwelling, and was supervisor of Newtown in 
1821. He d. Apr. 23, 1837, a. 58. His wife was Ann N. dau. 
of the late Jos. Woodward, but he left no issue. Mrs. Alsop, 
(since m. to S. G. Raymond, attorney-at-law,) having sold the 
farm and removed from the town, the name of Alsop thereby 
became extinct in Newtown. A considerable part of this farm 
has been converted into a Catholic burial-place, and is known 
as Calvary Cemetery. 

The arms of the Alsops are : on a field sable, three doves 
argent, wings expanded, legs and beak gules. Crest, a dove 
argent, wings expanded, holding in his beak un ear of wheat. 


All testimony unites in as- 
cribing to this family a French 
origin, and it is made probable 
that the seat of their ancestors 
was at Berrien, now a consi- 
derable town in the department 
of Finisterre. Concurrent tra- 
ditions existing in diverse 
branches of the family declare 
that their ancestor was a Hu- 
guenot, who, during the civil 
wars of France, was forced to 
flee and take refuge in Holland. 

1. Cornells Jansen Berrien, as appears by reference to our 
early records, was the first of the name that emigrated to this 
country, and the common progenitor of the family here. He 


settled ill Flatbusb as early as 1669, there m. Jannetie, dau. of 
Jan Stryker ; and, being a person of character and education, 
enjoyed offices in the town government, and was likewise a 
deacon of the Dutch church. In 1683, by appointment of the 
colonial assembly, he formed one of a commission to levy a 
special tax in this province. In 1685 he removed his resi- 
dence to Newtown, where during the previous year, he and 
his brother-in-law, Abm. Brinckerhoff, had bought over 400 
acres of land at the head of Flushing Bay, which they after- 
wards divided. Mr. Berrien d. here in 1689. Samuel Edsall, 
Esq. afterwards m. his widow. His ch. were John,~ Petcr,^ 
Nicholas, Catharine, m. Jeromus Remsen, and Agnes who m. 
Lieut. Joris Rapelje. Nicholas was an intelligent farmer, and 
for a time a magistrate. His farm on Flushing Bay he had 
bought in 1712 of Wm. Stevenson, it having been owned at 
an earlier day by John Ramsden. He married his cousin Sa- 
rah, dau. of Abm. Brinckerhoff and widow of Jacob Rapelje, 
but dying without issue Dec. 27, 1737, a. 56, he bequeathed his 
farm to the children of his brother John, who sold it to Nath'l 
^Fish, and it is now owned by Daniel Lent. 

2. John Berrien, eldest son of Cornelius,^ was a farmer and 
brewer on the paternal estate at the head of Flushing Bay, be- 
ing that afterwards in the Rapelye family. (See p. 272.) He 
m. Apr. 5, 1697, his step-sister Ruth Edsall, served for some 
years as a justice of the peace, and d. in April 1711. Samuel 
Fish m. his widow. His ch. were Cornelius,^ b. Jait 8, 1698; 
Samuel, b. Aug. 30, 1700 ; Jane, b. Mar. 1, 1703, m. Dermis 
Lawrence and Andrew Riker ; Richard, b. Sep. 11, 1706; 
Catharine, b. Nov. 13, 1709, m. Rem Remsen ; and a twin-sis- 
ter, Agnes, b. Nov. 14, 1709, who m. Capt. Sam'l Fish. Samuel 
and Richard were " mariners," or, as the term then meant, 
masters of vessels. The former, it is said, d. in the West 


3. Cornelius Berrien, son of John,^ m. Dec. 29, 1719, Sa- 
rah, dau. of Samuel Hallett. In 1727, he bought from Timo- 
thy Wood, the island since called Berrien's Island, with ad- 
joining property, now composing the farm of Ezra N. Ber- 
rien. ""(See p. 36.) Here Mr. Berrien d. Mar. 30, 1767, a. 69. 
His widow d. Jan. 11, 1797, a. 93. Their ch. were John, Sam- 
uel, Richard,* Nicholas, Cornelius, ^'eter, Jacob, Phebe, m. 


Wm. Warner, and Kutli who ni. Jacob llallett. Jacoh Berrien 
d. on a voyage to the Bay of Honduras. Nicholas and Samuel 
settled in "Westchester co. where both left fiimilies. The lat- 
ter, b. 1723, m. Dorcas, dau. of Geo. Tippett, became proprie- 
tor of Tippett's, no^Y Berrien's Neck, and had sons Cornelius, 
George, James, Richard, and William, one of whom, Richard, 
b. April 29, 17G5, was the father of the Rev. William Berrian, 
D. D., rector of Trinity Church, K Y., who m. Oct. 27, 1812, 
Jane, dau. of Col. Elias B. Dayton of Elizabethtown, N. J. 
John^ b. Sep. 27, 1720, m. Ellen Brasher, and it is said became 
a merchant in N. York, though he appears at one time to have 
commanded a vessel. He d. Dec. 2(5, 177o, and his widow in 
her 75th yr. Sep. 17, 180G. Both were interred in Trinity 
Church yard. Their ch. Avho survived infancy, were x\bi- 
gail, b. Jan. 8, 1754, m. Capt. Alexander Cameron; John, b. 
Dec. 20, 175G; Sarah, b. Dec. 31, 1758, m. Jacob liegeman, 
and Daniel, b. Aug. 20, 1762. The latter, a ship builder, d. of 
yellow fever in 1795, and was the fother of the late Daniel 
Berrien of N. Y. brush-dealer, who d. Feb. 2, 1849, a. 03, his 
business being now conducted by his son Daniel. 

4. Richard Berrien, son of Cornelius,^ m. Dec. 2-1, 1748, 
Grace, dan. of Abraham Riker, of Newtown, and occupied 
the form since of Jesse Leverich, Esq., and where the widow 
of B. Denton, now resides. In the Revolution, being a "whig, 
he was an exile in Connecticut, though his family remained. 
His wife had d. Dec. 12, 1771, a. 42. lie d. in 1802, a. about 
70, having served as an office bearer in the Presb. church. 
His ch. were Abraham, b. July 21, 1751 ; Sarah, b. Mar. 31, 
1754, m. Sam'l Leverich, and Grace, b. Nov. 24, 1759, wdio m. 
Jesse Leverich, above named. Abraham removed to West- 
chester, and in 1796 bought from his uncle Samuel, the estate 
of Tippett's Neck, near Kingsbridge. He m. Feb. 18, 1775, 
Mary, dau.of Nath'l Moore, who dying Feb. 13, 1788, a. 33, he 
m. secondly, Pelatiah Williams, Feb. 4, 1794. He d. Oct. 1, 
1830, and his widow Oct. 26, 1839, both a. 79 yrs. and both 
buried in Newtown. Mr. Berrien's ch. who reached adult 
yrs. were all by his first marriage, namely, Abraham, d. 1851, 
a. 71 ; Nathaniel, d. 1847, a. 65 : Richarda)lind, d. 1827, a 40 ; 
Rebecca, m. Geo. Brinckerhoff ; Grace-Moore, m. Maj. Leonard 
Bleecker; Charity, m. John Ilooghind, and Marj'. 


5. Cornelius Berrien, son of Cornelius,^ was b. Jan. 30, 
1735, remained on the paternal farm, and m. Jane dau. of 
Charles Warner, of Westchester. She d. in her 40th yr. Feb. 
22, 1777, and he on July 17, 1810. They had twelve ch. of 
whom the following attained maturity, viz. Elizabeth, h. Nov. 
20, 1753, m. John Bogart; Sarah, b. Mar. 29, 1755, m. her 
cousin, Samuel, son of Nich. Berrien, of Fordham ; Jane, b. 
Dec. 24, 1757, m. John Deacon and Daniel Farrington ; Sam- 
uel, b. June 7, 1760, m. Sarah, dau. of Ezra Newman, of Conn. ; 
Lydia, b. Apr. 8, 1708, m. Wm. Lawrence ; Catharine, b. Mar. 
30, 1772, m. Richard Moore; James, b. Aug. 18, 1773, m. Char- 
lotte, dau. of Jos. Cooper, and Cornelius, b. Oct. 13, 1775, who 
obtained the paternal farm in llellgate Neck, and dying unm. 
Aug. 6, 1833, left it to his kindred ; his nephew, Ezra N. Ber- 
rien, son of Samuel, now occupying the same. 

6. Peter Berrien, son o^ Cornelius,^ was b. in 1072, and m. 
Aug. 10, 1706, his step-sister Elizabeth, dau. of Samuel Edsall, 
Esq.* lie was a surveyor by profession, and became a large 
landholder. (See p. 160.) IIo served several years as super- 
visor, and enjoyed a large measure of public confidence. lie 

* Samuel Edsall, whose descendants are now found in New-York, 
New Jersey, and other states, was a native of Reading, in Berkshire, Eng. ; 
and after his arrival at New Amsterdam, m. in 1655, Jannetie Wessels, from- 
Aernhem. Here he pursued the business of a beaver-maker or hatter. lie 
acquired large plantations at Bergen and Hackensack, in New Jersey, to the , 
former of which places he removed "in Col. NicoU's time," and in 1668 was 
appointed one of the council for that province. Through a long term of 
years he was an active public man. His zealous support of the unfortunate 
Leisler, incurred the hatred of the opposite party, though he enjoyed in a 
large degree the respect of the people of Newtown, among whom he had pre- 
viously fixed his residence. He here m. his second wife, Jannetie, widow of 
Cor. Berrien. He was still sers'ing in the magistracy at Newtown in 1700 ; 
but the time and place of his decease is uncertain. His sons, John and Rich- 
ard, settled at Hackensack, where the former d. in 1714, a. 54, leaving sons 
Samuel and John. Richard m. in 1712, Kezia, dau. of Philip Ketcham, of 
Newtown, by his intermarriage with Martha dau. of Capt. Rich. Betts. His 
son, Philip Edsall, inherited half of his grandfatlierKetcham's estate in New- 
town, m. Dec. 11, 1734, Elizabeth dau. of Rev. Mr. Pumroy, and served long 
and faithfully both as a civil magistrate and an elder of the Prcsb. church. 
'He d. Feb. 21, 1791, a. 78, and was buried on that part of his firm at Fresh 
Ponds, now held by his grand-daughter, Mrs. Liiar. His dau. Elizabeth ra. 
Judge Coe, and his son Samuel, who d. Oct. 11, 1806, in his 62d yr. has 
Beveral ch. living. 


presented the ground on which the first Dutch church in New- 
town was erected. The coat-of-arms at the head of this account 
is taken from an impression of the seal carried, by this gentle- 
man. He d. very suddenly, while riding from Newtown vil- 
lage to his own house, Apr. 5, 1737. His widow d. May 6, 
1763. Their ch. except two that d. in infanc}^, were Corne- 
lius,^ b. May 24, 1707 ; Samuel, b. Sep. 29, 1709, d. Aug. 29, 
1742; John,9b. Nov. 19, 1711; Peter, b. Feb. 6, 1714; Jane, 
b. Sep. 29, 1716, m. Nath'l Fish ; Nicholas, b. Aug. 3, 1720, 
and Jacob, b. Apr. 10, 1723. The last two became merchants 
in New- York, but onl}'- Nicholas married. Peter settled on a 
farm in Somerset co. N. J., where he d. in 1781, a. 67. By his 
wife, Anna Emmons, he had sons Henry and John, and daugh- 
ters Elizabeth, m. Col. Van Dyck ; Sarah, m. Schureman, and 
Ann, who m. Eichard Betts. The sons m. Van Dycks, of dif- 
ferent families, but only Henry ha^ issue. 

7. Cornelius Berrien, son of Peter, "^ remained in Newtown, 
and in 1740 bought the paternal farm, being that afterwards 
owned by Rich. Berrien, and now the residence of Mrs. Den- 
ton. He m. Amy Smith, served as a civil magistrate, and in 
the eldership of the Presb. church, and d. Jan. 14, 1758, in his 
61st yr. His widow, a woman of intelligence and education, 
d. Dec. 22, 1793. Their ch. were Cornelius,^ John, Peter, Eliz- 
abeth, m. Rich. Betts ; Amy, m. Rich. Lawrence ; Jane, m. Wm. 
Nicoll, and Catharine who m, Nathan Fish. Peter, a shipmas- 
ter and member of the Marine Society, sailed a vessel owned 
by his brother Cornelius, and lost his life on the Spanish main 
in 1777. John studied medicine, but relinquished this for a 
mercantile life, in which he was prosperous. He m. Apr. 27, 
1763, Sarah dau. of Elnathan Fish, by whom he had an only 
child, Rachel, who m. Col. John Jameson of Virginia. In 1775 
Mr. Berrien was chosen on the committee of safety for the city 
of New-York ; and throughout the war of independence gave 
strong evidence of faithfulness and ability in legislative and 
other offices. His private life was adorned by many virtues. 
He d. Sep. 25, 1784, in his 49th yr. 

8. Cornelius Berrien, son of Cornelius,'^ was b. Oct. 14, 
1734, and m. in 1765, Elizabeth dau. of Rich. Penfold. In the 
French war he served as first-lieutenant on board the privateer 
Tartar, Capt. Thos. Lawrence ; and at the termination of their 


successful cruises against the French, he cngnged in commerce, 
owning and commanding several vessels. In 1777, he despatch- 
ed three vessels to the West Indies, in command of his brother 
Peter, his brother-in-law John Penfold, and Capt. Richardson. 
On the Spanish main, while obtaining a shipment of mules, 
they were attacked by the natives, and of the three crews only 
two seamen escaped to reveal the tragedy. After the war, 
Capt. Berrien resided on the Penfold farm at Hellgate, and 
followed husbandry till his death, Dec. 12, 1805, in his 72d yr. 
nis widow d. Sep. 10, 1817, a. 70. Their ch. who reached ma- 
ture age were Richard-Penfold and Cornelius-Penfold, twins, 
b. Oct. 5, 1779, the latter of whom m. Elizabeth B. dau. of John 
Morris, and d. Apr. 3, 1828, having had issue Sarah, John M., 
Cornelius A,, Mary, Elizabeth, and Jane. Rich. P. Berrien, 
now of NcAV-York, m. Elizabeth dau. of Sol. Vanderbeck. His 
ch. are Eliza P., Cornelius P., Richard P., William E., and 
Gertrude A. 

9. John Berrien, son of Peter,^ became a merchant at Rocky 
Hill, in Somerset co., N. J., and m. Margaret Eaton of that 
state. From 1763 till his death, he was one of the trustees of 
Princeton College, besides holding other responsible public 
stations. On his tombstone, at Princeton, is the following: 
" Sacred to the memory of the honorable John Berrien, Esq., 
one of the Justices of the Supreme Court of Judicature of the 
Province of New Jersey, who died much lamented on the 22d 
day of April, A. D. 1772, in the 61st year of his age." His ch. 
were John, William, Samuel, Thomas, Eliza, m. Nath'l Law- 
rence and John Lawrence, and Mary who m. Dr. Thos. Mont- 
gomery. William, a physician, d. at Arneytown, New Jersey, 
and his brothers Samuel and Thomas are or were recently liv- 
ing in the above state. John emigrated to Georgia in 1775, 
commanded a company in the regular service at the age of 
seventeen, and at eighteen was commissioned a brigade-major, 
in which capacity he made the campaign of the Jerseys, and 
was engaged at the battle of Monmouth and elsewhere. At the 
close of the war, he m. Margaret Macpherson of Philadelphia, 
dau. of Capt. John Macpherson, an officer in the provincial 
navy, and a sister of John and Wilham M. both distinguished 
in the revolutionary struggle ; the former an aid-de-camp to 
Gen. Montgomery, with whom he fell in battle at Quebec. Mr. 


Berrien returned to Georgia, and settled in Savannali, where 
he d. in 1815, having held the office of survej'or of that port 
for many years, and, for a shorter period, that of state trea- 
surer. His son, the present Hon, John Macpherson Berrien, is 
a native of Georgia. Having graduated at Princeton College, 
and engaged in the study of law, he was admitted to the bar 
before he was eighteen years of age. His first public office was 
that of recorder of the city of Savannah, and his next that of 
solicitor-general. At the age of twenty-nine he was called to 
the state bench, which office he held for ten years, and resign- 
ing in 1822, served in the state senate the two succeeding 
years. In 1825, he took his seat in the senate of the United 
States, where he remained till 1829, when he was appointed 
U. S. attorney-general. In the same year the mission to 
England was offered him, and declined chiefly from domestic 
considerations. He resigned the office of attorney -general 
in 1831, and resumed the practice of his profession in Savan- 
nah ; but in 18-10 was again called to the U. S. senate, and yet 
holds a seat in that bod}^ These numerous marks of public 
favor are very creditable to their worthy recipient. 


Among the early puritan emigrants to New England, was 
Mr. Simon Sackett, who, about the year 1628 or '29, came 
from the Isle of Ely, Cambridgeshire, Eng., and located at 
Cambridge, Mass., where he d. in 1635. His sons Simon and 
John removed in 1653 to Springfield, on the Connecticut river, 
where they took the oath of fidelity, Liar. 23, 1656. John af- 
terwards removed to Northampton, and thence to "Westfield, 
where he d. in 1719, a. 87. His posterity have been numerous 
in Westfield and its vicinitj-, and are also found in western 
New-York. His brother, Simon Sackett, d. at SjDringfield, July 
9, 1659, a. 29, his wife Sarah, dau. of Wm. Bloomfield, surviv- 
ing him. His only child, as far as known, was Joseph, the 
progenitor of the Newtown family. 


1. Josepli Sackett, son of Simon 2d, was b. at Springfield, 
Feb. 23, 1656. Left fatherless at a tender age, it is probable 
he was taken into the family of his grandfather Bloomfield, 
and accompanied the latter on his removal to Xewtown in 
1662. However, Sackett was here in 167-1, and for many j-ears 
enjoyed a prominent standing in the town. By his own exer- 
tions and favor shown him by his bachelor uncle, Daniel Bloom- 
field, he accumulated a large estate in iSre^\i;own and elsewhere. 

.^^f^Q m. thrice ; first, Elizabeth dau. of Capt. Rich. Betts ; se- 
condly, Anna , and lastly to Mercy, widow of Thos. 

Betts, Esq., who survived him. Capt. Sackett d. near the 
close of 1719, in his 6-lth yr. His ch. were Simon, Joseph,3 
Eichard, John,- "William, Samuel, Elizabeth and Sarah, who, 
in succession, m. Jos. Moore ; Anna, m. Benjamin Moore ; 
Abigail, m. John Alsop ; and Patience, who m. John Lawrence. 
Simon d. at Hopewell, N. J. in 1718, leaving no issue. Richard 
m. and d. at Greenwich, Ct. William remained at ISTewtown, 
and in 1727 w^as appointed by the town the " general whipper." 
In 1729 he m. wddow Mary Janes, but had no issue. Having 
served some years in the magistracy, and survived his consort, 
he d. Aug. 29, 1761, in his 61th yr. He occupied the premises 
since known as the old Episcopal parsonage. Samuel studied 
divinity, and was settled over the Presbyterian church at Bed- 
ford, Westchester co. in 1713, ministered there for ten years, 
and then removed to the congregation at Yorktown, in the 
same county, where he d. June 5, 1784. His grave is in the 
village of Crompond, the scene of his labors. He was a judi- 
cious, laborious, and successful minister of Christ. He m. Apr. 
6, 1732, Hannah dau. of Nath'l Hazard, and left sons Nathaniel 
and James, besides daughters. 

2. John Sackett, son of Joseph, ^ remained in Newtown, 
owning the farm now belonging to the estate of John A. Kelly, 
dec. He m. Jan. 11, 1719, Elizabeth, dau. of Elnathan Field, 
after whose death, he m. her sister Susannah. He d. Dec. 31, 
1728, and his widow m. John Leverich. Mr. Sackett left two 
ch. namely, Elizabeth and William, the first of whom m. her 
step-brother, 'John Leverich. Milliam, b. Dec. 29, 1727, m. 
Feb. 14, 1749, Anna, dau. of John Lawrence. He occupied the 
paternal farm, and there d. Apr. 28, 1802, his wife having d. 
Apr. 11, 1798, in her 67th yr. Their ch. who reached matui'ity 


were John, b, July 27, 1755 ; Daniel, b. Mar. 29, 1759, m. 
Martha Green, but d. at Old Milford, Ct. without issue, Jan. 7, 
1822 ; Jonathan, b. Sep. 28, 1761, and Nathaniel L., b. Aug 
23 1764, Avho d. unm. Mar. 26, 1797. Jonathan m. Sarah, 
dau. of Capt. Jacob Banks, and had issue Jacob B., b. June 4, 
1786 ; Anna L., b. May 17, 1789 ; William, b. Sep. 28, 1792, 
d. July 3, 1802 ; John L., b. Nov. 7, 1794, and Jonathan, b. 
May 9, 1801. Capt. John Sackett, son of William and Anna, 
m. Elizabeth Gibbs, of Conn., and remained in Newtown, 
where he d. May 12, 1819, in his 64th yr., and his widow, a. 
71, May 27, 1836. Their ch. were AVilliam, b. Feb. 28, 1784, 
m. Gertrude, dau. of John Meserole, and d. Feb. 4, 1849 ; Law- 
rence, b. Sep. 14, 1786 ; Anna, b. Feb. 24, 1791, m. Peter Gors- 
line •* Mary, b. Apr. 28, 1793, the widow of Jos, Lawrence ; 
Patience, b. July 21, 1795 ; Elizabeth G., b. Dec. 18, 1799, and 
Amy L., b. Jan. 6, 1804. The last three d, single. 

3. Joseph Sackett, son of Joseph,^ received a considerable 
property from his father, and resided at the English Kills, on 
the premises late Judge Jones'. He was a man of probity, a 
justice of the peace, and a judge from 1749 till his death, 
which occurred at an advanced age, Sep. 26, 1755. His wife 
Hannah, dau. of Richard Alsop, survived till June 17, 1773. 

* The family of Gorsline is of French extraction. The name dates back 
to a period of great antiquity ; and, besides being mentioned in an honorable 
connection by the annalists of France, is also found enrolled upon the tables 
of nobility in that country. Branches of the family now reside in Alsace, 
Brabant, Switzerland, and England. Jacob Gosseline, a respectable French 
emigrant, came to Newtown near the close of the seventeenth century. Hav- 
ino- means, or acquiring it in the prosecution of his trade as a weaver, he 
purchased a fiirm, which he cultivated till his death, in or about 1722. He left 
sons Jacob, Jose, John, and Samuel. Jose owned the f:irm now of William 
Leverich, near Newtown village, and was also a weaver. For nine years he 
was constable of the town. He m. in succession Elizabeth Alburtis and 
Martha Smith, and d. Nov. 20, 1772. His ch. were Samuel, Jacob, John, 
William, Joseph, James, Daniel, Richard, Elizabeth, Mary, Judith, Thomas, 
and Benjamin. Of these, Samuel left a family in Dutchess co. Richard d. in 
the Island of St. Croix, in 1771, leaving Richard, who settled at Delhi, N. Y,, 
and Ann, who m. Capt. (afterwards Gen.) ^neas Shaw, of the British army. 
Joseph m. successively Sarah Leverich, and widow Hannah Underbill, and d. 
in his 86th yr. Mar. 30, 1822. His sons were James and John, the last of 
whom ra. Helen Conselyea, and was the father of the present Andrew and 
Peter Gorsline, of Newtown. 


Their cli. were Joseph,^ Jolin, James, Samuel,^ Thomas, "Wil- 
liam, Elizabeth, who m. Jonathan Fish ; Hannah, m. Thomas 
Whitehead ; Frances, m. Jacob Blackwell ; and Deborah, wlio 
m. Jas. Stringham. Of the sons, William continued in New- 
town, and was a vestryman of the Episcopal church. He m. 
Sarah, dau. of Capt. Sam'l Fish, who after his death m. John 
Woods, of New-York, attorney at law. Mr. Sackett left a son, 
William, who removed west. Thomas practiced medicine in 
Newtown for many years, where he m. Sep. 21, 1762, Phebe, 
dau. of Sam'l Alburtis. He d. June 27, 1769, a. 40, and his 
only ch. Hannah m. John Ruggles, and settled in Nova Sco- 
tia. James was associated with his brother Samuel in mercan- 
tile business in New-York, where he m. Frances DeKay, Nov. 
2, 1749, and d. during the Revolution. His only ch. Frances 
m. William Laight, father of Mr. Edward W. Laight, of New- 

4. Joseph Sackett, son of Joseph,^ m. Mar. 23, 1731, Milli- 
cent, dau. of Samuel Clowes, of Jamaica. After doing busi- 
ness in New- York as a merchant for some years, he removed 
to Orange co. where he held a large tract of land. His son 
Joseph was b. Feb. 16, 1733, old style, became a physician and 
practiced in Newtown, for a considerable period, before the 
Revolution. During this war, being a whig, he lived at Peram- 
us, N. J. He d. in New- York, July 27, 1799. His widow, 
Hannah, dau. of Richard Alsop, whom he m. Apr. 9, 1752, d. 
at the same place, May 31, 1817, in her 82d yr. Of twelve 
ch. most d. in infancy or early life, nnm. James, b. Mar. 20, 
1755, a surgeon in the navy, d. single; Peter, b. Mar. 4, 1757, 
went to England ; Elizabeth-Crooke, b. Jan. 16, 1772, m. Capt. 
Daniel Tingley, of N, York, and Joseph, b. Aug. 6, 1774, has 
several daughters residing in the last named place. 

5. Samuel Sackett, son of Joseph,^ was b. in 1728, and after 
eno-aging in business in New- York retired to Jamaica, Avhere 
he^m'. his wife, Mary Bctts. There he d. Sep. 29, 1780, a. 52, 
and his widow Apr. 20, 1784, a. 43. They had issue Samuel, 
Richard, Augustus, and Sophia, wife of Oliver Goodwin of 
Ohio. Richard never married ; after the Revolution he served 
many years in the British navy. Augustus ra. June 19, 1795, 
Minerva, dau. of Elisha Camp, of Cat£kill,.and enjoyed some 
prominence in New- York. In 1802 he removed to, and began 



the settlement of Sackett's Harbor, wliicli took his name, and 
where he has sons residing, Samuel Sachett, b, 1765, m. Nov. 
9, 1786, Ehzabeth, dan, of Daniel Kissam, Esq. He d. at 
Brooklyn, in his 57th yr. Mar. 7, 1822, leaving issue, Edwin 
K. now dec, Clarence D. and Grenville A. both of New- 
York, laAvyers, and Elizabeth K. wife of Thos. W. Titus, of 


For a long period this name 
has held a distinguished place 
among officers of state and men 
of letters, in the Netherlands, 
where the family originated. 
Anciently some of its members 
enjoyed celebrity in the citicg 
of Antwerp and Ghent, in the 
first of which Eleazar Polhc- 
mus, a learned jurist, held the 
office of burgomaster as early 
as 1310. The annexed cut 
represents the family arms. 
1. Johannes Theodorus Polhemus, a minister of the Ee- 
formed Church of Holland, was the progenitor of the entire 
American family. He came to New- Amsterdam in 1654 from 
Itamarca in Brazil, where he had been settled. He immedi- 
ately accepted a call from Flatbush, and took up his residence 
there, where, in 1662, he received a patent for a part of the 
premises now owned by Jeremiah Lott, Esq. In 1665, his 
connection with this church ceased, from which time his ser- 
vices were given to the Brooklyn congregation till his decease, 
June 9, 1676. In recording the death of their " worthy 
and beloved pastor," they deplore the loss of " his pious in- 
structions, godly example, and edif3ang preaching." His 
widow, whose maiden name was Catharine Van Werven, sur- 
vived him several years. His ch. Avere Theodorus,- Daniel, 


Elizabeth, m. Denjs Teunisz, Adriana, m. John R. Seubering, 
Anna, m. Cornelius B. Van Wyck, and Margaret, Avho m. Wm. 
Guilliamse Cornell Daniel m. Aug. 13, 1685, Neeltie, dau. of 
Cor. Vanderveer. He was captain of the King's co. troop, and 
supervisor of Flatbush in 1705. lie was afterwards county 
judge. He d. in or just prior to 1730, having sons, Cornelius, 
Daniel, Hendrick, and Jacob. The latter settled at Haver- 
straw ; Hendrick in Somerset co. N. J. ; Daniel in New-York, 
and Cornelius in Hempstead, L. I. All left families. 

2. Theodorus Polhemus, el'dest son of Johannes,^ was b. 
on the Island of Tamarica in Brazil. He m. Oct. 14, 1677, 
Aertie, dau. of Teunis G. Bogart, by his intermarriage with 
Sarah, dau. of Joris Janscn de Rapalie. Soon after this, Mr. 
Polhemus was chosen a deacon of the Flatbush church, in 
which he served two years. Prior to 1692, he removed to the 
town of Jamaica, where he d. in 1722, leaving sons, Teunis, 
Johannes, and Abraham.^ Teunis returned to Flatbush, where 
he d. leaving sons, Theodorus, b. 1720, and Andries, b. 1722. 
Johannes had male issue, Theodorus, b. 1718, Hendrick, b. 
1730, and Eldert, b. 1740. 

3. Abraham Polhemus, youngest son of Theodorus,- was b. 
in 1697, and m. Gertrude, dau. of Jacob and Gertrude Rem- 
sen. He and his wife were respected members of the Dutch 
church. They had sons, Theodorus, b. 1719, Jacob, b. 1725, 
and Abraham,"* b. 1727. Theodorus m. Ann, dau, of Abm. 
Brinckerhoff, and settled in BusliAvick, where he d. in 1781, in 
his 63d yr. His ch. Avere Abraham, Theodorus, Jacob, George, 
d. a bachelor, Aletta, m. Thomas Stagg, and Gertrude, who m. 
Paul Vandervoort. Of these sons, 1, Abraham m. Christina, 
dau. of Francis Titus, and d. in New-York, Sep. 11, 1826, a. 
84, having had issue, Ann, Elizabeth, who m. Jacob Stagg, 
Helen, now the widow of Daniel Biker, Theodore, and Francis ; 
2, Theodorus, m. Maria Johnson, and d. at Gowanus, May 29, 
1820, a. 70, leaving issue, Garretta, wife of Adrian Van Brunt, 
Cornelia, now widow of Jacob Van Wyck, and Theodorus, of 
Gowanus; 3, Jacob resided in Newtown, m, his cousin, Gertrude, 
dau. of Abm. Polhemus, and dying Apr. 13, 1791, a. 37, his widow 
m. James Larrcmore. Jacob's ch. were Anne, m. Garret Stryker, 
Ksq., (father of the late esteemed Dr. Jacob Polhemus Stryker,) 
Margaret, widow of Isaac Eapelye, Aletta, who m. John G. Van 
Alst, and Jacob. 23 


4. Abraham Polhemus, son of Abraham, ^ m. Margaret 
Schenck, and settled in Newtown, where he d. Sep. 8, 1809 in 
his 83d yr. He had issue, Abraham, Elizabeth, who m, Dan'I 
Eapelye, Gertrude, m. Jacob Polhemus and Jas. Larremore, 
and Peter who d. a young man. AhraJiam m. Alctta, dau. of 
Abm. Eapelye, and secondly, his cousin Elizabeth Bogart. He 
d. in his 80th yr. May 24, 1831, having ch. Anne, who m. Isaac 
Snediker, and Abraham. The latter m. in 1811, Cornelia, dau. 
of Jacobus Suydam. He d. in his 59th yr. Aug. 28, 1843, but 
his widow still occupies his estate at Hellgate. (See p. 37.) 
His son, James S. is a merchant of New-York, and another, the 
Kev. Abraham Polhemus, of the Eef. Dutch church, is settled 
at Hopewell, in Dutchess co. 


The learned and reverend William Leverich, than whom 
his descendants need wish no better ancestry, first appears as 
a student at Emanuel college, Cambridge, where he graduated, 
taking his degree of A. B. in 1625, and that of A. M. in 1629. 
From his autograph in the college register at Cambridge, and 
in the town records of Newtown, it appears, unquestionably, 
that he wrote his name as above, though a few of his descend- 
ants now write Leveridge. Engaging to become the minister of 
Dover, in New Hampshire, he embarked at London in the ship 
James, and, after a passage of eight weeks, arrived at Salem, 
Oct. 10, 1633. He immediately entered upon his work at 
Dover ; but, after a stay of less than two years, he left, and 
came to Boston, where he united with the church, Aug. 9, 
1635. His residence here was also brief, for he soon became 
an assistant to the Eev. Mr. Partridge at Duxbury, where, in 
1637, a house-lot was assigned him. Three years later, we find 
him in ofiice at Sandwich, on Cape Cod, and here he remained 
a good many years, engaged in imparting religious truth to the 
Indians, and proving himself a worthy cotemporary of the 
apostle Eliot. In 1653 he became a purchaser and settler of 
Oyster Bay, L. I. the inhabitants agreeing to give him £15 per 
year as minister among them. At this place, Huntington, and 


Newtown, be spent tlie rest of his life, as has been before re- 
lated. He left sons Caleb and Eleazer, the former of whom 
took out letters of administration on his estate, June 19, 1677. 
Eleazer m. Kebeeca, dau. of Nicholas Wright, but had no issue. 
Caleb Leverich came with his father to Newtown, at his first 
settlement here. He acquired much land in difterent sections 
of the town, eujojed the esteem of his townsmen, and was one 
of the original members of the Presbyterian church. He d. in 
1717, a. 79, having survived his wife Martha. His ch. were 
John,i Mary, m. Job Wright ; and Eleanor, m. Jos, Reeder. 

1. John Leverich, son of Caleb, and grandson of the Rev. 
Wm. Leverich, d. in or shortly prior to 1705, leaving a widow 
Hannah, and ch. John,- William, Benjamin, Hannah, who m. 
Jas. Way, and Martha, who m. John Way. William m. July 
23, 1722, Martha, dau. of Jas. Way. He was by trade a car- 
penter, but from 1732 owned and occupied the farm now of 
Geo, Kouwenhoven, in Hellgate Neck. He d. Mar. 25, 1754, 
leaving issue Martha, m. Sam'l Gosline ; Mary, m. Richard 
Penfold ;* Ruth, m. Robert Hallett ; and Sarah, who m. Jos. 
Gosline, Benjaviin Leverich d. in Newtown, in or about 1732, 
his wife, Mary, surviving. Their son, Caleb, early began busi- 
ness in New-York, as a painter, and m, Susannah, dau. of Wm. 

* William Penfold, the father of Richard, was an English sea-captainv 
whom. June 18, 1713, Elizabeth, dau. of John Lawrence, and in 1719 bought 
the estate at Hellgate, now owned by Dr. Ditmars, then comprising 75 acres. 
Here his family resided. Capt. Penfold perished on one of his voyages. His 
widow d. Aug. 11, 1751. Their ch. were Richard, Elizabeth, (probably d. 
unm.) Deborah, who m. Thos. Parcel!, and Edmund. The latter m. in 1760, 
Catharine Talman, of Flushing, and settled at Whitestone. He had issue 
Elizabeth, who in, Geo. Farrington ; and Peter, who m. but left no ch* 
Richard, named in the text, remained on the paternal form, where he d. Jan. 
7, 1764. By his wife, Miss Leverich, whom he m. about 1745, he had issue 
Elizabeth, who m. Capt. Cor. Berrien; William L., Mary, m. John Lawrence; 
Edmund, John, murdered by the natives, while trading on the Spanish main; 
Martha, m. John Cooper ; Richard, and Thomas. Edmund and Thomas m. 
but d. without issue. Richard ra. Catharine Bogart, and d. in 1806, a. -15. 
His ch. were Catharine-Ann, who m. Wm. Tilton ; Thomas, dec, jtnd 
Nicholas B. now of New-York. Thomas has three daughters living, namely, 
Catharine, wife of Edmund Charles ; Eliza-Jane, wife of Dan'l Riker, and 
Ann-Maria. William. L. Penfold m. Mar. 9, 1785, Catharine, dau. of John 
Fish. He d. at Newtown, in his 81st yr. Aug. 22, 1828. His ch. all living, 
are John, Samuel, Edmund, and William. 


Burch. Being induced to enlist in the service during the 
French war, he lost his life, July 6, 1758, at Sabbath-day 
Point, on Lake George, while accompanying the ill-fated ex- 
pedition of Gen. Abercrorabie. His widow d. Sep. 11, 1814, 
a. 88. Their ch. were Benjamin and John, the first of whom 
became an officer in the British navy, and d. near Dublin, a 
few years since. His brother, John Leveridge, b. Sep. 4, 1758, 
resided in New-York, m. Ann Chase, and d. July 28, 1812. 
His ch. are Susan, now the widow of John Ball ; John Leveridge 
of New- York city, counsellor-at-law ; Benjamin C. of the same 
place, physician ; Sarah, widow of Jos. Lamson, and Ann-Eliza, 
wife of Elias 0. Taylor. 

2. John Leverich, son of John,i was b. in 1696. He m. first 
on Dec. 14, 1720, Amy Moore ; secondly, Susannah, widow of 
John Sackett ; and thirdly, Sarah, widow of Francis Cornish 
and dau. of Silas Titus. By the latter he had no issue. He d. 
in 1780, a. 84, and was interred in the family cemetery in 
Trains Meadow, his widow surviving many years. His ch. 
were John, William,"* Samuel,-' Benjamin, and Elnathan, the 
latter by the second marriage. Benjamin d. Mar. 80, 1750, a. 
18. Elnathan m. May 2, 1767, Mary, dau. of John Coe, and 
d. Apr. 25, 1784, in his 43d yr. He was the father of William, 
(the mason,) and Susannah, who m. Thos. Burroughs. John, 
the eldest son, m. May ,22, 1743, his step-sister, Elizabeth 
Sackett. He pursued his father's occupation, that of a mason, 
and for a season resided at Fishkill on the Hudson. He d. in 
Newtown, Sep. 18, 1780, a. 59, and his widow Sep. 6, 1809, a, 
89. Their ch. were Amy, Sackett, and Kichard, of whom the 
first two d. single. Eichard, best known as Deacon Leverich, 
and much esteemed in his time, m. Amy, dau. of Edward 
Titus ; and secondly, Nancy, dau. of Jacob Lane, and by the 
latter, who is yet living, had issue Amy-Eliza, and Susan. 
He d. at his residence in Trains Meadow, May 21, 1836, a. 79. 

3. Samuel Leverich, son of John,- remained in Newtown, 
and m. Dec. 29, 1749, Deborah, dau. of Sam'l Wright. He and 
others were frozen to death in the South Bay, Jan. 21, 1754. 
(See p. 161.) His widow d. Dec. 4, 1759. Their ch. were 
Benjamin, Samuel, and Gabriel. The first d. unm. in the West 
Indies. Gabriel m. Hannah, dau. of Samuel Thorp, of Bridge- 
port, Ct. and d. Sep. 3, 1828, a. 75. His ch. were Deborah, 


Susan, Sarah, Hannah, Elizabeth, Ann, Samuel, Sackett, 
Benjamin, and Gabriel, nearly all dec. Samuel, the only sur- 
viving son, is a respected farmer at Southport, Chemung co. 
N. Y. Samuel Leverich m. Sarah, dau. of Richard Berrien. He 
d. Jan. 24, 1816, a. Qb. His ch. were Eichard B., and Deborah, 
who m. her cousin, Nath'l Berrien. Richard B. m. Aletta, dau. 
of Paul Vandervoort. His death occurred in his oOth yr. May 
23, 1826, he having had issue Sarah B. b. June 22, 1800 ; Paul V. 
b. June 1, 1802, d. Apr. 2, '26 ; Aletta P. b. Sep. 17, 1804, now 
Mrs. Smith ; Samuel, b. Dec. 11, 1806, d. Oct. 8, '31 ; Richard 
B. b. May 23, 1809, and Peter V. b. Aug. 5, 1811. 

4. William Leverich, son of John," was b. Oct. 5, 1723, and 
m, Dec. 13, 1747, Hannah, dau. of John Way, and, secondly, on 
Sep. 15, 1751, Dorothy, dau. of Ephraim Morse, and sister of 
Capt. E. Morse of the French war. He occupied the place on 
the south side of Trains Meadow, afterwards the residence of 
his son William, and now owned by Mr. Wilcox. Here he 
closed his life, June 13, 1787, his death resulting from a cold 
taken while assisting to draw stone for the foundation of the 
Presbyterian church, of which he was a trustee. His widow 
d. Apr. 17, 1814, in her 87th yr. Their ch. now all dec. were 
John, b. Sep. 26, 1748, d. unm. Mar. 18, '72 ; Amy,b. Oct. 30, 
1749, m. Sam'l Moore ; Abigail, b. July 16, 1752, m. Alex- 
ander Whaley ; Hannah, b. Feb. 11, 1754, m. Jas. McDon- 
ough ; Jesse, b. Feb. 13, 1756; Patience, b. Dec. 2, 1757, m. 
Henry Stanton ; William, b. Jan. 29, 1760 ; Edward, b. Dec. 
3, 1763 ; Elizabeth, b. Mar. 23, 1765, m. Jas. Hedenberg ; 
James, b. June 13, 1767 ; Sarah, b. Nov. 22, 1769, ni. Fred- 
erick Devoo, and Deborah, b. June 4, 1772, who m. Daniel 
Riker, Esq. of Newtown. William^ a justice of the peace, 
m. Cornelia, dau. of Jacob Duryea, but had no issue. He d. 
May 20, 1831. James m. Hannah Mott, whom he survived, 
and d. Jan. 24, 1811. His ch. were Cornelia, m. Jos. Duryea; 
Sackett, and James. Jesse m. Grace, dau. of Richard Berrien, 
and was a man of exemplary life and an elder of the Presb. 
church. He d. Oct. 3, 1829, having had issue, Richard B., 
William, Patience, widow of Peter Bonnett, John, Grace R. 
now wife of Andrew Gorsline, Peter R., Sarah, m. Sam'l Lev- 
erich, James, and Mary B. Col. Edward Leveridi m. Eliza- 
beth dau. of Jacob Palmer, and secondly Patience, dau. of Da- 



vid Moore, the last of whom survives. He was much known 
and respected in his day. His death occurred June 14, 1833, 
in his 72 d yr. His ch. all by his first marriage, except two, 
were Jacob-Palmer, William H., James H., Henry S., Charles 
P., Ann P. m, Wm. Luyster, Abigail, Eliza F. now wife of 
Eev. John Goldsmith, Jane P., Aletta, Ann, and Sarah. 


This family is of English ori- 
gin. That the name was one of 
some importance in England ap- 
pears from the fact that no less than 
six towns in that kingdom bear the 
name of Blackwell. But nothing has 
been ascertained respecting the im. 
mediate European ancestry of the 
Newtown family. 

1. Eobert Blackwell, the progen- 
itor of the latter family, is first 
found engaged as a merchant at 
Elizabethtown, N. J., from which 
place he removed to this province in 1676, being then a 
widower with several children. Contracting a marriage, in the 
above year, with Mary Manningham, of Manning's Island, in the 
East Eiver, he established his residence on said island, which 
took his name. It originally bore the name of Verken (or 
Hog) Island, and was first granted in 1651 to Capt. Francis 
Fyn, a Dutch officer, who several years after acquired near a 
hundred acres of land, lying opposite the said island, in New- 
town. After the conquest of the country by the English, this 
form and island were confiscated as belonging to a subject of 
Holland, and in 1668, the whole was granted to Capt. John 
Manning, the person whose sword was broken over his head 
for surrendering New-York to the Dutch in 1673. Of the above 
island and farm Mr. Blackwell became the piroprietor, and they 
remained in the family until a few years since. He d. in or 
about 1717. His ch. (all by his second marriage except the 


first two) were Robert, Ann, who m. Jacob Reeder, Bridget, 
m, Samuel llallett, Thomas, Francis, Walter, Henry, Lydia, 
m. Jos. Hallett, Sarah, m. John Elsworth, Susannah, m. Thos. 
Alsop, Jacob," and Mary. Robert (see p. 81) removed to Hope- 
well, N. J. where he d. in 1757, leaving issue Robert, Francis, 
Thomas, Jacob, Mary, Ann, and Elizabeth. 

2. Jacob Blackwell, the youngest son of Robert,^ w^as b. 
Aug. 4, 1692, succeeded to the paternal estate, and occupied 
the stone house on the form near Astoria, (see p. 194,) which 
he is believed to have erected. He d. here, Dec. 1, 1744:, in his 
63d yr. He was a man of extraordinary size and strength, 
and it is credibly stated that at his death, it was found neces- 
sary to remove the door-jamb, to allow his coffin to pass. In 
an obituary which appeared in the Weeldy Post-Boy^ it is stated 
that he " was six foot two inches high, and weighed, about 
three years before he died, 429 pounds, and by all appearance 
increased much more in weight before his death ; how much is 
not known, because, though often solicited, he would not con- 
sent to be weighed a second time." His wife, Mary, dau. of 
Capt. Wm. Hallett, whom he m. May 10, 1711, d. Aug. 26, 
1743, a. nearly 56. Their ch. were Mary and Sarah, twins, b. 
Aug. 6, 1712, the first of whom m. Moses Hallett, and the sec- 
ond, John Hallett; Jacob,^ b. Nov. 20, 1717; Lydia, b. Oct. 20, 
1720, m. James Hallett ; Rebecca, b. June 5, 1723, m. Barnwell 
and Nath'l Moore ; Robert, b. Dec. 5, 1725, d. Sep. 5, '45 ; and 
Bridget, b. Feb. 16, 1731, who d. Apr. 1738. 

3. Jacob Blackwell, son of Jacob,- m. Frances, dau. of Jos. 
Sackett, Esq., who, dying Feb. 3, 1754, a. 34, he m. Feb. 19, 
1755, Lydia, dau. of Jos. Hallett. She survived him, and d. 
Feb. 26, 1812, in her 80th yr. He was an enterprising man, 
and with his brother-in-law, Jos. Hallett, erected the grist-mill 
on Sunswick Creek. Prior to the French and Indian war, Mr- 
Blackwell held a captaincy in the Newtown militia, and after- 
wards became a colonel. On the breaking out of the Revolu- 
tion, he stood prominent among the whigs, but being forced to 
flee at the invasion of the British, his large estate was seized 
and despoiled by the enemy. Deeming his presence in the pro- 
vincial convention (of which he was a member) to be of little 
importance, now that Queen's co. was overrun by foreign 
troops, he returned to Newtown, trusting to the assurances of 


protection contained in the proclamation of Lord Howe, but 
tlie privations and pecuniary losses which he continued to suf- 
fer from the enemy, are believed to have hastened his death, 
which occurred Oct, 23, 1780, in his 63d yr. Col, B,'s ch. who 
survived infancy, were Joseph, Robert, and James, by his first 
wife; and by his second, Jacob, Samuel, Josiah, Lydia, m. 
Capt, John Hazard, and Mary, who d. single. Of the sons, 
Jacob and Josiah d. unm. Joseph m. Mary, dau. of Nath'l 
Hazard, and had issue Joseph, Harriet, now Mrs, Howell, 
Francis, and William-Drayton, dec, Robert was the late Eev. 
Dr. Blackwell, of Philadelphia, He m. Mrs. Benezet, and his 
only child is Mrs. Geo, Willing, of that city, James m, Eliza- 
beth, dau. of Jas. Hallett, of New-York, and d. Nov, 25, 1831, 
a. 83. Their ch. were Eliza H. now widow of Lemuel Wells ; 
James, of Yonkers, N. Y. ; Jacob A, d, in Florida ; Eobert 
also dec, ; Julia, wife of Wm. Ray; Lydia, since Mrs. Shepherd ; 
Harriet, wife of Dr. Hursey Baylies,* of Astoria ; and Sidney, 

* Dr. Gustavtjs Baylies, father of this gentleman, was for many years a 
resident of Newtown, and is associated with the earliest recollections of most 
of those now living. He was the son of Nicholas Baylies, and was born July 
6, 1761, at Uxbridge, Mass., which had been the seat of the family since their 
emigration, several generations previous, from Colebrook Dale, Shropshire, 
Eng. Gustavus, at sixteen years of age, with the ardor of youthful devotion, 
entered the military service of his country, in her struggle for freedom, and 
served two successive periods of enlistment. Returning, after a season of 
severe illness, to the paternal roof, he began a course of preparation for col- 
lege, entered Harvard in 1784, and, having graduated, studied medicine with 
the celebrated Dr. Spring, of Watertown. At the conclusion of his course, 
he commenced practice in Bristol, R. I. where he married Hannah, daughter 
of the Hon. William Bradford, of Mount Hope, a descendant of the finst gov- 
ernor of Plymouth Colony, of that name. This lady died in 1811, and her 
many but unpretending virtues yet live in the memory of her friends. Dr. 
Baylies, after practising some years in Bristol and Newport, was induced, in 
1805, through the urgent solicitation of some friends, to locate in Newtown 
where his practice soon became extensive, he being frequently called into 
the neighboring towns, and performing with skill some of the capital opera- 
tions in surger)'. After the death of his father-in-law, Gov. Bradford, he re- 
turned to Bristol, read law, was admitted to the bar, and attained to some 
distinction in the courts of Rhode Island ; but such was his attachment to 
medicine, the profession of his early choice, that he soon re-entered upon its 
practice with renewed ardor and devotion. In the with England, of 1812, 
he enjoyed a commission as surgeon in the American army, iind his surgical 
skill was called into requisition at the surrender of Little York, &c. On his 


residing at Yonkers. Samuel m. Sarah, dan. of Samuel Moore, 

^and secondly, Mary, dau. of Jacob Field. He d. Nov. 27, 1832, 

a. 73 yrs. His ch. were Sarah, (only ch. by first wife,) ni. Ca])t. 

return to New-York, his friends in Newtown were anxious that he should re- 
sume his practice among them. Entertaining a just approciatiun of the integrity 
and constancy so characteristic of its inhabitants, he, without much hesitation, 
complied with their wishes, though many of his professional and other 
friends believed him eminently qualified for a successful career in the city 
of New-York. His practice in Newtown again became extensive, and he 
continued to enjoy a large share of public confidence during the residue of 
his life. He had married here, in 1815, his second wife, Catharine, daughter 
of Col. Barnardus Bloom. His de.ath, which occurred on Mar. 5th, 1834, in the 
73d year of his age, was occasioned by an attack of pneumonia typhoidcs, in- 
duced by exposure while attending to the duties of his profession in that in- 
clement season of the year. In the latter period of his existence, after a life 
of usefulness, we find him confessing his entire unworthiness, and 
relying solely on the all-sufficient merits of the Redeemer. 

Dr. Baylies was about five feet nine inches high, well formed, and very 
erect, with a countenance expressive of intellectuality and firmness of pur- 
pose, and marked with sympathy for human suffering. His deportment in 
the sick room won the confidence of the patient and friends, and his success 
confirmed it. As his perceptions were acute and judgment excellent, with 
almost unexampled celerity he marked the distinguishing features of disease, 
and his practice was equally prompt and effectual. Not restricted to the 
narrow views of such as fabricate theories on unstable hypotheses, his were 
the result of observation: his inductions were deduced from facts, agieeable 
to that most system of Lord Bacon ; though he never yielded sub- 
serviency to the opinions of other men, he preferred the lucid and forcible 
opinions of Dr. Cullen to tlie unfledged notions of John Brown and the fan- 
ciful theories of the more gifted Darwin. In his practice, he seldom resorted 
to the lancet in the treatment of local inflammations involving the lungs or 
other organs within the thorax, the prevalent practice of the day. Yet was 
he singularly successful, such diseases very speedily yielding to his judicious 
application of remedial agents. His success in dropsies, which earned for 
him a degree of celebrity attained by few, may be ascribed in a great meas- 
ure to ills directing his .attention to organic lesions and a system of depura- 
tion most thorough in its course. In fevers and other diseases, where 
periodicity held superlative sway, he was always .at his post, ready to repel 
renewed .assaults with most efficient means ; and his success, I may safely 
affirm, was seldom equalled. As he most ardently loved his profession, so 
did he most assiduously apply the powers of a mind naturally strong and 
perfected by mature culture, to the great object of his mission, — the cure or 
alleviation of the many diseases to which the human race is liable, often 
involving those of a moral as well as a physical nature, — and, as every 
conscientious physician should do, implored Heaven for its guidance and 
its blessing. 



Stephen Field ; Jacob, Lydia, wife of Henry Schenck ; Eliza, 
m. Jacob Bartow, ; Maria, m. Homer Whittemore ; Samuel, 
Charity F., Henry F , Eobert M., John, of Newbern, N. C. ; 
Margaret, m. Benj. Blossom ; Josiah, of Bushwick ; Anna, now 
Mrs. Eli Smallwood, of Newbern ; Patience A., Frances, wife 
of Moses Jarvis, of Newbern; Thomas J. d. an infant; and 
James M. 

The Blackwell farm, at Ravenswood, was sold by the wid- 
ow and heirs of Col. Blackwell, Apr. 25, 1787, to Joseph 
Hallett, who convej^ed it to his son-in-law, Major Delafield, 
Sep. 3, 1791, by whom it was much improved, and occupied 
for a series of years. It is now cut up, I believe, and has sev- 
eral owners. Blackwell's Island was sold to the corporation 
of New- York at a more recent date. 


The progenitor of all in this 
country bearing this name, was 
Pieter Cornelisz Luyster, who 
emigrated hither in 1656. He 
was descended from a very 
reputable Dutch family, long 
resident in Holland and Rhine- 
land, and some of whom had 
been distinguished citizens of 
Cologne. They bore the arms 
here represented. 
1. Pieter Cornelisz Luyster soon acquired property in New- 
town, and, being a carpenter by trade, he erected a grist-mill 
at Fish's Point ; but it does not appear that he was an actual 
resident here till some years later. He lived in King's co. and 
with his wife Jannetie, dau. of Jan Snediker, was connected 
with the Flatlands church. He eventually removed to New- 
town, and bought from the Dutch church the property called 
the Poor's Farm, which embraced all the farms from Fish's 


Point to A. E, Luyster's. (Sec pp. 35, 37, 84.) He d. in 1695, 
but his widow survived till in or near 1713. They had several 
daughters, and also sons Matthias,- John,^ and Cornelius.^ 

2. Matthias Luyster, eldest son of Peter, '^ was b. in Europe, 
and remained at Flatbush, owning the farm now occupied by 
John Neefus. He had by his wife Cornelia, a son, Peter 
Luyster, who d. in Flatbush during the Eevolution. He was b. 
there, and m. in 1719, Anna Burkelo, of N. Utrecht. Their 

ch. were Matthias, John, Peter, Cornelia, ra. ; Margaret, 

m, Johannes Williamson ; Anna, m. John Nevius, of N. Jer- 
sey ; Maria, m. Cor. Ostrander ; and Willemtie, who m. Peter 
Luyster. Peter, son of Peter, was b. in 1782, and removed to 
Pennsylvania. Matthias and John settled in the town of Fish- 
kill, Dutchess CO. ; the former at New Hackensack, and the lat- 
ter at Hopewell, in which places their descendants remain. 
Matthias, b. 1725, m. Dec. 21, 1754, Barbara Hulst, of Brook- 
lyn, and had two ch., Ann, m. Peter Hulst, and John, who m. 
Mary, dau. of Bergoon Van Alst, and had issue George, d. 
young; Matthew, and John. John aforesaid, son of Peter, 
was b. in 1728, m. Oct. 1, 1757, Heyltie Snediker, and had issue 
Peter, Cornelius, Jacobus, John, Ann, m. John Churchill; 
Catharine, m. David Tidd, and Eve, who m. first, Van Tine, 
and secondly, Ashael Thrasher. John, last named, removed 
to Ohio. 

3. John Luyster, son of Peter,i m. Wyntie, dau. of Harck 
Siboutsen, and dying in or about 1697, left a son, Peter, in his 
minority. His widow m. Peter Haff. The son, Peter Luyster," 
settled at Oyster Bay, L. L, m. Sarah Monfort, and by this 
marriage had eight ch. namely, John, Peter, Jacobus, Wyntie, 
m. Garret Van Nostrand ; Ida, m. John Monfort ; Sarah, m. 
John Bennet; Jane, m. Frederick Simonson, and Aletta, who 
m. John Wortman. Of the sons, Jacobus m. Maria Van 
Nostrand, but d. without issue. Peter m. Phebe, dau. of 
Jeromus Bennet, and John m. Elizabeth, dau. of Daniel 
Voorhees ; these have descendants still living at Oyster Bay. 

4. Cornelius Luyster, son of Peter,i was b. in 1662, and at 
the age of nineteen joined the church, at Flatlands. After his 
father's death he bought the estate in Newtown, and removed 
hither, where he acquired prominence, served in the magis- 
tracy, and held a captain's commission. He d. in 1721, a. o9, 


devising bis estate to his sons. His wife, Sarali Catharine 
Nevius, d. the next year. They had issue Peter,^ Johannes,'^ 
Elbert,^ Cornehus, d. unm. ; Mary, m. Dan'l Eapelje ; Hannah, 
m. Bareut Smock ; Gertrude, m. Tunis Swart ; Adriana, m. 
Cor, Wyckoff; Aletta, m. Joris Couwenhoven ; and Sarah, 
who m. first, Eoelof Bragaw, and secondly, the Eev. Keinhart 
Erickson, of N. Jersey. All the sons-in-law of Capt. Luyster, 
except Eapelje and Bragaw, settled in Monmouth co. N. J. 
and have numerous descendants. 

' 5. Peter Luyster, son of Cornelius,'* was b. Mar. 10, 1687, 
m. Apr. 30, 1713, Sarah,* dan. of Dan'l Eapalje, and inherited 
a part of the paternal estate, being the farm now of Luke 
Kouwenhoven. He was a respected citizen and an elder of the 
Dutch church. He d. Dec. 17, 1759, and his widow, Jan. 23, 
1773, a. 85. Their ch. were Sarah, b. Jan. 31, 1714, m. Isaac 
Lent ; Catharine, b. Aug. 7, 1716, m. Johannes De Witt ; 
Adriana, b. Mar. 11, 1718, m. Garret Van Nostrand; Cor- 
nelius,6 b. Aug. 26, 1720 ; Daniel, b. Sep. 26, 1722 ; Peter, b. 
May 6, 1724, d. Oct. 16, '52 ; Anna, b. Jan. 9, 1726, m. Peter 
Luyster; and John, b. Jan. 14, 1730, d. Aug. 28, '40. Daniel 
succeeded to his father's farm at the Poor Bowery, and m. Nov. 
29, 1744, Anna Van Nostrand. He was an elder in the Dutch 
church, and during the Eevolution was supervisor of Newtown. 
He d. May 31, 1788, a. 65, and his widow, June 20, 1811, in 
her 89th yr. His ch. were Eensie, Sarah, and Anna, of whom 
the first and last d. unm. Sarah m. Geo. Wyckoff, of King's 
CO., whose dau. Anna is the wife of Luke Kouwenhoven, the 
present possessor of Dan'l Luyster's farm. 

6. Cornelius Luyster, son of Peter,^ m. Susannah, dau. of 
Derick Brinckerhoflf, and removed to Fishkill, where he served 
as justice of the peace, and commanded a company of militia 
in the French war. He lived in Newtown during the period 
of the Eevolution, but d. at Fishkill, Oct. 26, 1792, a. 72. His 
ch. were Peter, Derick, Garret, Aletta, Sarah, Catharine, and 
Diana. Of these Sarah m. Cor. Luyster, of Newtown ; her 

* A silver spoon, once belonging to this lady, and marked with her name, 
" Sura Rapalje," is now in possession of her descendant, Mrs. Sarah Luyster 
Willett, daughter of Daniel Rapalje, of Newtown. The belief is that it was 
a name-gift from her aunt, Sara Rapalje, the first white person born in the 
province of New.York. "^ n^t^HiX ^H^ii"^^ 


three sisters d. unm. Garret^ b. Nov. 12, 1747, m. Lanah, dau. 
of Jacobus Vandervoort, and d. Aug. 15, 1821 ; issue Cornelius, 
who d. in New-York ; Jacobus, and Garret, (both went to sea, 
and were never heard of,) and Susannah, who m. Moses Pratt 
of Albany. Deride, b. Sep. 30, 17-i5, m. Angeline, dau. of 
Jacob Cowenhoven, and d. Aug. 20, 1824 ; issue Aletta, who 
m. Abm. Van Voorhis. Pefcr, b. Aug. 25, 1741, m. Willeratie, 
dau. of Peter Luyster, and d. Dec. 16, 1800; issue Cornelius 
P. now of Poughkeepsie, and Ann, who m. Isaac Hanson. 

7. Johannes Luyster, son of Cornelius,^ was b. in Flatbush, 
Mar. 22, 1691, m. Lucretia Brower, Apr. 10, 1716, and the 
next year removed to MiddletoAvn, Monmouth co. N. J. where 
he bought a farm which is still held by his descendants, the 
house he lived in yet remaining. He d. suddenly, in his sleep, 
Jan. 29, 1756. His widow d. Apr. 12, 1771, in her 83d yr. 
Their ch. were Sarah, b. Mar. 8, 1717, m. Ryck Suydam and 
Wm. Conover ; Peter, b. May 5. 1719 ; Cornelius, b. Dec. 13, 
1720 ; Johannes, b. May 25, 1723, m. but d. without issue, 
Sep. 7, 1766 ; Anna, b. Apr. 8, 1725, m. Dan'l Barkulo ; and 
Lucretia, b. Aug. 30, 1727, who d. unm. Cornelius occupied a 
farm near Middletown, N. J., either originally a part of, or ad- 
joining the homestead. He m. successively Arintha Conover, 
and Margaret Vanderbilt, and d. Oct. 7, 1792, in his 72d yr. 
His only ch. John C. Luyster, succeeded to his farm, and was 
an eminently good man. He d. Oct. 28, 1847, in his 67th yr. 
leaving three sons, one of whom, Hendrick, occupies his farm. 
Peter Luyster m. his cousin Anna, dau. of Peter Luyster, of 
Newtown, and d. on the homestead farm, Feb. 12, 1810, a. 90, 
having had issue Sarah, b. Apr. 10, 1758, m. Christopher 
Snyder ; Lucretia, b. Aug. 13, 1760, d. unm. ; and John P. b. 
Nov. 29, 1763. The latter m. Anna Conover, and remained on 
the homestead till his death, Sep. 11, 1848, having been dis- 
tinguished for his virtues and piety. His son Peter occupies 
the paternal farm. 

8. Elbert Luyster, son of Cornelius,'^ was b. at Flatbush, 
Mar. 21, 1693, and m. Oct. 6, 1720, Jacomina, dau. of Gerrit 
Couwcnhoven. In 1723 he bought that portion of the paternal 
estate at the Poor Bowery, now owned by Ab'm R. Luyster, 
which then included Luyster's Island. He was a highly re- 
spected citizen, and served as a trustee^ of the Dutch church. 


He d. suddenly, Sep. 5, 1768. His widow d. Aug. 24, 1766, 
in her 66tli yr. Their ch. w^ere Elizabeth, b. Aug. 30, 1721, 
d. unm. Sep. 3, '84 ; Cornelius, b. Aug. 10, 1723, d. single, 
Sep. 29, '52 ; Garret,^ b. Dec. 24, 1725 ; Sarah, b. Apr. 25, 
1728, m. Stephen Ryder ; Jacomiua, b. Sep. 4, 1730, m. John 
Swart ; Aletta, b. May 30, 1733, m. Cor. Smock ; Jane, b. Apr. 
9, 1736, m. Abm. Eapelye, and Peter, b. Jan. 9, 1739, who d. 
Sep. 7, 1742. 

9. Garret Luyster, son of Elbert,^ ra. Oct. 26, 1753, Willem- 
tie dau. of Peter Wyckoff, and by devise of his father obtained 
the family estate. He served the Dutch church many years as 
deacon, and surviving his partner, who d. May 2, 1764, he d. 
June 13, 1787, a. 61. His sons were Cornelius and Elbert. 
The latter was b. 1764, and m. Catharine, dau. of Col. Dan'l 
Lawrence. He removed to Staten Island, where he d., having 
had thirteen ch. of whom Garret, Daniel, Elizabeth, Cornelius, 
Ann, Mary, Aletta, Albert, and Catharine, reached maturity. 
Cornelius Luyster was b. May 2, 1758, and m. Sarah, dau. of 
Capt. Cor. Luyster, who, dying in her 33d yr. Mar. 8, 1782, he 
m. Aug. 28, 1785, Catharine, dau. of Wm. Lawrence, Esq. Li 
1788 he bought the ancestral estate, at the Poor Bowery, now 
(except the island) owned by his son, A. R. Luyster ; served 
for eighteen years as town clerk, and d. Feb. 6, 1816, though 
his widow still survives. His ch. were Peter, William, who is 
dec, Abraham-Rapelye, Anna, Sarah, and Jane. Of these 
Sarah m. Thos. Moore, who, after her death, m. her sister Anna. 
The eldest son, Peter, the present worthy supervisor of New- 
town, m. in succession Anna and Sarah, daughters of David 
Moore, and resides near the Poor Bowery, having, in 1843, 
made sale of Luyster's Island, which for many years previous 
had been his residence. 


The many families of Dutch descent in New- York, New 
Jersey, and some other states, who write their names Kouwen- 
hoven, Cowenhoven, Conover, &c., are the lineal descendants 


of Wolfert Gcrritsen Van Couwenliovcn, who was from Amers- 
foort, in Utrecht, and came over, in 1630, with the colonists 
wlio settled Rensselaerswyck, near Albany. He was in the 
employ of the patroon Van Eensselaer, as superintcndant of 
farms. On June 16, 1636, he joined in purchasing from the In- 
dians a tract of land on the west end of Long Island, where 
his famih^ located, giving to the place the name of New Amers- 
foort, now Flatlands. He was living in 1656. His sons were 
Gerrit, Jacob, Derick, Peter, and John. Several of these were 
leading characters under the Dutch administration, but only 
Gerrit and his family remained on Long Island. 

1. Gerrit Couwenhoven, son of Wolfert, d. in or about 
1644, leaving sons William'* and John. (See p. 86.) John m. 
Gerdientie, dau. of the Hon. Nicasius de Sille, a noted citizen 
of that day, and lived at the ferry in Brooklyn. He had issue 
Gerrit, Nicasius,^ Cornelia, who m. Gerrit A. Middagh ; Nelly, 
m, Joris Rapalje ; and Aeltie, who m. Derick Brinckerhoff. 
The said Gerrit d. in 1712. leaving a son John, who d. in 
Bushwick about 1761, having male issue Paulus, Garret, 
Gabriel, and John. 

2. Nicasius Couwenhoven, son ""of John and grandson of 
Gerrit,^ was b. in 1681, and d. at Brooklyn in, or just prior 
to 1749. His ch. were John,-^ Gerrit, Peter, and Diana, who 
m. Simon Van Wickelen. Peter removed to Raritan, N. J. 
Gerrit settled in New Utrecht, and d. Nov. 17, 1783. By his 
wife, Sarah, he had issue Nicholas, b. Jan. 13, 1742 ; Sarah, b. 
Oct. 28, 1743, who m. Martin Schenck, of N. Jersey ; and 
Johannes, b. Oct. 4,^ 1746. Of these Nicholas d. Oct. 18, 1778, 
leaving five daughters and an only son. Garret, who m. Anna 
Ditmars, and d. Jan. 28, 1840, in his 66th yr., being the father 
of Nicholas, John, Garret, Peter, and Cornelius Cowenhoven, 
all of N. Utrecht. Johannes, aforesaid, was thrice m. and some 
of his ch. still live at N, Utrecht. 

3. John Couwenhoven, eldest son of Nicasius,^ was b. in 
1707, and became one of the largest landholders in the town 
of Brooklyn, where he d. during the Revolution, leaving issue 
Rem, Nicholas, John, Elsie, who d. single ; Dorothy, m. Leffert 
LefFerts, Esq. ; Catharine, m. Abm. Lequier, Esq, ; and Diana, 
who m. Robert Benson. John m. and d, on the homestead in 
Brooklyn, having been a merchant in N. York. Nicholas m. 


Jane, dan. of Geo. Lott, resided on the farm in New Utrecht, 
now of Egbert Benson, and d. in 1793, being at the time first 
judge of King's co. He had issue George and John, the last 
of whom m. in 1802, Susan, dau. of Geo. Martence, and was a 
res2Dected citizen, and a major of the King's co. mihtia. He d. 
Nov. 3, 1806, a. 37, leaving daughters Maria, who m, Egbert 
Benson, Esq. ; and Jane, now Mrs. Koberts, of N. Utrecht. 
Rem Coivenlioven had two sons, John R. and Nicholas R., the 
last of whom left no issue. John R, m. Garretie, dau. of Tunis 
Tiebout, and had sons John, dec. ; Tunis T. of Brooklyn ; 
and Nicholas. 

4. William Couwenhoven, son of Gerrit/ m. in 1660, Aeltie, 
dau. of Joris Brinckerhoflf, and secondly, in 1665, Jannetie, 
dau. of Peter Monfort. After living some years at Brooklyn, 
where he served as a deacon of the Dutch church, he removed 
to Flatlands, and there officiated in the eldership. He was liv- 
ing in 1727, at a very advanced age. His ch. were Gerrit, b. 
Jan. 4, 1662 ; Aeltie, b. Dec. 14, 1665, who m. Cornelius S. 
Van Arsdalen ; Neeltie, b. Feb. 7, 1669, m. John Wyckoflf ; 
Peter, b. Feb. 12, 1671 ; Cornelius, b. Nov. 20, 1672 ; Sarah, 
b. Dec. 27, 1674, m. John Schenck ; Albert, b. Dec. 7, 1676 ; 
Jacob, b. Jan. 29, 1679 ; John, b. Apr. 9, 1681 ; Annetie, b. 
Apr. 13, 1683; William,^ b. Mar. 7, 1686; and Jacomina, b. 
Dec. 28, 1689, who m. Elbert Willemse. All of the sons mar- 
ried, and most of the family removed to Monmouth co. N. J. 

5. William Kouwenhoven, son of William,^ remained on 
the homestead in Flatlands, and m. June 5, 1709, Anna, dau. 
of Lucas S. Voorhees. He d. in his 83d yr., Jan. 19, 1769, 
and his widow, Sep. 30, 1774, a. 88. He had issue William, 
Luke, both of whom settled in New Jersey, Gerrit,*^ Jannetie, 
m. Gerrit Schenck (great grandfather of Rev. G. C. Schanck 
of Pompton, N. J. ;) Aeltie m. Cor. Voorhees ; Catryntie m. 
Albert Schenck, and Neeltie who m. Johannes Duryea. 

6. Gerrit Kouwenhoven, son of William,^ was b. Nov. 11, 
1726, and m. May 7, 1748, AnnaLefPerts of Flatbush. He d. 
on the paternal farm, Sep. 23, 1777, and his widow in her 54th 
yr., Mar. 9, 1782. Their ch. who survived infancy were Anna, 
b. Aug. 3, 1751, who m. Peter Vandervoort, of Bedford ; 
Peter, b. Sep. 25, 1753 ; Ida, b. Jan. 17, 1756, m. Hendrick 
Suydam, Flatbush ; William, b. Mar. 29, 1768 ; Garrit, b. Feb. 



21, 1761, d. unm. July 31, '84 ; Scytic, b. June 80, 1763, m. 
Jeremiah Remseu, Wallabout ; Luke, b. June 3, 1766 ; Abigail, 
b. June 1, 1768, m. Johannes Lott, Flatlands ; and Jannetic, 
b. Apr. 14, 1771, who m. Abm. Debevoise of Bedford. Of 
these, Peter m. May 10, 1777, Lammetie, dau. of John Lott, 
and d. May 27, 1787 : issue Garret, b. Sep. 5, 1778, now resid- 
ing at Flatlands, and Johannes, b. Sep. 8, 1781, who d. unm. 
May 17, 1837. William m. in 1778 Joanna, dau. of Johannes 
W. Wyckoff, and d. Apr. 7, 1825, a. 67 : issue Garret, John 
of Graveseud, William, Peter, George, all three of Flatlands, 
Joanna who m. Jacobus .Ryder ; Ann, m. Timothy T. Cortcl- 
you ; Ida, m. James Van Sickelcn, and Maria who m. John 
Williamson. Garret, the eldest son, m. Jan. 24, 1805, Cornelia, 
dau. of Peter Wyckoff, and removed to ISTewtown, where he 
d. much regretted, Aug. 27, 1823, in his 40th yr. and where 
his son William G. now resides. Luke Kouwenlioven m. Ann, 
dau. of Geo. Wyckoff, by his intermarriage with Sarah, dau. 
of Dan'l Luyster whose farm, at the Poor BoAvery, Mr. K. has 
long owned and occupied. His ch. are George, Garret, and 
Ann, the first of whom m. Ellen, dau. of Francis Duryea, and 
resides in Hellgate Neck. 


The English family of Fish 
are believed to be a branch from 
an old Saxon family of Fisch, 
which, in the tables of German 
nobility, dates from a remote 
era; but at what time the re- 
moval to England took place is 
not ascertained. From here, at 
a later period, Nathaniel, John, 
and Jonathan Fish came to New 
England, and are first found re- 
siding at Lynn, Mass., whence 
they removed, in 1637, to Sand- 
wich, on Cape Cod, where one or more of them remained. 



1. Jonathan Fish eventually joined in the settlement of 
Middelburg, or Newtown, as early as 1659, and served several 
years in the magistracy, being evidently a person of character. 
His name appears several times upon the town books, in an 
olficial capacity, and also as the owner of a twenty-shilling 
purchase right in the town lands, which right afterwards de- 
volved to his sons Nathan and Samuel. He d. in or about 
1663, leaving a widow, Mary, and sons John, Samuel, and 
Nathan,- all three patentees of Newtown in 1686. Samuel d. 
about 1700, without issue. John m. and appears to have left 
the town. He probably removed to New Jerse}'', whither 
several members of this family emigrated at different periods. 

2. Nathan Fish, son of Jonathan,^ remained at Newtown, 
and devoted himself to husbandry. He d. of dropsy, at an ad- 
vanced age, Aug. 1, 1734, He had fourteen ch., namely, 
Jonathan,*^ b. Oct. 11, 1680; Nathan, b. Sep. 13, 1686, d. with- 
out issue, Jan. 11, 1732 ; Mary, b. Sep. 4, 1687, m. Daniel 
Betts ; Samuel,^ b. Apr. 15, 1689 ; John, b. Feb. 25, 1691 ; 
Thomas, b. May 28, 1693 ; Susannah, b. Dec. 28, 1695, m. 
Edward Howard ; Ambrose and Benjamin, twins, b. May 12, 
1697 ; Sarah, b. Mar. 28, 1699, m, Abraham Kip ; Nathaniel,^ 
b. Dec. 18, 1700 ; Hannah, b. Jan. 18, 1703, d. unm. Oct. 13, 
'44 ; Temperance, b. Nov. 30, 1705, m. Joseph "Woodward, 
nnd Elnathan,3 b. July 27, 1708. Of these John m. Feb. 21, 
1717, Elizabeth, dau. of Wm. Hallett, and d. in 1743. His dau. 
Sarah m. Lieut. Samuel Moore ; and another, Elizabeth, m. 
John Grreenoak. Thomas m. in Mar. 1717, Elizabeth, dau. of 
Jesse Kip. Ambrose m. Elizabeth Lawrence, Mar. 1, 1728, and 
settled at Islip, L. I. Benjamin m. Jan. 11, 1728, Sarah, dau. 
of Joseph Moore, removed to New Jersey in or soon after 
1745, and located near Trenton. His ch. were Elizabeth, m. 
Amos Hart, Rebecca, Nathan, Joseph, Samuel, Benjamin, 
John, and Nathaniel. From Benjamin, last named, who d. July 
2, 1808, a. nearly 68, the resjDectable Fish family of Trenton 
and vicinity is chiefly descended. His youngest son, Benjamin, 
is a director of the Camden and Amboy railroad. The jDoster- 
ity of the said Samuel and John is found in the counties of 
Salem and Gloucester, N. J., and that of Nathan in Butler and 
Union counties. Pa., of whom is the Eev. Eeeder M. Fish, of 
Lewisburg, in the latter county. 


3. Elnathan Fisb, youngest son of ISratlian,^ settled in Flat- 
busli, and by his wife, Sarali, liad issue Natlian, b. 1730; 
Eachel, b. 1737, d. unm, ; Sarali, b. 1739, m. John Berrien, 
Esq. ; and John, b. 1741. The latter remained at Flatbush, 
engaged in mercantile business, and became wealthy, lie was 
twice m., but d. without cli., Mar. 19, 1821, in bis 80th yr. 
Nathan m. Jan. 1, 1763, Catharine, dau. of Cor. Berrien, of 
Newtown, and was a merchant in New-York till the Eevola- 
tion, after which he became a farmer in Greensburgh, West- 
chester CO., on premises now occupied by his son, Nathaniel. 
Here he d. Dec. 10, 1813, in his 78th yr. His ch. were Sarah, 
b. Oct. 16, 1763, d. unm,, Oct. 4, 1842 ; John, b, Oct. 21, 1765, 
d, unm. June 18, 1788 ; Cornelius, b. May 12, 1768, d. unm. Oct. 
10, 1795 ; Peter, b. May 13, 1770 ; Nathan, b. May 28, 1772, 
d. -unm. Aug. 12, 1819 ; Rachel, b. Sep. 23, 1774, m. Stephen 
Ferris ; Richard, b. Sep. 24, 1777 ; James, b. July 81, 1781 ; 
Nathaniel, b. Mar. 2, 1784 ; Elizabeth, b. Nov. 21, 1785, and 
Jane, b. Aug. 16, 1788, now residing at Brooklyn, the widow 
of Abm. Vanderveer. Peter m. Jane, dau. of John, and niece 
of Rev. Peter Fish, and is still living at White Plains, a far- 
mer. He has issue Richard, William-Henry, and Thomas. 
Richard, son of Nathan, lived with his uncle John, at Flat- 
bush, where he d. unm. Aug. 21, 1817, a. 40, He was elected 
to the state assembl}^, but ill health prevented his attendance. 
James d. in Westchester co. July 19, 1845, a. 64, having issue 
Hannah, Moses, Eliza- Ann, Catharine, Sarah-Jane, and Nathan. 
Nathaniel Fish, of ^Greensburgh, has ch. John, James, and 

4. Nathaniel Fish, son of Nathan,^ m. Feb. 14, 1738, Jane, 
dau. of Peter Berrien, and the same year bought the farm of 
Nicholas Berrien, dec. (now Daniel Lent's,) where he followed 
agriculture till his death. This event occurred very suddenly, 
while attending public worship in the Presbyterian church, 
Newtown, Mar. 3, 1769, in his 69th yr. Retaining in his face 
the color and freshness of health, his burial was deferred seve- 
ral days, but no change appearing he was interred. ^ It was 
made a question whether he was really dead. His widow d. 
Mar. 24, 1789, a. 72. Their ch. were Elizabeth, b, Jan. 9, 1741, 
m. Capt. Thos. Lawrence ; Mary, b. Feb. 11, 1743, d. Nov. 13, 
'57; Sarah, b. Apr. 30, 1745, d. unm. Sep. 21, '65; John, b. 


Sep. 1, 1747 ; Judith, b, Oct. 6, 1749, m. Maj. Jona. Lawrence ; 
Peter, b. Nov. 23, 1751 ; Susannab, b. Feb. 20, 1754, m. Dr. 
John B. Biker ; Jane and Anna, twins, b. Jan. 7, 1757, the 
first of whom m. Dr. Wm. Moore, and the latter, Col. Elias 
Conover, of New Jersey. John m. Sarah, dan. of the Eev. 
Abm. Kettletas, of Jamaica, and became a merchant in New- 
York, but finally removed to Tarrytown, where he d. in 1807. 
Some of his ch. yet reside in Westchester co. Peter Fish, a 
clercryman, whose official labors have been noticed in the for 
mer part of this volume, m. June 30, 1785, Hannah, dau. of 
Kenneth Hankinson, Esq. of Freehold, N. J., who survived 
him, and d. June 12, 1824, a. 63 yrs. Their ch. who attained 
maturity were Thomas-Fletcher, now of New burgh, N. Y. ; 
Kenneth H,, dec. ; John-Berrien, a Presbyterian clergyman at 
Sidney Plains, N. Y. ; Nathaniel, d. unm. ; Elizabeth, Ann, d, 
unm. • Jane-Eleanor, widow of Sylvester Eoe, and Susan-Maria, 
now Mrs. John L. Van Doren. 

5. Samuel Fish, son of Nathan, ^ m. in 1712, Euth, widow 
of John Berrien, after whose death, which occurred Feb. 28, 
1763 he m. Mercy Bailey, who survived him. On Mar. 4, 
1715 Mr. Fish became the proprietor of the farm in Newtown, 
now owned by T. B. Jackson, Esq. ; and afterwards, in 1724, 
purchased the adjoining mill from the heirs of Jesse Kip. He 
was the supervisor of Newtown for twenty-three years in suc- 
cession and also a magistrate and an elder of the Presb, church. 
He d. July 9, 1767, a. 78. His ch. were Euth, m. Daniel 
Rapalje ; Elizabeth, ni. Eev. Simon Horton, and John, who 
wasb. Nov. 29, 1719, m. Oct. 6, 1743, Elizabeth, dau. of Tennis 
Brinckerhoflf, and succeeded to the paternal estate and mill at 
Fish's Point. He d. July 2, 1793, of palsey, with which he had 
been long afflicted. Mrs. Fish d. of hemorrhage, Sep. 2, 1764, 

a. 40. Their ch. were Elizabeth, b. June 16, 1744, d. unm. ,• 
Euth, b. June 8, 1746, m. Jesse Warner ; Anna, b, July 7, 
1748, m. Jacob Palmer, father-in-law of Col. Leverich ; Samuel, 

b. May 11, 1752, owned the paternal farm, and d. unm. May 
11, 1834 ; Catharine, b. Apr. 29, 1756, m. Wm. L. Penfold ; 
and Sarah, b. Jan. 7, 1762, who m. Wm. Palmer, father of 
Samuel Palmer, of Newtown. 

6. Jonathan Fish, eldest son of Nathan,^ became possessed 
of the homestead and considerable land in Newtown vil- 


lage. He occupied, and is said to have built, the noted " cor- 
ner house" often mentioned in the preceding pages. He 
presented the ground on which the Presb. church now stands. 
Having served as town clerk for fifteen years, he d, in Nov., 
1723, a. 43, his wife Mary surviving. He had seven eh. of 
whom the only son who arrived at age was Samuel,^ b. Nov. 
24, 1704. The youngest dau., Jane, b. May 26, 1721, m. 
Charles Palmer, the father of Jacob Palmer, aforesaid, and his 
sisters Mrs. Geo. Brinckerhoif, and Mrs. Wm. Lawrence. 

7. Samuel Fish, (entitled captain,) son of Jonathan,'' fell heir 
to the corner house, where he kept an inn during life, and was 
a useful public man. lie d. Aug. 27, 1767. Capt. Fish was 
thrice m., first, on June 21, 1727, to Agnes, dau. of John Ber- 
rien ; secondly, on Apr. 22, 1748, to Abigail, dau. of Edward 
Howard ; and lastly, on Nov. 19, 1752, to Anna Betts, who 
survived him. He had fifteen ch. ; those who reached matu- 
rity were Jonathan,^ b. May 11, 1728; Euth, b. May 7, 1730, 
m. Kichard Betts ; Samuel, b. Apr. 13, 1734 ; Mary, b. July 

9, 1736, m. Samuel Renne ; Sarah, b. Feb. 24, 1739, m. Wm. 
Sackett and John Wood ; Richard, b. Aug. 9, 1743 ; Abigail, 
b. Aug. 27, 1749, m. Johannes Lott ; and Elizabeth, b. Aug. 
24, 1753, who m. James Bonney. Richard m. Sarah, dau. of 
John Betts, of Jamaica. He commanded a merchant vessel, 
and, at the beginning of the Revolution, was captured by the 
British, and sent to England with other American prisoners. 
After a period of confinement he was liberated, but d. on the 
returning voyage from the effects of a fall. His widow d. Dec. 

10, 1780, a. 34. Their ch. who reached adult yrs. were White- 
head, b. Feb. 29, 1768, and Sarah-Betts, b. Apr. 18, 1770, who 
m. Thomas Cadle, a New- York merchant. Whitehead, succes- 
sively cashier of the Manhattan and Mechanics banks, New- 
York, m. Elsie, dau. of Wm. W. Gilbert, and d. July 7, 1819. 
His ch. are Louisa, m. Edward P. Heyer ; Sarah, Catharine, 
wife of Rev. Gordon Winslow, and Isabella. 

8. Jonathan Fish, son of Samuel,^ m. Oct. 5, 1750, Eliza- 
beth, dau. of Joseph Sackett, who dying Apr. 9, 1778, in her 
49th yr.; he m. secondly Elizabeth, dau. of Thos. Whitehead. 
Mr. Fish owned the premises in Newtown village now the res- 
idence of Peter Gorsline, but was for a certain period of his 
life a merchant in the city of New-York. He d. Dec. 26, 1779, 


in his 52d yr. His widow d. Oct. 26, 1798, a. 72. He left 
two cb., namely, Sarali and Nicliolas, the first of whom, h. 
Oct, 22, 1755, m. Terrence Reilly, and had but one ch., to wit, 
Eliza-Frances, wife of the Eev. Joshua M. Eogers, now of 
Easton, Pa. Nicholas Fish was b. in the city of New-York, 
Aug. 28, 1758. At the commencement of hostilities between 
this country and Great Britain, he was studying law under the 
distinguished John Morin Scott. Laying this aside he entered 
the American service with the commission of major, and retired 
at the peace with that of lieutenant-coloueL During the in- 
terval he was at the battle of Long Island, was Avounded in the 
battle of Monmouth, and besides participating in several other 
engagements, shared in the capture of the British armies under 
Burgoyne at Saratoga, and Cornwallis at Yorktown. He en- 
joyed much of the confidence of Gen. Washington. After the 
peace he continued for some time in the army, but resigned 
within a few years. He was subsequent adjutant general of 
the state of New-York, and after held several civil appoint- 
ments, until his advancing years induced him to retire entirely 
from public life. He d. June 80, 1833. Col. Fish m. Apr. 30, 
1803, Elizabeth, dau. of Petrus Stuyvesant, and had issue 
Susan-Elizabeth, b. July 25, 1805, m. Daniel Le Eoy of New- 
York ; Margaret- Ann, b. Feb. 11, 1807, m. to John Neilson, 
Jr., of the same place; Hamilton, b. Aug. 3, 1808, ex-governor 
of New- York, and U. S. senator ; Elizabeth-Sarah, b. May 25, 
1810, now wife of Dr. Eichard L. Morris, and Petrus Stuyve- 
sant, b. May 13, 1813, who d. Nov. 7, 1834. 


This family derives its descent from Bourgon Broucard, 
whose name is thus written in our early and most reliable re- 
cords. He was among those French Huguenot exiles who 
early found an asylum on our shores from the religious intole- 
rance of their native country. Having sojourned at Manheim, 
in the Palatinate of the Ehine, he and his wife, Catharine Le 
Febre, emigrated to America in 1675. They probably had in 


company Joost Duri(5, tlic ancestor of the Duryea family, wlio, 
it appears, came out this year, and whose wife was a Le Febrc, 
and the sister, I presume, to Mrs. Bragaw, judging from the 
intimacy that then subsisted between the two fomilies.* 
Bragaw settled at Cripplcbush, in Bushwick, where he bought 
in 1684, the farm now owned by the heirs of Folkert Eapelye. 
He and his wife were among the earliest members of the 
French church in New- York. In 1088 he sold his farm, and 
removing to the Dutch Kills, bought by purchases in 1690 and 
'93, a large estate, including the plantation originally of Burger 
Jorisz. This farm Mr. Bragaw sold to Wm. Post in 1702, 
though it was afterwards rebought by his son Isaac, and is now 
owned by Wm. and Abm. Paynter, His ch. were Maria, who 
m. Myndert TViltsee ; Jane, m. Hans Covert ; Catalina, Isaac, 
John, Jacob, Peter, and Abraham. All of the sons, except 
Isaac, removed to Somerset co. N, J., their descendants now 
usually writing their name Brokaw. 

1. Isaac Bragaw was b. in 1676, bred a weaver, and ac- 
quired, by various purchases, a considerable property at the 
Dutch Kills, including the paternal farm which he bought in 
1713. He was a useful member of the Dutch church, and its 
liberal supporter. He survived his wife Heyltie, and d. in his 
81st yr.. Mar, 11:, 1757, His ch. were Bourgon, or Bergoon, 
Isaac, John,- Peter, Roelof, Aletta, who m. Joris Van Alst ; 
Catalina, m. Johannes Van Alst ; Heyltie, m. Eich. Parcell ; 

* The descendants of Joost Durie are now very numerous, and mostly 
write tlieir name Duryee, or Duryea. He was a respectable French proles- 
tant, and was accompanied to this country by his mother and his wife, Mag- 
daleiui Lc Febre. They first united with the church at New Utrecht, but 
subsequently located on the disputed lands between Newtown and Bushwick, 
where Mr. Duri6 d. in or about 1727. His ch. were Antonette, who m. 
Lequier; and Magdalena, who m. Okie; besides sons Joost, Jacob, Abraham, 
Charles, and Simon. All of these married, but it is not known whether Simoii 
left issue. Charles d, in 1753, leaving sons Joost, Joiiannes, Charles, Tunis, 
Derick, and Abraham. Abraham had sons Joost, Daniel, Abraham, and 
Johannes. Jacob d. in 1758, having sons Joost, Daniel, Johannes, Jacob, 
Abraham, Cornelius, and Hendrick ; the first of whom was the great-grand- 
father of Gen. Harmanus B. Duryea, of Brooklyn. Joost d. in 1727, leaving 
sons Joost, Hendrick, and Folkert. The posterity of these at the present 
day, as with most of our stable Dutch families, possess a large share of re- 
'spectability and sterling worth. 


Mary, ra. Johannes Opdyke ; Hannah, m. Johannes Parcell ; 
Jane, m. Jacobus Van Alst, and Engeltie who also married. 
Bergoon, the eldest son, was captain of the Newtown militia, 
and is spoken of as a fine specimen of the early Bragaws, being 
a man of towering stature and great physical strength, quali- 
ties which have not yet forsalcen the family. He m. Diana 
Yolkertsen, and d. Sep. 15, 1742 : issue Isaac, who d. a young 
man, and Nell}^, who m. Matthew Morehead. Eoelofm. Sarah, 
dau. of Cor. Luyster, but d. without issue Jan. 26, 1754. 
Peter ra. Jane Parcell, and inherited the paternal estate, which 
he sold after the Eevolution, and removed to Fishkill. He 
had sons Isaac, John, Peter, and George, only two of whom 
m. namely, Isaac, who had issue Catharine, Ann, Maria, Jane, 
John, Abraham, and Isaac; and Peter who had Jane, John, 
Maria, Ann, Abraham, and Catharine. Isaac Bragaw d. in 
Newtown, Mar. 16, 1760, leaving sons Derick, or Richard, and 
John. Richard, b. in 1748, fell heir to his father's farm, was 
for many years an elder of the Presbyterian church, and d. 
Mar. 27, 1818, a. 70. He m. Catharine Gilbert, May 12, 1776, 
and secondly, on Jan. 21, 1786, Catharine, dau. of Wm. Payn- 
ter. His ch. all except one by the second marriage, were 
Isaac, late of Newark, N. J., dec, Hester, William, of New- 
town, Ann, Richard, of Alabama, Margaret, Elias, of Newark, 
Eliza, Aletta M., John, of Newark, and Catharine. 

a. John Bragaw, son of Isaac,^ m. Apr. 13, 1744, Jane, dau. 
of Andrew Stockholm, and secondly, on June 30, 1759, Mar- 
garet, dau. of- Abm. Riker. He was a most worthy man and 
kind neighbor, and served as a deacon in the Dutch church. 
He d. May 27, 1782, upon his farm at the Kills, now Wm. 
Gosman's. His widow, an amiable and pious woman, d. Dec. 
25, 1791, a. about Q^. Mr. B's ch. were Nelly, b. Dec. 18, 
1744, who m. Abm. Rapelye ; Isaac, b. July 27, 1750 ; Heyl- 
tie, b. July 14, 1753, m. Jeromus Rapelye ; Andrew, b. Apr. 
29, 1755 ; Jane, b. Feb. 17, 1757, m. Tunis Brinckerhoif and 
Cor. Wiltsie ; and Abraham, b. Jan. 18, 1765, who d. unm. 
Apr. 6, 1787. Isaac m. May 27, 1773, Susan, dau. of Capt. 
Sam'l Hallett, and d. at Hallett's Cove, where he had long re- 
sided, July 12, 1830. His ch. were Jemima, Jane, John, dec, 
Margaret, Susan, dec, Ellen, Elizabeth, d. young, and Isaac I., 
also dec. Andrew retained the homestead at the Dutch Kills, 



m. Nelly, dau. of John Wiltsie,* and was much respected and 
esteemed as a man and christian. He d. Nov. 29, 1828, a. 73. 
His ch. were John, Nelly, Cornelius, all dec., Jane, Margaret, 
Andrew, dec., Abraham, Isaac, dec, Elizabeth, Hetty, Cath- 
arine, and Susan. 


1. Concerning the ancestry of 
Capt. Eichard Betts, the progenitor 
of the Newtown family, nothing 
positive has been ascertained, though 
it is probable that he was descended 
from a family of this name, located 
at Withenden, in Suffolk co., Eng- 
land, as early as the fifteenth century. 
He himself is believed to have come 
from Hemel-Hempstead in Hertford- 
shire, or its vicinity. He emigrated 
to New England in 1648, and is found 
at Ipswich the same year ; but soon 
after came to Newtown, where he proved himself a person of 
intelligence, participated largely in public affairs, and acquired 
great influence. In the revolution of 1663 he bore a zealous 

* Hendrick Martensen Wiltsee, who early emigrated from Copen- 
hagen, ill Denmark, was the ancestor of the many families bearing this name, 
now written variously, but more commonly Wiltsie. lie m. at New Amster- 
dam, in 1660, Margaret, widow of Harmen Jansen and duu. of Jan Meyrinck. 
He enlisted in the Esopus war, in 1663, and, being captured by the savages, 
was reported killed ; but this proved to be a mistake, and Wiltsee soon ob- 
tained his liberty. In 1681 he bought the farm at Hellgate, now owned by 
the Polhemus family, (see p. 37,) which, in 1706, he conveyed to his son 
Tennis. He had sons Martin, b. 166- ; Hendrick, b. 1669; Myndcrt, b. 
1672 ; Tennis, b. 1674, and Jacob, b. 1676, all of whom married and had fami- 
lies, and their posterity is now numerous, particularly in Westchester and 
Dutchess counties. 


part, and after the conquest of New Netlierland by tlie Eng- 
lish, was a member, from Newtown, of the provincial assembly 
held at Hempstead in 1665. He subsequently served as high 
sheriff' of Yorkshire, upon Long Island, to which office he was 
commissioned, Oct. 30, 1678, and retained it till 1681. For a 
long series of years he performed the duties of a magistrate, 
during which he was more than once a member of the high 
court of assize, then the supreme power in the province. Capt. 
Betts became an extensive landholder at the English Kills, a 
portion of his land being now owned by his descendant, Thos. 
H. Betts. His residence was in the old Betts house, now oc- 
cupied by Mr. Hanson. Here he d. at the extreme age of 100 
yrs. Nov. 18, 1713. It is said of this remarkable man, that he 
dug his own grave. By his wife, Joanna, he had issue, Eich- 
ard,~ Thomas,^ Joanna, who m. John Scudder ; Mary, m. Jos. 
Swezey ; Martha, m. Philip Ketcham ; Elizabeth, m. Jos. 
Sackett, and Sarah, who m. Edward Hunt. 

2. Richard Betts, son of Richard,^ became a landholder as 
early as 1680, and settled on the south bounds of Newtown, 
(upon lands now mostly included in the Cypress Hills Ceme- 
tery,) where he d. Nov. 4, 1711, leaving issue Richard, Robert, 
Thomas, Sarah, Elizabeth, Joanna, Abigail, and Mary ; and a 
widow, Sarah, who survived him many years. Thomas m. 
Hannah Areson, in 1729. Robert had issue Augustine, &c. 
Richard m. Apr. 10, 1711, Mary Creed, of Jamaica, in which 
town he settled. He d. in 1742, a. 56, and his widow in 1759, 
a. 77. Their ch. were Richard, John, and Mary, who m. Fred- 
erick Van Liew. Richard, d. Nov. 17, 1748, a, 37. John m. 
Sarah Whitehead in 1738, and d. May 10, 1761, a. 44, having 
had issue Helen, m. Polhemus ; Mary, m. Dan'l Kissam, Esq. ; 
Susan, m. Thos. Welling ; Sarah, m. Richard Fish ; Ann, m. 
Jos. Stringham ; Elizabeth, m. Henry Tenbrook, and Catharine, 
who d. single. 

3. Thomas Betts, son of Richard,^ m. Mercy, dau. of Maj. 
Dan'l Whitehead, about 1683.* He resided on a portion of the 

* Daniel Whythead, as his sign manual is, the father of Major White- 
head, is first noticed among the purchasers of Smithtown, L. I. in 1650. 
Some years later he located at Mespat Kills. He was a reputable citizen, 
and one of the seven persons to whom the first Newtown patent was grant- 
ed. He was chosen a town surveyor in 1668, but d. upon his farm at the 


paternal farm at Mespat Kills, and served some years in the 
magistracy. He d. in 1709, and in 1711 his widow m. Capt. 
Jos. Sackett. Mr. Betts left nine ch. namely, Kichard,'* Thomas, 
Daniel," Mercy, m. Thos. Hazard, Abigail, m. Abm. Spring- 
steen, Joanna, Mar^, Elizabeth, m. Eobert Comfort, and 
Deborah, who m. Gershom Moore. 2'homas, b. Aug. 14, 1689, 
m. May 5, 1713, Susannah, dau. of Thos. Stevenson. He 
adopted the principles of the Quakers, as did also his brother 
Eichard, which their descendants have generally adhered to. 
Thomas had issue Ann, b. Dec. 14, 1714 ; Thomas, b. Nov. 1, 
1716, d. young ; John, b. Sep. 15, 1718 ; Stephen, b. Mar. 26, 
1720 ; Thomas and Susannah, twins, b. Feb. 18, 1723. 

4. Richard Betts, son of Thomas,^ was b. July 7, 1685, 
and became a leading member of the society of Friends, in 
Newtown. His wife, Jemima, whom he m. Aug. 19, 1709, d. 
Jan. 18, 1761. He appears to have survived her, and d. at an 
advanced age. Their ch., besides two who d. in youth, were 
Thomas, b. June 21, 1710 ; William,^ b. Jan. 6, 1716 ; Benja- 
min, b. Jan. 15, 1720, d. unm. June 12, '46 ; and Joseph, b. 
Apr. 23, 1722. Thomas m. Sarah, dau. of Sam'l "Way, but had 
no issue. He was a well informed and able man, served many 
years as a magistrate, and d. at the Kills Aug. 21, 1782. Joseph 
m. Ellison Parcell, and had issue John, d. single ; Thomas m., 
but had no ch. ; Sarah, m. John Parcell ; Nancy, m. Brown ; 
and Margaret who m. Geo. Corlies, late of New- York, dec. 

5. William Betts, son of Richard,^ intermarried with Mary, 
dau. of Capt. Dan'l Betts, and d. of consumption during the 
Revolution, Mrs. Betts d. of the same disorder. Their ch. 
were Anthony,^ Benjamin, James, d. unm. ; Mary, m. John 
Way; Sarah, m. Hezekiah Warn and Capt. Rich. Yander* 
burgh ; William ; Jemima, who d. abroad ; Richard, and 
Daniel. The latter m., and removed to Trenton, N. Y., 

Kills in November of that yr. a. 65. He left sons Daniel, Jonathan, David, 
and Adam. Daniel (the major) m. Abigail, dau. of Thos. Stevenson, and 
settled in Jamaica, served in the magistracy of Queens, and was also a repre- 
sentative in the colonial assembly from 1691 till his death. He acquired a 
large estate, and d. in 1704, a. 58. He left two sons, Jonathan and 'i'homas, 
and several daughters, one of whom m. Thos. Betts, as aforesaid. Descen- 
dants of Maj. Whitehead are also to be found in the Field, Alsop.and Moore 
families of Newtown. 


where lie is still living, Richard m. Nancy Schureraan, and 
secondly Ann, dau. of Peter Berrien, settled at Trenton, afore- 
said, and d. in 1850, a. 90. William m. Patience Woodward, 
and Mrs. Elizabeth Brush, and by the latter had issue Patience, 
who m. Van Valen ; and by the former a son James, who m. 
Jennett, dau. of Frederick Myers, and w^as the father of Wm. 
M. Betts, of Southold, L. I., and James H. Betts, of New- York. 
Benjamin ra. Sarah, dau. of Benj. Moore, lived on the place 
since of Daniel Morrell, and d. Feb; 8, 1828, in his 82d yr. 
His ch. were Hannah, Mary, m. James Hunter, and Margaret 
who m. J^evi Hart, late of Brooklyn, dec, 

6. Anthony Betts, eldest son of William,-"' m. Aug. 11, 1772, 
Jane, dau. of Richard Hallett, and occupied the paternal farm 
at the Kills, v/here he d. Dec. 21, 1814, in his 73d yr., and his 
widow, June 20, 1828, in her 76th yr. Their ch. were Mary, 
b. Aug. 8, 1776, m. Thomas Hubbs, of Jericho; Jonah, b. Feb. 
8, 1780, d. Dec. 14, '80; Thomas-Hallet, b. Oct. 15, 1783, and 
Richard, b. Nov. 5, 1786, killed by a bark-wheel July 4, '92. 
Thomas H. yet resides on a portion of the old family estate 
neax the English Kills. On June 11, 1806, he m. Amy, dau. 
of Cornelius Hyatt, and has had issue Anthony, m. Catharine, 
dau, of Abm. Meserole ; Sarah, dec. ; Jane, m, to John M. 
Hanson ; Hyatt-Franklin, m, Adriana, dau, of Geo, Debevoise, 
and Richard Penn Betts, 

T, Daniel Betts, (entitled captain,) son of Thomas,^ m, in 
Feb, 1715, Mary, dau, of Nathan Fish, She d, Oct, 1, 1757, 
and Capt, Betts, on Apr, 12, 1759, In the family cemetery at 
the Kills, on the property of T, H. Betts, rough tablets still 
mark their graves. Their ch. were Daniel, Richard, Samuel, ^ 
Mary, m, Wm. Betts ; Mercy, m. Jacob Hallett ; Susannah, 
m. Jacob Hallett, Jr. ; Jemima, m. Capt. Sam'l Hallett ; and 
Sarah, who d, single. Daniel m, Deborah, dau. of Robert 
Field, and d. " with an uncommon disorder," June 18, 1762. 
His widow m. Waters Smith, Esq,, whom she also survived, 
and d, Nov, 21, 1838, at the great age of 108 yrs. Elizabeth, 
the only ch. of Daniel Betts, m. John B. Scott, father of the pre- 
sent Hon. John B, Scott, of New-York. Richard Belts, m. Mar. 
16, 1758, Elizabeth, dau, of Cor. Berrien, Esq., and for some 
years kept an inn at Hallett's Cove, on property now owned by 
Grant Thorburn. Here he d, during the Revolution, leaving 


issue Eicliard, Elizabeth, m. Capt. Levin Townsend, of Mary, 
land ; Amy, m. John Swim ; Mary, m. Frederick Stevenson • 
and Jane, who d. unm. Kichard d. without issue, Jan. 25 
1795, having m. Miss Caroline Hawkins, who afterwards be- 
came the wife of Robert P. Lee, lawyer, New-York. 

8. Samuel Letts, son of Daniel,''' m. Mary, dau. of Jonathan 
Lawrence, Esq., of Rockland co., a son of Jonathan, youngest 
son of Maj. Thomas Lawrence, of Newtown. After the death 
of Samuel Letts, which took place June 9, 1778, of apoplexy, 
his widow m. Capt. Nath'l Woodward, of the continental army. 
Mr. Letts had issue Daniel, Jonathan, Samuel, Nathaniel, (of 
whom only Samuel married ;) Mary, m. Edmund Cock ; and 
Susannah, who m. John Evans. Samuel Bdts was b. at New- 
town, Apr. 29, 176-1, which place he left, about 1784, for the 
Danish island of St. Croix, where he was for some time success- 
fully engaged in commerce. Here, on July 28, 1796, he m. 
Susannah, fourth dau. of Manning Lake, Esq., from his inter- 
marriage with Mary, dau. of the Hon. Wm. Carty, of Anguilla. 
Having correct and diligent business habits, possessing a kind 
heart, and exercising active benevolence, with a high sense of 
honor and of unbending integrity, he commanded general con- 
fidence, and enjoyed the esteem of a large number of friends. 
With the means acquired by his industry, he purchased a sugar 
plantation on the island ; and by the death of Robert Neilson, 
of Eeeksgrove, a half-brother of Mrs. Letts, he became the 
owner of that and the adjoining plantation, called Clairmont, 
in connection with the Finlay family, whose interest he subse- 
quently purchased. Mr, Letts removed to the city of New- 
York, in 1815, for the more convenient education of his chil- 
dren, but returned to St. Croix a few years before his death, 
which took place at Leeksgrove, June 29, 1843. He had eight 
ch. to wit, Samuel, d. unm. ; John-Lawrence, d. an inflmt ; 
William ; Mary, m. Jonathan Lawrence ; Susan, m. Jonas W. 
Drake, and resides near Newburgh, N. Y. ; Robert-Neilson, d. 
sino-le; Caroline, m. Smith Lawrence, and is dec. ; and Louisa. 
William Letts, the third and only surviving son, was b. on the 
Island of St. Croix, Jan. 28, 1802, received his subgraduate 
instruction at Union Hall, L. L, and graduated in 1820 from 
Columbia College, N. Y., in which institution Mr. Letts is now 
professor of law, having succeeded the late Chancellor Kent in 


that chair. For many years lie has practiced law in the city 
of New- York, but has his residence near the village of Jamaica, 
L. I. On Oct. 18, 1825, he m. Anna-Dorothea, eldest dau. of 
Beverley Eobinson, Esq., from hie intermarriage with Frances, 
dau. of Col. William Duer, whose wife was Catharine, dau. of 
William Alexander, Earl of Stirling. Both Col. Duer, and 
Maj. Gen. Lord Stirling, were, it will be remembered, distin- 
guished patriots in our Kevolution. Mr. Betts has three ch. : 
Beverley-Robinson, Caroline, and William, the first of whom 
has entered the Episcopal ministry. 


1. James Way, the founder of this name in Newtown, was 
of an ancient English family, who, imder the appellation of 
" Waye," appear on the records of Somersetshire, as early as 
the fifteenth century. Mr. Way was an early and reputable 
settler at the English Kills, where he acquired a large estate, 
including the premises of the late Judge Furman. He was a 
useful man in the town, and served as an overseer. He em- 
braced the principles of the Quakers, which his descendants 
have very generally maintained. He d. Oct. 2, 1685, having 
had issue James, Francis, John,- Hannah, who m. Jeremiah 
Burroughs ; Elizabeth, m. Arthur Alburtis ; and Martha, who 
m. Thos. Taylor. James d. in 1715, leaving issue Martha, who 
m. Wm. Leverich ; Mary, m. Sam'l Reed ; Sarah, m. Johannes 
Culver ; and Elizabeth, who m. Osborn. Francis had issue 
James, John, Elizabeth, m. Benj. Cornish ;* and Diana. After 
his death his widow, Elizabeth, m. Peter Buckhout in 1713. 

* The Cornish family, formerly of considerable repute in this town, were 
descended from .a respectable settler, Thomas Cornish, who was by occupa- 
tion a maker of pipestaves, or cooper, and d. in 1662. He left sons John, 
James, Thomas, and Benjamin. From the latter, who d. in 1736, a. 84, leav- 
ing sons Thomas and Benjamin, most of the name since resident in this town 
are presumed to have descended; but my notes are too imperfect to warrant 
a fuller notice of the family. 


James, son of Francis, became blind, and d. Jan. 8, 1767. He 
Avas twice married, and by his first wife, Hannah, dau. of John 
Leverich, whom he m. in 1716, and Avho d. Nov. 10, 1729, he 
had issue EHzabeth, b. Feb. 16, 1717; Francis, b. May 27, 
1719 ; and James, b. Nov. 24, 1721. John Way, son of Francis 
1st, m. Martha, dau. of John Leverich, and d. at llellgatc, Oct. 
13, 1750. His ch. were John, Leverich, Walter, and Hannah, 
who m. Wm. Leverich, father of the late Jesse Leverich, &c. 

2. John Way, son of James, ^ m. Nov. 22, 1687, Sarah, dau. 
of Sam'l Dean, of Jamaica, and in 1691 acquired the paternal 
farm at the English Kills, by purchase from his brothers and 
sisters. He also became the owner of a large tract of land in 
Amewell, N. J. which at his death in 1715, he left to his three 
daughters and his son John. His widow surviving him, d. in 
1747, in her 85th yr. His ch. were Elizabeth, b. Oct. 11, 1691 ; 
John,3b. Jan. 26, 1694; Samuel, b. Sep. 11, 1696; Sarah, b. 
Oct. 27, 1698 ; Mary b. Apr. 14, 1701 ; and James, b. Aug. 
15, 1708. James m. Marj^, dau. of Thos. Alsop, and had issue 
Thomas and John, neither of whom married. By a division of 
his father's property with his brother John, in 1729, he came 
in possession of the homestead and lands at the English Kills, 
on which he lived till his death in 1788. He left £1000 to the 
Quaker society, and £1000 for the support of a charity school. 
His brother Samuel^ a saddler at the Kills, m. Jane, dau. of 
John Gancel, whom he survived seven years, and d. Aug. 3, 
1767, leaving issue Samuel, John, Mary, who m. Eichard 
Hallett and Joua. Eoberts ; and Sarah, who m. Thos. Betts. 
John m. Mary, dau. of Wm. Belts, but left no male issue. 
His brother Samuel, by the will of his uncle, James Way, fell 
heir to his property at the English Kills, where he d. in 1798. 
He was twice m., and by his wife, Esther Valentine, had an 
only dau. Jane, who, in 1784, m. Dr. Henry Mott, father of Dr. 
Valentine Mott, of New-York. In 1815 the AVay estate was 

, sold to the late Garret Furman. 

3. John Way, son of John,- settled on the premises, now of 
widow Sarah Way, and on July 19, 1716, m. Sarah Burling, 
of Flushing. He lived to the age of 80. His ch. were John, 
b. Oct. 12, 1721, and Samuel, b. Nov. 11, 1723. Samuel re- 
mained on the paternal farm till his death, Oct. 20, 1796. He 
had issue John, Burling, Eichard, Sarah, who m. Sam'l Spragg, 



(fatter of Eichard Spragg, Esq.) and Mary, wlio m. CKas. 
Farrington. John, eldest of the three sons, m. Mary Marsh, 
of New Jersey, and was the father of Charles F. Way, of New- 
town. Eichard m. in 1786, Sarah, dau. of Thos. Hyatt, who 
survived him and is living, aged 87. Their eh. are Catharine, 
Sarah, wife of Eichard Spragg, Esq., Judith, wife of Abm. 
Furman, Walter, Thomas, dec., Eichard, Samuel, dec, and 
Eachel, wife of John Kolyer. Burling Way, ra, June 3, 1776, 
Phebe, dau. of Martin Schenck, and d. Dec. 12, 1811. He had 
issue Phebe, who m. Ab'm Folk, Judith, m. Jos. Furman, 
Hannah, m. Arthur Eemsen, Martin, Samuel, Peter, James, 
and Schenck Way. 


This name is derived from 
the estate or manor house of 
Alst, anciently in the posses- 
sion of this family, who, in ac- 
cordance with the custom of 
that time, were designated as 
of {van) Alst. This manor is 
that district in Flanders which 
still bears the name of Alst, ly- 
ing between the rivers Scheld? 
and Dender, and having a capi- 
tal of the same name. 
1. Joris Stevensen Van Alst, the ancestor of all among us 
of this name, was from Bruges, the capital of West Flanders, 
situated near the aforesaid district of Alst. He is commonly 
called in our early records, Joris de Caper, i. e. George the 
sailor. At New Amsterdam, in 1652, he m. Geesie, dau. of 
Harmen Hendricksen, a young lady from Witmund ; and set- 
tling at the Dutch Kills, he bought two plantations, (see p. 21,) 
for which he obtained a confirmatory patent, Dec. 16, 1670. 
He d. in or about 1710. His ch. were Stephen, Isabella, Jane, 
who m. Wit Cornelisz Timmer, Andries, Johannes,- Mary, m. 


Henry Brazier, and Helena, wlio m. Michael Bassctt. Nei- 
tlier Stephen^ b. 1653, nor Amines^ b. 166-i, left issue, tliougli 
the latter was m. twice: first to Maria Van Gelder, and se- 
condly, it is said, to a sister of Eip Van Dam, Esq., of the 
provincial council. Andries OAvned the farm now embraced 
in those of John Gardner, dec, and Jacob Polhemus. 

2. Johannes Van Alst, son of Joris,i was b. Aug. 5, 1667, 
and in 1704 bought the paternal estate, where he lived till his 
death in 1749. By his wife, Aeltie, who d. Aug. 23, 1732, he 
had issue Joris, Johannes,^ Jacobus, Leah, m. John Parcell ; 
Geesie, m. Abm. Kiker ; and Jannetie, who m. Jacob Skillman. 
Jacohus m. Jane. dau. of Isaac Bragaw, and settled in New- 
York. Joris, b. Aug. 31, 1701, bought the farm of his uncle 
Andries, and m. Oct. 31, 1723, Aletta, dau. of Isaac Bragaw, 
aforesaid. She d. a. 60, Oct. 8, 1760 ; and Mr. Van Alst, on 
Sep. 15, 1767. Their ch. were Aletta, d. unm. ; Isaac, d. sin- 
gle ; Heyltie, m. Aaron Stockholm ; John ; Catharine, m. Abm. 
Bragaw, of N. Jersey ; Leah, m. John Van Alst ; Bergoou, 
or Bragaw ; Grace, m. Wm. Parcell ; and Anna, who m. Sam'l 
Waldron.* John, last named, was b. Dec. 6, 1729, m. in 1759, 
his cousin Aletta, dau. of John Van Alst, and d. Sep. 20, 1767, 
his only issue being two sons, George, and Isaac, both of 
whom left families who located in Dutchess co. Bergoon was 

* In or about 1652, Resolved Waldkon cnme from Amsterdnm to lliis 
country, with his vrow Tanneke Nagle. He acquired a large property at 
Horn's Hook, within the limits of Harlem, on which he located. For many 
years he held the office of scout, and wns one of the most useful and respect- 
able of the Harlem settlers. He d. in 1690, leaving sons Samuel, William, 
Barent, and Johannes. From one of these came Samuel Waldron, who m. 
Anna Delamater, and removed to Newtown village, where he occupied the 
premises on which Mr. Lord resides. He served some years as a deacon of 
the Dutch church, and d. Aug. 23, 1771, a. 61. His ch. were Samuel, John, 
d unm William, Benjamin, Ann, who m. Rich. Rapalje, Elizabeth, m. 
Sam'l Beekman, Margaret, m. her cousin Jacobus Waldron, and Catharine, 
who d single. Of these WilUam and Bevjamin settled in New Jersey. 
Samuel b Mar. 13, 1738, m. Anna Van Alst, as before said. He owned tlie 
place now of Edward Tompkins, Esq., at Hempstead Swamp, was a black- 
smith as was also his father, and like him was much respected. After the 
Revolution, he served as a justice of the peace. He d. Sep. 4 1799, and 
his widow in her 60th yr., Feb. 28, 1803. They had issue Aletta, Ann, 
Hannah, Samuel, and Cornelia. Samuel, b. July 16, 1775, and res.dmg m 
Newtown, has ch. Hendrick E., Sarah, Aletta, and Anna. 



b. Aug. 22, 1737, m. Margaret Hoogland, and removed to 
Fislikill. His cli. were George, Mary, m. JoLn Lnyster j 
Diana, m. Andrew Stoutenburgh ; and Aletta, who m, Hen- 
drick Hulst. The said George m, Mary Storm, and had issue 
George, and Bergoon. 

3. Johannes Van Alst, son of Johannes,- m. Catalina, dau. 
of Isaac Bragaw, aforesaid, and bought the paternal estate at 
the Dutch Kills, on which he erected a new house in 1766, 
which remains, and is now occupied by his grandson, Isaac 
Van Alst, The ancient house stood a little southeast of this, 
close on the meadow edge. Mr. Van Alst left issue John, 
George, Aletta, m. John Van Alst ; and Catharine, and Hetty, 
who became the wives of Henry Jacobs. George m. Ann 
Meserole, and d. Nov. 10, 1811, a. 71, having owned and oc- 
cupied that half of his father's farm late in possession of his 
only child, John G. Van Alst, whose death occurred Aug. 7, 
1851, in his 71st yr. John m. Dec. 8, 1768, Hannah, dau. of 
Jacob Bennet, of Dominie's Hook, a grandson of Capt, Peter 
Praa.* He fell heir to that part of the homestead now owned 
by his son Isaac, where he d. Jan. 14, 1823, in his 88th yr. 

* Capt. Peter Peaa, who has numerous blood descendants, was suffi- 
cientVy identified with Newtown, to deserve notice. His fiither, Peter, was a 
highly respectable Huguenot exile from Dieppe, a seaport in France, who, 
with his family, came to this country in 1659, and d. at Cripplebush, Mar. 6, 
1663. (See p. 130.) He left eh. Peter, and Anna, who m. Jan Jansen. 
Peter was b. at Leyden, in 1655, while his parents sojourned at that city of 
refuge. He m. in 1684, Maria, dau. of Jacob Hay, and widow of Joost 
Molenaer, at which time he was living in Newtown, but he spent the most of 
his subsequent life in Bushwick, had command of the militia, and was noted 
for his skill in horsemanship. He acquired a large property in various places, 
including Dominie's Hook, which he bought from the heirs of Annetie Jans, 
of Trinity Church notoriety. (See p. 29.) Capt. Praa d. in 1740. His ch. 
were Catharine, b. 1685; Maria, b. 1688, m. Wynant Van Zandt; Elizabeth, 
b. 1691, ra. Meserole; Anna, b. 1694, m.Wm. Bennet and Daniel Bodet; 
and Christiana, b. 1698, who m. David Provost. From these marriages have 
descended several families in which the name of Peter Praa is yet retained. 
To the ch. of his dau. Anna, Capt. Praa left the estate of Dominie's Hook. 
These were Jacob Bennet, Peter P. Bennet, Mary, who m. John Devoo, and 
Nelly, who m. David Van Cott. Jacob Bennet bought the Hook by pur- 
chases in 1767 and 1780. He d. in 1817, a. 94, and his ch. were Jacob, 
William, Anna, m. Capt. Geo. Hunter, and Hannah, who m. Mr. Van Alst 
as aforesaid. 


His cli. were Jolm, Jacob, Isaac, Peter, William, Abraham, 
Elizabeth, David, and Ilenry. 


1. John Burrongbes, the progenitor of this family, was of 
English birth ; early came over to Massachusetts, and is found 
at Salem, in 1637, Upon his removal to Newtown, he became 
a leading man, and being a skillful penman, a quite rare ac- 
complishment in those days, he filled the office of town clerk 
for eleven years. He appears to have been a resolute character, 
a warm advocate of popular rights, and his sufferings in this 
behalf have been before related. He d. in August 1678, a. 
61. Mr. Burroughes was a brother-in-law to Edward Jessup, 
and was twice married, his second wife being the widow Eliz- 
abeth Eeed, who survived him but a few days. His will is on 
record in New- York, and an original copy is still in possession 
of Mr, Geo. W. Burroughs, of Newtown. He left issue Jere- 
miah,^ Joseph,^ John, Joanna, who m. Reeder, and Mary. 
John^ only son by the second marriage, was b. in 1665, m. 
Margaret, dau. of Lambert Woodward,* and d. in 1699, 
leaving a son John, and other ch. Their descendants are 
not traced, 

2. Jeremiah Burroughs, son of John,^ shared his father's 
property, and was town clerk for several years, and at the 
time of his death, which happened in 1698, at the age of 47. 
He was drowned in swimming after a canoe adrift. His ch. 

* Lambert Woodward bought himself a residence in this town in 
1666, and d. in or about 1690, having issue Margaret, abovcsaid, Lambert, 
who d. unm., and Nathaniel, from whom a considerable posterity descended, 
though now extinct in this town. He m. Mary, dau. of Capt. Sam'l Moore, 
and d. Oct. 24, 1744. His ch. were Lambert, Moore, Joseph, and Abigail 
who was the mother of the late Judge Benj. Coe. Joseph m. in 1736, Tem- 
perance Fish, and was the grandfather of the late Jos. Woodward of New 
Utrecht, and his sister Ann N., formerly Mrs. Alsop, now Mrs. Raymond. 
Moore m. in 1735, Sarah Coe, and had sons Samuel, Nathaniel, John, and 
Oliver. Lambert succeeded to the paternal farm, (now T. Victor's,) and d. 
early in the Revolution. His ch. (see pp. 172, 181, 185, 214,) were Capt. 
Nathaniel, of the American array, Thomas, Gilbert, Lambert, and Philip. 


were Jeremiala, James, JoIhd, Joseph, and Hannali, wTio m. 
Jolin Reeder and Jolin Furman. Jeremiah m. Cornelia 
Eckerson, and settled in Hunterdon co. N. J, James, a 
weaver, served tlie town as collector of taxes. He m. 
Deborah Sallier, in 1710, and d. some fifteen or twenty 
years after, leaving issue James, Joseph, Thomas, John, 
Deborah, and Mary: Joseph and his two sisters d. single. 
Their brother John had a son John who removed to Cin- 
cinnati. The said Thomas d. at Newtown, in 1805, having 
had issue Robert, Hannah, who m. Abm. Remsen, Thomas, 
William, of Cincinnati, Eliza, m. Wm. Wainwright, Joseph, 
of New Jersey, and John. James, eldest son of James and 
Deborah, m. Geesie Colyer, in 1769, and d, in 1806, His ch. 
were Joseph, who settled in Dutchess co,, John, James, Grace, 
wife of "Wm, Underbill, and Benjamin, of Newtown. John, 
last named, was b. Sep, 17, 1777, m. Sarah, dau. of John 
Debevoise, and d. June 10, 1845 ; issue Theodorus, Adriana, 
John, Jacob J., Joseph, Sarah-Jane, and Grace- Ann. 

3, Joseph Burroughs, son of John,^ was a very worthy 
citizen, and a liberal supporter of the Presbyterian church, 
during Mr. Pumroy's ministry. He d. in advanced years, Feb. 
16, 1738, His son John m. in 1721, Margaret, dau. of Jas. 
Renne, served the next year as constable of the town, and was 
subsequently a justice of the peace. He owned land at Tren- 
ton, N, J,, and was also interested in the New Cornwall mines. 
He d. on his estate in Newtown, July 7, 1750, and his widow, 
July 11, 1767. The latter left £100 to the Presbyterian 
church. Their ch. were John, Samuel, and Joanna. Samuel 
left no issue. His brother John m. April 26, 1747, Sarah 
Hunt, then the widow Smith, and inheriting the paternal farm, 
d. Feb. 18, 1755, leaving an only ch. Joseph. His widow m. 
Thos. Woodward. Joseph, last named, occupied the farm 
now of Jonathan Randel, on the Dutch lane. He was a lead- 
ing man in the Episcopal church, and a valuable and esteemed 
citizen. He d. Dec. 24, 1820, in his 73d yr. . He had two 
wives, and by the first, Lydia, dau. of Thos. Hallett, whom he 
m. Nov. 11, 1765, and whose death occurred in [her 54th yr., 
Dec. 21, 1793, he had issue John, Thomas, Joseph-Hallett, 
Anna, now widow of Peter Vandervoort, Esq., William-Howe, 
and Benjamin. Of these William and Jose;ph d. unm. t/o/m, 



b. Nov. 17, 1766, was a ptysician, and d. Nov. 20, 1812. 
Thomas, b. July 1, 1769, succeeded to the paternal farm, and 
m. Sarah, dau. of Geo. AVyckoff. He d. Sep. 21, 1835, leaving 
issue Lydia, who m. Geo. I. Rapelye ; Sarali, now Mrs. Clias. 
H. Roacb ; Joseph; Ann, Avho m. John B. Hyatt ; and George 
Wyckoff Burroughs. Benjamin Burroughs, b. ^Ntar. 31, 1780, 
removed to Savannah, Geo., where he married, and became a 
distinguished and opulent merchant. He was many years an 
elder of the Independent Presbyterian church in the above 
city, and d. Apr. 11, 1837. His ch. are Joseph H., a merchant 
of Savannah; William H., a planter in Florida; Benjamin, 
a Presbyterian minister at Vernonberg, Geo. ; Henry K., a 
physician, and recently mayor of Savannah ; Oliver S., of the 
same city ; Elizabcth-Reid, wife of Dr. John S. Law, of Cin- 
cinnati, and Catharine, who m. Chas. Green, of Savannah, 
and is dec. 


This family, whose original 
cognomen was Yan der Beeck, 
dates back to a remote period 
in Germany and the Nether- 
lands. The arms they bore 
are those here presented, which 
were granted them in 1162, by 
the emperor Frederick Barba- 
rossa. They indicate reputation 
gained in the knight service, 
&c., and the waved lines across 
the shield represent a brook, 
and denote the origin of the family name, the words van der 
heeck signifying of the brook ■ ^^ ■ 

1. Rem Jansen Vanderbeeck, and other persons bcarmg this 
name, emigrated to this country in the infancy of colonization, 


but the first mentioned was the ancestor of all the Eemsens in 
the United States. He was by occupation a " smith." Our 
early records are not agreed as to the place from which he 
came, one stating it to have been Jeveren in Westphalia, 
and another Coevorden, in Overyssel, about seventy-five miles 
south-west of the former town. After his arrival here he m. in 
1642 Jannetie, dau. of Joris Jansen de Eapalie, and having resid- 
ed for some years at Albany, where he and his wifcAvere church 
members, he settled at the Wallabout, and obtained, either by 
patent or purchase, the farm now owned by his great-great- 
grandson, Hon. Jer, Johnson. E,em Jansen enjoyed a respec- 
table standing in Brooklyn, and was a magistrate during the 
second Dutch administration. He d. in 1681, his widow sur- 
viving many years. Of this lady a curious record is made, 
that when she was a child, a squaw took her across from Gov- 
ernor's to Long Island in a tub, so narrow then was Buttermilk 
channel. Eem Jansen had fifteen ch. all present at his funeral, 
as tradition says, and all of whom married. They were Jan, 
Joris, Eem,3 Jacob, Jeromus, Daniel, Abraham,'^ Isaac,- Jere- 
mias,^ Anna, m. Jan G. Dorlandt ; Hillegond, m, Aris J. 
Vanderbilt ; Femmetie, m. Joseph Hegeman ; Jannetie, m. 
Gerrit H. Van Nostrand ; Catalina, m. Elbert Adriaense, and 
Sarah, who m. Marten Adriaense.* The sons finally dropped 
the name of Vanderbeeck, and took the patronymic Eemsen 
as their family name. Daniel m. Jane, dau. of John Ditmars, 
and d. at Flatbush in 1736. Jeromus m. Catharine, dau. of 
Cor. Berrien, and d. in 1750. Jacob m. Gertrude, dau. of Dirck 
Yan der Yliet. These three appear to have left no male issue. 
Jan, b. in 1618, m. in 1681, Martha, dau. of Jan Damen, and 
d. at Flatbush in 1696, leaving ch. Sophia, John, Eem, Jane, 

* Elbert and Marten Adriaense were the sons of Adriaen Reyerse of 
Flatbush, who, with his brother, Marten Reyerse, (see p. 269,) came from 
Am-^tcrdatn. The history of this family strikingly exhibits the early habit 
of changing names. Reyerse, itself no surname, but simply a patronymic, 
(see explanation, p. 265,) was retained by the descendants of Marten Reyerse, 
who are now numerous, and bear the name Ryerson. Of the two brothers, 
Elbert and Marten Adriaense, the first settled in Flushing, and his posterity 
there, in Dutchess co. and elsewhere, compose the Adriance fiimily. Marten 
Adriaense remained in Flatbush, and had sons Adrian, Rem, and Gerrit, who 
took the patronymic Martense, and were the progenitors of the present 
Martence family. 


Martlia, and Cornelius. Eem, last named, settled on Statcn 
Island, and was a justice of the peace. Joris m. in IGS-i, 
Femmetie, dau. of Derick J. AVoortman, and in 1706 bought 
the farm of his father-in-law, near the Brooklyn ferry. (See 
Thompson's Hist. L, I. ii. 210.) This property is now in the 
heart of Brooklyn city. Of the ch. of Joris, Mary ra. Joost 
Debevoise, Sarah m. Jacobus Debevoise, Elizabeth m. Geo. 
Rapalje, and Oatalina m. Ilendrick Rcmsen. Bern, a son of 
Joris, m. Aeltie Bergen in 17o7, remained on the paternal 
farm, and d. in or about 172^1, leaving among other ch. sons 
George and John, the first of whom fell heir to his father's 
property, m. Jane, dau. of Philip Nagle, and d. between 1735 
and '43, having issue Rem, Philip, and Aletta who m. Wyckoff 
Van Nostrand. Philip, b. in 1731, removed to Buck's co. Pa. 

2. Isaac Remsen, son of Rem Jansen,^ was b. in 1673, and 
d. on a farm in Brooklyn between 1750 and '58. His ch. were 
Rem, Isaac, John, Jacob, Joris, Hendriekie, m. Johannes Lott, 
Jannetie, m, John Van Nostrand, and Catrina who m. John 
Boerum. Joris m. Oatalina Ditmars, but had no issue. Jo/m 
and Isaac settled at Oyster Bay, where their posterity remains : 
Isaac was b. in 1710, and left ch, Isaac, Abraham, John, and 
Antie, who m. Joris Van Nostrand ; the first of whom was 
father to George, the father of James Remsen of N. Y. city. 
Jacoh^ b. 1719, m. Catharine, dau. of Wm. Van Duyn, Esq., 
and was a farmer in Brooklyn, where he d. in 1794. His ch. 
were Adriana, m. John Debevoise; Henrietta, m. Samuel 
Harris ; Matilda, m. Tunis Bogart, and Isaac, who m. Susannah, 
dau. of Chas. Roberts, she being afterwards the wife of Burdet 
Striker, father of Hon. Francis B. Striker of Brooklyn. 

3. Rem Remsen, son of Rem Jansen,^ m. Marritie, dau. of 
Jan Vanderbilt, and lived in the town of Flatbush, where he 
served as an elder of the church at New Lots. His will, dated 
Sep. 9, 1724, was proved Dec. 7, 1742, in which he names his 
sons Joris, Rem,-* Jacob, and John. Joris m. Lammetie, dau. 
of Joris Bergen, and secondly Sarah, dau. of Theodorus 
Polhemus. By the first he had issue Joris, b. 1706, and by 
the second, sons Rem, b. 1711, and Theodorus, b. 1716 ; of 
whom Joris, the eldest, d. at Haverstraw in 1741, leaving a 
son Tunis. Jacoh m. Maria Coerten, and d. in Brooklyn in 
1756, having ch. Rem, Stephen, John, Maria, wife of Abm. 


Montanye, Eve, and Anna. Stephen m, Catharine Ditmars, in 
1744, and d, at Brooklyn in 1757, leaving issue Abraham, 
Jacob, Bregie, and Aris. John Bemseyi, by his wife Elizabeth, 
had Eem, b. 1706 ; Derick, b. 1708 ; George, b. 1710 ; Aris, b. 
1712, and Anna and Elizabeth, b, 1715. He d, prior to 
1725. His son Aris d, in the town of Jamaica, having had 
sons John, Rem, and Aris. His brother George d. at Flatbush 
in 1759, leaving ch. John and Elizabeth. His brother Eem 
was a farmer at Hempstead, where he d. in the Revolution, 
leaving issue John, Anthony, and Mary, wife of John Burtis. 
Said Anthony, a merchant in Brooklyn, d. in 1794, leaving 
one ch. Aletta, then wife of Nich. Schenck, Jr. Derick Remsen, 
above named, a farmer at Flatlands, m. Catharine Lott, in 

1744, and left sons Johannes and Derick, the first of whom 
m. Cornelia Rapalje, and d. at the above place in 1826, a. 81. 
Derick m. Elizabeth Duryea, and was the father of John 
Remsen, Esq. living at Flatlands. 

4. Rem Remsen, son of Rem,^ was b. Mar. 7, 1685, and 
surviving his wife Dorothy, d. Mar. 5, 1752. His tombstone, 
with a Dutch inscription, remains in the ancient graveyard in 
Fulton St., Brooklyn. His ch. were Rem, b. 1706 ; Hendrick, 
b. 1708; Marritie, b. 1710; Aris, b. 1711; Johannes, b.l714; 
Catharine, b. 1716 ; Joris, b. 1717 ; Jacob, b. 1719 ; Antie, b. 
1721 ; Peter,5 b. 1722 ; Dorothy, b. 1724, and Sarah, b. 1726. 
All the sons except Aris, became residents of New- York city, 
and all were either bakers, bolters, or merchants. Joris m. in 

1745, Geertie De Hart, then widow Sanford, Be7n was a baker. 
He m. first a dau. of Jeromus Rapalje, and secondly, Catharine, 
dau. of John Berrien, Esq. He d. in 1743, and his widow in 
1786. His ch. were Dorothy, m. John Riker, George, (a ma- 
riner, who d. about 1760, leaving a son Peter,) and Jeromus, 
the only ch. by second marriage ; he d. single. Arts m. 
Jannetie, dau. of Jeromus Rapalje, and d. at Brooklyn, Apr. 
25, 1778. His ch. were Rem, Jeromus, and John, the first of 
whom m. Maria Schenck, and was a miller at Brooklyn, where 
he d. Feb. 27, 1780, a 37. His two brothers were merchants 
in New- York, some years later. Jeromus m. Phebe, dau. of 
Hendrick Remsen, and d. May 15, 1794, his only son, Henry 
I. being the father of Edward Remsen of New- York. Johannes 
was a baker, m. in 1737, Elizabeth Braisted, (then widow 


Waldron,) and d. in New-York, Aug. 28, 1743, leaving issue 
Johannes, d. single, Rebecca, and Rem, the latter b. in 17-i3. 
Jacob served several years as a trustee of Brooklyn, but enter- 
ing into mercantile business in New- York, there d. in 1784. 
His ch. were Rem, William, Dorothy, Jacob, Mary, Catharine^ 
John, Daniel, Ann, and Sarah. Hendrick JRemsen acquired 
wealth as a merchant in New- York, where he d. July 7, 1771, 
a. 63. By his wife Catalina, dau. of Joris Remseu, who sur- 
vived [him, and d. Oct. 18, 1784, a. 81, he had issue that 
reached maturity, George, d. without issue, Dorothy, d. unm., 
Hendrick, and Phebe, who m. Jeromus Remsen. Hendrick, 
last named, b. Apr. 5, 1736, m. Cornelia Dickenson, Dec. 28, 
1761, and was a merchant of eminence in New-York, and a 
leading whig at the opening of the Revolution. He d. Mar. 18, 
1792, and his widow, July 24, 1816, a. nearly 72. Of nine ch. 
who reached maturity, only one married, namely, Henry, who 
was b. Nov. 7, 1762, and d. Feb. 18, 1843. His wife was 
Catharine, dau. of Capt. De Peyster, and his ch. are Henry R. 
and William, lawyers ; Robert G., physician ; Catharine- Ann, 
who m. Frederick Schuchardt, and Elizabeth, the wife of Jos. 
Grafton, Jun. 

5. Peter Remsen, son of Rem,^ m. Dec. 28, 1744, Jane De 
Hart, and, having done business in New- York for many years, 
d. in 1771, a. 49. His ch. were Simon, Dorothy, m. Abra. 
Brinckerhoif, Rem, and Agnes. The tAvo latter d. unm. 
JSimon, h. Dec. 22, 1748, m. Alctta, only child of Daniel 
Rapalje, Esq. of Newtown, and occupied his father-in-law's 
estate, now the residence of his only surviving child, Aletta, 
the widow of James Strong. Mr. Remsen d. Sep. 4, 1823, 
Mrs. R. having d. Aug. 14, 1821, in her 68th yr. Their ch. 
were Peter, Jane, Eliza, m. John T. Lawrence, Daniel, Aletta, 
aforesaid, and Simon. The first two and .the last d. single. 
Daniel, b. Dec. 15, 1785, d. at Rome, in Italy, Feb. 14, 1822, 
and was the father of the late Simeon Henry Remsen. Peter, 
to whose memory a monument is erected at Newtown village, 
was b. Feb. 5, 1771, and d. Aug. 26, 1836. He spent more 
than forty years of his life in mercantile business in New- York, 
and was esteemed for his piety, intelligence, and decision of 
character. To his benevolence are the colored people of New- 
town indebted for their school-house on the Dutch lane. 


G. Abraham Eemsen, son of Rem Jansen/ settled at Hemp- 
stead Swamp, in Newtown, on the farm now of James Weeden. 
He m. Anna Aertsen, whom he survived fifteen years. He d. 
Dec. 13, 1752, a. nj^wards of 80. His ch. were Rem, Aert, 
Jeromus,'^ Abraham, and Bregie, who m. Abm. Ditmars.* 
Abraham was m. Sep. 25, 1734, and three days after fell from 
a chestnut tree, of which he died, Feb. 8, 1735, a. 21 yrs. Aert 
had by his wife Geesie, issue Abraham, b. 1719, Margaret and 
Anna, b. 1722. Rem was b. in 1694, m. Oct. 12, 1728, Mary 
Letten, and resided on the farm now of Willett M'Coun, till in 
or after the Revolution. His ch. were Abraham, b. Aug. 23, 
1730 ; Mary, b. May 4, 1732, m. Benj. Furman, and removed 
to Haverstraw ; Anna, b. May 28, 1734, m. Howard Furman ; 
Garret, b. Feb. 8, 1736 ; Aert, b. Nov. 30, 1737 ; Nicholas, b. 
Nov. 27, 1739; Bregie, b. Mar. 23, 1742, m. David Vandervoort, 

* The progenitor of the Ditmars fixmily in this country was Jan Jansen, 
from Ditmarsen, in the Dutchy of Holstein. He is sometimes denominated Jan 
Jansen platneus, that is Jlalnose. In 1647 he obtained a plantation at the 
Dutch Kills, (see p. 21,) now included, I believe, in the farm of the late John 
G. Van Alst. He d. before 1650, as his widow Neeltie Douwes, remarried 
early in that year. His only ch. whose names appear, were John, and Douwe 
or Dow. John settled at Flatbush, where he and his wife, Adriana, are 
named, in 1677, as old church members. They had several sons, one of 
whom, Dow, m. in 1688, Catharine Lott, and removed to Jamaica, where he 
d. "far advanced in years," in or just prior to 1755. His ch. were John, 
Peter, Dow, Abraham, and Adriana, who m. Wm. Van Duyn of Newtown. 
All of these, except Dow, predeceased their father, leaving heirs. Abraham 
m. June 18, 1725, Bregie, dau. of Abm. Remsen, and d. on his farm at Ja- 
maica, Aug. 7, 1743. His widow d. in her 43d yr. Aug. 31, 1750. Their ch. 
who survived infancy were Catharine, b. June 21, 1727, m. Stephen Remsen 
and Capt. Christopher Codwise; Anna, b. Jan. 12, 1733, m. Leffert Lefferts; 
Dow,b. Aug. 24, 1735, and Abraham, b. Dec. 9, 1738. Of these Dow m. 
Maria, dau. of John Johnson of Jamaica, and d. Aug. 25, 1775, leaving ch. 
Abraham, John D. of Jamaica, Bregie, now widow of Peter Rapelje, Maria, 
m, Jacob Rapelye, and Catalina, who m. John R. Ludlow, father of Hanmer 
Ludlow of Newtown, and Rev. Gabriel Ludlow. Abraham, son of Abm. 
was twice m. and d. on his fixrm in Jamaica, Nov. 19, 1824, a. 86. By his 
first wife, Elizabeth, dau. of John Johnson aforesaid, he had issue Abraham, 
b. Oct. 6, 1760 ; Catalina, b. Sep. 20, 1762, m. Sam'l Eldred ; John A., b. 
Apr. 9, 1766; and Dow, b. June 12, 1771, now Dr. Dow Ditmars, of Hell- 
gate, whose wife is Anna-Elvira, dau. of the late Samuel Riker, Esq. Their 
sons are Thomas T., Richard R., and Abraham D. Anna R., their only dau. 
is deceased. 


and Luke, b. Sep. 1, 1749. Of tliese, Nicholas d. iiiim. aLout 
the beginning of the Revolution, Daring this contest all the 
other brothers were in exile through their attachment to liber- 
tj. Aert and Luke, by trade wheelwrights, were employed 
in the continental shops at Pcekskill. Abraham was a major 
of militia. At the peace the four brothers returned, and all 
except Luke d. on the paternal farm. Aert, d. unm. Nov. 6, 
1819, a. 82. Abraham m. Mary Voorhees, of Eockland co., and 
d. Oct. 12, 1807, a. 77, having issue Abraham, Cornelius, Rem, 
Luke, and Amy, wife of Geo. W. Hunt. Garret m. Bregie, 
dau. of Jeromus Remsen, and secondly, Catharine Rcmsen, a 
second cousin. He d. Dec. 11, 1823, in his 88th yr. His ch. 
were Abraham, Arthur, Nicholas, Bregie, Mary, Hetty, Hannah, 
and Margaret. Capt. Luke Remsen m. in succession Abigail, 
dau. of Benj. North, Judith, dau. of Edward Titus, and Lydia 
Osborn of Fishkill. He owned the place on Hushing Creek, 
now of Ascan Backus, where he d. Apr. 20, 1839, in his 90th 
yr. His ch. wereAbraham, Margaret, Abigail, Peter, Cornelius, 
Mary, Elizabeth, and Henry. 

7. Jeromus Remsen, son of Abraham,*^ was b. 1705, and m. 
Dec. 12, 1729, Jane, dau. of Jeremias Remsen, of Brooklyn. 
In 1735 he bought the paternal farm, on which he lived till 
his death, Oct. 12, 1781, having served in responsible offices 
both in town and church. Mrs. R., d. Nov. 6, 1776. Capt. 
Remsen's ch. who reached maturity, were Abraham, b. Dec. 4, 
1730, d. unm. Sep. 12, '58 ; Jeremiah, b. Oct. 1, 1732 ; Jeromus, 
b. Nov. 22, 1735 ; Heyltie, b. June 7, 1737, d. Oct. 21, '6-4 ; 
Aert, b. Nov. 26, 1741, d. unm. Feb. 4, '75 ; Christopher, b. 
July 22, 1743 ; Anna, b. Oct. 27, 1745, m. Barent Johnson 
and Lambert Suydam ; Jane, b. Jan. 1, 1748, m. Garret Har- 
denbergh, and removed to Orange co., and Bregie, b. Sep. 13, 
1752, who m. her cousin, Garret Rcmsen. Christopher m. 
Margaret Hardenbergh, and left several ch. Jeremiah m. in 
1767, Nelly, dau. of Daniel Rapelje, and his only ch. that sur- 
vived infancy was Jane, who m. Geo. F. Hopkins, in 1811. 
Jeromus was a man of unusual abilities, and deserves an 
honorable notice in the history of his native town. He early 
evinced a military taste, did service in the French war, and 
stood conspicuous among the whigs of Newtown, at the 
opening of the Revolution. He was clerk of the county 


committee, and as colonel of militia was present at tlie battle 
of Lono- Island. He returned from exile at the peace, and d. 
June 7, 1790, in his 55th yr. Col. Eemsen m. Apr. 31, 1768, 
Ann, dau. of Cor. Eapelje, who d. in her 75th yr., Apr. 29, 
1816, and by whom he had seven sons, only three of whom 
survived infancy, to wit, Cornelius E., b. Feb. 25, 1769 ; 
Abraham, b. Oct. 15, 177-1, aad Jeromus, b. Apr. 15, 1781, 
who d. unm. Jan. 4, 1805. The first m. Catharine, clau. of Elbert 
Brinckerhoflf, and d. Oct. 15, 1846, having had issue Ann, m. 
Jas. E. Eapelye ; Jane-Catharine, wife of Daniel Lent ; Aletta, 
m. AVm. G. Kouwenhoven, and Abraham. Mrs. Lent is the 
only surviving child. Abraham, son of the colonel, m. Eliza- 
beth, dau. of Daniel Eapelye, and d. at Astoria, where he 
then resided, May 25, 1849, in his 75th yr. His only son is 
Daniel E. Eemsen. 

8. Jeremias Eemsen, son of Eem Jansen,^ was b. Sep. 10, 
1675, and by two purchases in 1694 and 1704, became the 
owner of the paternal farm at the Wallabout. " He m. Heyltie 
Probasco, Sep. 26, 1698, who dying Sep. 27, 1727, a. 50, he 
m. secondly, Jannetie Voorhees, who survived him, and d. 
Apr. 17, 1758, a. 76. Mr. Eemsen, d. July 8, 1757, in his 
82d yr. His ch. were Eem, b. Nov. 20, 1700 ; Ida, b. Jan. 8, 
1703, m. Nich. Williamson ; Christopher, b. Oct. 2, 1705 ; 
Jane, b. June 26, 1711, m. Jeromus Eemsen ; Jeremiah, b. 
July 18, 1714 ; Sarah, b. Dec. 11, 1716, m. Abm. Yoorhees ; 
Abraham,^ b. Jan. 15, 1720, and Lammetie, b. May 20, 1722, 
who m. Luke Schenck. Jeremiah m. Jane, dau. of Martin E. 
Schenck, and succeeded to the paternal farm, but dying 
without issue Sep. 4, 1777, a. 68, he left it to his relative, 
Barent Johnson, whose son. Gen. Jer. Johnson, now occupies 
it. Christopher spent part of his life in Newtown, where he 
owned property, but he finally returned to Brooklyn, was a 
merchant near the ferry, and d. about 1760. He had ch. 
Heyltie, who m. Johannes Schenck, and Phebe, who m. Wm. 
Howard. Rem was a respectable farmer at Bedford, on the 
estate now of his grandson, Eem Lefterts. He served as a 
trustee of Brooklyn from 1727 to 175'6. He had issue Jere- 
miah, Phebe, m. Barent Lefferts, and Heyltie, who m. Sam'l 
Yerbryck, of Eockland co. The said Jeremiah was acciden- 
tally shot at Canausee. His only son, Jeremiah, m. Mary, dau. 



of John Yoorliees, and d. at Bedford, Aug. 8, 1834, in his 73d 
yr., leaving issue John, (since dec., leaving a son John,) and 
Margaret, wife of Peter Wilhamsoi], of Flatbush, 

9. Abraham Eemsen, son of Jeremias,^ m. Mar, 28, 1746, 
Matilda, dau. of Wm. Van Duyn, Esq., and resided at the 
Wallabout, on the farm late of Jas. Scoles. His wife d. Aug. 
81, 1779, a. 53, and he, on Mar. 1, 1799, a. 79. His ch. were 
Heyltie, b. Apr. 25, 1747, m. Peter Wyckoff; William, b. 
Jan. 17, 1750 ; Adriana, b. Oct. 4, 1753, m. Jacob Boerum ; 
Jane and Catharine, twins, b. May 7, 1756, the first m. Wm. 
Sailor, the second John Hutchings ; Sarah, b. Jan. 20, 1759, 
m. successively Chas. Duryea, John Starkins, and John Lewis; 
Jeremiah, b. Mar. 13, 1761, and Abraham, b. Apr. 29, 1764. 
William has sons Jacob, William, and Jeremiah, living at 
Great Neck, L. I., and Daniel, in Flushing. Jeremiah was 
the father of Jane, wife of Tunis Johnson, of the Wallabout, 
and Ann, wife of Jacob Meserole, of Yates co., N. Y. Ah-a- 
ham was the father of Peter Y. and Abraham Ecmscn, of 


This family, whose remote 
origin is French, derive their 
name, originally called Be Duyn, 
and now commonly written Yan 
Dine, from their ancient freehold 
or estate, Duyn, in Burgundy. 
They early attained a rank 
among the titled families of 
France, and many of them en- 
gaged in the crusades to the 
Holy Land. The family spread 
in the course of time, and portions located in the region of the 
Rhine, and Holland, whence sprang the American family. 

1. Gerrit Cornelisz Yan Duyn, of Zwol, in the province of 
Overyssel, emigrated to America, and with his wife, Jacomina 


Jacobs, joined the Dutcli cliurch at New Utrecht, during Do. 
Yan Zuren's ministry, by certificate from the above place. If 
there is no mistake in figures (in N. Y. Doc. Hist, i, 660,) the 
emigration took place in 1649. Mr. Yan Duyn engaged in 
agriculture, was a deacon for several years, and d. in 1706. 
He left issue Cornelius,- Denys, Abraham, and Aeltie. Abra- 
ham m. in 1696, Geertie Martens, of the Wallabout, lived a 
while at Mespat Kills, but removed about the time of his 
father's death to Cecil co., Maryland. Denys m. in 1691, 
Maria Huyken, and settled at Earitan, N. J., but returned to 
Long Island, and d. in Flatbush, in 1729. His farm is that 
now occupied by Jacob Martence. He left sons William, 
Denys, Gerrit, Jacobus, and David. Of whom Gerrit suc- 
ceeded to the paternal farm in Flatbush, and William and 
Denys settled on adjacent farms at Earitan, Somerset co., N. J. 

3. Cornelius Yan Duyn, son of Gerrit,^ was b. July 16, 
1664, at New Utrecht, m. Jan. 29, 1691, Matilda, dau. of Wm. 
Huyken, and the next year removed to Gowanus, in Brook- 
lyn, of which town he was afterwards a trustee. His wife dying 
Mar. 1, 1709, in her 40th yr., he m. Christiana Gerbrands, June 
14, 1714. He d. in 1754, leaving, besides daughters, sons 
Gerrit, b. Sep. 6, 1691 ; William,^ b. Mar. 26, 1693, and Cor- 
nelius, b. Feb. 12, 1709, who d. in Brooklyn at an advanced 
age, without issue. Gerrit became a farmer at New Utrecht, 
where he d. just prior to, or during the Eevolution, By his wife, 
Aeltie, he had ch. Cornelius, John, Aletta, m. Anthony Hoist, 
and Matilda, who m. Wm. Bower. 

3. William Yan Duyn, son of Cornelius,- was b. at Brook- 
lyn, where he afterwards wrought as a wheelwright, but in 
1719 he removed to Newtown, having early in that year 
bought property at Hempstead Swamp, which he greatly 
enlarged by subsequent purchases. He m. Adriana, dau. of 
Dow Ditmars, whom he survived. He d. Feb. 20, 1769, a. 76, 
having served as a justice of the peace, and an office-bearer in 
the Dutch church. His ch. were Catharine, b. 1721, m. Jacob 
Eemsen ; Cornelius,^ b. 1724 ; Matilda, b. 1726, who m. Abm. 
Eemsen, and Dow, b. 1730. Boiv received the northern half 
of the paternal farm, (now the estate of David S. Mills,* dec.,) 

* While this work has been in press, this worthy citizen, whoi-e nnm© 
occurs several times in the preceding pages, has been called to pay the debt 


and was m. twice, first in 1754, to Scytic Yanderbilt, and in 
1777, to Ann, widow of Garret Springsteen. lie bore the 
character of an energetic, business man, but was remarkable 
for his humor. When the Revolutionary troubles began, he 
inclined to the whig cause, but iinally espoused that of the 
king, served as a captain of militia under the British, and at 
the peace retired with his family to Nova Scotia, where he 
died. (See p. 223.) Capt. Van Duyn left several daughters, 
besides sons Aert, Cornelius, and Dow, of whom the last two 
returned to New- York. Dow has sons Edward and Jacob, 
living. His brother, Cornelius, d. a few years since in the city 
of New- York, and his sons Dow, Henry, William, and Corne- 
lius, were smart and capable men, all masters of vessels, and 
all now dec. 

4. Cornelius Yan Duyn, son of William,^ m. Dec. 9, 1752, 
Anna, dau. of Dominicus Yanderveer. He d. Sep. 24:, 1760, 
a. 36, though his consort survived him about forty yrs. Their 
eh. were William, b. Nov. 30, 1755, d. without issue, Nov. 5, 
1797 ; Dominicus, b. Mar. 7, 1757 ; Adriana, b. May 8, 1759, 
and Jane, b. Mar. 3, 1761. Dominicus Van Dine inherited 
with his brother the southern half of their grandfather's estate, 
(now Garret Yan Dine's,) and m. May 26, 1781, Hannah, dau. 
of Howard Furman. She d. Oct. 31, 1800, in her 36th yr., and 
Mr. Yan Dine Apr. 26, 1830, a. 73. They had issue Cornelius, 
dec, Hannah, m. Geo. Snediker, Wilham, dec, Arthur, How- 
ard, dec, Ann, wife of Jas.^ Cortelyou, John, ^and Garret, 


Early in the history of New Netherland emigration, Peter 
Ccesar Albertus, a native of Yenice, in Italy, is found dwelling 
at New Amsterdam. Here he m. in 1642, Judith Jans Meynie, 
from Amsterdam, in Holland, and from this union sprang all 
the families among us bearing the names of Alburtis, or Burtis. 
Peter Albertus lived on the Heeren Gracht, now Broad-street, 
and also owned a tobacco plantation at the Wallabout, which 

of nature. He died July 22, 1851, in Iiia 65th year. So fills.up thejecord 
of mortality. 


he patented June 17, 1643. After his death it was sold to Jan 
Damen, in 1686. He had issue that reached maturity, John, b. 
1643; Aert, b. 1647; Mary, b. 1649, who m. John P. Bant; 
Wilham, b. 1652, and Francina, b. 1654, who m. John Allen, 
The three sons removed to Me spat Kills, though Aert or Arthur 
and William subsequently located in Hempstead, where their 
posterity remain. 

1 . John Alburtis, eldest son of Peter, m. Elizabeth, dau. of 
John Scudder, and accumulated a large estate at the English 
Kills, including the lands originally held by Samuel Toe, the 
purchaser. He d. in April, 1691, in his 48th yr., and in 1693, 
his widow m. Wm. Lawrence, Sen. of Middletown, N, J. He 
had issue William, John, Samuel, Elizabeth, who m. John 
Stewart, and Mehetabel, who m. Jas. Lawrence, son of William, 
aforesaid, and great-grandfather of Judge Jas. S. Lawrence of 
Monmouth co. IST, J, One of the sons of John Alburtis settled 
in Monmouth, and has highly respectable descendants living 
there. Samuel received a large share of his father's property, 
and occupied the premises now of Mr. John Peebles. He d. at 
an advanced age, Oct. 14, 1752, having had issu& Samuel,- 
Mary, who m. Sam'l Halburt ; Abigail, m. John Morrell ; 
Elizabeth, m. Jose Glosline, and Phebe, who m. John Morrell.* 

* Most of, if not the whole Morrell family of Newtown, are descended 
from Thomas Morrell, who located at Mespat Kills, as early as 1663, and d. 
in or about 1704, leaving sons Thomas, Samuel, Joseph, and Jonathan, 
whose descendants have been numerous in this town. As for John Morrell, 
who m. Phebe Alburtis, he was probably akin to the above, though tradition 
claims for him a distinct origin. He was b. Mar. 21, 1703, and after his mar- 
ria"-e erected a house and forge on a part of his father-in-law's estate, being 
the premises now occupied by his great-grandson, John W. Morrell. His 
death occurred, Oct. 31, 1768. His only son, John, b. Oct. 21, 1733, suc- 
ceeded to his estate, and m. Elizabeth, dau. of Abm. Skillman. He d. Feb. 
7, 1816. His sons who left issue, were John, b. July 20, 1757, who ra. 
Elizabeth, dau. of Isaac Meserole, and d. July 12, 1803 — issue John; Abraham, 
b. Dee. 25, 1759, m. Elizabeth, dau. of Jos. Gosline, and d. June 18, 1842 — 
issue Joseph G. of Brooklyn, Sarah, wife of Thos. Lane, and Maria, widow 
of Robert Voorhees; Thomas, b. June 10, 1762, m. Anna Vandewater, and d. 
AufT. 26, 1823 — issue John and Thomas of Williamsburgh ; and William, b. 
Mar. 4, 1772, who alone remained on the paternal farm, m. Catharine, dau. of 
Johannes Debevoise, and d. Nov. 20, 1846, his widow yet surviving. His son 
John W. has the ancestral farm, and dau. Adriana is the wife of Wm. Randel 
of Newtown. 


2. Samuel Alburtis, son of Samuel, and grandson of John/ 
succeeded to the paternal estate, and m. June 1, 1724, Eliza- 
beth, dau. of Paul Vandervoort, His wife d. in 1771, in her 
66th yr., but he survived till 1788. His ch. Avere Samuel, 
Paul, John,^ Peter, Elizabeth, who m. John Furman ; Anna, 
m. Eich. Gosline ; Nelly, m. Sam'l Scuddcr ; Mary, ra. John 
Pettit ; Phebe, m. Dr. Thos. Sackett ; Jemima, m. John Potts, 
and Abigail, who m. Eich. Pearce. Samuel, the eldest son, left 
a dau. Aletta, and an only son who removed south. Paul m. 
in 1754, Mary dau. of John MorrcU, and had issue Paul, John, 
who was blind and d. single, Elizabeth, who m. John Venis, 
and Phebe, who m. Eichard Betts. Paul, last named, had nine 
ch. He was drowned by the upsetting of a market boat in the 
East Eiver, Sep. 5, 1815, at the age of 60.* His son Samuel 
left issue Catharine and Paul. Peter Alburtis inherited the 
homestead, now Mr. Peebles' ; was a trustee of the Presbyte- 
rian church, and was much respected. He removed to Green- 
wich, Ct., and thence to New- York, where he d. Aug. 22, 1826, 
a. 78. He m. Catharine Van Nanda, and Martha Denton, and 
had, besides several daughters, sons Samuel, John, and James 
A. Burtus, the last of whom resides in New-York, 

3. John Alburtis, son of Samuel,- was b. Feb. 18, 1734, 
and m. May 18, 1755, Hannah, dau. of Sam'l Denton of Goshen, 
N. Y. He bought the premises near Newtown village, now 
the residence of John Penfold, (north side of the highway,) 
where he lived till his death, Oct. 6, 1780. For many years 
he was an elder of the Presb. church, and was a truly estima- 
ble man. His widow d. Aug. 5, 1783, in her 51st yr. Their 
ch. were Mary, b. Feb. 1, 1756, m. David Springsteen ; Eliza- 
beth, b. Sep. 20, 1758, m. Wm. Haviland ; Thomas, b. May 

* This accident, which carried sorrow to several families of tliis town, 
occurred as follows :— A vessel from the English Kills, commanded by Capt. 
Benj Edsall, and laden with produce and passengers, was approaching the city 
before daylight in the morning. In the darkness they ran across the cable of 
a brig lying at anchor in the stream, at Corlear's Hook, and were upset. 
CaptrEdsall, Mr. Kolyer, Mrs. Ellen Rnpelye, (wife of Daniel, mentioned on 
page 277,) and two colored men clung to the cable, and were taken on board 
the brig. The remaining passengers, five in number, were drowned, namely, 
Mr. Alburtis, his daughter Mrs. Gray, Mrs. Lane, and Misses Snedikcr and 
Wade ; the latter a young girl of twelve years. ISIrs. Rapelye was so much 
injured and exhausted that she died a few days after the accident. 



31, 1762 ; Sarali, b. May 18, 1764, m. Lawrence Eoe ; Nancy^ 
b. Apr. 11, 1766, m. Benjamin Fowler, and William, b. Jan. 
11, 1772. Thomas d. near Whitestone ; issue John and Matilda. 
William d. in New-York, Oct. 29, 1850, having been a repre- 
sentative in tlie state legislature. He bad issue wbo reached 
adult years, John, Ann, Maria, Christian, Thomas, Susan, 
Margaret, and William. The daughters all married, and are 
living in the eity of New- York, with the exception of Maria, 
who is dec. All of the sons d. unm. except John, now the 
Eev. John Alburtis of New- York city. He was b. June 18, 
1795, and was first settled and ordained in the above city, by 
the Presbytery of New- York, in the year 1819. He is now 
the editor of a highly scientific and useful work, devoted to 
agriculture and manufactures, called the Farmer and Mechanic, 
He has two sons, Edward K., and Clement W., the one a com- 
mission merchant and the other a lawyer in this city ; also two 
daughters, Louisa and Mary. 


1. William Howard, the progenitor of the Long Island 
family, came to this colony near the close of the seventeenth 
century. Bearing a cognomen distinguished in English his- 
tory, and which at the present time embraces nearly a dozen 
of the titled families of Great Britain, it would be interesting 
to know whether he was of common origin with the latter, 
who are said by genealogists to be descended from Anber, 
Earl of Passy, in Normandy, an attendant of William the 
Conquorer. As 3^et, however, our information of Mr. Howard, 
begins with his settlement at New Lots, upon the premises 
now occupied by his great-grand-son of the same name ; he 
having bought two draught-lots of Francis Way, Feb. 7, 1699. 
(See p. 149.) Mr. Howard lived to the extreme age of a cen- 
tury, and his remains, with those of his wife, Abigail, rest in 
the old burial place at New Lots. Their ch. were Joseph^**^ 



Edward," Abigail, m. Gabriel Furman,* and Hannab, -svbo m. 
John Thompson, of Amboy. 

2. Edward'Howard, son of William,^ was b. in 1698, and 
settled on the farm now of Jonathan Howard, near Newtown 
village. On Oct. Ij 1723, he m. Susannah, dau. of Nathan 
Fish, who dying Dec. 7, 1755, he m., Jan. 18, 1758, widow 
Abigail Coe, the mother of the late Judge Coc, of Newtown. 
She d. Dec. 7, 1761. Capt. Howard and his family were 
whigs during our Eevolution, and living to taste the blessings 
of freedom, he d. Oct. 18, 1792, a. 94. His ch. were Abigail, 
b. Dec. 27, 1724, m. Capt. Sam'l Fish; Judith, b. Mar. 22, 
1727, who m. Lawrence, and William,^' b. Aug. 14, 1730. 

3. William Howard, son of Edward,^ ra. Mary Cornell, 
(then the widow Jackson,) who dying without issue, he m. 
secondly Mary, dau. of Benj. Coe, and sister of Judge Coe, 
aforesaid. Mr. Howard d. May 28, 1792, in his 72d yr., but 
his widow survived till 1821. Their ch. who reached matu- 
rity, were Abigail,'^b. July 3, 1765, m. Rev. Zachariali Green; 
Edward;^b. Oct. 2, 1766, d. unm. May 14, 1815; Susannah'fb. 

* Gabriel Furman, from whom most of the Furmans of tliis town are 
descended, was the son of John and Margaret Furman ; the said John, whose 
death occurred in 1726, being the son of Josias Furman, who, with a brother 
John, came hither from Hempstead, L. I., during Gov. Stuyvcsant's lime. 
These are supposed to have been sons of John Furman, from Wales, who 
became a freeman in Mass., in 1631. The Welsh origin of the Newtown 
Furmans, is a matter of tradition. These two brothers acquired lands in the 
town, and John d. in 1677, a. 46, leaving a son Jonathan. Josias d. subse- 
quent to 1703, having sons John, Josias, Joseph, David, Samuel, and 


Gabriel Furman m. Miss Howard aforesaid, Aug. 19, 1713, and owned 
the farm at White Pot, now of his great-grand-son, Abm. Furman. He d. 
Sep "3 1768 His sons were William, John, Samuel, Howard, Nathan, 
Joseph, 'and Benjamin. William was the father of Robert, at one time 
supervisor of this town. John m. in 1746, Elizabeth, dau. of Sam'l Alburtis, 
and d Sep 22, 1773, leaving sons Gabriel, Samuel, William, James, Paul, 
Joseph, and John. Samuel located in northern N. York. His dau., Ann, m. 
Jud-^e David Lamberson. Howard Furman, b. 1719, m. in 1752, H.annah, 
dau^of Rem Romsen, and was a valued citizen, a soldier in the French war, 
and a staunch whig in the Revolution. He d. in 1813, a. 93 His sons were 
William, Abraham, John, and Aaron. The latter was the father of Grover 
C Furman. of N. York. John was the father of the late . Furman, 
Esq , of Bush Hill, L. I. William was the father of Howard, of N. \ork, 
the late Judge Garret, of Maspeth, and Abm. Furman, of White Pot. 


July SO, 1768; Benjamin, b. Mar. 15, 1772 ; Jonathan, b. Mar, 
12, 1776; William,^ b. Oct. 23, 1777, and Marj, b. Feb. 2, 
1780. William, an elder of the Presbyterian clinrch, m. May 
5, 1812, Mar}^, dan. of Judge Isaac Thompson, and resides at 
Brooklyn. Jonathan m. Dec. 10, 1818, Ehoda, dau. of Aaron 
Furman, and is still living at Newtown. Benjamin m. Apr. 
2, 1796, Clarissa, dau. of the Eev. Amzi Lewis, who dying 
Jan. 31, 1801, he m. May 3, 1802, Mary, dau. of Wm. Havi- 
land. Mr. Howard d. Sep. 14, 1833, and his widow, Jan. 10, 
1849, a. 68. His ch.' were William, b. Apr. 21, 1798 ; Clarissa, 
b. Jan. 26, 1801, wife of John Ledyard ; Deborah- Ann, b< 
Sep. 15, 1803 ; John H., b. June 17, 1805, residing at New- 
Orleans ; Edward S., b. May 23, 1807, of Brooklyn ; Samuel 
H., b. Feb. 28, 1810, of K Y. ; Benjamin C, b. Apr. 29, 1812, 
of New-Orleans ; Ceorge, b. July 2, 1814 ; Jonathan, b. July 
17, 1816 ; Cornelia B., b. Apr. 3, 1819, m. Loring Watson ; 
Mary, b. Sep. 13, 1821, and Boardman, b. Jan. 26, 1823, who 
d. unm."^" 

* The Goes of Long Island, Rockland county, and also a considerable 
fomily in New England, are descended from Robert Coe, who, with his wife 
and children, came from England, in 1634, taking ship at Ipswich, in Suffolk 
CO., in which county the Goes had long been located. He lived at various 
places in New England, and after making his home at Newtown for several 
years, and aiding materially in the first settlement of this town, he took up 
his final residence at Jamaica. In each place he sustained a commanding 
influence. From 1669 to 1672, he was high sheriff, being at the latter date 
76 yrs. of age. His ch. were John, Robert, and Benjamin, the last of whom, 
b. 1629, m. Abigail, dau. of John Garman, and has descendants in New 
Jersey. Robert d, at Stratford, Ct., in 1659, a. 32, leaving a son John, from 
whom a highly worthy posterity has sprung. Capt. John Coe, son of Robert 
1st, was b. in 1626, and enjoyed much celebrity at Newtown, as shown in 
former pages. He was the first owner of the mill on Flushing Greek, now 
Rapalje's. He had sons Robert, John, Jonathan, Samuel, and David ; of 
whom David and John d. without issue, the latter having been a judge of 
Queen's co. Samuel, an elder of the Presb. church, and a trustee of the 
town, m. in 1712, Margaret, dau. of John Van Zandt, and removed in 1734, 
to New Hempstead, now Ramapo, Rockland co., where he d. in 1742, a. 70- 
A full account of his posterity has been written. His ch. were Samuel, 
John, Benjamin, William, Isaac, Matthew, Daniel, Margaret, m. Benj. Skill- 
man, Sarah, m. Moore Woodward, and Abigail. All the sons, except Benj. 
and Isaac, left issue. John was the father of the late Rev. Dr. Jonas Goe, 
of Troy. RoherL Coe, entitled captain, d. in 1734, a. 75. His sons were, 1st, 
John, b. 1702, d, 1748, having sons John, Samuel, Benjamin, and William; 


-I. Joseph Iloward, son of William,^ remained on the pater- 
nal farm at New Lots, where he d. in 1777, a. Stt. His ch. were 
William, and Mary who m. Cor. Sebring. WiLLrA:M m. Phcbc, 
dau. of Christopher Eemsen. At the Kevolution, being a whig, 
he was taken prisoner on the morning of the battle of Long 
Island, and was made to pilot the British troops who passed 
over his premises on their way to attack the Americans, lie 
and his aged father were kept in durance till after the battle, 
and then released. He d. in Feb., 1777, a. 52. His ch. were 
Hetty, Avho nf. William Stanley, of Phila., Margaret m. Jona- 
than Holmes, Joseph, Phebe, m. Thos. Fiirman, William, and 
Christopher, who d. unm. Stanley and Holmes were American 
lieutenants who became acquainted at Mr. Howard's, Avliilc 
there as prisoners on parole. Joseph m, Jane, dau. of Koclof 
Duryea, and had issue William, Eulof, Joseph, Whitehead, 
Eiehard, and Jane, who m. John E. Scliermcrhorn. William 
was b. Jan. 1, 1762, and still lives on the ancestral farm at 
New Lots. He m, in succession Mary, and Jane, daughters of 
Garret Williamson, and had issue by the first, Catharine, m. to 
Philip Eeid, William, and Garret, and by the second wife, 
Christopher and Joseph, both of whom d. single. 

2d, Robert, b. 1707, d. 1777, having- sons Robert, John, Elnatiian, and James ; 
and 3d, Samuel, b. 1712, who probably d. at Oblong Salem, Westchester co., 
1768, leaving issue John, and others. Jonathan Coe d. in or shortly prior 
to 1750. for advanced in years. His son Benjamin m. Feb. 9, 1733, Abigail, 
dau. of Nath'l Woodward, and d. Apr. 12, 1743, having sons Jonathan, and 
Benjamin, the former a patriot of the Revolution, who d. in imprisonment at 
Flatbush. Benjamin, b. 1741, m. Phebe, dau. of Rev. Simon Horton, and 
secondly Elizabeth, dau. of Philip Edsall, Esq. His participation in the 
early Revolutionary movements on Long Island, has been previously noticed. 
Without education, but possessed of excellent natural abilities, Mr. Coe arose 
to political eminence, enjoyed the office of jutlge, and a seat in the state 
senate. He was, withal, a man of piety, and mighty in the scriptures. At 
the age of twenty-five he became a member, and soon after an elder of the 
Presb. church at Newtown, of which he continued through life a chief and 
most zealous supporter. He d. in his 80th yr., Mar. 9, 1821. His ch. by 
his first wife, were Abigail, ra. Hon. Jas. Burt, of Warwick, N. Y., and 
Grover ; and by his second, Samuel, d. young, Phebe, m. Aaron Furman, 
Elizabeth, m. Thomas Betts, Mary, Benjamin, Sarah, d. unm., Frances, and 
Susan. Grover, b. July 2, 1764, became a merchant at Springfield, N. J., 
and m. Mary, dau. of Rev. Jacob Van Arsdale. Benjamin, b. June 11, 1784. 
m. Catharine, dau. of Joiin Nostrand, and d. Aug. 17, 1S17, having ch. 
Benjamin, and Cornelia, wife of Abm, Meserole. 




The Halletts, now mostly re- 
moved, from this town, formerly 
composed here a very large and 
prominent family, and their his- 
tory is closely ii^erwoveu with 
Newtown annals, 

1. "William Hallett, their an- 
cestor, was b. in Dorsetshire, 
Bng., in 1616, and emigrating 
to New-England, joined in the 
settlement of Greenwich, Ct., 
whence he removed to Long 
Island, and acquired a large estate at Hellgate. (See pp. 29, 63,) 
In the fall of 1655 the Indians destroyed his house and plan- 
tation at Hallett's Cove, which induced him to take up his res- 
idence at Flushing. Here he was appointed sheriff in 1656, 
but the same year was deposed by Stuyvesant, fined and im- 
prisoned, for entertaining the Rev. Wm. Wickenden from 
Rhode Island, allowing him to preach at his house and receiv- 
ing the sacrament of the Lord's Supper from his hands. Dis- 
gusted at this treatment, Mr. Hallett, on the revolt of Long 
Island from the Dutch, warmly advocated the claims of Con- 
necticut ; and, being sent as a delegate to the general court of 
that colony, he was appointed a commissioner or justice of the 
peace for Flushing. Afterwards he again located at Hellgate, 
where he lived to the age of about 90 yrs. He had two sons, 
William- and Samuel,'' between whom, in 1688, he divided his 
property in Hellgate Neck. 

2. William Hallett,'^eldest son of William, ^ received that 
portion of his father's lands which lay south of the road now . 
forming Greenoak, TVelling, and Main streets, and Newtown 
avenue ; which road divided his possessions from those of his 
brother Samuel on the north. He m, Sarah, jdau, of Geo. 
Woolsey of Jamaica, served as a justice of the peace, and was 
captain of one of the foot companies. He d. Aug. 18, 1729, in 
his 82d yr. His ch. were William, b. Dec. 10, 1670 ; Sarah, 


b. Mar. 19, 1678, m. Rev. Geo. riiillips of Brookhaven ; Rebecca, 
b. Aug. 31, 1075, ra. Jas. Jackson; Joseph,-' b. Mar. 4, 1678; 
Moses, b. Jan. 19, 1681 ; George, b. Apr. 5, 1683 ; Charity, b. 
Mar. 16, 1685, m. Sam'l Moore; Mary, b. Oct. 22, 1687, m. 
Jacob Blackwell ; Elizabeth, b. Apr. 12, 1689, m. John Fish, 
and Richard,^ b. Nov. 17, 1691. ^ William^ b. at Jamaica, was, 
with his wife Ruth, whom he m. Feb. 1, 1693, and five chil- 
dren, cruelly murdered on Jan. 24, 1708, as related on p. 142. 
Moses m. a daughter of Sam'l Fitch, and d. in 1708. His post- 
humous son William-Moses, b. Nov. 30, 1708, inherited his 
farm, being the same, I believe, on which his uncle AVilliam 
had lived, now the Marks estate. He d. Nov. 15, 1759. 
George m. Priscilla Allen, May 16, 1718, and resided in New- 
York, -where he owned property. 

3. Joseph Hallett, son of William,2 m. Dec. 23, 1702,Lydia, 
dau. of Robert Blackwell, and secondly, on Aug. 22, 1728, 
Mary, widow of John Greenoak. He was a respected magis- 
trate, and d. Nov. 23, 1750, in his 73d yr. His sons were 
Joseph, Moses, Thomas,^ Robert, Jacob, Samuel, Richard^ 
William, and Nathaniel, who d. unm. William was a farmer ; 
his dau. Phebe, b. Mar. 5, 1763, m. Sam'l Hallett. Bichard 
resided on the place now of S. Drury. His dau. Sarah, b. Apr. 
23, 1762, m. Edward Greenoak. Jacob m. Mercy, dau. of Capt, 
Dan'l Betts, and became a freeman of New- York in 1745, 
where he kept an inn on the Bowery lane. Moses m. ]Mary, 
dau. of Jacob Blackwell, and d. Dec. 29, 1731, a. 25, leaving an 
only son, Moses. Samuel m. Jan. 1, 1751, Jemima, dau. of 
Daniel Betts, and secondly, on Dec. 19, 1761, Avidow Elizabeth 
Wilson, dau. of John Lamb, and sister of Gen. John Lamb. 
He w^as a distinguished' loyalist, held a captaincy in Delancey's 
brigade, and removed to St. John, N. B., in 1783, where he d. 
about fifteen years after. His ch. were Joseph, of Greenbush, 
N. Y. ; Daniel and Samuel, of New Brunswick ; Susan, m. 
Isaac Bragaw ; Jemima m. David Moore ; Elizabeth, m. James 
Moore; Lydia, m. Capt. Wm. Dawson; Jane, m. Wm. Whit- 
lock ; Sarah, m. Timothy Roach, and Catharine, who m. Sinnott, 
of St. John. Robert m. Phebe Hallett, Lydia Pidgeon, and 
Ruth Leverich. In 1738 he bought the farm on the Ridge, 
since owned by his son-in-law, Edmund Pcnfold, where he d. 
in 1792, having had issue James, Sarah, m. Edra. Penfold, 


Lydia, m. Jolin Greeiioak, and Martlia, wIlo m. Sam'l Haire. 
James m. Mary, dau. of Jacob Hallett, became a major in tlie 
Britisli service, and removed to Nova Scotia, His only ch. 
Susan, d. at Halle tt's Cove, unm. Josej^li^ b. Aug. 14, 1704, d. 
Dec. 14, 1731, and liad two cb. namely, Joseph, and Lydia 
who m. Col. Jacob Blackwell. Joseph was b. Jan. 26, 1731, 
and became an eminent merchant in New- York, where he d. 
much regretted, Aug. 9, 1799. By his wife, Elizabeth, dau. of 
JSTath'l Hazard, whom he m. Dec. 11, 1761, he had issue Eliza- 
beth, who m. Eobert Gault ; Lydia, m. Frederick Herlitz ; 
Ann, m. John Delafield, Catharine, m. Wm, Payne ; Sarah, d, 
single, and Maria, who m. Hon. Beuj. Tallmadge. 

4. Thomas Hallett, son of Joseph,^.^Avas b. May 10, 1714, 
and m. Anna, dau. of Benj. Moore. On Jan. 6, 1752, he was 
commissioned as lieutenant in" Capt. Jacob Blackwell's com- 
pany of militia. He finally removed to Flushing where he d. 
Aug. 12, 1779. His ch.were Lydia, b. Jan. 7, 1738, m. Jos. 
Burroughs; Joseph, b. Feb. 28, 1740; Benjamin, b. Aug. 18, 
1743; Thomas, b. Dec. 18, 1745; Mar}^, b. Mar. 6, 1751; 
Hannah, b. July 30, 1754, m. Wm. AYaters, and John, b. Apr. 
2, 1757. Joseph removed to St. Croix. (See p. 172.) John had 
an only dau. Mary, who m. Nathan Beers, of Fairfield, Ct. 
Thomas m. May 10, 1772, Elizabeth Willett, and d. Sep. 19, 
1798. His ch. were Elizabeth W., m. Willett Leaycraft ; John- 
Willett ; Anna M., m. John Briggs; Lydia, m. Dan'l Hegeman ; 
Patience M., m. Jos. Briggs ; Nancy F. ; and Sarah, who m. 
Wm. Tuthill. 

5. Eichard Hallett, son of William,^ bought, in 1717, the 
farm of John Denman, dec, at English Kills, (see p. 140,) and 
on Nov. 14, of the same year, m. Amy, dau. of John Bowne of 
Flushing, the eminent Quaker. Hallett embraced the principles 
of the Friends, which his descendants yet profess. He sur- 
vived his second wife, Ann Miller, and d. May 19, 1769, in his 
78th yr. His ch. except two that d. early, were Eichard, b. 
Dec. 31, 1721 ; Sarah, b. Aug. 5, 1723, m. Wm. Webster ; < 
Amy, b. May 5, 1727, m. Shotwell ; Thomas, b. Mar. 24, 
1740 ; Lydia, b. Sep. 12, 1741, m. Abm. Shotwell, and Israel, 
b. Nov. 5, 1742. Richard m. Mary, dau. of Samuel Way, and 
was killed by the fall of a limb, May 13, 1757. His ch. were 
Jane, b. Aug. 21, 1752, m. Anthony Betts, and Jonah, b. Oct. 


31, 1754:, who settled at Whitcstone, was a member of assem- 
bly, and d. Oct. 2, 1811. Thomas m. Phebe, dau. of Abm. 
Shotwell, and dying Aug. 22, 1780, was the father of the late 
worthy Gideon Hallett,^b. Dec. 8, 1773, whose son Thomas 
now resides at Maspeth. Israel m. Naomi, dau. of Abm. Shot- 
well, and d. Oct.'^l, 1776, having had issue Richard, Abraham, 
Jeremiah, and James. These have highly respectable descen- 
dants in New- York city. 

G. Samuel Hallctt, son of William,^ was, in his time, a per- 
son of consideration. He d. Dec. 27, 1724, a 73, having, a few 
days before his death, conveyed his entire estate to his only 
son, Samuel.L He was interred on his own premises (the bury- 
ing-ground beside the Methodist church, Astoria,) where his 
grave, and those of many of his descendants,' may still be seen. 
The family of his brother William set apart a burial-place 
upon their own land, which still remains on the Stevens pro- 
perty; and here, as tradition says, the family murdered in 
1708, lie buried in one grave. Samuel Hallett had daughters 
Hannah, m. John Washburn ; Elizabeth, m. Col. John Jackson ; 
Grace, m. Lewis Hewlett ; Mercy, m. Cornell, and Martha, who 
m. Jas. Hazard, Esq. 

7, Samuel Hallett, son of Samuel,*^ tield the post of major 
in the militia of Queens. He m. Bridget, dau. of Robert 
Blackwell, and d. Mar. 7, 1756, a. 78. He had issue Samuel, 
John, James, Jacob, IMary, m. Pettit ; Sarah, m. Cor. Berrien ; 
Elizabeth, m. Wm. Lawrence and John McDonough ; Bridget, 
m. Jos. Wright ; Lydia, m. Josiah Milliken ; Martha, m. Wel- 
ling; Phebe, m. Robert Hallett, and Jemima, who m. John 
Greenoak. Samuel d. Apr. 7, 1750, and his only son who 
reached maturity, was Samuel, b. June 7, 1726, to whom, in 
1752, his grandfather Hallctt conveyed a farm of 130 acres, 
near Hallett's Cove. John m. in .1730, Sarah, dau. of Jacob 
Blackwell, and d. at the Cove, Dec. 3, 1759, leaving ch. John, 
Samuel, Jacob, Mary, Sarah, Frances, and Lydia. James m. 
Lydia, dau. of Jacob Blackwell, had sons James and Stei^hen, 
and d. in 1781 upon his farm near Hallett's Cove, now occu- 
pied by the children, of his son Stephen, who d, Nov. 22, 1822, 
a. 73. His other son, James, was an intelhgent man, and 
acquired a handsome property at coachmaking, in New-York, 
where he d. Jan. 19, 1805, a. 63, leaving heirs. Jacob HalkU 


m. Apr. 22, 1744, Susannah, dan. of Capt. Daniel Betts. He 
was a farmer at the Cove, and survived the Eevolution ; his 
stone farm-house occupied the site of H. F. Blackwell's store. 
His ch. were Mary, who m. James Hallett ; Phebe, m. Edmund 
Penfold, and Samuel. The latter, b. Mar. 16, 1761, m. in 1782, 
Phebe, dau. of Wm. Hallett. He d. Sep. 1, 1817, having had 
nine ch. most of whom d. without issue. William, b. Sep. 9, 
1795, left a family ; James, b. Feb. 18, 1798, is a respected res- 
ident of Astoria; and John P., b. Sep. 10, 1800, and Edmund 
P., b. Feb. 29, 1804, both live in New- York. 




Carel de Beauvois, whose autograph is here represented, 
was a highly respectable and well-educated French protestant, 
who came from Ley den, in Holland. He was of a family 
whose name and origin were probably derived from the ancient 
city of Beauvais, on the river Therin, to the northwest of Paris ; 
but there is reason to suppose that he himself was a native of 
Leyden. He arrived at New Amsterdam in the ship Otter, 
Feb. 17, 1659, accompanied by his wife, Sophia Yan Loden- 
steyn, and three ch. born to them in Leyden, and now aged 
eight, six, and three years, respectively. His literary merits 
and acquaintance with the Dutch language soon acquired for 
him the situation of a teacher, but in 1661 he became " choris- 
ter, reader, and schoolmaster " for the people of Brooklyn, at 
a salary of 25 guilders and free house rent. He afterwards 
served as public se'^retary or town clerk, which office he held 


till 1669. His cli. were Jacobus,^ Gertrude, who m, Jacob W. 
Vail Boerum ; Catharine, m. Jacob llcndrickse Haste ; and 
Cornelia, who m. Gerrit G. Borland. 

1. Jacobus Dcbevoise, only son of Carel, was b. at Leydcn. 
In early manhood he embraced religion and joined the church 
at Brooklyn, of which he was afterwards a deacon. He m. June 
12, 1678, Maria, dau. of Joost Carelsz, and d, in the early part 
of the next century, his widow surviving him. They had 
sons Carel,- b. 1680 ; Joost, b. 1683 ; Jacobus, b.' 1686, and 
Johannes, b. 1689. Jacobus m. in 1715 Sarah, dau. of Joris 
Remscn, and d. on his farm at Bedford, a. about four-score. 
His ch. were Jacobus, (who d. in 1751, and whose only dau. 
Engeltie m. Isaac Degraw of Brooklyn,) and George, who was 
b. in 1720, m. Sarah Betts, Oct. 18, 1746, and inherited all his 
father's estate at Bedford. Joost m. in 1707, Mary, dau. of Joris 
Remsen, remained a farmer in Brooklyn, and d. a few years 
before the Revolution, in advanced age. He had issue Jacobus, 
Phebe, who m. John Johnson ; Mary, who also married ; Anna, 
m. Johannes W. Wyckoff ;* Elizabeth, m, Peter Cowenhoven, 
and Sophia, who m. Albert Nostrand. Jacobus inherited his 
father's farm at the Wallabout, m. in 1736 Maria Garretson, 

* Johannes Williamson Wtckoff was the son of Peter, and grandson 
of Willetn Willemse of Gravesend, who emigrated in 1657, and m. Maria, 
dau. of Pieter Chiesz Wyckoff. The former was therefore not a Wyckoff by 
male descent, but assumed that name at the instance of his great-uncle, 
Hendrick Wyckoff, who d. without issue, in 1744, leaving him liis estate. 
Johannes d. at Flathinds in 1761. His ch. were Henry, George, Peter, John, 
Maria, who m. John Emans and Nich. Van Brunt; and Joanna, who m. Wm. 
Kouvv'enhoven. Henry., of Gravesend, m. Sarah Emans, and had issue Andrew, 
Henry, Rem, (all three dec, the latter leaving issue Henry, and Gertrude 
wife of Peter Stryker,) John, of Gravesend, and Phebe, who m. Andrew 
Suydam. George, of Flatlands, m. Sarah Luyster ; issue Jolm, Ann, wife of 
Luke Kouwenhoven, Sarah, widow of Thos. Burroughs, and Rensie, wife of 
Dan'l Rapalje, the last three of Newtown. John had sons George and^ John. 
Peter, of Gowanus, m. Lammetie Lott; issue Nelly, who m. David Kelsey, 
Joanna, m. Jolin Bergen, Peter, John; Jane, m. Garret Bergen of Gowanus, 
(parents of Tunis G. Bergen, Esq.) and Maria, who m. Peter Duryeu of N. 
Utrecht. Mm, of Jamaica, m. Margaret Terhune ; issue John, Joanna, who 
m John Ditmars, Maria, wife of Wm. Van Dine, George, Margaret, m. 
John Sutphen, Catharine, m. Wm. Bennet, Jacob-Van-Dyck of New.\ork, 
Terhune, Phebe, m. Abm. Van Sicklen, Henry, dec, Albert, and Abraham 
of Gravesend. 


and d. prior to the American war. His ch. were George, 
Samuel, who d. without issue, Ida, m. Ferdinand Sujdara, 
and Marj who m. Grarr^t Van Duyn. George last named, m. 
Elizabeth, dau. of Jeremiah Yanderbilt, and d. at the Walla- 
bout in or prior to 1784 : issue Maria, who m. Capt. Jackson ; 
Catharine, m. John Yan Alst ; Phebe, m. Jacob Ejerson ; 
Sarah, m. Jeromus Eyerson and John Cozine, and Ida, who 
m. in succession two persons of the same name, Francis Titus. 

3. Carel Debevoise, son of Jacobus,^ m. Margaret Meserole, 
and became a notary public in Brooklyn, fully sustaining the 
prominence in civil and church relations, which the family 
enjoj^ed for a long period in the above town. From 1752 to 
'61 he was county judge. He lived on the premises now of his 
great-grand-daughter, Mrs. Prince. His sons were Jan,"* Jacobus, 
Carel,^ and Johannes. Jacobus was b. in 1709, and resided at 
Gowanus, where he d. in 1766. His first wife was Maria Yan 
Housen, whom he m. in 1736 ; his second was Mary Stillwell, 
who survived him. He had issue Charles, Eichard, Margaret 
who m. Charles Doughty, of Brooklyn, afterwards member of 
assembly, Ida, m. John Godfrey Muller, of N. Y., Adriana, 
and Mary. Of these Charles remained at Gowanus, and had 
issue James, Wynant, and others. Johannes was town clerk 
of Brooklyn, and a somewhat important citizen. He m. June 
15, 1749, Hannah, dau. of Thomas Betts, of Flatbush, and d. 
ISTov. 19, 1792, having had issue Thomas, Charles, Margaret, 
and Hannah, all of whom d. single, but Margaret, who m. Dr. 
John Duffield, a surgeon in the Am. Eevolutionary army. 
They were the parents of Susan Duffield, who m. Capt. Chas. 
K. Lawrence ; Anna, who m. Capt. Christopher Prince, and 
Margaret; who m. first Capt. Archibald Thompson; and sec- 
ondly Sam'l A. Willoughby, Esq., of Brooklyn. 

3. Carel Debevoise, son of Carel,^ m. Oct. 9, 1736, Eve, 
dau. of Coert Yan Yoorhees, of Gravesend, and became a 
farmer in Bushwick, on the property now of Chas. I. Debe- 
voise, Esq. He d. in 1757, and his widow in 1793, a. 74. 
His ch. were Margaret, b. May 9, 1738, who m. Peter Colyer ; 
Nelly, b. Mar. 16, 1740, m. Carel Debevoise ; Carel, b. Feb. 5, 
1742; Maria, b. Mar. 21, 1744, m. John Devoe ; Anna, b. 
June 26, 1746, m. Dr. Andrew Yan Allen and Joris Debevoise ; 
Coert, b. Oct. 28, 1748 ; John, b. Apr. 14, 1751 ; Catharine, 


b. Mar. 22, 1753, m. John Buskirk ; Jacobus, b. Jan. 31, 1755, 
and Isaac, b. July 10, 1757. Card m. Maria Van Houten, and 
had sons, who are now dec. Coert m. Elizabeth Sloat. Jacobus 
m. Aletta, dau. of John Rapalje, and was the father of John 
and Charles Debevoise, liviDg at the English Kills. Isaac m. 
Jane, dau. of Joris Debevoise, and Magdalena, dau. of Tunis 
Schenk, and was father of George, of the English Kills, and 
Charles I. Debevoise, aforesaid, supervisor of Bushwick, the 
latter by the second marriage. John m. Jane, dau. of Moses 
Beegel by his intermarriage with Jane, dau. of Frcd'k Van 
Nanda, (see p. 171,) and located at Fresh Ponds, in Newtown, 
where he d. Mar. 15, 1829, and his widow Aug. 28, 1847, a. 
90. They had issue Jane, b. Nov. 8, 1776, who m. Jas. Titus 
and Daniel Lake; Eve, b. Oct. 7, 1779, d. unm. ; Sarah, b. 
June 4, 1781, now widow of Charles G. Debevoise ; Moses, b. 
July 2, 1783, m. Maria, dau. of Peter Duryea, and d. Dec. 12, 
1831, leaving ch. Peter, John, Sarah-Ann, and Charles ; Charles 
I., b. Feb. 21, 1785, ra. Maria, dau, of Johannes Covert, and 
d. Aug. 26, 1831, having issue John, Rebecca- Ann, Covert, 
and Cornelius ; Ann, b. Apr. 26, 1793, m. Chas. Debevoise, 
Cripplebush ; and John, b. Mar, 3, 1798, who m. Cornelia M., 
dau. of Cor. Van Cott, and resides at Fresh Ponds, having 
formerly served the town as supervisor. 

4. Jan Debevoise, son of Carel,- was b. in 1704 at Brooklyn, 
and m. Jane, dau. of Lieut. Joris Ra^Dclje, of Newtown, in 
which town Mr. Debevoise located, being the first of his 
family who came to this township, and the ancestor of most 
of the name since resident here. His farm was that lately 
occupied by George Pine. Having been esteemed as a good 
man, and useful as an elder of the Dutch church, he d. Apr. 26, 
1777, a. 73. His widow d. Aug. 25, 1781, a. 74. Their ch. were 
Carel, Joris,-'' Jacobus, Daniel, Johannes,*^ and Cornelius. Daniel 
d. unm. in his 82d yr., Feb. 14, 1819. Cornelius d. unm. Oct. 

8, 1773, a. 27. Carel m, his cousin Nelly, dau. of Carel Debe- 
voise, was a worthy deacon of the Dutch church, and d. June 

9, 1792, a. 64. His widow d. Mar. 23, 1806, a. QQ. They had 
issue Jane, who m. Isaac Eapelye, Eve, m. Francis Duryea, 
and Agnes, who m. Folkert Eapelye. Jacobus m. Maria, dau, 
of Ab'm Cook, and settled at Cripplebush. He d. Oct. 5, 1813, 
in his 80th yr,, having had issue John, b. Mar. 10, 1759, m. 


Elizabeth, dau. of Chas. Titus, and was the father of Chas. 
Debevoise now living at Cripplebush, and his brothers James, 
Francis, and John ; Abraham, b. Sep. 8, 1763, m. Jane, dau. 
of Garret Komvenhoven, and had sons Garret, and James ; 
Charles, b. Oct. 14, 1765, who m. Leah, dau. of John Titus; 
Gabriel, b. Jan. 19, 1775, m. Marj, only ch. of Coert Debe- 
voise, and lives in Bushwick; and Jane, b. Mar. 16, 1777, 
who m. Harmanus Stockholm. 

5, Joris Debevoise, son of Jan.* served prior to the Eevo- 
lution as a deacon of the Newtown Dutch church. He d. in 
his 72d yr. July 9, 1802, having been thrice married ; first to 
Ann, dau. of Ab'm Rapelje, who d. childless, secondly to 
Nelly Schenck, of Cow Neck, and thirdly to Anna, dau. of 
Carel Debevoise, and widow of Dr. Van Allen. By the last 
he had issue Charles G., and by the second, John, Susannah, 
who m. Ab'm Duryea, and Jane, who m. Isaac Debevoise, of 
Bushwick. John m. Eve, dau. of Andrew Yan Allen, and d. 
in his 56th yr., Nov. 25, 1822, having had issue George, living 
in Flushing township, Andrew and John, who occupy portions 
of the paternal farm at Dutch Kills, Ann, who m. John 
Oakley, and Ellen, wife of John I. Van Alst. Charles G. m. 
Sarah, dau. of John Debevoise, and d. in his 52d yr.. Mar. 22, 
1836, his sons John and George now possessing his farm at 
the Dutch Kills. 

6. Johannes Debevoise, son of Jan,* was b. Feb. 28, 1742, 
and lived at Fresh Ponds. He m. Sarah, dau. of Abm, 
Eapelje, who dying Nov. 3, 1766, he m. secondly Adriana, 
dau. of Jacob Eemsen. She d. on Feb. 19, and he on Feb. 20, 
1812, and both were interred together. His ch. were John, b. 
June 13, 1766, Avho m., but d. without issue Apr. 2, 1818 ; 
Jacob, b. Aug. 11, 1771, d. Feb. 15, '86 ; Sarah, b. Feb. 4, 
1773, d. Aug. 8, '75 ; Jane, b. Aug. 26, 1776, m. Theodoras 
Kolyer; Charles and Catharine, twins, b. Mar. 22, 1778, the 
former d. single May 9. 1819, the latter m. William Morrell ; 
Sarah, b. Aug. 16, 1780, now widow of John Burroughs; 
Isaac, b. Jan.' 14, 1783, now of Fresh Ponds ; Adriana, b. July 
27, 1785, wife of Cor. N. Ditmas ; Nelly, b. Oct. 15, 1787, d. 
unm. ; Anna, b. Nov. 2, 1789, who was the first wife of C. N. 
Ditmas ; and Jacob, b, Sep. 26, 1792, who m. Catalina, dau. 
of John Ditmars, and resides at Newtown. 



A. — Mespat Patent, in Latin. 

B. — Presbyterian Church Members. 

C— Dutch Church Contributors, 1731. 

D.— Dutch Church Pew-holders, 1736. 

E. — Communicants, Nov. 1, 1741. 

F. — ^List of Town Officers. 

G.— Freeholders, Dec. 4, 1666. 



[Book of Patents G. G., p. 49.] 

Nos Guillihelmus Kieft Director Generalis, Senatusq« Novi Bel- 
gii, pro Prajpotentiss. Dominis Dus Ordinibus Gen. Provinciarum 
Foederat. Belgic. Altissimoq'^ Principe Auraico, nee non Nobilissimia 
Dominis DAs Administratoribus Societatis Gen. Indiie Occidentalis. 
*Snibus hasce Litteras inspecturis notum facimus, dedisse, atq^ con- 
cessisse, quemadmodum per praBsentes damns, ac concedimus Fran- 
cisco Doughty, et sooiis, assignatisq^ suis, atq'' eorum harcdibus, in 
possessionem realera, actualem, ac perpetuam ; certam partem terraj, 
cum pascuis, C2eterisq° in ea inclusis, litani in Longa Insula hujus 
Provincise; in area ua continentem sex millia sexcenta sexaginta sex 
JHgera Hollandica, aut circiter ignographice inclusam inter quatuor 
recte conoeptas lineas (qutelibet bis mille pei-ticarum Hollandicarum 
l<3ga.) quarum prima producitur ab oriente angulo prasdii Hans 
Hanssonii secundum rivulum, paludem in duo inaequalia secantem 
ad plantationcra Richardi BrutnalJ, et inde plus Euro-Borcam decur- 
rit, per medium paludis dulcis transiens, ad fluviolum, vingentem 
meridionalem partem terrarum Henrici Agi-icolaj eundemq" sequen- 
tem ad ejus ostium usque ; altera linea vero inde erigin^m suraens 
plus Euro-Notum flectitur secundum littus marinum illudq*^ ambiens 
usQ® ad fluviolum alterum ; quern secundum cursum sequitur ab 
•ostio ejus usq'^ dum attigerit orientalem extremitatera cujusdam 
paludis (a qua prasdicte fluviolus provenit) ind-e plus Euro-Notum 
reflectitur, donee ad longitudinem bis mille perticarum Hollandicarum 
pervenerit; tertia vero ab extremitate hujus incipiens plus Libim 
tendit prjEcedcntibus roque longa. ; tandem quarta a punctilio ultimo 
plus Borea-Zephirum decurrens ad supradictum angulum orientalem 


prcedii Hans Hanssonii eoncludit ibi quadatum, (in qnolibet cujas 
angulo postea lapis erigetur, ad majorem limitum certitudinem ;) 
cum potestatie in sup. dicta terra pagum, Tel pagos construendi, 
templum, vel templa sedificandi, Eeligionem Christianam Reforma- 
tam, quam profitentur, nee non disciplinam ecclesiasticam excercendi ; 
item jure altam mediam, atq*^ infimam justitiam administrandi li- 
tesq'' civiles quinquaginta florenos Hollandicos non excedentes deci- 
dendi, in criminalib^ vero in mulctam ejusdem summa condeninandi 
definitive et absq^ appellatione ; decceteris litibus, cum civilibus, turn 
criminalibus majoris momenti primam sententiam dicendi (verum 
appellationi ad Supreraam Curiam Novi Belgii facta diflercudum 
erit) atcf ejusdam sententite exsecutionem faciendi ; deniq*^ onibus 
juribus prsedictse jurisdictioni debitis omnimodo uteiidi. Iterum po- 
testate quosdam eorum nominandi, prasentandiq'' Directorii N. Bel- 
gii ut ex iis sufficiens numerus ad regimen turn politicum, turn 
juridicum eligatur. Postremo jure venandi aucupandi piscaturam 
faciendi, nee non comercium excercendi juxta immunitates colonis 
hujus Provincise concessas, concedendasqe absq" ulla exceptione. 
Propter qute dicta prasdictus F. Doughty et socii, atq*^ assignati 
eorurnqs hseredes obligati sunt futuriq'^, tamdiu, quamdiu supra dictae 
terrse possessores erunt, prsedictos Dominos hos Superioribus Dms, 
atq*^ Patronis sais agnoscere; prseterea decimam partem reventua 
agrorum, tum aratro, turn ligone alio ut medio cultorum (pomariia, 
hortisq^ oleribus dicatis jugerum Hollandicum non excedentib^ excep- 
tis) postea decennium prreterlapsum solTcre. Deniq^ voexcije Hol- 
landicum non aliud exigere ; lapidib^ bylanci inservientibus, nee non 
ulna ceeterisq'' mensuris Hollandicis in vendendis, aut emendis, ad 
confusionem vitandam, uti. Quoe onia sub prsedictis conditionibus 
inviolabiliter observare promittimus, atq" ad eorum observantiam 
obstringimus successores nostros virtute dyplomatis ab Altiss. Prin- 
cipe Auraico Provinciarum Belgicarum Foederatarum Gubernatore, 
nee non architalasso supremo nobis concessi. In fidem quorum has 
prcesentes Litteras propriis manibus subscripsimus, atq° eas a Secre- 
tario Novi Belgii subsignati, iisdemq*^ sigillum N. B. apponi curavi- 
mus. Datum in Arce Amstelersdamensi in Insula Manahatans in 
Novo Belgio A? 1642, Martii 28. 




JUSSU D. DiRECTORIS, Senatusqe, 
Cornelius A. Tieniioven, Secrets. 





♦Ccmtent Titus, 

Joseph Hackett, Sen. 

Philip Kctchaiu. 

Caleb Lpverich. 

Thomas I'ettit, Sen. 

Kezia Ketehajn. 

The wife of Philip Ketcham. 

Margaret Strickland.* 

Silas Titus, Sen. 

■Lydia Pumroy. 

James Renne. 

Joanna Hunt. 

■Sarah Renne. 

Mary Titus. 

■Catharine Pettit 

Samuel Ketoham, Sen.- 

Margaret Furman. 

Mercy Hazard. 

Nathaniel Hazard. 

Margaret Hazard. 

Samuel Coe. 

Richard Sackett. 

Margaret Coe. 

Sarah Titus. 

Mary White. 

Judith Wood. 

James Keile, and wife. 

Andrew Colbrith, and wife, 

Mercy Sackett, widow. 

Mary Moore, widow. 

Mrs. Tuthill, of Westchester. 

Abigail Springsteen. 

Sarah Culver. 

Deborah Hazard. 

Elizabeth Hunt. 

Elizabeth Pumroy, 

Hannah Morrell, 

Thomas Hunt, 

Richard Wood, 

Deborah Burroughs, 

Sarah Morrell, 

Anna Woodward, 

Anna Wood, 

Samuel Burtis, and wife, 

Charity Ketcham. 



June 25, 




Dec. 19, 1731. 

Bcnj. Cornish, Jun 

Judith J^Iorrell. 

AN'iduw l.iiwrciice. 

Martha Krlcliam. 

Su.sauni>)i Comfort, 

Amy Berrien, 

Philip Fxisall, 

Hannah Fish, 

Jacob Reeder, 

Charity Renne, 

Samuel Fish, Sen., 

llmothy Wood, 

John Recder, 

William Burroughs, 

Susannah Howard, 

Elizabeth Hunt, 

Sarah Morrell, 

Cornelius Berrien, Jun., 

Hannah Bailey, 

Nathaniel Bailey, 

Margaret Burroughs, 

Phcbe Hunt, 

Jonathan Hunt, 

Samuel Hallett, Sen., 

Abigail Smith, 

Samuel Bruce, 

Susannah Morrell, 

Amy Cornish, 

Sarah Culver, 

John Alburtis, 

Sarah Comisli, 

Hannah Ketcham, 

Benj. Cornish, Jun., 

Elsie Devine, 

Benjamin Coe, 

Benj. North, and wife Marg't, 

James Pettit, 

Kezia Morrell, 

Mary Palmer, 

Jannetie De^^ne, 

Dorothy Leverich, 

Sarah Morrell, 

Abigail Wainwright, 

John Pettit, and wife, 

Ann Moore, widow, 

Joshua Ketcham, 

[died Jan. 6, 1733.] 

Jan. 14, 173.T 
Sep. 1.'), 1734. 
Feb. 15, 173C. 
Oct. 24, " 
Feb. 27, 1737. 
Sep. 25, " 
Feb. 5, 1738- 

June 18, " 

Oct. 29, " 

Apr. 1, 1739. 
Nov. 11, '• 
Apr. 20, 1740. 

June 6, 1742. 
Aug. 2g, 1743. 
Mar. 18, 1758. 

Mar, 20, 1763. 

Dec. 15, 1765. 

Aug. 30, 1766. 


Mar. 12, 1769. 

Dec. 10. " 
Sep. 23, 17T0, 
Mar, 14, 1771. 

* The first eight were "members in full communion," at Mr. Pumroy's eettlement, in 1708L 
The others were received from that time onward, but the date of admission is not given till 1725. 



Kicholas Berrien, 


Antie Brinckerhoff, 


Daniel Rapalje, 


Peter Berrien, 


Isaac Bragaw, 

8 10 

Abraham Lent, 

8 10 

Joris Rapelje, 

8 10 

Ab'm Bnnckerlioff. 

8 10 

John Wyckotf, 

7 5 

Peter Cornell, 


Jacob Skillman, 

2 15 

Jeromus Remsen, 

2 15 

Aaron Gilbert, 2 15 

Andries& Jannetie Riker 2 10 

Johannes Culver, 
Paulus Vandervoort, 
Cornelius Berrien, 
John Riker. 
Peter Luyster, 
Petnis Schenk, 
Teunis Brinckerhoff, 
Isaac Brinckerhoff, 
Johannes Van Alst, 
Capt. Samuel Fish, 

2 10 
2 6 
2 6 
6 10 
6 10 
6 10 

Elbert Luyster, 
William Van Duyn, 
Abraham Remsen, 
Thomas Skillman, 
Hcmlrick Brinckerhoff, 
Stotltl Vanderbeeck, 
John Debevoisc, 
Abraham Riker, Jun., 
Brrgoon Brngaw, 
John Brinckerhoff, 
Andries Van Alst, 
Maria Springsteen, 

5 15 
4 15 
4 13 
4 10 
4 8 
4 5 



Cornelius Rapelje, 
Nicholas Parcell, 
John Parcell, of the Is- 
Bernardus Van Zandt, 
Joris Van Alst, 
Daniel Rapelje, Jun., 
Abraham Kapelje, 
Abraham Riker, 
Rem Rerasen, 
Samuel Fish, Jun., 
Cornelius Berrien, Jun., 

3 15 

3 15 
3 10 
3 10 
3 10 
3 8 

Abraham Remsen, Jun., 
David Springsteen, 
Casperus Springsteen, 
William Miller, 
Judith Cancel, 
Judge Jas. Hazard, 
Capt. Thos. Hazard, 
Hendrick Cornell, 
Bernardus Bloom, 
John Parcell, 
Joost Schoon, 















yon-resident Subscriberif 

Jcromus Rapalje, 
Dow Van Ditmars, 
Justice Ryder, 
Justice BrinckerhofF, 
Johannes Cornell, 
Nicholas Letten, 
Dow Van Ditmars Jr., 
Ab'm Van Ditmars, 
Johannes Nostrand, 
Abraham Schenk, 
Abraham Lott, 


Smts for Males to the north- 
west side of the pulpit and 
the middle isle. 

No. 1. 

Joris Rapelje. 
CapL Sam'l Fish. 
Johannes Van Alst. 
Elbert Luyster. 
Abraham Remsen. 
Thomas Skillman. 
No. 2. 

Antie Brinckerhoff. 
Nicholas Berrien. 
Peter Berrien, 
Daniel Rapalje. 
Abraham Lent. 
Peter Luyster. 

No. 3. 

Isaac Bragaw. 
Ab'm Brinckerhoff. 
Teunis Brinckerhoff. 
Isaac Brinckerhoff. 
John Wyckoff. 
Petnis Schenk. 

No. 4. 

John Debevoise. 
John Brinckerhoff. 
Cornelius Rapelje. 
Maria Springsteen. 
Andries Van Alst. 
Abraham Rapelje. 

No. 5. 

Stoffel Vanderbeeck. 
Bergoou Bragaw. 
Joris Van Alst. 
Abraham Riker. 
Ab'm Riker, Jun. 
Daniel Rapelje, Jun. 

No. 6. 

Hendrick Brinckerhoff. 
Aaron Gilbert. 
Andrew Riker. 
Cornelius Berrien. 
John Riker. 
Stephen Ryder. 
Derick Brinckerhoff. 
Johannes Cornell. 

No. 7. 

John Parcell, Island. 
John Parcell. 

Joost Schoon. 
Jeromus Rapalje, Flushing. 
Johannes Nostrand. 
Abraham Schenk. 
Nicholas Parcell. 
WilUam Van Duyn. 

No. 8. 

Peter Berrien. 
Teunis Brinckerhoff. 
Bernardus Van Zandt. 
Cor. Berrien, Jun. 
Johannes Van Alst. 
Hendrick Cornell. 
Thomas Skillman. 
Hendrick Brinckerhoff. 

No. 9. 

Joris Rapelje. 
Abraham Lent. 
Isaac Bragaw, 
Abraham Remsen. 
Nicholas Berriea. 
Ab'm Brinckerhoff. 

No. 10. 

Jacob Skillman. 
Jeromus Remsen. 
Peter Cornell. 
Ab'm Remsen, Jun. 
Hendrick Cornell. 
Ab'm Van Ditmars. 
Rem Remsen. 
David Springsteen^ 
Andrew Riker. 
Johannes Culver. 

Seats for Females, north-