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Full text of "Annals of the reformation and establishment of religion, and other various occurrences in the Church of England, during Queen Elizabeth's happy reign : together with an appendix of original papers of state, records, and letters"

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FROM THE LIBRARY OF 
REV. LOUIS FITZGERALD BENSON. D. D. 

BEQUEATHED BY HIM TO 

THE LIBRARY OF 

PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 



DiTisioD ^ 

V?pt| 



ANNALS 



OF 




THE REFORMATION 

AND 

ESTABLISHMENT OF RELIGION, 

AND OTHER VARIOUS OCCURRENCES 

IN THE 

CHURCH OF ENGLAND, 

DURIXG 

QUEEN ELIZABETH'S HAPPY REIGN: 

TOGETHER WITH 

AN APPENDIX 

OF ORIGINAL PAPERS OF STATE, RECORDS, AND LETTERS. 



BY JOHN STRYPE, M. A. 



A NEW EDITION. 



VOL. II. PART I. 



OXFORD, 
AT THE CLARENDON PRESS. 

MDCCCXXIV. 



THE 

PREFACE. 



1 MUST acquaint the reader with some reasons that pre- 
vailed with me to set forth another volume of our church's 
history under queen Elizabeth ; and what encouragement 
I had to take it in hand, and to proceed therein : and then 
to give some brief account of what I have done. 

In the former volume of these Annals was shewn parti- 
cularly what method was used, and what steps were taken, 
in that great and happy enterprise of the reformation 
of this church from the popish errors in doctrine and su- 
perstitions in worship, wherein it was deeply plunged in 
the reign of queen Mary, queen Elizabeth''s immediate 
predecessor; and how from year to year that good work 
was carried on, and arrived to some joyful settlement by 
the twelfth year of the said glorious queen''s government. 
But because that volume reached no farther, and so 
seemed to break off somewhat abruptly in the course of 
that history, and the reader that had gone so far in the 
reading of these godly proceedings would probably be 
willing to know more of the progress thereof, and how it 
went on, I was moved to prosecute the said purpose : and 
that this distinguishing favour of God to this land might 
remain on eternal record ; and for posterity to know, how 
the divine blessing accompanied, from year to year, along 
that queen''s reign, that noble work of delivering prince and 
people from the usurped tyranny of Rome ; and advancing 
the true knowledge and free profession of the gospel among 
us : and that, amidst all the opposition, plots, and endea- 
vours, both at home and abroad, from time to time, to 
overthrow it : which ought to be had in everlasting remem- 

VOL. II. PART I. a 



ii THE PREFACE. 

brance by all the inhabitants of this happy island of Great 
Britain. 

I was also wiUing to comply with the desires of divers 
learned men, as well of the clergy as others, studious of 
our churcirs history ; who having read the entrance and 
beginning of this reformation in the former volume, would 
gladly understand farther of its success, and of the events of 
it afterwards; and have thought it pity so useful an his- 
tory should make a final stop so soon, and go no farther. 

And indeed I was loath that all my collections, which I 
have for many years past been making, (for my own satis- 
faction,) and digesting from abundance of MSS. and ori- 
ginal letters and records in the nation, and discovering 
thence so desirable a piece of our ecclesiastical history, 
should be lost. Especially also, being encouraged by the 
esteem and ajjprobation of these my pains, so publicly 
given me (in the proposals for the printing this volume) 
by all our pious and learned archbishops and bishops : as 
also by the good opinion I have obtained from the prelates, 
dignified and learned men in the other kingdom of Ireland : 
which I cannot but acknowledge here, in gratitude to them 
all. 

That which I have done in this volume is, following the 
method of the former, to set down the various occurrences 
of the church under each year, as I have met with them. 
Wherein observations are made of the bishops in each of 
their dioceses ; and of their businesses, cares, and diligence 
among their respective clergy in the dischai'ge of their func- 
tion ; and of the opposition, troubles, and discouragements 
they met with ; partly by the inconformity of some of their 
clergy to the liturgy, and the custom and practice en- 
joined ; partly by the creeping in of popish priests and Je- 
suits, to draw away the queen's subjects from their obedi- 
ence, and for the reconciling them to popery j and partly, 
by means of the endeavour of many, to rend away the re- 
venues from their respective bishoprics. 

Here is related also what was done in parliaments, (chiefly 
with respect to religion,) in convocations, ecclesiastical com- 



THE PREFACE. Vn 

missions, and episcopal visitations ; and what occurred from 
the endeavours of the Romanists, and other disaffected 
parties and factions, to undermine the church and its consti- 
tution ; and what courses were taken with them from time 
to time, for the safety of the queen, and preserving the 
peace of her people. 

There will be found likewise set down here divers other 
important matters, well worthy knowledge, concerning se- 
cular, as well as ecclesiastical affairs, in this juncture of 
queen Elizabeth's reign ; and her concerns and transactions 
in that busy and dangerous time with foreign princes and 
states; as Spain, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Scot- 
land ; especially where religion was concerned ; and being 
such matters as our historians have slipt over in silence; 
tending to the praise of that queen and her government, 
and of the wise counsellors about her. ^ 

There M'ill be also met with, in the current of this his- 
tory, under each year, matters more private, personal and 
domestic : whereby many particular things of remark will 
be seen ; and notices of some persons of eminence, either 
for learning or quality, or office of trust, are given : where- 
by their memories are revived, and that when by this time 
they are almost sunk into oblivion, though men of figure in 
their lives-time. 

I have also taken the liberty of relating something con- 
cerning; literature and our universities, and of controversies 
arising in the colleges, and among the students there ; with 
characters of some of the learned heads and members of the 
colleges there. Mention also is made of books, especially 
of more note, which came forth under each year. And some 
accounts are given of them and their authors also. 

I have been wary in this work not to repeat any thing 
which hath been read before in any other of my writings 
published ; unless I have done it sometimes to improve the 
history, or to add some enlargements and more particular 
accounts of what had been more briefly and imperfectly 
spoken of elsewhere. And where there may be in this work 
any omissions or defects observed, or matters more lightly 

a2 



iv THE PREFACE. 

touched, they will be .supj)lied to hmi that will please to 
consult the Lives and Acts of the two archbishops of Can- 
terbury, Parker and Grindal, contemporary with the times 
of this history. 

In this whole undertaking I have used all faithfulness 
and impartiahty ; and set down things according as I found 
them in the originals, whether letters, records, registers, 
papers of state, or other MSS. being the imports of them, 
and often in the same words. So that the reader may the 
readier depend upon the truth of what I offer. And for 
the better credit to be given to me, there is an Appendix 
set at the end of the book : wherein are entered great num- 
bers of useful papers and authentic writings ; some taken 
from the king's Paper-office, others from the Cotton library, 
more of them from the Bene't college library ; in short, 
many more from the best MS. libraries in the kingdom ; 
exactly thence and carefully exemplified by my own pen 
from the originals. 

Perhaps some of the readers of this book may esteem 
some matters set down there as trivial, and of little import. 
But I had other thoughts of them, otherwise I should not 
have suffered any of them to have taken place there : for 
oftentimes there be matters of moment depending upon 
things seemingly of smaller account. And on this occasion I 
may use the words of Mr. Madox, late of the Augmentation- 
office ; who gave this answer to such a censurer of a book 
Foiniuiar. of his; viz. " That the formulas entered into his book 
Pref. " were some of them of little value. He desired such upon 

" this occasion to call to mind the several monuments of 
" antiquity : which at the first sight appeared of little va- 
" lue; but had afterwards been found to serve some not 
" contemptible uses : and that many things in antiquity 
" prove of good use to some, which to others may be of 
" little or no use at all." 

In short, I hope this will prove an useful history. And 
the greatest and best use of it will be, to observe the won- 
derful mercy and goodness of God to us in the preservation 
and continuance of oiu- excellent I'eformcd religion through 



THE PREFACE. v 

that queen"'s reign, against all the spite and opposition, at 
home and abroad, to undermine and overthrow it. The be- 
nefit and comfort whereof we enjoy to this day. For which 
success we are beholden under God to the said queen Eli- 
zabeth, and her watchful and steady government, accom- 
panied with the prayers of the faithful. 

JOHN STRYPE. 



aS 



THE CONTENTS. 



CHAP. I. 



A 



TESTIMONIAL from some in the university of Cambridge Anno 1570. 
concerning Cartwright's readings. His letters to sir William 
Cecil concerning himself. But is discharged the college and 
university. Richard Greenham. Dr. George Downham : the 
odd tempers of several of Cartwright's followers ; and their 
affected separation. Anthony Gilby's letter to Coverdale, &c. 
Exiles. Dangers from papists. The archbishop of Cassil's 
discovery. Steukley comes to the king of Spain.' The dan- 
gerous condition of Ireland from the Spaniard and French. 
Caution for the Low Countries. P. 1. 

CHAP. II. 

A determination of the general assembly of the church of Scot- 
land, for obedience to the new king. Queen Elizabeth in 
perplexity about restoring of the Scots queen. Match for 
the queen with the French king's brother. The queen how 
affected towards it. Astrological inquiry into her nativity 
about it. The pope's bull against the queen set up at Paris. 
A secret popish design against England. Wrecks upon the 
coast of Sussex claimed by the bishop of Chichester, A suit 
with the lord admiral about it. Proclamations about pirates. 
The governor of the Isle of Wight sends out ships after 
them, P. 19, 

CHAP. Ill, 

Orders and injunctions for preventing frays and fightings in Lon- 
don. Constables to carry staves. The queen's daily learned 
studies. Secretary Cecil created lord Burghley. His troubles. 
Sir Tho. Smith becomes secretary in his place. Walsingham 
ambassador in France, his complaint. Sir Nicolas Throg- 

a 4 



viii THE CONTENTS. 

niotton 3 his death ; iliscasc and character. Earl of Sussex. 
Mr. Thomas Cecil's letter to him: who had recommended 
him to the queen. Sir Francis Englcfield's presumptuous 
letter. Bishop Sandys nominated for London: his excuse; 
and acceptance : his first visitation. The Italian church in 
London. Fox's second edition of his Martyrology. Lam- 
bard's Perambulation of Kent. Dr. Wylson's translation of 
Demosthenes. P. 28. 

CHAP. IV. 
Auno 1671. Motions and letters concerning the queen's marrying with duke 
D'Anjou. The matter of religion the great article. The 
queen will not allow him the exercise of the mass. Ambassa- 
dors from France move for that article. The queen's resolu- 
tion. The treaty put off. Renewed again : but to no pur- 
pose. Fears and apprehensions hereupon. Amity however 
endeavoured with France. Motion of the match revived. 
Discourse about it between the French ambassador and the 
queen. She hath no inclination that way. Practice of Spain. 
Sir Tho. Smith sent into France for cultivating amity. Pro- 
motes the marriage between the prince of Navar and the 
French king's sister. P. 48. 

CHAP. V. 

Scottish affairs. Dangers by means of the ([ueen of Scots. 
Walsingham's intelligence thereof; and advertisement. Mo- 
ney brought over from the pope for her service. The French 
king moves for her liberty. What passed between him and 
the English ambassadors. The Scottish queen practiseth 
w-ith Spain, Monies sent into Scotland for her use from 
France ; intercepted. Letters of hers intercepted, of her de- 
pending upon Spain; and taking that king for her and her 
son's and kingdom's protector. The Spanish ambassador 
dismissed by the council : and why. Loril Burghley to the 
carl of Shrewsbury, keeper of the Scottish queen. Bishop of 
Rosse's book concerning her title to this crown. Answered 
by Glover, Somerset herald. Rosse in the Tower. His letter 
thence to the lord treasurer. P. 68. 

CHAP. VI. 

Amity judged more advisable with France than Spain. Treaty 
with France, Aid required in case of invasion for religion. 



THE CONTENTS. ix 

The Low Countries, in conference between count Lodowic 
and VValsingham at Paris, move for the queen's assistance. 
Spain plays the tyrant. Arguments used to move the queen 
on their behalf. Archbishop of Cassils, a pensioner of Spain, 
comes to Walsingham at Paris. False. A rebellion in Ireland, 
- hatching in France. The French king and queen-mother 
privy to it. Deny it to the English ambassadors. P. 80. 

CHAP. VII. 

A parliament. The succession ; and matters of religion, trans- Anno 1671. 
acted there. The bill for reformation. The t[ucen displeased 
at it, as encroaching on her prerogative. Debates about it. 
Divers bills for religion brought in. Motion for a new con- 
fession of faith. Reformatio legum ecciesiasticarum produced 
in parliament. Bills about religion and the state of the 
church that passed. Acts against papists. Act for sub- 
scribing and reading the Thirty-nine Articles. Many are de- 
prived upon this act, P. 90. 

CHAP. VIII. 

A convocation. Matters done there. An act made, very bene- 
ficial for employing of multitudes of poor. The queen's con- 
cernments with Scotland. Endeavours a reconcilement of 
the two parties there. Her resolution against the restoring 
of the Scottish queen : and why. Articles of pacification 
propounded by the queen to the two parties in Scotland. 
The queen's agent's notable letter to Graunge and Lidding- 
ton. Sends a challenge to the French ambassador. His 
letters to the lord regent of Scotland, duke of Lenox, and to 
earl Morton, intercepted. A book writ in favour of the 

queen of Scots. P. 107. 

CHAP. IX. 

The duke of Norfolk unhappily engaged with the Scottish 
queen. The discovery thereof 5 by French money intercepted, 
sent to the duke, for her use in Scotland, A letter in cipher 
to him from that queen. The duke's confession ; and of his 
servants. The duke's words at his condemnation : the exe- 
cution put off by the queen : and why. One Rolph, a con- 
cealer, executed : and why. Mather and Verney hired to 
kill the lord Burghley ; executed. Dr. Story executed. Some 



X THE CONTENTS. 

particular accounts of his death ; and ot' his cruelty. His 
last will. Darbishire the Jesuit ; his discourse about the 
English affairs. P. 117. 

CHAP. X. 
Tbe present concerns of the nation for the queen's safety. 
Her marriage thought necessary. She falleth sick. Her 
verses upon the Scottish queen and her favourites. She re- 
(juires liberty of religion for her merchants in France. Or- 
ders and exercises of religion in Northampton ; with their 
confession of faith. The ecclesiastical commissioners sit at 
Lambeth, Christopher Goodman cited before them : his 
protestation of allegiance. P. 128, 

CHAP. XI. 

Zanchy writes to the (jueen concerning the habits. And to bi- 
shop .Tewcl. His advice. Blackal, a pretended minister, 
does penance. Popish priests officiate in the church. Bi- 
shop Jewel's death. His answer to Harding. His Apology, 
Friendship between him and bishop Parkhurst, William 
Kethe. Loans, Walsingham's diligence. Earl of Rutland. 
SirTho. Smith, ambassador. Victory over the Turks, P. 142, 

CHAP. XIL 

Campion, the Jesuit, persuades the bishop of Gloucester to re- 
nounce his religion. Many now leave off coming to church. 
Of this sort were some gentlemen in Norwich diocese. The 
bishop's letters thereupon, moved by orders from the privy 
council. The said bishop's sermon for satisfaction of puri- 
tans. Their exceptions to it in divers articles. A case of 
matrimony. The earl of Sussex to the bishop of Norwich, 
about buying and selling an advowson. The Dutch church 
in Norwich. P. 158. 

CHAP. XIII. 

The queen's progress this year. Treaty witli France about the 
match renewed. Sylva, an Italian physician, in London, 
The lord Burghley's troubles, by means of the Spanish am- 
bassador. Who charges him before the council. Falls sick. 
Marries his daughter to the earl of Oxford, Whose beha- 
vioin- creates great trouble to tbe lord Burghley. An adul- 



THE CONTENTS. xi 

ttMcr brought before tlie commission ecclesiastical in York. 
Docs penance at Bury in Suffolk. P. 1/4. 

CHAP. XIV. 

A new parliament. The lord keeper's directions to them from Anno 1572. 
the queen ; particularly relating to the doctrine and discipline 
of the church. Bills for rites and ceremonies brought in ; 
which gives the queen offence. Her message thereupon. 
Severely reflected upon by one of the members, viz. Peter 
A^^entworth : for which he is sequestered. The parliament 
earnest upon a bill against the Scottish queen. Dashed by 
the queen. Duke of Norfolk : his virtues : his fall. The prac- 
tices of the Scottish (pieen. The parliament's proceedings 
against her. The queen's directions to them in that matter. 

P. 183. 
CHAP. XV. 

The thoughts of tlie wisest men concerning the state, by reason 
of the Scottish queen. Her crimes under five articles. The 
queen's instructions to her ambassador going to France, con- 
cerning that queen. Walsingham's fears of a Bartholomew 
breakfast. Talk of putting the Scottish queen to death. Ac- 
count given of her by the earl of Shrewsbtny, her keeper. 
Linen sent to her, with secret writing on it. P. 199^ 

CHAP. XVI. 

A league ofiensive and defensive with France. Deliberation 
about the assistance of the prince of Orange. Duke Mont- 
niorancy comes over ambassador. His reception. Sir Philip 
Sydney goes into France with the English ambassador. A 
motion made by the French ambassador for duke d'Alen^on's 
matching with the queen. His qualities. Lord Burghley's 
thoughts and advice concerning it. The queen irresolute. 
Sir Philip Sydney's letter to her against the match with 
France. Cases of conscience in respect of marrying with a 
papist J and suffering mass to be said. Answered favour- 
ably. P. 210. 
CHAP. XVIL 

The massacre at Paris. Many nobles and others of the English 
nation preserved in Walsingham's house there. Among the rest, 
sir Philip Sydney. Walsingham about departing home. The 
king relates to him the reason he took this course. Walsing- 



xii THE CONTENTS. 

ham writes of these matters into England. The French am- 
bassador comes to the (|ueen. Her excellent speech to him 
of the admiral's murder; and her advice to the king. Some 
account of the massacre. Nothing ])iit extremity towards 
those of the religion. England now upon its guard. Rou- 
lard, a catholic, murdered. P. 225. 

CHAP. xvm. 

The motion renewed for the marriage. Walsingham declares 
his scruples to that court. An interview desired between the 
queen-mother and queen Elizabeth. The jealousy conceived 
thereof. Declined. The French's dissimulation. Walsing- 
ham's letter thereupon. The resentments of the English 
court. Still more bloodshed. The king hurt. Two put to 
death as conspirators : unjustly. The French king sends to 
the queen to christen his daughter. Her excellent answer. 
England a harbour for the persecuted French protestants. 
The queen protects them. P. 239. 

CHAP. XIX. 

The earl of Worcester goes into France to assist at the christen- 
ing of the French king's daughter. The earl a Roman ca- 
tholic ; but loyal. The protestants fly to Rochel ; and hold 
it against the French army. The new star in Cassiopeia. 
Divers of the murderers slain before Rochel. Rochel still 
holds out. Some others of the murderers slain. Some 
English oft'er to raise an army to go to Rochel, Books set 
forth to palliate the massacre. How the Scots resent the 
massacre. Now more inclinable to an amity with England. 
France false to England in Scottish affairs ; and to the re- 
ligion. That king and Spain privately conspire. A plot 
hatching to invade England. The pope's legate in France 
practising. P. 253. 

CHAP. XX, 

A libel printed in France against the state of England. The 
queen would see duke d'Alencon : who still courted her. Her 
resolutions. The Scots move for a league with queen Eliza- 
beth, The papists hope for a golden day. Massmongers 
practise conjuring. Several of them taken, and sent up. 
The disciplinarians busy. Admonition to the parliament. 



THE CONTENTS. xiii 

Divers deprived upon the act 13. Eliz. Divers disaffected to 
the government of the church. Chark, of Peter-house, ex- 
pelled for a derum at St. Mary's. His appeal to the chan- 
cellor of the university. Dering, reader of St. Paul's, writes 
a reflecting letter to the lord Burghley, His answer to it. 
And Dering's vindication of what he had writ. P. 264, 

CHAP. XXI. 

A sermon preached by Cooper, bishop of Lincoln, at Paul's 
Cross, in vindication of the church of England and its liturgy. 
An answer thereto sent to him by some disaffected person. 
Observations therein made, of bishops maintaining an igno- 
rant ministry. Of the Service-booii. Of the titles and ho- 
nour of the bishops. Of the government of the church. And 
the applying of some places of scripture. P. 28G. 

CHAP. XXII. 

Serious deliberation about a reformation of divers things in 
church and state. Memorials. Lent enjoined. Commis- 
sions for concealed lands abused : revoked : but granted 
again. An act against concealers. Grants for penal statutes 
checked and regulated. Massmongers at the Portugal am- 
bassador's house. The (jueen's progress. Earl of Northum- 
berland executed. The queen hath the small-pox. Her let- 
ter thereof, and of her recovery, to the earl of Shrewsbury. 
She bath fainting fits. P. 305. 

CHAP. XXIII. 

The Great English Bible, called. The Bishops' Bible, printed. 
Some account of this edition ; and other older editions. Pro- 
phesying set up at Bury by the bishop. The said bishop's 
admonition to a contentious clergyman. Stays admitting a 
clerk into a living : and why. His advice to his chancellor, 
upon a disturbance of divine service. His trouble with a 
fraudulent receiver of his clergy's tenths. Occasions a sta- 
tute. P. 320. 
CHAP. XXIV. 

Walsingham, the queen's ambassador in France, impoverished 
in his embassy, comes home. Dr. Wylson sets forth a learned 
book against usury. Bishop Jewel's letter in conunendation 



xiv THE CONTENTS. 

thereof. Epigrams foinicrly made by bishop Parkhurst, 
printed. Divers historical matters, both of himself and 
others, gathered from them. P. 338. 

CHAP. XXV. 

Remarks upon particular men. Sparks, a suffragan bishop. 
John Fox. John Cottrel. John Kugg. Justinian Lancas- 
ter. Bartholomew Clark : his testimonial. John Hales : 
his epitaph. Cardinal Chastiliion : poisoned in England. 
The villain that poisoned him confesseth it two years after. 
Nowel, dean of St. Paul's, founds a free-school in Lanca- 
shire. His letter to the lord Burghley about it. One Blosse 
reports king Edward to be alive, and that the queen was mar- 
ried to Leicester. Mines of silver in Cumberland : a corpo- 
ration for the managery thereof. P. 350. 

CHAP. XXVI. 

Anno 1573. Dr. Valentine Dale goes ambassador to France : the condition 
of Rochcl. The ambassador's letter concerning the successes 
there against the besiegers. Pacification with the protestants. 
The queen instrumental therein. Occurrences of matters in 
France, sent hither by Dale. Monsieur elected king of Po- 
land. A safe conduct desired for him from the queen : and 
also for duke d'Alencon. Liberty granted for the Scottish 
queen to go to Buxton well. Orders to the earl of Shrews- 
bury. The queen suspicious of the lord Burghley's favouring 
the Scottish queen. His caution in that respect. Earl of 
Leicester esteemed by that queen to be her enemy. How 
far he was so, as he declared. Queen Elizabeth's real con- 
cern for that queen. A plot to deliver her from the custody 
of the earl of Shrewsbury. His chaplain and another of the 
clergy accuse him falsely : examined. P. 3fil.- 

CHAP. xxvn. 

Foreign popish princes conspire to invade England. A French 
gentleman at the Spaw gives information thereof. Papists 
fled abroad, called home. Edward lord Windsor one of 
these : his plea. Theses propounded in Louvain, against the 
jurisdiction of temporal princes. Bishop of Durham's judg- 
ment of them. A commission in every county, to punish the 



THE CONTENTS. xv 

breakers of the orders of the church service : the bishop of 
Norwich gives order to his chancellor for information of such. 
Several ministers suspended hereupon in the diocese of Nor- 
wich : but get licence to catechise and preach. A letter upon 
this to that bishop. He restrains them. The lady Iluddle- 
ston, a great papist in Ely diocese, searched for. P. 375. 

CHAP. XXVIII. 

Chief puritans. Sampson and Dering checked. Their letters 
and apologies: for a reformation of the church's government: 
and against the civil power and lordship of bishops. Their 
solicitations of the lord treasurer to further their discipline. 
Sampson's intercession for his hospital : and for Mr. Heton. 
Dering brought into the Star-chamber for words. His letter 
to the lord treasurer thereupon. Articles required of him to 
subscribe. Other articles of inq\iiry, for him to answer. Moor, 
of Norwich, confutes Dr. Pern's sermon. Mr. Cartwright. 
An order from the commission ecclesiastical for seizing him. 

P. 392. 
CHAP. XXIX. 

The privy council warns those of the Dutch church against re- 
ceiving any puritans. That church's ansxvcr. Letters be- 
tween Rod. Gualter, an Helvetian divine, and the bishops of 
Ely and Norwich, concerning the pmitans. The papists grow 
confident. Fears and jealousies of them. The high esteem 
had for the city of Zurick, and the divines of that city. A 
commission for executing of Birchet by martial law. The 
earl of Sussex to the lord treasurer to prevent it. The queen's 
order for his examination. A husbandman comes to the bishop 
of Norwich for orders : refused. A gentleman hath words 
with the bishop about it : reconciled. A puritan stands to be 
schoolmaster at Aylsham : refused by the bishop : and why. 

P. 419. 

CHAP. XXX. 

Pilkington, bishop of Durham, desires the queen's leave to come 
up this winter. Lands of the bishopric detained. His letter 
thereof to the secretary Cecill. A contest between the bishop 
of Norwich, doctor Gardiner, and others, about the archdea- 
conry of Norwich. The case. Gardiner gets the deanery of 
Norwich. The bishop and he reconciled. Gardiner's good 



xvi THE CONTENTS. 

service to the church of Norwich. The bishop of Ely visits 
St. John's college. Bingham, a great soldier, recommended 
to the lord treasurer, llafe Lane's characters of Leicester, 
Burghley, Sussex, Hatton, and other courtiers. A contro- 
versy in Bene't college, Cambridge. Books now set forth. 
The queen's progress into Sussex and Kent. The bishop of 
Norwich's letter to the bailift" of Yarmouth, concerning the 
punishing of wickedness there. The unseasonable weather 
this year. P. 437. 

CHAP. XXXI. 

Anno 1574. BuUinger and Gualter, their judgments of the new discipline. 
The exercises : in what order and manner performed in Hert- 
fordshire ; by the direction of the bishop of Lincoln. The 
exercises forbidden in the diocese of Norwich. Some privy 
counsellors write to t])e bishop of Norwich in favour of them : 
which occasions his letter to the bishop of London for direc- 
tion ; and to the bishop of Rochester. Notice given to the 
archbishop of the suppression of them. Not suppressed in 
other dioceses. The book of the Troubles at Frankford print- 
ed. Reprinted, 1642. Some pretend to cast out devils. Ac- 
count of two persons afflicted with Satan, in a letter of the 
bishop of Norwich to Bullinger. An innovation in the ca- 
thedral church of Norwich. The bishop's letters thereupon. 
Arianism and the family of love in Cambridgeshire. P. 469. 

CHAP. XXXII. 

Many papists set at liberty upon sureties. Dr. Yong moves 
the lord treasurer to go out of the Marshalsea for his health. 
Sampson writes a smart letter to the treasurer on this occa- 
sion. Pensioners of the king of Spain, the queen's subjects j 
and their particular pensions. Practice to poison the lord 
treasurer. Mass said in London in divers places. A token 
sent from the Scottish (jucen to queen Elizabeth. Her ma- 
jesty melancholy. Her progress. The queen checks the young 
earl of Oxford : resented by him. The bishop of Ely's reve- 
nues aimed at. Slandered. He rcfuseth to lend his house at 
Holborn. Story, bishop of Hereford, sues to the lord trea- 
surer in behalf of some of his clergy ; vexed by pretence of 
the statute of suppression of colleges. The trouble the town 



THE CONTENTS. xvii 

of Wells gave the bishop thereof. The death of Parkhurst, 
bishop of Norwich. His character. P. 488. 

CHAP. XXXIII. 

Bishop Parkhurst's regulation of abuses in his registers. About 
wills and testaments. Dr. Toby Matthew hath a prebend in 
Wells : SQme account of him. The ill condition of Manches- 
ter college. Rafe Lane oflFers to go against the Turk, in the 
king of Spain's service. A corporation for turning iron into 
copper. Dee's offer to discover treasure hid. Proclamation 
against excess in apparel. Sir William Pickering, an accom- 
plished gentleman, dies. Wolf, the printer, dies : his cosmo- 
graphy. Message of the protestant princes of Germany to the 
queen. P. 5 M. 

CHAP. XXXIV. 

A parliament : and convocation. The troubles of the bishop of Anno 1575. 
Ely, for the preserving of the revenues of his see. His excel- 
lent letter to the queen thereupon ; and to Dr. Masters j and 
to the lord treasurer, upon articles of accusation preferred 
against him to the queen and council. The malice and slan- 
ders of them. His satisfactory answers. Comes up to an- 
swer before the council. The lord treasurer his friend. Re- 
conciles him to the queen. The case of Downham park j 
claimed by the lord North, from the bishop, upon account of 
an old lease. P. 532. 

CHAP. XXXV. 

St. John's college in Cambridge in disorder. The bishop of Ely 
visitor thereof: concerned therein. His advice for new sta- 
tutes for that house. His letters to the lord treasurer in that 
behalf, A case between Westminster school and Christ's 
Church, Oxon, A sect called the family of love. Their apo- 
logy set forth. Their confession, A principle or two of theirs. 
The family of the Mount. The family of the Essentialists. 
Etchard one of this sect : his letter. Anabaptists : some re- 
cant. Two burnt : and why. Cartwright's second Reply. 
Sampson to the lord treasurer, in behalf of his hospital at 
Leicester. Bishop Pilkington refuseth to grant a lease of 
Norham waters. Peter Baro is made lady Margaret professor 
in Cambridge. P. 550. 

VOL. II. PART I. b 



xviii THE CONTENTS. 

CHAP. XXXVI. 

The lord treasurer suspected by the queen to favour the rjueen 
of Scots. His thoughts thereof in a private letter to the earl 
of Shrewsbury, News at court. The prince of Orange offers 
the (jueen the Low Countries. Addresses to her from France 
and Spain. Divers Hy hither from the Low Countries, New 
privy counsellors. A project for translating of bishops. The 
state of Ireland. The good service of the earl of Essex there. 
Nic. Morton, the pope's great factor : his family. Their trea- 
sons and conspiracies. A deappropriation, Km'ghts' fees, 
and relief, due from the earl of Salop. The queen's progress. 

P. 569. 



ANNALS 



OF THE 

REFORMATION OF RELIGION, 

AND AFFAIRS OF THE CHURCH IN THIS KINGDOM 
OF ENGLAND. 

FROM THE TWELFFH YEAR OF THE REIGN OF QUEEN 
ELIZABETH TO THE TWENTY-THIRD. 



CHAP. I. 

A testimonial Jrom some in the university of Cambridge 
concerning Cart'iC^righfs readings. His letters to sir Wil- 
liam Cecil concerning himself. But is discharged the 
college and university. Richard Greenham. Dr. Geo. 
Downham : the odd tempers of several of Cartwrighfs 
followers; and their affected reparation. Anthony Gil- 
bie''s letter to Coverdale, ^c. Exiles. Dangers from pa- 
pists. The archbishop of CassiVs discovery. SteuMey 
comes to the king of Spain. The dangerous condition of 
Ireland from the Spaniard and French. Caution for 
the Low Countries. 

As in the conclusion of the former volume somewhat was Anno 1570. 
related concerning Cartwright, one of the public readers of 
divinity in the university of Cambridge, and of his depriva- 
tion for certain positions delivered in his lectures ; so I shall 
begin this book with several other notices concerning him ; 
being the head and most learned of that sect of dissenters 
then csXXedi puritans. Animosi- 

In this year, 1570, the heads of that university contended '^.^'j^" *J,y™" 
with the said Cartwright, B. D. and late lady Margaret pro- reason of 
fessor, for his readings, wherein he vented his dislike of the ^vrighfs 

VOL. II. B '•^'^''•"S*- 



2 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, established discipline of the church of England, (as deviat- 
• ing from the primitive institution and practice,) and the ha- 
Anno 1570. bits enjoined to be worn by the ministers of it; and in ef- 
•^ feet, the whole constitution ecclesiastical. What his opinions 
and assertions were, have been specified in the first volume 
Chap. ivii. of the Annals of the Reformation of religion. He had indeed 
a great party in the university, and some of them men of 
learning, who stuck close to him, exceedingly admiring 
him; though some of them, better informed, fell off after- 
wards. Great differences and animosities by these means 
were bred among the scholars ; which being past the power 
of the heads to allay, they complained thereof to sir Wil- 
liam Cecil, secretary of state, their high chancellor, desiring 
him to interpose his authority ; but chiefly informing him 
of the unsoundness of Cartwright's late lectures. 
Cart- ^Qj. were the favourers and hearers of Cartwright less 

favourers, forward to write their letters to the same ; testifying in Ins 
their testi- {[j^^j^j^if j^q^ sparing and tender he was in treating of those 

iDoiiial of _ . . .... 

him. subjects, for avoiding offence; whose testimonial ran in this 

tenor : 
Pap. office, Percrehuit tucB prcBstanticB mag". Cartwrightum hoc esse 
suspectum nom'me, quod in theologice prqfessionis munere 
quosdam d'isco7'dia: igmculos, qui post in incendium creve- 
runf, spmserit, et in contt-oversiis de ministc?io et re ves- 
tiaria omnino se immodice Jactaverit. N^os vero, quorum 
nomina suhscripta stent, et qui illis lectionibus interfuimus, 
ex quibus iste rumor Jluxit, testamur nullas quas unquam 
audire potuimus, unde simultates aut discordias emersisse ; 
de vestibus controversiam ne attigisse quidem: de mini- 
sterio proposuisse qucedam, quorum ad amussim nostrum 
hoc formari cupiebat, sed ea et cautione et moderatione, qucB 
ilium debcbant, merito tueri, et ah ista qua; circumfertur 
calumn ia vi n dica re. 

Robertus Tower, Robertus Willan, Christoph. Kirkland, 
Rob. Soomc, Johan. Swone, Thomas Barbar, Simon 
Bucke, Richard Chambers, Richard Hozvland, Lau- 
rentius Washington, TJiomas Aldrich, Alan Par, Jo- 
han. Still, Wilhelm. Tabor, Johan. Mote. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 3 

So that, if this testimony be to be relied upon, Cartwright"'s CHAP. 
reading: touched not the contest about the garments^ but 



only about the ministry ; taking occasion from some part of ■'^^^^ '^^o. 
scripture which he read upon, to wish it reformed accord- 
ing to certain rules he then spake of. 

Besides this testimonial, Cartwright himself pleaded his Gives ac- 
own innocency in an elegant Latin letter to Cecil, (accom- re^din^s to* 
panying the testimonial,) written in the month of July ; Cecil. 
complaining, " How he was slandered ; troubled especially Pap. office, 
that these his slanders should reach as far as the court 
and him. Then he declared and freely professed to him, 3 
that none was so averse to sedition and the study of con- 
tention : and that he had taught nothing which flowed 
not naturally from the text which he treated of. And 
that when an occasion offered itself of speaking concern- 
ing the habits, he waved it. He denied not but that he 
taught, that our ministry declined from the ministry of 
the ancient and apostolical church, which he wished 
might be framed and modelled according to the purity of 
our reformation. But that he did this sedately, that none 
could find fault with it, but some ignorant or malign 
hearers, or such as catched at something to calumniate 
him. That of these things he heard he was accused be- 
fore him, their chancellor. But how false and unjust the 
reports of his reading were, he offered the testimonial 
of a great many sincere persons that were present : as- 
serting further, that he had well nigh gotten the whole 
university for the witness of his innocency ; and had not 
the vice-chancellor denied him a congregation, he doubted 
not he had obtained it. That he had not room in his let- 
ter to relate every little particular of that lecture that 
raised the rumour ; but promised the chancellor, that he 
would deny nothing to him of those things he then pro- 
posed, if he would require it. And as he refused not to 
suffer, if any real guilt were discovered in him, so, as far 
as his cause was just, he implored his patronage : praying 
him, that he would not suffer him nor the truth to be over- 
thrown by some men's hatred ; who, while they privately 

B 2 



4 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " hated him, had a mind to set themselves against the ho- 
■ " nourable and glorious name of peace and the church.'''' 

Anno 1570. But it will give better satisfaction to read the whole letter, 
as he penned it himself in his own behalf, which I have 
Number I. dierefore put into the Appendix. To which I have added 
two letters more, written by several men of the university 
to the same, in his behalf. 
Another Cartwright wrote also another letter to Cecil, in the 

^'^^^^^"j^ *"^ month following, having been lately suspended from his 
reading ; which was in answer to the said Cecil, who had 
humanely, in the midst of his weighty affairs, spared some 
time to give some advice to him by his own hand. He 
seemed to have signified to Cartwright, how his adversaries 
had charged him with a factious innovating, and that he 
brought into suspicion of novelty that most ancient cause 
that sprung up with Christ and his apostles. But he an- 
swered, " that he was no v=oTsgo7roiof, no such stirrer of 
" 7ierv thing's ; and yet that he would not be affrighted, by 
" the envy of novcltfj, from the truth. That he hoped, that 
" Cecil was not of that number, that charged that proverb, 
" Tu a.xlvYjTa jcivsTv, [i. e. to move things that ought not to 
" be moved,] upon whosoever innovated in any thing what- 
" soever. And that he knew whose words those wei'e ; 
*' TtuXoLiov; vo'jtxoyj Xi'av uTcXovg xa.) jSaplSct^ixoh;, [l. e. that old 
" laws were very weak and rude.] But he added, that he 
" needed not at all to plead in the defence of novelty, since 
" the cause, being almost 1570 years old, was venerable 
" enough for its antiquity." 
Appeals to And whereas the heads had denied him the liberty of his 
■'ud'''e°his P^l^'i'^' reading, he complained of them to Cecil, and accused 
cause. - them of injustice, since upon some conditions, wliich he, the 
4 chancellor, had propounded to them, he allowed him to 
read, (which conditions, notwithstanding he was willing to 
comply with,) yet they would not suffer him to read again. 
This was dated Aug. 18. In this letter he was very earnest 
with Cecil, to hear and judge of his cause, being very will- 
ing to leave it to him. But lest that statesman might say, 
that his abilities were not equal to judge in such a cause, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 5 

nor yet his leisure did permit, he urged him with this re- CHAP, 
ply ; " That if the cause were just, if it were necessary for 



"the church, if without it the commonwealth were dis- Anno 1570. 

" solved, and the parts in danger to fly asunder from one 

" another, (which without discipline must needs be,) the 

*' cause was worthy for him to undertake ; and wherein he 

" might bring forth that rare light of his own understand- 

" ing, and those divine endowments of his own mind. And 

" the cause would again, in recompence, embrace him, and 

" render him a person, however eminent before, still more 

" honourable, and however oppressed with infinite business, 

" he dared to promise, would revive and refresh him, and, 

" though ready to sink, would uphold him with strong and 

" mighty supports." These were the overweening conceits 

he had of his discipline. 

I do not find any thing more done with Cartwright in the But is 
university, being discharged of his lecture, outed the col- ^y^"gJd The 
lege, stopped of his degree of doctor, and silenced from university, 
preaching in or near the university. But we shall hear of 
him hereafter in his writings and attempts of setting up the 
discipline in certain places in the land, which brought him 
into further trouble, and restraint of his liberty, from the 
ecclesiastical commission ; which could not but take notice 
of him, making himself the chief preacher and head of the 
new form of church government. Only I must give a hint 
concerning some of his zealous and well meaning followers in 
Cambridge, who upon more mature deliberation afterwards 
fell oft' from him. Two whereof I will mention among others. 

One was Rich. Greenham, of Christ's college, Cambridge, Some fail 
a pious and good man ; whose name we see subscribed to 1-^^'^°^ 
the earnest letters that were sent to Cecil in his commenda- Rich, 
tion and the high character given him. The young men in 
the university were diverted by Cartwrighfs readings from 
the more necessary study of the grounds and principles of 
divinity, and the substantial doctrines of Christianity, as 
rescued from popery, to controversies of the right way and 
manner of governing the church. This was afterwards 
justly disliked by the said Greenham, who thought fit to 

b3 



6 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, reprove it in the pulpit; blaming the young divines, who, 
^- before they had studied the grounds of theology, would 
Anno 1570 overbusy themselves in matters of discipline: " and (as he 
" said) before they had laid the foundation of their studies. 
Dr. George « would be setting up, as it were, the roof." This passage 
ep. before ' Dr. George Downham, of the same college, tells us, he heard 
his conse- j^jj^ggif ^j^g^ j^g was a vouug Student in Cambridge : who 

cration ' i i> i p • 

serm.of himself consorted among the youth there ot that taction 

blshop^of that disliked the habits, and other established ceremonies of 

Bath and the church, and was a hearer of Cartwright's lectures, in 

anno^i608. his consideration about this church of England and the dif- 

5 ferences in it. Who tells us of himself what course he took; 

" That at first, seeing things grew so hot, he thought it the 

" best course for himself and the rest to be no meddlers on 

" either side. But afterwards I considered with myself, 

" said he, that this church of England, wherein I was 

" called to' be a minister, did hold and profess all substan- 

" tial points of divinity, as sound as any church in the 

" world, none excepted, neither in this age, nor in the pri- 

*' mitive times of the church. And, secondly, that it had 

" the testimony of all other true churches. And, thirdly, 

" that in it the means of salvation are ordinarily and plen- 

" tifuUy to be had. And therefore to make a separation 

" from it, I took to be schismatical, and damnable presump- 

" tion." 

This Greenham was alive many years after, a godly 

preacher, living in London. For I find a letter of his dated 

Some ac- annol591, from Warwick-lane, London. And when in the 

G^e^lham year 1599 his works were published by H. Holland, in his 

from H. epistle he gives this character of the pious and peaceable 

spirit that was in him, (shewing, that though his judgment 

in some points differed from the church established, yet he 

was no separatist.) " That in his ministry he was ever care- 

" ful to avoid all occasion of offence ; desiring in all things 

" to approve himself as the minister of Christ. He much 

" rejoiced and praised God for the happy government of 

" our most gracious queen Elizabeth, and for this blessed 

" calm and peace of God's church and people under it. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 7 

" And spake often of it, both publicly and privately, as he CHAP. 
" was occasioned ; and stirred up the hearts of all men, 



" what he could, to pray and praise God with him for it Anno 1570. 

" continually : yea, this matter so affected him, that the 

" day before his departure out of this life, his thoughts 

" were much troubled, for that men were so unthankful for 

" that strange and most happy deliverance of our most gra- 

" cious queen from the dangerous conspiracies and practices 

" of that time." 

The writer saith further of him, " that he was the special D. Lopez. 
" instrument and hand of God in bringing many, both 
" godly and learned, to the holy service of Christ in the 
" ministry; and to restrain and reduce not a few from 
" schism and error ; striving always to retain such in obe- 
" dience of laws : and thereby to esteem and regard the 
" peace of the church and people of God." 

To which I may add, that this party of men that thus 
divided and distinguished themselves by this schism, were 
observed also to divide from the rest in their behaviour, in The man- 
their tempers and quaUties, and in their strangeness and hehaviour 
aversion from their Christian brethren who adhered to the of these 

. 1 T-v lolloweis of 

established church. For this is their character, that Dr. cartwright. 

Whitgift gave of them about this time; comparing them 

unto the pharisees : " That when they walked in the streets, 

*' they hung down their heads, looked austerely; and in 

" company sighed much, and seldom or never laughed : 

" their temper was, that they sought the commendation of Brief an- 

" the people: they thought it an heinous offence to wear aj^^moni- 

" caD or surplice ; but they slandered and backbit their tion in 

r r 1-1 n 1 • quarto, the 

" brethren, railed on them by libels, contemned superiors, latter end. 
" discredited such as were in authority; in short, disquieted 6 
" the church and state. And as for their religion, they se- 
" parated themselves from the congregation, and would not 
" communicate with those that went to church, neither in 
" prayer, hearing the word, nor sacraments : they despised 
" all those that were not of their own sect, as polluted, and 
" not worthy to be saluted, nor kept company with. And 
" therefore some of them meeting their old acquaintance, 

B 4 



8 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " being godly preachers, had not only refused to salute 
^' "• them, but spit in their faces ; wishing the plague of God 
Anno 1570." to light upon them; and saying, they were damned, and 
" that God had taken his Spirit from them." And all this, 
because they did wear a cap; which strange unchristian 
speech and behaviour, T. C. in his reply did not deny, but 
that they neither defended nor allowed of any such beha- 
viour : and that the fault of one should not be imputed to 
so many. No ; but it was brought to shew what ill effects 
and prejudices Cartwright's doctrines against the present 
constitvition of this church had occasioned in many. 
A. Giiby's This year (if it were not before) did a brother of this 
IifvlTs mi- party, Mr. A. G. [Anthony Gilby, I suppose,] write a very 
nisters l^ot and bitter letter to several reverend divines, that had 
habUs. been exiles for the gospel, and returned upon queen Eliza- 
Part of a ijeth's access to the crown; exciting them with all their 

register. i !•• i p • • i i i • i 

might agamst the bishops, for imposmg the liabits to be 
worn by ministers in their ministration ; and rather to lay 
down their ministry than comply. It was directed. To his 
reverend fathers and brethren in Christ, Mr. Coverdale, 
Mr. Turner, Mr. Whittingham, Mr. Sampson, Mr. D. 
Humfrey, Mr. Leaver, Mr. Crowly, and others, that la- 
hour to root out the zveeds of popery; grace and peace. 
Where in one place he thus expresseth himself: " I wot 
" not by what devilish cup they [the bishops] do make 
" such a diversity between Christ''s word and his sacra- 
" ments; that they cannot think the word of God to be 
" safely enough preached and honourably enough handled, 
" without cap, cope, or surplice ; but that the sacraments, 
" the marrying, the burying, the churching of women, and 
" other church service, as they call it, must needs be de- 
" clared with crossing, with coping, with surplicing, with 
" kneeling, with pretty wafer-cakes, and other knacks of 

" popery. Well, by God's power, we have fought with 

" the wolves, for these and such like popish chaff, and God 
" hath given [us] the victory: we have now to do with the 
" foxes, [i. e. the bishops.] Let us not fear," 
Danger As for the papists, the other adverse party to the legally 

from pa- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 9 

established church, and to the queen, the supreme governor CHAP. 
thereof on earth, the great apprehensions of them were not 



yet blown over; though the rebellion in the north was now Anno 1570. 
quieted. Cox, bishop of Ely, was an old experienced court- P^'^'^^J- ^J^'- 
divine, and that by long observation knew what a dangerous very sensi- 
sort of men they were, and what a mortal hatred' they bore 
to the gospel, and all those about the queen that sincerely 
professed it. He was therefore, in this juncture, very soli- 
citous for secretary Cecil, the queen's faithful and able 
counsellor, who, for his wisdom and stability to religion, 
was hated by them : and in this dangerous and rebellious 7 
time, I find him in one of his letters making this prayer for 
him : " I heartily wish you from our heavenly Father and 
" his dear son Christ, the full strength of his holy Spirit, to 
" the confusion of the enemies of God and of the queen's 
" majesty, and of us all, God's true servants, and her grace's 
" true subjects." But let me open some light into the prac- 
tices of papists at this time. 

And in order to that, I shall begin with an embassy the An embassy 
queen despatched into France to the king in the month of ^'j""^,^ ^^j. 
August, by Francis Walsingham, esq. sir Henry Norris, the French 
knt. then her resident there. The chief and main of his ^ 
business was for the sake of the reformed religion, and for 
an accord between that king and the protestant princes, viz. 
the prince of Navarre, the prince of Conde, and the admi- 
ral, with the rest being the king's subjects. That it might 
be made as favourable, for the reasonable contentation and 
surety of the said princes and their party, as might possibly 
be : to the maintenance and continuance of them in the li- 
berty of their consciences: there being no small labour 
made by some directly to impeach this accord, and by others 
(though not openly) to withstand it, yet by double dealing 
in the granting of their requests to ruin the said princes and 
their party in the end. " Therefore," as it ran in the Her in- 
queen's instructions to the said ambassadors, " she found it j^^ie? am- 
" the more necessary to use all good means to countervail bassadors. 
" such contrary labours, and to procure not only a good 
" accord, but therewith a continuance thereof; as in a mat- 



10 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, " ter which in her conscience and honour she thought good 
'■ " botli for the king and his whole estate."" 



Anno 1570. The petitions and demands those protestant princes made, 
Tiiose pro- ^^^6, first, that they might be restored to his grace and fa- 

testants' ' ' J » ^ 

petitions vour as humble and faithful subjects ; and consequently, to 
mandr' ^^^^c him with their lives, lands, and goods. Next, that 
they might be permitted to serve Almighty God by the ex- 
ercise of Christian religion, according to their profession and 
to the quietness of their consciences. And lastly, that they 
might have assurance thereof in some better sort than by 
former experience they had : which petitions the queen had 
herself considered. And the first she esteemed a thing most 
meet for a king to grant both readily and bountifully. The 
second was, she said, to a king most profitable to embrace 
and accept. And the third, a thing in the sight of God 
most commendable and needful of all Christian subjects. 
And the last, a matter of the most moment to be regarded, 
for a full perfection of all the rest. But this peace and 
accord between the king and his said subjects was finished 
before Walsingham came. So that when he came, he con- 
gratulated the king on the said good accord ; and offered 
on the queen s part all her endeavours to further the good 
continuance thereof. And he gave the admiral and his 
party to understand the queen's good intentions in sending 
of him at that time ; and to make it appear how careful 
she was of their well doings. 
The arch- The archbishop of Cassils in Ireland, a papist, was an 
c ts'ii's dis- ^^^^^ ^" Spain ; and (whether it were to reconcile himself to 
covers to the quccn, or upon some personal pique) comes in January 
ilm steuk- this year 1570 into France; where, at Paris, resided AVal- 
ley's com- gingham, the queen's ambassador : to whom in March fol- 
king of"'^ lowing he made a visit. When Walsingham in discourse 
^P"'"- asked him concerning the report that went abroad of the 
^ king of Spain's intent of invading Ireland, the archbishop 
then brake, and said, that about September last, the last 
year, viz. 1569, one Steukley arrived in Spain with a de- 
sign to address to that king for an army to reduce Ireland 
Camd. ^Q i^-g obedience : who (as Camden writes) took upon him 

Kliz. ji. 153 
aud 180. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 11 

with 3000 Italians or Spaniards to reduce all Ireland under CHAP, 
the subjection of the Spaniard ; and with one or two pin- 



naces to fire the English fleet. This bravo, soon after his Anno 1570. 
coming to Madrid, before he went to the king, came to the 
said archbishop, (as he related it himself to Walsingham,) 
telling him he came to see him there, whom he knew to be 
catholicly bent. And that his intent in coming into that 
country was to deal with the king of Spain about the re- 
ducing of the kingdom of Ireland to his government, 
whereby heresy might be expelled, and true catholic reli- 
gion planted. And that therefore he, by his interest with 
the president of the council, would procure him access to 
the king. But upon some pretences, as the archbishop 
proceeded in his relation to the ambassador, of loyalty to 
the queen and love to his country, not to see it under any 
government than that of the queen and her successors, he 
declined Steukley's motion. Whereupon he apphed him- 
self to duke Feria, who brought him to the king : and the 
king had conference with him; used him honourably; and steukiey 
appointed him a very fair house, and gave him 6000 ducats, ['"^"""J'^ ,, J 
and a daily allowance for the maintenance of his table : so that king. 
that he spent thirty ducats a day at least. 

The archbishop, continuing his speech, added, that within 
a day or two after, the king sent for him, and asked him 
concerning Steukiey. He said, he never saw him but there conference 
in Spain: but that he had heard of him, that he had been ];;=;;^-«^^^°^^''« 
a pirate upon the sea, of life dissolute, in expenses prodi- the archbi- 

r.., •! /• i ^ • shop con- 

gal, of no substance, neither a man of any great account m ^erning 

his country ; notwithstanding he heard he was a gentleman Steukiey; 
born, and descended from a good house. Then the king 
told him of the offer he had made touching the business of 
Ireland ; and that he had assured him, that he had dealt so 
before his coming with the Irish nobihty, as the king would 
find them ready to receive such forces as he should send. 
The archbishop wished the king not to be so light of be- 
lief : for that Steukiey was not a man of that credit with 
the Irish nobility, to be able to bring any such matter to 
pass ; whom they knew to be but a shifter, and one who, 



12 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, for the maintenance of his prodigahty, sought to abuse all 
men. The king said, that beside his own report, he was 



Auno 1570. recommended unto him by his ambassador, who wished the 

king to credit whatsoever he reported. 
And be- Duke Feria afterwards meeting the archbishop, asked 

Feria and ^is opinion of Steukley. To whom he said, he feared he 
the archbi- would abusc the king. Then said Feria, the likelihoods 

shop con- 111- PI • 1 

cerniiig that Steukley shewed the kmg oi the enterprise were such, 
^""' as they gave great cause why the king should embrace the 

^ same. For beside the Irish nobility, added he, he had won 
a great number of the garrison to be at his devotion, as well 
soldiers as captains. Well, said the duke further, I per- 
ceive you are not willing the enterprise should go forward: 
and therefore you seek to deface the gentleman whom we 
honour here with the name of duke of Ireland. To which 
the archbishop replied, that that title and calling was more 
than ever Ireland was acquainted with. The effect of this 
was, that Steukley came afterwards and challenged the arch- 
bishop, and told him, if he were not a man of the church, he 
would be revenged of him for the report he made of him. 
And when Walsingham had asked the archbishop, when 
Steukley was likely to embark, he answered, about the end 
of April : and now it was March. 
Complete All this was the matter of discourse this archbishop had 
dor', p! 59. with Walsingham ; as he gave the queen's secretary Cecill 
intelligence in his letter : though he had a suspicion even 
of this archbishop, notwithstanding all this that he had said. 
He pretended by all this discovery to shew himself loyal to 
the queen ; and by this means to obtain a pardon from her 
majesty, in leaving his own country without her leave ; and 
The archbi- to have liberty to return back again : and that archbishopric 
shop's end \^^y^„ ^ow void, and his successor dead, that he might be 

in this dis- o ' ^ £. 1 • 1 • 1 

covery, viz. restored to it again. This man being put out of his bishop- 
shil'eVto ^^c about two years past, (viz. 1568,) and another substi- , 
his arciibi- tutcd in his room, made a great disturbance and outrage : 
s opiic, .^y)jj^.|j \^Q confessed to Walsingham : whereby he had justly 
inciu-red the lord deputy's displeasure. But in excuse of 
his departure without the queen's leave, added, that it was 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 13 

of necessity to seek maintenance otherwhere. That the king c H A P. 
of Spain relieved him, and honourably entertained him, and ^- 
gave him yearly 2000 ducats pension. But before he came Anno 1570. 
to Spain he was at Nantes in France. 

Certain it is, that what this archbishop of Cassils or Loses his 
Cashel had communicated to Walsingham gave great of- s'^Tn** '" 
fence in Spain, and begat great jars between Steukley and 
him. Which the earl of Leicester observed to Walsingham The reason 
in a letter he wrote him April 1571, acquainting him, that °,^ilhen^'"^ 
his brother, sir Henry Sidney, deputy of Ireland, who was 
then arrived in England, had shewed him the same ; and 
that it had caused such a great dislike of the archbishop in 
Spain, that it might possibly recover him, and get him into 
England. This archbishop's name was Maurice Gibbon, 
alias Reagh : and having the pope's bull for the said arch- Cox, Hi- 
bishopric of Cassil or Cashel, by virtue of that demanded Jn'.^^^p; 
possession of the same : which being refused, the other bar- 327. 
barously stabbed him with his skean. But the archbishop 
escaped with his life, and the other fled abroad. 

But to return to Steukley. He came into such favour Tiie honour 
with the king of Spain, that he knighted him : and he was sp^in Xi°^ 
commonly called there duke of Ireland. This Walsingham Steukky 
took notice of to Olivarez, the king of Spain's ambassador jq"'""^" 
at Paris. To which he answered, the king was willing to 
entertain a gentleman of countenance that offered him ser- 
vice, and to honour such with the honour of knighthood. 
Then Walsingham acquainted him with the course of 
Steukley's life : and also how little he had to take to. And 
therefore willed him to consider how unworthy he was of 
any honour or entertainment in respect of himself. But 
being, said AValsinghau), a rebel unto the queen's majesty, 
with whom the house of Burgundy had had so long amity, 
this gave her occasion to think that kind of amity not to an- 
swer best to such good-will as ordinarily was professed. 

Our historian tells us moreover, what honours the pope Titles con- 
also conferred upon this dissolute man, viz. the title of mar- c^'f "P"" 

x^ f • 1 ^teukJey by 

quis ot i^einster, earl of Wexford, and viscount and baron ti'e pope. 
of other places in Ireland: and that in a vapour he pro- eJI^ p. 230. 



14 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, mised to make the pope''s base son king of Ireland. The 
same historian, under the year 1578, gives an account of 



Anno 1570. his death ; being slain in a battle in Africa with the king of 
Fez, going thither with Sebastian king of Portugal. For 
after the king of Spain had bestowed much upon him, he 
found him at length not worthy of any more. And his 
practices were abated in Spain, by discovery at last of his 
looseness and insufficiency : as secretary Cecill wrote to 
Walsingham about him. 
Prepara- But upon the said English ambassador at Paris, his in- 

inteHiKence tcUigence in France, and other intelligences from Spain, 
of invasion concerning the invading of Ireland, the queen sent a gen- 
tleman out of hand to that king, to understand the Span- 
iard''s intention ; and who should deal plainly and roundly 
with him in that matter. And in the mean time she gave 
order, against all events, for the withstanding of any enter- 
prises ; as well by sending of ships to the seacoasts of Ire- 
land, as by other land forces to be sent thither. And or- 
dered her ambassador there in France (if he should have 
any occasion) to deal with the Spanish ambassador, and to 
shew him these reports. And that if he should hear of the 
queen''s preparations by sea and land, he should tell him, 
that it was for her defence : and that in case she should be 
offended, she would use them not only for defence, but to 
offend for her own revenge : as she wrote in her letter to 
Walsingham her ambassador. Of these affairs now hap- 
pening concerning Ireland, our historians are silent : and 
therefore I relate them the more particularly, and proceed 
therein. 
The ill con- And it appears that that realm was but in an ill condi- 
ti'iat kin°-- tion, consuming the English treasure. Letters, August the 
dom at this 30th, from the council in Dublin the last year, made all 
MSS. Ceci- things almost desperate ; viz. " That the Butlers, brothers 
lian. t< ^Q ^Q gaj-l of Ormond, increased their rebellion, and 

" would not cease upon their said brother''s motions made 
" to them. And that the rebels in the north were coming 
" to invade the English pale. That the power of the pale 
" was not able to withstand both the north and the But- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 15 

" lers. This secretary Ceclll wrote in his private letters CHAP. 
" to his friend Nicolas White, seneschal of Wexford. And 



" that they, the queen's council, would attend to the north, Anno 1570. 
" and leave the Butlers." And many such advertisements 1 1 
came daily. But that other news from Ireland came, that 
the Butlers now had stooped to the earl their brother ; and 
that the lord deputy had had good success. Yet the wars 
and hostilities went on this year, and peace went rather 
backward than forward : insomuch that the secretary called 
it, a loathsome charge to the crown : adding, PcBue mihi 
nauseam movet ista profusion et inutilis inanitas Jisci re- 
git: praying God to send some stay. 

Some Frenchmen the latter end of this year, underhand, The French 
had invaded unhappy Ireland by De la Roche ; who dis- "^^^^l^^^ 
covered to a kinsman, that the enterprise in Ireland was to against 
have executed a plot of conquest devised by Peter Strozza ^-^^^y^ \^^_ 
in king Henry's time : and which, if the match then in handters. 
between Monsieur and the queen went not forward, he was 
promised he should go in hand withal. This was the 
queen's secretary's intelligence to Walsingham, ambassador 
in France. For notwithstanding the correspondence be- 
tween the French king and queen Elizabeth at this time, 
one De la Roche, of that king's chamber, was the captain 
that led a party of French that had lately made an invasion 
in Ireland : but, it seems, without success. And of this the 
queen was informed from her viceroy in Ireland. The fac- 
tion of Guise were the great doers in this enterprise. This 
when Walsingham had complained of to the French king, 
he denied his knowledge of it : though it was thought he 
was privy to it. 

It was discovered to be the pope's nuncio that laboured By the mo- 
to draAv Monsieur, the king's brother, into this practice : p^p^.f „„„. 
promising for the maintenance thereof, to be paid in Paris cio to Mon- 

r o j.„ sieur. 

100,000 [crowns] for his encouragement ; and made no dit- 
ficulty to bring the same to pass, in respect of the great in- 
telligence that they had both in England and Ireland. And 
that the same being won, it would be an easy step to a step 
of more consequence ; meaning England. But that if Mon- 



16 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, sicur would not accept this promise, yet notwithstanding it 
was resolved to go forward : and that the bill of credit for 



Anno 1 570. the Said sum of an hundred thousand crowns was already 
Waising- at Paris. All this an intelligencer employed by sir Henry 
ters. Norris, ambassador before Walsingham, came and informed 

Walsingham of, Norris being gone home. And about this 
time Steukley in Spain presented an instrument unto the 
king thei'e, not only subscribed with the names of the most 
part of the Irish nobility, but of divers of England of good 
quality, ready to be at his devotion. But further concern- 
ing De la Roche, Walsingham told the French king, that 
he had been in Ireland, and had left certain soldiers there ; 
De la Roclie for whose safety he, the said De la Roche, had brought to 

bungs hos- Pi-^nce two sons of one Fitz-Morice to be in place of hos- 
tages irom X 

Ireland. tages : who then remained at Brest in Brittany, at a kins- 
man of La Roche's. 
12 By the means of duke d*" Alva's seizing the effects of the 
Cautiously J^nfflish merchants in the Netherlands the last year, and 

to treat *= . .... •' 

with duke the quecn in reprisal seizmg of the Netherlanders' goods 
abouurade ^^^^ merchandises in her dominions, all the ancient traffic 
because of between England and the Low Countries was at a stay : 
league'^and ^"^ great damage was done by the English to the Low 
prince of Country merchants at sea, by taking their ships, and by the 
trade removed to Hamburgh and other parts. But after 
some time, about this year, or near it, a motion was made 
for the renewing of trade and intercourse between the two 
nations. Concerning this it was now seriously debated, and 
thought convenient to proceed more cautiously with Spain; 
both because of the popish league against the state of reli- 
gion reformed, and of the Spanish malice against the queen 
and her realms : also withal lest any commodities might be 
carried from hence to Flanders, that might turn to the dis- 
advantage or inconvenience of the prince of Orange and the 
reformed in those countries : that were now struffo-lino: for 
their liberty and religion, against that tyranny and oppres- 
sion then exercised in those countries. 

And for the better understanding of these things, and 
how matters stood between England and Spain at this junc- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 17 

ture, one Aldersey, an understanding merchant, thus wrote CHAP. 
to Cecill wisely, and to the reputation of his memory. 



Whereas it hath pleased the queen's majesty to agree Anno 1570. 
" unto the opening of traffic between this realm and the A'^^^^sey a 

. . ^ ^ . . merchants 

" dominion of the king of Spain, I doubt not to her ma- letter to 

"jesty's honour and the benefit of the common weal; so [jjTreLpon. 

" do I assuredly think the duke of Alva, &c. hath sought i^^^- Ce- 

" and doth embrace the same, in hope thereby the sooner 

" to supplant and overthrow the prince of Orange, with the 

" states of Holland and Zealand. And considering the de- 

'•' termination of the papistical league, and the particular 

" malice of the Spaniard, and namely, the duke of Alva, it 

" is greatly to be feared, that if God should permit the 

" said prince and countries to be overthrown, there would 

" small faith be kept towards her majesty, her highness' 

" realms and subjects. Wherefore there is great cause to 

" proceed in good policy : how by the use of this traffic 

" the said prince, &c. may take the least hurt that may be. 

" Wherein hoping of your lordship's goodness to take my 

" meaning in good part, I am bold to shew my simple 

" opinion. 

" I hope there is no need by this agreement to permit 
" any more liberal trade of her majesty's subjects into the 
" Low Countries, but by the merchant adventurers, and of 
" the staple, who have privileges in the said Low Countries; 
" whereby of right, and by long use, other her majesty's 
" subjects might not occupy into the said countries with 
" any commodities of this realm more than to buy those 
" country commodities. 

" If the same and none other may be permitted by her 13 
" majesty, there may so good order be taken, that by, &c. 
" only those commodities of the realm, &c. to be vented, 
" may be shipped into the Low Countries ; which can no 
" way so much hurt the prince [of Orange,] Holland, and 
" Zealand, as may the carrying of corn, wood, hay, coal, 
" beef, butter, and other victuals into Flanders and other 
" places under the duke of Alva. 

" And herein is to be considered, that as most of these 



18 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " things be stolen out in creeks, and in the night time, and 
" by pretence of going from port to port within the reahn 



Anno 1570. " without paying any custom ; so may greedy desire of gain 
*' (which is hke to be great) cause so much to be trans- 
" ported, as this realm may thereby find lack. And as the 
" doers thereof be for the most part fishermen, and of other 
" occupations, who leave their faculties to follow these 
" things, and much more will do if they may be suffered ; 
" even so the restraining of them will enforce them to use 
" their several sciences, to the benefit of the realm. 

" Where it may be said, the Flemings will send these 
" things, and serve the said parties very amply ; it is to be 
" answered, that those of Zealand will by no means suffer 
" them ; but so to keep the coast of Flanders and other 
" places, that the Flemings shall not stir : and yet none of 
" them restrained by her majesty, &c. 

" And if they of Zealand may without offence restrain 
" such Englishmen as shall carry things into those places 
" which shall not be free by the said privileges, nor allowed 
*' by such order as may be taken with them of Zealand, 
" they will cause much better order to be kept in that be- 
*' half than any provision of her majesty will do. 

" And these things well provided for, in my judgment 
" the prince and the said countries shall receive small hurt 
" by this opening of traffic, they having liberty to uee this 
" realm as other subjects of the king. And so craving par- 
" don for my boldness, I pray God long to preserve your 
*' honour in health. 

" Your lordship's at command, 

" Tho. Aldersey." 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 19 

CHAP. II. 14 

A determination of the general assembly of the clmrch of 
Scotland, Jbr obedience to the new king'. Queen Eliza- 
beth in perplexity about restoring of the Scots queen. 
Match Jbr the queen with the French Mng-''s brother. 
The queen hoxv affected towards it. Astrological inquiry 
into her nativity about it. The pope's bidl against the 
queen set up at Paris. A secret jjopish design against 
England. Wrecks upon the coast of Sussex claimed by 
the bishop) ()f Chichester. A suit with the lord culmiral 
about it. Proclamatio7is about pirates. The governor 
of the Isle of Wight sends out ships ctfter them. 

JL HE affairs of Scotland and the Scots queen affected Eng- Anno 1570. 
land also at this time. And the fear of popery from that ^" '^'^"'^" 
quarter disturbed this kingdom : insomuch, that those of queen de- 
the court, and the rest of the land that favoured the re-i'"**^''- 
formed religion, were secretly well-disposed to the action in 
that realm, of deposing that queen, and to the succession of 
her son. Which was done by the states of parliament there. 
And a solemn decree was also made by the Scotch clergy 
in their general assembly in the month of July, 1570, and 
obedience accordingly enjoined to be given by all the clergy 
to the king, and to pray for him. Which I have seen 
among the papers of Randolph, the queen's ambassador to 
that kingdom : which also was printed, and ran in this 
tenor. 

" A determination of the general assembly of the church of 
" Scotland, halden in Edinburgh, the 1th day of July, 
" 1570, anent the obedience to be given to the king's ma- 
^^ jesty his authority, and Jbr praying Jbr his grace'' s 
" prosperous reign, &c. 

" It was concluded by the whole assembly convened, as Decree of 
" wel superintendents, commissioners to plain churches, *''*^ general 

. '. ... . assembly of 

" commissioners of towns, universities, provinces, churches, that diurcli 
" baronies, and gentlemen, with uthers of Christes congre- '?''"b«- 

' c5 ' es dience to 

" gation : that as it hath pleased God of his mercy to erect tiie new 
" the authority of the king's majesty over us by publicte '"^" 

c 2 



so ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, "consent of the estates in parlament, even so the same 
" ought and should be universally obeyed throughout this 



Anno 1570. a realm, without acknowledging any other authority, what- 
" soever title be pretended. 

" Moreover, al ministers are commanded, in their pub- 

" licte sermons, to pray publictly for the preservation of his 

" majesties person and authority : assuring them, that al 

15" such as shal be found negligent or inobedient heirinto, 

*' shal be punished as the church shal think expedient. 

*' And further pronounceth, that if any subject or sub- 
" jects of this realm (of what estate they) shal presumptu- 
" ovisly take upon them to inhibit any minister to obey this 
" ordinance of the general church, what cloik or colour so- 
" ever he or they shall pretend, or by manasing make im- 
" pediment unto them, so that without fear ministers may 
" not serve God in their vocation ; that in that case such 
" trou biers shall be summarlie, upon the notoriety of the 
" fault, excommunicate ; and shal be halden as rotten mem- 
" bers, unworthy of the society of Christ''s body, &c. 

" And last, commandes al superintendents of commis- 
" sioners of provinces to cause this determination to be 
" published in al parish churches, that none hereafter pre- 
" tend ignorance, &c. Geven in the general assembly of 
" the church of Scotland, and third session therof. Sub- 
" scrived by the clerk of the same : day, year, and place 
" aforesaid. 

" M. J. Gray." 

Queen Eli- Queen Elizabeth, apprehensive of her danger from the 
disposed to- popish party in Scotland, and queen Mary's friends there, 
wards the ,,g^ remained unresolved what to do ; and whether to con- 

Scotsqueen, J . i i • 

deposed. sent to what was done m Scotland towards then- queen. 
However, her own security inclined her on the other hand ; 
that is, to favour what the protestants had done : of whom 
she was better assured that they were on her side. And 
therefore, when commissioners were sent out of Scotland to 
the queen in March to adjust the Scots queen''s affairs, (viz. 
the bishops of Galway and Ross, and lord Leviston, on 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 21 

that queen''s part; and earl Morton, and two more, on the CHAP. 
king's,) and both parties were very stifF; one, for the queen 



II. 



to be restored to her government; the other, for the king Anno 1570 
her son to reign : the English court stood variously affected : 
which the earl of Leicester, in the said month of March, 
gave this account of to Walsingham, then the queen's am- 
bassador in France : " That the queen was scrupulous about The ac- 
" it. The unworthiness of their queen to rule she granted : of'by th7^ 
" but the instances of their cause, to depose her from her «^' ' "^ ^ei- 
" dignity, she could hardly be persuaded in. And so she 
" remained much perplexed. That on the one side she 
" was loath to set her up, or to restore her to her estate 
" again : and on the other side, as loath to defend that 
" 'which she was not yet well persuaded to have justice 
" with it. Between these, her council sought for these two 
" things, viz. that herself might be preserved in surety, 
*' and the true religion maintained assuredly. For that as 
" the state of the world stood, and upon true examination 
" of this cause, it appeared, that both the ways were dan- 
*' gerous touching the queen of Scots. For as there was 
" danger in delivering her to her government, so there was 
*' danger in retaining her in prison : her friends abroad be- 
*' ginning to speak proudly for her." Thus the earl of 16 
Leicester. But it was known, that all that was done in 
this conference was sent by special messengers from the 
Scotch queen's party to the French king, the king of Spain, 
and the pope; and succours conveyed at this very time 
from them ; as appears by a paper of secretary Cecill, which Annai. Re- 
may be read in the Annals of the Reformation. !°""" ^\ 

"^ . 57- vol. I. 

Religion was also very much concerned this year, in the How the 
motions that were made about queen Elizabeth's marriage. ''"''''° f""*^ 

^ ^ affected to- 

I'or though her subjects earnestly desired her marriage, towards 
secure a protestant succession, yet they dreaded her match- ^J^f,.' 
ing with a popish foreign prince. But even they that were 
in the true English interest, out of a fear of the Scots 
queen's succession, could have been glad to see her mar- 
ried with whomsoever it were, equal in dignity with herself. 
This appeared, and also how the queen herself pretended, 

c3 



matching 

■ance. 



22 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, for the good of her people, to be affected that way, by ex^ 
_______ pressions in secretary Ceciirs correspondence (in a letter 

Anno 1570. dated March the 3d) with Walsingham, ambassador in 
The secre- prance: instructing him from the queen, "That if any 

tary's in- . *^ . i i • • i ■ i 

structions " should deal With hmi to understand his mind, in the case 
to Waising- ii ^ ^ marriao-e, he might sav, that at his coming from 

nam in that & ' . 

aftair. " England, upon some common bruit of such a matter con- 

Amb!' " cerning her majesty and monsieur d''Anjou, the French 
" king's brother, he [Walsingham] was assured, that her 
" majesty, upon consideration of the benefit of her realm, 
" and to content her subjects, resolved to marry, if she 
" could find a person in estate and condition fit for her to 
" match withal. And that she meant not to marry but 
" with a person of the family of a prince." And that 
Walsingham should say, that he could not by any means 
perceive, that her majesty was altered from that disposition. 
So as that he might conclude, that if any such matter 
should be moved to him by any meet person to deal there- 
in, he would advertise her majesty thereof. And that her 
majesty Avould have him so to do. And then that wise 
counsellor added his own judgment; " That if God should 
" permit this marriage, or any other, to take place, he 
" [Walsingham] might well judge, that no time was to be 
" wasted, otherwise than honour might require. That he 
" was not able to discern what was best : but that he saw 
" no continuance of her quietness without a marriage. And 
" that therefore he remitted the success to Almighty God." 
But this, he said, he writ privaticly to him, as he trusted it 
should remain to himself. How matters proceeded in duke 
d'Anjou's courtship of the queen will be shewn under the 
next year. 
Tiie queen's And because the welfare of the nation did so much de- 
'Iiiheii hi'to' P^'iitl upon the queen''s marriage, it seems some were em- 
foi her mar- ployed Secretly, by calculating her nativity, to inquire into 
her niarriage. For which art even secretary Cecill himself 
had some opinion. I have met among his papers with such 
a judgment made, written all with his own hand. Which 
17 judgment I am apt to believe (if not done secretly by him- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 23 

self) he had either from one BomeUus, a Dutchman, and CHAP, 
famous for physic and this art, and resiant in England 



about this time ; or perhaps from sir Thomas Smith : who Anno 1570. 
studied astrology much ; and by this scheme he found that 
the queen had not much inclination to marriage : yet that 
her wedlock would be very happy to her : that she should 
be somewhat elder when she entered into matrimony : and 
that then she would have a young man that was never be- 
fore married^: that she then should be in the 31st year =* And so 

1 1 1 rTAi the duke of 

of her age: that she should have but one husband. 1 hen Anjou was. 
for the quality of the man, that he should be a foreigner. 
That (especially towards the middle of her age) she should 
not much delight in wedlock : that she should obey and 
reverence her husband, and have him in great respect. 
That she should arrive at a prosperous married estate ; but 
slowly, and after much counsel taken, and the common ru- 
mour of it everywhere, and aft-er very great disputes and 
arguings concerning it for many years, by divers persons, 
before it should be effected. And then she should become 
a bride without any impediment. That her husband should 
die first : and yet she should hve long with her husband ; 
and should possess much of his estate. For children, but 
few, yet very great hope of one son, that should be strong, 
famous, and happy in his mature age : and one daughter. 
The calculation of all this, by judgment and aspects of the 
planets, is set down in the Appendix. It was drawn up, Numb, iv, 
no doubt, privately, for Cecill''s own instruction, to judge 
the better of so weighty an affair, by what might be ga- 
thered from astrology ; the good estate of the whole realm 
so much depending on the queen's marriage. 

The bull of pope Pius V. against queen Ehzabeth was The pope's 
set up in Paris at Pont St. Estienne, containing the self- (jueen^Eii- 
same matter, and on the same day (March the 2d) that zabeth set 

. ^ „ , 1 • 1 I "P in Paris. 

Felton set it up at St. Pauls, London : puttmg her under 
a curse, and all that adhered to her; and absolving her 
subjects from their oath of allegiance : and those that should 
obey her to be involved under the said curse. This inso- 
lent bull may be read at length in our histories ; and par- 

c 4 



24 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, ticularly in Camden's Elizabeth. The people of Paris 
flocked mightily together about it. The queen's ambas- 



Anno i670.ga(jQrg j-^gj^ \^ France were the lord Buckhurst and Mr. 
1570!°"'* Walsingham. Whose servant went boldly and tore it down, 
and brought it to his master. Who with the lord Buckhurst, 
after some conference, repaired to the king; and imme- 
diately broke with him in that behalf. He calling Walsing- 
ham unto him, asked him the contents of the said bull. 
Whereof being advertised, and Walsingham presenting to 
him so much of the said bull as was given him by his ser- 
vant, the king shewed himself very much moved thereat, in 
such sort as that both might very well see he was unfeigned. 
Compi. And forthwith he called Lansac unto him, to take order 
Arab. p. 49. ^^-^^^ ^-^^ judge criminal, for the searching out of the setter 
1 8 up of the same. And assured the ambassadors, if by any 
means he could be found, he should receive such punish- 
ment as such a presumption required ; considering the good 
amity between him and his good sister. Walsingham then 
shewed the king, that if he did not take order in this, the 
like measure might be measured to himself. To Avhich he 
answered, that he did perceive that very well; and that 
whosoever he were, that should seem to touch in honour 
any of his confederates, he would make account of him ac- 
cordingly. After Walsingham departed from the king, 
Lansac told him in his ear, that he had great cause to 
guess, that this was done by some Spanish practice. 
An Italian It may open a door to the dangerous practices that fol- 
gahis't Eng- lowed the next year, by reason of the Scots queen and the 
land in dukc of Norfolk, what was told to Walsingham the latter 
Coinpi. end of this. Which was, that one who desired his name to 
Ambass. ^^ -j^ cipher, gave him to understand, that a friend of his, 
in talk with an Italian bishop, (who came lately to Paris 
from the pope to congratulate the marriage of the French 
king,) had learned of him, that he had a practice in hand 
for England; which would not be long before it brake 
forth : and further shewed, that one merchant in that town 
had 14,000 crowns to be employed in that behalf. 
Bishop of i3j. Curteis was this year consecrated bishop of Chichcs- 

Chicliester's "^ ^ 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 25 

ter, in the room of Barlow, deceased. This bishop had CHAP, 
some controversy with the lord admiral for sea^wrecks ; ' 



which he claimed, as bishop of Chichester : not only such Anno 1570. 
as were within his lands and manors, but also some miles "^''V" *'^*' 

' _ wrecks upon 

out at sea, on the coast of Chichester. Whereupon a suit tiie coasts of 

1 o 1 -i- 1 p • • ii Chichester. 

was commenced, several wntmgs whereoi remani hi the paper- 
Paper-office. There it appears, that information was brought "ffi';e. 
against the bishop, that a hull of a ship was brought by upoiuT*^ 
one Walkaden, and seized by the lord admiral's deputy, in 
the haven's mouth of Chichester: which was sold by the 
bishop of Chichester, or his officers, to a servant of his : 
and was afterwards broken up by one John Bulke, his ser- 
vant. For the which there was process served upon the 
said John Bulke, out of the court of admiralty. There it 
was pleaded, that the said bishop had nine or ten slyages of 
iron, pieces of cables, sails, and divers other things, fetched 
from a ship sunk at the shoals, twelve miles from the land, 
about a year and half past. And that there was no process 
against the said fetchers of the same, because they were 
poor men ; and that it was thought his lordship would take 
order for it without suit. That although the said bishop 
had by charter wrakea maris, within his lordship's manors, 
lands, tenements, fees, and possessions ; yet he might not 
meddle with the hull of the said ship, considering it was a 
pirate's, and possessed and seized by the lord admiral be- 
fore it came near the place where the bishop did claim 
that privilege. The other goods were fet from the sea, 
twelve miles from the land. That the charter which the 
bishop shewed for the jurisdiction of admiralty, made in 19 
Harry the Sixth's time, was resumed by the statute of re- 
sumption in the twenty-eighth year of his reign. And be- 
sides, that the queen's majesty had now the lands where he 
did now so challenge the admiral's jurisdiction, so that un- 
less he had reserved the said jurisdiction when he departed 
with his lands to the queen, his said jurisdiction did pass 
away with the lands. This was the plea on the side of the 
lord admiral : what that on the bishop's was, I find not. 
But the charter of Henry VI. before mentioned, granting 



26 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CtlAP. the privilege of wrecks to this see, may be read in the Ap- 
' pendix. 



Anno 1570. This, it seems, had been a cause tried before, in king 

""' ■ ; Henry the Eighth's time, between a bishop of Chichester 

rai Lisle, that then was, and sir Arthur Lisle, lord admiral : who 

under king ^^^ laving: hands upon a wreck in the coast of Sussex. 

Henry VIII. Jo f 

yields this Whereupon the bishop of Chichester claimed it as his right : 
bishop" '^ ^"^ withal, to satisfy him therein, produced to him a copy 
of the foresaid patent from the said king Henry, granting 
to Adam the bishop all such privileges : who was bishop of 
Chichester anno 1445, 24 Hen. VI. Whereupon the said 
lord Lisle sent this letter to the said bishop. 

" My lord. 

His letter " In my hertiest wise, I commend me unto you, plcsyth 

shon'.^ "' " .yt y^^^ funderstond, that I have perused your graunt of 

Paper- a your libertyes ; which is sure and good, as I am informed 

" by lerned men. Wherfore I am very wel contented that 

" you sell this late wrack, as yours ; for I wyll not, in no 

" wyse, be against you nor your church, to break any such 

" your liberties or franchises, which by your graunt I per- 

" ceive you have : and also of old tyme, accordingly to the 

" tenour hereof, have occupyed and used. And thus fare 

" your good lordship hartily well. From London, this vii 

" of March. 

*' Your own Arthur Lysley." 

The wreck, about which the suit above mentioned was 
commenced, was, it seems, of a pirate's ship : which the ad- 
miral made his plea for claiming it from the bishop. I find, 
indeed, tlie pirates were now very stirring upon our seas. 
Prociania- Which gave occasion of tiie queen's issuing out a procKima- 
tion against • ^^^ted in Juuc this year from Hampton-court, against 

jiirates, and ' -J , . 

receiving them ; who made good spoils of the goods of the king of 

iiir sjK)! s. t;;p.^(i-'g subjects, as well as of others. These seemed to be 

chiefly Flemings. She therefore minding to give as little 

offence as possible to that great and proud king, and that 

he might have no real cause of ({uarrelling with her, (as he 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 27 

sought occasion,) as she had therefore restrained sea-rovers CHAP, 
by a strict proclamation the last year, so now by another 



she forbade any of her subjects on the coast of the sea toA"»o 1570. 

receive the commodities such pirates should bring to sell. 

It set forth, " how that by a special proclamation last year 

" given at Oteland, she had 'directed sundry good orders to 

" her ports, for the removing and expelling of all pirates 

" out of the narrow seas upon the coast of her realms. And 20 

" that thereupon several evil persons were apprehended in 

*' her ports ; and were, as it was notorious, executed of late 

" times as pirates. But that though no manifest pirates 

" were then known to resort to any her majesty's ports; 

" yet it was supposed, that, by the fraud and greediness of 

" some negligent officers in some small ports or creeks of 

" the realm, certain goods and merchandises were secretly 

" brought into those ports, as was said, from some ships of 

" war of other countries ; being upon the high seas, and 

" out of the danger of her majesty"'s castles or bulwarks 

" to be stayed ; and were thought to be by her ma- 

" jesty 

" For remedy, she eftsoons commanded all manner of 
" persons to have a more earnest regard to the observation 
" of all things contained in the foresaid proclamation, upon 
" several pains therein contained, and the same proclama- 
" tion now publish and observe." And her majesty pre- 
sently addeth, " that if any officer in any port or creek 
" should have any knowledge or information given of any 
" person that should buy, or any ways attain to any man- 
" ner goods or merchandises, brought in otherwise than or- 
" dinarily and publicly by merchants' ships, as lawfully 
" trading merchandise ; the said officers, for not appre- 
" bending the offender, and for not withstanding such 
*' frauds, to be deprived of their offices, and committed to 
" prison without bail, if their offices be of her majesty's 
" gift: and if by grant of any corporation, the whole li- 
" berty of the corporation, for such misuses, shall be se- 
" cured into her majesty's hands, and be extinguished, &c. 



28 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " Given at Hampton-court, the 6 of June, 1570, the xil of 
" her reiffn." 

■ ■ ^ - ■ O 

A1U101570. Notwithstanding, complaint was made, abovit the latter 
The go- gj^j ^f j.|jg year by the Spanish ambassador in Paris, to the 

veriior of ./ ' ^ i ^ 

the Isle of English ambassador there, of pirates, haunting the narrow 

semisthips ^^^^' (especially about the Isle of Wigiu,) that robbed the 

after pirates king's ships. It was true; but the crimes were committed 

seas. by some belonging to the prince of Orange : as Cecil wrote 

Corupi. tQ Walsingham : a thing the English could not help. But 

Mr. Horsey, governor of the Isle of Wight, w as despatched 

with authority to set forth certain ships, either to take them, 

or to drive them from the coasts. For he confessed to Wal- 

singham privately, that they were too much favoured lucri 

causa. But, however, he might avow truly, as he added, 

that the queen did not favour them. 



21 CHAP. III. 

Orders and injunctions for preventing Jr ays andjightings 
in London. Constables to carry staves. The queeix^s daily 
learned studies. Secretary Cecil created lord Burghley. 
His troubles. iSir Tho. Smith becomes secretary in his 
place. Walsingham ambassador in France^ his com- 
plaint. Sir Nicolas Throgmorton ; his death ; disease 
and character. Earl of Sussex. Mr. Thomas Cecils let- 
ter to him : zvho had recommended him to the queen. Sir 
Francis Engle field's presumptuous letter. Bishop Sandys 
nominated Jbr London : his excuse ; and acceptance : his 
first visitation. The Italian church in London. Fox^s 
second edition of his Martyrology. 

Disorders ]\| Q W for more domestic affairs, and observations of divers 

and frays , . 

in London, persons ol character or quality. T. his year, or near it, a 
notable proclamation was set forth by the lord mayor of 
London, for the regulation and good order of that great 
metropolitical city, not only upon the queen''s charge to 
him to preserve peace in that her chief city, but also be- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 29 

cause lately there had been great frays and fightings, and ^^.^^* 
murders too, committed in and about the said city, by 



cudgels, called bastinadoes^ and other weapons. The latter ^°"° ^^^"• 
forbidden to be drawn, and the former to be carried, by a 
very strict and well-penned proclamation published in print. 
Which all constables, for their better direction and remem- 
brance, were to have in their houses : and they enjoined to 
carry a white staff. It was entitled. For the suppressing 
ofjrays, and Jray-makers, and disturbers of the queeii's 
peace. 

" It began with the mention of a law of king Edward I. The lord 
" in the third of his reign ; wherein he did enact, that the prodama- 
" peace of the holy church and of the land should be well tio" fo«' 

iTi 1 • • 1 • ^•^ • Ji preventing 

" guarded, kept, and mamtamed m all pomts ; and that the same. 

" egal justice should be done, as well to the rich as to the 

" poor, without respect of persons. And that king Ri- 

" chard II. in his parliament the first of his reign, did in 

" like manner well and straitly command, that peace in his 

" realm should be surely observed and kept : so that all 

" his lawful subjects might from thenceforth safely and 

" peaceably go, come, and dwell, according to the law and 

" usage of the realm ; and that justice and right should be 

" indifferently ministered. It set forth likewise, that the 

" queen's most excellent majesty, as well by her own mouth, 

" as by her honourable council, had sundry times given 

" strait charge and commandment to the lord mayor and 22 

" his brethren the aldermen, and to their predecessors, that 

" they should well and diligently conserve and keep the 

" peace of our sovereign lady within the city and suburbs. 

" And forsomuch as a far greater confluence, as well of the 

" lords, great men, prelates, knights, and gentlemen of this 

*' land, and other the common people, was made to this 

" honourable city of London than to any other part of the 

" realm, as well for their suits in the queen"'s highness"* 

" courts, as for other their negociations ; and for these 

" causes there was required a far greater and more diligent 

" care, within the city especially, for the conservation of 

" her majesty*'s peace ; and chiefly for that this city is the 



so ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " principal city and spectacle of the whole realm; by the 

^^^- " government whereof all other cities and places do take 

Anno 1570. " example : and also, whereas the lord mayor is the queen's 

The mayor u hiplmess' lieutenant in the same city ; and by the char- 

the queen s " i p i i i 

lieutenant. " ters, liberties, franchises, and customs thereot, hath the 

" full execution of the queen's prerogative royal for the 

" conservation of the peace and defence of bearing armour 

" within all parts of this city and the suburbs thereof: 

Desperate " And forasmuch as of late times, within this honourable 

the dty" " ^1^7' ^"'^ t^^^ liberties and suburbs, upon quarrels begun, 

" as well in other parts of the realm, as within this city, 

" and in other places near adjacent, great and desperate 

" affrays have been foughten within the said city : where- 

" upon hath ensued horrible murder and desperate man- 

*' slaughters ; to the great displeasure of Almighty God, 

" and to the manifest contempt of the queen s most excel- 

" lent majesty, her crown and dignity : 

Reforma- « For reformation whereof the lord mayor, by the good 

lion there- ^^ ^^^ grave advice of his brethren the aldermen, did in the 

" queen's name most straitly charge, will, and command, 

" that as well all her majesty's subjects, as all other per- 

" sons, resorting, dwelling, or abiding within the said city, 

" or the liberties and suburbs of the same, shall from hence- 

" forth firmly keep, guard, and maintain in all points the 

No drawing " pcacc of our Said sovereign lady. And that no person 

weapon. ^ p^.pg^,i^e to draw or use any weapon to fight, upon pain 

" of forfeiture of the same, and to have prisonment of his 

" body during her majesty's pleasure, and to make fine 

" and ransom for the same offence. 

" And for the better repressing of such as be common 
" disturbers and breakers of her majesty's peace, he com- 
" manded all her majesty's good subjects diligently to assist 
" the constables, and other her majesty's officers, in pacify- 
" ing of affrays, and apprehending of such as were breakers 
" and disturbers of lier majesty's }x>ace, as often as they 
" shall be called upon by the said constables, upon pain of 
" imprisonment, and further punishment. And that the 
" constables within the said city aiul liberties may at the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 31 

time of such affrays be the better known, the lord mayor CHAP, 
did hereby charge and command, that every constable 



" should have a white staff, or rod, of the length of one ell Anno 1570. 
" and an half, and of the bigness of a standard shaft. 23 

., 1111 •!• Constable's 

" Which staff, or rod, he or his deputy shall bear in his ^hite staff. 
" hand at all such times as he shall go to the appeasing of 
" such affrays. And that no persons but constables only, 
" or their deputies, do use the like staves, upon pain of 
" imprisonment. 

" Herewithal charging all the constables, as often as Raise the 
*' need shall require, to raise the inhabitants of their several '" '^ ' 
" precincts, and to take and apprehend all such as shall 
" draw or use any weapon to fight, or make an affray, or 
" otherwise break her highness^ peace. And all such affray- 
" makers and peacebreakers to carry forthwith to one of 
" the counters, there to remain, until such further order be 
" taken with him or them, as may be to the terror and 
" example of others. 

" And further, he did straitly command and charge, that No cudgel 
*' no person presume to bear or carry in their hands, or 
" otherwise, within the city of London, and hberties thereof, 
" any manner of ragged or smooth cudgel, commonly called 
" a bastinado, either with a pike of iron or without. And 
" such as now offended therein, to be attached by the con- 
" stables, or their deputies, and brought before the lord 
" mayor or the recorder, or before some other justice of 
" peace of the same city ; there to receive such punishment 
" for the same as shall be thought expedient. And to the 
" intent that the constables may not excuse themselves by 
" ignorance, the lord mayor commanded every constable of 
" the same city to have one of these proclamations fixed 
" upon a wall within his dwelling-house, in a place meet 
" and convenient for the same. 

" Imprinted at London, by John Day." 

If we turn our eyes from the city to the court : the queen The queen 
was now at Windsor ; where, besides the public and weighty jj^j.^|.°j^j.^fj 
affairs of the state, she customarily set apart some hours in study. 
every day in her prfvy chamber in learned studies ; as in 



32 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, reading Greek, in conversing with ancient authors of philo- 
sophy and divinity, and in fair writing, and indicting let- 



Anno 1570. ters and discourses in divers languages. Wherein she used 
^°^" the conduct of the learned and ino-enious Roi^cr Ascham : 

Ascnan). ° ... 

which he looked upon as one of the greatest felicities of his 
life. And reproached the young gentry of the nation, nay, 
and many of the elderly divines, by her example. And 
with what words he addressed himself to them upon occa- 
sion of the queen's studies, to excite them to learning, is set 

Annals, ^ -, ■, 

vol. i. down elsewhere. 

p. 392. One of this learned queen"'s wise counsellors was sir Wil- 

cfecifcre ^^^'^ Cccil, her secretary of state, learned himself, and also 
ated lord a chief patron of learning and religion : whom this year she 
"•"gi^)- worthily advanced to the honour of a baron of this king- 
dom, by the title of baro7i of Burghley, the name of his 
noble house in Northamptonshire ; and still giving title to 
his eldest son's issue, the earls of Exeter : not advanced for 
24 his wealth, but for his worth. But he remained secretary 
for some time after: though it was thought then, (as the 
earl of Leicester wrote to Walsingham,) that ere long he 
should have the office of privy seal. If we will take his 
title from his own pen, thus he wrote to Nicolas White, his 
friend in Ireland; "My style is lord of Burghley^ if you 
" mean to know it for your writing, and if you list to 
" write, truly the poorest lord in England. Yours, not 
" changed in friendship though in name, JVllUam Burgh- 
" ley.'''' And about this time he wrote to Walsingham in 
France, March the 1st, 1570, subscribing his letter, By 
your assured, as I was wont, Wil. Cecil ; and as I am 
now ordered to write, William Burghley. And in his own 
Cecil's Journal he wrote, " that he was created baron the 25th of 
" February, being Shrove Sunday ; yet called lord Burgh- 
" ley some time before." 
The bishop The bishop of Ross, the Scottish queen's ambassador, 
com"ratuia- (^"^ ^"^' ^'^ pragmatical and seditious spirit committed to 
tion thereof the Tower,) thought fit, in a letter to this lord, to give him 
this compliment upon his new honour : " When I was 
" going to wreit your lordship's accustomed style of honour 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 33 

" upon my letter, I was warned of your late honourable CHAP, 
"promotion. Wherof I am most heartily glad. For your. 



vertue, wisdom, and experience hath mereit that, and Anno iS70. 
" much more. And happy is that commonwealth whair 
" the magistrates are so elected : et qmim aut sapientes 
" gubernant, aut guhernantes pMlosopliantur.'''' 

If this wise and good man took any delight in titles of Histroubies 
honour, it was some recompence to him for the severe trou-**" »°sers 
bles and dangers he was oppressed with, for his public and and reflec. 
faithful services. For the last year he had certainly sunk o„, 
under the malicious combinations of the great men at the 
court against him, had not the queen seasonably interposed ; 
knowing well the worth of the man, and, on that account, 
the zeal she had, and must have, for such a man, obliged 
her on his side. And this present year, 1570, also, he had ^ 

his share of trouble ; and the court itself was full of changes. 
And how it stood with him now, take his own words, in a 
letter to his dear friend in Ireland. "I cannot Avell re- Letter to 
" solve what to write, such are the varieties and changes of 
" time, that may alter my advertisements between my writ- 
^' ing and your receipt. Therefore I will write of things 
** not subject to change by me while I live. I do continue, 
" nor will desist, to love heartily the honest virtues which 
" I am persuaded are settled and rooted in you. For which 
" I love you, and so will, [however nuitable he found the 
" love of others to him,] except you make the change. I 
" am, as you have known me, (if not more,) tormented 
" with the blasts of the world : willing to live in calm 
" places ; but it pleaseth God otherwise to exercise me, in 
" sort as I cannot shun the rages thereof; though his good- 
" ness preserveth me, as it were with the target of his pro- 
" vidence, from the dangers that are gaping upon me. Vita 
" hominis est viilitia super terrain. I use no armour of 
" proof against the dart and pellet, but confidence in God 25 
" by a clear conscience." He vi^as a man that affected me- 
ditation and retirement, but could not be spared from the 
public. For to repeat one expression more, dropped in the 
same letter : " God send me some intermission from busi- 

VOL.II. D 



34 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " ness, to meditate privately upon his marvellous works, 
^- " and to exercise my thankfulness for his mercies and bene- 



Annoi57o " fits."" This was writ in May. But, instead of a recess 
Is made ^^^^^j business, the queen laid more weighty employment 

lord trea- ' ^ i'ii"^i>i 

surer, anno upon him not long afterwards. For upon the death of the 
'^^^" lord marquis of Winchester, lord treasurer, in the year 

1572, she advanced him to that place. But yet the draw- 
ing up of most of the state writings, as instructions to am- 
bassadors, and declarations, and letters, lay upon him even 
then, and long after. 
SirTho. He was succeeded in the office of secretary of state by 

ceeds secre- si^ Tlio. Smith, knt. another very faithful, wise, and learned 
tary of counsellor of the queen's: but not before June 24, 1571; 

state. 

who had late been the queen''s ambassador with the French 
^ kine;. He was first called to assist the said new baron in 

the office of secretary ; and was, in order to that, admittea 
to the council, March the 4th, as the earl of Leicester ; but 
the day before wrote to Walsingham, that the said sir Tho- 
mas should be admitted to the council to-morrow; and 
shortly after to be secretaiy. 
And WaU Happy was the queen in her secretaries ; who were both 
singham. f^j^j^f^^j^ j^^jp^ and diligent. Such was Mr. Walsingham, 
afterwards secretary, viz. in January 1573, being then ad- 
His neces- mitted joint-secretary with sir Thomas Smith. Which Wal- 
Fran'ceT '" sing'bam, by serving her majesty faithfully in his embassy, 
to his great cost, in housekeeping and intelligence, ran him- 
self deep in debt : insomuch that, in a letter he wrote this 
year from France to the earl of Leicester, he shewed him, 
that his charges grew to be so great, through the excessive 
Compj. dearncss of the place, (the like to which was never known,) 
' that necessity forced him at that present to make his moan 

unto his lordship, and to desire his aid, that he might not 
be, as he was, overburdened : whereby his care how to live 
might not hinder the only care he ought to have, how to 
serve. And that though his service could not deserve so 
much as he was allowed, yet his place and his state re- 
quired, he said, consideration to be had of the present time ; 
otherwise he should not be able to do that which should be 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. S5 

for her majesty'^s honour and service: adding, that always CHAP, 
change of time brought change of allowance. 



This year, February 12, died sir Nicolas Throgmorton, Anno 1570. 
knt. who had been the queen's ambassador iointly with sir^\'' Nicolas 

^ . Ihrogmor- 

Thomas Smith ; and employed in other embassies and mat- ton dies. 
ters of state : and a great creature of the earl of Leicester's. 
He died ex pleurisi et peripneumonia, as Cecil, in a diary Cecil's 
of his, expressed it. The loss of whom Leicester signified '^'^^' 
in a letter two days after (viz. February 14) to Walsing- 
ham, in these words : " We have lost, on Monday, our good His disease, 
"friend, sir Nic. Throgmorton: who died at my house, of\ji,^ ^^ 
"being there taken suddenly in great extremity on the *''« p^'j''*^- 
" Tuesday before. His lungs were perished. But a sud-Amb. 
" den cold he had taken was the cause of his speedy death. 
" God hath his soul : and we his friends great loss of his 
" body." Some apprehended his sudden death came by 
poison : but whether by Leicester's means, being in his 26 
house when he died, it is uncertain. He was a busy, in- 
triguing man. Cecil also wrote the same news of his death 
to the same correspondent, viz. " That he had been sick, 
" and past six or seven days, of a pleurisy, joined with a 
" disease called peripnenmonia ;'" adding piously, " ?ie doth 
" but lead the way to us.'''' Walsingham, in his letter back 
to Leicester, taking notice of the said sir Nicolas's death, 
(whom he called a dear friend to him,) gave this judgment 
of him ; " That by the lack of him, if it were private to his 
" friends, the loss were great : but if weighed generally in 
" respect to her majesty and the country, the want of him 
" would appear greater. For be it spoken, said he, with- 
" out offence to any, for counsel in' peace, and for conduct 
" in war, he hath not left of like sufficiency his successor, 
** that I know : concluding, that he would no more insist 
" upon that matter, unpleasant for his lordship to read, as 
" for him to write." He was buried in the church of St. 
Katharine, Creechurch, London ; where he hath a fair mo- 
nument, with his figure in stone. 

In the month of October the earl of Sussex was admitted sex taken 
into the privy council : who had merited well. He was '"*" *^® 

•I "^ privy coua- 

D 2 cil. 



36 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK lord president of the council in the north; and the last 
I • 

' year, being the queen's lord lieutenant in the north, he had 

Anno 1570. great success against the rebels in the north: and was ac- 
companied with a great many English gentlemen, volun- 
Mr. Tho. teers. And, among the rest, by Mr. Thomas Cecill, secre- 

Cecil, that . , , *' ■, n ^ ■ ■ ^ • 

served un- t^ry CeciU s eldest son : who, for his signal service, and 
the rebel" ^^^^^^ promise, expected some reward with others. And 
lion, re- having been particularly recommended unto the queen by 
by hTiu^to ^^ ^^^^ eQx\, he wrotc this handsome letter in acknowledg- 
the queen, ment to him ; expressive also of his modesty and virtue, 
agreeable to the spirit of his worthy father. 



Cecil's let 
ter to him 



" That it might please his good lordship : 
thereupon. " Understanding that such as served under his lordship 
iitus, B. 2. a jj^ ^i^g jg^^g rebelhon of the north did generally look at 
" this time, by his recommendation, for some recompence 
" of their service ; among whom, accounting himself one, 
" and his suit already being most favourably recommended 
" unto the queen's majesty by his lordship's special favour 
" unto him, more than any desert of his part ; he was the 
" bolder to remember himself unto his lordship by these 
" his letters: not as one, in respect of his particular gain, 
" meaning to be importunate with him; but as he, who 
" neither meant to attempt other men's credits in this be- 
" half, neither to be bound or thankful unto any, but unto 
" his lordship only. And should think himself happy, if 
" at any time it might be in him, by any service, to ac- 
" knowledge that duty and good-will which he remained in- 
" debted unto his lordship. In the mean time he remained 
" as his most bounden ; and wishing his lordship his heart's 
" desire." It was dated from Burghleigh, the 26th of De- 
cember, 1570; subscribing, 

" Your lordship's at commaunment, 

" Tho. Cecill." 

Sir Francis November the 18th, sir Francis Englefield wrote a pre- 

Englefield's , i i /» t • • i i 

presumptu- sumptuous letter to the earl, or Leicester, against the queen s 
?"//,?"*'"■ majesty's authority. It is only so briefly set down by Ce- 

diary. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 37 

cill in his diary: grounding it, as it seems, upon the pope's CHAP, 
late excommunication of her, and discharging her subjects _______ 



from their allegiance, and giving her kingdoms to the king Anno 1570. 
of Spain. He was a great popish zealot ; and had been a ^7 
privy counsellor to the late queen Mary, and master of her 
wards and liveries : but now living abroad upon pretence 
of his religion, and a pensioner to the king of Spain, held a 
correspondence with the queen''s enemies. Though the queen 
deserved better at his hands, as hath been related at large 
elsewhere. For she allowed him the revenues of his estate Annals of 
here in England; and retained only a small part of it for d, sg'^voi i 
the necessary maintenance of his wife ; who was an heiress, 
and brought a considerable fortune to him. And whereas 
he pretended his conscience for refusing, at the queen's com- 
mand, to return to his own country, because he might not 
enjoy his religion here ; she ordered her ambassador, then 
in Spain, to inform that king, (who had by his ambassador 
interceded for him,) that none of her subjects were dis- 
turbed for their religion, if they were quiet in the state; 
nor should sir Francis. But his seditious spirit and animo- 
sity against the queen and her authority still remained, as 
appears by writing after this manner to one of her chief 
statesmen. 

Grindal being the beginning of this year translated from Sandys, bi- 
the see of London to that of York, Sandys, bishop of Wor- '^^^^P "^^ ^^'^- 
cester, was concluded upon by the queen to be the fittest pointed for 
person to be removed into that room ; a man dear to the London. 
citizens, and earnestly desired by them to be tlieir pastor. 
Secretary Cecil, who was the great instrument of this in- 
tended remove, despatched a message to him, to acquaint 
him with the queen's resolution : and therefore prayed him 
to hasten to London for that end. But the good bishop, 
conscious to himself of his own inability for so great a 
charge, and not caring, perhaps, to be placed so much in 
view of the court and the whole realm, pleading withal his 
want of health, and bodily infirmity, laboured to decline it 
as much as he could. And thereupon sent up his chancel- 
lor to lay before the secretary his unwillingness on those 

d3 



38 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK accounts to remove from that see, where he hoped he did 
^' God service. But the chancellor did his message after that 
Anno 1570. manner, as though the bisliop were not in earnest, and as 
though it were but a faint excuse, and that he required 
only some further solicitation to accept it. Which caused 
a gentle reprimand of him from Cecil ; she^ving him, how 
the queen was not disposed to think of any one else for that 
place ; and likewise, that the citizens began to be much dis- 
pleased with him for his denial. This troubled him ; and 
concluding this a call from God to this bishopric, he sent 
up a pious and modest letter to the secretary, importing 
his no longer standing out; and that upon the queen's and 
council's summons he would obey and come up. Which 
letter, deserving to be inserted, as affording some character 
of this godly prelate, was as followeth : viz. 

" Sir, 

His excuse: " I shall humbly pray you not to be offended, that thus 

ance'of'the " often with my letters I molest your honour. My former 

preferment. « ^j^j whole suit was simple, my meaning plain ; saying of 

Cecil. " myself as I thought of myself: [i. e. declining to be 

28" translated, because of his mean opinion of himself and 

" his abilities.] If my chancellor hath otherwise insinuated, 

*' he did it without commission or knowledge of me. The 

" wants in mind, and the infirmities in body, were the chief 

MSS. Ceci- u causes of my refusal. Yet hearing by my chancellor that 

" you were offended with me, and understanding that the 

" queen's majesty misliked to alter her highness' determina- 

" tion ; and being sundry ways advertised of the clamour 

" of London against me for my refusal, and how that with 

" universal joyfulncss the people desired me ; this touched 

" my conscience very near, and made me write to your ho- 

" nour in such sort as I did. 

" Sir, your answer unto my man was such as hath won- 
" derfully troubled me. I looked for comfort and good 
" advice, but I fear to reap grief and displeasure. I have 
"given no just cause of offence: my conscience standeth 
" clear. I have ever honoured and loved you, before all 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 39 

" other men. I have been and will be very ready at your CHAP. 
" commaunment in what I can. Wherein I cannot other- 



" wise pleasure you, I daily in my prayers commend you Anno 1570. 

" unto Him, who can in all things benefit you. This to be^ 

" simple and true, I call the true God to record. My de- 

" serving being not to the contrary, I hope to find your 

" old wonted favour. You Avill not in honour and good 

" nature cast away your poor friend without all cause. If 

" you glome upon me, I shall serve Christ's church with 

" less comforth, and to less profit. The world understand- 

" eth that you are my good friend, and that I may do 

" somewhat with you. If the papists may learn misliking, 

*' they will easily over-crow me ; and it will much weaken 

" my work in God's church. I have, as it were, already 

" lost the earl of Leicester, because I wrote privately to 

" you, and not to him. He told my chancellor, that there- 

" with he Avas much offended. If you shall mislike of me 

" also, evil is my hap. 

*' Sir, if the queen's majesty and the privy council be not 
" otherwise resolved, if you bid me come up, I will, and 
" take that office upon me, whatsoever become of me; and 
" stand to your favour and courtesy. For in that matter 
" you shall wholly dispose of me. The full consent and 
" calling of the people of London doth not a little touch 
" me. If a meeter be already chosen, I shall be most glad 
" of it : so that I may hve here, and wheresoever, with 
" your favour and wonted friendship. Which I humbly 
" crave at your hands ; more esteeming the same, than the 
" best bishopric in the realm. Good master secretary, stand 
" my good friend. Commaund me, and I will obey. Bid 
" me, and I will do. Your advice will I follow fully. The 
" calling of the prince and of the privy council, the calling 
" and consent of the whole people, and my private friends 
" earnestly requiring the same, hath narrowly touched my 
" conscience; and moveth me to think that this calHng is 
" of God. I pray you write me three lines, that I may cer- 
" tainly know what to do, and whether I be fully dis- 
" charged, or no. Thus commending me wholly unto your 

D 4 



40 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " friendship, I commend you to the grace of God. In haste, 
^- " at Hartilbury, this 26th of April, 1570. 



Anno 1570. " Your lionoiir's in Christ, Ed. Wigorn." 

29 Thus the good bishop, partly to recover himself from the 
displeasure taken at him, and especially being now touched 
in conscience, that this universal appointment of him to 
the charge of London was a calling from God, was fain, 
with much submission, to comply, and revoke his former 
refusal. 
Holds his jje visited his diocese this first year of his translation. 

primary vi- i-i/-iii iiii- •• • • t i 

sitation. And January the 10th he held his visitation in L.ondon. 
Earl's Some Articles and Injunctions of the bishop then given the 
^°"jy'j^^"p clergy, I learn from a journal of one of these London mini- 
Joii. ijuper sters. " We are straitly charged, I. To keep strictly the 
Ei'ien. Ar- " Book of Common Prayer. II. No man to preach without 
tides for " a licence. III. To observe the appointed apparel: that 
" is, to wear the square cap, the scholar's gown, &c. And 
" in all divine service to wear the surplice. IV. None to re- 
" ceive strangers ; that is, any of other parishes, to their 
" communion. V. All clerks' tolerations to be called in." 
This will be better understood, when we are informed, that 
there had been divers ministers, who had private meetings 
in houses : where they preached, baptized, administered the 
communion after a new way, different from the public li- 
turgy, and also condemned it, and the established govern- 
ment of the church. For which, some of them were impri- 
soned. But such was the clemency of the government, 
that the former bishop, by permission and order of the 
privy council, granted them, after about a year's restraint, 
their liberty; and upon promise of their peaceable beha- 
viour, and a certain subscription, allowed them some tolera- 
tion. But they misbehaved themselves ; among whom the 
chief were Crane and Bonham. Which was the cause of 
this article of calling in all tolerations. " VI. That pa^ 
" rish clerks intrude not into the priests' duty, as before 
" they had sometimes done." That is, they had taken 
upon them, on some occasions, to say common prayer, and 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 41 

use some of the offices. This was presumption not to be CHAP, 
suffered ; and thought fit therefore to be taken notice of 



by the bishop in his visitation, and to be made one of his Anno 1570. 
articles to the clergy, no longer to suffer it. 

The Italian church in London, which first began in the The Italian 
time of king Edward VI. was continued under queen Eli-^^'^j'^j'^j'" 
zabeth, and had the favour of the state, for the liberty of 
religious worship for such Italians as embraced the re- 
formed religion. Whereof there were many residing in 
that city, both merchants and others, that had fled thither 
from some parts of Italy, where the gospel had been 
preached, but now persecuted. Which church was thought 
profitable also for the use of such English gentlemen as 
had travelled abroad in Italy. That by their resorting thi- 
ther, they might both serve God, and keep their knowledge 
of the Italian language : which by disuse they might other- 
wise have soon forgotten. But it was an observation now 
made, of the evil consequence of young men's travelling 
from hence into those parts, viz. that they lost all the good 
and sober principles they carried out of England with 
them, and became negligent of religion, and little better 
than atheists. Which caused Mr. Ascham about this time 
to say, " These men thus Italianated abroad, cannot abide 
" our godly Italian church at home. They be not of that 
*' parish, (they say,) they be not of that fellowship. They 
" like not the preacher : they hear not his sermons ; except 30 
" sometime for company, they come thither to hear the 
" Italian tongue naturally spoken ; not to hear God's doc- 
*' trine truly preached." 

This year John Fox set forth the second time his labo- The second 
rious book of confessors and martyrs. Which bore this title; f^x'^Ac^ 
The Ecclesiastical History, containing the Acts and Monu- ^^nd Monu- 
ments of things passed in every Wing's time in this realm ; 
especially in the church of England, principally to be noted. 
With a Jidl discourse of such persecutions, horrible troubles, 
and sufferings of martyrs; and other things incident, 
touching as well the said church of England, as also Scot- 



42 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK land, and all other foreign nations, Jrom the primUive 

times, till the reign of Mng Heniy VIII. Nexdy recog- 

Anno i570. niscd and enlarged hy the author John Fox. This was the 

first volume. 
The prole- The prolegomena before the work consisted of divers 
fo°re"the ^ tracts, viz. these that follow. The first is, " To the true 
work. <( ^^^ faithful congregation of Christ's universal church, 

" with all and singular the members thereof, wheresoever 
" congregated or dispersed through the realm of England, 
" a protestation or petition of the author, wishing to the 
" same abundance of all peace and tranquillity, with speedy 
" coming of Christ the spouse, to make an end of all mor- 
" tal misery." The running title is, A protestation to the 
whole church of England. The second is the epistle dedi- 
catory, entitled, " To the right virtuous, most excellent, 
" and noble princess, queen Elizabeth, our dread lady, by 
" the grace of God, queen of England and Ireland, de- 
" fender of Christ's faith and gospel, and principal go- 
" vernor both of the realm, as also over the said church 
" of England and Ireland, under Christ the supreme head 
" of the same, John Fox, her humble subject, wisheth 
" daily increase of God's holy Spirit and grace, with long 
" reign, perfect health, and joyful peace, to govern his 
" flock committed to her charge ; to the example of all good 
" princes, the comfort of his church, and glory of his blessed 
" name.*" 
T»ie book In which epistle, near the beginning, are these words, 
a-^nsT^*^ expressing what high displeasure the papalins conceived 
against him, only for exposing, by way of historical rela- 
tion, the barbarous usages expressed by them towards such 
as professed the gospel. " That when he first presented 
" those Acts and Monuments unto her majesty, &c. which 
" her rare clemency received in such gentle part, he well 
" hoped that those his travels in that kind of writing had 
" been well at an end : whereby he might have returned to 
" his studies again, to other purposes, after his own desire 
" more fit, than to write histories, especially in the English 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 43 

tongue. But that certain evil disposed persons, of intern- CHAP. 
perate tongues, adversaries to good proceedings, would ^^^• 



" not suffer him to rest; fuming and fretting, and raising Anno 1570. 

" up such miserable exclamations against the first appear- 

" ance of the book, as was wonderful to hear. A man (as 

" he expressed himself) would have thought Christ to have 

" been new born again, and that Herod and all the city of 

" Jerusalem had been in an uproar ; such blustering and 

" stirring was there against that poor book, through all 

" quarters of England, to the gates of Lovain. So that no To the 

" English papist almost in all the realm thought himself [^^^^'^^"^ 

" a perfect catholic, unless he had cast out some word or 

" other, to give that book a blow They clamoured 3 1 

" against it, to be full of lies, &c. As though there were no^^^ ^*"" 
histories else m all the world corrupt, but only this story ders cast 
" of Acts and Monuments. That with tragical voices they "P°" '*' 
" exclaimed and wondered upon it : sparing no cost (said 
" he) of hyperbolical phrases, to make it appear as full of 

" lies as lines And this only for three or four escapes 

" in that book committed. And yet some of them were in 

" the same book amended : they neither reading the whole, 

" nor rightly understanding that they read, inveighed and 

" maligned so perversely the setting out thereof, as though 

" neither any word in all that story were true, nor any 

" other story false in all the world." But then concerning 

such matters related by him that were errors indeed, he 

added, (for the satisfaction of all sober, unprejudiced readers, 

if not for the silencing of those calumniators,) "That ne- His pains 

" vertheless, in accusing these his accusers, he did not so *^ou"/' ; Jf " 

" excuse himself, nor defend his book, as though nothing ""eviewing 

" in it were to be spunged or amended, therefore he had aglin!" 

*' taken pains to reiterate his labours, in travelling out the 

" story again : doing herein as Penelope did with her web, 

" untwisting that she had done before : or as builders do 

" sometimes; take down again their buildings, either to 

" transpose the fashion, or to make the foundation larger : 

" so he in recognising this history had employed a little 



44 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " more labour, partly to enlarge the argument he took in 
" hand, partly also to assay, whether by any pains-taking 



Anno 1570.44 Jjq might pacify the stomachs or satisfy the judgments of 

" these importune quarrellers."" 
Other pre- A third prefatory tract to this book is addressed to the 
in this '^^'^ *true Christian reader, on this subject, What utility is to he 
^^°^ taken by reading of these histories. A fourth is written. To 

all the professed friends and followers of the pope's pro- 
ceedings ; four questions propounded to them. Then fol- 
low the names of the authors alleged in this book : and of 
the martyrs that suffered. Then are set down correctioiis 
of sundry faults, defects, and oversights in both volumes of 
this history : and next, certain cautions of the ^author to 
the reader, of things to be considered in reading this story. 
What these cautions are, I refer the reader to the Appen- 
Nunib.Vl. dix, to inform him in. Where we may observe the dispo- 
sitions of many to find fault with Mr. Fox's pains, by the 
frivolous exceptions that were taken at several things, and 
at very minute mistakes or omissions. 
Lambard This year did William Lambard of Lincoln's Inn send 

pTrambu- "^ Writing the antiquities of Kent to Tho. Wotton, esq. 
lation of a worthy and learned gentleman of the same county : a 
Wotton. book abounding with variety of ancient and curious histo- 
rical collections of places and matters of that county ; en- 
titled, A perambidation of Kent, containing the description, 
history, and customs of that shire. Which Mr. Wotton 
five or six years after published, with his own recommen- 
datory epistle before it, to the gentlemen of the county. 
His study Mr. Lambard's genius led him to gather, out of all ancient 
quJ'^es^oT'as Well as modern histories of this island, sundry notes of 
this island, g^^h quality, as might serve for the description and story 
of the inost famous places throughout this whole realm; 
which he called, A topographical dictionary, because it was 
digested into titles by order of alphabet, and concerned the 
32 description of places. Out of which he meant in time (if 
God granted him life, ability, and leisure) to draw, as from 
a certain storehouse, fit matter for each particular shire 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 45 

and county. And resolved first to begin with Kent; as he CHAP, 
wrote in his epistle to Mr. Wotton, when he sent him the '^' 



said MS. a«»« i"0- 

This year Dr. Thomas Wylson, a learned civilian, master Demosthe- 
of St. Katharine's, near the Tower of London, set forth cer- "j^J^^^^'J^" 
tain orations of Demosthenes, the famous orator of Athens, forth in 

... -n T 1 1 • c English, 

translated by him mto elegant English, being a man ot po- 
lite learning in Latin and Greek ; which I took some no- 
tice of in the former volume. He set about this translation 
with the greatest care and exactness, that it might be 
looked upon in that age as a perfect piece of eloquent 
English language; and that it might answer the tongue 
and oratory of the first and chiefest orator of Athens ; as 
he writes in his preface. And in this his translation he 
made use of the Latin translation made by that singular 
learned man sir John Cheeke, sometime the king's Greek A note of 
professor in Cambridge ; who had read some of these ora- 
tions formerly to this Wylson and other English scholars 
in Padua ; whither they were retired for their safety in the 
persecuting times of queen Mary. The interpretation where- 
of Wylson had from his own mouth, who kindly took 
care over all the Englishmen there. And the very argu- 
ment of those causes that orator handled, so agreeing to 
those times of queen Elizabeth, made him the rather to en- 
ter upon this work of translating into our own tongue ; for 
the people of this nation to read these orations against king 
Philip of Macedon : that king Philip, and Philip king of The two 
Spain, equally ambitious to overrun other countries more ,j'"g^ 
than their own. And that England might stand upon her 
guard against one Philip, as Athens was counselled to do 
against another. 

Thus we have that orator addressing himself to his Athe- 
nian auditors with respect to king Philip : " Counselling 
" them to take heed of him, as a justly suspected enemy ; 
" and no ways to trust his forged peace : under shadow 
" whereof he doth, saith he, all the mischief he can. And 
" therefore willed them to look well to their business, 
" and to trust to themselves, making ready against all as- 



46 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " says; because that Philip did nothing else but lie in wait 
^' " for them, and all Greece besides, to conquer them, and 



Anno 1570. " to become a tyrant over them, &c. making it plain, that 
" king Philip did hate them deadly ; and warning them for 
" that cause not to trust his fair promises : for that he had 
" most cruelly abused other cities and countries with like 
" craft and subtilty. The orator then inveighed against 
" those traitors that were king Philip's hirelings : and 
" shewed, that their promises and king Philip''s doings 
" agreed not together, and declared him to be their mortal 
" enemy. And therefore advised them to take up arms,^nd 
" proclaim open war, for the better safeguard and defence 
" of their whole estate and country." It is easy to see how 
parallel the case of England now was with that of Athens 
then, in divers particulars : which the publisher of these 
orations, no doubt, had his eye upon. 

It partly also gave him occasion, (as he tells us,) to set 
about this work, whilst once, being solitary among his 
books, he recollected his former felicity under the teaching 
and instruction of that foresaid learned man, while they 
33 conversed at that university in Italy. Of whom he could 
not refrain to speak with much honour and respect. And of 
him, and such other incomparable men for piety, learning, 
and usefulness in that age, I take all opportunities to re- 
trieve the precious memory. Take then Dr. Wylson's words 
Coramen- of him ; " That he deeply thought, and often, of that 
si^rjIiUn " learned man and singular ornament of this land. And as 
Cheek. a ^]^p remembrance of him was dear unto him, for his ma- 
" nifold great gifts and wonderful virtues, so he thought of 
" his most gentle nature and godly disposed mind, to help 
" all those with his knowledge and understanding, that any 
*' way made means unto him, and sought his favour. And 
" to say for myself, as he proceeded, among others, I found 
" him such a friend to me, in communicating his skill, and 
" the gifts of his mind, as I cannot, but during my life, 
" speak reverendly of so worthy a man, and honour in my 
" heart the heavenly remembrance of him." 

He mentioned a saying of this Cheek concerning De- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 47 

mosthenes; viz. " That none ever was more fit to make an CHAP. 
" Englishman tell his tale praiseworthily in any open hear- 



" ing, either in parliament, pulpit, or otherwise, than this Anno 1570. 
" orator alone was." His saying 

or Demos- 

But his main motive for his translating and printing these thenes. 
orations may be worth our hearing more at large ; namely, 
" That he could not suffer so noble an orator, and so ne- The benefit 
" cessary a writer for all those that loved their country's De'uosthe- 
" liberty and welfare, to lie hid and unknown, especially in "^^• 
" such a dangerous world as this was." Other reasons mov- 
ing him lie in these words of his : " He that loveth his 
" country, and desireth to procure the welfare of it, let him 
" read Demosthenes, and he shall not want matter to do 
" himself good. For he that seeketh common quietness, De- 
" mosthenes can teach him his lesson. He that would gladly 
" prevent evil to come, Demosthenes is for his purpose. He 
" that desireth to serve his country abroad, let him read 
" Demosthenes day and night : for this is he that is able to 
" make him fit to do any service for his country's welfare. 
" For never did glass so truly represent a man's face, as 
" Demosthenes doth shew the world to us. And as it was 
" then, so it is now ; and will be so still, till the consumma- 
" tion and end of all things. The Devil never ceaseth from 
" the beginning of the world to make division, and contrive 
" to stir civil wars ; to embolden the commons against their 
" superiors ; to put evil thoughts into counsellors' head ; 
" to make people ambitious and covetous, and corrupt the 
" hearts even of the messengers and preachers of God's 
" word : continuing his practice still in all places, with all 
" men. And therefore, seeing Demosthenes is so good a 
" schoolmaster for men, to decipher the Devil and his mini- 
" sters, for the advancement of uprightness in all things, I 
" would wish that all men would become his scholars." 

To the title of this book. The Orations of Demosthenes^ 

chief orator among the Grecians^ &c. was added. Most 

needful to he redde in these daungerous dayes, of al them 

that love their countryes libertie, atid desire to take roarning 

for their better avayle^ by example of others. He dedicated 



48 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK this his translation in a large epistle to sir William Cecil, 
knight, to whom he had sent the copy for his judgment be- 



Anno 1570. fore he would publish it; and a private letter in Latin ac- 
34 companying it : which I have transcribed from his own pen, 
[Number and put into the Appendix ; as a remembrance of one who 
■-' was, besides his great learning, sometime the queen''s am- 

bassador, and afterwards one of her principal secretaries. 



CHAP. IV. 

Motions and letters concerning the queenus marrying xcith 
duke d'Anjou. The matter of religion the great article. 
The queen will not allow him the exercise of the mass. 
Ambassadors from France move for that article. The 
queen'' s i-esolution. The treaty put off. Renewed again: 
but to no purpose. Fears and apprehensions hereupon. 
Amity however endeavoured with France. Motion of the 
match revived. Discourse about it between the French 
ambassador and the queen. She hath no inclination that 
way. Practice of Spain. Sir Thomas Smith sent into 
France for cultivating amity. Promotes the inarriage be- 
tween the prince ofNavar and the French king^s sister. 

Anno 1571. J. HE queen"'s matching with Henry duke d'Anjou, th 



e 



Motion of 



French king's brother, as it was moved the last year, so it 

marriage . . 

between was earnestly pursued this. A matter that had its conve- 
and duke" "iencics, it being the best means of securing queen Eliza- 
d'Anjou. beth against the Scotch queen's pretences ; and its dangers 
to the state of religion established. I shall therefore collect 
what I find in letters of ambassadors, and papers of state, 
concerning this important affair ; avoiding \^hat our histo- 
rians have already written of it. The embassy of Mr. Wal- 
singham was chiefly for this end. And the great aim was, 
to bring about the changing of duke d'Anjou's religion. 
And then it was in all fair probability to take effect. As 
for monsieur, he declared a mighty affection for the queen 
to Walsingham : and that though he was but young, yet 
that any time these five years there had been overtures of 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 49 

marriage made to him; and that he found in himself no CHAP, 
inclination unto this present time to yield to any. But that 



he must confess, that through the great commendations Anno 1571. 
that was made of the queen his mistress, for her rare gifts i„"e""o\i,e 
as well of mind as of body ; being, as even her enemies queen. 
said, the rarest creature that had been in Europe these five 
hundred years ; his affections, grounded upon so good re- 
spects, had now made him yield to be wholly hers. This 
was the noble lover"'s protestation to the English ambas- 
sador. 

And of the amendment of his religion, the said ambassa- 
dor had hope. Which when Cecil the secretary (now newly March 25. 
created lord of Burghley) understood by the lord Buck- 
hurst, late ambassador also in France, he thus expressed ^ 
himself in a letter to Walsingham, " That if monsieur 35 
" were not rooted in opinion of evil religion, as by reason ^'^•" ^^'^^^' 

.^ . O ' ./ tary's letter 

" of his young years it was likely such a change might by concerning 

'' argument be brought about ; then by his marrying within ^j'^^ "^^ * 

" England, and becoming a professor of the gospel, (con- his religion. 

*' sidering his towardness to be a martial prince,) he might 

" prove a noble conqueror of all popery in Christendom, 

" with such aids as might join with him in the empire and 

" otherwhere. And of such a design the secretary wished 

" he might be capable." But this, which he wrote from the 

court at Greenwich, he enjoined him to keep secret within 

his own breast ; saying, " The more he writ, the more open 

" he was ; considering the trust he had in his secrecy, and 

" trusting notwithstanding, that nothing thereof should 

" have light, to do him any hurt." 

Therefore it was privily resolved in the English court, instruc- 
that monsieur, if he married the queen, must not use any embassador 
religion different from that of the queen. For so it ran in '"'•^""t the 

. . . . o> • 1 y 1 article of 

the mstructions given to sir Thomas Smith, (who was am- religion, 
bassador in France immediately before Walsingham,) in 
these terms; " That although it may be sufferable to have 
" an outward exercise of Christian religion in divers sorts 
" among the subjects of one realm ; yet to have a diversity, 
" or rather a contrariety in outward exercise of religion be- 
VOL. ir. E 



50 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
I. 



religion not 
allowed. 
And why. 
Cotton li- 
brary, Ju- 
lius, F. 6. 



on this argument. 

used the argument of her 



" tween us, (being queen of the rcahn, and so the head of 
" the people,) and him that should be her husband, seemeth 

Anno 1571." not only dangerous, but also absurd, yea, almost impossi- 
" ble. This must be for a principal argument." 

The private ^nJ when it was required on the French part, that mon- 

exercise of _ t^ _ _ i ' _ 

monsieur's sicur might have only the private exercise of the popish re- 
ligion, the counsellors would not admit of it ; " Forasmuch 
" as the granting unto him the exercise of his religion, be- 
" ing contrary unto the laws of the land, might, by an ex- 
" ample, breed such an offence as was likely to breed much 
" trouble." Walsingham discoursed with the queen-mother 
When she insisted much upon it, and 
son''s honour, to obtain this li- 
berty, he beseeched her to consider as well the queen his 
mistress's danger as her son's honour ; shewing her, that of 
this permission great danger would ensue : as, I. The vio- 
lating of her laws. II. The oflPence of her good and faith- 
ful subjects. And lastly, The encouragement of the evil- 
affected. Which three mischiefs, if she would but weigh 
with her son's honour, she would find them to be of great 
moment. This discourse Walsineham had with this French 
queen, upon command from queen Elizabeth's letters 
brought by Cavalcant, the French ambassador, lately re- 
turned to Paris. Who acquainted Walsingham that it was 
the queen-mother's pleasure, that he should come to her at 
St. Cloud's about four miles from Paris. Then he desired to 
know of her, how she was satisfied with an answer the 
queen had sent her by Cavalcant, unto certain articles pro- 
pounded by the king and her, to the end that he might 
advertise her majesty. She then told him, among other 
things, that the second article, which was concerning reli- 
gion, was very hard, and narrowly touched the honour of 
her son. Insomuch that should he yield thereto, the queen 
herself would receive also some part of the blemish, by ac- 
36cepting for an husband such an one, as by sudden change 
of religion might be thought drawn by worldly respects, 
and void of all conscience and religion. To which Wal- 
singham replied, that he was willed to say to her, that 



Discourse 
thereof be 
tween the 
queen- 
mother, 
and Wal- 
singham. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 51 

monsieur, she doubted not, but that by her good persua- CHAP. 
sions, would accept in good part the said answer. And that ^^• 
she meant not such change of a sudden, as that he and his Anno 1571, 
household should be compelled to use the rites of the Eng- 
lish church, contrary to his or their consciences. And so 
the ambassador proceeded in his discourse as is above men- 
tioned. This I have extracted from Walsingham"'s original 
letter to the lord Burghley, in the Paper-office, endorsed Numb. VII. 
thus by that lord's own hand : April 28, 1571, Mr. Wal- 
singham to me, after the return of Cavalcant into France : 
and by another hand. Upon the permission or toleration of 
popery, what mischief will ensue f The whole letter contain- 
ing this more fully, with other matters, I have transcribed 
into the Appendix. 

Ue Foix, employed by the French in this business, made Discourse 
answer to this ; viz. That to live without exercise of reli- French am- 
gion, was as much as to be of no religion. And he knew '^as^ador 

, , . . , 111 1 • 1 1 concerning 

the queens majesty in honour would not have hmi touched monsieur's 
with so great a spot, as to be thought an atheist. To this it ''^^'S'""- 
was replied, that if it were true, that he, the ambassador, 
had heard, monsieur was not so far from our religion, hav- 
ing had some introduction therein by Carnvallet, his gover- 
nor, lately deceased. And therefore, if it pleased him to 
water those seeds which he had already received, by some 
conference, he should be able easily to discern, that the 
change of his religion would breed unto him no dishonour. 

The queen stood well affected to proceed in the marriage. Great hopes 
in case reason might take place in the conditions, as the "„ i'lrthe' 
earl of Leicester told Walsingham in his letter. And how match, 
likely this article of religion was to succeed, the ambassa- Amb! * 
dor informed the said earl : " That he conceived great hopes 
" thereof, by certain speeches lately passed between the 
" French king, monsieur's brother, and Teligny ; viz. that 
" religion should not be the let, which was the chiefest thing 
" respected in this match." For that the king entering into 
discourse with that French gentleman, who had said, that 
it seemed strange to the world, that monsieur grew every 
day more suspicious than other, appearing much bent to 

E 2 



52 



ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
I. 



Anno 1571 



Monsieur 
studies to 
oblige the 
queen and 
Leicester. 



his religion ; the king replied, that his brother, if there 
fell out no other lets but religion, would be ruled by him. 
" And because," said the king, " that I may bring the mat- 
" ter the better to pass, I will have my brother with me out 
" of this town, and deliver him from certain superstitious 
" friars, that seem to nourish this new holiness in him. 
" And that he doubted not, within a few days, so to work 
" upon his brother, as he would yield to any thing he 
" should require."" And two days after, the king called Te- 
ligny again unto him, and asked him, whether he had lately 
any talk with his brother. Teligny then shewed the king, 
that the same day at dinner monsieur called him unto 
him ; and that his whole course of talk was only in com- 
mendation of the queen''s majesty, and of the great desire 
he had to have so happy and so honourable a match. 
Whereby, said he, I see him so far, as I hope he will not 
make any difficulty at religion ; which will be the chief 
3 J" matter the queen will stick at. To which the king said, No ; 
observe my brother well ; and you shall see him every day 
less superstitious than other. By this speech it appeared 
what great hope Walsingham conceived of the king''s revolt 
also from papistry : using these words to Leicester ; Surely 
I am of opinion, that if this match go forward, it will set 
the triple crown quite aside. But our good ambassador 
was not yet sufficiently acquainted with that king's dissimu- 
lation. 

In the mean time, that monsieur might the more oblige 
the queen, the queen-mother told the English ambassador, 
that her son would send over marshal Montmorancy, [a 
person very acceptable unto this court,] because the queen 
her sister desired it. And that he desired again, that she 
would send thither, into France, the earl of Leicester, [her 
favourite.] Whom he desired to see and honour, for the 
good affection that he bore to the amity between the two 
realms, and to requite him for the presents which he had at 
divers times sent unto him. And then she doubted not all 
things should be done as her majesty desired. 

This business therefore, about the article of religion, was 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 53 

earnestly transacted here at the Enghsh court : whereof the CHAP, 
queen made a relation to her ambassador in France. The ' 



French ambassador and Cavalcant, an Italian gentleman Anno 1571. 
there, (but one that had long lived in England, and wasf^'^f**" 

' ^ e> o ' dors from 

well affected towards it,) were come hither from the French France 
king about this affair. And the earl of Leicester and the l^^ nfatter. 
lord Burghley were appointed by the queen to be her com- 
missioners to treat with them. The ambassador began with 
the article concerning the celebration of the matrimony by 
the English book. And here he said, he doubted that the 
usage of matrimony by the order of this church might 
contain matter repugnant to the duke"'s conscience. And 
namely, that he should be urged at that time to receive the 
sacrament according to the institution of this church. The The duke's 
queen, as to this point, directed Walsingham to tell mon- ^""^ \°^j._ 
sieur de Foix, that that was the very order of the book, viz. "ed by the 
that " it was convenient the married couple should receive book. 
" the communion." But however, that being not of neces- 
sity, he might give them some hope, that it might, for 
reasonable respects, be forborne. But for the other and 
main article, that the duke d'Anjou should have no hberty 
for himself and his domestics, to use his own religion, the 
French ambassador urged to have it permitted, with these 
cautions and conditions ; " That he should use his religion Cautions 
" in secret place and manner, and with such circumspection, ti°p*^*'f '" 
" as thereby no manner of public offence should grow to fered for 

cc ii- 1 u' 4. n his religion. 

" the queen s subjects. 

But to this the queen would not yield : being answered. The queen 
that she doubted not, but that monsieur d'Anjou would, by ^grnj"t*i,js 
the advice of the queen-mother, be contented with the queen's exercise of 
answer, being well weighed ; in that she will be contented, „■^Q^^ . '^^j. 
that by no means neither he nor his domestics should be compel him 
compelled to use the rites of our religion, otherwise than 
should be agreeable with his conscience. But as for the 
exercise of his own religion, being especially forbidden by 
our laws, she could not, without manifest offence and peril 
to her state, accord thereto. And having acquainted Wal- 

e3 



54 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK singham with all this, she told him, that he should use ail 
good persuasions to induce them to be content with her an- 



Anno i57i.swer in that behalf. And that for the better maintaining; 
"^° thereof, he should require that it might be considered, what 
peril it might be to the quietness of her state, to have 
one that should be her husband, (by his example in her 
house,) to give comfort to her subjects to break her laws, 
that presently were devoted to obey them. Which might 
so fall out in process of time, as it might repent lier that 
ever she had been so illy advised, &c. And in any wise, 
she bade her ambassador give them no other comfort in 
this behalf. And she thought meet, that before any other 
things were treated of, this matter concerning the point of 
religion were first on both parties determined. And this 
being accorded, there would be no great difficulty in the 
rest. And that considering; this matter for religion seemed 
of such substance, as none of the rest were, she thought it 
best to have this first treated of; and so enter to proceed or 
forbear. 

Other mat- Other articles relating to religion were, that the duke 

ters about o ^ . 

religion re- should accompany the queen at the usual tmies to her cha- 

jjuired on ^ and oratorv ; and there remain in some convenient 
the queen s r / ' 

part. place, until the queen returned back. And that the duke 

neither by himself nor any other should procure that a 
change or alteration be made or attempted of the evangeli- 
cal laws of religion set forth in the realm of England ; nor 
afford favour to any subject of the queen''s ; whereby in any 
part to violate these ecclesiastical laws ; but should rather 
endeavour that such a violator of them be brought to pu- 
nishment. 
Resolution When Walsingham had treated at large, according to 
French these instructions, with the queen-mother about this great 
part. article, she said, it was generally feared by the catholics, 

that this match would breed a change of religion through- 
out all Europe. And then concluded, that neither mon- 
sieur her son, nor the king, nor herself could ever yield to 
any such sudden change for any respect whatsoever. Add- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 55 

ing, that her son would soon be overcome by the queen''s CHAP. 
persuasions, he being more zealous than able to defend his ^ ' 



religion. Anno 1571. 

This put some stop to proceedings. Afterwards De Foix Further 
writ letters, that this matter might be continued; as though 
there would be other offers made by them. But the queen 
handled the matter exceeding well with the ambassador, and 
gave him no hope, without yielding on their part. And 
this the earl of Leicester signified to Walsingham ; and 
that, as far as he could perceive, they would rather yield 
than break off. Walsingham observed, how the French 
protestants did earnestly desire this match ; and the papists, 
on the other side, did seem earnestly to impeach the same : 
which made him the more diligent and eager to further it. 
And that upon wise considerations, observing how her ma- Waising- 
jesty's estate, both at home and abroad, stood, as he in his prehen- 
poor eyesight, as he said, could discern; and how she was^'o^** 
beset with foreign perils ; the execution whereof stayed only 
upon the event of this match ; he saw not how she could 
stand, if this matter brake off. These were that statesman's 
apprehensions ; and this was the reason he laboured to pro- 
mote this affair, and wrote so earnestly for it, upon no other 
particular respect, as God, he said, was his witness, but 39 
only the regard he had to God's glory and her majesty's 
safety. 

It was now the month of May, when the queen wrote her-'^''.^ i"««" 

'' ^ 1 • 1 T vvntes her 

self a letter to him, treating of this matter at large ; biddmg resolution 
him tell the queen-mother, or the king, that she found more 5°^^^"^^" ^" 
great and urgent causes to move her to persist in her former ambassador. 
answer in that article of religion, both for her conscience, ^^^1" 
safety, honour, and quietness, than could be alleged or ima- 
gined for the conscience and honour of monsieur d'Anjou. 
She spake here about our pubUc prayers; that duke d'Anjou ^^|j^^'|JJ.* 
might very well be present at them : for that in them there monsieur's 
was no part that had not been, yea, that was not at that day [^'"p/;'^^"^'; 
used in the church of Rome ; and that if any thing more 
were in ours, the same was part of the holy scripture. That 
if it were said ours was in English, we had them translated 

E 4 



56 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK in other languages, as in Latin or French : either of which 
his own ministers might use in places convenient. That 



Anno 1571. whereas it might be objected, that hereby he would make a 
change of his faith in matters of religion, the queen meant 
not to prescribe this to him, or any person, that they would 
at her motion, or in respect of her, change their religion in 
matters of faith. Neither did the usage of the divine service 
of England properly compel any to alter his religion, in 
controversies in the church, only the usage thereof did di- 
rect men daily to read and hear the scripture, to pray to 
Almighty God by the daily vise of the psalter of David : 
and the ancient prayers, anthems, and collects of the church 
were even the same which the universal church had used, and 
yet did use. 
Our liturgy This favourable representation of our reformed service, 
represented ^T liturgy, to mousieur and these Romanists, the French 
to him by \^\j^a- and queeu-mother, was used also by the lord Burgh- 

the lord o t ' J o 

Burghiey. ley. For when the French ambassador had asserted to the 
earl of Leicester and him, that monsieur would never sus- 
tain that dishonour, to come hither with that account to be 
made of him, that he had no religion, if he should not be al- 
lowed to have mass ; then Burghley answered, as it was con- 
tained before in the queen's letters, setting out the nearness 
of our divine service to such things as were good and sound 
in the Roman : adding, that we in our book wanted nothing 
but such things as were either impious, or doubtful to be 
against the scriptures. And that this that had been said of 
our liturgy might be the better known and read in France, 
Walsingham desired, that by the next, a Common Prayer 
translated into French might be sent unto him, to present 
it unto monsieur, saying, that he had seen of them printed 
at Guernsey, [for the use of the churches there.] And ac- 
cordingly, in June, a French Common Prayer Book was 
sent over. But all these endeavours succeeded not. 
This treaty For it was about July the queen put off the match, on 
the account ^'^^ accoimt of religion, she refusing absolutely to permit 
of religion tj^g use of the mass, which was so stiffly insisted on in that 

by the . . . 

ejueen : article, viz. that the duke of Anjou should not be molested, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 57 

projyter usurpationem aliquoi'um divinorum rituum et cere- CHAP. 
moniarum. Whereupon great were the fears and disturb- 



ances of the minds of the best men. " I have done my Anno 1571. 
" utmost," said the lord Burghley, " and so have other 
" counsellors. The lord keeper hath earnestly endeavoured 40 
" it. The earls of Sussex and Leicester have joined vigor- 
" ously in it." And he knew none directly against it. From 
Spain likewise came no good answer ; and therefore that Which 
great and good statesman concluded that amity to be need- ^reat^p- 
ful for them. " But God," said he, " hath determined to prehensions 
" plague us. The hour is at hand. His will be done with 
" mercy." Such dreadful apprehensions had the wisest on 
this emergence. 

If we would know what the earl of Leicester's thoughts 
were of this matter, who knew best the queen''s mind, he 
signified it in July, to this purpose, in his letter to Walsing- 
ham : " That for his opinion in this great matter, he would Leicester's 
" deal plainly with him, even as he found her majesty''s dis- theTueen's 
" position. That as for her desire of marriage, he per- disposition ; 
" ceived it continued still as it was ; which was very cold, thoughts 
" That nevertheless she saw it so necessary, as he believed thereof. 
" she yielded rather to think it fit to have an husband, than 
*' willing indeed to have any found for her. And he feared 
" so it would appear in this matter of monsieur. And so it 
" might be perceived by the articles passed already, that there 
" was among them all, but one that made that difficulty; 
" namely, this demand to have the private exercise of his 
" religion : which as they all [of the privy council] liked of, 
" that is, her majesty ""s denial to allow of the papistical reli- 
" gion, so it did appear, that if he would omit that demand, 
" and put it in silence, yet would her majesty straitly capi- 
" tulate with him, that he should in no wise demand it here- 
" after at her hand : which scruple, he believed, would ut- 
" terly break off the matter." And then the earl brake his 
own apprehensions ; praying God some other amity might be 
accepted, as concluding (as the lord Burghley did) a breach 
with France. Albeit, as he added, he distrusted not the 
goodness of God : but that, whatsoever shall fall out, it was 



58 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
I. 



Anno 1571. 



A dismal 
prospect 
now in 
England. 



God's providence for the best, or at least for our just scourge 
for our deservings towards him. And no more could he 
say, but that Almighty God would strengthen her majesty's 
true zeal for religion ; and that, not favouring this match, 
she would ally herself with some princes abroad, as would 
earnestly join with her therein. 

The people of England we now see at their prayers, hav- 
ing a dismal prospect of two powerful neighbouring nations, 
their enemies, Spain and France, besides no good under- 
standing with other states and countries : for they looked 
upon this refusal of monsieur to be nothing but the opening 
a door to hostility with France. Leicester expressed this in 
his correspondence with the English ambassador there, after 
this manner : " In Spain we have no cause to look for any 
" friendship. What terms we stand in to other places is easily 
" known. Thus we are with our neighbours in all places 
" without friendship. God protect and defend us ; who is 
" only able, and must do it, for any pohcy used." The 
strength and safety of England now depending wholly, in 
all human appearance, on the friendship of France, whereof 
there was now little hope. 

But notwithstanding all these fears and jealousies in the 
wisest heads, by Walsingham's means, and God's good pro- 
vidence overruling and concurring, though the match with 
41 France went off, a league was concluded with the French 
king. For to this import the said ambassador's next dcs- 
Auaity still patch to Leicester tended : " That he was put in hopes, that 
withFranee. ^^ ^j^^ygj^ ^[yQ matter SO much laboured succeeded not, yet 
" that the king's intention was to send some person of good 
" quality, as well to thank her majesty for her honourable 
" proceedings in this cause, as also to desire continuance of 
" good amity." And he advised, that it behoved her ma- 
jesty to look about her, being environed with so many prac- 
tices, the execution whereof had stayed, as he said, upon the 
event of the match. And that he did what he could to pro- 
cure continuance, or rather increase of amity. And that the 
king himself, as he learned, was very well inclined thereto, 
and the rather through a mislike he had to Spain. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 59 

And this must be looked upon in this extremity as a sin- CHAP. 
gular point of God''s gracious providence to this state and 
church at this dangerous juncture, in turning that king**s Anno 1571. 
heart towards tlie queen. For he willed her ambassador to ^^^^^'"^'^J^"* 
tell her majesty, " That whatsoever became of the cause, in an ex- 
" that in respect of her honourable and sincere dealing in !^^™'. ^'_ 
" the same, and the confidence she shewed to repose in him, ham's letter 
" she might assure herself as much of his friendship as of^^^^^^^ 
" any others in the world; and that she had full power toJuiyuit. 
" dispose of him and of his realms, to the benefit of herself 
" and of her subjects. And that his sword should be always 
" ready to defend her against any that should attempt any 
" thing against her. And he joined, as this letter added, 
" his words and countenance so together, as great demon- 
" stration outwardly, of his inward good will : which could 
" not but be seen thereby." Such were the king's obliging 
terms, unless there were a mixture of deceit and fraud 
therein. For he was indeed the greatest and most artificial 
dissembler in the world. 

Yet still the match was not in such despair, but the mo- Motion of 
tion about it soon began to revive again ; listened to on the revi^d. 
part of the English, for the preserving France fast to Eng- 
land ; and on the part of the French, on account of the 
greatness and honourableness of wedding with such a mighty 
princess, as well as for other ends of their own. The hin- 
derers of the good proceedings therein in France appeared 
now to Walsino-ham : who were the pope"'s nuncio, together 'mpedi- 

f 1 1 1 -1 1 1 1 • T 1- mentsto 

with Spain and Portugal, who daily laboured in dissuading its proceed- 
the match ; and the clergy also, who had offered to monsieur "'»• 
a great pension to stay from further proceeding in it. And 
in conclusion, nothing was left undone that might be thought 
fit to put impediment to it ; and there were some enemies of 
the queen within her dominions that had wrote into France, 
that the queen had nothing less than intention to marry, 
whatever she pretended. And hereof he who sent this news 
was well assured by those that were about her : and there- 
fore willed them there to be of good comfort, and never to 
doubt of the matter. This person was the Scottish am- 



60 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK bassador, then at London, as Walsingham afterwards under- 

^' stood ; who pretended to know all secrets of state. Whence 

Anno 1571. the ambassador judged there was bred in them there, in 

France, on this occasion, some doubt of late of her majesty's 

disposition to marry, so as they knew not how to proceed. 

42 Which doubt was now made an advertisement from the said 

Scottish ambassador, who was the busy bishop of Rosse. 

The protes- g^,^ ^j^g protestants in France huno; all their peace and 

tants in . ^ ° , ^ . . , 

France, happmess upon either this match, or at least amity with 
their con-^ France. So that if neither amity nor marriage might take 
it. place, (writeth Walsingham,) the poor protestants here do 

think then their case desperate. And so they told him with 
tears. 
French am- Monsieur de Foix was now sent over on purpose to com- 
comesover. promise (if possible) the matter, to mollify the article of 
Aug. 3. religion, so much controverted. There was a phrase added in 
this article, which was, that " the duke should not be molested 
" for using any rite not repugnant unto the word of God."" 
Which words being delivered unto them in the month 
of August, they disliked the expression, viz. the word of 
God. So that by their importunity it was altered from 
verbo Dei to ecclesicB Dei; which in the queen's judgment 
was all one. But with that, though they were better con- 
tented than with the other, yet they insisted upon changing 
that to catholiccB ecclesice. Whereunto she did not assent. 
But that there should be no mistake, the queen by speech 
The queen declared to De Foix, " That as she would be well contented 
her'Sd " ^^^^ h^^ answer might satisfy monsieur d'Anjou for his 
to him about" honour, [which was the great pretence,] for that she had 
Religion.*'' " in sort yielded unto him, to use other ceremonies than 
" those of her religion, so that they were not repugnant to 
" the word of God ; so her meaning was to be declared 
" plainly to him, that she could not permit him at his com- 
" ing to have the use of any private mass. That so there 
" might be no misconceiving gathered from her answer; 
" whereby the duke might hope for any sufferance : for that 
" she could not find it without peril of her estate and quiet- 
" ness to yield thereto." The ambassador had good enter- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 61 

tainment in all external offices of respect, well used by her CHAP, 
majesty, defrayed for his diet, while he was at court. 



And it being now September, and the queen in her pro- Anno iS7i. 
gress at Audley End, near Saffron Walden, he was attended ^[;^^^^,""^'J^ 
very courteously and honourably by the lord Buckhurst, hearty for 
during his being there, in going and returning. And the rjag^^"^' 
lord Burghley, for the more honour, caused the earl of Ox- 
ford, his son-in-law, to attend on him in divers places : and 
in the way from London to Walden the said lord entertained 
him at his house at Theobalds. And there De Foix and the 
other ambassador resident saw his hearty devotion to the 
marriage. And this he did to shew how confirmed his judg- 
ment was for it, (as he wrote to Walsingham,) and that he 
was not ashamed to utter himself, however it might be peril- 
ous to him, if it should not take place. For he reckoned, 
(as he, now full of concern for the public, expressed his 
thoughts,) " that blessing or vengeance was now to be ex- 
" pected at God's hand. And in the mean time his behold- 
" ing of this cloud, and the time to creep nearer, called upon 
" him and all good Englishmen to implore God's mercy, 
" and to beseech him to direct her majesty's heart to choose 
" that which might be most for his glory." 

After seven or eight special conferences with her majesty The last re- 

o r " solution 

and her council, (wherein several there were that secretly about the 
obstructed this great affair, and threw in on purpose hard ™^'JiJP'j|" 
terms, and answers given to the ambassador in words were favour of it. 
altered in writing, as to the point of religion,) yet it was at 43 
last resolved ; " and so the queen pronounced to her coun- 
" cil, whom she saw earnestly bent by all means to fiu'ther 
'' this marriage, for her own surety, and for avoiding the in- 
" evitable ruin of this monarchy, (I do but repeat the words 
" of that great and honest counsellor,) that surely, so as 
"monsieur will forbear the mass, she will assent to the Lord 

^ Burghley s 

*' marriage. And this she confirmed with all good speeches letter to 
" to give credit. But yet all her counsellors (whereof that ^J^J""^' 
" lord was one) were not so persuaded ; not as doubting her 
" assertions, (which surely were agreeable to her mind, 
" when she uttered them,) but for doubt that other mis- 



G2 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " liking the same, might indirectly draw her from her de- 
" termination/"' 



Anno 1571. The three chief articles required on the French part, con- 
The three kerning; monsieur, which were, that he should be crowned 

articles for o ' ' 

monsieur, king of these realms, and that he should be joined with the 
answers! queen in the administration and government of the king- 
dom, and for the toleration of the exercise of his religion, 
with the cautious answers thereunto, may be found in the 
Page 131. Complete Ambassador. 

The French Dc Foix was now gone home with the resolutions taken in 
returns. England, and the queen and her statesmen were in expecta- 
tion of the result thereof in France. The queen was per- 
suaded, that they would yield in the matter of religion for 
monsieur. And if they did so, she seemed to her council 
that she would, according to her word, proceed. But the 
earl of Leicester, who knew her temper best, said, that to 
speak his conscience, he thought she had rather he [the 
ambassador] had increased some hard points than yielded 
to them. And therefore the hopes of the court were small, 
that ever the match should take place. And Leicester de- 
clared, in his correspondence with the English ambassador 
The queen in France, " that he was persuaded her majesty's heart 
^ow inciin- jj ^^^^ ^^^ inclined to marry at all, since the matter was ever 
" brought to as many points as could be devised : and she 
" was always bent to hold with the difficultest. And it 
" grieved (as he said) his very heart to think of it, seeing 
" no way he could think of might serve how she could re- 
" main quiet and safe, without such a strong alliance as 
" marriao-e must be. For the amities of others (as he 
" added) might serve for a time ; but no account was to be 
" made of them longer than to serve the turn of each party. 
" And her majesty's years running away so fast, caused him 
" to despair of long quietness." 

It fell out so indeed. It was now October ; and the treaty 
about the match was laid aside. Walsingham's great busi- 
ness now was to cultivate a good amity between the French 
and our queen Elizabeth; which that king seemed very 
much inclined to. And a new embassy from England was 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 63 

preparing for that purpose. Now towards the decUning of CHAP, 
the year sir Thomas Smith goes again to France, to make a 



firm treaty, offensive and defensive, between that nation and Anno 1571. 
the queen ; and withal to speak with that king secretly con- ^'^j^j^ °^'^^^ 
cerning the marriage. He was appointed to go in Decem- ambassador 
ber, though he came not there till towards February follow- concerniug 
ing. Of whom the lord Burghley gives this character ; that amity- 
he was one, he thought, of such dexterity in his actions, and ^vaislj, j^ 
of such dutiful good-will towards England, that no advice iiam. 
or direction could be given to our prejudice. 44 

But Spain all this while had a jealous eye upon these A Spaniard 
transactions between France and England, and endeavoured |^g*^3g|]|.* 
all she could to obstruct the friendship now laboured be- from the 
tween the two crowns, and particularly to hinder the match the elector 
in concert between the queen and monsieur ; which was so °^ Saxony, 
much desired by the English, as tending to strengthen them 
against the attempts of Spain. In order to which perhaps 
it was, that in December this year comes a Spaniard, in 
quality of some secret messenger, as from queen Elizabeth, 
to the elector of Saxony, pretending himself to be one of 
her chamber, to signify to him, that the queen being now 
minded to marry, had sent him to treat thereof with him 
concerning the prince his son. It looked strange to the 
elector, especially since he had brought no letters of cre- 
dence with him. But that was omitted, as he said, for the 
more privacy. But to be better informed, the elector 
thought fit to inquire of Christopher Mount, the queen's 
agent at Strasburgh, concerning this matter. The account 
of this whole matter take from the agent's own pen, in a 
letter or two to this purport. 

" That a certain Spaniard, calling himself Jacomo, An- The queen's 
" tonio, Gromo, alias Pacheco, in the end of December last, l^^^^ ^ 
" came alone to Heidelberg, and requiring a secret audi- Burghley 

. - , . ,„ ,^, , concerning 

" ence, was admitted to tlie elector himself. 1 here he ex- him. 

" pounded, that he was sent out of England by the queen, MSS.Burgh. 

" to note and see the person and form of the son of the 

" elector, Christophero : for that the queen had altogether 

" brought her mind to marry. And that he was sent with- 



64 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " out the knowledge of her counsellors, that so she might 
'■ " conceal and hide this her deliberation. That the elector 



Anno 1571." asking, whether he had brought any letters to him from 
" the queen, he answered, that to keep this matter in the 
" deepest silence, and by reason of the various dangers of 
" journeys, and especially through the Dutch quarters, he 
" durst not bring letters ; but he was in good hope that he 
" should within a little while be present again before him 
" with commands and letters. That to make the elector 
" more apt to believe him, he said, that seven years before 
" he studied in the university of Heidelberg, and had fami- 
" har conversation with certain noblemen, whom he named. 
" And that they might give a testimony of his former life. 

" That the elector, having received his message courte- 
*' ously, graciously dismissed him. That the elector after- 
" wards called for those noblemen whom he named, and 
" asked them whether they knew this Spaniard : who affirm- 
" ed, that a certain Italian some years ago did study at 
" Heidelberg ; but they knew not whether he were the same. 
" Upon this, Mount adds, that the said elector, by a pro- 
" per messenger, sent for him, in the middle of the cold 
" winter, viz. on the 7th of January. Being come, he 
" asked Mount, whether he knew a certain noble Spaniard, 
" named Jacomo, Antonio, Gromo, alias Pacheco, servant 
" to the queen, and one of the gentlemen of her majesty's 
" chamber. Mount answered, he knew none such. AVhere- 
" upon the elector told him the story. To which the other 
45 " answered, that he thought it a fable ; and that these things 
" were invented by fraud, tliat he might allure the noble 
" youth with hope, and bring hiin in a snare, if he could." 

All this the said agent wrote to the lord Burghley, jVIarch 
the 25th, by some English merchants at Frankford mart. 
The further event of this business was this. On the 26th 
of March a letter was brought to the agent, by the com- 
mand of the elector's chancellor, that the Spaniard with four 
names was returned to Heydelberg, without any letters of 
credit, sounding to the same song. And that prince's coun- 
sellors, being offended with this impostor's fraud, as presum- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. G5 

ing to abuse a very excellent prince, had taken him into cus- CHAP, 
tody, till he should discover the authors of this rashness, ^^' 
and open the causes of this dissimulation. That then he re- Anno 1571. 
ferred himself to one Baptist, whom he gave out to be the 
foui'th man of the number of the queen's chief chamber- 
lains, and asserting that he had now written letters to him. 
Mount added, that the said chancellor then called upon him, 
that he would be instant with Walsingham, the queen''s am- 
bassador, (to whom he wrote what is before related,) that 
he, with secretary Smith and Killigrew, (the queen's joint 
ambassadors at Paris,) would take notice of this matter, 
and examine whether there were such a mandatarius in the 
queen's court. And since that Spaniard had dared to speak 
contumeliously of that most worthy and just lord Burghley, 
(which they looked upon as a great argument of his fraud,) 
that his excellency would do a deed worthy of his pains, to 
certify the elector of this device ; inasmuch as it concerned 
the public, that evil deeds should not go unpunished. And 
that to deceive a prince was a great crime ; as it is proved, 
they said, in the last law of thq code, De his qui a non do- 
mino manumitt. 

But whatsoever lay under the practice of this deceitful Spain's 
Spaniard, it is certain, Spain was now playing her private a^a^ns^t^ 
game with the French against the queen. In the latter end Engi^nJj 
of the year, March the 23d, Standen, an English fugitive, Higgens,^"' 
lately come out of Spain, arrived secretly at Blois, where ^^^*^^'*''^' 

1 Tri 1- 1 1 1 Steukley, 

the English ambassadors were : who gave out some speech &c. in 
unto a Frenchman, whom he trusted, of some hope there ^'^^"^^' 
should be in England, or ever summer ended. And after 
he had stayed one night, went to Paris, (whither the Eng- 
lish ambassador writ, to have his doings observed.) Who 
coming there, repaired to the Scottish ambassador ; where 
they had their conferences, together with Higgins, who was 
concerned about the duke of Norfolk's business. Which 
Higgins had lately come to Paris from Rome. And at his 
departure from Paris, protested secretly to a friend of his, 
that he would not return thither [i. e. to Paris] in one or two 
years ; saying, he saw no way with his master [the duke, 

VOL. II. F 



66 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK perhaps] but one. His sudden return shewed there was 
' somewhat a brewing. There was tlien also at Paris Egre- 
Anno 1571. mond Ratcliff, a busy man, (who came to an untimely end, 
by the sentence of duke d'Alva against him,) and Genny, 
who came out of Spain, and also one Chamberlain ; who con- 
ferred there with the king of Spain''s secretary, and repaired 
thence to duke d"'Alva. Steukley also, another of the 
queen's traitorous subjects, (of whom mention was made the 
last year,) was there also ; and now returned to Spain, in 
company of J. Doria. He had received great honour from 
4o that king, and was put in hopes shortly to be employed by 
Steukiey's ^i^n in some traitorous attempts against the queen. A great 

character. r o i o 

boaster he was, and promised great matters to that king. But 
after he had bestowed much money upon him, he found him 
at length not worthy of any more ; the opinion of him be- 
ing greatly abated in Spain, by discovery of his lewdness 
and insufficiency, as Burghley afterwards wrote to Wal- 
singham concerning him. The coming and going of these 
traitors of England, and creatures and pensioners of Spain, 
evidently bespeak the ill offices they were doing the queen in 
France. 
A Spanish It was also signified to secretary Smith from Walsing- 
conies to ham, (that I may lay these Spanish matters together,) that 
Paris: and ^ Spanish luarquis, that was come to Paris to congratulate 
the French queen''s delivery, under colour of the same, as 
he learned, had commission secretly to treat of three points. 
First, for the French king to enter into a league, [called the 
holy league.^ Secondly, for a marriage between monsieur 
and his master's sister. Thirdly, to propound some way 
for the Scottish queen's deliverance; being procured thereto 
by the house of Guise, in recompence of the execution done 
upon them of the religion. Whereby the king of Spain 
acknowledged to have saved the Low Countries. And it 
was observed by the said Walsingham, some time before 
the arrival of the said marquis, that upon a courier arrived 
at Paris, out of Spain, from the French ambassador there, 
that though there had been some unkindness grown before, 
between those two crowns, upon some complaint made, now 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 67 

it was thought there was never so great amity between them CHAP, 
as at that present was hke to be. And these were the ' 



doings and endeavours of Spain, all along this and the next^^"no ^^71. 
year. 

Our ambassadors now in France (who were three, viz. The English 
Walsingham, Killigrew, and Smith) stirred as much as p™ n^otes*"^ 
they could in a matter which they reckoned would tend the match 
much to the interest of the protestant religion, and the prince of 
greater liberty and peace of the French protestants particu- ^'^var. 
larly ; and that was, the marriage in hand with the prince of 
Navarr, a protestant, and the lady Margaret, the French 
king's sister. That by this conjunction with a protestant 
prince, those of the religion in France might have the 
greater countenance : though it proved all wicked hypocrisy 
in the end. The great difficulty in accomplishing this mar- 
riage was in the form to be used in the solemnization of it : 
which the queen of Navarr would not be brought to con- 
descend to be done after popish manner. Here Smith, 
Walsingham, and Killigrew took the liberty to interpose. 
And that neither the popish office, nor the marriage office 
used in the protestant churches in France, might be used, it 
was devised by them, that instead thereof, the office of the 
church of England might be admitted : the like case hap- 
pening formerly in England, upon a treaty of marriage be- 
tween king Edward VI. and the late queen of Spain, the 
present French king's sister ; wherein it was agreed that she 
should be married according to the form of our church. 
This treaty the English ambassadors sent a copy of to the 
queen of Navarr. This she liked well. And sending to 
speak with them, she told them, that it had stood her in 
good stead, and declared to them how the marriage stood 
between their majesties of France and her; and that there 
was no difference between them, but only in the manner of 47 
the solemnization. And that she had mentioned the said 
treaty to them, but that they had pretended it was no true 
copy. She therefore now desired to know of sir Thomas 
Smith, (he having been a dealer in the same,) whether he 
would justify it to be true. He answered, that knowing the 

F 2 



68 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK great good-will that queen Elizabeth did bear her, and how 
' much she desired the good success of that marriage, as a 
Anno 1571. thing that tended to the advancement of religion, and the 
repose of the French realm, he did avow it to be tlie same, 
and would further be ready to do any office that might ad- 
vance the said marriage. 



CHAP. V. 

Scottish affairs. Dangers by means of the qtteen of Scots. 
Walsinghains intelligence thereof; and advertisement. 
Money brought over from the pope for her service. The 
French Thing moves for her liberty. What passed be- 
tween him and the English ambassadors. The Scottish 
queen practiseth with Spain. Monies sent into Scotland 
for her xise from France ; intercepted. Letters of hers 
intercepted, of her depending upon Spain ; and taking 
that king for her and her son's and hingdoms protector. 
The Spanish ambassador dismissed by the council. And 
why. Lord Burghley to the earl of Sh?-ezvsbury, keeper 
of the Scottish queen. Bishop of Rosse's book conce7vi- 
ing her title to this croxon. Answered by Glover, Somer- 
set herald. Rosse in the Tower. His letter thence to the 
lord treasurer. 

The danger JL HE Scottish affairs, that touched the EngHsh state and 

"^^^^^^"^l^*'"! religion, were interwoven with those of France. Mary the 

the Scottish queen of Scots, a zealous papist, and related to the Guisian 

queen. bigots, was uow in custody in England, whither she had fled 

from her own subjects. And now all the foreign princes, 

obedient to the see of Rome, were mightily concerned for 

her deliverance, and the English nation at the same time as 

much afraid of her liberty. And what danger accrued by 

her appeared by a letter of Walsingham, writ in the begin- 

Letter of ning of March, being still ambassador in France, viz. that 

hanram ^^^ English there were labouring by all means to stir up 

bassador. foreign States to set the Scottish queen free ; and their next 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 69 

step, to dethrone queen Elizabeth, and set the crown upon CHAP. 

Mary's head. And that however some of their attempts 

had failed, yet more were in hand. And that there were Anno 1571. 

great numbers, even in the English dominions, heretics as 

well as catholics, that had a sincere kindness and concern for 

her. And when in discourse between an English Jesuit in 

France, named Darbishire, and another that pi'etended him- 48 

self a catholic, (but was a spy,) he told the Jesuit, that for 

his part he could never hope to see her at liberty, nor long 

to see her keep her head upon her shoulders : and therefore 

could receive no great comfort that way. " Well,*" replied '^ saying of 

. Til 11T1 1 Darbishire 

the Jesuit, " I tell you truly, that 1 dare assure you, that the Jesuit 
" she shall have no harm : for she lacketh no friends in the c""cfcrning 

her. 

" English court. And as for her liberty," added he, " it 
*' standeth all good catholics in hand so much to seek it, 
" either by hook or by crook, as no doubt but there were 
" some good men that would venture a joint to bring it to 
" pass. And that if she were once possessed of the crown of 
" England, it would be the only way and means to reform 
" all Christendom, in reducing them to the catholic faith. 
" And therefore you must think," said he, " that there are 
" more heads occupied in that matter than English heads; 
" and that there are more ways to the wood than one, [mean- 
" ing the heads of foreign princes.] And therefore he bade 
" him be of good courage ; and ere ever one year were at an 
" end, he should hear more." 

The conclusion Walsingham made of this was, the great Waising- 
danger England was in by reason of that queen. That his ve,"'is^irie'nt 
conferring and weighing this with the former intended prac- *» the 
tices, made him think it worth his advertisement, that the this emer- 
queen should see how much they built upon the possibility S^nce. 
of that dangerous woman's coming to the crown of England : 
whose life was a step to her majesty's death. For that they 
reputed her an undoubted heir, or rather (which was a 
greater danger) for a right inheritor. And though he knew, 
as he proceeded, her mischievous intentions were limited, 
that they could reach no further to her majesty's harm or 
prejudice than should seem good to God's providence, yet 

f3 



70 ANiNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK her majesty, he said, was bound, for her own safety, and 
that of her subjects, to add to the same, his good provi- 
Anno i57i.dence, her poUcy, so far as might stand with justice. 
Lord Seton jr, March, the lord Seton, a ajreat instrument for the said 

bnngs over (-, . , o i i i • 

money from Scottish (jueen, came to Scotland, havmg escaped privately 
the pope, through this realm, with a rebel, one of the countess of 
Northumberland's men ; the ship that brought them over 
being forced into an haven in Essex. Which ship was forth 
coming, and some of the servants, and such secret writings 
and devices of his, and of the queen's rebels, as were left in 
the ship, to have been conveyed after him by sea into Scot- 
land ; bringing to light such things as contained dangerous 
practices against the queen and state of the realm ; as the 
queen by letter informed Mr. Randolph, her agent now in 
Scotland, dated March the 19th. In this expedition, this 
lord Seton had received in Flanders from the pope 20,000 
crowns, being now ready to repair into Scotland. This 
money, whether it was seized in the ship, or carried with 
him, it doth not appear: but no mention being made of it 
when ship and papers were seized, he seems to have got it 
safe with him into Scotland. 
Conference But the French made earnest interest for her. For a 

between tlie 

French league being now in hand between the queen and that 
king and crown, and VValsino-ham there resident, and sir Tho. Smith 

Smith con- ' * ^ . . 

cerninsrthe late come over ambassador [viz. in February] for that pur- 
Scotr "^ pose, the king told them, " That he must have his request 
4q" put into the treaty for the queen of Scots, and said, she 
" was his kinswoman and his sister-in-law, and was once his 
" sovereign ; and you know, said he, the league between 
" that realm and my realm. I can do no less than have the 
" same inserted into the league.'" To which sir Tho. Smith 
said, that they had no commission or authority to treat of 
any such matter. And that as touching the late queen of 
Scots, that she was his sovereign once, thanks be to God, 
said Smith, she is not now, [since that queen's husband was 
dead, and he advanced to be king.] AVhereat the king 
laughed. " And that it was thought,"" added Smith, " that 
*' when she was queen there in France, she deserved not 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 71 

" very well of your realm nor of your house. And where CHAP. 
" the king had said, she was his kinswoman ; so she is also, ^' 
" said Smith, to the queen my mistress. But if she were Anno 1571. 
" your daughter, or your son, if he or she would procure 
" your death, or to have your crown from you, would you 
*' not see justice done on him or her that should attempt it, 
" rather than to be still in danger .''" 

To which I add, that Smith had it in his instructions con- The queen's 
cerning that queen's delivery, that before the time of her Jo^r^s'the 
malicious attempts against the queen"'s majesty were dis- •^'^""'^h 
covered, she did never refuse to yield to reasonable condi- juiiusj F. 6. 
tions, and an end to be made between both princesses, and 
between her and her subjects of Scotland ; and that this in- 
tention took no effect, there was no default in the queen of 
England. But since she had dangerously concluded a bar- 
gain to the ruin of the queen's majesty, there was just cause 
to detain her, until her majesty's surety should be better 
provided. 

Mr. Henry Killigrew, who was also the queen's ambassa- Words of 
dor, and present at this conference with the French king, tJ^,',^"^^)^ 
added to what Smith had said, " That fire and water could concerning 
" not be together. That one was contrary to the other, into tlie 
" That the league was made for a perpetual and strait '^*S"e. 
" amity between him and the queen's majesty ; and that he 
" would not treat for the queen's most mortal and dangerous 
" enemy. That this could not stand together. That he 
" must take her now for dead ; and that he [the king] could 
" not tell whether she were dead or alive. And why, 
" said he, should you then require her to be put into the 
" league .'"' For indeed the parliament had intended to 
call that queen into question, upon the discovery of a plot 
against queen Elizabeth, wherein she was concerned, as we 
shall hear by and by. 

We meet with the French's tampering for the Scottish The queen 
queen some months past, viz. in September, when the secre- °*[t,"'t*jfe 
tary of the French ambassador comes to the court (the queen French am- 
now either at Audley End, or Mark Hall in Essex) for re-„i^ejdiin'^^n 
lief of the queen of Scots, considering that she had her ^'^^^ 1"^*"'* 

. matters. 

F 4 



72 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK number [of attendants] now lessened. Whereat the queen 
^- was offended, tliat he sliould meddle with that queen's mat- 
Aiinoi57i.ters; and bade the lord Burghley tell him, that she could 
l^oi'l not like his manner of intermeddling with the queen of 

deihLsYhe Scots' matters; considering her majesty found her doings 
queen's r^|^^^ jg ^ ^Y\e discoverv of the duke of Norfolk's treason ; 

mind to •- ' J J 

him. of which by and by] not only dangerous to lier quietness, 

but bent also to depend upon other than the French king, 
[meaning Spain, and other popish powers.] And therefore 
50 she required him to forbear, and give her leave to consider 
in her own realm what was meet for her surety. And when 
it should seem meet, it should well appear that she had done 
nothing towards the queen of Scots, but in reason and ho- 
nour she might have done more. And so she deferred the 
French ambassador's coming to her, [being now in her pro- 
gress,] till she should be at Richmond. 
The French About the latter end of this year the French king inter- 
move for ^ J -j-^ f^^ ^j^g gjjifl queen, that she might be permitted 

that (jueen o •• --m-i-iij-i-UJ 

to pass to go over to France. And when, m March, Malvesire had 
into France, -j^g-g^^jj much, by the desire of the French queen, that queen 
Elizabeth would send her into France, Smith and Wal sing- 
ham shewed him how by her letters, lately seized, she had 
practised with the duke of Alva, to convey the young king 
out of Scotland into Spain : and that the original letters 
thereof were shewn in England to the king's ambassadors 
siie prac- there. And hereupon they told him how she shewed what 
tiseth with ^^Qjj favour she bore to Spain, to make a perpetual broil, if 
she could, between England, Scotland, and France : tor she 
had practised by letters since the duke [of Norfolk's] trou- 
bles. And then they asked that ambassador, what would 
she do there in France, and at liberty, when being straitly 
kept, and the matter so plainly known how busy she had 
been ? And so they desired Malvesire to acquaint the king 
with what they had told him. And when he came again, 
he brought word to Smith and Walsingham, that it was 
true which they told him ; and that De la Motte had written 
the same from England to the king. x\nd the king acknow- 
ledged to him, that it was true ; and added, " Ah ! poor 



Spain. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 73 

'•'■fool, she will never cease till she lose her head. In faith, CHAP. 
" they will put her to death. I see it is her own fault and 



" folly. I see no remedy for it. I meant to help ; but if she Anno 1571. 
" will not be helped, I cannot help it." 

The French ambassador Viracque was this summer in Money sent 

'- A 1 secretly by 

Scotland, acting secretly for that queen. And a great sum the French, 
of money was remitted privately from France to that am- [j ^,^'1^^^^^°*' 
bassador, to be managed for her ; but by intelligence it be- intercepted, 
ing understood, was seized by the English. The French 
ambassador laboureth to have his money again. The lord 
Burghley answereth the ambassador's secretary, who came 
to him with that message, that it must be demanded of them 
to whom he delivered it. He came again, and desired he 
might have the French king's money lately intercepted, sent 
to Viracque. The duke of Norfolk had a chief hand in the 
conveyance of this money ; and some that he employed in it, 
out of fear, discovered it. 

There was nothing as yet done towards that queen, not- She is re- 
withstanding the discoveries against her, but that she was upo|"this, 
restrained from having such free conference and intelligence but honour- 

'^ , , • 1 • • 1 ^bly used. 

as of late she had with the queen s subjects ; otherwise right 
honourably entertained and well used, and so the lord Burgh- 
ley bade Walsingham inform the French king. I am the 
larger and more particular in this relation of matters con- 
cerning Mary queen of Scots, to shew what just apprehen- 
sions the English court and nation had of imminent dangers 
by means of her ; especially Camden being sparing of shew- 
ing her faults, and representing her as fair as might be ; 
pubhshing his history in the reign of her son. 

As we have therefore seen what concern France had for 5 1 
this queen, so I shall proceed to relate the great jealousy ^p^^^Jj^'^f^. 
queen Elizabeth had of Spain ; being very zealous to deliver vade Eng- 
her, and (more than barely that came to) to invade the 
realm, and dethrone the queen herself. For letters of that 
queen to the king of Spain had been intercepted ; and so 
much found out, viz. of her sohciting that formidable enemy 
of the queen's to invade England. And so in a letter dated {^""^g^j .^ 
in September, writ from the lord Burghley to Walsingham, letter to 



74 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK then in France, he told him, that he might boldly affirm, 
• that her majesty was able to prove, that the queen of Scots 



Anno 1571. had, by advice of the duke of Alva, resolved to depend 
Waising- upon the king of Spain, and to match herself with Don 
Coinpi. John of Austria, and her son with the king of Spain''s 
^"^^' daughter. And this the queen required her ambassador to 

acquaint the French king with. And therefore that the 
queen had just cause to proceed otherwise than hitherto she 
had done, to restrain the practice intended towards her by 
that queen. And that he, the ambassador, should further 
say to the French king, that she trusted that he would ho- 
nourably think of her actions on this account. 
Letters of But what violences Spain intended upon the realm may 
tish queen ^^ taken knowledge of from sir Tho. Smithy's mouth, in his 
seized. The relation made to the queen-mother of France, in the month 
th^m. of March, when things came to be fully known ; viz. that Har- 

wich was to have been the port appointed for the Spaniards 
and Flemings to arrive at, from the duke of Alva, if the 
treason had gone forward in behalf of the Scottish queen. 
That the lord Seton [one of the chief of the Scottish noble- 
men on the queen's party] did arrive there, and from thence, 
with two of the earl of Northumberland's men, went into 
Scotland, and were at that present in the castle of Edin- 
burgh. That that being understood, the lord that brought 
them was seized ; and among other things found, there were 
Compi. the Scottish queen's letters, importing, that she gave herself, 
■^"1^. and her son, now king of Scotland, into the liands of the 

p. 196. . 

king of Spain, to be governed and ruled only by him ; and 
to assure him, that if he would send any power, the young 
king should be delivered into his hands. For, by a paper 
of instructions left in the ship, it did appear, that the lord 
Seton was named the Scottish queen's ambassador towards 
the duke of Alva, And there in the ambassage he offered 
the young king to be delivered into his hands, to be con- 
veyed into Spain. And to animate him more to set up the 
Scottish queen again, and take the protection of her, he 
shewed that she had right, both by God's laws and man's 
laws, to be queen of England, and also of Scotland. And 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 75 

further, that she had not only all those that were in trouble, CHAP. 

[viz. papists, and such as were concerned in the late rebel- ; 

lion,] but a great sort more in England, on her part. So Anno 1571. 
that the king [of Spain] in setting her up, would not only 
govern both these reahns, but should also set up, in both, the 
catholic religion again. 

All this was told by Smith to the queen-mother : to which The queen- 

-' '■ . 1 1 • mothers 

she answered, as owning, and perhaps privy to the busmess, saying con- 
" Alas! that head of hers shall never be quiet." Smith «"""S »'«'■• 
added, how that in the same ship where Seton's instructions, 
as aforesaid, were taken, among other papers, a letter was 52 
found of the countess of Northumberland, who was one of 
the chief stirrers in the last rebellion, to her husband, the 
earl, now a prisoner in Scotland for the same cause. In The duke 
which letter she writ to the said earl, that the duke of Guise, pjotteth 
diso-uised, had of late been with the duke of Alva ; and affirm- ''^'th d'Ai- 

"^ . , va. 

ed for a certainty, that the duke of Guise, and that faction, 
would follow in all points the direction of the king of Spain. 

This correspondence with Spain was aggravated on that The circum- 
queen's part by the circumstance of time when it happened, t[J,""^"{[g„ 
namely, when De Crocque, the French ambassador, arrived that queen 

„ , , . , . . 1 1 o ii J i -J. sent her let- 

in England with commission to help Scotland to a quietness tg^s, aggra- 

within herself, and to confer with one whom queen Elizabeth ^^tes her 

^ . fault. 

should send for that purpose. Even at the same time these 
letters of that queen to the duke of Alva were intercepted ; 
whereby she gave herself, her realm, and her son, to be in 
the protection and government of the king of Spain. 

All this was brought to light by God's providence, the That ^ 
ship, wherein the lord Seton, with his papers and credentials, hl's^uc^tions 
was, being driven by a tempest into the English haven afore- to the lord 

• 11-, 1 ■ 1 1 1 o • J '^^^to" s«'2- 

said ; which was the very port appointed, when the hpaniards ed. 

and Flemings should arrive in England ; Seton himself 
escaping, being disguised in the habit of a mariner ; and so 
went thence, and came to the castle of Edinburgh in Scot- 
land. But a paper of instructions being found aboard the 
same ship, declared, that in the name of her majesty [the 
Scottish queen] he had assured the duke of Alva, that with 
a small party they might bring into their hands the young 



76 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK king of Scotland, and so carry him into Spain. All this, 
when Walsingham had related at large to the queen-mother 



Anno 1571. of France, it spoiled De Crocque's message with the king"'s 
letters, that required the Scottish queen to be set at liberty, 
and to be sent into France. 
The Spa- But upon this the queen and her council would no longer 
sadorsent Suffer the ambassador of Spain to abide in her dominions, 
^^'^)'' having carried things so deceitfully and treacherously against 

her majesty ; so that he was in December sent for to the 
council, and in the queen''s name commanded to depart. 
The same thing had been often intended before, but never 
put in execution before this present ; when the state was 
provoked by the intelligence of certain new practices within 
And why. this realm, to persuade the subjects that the king, his mas- 
ter, would aid them with power this spring, and such like 
promises. He was dismissed, and Mr. Knolles appointed to 
attend on him at his house. This was December the 13th : 
and he was to depart by Dover to the Low Countries. But 
he could not be got out of town till the {i4th, when he went 
to Greenwich ; and on St. Stephen''s day to Gravesend. A 
few days after, he removed to Canterbury. And captain 
Hawkins, one of the queen's great sea officers, was ap- 
pointed to pass him over in a ship of the queen's. After a 
dangerous passage he came to Calais in February. And 
coming to Graveling, to shew his displeasure against the 
English nation, he turned out all the English that he found 
there, notwithstanding that he knew that here in England 
remained monsieur Sweringham, at the request of the duke 
of Alva. This ambassador, according as some letters of 
53 the lord Burghley relate, had used himself crookedly, per- 
niciously, and maliciously against the state, and the chiefest 
of the queen's counsellors, and openly against that lord. 
The (jueea ^\\ tj^jg came out about Auffust and September, viz. how 

orders the • i ^ i • i i-T -, 

earl of the Scottish queen practised both with trance and Spain, 
fo eT!«ti7 ^"^ ^^^ popp? and also with the duke of Norfolk, unhappily 
late with brought iuto this business, and several other of the queen's 
orscots^ own English subjects ; not only to procure her own escape, 

now under jj^t to embroil her maiesty's kingdom in a war, and in an 

his custody. j j o 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 77 

endeavour to dethrone her. Therefore the queen consulted CHAP. 
for the keeping that queen more straitly, and more con- 



fined in Tutbury castle. And the cliarge of her being com- Anno is? i. 

mitted to the earl of Shrewsbury, her majesty, provoked by 

these practices, gave order to the said earl to expostulate 

with her freely and plainly, to urge her to speak what she 

could for herself; giving the lord Burghley commission to 

write to him to that intent. Whose letter accordingly ran 

to this tenor. 

" That after he had closed up his letters, her majesty Lord 
" willed him to let his lordship understand, that she would ^"t?rVo him 
" have him use some round speech to the queen of Scots in for that par- 
" this sort ; that it was now fully discovered to her majesty fnJ^epist. 
" what practices that queen hath had in hand, both with the ^o™- ^»'«p> 

i^ 1 IT p"^ oibc. ar- 

" duke of Norfolk and others, upon the sendmg away of mor. 
" Ridolphi [the pope's secret agent here, under the show of 
" an Italian merchant] into Spain. And though it were 
*' known to her majesty by writings extant, in deliberation, 
" what were best for hei- to do for her escape out of this 
" realm, and thereof caused the duke of Norfolk to be con- 
" ferred withal, and that she chose rather to go into Spain 
" than into Scotland or France ; yet her majesty thought it 
" now just cause to be offended with these devices, tending 
" to her liberty : neither was she offended with her purpose 
" to offer her son in marriage to the king of Spain's daughter. 
" In which matter the late queen of Spain had solicited her ; 
" neither that she sought to make the king of Spain believe 
" that she would give ear to the offer of Don John de 
" Austria. But the very matter of offence was, that her 
" majesty understood certainly her labours and devices to 
" stir up a new rebellion in this realm, and to have the king 
" of Spain to assist it. And that finding the said queen so 
" bent, she must not think but that her majesty had cause to 
" alter her courteous dealing with her. 

" And so in this sort (continued that lord) her majesty 
" would have you tempt her patience to provoke her to an- 
" swer somewhat. For of all these premises her majesty is 
" certainly assured, and of much more." He adds, " Her 



78 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " majesty told me a while ago, that a gentleman of my lord 
____!___" of ^ coming to your house, was by your lordship 



Anno 1571." asked, whether he had seen the queen of Scots, or no. 
» I dare not « ^„j j^g gg\A Ty^ Then, ouoth your lordship, vou shall 

name the . \ ^ • . ... 

party. " see her anon. Which offer her majesty misliking, I said, 

" that I durst say it was not true in this manner. I per- 

" ceive her majesty would have the queen kept very straitly 

" from all conference : insomuch, that it is more like that 

" she shall be committed to ward, rather than have more 

" liberty." And then he advised the earl to send up the 

names of those servants that should remain about her, and 

of such as should depart. This was writ in September. 

54 The bishop of Ross, the Scottish queen'^s agent, being a 

Ross°in"^ very busy man, and being privy to all these dangers to the 

tody, the realm, was, August the 17th, carried to Ely, to be there 

.Scots' a- ^^^^^ ^^^'^ bishop. And in October he was brought from 

gent. Ely to London, and the next month committed to the 

Tower : and there, upon examination, he uttered many 

things very plainly ; but concerning the queen of Scots her 

application to Spain, and the expected assistance thence, 

and concerning the duke of Norfolk's treason, nothing. This 

bishop of Ross (that I may mention it here) ^vrote a book 

in Latin for the Scottish queen''s title to this crown : which 

Glover, Somerset herald, a learned man, answered in a 

large discourse, never, I think, printed, about the year 

His defence 1580. It beginncth thus : " A few years past the bishop 

queen's title" ^^ Ross, being agent for the queen his mistress, to our 

to this " sovereign lady, the queen''s maiesty, wrested his wits (with 

crown ; an- ^ , ? n ■ i p , • i ix • 

swered by t"e assistance or certam lawyers or this land) to write a 
Glover, So- a discourse in defence of the queen of Scots' title to the 

merset. ^ . ... 

OfKc. He- " crown of this realm. Which his discourse being then 
press^ '^' " hatched in a dangerous time of practices and rebellions, 
'* and with a malicious intent against her majesty and her 
" estate, is now, after many years mewing, let fly abroad 
" into the world, in the like time, and with like intent. For 
" what other cause than malice to her majesty can be ima- 
" gined to move this man, after so many years suppression, 
" to publish his discourse at this present, and that in the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 79 

" Latin tongue, and to all the estates of Europe? May it CHAP. 
" be thought so long to have stayed in his hands, because he . 



could never, until now, find in his heart to advance his^^""° i^'^^- 
" mistress's title to the eye of the world ? It were no reason 
" to charge him with so careless a mind of her prosperity 
" and happiness, &c. 

" 1 must needs be of opinion, that the present publica- Why Ross 
" tion proceedeth hereof: that he being persuaded that this ^^■^^ y^^^\^ ^^ 
" year, 1580, some great attempt should be made by the ti>at parti- 

•^ ', . ,f . , . : , cular time. 

" pope and his adherents, agamst her majesty and her 
" estate; and no whit doubting but that his mistress''s 
" cause should by that greatest colour thereof appear ; 
" thought good (that the pope''s and his adherents enter- 
" prise might seem the juster) to publish at this present 
" her title to the crown of this realm ; meaning not only to 
" prove her heir apparent to the crown, after her majesty"'s 
" death, but presently queen de Jure, by a popish conse- 
" quent, even in her majesty's life. For that the Anti- 
" christ of Rome hath deposed her, and pronounced her no 
" queen,"" &c. 

And as this was the author's exordium to his MS. tract. The conciu- 
so I will subjoin his conclusion : " Thus have I plainly answer, 
" proved the title of the crown of England to be examin- 
" able by the common laws of the realm, and none other. 
" And by the same laws all strangers to be barred from 
" claiming any interest therein : and further, the queen of 
" Scots to be a mere stranger ; and therefore her title to be 
" of no account. I have further answered all Ross's vain 
" objections. I have confuted his examples ; and, I trust, 
" satisfied the world, that if any man have been heretofore 
" persuaded his mistress's title to be any thing, he will now 
" alter his mind, and condemn it as nothing." Whether 
there were any things in this book that made it advisable 
not to publish it, let others inquire. 55 

This bishop of Ross I find lying in the Tower till July T^e bishop 

^ ./ o •'of Ross in 

the next year ; and then, by means of the mild lord trea- the Tower, 
surer, he seems to have his liberty granted. In which month [/j^fncg^to"^ 
he wrote to that lord a letter to this tenor : " That he had the lord 



80 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " put his lordship in remembrance, a fortnight past, by a 
^' " letter, of his cause, committing the same to his lordship''s 



Anno 1571. " hands, having none of his own to suit for him at this time. 
" And thinketh me debt bound grietly for your gentle and 
^' gud aunswer sent unto me. And although I have not 
" heard of the resolution taken thairin, yet I abstained to 
" trouble your lordship, being persuade with me, that as 
" time and occasion should serve, to have gud expedition 
" thairof ; chiefly be the queen''s princely nature and gud- 
" ness, with your lordship's labours and patience. And now, 
" my gud lord, I trust the tyme is fuUie comin to put an end 
" thairto, &c. I pray theternal God to preserve your lord- 
" ship. At the Tour, the 17th day of July, 1572. 

" Your lordship's aftectionat to command with service, 

" Jo. Rossen.'' 



CHAP. VI. 

Amity judged more advisable xvith Fiance than Spain. 
Treaty with France. Aid required in case of invasion 
for religion. The Loxv Countries., in conference between 
count Lodoivic and Walsingham at Paris, move for the 
queens assistance. Spain plays the tyrant. Aiguments 
used to move the queen on their behalf. Archbishop of 
CassilSf a pensioner of Spain, comes to Walsingham at 
Paris. False. A rebellion in Ireland, hatching in 
France. The French Icing and queen-mother privy to 
it. Deny it to the English ambassadors. 

IN O W it came to be maturely deliberated, whether of the 
tion about j.^^.^ nations, Spain or France, it were more advisable, and 

Spain and ' ^ ' ' 

France. for the profit of England, to enter into alliance with. This 
consultation was consequent upon the goingoff of the match 
^vith France : and, it seems, the potency of Spain made the 
queen somewhat dubious to which prince to offer her amity. 
Walsingham, the queen's ambassador in France, was uneasy 
at these counsels, and thus shewed his thoughts in this mat- 



Delibera- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. " 81 

ter unto the earl of Leicester: " That if tlie dangerous CHAP. 
" greatness of the house of Austria were well considered, " 

" the miscontentments they had in respect of the injuries Anno 1571. 
" received, Ti. e. from England,! their natural inclination to^*'f"S- 

' L o 'J ham's 

" revenge, and the unseen traffic of our merchants at pre- thoughts 
" sent, [he seems to mean the small traffic they had then in " ' * 
" Flanders.] These considerations v/ell weighed, the cause 
" may seem somewhat altered, [from what it was before- 
" time, in the benefit of the ancient leagues between Eng- 56 
" land and Burgundy.] And that though France could 
" not yield like profit that Flanders did, yet might it yield 
" some profit, with less hazard and more safety. That in 
" this cause he considered two things chiefly : first, that the 
" house of Austria was become the pope"'s champion, and Austria the 
" the professed enemy unto the gospel, and daily practised champion. 
" the rooting out of the same : and therefore that we, that 
" were protestants, ought to oppose ourselves against it. 
" The other, that the entrance into the league with France 
" would not only be an advancement of the gospel there, 
" but elsewhere." [So good Mr. Walsingham then con- 
ceived, and so did every protestant beside : so closely and 
treacherously were the cruel designs of that French king 
carried.] And therefore he concluded, " That though it 
" yielded not so much temporal profit, yet in respect of 
" the spiritual fruit that thei'eby might ensue, he thought it 
" worthy the embracing. Or rather to say better, I think, 
" saith he, we have cause to thank God that ofFereth us so 
" good occasion both to advance his glory, and also to pro- 
" vide for her majesty ""s safety." 

A sure amity therefore with France was now transacting ^ league 
by our ambassadors there, in the midst of these fears at between 
home. And among; the articles drawn up for the league be- E°gl^"'i 

'^ Til I , and France. 

tween France and England, queen Elizabeth propounded 
one that was very strange at this juncture, namely, in favour 
of the king of Spain, to make provision for his safety. This 
was much disgusted by the French ; who shewed, that the 
end of this treaty was only to bridle his greatness. And 
therefore to provide for his .safety, who sought both their 

VOL. II. G 



ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK destructions, they could not tell what it meant; especially 
since of late he had no way deserved any such favour at the 



Catholic 
league. 



Anno 1571. queen\s hands. " Therefore, (as Walsingham in his corre- 
Waising- ii spondence did write,) if her majesty thought that prince 
to lord " [viz. the French king] was of any value, who was towards 
Burghiey. a ^|j ^^^^j^ sincere, [so he now appeared,] toward her ma- 
" jesty well affected, towards religion plus inimicus, she 
" should not balance him in one balance with Spain : who 
" was of words insincere, in affection towards her majesty 
" maliciously bent, and the common enemy to our religion. 
" That if her majesty meant to take profit of Spain''s friend- 
" ship, the next way should be to strengthen herself with 
*' the amity of others, in such sort as she should have no 
" need of it. For that was the nature,'"" said he, " of a proud 
" man, to make best account of him that least esteems him : 
" for whosoever yieldeth to him increaseth his pride. Which 
" thing those that dealt with the Spanish nation found to be 
" most true." 

He added, " That so long as the late catholic league did 
" remain in force, neither her majesty, nor any other princes 
" of the religion, could promise themselves any thing at 
" Spain's hands, but as much mischief as he could do them. 
" Which thing her majesty, with the rest, should find to be 
" true by too dear an experience, if the same w ere not holpen 
" by some counter-league." 

This treaty with France was for a mutual assistance of 
each other in case of invasion, chiefly feared from king 
Philip. And in that article the queen required it to be 
thus expressed ; Etiavisi J^uent \invasid\ reUgionis causa 
^*J praitcxtu aiit colore. Which clause stuck. The queen, in 
her instructions to Smith, would very earnestly that he 
should press this ; and to cause those of the religion there 
to understand the demand, and to help to further it. But 
that if he could not obtain these words to be inserted, then 
to run in more general words. Sub quocunque prcBtextu, vcl 
colore et quavis de causa : and in some secret manner to 
move, that some special promise might be made in a secret 
writing betwixt tlie king and the queen, signed mutually 



An article 
in the 
treaty, in 
case of in- 
vasion for 
religion. 



I 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 83 

with both their hands, for that purpose expressly, if any in- CHAP, 
vasion should be made. And without this the queen would ^^' 
not have her ambassador to accord. Anno 1571. 

But this the king would not comply with ; as likewise to The French 
sign any private assurance about it between the queen and n'ot'conipiy 
him. But he said he would write a private letter to her, ^^'''.'' that 
assuring her of it. This, Walsingham (who was deceived 
with this dissembling prince, and was apt to think well of 
him) thought the queen might be contented with, for the 
great benefit of a league, offensive and defensive; as he 
wrote to the earl of Leicester. " We can," writeth Wal- Waising- 
singham, " by no means draw the king to any other inter- y■^^.Q_ 
' pretation of the meaning, touching the point of religion, 
' than by private letter. That for his own private opinion, 
' seeing this league was to endure but during the life of the 
' two princes, and that the substance of all leagues con- 
' sisted chiefly in the sincerity of the matters, and that this 
' prince had given great show to the world of great sin- 
' cerity, [the greater hypocrite,] he thought that private 
* letter did bind as much in honour, as any other instru- 
' ment or contract that passed between them could do in 
' law. For if they should break, the matter was not to be 
' tried in the chamber emperial by way of pleading of 
' what value the instruments were. God and the sword 
' must be judges. That if her majesty could content lier- 
' self with this private interpretation of the king's meaning, 
' then if she would please to use some words of assurance 
' towards the ambassador at her court, of the great good 
' opinion she had of the king's sincerity, and that she built 
' more upon his word than upon contracts, he knew nothing 
' could more content him. For he desired, he said, to be a 
' prince that esteemed his word and honour above his life. 
' Besides, he wished himself to be in her majesty's good 
' opinion, before all other princes. And had often taken The king's 
' occasion to say, that he hoped there would be no less ^^I'-Tsteeru'V 
' nest good-will and strait amity between him and her, than the queen. 
' was between her grandfather and his grandfather." 
To nourish this opinion of amity between them, Walsing- 



84 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK ham took it, as he said, to be the office of all those who 

^' truly loved their majesties; "as that league that tended 

Anno 1571." greatly to both their sureties, being knit together in per- 

" feet amity : which, beside their particular safety, would 

" breed a great repose in all Europe, especially for the cause 

'* of religion." 

Low Coun- About this time, while Walsingham was in Paris, the 

p"ps3Pj. so. queen was solicited by those of the Low Countries, griev- 

licit the ously oppressed by Spain, to protect them. Count Lodo- 

wic, of Nassau, (brother to the prince of Orange,) who 

came with a message to the French king, having agreed 

with Walsingliam upon a private conference, came to him 

in the month of August, to discourse some secret points, for 

5 8 setting those covmtries free of that tyranny. With which 

that English gentleman was so taken, that he called him in 

one of his letters, the rarest gentleman with whom he had 

Count Lo- talked since he came into France. The count shewed him 

Nassau's ^^ large how the king of Spain was setting up violently the 

conference inquisition against papists and protestants ; who all disliked 

singham it. And that they saw him establishing an arbitrary power 

about the Qyer them, who were a free people. He offered the queen 

tyranny of ; . . 

Spain. Zealand, in case she would come to their assistance. He 
shewed our ambassador, that the cause in the Low Coun- 
tries proceeded only upon that the king of Spain sought to 
plant there, by inquisition, the foundation of a most horri- 
ble tyranny, the overthrow of all freedom and liberty ; a 
thine; which his father Charles V. went about to have esta- 
blished there. But seeing the same so much impugned by 
the inhabitants of the said countries, and that without con- 
sent it could not be received, vmless he would violently, by 
tyranny, seek the establishment of the same, contrary both 
to his oath and their privileges, he forbore to proceed in that 
behalf. They saw it would overthrow all foreign traffic, by 
which that country was chiefly maintained. And this they 
urged to the cardinal of Arras, who by sundry ways prac- 
tised to plant the said inquisition, and by persuasion would 
have induced the people to like thereof. And when persua- 
sions would not do, he endeavoured to do it bv violence: 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 85 

for the emperor had given but a cold ear to them at the as- CHAP, 
sembly at Spires, where they related their grievances. 



Thus when they saw themselves (as the count proceeded ^uno 1571. 
in his relation) void of all help, their natural prince being ^^.''5^^^^"^^ 
carried away by corruption of counsel, from the due consider- "^ tiieir 

1111 1 • 1 /> 1 1 taking arms. 

ation that belonged to a good prmce toJiave 01 good sub- 
jects, as he neither regarded his oath, nor maintenance of 
such privileges as were confirmed by his predecessors, nor 
the dutiful manner of the proceeding of the nobility, in 
seeking by way of humble petition to redress their griefs, 
they thought their consciences discharged from all duty of 
obedience. And on this* occasion the people took arms. 

' Count Lodowic had first applied himself to the French Propositions 
king this year, to take this people into his protection, and to ^q t^e 
procure their deliverance from the present tyranny. To 1"'^'=" f'°"^ 
which he seemed inclinable, on condition the queen of Eng- dowic. 
land might be brought to be a party, and to join with him 
and the princes of Germany in the same enterprise. And , 
this he privately acquainted Walsingham withal ; and that 
he should move it to her as from himself. And then to 
propound to her majesty, on his behalf, these particulars 
following. I. Whether she could be content to join with 
him and the prince of Orange in the enterprise. II. Whe- 
ther upon former assurance offered, she could be content to 
lend unto them the sum they required. III. That it would 
please her majesty to suffer captain Hawkins underhand to 
serve them with certain ships ; and also to license them to 
furnish them with certain victuals to be transported from 
thence, whereof they had present need. 

He further backed his request with these arguments ; Arguments 
that it would be no less honour for her to unite Zealand ""^ *'^f 

queen s as- 

[which had been offered her] to the crown of England, than sistance of 
it was dishonour to her sister to lose Calais. And that by ^ ^' 
having Zealand, she would have the key of the Low Coun- 
tries, and a place always for her ships to enter in unto ; to 
avoid thereby the danger of the enemy, as also of any tem- 
pests ; and other considerations. And that this enterprise 
being done by protestants, the receiving the honour thereof, 

g3 



86 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK should be better able, by increase of credit with the French 
________ king, to continue his good devotion towards the queen, in re- 

Auuo 1571 spect of the rare favours they had received at her hands, 
which they did and would always acknowledge. And fur- 
ther, that the queen would consider how ill affected Spain 
was towards her ; how naturally they inclined to revenge, 
though outwardly, till convenient time served, they could 
dissemble their malice ; how that king entertained rebellious 
subjects of her majesty, at his great cost, and how he was 
become a protector of the queen of Scots, the queen's dan- 
gerous enemy. 
Comrauni- This was all communicated in the month of August by 
court by AValsiugham, as advantageously as he could, both to Burgh- 
Waising- jp^ ^^^^ Leicester: who extremely approved of it, and re- 
solved to move it to the queen as effectually as they could. 
But the queen could not be persuaded to meddle any fur- 
ther in this matter, unless to be a mediator, till several 
years after. 
Instructions Concerning the archbishop of Cassil, or Cashell, (whose 
ham coii-'^ repair to Walsingham we spake of under the last year,) he 
cermngthe \^^^ instructions Sent him to use his interest to set him into 

arcnDisliop . . . . '^ 

of Cashei. the queen''s dominions ; which that archbishop seemed to be 
very desirous of, in case he might have the queen's par- 
don, and his bishopric restored to him again. The earl of 
Leicester had directed the ambassador to labour to deal so 
with him as to bring him into England : for they suspected 
the man as a practiser with Spain, notwithstanding his pre- 
tences. And he received instructions from the queen about 
him, viz. that she did not so much disallow of his recjuest of 
her pardon, and for the restitution of his bishopric, as of the 
slender manner of his suit ; as he had signified it to Wal- 
singham. And that if he would not humbly desire pardon 
of his offences, and shew himself repentant, and disposed to 
live hereafter in Ireland, like a faithful subject, she meant 
not to bestow upon him either pardon or bishopric. And 
this Walsingham was to let him know, and to express the 
same to him in such sort as lie should see cause. Other- 
wise there was no great account to be made of him ; nor 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 87 

was he of kin to the earl of Desmond, as he alleged, nor of CHAP, 
any credit in England. And yet that she was content to . 



draw him home by means not dishonourable. Anno 1571. 

The lord Burghley gave him no better a style than ifA(? The charac- 
Inod lozel of Ireland. And this not without reason : for archbishop, 
there were no small grounds to suspect this archbishop to ''^^^^'^^^^^ 
be, notwithstanding all his pretences, false to the queen ; for 
he had a great interest with the queen's professed enemies, 
and had large allowances from the king of Spain. For when 
one captain Thomas, an Irishman, (but a spy for Wal- 
singham,) upon that bishop's desire, got him access to the 
cardinal of Loraine, [who was of the house of the Guises,] 
they talked together for the space of two hours. And when 
he departed, he told not the said captain what their discourse 
was, but only that there might be some occasion afterwards 60 
to employ him [the captain] in some good service ; [that is,' 
in some insurrection in Ireland, which was now a hatching.] 
And that therefore he should do well to make such report 
of him, [the archbishop,] that he might grow into credit in 
that court. And that he should say, that the archbishop 
was a man of a noble family, and of great reputation in that 
country : and that Ireland of itself was but weak, and easy 
to be o-otten by the enemy. All this the captain afterwards 
made Walsingham privy to ; who appointed the said cap- 
tain to attend upon him. This archbishop also had told 
that ambassador's servant, that the king of Spain had enter- 
tained him honourably; having had, during the time of A pensioner 
his abode there, besides 2000 ducats for an annual pension, *° ^P*'"' 
sometimes 100, sometimes 200, sometimes 300 ducats, when 
the court did remove. And he related moreover, that D'Alva 
had offered 36,000 ducats for the earl of Northumberland, 
(the queen's rebel,) who was then a prisoner in Scotland. 
So well was this archbishop acquainted with the Spanish 
affairs. 

The queen also, in another letter of instructions to the Encouraged 

, . • n -t 1 • 1 • ^ • tUt^o come 

said ambassador, signified to him, that considering that j^^^, g^^. 
party, and the profit that might ensue by his discovering of land ^by the 
the practices, wherewith he was so truly acquainted, she was 

G 4 



88 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK content, that if he meant dutifully to ask pardon, as he pre- 
tended by his speech, then the ambassador sliould give him 
Anno 1571. comfort to Continue the same dutifulness and loyal mean- 
ing, and provoke him to make repair into England, and to 
assure him that he should not find lack of grace, if he hum- 
bly desired it, and by his truth hereafter deserved it. And 
to add, that he the ambassador had power from the queen 
(to whom he had written about him) to warrant him to 
come into her realm safely, and to make his means unto the 
queen for her favour. And that if he would shew himself 
penitent for his former fault, and be disposed hereafter to 
live dutifully, he should be provided of as good a living as 
heretofore he had. And that if he obtained not of the 
queen at his coming according to his liking, the ambassador 
would give him his warrant under his hand to return safely 
out of the realm. Which manner of usance the ambassador 
should tell him was very rare in the queen. But that upon 
his instance she had yielded thereunto. And so accordingly 
the ambassador was ordered to give him such a warrant 
under his liand. But that if he [the ambassador] found 
that the other had sovight but to abuse him, as by his letters 
there was some reason to doubt, then to forbear to deal 
with him in the former sort. But yet to procure as much 
intelligence as he miglit from him, and to discover his con- 
tinuance in falsehood and practice there, as he could see 
occasion for it, and could gather matter against him, to deal 
with the king there, that he might be delivered as an open 
known rebel and traitor, especially in those practices used 
by him in Spain. And that there was the more cause to 
doubt his lewdness, because Rogers, that brought the am- 
bassador's last letters, met with an Irishman about St. 
Deny's, who told him that the archbishop had been secretly 
at the court, and was ready to be despatched away into 
Spain by the means of the cardinal of I^orain. 
61 This was afterwards [viz. in the month of February] 
A rebellion spokcn of by sir Tho. Smith and Mr. Walsingham to the 
plotted 'by French king : to whom they related an endeavour of a re- 
ihe taidinai bellion in Ireland, by the said cardinaPs means, as appeared 

of Lorain. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 89 

by the confession of one Stackbold, then a prisoner in Ire- CHAP, 
land ; who confessed, that the cardinal set him on to stir up . 



a rebellion there, to the maintenance of James Fitz Morrice, Anno 1571. 
a traitor and rebel to the queen ; who was to have the coun- 
ties of Ormond and Ossory. And that he promised them 
men and munition to rebel against the queen. And withal, 
that the French king and the queen-mother were privy to it. TheFrench 
It was true enough, notwithstandmg their great protesta- to it. 
tions of mighty friendship with her majesty ; as appeared 
by their behaviour, when Smith, by the queen"'s command- 
ment, acquainted them both with it. To the king he thus 
harangued it freely : " That that cardinal had not done 
" enough to raise up trouble to her majesty in your realms, 
" and to trouble England and Scotland, but he could not 
" let the poor reahn of Ireland alone, by encouraging Fitz 
" Morrice the queen's rebel there. A?}d that in your ma- 
'■^jesty's name.'''' 

Whereat the king laughing heartily, said. In my name ? Denies it 
And professed, he never so much as heard of it : and that he b"as=ador" ' 
could never think any trouble or hurt to his good sister. Smith. 
Upon which, Smith shewed him the articles of Stackbold's 
confession, who affirmed it. And when the same day, by 
the like order from the queen, he acquainted the queen- And so does 
mother with the same matter of the cardinal's evil endea- [j^'^^^"^®"' 
vours in Ireland, and her knowledge of it, she also turned 
it off with a question, whether he dared to say this .? And 
moreover the said ambassador told her, that the cardinal 
said, he did it in the king's name and hers; and that the 
queen his mistress ordered him to declare this unto her. 
But withal, that she knew it well enough not to be true, for 
the good-will that they bare to her. Smith added, that 
Walsingham could tell her more. 

Who then declared the case unto her ; and that he had Tiie ambas- 
moved her in it almost a year ago. She said, she remem- thirmat't^r 
bered that there was such a thing about to be done by the to the 
stirring of a bishop that came from Spain. [That was the **"^'^"* 
archbishop of Cassils, of whom before.] To this, Smith 
also mentioned De la Roche's attempt upon Ireland ; who 



90 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK was a knight of the order, and gentleman of the king's 
^' chamber ; and the conductor of that expedition, and could 
Anno 1571. tell the whole proceeding. And so prayed that order might 
be taken in it. She replied, that the king disavowed it; 
and that he had stayed De la Roche, that lie should not go 
to Ireland, and revoked all his power. But Walsingham then 
told her, that there were then twenty harquebussiers there, 
or thereabouts, remaining still, and had remained ever since 
in a castle. Whereupon the queen promised they should 
be recalled, if any were there. Thus did the French false- 
hood begin to appear, by the industry of the queen''s ambas- 
sadors, and the secret intelligence procured by Walsingham, 
to his great expense and impoverishing. 



62 CHAP. VII. 

A parliament. The succession ; and matters of religion, 
transacted there. The hill for reformation. The queen 
displeased at it, as encroaching on her prerogat^ive. De- 
hates about it. Divers hills for religion hrought in. Mo- 
tion for a nexo confession of faith. Reformatio legum 
ecclesiasticarum produced in parliament. Bills ahout 
religion and the state of the church that passed. Acts 
against papists. Act for subscrihing and reading the 
Thirty-nine Articles. Many are deprived upon this act. 

Succession JN OW let US look at home. In the parliament that began 
*° ^''^ to sit April 2, anno 13 Elizab. a motion was made for the 

crown X ' 

moved in succcssion. And many of the members had but little kind- 
pa lameii . ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ Scottish queen. Insomuch that they laboured 
to put by her pretended right of succcssion ; and to fix 
upon the line of the lady INIary, that married to Brandon 
duke of Suffolk, king Henry VIII. his younger sister; as 
that queen sprang of his elder. And the ground they went 
upon was king Henry VIII. his last will. Wherein he ex- 
pressly put the heirs of the lady Frances first, and next the 
heirs of the lady Eleonor, daughters of his said sister Mary, 
in remainder and reversion, to succeed to the crown, in case 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 91 

of failure of issue in his children, Edward, Mary, and Eli- CHAP. 

VII. 

zabeth. And this by virtue of certain statutes made the 28th 



and 35th of Henry VIII. whereby such power was granted -^""o isyi. 

to that king, to appoint the succession, " according to such 

" estate, and after such manner, form, and fashion, order, 

" or condition, as should be expressed and limited in his 

" letters patents, or by his last will in writing, signed with 

" his hand." Now for the making this of none effect, and 

that the line of king Henry's elder sister might take place, 

it was lu'ged in those times by some, that that king made 

no will at all ; and by others, that if he did make any, it was 

not according to the statute, nor signed by his hand. 

Now for the clearing of these things, there was a mem- A speech in 
ber who made a notable speech, and of good length; to F^y^''^™^ " / 
prove that there was a true will made by the king. And king Hen- 

, „ .„ , T • • 1 • ""y's will, in 

therefore, if there were no records remammg then in favour of 
chancery of any letters patents, nor original will to be IJ'^ ^^'^V 
found ; it must have been defaced and destroyed in queen 
Mary's reign. That there was a real will was evident, be- 
cause of the performing of the legacies of it; which were 
made to many, both of lands and money, after his decease : 
and divers indentures tripartite were made between king 
Edward VI., his immediate successor, and the executors of 
king Henry's will, and others. And divers letters patents 
passed under the great seal, in consideration of the accom- 
plishment of the said king's will. And that there was a will 
in the name of king Henry, enrolled in the chancery, and 
divers constats thereof made under the great seal. All 63 
which, as he urged, were arguments that king Henry died 
not intestate. And then, that it was without all doubt, that 
as the subjects of England had taken them for king and 
queens of England, that were expressed in the statute by 
name, so they were bound to accept them that were de- 
clared by the will in remainder, or reversion ; viz. the heirs 
of the lady Frances and lady Eleonor. 

But then further, in case of no will, he proceeded to And for an- 

1 f- • 1 1-1 1 • J. ^ nulling the 

enervate the Scottish queen s title to tins crown ; as not be- Scottish 
ino; inheritable by her, according; to the laws of this realm, q"f en's 

o J ^ is ' title. 



92 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK proving only such inheritable, as were born in the king's al- 

L legiance of father and mother English ; or out of the king's 

Aimo i57i.]egiance, one parent English, and in the king's legiance. 
But I had rather leave the reader to the whole speech of 
this member of parliament, carefully transcribed by me from 
N".VIII. a MS. in the Cotton library, as it is set in the Appendix. 
But though this bold step in parliament, from a disgust of 
the Scottish queen, succeeded not; yet a notable act or acts 
were made this session, for the security of the queen's per- 
Act for se- son and government, and for the succession. Especially the 

curity of . 

the queen's Statute 13 Eliz. cap. 1, wherein, among other things of that 
persoa and nature, it enacts to be treason, '* for any to hold or affirm, 

govern- •' ' 

nient; and " that the common law of the realm (not altered by par- 
succession, u liament) ought not to direct the right of the crown of Eng- 
" land ; or that the queen, by the authority of the parlia- 
" ment, might not make laws and statutes of sufficient force 
" and validity, to limit and bind the crown of this realm, 
" and the descent, limitation, and government thereof:" as 
we shall hear more, before we conclude this chapter. 
Kill in par- Now let US see what was done, or endeavoured to be 

liament tor j . , . . 

con.iiig to done, m this session, in matter of religion. The first bill 
ba"ed''' ^^' ^^^^ ^^^ read, which was April the 4th, was for coming to 
Journal of church, and receiving the holy communion. April the 6th, 
.ir lauiLH . ^^_^^ ^j^^ second time. When sir Thomas Smith spake, and 
argued for the observance and maintenance thereof. And 
in part Avished the bishops to have consideration thereof. 
Fleetwood, recorder of London, moved, that the penalties 
of the statute should not go to promoters ; a device but 
lately brought in, in the time of king Henry VIII. And he 
shewed the evils and inconveniences that grew thereby : 
wherein no reformation was sought, but private gain. And 
as for the matter of going to church, or for the service of 
God, he u^ged, that it did directly appertain to that court ; 
[i.e. the court of parliament.] And thatnhey had as well 
learnt, that there was a God to be served, as had the bi- 
shops. And then he proved by old laws, that princes in 
their parliaments had made ecclesiastical constitutions. And 
so this bill was referred to committees. This bill, among 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 93 

others, with additions and provisos, was brought down from CHAP, 
the lords May the 19th. But I do not find it passed into ^"* 



an act this parliament, though there was great pains taken Anno 1571. 
about it. 

There was a strong party in the house, that resolved to Furthei- re- 
press, as vigorously as might be, a further reformation of ^^^ ^^5;^;^,^ 
religion ; namely, by altering several things in the Common urged- 
Prayer, and the ceremonies established. Mr. Strickland, an 
ancient gentleman, of hot zeal, offered a bill for reforma- 
tion. Who ushered it in with a long speech, for some re- 64 
formation of several things in the Book of Common Prayer, Book of 
though he acknowledged it v/as drawn up very near to the prayer, 
sincerity of the truth. But yet that there were some super- 
stitious things in it, as, in the Office of Baptism, the sign of 
the cross, and some other ceremonies and errors, as he 
called them : which might be changed, without note of 
changing of religion ; whereby the enemy might slander us. 
He further spake of the abuses of the church of England, and churdi- 
and of churchmen : as, that known papists had ecclesiastical e,i for c^r- 
government and great livings : that boys were dispensed t*'" things, 
with, to have spiritual promotions: that, by faculties, un- 
able men were allowed: and some other men allowed to 
hold too many livings. In the mean time, godly, honest, 
and learned protestant ministers, had little or nothing. 
April the 14th, the bill for reformation, preferred by Strick- 
land aforesaid, was read the first time. Upon which ensued 
divers arguments. Mr. Treasurer of the queen's household 
was one that spake against it to this purport; " That if Bill for re- 
" the matters mentioned to be reformed were heretical, then 
" they were presently to be condemned. But if they were 
" matters of ceremonies, then it behoved them to refer the 
" same to her majesty ; who had authority, as chief of the 
" church, to deal therein. And for them to meddle with 
" matters of her prerogative, he said, were not convenient." 
Mr. Comptroller of the household argued to the same effect. 
Another, whose name was Snagg, entered into discourse of 
some of the articles, which Strickland had laid down before. 
Whereof one was, not to kneel at the receiving of the holy 



94 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK sacrament; but to lie prostrate, (to shun the old supersti- 
tion,) or to sit, every man at his own liberty. And the di- 



Anno i57i.rections were also thought fit to be left out of the book [of 
the Office of Communion] for that posture. Which should 
be a law ; and every man to do according to his con- 
science. 

The queen g^^ j^]jg queen liked not at all of these proceedings; 

displeased at _ . ' . • i i 

it. And one reckoning it Struck at her prerogative, (as was hinted be- 
the lious" ^^^^ ^y ^^^ treasurer,) as though she might not appoint ce- 
remonies to be used in the worship of God. So that during 
the time of Easter, (the parliament being adjourned,) in the 
holydays, Strickland, for his exhibiting a bill for the re- 
formation of ceremonies, and his speech thereupon, was 
sent for before the lords of the privy council ; and required 
to attend upon them ; and in the mean season to make stay 
from entering; into the house. 
The house But this caused no small disturbance. For on Friday, 
SnlhJr!*^ "^ April 19, in Easter week, being the next day after the par- 
liament sat again, the house wanted their member. And 
Debate it, one of them signified, " How a member of the house was 
*' demanded from them. By whose commandment, or for 
" what cause, he knew not. And that forasmuch as he was 
" not now a private man, but to supply the room, person, 
" and place of a multitude, especially chosen, and there- 
" fore sent ; he thought that neither in regard of the coun- 
" try, which was not to be wronged, nor for the liberty of 
" the house, which was not to be infringed, they should 
" not permit him to be demanded from them." To this a 
courtier, namel}- ]\Ir. Treasurer, spake mildly, as the point 
was tender: " That the man that was meant, was neither 
" demanded nor misused ; but on consideration was re- 
65 " quired, to expect the queen's pleasure upon certain spe- 
" cial points. And that he durst to assure, that the gentle- 
" man should have neither cause to disUkc or complain, &c. 
" That he was in no sort stayed for any word or speech by 
" him in that place offered ; but for exhibiting a bill to the 
" house against the prerogative of the queen ; which was 
" not to be tolerated. And that oft it had been seen, that 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 95 

" speeches [in parliament] had been examined and con- CHAP. 
" sidered of." Others were for sending for him. Yelver- 



ton urged, " That the precedent was perilous. And that Anno 1571. 
" though, in this happy time of lenity, under so gracious a 
" princess, nothing of extremity or injury was to be feared ; 
" yet the times might be altered ; and what was now per- 
" mitted, might hereafter be construed as a duty, and en- 
" forced even on the ground of the present permission. 
" That all matters, not treason, or too much to the deroga- 
" tion of the crown, were tolerable there ; [i. e. in the par- 
" liament house ;] where all things came to be considered 
"of; and where there was such fulness of power, as even 
" the riffht of the crown was to be determined : that to 
" say, the parliament had no power to determine of the 
" crown was high treason. He remembered them, how that D'Ewes' 
" men are not there for themselves, but for their country. '^''""'^\ ' 
" That it was fit for princes to have their prerogative ; but 
" yet the same to be straitened within reasonable limits. 
" That the prince could not of herself make laws : neither 
" might she, for the same reason, break laws, &c. That 
" the speech that had been uttered in that place, and the 
" offer made of the bill, was not to be condemned as evil. 
" But that if there were any thing in the Book of Common 
" Prayer, either Jewish, Turkish, or Popish, the same 
" might be reformed. He said also, that among the Papists 
" it was bruited, that by the judgment of the council 
" Strickland was taken for an heretic :" [meaning, that be- 
ing so misrepresented, the house had the more reason to 
stand by him.] 

Another said, that care was to be had for the privileges 
of the house. Fleetwood, recorder of London, a wise man, 
advised, that they should be humble suitors to the queen ; 
and neither send for him nor demand him of right. Those 
of the queen''s council, while this speech was making, [fear- 
ing undoubtedly the consequence,] whispered together. 
And then the speaker moved, that the house should make The mem- 
stay of any further consultation thereupon. And on the |^|"j^j °j[" 
next day, being: Saturday, Strickland came to the house ; comes to 

•^ ' '^ -' the house. 



96 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK upon an advertisement, as it seems, from her majesty's 
_______ council ; and coming just upon the time, when the bill for 

Anno 1571. coming to church and receiving the communion was in re- 
ferring to committees, the house did, in witness of their joy 
for his restitution, presently nominate him one of those 
committees. 
Some com- J fji^fj j^q ^lore of this bill for the reformation of the Com- 
reiigion at- mon Prayer and for the ceremonies, but that April the 
tend upon 25th, Several of the committees, viz. sir Robert Lane, sir 

the arch- ' ' ' 

bishop. Henry Gate, Mr. Henry Knowles, sen. Mr. Astley, master 
of the jewel house, Mr. Sandes, Mr. Wentworth, were ap- 
pointed to attend the lord of Canterbury his grace ; for an- 
swer touching matters of religion. I suppose this was in 
pursuance of a former act, whereby the queen, with her me- 
66 tropoli tan, was to appoint, and regulate, and reform mat- 
ters in religion. 
Seven bills Tlie bills for religion, and regulation of church affairs, 
thin and re- began in the parliament 8 Eliz. and agitated and prosecuted 
formation [^i this parliament 13 Eliz. were seven. But some of them 
church. in the issue, dashed by her majesty, saith D'Ewes, per- 
D'Ewes' suaded unto it, as it should seem, by some sinister counsel. 

Journal, ' _ -" ^ 

p. 184. b. I. For the articles printed anno 1562, for sound religion. 
First read on the 5th of Dec. 8 Eliz. All the rest of them 
that follow had their first reading Dec. the 6th, in the 
said session; viz. II. The bill for the order of ministers. 
III. For the residence of pastors. IV. For the avoiding of 
corrupt presentations. V. For leases of benefices. VI. For 
pensions out of benefices. VII. Touching commutation of 
penance by the ecclesiastical judge. Which last was first 
preferred in this parliament. These were read several times 
in the house, and countenanced ; and some of them came to 
effect. 
Moved, The first of these, offered in the beginning of this session, 

that a con- ^^^ introduced by Mr. Strickland in a long speech before 

fession of •' n ■ J !• ■ i i 

faith be mentioned, (which was for a new confession of faith, to be 

the*^usl°of made and used in this church,) may be better understood, if 

this cburcii. ^e relate some further passages of that speech ; viz. " That 

" he thought it worth the while for the parliament to be 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 97 

occupied for some time; tliat all reproachful speeches CHAP, 
of slanderers might be stopped; drawbacks in religion. 



"brought forward; and overrunners, that exceeded the Anno 1571. 
" rules of the law, reduced : that a confession of faith 
" should be made, and published, and confirmed ; as was 
*' among other professors of religion in foreign parts. As 
*' those of Strasburge and Frankford : and as learned 
*' men also formerly in this land travelled in ; as Peter 
*' Martyr, Paulus Fagius, and others. And that an offer 
*' thereof, that had been formerly made in parliament, 
" might be approved." He added, that the book [which 
was the Reformation of the Ecclesiastical Laws, effected 
chiefly by archbishop Cranmer, by the command of king 
Henry VIII. and Edward VI.] rested still in the custody 
of Mr. Norton, a member of the house. And thereupon 
requested, that the 'said Norton might be required to pro- 
duce the same. Which he after did. And shewed that it The book 
was the book drawn up [under king Edward] by thirty-two formation' 
persons, i. e. eight bishops, eight divines, eight civilians, •'^ *}'^ Ec- 
and eight temporal lawyers : who had in charge to make Laws pro- 
ecclesiastical constitutions, and took the same in hand : and f ""'^ '" 

' _ this parna- 

that Mr. Fox [the martyrologist] took some pains about the ment. 
said book, and had newly printed it : which the said Nor- 
ton then and there shewed. I add, that Fox also set a 
large preface before it, ad doctum et candidiim lectorem ; 
and concludeth with his wish, " That what, by the prema- 
*' ture death of that king, was then denied to the church's 
" happiness, might be supplied in the more happy times of 
" queen Elizabeth, by the authority of that present parlia- 
" ment, [viz. this, as it seems, of the 13th of the queen,] 
" and by the consent and favour of learned men."" This 
book was printed again in Latin, in the year 1640, at Lon- 
don. 

I have this further to add concerning this book. It was fQ,.,j^g' g^r_ 
said, that Dr. Haddon, that learned civilian, and master of 'iament 
the requests to the queen, had in a former parliament de-byDr.Had- 
livered this book, which had with so much pains, labour, ^°"- ^^~ 
and learning, been prepared and finished in king Edward's Enemy, &c. 

VOL. II. H ^^V.^.ry. 



98 



ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK days: and wherein Haddon himself, having an excellent 
^- Latin style, was concerned in drawing up. And that then 



Anno 1571. in that parliament, it was ordered to be translated into 
67 English for their better considering it. For this, I make no 
doubt, was that booh of discipline which Penry (that was 
executed for sedition about 1591) hinted at in one of his 
books, (called. Reformation no enemy to her majesty and 
state, printed anno 1590,) where, after his preface, he makes 
this request to the reader : " Mr. D. Haddon delivered in 
" parliament a Latin book concerning church discipline, 
" written in the days of king Edward VI. by M. Cranmer 
" and sir John Cheeke, &c. This book (saidi he) was com- 
" mitted by the house to be translated, unto the said M. 
" D. Haddon, M. George Bromley, M. Norton, &c." His 
request follows : " If thou canst, good reader, help me, or 
" any other, that labour in the cause, unto the said book, I 
" hope, though I never saw it, that in so doing, thou shalt 
" do good service to the Lord and his church." So he, sup- 
posing it had much favoured his admired discipline. But if 
he had been helped to a sight of it, he would have found it 
would not have served his purpose. 

The said Mr. Strickland, in his speech aforesaid, made 

several motions, " That they should not, for any cause of 

" policy, permit any errors in matters of doctrine to con- 

" tinue longer among them. And that the reformation he 

" urged should not by this be called a chopping and 

" changing of our religion, [as some had objected,] but 

*' pursuant to our profession ; that is, to have all doctrines 

" brought to the purity of the primitive church. And at 

" last he moved, that certain of them might be assigned, to 

" have conference with the lords of the spirituality, for con- 

" sideration and reformation of these matters." But what 

stop these earnest motions had, we have shewed before. 

The success Only let me add what happened to the said committee for 

mitlre'T^I religion, when, according as it was appointed, they attended 

tendance the archbisliop of Canterbury with their model for reforma- 

ardTbishop. tion ; wherein, as some articles of religion were allowed by 

them, so others, already received into the church, were left 



A motion 
for a con- 
ference 
with the 
bishops in 
order to a 
further re- 
formation. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH.' 99 

out. The archbishop, taking a view of this draught, asked CHAP, 
them, wliy they put out of the book the article for homi- ^^^' 



lies, and for the consecrating of bishops, and some others. Anno 1571. 
Mr. Peter Wentworth, (who was one of that committee,) aO'Ewes' 
hot man, answered, (as he gave an account of \t himself in p. 239. ' 
his speech the next parliament,) because they were so occu- 
pied in otlier matters, that they had no time to examine 
them, how they agreed with the word of God. Whereat the 
archbishop replied, that surely they mistook the matter: 
saying further, You will refer yourselves wholly to us [the 
bishops] therein. To which Wentworth, in some heat, and Went- 
somewhat rudely, answered; " No, by the faith I bear to words' to 
" God, we will pass nothing before we understand what *'."^ '*''*^''- 
" it is. For that were but to make you popes. Make you 
" popes, who list ; for we will make you none.'" But this 
gentleman taking the like freedom to talk concerning the 
queen in the next parliament, 18 Eliz. and using several 
bold expressions concerning her, (as, how rumovu's ran 
in the house, " Take heed what you do ; for the queen 
" liketh not such a matter,") he was sequestered the house, 
and committed to the sergeant as a prisoner for some time. 

But what bills about religion and the state of the church 68 
took place in this parliament, I shall proceed now to re- 
late. Some were brought in against papists; who at that Bills against 
time endeavoured to deprive and depose the queen in fa- ^^^^^ ^' 
vour of the Scottish queen Mary. This became enacted. For security 
" Where it was made high treason to compass, imagine, in- |fotch 
" vent, &c. the queen's death, or any bodily harm, tend- queen. 
" ing to death, maiming, or wounding her royal person ; 
" or to deprive or depose her from the style, honour, or 
" kingly name of the imperial crown of this realm ; or to 
" levy war against her; or to move any foreigners or stran- Statute 
" gers with force to invade this realm or that of Ireland ; Jfp^if" 
" or to utter or declare, by any printing, writmg, cipher- 
" ing, speech, or words, that the queen is not or ought not 
" to be queen of this realm, and of the realms of France 
" and Ireland ; or that any other person ought by right to 

H 2 



100 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK "be king or queen of the same realms; or that should 
____^___" by writing, printing, preaching, speech, &c. publish, set 
Anno 1571. " forth and affirm, that queen Elizabeth is an heretic, schis- 
" matic, tyrant, infidel, or usurper of the croAvn of the said 
" realms. And further, such to be vitterly disabled, during 
" their natural lives, to have or enjoy the crown of Eng- 
" land, or any style or title thereof, [this was aimed at the 
" queen of Scots,] at any time in succession, of whatever 
" degree, condition, place, &c. they be, that in any Avise 
" claimed or pretended themselves to have a right or title 
" to the crown of England in the life of queen Elizabeth ; 
" or should usurp the royal style, title, or dignity of this 
" crown ; or shovdd hold and affirm, that the queen had not 
" right to hold or enjoy the said crown and realm : or after 
" any demand should not acknowledge her to be, in right, 
" true and lawful queen of these realms. 

" And he was adjudged a high traitor by this act, that 
" during the queen's life should affirm or maintain any 
" right, title, &c. in succession or inheritance in or to the 
" crown of England after queen Elizabeth, to be right- 
" fully in, or lawfully due unto any such claimer, pre- 
" tender, &c. or not acknowledger. And he also to be 
" judged an high traitor, that shall not affirm that the com- 
" mon laws of this realm, not altered by parliament, ought 
" to direct the right of the crown of England : or that the 
" queen's majesty, by and with the authority of the parlia- 
*' ment, is not able to make laws and statutes, of sufficient 
" force to limit and bind the crown of this realm, and 
" the descent, limitation, and inheritance, and government 
" thereof: or that this present statute, or any other sta- 
" tute, to be made by authority of the parliament, with tlie 
" royal assent of the queen, for limiting of the crown, or 
" any statute for recognising the right of the said crown 
" and realm to be rightly and lawfully in the person of 
" our sovereign lady and queen, are not or ought not to be 
" for ever of good and sufficient force and validity to bind, 
" hmit, restrain, and govern all persons, their rights and 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 101 

" titles, that any wise might claim any interest or possi- CHAP. 
" bility in or to the crown of England, in possession, re- 



" mainder, inheritance, succession, or otherwise." Anno 1571. 

By the same act provision was made against contentious 
and seditious spreading abroad of titles to the succession of 
the crown ; and against books or works printed and written, 
that did directly or expressly declare and affirm, before 69 
any act of pai'liament were made, to establish and confirm 
the same, that any one particular person is or ought to be 
the right heir and successor to the queen's majesty, except 
the same be the natural issue of her majesty's body ; or 
shall publish or set abroad any book or scrolls to that effect : 
or the abettors and counsellors of such : upon the pain of 
imprisonment, and forfeiture of half his goods, for the first 
time. The second time, the pains and forfeitures in the sta- 
tutes of Provision and Premunire. 

There was another act made this parliament against bring- Act against 
ing in of popes' bulls, or putting them in execution ; and p^ 3"^ '" 
against bringing in writings, or instruments, or other su- bulls; and 
perstitious things from the see of Rome. This was made 
on purpose against such as had procured and obtained from 
the bishop of Rome divers bulls and Avritings, to absolve 
and reconcile all those that would be contented to forsake 
their obedience to the queen, and to yield themselves to the 
foreign, unlawful, and usui-ped authority of the see of 
Rome : and by colour of the said bulls, wicked persons se- 
cretly, in such parts of the realm where the people were 
most weak and simple and ignorant, [as it ran in that sta- 
tute,] had, by their lewd and subtile practices and persua- 
sions, so far wrought, that sundry such weak and ignorant 
persons had been contented to be reconciled to the said 
usurped authority ; and to take absolution at the hands of 
such naughty and subtile practisers. Whereby had grown 
great disobedience and boldness in many, not only to with- 
draw and absent themselves from all divine service, now 
most godly set forth in the realm ; but also thought them- 
selves discharged of and from all obedience, duty, and alle- 
giance to the queen. Whereby most wicked and unnatural 

h3 



102 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK rebellion had ensued. All such bringing in of such bulls, 
and such reconcilers to the see of Rome, were made guilty 



Anno 1571. of high treasoH to the queen and the realm. 

Agnus By the same act thev incurred the statute of Premu- 

Dei's . . . 

crosses, pic- nire and Provision, made 16 Rich. II. that brought into the 

beads' &c ^^^^"^ ^"y token or tokens, thing or things, called Agnus 

Cap. 2. Deis, or any crosses, pictures, beads, or such like vain and 

superstitious things, from the bishop or see of Rome : the 

former of which were said to be hallowed or consecrate by 

the bishop of Rome in his own person. And the crosses, 

pictures, beads, either by the same bishop, or by others 

having power, or pretending to have power for the same, 

by or from him or his said see : divers pardons, immunities, 

and exemptions pretended, being to be conferred upon such 

as should receive and use the same. 

Act against Another act for papists was ag-ainst fugitives over the 

such as fled / ^ ® o 

beyond sea scas. This was against such persons, who as (though they 
c'ence" Cap ^^^^^ Sovereign rulers themselves, and not under rule) cast- 
3. ing away most wilfully and obstinately the service, obedi- 

ence, and defence of their prince and country, secretly, in 
great numbers, without licence of the queen, departed the 
realm into foreign parts and dominions of other princes : 
under whose obeisance and protection they submitted 
themselves, and became their subjects. And there did un- 
naturally discover the secrets of this realm, and their na- 
tive country. And conveyed with them great sums of mo- 
70 ney ; being naturally a part of the common treasure of the 
I'ealm : spending the same to the profit and commodity of 
strangers : and in sundry places to the relief of rebels, and 
fugitives, and traitors. And not so satisfied, did practise in 
those parts traitorous and rebellious seditions, and slander- 
ous things, as well by writing as otherwise ; as the expres- 
sions of that statute were. The penalty laid upon all such 
•was the loss and forfeitin-e of all their manors, lands, tene- 
ments, &c. to the queen, during their lives, unless they re- 
turned home wiihin six months; and yielded their bodies 
to the high slieriff of the county, or some of the (jueen's 
councik And that all benefices, prebends, and other cede- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. ]03 

siastical promotions, belonging to spiritual and ecclesiastical CHAP, 
persons, so offending in departing the realm, and not re- 



turning, should be utterly void to all intents and purposes. Anno 1671. 
There was also a bill brought in (though I diink passed not 
into an act) against priests disguising themselves in serving- 
men's apparel. 

Another act made this session of parliament with respect Act against 
to religion and the good of the church, was against frauds ; ^iiapida- 
defeatino- remedies for dilapidations of ecclesiastical livings ; tions; and 

_ _~ about leases 

and for leases to be granted for collegiate churches. The for coiiegi- 
reason of this statute was for the stopping the practice of ^f ca"'''io. 
some bishops and dignitaries, or other ecclesiastical per- 
sons; who had ancient palaces and mansion-houses, and 
odier buildings and edifices, belonging to their preferments : 
and suffered the same, for want of repairs, to run into great 
ruins, and some parts utterly to fall down to the ground. 
And had converted the timber, lead, and stones, to their 
own benefit and commodity, and made deeds of gift, and co- 
lourable alienations, and other conveyances of like effect, of 
their goods and chattels in their lifetimes; to the intent 
after their death to defraud their successors of such just 
actions and remedies, as they might or should have had 
for the same by the laws ecclesiastical, against their execu- 
tors ; to the great defacing the state ecclesiastical, and in- 
tolerable charges of their successors. This act did empower 
the successor of him or them that should make such deeds, 
to commence suit, and have such remedy in any court eccle- 
siastical against him or them, to whom such deeds should 
be made, for the amendment and reparation of so much of 
the said dilapidations and decays,^ as happened by his fact 
or default. 

Also, this act provided against colleges, deans and chap- 
ters, parsons, vicars, &c. who made long and unreasonable 
leases, which were the great causes of dilapidations and de- 
cays of all spiritual living and hospitality, and the utter im- 
poverishing of all successors, incumbent in the same : that 
henceforth no leases should be made longer than one and 

H 4 



104 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK twenty years, or three lives. All other leases, grants, &c. 
' to be utterly void and of none effect. 
Anno 1571. Another act was made this session touching leases of be- 
Act touch- nefjcpg, The intent of tliis act was, that livings appointed 

ing leases _ i • l* 

of benefices, for eccIesiastical ministers might not, by corrupt and indi- 
ul'rVhos'Ju ^^ct dealings, be transferred to other uses. No lease after 
taiity. Cap. tlie 15th day of May, to be made of any benefice, or eccle- 
siastical promotion with cure, not being impropried, to en- 
71 dure any longer than while the lessor shall be ordinarily re- 
sident, and serving the cure of such benefice, without ab- 
sence above fourscore days in any one year. But that every 
such lease, so soon as it or any part thereof shall come to 
any possession or use above forbidden, or immediately upon 
such absence, shall cease and be void. And the incumbent 
so offending, to lose one year's profit of his benefice ; to be 
distributed by the ordinary among the poor of the parish. 
All chargings of such benefices with any pension, or with 
any profit out of the same, hereafter to be made, other than 
rents to be reserved upon leases hereafter to be made, to be 
utterly void. 

In the same act, it was allowed such persons as had two 
benefices, to demise one of them, upon which he shall not 
be most ordinarily resident; but only to the curate that 
shall then serve the cure. The reason whereof seems to be, 
that hospitality might be the better preserved from the re- 
venues of the church. But this was but temporary. 
An act to There was yet another act made touching religion, 
tain disor- Which was to reform certain disorders touching ininisters 
ders in mi- of the churck. This act was intended to keep out from mi- 

meters 

Cap. 12. nistering in the church such as would not comply with the 
doctrine established in this church of England in the be- 
ginning of the queen's reign ; and that the (queen's domi- 
nions might be served with 'pastors of sound religion, as the 
preamble ran. It concerned all such persons as pretended 
to be priests and ministers of God's word and sacraments 
under the degree of a bishop, by reason of any other form 
of institution, consecration, or ordering, than the form set 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 105 

forth in the late king Edward's time, and now used in the CHA1>. 
reign of the queen. [Meaning undoubtedly to comprehend ^^'• 



papists, and likewise such as received their orders in some of Anno 1571. 
the foreign reformed churches, when they were in exile un- 
der queen Mary.] The act enjoined all such and all others, 
having any ecclesiastical living, to declare their assent, be- 
fore the bishop of the diocese, to all the articles of religion, 
(which only concern the confession a of the true Christian "This clause 

*^ ■ SGCDIS to t)6 

faith, and the doctrine of the sacraments,) comprised in the inserted to 
book imprinted, entitled, Articles, whereupon it was «g'^'^^^ "^'^'Vof the 
by the archbishops and bishops, ^c. being the thi7'ty-nine house tha.t 
articles, framed in the synod anno 1562. And to subscribe '""''"'' ^°' 



a new con- 



them. Which was to be testified by the bishop of the dio- fession of 

,., . -ii ri -A faith to be 

cese, under his seal. Which testimonial he [the priest or ^^^^^ . 
minister] was openly, on some Sunday, in time of P^^^^ic ^^|j'^«^jj need- 
service before noon, in the church where he ought to at- those ar- 
tend, to read, together with the said articles, [as his con- J|^!e^^°J^^^^^ 
fession of faith.] Otherwise to be ipso facto deprived; and the church 
all his ecclesiastical promotions to be void. land's^sufli- 

And no ecclesiastical person advisedly to maintain or af- cient con- 

^ "^ p fession of 

firm any doctrine, directly contrary or repugnant to any ot ti,e true 
the said articles; and being convented before the bishop, or ^J^'j^*'^" 
ordinary, or queen's commissioners ecclesiastical, shall per- 
sist therein, or not revoke his error ; or after such revoca- 
tion, aeain afiirm such untrue doctrines; in such case it 
was made lawful for the bishop or ordinary, or the said 
commissioners, to deprive such person. And upon such 
sentence of deprivation to be actually deprived. 

None to be admitted hereafter to any benefice with cure, 72 
except he be of the age of three and twenty years at the JJ^'^'j^fi^^'^- 
least, and a deacon ; and first have subscribed the said ar- ministers, 
tides, in presence of the ordinary, and publicly read the 
same in the parish church of that benefice ; with declara- 
tion of his unfeigned assent to the same. And every person 
after the end of that session of parliament, to be admitted 
to a benefice with cure, within two months after his induc- 
tion publicly to read the said articles in his parish church ; 



106 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK and to do all as aforesaid. Odierwise to incur deprivation 
immediately ipsojacto. 



1 nno 1571. ^jg^ \^ ^^.^^^ enacted in the same statute, that none should 
be made minister, or admitted to preach, or minister the 
sacraments, being under the age of four and twenty years ; 
nor unless he should first bring to the bishop of the diocese 
from men known to the bishop, a testimonial both of his ho- 
nest life, and of his professing the doctrine expressed in the 
said articles ; nor unless he be able to answer, and to render 
to the ordinary an account of his faith in Latin, according 
to the said articles ; or have special gift and ability to be a 
preacher. 

None to be admitted to the order of a deacon or minister, 
unless he shall first subscribe the Articles. None to be ad- 
mitted to a living of or above the value of 30/. a year in 
the queen''s books, without he be bachelor of divinity, or a 
preacher lawfully allowed by some bishop of this realm, or 
by one of the universities. 

All admissions to benefices, institutions, and inductions, 
contrary to the form of any provision in this act ; and all 
tolerations, dispensations, qualifications, and licences what- 
soever, that shall be made to the contrary, to be merely 
void in law. 

Provided, no title to confer, or present by lapse, to accrue 
upon any deprivation ipso facto ; but after six months after 
notice of such deprivation given by the ordinary to the pa- 
tron. 
Many de- By force of this act many that held benefices and ecclesi- 
^"^""^ ■ astical preferments were deprived in this and the following 
year. I find these two among others in the diocese of Bath 
Resist. and Wells. Henry Thorn, A. B. was presented by Geo. 
Wells, Speke, knight, to the church of East Dolish, Jan. 28, 1571, 
Matt. Hut- \yy ^}jg obstinacy and disobedience of Thomas Elyot, refus- 
lections. ing, or at least neglecting to subscribe in his proper person 
to the articles set forth anno 1562. And so was deprived. 
Again, June, 1572, Edward Bremel, alias Cable, was pre- 
sented to the church of Wayford, by the deprivation of 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 107 

John Haunce, by virtue of a statute, (as it runs in the re- ^^j^^- 
gister,) 13 Ehz. entitled, An act to reform certain disorders . 
touching ministers of the church. 



Anno 1571. 



CHAP. VIII. 

J convocation. Matters done there. An act made, very "J 3 
benejicial for employment of midtitudes qf poor. The 
queerbs concernments xvith Scotland. Endeavours a re- 
concilement qf the two parties there. Her resolution 
against the restoring qf the Scottish queen: and why. 
Articles of jmcif cation jjropotinded by the queen to the 
txvo parties in Scotland. The queerbS agenfs notable 
letter to Graunge and Liddington. Sends a challenge 
to the French ambassador. His letters to the lord regent 
qf Scotland, dul-e qf Lenox, and to earl Morton, inter- 
cepted. A booh writ in favour of the queen of Scots. 

-L HERE was now also a convocation ; and what was done A convoca- 
there is related at large in the Life of Archbishop Parker, ^^feof 
Only we may take notice of some things observed as done in Archbisliop 
this synod, set down in the dedication of bishop Jewel's b. 4, cii. 5. 
works to king James; namely, that the synod 1571 did 
then set forth this canon among others, for the direction of 
those that were preachers and pastors, " That they should 
" never teach any thing, as matter of faith, religiously, but 
" that which was agreeable to the doctrine of the Old and 
" New Testament ; or collected out of the same doctrine by 
" the ancient fathers and catholic bishops of the church." 

I find a treatise among the MSS. of William Petyt, esq. Orders in 
of Dr. Thomas Wylson's own hand, (who was master of ^!||'fy|.'JJj'j'_ 
St. Katharine's near the Tower, and afterwards secretary tion. mss. 

1 ..,..,. ^7 . 7 Guil. Petyt, 

of state, a very learned civilian,) being Orders tn eccle- ^rmig. vol. 
siastical jurisdiction. Which seems to have been drawn up, ^' 
to be confirmed in this synod. There is a title, For pu- 
nishment qf persons convicted. Another, What order is to 
be taken with false zcritings, &c. 



108 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK To the bills passed into acts this parliament, there is one 
more, (besides those mentioned above,) which I judge not 



Anno 1571. amiss to be taken notice of, though it have no other relation 
makin-^ of ^° religion than charity, which comes very near it. It con- 
caps, for cerned the queen's care of employment for her poorer sort 
ment of ^ ^f subjects. It was for continuance of making and wearing 
multitudes woollen caps, in behalf of the trade of cappers : providing, 

of poor 11111 c • 

people. that all above the age oi six years (except the nobility and 
some others) should, on sabbath-days and holydays, wear 
caps of wool knit, thicked, and dressed in England, upon pe- 
nalty of ten groats. But notwithstanding this statute, these 
caps went very much out of fashion, and the wearing of hats 
prevailed. Which caused the queen, two or three years 
after, to take such notice of it, as to set forth a strict pro- 
clamation for the enforcing of the wearing of caps, the be- 
nefit whereof being of more public good than at present was 
perceived ; namely, the employment of such vast numbers 
of idle, poor, and impotent people throughout the whole 
nation, that otherwise must either have starved, begged, or 
74 robbed. Which thus that proclamation expressed, (men- 
tioning the said act made in the parliament the 13th of her 
reign,) " That it was for the relief of divers poor towns, 
" and of great multitudes of her poor subjects, Avho other- 
" wise were like to perish, or to become vmprofitable or 
" dangerous unto the commonweal : and that by means of 
" this statute, great numbers of idle, poor, and impotent 
" persons were set on work, while the awe of the said sta- 
" tute, and fear of due execution thereof continued, to the 
" marvellous great commodity of this realm, and help of the 
" needy, and redress of evil occupied persons ; as by experi- 
" ence thereof had been notably proved." 
Tiie queen's gy^ these caps, it seems, not long after went out of fa- 
tion for shiou ; and so the trade decayed : which caused the (jueen 
Th^*"' And ^^ ^^^ forth the said proclamation. It set forth further, 
why. " How that by little and little the disobedience and wanton 

" disorder of evil-disposed and light persons, more regard- 
" ing private fantasies and vanity, than public commodity 
" or respect of duty, had increased by want of execution of 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 109 

the said law. Whereby those good and honest subjects, CHA?. 
that had by means of the said statute set to work a great ^''*'- 



" number of poor people, were like to be driven to give over Anno 1571. 

" their said trades, and to send abroad again into idleness 

" and misery those multitudes that had been by them re- 

" lieved. Whereby was like to grow great enormity and in- 

" convenience, if speedy remedy were not provided. There- 

" fore she charged and commanded all justices of assize, 

" justices of peace, mayors, sheriffs, &c. that every of them, 

" according to their office, place, and calling, should do 

" their uttermost, for the due execution of the said statute. 

" And that bailiffs, constables, churchwardens, &c. every 

" Sunday and festival day, make diligent view and search, 

*' in all churches, chapels, and all other places, within the 

" circuits and compasses of their offices, for all and singular 

" breakers and offenders of the said statute ; and Avithout 

*' delay cause the names of such offenders, and of their pa- 

" rents, guardians, governors, and masters of every child, 

" servant, and ward so offending, together with the day 

" and place of the offence committed, to be then written, 

" and lawfully ordered and presented," &c. 

The great importance of this manufacture, for the sup- The benefit 
port of the lower rank of the queen's people, was more fully nufac'turr' 
declared in that act aforesaid, in these words, worthy of to the na- 

mi 1 !• 1 ^ /.tiot), set 

note : " 1 hat the company 01 cappers, by means only of fortu in the 

" their trade and science of capping, not only maintained '*<^'^'^^^P-''''- 

" their wives, children, and families, in good and conve- 

" nient state and degree, but set on work a great number 

*' and multitude of other poor persons, men, women, and 

" children ; and also such as were halt, and decrepid, and 

" lame ; using them in sundry exercises belonging to that 

" occupation, as carders, spinners, knitters, parters of wool, 

" forcers, thickers, dressers, Avalkers, dyers, battelers, shear- 

*' ers, pressers, edgers, liners, bandmakers, and other exer- 

" cises : who had in manner thereby maintained and re- 

" lieved themselves and their families. And by reason of 

" their labour and exercise therein, had eschewed and 

" avoided not only the great annoyance of the towns they 



110 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " dwelt in, who for lack of exercise must have been forced 

'_ " to beg, but also had kept them from ranging and gadding 

Anao 1571." through the realm, in practising sundry kinds of lewd- 
J5 " ness, as too many of them now did. And also, by the 
" means of this good exercise and occupation, a great many 
" of personable men had at all times been ready, and well 
" able, when they were called, to serve the queen, or her 
" most noble progenitors, in time of war, or elsewhere ; 
" until of late days, that most, or in manner all men had 
" forborne and left off the using and wearing of caps. Tiiis 
" tended also to the great impoverishing and utter undoing 
" of the company of cappers ; and to the decay, ruin, and 
" desolation of divers ancient cities and boroughs, which 
" had been the nourishers and bringers up in that faculty of 
" great numbers of people ; as London, which by good re- 
" port maintained eight thousand persons, exercised in this 
" facult}' : also Exeter, Bristow, Monmouth, Hereford, 
" Rosse, Bridgnorth, Bewdlcy, Gloucester, Worcester, 
" Chester, Nantwich, and many more." 

Affairs abroad affected the nation, and the state of reli- 
gion here at home, especially the intrigues of the Scottish 
queen, and the match with the duke d'Anjou. 
The queen The queen was so certainly informed of the Scottish 

concerned , ii/--!")-- • i i i 

in Scotcli queen s and her iriends mtrigues against her, that she 
matters. found it necessary to keep her strait ; suffering none (but 
persons of her own) of all sorts to be about that queen''s 
person. Now she pretended a great fear of her life, and 
craved a ghostly father, being catholic, to be with her : for 
in truth many of her servants had been discharged, having 
been foimd to be dangerous practisers. And queen Eliza- 
beth, upon this experience, plainly noted to the states of 
Scotland, that she would never suffer that queen to have 
her government in Scotland restored to her. Her business 
now was to further the young king of Scots his affairs, (who 
The two was set up by the protestant party in that kingdom,) and 
there!* ^^^ friends, against the Scottish queen's party. The lord 
Hunsdon at Berwick had a commission in October, to set 
a good face upon the matter, to bring Graimge (who held 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. Ill 

out the castle of Edinburgh for that queen) to the king's CHAP. 

• VI IT 

devotion: but if he could not, they of the queen's council 



were of opinion that he should force them. And the queen Anno 1571. 
was now in hand (as the lord Burghley writ in certain of his Burghiey's 
letters) to make an accord between Liddington and Graunge ^y*JJi,^lJ. 
in the castle, and the regent, two considerable parties, theiiJim. 
difficulty between them being rather particular than pub- 
lic. They in the castle looked to have their offices and 
lands restored ; and first, surety to be given, that Graunge 
might remain captain of the castle. The other party [for 
the king, Avho were protestants] were to keep what they 
had catched, as bishoprics and abbeys. Wherein the lord 
Burghiey's judgment was, that he thought the next avoid- 
ing [of these bishoprics and abbeys] might help. But that 
greediness and mistrust kept them asunder : and he feared 
more the wilfulness of the king's party, than the conforma- 
tion of the adverse. 

The account queen Elizabeth gave the French ambassa-The queen 
dor, of her concern in this Scotch quarrel, was, that she had intention 
no other intention in the matter of Scotland, but to have the ti>'rein to 

, . . . . , , the French 

hostility and civil wars there to cease, and the government ambassador. 
of the realm to be established to the contentation of the na- ^6 
tion. For which purpose she had sent to both parties at dif- 
ference, to accord an abstinence from war ; so as they might 
the better treat and act among themselves. 

And for this good end and purpose she propounded to Articles of 
them articles of pacification, containing the queen's ma- ^^^^^1^^*^^ '°" 
jesty's intention for reducing the realm of Scotland to an mended by 
inward peace, (as the preface to the articles ran,) and so to to the Scots. 
continue free from civil wars and dissensions, [which now '^'^^^ ^^'^~ 

. dolpli. 

were between the lords on the Scottish queen's side, and 
the protestants, who had set up her son to be king.] The 
first article was, " That the whole state of Scotland, in all 
" degrees of subjection, may submit themselves to the au- 
" thority of the king, and do, give, acknowledge, and yield 
" full obedience to him. And that the principal states of 
" the land, that is, the nobihty, prelatie, and the cities and 
" boroughs, do acknowledge the same by oath, and sub- 



112 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " scription in writing. And that all the same be confirmed 
' "by a general consent in parliament. And in the same 
Anno 1671. " parliament to reestablish, as cause shall require, all things 
" concluded in the late parliament, for the cause of reli- 
" gion."" [Which was mentioned under the last year.] 
There was also an addition to these articles, of more se- 
crecy, with some enlargements to some other shorter and 
general articles ; according to the instructions given to Ran- 
dolph, her agent. 
She will As, " To the first, the adverse party to the king must 

the Scottish " directly understand, that the queen of Scots (whose per- 
queen to be a g^j^ jg ^^^^^ jj^ England) hath of late attempted such and 

restored. ." ' , . 111 •• 

And why. " SO many enterprises against her majesty, both by stirring 

" of rebellion in her majesty's realm, and by provoking of 

" foreign power to enter into the realm ; all which had 

" been enterprised indeed, if God had not this last August 

" given to her majesty cause to stay it, by committing the 

" duke of Norfolk to the Tower of London ; as none can 

" trust, that her majesty will ever of herself suffer the said 

" queen of Scots to have liberty with power to attempt the 

" like again. And therefore, without any further question, 

" for the queen to rule alone by restitution, or jointly with 

" her son, it must be answered, that the expectation thereof 

" is in vain. And to imagine any other government of such 

" a realm as Scotland is, but by the king, who is the native 

" prince in blood, and in possession invested, is a mere fan- 

" tastical device, and not to be heard of. So as this article 

" must be clearly answered for the king, or else the rest are 

" in vain to be treated." 

The queen's Now to bring over the abovesaid Graunge and Lidding- 

tfrto* '^^' ^^" ^^'^"^ ^^^^ Scottish queen, Mr. Randolph wrote them a 

Grange and notable eloquent letter in March, after divers communica- 

to bring""' tions with them together, to little effect. His letter was 

them off pursuant to the queen''s command, to deal with them to 

from her. , , , . , i 1 1 i a • 

obey the king, and to acknowledge the regent. Against 
which they alleged for themselves conscience, honour, and 
safety. For the satisfying them in the firSt, he urged, 
" that that queen was not worthy to live, whose cause they 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 113 

" defended, that had committed such horrible offences. And CHAP. 
" tliat there was therefore no matter of conscience in put- ' 



" ting her down, and less in obeying her. That this they Anno 1571. 

" knew themselves ; this they had spoken of themselves ; ^J^ 

" and that they had wrote against her, fought against her, 

" and were the chiefest cause of her apprehension and im- 

" prisonment, and dimission of the crown : if at that time 

" there was nothing done against conscience, he asked, what 

" moved them to make it a matter of conscience now to leave 

" her, and to allege conscience for setting up her that had 

" been the overthrow of their country ? 

" Neither should the point o^ honour move them, in which 
" the world was chiefly respected : that might be solved, 
" and themselves by all honest and godly men better al- 
" lowed of. That in respect of their country''s weal, they 
" should yield somewhat of their own, yea, though to their 
" disadvantage, than to see daily so much blood shed. That 
" honour was to be respected, where justice proceeded. That 
" if the cause they defended were unjust, what honour 
" could there be to maintain it ? But rather shame to stand 
" so long by it as they had done.''"' 

And as to the third, viz. their scifety, he applied himself 
first to Liddington. " They [the queen and state of Eng- 
" land] were with him in care of mind, had compassion of 
" his present hard state and extremities apparent to ensue ; 
" as friends, they lamented it. Thus far therefore they pro- 
" mised, that his state by composition should be no worse 
" than theirs presently vvas, that had been of their part and 
" mind with them. Safety to their lives they dared to pro- 
" mise ; restitution to their lands and livings they dared 
" assure them of; for the recovery of their losses, there 
" should be as much done as lay in them. That if they 
" doubted of the regent, they seemed to know less now 
" than beforetime they had done ; whose honesty towards 
" the world they had allowed of in time past ; and whose 
" particular good-will towards them was well reported and 
" thought of. Of his zeal and love towards the word of 
" God, and love to his country, no man ever doubted. And 

VOL. TI. I 



114 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " that such a reverence he bore to queen Elizabeth, to fol- 
______" low her advice, that neither should his promise be broken 



Anno 1571." unto them, nor any thing be left undone by him, that 
" was in his power to perform. If they doubted the lord 
" Morton, they should have the like security of him. Fur- 
" ther, they should have the queen and England their 
" friends, &c. faithful, and indifferent any way that they 
" could to do them good. But if nothing would do, he 
" bade them trust him upon his word, they stayed to their 
" destruction. '"* But the whole letter, as opening the trans- 
actions at that time between England and Scotland, and 
the infamy the Scottish queen then lay under, I have put 
N°.ix. into the Appendix. 

He comes in This Randolph had been lately sent to bring the Scottish 

the king's quccn's party over to the king. And on the 25th of March 

P^'^f^' (which was hard at hand) the assembly of the fnends of 

much to the either party was to be at Leith, where Randolph was. And 

Durham" being to make a judgment of this affair, he was not long to 

continue there after, as he wrote to the bishop of Durham : 

" And that they of the castle attended La Croke, a French- 

" man, that was coming ; thinking to find more comfort 

" and assistance at his hands, than England could or would 

" give them, except they would acknowledge their obedi- 

" ence to the king and regent ; which hitherto they refused 

78 " to do. But England without that could do nothing for 

" them ;" as he added in his letter to that bishop. 

He chai- While Randolph was here, Viracque, the French am- 

lengeththe ^ . ' ^ . 

French am- bassador, was also in Scotland, transacting the contrary 
bassador. j^^^^ B^t \^q \^r^f\^ [^ scems, falsely reported of the said 
Randolph, in some private intelligence, and likewise of the 
queen : which coming to the ears of that English gentle- 
man, he shewed an English courage by a challenge he sent 
MSS. Ran- Viracque, in these words, as I find it in Randolph's own 
^ ' MSS. " Monsieur Virac, I have seen, as I am informed, 
" some writings of yours in cipher, containing these Avords, 
" &c. : which toucheth me greatly in honour, and I doubt 
" to the queen my mistress, as to have trafficked with Mr. 
" Ar. D . for the conveyance of the French ambassador's 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 115 

" letters in England to you. Wherefore this I write, and CHAP. 

VIII 
" signify unto you by these presents, that if you have writ- 



" ten the words above mentioned, you have not done the^""° '^'''• 

" part of an honest man ; and that in so writing, you have 

" Hed falsely in your throat : which I will maintain with m}*^ 

" body against him, you, or any man living, of my quality, 

" or under the same, my charge at this time set apart. For 

" that I never had any such talk with him, or he with me. 

" Answer hereunto, if you think good." 

Randolph soon returned back to London. And from Randoipirs 
thence, on the 10th of April, he despatched a letter to the tercepted. 
earl of Lenox, [Matthew Stuart,] lord regent of Scotland, 
(grandfather to the king, and his governor, and slain this 
year by the adverse party, that held for the queen,) and on 
the next day to earl Morton. Both letters had respect unto 
a conference at queen Elizabeth's court, for com promising- 
matters between Mary the Scottish queen, and those that 
had the government of the king's person, (who was now but 
five or six years old,) by certain commissioners on both sides. 
Which brake up without any peaceable issue; especially 
those of the Scottish queen's side, who required absolutely 
her liberty. But both these letters were seized; the post- 
boy delivering them to the bishop of Galloway, one of that 
queen's commissioners, and was gone from London unto 
her. Which letters should have been delivered to earl 
Morton, being a commissioner on the king's side, that was 
also going to Scotland. The said intercepted letters Avere 
brought to the Scottish queen ; and by her sent to queen 
Elizabeth, with heavy complaints of Mr. Randolph, by the 
French minister, notwithstanding the letters were written by 
her majesty's commandment. These letters, to aggravate 
some passages in them, (having lines drawn under them,) 
had postils or notes set in the margin, which were the Scot- 
tish queen's, or made by some about her, to aggravate the 
matter the more against him, This complaint was written 
in a paper that wrapped up these letters. Both these letters 
and the notes I shall exhibit, taken from the very originals, 
late in my hands and possession. 

i2 



116 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " To my lord regent's grace of Scotland. 

" Your grace shal hear so much of the state of al things 



Anno 1571. '< here [at the Enghsh court] by my lord Morton, and other 
resent ""^ " ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ Company, that I need not trouble your grace 
Foxii MSS. " with any long letters ; only testifying my good-wil, and 
79 " desire to have al matters succeeded to your grace*'s con- 
" tentment. But seeing that cannot be, I trust your grace 
'^jlf!',*^ " wil ^taK'e the next best, havin/r in the mean time this 

meddleth _ . 

with the " cause to rejoyce, that your grace's enemies have had 
affah-" ^ " ^ ii^ich less of their xoills than they looked for : and by 
•> Herein he " my lord of Morton's grave and wise dealings, gotten unto 
promiseth a yQ^j. gj-ace mo friends in your actions than ever vou 

the queen , '' 

our mis- " had. In whose roil, if al things were, your grace should 
struct^ion' " ^"^ ^ short end to al these cumbers now your grace is in. 
be the help «' I am hartily glad of the good success your grace hath 
friends in " had in taking of Dunbriton ; a happy turn to your grace's 
thiscountry.ct country, no smal benefit to yourself, and ^such a dis- 
hei^merei '^^ pl^cisure to youT grace''s adversaries, as none can be 
the queen « greater, except God should deliver you of her that is the 
tress's " cause ofyouT whole troubles. I doubt not but your good 
death : put- a grace wil sce to the keepinsr of it. And as God in this 

tis others in ^ i i • • 

hope there. " hath shewed a great good beginning of his favour towards 
^h ,j"g ^jjg " your grace and country, so I doubt not but he shal re- 
same him- " ceive the worthy honour due unto him for so great a be- 
" nefit. God have your grace in his keeping. At London 
" the X. of April, 1571. 

" Your grace's humble at commaundment, 

" Tho. Randolph." 

That to earl Morton, dated the day following, was to this 
tenor. 
To earl " Since your lordship departed hence, we have had no news 

" of any great importance, trusting and looking hartily to 
" hear from the lord regent some confirmation of that which 
" was written to your lordship touching Dumbriton ; which 
" the bishops of Rosse and Galloway in no case wil admit 
" to be true, but give out that it is Dumbar, and not Dum- 
" briton. And immediately after they heard the novels* 



self. 



Morton. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 117 

" they sent a post to their mistress, not to believe any re- CHAP. 
" port until they came themselves. 



" The bishop of Galloway hath been among many of our ^""^0 i^7i. 
*' bishops, laying out his learning to defend his mistress"'s 
*' honour with great eloquence. As also his son hath writ- 
" ten a book in Latin, approving her authority, excusing the 
" murther, blaming the disobedience of her rebellious sub- 
'^Jects, that deposed her from the crown. '^ Treat him ill"! Persuad- 
" zohen he comes home, and if it be possible, let a copy of queen's ma- 
" it be gotten. This day they depart out of this town J'^**f °"'' 

o J ./ i raisriesses 

" [London] towards their queen ; and then ^ zvhat becomes gud sub- 
" of them I hnow not. Now I must pray your lordship tOg'^.'Ji^ij^jj.^ 
" take al our doings here in good part. I trust that there deiid. 
" is better meant than doth yet appear. I pray you, cast ^^ "jadiel 
" not the cools with us over hastily. You see how Godcommis- 
" blessed al your actions unlooked for; and so wil from su„, g^ji 
"time to time prosper them, so long as they are guided P'''*ctices in 

JO their wav 

" under his fear. With my very harty commendations to 
" both my other good lords with you, I pray God send you 
*' a happy journey, and safe to return to your country. At 
" London, the xi. of April, 1571. 

" Your honourable lordships at commaundment, 

" Tho. Randolph." 



CHAP. IX. 80 

The diike of Norfolk unliappily engaged with the Scottish 
queen. The discovery thereof; by French money inter- 
cepted^ sent to the Diihe^Jbr her use in Scotland. A let- 
ter in cipher to him from that queen. The duke's con- 
fession ; and of his servants. The duke''s words at his 
condemnation : the execution put off" by the queen. And 
why. One Rolph, a concealer, executed. And why. Ma- 
ther and Verney, hired to kill the lord Burghley ; exe- 
cuted. Dr. Story executed. Some particular accounts of 
his death ; and of his cruelty. His last will. Darbi- 
shire the Jesuit ; his discourse about the English affairs. 

J. HOMAS duke of Norfolk, a protestant, and one of the Transac- 

q tions be- 



118 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK prime nobility of England, and beloved of the people, was 
unhappily engaged with the Scottish queen, that gave the 



ham. 



Anno 1571. nation so much disquiet, and the queen so much jealousy, as 
duke'of ^ ^^^ have heard. But engaged he was in that queen''s cause, 
Norfolk and out of hope of marrying her. The first discovery of the re- 

the Scottish • p i • * o i /-kp 

queen dis- Hcwing oi that matter was m August or September. Or 
covered. which the loi'd Burghley informed Walsingham, the am- 
LordBurgh- bassador in France, viz. " That some matter was dis- 

lev's letter 

to Waising- " Covered, that my lord of Norfolk should still mind the 
" matter of the Scottish queen. For that there was inter- 
" cepted a good portion of money, that was by letter in 
*' cipher, directed to the lord Herris, (which, as appeared 
" afterwards, was French money, and delivered to the duke 
" by the French ambassador,) for help of the Scottish 
*' queen"'s party in Scotland."" And that the same was sent 
by one Higford, the duke's secretary ; who was by order 
from Audley-inn (where the court now was) taken and 
committed at London. And September 2, was examined 
by sir Tho. Smith, who the day before went from Audley- 
inn thither for that purpose. The lord Burghley subjoined, 
that he was sorry that duke should be found undutiful ; but 
if it were so, he was glad it should be known : which caused 
him to inquire of Walsingham after another servant of the 
duke's, viz. one Liggons, that had long been about Paris 
and the court there. 

Of the same matter, about the same time, did the earl of 
Leicester give Walsingham these hints : " That the cause 
" went hard against the duke, even by his own confession : 
- " and that vehement suspicions were of more evil than he 
" ever thought could fall out in liim. And he believed the 
" queen would proceed according to equity and justice; and 
" added, that she had cause to use but small mercy." 

After a little while this matter came more fully to light. 
Which the lord Burghley declared, in his correspondence 
with Walsingham, to this tenor: " That De Foix, the 
" French ambassador, delivered money to the duke or his 
" order: and that so Walsingham might aver the truth of 
81" it. That the money was taken, being by the duke's com- 



Vehenient 
suspicions 
of him. 
Earl of 
Leicester 
to Walsing 
ham. 



The duke's 
crimes. 
Compl. 
Amb. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 119 

" mandment (as he averred and confessed) received by CHAP. 
" Barker his man, from the French ambassador ; and was 



" to have been sent to Banister, the duke's man, dwelling at Anno 1571. 

" Shrewsbury, and so to one Lowther and others of the 

" duke's servants, secretly kept upon the west borders. And 

" by him should have been sent to the lord Harris, and by 

" him to Liddington. That there was also in the bag let- 

" ters in ciphers from the French ambassador to Virac, the 

" French agent in Scotland. That hereof Monsieur de Foix 

" (who was now gone) made mention before his departure, 

" and thought there was no other matter against the duke, 

" which I would, added the lord that wrote this letter, 

" there were not. But it appeared there was much more of 

" o-reat danger ; and that God was to be thanked that it 

" was discovered ; as now it was. For there was found a 

" long discourse about the duke, sent from the queen of 

" Scots in cipher to him the 7th of February last. By 

" which the said queen layeth before the duke, how she was 

" counselled from Spain to fly thither ; misliking utterly of 

" the French, by reason of the doubt of the queen's mar- 

" riage with Anjou : that she used hard words against the 

" queen-mother, that she did in this discourse conclude, that 

" she would make a semblance to the Spaniard of her liking 

" of Don John oi Austria, although she assured the duke 

" of her countenance. That she moved, that Ridolph [an 

" Italian merchant here in London, and privy to these con- 

" cerns,] might be sent to Rome ; and to be directed wholly 

" by the duke of Norfolk." With many other things of 

like sort in that letter. 

The lord Burghley added, that the duke confessed the The duke's 
receipt of this from the queen of Scots : but denied that he \l^^Ui^^ 
was privy to Ridolph's going, otherwise than that he was 
earnestly desired of the bishop of Ross to instruct him, and 
to write by him to the duke of Alva, to require aid of men 
and money for the queen's party in Scotland. But that in 
it he refused to deal, because of the peril thereof. He con- 
fessed four letters he had received from the Scottish queen 
within these twelve months, and did answer them by writing, 

I 4 



120 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK aJ^tl all in cipher : but that they were all of thanks, and to 
^ move the queen to depend only upon the queen's majesty. 



Anno 1571. But herein the duke could make none of them [of the 
qucen''s council] credit him. The duke said also, that be- 
fore the sending of this money, he helped the French am- 
bassador to send his packet to Virac in July. They had 
also found his cipher between the Scottish queen and him ; 
but that all the writings were conveyed away ; which he said 
were by him burnt. That now they had great cause to 
think that he was privy to the dangerous practice, in which 
they found Ridolph to have been with the duke of Alva ; in 
ofFering; him that a rebellion should be moved here this sum- 
mer, if that duke would assist it. But of this the duke of 
Norfolk would not be known. 
The duke's The duke''s servants soon confessed all. Barker, one of 
confess\he ^hcm, being arraigned, (as the lord Burghley writ about the 
treason. beginning of February,) confessed the treason, and said, that 
the beginning of the offence was, in that he regarded more 
the love and pleasing of the duke his master, than of his 
prince and his country ; and so freely confirmed the duke''s 
82 guiltiness. The next, Higford, his secretary, did also con- 
fess, terming it a concealment of his master''s treasons ; and 
added, that he did oftentimes dissuade the duke from the 
same. These open acts fortified the duke's condemnation. 
The French ^'^ ^^^^ midst of tlicsc discovcries, so much to the shame of 
aiuhassadd- the French ambassador, (and his master too,) he had the 

demands his „ , i i • i 

money seiz- contioence to scud his secretary to the court, requiring to 
^**' have his money again. To whom the lord Burghlcv an- 

swered, that it must be demanded of them to whom he de- 
livered it. And notwithstanding this answer, he came again, 
desiring he might have his majesty's money intercepted, 
sent towards Virac to Scotland. 
First )ro- From a journal of CecilPs, I have these particulars of the 
ceedings dukc of Norfolk's business, set down by Cccill's own hand, 
duke. Ce- " ^^ly tlic Ist, the duke was prisoner in his own house 
cii'sJour- " called Hoxoard-house. August 2, Higford, the Duke's 
" secretary, deciplicred the two tickets, taken *in the bag^ 
" wherein was the money, viz. 1606/. that was to have been 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 121 

" sent into Scotland. September the 4th, sir Ralph Sad- CHAP. 
" leir was sent to guard the duke of Norfolk at Howard- ^^' 
"house; [now called Charter-house.] September the Anno 1571. 
" 5th, the duke, examined at Howard-house, denied all 
" that Higford confessed. The 7th, the duke committed 
" to the Tower by sir Ralph Sadleir, sir Tho. Smith, sir 
" Henry Nevil, and Dr. Wylson. The 8th, the duke con- 
" fessed many things denied before. The 10th, the duke 
" made means to have the lord Burghley come to the Tower 
" to him : who did so. October — the duke of Norfolk in 
" the Tower confesseth the receipt of a message from the 
" earl of Arundel and lord Lumley. October — the lord 
" Cobham kept as prisoner in the lord Burghley''s house at 
" Westminster." These particulars may not be unworthy 
the relating, taken out of such an authentic paper. The 
whole trial of this nobleman, and his condemnation and exe- 
cution, I shall omit, our historian relating them at large. Camd. Eiiz. 
'Only let me note, that among the peers mentioned by Cam- 
den, at the duke''s trial, the earl of Worcester is omitted, 
who was present, according to a MS. in the Cotton library, juiius, f. e. 
where William earl of Worcester stands immediately after 
Reginald Grey, earl of Kent. And the speech in another 
volume of the said library, as spoken by him at his execu-Titus, b. 2. 
tion, (which happened not till the next year,) doth some- 
what vary. 

The relation of the words spoken by the duke after his words at 
condemnation do somewhat vary also ; unless perhaps Cam- ',"* '^°°: 

•' ' . '^ demnation. 

den would not set down all that was spoken by him at that Julius, F. e. 
time. The Cotton MS. relates it thus. That after his con- 
demnation he used these words : " I have been found by 
" my peers worthy of death; whereof I do acquit them. 
" For I come not hither to justify myself, nor to charge 
" them with injustice. In dealing in matters temporal to- 
" wards the queen of Scots, I dealt not as a good subject, 
" for that I made not the queen privy thereunto. For this 
" offence I was committed to the Tower : but upon my 
" humble submission, I Avas delivered ; promising the queen 
" to deal no more in those matters. But contrary to my 



r22 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " submission and promise, I dealt therein: for saving my 
" life, and other causes, I took my oath upon that matter. 



Aunoi57i." But I never received the communion, as it liath been 
" bruited. I had conference with none but only with Ro- 
83 " dolpho, and that but once ; and that not against her ma- 
*' jesty. For it was known, I had to do with him by reason 
" I was bound unto him by a recognisance for a great sum 
*' of money. I saw two letters which came from the pope; 
" but I never consented unto them, neither to the rebellion 
" in the north. I thank God I was never a papist, since I 
*' knew what religion meant. But I did always detest pa- 
" pistry in all the vain toys thereof; embracing ever, from 
" the bottom of my heart, the true religion of Jesus Christ; 
" trusting the full assurance of my faith in his blood, 
" that is only my Redeemer and Saviour. Indeed I must 
" confess I had servants and friends that were papists : 
" but if thereby I have offended God's church, or any pro- 
" testant, I do desire God and them to forgive me." Yet 
perhaps these were only some short collections of the duke's 
speech at his execution, (where Camden placeth them,) ra- 
ther than what was said by him at his condemnation. 
The queen The qucen put off the execution of the duke for some 
execution, wionths, out of compassiou to this unhappy nobleman and 
Her states- ^gj. kinsman ; and, out of respect to his high quality, was 
thoughts not easily brought to pass her warrant. Of tliis her mercy 
in delaying his execution, her statesmen did not much ap- 
prove. The lord treasurer Burghley's expressions, suggest- 
ing his thoughts, were : " The queen's majesty hath always 
" been a merciful lady. And by mercy she hath taken more 
" harm than by justice; and yet she thinketh she is more 
" beloved in doing herself harm. God save her to his ho- 
" nour long among us."" So he writ in one of his letters, 
apprehensive of the queen's danger. And Thomas Ran- 
dolph, the queen's agent now in Scotland, liked as little the 
deferring of the duke's execution. Who in a letter to the 
bishop of Durham, from Leitli, dated March the ^Ist, (that 
is, two months after his condemnation,) writ thus : " Out 
" of London we hear vet no other, but that he rcmaineth 



men s 
thoug 
thereof. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 123 

" yet alive [meaning the duke] that is to be wished, that CHAP. 

" long since he had been despatched. I fear, added he, the ! — 

" bishop of Lincoln's words, in his sermon before her ma-^""° ^^7'- 
*' jesty, grow true, alleged out of Augustine, that there was 
" misericordia puniens, and crudelitas parcens. In con- 
" sideration whereof in government great evil did ensue." 

In another of the lord Burghley's letters to Walsingham, She hesi- 

® •' ^ . tates about 

dated February 11, he shewed him how the queen s majesty it. Lord 
was diversly disposed. Sometime, when she spake of her j^J^''S^J^y'* 
danger, she concluded, that justice must be done. Another Waising- 
time, when she spake of the nearness of blood, of his supe- ^'^' 
riority in honour, and such like, she stayed. On Saturday 
she signed a warrant to the sheriffs of London for his exe- 
cution on Monday. And so all preparations were made, 
with the expectation of all London and concourse of many 
thousands. But their coming was answered not with his, 
but another extraordinary execution of Mather and Berney, 
[of whom by and by,] for conspiring the queen's death, [and 
his own death, he might have added,] and of one Rolph, Roiph. 
for counterfeiting the queen's hand twice, to get concealed 
lands. The cause of this disappointment was, that suddenly 
on the Sunday before, late in the night, the queen sent for 
him, [the lord Burghley,] and entered into a great mis- 
liking, that the duke should die the next day, and said, she 84 
Avas and should be disquieted ; and would have a new war- 
rant made that night to the sheriffs, to forbear till they 
should hear further. And accordingly they did so. After 
that lord had made this relation of this sudden stop, he only 
added his fears in this ejaculation, " God's will be fulfilled, 
" and aid her majesty to do herself good," [which he thought 
this mild course tended not to.] But though this execution 
were deferred for some months longer, yet in the beginning 
of June, 1572, he was beheaded at Tower-hill, as we shall 
hear in due place. 

The said lord Burghley, that wise statesman and sound ^/^ne^)^, ^° 
counsellor of the queen's in this dangerous juncture, was so their pur- 
hated by her enemies, but especially the Spaniard, that Bor- jjjn ^^^^ 
gest, that ambassador's secretary, had hired two desperate Bur^gJj^Y '. 



124 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
I. 



Dr. Story 
suffers for 
treason. 



men, viz. Mather and Berny, [alias Verny,] to murder him ; 
nay, and the queen too. For they at last confessed, that 
Anno 1571. they intended to kill him; and afterwards plainly confessed 
also their intention and desire to have been rid of the queen : 
(as the said lord wrote in his correspondence with the queen''s 
ambassador in France:) and added, " But I think she may 
" by justice be rid of them."" And accordingly they under- 
went the just pains of death in February, (as was hinted 
before,) being drawn, hanged, and quartered. It is remark- 
able, that when IVIather had, in the presence of Leicester, 
Mr. Secretary, and Mildmay, charged that ambassador''s se- 
cretary, that both his master and he had enticed him to kill 
the lord Burghley, that secretary denied it : upon which, 
Mather offered to try it con la spada, i. e.' by the sword. 

Another execution, in the month of June, before, was 
done upon John Story, LL. D. who suffered at Tyburn on 
Friday ; and there refused to give allegiance to the queen''s 
majesty, (as the lord Burghley wrote to AValsingham,) and 
professed to die as the king of Spain's subject, [being indeed 
a pensioner of Spain.] And so having been arraigned on 
the Tuesday before at the king''s bench, he would not an- 
swer to the indictment ; alleging, that he was not a subject 
of this realm. Whereupon, without further trial, he was 
condemned as guilty of treason, contained in his indictment. 
For his treason, inveterate hatred to the queen, and cruelty 
exercised towards the protestants, I refer the reader to other 
histories. But some particular passages of him, omitted by 
our historians, I shall here relate. In his execution he is 
thus described by Dr. Fulk, (in his Retentive, and in his 
book against Gregory Martin, at the end of it, where he writ 
a confutation of the papists' quarrels against his writings :) 
" Story, for all his glorious tale, in the time of his most 
*' deserved execution by quartering, was so impatient, that 
" he did not only roar and cry like an hell-hound, but also 
" strakc the executioner doing liis office, and resisted as long 
" as strength did serve him, being kept down by three or 
" four men, until he was dead. He used,'"' saith the same 
writer, (that lived at that very time,) " no voice of prayer in 



Retent. p 
59. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 125 

" all the time of liis crying, as I heard of the very execu- CHAP. 
" tioner himself, besides them that stood by, but only roared 



" and cried, as one overcome with the sharpness of the pain ; Anno 1571. 
" as no martyr, as the papists did mightily boast of him. 
" God, added he, for his cruelty shewed against the patient 
" saints, [in queen Mary's days,] had not only given him a 85 
" taste of such torments as he procured to others, but also 
" made him an open spectacle of the impatient and uncom- 
" fortable state of them that suffer, not in a good cause, nor 
" with a good conscience." This Fulk said, to vindicate 
himself against a popish writer, that had writ, that upon a 
little groaning [of the said Story at his execution] Fulk had 
gathered that he was no true martyr. 

Now, what a sort of man this Story was, and how addicted Some pas- 
to cruelty towards -the professors of the gospel under queen *^g^^ °^ ^'* 
Mary, that short epitome of him, drawn up by Mr. Fox's Foxii mss. 
own hand, and perhaps upon this occasion, will shew ; which Annals, ch. 
I have inserted in my Annals, under the year 1569. 

I cannot omit here the reciting of some old rhymes con- 
cerning this Story and his fellow bigots; which I meet with 
written by one Lawrence Ramsey, a poet, near about this 
time, in a book, entitled. The Practice of the Devil; where- 
in the Devil is brought in, speaking thus to them : — 

Stand to it, Stapleton, Dorman, and Harding, A rhyme of 

And Rastal, that Rakehell, to maintain my order. P'"' "^^ 

Pract.ofUie 

Boner and Gardiner are worth the regarding, Dev. 

For keeping articles so long in this border. 

O Story, Story, thou art worthy of recorder ; 

Thou stoodst to it stoutly against God and the king ; 

And at Tyburn desperately gav'st me an off'ring. 

I have met with this man's last will, made by him divers 
years before his death, viz. 1552, while he was at Lovain ; 
fled thither in the time of king Edward VI. out of ill will 
to the rehgion then professed in the nation: wherein are 
some passages that may be remarked. " He gave laud and Dr. story's 
" praise to God, for leading him out of his native country, m^s^ guu 
*' that was swarved out of the sure ship of our salvation, Petyt, ar- 

mig. 



126 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " our mother, the catholic church; and that he had belief 
' " and full trust in all and every article, clause, or sentence, 



Anno 1571." that his Said mother, holy church, from the time of the 
" apostles, hath or shall decree, set forth, and deliver to be 
" kept and observed by her children. That for the break- 
" ing any command, set forth by the authority of the same 
" church, and for the non-observing of any of her decrees, 
" and especially for his offence in forsaking the unity of it, 
" by the acknowledging of any other supreme head than 
" Christ's deputy here in earth, St. Peter, and his succes- 
" sors, bishops of tlie see of Rome, he did most humbly and 
" penitently cry God mercy, and desired all Christian people 
" remaining in the unity of the said mother catholic church 
" to pray for him. Then he gave to his daughter Elen, six 
" hundred and threescore florins. But if by God's good 
" motion she entered into religion, then he gave and be- 
" queathed to the house and company where she should be 
" professed, 120 florins; desiring them of their good cha- 
" rity to pray for the souls of his father and mother, and for 
*' his soul, and all Christian souls. His body to be buried 
" in the Grey Friars in Lovain. And to the same covent, 
" for the exequies done and solemnized for the wealth of 
86 " his soul, twenty florins ; and forty florins more, that of 
" their charity, in their daily celebration of mass, they 
" would pray for the soul of Nicolas and Joan, his parents, 
*' and for his soul, and all Christian souls : and to appoint 
" one devout person of their company, by the space of three 
" years next after his burial, daily to make a special me- 
" mory to God for his soul, and for all Christian souls." I 

N". X. refer the reader to the Appendix, for his other superstitious 
bequests ; and to observe what sort of wills and testaments 
were framed by popish zealots, acted by the craft of monks 
and friars, to draw treasure to themselves. And lastly, he 
charged his wife Joan not to set foot on the land of Eng- 
land, or carry his daughter thither, (according to a promise 
she had made to God and him,) until it were restored to the 
unity of the church. 

Darbishire Darbishire, a Jesuit, may be mentioned next to this zea- 

tlie Jesuit's '' 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 127 

lous, hot civilian; who was such another 'persecutor in this CHAP, 
church under queen Mary ; having been canon of St. Paul's, ' 

London,archdeaconof Essex, and chancellor to bishop Boner, Anno 1571. 

who was his uncle by his sister. Walsingham, understand- ['.°P"" ^*|" 
ing this man was in Paris, found a means to feel the man iMar. 2. 
and his principles. He caused one, under colour of a ca- 
tholic, to repair unto him there ; knowing that there was a 
concurrence of intelligence between him and those English 
papists of Lovain, and also with those of the Scottish queen''s 
faction. The party sent did seem very much to bewail the 
ill success of the late practices in Scotland; and now he 
feared that their case would grow desperate : especially, for 
that Mather''s enterprise was also discovered. To this the 
Jesuit answered, " That the ill handling of matters was the 
" cause that they took no better effect. But bade him not- 
" withstanding to be of good comfort ; and assure himself 
" that there were more Mathers in England than one : which 
" would not scruple, when time should conveniently serve, 
" to adventure their lives in seeking to acquit us of that 
" lewd woman, (meaning her highness.) For, said he, if 
" she were gone, then would the hedge lie open ; whereby 
" the good queen, that is now the prisoner, in whom rested, 
" he said, the present right of this crown, should easily en- 
" joy the same. For besides that all the catholics in the 
" realm of England were at her devotion, there were, said 
" he, (and thanked God,) divers heretics that were well af- 
" fected towards her. Which was no small miracle, that 
" God had so blinded their eyes, as that they should be so 
" inclined to her, that in the end would peld unto them 
" their just deserts, unless they returned to the catholic 
" faith." And so went on in further discourse, assuring the 
other, that that queen would have no harm. For that she 
lacked for no friends in the English court : and what assist- 
ance she was like to have to deliver her, though they ven- 
tured their lives for her, as others had done before; and 
that there were divers ways to bring it to pass. And tliat 
chiefly considering how this matter would tend to the good 
of the catholic cause, and utter ruin and extirpation of he- 



128 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK resy. And that this should be brought to pass ere a year 
were at an end. And besides his villainous and undutiful 



Anno 1571. language of her majesty, he used very lewd bitter speeches 
against the earl of Leicester and the lord Burghley. This, 
as that ambassador concluded, was the sum of their talk. 
87 By the way, one might hence make an observation upon 
what a prejudiced person the chief evidence of the Nag-gs 
Head ordination doth depend. For the popish writers do 
allege this Darbishire's evidence with the greatest confi- 
dence. 

I add only one thing more of Darbishire. That in his 
conference with Hawks, (afterwards burnt for the profes- 
sion of the gospel,) he called the Bible, in contempt, his 
little 'pretty God's hook. 



^»» 



CHAP. X. 

The present concerns of the nation Jor the queerts scvfety. 
Her marriage thought necessary. Shefalleth sick. Her 
verses upon the Scottish queen and her favourites. She 
requires liberty of religion Jbr her merchants in France. 
Orders and exei-ciscs of religion in Northampton ; with 
their corifcssion qfjaith. The ecclesiastical commission^ 
ers sit at Lambeth. Christopher Goodman cited before 
them: his protestation of allegiance. 

If we now turn our eyes to the queen, about the month of 
March her people had two extraordinary concernments for 
her ; whence they apprehended the kingdom to be in great 
danger. 
The queen's The oue was for her marrying ; which the wisest of her 
uX"<fuie statesmen saw to be the only way for safety, as diings then 
only way of stood. I allege the judgment of some of them. Walsing- 
^^ '^ ^' ham, in December last, was in pursuit of some ways to esta- 
blish her majesty's state ; which was threatened, as he ob- 
served, with two lacks, viz. the want of friendship abroad, 
and our doubtful state at home. Whom the earl of Lei- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 129 

cester] seconded in their correspondence, by acknowledging, CHAP, 
that it fell out too manifest daily ; and that without some ^' 



remedy it would prove a danger irrecoverable. But the Anno 1571. 
means, as he added, were easily seen and perceived ; [mean- 
ing the marriage with monsieur, and peace with France ;] 
and which he supposed not yet without hope to be obtained. 
But now two or three months were past, and little or no 
hope appeared thereof. 

For though sir Thomas Smith was lately despatched to Sir Thomas 
France, to renew the treaty about it, yet the queen herself '^'"I*'^^ '^P" 

. ,. . , ^ prehension 

seemed to have little or no mchnation that way, as was well of the 
perceived. Whereat Smith, in a letter from Blois, thus H^ck ward- 
writ: " That all the world saw that they [her people] wished "'^^s- 
" her majesty ""s surety and long condition. That her mar- 
" riage, and issue of her highness' body, should be the most 
*' assurance of her highness, and of the wealth of the realm, 
" &c. What, doth her majesty mean to maintain still her 
" danger, and not proceed for her surety ? I assure your 
" lordship I can see no reason. God preserve her majesty 
" long to reign over us, by some unlooked for miracle. For 
" I cannot see by natural reason that her highness goeth 88 
" about to provide for it." And again, soon after, in an- 
other letter, thus he expresseth his thoughts: " There is 
" nothing whereof we are more sorry, and do lament in our 
" hearts, than to see such uncertain, so negligent, and ii-re- 
*' solute provision for the safety of the queen's majesty's 
" person, and of her reign over us. God of his almighty 
*' and miraculous power preserve her long to reign over us." 
These expressions shewed the dismal apprehensions the best 
of men, and most concerned, had for the good of the queen, 
the state, and the religion of the land. But the good hand 
of God preserved all safe and well, though this marriage, 
so much desired and depended upon, took not place. For 
a good understanding with the French king was thought 
then sufficient to balance the mischievous purposes of Spain : 
but the French king's heart being disposed to a league with 
the queen, that way the English security was provided for ; 
VOL. n. K 



130 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK as shall be shewn in the following year, when the league was 
made. 



Anno 1571. The Other terror upon the nation now was the queen's 
The queen faHino; sick. In the month of December, her subiects took 

falls sick. o . T 1 • 1 • 1 

The fears great satisfaction, that notwithstanding their danger in other 
thereupon, j-ggpggtg^ g}^g ciijoyed perfect good health. So Leicester, in 
his correspondence, writes to Walsingham : " That they had 
*' no news, but of her majesty's good state of health ; which 
" was such as he had not known to have been these many 
" years;" [as though she were none of the healthfulest con- 
stitutions.] And this he the rather informed the ambassa- 
dor of, because that in October before, she was taken very 
ill. Of which malady, thus did the lord Burghley write to 
the said ambassador : " That a sudden alarm was given him 
" by her majesty's being suddenly sick in her stomach ; but 
" that she Mas relieved by a vomit. You must think, said 
" he, (speaking not only his own sense, but of all that loved 
" the present state of the nation,) such a matter would drive 
" me to the end of my wits. But God [as he comforted 
" himself] is the stay of all that put their trust in him." 
Rut now, in March, the queen fell sick again ; yet in a few 
days recovered, to the great joy of all. Of this sickness of 
the queen, (sweetening it also with the news of her restora- 
tion to perfect health,) the same lord writ to the two ambas- 
sadors then in France. They both read the letter in a mar- 
vellous agony, (as Smith expressed their concern in his an- 
swer.) But having the medicine ready, that her majesty 
was within an hour recovered, it did in part heal them again. 
And when the said lord had wTote, that the care had not 
ceased in him, Smith replied, " That he might be sure it 
*' did as little cease in them ; calling to their remembrance, 
" and laying before their eyes, the trouble, the uncertainty, 
" the disorder, the peril, and danger, which had been like 
" to follow, if at that time God liad taken from them the 
*' stay of the commonwealth, and hope of their repose ; that 
" lanthorn of their light, next to God ; whom to follow, nor 
*' certainly where to light another candle [they knew not.] 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 131 

But, added he, as to their present negotiation, " if her ma- CHAP. 
'•^ jesty still continued in extremity to promise, and in reco- 
" very to forget, what shall we say, but as the Italians do, ^0"° 1571. 
'' Passato il pericolo, gahhato UJcrnte F" 

Queen Elizabeth would sometimes, in the midst of her 89 
cares, divert herself by study and reading ; and sometimes Queen Eii- 

. ,. . 1 T 1 • • a zabeth's 

versifymg, as she did m composmg a copy ot verses upon ^.g^^^^ ^p^^ 
the queen of Scots, and those of her friends here in England the Scottish 
near this time : which Dr. Wylson hath preserved to us in wyison's 
his Enfflish Loffic. For she, to declare that she was nothina; Los'c 

00-' c5 

ignorant of those secret practices among her people, and 
many of her nobility inclining too far to the Scottish queen's 
party, though she had long with great wisdom and patience 
dissembled it. (as the said Dr. Wylson prefaceth her verses,) 
wrote this ditty most sweet and sententious; not hiding 
from all such aspiring minds the danger of their ambition 
and disloyalty. Which afterwards fell out most truly, by 
the exemplary chastisement of sundry persons, who in fa- 
vour of the said Scottish queen, declining from her majesty, 
sought to interrupt the quiet of the realm, by many evil and 
undutiful practices. Her verses were as follow : 

That doubt of future foes exiles my present joy ; 

And wit me warns to shun such snares as threaten mine annoy. 

For falsehood now doth flow, and subjects' faith doth ebb : 

Which would not be, if reason rul'd, or wisdom weav'd the web. 

But clouds of toys untry'd do cloak aspiring minds. 

Which turn to rain of late repent, by course of changed winds. 

The top of hope suppos'd the root of ruth will be. 

And fruitless all their graffed guiles, as shortly ye shall see. 

Those dazzled eyes with pride, which great ambition ^ blinds, » Tliat of 

Shall be unseal'd by worthy wights, whom foresight falsehood finds, tl'*' ^"^*^ °^ 

^ '. 1 , , Norfolk. 

The daughter of debate, that eke discord doth sow. 

Shall reap no gain, where former rule hath taught still peace to grow. 

No foreign banished wight ^' shall anchor in this port: ''TheScot- 

Our realm it brooks no strangers' '^ force : let them elsewhere resort, cprance*^"' 

Our rusty sword with rest shall first the edge employ, and Spain. 

To poll their tops that seek such change, and gape for joy. 

K 2 



132 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK Another thing deservedly to be related of the queen was 

her care she took to preserve her subjects in that true reli- 

Anno i57i.gion whicli was established by law in her kingdom. And 

er care o ^y^^^ y^^^ subiects uot onlv at liome but abroad might have 

religion tor J J o 

her nier- the free exercise of it ; and not incur danger in popish coun- 
broad ^^^^^ ^^^ ^t. In her treaty with France now, she made that one 

of the articles, namely, a liberty of religion for English mer- 
chants in that king''s dominions. Sir Thomas Smith, with 
Walsingham and Killegrew, put the queen-mother in mind 
thereof, for the said merchants in the Staple or Haunce ; 
that they might have the exercise of religion after the man- 
ner of the English church, and which the queen their mis- 
Particnlariy tress also professcd. The said queen-mother had promised 
them that they might have it in their house with the doors 
shut, and in the English tongue ; but the king"'s deputies 
appointed to treat with the queen"'s ambassadors would not 
admit it. And both the king and his mother (neither of 
them meaning sincerely) would not have it put as an article 
in the treaty, but that it should be allowed some other way. 
As namely, by a letter missive from the king to queen Eli- 
90 zabeth, wherein he should promise it. Which when Smith 
and the others objected against ; and since they could not 
too much insist upon it, to please the king, and to go as far 
as they could, they were content, if he would, by another 
article, or treaty declarative, made apart between his ma- 
jesty and the queen of England, under the great seals of 
England and France, declare that in general words he did 
mean also, in the matter of religion, to give her merchants 
their liberty. But the queen-mother, upon this, asked the 
ambassadors, whether they thought that the king her son 
would deceive them ? [But whether they then thought so 
or no, it appeared afterwards that he went upon nothing 
but deceit and dissimulation.] And she would have per- 
suaded the ambassadors, the queen their mistress would be 
contented with such a private letter from the king. But 
Smith told her he could not believe it of her majesty for his 
part : and that they, her ministers, must do wisely, surely. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 133 

and substantially in such affairs for her majesty, as she did CHAP. 
put in their credit. But when the queen-mother still shifted 



this off, Smith said at last, " That except there were suffi- Anno 1571. 

" cient assurance for the matter of religion, they could not 

" nor durst subscribe the treaty ; until they were better cer- 

" tified that the queen would be so content with such a let- 

" ter. For his conscience was against it, to leave so great a 

" point upon so little a hold." 

Prophesyings, or exercises, were much used now through- Prophesy- 
out most of the dioceses. Wherein the incumbents in liv- erSeTnow 
ings, and men in orders, were employed in explaining cer- used by the 
tain places of holy scripture, in certain parish churches ap- appoint- 
pointed by the bishop of the diocese for that purpose. Which ™ent. 
were very acceptable to those of the people that favoured 
the protestant religion : and had also their good use, both 
for the improving of the clergy in their studies of the word 
of God, and for the instruction of the laity in the right know- 
ledge of religion. 

These exercises were used in the church of Northampton, At North- 
by the consent of the bishop of Peterburgh, Scambler, the .p'j^P ^"j^^ 

mayor of the town and his brethren, and other the queen's thereof. 

•^ , • 1 • 1 J Pap. -office, 

majesty's justices of the peace withni the county and town : 

who appointed these orders for rehgious worship, to be set 

up and established therein. 

I. The singing and playing of organs, beforetime accus- 
tomed in the quire, is put down, and the common prayer 
there accustomed to be said, brought down into the body of 
the church among the people, before whom the same is used 
according to the queen's book, with singing psalms before 
and after the sermon. 

II. There is in the chief church every Tuesday and 
Thursday, from nine of the clock until ten in the morning, 
read a lecture of the scripture, beginning with the confes- 
sion in the Book of Common Prayer, and ending with prayer 
and confession of the faith. 

III. There is in the same church, every Sunday and 
holyday, after morning prayer, a sermon, the people singmg 
the psalm before and after. 

k3 



134 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK IV. The service be ended in every parish church by nine 
^' .of the clock in the morning, every Sunday and holyday ; to 



Anno 1571. the end the people may resort to the sermon in the same 
9 1 church. And that every minister give warning to the pa- 
rishioners in the time of common prayer, to repair to the 
sermon there ; except they have a sermon in their own parish 
church. 

V. That after prayers done, in the time of sermon or ca- 
techising, none sit in the streets, or walk up and down abroad, 

, or otherwise occupy themselves vainly, upon such penalties 

as shall be appointed. 

VI. The youth, at the end of evening prayer, every Sun- 
day and holyday, (before all the elder people,) are examined 
in a portion of Calvin's catechism, which by the reader is 
expounded unto them ; and holdeth an hour. 

VII. There is a general communion once every quarter, 
in every parish church, with a sermon ; which is by the mi- 
nister at common prayer warned four several Sundays before 
every communion, with exhortation to the people to prepare 
for that day. 

VIII. One fortnight before each communion, the minister 
with the churchwardens maketh a circuit from house to 
house, to take the names of the communicants, and to exa- 
mine the state of their lives. Among whom if any discord 
be found, the parties are brought before the mayor and his 
brethren, being assisted by the preacher and other gentle- 
men. Before whom there is reconcilement made, or else 
correction, or putting the party from the communion, which 
will not live in charity. 

IX. Immediately after the communion, the minister, &c. 
returneth to every house, to understand who have not re- 
ceived the communion, according to the common order 
taken ; and certifieth it to the mayor, &c. who, with the 
minister, examineth the matter, and useth means of persua- 
sion to induce them to their duties. 

X. Every communion day eacli parish hath two commu- 
nions ; the one for servants and officers, to begin at five of 
the clock in the morning, with a sermon of an hour, and to 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 135 

end at eight: the other for masters and dames, &c. to be- CHAP. 
n at nine the same day, with like sermon, and to end at , 



X. 



twelve. Anno 1571. 

XI. The manner of this communion is, besides the ser- 
mon, according to the order of the queen's book ; saving, 
the people being in their confession upon their knees, for 
the despatch of many, do orderly arise from their pews, and 
so pass to the communion table, where they receive the sa- 
crament : and from thence in like order to their place ; hav- 
ing all this time a minister in the pulpit, reading unto them 
comfortable scriptures of the passion, or other hke, pertain- 
ing to the matter in hand. 

XII. There is on every other Saturday, and now every 
Saturday, from nine to eleven of the clock in the morning, 
an exercise of the ministers both of town and country, about 
the interpretation of scriptures. The ministers speaking 
one after another, do handle some text ; and the same open- 
ly among the people. That done, the ministers do with- 
draw themselves into a privy place, there to confer among 
themselves, as well touching doctrine as good life, manners, 
and other orders meet for them. There is also a Aveekly 
assembly every Thursday, after the lecture, by the mayor 92 
and his brethren, assisted with the preacher, minister, and 
other gentlemen, appointed to them by the bishop, for the 
correction of discord made in the town: as for notorious 
blasphemy, whoredom, drunkenness, railing against religion, 

or preachers thereof; scolds, ribalds, or such like. Which 
faults are each Thursday presented unto them in writing 
by certain sworn men, appointed for that service in each 
parish. So by the bishop's authority and the mayor's joined 
together, being assisted with certain other gentlemen in the 
commission of the peace, evil life is corrected, God's glory 
set forth, and the people brought in good obedience. 

XIV. The communion table standeth in the body of the 
church, according to the book, at the over end of the middle 
aisle, having three ministers : one in the middle to deliver 
the bread ; the other two at each end, for the cup. The 
ministers often do call on the people to remember the poor, 

K 4 



136 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK which is there plentifully done. And thus the communion 
being ended, the people do sing a psalm. 



Anno 1571. XV. The excessive ringing of bells at forbidden times 
by injunction, (whereby the people grow in discord, to the 
slaughter of some, and the unquieting of others, given to 
hear sermons,) is inhibited ; allowing notwithstanding such 
orderly ringing, as may serve to the calling of the people to 
church, and giving warning of the passing and burying of 
every person, 

XVI. The carrying of the bell before corpses in the 
s-treets, and bidding prayers for the dead, (which was there 
used until within these two years,) is restrained, 

XVII, There is hereafter to take place, order that all 
ministers of the shire, once every quarter of the year, upon 
one month''s warning given, repair to the said town ; and 
there, after a sermon in the church heard, to withdraw them- 
selves into a place appointed within the said church ; and 
there privately to confer among themselves of their manners 
and lives. Among whom if any be found in fault, for the 
first time, exhortation is made to him among all the brethren 
to amend. And so likewise the second and third time, by 
complaint from all the brethren, he is committed unto the 
bishop for his correction. 

The order of the exercise of the ministers, with a coifession 
of thejaith. 
Orders for First, Every one at his first allowance to be of this exer- 

tlie exer- .... 

cises. cise, shall, by subscription of his own hand, declare his con- 

sent in Christ's true religion witli his brethren, and submit 
himself to the discipline and orders of the same. 

Secondly, The names of every man that shall speak in 
this exercise shall be written in a table. For it shall be un- 
lawful for any man to speak in this exercise, until he be ad- 
mitted by the same, and his name, by his own consent, re- 
gistered in the said table. Neither shall it be lawful for any 
man to occupy the room of the second speaker, except he 
have spoken in the first place, unless he be desired by the 
moderators. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 137 

Thirdly, The first speaker beginning and ending with CHAP. 
prayer, ought to explain the text that he readeth. Then ^' 



he may confute any false or untrue expositions, if he know Anno 1571. 
that the place have been abused by any sinister interpreta- 9*^ 
tion. Then he may give the comfort to the audience as the 
place ministereth just occasion. But he shall not digress, 
dilate, nor amplify that place of scripture whereof he treateth 
to any common place, further than the meaning of the said 
scripture. 

Fourthly, Whatsoever is left of the first speaker, either 
in explaining the text, either in confuting, &c. he or they 
that speak afterwards have liberty to touch, so as they ob- 
serve the order prescribed to the first speaker. And that 
without repeating the selfsame words which have been 
spoken before, or impugning the same, except any have 
spoken contrary to the scriptures. 

Fifthly, The exercise shall begin immediately after nine 
of the clock, and not exceed the space of two hours. The ' 
first speaker shall fully finish whatsoever he hath to say 
within the space of three quarters of an hour : the second 
and third shall not exceed (each one of them) one quarter 
of an hour. One of the moderators shall always make the 
conclusion. 

Sixthly, After the exercise is ended, the president for the 
time being shall call the learned brethren unto him, and 
shall ask for their judgment concerning the exposition of 
the text of scripture then expounded : and if any matter be 
then vintouched, it shall be there declared. Also, if any of 
the speakers in this exercise be infamed, or convinced of any 
grievous crime, he shall be there and then reprehended. 

Seventhly, After this consultation it shall be lawful for 
any of the brethren of this exercise to propound their doubts 
or questions, justly collected out of the place of the scripture 
that day expounded, and signify the same unto the presi- 
dent for the time being, and the other brethren, and deliver 
the same in writing unto the first speaker. And order shall 
be taken by common consent for the satisfying of the said 
questions against the next exercise. No speaker shall move 



138 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK publicly any question extempore ; but which he shall satisfy 
himself presently. And this consultation shall be ended 
Anno U71. with some short exhortation, to move each one to go for- 
ward in his office, to apply his study, and to increase in god- 
liness of manners and newness of life. 

Eighthly, When this exercise is finished, the next speaker 
shall be appointed and named publicly ; and the text which 
he shall expound shall be read. 

Ninthly, When the last man, whose name is written in 
the tables, hath kept his turn in this exercise, then the first 
man written shall be required to keep the next exercise. If 
that man be absent, so as he cannot keep that day and time, 
the next written in the table shall be required to satisfy the 
place of the other, when his turn is, so as the exercise de- 
cay not for any one mane's absence. 

Tcnthly, If any man take upon him to break these or- 
ders and rules, or seem to be contentious, let the president 
of the exercise presently command him, in the name of the 
eternal God, to silence. And after the exercise, let that 
94 unadvised person be judged before the brethren there ga- 
thered for the said exercise ; that he, and others by his ex- 
ample, may learn modesty thereafter. 

Then followed a confession.^ which these exercisers were 
to subscribe; which was to stand to the scriptures alone, 
and not to any human authority, for doctrine, in opposition 
to papistry ; and was as followeth : 

The cotifession in the exercises. 
A confes- We whose names are hereunder written, as well to de- 
clare unto the world, according to the commandment of 
the Lord, the confession of that faith which in our con- 
sciences we hold, as also to cut off all occasion of quarrel- 
ling and slanderous reports of our dissenting among our- 
selves in matters of faith and religion, to the wounding and 
hurt of the simple; do shew our judgments and consent in 
sum, as followeth : being ready further and more particu- 
larly to explain the same, to the satisfying of our brethren, 
>v hen and as occasion shall be thereunto offered : 



sion to be 
subscribed. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 139 

First, We believe and hold, that the word of God, written CHAP, 
in the canonical scriptures of the Old and New Testament, ^- 
(which books contain in them sound, perfect, and sufficient Anno 1571, 
doctrine, as well for the trade of all men's lives, as also 
for their faith,) are and ought to be open, to be read and 
known of all sorts of men, both learned and unlearned. 
And we esteem this written word as the infallible truth of 
God, full of majesty ; and the authority thereof far to ex- 
ceed all authority, not of the pope of Rome only, (who is 
very Antichrist, and therefore is to be detested of all Chris- 
tians,) but of the church also, of councils, fathers, or others 
whosoever, either men or angels. 

Then, we condemn as a tyrannous yoke (wherewith poor 
souls have been oppressed) whatsoever men have set up of 
their own inventions, to make articles of our faith, or to bind 
men's conscience by their laws and institutes. In sum, all 
those manners and fashions to serve God, which men have 
brought in without the authority of the word, for the war- 
rant thereof; commended either by custom, by the title of 
unwritten verities, traditions, or other names whatsoever. Of 
which sort are, the doctrines of the supremacy of the see of 
Rome, purgatory, the mass, transubstantiation, the corpo- 
real presence of Christ's body in the sacrament, adoration 
thereof; man's merits; free will; justification by works; 
praying in an unknown tongue, to saints departed, for the 
dead, upon beads; extolling of images, pardons, pilgrim- 
ages, auricular confession ; taking from the lay-people the 
cup in the administration of the sacrament ; proliibition of 
marriage ; distinction of meats, apparel, and days ; briefly, 
all the ceremonies and whole order of papistry : which they 
call the hierarchy; indeed, a devilish confusion, established 
as it were in despite of God, and to the mockery and re- 
proach of all Christian religion. These, I say, with such 
hke, we abjure, renounce, and utterly condemn. 

And we content ourselves with the simplicity of this pure 
word of God, and doctrine thereof. A summary abridg- 
ment of the which, we acknowledge to be contained in the 
confession of faith, used of all Christians, which is com- 95 



140 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK monly called, The creed of the apostles: holding fast, as 
' the apostle warneth, that faithful word, which serveth to 
Aiiiio 1571. doctrine and instruction: and that both to edify our own 
consciences withal unto salvation in Christ Jesus, as the 
alone foundation, whereon Christ's true church is built, he 
himself being the chief corner-stone; as the same apostle 
witnesseth in another place : and also, to exhort others with 
the same sound and wholesome doctrine ; and to convince 
the gainsayers : finally, to try and examine, and also to 
judge thereby, as by a certain rule and perfect touchstone, 
all other doctrines whatsoever. 

And therefore to this word of God we humbly submit 
ourselves and all our doings; willing and ready to be 
judged, reformed, or further instructed thereby, in all 
points of religion. 

This method of devotion, agreed upon and used for the 
public practice of religion in this town, and for the better 
improving both clergy and laity in Christian knowledge 
and godliness, had such notice taken of it, that it seemed 
not to escape without the censure of men of looser princi- 
ples. And this being a year wherein the archbishop and 
several other bishops sat in an ecclesiastical commission ; 
and they by a special letter from the queen commanded to 
look narrowly into any novelties introduced into the church, 
and to set an effectual stop thereunto ; this scheme might 
have been sent up from Northampton to them : it being said 
in the title to it. To have been taken andjhund [as by some 
inquisition] the 5th of June, 1571, anno xiii**. reg: reg'in. 
Elizab. But I do not find this well-minded and religi- 
ously disposed combination of both bishop, magistrates, and 
people, received any check from that commission. 
Life of Before these commissioners sitting at Lambeth were 

Parken "^ Several puritans, that were preachers, cited ; as hath been 
Book iy. elsewhere shewn. And among these was Chr. Goodman, 
the preacher, a man famous for his book written against 
the government of women, in hatred to queen Mary, the 
great persecutor of her protestant subjects, and for the law- 
fulness of resisting princes in some cases. This gave great 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 141 

disgust to the queen, and to the governors of this church ; CHAP, 
insomuch that he was brought to a revocation of that book, ' 



as hath been also shewn. Now he is required to make a Anno 1571. 
protestation of his obedience to the queen's majesty. Which ^"^"fj^ °/ 
at length he did, with the subscription of his own hand to tion, chap. 
the same. The orig-inal whereof is still extant ; and bears '^' 

1 • 1 7 . -IT 7 7 r tTOodman's 

this title, A copy of the protestation willingly made 0?/ protestation 
Christopher Goodman, preacher of Gods word, the 23(i day j[J^'^^g°^^" 
of April, 1571, at Lamhhith, hejhre the reverend fathers in Van queen. 
God, my lords of Canterbury, Ely, Salisbury, Worcester, Paper-office. 
Lincoln, and Bangor ; concerning his dutiful obedience to 
the queeri's majesty''s person, and her lawful government, 
being thereof demanded by the said lords ; as also requested 
to put the same in writing, as followeth : 

" I Christopher Goodman, preacher of God's word in 
" this realm of England, have protested, the day and year 
" above written, before the reverend fathers aforesaid, and 
" in this present writing do unfeignedly protest and confess 
" before all men, that I have esteemed and taken Eliza^ 
" beth, by the grace of God queen of England, France, 
" and Ireland, defender of the faith, &c. evermore sithencegg 
" her coronation, as now, and shall during life and her 
" grace's government, for my only liege lady and most 
" lawful queen and sovereign. Whom I truly reverence in 
*' my heart, love, fear, and obey, as becometh an obedient 
" subject, in all things lawful; and as I have at sundry 
" times in open pulpit, willingly and of mine accord, (never 
" constrained by any, otherwise than occasion of time and 
" matter have offered,) declared in great audience. Who can 
" and will bear me sufficient record. Exhorting and per- 
*' suading all men, so far forth as in me did lie, to the 
" like obedience to her majesty. For whose preservation 
" and prosperous government I have earnestly and daily 
" prayed to God, and will, being assisted by his holy Spirit, 
" during my life. In witness whereof, I the said Christo- 
" pher have subscribed this protestation with mine own 
« hand, the 26th day of April, 1571. 

" Per me Christopherum Goodmanum." 



142 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK I find him in Cheshire, anno 1584, a refuser of subscrip- 
• tion to the Articles, and a dissuader of others thereto. Of 



Anno 1571. whom archbishop Whitgift complained unto the lord trea- 
His per. surcr, that it was Mr. Goodman, a man that for his per- 

vcrs6n6S5 

noted. verseness was sufficiently known, and some other evil dis- 
Letter of poged persons, that instilled these things into men''s heads ; 

archbishop '^ . . . . . . " 

Whitgift. that is, objections against subscribing to all the articles of 
religion, and to the Book of Common Prayer. 



CHAP. XI. 

Zanchy writes to the queen concerning the habits. And to 
bishop Jewel. His advice. BlacJcal, a pretended minister, 
does penance. Popish priests officiate in the chinxh. Bi- 
shop JeweVs death. His answer to Harding. His Apo- 
logy. Friendship between him and bishop Parh:hurst. 
William Kethe. Loans. WalsinghanCs diligence: earl 
of Rutland. Sir Tho. Smith, ambassador. Victory over 
the Turks, 

Zanchy ZrfANCHY, the learned Italian, public professor of di- 
the queen vinity in the university of Heidelbergh, this year intei-posed 
against im- ^jj.]-, ^^]^g queen, in the behalf of the puritan ministers ; that 

posing the '■ ,. . -, ,. ti*i 

habits. she would not enjom weanng of the surplice. In his letter 
to her he said, " There were many bishops then alive in the 
" kingdom, greatly renowned for all kind of learning, that 
" chose rather to leave their offices and places in the church, 
" than against their own consciences to admit of such gar- 
*' mcnts, the relics of popish idolatry and superstition, or at 
" least signs and tokens of it ; and so to defile themselves, 
" and give offence to the weak by their example. And that 
" by these means the seed of dissension was cast among the 
" bishops. He added, that this letter he wrote by command 
07 " of the most noble prince, one of her majesty's most spe- 
" cial friends, the prince elector palatine." The letter be- 
Lib. epist. i. ing very long, is extant in print among Zanchy's epistles, 
F:.!''!::: and was translated into English in a late book, called, A 
fresh suite against humane ceremonies. The letter was sent 



toai. viii. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 143 

to bishop Grindal, by his hand to be presented to the CHAP. 
queen. But upon serious deliberation, and consultation with 



other learned and wise men, he declined to deliver it; and Anno 1571. 
gave his reasons to Zanchy in a letter, mentioned elsewhere. 
But Zanchy was misinformed, as appeared by his letter to Life of 
the queen, in the true state of the controversy ; and parti- GHndai.^ ^ 
cularly concerning the bishops ; who were not upon the Book 1. 
point of leaving their bishoprics, rather than to wear their 
habits, but did all imanimously comply with the ecclesiasti- 
cal order, as bishop Grindal assured him. 

But to relate the occasion of Zanchy's letter. Mount, (a By Mount's 
German by birth, but much employed formerly in messages^"* ' 
out of England to the German princes and states,) coming 
into Germany in June this year, 1571, shewed unto Zan- 
chy and others how the contest about the apparel was re- 
vived in England ; and that the queen required the bishops 
and ministers duly to wear the habits enjoined, in the ad- 
ministration of the word and sacraments. And withal, he 
added, that there were not a few, even of the bishops them- 
selves, that were minded rather to resign their office, and 
depart from their places, than yield to wear the garments. 
He begged Zanchy, therefore, that he would address a let- 
ter to the queen, and admonish her of her duty. And that 
in case she would not be brought to relent, and revoke her 
orders, that then he and the brethren at Heidelberg should 
write to some of the chiefest and prudentest bishops, how- 
soever not to forsake their function. The foresaid reverend 
man, after denial and excuse of himself, in regard of his 
own inability for such a work, being overpersuaded by 
friends, and at last by the counsel of the prince elector him- 
self, composed a letter to the queen, as was touched before. 
Wherein he beseeched her, that she would not hearken to 
such counsels as certainly repugned the office of a good 
prince; which he made to consist in three things. I. To 
take care that true religion and the worship of God be re- 
stored ; and being restored, to be preserved pure. II. That 
all her people live honestly and godly. III. That public 
peace and friendship be kept. And then he fell upon the 



144 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK habits at large, marshalling up all his arguments against 
_ them. And another letter he also wrote to bishop Jewel ; 

Anno 1671. and yet another to bishop Grindal. 

The sub- The bearers of these letters were Ralph Gualter, junior, and 
his letter to I^^lph Zuinglius, grandchild to Zuinglius the great reformer 
Jewel. of Helvetia. The substance of that to bishop Jewel was ; 
" That having heard from Mount, lately returned from Eng- 
" land, that many godly bishops were determined to lay down 
" their offices, and leave their places, rather than to wear the 
" habits ; he was earnestly called upon by the brethren there, 
" to persuade the said bishops not so to do. And that he 
" wrote to him, being a person of so great learning and 
" sway in the church, to use his interest with them to con- 
*' tinue in their places ; seeing that Satan sought nothing 
" more than to dissipate the church, by scattering away the 
98 " true bishops. For there seemed to be no reason, why a 
" pastor should leave his flock, so long as he might freely 
*' teach and administer the sacraments according to the 
" word of God, although he be compelled to do something 
" which is not wholly approved of, so it be of the nature of 
" things which of themselves and in their own nature are 
*' not evil, but indifferent, being commanded of the queen : 
" and when one of these two must happen, either to depart 
*' his place, or obey such a command, he should rather 
" obey ; but with a lawful protestation ; and the people to 
" be by him taught, why, and upon what account, he 
Nunquam " obeyed that command. And that this opinion was so plain 
t€rTes*sua' " ^^^ clear, both by scriptures, the fathers, and ecclesiastical 
natura adi- « historians, that it would be needless to bring any proof to 
serenda est " them whicH were any thing exercised therein. For a law- 
vocatio le- « f^\ jj^^^j necessarv vocation is never to be foi'saken by rea- 

gitima et ... ... 

necessaria. " son of things in their own nature indifferent." 
Zancii. ep. ^^ ^^^ ^j^^ papists, many of the popish priests still kept 
p. 391. their parishes, and their old inclination to superstition too. 
Biackai, a But among the scandalous churchmen in these days, the 
churchman, g'"^^test surely was one Blackal, born at Exeter, who did 
does pe- penance at St. Paul's Cross, Aug. 6, and then and there, 
before all the congregation, cried and breathed out against 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 145 

Northbroke many foul and slanderous reports, to the grief CHAP, 
of the godly, and joy of the wicked. For this Northbroke ^*' 



had detected his horrible vices, and manifested them to cer- Anno 1571. 
tain of his friends, to the end he might be the better re- 
claimed. Upon this slander, the queen's commissioners sent 
for Northbroke to come before them. But when he appeared, 
Blackal stole away from his keeper, to the prisoners then in 
the Marshalsea; knowing that he had falsely accused him. 
So that he could not have him face to face before the com- 
missioners. The crimes which brought him to this penance 
were, that he had four wives alive : and also that he had in- 
truded himself into the ministry for the space of twelve 
years, and yet was never lawfully called, nor made minister 
by any bishop. Four days after his penance at the Cross, 
he was set in the pillory in Cheapside, with papers on his 
head, for taking the archbishop of Canterbury''s seal from 
one writing, and setting it to a counterfeit commission. He 
was a chopper and changer of benefices, little passing by 
what ways or means, so he might but get money from any 
man. He would run from country to country, and from 
town to town, leading about with him naughty women. As 
in Gloucestershire he led a naughty strumpet about the 
country, named Green Apron. He altered his name where- 
soever he went ; going by these several surnames, Blackal, 
Barthal, Dorrel, Barkly, Baker. 

And what sort of popishly aifected priests still officiated Priests con- 
in the church, the forementioned Northbroke will tell us, in h°uTpapL'ts. 
his epistle to a book entitled, A brief and pithy sum o/'^/i^ Abrief and 
Christian Jaith. Therein he spake " of certain men, then ^'^ ysum, 
" ministers of the church, who were papists, and so gave out 
" themselves to be in their discourses. Who subscribed and 
" observed the order of service, wore a side gown, a square 
" cap, a cope and surplice. They would run into corners, 
" and say to the people. Believe not this new doctrine ; it is 
" naught ; it will not long endure : although I use order 
" among them outwardly, my heart and profession is from 2^ 
" them, agreeing with the mother church of Rome. No, no, 
"we do not preach, nor yet teach openly. We read their 

VOL. II. L 



146 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
I. 

Aono 1571 

Popish 

priests. 



Bishop 
Jewel dies. 
His last 
words and 
prayer. 
Preface to 
View of a 
seditious 
Bull. 



His books 



His last 
words. 



" new devised homilies for a colour, to satisfy the time for a 

_" season. 

" Several nowadays of the popish priests, he said, were 
" thieves, perjurers, murderers, buggerers, [I blush to re- 
" peat the rest,] and some of them were arraigned at the 
" bar for it in Exeter, and elsewhere." 

This Northbroke was minister of Redchff in Bristol, and 
was one of the first persons that Gilbert, bishop of Bath and 
Wells, ordained. 

This year put a period to tlie life of the singularly learned 
and most eminent bishop, John Jewel. His discourse and 
prayer on his deathbed, a Httle before his death, was very 

a devout and edifying; and therefore worthy recording to 
posterity : as it was taken from his mouth by John Gar- 
brand, who was always about him, and then present, (as 
well as divers others,) and set down by him. The day and 
night before his [the bishop's] departure out of this world, 
he expounded the Lord's Prayer, and gave short notes 
upon the seventy-first Psalm [the suitable Psalm appointed 
to be read in the Office of Visitation of the Sick] to such as 
were by him. He thought good to say somewhat at that 

. time of the books written by him, and set forth in print ; 
and also of his preaching. In both which services done by 
him to the glory of God, he made protestation of his good 
conscience; which even then, he declared, witnessed, and 
should witness with him before God, that he dealt simply 
and plainly, having God only before his eyes, and seeking 
the defence of the gospel of Christ, and that the truth 
thereof might be opened and maintained. And further, he 
gave thanks to God, that made him his servant in so great 
a work. And then visited him by this messenger of death, 
whilst he was doing the message of God in visiting his dio- 
cese. That then he called him to rest from his labours, 
when his weak body was spent and worn out in setting 
forth the glory of God. For which he many times prayed, 
it would please God to let him be offered in sacrifice. 

He was at that time very fervent in prayer, which he 
poured out before the Lord abundantly, and in great faith ; 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 147 

crying often, " Lord, let thy servant now depart in peace : CHAP. 
" Lord, let thy servant now come to thee. I have not so ^ ' 



" lived, that I am ashamed to live: neither am I afraid toA""oi57i. 
" die: for we have a gracious Lord. There is laid up for 
" me a crown of righteousness. Christ is my righteousness: 
" thy will be done, O Lord ; for mine is frail :■" with many 
other such godly speeches. In the extremity of his disease 
he shewed great patience ; and when his voice failed, that 
he lay speechless, he lifted up his hands and eyes, in wit- 
ness of his consent to those prayers which were made. Thus 
being virtuously occupied, and wholly resting himself upon 
the mercies of God through Jesus Christ our Saviour, he 
rendered up his soul to God. 

This John Garbrand, who gave the foregoing account of MSS. of 
bishop Jewel's holy end, had a legacy in the said bishop's J|.'i'°,Pbe- 
last will, of all his papers, writings, and notes of his travails queathed. 
in God's vineyard, and other his devices of learning what- 
soever. And from this rich stock of manuscripts, he set 
forth the bishop's answer to the pope's bull against queen 100 
Elizabeth, called, A view of a seditious bidl: with Gar- 
brand's preface : wherein the former relation of his death is 
mentioned. Published anno 1582. He was master of arts 
of Oxford, and a prebendary of Sarum. Dr. Tho. Wylson, 
master of St. Katharine's, (whom we have occasion to men- 
tion sometimes,) had writ a learned book against usury : 
which this bishop having perused, sent the writer a letter, 
signifying his judgment and allowance thereof. Which ex- 
cellent letter Wylson now sent to Garbrand ; that he might 
treasure it up among the rest of those valuable papers in his 
possession. 

Concerning his book against Harding, three great princes His book 
successively, viz. queen Elizabeth, king James, and king '^ar°in-. 
Charles, and four archbishops, were so satisfied with the 
truth and learning contained in it, that they enjoined it to 
be chained up and read in all parish churches throughout 
England and Wales. Which the author of the book, called 
^ The holy table, name, and thing, had noted in honour of xable^ 
that prelate's works, upon occasion of the dissatisfaction that Name, and 

I- 'i p. 208. 



148 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
I. 

Anno 1571. 
His Apo- 
log;y comes 
forth the 
second 
tiiue. 



What was 
done in the 
reforma- 
tion. 

Ep. dedic. 
to the 
queen. 



his antagonist had expressed concerning something written 
therein, concerning the ancient standing of the altar or com- 
munion-table. 

And this year of the said bishop's death, the second im- 
pression of his Apology of the Church of England came 
forth, dedicated by him to the queen. And was again re- 
printed with the rest of this excellent bishop's works, anno 
1611, dedicated to king James I. In the said dedication to 
the queen, I cannot but insert here, ob re'i mei?ioriam, what 
is there told to have been done in the reformation. " Nei- 
" ther have we, (said he,) in the public reformation of our 
" church, doctrine, and service, changed or purged out any 
" thing taught and approved by the fathers ; but only 
" such errors, superstitions, and abuses, as beside and con- 
" trary to this rule or sense crept into the church, by add- 
" ing of things that formerly were not, or detracting of 
" them that were, or otherwise altering or perverting them 
" from the right sense, meaning, and use, wherein they 
" were instituted, taken, and used by the said godly fa- 
" thers : as also through the foolish imitation of Jews or 
" Gentiles, wanton curiosity of men's inventions, blindness 
" of devotion, emulation for the continuance and increase of 
" such vanities once begun : but chiefly through the envy 
" and malice of that wicked one ; who while the husband- 
" man slept, sowed tares in the Lord's field, to the corrupt- 
" ino- and choking of that good corn so\vn by our Saviour 
" Jesus Christ's holy apostles. Which lawful reformation 
" of our church, and necessary repurgation of such enormi- 
" ties, is so far from taking from us the name or nature of 
" true catholics and Christians, or depriving us of the com- 
" munion and fellowship of the apostolic church, or from 
" overthrowing, endangering, or any whit impairing the 
" right faith, religion, sacraments, priesthood, and govern- 
" ment of the catholic church, [as the papists then charged 
" the reformers with,] that it hath cleared and better settled 
" them unto us ; and made us a readier and surer way to the 
" true knowledge, right use, and happy fruit of them." 
This Apology he set forth in the name of all the bishops, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 149 

as a book containing their professed judgment and doctrine. CHAP. 
So Parkhurst, bishop of Norwich, one of those bishops, 



wrote to Johannes Wolphius, one of his correspondents in Anno 1571. 
Helvetia, Is \Juellus^ omnium nostrorum nomine edidit. ^*^** ^"* . 

11 IP 1 • 1 c 1 • "°°^ '" 

And so well approved of was this work of his, not only the name 
here at home, but by the reformed divines abroad, that the ^^{^"^l ^^ 
said Wolphius, a learned divine of Zuric, translated it into \q\ 
the German language ; which the said bishop took notice of, 
and commended him for doing. And not his Apology 
alone, but all the rest of his labours in vindication of the 
reformed church, had been put into the learned language 
by himself probably, had he lived. For the said bishop had 
earnestly excited him so to do, for the public good, and for 
the exposing of the errors and superstitions superinduced 
upon the Christian religion. For so in one of his letters he 
relateth ; that though at first he refused upon his motion 
to set upon that work, yet afterwards he made no doubt, 
had he lived, he should (for the great interest he had with 
him) have persviaded him to have done it. But however, he 
resolved to put some one of his learned friends to undertake 
it. And at length William Whitaker, D. D. performed it 
well. 

There was a dear affection between the said bishop Park- Jewel's let- 
hurst and him, which began in the university; where Park- q^J^°^" 
hurst was his tutor as well as his friend. Some marks of Parkhurst, 
this intimacy appear in a letter (still extant) written by^jg§ p^] 
Jewel from Oxford to him, now shifting for himself in ob--'"!'- Ep. 
scure places, and deprived of his rich benefice of Cleves, 
soon after the access of queen Mary to the crown ; in these 
words ; ParJcIm?-ste mi, mi Parkkurste, quid ego te nunc 
putem agere ? Marine, an vivere ; in Jletione esse, an in 
Fleta ? &c. " My Parkhurst, mine own Parkhurst, what 
" may I think you now do .'' Are you dead or alive ? Are 
" you a weeping, or are you in the Fleet .'' [in which pri- 
" son many of the professors of religion were now commit- 
** ted.] Certainly such ever was the equity of your mind, 
" that you take all these afflictions (whatsoever they are) in 

" good part News with us there is none. We have 

l3 



150 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " old things enough, and too much ;" [meaning the old su- 
*• perstitions brought in again among them at Oxford.] And 
Anno 1571. then he prayed Parkhurst to write to him, what was be- 
come of Harley ; [late made bishop of Hereford ;] and in 
what condition his own affairs were, and what were his 
hopes, what his fears. 

And in another letter wrote a few days after to him, he 
hath these expressions : Quid ego nunc ad te, Parl<:hurste^ 
scribam, vel quid potius taceam ? &c. " What shall I now, 
" Parkhurst, write to you ? or rather, what shall I be silent 
" in ? It is now a great while that I have desired to hear 
" how you do, how you have done, and where you are. 
" And although Cleves [your living] be taken from you, 
" and all things be changed with you, I hope that mind of 
" 3' ours can neither be taken away from you nor changed." 
But I refer the reader to the letters themselves, exemplified 
Numb. XI. in the Appendix. 

Bishop The divines of the church of Ziuic in Switzerland had 

sends the a very great veneration for bishop Jewel ; who had some- 
news of his |.j^^g soiourned with them there. And therefore of his 

tiefitb to 

Zuric. death, his friend, bishop Parkhurst, sent the news to Rp- 
hS'm'eT dolphus Gualter, after this manner : " My Jewel, my trea- 
epis.Eiien. " sure, yea, the treasure of all England, died September 
102" 23." And so to Lavater, another learned man there: 
" Jewel, the learnedest of all the bishops in England, is 
" dead." He also writ, that Lawrence Humphrey, presi- 
dent of Magdalen college, Oxon, (whom they also knew 
well,) was commanded to write his life. And that he had ac- 
cordingly wrote two letters to him, the said Parkhurst, be- 
seeching him, (Jewel having been his scholar, and always 
most dear to him, to furnish him with what he knew con- 
cerning him. And that accordingly he had prepared and 
sent Dr. Humphrey several notices concerning him, utjusta 
persolvam (as he wrote) amicissimi Juelli. For indeed, 
as he added, he could relate more of bishop Jewel, than all 
Eng-land beside. 
A sermon J yy\\\ make a short mention here of another divine, and 
Wii.Kethe,an exile, as Jewel was, but by nation a Scot; namely, Wil- 

against pro- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 151 

liam Kethe. He was with Coverdale, Whittington, Gilby, CHAP, 
one of the chief exiles at Geneva, noted for his learning, " 



and one of those that were employed there in translating Anno 1571. 
the Bible into English: which Bible was thereupon com- '^^"'"^.'^^^ 

^ . ^ sablmth. 

monly called the Geneva Bible ; and who put some of the Lambith 
Psalms into metre ; viz. those noted with the two capital let- 1.^^' g° ,'g 
ters W. K. This year, or the last, was printed a sermon 
preached by him at the sessions holden at Blandford Eorum, 
in the county of Dorset : which he dedicated to Ambrose 
earl of Warwick. In this sermon he inveighed against such 
as profaned the sabbath. The earl he acknowledged his 
special good master and lord, and, under God and the 
queen, one of his chief protectors and defenders against 
such as would offer him injury. He was with that lord at 
Newhaven, (which the queen held against the French, anno 
1563,) to discharge the office of a minister and preacher 
there : which he also spake of in his said epistle : and was 
with him likewise the last year [viz. 1570] in the north 
parts, one of the preachers unto the queen's army there 
against the rebels ; saying also, that he practised there a 
kind of discipline, even upon those that by birth and pa- 
rentage were far above him : meaning, as it seems, the Ge- 
neva discipline, that he had learned at Geneva. This letter 
was dated from Childokford, the 29th of January, 1570. 

I add one notice more of this man. There be at the 
end of Goodman's book, entitled. How superior powers 
ought to be obeyed by their subjects, some verses of his to 
the reader, (for he was poetical,) on the subject of wicked 
princes; viz. 

Whose fury long fost'red by sufF'rance and awe. 
Have right rule subverted, and made will their law. 
Whose pride how to temper this truth will thee tell ; 
So as thou resist rnay'st, and yet not rebell, &c. 

It is worth observing the substance of a proclamation, set Loans re- 
forth by the queen, November 24, to keep up an assured jj^'^gj^ ^ *^ ^ 
credit with her subjects, that had lent her money. For as 
she sent privy seals for loans to them sometimes in her 

l4 



152 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK need, so she was most exact in the just and easy repayment 
of them again. The purport tlierefore of this proclamation 



Anno 1571. was, to declare, how she had caused knowledge to be given 
to the parties that lent her money the last summer, at what 
time the same should be certainly repaid to every of them, 
having respect to the time of their first payment made to 
103 the collectors. And now she notified by this proclamation, 
(meaning to observe the said determination,) that the pay- 
ment should be made in this sort: to everyperson, that 
should in respect of the time of their payment made, receive 
any sums of money in the month of November, should have 
the same freely and fully paid before the end of the present 
month of November. And whosoever should have payment 
according to the aforesaid signification in the next month of 
December, should have the same also freely and fully paid 
immediately after the 20th of the same month. And so con- 
sequently every person every month afterward. So punc- 
tual was the queen to keep up her credit with her people, 
whereby she obtained such a degree in their love, and 
readiness to serve her with their estates. 

In the same proclamation she took notice of some abuses 
heretofore in some of her ministers, who had charge to make 
payment of like sums lent to her majesty, conti-ary to her 
meaning : and that in some parts of her realm, some of her 
good subjects had been, by sinister dealings, induced to 
make payment of parcel of the money demanded by privy 
Abuses of seals : which sums had been returned, and not paid over to 
^TnLt'ersln her usc. And some also had been paid, or lent by way of 
the Joans, reward, to procure a forbearance to lend any to lier ma- 
jesty. These abuses, she declared, she meant to cause to be 
searched, tried, and punished. And for more surety, that 
none of her subjects, that had lent to her upon her privy 
seal any sum of money, should be delayed or misused in the 
payment, she gave commission to the lord keeper of her 
great seal, the carl of Leicester, the lord Burghley, and sir 
Walter Mildmay, knight, to direct the repayment thereof. 

So that whosoever should bring her majesty''s letters of 
her privy seal, with the subscription, or bill of the collector, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 153 

testifying the receipt of any money, demanded or con- cHAP. 
tained in the said privy seal, and shew the same to the lord ^'• 
keeper, &c. should have order immediately to receive the Anno 1571. 
whole sum due to him at Westminster, without paying any 
manner reward to any officer or person for the payment, or 
any manner colour for expedition therein. 

And if any such person were not able, or should not be 
disposed to come personally, by some letter of attorney, or 
other assignation, authorizing another party to receive the 
money, he should have present free and full payment, with- 
out delay or reward, in any sort or manner. For such was 
her majesty's intent, that her loving subjects should be 
thankfully and freely paid. Which also should have been to 
their proper hands in the countries, but for more delays 
and uncertainties, that thereof many ways might follow, to 
the hinderance of her subjects. 

Finally, her majesty most earnestly desired, that if any 
person had been misused, by pretence of demanding any 
money upon any such privy seal, to give any thing in re- 
ward, or lend any portion to be spared from lending to her 
majesty ; that the same persons would speedily notify the 
same, either to the sheriff of the shire, or to any such per- 
son as had charge in these last years to be lieutenants of the 
shires, or to, &c. whom her majesty chargeth to make cer- 
tificate to the said lord keeper. That upon the certainty 
thereof known, the parties should have full repayment 104 
thereof. Given at her manor of Greenwich, the 24th of No- 
vember, 1571, in the fourteenth year of her reign. 

Walsingham was still in France, the queen's active and Waising- 
most useful ambassador at that court: so faithful and dili- ^j^j^^ j^ 
eent, that he stuck at no pains or charge in her service. He France, his 

. . . . diligence. 

had intelligencers of all sorts : so that his news and infor- 
mations sent into England were large and important. One 
of these was an Irishman, named captain Thomas; who 
seemed to be his spy for Irish affairs. And another a Spa- 
niard. Of whom he gave secretaiy Cecil this character, 
(which was somewhat extraordinary for men in this kind of 
employment,) that he was " wise and religious, honest and pon^P- -Am- 



154 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " leanied." This gentleman he sent over from Paris to the 
_J secretary with news. He knew well the office of an ambassa- 



Anno 1571. dor : whicli made him use these words in one of his private 
letters, written this year to Cecil, (having writ something to 
him contrary to what the queen was doing ; and saying, that 
nothing could be more fit in his poo7' opinion, added ;) This 
I am bold to write as a private man, in a private letter, 
having no opinion, as an ambassador, [i. e. no opinion of 
his own,] but according to the will of his prince. But in 
this public service he ran himself much in debt ; and had 
done injury to his own patrimony. Of this with no little 
concern he acquainted the earl of Leicester and sir Walter 
Mildmay, his friends ; and likewise the secretary ; shewing 
His need, him more particularly his case ; viz. " That her maiestv"'s 
by his great " allowance did not by 10/. in a week defray his ordinary 
expenses, a charges of household. And yet neither his diet was like 
" to any of his predecessors, nor yet the number of his ser- 
" vants so many as they had heretofore kept. And that of 
" 800/. that he brought in his purse into that country, he 
" had not left in money and provision much above 300/. 
" Far contrary to that account he made: who thought to 
" have had 500/. always aforehand, to have made his pro- 
" visions. So that, as he concluded, unless there were, by 
" his lordship's good means, some consideration had of him, 
" he could not but sink under the burden." And in an- 
other he repeats the same complaint ; desiring that he might 
have some consideration from the queen, that he might with 
the better courage employ himself in her service. And that 
he craved no recompence, only required to return home in 
no worse state than he went forth. The secretary ac- 
quainted the queen with this condition and suit of his. And 
she well knowing his merits, meant to do somewhat for his 
relief. 
Earl of Rut- The uoblc earl of Rutland, Edward Manners, in the 

land goes to i <? t hi- t-i 

France. month of January travelled into France. Whom the said 

secretary desired our said ambassador to present as soon as 

His noble he might to the French king. And that in expressing of 

ineage. j^^^ lineage, he might boldly affirm him to be akin to the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 155 

queen''s majesty, both by king Henry VIII. her father, and cHAP. 
also by the queen's mother. And that he was of the blood ^^- 
royal in the same degree that the earl of Huntingdon was; Anno 1571. 
the difference being only, that the lord Huntingdon was of 
a brother of king Edward IV. and the lord Rutland of a 
sister of the same king, [viz. Anne duchess of Exeter, and 
so bears on a chief quarterly two flowers de luce of France, 
and a lion of England.] And thereby was indeed as near 105 
in blood, though further in danger of fortune's wheel, (as 
the said secretary writ,) which was busy with carriage of 
kings' crowns to and fro. This lord, besides his own quality, 
had many good parts to recommend him. 

Great matters being now in hand with France, in the be- Smith goes 
ginning of the month of December sir Tho. Smith was ap- t^France!"^ 
pointed to go into France, in quality of the queen's ambas- 
sador ; but went not before February following, in order to 
the making of a firm treaty, off'ensive and defensive, between 
that king and her majesty : and to speak with the king se- 
cretly concerning the marriage between the queen and the 
duke. The instructions are preserved in the Complete Am- comp. Am- 
bassador. Secretary Cecil (by this time created lord of^^*-P''^^- 
Burghley) writ hereof to Walsingham, and gave this cha- 
racter of Smith ; that he was one whom they thought of such His charac- 
dexterity in his actions, and of such dutiful good-will hi- ^^' 
therto, as no advice or direction should be given by him to 
the prejudice of her majesty and her state. The particular 
transactions of Smith and Walsingham with the French king 
in this embassy have been shewn before. C^*P' ^'• 

The Christians in the Levant had the latter end of this Thanksgiv- 
year given a notable defeat to the Turks, and destroyed e^^^r vTc- " 
abundance of their ships. Of this the duke of Alva gave tory over 
the queen intelligence : which being of such public concern 
to Christendom, she ordered public acknowledgments to be 
made thereof to Almighty God, in the churches of her me- 
tropolitan city, and all tokens of joy. Whereby she might 
also, taking this occasion, wipe oft' those slanderous popish 
aspersions cast upon her, as though she held friendship and 
correspondence with the infidels. A letter to that end was 



156 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK despatched from the privy council to the bishop of London 
in the month of November, to cause common prayers, 



Anno 1571. praises, and thanksgiving, to be solemnly used, for a \ic- 
tory gotten against the Turks ; and notice to be taken of it 
in the Paul's Cross sermon. The minutes whereof were as 
follow : 

Tiie queen's « After our hearty commendation to your good lordship. 

couiniand _ •' ... •'• 

totiiebi- " The queen's majesty, having intelligence given her from 
London for " ^^^^ duke of Alva, of a great victory lately given by God's 
that j.ur- " goodness to the Christian army, serving in the Levant 

pose. . ___ . 

MSS. Wbit-" seas, against the Turk, to the destruction and ruin of many 
gift. a Qf their galleys, and great numbers of their people ; and 

*' being thankful and joyful therefore, as for a singular 
" great blessing sent by Almighty God, to tlie benefit of 
" the universal state of Christendom, hath thought it neces 
*• sary, as well by common prayers, as otherwise, to have <• 
*' public demonstration within her highness's household, ot 
*' the comfort that her majesty conceiveth of so general a 
" good turn. And having commanded to the lord mayor 
" of London a like joyful signification, to be expressed 
" throughout the city by common bonfires, and other to- 
^* kens of joy and thanksgiving to Almighty God to-morrow 
*' at night, being Friday ; her majesty hath likewise thought 
" convenient, and so her pleasure is, that we should signify 
*' unto you, that you give order, not only within your ca- 
" thedral church, but also throughout all the other churches 
lOO « throughout the city, and near abouts, that the people may 
" be solemnly assembled at some common pra^^er of praise 
" and thanksffiving; at some convenient time to-morrow in 
" the forenoon. And for that so great and beneficial favour 
*' of Almighty God ought to be deeply impressed in the 
" hearts of the people, to provoke their thankfulness the 
" more, to the continuance of God's great goodness towards 
" us, and the state of Christendom, it shall be very neces- 
" sary that he, who shall preach at the Cross on Sunday 
** next, be prepared to say something on this behalf. And 
*' the same also being no less than her majesty's plea- 
" sure, that we should signify unto you, we doubt not 



UNDRR QUEEN ELIZABETH. 157 

but your lordship will be careful that every part thereof CHAP. 
shall be effectually performed, according to her majesty*'s ^^' 



"godly intention. And so we bid your lordship right Anno 1 671. 
" heartily farewell. From Greenwich, the 8th day of No- 
" vember, 1571." 

And these also were minutes (corrected and enlarged by 
the pen of secretary Cecil) of the counciFs letter, by the 
queen"'s command, as above said, to the lord mayor of Lon- 
don, for the giving all public demonstrations of joy at this 
good success, by making bonfires, and the like, viz. 

" That the queen's majesty being lately advertised of a The council 
" most happy and glorious victory given by God's goodness *° ^^'^ I*""** 
" to the Christian army, in a conflict by sea against our bonfires. 
" common enemy, the Turk, to the destruction of a great ^j^^ 
" number, both of their galleys and armies, in the sea, to 
" the benefit and comfort of all Christendom; like as the 
*' same is to be acknowledged to have proceede4 of God 
" Almighty's power and omnipotent hand, who is therefore 
" to be thanked, praised, and magnified accordingly ; so 
" her highness, to make demonstration of her own house- 
" hold, how joyfully her majesty received the news of so 
" general a benefit, hath commanded, that order be given, 
" that to-morrow at night, being Friday, there may be a ge- 
" neral signification of like to be given throughovit her city 
" of London by such solemn manner of bonfires in every 
" ward ; and such other joy and thankfulness to God, as 
" hath been in such cases accustomed upon a victory, or any 
" other benefit received. 

" And for that purpose we require you earnestly, in her 
" majesty's name, that you do forthwith appoint, that the 
" same may be performed accordingly throughout the city 
" and suburbs of the same. And that also you give pre- 
" sently notice to all franchises, and places exempted, within 
" or near the city, that the like order may be used there at 
" the same time, as is in your jurisdiction. And that while 
" the same fires are, there may be a good watch to continue 
" the greater part of the same night used." 



158 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK CHAP. XII. 

' Campion^ the Jesuit^ persuades the bishop of Gloucester to 

Anno 1571. renounce Ms religion. Many now leave off coming to 

107 church. Of this sort xoere some gentlemen in Norwich 

diocese. The bishop's letters thereupon, moved by orders 

Jrom the privy council. The said bis1iop''s sermon for 

satisfaction of puritans. Their exceptions to it in divers 

articles. A case of matrimony. The earl of Sussex to 

the bishop of Norzvich, about buying and selling an ad- 

vowson. The Dutch church in Norwich. 

Campion J- O Complete my relation of affairs falling out this year, 
th"^b^ r especially with reference to religion, I shall first make a re- 
ofGiou- mark upon Edmund Campion, the Jesuit; who wrote a 
return to "^^ry earnest letter this year in the beginning of November, 
the Roman to Cheny, bishop of Gloucester, to return to the Roman 
church ; superscribed, Ornatissimo viro Ricardo Cheneo 
episcopo Glocestriensi, Edmundus Campion., S. P. D. (not 
Printed at as it is now abusively printed in his Opuscida, pseudoepi- 
' scopo Glocestriensi.) That bishop had entertained and been 
kind to Campion when he was an Oxford scholar, and after- 
wards at Gloucester. And upon the occasion of that cloud 
Life of the bishop now lay under, viz. that of excommunication, (as 
plrke^^"^ may be seen elsewhere,) the Jesuit, (being now turned a 
B. iv. ch. 5. zealot for popery,) presuming upon his old acquaintance with 
the bishop, directed his epistle to him. And to make him 
the more disaffected to the reformed church, whereof he was 
at present cut off from being a member, he put him in mind 
of a former accusation of him, brought by certain learned 
men of Oxford, viz. Cooper, Humphrey, and Sampson : 
who had sometime charged him with false doctrines, and 
His argil- made complaints of him on that account. Against whom he 
the"bishop Still justified himself by appealing to antiquity, and the an- 
cient fathers and councils. In this epistle he took the ad- 
vantage of the bishop's years and constitution of body, be- 
ing aged threescore years and upwards, and but weakly. 
He also took the advantage of the state in which he stood at 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 159 

that present, being neither esteemed by the reformed nor CHAP, 
the catholics ; calling him, hareticorum odiurn^ cathoUco- ' 



rum pudor, vulg-i Jhbula, tuorum luctus, inimicorum Zwtii- Anno 1571. 
hrium; i.e. the hatred of heretics, the shame of catholics, 
the talk of the people, the grief of his friends, and the sport 
of his enemies. He urged moreover to him his own judg- 
ment, that he was an enemy to Calvin and Zuinglius; that 
he did not approve of this pestilent sect, [as he styled the 
reformation,] and yet by holding his peace, he did in effect 
recommend it. 

Further, he reminded him how he used to advise with 
him, when he was young, being with him privately in his 
study at Gloucester, that he should go plainly and uprightly 
as it were in the beaten road, and follow the steps of the 108 
church, of councils, and fathers. And that he should be- 
lieve there could be no spot of falsehood laid to the charge of 
these. He remembered him, how being to dine with Mr. 
Tho. Button, at Shirburn, about three years past, and meet- 
ing with a Cyprian, he [Campion] took occasion to object to 
the bishop the synod of Carthage, which erred about the 
baptism of heretics : and that therefore it seemed, that coun- 
cils were not ahvays to be relied on. Which he said on pur- 
pose to get out the bishop's answer : which was, that the 
Holy Ghost was not promised to one single province, but 
to the church, [meaning, the oecumenical councils were only Councils, 
to be regai'ded, and that they only could not err.] And 
that the universal church was represented in a full council ; 
and that it could not be shewed how such a general council 
was ever deceived in any doctrine. And that it was upon 
this ground that he believed the real, corporeal presence in 
the sacrament, and the freedom of the will. And finally, he 
urged to the bishop his opinion, that the ancient bishops 
were to be the interpreters to us of the scriptures: those 
who were custodes depositi, i. e. those that were the keepers 
of the ancient faith. 

He took this handle to make a ereat flourish with the Council of 
most famous fathers (as he styled them) and patriarchs, and ed by Cam!' 
apostolical men of the late council of Trent, who strove P'""- 



160 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK together for the faith of the ancient fathers. There were 
I 
_______ legates, prelates, cardinals, bishops, ambassadors, doctors of 

Anno 1571. most nations, all men of great age and singular wisdom, 
princes for dignity, for learning admired ; gathered together 
from all countries, Italians, French, Spaniards, Portuguese, 
Greeks, Poles, Hungarians, Flemings, Illyrians ; many from 
Germany, some from Ireland, Croatia, Moravia, and one 
from England. 

His threat- And being so near to the catholic truth. Campion thought 
to have persuaded him by this and the foregoing plausible 
arguments to have fallen quite off from the reformed church 
of England. And then, lest all that he had said before 
might not serve to reclaim him, he proceeded to threaten- 
ings : that he had now one foot in the grave ; and perhaps 
presently might be hurried away by death, be set before the 
dreadful tribunal, to hear that word. Give an account of thy 
stewardship. Then those hands of his, which had admitted 
so many miserable young men into spurious orders, should 
beat and pierce his sulphurous body with anguish : then 
that impure mouth of his, defiled with perjuries and schism, 
should be filled with fire and worms, and the spirit of whirl- 
winds : then that ambitious pomp of his flesh, his episcopal 
chair, his yearly revenues, his spacious house, his honour- 
able salutations, his retinue of servants, his plenty and 
abundance, (wherein the foolish common people reckoned 
him a happy man,) should all end in horrible weeping and 
gnashing of teeth, in stench and filth, and prisons : where 
the ghosts of Calvin and Zuinglius, with whom he then con- 
tended, should continually vex him, together with the rest 
of those heretics, Arius, Sabellius, Nestorius, Wickliff, and 
109 Luther; in a word, with the Devil and his angels of dark- 
ness. That there with them he should be tormented, and 
belch out blasphemies. 

But yet he could not but commend him, that he put out 
no Roman catliolics in his diocese, but was favourable to 
those of that persuasion ; that he kept good hospitality, en- 
tertained the citizens of Gloucester and other honest men ; 
and that lie did not, as some other bishops in his time, di- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 161 

minish and wrong his bishopric, his palace, nor his farms. CHAP. 
I have set down this matter the more largely, because both ______ 



the bishop and the Jesuit were of note about these times. Anno 1571. 

This is the sum of a Latin epistle written by Campion to 
that bishop ; printed at Ingolstadt ; with other letters and 
orations of the said Campion, published anno 1602, by Ro- 
bert Turner, a Jesuit, his scholar. 

And indeed by this instance, as well as by the defection ^^^"7 '^ave 

p 1 1 T 1 1 1 1 ■ 11 1 11- . , off coming 

irom the established church, since the late rebellion in the to church 
north, the diligence of the Roman missionaries appeared. *" *'^^,'l.'*'' 

' <^ ri ceseofNor- 

For many now were wholly departed from the communion wich. 
of the church, and came no more to hear divine service in 
their parish churclies, nor received the holy sacrament, ac- 
cording to the laws of the realm. This was especially taken 
notice of in the diocese of Norwich. Whereupon letters 
were directed from above to that bishop, shewing their dis- 
like thereof, and requiring him to make a reformation 
therein, by putting in execution those rigours as by his au- 
thority he might. The bishop had, before this came to his 
hands, endeavoured to set a stay to this disorder. And 
thereupon had wrote to his ten commissaries, who were his 
eyes (as he said) in his bishopric, to view and take notice of 
the behaviour of such in his diocese, and to inform the bi- 
shop of them that did amiss. But ever since the rebellion 
they gave him no answer. Whereupon, and vipon the re- 
ceiving of this order from the court, he despatched his let- 
ters to all his said commissaries ; which ran to this tenor : 

" After our hearty commendations. I have received The bishop 
" letters from them in authority ; wherein it is much mis- \^ his'^^om- 
*' liked, that in this diocese there are divers, which neither missaries. 
" come to their parish church to hear divine service, or to nuper episc. 
" receive the communion, as by the laws of God and the ^''^"• 
" realm they are straitly bounden. The fault whereof 
" resteth in you, as the eye of the bishop within your cir- 
" cuit ; unto whom I have written ere this, that I might 
" be certified who they were that did not perform their duty 
" in that behalf. But thereof was I not answered, since the 
" rebellion in the north. These are to require and charge 

VOL. ir. M 



162 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " you, tliat you use all lawful means to understand of such 

' " persons so disobedient within your circuit. And the same 

Anno 1571. '< to Call before you ; and either to reform them, or to use 

" such punishment towards them, as in law and right is due 

" to their offence, without respect of persons. And if any 

" shall shew himself more wilful, or obstinately disposed, 

" than that you can by your autliority reform them, 1 would 

" you should advertise me thereof, that I may take order, 

110" as shall appertain. Herein requiring you to use all dili- 

" gence and fidelity, I leave you to God. At Ludham, this 

" 27th of December. 

" Joh. Norwich." 

Townsend There followed now a diligent search for papists through- 

and Hare, i i • i i i -n i 

in the said out the kmgdom : and many were taken up. Jbor the na- 
diocese, pa- ^.j^j^ ^y^^ awakened not only by the insurrection in the north, 

pists. . 

but also more lately by the practices of the Scottish queen 
and her friends. In the diocese of Norwich there were two 
persons of eminence taken notice of, viz. Mr. Townsend and 
Mr. Hare. The former with his wife had before come to 
church, and -partook of the prayers and sacrament ; but 
more lately absented, and forbore both. But upon admo- 
nition he did again resort to the church ; but his lady would 
not. This caused the bishop to write this careful letter to 
him : 
The bishop " After my hearty commendations. I have been often 

f TV */ » 

wich's'^^et- " advertised, that you, and my lady your wife, do absent 
ter to Mr. " yourselves from church, and hearing divine service, and 

Townsend. *, .. „, ^ , . imii 

Epist.Joh. the receivmg or the sacrament. 1 nave hoped still that 
ep.Norw. a ^^y favourable forbearing, together with your duties in 
" this behalf, would have moved you to have conformed 
" yourselves. And yet I hear, and thank God for it, that for 
" your own part you come on very well, and shall by God's 
" grace increase daily. But touching my lady, I hear she 
" is wilfully bent, and little hope as yet of her reformation, 
" to the displeasure of Almighty God, the breach of the 
*' queen's majesty's laws, my danger and peril to suffer so 
" long, and an evil example and encouragement to many 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 163 

*' others. And because I am sharply called upon by some CHAP. 
*' in authority to see speedy reformation of such abuses, '__ 



" either else to certify such disobedience, that it may be re- Anno 1571. 

" formed elsewhere, I have thought good at this time by 

" my friendly letters to admonish you and your wife ; that 

" for her own part chiefly, she be more diligent from hence- 

" forth to come to the church, to hear the word of God, 

*' and receive the sacrament according to the right institu- 

" tion of the gospel of Christ, to her comfort ; as she hath 

" done beforetime, as I have heard, in the time of king 

" Edward, and since, in the days of queen Mary in popery 

" and blindness, where that sacrament was abused, and yet 

" the half thereof taken away from the people ; and where 

" prayers were made in a strange tongue ; neither edifying 

" to the hearer, nor to the utterer for the most part. 

" St. Austin saith, ' Set apart the understanding of the 
" mind, and no m.an hath fruit or profit of the thing he per- 
" ceiveth not." And again ; ' What profit is there in speech, 
" be it never so perfect, if the understanding of the hearers 
"cannot attain to it.?' St. John saith. This is the con- 
" de7nnatio7i of the world, that light is come into the world, 
" and men love darkness more than light. I could use 
" many authorities and ensamples ; but at this time I for- 
" bear to be tedious. The fault is great in a subject to 
" disobey the laws established, and to give example of dis- 
" obedience to others, in keeping a form in honouring God 
" to his dishonour, under a vain colour of zeal, but con- 
" trary to knowledge. 

*' My duty and place of calling, together with my con- 111 
" science to Godward, cannot suifer me to know such dis- 
" order, and to suiFer the same any longer. And therefore 
" I desire you both from henceforth to frequent the church, 
" and the receiving of the sacrament, as becometh Chris- 
" tians : so as I may be certified forthwith both of the one 
" and the other ; which I look for. Otherwise, this is most 
" assured, I will not fail to complain of you both to her ma- 
" jesty's council. Wherewith neither of you shall have just 
" cause to be offended, since you are so friendly admonished 

M 2 



1G4 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOO K " of your faults, and have so long a time to amend. And 
^' " thus I bid you heartily farewell. At Ludham, this 12th 
Anno 1571.-' of February, 1571. 

" To Mr. Torvnescnd of Braken Ashe.'''' 

SirTho. Sir Thomas Cornwallis, another backslider or recusant, 

comes to* "pon this method now on foot against them, complied. But 
ciiurch. ^Iy. Hare before-mentioned was more stubborn. Where- 
cited to*^^ upon he was cited in the month of February to appear be- 
appear. fore the bishop''s chancellor. But it being such an unsea- 
sonable time of the year for taking a journey, (or at least on 
that pretence,) endeavoured rather to come to the bishop. 
And so the said sir Tho. Cornwallis (who was his relation) 
signified to him, and entreated it as a favour from him. But 
the bishop thought convenient not to yield thereto : but ad- 
vised rather, that he should do as sir Thomas had done ; 
and then all further trouble would be at an end. Otherwise 
he was determined to certify up to the council his disobedi- 
ence, since he had himself been severely checked for his 
negligence in this behalf. These were the contents of his 
letter to the said Cornwallis ; which was to this purport : 
Tlie bishop " That touching his request for his kinsman, Mr. Hare, 
his advice ' " ^^ ^^^ Same was not altogether unreasonable, the weather 
concerning '< considered, so could he be persuaded for a week or twain 
joh.episc. " to defer his repair to Mr. Chancellor. That as for his 
nuperEhen. n coming before him, it was but so much the more travail, 
" and no whit the more favour to be found. For that since 
" he and such other, after so long a time to conform them- 
*' selves, [had refused,] why should any such, said he, look 
" for favour from henceforth .'' That his conscience toward 
" God, his duty to the queen"'s majesty, and the sharp re- 
" buking letters which he had received from men in autho- 
" rity, all these bound him to be more diligent herein. 

" And that therefore he might be advertised, that Mr. 
" Hare and all others did frequent the church and com- 
" mon prayers, with the receiving of the sacrament, as they 
" were most dutifully bounden, then might such spare to 
" take any journey to him. Otherwise, that they must be 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 165 

« contented to feel of justice, without all further favour or CHAP. 
" forbearing. And surely,'' added he, " this is the conclu-. 



sion, that he would not fail to complain of all such disobe- An°o i^i. 
" dient ones unto the queen's most honourable council, and 
« that without further deferring of time. And that it was 
" high time, or rather more than time ; the examples of 
« the late rebellion and traitorous conspiracies of papistry, 
" even against her majesty's most royal person, were most 
« apparent witnesses. Subjoining, that his [sir Tho. Corn- 1 12 
« wallis's] kinsman should do better to follow his good ex- 
" ample, in resorting to the church, hearing of sermons, and 
" otherwise conforming himself. So should he procure to 
" himself the favour of God, and all that be godly, and 
« avoid the danger provided for all that be so wilfully ob- 
" stinate. And so he heartily left him to the keeping of 
« the Almighty. At Ludham, the 25th of February, 1571. 
" Subscribing, 

" Your assured loving friend, 

" Joh. Norwich." 

From the papists let us turn to the other party disaffected Offence ^ 
to the church of England, and the practice and worship used puritans 
in it. About this time, or thereabout, Parkhurst, the said Jgl^J^j;"^ 
bishop of Norwich, had preached a sermon ; (whether at his Norwich's 
cathedral, or at St. Edmund's Bury, or elsewhere in his dio-'"""'""" 
cese, is to me uncertain ;) wherein he endeavoured to satisfy 
and bring over to conformity to the church established those 
of the discipline. But instead of having that good effect, 
many of that party that heard him were offended ; and 
taking exceptions at divers passages in that sermon, digested 
then- scruples and objections under certain heads and ai'ti- in s^everai 
cles, and sent them unto him by way of letter. One was, j^j^^s;. joh. 
that he having quoted a passage out of the prophecy of Je- nuper episc. 
remiah, (viz. What is the chaff to the wheat ? saith the Lord, 
Sex. xxiii. 28.) persuaded them to be content with the chaff, 
as long as they had the wheat with it. And that seeing they 
had the wheat, they should not strive about the chaff. And 
that those that were not content therewith, were wanton and 

M 3 



166 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

t 

BOOK full, and had not the Spirit of God. That it was therefore 
' the obligation of the people to submit peaceably to them ; 
Auno 1571. and added examples of Paul, circumcising Timothy, and of 
shaving his head. 

Another passage they excepted against was, that alleging 
several places of scripture foi* his purpose, to shew, as it 
seems, the indifFerency of the things prescribed, he had said, 
he came not to defend those things, neither would he deceive 
one child of God for all the good in the world. But they 
took hold of this, and charged him with great deceit, in 
alleging scriptures and examples, which seemed to make for 
him, and to omit such as were dii'ectly against him. Again, 
that whereas he said in his sermon, that some had been 
offended, because in giving orders he used to say. Receive 
the Holy GJwst : whose sins ye Jbrgive, &c. he proved it by 
the words used in baptism, and by the words which our Sa- 
viour spake to his disciples concerning absolution ; that the 
minister might say in baptism, / baptize thee in the name of 
the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Therefore they [the bi- 
shops] might say in giving orders, Receive the Holy Ghost: 
and perceiving a man to be truly penitent for his sins, the 
minister may certify him, that his iniquities are before the 
face of God in Jesus Christ forgiven him. Therefore bi- 
shops, in ordering ministers, may say, Whose sins ye remit, 
they are remitted. Which they said were slender proofs. 
1 13 Again, he wished, that if he were the cause of this rent in 
the church, he might with Jonas be cast into the sea. But 
they, in their animadversions, wished not so, but wished that 
God would stir him up from his slackness in doing his duty, 
as he did Jonas ; and that he would move him and the rest 
of the bishops from their offensive states, pompous livings, 
and lordly titles. 

Again, they carped at that passage of the bishop, where 
from 1 Cor. iii. / am of Paul, and I am of Apollos, Sec. 
he made it applicable to such who refused to follow the pre- 
scriptions of the church. They said, St. Paul there only 
blamed those that preferred 'one with the dispraise of an- 
other ; they all teaching one sincere truth, without any 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 167 

Pharisaical mixture: and not fitly applied to them, who CHAP, 
would not follow those that coupled their own devices and 



Antichristian remnants with the gospel of Christ. Another Anno 1571. 
expression excepted against by them was, that the bishop 
had said, As meat wasjhr the belli/, and the hellyfor meats, 
yet God would destroy both ; even so (as he went on) the 
back was for apparel, and apparel for the back, but God 
would destroy both. But they said, apparel was for warm- 
ness, and not for pride and superfluity ; as woollen upon 
linen, and linen upon woollen, and silk upon silk, &c. The 
bishop had said, that meat commendeth us 7wt to God: and 
that if we eat, we were not the zoorse ; nor if we eat not, were 
we the better. And this the bishop also applied to apparel. 
But they replied, that excess or pride in apparel, or delight 
to wear strange apparel, as was the habit of Antichrist, men 
did wear the same to the hurt of their brother, and so offend 
the weak, grieve the strong, encourage the obstinate, con- 
firm the hypocrite, and by defending the same, make glad 
the heart of God''s enemies, &c. And then further, they 
added, apparel so used made a man worse. 

And whereas he had said. What is white ? What is black ? 
What is square ? What is round ? They said to this, that 
if he had but a spark of that love that St. Paul had, he 
would have said with him, he would never wear white, black, 
round, nor square, as long as the world stood, that he might 
not offend his brother. He said, these were trifles, and of 
small importance. They asked him then, what should move 
him to maintain them so stoutly. Neither ought he, if they 
were of no more moment, to have deprived so many from 
their livings, thrust them into prisons, and stopped the 
mouths of so many learned and godly preachers, as he had 
done. And whereas, lastly, he had said, that white, black, 
round, square, were all but the good creatures of God ; they 
said, that these, as they then wore them, were not God's 
creatures, as he created them, but as Antichrist had formed 
them. From thence they received both fashion and form ; 
and so the creatures of Antichrist. But I refer the reader 
to the Appendix, for the whole entire answer. Whether the N". Xll. 

M 4 



168 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
I. 



Anno 1571 



A case of 
matrimony 
brought be- 
fore the bi- 
shop of 
Norwich. 

114 



The bishop 
writes to 
certain ci- 
vilians for 
their judg- 
ment. MSS. 
Joh. nuper 
ep. Elien. 



bishop thought fit to make reply to all this, I cannot tell. 
Perhaps he thought it needed not. 

I shall here subjoin two or three other things relating to 
this bishop, and this diocese of Norwich. 

A notable case of matrimony happened this year. One 
Mr. Minn had married a young gentlewoman, widow to Mr. 
Gray, a child scarcely twelve years old, and dying within a 
few days after his marriage with her. The question was, 
whether she should by right have a doAvry, as widow to the 
said Gray. This case was referred from the court of Com- 
mon Pleas at Westminster to the bishop of Norwich, in 
whose diocese the parties lived. He was earnestly solicited 
by Dr. Wylson, one of the masters of requests, and his 
great friend, to give it in favour of Minns. But he, resolv- 
ing to be swayed by truth and right only, sent to the Arches, 
to Dr. Gibbon, Dr. Dale, and Dr. Huick, three of the leam- 
edest civilians there, for their judgment in this matter ; 
writing to them March 4, to this tenor : 

" After my hearty commendations. These are to let 
you vmderstand, that I, being troubled with a matter of 
your skill, am desirous, and by reason of an old acquaint- 
ance, am bold therein to request your judgment. There 
was in my diocese a face of matrimony solemnized between 
a couple ; the man (being not fully twelve years of age, 
and departing this life within three or four days after) 
to the woman now claiming in common law a dowry, by 
reason of the said marriage. It is replied, that none is 
due ; quia nunquam Jiierunt leg^itimo matrimonio copu- 
lati. And her party affirming the contrary, hath pro- 
cured a writ, to me directed ; whereby I am willed to call 
such as are in this case to be called, to search the truth, 
and to certify, iitrum Icgitimo matrimonio sint copulati, 
necne. I am persuaded by some learned both in the com- 
mon and civil laws, that this writ, the nature whereof you 
know better than I, may be satisfied to the benefit of the 
woman ; and that certificate may be made according to 
the ecclesiastical laws, pai'tes prcedictas legitimo matri- 
monio copulatas fuissc. ]\Iy chancellor persuading me 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 169 

" otherwise. For that the matter is of some weight, and I CHAP. 
" am willing to pleasure the gentlewoman in this case, law 



"and conscience not offended. I earnestly pray you to Anno 1571. 
" write unto me your learned and conscionable opinion, 
" what I may or ought to do, for the satisfying of this writ, 
" and the laws spiritual in that behalf provided. For the 
" which I shall remain to you beholden." 

The answer the civilians gave to the bishop's letter was as 
follows : 

" After our humble commendations. It may please your Their an- 
" lordship to be advertised, that immediately upon the re-^^*^*^* 
" ceipt of your letters of the 4th of March, we have con- 
" ference together, how you might with safety of conscience 
" and estimation make your certificate in the case pro- 
" pounded. And to the intent we might deal the more 
*' substantially in the matter, we have gotten into our hands 
" a copy of the writ unto you directed ; where it doth ap- 
*' pear of certain faults and imperfections noted to be in 
" your former certificate. And considering the same to 
" stand in two points, upon the word circiter, and upon the 
" word procuraverimt, we think that your lordship may 
" well certify as you did before ; leaving out, for supplying 
*' of the said fault or imperfection, the word circiter^ making 
*' the age certain. And for procuraverunt, to say, inter ^^ 1 1 5 
" solemnizaverunt : and to declare the fact as it was in 
" truth; leaving the judgment upon this declaration of the 
" fact to the court : which we take to be most agreeable to 
" law, equity, and conscience. For it may be, (and so we 
" have been informed,) that the determination of the com- 
" mon law differeth in this special case from the law eccle- 
" siastical. 

" For by the law ecclesiastical there was not properly 
" matrimonium between the parties named in the writ ; yet 
" it hath been given us to understand, that by the common 
*' law, in allowance of dowry, it is otherwise. Therefore, 
*' to certify in form as aforesaid, it seemeth meetest: for 
" thereby no party shall be prejudiced. And the words of 
" the latter writ seems to direct thereunto. And thus being 



170 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " ever at your lordsliip's commandment, we wish to the 
' " same long hfe, with the increase of fehcity, to God's ho- 
Anno 1571. " nour. From London, the 18th of March, 1571. 

" John Gibbon. Valen. Dale. T. Huick." 

Then followed the form of the certificate to be sent from 
the bishop to the Common Pleas court: viz. Venerabilihus 
et egregiis viris, Jacobo Dyer^ militi, S,-c. comperimus, SfC. 
ex diet, testimoni'is, quod jjt-cediet. Tho. Gray, cetatis duo- 
decim annorum, et predict. Elizabethan aetatis sexdeeim^ ab 
omni contractu matrimoniali, sive sponsalitio liberi et im- 
munes, respective cxisten. nee idlo alio impedimcnto eccle- 
siastico subsisten. matrimonium per verba de presenti con- 
traxerunt. Ac illud in Jiacie ecclesicB apud Bacontlio?p. in 
comit. Norf. legitime inter se solempnizarunt. 
other civi- But this Certificate was objected against, as insufficient, 
bishop a- ^J ^^^^^ Other learned civilians, (who were engaged in the 
bout the cause,) because it was the bishoirs part to declare, not so 
much the matter of fact, as whether the matrimony were 
lawful or not : which they asserted was not, because one of 
those years could not legally give consent. And of this 
those civilians explained their opinion in another letter to 
the said bishop the month after: which take also as I found 
it among that bishop's papers, with this title ; 

A letter to the bishop of Norxcicli,J'rom Dr. Yale, Dr. Jones, 
Dr. Harvey, and Dr. Hammond, concerning the contro- 
versy between Mr. Nicolas My fine and Mr. Gray. 
Theirietter, " Our duties unto your lordship premised. Where our 
the mar-" " opinions are required in the case before you, between 

riage not a Mvnne and Gray, both touching the lawfulness or vali- 
lawful. v i- 1 • • 1, 

" dity or the marriage therein alleged, and also of the na- 

" ture and form used by the ordinai'ies, in certifying in the 

" like cases : wherein, God willing, without respect, we will 

" lay down that we think to be true, discharging thereby 

" our consciences towards God, our fidelity towards our 

" client, our credit towards the world, and our duty towards 

" your lordship ; of the marriage between Thomas Gray 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 171 

" and Elizabeth Drury ; the said Thomas being at the time CH AP. 

" of his marriage not past twelve years of age, and depart- ' 

" ing this world within six days after the same; we say, Anno 1571. 

" that we take the law to be plain in this point, that the 11 6 

" said marriage can no ways be called legitimum matrimo- 

" niujti ; because it had not legitimum consensum on the 

" behalf of the said Thomas Gray, being not of lawful age 

" to consent. Which legitimus consensus can never be 

" given but of him that is legitimcB cBtatis for marriage. 

" And your lordship knoweth, that (Bias legitima, in that 

" case, is in a man fourteen years complete, and not under. 

" And if the said Thomas Gray had hved until his lawful 

" ao-e, yet without some other special ratification, either by 

'•' express declaration of his consent, or some fact amplify- 

" ino- the same, the marriage could not have been accounted 

" lawful. 

" What certificate the ordinary should make in this case 
" to the queen's writ, thus for our skill and experience we 
" take it : that the ordinary must answer the writ and the 
" court, only to that which is commanded to do by the writ; 
" and not other matter, or other terms. For in this case 
" the ordinary hath only to answer to the law, and not the 
" fact. For the fact were triable by the country, and not 
*' by the ordinary. So that the ordinary must say, that tlie 
" marriage is legitimum or not legitimum. Other kind or 
" manner of certificate, in the hke case, we never learned, 
" nor never heard of. And if your lordship should make 
" other certificate, by declaration of any fact or circum- 
" stance, leaving to express the lawfulness or unlawfulness 
" of the marriage by direct words, the court may, at their 
" discretion, amerce your lordship from time to time, until 
" you have answered the writ directly by yea or no. 

" And forasmuch as a copy of a certificate sent unto your 
" lordship by learned counsel, as to be made by you in 
" this case, is shewed unto us by our client, we cannot in 
" conscience and duty but discover to your lordship certain 
" words, as we take them, not well nor plainly placed in 
*' the said certificate, but covertly, to make white black, and 



172 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " black white. As to say, nullum aliud Impedimentum ec~ 
' " clesiasticum subsistebaty when the said certificate declareth 



Anno 1571." the age of Thomas Gray to be not above twelve years, 
" which is impedimentum ecclesiasticum, utterly avoiding 
" the marriage ; and then colourably to knit it up at the 
" end with legitimum inter se solempnizarunt. Which words 
" are multiplices, and rather a sophism than a plain report 
" of a truth. For if legitimum referred to the matrimony, 
" then it was untrue ; if it be referred to the act of soleni- 
" nization, or to the ceremony, then it is impertinent, and 
" answereth not the writ, as we have afore said. 

" Thus, as we trust, we neither abuse our duty towards 
" your lordship, our client, nor ourselves ; as knoweth the 
" Almighty ; who ever preserve your lordship. From Lon- 
" don, the 13th of April, \B1% 

" Your lordship's to command, 

" Tho. Yale. Henry Harvey. 

" Henry Johns. John Hammond."" 

I do not find the proceedings consequent hereupon. 
117 This bishop shewed his care of his diocese in respect of a 
If No*'r«ich living, called Wetherden, in Suffolk, now vacant for near 
infornieth six months. The fault whereof he had learned lay in a 

concerning , , . , • i • i i " i 

asimoniacai^o''^"Pt patron; who kept It SO long m his hand, to make 

patron. the better bargain for himself with him who should get the 

presentation from him ; that is, who should bid most : he, 

and such like patrons, never considering the greatness of 

that trust reposed in them, viz. to provide an able, godly 

" person for the guidance of a whole parish committed to his 

charge ; nor regarding the people''s want of divine service, 

preaching, and administration of the sacraments, for some 

months together. Such a matter happened this year in the 

benefice aforesaid remaining void from Easter last to the 

latter end of October; the next advowson being granted 

from sir Nicolas Bacon, lord keeper, to Mr. John Bacon, 

his kinsman. The bishop upon this wrote to the said lord 

Epist. Joh. keeper, to this purport; shewing him, " How the people of 

ep. oruc. ^^ ^^^^^ parish Were destitute of service: and that he upon 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 173 

" whom the said benefice should be bestowed was like to CHAP. 

*' fall into the danger of perjury. [That is, be guilty of |j — 

" simony.] Of which he knew (as he writ to that lord) his Anao 1571. 
" honour had special care ; as might appear by such articles 
" as he had appointed to be ministered to such as entered 
" any cure.'' This was dated from Ludham, the 25th of 
October, 1571. This was the bishop's seasonable monition 
to prevent this abuse. 

Simony was too common in this diocese, occasioned ^^^^^l^^J^'^"^ 
by buying and selling advowsons. Near about this time ^1,^ ij,shop 
the bishop was concerned again about such a matter. Anof Nomich 
advowson of the earl of Sussex's patronage was passed toinganad. 
and fro, from one person to another. This the earl hearing -^vson. 
of, and it looking like buying and selling, thought it re- 
flected upon him. Which put him upon writing to the 
bishop, declaring his mislike thereof; and requiring him to 
deal and provide in that matter, as that neither earl nor 
bishop might be blotted with allomng of simony. 

To this the said bishop : " That although he did utterly Hh^endea- 
" disallow all such corruption, too commonly used in eccle-J^;^";^^^".^ 
"siastical matters, and did put in use for the avoiding His aas^ver. 
« thereof such provisions as he could devise, and more m- 
" deed than his predecessor had done ; yet having used 
" some conference herein with such as were doctors of the 
" civil laws, and other well learned, he understood, that the 
" old civil laws allowed not that buying and selling of ad- 
« vowsons. But that took no place in the laws of this 
" realm. By the which all controversies about the title of 
« right of patronage were ruled and decided, making pa^ 
" tronages merely temporal ; and by common use were 
" bought and sold. That it was not therefore in his juris- 
" diction, as he supposed, to examine every man's right 
" that presenteth to a benefice. But the presented per- 
" forms an oath, that he hath not procured his presentation 
" by any pact simoniacal, or other means unlawful. So as 
« his conveyance must be very cunning, and his conscience 
« large, (as the bishop added,) except simony touch him, if 
^ he have committed any." 



174 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK There was a church allowed in the city of Norwich for 
' strangers that fled thither for religion from the parts of 
Anno 1571. Flanders: which church was supplied with three ministers, 
118 named Anthonius, Theophilus, and Isbrandus. These, fall- 
Contest a- jj^p- jj^ tlicir sermons vipon particular doctrines controverted 

niong the '^ '■ ' 

ministers of among tliemsclves, preached so earnestly in answers and 
ci'iurch^n Confutations one of another, that the congregation was all 
Norwich, in confusion, and the peace of the church broken. Where- 
interposes. upon the bishop interposed, and enjoined them to forbear 
that manner of preaching one against another. But they 
would not obey ; looking upon it as an infringement of the 
privileges of their church, for any but the members thereof, 
with the ministers, to make any orders for them. So that 
at length the business was brought up to the commission 
ecclesiastical at Lambeth ; and the three ministers were all 
silenced, and others put into their rooms. And since they 
were excluded, there was great peace and concord in that 
church. This was some of the news that the said bishop 
wrote to Bullinger, at Zuric, concerning the affairs of reli- , 
Life of gion here. See more of this matter in the Life of Arch- 
Parker. B. bishop Parker. The said bishop related in his letter con- 
IV. ch. 7. cerning some members of the same church, that there were 
seventeen of them, November 1, expelled the city for drunk- 
enness. 



^ 



CHAP. XIIL 

The queen's progress this year. Treaty tc'ith France about 
tJie match renezced. Sylva, an Italian physician, in Lon- 
don. The lord Burghley''s troubles, by means of the Spa- 
nish ambassador. Who cliui-ges him before the council. 
Falls sick. Marries his daughter to the earl of Oxford. 
Whose behaviour creates great trotible to the lord Bu?gh- 
ley. An adulterer brought before the commission cccle- 
siastical in York. Does penance at Bury in Suffollc. 

JN OW let us turn to the court. We shall find the queen 
this summer in her progress into Essex. The gcsts whereof 
were as followeth : 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 175 

Aug. the 7. At Hatfield. Sept. At Hunsdon. CHAP. 

Sept. the 2. At Aiidley Inne. Sept. At Theobald's. ^'"• 



Sept. the 14 — 17. At Markhal. At S. James's. Anno 1571. 

Sept. the 18. At Lees. Oct. At Richmond. progr^Ts!"' 

Which last place finished her progress. Soon after her The queen 
return to this place, she was, October 19, taken suddenly *"'J'^^°'y 
sick at her stomach, and as suddenly relieved by a vomit. 
And from thenceforth, and so in December, continued in as 
good a state of health as she had been for many years ; as 
the letters from the court reported. 

There were now, in the beginning of October, endeavours Treaty a- 
used of bringing on again the match between the queen and match with 
monsieur, the French king's brother ; the wisest then in the France re- 

1 • • I 1 1 newed 

court concluding it the best (nay the only) course for the again. 
peace and safety of her majesty and her dominions, to enter 119 
into a strict amity with France : and some able man was 
thought most necessary now to go thither in quality of am- 
bassador for that purpose: and none M^as judged more suf- 
ficient than the lord Burghley. And he was the man no- LordBurgh- 
minated (October) for this great business of a treaty with „Yjpj ""^(, 
France. But he declined it all he covild possibly ; disabling declines it. 
himself, there being many impediments why he could not 
go thither ; but the principal was, as he modestly said, be- 
cause he was far unmeet to treat of any thing out of Eng- 
land, being, as he was known, only meet to speak as his 
mother taught him ; as he signified to Walsingham, still in 
France, but in very ill state of body, and retiring from that 
court for his cure. And so he procured that his brother-in- 
law, Henry Killigrew, should go in that quality, and supply 
Walsinghani's absence, while he was seeking remedy for his 
malady. 

For whom the said lord shewed his great concern, know- Syiva, an 
ing how useful a man Walsingham was. There was now in gj^j^n f^^ ^' 
London one Sylva, an Italian physician of great note, and London, 
thought to be more experimented in surgery than physic. 
The lord Grey of Wilton was his patient at this time ; who 
was afflicted with the like disease with Walsingham, that 
required chirurgical skill rather than medicinal ; and seemed 



176 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK to have been cured or eased this summer by Sylva^s indus- 
^- try and ability. The lord Burghley advised Walsingham 
Anno 1571. of this: and desired him to send him some note or descrip- 
tion of his distemper, and therewith the method there taken 
in curing him ; and then he would confer with Sylva, and 
advertise Walsingham of his opinion. 
The queen The queen was full of thought about the weighty affair 
upon°the "^^^ taking in hand with the French ; and deliberated whom 
friendsi.ip g^g might depend upon as her sincere friends there, by 
French ad- whose advicc and assistance she might proceed. And she 
mirai »" .i»er ^^j^^j^^gj j^. ^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^£ ^l^g religion there. This was the 

treaty with ^ ^ 

France. cause that she gave secret instructions to her ambassadors 
to confer first with the admiral Coligni, a pious and Avise 
man of the rehgion, and not to proceed without making him 
acquainted with their message. And that in case the ad- 
miral were not at the French court w^ien they came, they 
should appoint some trusty messenger, fully intrusted with 
all the proceedings already past in the matter, to be sent to 
him, and to impart the same to him, with demonstration of 
the queen's trust and affiance in him ; and to give her the 
best and friendliest advice : and to let him know upon what 
points they stuck, [which was the granting monsieur the ex- 
ercise of the mass.] And that if upon this they should per- 
ceive that he seemed to be earnest, and to allow of the mat- 
ter, and to have it go forward, that it should be told him, 
that it was the queen's desire that he should be at that court 
when sir Thomas Smith was there, that he might the bet- 
ter, from time to time, be privy to their dealings, and her 
determinations also. For that she did mean freely and frank- 
ly to impart all things to him that should concern her there- 
in ; not doubting but he would have regard to her majesty's 
honour, and especially to see that she were not abused or ill 
1 20 handled by sinister practices of some that were great ene- 
mies to this matter. She also opened this her mind to an- 
other nobleman of France, count Montgomery, a protestant, 
then at the English court. 

The queen's chief counsellor, the lord Burghley, was, 
about the month of December, in great danger of his life by 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 177 

some of the Spanish faction ; who had procured an Enghsh- CHAP, 
man to kill him, nay, and to kill the queen too. But the '__ 



horrible treachery was discovered, as hath been shewn be- Anno 1571. 
fore. Other ti'oubles of this prime minister from that fac- Troubles to 
tion were, that the Spanish ambassador, in the month of ^J^g^Jy^^g^ ^, 
December, as he had used himself very crookedly, perni- tiie Spanish 
ciously, and maliciously against the state, so openly against 
him ; and not forbearing, but in open council he directed 
his speech to him, and said, that he had been and was the 
cause of all the unkindness that had chanced between the 
king his master and the queen^'s majesty. Whereunto, as it 
became him for truth''s sake, [as that lord related the mat- 
ter himself in his letter to Walsingham,] he answered with 
more modest terms than he deserved, and referred himself 
to all the lords in council, to report of him, whether any 
thing had been said or done of him from the beginning of 
these broils, concerning him or his master, or the arrest, that 
had not been ordered and directed by her majesty in coun- 
cil. All which all the lords did then affirm. And the earl 
of Sussex, in the Italian tongue, did very plainly and very . 
earnestly confirm it. But yet that Spaniard's choler would 
not be so tempered : and so he was dismissed. And Mr. 
Knolls was appointed to attend on him at his house, [as 
though under some restraint ;] and so he departed the king- 
dom, being (as it seems) sent away. 

Of this matter, thus did Parkhurst, bishop of Norwich, That am- 
write to BuUinger, by way of news, about the middle of coSmtllded 
December. " A Spanish ambassador carried himself so pe-^^ depart 
" remptorily and indiscreetly, and was such a spv, instead 
" of ambassador, that he was commanded within three days 
" to depart the realm, upon pain to have his head cut off. 
" But whether this were true or no, he could not tell, as he 
" added. But true it was that he was gone." 

Besides these troubles from without, the lord Burghley Lord Burgh- 
was in the next month oppressed with several fits of a fever, feve^r^'^ "^ * 
But yet, such was his concern for the public, that he said, 
that fear occupied him more in the queen's cause, [that is, 
about her marriage with monsieur,] seeing God had suffered 

VOL. II. N 



178 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK her to lose so much thiie, than for the next fit. And yet (as 
.he added) that he liad more cause tlian beforctime. For 



Anno 1571. that it came of a great cold, and a rheum fallen into his 
lungs ; where it was lodged, and so remained without mov- 
ing. But in respect of other things, which I see and suffer, 
(said he, as anxiously careful for the public,) I weigh not 
with mine own carcass. 
LordBurgh- This lord, in the Christmas holydays, married his beloved 
his daii'^h- daughter, Anne Cecil, to Edward earl of Oxford ; to his 
ter to the present (but not future) joy, and made great feastings with 
ford. his friends. The queen honoured the marriage with her 

presence and great favour. She was a most virtuous lady, 
bred up at court, and instructed in good literature by one 
Lewin, afterwards a learned doctor of the civil law ; who, 
121 in a letter to the lord her father, speaks of her ingenii et 
naturcB hon'itas ; i. e. goodness of wit and nature, derived 
from Mm her father. She had been desired in marriage 
before this by sir Henry Sidney, for his only son, that most 
accomplished man, sir Philip Sidney ; and afterwards by 
the earl of Shrewsbury, for his son : which, for some reasons 
shewed before, was declined. The earl of Oxford was bred 
up in Burghley's family ; but proved an humourist, and un- 
kind, and a great embeciller of his estate. And not long 
after his marriage, absented himself from his wife, and went 
over to Calais, and so to Flanders, without leave or know- 
ledge of the queen. 
That earl But the quecu, displeased at his absence, and doubting 
broad \\-ith- whether his purpose was to join himself with her rebels, sent 
out leave, for him forthwith into England : to which he sent word he 
home. would obey. Upon which the queen was graciously in- 
clined towards him ; whose peace, by the lord Burghley's 
means, was the more easily and speedily made. For that 
she conceived that his obedience in his return had fully satis- 
fied the contempt of his departure : and the rather, through 
his honourable and dutiful carriage of himself in respect of 
those rebels and other undutiful subjects in that country. 
Which was an argument of his approved loyalty : as the 
lord Burghley himself related to a friend of his. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 179 

It is necessary here to vindicate the lord Burghley from CHAP, 
an imputation given out in some of our later historians con- ^^^^' 



cerning him; viz. that the reason of the extravagances of Anno 1571. 
this earl, and his squandering away of his patrimony, was a ^ surmised 
distaste taken against his father-in-law, for refusing, when it that earl's 
lay in his power, to save the life of his beloved and entire fa'iseiy atui- 
friend, the duke of Norfolk, condemned for dealings with h"ted to 
the Scottish queen. And this story is taken up in a book ley, " 
not long ago printed ; and from thence in the book called 
The Baronage of England. Whereas this is a surmise and Athen. Ox- 
imagination, borrowed from the papists ; as smelling of their -27. ^'' ' '' 
malice to blur the memory of that excellent wise statesman. 
They that know any thing of those matters, know that that 
lord did whatever he could to bring that duke into favour: 
and did it ; till again imprudently meddling in that affair, 
the treason being so apparent, he was condemned by his 
peers. And the queen would not pardon, since her own 
crown and life was in such hazard thereby. 

The earPs disobliging carriage, and his wild way of liv- Afflicted for 
ing, was a great affliction to the lord Burghley, his father- beha^vTour, 
in-law, who had deserved so very well of him. On which Smith's let- 
occasion, sir Thomas Smith, the secretary, his friend, in the upon. 
year 1576, wrote thus to him : " That he was sorry to hear 
" of the undutiful and unkind dealing of the earl of Oxford 
" towards his lordship, which he was sure must very much 
" grieve his honour, since he had such a love towards him 
" from his childhood, being brought up in his house. That 
" his lordship's benefits towards him, and great care for him, 
" deserved a far other recompence of duty and kindness." 
And he charged this evil upon his counsellors and per- 
suaders, whosoever they were. And concluded with this 
sound advice ; sed h(E sunt procellce domesticcB sola pritdentia 
susiinendcB. 

To which I will add, what the said lord Burghley, divers 122 
years afterwards, (the earl still followino; his old prodigal ^°','^^."''f.''- 

*' IT ro ley's vindi- 

courses, and discontented for want of places and preferment, cation of 
the fault whereof he laid upon his father-in-law,) told him, Ji'^'eari.*** 
in his own vindication, (when the earl, in a letter, had used 

n2 



180 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK these plain words to him, That he found himself but little 
strengthened in estate hy hini^ and nothing in friendship,) 



Anno 1571. that he took it very ill at his hand, being unjustly charged 
by hiin, as having (as he replied) often propounded ways to 
prefer him to services, though his motions took not place, 
but were hindered. And for this he appealed to the queen's 
counsellors to bear him witness. Though, as he added, he 
thought not fit to name the hinderers, or to offend him, in 
shewing the allegations to impeach his lordship of those pre- 
ferments. And then further, he avowed of his faith before 
God, that at all times, when occasion served, he had him in 
remembrance to be used in honourable service. And to 
clear himself from a report that one Wotton had made of 
him, as though he had used speeches in council to the earl's 
disgrace, he was so stirred at this, that he tells the earl that 
he affirmed, that he lied that so reported ; and that he was 
sorry that his lordship should put him in a balance of credit 
against him. 
Two living I meet this year with an exemplary piece of justice exe- 
]".j|j,"ijj'^^g. cuted by the ecclesiastical commissioners at York, upon a 
fore the wicked adulterer and adulteress : he, one Ambrose Stone, 
sioii eccie- of St. Edmund' s-Bury, in Suffolk, and she, the wife of one 
siasticai. Page, of Horniuger ; Grindal being then archbishop, and 
Dr. Hutton dean of the cathedral. It was plotted between 
these two sinners, that she should get leave to go away for 
some time from her husband, and to repair to her friends at 
London, or elsewhere, upon pretence to gather money among 
them, to answer a loss of lOZ. that her husband had sustained 
by some default of hers ; which it is likely she had embezzled 
or stolen ; and then, to pacify him, offered to go abroad to 
her friends, to beg of them to make it up. And that she 
might pass up and down where she pleased with the more 
liberty, it was so contrived, that she should get a certificate 
or testimonial under her husband's hand, of leave and con- 
sent to depart from him ; which ran to this tenor: 
By a deceit " All men shall know by these presents, that John Page, 
she gets her a ^f Horninger, in the county of Suffolk, yeoman, one of 

consent to " tlie qucen's majesty's servants, for divers and sundry 
depart. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 181 

"• causes especially me moving, have licensed one Katharine CHAP. 
" Page, my wife, to repair over to her friends in London, 



" or elsewhere, for so long a time as she shall think good, Anno 1571. 

" and to demand their gentle good wills for a certain loss of 

" 10/. which the said Katharine did negligently lose ; and 

" with her friends there to remain as long as she shall think 

" good. And for that no man shall hinder her in her jour- 

" ney and travail, I have caused this bill of testimonial to 

" be made ; and do all men to understand that she departed 

" with my good will ; and this bill of testimonial to be her 

" discharge : willing all justices, mayors, baihiFs, and con- 

" stables, that she may quietly pass. And also I have 

" given her in purse 40*. and a gelding, to travail withal. 

" In witness of this truth, I have caused this bill to be 123 

" made, August 27, in the 13th year of the reign of our so- 

" vereign lady the queen,'" &c. 

And so by this deceitful trick invented by Stone, Page The eom- 
allowed his wife to depart, and supphed her to bear her {f^'^'y^""^;^ 
charges. Then did these two wander about, even as far as f° ^^pp'j^5^ 
York. Where after some months they were taken up, and bishop. 
brought before the archbishop and the commission, and im- 
prisoned. And at length he gave bonc| to appear before his 
diocesan, the bishop of Norwich, there to bear due punish- 
ment to be inflicted on him for his crime, and obtained one 
in those parts to be his bail for appearance. 

The condition of which bond was, " That if the above 
*' bounden Ambrose Stone do present himself, and person- ' 
" ally appear, as well before the reverend father in God, 
" the bishop of Norwich, as also before two or three at least 
" of the justices of peace of the said county of Suffolk ; and 
" before them do confess and acknowledge his fault, in using 
" unlawful company with Katharine Page, the wife of John 
" Page ; submitting himself to their order and correction, 
«' and well and truly in every behalf perform, do, fulfil, and 
" keep such punishment and order, as they or any of them 
" shall enjoin or assign unto him ; if also he doth from hence- 
" forth utterly abstain from the company of the said Ka- 

N 3 



182 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " tharine, with whom he hath hved in adultery in all places, 
^- " wheresoever, except in church and market, and other open 
Anuo J57I." and used places, in the daytime, between sun and sun, 
" and that in the presence of other honest persons without 
" all suspicion : and if he do bring true certificate under 
*' the hands and seals of the bishop of Norwich, and two of 
" the justices of the peace aforesaid, to the city of York, 
" the 3d day of March next coming, of his appearance be- 
" fore the said bishop and justices, and of their full pro- 
" ceedings or orders taken with him ; and that day exhibit 
" the same certificate to the most reverend father in God, 
" Edmond, by the permission of God, archbishop of York, 
" primate of England, and metropolitan, and other his asso- 
*' ciates, the queen's majesty ""s commissioners for causes ec- 
" clesiastical within the province of York, or three of them ; 
*' and also content, pay, or cause to be contented and paid 
" unto John INIudd, servant to Mr. John Eynns, esq. to the 
" use of the said John Page, the sum of SI. of lawful Eng- 
*' lish money, in full payment of 51. due to the said John 
" Page, on this side and before the feast of the Epiphany 
*' of our Lord next coming ; that then," &c. 

Cupta ct recognita coram venerab'ilibus viris, magist. 
Matt. Hiitton., D. D. dean of the cathedral church of 
YorJc, Tho. Eynns, and Tho. Bomtcm, esqrs. com- 
missw7ie7'S Jhr causes ecclesiastical, within the pro- 
vince of YorTi. 
He (Iocs Stone did accordingly deliver this writing to the bishop 

penance, ^f Norwich, November 28, 1571. And penance was ac- 
cordingly enjoined liim for his sin by the bishop''s com- 
missary, Mr. Brome : which was, to do his penance in Bury 
church, and also at Horninger. And also on the 10th of 
February following, he was adjudged by the said commis- 
sary to stand in the market the whole time of the market. 
1 24 I*' or some remission of this, INIr. Ambrose Jermyn, a gentle- 
man in those parts, and probably related to this Stone, 
bearing his name, a\ rote to the commissary, that since he 
had so gently used himself as he had done, his trust was. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 183 

that he would remit a great part of that penance for that ^^j^j^' 
clay. After all this, Page intended to have the good abear- 



1 . Anno 1571. 

ms against hini. 



CHAP. XIV. 

A new parliament. The lord Jceeper''s directions to them Aimoibi '2. 
from the queen ; particidarly relating to the doctrine and 
discipline of the church. Bills for rites and ceremonies 
brought in ; which gives the queen offence. Her message 
theretipon. Severely reflected tipon hy one of the mem- 
bers, VIZ. Peter Wentzvorth : for which he is sequestered. 
The parliament earnest upon a bill against the Scottish 
queen. Dashed by the queen. Dul-e of Norfolk : his 
virtues : his fall. The practices of the Scottish queen. 
The parliament's proceedings against her. The queerts 
directions to them in that matter. 

A NEW parhament the next year (viz. 1572, 13 Ellz. A pariia- 
May the 8th) began. And herein the lord keeper made a "*;" j;^^ 
long speech by the queen's commandment, directing the keeper's^ 
houses with affairs to enter upon. And they were of two the houses, 
sorts, viz. matters of religion and matters of policy. Under 
the matters of religion (which he called GocVs cause) he re- 
commended to them both doctrme and discipline. Under the 
head of doctrine, he directed them to have an inspection on concerning 
the ministry ; namely, for the providing that the ministers 
of God's law and doctrine should preach and teach, as 
purely and reverently, so with diligence and application; 
and that all officers, having spiritual as well as temporal 
government, should be preserved in credit and estimation : 
because many of the laity did not give that esteem and 
countenance unto the ministers of God's doctrine, as they 
ought of right to have. And further, that in respect of the 
want of ministers at that time, and the insufficiency of many 
of them, he exhorted that bishops should do in this scarcity 
of fit men what could possibly be done in that behalf; and 

N 4 



184 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK that with what diligence and speed and care they could. 
^' And further, that ministers that shewed any strange doc- 



Anno i572.trines contrary, or varying from that which by common 
consent of the realm was published, be sharply and speedily 
reformed. Thus much said the lord keeper for doctrine. 
But not a word, suggested to the parliament, to examine 
and look into or determine any particular matters of faith 
and the doctrines of religion. 
125 Then he proceeded to dtsctpline, directing them to take 
^^^^^^^ care of that ; namely, that where laws were imperfect for 
bout dis- the countenance of religion, and sundry ordinances made for 
cip ine. ^1^^^ purpose were disused, or otherwise had not their force, 
or where the laws remained, but for their softness few made 
account of, that the parliament would consider well for the 
regulation of both. And like^vise in regard of the sloth- 
fulness and corruption, or fearfulness of ecclesiastical mi- 
nisters and officers, in the due execution of those laws that 
were good, to provide for the due execution of them : that 
so men might not live dissolutely and licentiously, as they 
listed. Another point of discipline to be regulated by the 
parliament was, the better keeping and better esteeming of 
the laudable rites and ceremonies of the church, or pertain- 
ing to the ministers of the same, agreed upon by common 
consent; the very ornaments of our religion, as the said 
lord keeper called them : mentioning also under this head 
the great neglect in the country, universally, of coming to 
common prayer and divine service. 

Now for the remedying of this, besides the good examples 
of the chief personages both in town and country, he parti- 
cularly left it to the bishops, that they should divide their 
dioceses into deaneries, [meaning, I suppose, those called 
rural deaneries,^ and committing these deaneries to men 
well chosen, and the keeping of certain ordinary courts at 
prescript times, for the well executing the said laws of dis- 
cipline. 

And because the proceeding in matters of discipline and 
doctrine chiefly concerned the lords the bishops, both for 
their understanding and ecclesiastical function ; therefore he 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 185 

added, that the queen looked, that they, being called toge- CHAP. 
ther in parliament, should take the chief care to confer and ^^^- 
consult of these matters. And that if in their conference Anno 1 672. 
they found it behooveful to have any temporal acts made for 
the amending or reforming of any of these lacks, then they 
should exhibit them in parliament to be considered upon. 
And so gladius gladium Juvabit, as beforetime had been 
used. 

May the 19th, a bill for rites and ceremonies was read Bill for rites 
the second time, and on the next day read the third time, nks.'^^'^^™"' 
and referred (with another of the same nature) to be con-^'Ewes* 
sidered by Mr. Treasurer, sir Tho, Scot, Mr. Attorney of p. 207. ' 
the Duchy, and others, saith the Journal. [Mr. Peter 
Wentworth, I think, one of them, of whom more by and 
by.] This seemed to be a bill for calling into examination 
such rites and ceremonies as were established in this church, 
and used in the public service of God. This bill gave such 
offence to the queen, that two days after, [viz. May 22,] the The queen's 
speaker declared from her majesty unto the house, that her theTousr 
pleasure was, that from henceforth no bills concerning reli- hereupon, 
gion should be preferred or received into the house, unless 
the same should be first considered and liked by the clergy, 
[i. e. in convocation.] And further, that it was her ma- 
jesty''s pleasure to see the two last bills read in the house^ 
touching rites and ceremonies. Whereupon it was ordered 
by the house, that the same bills should be delivered unto 
her by all the privy council that were in the house, viz. Mr. 
Heneage, Dr. Wylson, &c. or by any four of them. 

The next day, being May the 23d, Mr. Treasurer re- 126 
ported to the house the delivery of the said two bills to her Reported, 
majesty ; together with the humble request of that house, 
most humbly to beseech her highness not to conceive ill opi- 
nion of that house, if it so happened that her majesty should 
not like well of those bills, or of the parties that preferred 
them. He reported further, that her majesty seemed ut- 
terly to dislike of the first bill, and of him that brought the 
same into the house. And that her express will and pleasure 



186 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOO K was, that no preacher or minister should be impeached or 
• indicted, or otherwise molested or troubled, as the preamble 
Aiiaoi572.of the Said bill did purport; yet adding these comfortable 
words further, " that she, as the defender of the faith, would 
" aid and maintain all good protestants, to the discouraging 
" of all papists." 
Went- The next sessions, after divers prorogations, was on Wed- 

worth's uii- nesdav the 8th of February, 1575 ; begun 18 Eliz. (that I 
speech; he may bruig these matters together;) when I'eter Wentworth, 
IS s*|q"|^*- esq. one of the burgesses of Tregony, in Cornwall, for irre- 
house. verent and undutiful words uttered by him in the house 
concerning the queen, was sequestered, that the house 
might proceed to conference and consideration of his speech. 
D'Ewes' The speech is set down by D'Ewes, transcribed by him out 
jouni. I), ^f g^ copy he had by him. Towards the beginning whereof 
he saith expressly, that he was never of any parliament be- 
fore the last, and the last sessions of it : which must be this 
of the 13th of the queen ; wherein she checked those that 
brought in the bills about the rites and ceremonies, as was 
Tiie sum of shewn before. In his speech he spake of the liberty of free 
his speech, gp^g^h, that was so many ways infringed, and of the many 
abuses offered to that honourable council, [reflecting upon 
what the queen had done the last sessions, viz. this in 1572,] 
as it grieved him, he said, of very conscience and love to his 
prince and country. And (to manifest what he drove at in 
his dissatisfaction about the liberty of speech, and that it 
was indeed the message she sent by the speaker, for no bills 
of religion to be preferred or received in tlie house, unless 
they were first considered and approved by the clergy,) thus 
he spake ; " That two things did great hurt in that place : 
" the one, a rumour which ran about the house ; and this it 
" was. Take heed what you do ; the queen liketh not such 
" a matter : whosoever preferreth it, she will be offended 
" with him. And the other, that sometime a message was 
" brought to the house of commons, either commanding or 
" inhibiting, &c. And he told Mr. Speaker, that he would 
" to God both these were buried in hell. He meant, as he 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 187 

** explained himself, rumours and messages: for wicked un- CHAP, 
" doubtedly they were, and the Devil the first author of ^^^' 



** them."" Anno 1 572. 

And by what followed, it evidently appeared it was his 
offence taken at the queen for stopping the bill for rites and 
ceremonies, which the hot puritans were the great managers 
of, for the overthrowing of the established constitution of 
the church, viz. the liturgy and orders of it ; and also such 
of the Thirty-nine Articles which they thought most touched 
them. For in the process of his discourse he gave his rea- 
sons to prove these rumours and messages wicked. " Be- 
" cause (said he) if they of the house were in hand with any 
*' thing for the advancement of God"'s glory, [as the puritans 1 2/ 
" usually called their labours, to overthrow the matters ec- 
" clesiastical which they disliked,] were it not wicked, said 
" he, to say. The queen liketh not of it ; or commandeth 
" that we should not deal in it ? Greatly were these speeches 
" to her majesty's dishonour. Much more wicked and un- 
" natural were it, that her majesty should like or command 
" any thing against God, or hurt to herself and the state. 
" That it was dangerous always to follow a prince's mind. 
" Many times it might fall out, that a prince might favour 
" a cause perilous to himself and the whole state." 

Then after, to put all out of doubt that he referred to 
the session in the year 1572, he makes mention of the mes- 
sage that Mr. Speaker brought that last sessions into the 
house, viz. that they should not deal in any matter of reli- 
gion, but first to receive it from the bishops. On which he 
makes this severe reflection; " Surely this was a doleful charges the 
*' message. For it was as much as to say. Sirs, ye shall not ^"qj^j.^" 
*' deal in God's causes ; no, ye shall in no wise seek to ad- God's glory. 
*' vance his glory. [This was freedom of speech indeed.] 
" I assure you, Mr. Speaker, there were divers of this house 
" that said with grieved hearts, immediately upon the mes- 
" sage, that God of his mercy could not prosper the session. 
*' Well, God, even the great and mighty God, &c. was the 
" last session shut out of doors. But what fell out of it ? 
" Forsooth, his great indignation was therefore poured out 



188 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " upon this house: for he put into the queen's majesty's 
" heart to refuse good and wholesome laws for her own pre- 



Anno 1572. " scrvation. Which caused many faithful hearts for grief to 
" burst out with sorrowful tears ; and moved all papist 
" traitors, &c. who envy good Christian princes, to laugh 
" (in their sleeves) all the whole parliament house to scorn.'" 

He proceeded in this manner ; " So certain it was, that 
" none was without fault ; no, not our noble queen : sith 
" then her majesty had committed great fault, yea, danger- 
" ous faults to herself." That fault was, that she would 
not yield to the trial, much less execution of Mary queen of 
Scots, her prisoner ; which in this same session they were 
very busy about. He went on freely and confidently charg- 
ing the queen of dealing unkindly, and abusing her nobility 
and people, and opposing and bending herself against them 
in the last parliament. And by divers questions making 
and representing the queen as not as good as her word to 
them, and leaving them open to their enemies. Then he 
asketh, " Is this a just recompence in our Christian queen, 
" for our faithful dealings ? The heathen do require good 
" for good ; how much more then is it to be expected in a 
" Christian prince.^ And will not this her majesty's han- 
" dling, think you, Mr. Speaker, make cold dealing in any of 
" her majesty's subjects towards her again, &c. And prayed 
" God to send her majesty a melting, yielding heart unto 
" sound counsel ; that will might not stand for a reason." 

And then, as a further proof of God's judgment upon 
that session of parliament, [viz. this in 1572,] he brought in 
the bishops ; whom, he asserted, God's Spirit did not descend 
upon all that session, because, as it appeared, they were not 
for the bill about ceremonies, drawn up by the innovators. 
" But was this all .'*" proceeded he ; " No, for God would 
128 " not vouchsafe that the Holy Spirit should all that session 
" descend upon our bishops. So that in that session nothing 
" was done to the advantage of his glory." 

Then he proceeded with much show of bitterness and dis- 
affection to that holy order, to disparage them as spiritual 
men, that did no good in the church, but rather hann. " I 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 189 

" have heard," said he, " of old parhament men, that the CHAP, 
" banishment of the pope and popery, and the reforming of '_ 



" true rehgion, had their beginning from this house, and not Anno 1572. 
" from the bishops. And I have heard, that few laws for |^*^*^^^\* °" 

1 ' the bisliops, 

" religion had their foundation from them. And I do surely as back- 
" think, (before God I speak it,) that the bishops were the formation." 
" cause of that doleful message, [which the treasurer, sir 
" Francis Knowles, brought from the queen."] And then 
gave his reason for his conjecture, viz. because in the last 
parliament, when he, and other members appointed, repaired 
to the archbishop of Canterbury, some words had passed 
between him and the archbishop. Wherein the archbishop 
expecting that such matter relating to religion should be 
left to them, the bishops, to reform and regulate, he roundly 
replied, " That that would be to make them popes : and that 
" for his part, he would make them none, whoever would; 
"as it hath been related before. And he feared, as he chap. vH. 
" added, lest the bishops attributed that of the pope''s canon 
" to themselves, Papa non potest errare. For otherwise 
" they would reform things amiss." And so with a great 
deal more spite agairv&t them, blamed them particularly for 
spurning against God's people, that writ for reforming of 
things amiss in the church. All which shewed him to be a 
zealous follower of those innovators, Cartwright and others, 
who then were in the midst of their writing The admonition 
to the parliament. And then he flings at the queen's mes- 
sage again ; saying, " That the acceptance of such messages, 
" and taking them in good part, offended God highly, and 
" was the acceptation of the breach of the liberties of that 
" honourable council."" 

This speech of Mr. Wentworth's was so illy taken of the He is se- 
house, out of the reverend regard they had of her majesty, f„"/^i"* 
that they stopped him before he had finished his speech, speech. 
And first they sequestered him ; and after sundry motions 
and disputations had, it was agreed that he should be com- 
mitted to the sergeant's ward, as prisoner ; and so remain- 
ing, to be examined upon his speech by all the privy coun- 
cil, being of the house, and many others. The report is set journ, p. 

241. 



190 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK down of what was done with him, related by himself: for 
• which I refer the reader to the Journal of this parliament. 
Anno 1572. On Thursday, February the 9th, Mr. Treasurer, in the 
Examined name of all the committees appointed for the examination of 

by a com- ' ^ 

niittee of Wcntworth, declared, that they all met yesterday afternoon 
t e house. -^ ^j^^ Star-chamber, according to their commission ; and 
there examined him touching the virulent and wicked zcords 
(as they are called) the same day, pronounced by him in the 
house touching the queen"'s majesty ; and made a collection 
of the same words. And he could say nothing for his ex- 
tenuating of his said fault and offence ; and took all the bur- 
den thereof upon himself. Then the said Mr. Treasui-er 
moved for a punishment and imprisonment in the Tower, 
as the house should think good. Whereupon, after sundry 
speeches and debates, it was ordered, that he should be com- 
129raitted close prisoner to the Tower for his offence. And 
immediately he was brought to the bar by the sergeant, and 
received the said judgment accordingly by the said speaker. 
And so the lieutenant of the Tower was presently charged 
with the custody of him. But by the queen''s special favour 
he was restored to his liberty and pliice in the house March 
the 12th, that is, three days before tne prorogation of that 
parliament; namely, the parliament sitting 1575. 

One of the particulars wherein Mr. Wentworth was so 
sharp upon the queen, (as was hinted before,) was her fa- 
vour to the Scottish queen, after all the endeavour of this 
parliament to secure the realm against her. For about June 
they had indeed, with full consent, brought a bill to full 
perfection, to make that queen unable and unworthy of suc- 
cession to this crown. But to this the queen neither con- 
sented, neither rejected ; but thought fit to put it off. This 
disappointment all her parliament took very heavily. 

And what just cause the parliament had to be jealous of 
the Scottish queen, appeared by many things that now came 
to light. 

The queen YoY to ffive some fuller relation of this business. The ap- 
of Scots the , . ^ „ , . . - i? o . r 

cause of the prehension oi the nation irom the queen or bcots was one or 

Sfoiik' ^^^ S^^^t matters that took up the cares of the queen and 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 191 

parliament this year, after the business of the duke of Nor- CHAP, 
folk with her had so opened their eyes. That queen was . 



the cause of bringing to his end that very worthy, useful, •'^""^ ^^72. 
and beloved peer of this realm. I shall not rehearse his 
trial, condemnation, or execution, our historians having set 
those things down at length. Only I shall recommend to 
the reader a true report of the words and confession of that 
duke at his death, taken by me from a MS. in the Cotton N°.xiii. 
library, Camden having but a short account thereof, as 
much as he covild carry away in his memory, being pre- 
sent; and Holinshed's report thereof being larger, but 
not so exact. 

It was now five months since he was condemned, the queen His execu- 

,., f>ii I'l'ii •! tion judged 

hitherto, out or her love to him, being loath to give her necessary 
warrant for his execution. May 16, the house ioined to l^y ^^"^ P^"" 

. liament, 

signify to her, that it was their general resolution that exe- and so pro- 
cution was necessary to be done upon the duke, and that it ^j"" ° "^^gn^ 
should be propounded unto her, not by way of petition to 
move her thereunto, but as their common opinion. This 
Leicester, in his correspondence with Walsingham, men- 
tioneth ; and that great suit was made by the nether house 
to her for the execution : but he addeth, as knowing her in- 
clinations, that he saw no likelihood thereof. Yet, though 
she stayed for some time, she yielded to it at last : and 
June 2, the duke was executed, in compliance with her 
parhament and the necessity of affairs, to her great grief. 
And when but a day after, (the execution being on Mon- 
day,) letters on Tuesday from her ambassador in France 
were brought to her by the lord Burghley ; and he tell- 
ing her, that he thought his purpose in those letters was 
only to shew her the opinion of wise men, and her majes- 
ty's well wishers in France, both for the queen of Scots 
and the duke of Norfolk ; she bade him open the letters. 
And so he did in her presence. And in his reading them, 
observing the queen somewhat sad, and discomposed at the 
duke"'s death, he took occasion to cut off the reading thereof, 
and so entered into speech concerning the queen of Scots : 
which she did not mislike, and commended her said am- 130 



192 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 
BOOK bassador's care and diligence in what he had writ concern- 



I. 



ing her. 



Anno 1572. This fatal stroke was of the more pubhc import to Eng- 
land, seasonably to prevent greater dangers to the kingdom, 
in that " he was (as a wise man, and well known in the pub- 

MeivirsMc-<< lie affairs of those times, wrote in his Memoirs,) one of 

moirs, p. 96. . . „ 

" the greatest subjects in JtiiUrope, not being a tree prince : 
" for he ruled the queen, and all that were most familiar 
" with her. He also ruled (saith he) the council, and ruled 
*' also the two factions in England, both protestant and pa^ 
*' pist, with the city of London, and whole land. The great 
" men, who were papists, were all his near kinsmen ; whom 
" he entertained with great wisdom and discretion. And 
" the protestants had such proof of his godly life and con- 
" versation, that they loved him entirely. So that he was 
" taken and secured when he thought all England was at 
" his devotion." This author tells us further of the duke's 
plain language in behalf of the Scottish queen ; boasting 
and speaking out, " that he would serve and honour the 
*' queen his mistress so long as she lived. But after her 
" decease he would set the crown of England upon the 
" queen of Scotland's head, as lawful heir." And this he 
avowed to secretary Cecil, bidding him to go and prattle 
that language again to the queen. The secretary answered, 
that he would be no taleteller to the queen of him, but would 
concur with him in any course, and serve him in any honour- 
able thing wherein he would employ him. 
The duke's Further, that he told earl Murray, regent of Scotland, 
designs. that he was resolved to marry the queen [of Scots.] And 
that he would never permit her to come to Scotland ; nor 
yet that he would ever rebel against the queen of England 
during her time. Also, that he had a daughter, who would 
be better for the king than any other, for many reasons. 
The duke Upon the death of men of rank and figure, we commonly 
are inquisitive into their character. This duke, among his 
other qualifications, was himself endued with religion, and 
had a care for the education of his children therein. And 
as that part of it which consisteth in devotion and prayer is 



reliscious. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 193 

proper to keep up a sense and awe of God, so he provided CHAP, 
that they might be conversant therein. And for that pur- 



pose, in the year 1569, he recommended to one or two of Anno 1572. 
his chaplains, namely, Bering and Hansby, to instruct them 
in this duty of prayer, and, in order thereunto, to draw up 
some proper forms for their use. Which they did, suiting 
them to divers occasions, according to our various needs and 
wants, to be supplied from Almighty God. And when they 
had finished this book of prayers, they presented it to the 
duke fairly written, all of Mr. Bering's own writing, with an 
epistle in Latin before it, signed with both their hands. 
Wherein they observe and comntiend his good inclinations 
to religion, and exhort and stir him up with much good ad- 
vice to increase and make more and more progi'ess therein. 
And according to their duty, being most bound to him and 
his merits in the service of his religion, they beseeched the 
God of all grace and father of mercy, that he who first put 
those counsels in his mind, (those true tokens of his piety,) 
would confirm and cherish the same; and that from those 131 
holy roots of immortahty might spring up in time ripe fruits, 
which would grow unto eternal life. They put him in mind 
of those mighty benefits and blessings God had adorned him 
with ; in what place he had set him, with what great grace, 
and in how great benevolence God had furnished his mind : 
that he had all things bestowed on him above his age, above 
custom, nay, above mortality. And so they went on, expa- 
tiating upon God's goodness to him ; and therefore, what 
returns of gratitude he was to make to him. And further, 
they added their Christian counsel, that whensoever God, 
or prayer, or piety, virtue, religion, or mortahty, came into 
his mind, that they should not be cursory thoughts, but that 
he should more accurately and closely apply them, and not 
be drawn from such purposes and meditations, until he 
found and knew himself better. And so at length to shew 
himself in mind and will most thankful to God, the author 
of his salvation, that had so exceedingly well deserved of 
him. And then these good thoughts of his would not be 
indeed sure testimonies of the honours of this world, that 

VOL. IT. o 



194 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK are but the mockeries of a short day, but of his eternal feli- 
city ; to the great and wonderful peace of his mind here, 



Anno 1572. and after liis departure hence would assure to him immor- 
tality. Much more such pious advice and admonition did 
these his chaplains, both fellows (I think) of Chrisfs college 
in Cambridge, give to this noble duke ; which may well de- 
[No.Xlll.] serve therefore a place in our Appendix. 
Sir Roger The excellent qualities of this unhappy duke rendered 
intimate ' ^^"^ ^^^^' ^o all the lionest nobility and gentry. Among the 
with the j-est ^q gjj. Roger Mannours, of the right noble family of 
pecte'd. the earls of Rutland : whom I mention, because the queen, 
though he had been her servant ever since she came to the 
crown, did suspect to be too familiar with him ; and (as a 
consequent of that) not so well affected to religion nor to 
her. Which when he came to understand, by some mention 
thereof after, from the mouth of the lord Burghley, he, 
under a great concern, conscious of his sound religion and 
His letter unspottcd loyalty, protested his mind thus unto that lord ; 
to the lord requesting him to make it known to her majesty: "That 
in vindica- " he had gathered by his lordship's speech, that he should 
^mn o nm- ^j ggg,^^ ^q stand somcwhat suspected both in religion, and 
MSS.Burg. « for the good will he bore to the late duke. For the one 
" it behoved him, he said, not to dissemble ; and for the 
" other, he would say truth. He protested to him, that he 
" abhorred all superstition and popish idolatry, as much as 
" any man living. And that he judged little better of these 
" bull-papists [meaning those that sided with the late pope''s 
" bull against queen Elizabeth] than he did of rebels to her 
" majesty : for that he thought they carried the same mind. 
" And not much otherwise did he account of those new 
" fond pvn-itans. Neither could he judge why any man 
" should mistrust him in religion, but one of them. 

" Touching the said duke, he confessed he loved him 
" while he was good ; yet was he never beholden to him for 
" any benefit : but that he honoured him for those virtues 
" which he thought to be in him ; and for that he believed 
" he was a true and faithful subject to her majesty, and as 
" it were a very pillar of her realm. And that herein he 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 195 

" deceived not him only, but the wisest and the most part CHAP. 
" of this realm ; who then, he was sure, so believed of him. 



" But that after he had been at his arraignment, and heard Anno 1572, 
*' how he was charged, and what his answers were, if I (as 132 
" the said sir Roger Mannours added) said not to your 
" lordship, I am sure I said to some others of great calling, 
" that then asked me what I thought, that if his peers had 
" acquitted him, or that the queen's majesty afterwards 
" should pardon him, I would never keep him company : 
*' and since that tirne, I am sure no man heard me any ways 
" excuse any part of his faults. For surely, my lord, I never 
" meant to love any man longer than I thought he loved 
"the queen's majesty; whom God preserve ever, as our 
" only safety. How desirous I have been to understand 
" matters of state, or intermingle in that which appertained 
" not unto me, I appeal, my lord, to your own conscience : 
*' for you can best judge of me in that cause, my lord. I 
" have served her in the office which I now hold full four- 
" teen years, and, I trust, hitherunto undetected of any dis- 
" honest dealing towards any man. Blame me not, if now 
" it grieveth me to be suspected in that wherein I did only 
" g^o^y? ^^y truth to her majesty, in which, if 1 once fail in 
" deed or thought, I crave extremity of justice. In all other 
" things I desire her mercy, but not in that," &c. In these 
lines, and many more, did that noble person and courtier la- 
bour to vindicate his own steady loyalty to his royal mis- 
tress, and unshaken adherence to the true religion, however 
he had loved the noble duke, as most of the nobility had 
done. 

Now as to the great cause, a^ the business of the Scottish 
queen was called, that justly created so much apprehension 
to the queen, and the state of religion in this kingdom, I 
shall rehearse some things that our records, letters, and ad- 
vices, and manuscript papers do inform us of it. When sir 
Robert Melvil returned home from his first ambassage in Twenty-five 
England, \\e brought the handwriting of twenty-five earls y^^ ^'read°^t' 
and lords in England, that were ready to set the crown of make Mary 
this realm upon that queen's head. The captains in the par- t:,fJi'and. 

o2 



196 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK ticular shires were named, and by those lords set down in 

'_ that paper ; only they wanted that queen"'s opportunity and 

Anno 1572. l^ej. advertisement, when to stir. And upon this intelli- 
Meivii'sMe-ggj^^g that quecn presently writ to France, to her uncle, 
112. the cardinal of Lorain. Who, upon her desire, sent her his 

secretary. To whom the Melvils, sir James and sir Robert, 
by her command, declared the state of England, and the 
great party she had there, to espouse her interest ; desiring 
her uncle to send his advice, when it would be the fittest 
time for her to stir; and to send what help he and his 
friends could procure. When the cardinal understood this, 
he acquainted the queen-mother of France with it ; and 
how prejudicial to the crown of France the union of this 
isle of Great Britain would be. That therefore it was her 
interest to oppose it. And advised her therefore to adver- 
tise the queen of England concerning the said intended 
plot, as the only and most effectual way to prevent it. 
The queen gut whatsoever the qviecn of England's thoughts were 
thereof : thereof, she appeared to give no credit thereunto ; as though 
how she g]^g looked upou it as an Italian fetch, [that French queen 
too was an Italian,] to put her in suspicion with her nobility. 
This account Melvil writes he had from the queen herself. 
The pariia- This was then the cause of the parliament's meeting ; 
soke to' namely, the Scottish queen's practices with the said duke, 
touch that and also with other the queen's enemies abroad ; intended 
well in life for the invasion and destruction of the realm. Therefore, a 
as title. f^^^ days after the parliament met, the lord keeper sent for 
the lower house, and declared to them, that it was the 
queen's pleasure, that a certain number of the upper house, 
and of the lower, should the next morning meet together in 
the Star-chamber, to consult and debate upon the queen of 
Scots' matters. A committee accordingly was appointed of 
commoners, to meet with the lords, to consider how to pro- 
ceed in that great cause. And after the conference, Mr. 
Attorney of the court of wards made report of that confe- 
rence. And at length it was resolved, for the better safety 
and preservation of the queen, and the present state, to pro- 
ceed against the Scottish queen in the highest degree of 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 197 

treason. And therein to touch her, as well in life, as in title ^^j^^* 

and dignity ; and that of necessity, with all possible speed, 

by the voice of the house. ^""" '^'''' 

There be reasons set down in the journal of the house of D'Ewes' 
commons, (which the publisher of that journal met with in ^^^^q^^ ' 
some of his papers ; and concluded that they were presented 
to the queen. May the 28th,) to prove the queen's majesty 
bound in conscience to proceed in severity in this cause 
of the Scottish queen, as being guilty in two the highest 
crimes ; both concerning God's religion, and the disinherit- 
ing and destruction of their prince. Shewing, how she was 
the only hope of all the adversaries of God, throughout all 
Europe, and the instrument whereby they trusted to over- 
throw the gospel of Christ in all countries, &c. That she 
had heaped up together all the sins of the licentious sons of 
David, adulteries, murders, conspiracies, treasons, and blas- 
phemies against God also, &c. And that she, with her allies, 
by the pretended title, and other like devilish and traitorous 
devices and workings, was like to bring confusion to this 
realm of England and the people thereof. Then another 
reason was offered, persuading, that the queen ought to 
have, in conscience, a great care of the safety of her own 
person. 

On the 28th of May abovesaid, it was signified to the which the 
house by the speaker, that it was the queen's pleasure, that ^jj^gg ^^^ 
the committees for the fi^reat cause should attend her. Jirections 

. .to them 

When they were come, they presented their humble peti- how to 
tion to her; and (besides the reasons aforesaid) reasons ga- P''"'^*^'^'^" 
thered out of the civil law by certain appointed by autho- 
rity in parliament, to prove, that it standeth not only with 
justice, but also with the queen's majesty's honour and 
safety, to proceed criminally against the pretended Scot- 
tish queen. But the queen, though she liked not of these 
proceedings to be taken with the Scottish queen, yet re- 
ceived their message very graciously, and said, she thought 
the course chosen by the house, and wherein the lords had 
joined with that house, to be the best and surest way for 
her preservation and safety ; yet for certain respects by her- 

o3 



198 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK self conceived, she thought good for this time to defer, but 
not to reject that course of proceeding. And that in the 
Auno 1572. mean time they should go forward in the great matter 
134 against that queen ; but that her majesty therein would not 
have that queen, by any implication or drawing of words, 
to be either enabled or disabled, to or from any manner of 
title to the crown of this realm, nor touched at all. And 
therefore that the bill should be first drawn by her learned 
council, and by them penned, before it were treated of, or 
dealt with in the house. 

The queen then further declared her judgment to the 
house, that she, the Scottish queen, should be disabled from 
enjoying any preeminence or dignity in this land : and that, 
not seeking to deal with her according to her deserts, she 
was contented only to have her made incapable of princely 
Their an- dignity. But the committee answered, that as to the dis- 
abling of that queen for any clause or title to the crown, 
they took it for a known truth, that by the laws and 
statutes of the land, then in force, she was ah'cady dis- 
abled. 
The hill of But notwithstanding, the house finished a bill, and sent it 
agaiiis'tthe ^V ^^ ^^^^ lords, June 26, wherein that queen was declared 
Scottish guilty of treason ; and they solicited earnestly with the 
queen that she might be executed. But the queen not in- 
tending to proceed after that rigorous manner, the next day 
adjourned that sessions. And the parliament met not again 
until three years after; viz. anno 1575, 18 Eliz. after divers 
prorogations, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 199 

CHAP. XV. 

The tliouglits of the wisest men concerning the state ^ hy rea- 
son of the Scottish queen. Her crimes tinder Jive articles. 
The queen's instructions to her ambassador going to 
France^ concerning that queen. Wcdsingham' s J'ears of a 
Bartholomeio breakfast. Talk of putting the Scottish 
queen to death. Account given of her by the earl of 
Shrexvsbury, her keeper. Linen sent to her, with secret 
writing on it. 

iNOW while these things were thus earnestly transacting Anno 1572. 

in parliament, I will subjoin the judgments and opinions of 

the wisest and gravest men, and the observations that were 

then made by them. 

" The parliament now assembled, both nobihty and peo-The judg- 

" pie had considered, that the queen's majesty's surety 1]"^^°^^"^ 

" could not be preserved, without some severe proceeding 'j'emen 

'* against the queen of Scots. Whereunto her majesty had the ^p™"^ 

" not yielded in such extremity. And so that queen had"^'''°S9 

„ -111 -1 1 ^^'t'' "^he 

" more favour mdeed, than either she deserved, or than Scottish 

" was thought meet by the whole realm." So the English 'i"*^^"- 
commissioners delivered themselves to the French commis- 
sioners, who required she might have some favour upon the 
conclusion of a treaty. These commissioners were, the lord 135 
keeper, the earls of Sussex and Leicester, the lord chamber- 
lain, lord treasurer Burghley, master comptroller, sir Ralph 
Sadlier, and sir Walter Mildmay. 

That the queen was so dilatory in this great concern The lord 
with her parliament mightily troubled the lord Burghley ; jud'^menV 
opening his mind thus to Walsingham, the ambassador in and discou- 
France : " That the parliament was earnest ; and that there '° 
" could not be found more soundness in the commons'" 
" house, and no lack in the higher house ; but in the 
" highest person such slowness, in the offers of surety, [i. e. 
" the surety of the queen and realm offered by the parlia- 
" ment in securing both against the Scottish queen's prac- 
" tices,] and such stay in resolution, that it seemed God was 

o 4 



200 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK it not pleased that the surety should proceed. That he 
" could not forbear to lament this secretly. And that 



Anno 1572. u thereby with it, and such like events, he was overthrown 
" in heart, so as he had no spark almost of good spirit (lie 
" said) left in him, to nourish health in his body ; being 
" every third day thrown down to the ground, so as he was 
" forced to be carried into the parliament-house, and to her 
" majesty's presence. And to lament it openly, was (as he 
" added) to give more comfort to the adversaries. 

" These (as he proceeded) are our miseries, and such as 
" I see no end thereof. And among other, shame doth as 
*' much trouble me as the rest ; that all persons shall be- 
" hold our folhes, as they may think ; imputing these lacks 
" and errors to some of us that are accounted inward coun- 
" sellors ; where indeed the fault is not. And yet they 
" must be so suffered, and so to be imputed, for saving of 
" the honour of the highest." 
Lord Again, in another letter the same lord thus expressed his 

^"[j^j^jj^^ *" trouble about this emergence, soon after the parliament 
ham. broke up. " For the parliament I cannot write patiently. 

" All that we laboured for, and had with full consent 
" brought to fashion, I mean, a law to make the Scottish 
" queen unable and unworthy of succession to the crown, 
*' was by her majesty neither assented to nor rejected, but 
" deferred until the feast of All Saints. But what all other 
" wise and good men may think of it, you may guess." He 
added, that some, as it seemed, abused their favour about 
her majesty, to make herself her most enemy ; [viz. by dis- 
suading her to countenance these proceedings in parliament 
for her safety.] He prayed God to amend them. But he 
would not write who these were that were suspected : he 
was sorry for them ; and so would you also, (writing to 
Walsingham,) if you thought the suspicion to be true : 
meaning probably the earl of Leicester. 
Earl of Yet that great courtier and favourite used these words 

thoiMits at to the said ambassador in the month of May, when this 
this June- weighty matter was earnestly debating in the news: " Our 



ture. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 201 

" news is, we are presently in hand to attaint the Scottish CHAP. 
" queen of treason. And yet we fear our queen will scant ^^- 



" agree to it. Anno 1572. 

The thoughts of that grave statesman, Walsingham, shall Waising- 
take up the next place ; who, upon consideration hereof, Letter to 
used these words: " That when he considered, how things Leicester. 
*' of moment, tending to safety, proceeded at home, he knew 
*' not what to judge necessary, unless it were for every man 
" to provide for the cross." And again, upon the solicita- 136 
tions made in France about this time for that queen, and for 
her reestablish ment in her government, he brake out into 
these words : " That he feared, that as long as that woman 
" lived, there would never grow good accord to Scotland, 
" nor continuance of repose in England ; nor perfect and 
" sound amity between her majesty and the crown of 
" France." 

And when all that had been endeavoured in parliament Waising- 
was not only ineffectual, but soon after she was enlarged, -p 3„^jtjj_ 
and had more liberty granted, the same Walsingham thus 
discovered his mind to a friend in England, in the month of 
August : " That if her majesty had accepted the provision 
" for her safety by her subjects in parliament, and not so 
" soon liave yielded to any enlargement, those Scottish mat- 
" ters (then in debate) had been ere this accorded ; [viz. the 
" civil wars among the Scots, occasioned by that queen.] 
" But we use (said he) to build with one hand, and over- 
" throw with another : concluding, that he could rather la- 
" ment it, than hope after a remedy. And therefore to God 
*' he committed it." 

It was the quick apprehension of the imminent danger 
that still hung over both the queen and people of Eng- 
land's heads at this time, that so pressed the necessity of re- 
moving the^omes of contention round about. Which caused 
the same wise man to utter himself and his fears thus to the 
same friend a little after, in the month of October: " That 
" until such time as the root of the evil [meaning that 
"queen] were removed, it was rather to dream of remedies, 
" than to apply such as the disease required." And there 



202 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
I. 

Aiino 1572. 



Queen of 
Scots ac- 
cused under 
five articles. 
Cotton 
librar. 



N". XIV. 



137 



The prac- 
tice of the 
Scottish 
«(ueen 
.igaiiist 
fjueen Eli- 
zabeth. 



being now some hopes of matters growing to an accord in 
Scotland, by the means of queen Elizabeth, he added, 
" That if the postern gate were shut up, [meaning Scotland,] 
*' and other inward medicines applied, she [the queen] 
" would be more esteemed and feared." And again, " That 
" the tempest that hung over our heads was to man's judg- 
" ment so apparent, as, if she oversli})pcd any remedy that 
" might be used, she must not long look to keep the state 
" that she then enjoyed. And that if England and Scot- 
" land were united, and such unsound members cut off as 
" had been the cause of inward corruption, both her ene- 
" mies should have less Avill to attempt any thing, against 
" her safety, and she remain in less peril of such mischiefs as 
" otherwise were like to fall upon her : adding, that violent 
" diseases must have violent remedies." 

I find that queen's crimes reduced to five articles, of dan- 
gerous import to her majesty and to the state of England ; 
which by certain commissioners sent to that queen by queen 
Elizabeth were charged upon her. First, her claim to the 
crown of England. Secondly, seeking a marriage with the 
duke of Norfolk. Thirdly, the procurement of the late re- 
bellion in the north. Fourthly, the relief of the rebels after 
they fled. Fifthly, the practising of an invasion of the 
realm by strangers. This paper at length transcribed from 
a Cotton MS. I have reposited in the Appendix. 

But further, to enlighten this singular piece of history, 
wherein not only England, but the other neighbouring 
kingdoms had their shares ; especially since our historians, 
and chiefly Camden, have so briefly slipt it over. The rea- 
sons of the Scottish queen's restraint and troubles queen 
Elizabeth gave in her instructions to the lord admiral, go- 
inff ambassador into France, to declare the same to that 
kinff ; who had interceded for her restoration : " That it 
" was well known that she [the queen] was often well 
" disposed to have obtained an accord betwixt her and her 
" subjects of Scotland. And that always, when she was 
" most earnest to have done her pleasure therein, she was 
" most ready to practise against her, [the queen,] as it 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 203 

" seemed, not satisfied with the recovery of her own coun- cHAP. 
" try, without the practice to have also this of England, as ^^' 
" by manifest proof they, the lord admiral and sir Thomas Anno 1572. 
" Smith, could avow, to be ready to be shewed. And that 
" thei-eupon she Avas forced, both for her own safety and 
" the weal of her realm, to take another course : that is, to 
" continue her favour towards the king, [the Scottish 
" queen's son, now king of Scotland,] having been accepted 
" by the three estates in full parliament. 

" That she [the Scottish queen] had of late, by sundry Her mes- 
" her own letters to the duke of Alva, and by her ministers ^p^^^j^^*" 
" to the king of Spain, laboured to oblige that king to at- 
" tempt to break the amity between the French king and 
" the realm of Scotland, with plain assurance, that she 
" would not in any wise depend upon the French king. 
" But had wholly given herself, her son, and realm, so far 
" forth as she could, to the said king of Spain. And to 
" that end had done her utmost to move the same king 
" to send forces into England, to join such as she promised 
" should be aiding thereunto, to surprise her son, and to 
" carry him into Spain by sea. And according thereunto, 
" the duke of Alva had sent several men to peruse the ports 
" in Scotland for that enterprise. 

" That as for the Scottish queen, she was well treated The Scot- 
" for her diet, and other things meet for her health, how-^o^vlnler- 
" ever the contrary seemed to be reported. She might at her tained in 

, . , ,1 1 ,. , . . herconfine- 

" pleasure take the air on horseback ; so she did it in com-ment. 
" pany with the earl of Shrewsbury [her keeper.] For her 
" diet, it was such as her own ministers did and would 
" prepare without respect of charge. Only it was prohi- 
" bited, that no stranger should come to her, to practise 
" with them, as she had long time used. And yet it was 
" found daily that she did not cease, by letters and mes- 
" sages, to solicit all manner of things for her purpose ; as by 
" interception now and then of letters and messages was to 
" be seen. Among which were found her continual labours 
" to procure her son to be stolen, and taken away into 



204 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " Spain; besides her attempts against the queen herself 
^* " and hei* reahns." 



Anno 1572. The estates then (assembled in parliament) did solicit, as 
The pariia- [y^f^yQ tjigy had done, her maiesty, both in respect of her- 

nient solicit *^ tf ^ 

the queen self and whole realm, to proceed against the Scottish queen 
hfvS ^'" % o^^^^^ °^ justice. Wherein her majesty was so perplexed 
with incessant clamour, and request of her people in that 
behalf, as she was marvellously therewith troubled. As of 
her own nature she had been found (even in her most pri- 
vate causes, and where her person had been in danger) not 
given to shew any vehemency or to pursue revenge ; so to 
refuse the universal motion, the general advice and exhor- 
tation of her states, she thought it no small hazard of their 
love. 
How she And in these things moreover did this queen disoblige 

ohJged queen Elizabeth. First, her secret seeking of marriage with 
queen Eli- ^\^q duke of Norfolk, without her majesty's knowledge, even 
jog at that time that her majesty was travailing to compound 
her causes with her subjects. And after that her majesty 
had imprisoned the said duke for that attempt, and that 
her practices in the same were discovered ; and therewith it 
was not unknown to the queen what comfort she had given 
to her majesty's subjects to enter into rebellion, as they did, 
[viz. anno 1569 ;] but being subdued and forced to fly, they 
were openly maintained in Scotland by the Scottish queen's 
means. Moreover, it was notorious how the queen, by sun- 
dry solicitations, partly of herself, and partly of the French 
king and his ministers, was content as it were to bury the 
former notable injuries ; and did newly enter most earnestly 
to treat with her subjects for restitution ; and left no good 
turn unessayed, neither by request nor threatenings, to 
move them to accept her majesty's earnestness then with the 
nobility of Scotland, professing obedience to the king her 
^ son : that her majesty plainly charged them, that if they 

would not condescend to her motions for her, she would ut- 
terly abandon them ; and rather be a party against them. 
Whereupon they were entered into such hard terms, as 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 205 

they answered, that they would so persist in their obedi- CHAP. 
ence to their king, as they would venture their lives in the ' 

quarrel. Anno 1572. 

And yet finally, by some persuasions, they were induced 
to accord with her majesty, that a parliament should be 
holden with as much speed as might be. And there these 
her majesty's motions were propounded. And certain per- 
sons should have authority to treat thereof with her ma- 
jesty's counsellors. Whereupon her majesty did look for 
some good success. But before it could be granted there- 
unto to proceed, her majesty discovered daily most danger- 
ous attempts of treason, both against her person and realm, 
wholly and only set forth by the said Scottish queen. And 
she found these new treasons intended, and almost brought 
to their mischievous perfection ; by not only renewing the 
former message with the duke of Norfolk, but by giving or- 
der for a rebellion and invasion of this realm. All which 
was by her devised, set forth, and delivered to be executed, 
even in the very same time that her majesty did deal so 
earnestly for her with her subjects ; and was in hope to 
have obtained some reasonable end for her. 

So also had she now discovered the truth of her former 
practices, in stirring of the first rebellion, only to have by 
force obtained the marriage, and with the same force sought 
the crown. This will give a true light into the displeasure 
of the queen and this parliament against queen Mary, and 
open the just reasons thereof; being the contents of the 
instructions given to the earl of Lincoln, lord admiral, to 
shew the French king and his mother ; who had fervently 
solicited the queen to be favourable to her. The said admi- 
ral, together with these declarations concerning that queen's 
practices, shewed the French king a letter in cipher, which 
she [the Scottish queen] wrote to the duke of Alva, of the 
matters before mentioned. 

And yet notwithstanding, soon after the Paris massacre, The princes 
that happened but some months after, they began to talk in ^^^.^ ^^ 
France, that it would be a deed of charity for the princes restore her. 
catholic, not only to set the queen of Scots at liberty, but 13,9 



206 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK also to restore her to her right: whereupon Walsingham, 

^- the ambassador there, wrote to secretary Smith, that her 

Anno 1572. majesty was not ignorant what he had written, touchmg 

the opinion of wise men, what was to be done in that be- 

Fears of a half for her own safety. " If the sore be not salved, I fear, 

massacre. ^^ ^^_^.^^ j^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ j^^^^^ ^ Bartholomew breakfast, or a Flo- 

" rence banquet ;" that is, that such a bloody massacre 

was like to ensue in England as those were. 

A talk that And SO, indeed, in the month of December, there was 

Ijueel'muSmwch talk that this queen must die, the nation, both queen 

suffer. and subjects, having been terrified with the late barbarity 

in Paris against the protestants, and she continuing her 

practices. And so De la Mot, the French ambassador in 

England, advertised, that her majesty's meaning was, that 

that queen should suffer; and that the matters found 

against her were so great, that it was generally talked of, 

and thought that she should have been executed. Which 

when the report thereof was brought to France, they, her 

friends there, discoursed among themselves, that it were 

good to stay the noblemen that should be sent thither by 

her majesty to christen that king's son, to stand proxies for 

her, (as that king had desired of the cjueen,) as a pledge 

for that queen's safety : for so Walsingham hinted to the 

lord treasurer, December 28. For now, after the massacre 

in France, and the queen of Scots holding correspondence 

with the pope and France, and the secret false dealing of 

the French, more severe thoughts were taken up against 

that queen ; and she was very diligently watched by the 

earl of Shrewsbury, to whom was committed the keeping of 

her. 

Earl of This nobleman was very trusty and faithful ; and took 

bllryrthe diligent notice of letters sent her, and many other corre- 

Scottish spondencics from abroad ; and had also frequent discourses 

(lueen's * , /.,.,, • ^^^ ..iii^ 

keeper, witli her ; of which he gave intelligence to the lord trea- 
gives intei- ^j. pu^ghlev from time to time. In one of his letters he 

ligence of o j i i i • 

her to writ ; " That she seemed nnich discontented, that having 
EpS'. Com." siii'^i'y tim'-'*^ written to the queen's majesty, she was 
Salop, in u ^cither answered, nor suffered to receive money out of 



Olhc. Ar- 
mor 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 207 

" France, nor things needful for her use. So that she could CHAP. 

. . • • • • XV 

"^ not with good patience write to her majesty at this time. 



" That within a few days she was become more melancholic Anno 1572. 

" than of long time before, and complained of her wrongs 

" and dishonour : and for remedy thereof seemed not to 

" trust her majesty, but altogether hoped of foreign power. 

" That by her talk she would make appear, that both Spain 

*' and France stood her and her son"'s friends: and that 

" to keep them both her friends alike, forbore to write to 

" any of them. That she would persuade, that Spain in 

" Ireland, and France in Scotland, intended some attempts. 

" For to Ireland, she said, the pope long since gave licence 

" for the king of Spain as his right. He added, that this 

" speech of hers was not without her accustomed threaten- 

" ing; nor that she shewed less enmity than of old." 

He proceeded : " My lord, this sudden disposition to 
" talk so fairly of these matters, whereof she a long time 
" had scarcely seemed to think, (no occasion thereof being 
" given by me,) presumeth some intended practice of hers 
" lately overthrown. For sure I am, her melancholy and 
" grief is greater than she in words uttereth. And yet ra- 140 
" ther than continue this imprisonment, she sticks not to 
" say, she will give her body, son, and country, for liberty. 

" And here she infers, that This she gives out, to 

" move some fear. God preserve the queen's majesty long 
" in health." 

And in another letter by the same earl, written in Fe- 
bruary this year, upon a letter from the French ambassador 
to her, (which the lord treasurer had sent the earl to de- 
liver to her,) and which she read in his sight, he writes, 
that she said thereupon, " How she perceived, that am- Discourse 
" bassador was informed of great sums of money re-g^,."^j^j 
" ceived out of France into this realm to her use, as forty •'" about 

11 11 ^111 monies re- 

" thousand crowns, known by some means 01 the duke, ceived by 

" Truly, said she, I received not so much. But if the duke ''"^'V ^, 

•^ ' ' _ _ Epist. Com. 

" said so, quoth she, I will not deny it. Then she made a Salop, ubi 
" long discourse of the money she spent by the bishop of*"^'^*" 
" Rosse, termed her ambassador, and the bishop of Gall- 



208 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " way, with other her commissioners, and gifts also to her 
^' " servants : which by her long tale amounted, I dare say, 
Anno 1672." (writeth the earl,) to double the said sum. He [the earl] 
" told her then plainly, that he had heard by sundry reports 
" of divers sums of money to be secretly conveyed from time 
" to time into this realm, to be employed for practices, to 
" her use. Which being found true, or any part thereof, he 
" said, she was of good reason to blame her own self for 
" her wants, and none other. Nay, said she then, let them 
" never be afraid (which she repeated divers times) of any 
" money that I will have come into England. For I have 
" given sure order, that all which I can make shall be em- 
" ployed in my service in Scotland ; which shall not be de- 
" feated for ought they can do. 

" The earl said again, that he spake not for any fear that 
" was any way to be had in the matter : and that if she 
" thought so, she was much deceived. But his speaking of 
" those reports was, to move her the better to consider with 
" herself where the fault was, if she wanted. Whereunto 
" she replied not. But entered then into her wonted con- 
" jectures, and said, I see now they go about some exploit, 
" to be done in Scotland against me. And therefore would 
" find means to hinder the coming of money to me, as out 
" of France. But, said she, I have taken sure order for 
" their relief in Scotland. And that the same may be the 
" more large unto them, I will spend on myself here as little 
" as I can. 

" The earl asked her if she knew of any such intention 
" or act in doing in Scotland against her. But he could 
" not perceive by her answer that she understood any 
" thing either of the present sieges, or otherwise of weight ; 
" but only occupied herself with suspicion, according to her 
*' old customs. 

" As concerning her sending into France, or the coming 
" of any from thence unto her, he could not but think 
" much danger in either of them. For that certainly what- 
" soever she pleaded of wants for herself and hers, her very 
" meaning and desire is of intelligence and practice for her 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 209 

purpose, not tolerable. Albeit, if her majesty, of her plea- CHAP, 
sure, will needs grant licence for one of these two ways. 



" his opinion was, that the sending thither of some such Anno 1572. 
" her servants were most meet for providing her apparel 
" and receipt of money necessary ; so that they be not 

" For sometimes discourses were of less danger 

" than the coming of some expert persons from thence, that 141 
*' could not upon the sudden be judged of as Avell known 
" here. But seeing such dangers to be, either in sending or 
" coming, he must, he said, of good reason conclude with 
" his lordship, the best way to be, that she might be li- 
" censed to have some money brought from France to her, 
*' to serve for her necessaries. And that her majesty was 
" now the more inclined to be suspicious of her doings, he 
" could not but think she had great cause so to do, not 
" only remembering that which is past, but also expecting 
" the return of the cardinal of Lorain, with the rest of that 
" house, and herself also principally ; with the cruel inten- 
" tions of every of them, well known to be toward her ma- 
" jesty, and the state of this realm, if they had power and 
" liberty to serve to their wills. This was dated from Shef- 
" field castle the 20th of February, 1572." 

And by way of postscript, he writes, that when he was 
about to seal up this letter, she sent for him, and at his 
coming brast out with complaints of her estate ; especially, 
how she was not well used in France, by such as she had 
put in trust touching her living there; saying, that her 
uncle, the cardinal, who chiefly pretended good-will unto 
her, did so dispose her profits and casualties there, at his 
own liberty, as nothing thereof came to her necessary use. 
Wherefore she desired, that her new officer, whom she had 
lately put in trust about her living, might have licence to 
come and declare her state unto her. The name of this her 
new officer, she said, was monsieur de Verge. This seems 
to have been her device, to let in some intelligence from 
France unto her. 

And good reason there was for these suspicions of mes- 
sengers from France, since the state had experience before 

VOL. II. P 



210 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK this, of the dangers of messages brought to her from 
thence. One whereof was in the month of December, when 



Anno 1572. information was given by Walsingham, ambassador then in 
Linen sent France, that there was hnen to be sent to her from thence : 
queen ; and that he liad discovered one that carried the box where- 
with secret jj^ jj. ^,^g p^j. . which witliin three or foiu* days departed 

writing in '^ .... i i i i 

it. thence. And communicatmg this to the lord treasurer he 

told him, that he thought they Mould see somewhat written 
in some of the linen, contained in the same box, that slioidd 
be worth the reading; and cunningly advising, that her 
majesty, under colour of seeing the fashion of the ruffs, 
might cause the several pieces of linen to be holden before a 
fire, whereby the writing might appear. For that he judged 
there would be some matter discovered ; which made him 
the more willing, as lie said, to grant the passport. 



142 CHAP. XVI. 

A league offensive and defensive xvith France. Delibera- 
tion about the assistance of the prince of Orange. Duke 
Montmorancy comes over ambassador. His reception. 
Sir Philip Sydney goes into France with the English 
ambassador. A motion made by the French ambassador 
for duke d'Alen^on's matching xvith the queen. His qua- 
lities. Lord Binghley''s thoughts and advice concerning 
it. The queen irresolute. Sir Philip Sydney''s letter to 
her against the match with France. Cases of conscience 
in respect erf marrying with a papist; and suffering 
mass to be said. AnsiceredJ'avourably. 

W E will now return a little backward towards the begin- 
ning of this year, to take a view of the weighty affairs be- 
tween France and England. 
A league Sir Tliomas Smith and INIr. Walsingham were both now 

Fr^anceV ' i" France, soliciting a good league between the two king- 
doms ; and in the month of April effected it. Which was 
looked upon as an happy effect for this land. Smith certi- 
fied the lord treasurer, that at last they had concluded the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 211 

league. In this league the French obliged themselves not c H A P. 
to assist the Scottish queen ; being content to make no men- ^^^- 
tion of her, or of being her friend and ally; but gave her Anno 1572. 
over to the queen^'s majesty, whatsoever demands they had 
made for her before. And in all things they relented to her 
majesty ""s desire ; as Smith wrote ; so that they might have 
colour to save the king their master's honour. And here- 
upon the said ambassador added, he hoped and trusted, it 
was the best league that ever was made with France, or any 
other nation, for her majesty ""s surety. And within a day or 
two after, they hoped to sign the treaty. This was writ 
April 17; and April 20, Smith writeth the same from Blois 
to the queen. 

The French king's commissaries at this treaty were, The terms 
Francis duke of Montmorancy, Renatus Byragus, Sebastian tj'^j,^*^"" it' 
de Laubespine, eplscop. Lemovicensis, and Paulus de Foix. Cott. ubr. 
The queen's were, the said Smith and Walsingham. This ' 
was a confederacy, league, and union, for mvitual defence, 
against all persons of what order soever ; who under any 
pretence whatsoever, and any cause, none excepted, do in- 
vade or shall invade, the persons, or territories by them 
possessed. And this league to remain firm, not only be- 
tween the said princes, while they live, but also between 
their successors ; if the successor shall signify to the survi- 
vor within a year, by ambassadors and letters, that he re- 
ceiveth the same conditions. Otherwise the survivor shall 
be understood to be free of the observation of this league. 
And that the French should innovate nothing in Scot- 
land. 

In the next month. May the 7th, the said ambassador, I43 
Smith, reflecting; upon the benefit of this league, used these '^i^^ i^^n^fit 

1 n^l ■ • 1 1 • of this 

words ; " That now it could not be said, her majesty was al- league. 
" together alone, having so good a defence, of so noble and 
" courageous a prince, and so faithful of his word, and so 
" near a neighbour, provided for, and bespoken beforehand 
" against any need, partly that [of the Scottish queen] and 
" partly the troubles in Flanders. Which God, he said, 
" had provided to deliver his poor servants there from the 

p2 



212 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " Aiitichristian tyranny." But our ambassador, liowever 
wary cnougli, and suspicious of that court, saw not yet the 



Anno 157 2. dissimulation of that French potentate. 

Deiibera- But as this supposed good understanding with France 

sistaiice of' ^^^^ "^^^' effected for England, so it wanted defence from 

the prince another implacable and more formidable enemy, the power- 

" ' fill monarch of Spain. In order to which, another great 

matter was now in hand, and under consultation ; namely, 

concerning assisting the prince of Orange ; who headed the 

free people of the Low Countries, intolerably oppressed 

and tyrannized over by duke d'Alva, the king's great 

officer there. And because France, equally widi England, 

was in danger from that insulting prince, it Avas laboured, 

that both kingdoms should assist the said prince of Orange. 

Waising- Walsingham is (now in May) persuading the lord Burgh- 
ham moves ...,, .,.. „, 
it to the ley to join with them in their resistance or tliat oppressive 

lord Burgh- (Juke, and for aidino; them of the Low Countries. He sent 

ley, inoriler ' " • i i • 

to the safety a messenger that month, thi-oughly instructed touching 
of England, ^j^^ ^^^^^ ^£ ^l^^^ country, and the proceedings in Flanders ; 
and that he hoped, after that he had throughly debated 
the matter with him, it would manifestly appear unto him, 
that upon the good or evil success of this common cause of 
religion, and without the same Avell proceeded, her majesty 
could not promise to herself any great safety, having so 
dangerous a neighbour ; whose greatness should receive 
no small increase, if he overcame this brunt. And in another 
letter he Avrit, that he perceived, that if there Avere no as- 
sistance given underhand by her majesty, they should be 
driven to such inconveniences as should be laid upon them 
by the nation of France : and further, that they should be 
forced to consent to have Strozzi [a sea-commander belong- 
ing to the French] in Zealand ; unless they might have some 
supplies elsewhere. 
That it And in July he acquainted the same lord, that one of 

concerned i-y .i-i r- ,-r«'T •- c 

France and g^at credit, (sent thither, [i. e. to Fans,] as it seems, trom 
England to tj^g prince of Orano-e,) told him, that it behoved the queen 

join in aid- . *^, „ , , • , , . , . . . . „ 

ing the and the French king to consult jointly, in maintaining oi 
''"'"''■'■ that prince's enterprise. For that otherwise he saw many 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 21S 

reasons to induce him to think, that it would be dangerous chap. 
to them both ; especially to her majesty, considering the 



practices that reigned in her own country. Anno 1572. 

Walsingham shewing his zeal in this cause, Avrote also in Waisin^'- 

this aforesaid month to the great earl of Leicester, to the cester, to 

like purpose: "That to suffer that prince to miscarry, ^'"^ s^'"*^ 

• 1 1111 T 1 P^i'pose. 

" knowmg our own danger, were to lack both policy andjuiyae. 

" magnanimity. That we could not deny, but upon that 
" that lately was discovered, if God had not raised up that 
" prince of Orange to entertain Spain, a dangerous [flame] 
" ere this time had been kindled in her own home. To as- 144 
" sist him therefore, added he, was to assist ourselves. For 
" that we were to run one fortune with him. The difference 
" was, that by miscarriage the mischief should first touch 
" him, and then, consequently, as many of us as profess 
" one religion with him. For the supply that was given 
" by the pope, Florence, and divers catholic princes in 
" Germany, shewed, that the quarrel was mixed, and con- 
" sisted as well of religion as of state. That they failed 
" not to make distinction thereof. And therein, said he, 
" they shewed their courage and zeal. But contrariwise, 
" we [i. e. of the English court] do nothing underhand ; 
" and thereby we did discover both lack of zeal and cou- 
" rage." And here he made an observation ; " that no coun- 
" sellor's enterprise accompanied with fear had ever good 
" success. For there could be no greater enemy to sound 
" counsel than fear.'"' And then, speaking of the endeavours 
of those of Flanders made to the French king, to assist 
that prince, and about the queen's joining with that king 
therein; " Surely, said he, though it import that king 
" very much to look to it, yet that it more imported her 
" majesty, and to look for nothing else (Spain overcoming 
" this brunt) than the extremity of such mischief as he could 
" work her." And so he excites the earl of Leicester to for- 
ward this cause. 

And that these apprehensions of Walsingham were not The pope's 
groundless, in the month of May, he sent over from against 
France to the lord Burghley a gentleman, and with him England. 

p3 



214 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK certain advices out of Germany and Switzerland, which he 
had received, and that gentleman was privy to. Whereby 



Anno 1572. his lordship might perceive, that the holy father''s intention 

was, not only to trouble England, but all other places that 

professed the gospel. But now to return to this laboured 

friendship with France. 

The com- This league was afterwards confirmed and signed by very 

sent for the honourable ambassadors sent over on both sides ; viz. Mont- 

signing oi morancy from France, and the lord admiral from England. 

There were other commissioners appointed to go with 

Mon.Bat- Montmorancv. One whereof was monsieur de Battaile, who 

taile . 

died before he went. Of whom, this may en passant "be 
mentioned : that having dissembled his religion, either for 
fear or interest, before his death he much lamented the 
same ; and gave his advice to those about him, to resort to 
the reformed churches, and to bring up their children in 
the religion professed by the same ; as Walsingham thought 
fit to impart in one of his letters from France. 
Tiie recep- Great expectation there was of the coming of these am- 

tion of \ , • 1 • 1 • 1 

Montmo- bassadors ; the queen bemg determmed to receive them 
rancy here, ygj.y splendidly. At Dover were her officers of the house- 
hold ; and provisions there made for them. The earl of 
Pembroke, lord Windsor, lord Buckhurst, were there also 
with great and mighty trains. And the delay of the French 
(who made some stay in their coming) put the queen to 
vast charges. To court also at this time came flockins; 
such levies of ladies to attend, as their husbands cursed the 
delay, as the lord Burghley said between jest and earnest. 
Duke Montmorancy, with all his train, to the number of 
forty, was received with great honour, being entertained for 
meat and drink, each in their degrees; as it was to be af- 
145 firmed, (as the lord Burghley writ), the like had not been 
seen in any man's memory. That honour also done to him 
was such as her majesty could not do more, namely, in her 
courteous using of him, and by appointing sundry sorts of 
the nobility to attend him. The earl of Leicester feasted 
him. And at midsunniier the lord treasurer also feasted 
him and all his gentlemen, with a collation of all things 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 215 

that he could procure, beino; not flesh; to observe their CHAP. 

^ XVI. 
manner. 



His reward (though not so great as the lord treasurer Anno 1572. 
could have wished) was a cupboard of plate gilt ; a great 
cup of gold, of one hundred and eleven ounces ; and mon- 
sieur de Foix's was a cupboard of plate. 

The admiral that now went to France was accompanied Sir Philip 
with many young English gentlemen ; and among the rest, i,jto France 
sir Philip Sidney, then but young, about eighteen. The t*' t''^^^'- 
earl of Leicester his uncle writ to Walsingham at his go- 
ing, tenderly, concerning him, to this tenor : " That foras- 
" much as his nephew, Philip Sidney, was licensed to tra- 
" vel, and did presently repair unto those parts with the 
" lord admiral, he had thought good to commend him by 
*' those his letters friendly unto him, as unto one he was 
" well assured would have a special care of him during his 
*' abode there. That he was yovmg and raw, and no doubt 
" should find those countries and the demeanour of the 
" people somewhat strange to him. And that therefore his 
" [Walsingham''s] good advice and counsel should greatly 
" behove him for his best directions. Which he [the earl] 
" did most heartily pray him to vouchsafe him, with any 
" friendly assistance he should see needful for him. That 
" his father and he [the earl] did intend his further travel, 
" if the world were quiet, and he [Walsingham] should 
" think it convenient for him. Otherwise they prayed him, 
" that they might be advertised thereof; to the end the 
" same (his travels) might be thereupon directed accord- 
" ingly." What experience this young gentleman learned 
in France, and the small esteem he had for that court, we 
shall hear by and by. 

While Montmorancy was hei'e, transacting and confirming a motion of 
the treaty, another very weighty matter was in hand ; '^^nfie-^^^^^^'^j^jj^^' 
Jy, an earnest motion made by him for the queen's match- queen and 
ing with duke d''Alen9on, the French king's younger bro-j^jj^^^ 
ther ; (who was now but seventeen years of age.) A mat- 
ter very acceptable to many of the queen's subjects; and 
of the wisest and carefulest sort. Of those were the lord 

p 4 



21G ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK Biirghley and Walsingham. By the latter of these he was 
^' described advantageously, the better to recommend him to 
Anno 1572. the English court. That for his stature and proportion, he 
left it to be expressed by word of mouth by sir Thomas 
Smith, Mr. Killigrcw, and others, who had been lately in 
His quaii- France and seen him. That as for his conditions, generally, 
*oiidi"ioiis ^^is opinion was conceived of him, that he was of as good 
and tractable a disposition as any, either prince or gentle- 
man, in France ; and withal, both wise and stout, and sub- 
ject to the French lightness. So that they did apply to him 
the French proverb, Qiril a dc plume en son cerceau. 
That he Avas confiraied in it (beside the general opinon) by 
the admiral [Coligni,] count Rochefoucault, Tilligny, and 
146 others of the best judgment of the religion, with their 
earnest protestation ; so that he could not but credit the 
same. 
Admiral The admiral debated with "Walsingham (as he farther 

eames"tfor related to the lord Burghley) in this matter; and protested 
»t- sundry times to him, calling God to witness, that he would 

not advise the queen unto it, if he thought it would not 
prove both honourable, profitable, and comfortable, and for 
His reii- her safety. And for his religion, they had great hope, 
^'°"" grounded upon good conjectiu'e, that he was easy to be re- 

duced to the knowledge of the truth. Walsingham added, 
that for his part he had many great reasons to induce him 
to think, that if there were no other impediments than the 
use of his mass, that he would be easily induced to embrace 
the same. 
His affcc- And touching his affection towards the queen, Walsing- 
wanis"the ^^^"^ ^^^^ informed, that where it had been objected to him, 
(iiR-cn. that he would be glad to have the title of a king; he pro- 
tested, that if lie were not moved with a great and honour- 
able report of her majesty''s rare virtues, more than at any 
desires he had to a kingdom, he would never have desired 
the king, nor the queen his mother, to have made any men- 
tion thereof. 
The inciln- Touching the devotions of his followers and servants to- 
iiis ser- wards the propounded match, Walsingham tells, how he 

rants. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 217 

was informed, that they also earnestly desired the same; CHAP. 

especially those whose advice he chiefly used. Who though ;__ 

they were not of the religion, yet were not enemies to the Anno 1572. 
same ; and rather inclined that way than otherwise. Of the 
which a dozen of them were discharged of his brother's ser- 
vice in respect thereof. 

All this was in answer to what the lord treasurer Burgh- Lord Burgh- 

lev's IQ— 

ley had writ to Walsingham ; being willed by the greatest q„iries.a„d 
to require the said ambassador to use all good means pos- *!|?"=^^* °^ 
sible to understand what he could of that duke, viz. of his 
age, his stature, his conditions, his inclination to religion, 
his devotion this way, the devotion of his followers and ser- 
vitors. And hereof her majesty sought speedily to be ad- 
vertised. That she might resolve within a month. For the 
ambassadors, upon their going home, did what they could 
in that matter. Whereunto they had neither yea nor nay, 
but delay only for a month. That wise lord's present 
thoughts were, (as he signified in his correspondence to that 
English ambassador,) that he could not see in her majesty 
at that time any lack towards this, but in opinion for the 
age. Which defect, if it might be suppiied with some re- 
compence, it were meet to be thought of. He wished we 
mio-ht have Calais to the issue of their bodies : and he to be 
governor thereof during his life : so as the English might 
have security for their staple there. He wished also, that 
secretly the queen's majesty might be assured, that (al- 
though there be no contract therefore,) he would hear no 
mass after his marriage. 

But however this lord and tliat ambassador laboured to The differ- 
bring this marriage about, the queen, it appeared now by ^1^,;,^^^ ^^''y'^ 
the month of July, had httle inclination unto it. The dif- the queen, 
ference of age undoubtedly might be one cause. And thus 
did that lord express his mind in this matter to that ambas- 
sador in the month aforesaid: " That the queen found the 14/ 
" marriage to be necessary for her ; and yet the opinion of 
" others misliking of that party, for the person, did more 
*' hinder her purpose than her own conceit. And that he 
" saw such difficulties on both sides, that he could make no 



218 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
I. 

Anno 1572 



Sir Philip 
Sydney to 
the queen, 
dissuading 
her from 
marriage. 



MSS. Mich 
Hicks, eq. 



" choice for no marriage. That all evils must be looked 
" for; and for marriage without liking, no good could be 
" hoped thence. Therefore to God he left it. He saw, as 
" he added, his negotiations tliere full of perplexities ; and 
" prayed God to direct him : for he found the queen very 
" irresolute." 

Surely all this present negotiation about marriage was 
rather to blind the queen"'s and every Englishraan''s eyes, 
against the bloody massacre that was now hatching, and the 
next month executed. And further to blind her eyes, a 
messenger was sent this month to the queen, to tell her of 
the intended marriage of the lady Margaret with the king of 
Navarr, as though it was going now to be fair weather with 
the protestants. 

These amours were continued both this year and the 
next. I will draw what I find more of it into this place. In 
the midst of this wooing happened the bai'barous and in- 
human massacre in France, which justly put a stop to it : 
the English nation abhorring the action, and all those that 
were concerned in it. Among the rest, young Philip Syd- 
ney, that was at Paris at the execution, took the freedom to 
express his mind to the queen not long after, in a private 
letter, shewing his dissuasion from matching there, though 
witli all humble and dutiful address. The contents whereof, 
and some remarkable sentences, I have met with among 
some papers of sir Michael Hicks, sometime secretary to the 
lord Burghley ; which I shall here set down, (in the want of 
the complete letter,) both to give a light into this matter, 
and to preserve any remainders of that incomparable man. 

" To arm an excuse with reasons, were to acknoAvledge 
" that I did willingly amiss. It were folly to lay on fair 
" colours, where judgment is so ready to discern of the 
" thing itself, &c. Therefore bearing no other olive branch 
" of intercessions than my unfeigned good-will, nor using 
" any other information, &c. A matter of great import- 
" ance, importing both the continuance of your safety, and 
" the joys of my life ; shallow words, springing from the 
" deep well of affection. Having travailed long time in 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 219 

" thouoht do now declare; not able to suppress it any CHAP. 
longer, it striveth so vehemently to discover itself. 



" Nothing can be added to your estate, being already an Anno 1572. 
" absolute born, and accordingly reputed princess. As the 
" Irish are Avont to say. What need have they to do any 
" things that are rich and fair? So, what need have you 
" to change the course of your estate, settled in such a 

" calm To so healthful a body to apply so unsavoury 

" a medicine AVhat hope to recompense so hazard- 

" ous an adventure, as to alter so well a maintained and 

" approved trade ? Sudden change in bodies na- 

" tural, dangerous ; much more in politic. Hazard, then 
" meetest to be regarded, when the nature of the agent 

" and patient fitly composed to occasion them The 

" realm patient, majesty agent A true inward strength 

" resisteth outward accidents. An inward weakness doth 

" not lightly subvert itself without foreign force The 148 

" treasure, the sinews of the crown ; the league, the love of 
" the subject. 

" Two factions [the papist and the protestant] irrecon- 

" cileable By your dealings at home and abroad, 

" against our adverse party, you are so enwrapt to the 
" other, that you cannot pull yourself out. As a ship, al- 
" though it be beaten with waves and tempests, yet there 

" is no safety but within it The protestant the chief, 

*' if not your sole strength. They cannot be, nor look for 

" better estate than that they be Their hearts galled, 

'' if not aliened, when you marry a Frenchman and a pa- 
^^ pist : the son of the very Jezebel of our age ; although 
" fine wits excuse it. His brother [the French king Charles] 
" made oblation of his sister's marriage, [with the protestant 

" king of Navarr,] that he might massacre of all sexes 

" Himself, contrary to his promise and gratefulness, having 
" his [dependence] and chiefest estate by the Hugonots, 
" sacked la charite. This maketh all true religious to abhor 
^' such a master, and to diminish that love they have long 
" time borne you. 

" The papist spirits full of anguish, forced to [take] oaths 



220 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " [of allegiance, kc] they counted damnable Ambi- 

^- " tion stopt [Laid] in prison, disgrace, banishment 

Anno 1572." of their best friends Some think you an usurper. 

" Some think the king {your fatiier] is rightly disallowed 

" by the pope Burdened with the weight of their 

" consciences ["^fl^ey consist of] greater numbers, and 

" riches, because they have not offices laid upon them 

[They have] united minds, as all oppressed are. 

" Joined to these discontented persons, either for want ; 
" quibus opus est bello civ'ili, as Caesar said ; or such as 
" have high minds, and are not advanced. These men most 
" dangerous. They embrace all estates, and stay but ad- 
*' vantage of time. 

" I am glad, I may say, they did not prevail. For if 

" they had, it had been no time now to deliberate 

" These people want but a head, and such a head [as mon- 

" sieur] wanteth but a few of their instructions That 

" occasion, with a small show of title, [i. e. king of Eng- 
" land,] will do for a turn. Remember Warbeck ; and 
" Lewis the French king's son, in Henry the Third's time. 
" That monsieur is to be judged by his will and power. His 
" will is as full of high ambition as is possible. French dis- 
" position. His education is in constant attempts against 

" his brother. His thrusting into the Low Countries 

" Sometimes suitor to the king of Spain's daughter ; some- 

" times to you Carried away with every wind of 

" hope Taught to love greatness any way gotten 

" The motioners and ministers of his mind only young men, 
" that have seen no commonwealth. Defiled with odious 
" mux'der; apt to rebellion. 

" How will he be content to be the second person in Eng- 
" land, that cannot be in France, and heir apparent.'' His 

" power great The way will be made for him. Who 

" needs nought, but an head to draw evil humours Of 

" great revenues A populous nation of the world ; 

" especially of soldiers, that have leai-nt to serve without 

" pay, where their hope is the spoil His brother ready 

" to help for old revenges ; as also to keep him occupied 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 221 

« from troubling France ; and also to carry naughty fellows CHAP. 

" out of his country. — 

« King Philip and queen Mary, all of one religion. The ^"^^^ ^"'• 
" house of France ready to impeach any his attempts. And 
" yet, what might have been the event of that marriage, 

" your gracious reign hath made void Your realm 

" ready to receive hurt. M. [monsieur] ready to [take 
" hold of] the occasion to hurt [us in our] peace, and the 
" fruits of peace, 

" There cannot happen any thing more full of evident 

" danger to your estate royal Your person the scale 

" of our happiness. What good can come to balance with 

" the loss of so honourable constancy ? I will not shew 

" so much malice, as to object the doubts of the unhealth- 

" fulness of the whole race His proceedings in his suit 

« agree like hot and cold I will temper my speeches 

« from any particular disgrace, though never so true. ..... 

" If he come, either [he must] have the keys of your king- 
" dom, or live in lower reputation than his mind will bear ; 

" or depart far off, displeased more than before If it 

" be unprofitable for your kingdom, and unpleasant for 

" you, [it is] too dear a purchase for repentance You 

" can have by him no bliss but children He cannot 

" enrich you ; for he hath not ; or else to bestow other- 

u wise To ease you of the cares of government, is as 

« much as to ease you of being queen. This may hurt ; if 
" not, at the best, it cannot help. 

« The mention of charges, [viz. from] foreign fears, and 
" the Low Countries. Those buildings most firm that stand 

" upon their own foundation A true Masinissa 

« It were not fit to contrary the enterprises of mighty Car- 
« thage. And if it were, how can this be applied to M. 

" [monsieur.] Strongest leagues are made between 

" such as are joined by a vehement desire of a third thing : 

" ours a vehement fear ParaUels can never join truly, 

" because they maintain different ends Contrary prin- 

" ciples cannot beget one doctrine He a papist ; and 

" if he be a man, must needs have that manlike proportion, 



222 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK "to desire all to be of his mind. He desirous to make 
^' " France great. Your majesty meaneth nothing less than 



Anao 1572. " that it should grow so, especially by England He 

" by his own fancy, and youthful governors, embraceth all 
"ambitious hopes; having Alexander''s image in his hall, 
" ill painted. 

" Your majesty [taught] by virtue, if you should hope ; 

^' by wisdom, what you may hope Your council re- 

" nowned over all Christendom for their tempers and minds, 
" having set the uttermost of their ambition in your favour, 

" and the study of their souls in your safety No ex- 

" ample in the world fit to blazon you by. ..... No men 

" ever weary of a good prince. For either men never saw 
" other [than you,] or are too old to have joy, to seek 

" other Abuse in government ruineth of itself. Our 

" neighbour''s fire giveth us light to see our own quiet- 

" ness Examples of good princes [shew] the longer 

" they reign, the deeper they sink in the subjects' hearts. 
" The subjects willingly grant and dutifully pay subsidies, 
" and all impositions demanded. Less troublesome to you 
" now, in making request [for them] than in the beginning 
" of your reign. 
150 " For succession, albeit I have cast the uttermost anchor 
" of my hope ; yet for England's sake I will not say ought 

" against any such determination That uncertain good 

" shall bring contest to [obtain] good, beyond all reach of 

" reason The 7-is'mg sun first used by Scylla to Pom- 

" pey. Rising and Jailing dependeth upon a popular 

" choice In a lineal monarchy, when the infants suck, 

" where there is the love of their rightful prince, who would 
" leave the beams of so fair a sun, for the dreadful expe- 

" rience of a divided company of stars .'' Virtue and 

" justice [arc] the bands only of love By yovir loss 

" all blindness light upon him that seeth not our misery. 
" [It is time] to look after the ship brought, after we see 

" we cannot be safe in the ship [wherein we are.] The 

" best rule is to do so, as they may not justly speak evil of 
" you. Augustus the emperor [said,] But let them speak 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 223 

" evil, since tliey cannot do much hurt. Charles V. when CHAP. 
'' one said, Hollandois portent mal, answered, 3Ials ils pai- 



" ent Men Care not for the barking of curs, being Anno 1572. 

" carried upon the wings of innocence. 

" I durst with blood avow, never prince was had in more 
" precious account of her subjects. Some loose wretch may 
" defile such a name, but cannot raze out the impression of 
" love you have made in such a multitude of hearts. Their 
" love cannot fade, if you keep in your own likeness, and 
" alter not yourself in other colours. Metus in authorem 
" redit. 

" He can bring no more good than any body else ; evil he 

" may, [i. e. monsieur.] Either fear of that which can- 

'* not happen, or by him cannot be prevented You 

" have stood alone a great while. Take it for a singular 
" honour God hath done you, to be the only protector of 
" his church. And so may continue for worldly respects, 
" if you continue, and make religion your strength. And 
" those whom you find trusty, to be employed in the affairs, 
" to be held up in the eyes of your subjects. 

" This man, as long as he is but monsieur, in might can- 
" not stead you ; and being a papist, he will not. And if 
" he be king of France, his defence will be like Ajax"'s 
" shield, that rather weighed down those that bear it, than 
" defended them." 

For besides the disproportion of age, which was one of Two cases 
the queen's great objections, another obstacle to the current ^^^.^ ^,„,j' 
proceeding of this marriage was the matter of religion, it cerning this 
being looked upon as a matter of conscience. Which was 
reduced to two cases. The one was, whether it were lawful 
for a protestant to marry with a papist. And the other, 
whether the queen might permit to have mass said in her 
kingdom. For the better informing of the lord Burghley in 
both these, being the queen*'s greatest counsellor, and in 
whose advice she chiefly reposed herself, some learned di- 
vines were employed to write their judgments according to 
the word of God. There are several tracts I have met with 
among that lord's papers, written in resolution of both these 



nianiaj; 



224 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK questions, some negatively, and some affirmatively. Whei'ein 
objections were answered that made it unlawful : and a book 
Anno 1572. writ to that purpose confuted, in favour of the match. These 
tracts I look upon as vakiable, consisting of the arguments 
151 then made use of among the learned, in the points of differ- 
ence between the church of Rome and the protestants. They 
that are minded to consult them may read some of them in 
N". XV. the Appendix. But by assailing of the arguments and ob- 
xviii. jections made against the marriage, it appears how inclin- 
able and desirous the chief men generally were for the ac- 
complishing thereof. 
LordBurgh- J add to the rest what the lord treasurer wrote in March 
for thrpub- to Walsingham in France, as the resvdt of his serious 
lie in re- thoughts of this weio-htv matter : " That he saw the immi- 

spectofthis " . 

match. " nent perils to this state ; and namely, how long soever 
Amb^' " s^^ should by course of nature live and reign, the success 
" of this crown so manifestly uncertain, or rather too mani- 
" festly prejudicious for the state of religion, that he could 
" not but still persist in seeking for marriage for her ma- 
" jesty. And finding no way that was liking to her but 
" this with the duke, he did force himself to pursue it with 
" desire ; and did flatter himself with imaginations, that if 
*' he [the duke d''Alen9on] should come hither, her majesty 
" would not refuse him. And for his religion, methinks," 
added that lord, " if he were otherwise liked, he would not 
" lose a queen with a kingdom, for a priest's blessing of a 
" chalitse." 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 225 



CHAP. XVII. 

The massacre at Paris. Many nobles and others of the 
English nation preserved in Walsinghani's house there. 
Among the rest, Mr. Philip Sydney. Walsingham about 
departing home. The king relates to him the reason he^ 
tool: this course. Walsingham rarites of these matters 
into England. The French ambassador comes to the 
queen. Her excellent speech to him of the admiral's mur- 
der ; and her advice to the ling. Some account of the 
massacre. Nothing but extremity towards those of the 
religion. England noxo upon its guard. Roulaixl, a 
catholic, murdered. 

X5UT that hideous inhuman massacre of the king's pro- Anno 1 672. 
testant subjects in France, in this very juncture, broke ofFXhe massa- 
that pretendedly good understanding and friendship with ha'ppens^"* 
him, that the queen and her court were too credulous to be-a^^o"*^ this 

7 . ,. • • -n 1 1 • 1 -1 1 time of 

heve and to take a satisfaction in. l^or by this horrible act treaty with 
they might plainly see, how abhorred all those that pro-^'^"*^*^- 
fessed the true religion were to France. 

Walsingham, the queen's ambassador, was at this time in The Eng- 
Paris. And it was a wonderful escape he had, that in thatjf'^ *^y/" 

... tlie amlias- 

hot zeal for popery, he was not murdered, undistinguished, sador, and 
with the rest. For whether it were by some order from the ^aJfa^^rV.^ 
kino-, or otherwise, not only himself, but those of the Eng- 
hsh nation that could escape to his house, were preserved. 
And among the rest was one Tim. Bright, doctor of physic ; 152 
who divers years after, viz. anno 1589, pubhshed an abridg- Abridg- 
ment of John Fox's Book of Martyrs: and in his dedica- ;;^^^;^t «f "''' 
tion, which he made to sir Francis Walsingham, he remem- Martyrs by 
bered that great benefit that both he and many others, ^^g- ^i^^,l^, *' 
lish, and of other nations too, strangers then in Paris, re- 
ceived ; being preserved in his house from being massacred. 
" And so the benefit was common to many. ~^And that his 
" lordship's house at that time was a very sanctuary, not 
" only to all of our nation, but even to many strangers then 
" in Paris, that were virtuously disposed to true religion. 
VOL. II. Q 



226 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " So was it therefore the most memorable deliverance, and 
" far more honourable, and bound him, as he said, with 



Anno 1572." great obligations of thankfulness; who thereby had cause 
" to rejoice, not only for his own safety, but for so many of 
" his countrymen, partly of his acquaintance, and partly of 
" noble houses of this realm ; who had all tasted of the 
" rage of that furious tragedy, had not his honour shrouded 
" them." 

Among the Several of the privy council declared themselves beholden 

rest Mr. . i J 

piiiiip Syd- to Walsingham for the harbouring these gentlemen : many 
"^y- whereof were related to them ; as they did msely in retiring 

thither. And in this emergence they desired the ambassa- 
dor to advise those gentlemen to return home, as their safest 
course, having seen enough of France. And particularly 
for the lord Wharton, (whose schoolmaster was slain,) and 
Mr. Philip Sydney, to procure the king's licence and con- 
duct to come thence. And further advised him, that if he 
could get leave from the king, to come home too, till mat- 
ters were better settled there ; (and that so was the queen"'s 
mind;) leaving a secretary there. But the queen afterwards 
was unwilling yet to send for him. The lord treasurer and 
secretary Smith (knowing the worth of the man, and the 
danger he was in) had been suitors to her majesty, more 
ui)'onsend- than oucc, for his return: which she at length granted, and 
iiig for her j^j^^j^ strait revoked, the letters being written, and immedi- 
home. ately called back. So that in a letter to him, dated Septem- 
ber the 12th, the secretary told him, he saw he must endure 
there for a time, which he trusted would not be long. 
falsing- About this very time came to the court three gentlemen, 

ham's dau- . » i i i p -n i t i 

ger told hy VIZ. Fawntc, Argol, and South, from France; who did am- 
from ^°^'^ V^^^y ^^^ ^^'^^^^ disorders there ; and thej-eupon Walsingham's 
thence. danger, that was talked of in every man''s ears. Whereof his 
friends made relation to the (jueen. Tiie effect was, finally, 
that she was content to write her letter for his return to the 
French king, dated from Woodstock. Which letter, when 
the said ambassador had delivered to the king, he would 
not yiekl to the revocation ; saying, that he must then recall 
his ambassador at the English court, which would look as 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 227 

if the amity were broke : and therefore prayed Walsingham CHAP, 
to speak no more of it. And so he continued there still. 



But to look a little upon this massacre, and the behaviour Anno 1572. 
of the king after it was done, and the consequences and to'the^kinl^ 
effects of it with respect to the English court. But a day "po" the 
or two after, (viz. August 26,) Walsingham sent his secre- with the 
tary to the queen-mother, willing him, in his name, to thank answer, 
her and the king for the great care it pleased them to have 
of his safety, and for the preservation of the English nation 153 
in this last tumult: and that he would not fail to make ho- 
nourable report of it unto the queen's majesty, his mistress. 
And the secretary was to add, that since there were divers 
reports made of the late execution there, and that he [the 
ambassador] would be very loath to credit reports ; that it 
would please their majesties to send him the very truth ; to 
the end he might accordingly advertise the queen"'s majesty. 
The answer of the queen-mother was, that the king and she 
gave special command, that good regard were had of him, 
and all the English, as a thing that tended to the preserva- 
tion of good amity between the king and the queen's majesty. 
And that if he could devise any better means for his greater 
safeguard, he would give them understanding thereof. To 
the second message, she said, that monsieur La Mot, the 
French ambassador, had, she doubted not, advertised the 
queen's majesty of the late accidents there. Nevertheless, 
to gratify him, she would cause secretary Pinart to send him 
an abstract of that which the king before had sent to his 
ambassador there resident. This abstract Walsingham re- 
ceived, and sent it to Smith enclosed in this letter, wherein 
he informed him of all this. And added, that the duke of 
Nevers had shewed himself much affected to the English 
nation ; who spared not to come and visit Walsingham in his 
own person, with offer of all kind courtesy, not only to him, 
but to divers other English gentlemen. And besides, enter- 
tained three English gentlemen, that otherwise had been in 
great j.eopardy of their lives. 

Soon after, viz. the 1st of September, the king (whose Tiie kin- 
business now was to excuse his barbarity as well as he could) waising. 

Q 2 I''""- 



228 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK sent for the English ambassador, and withal sent two per- 
sons of eminency, and a dozen other gentlemen, to conduct 



Anno i572.hini safely. Being come into his presence, he told him, he 
sent for him to satisfy him of the late execution, whereof, he 
said, men might judge diversely ; and that he had, for the 
satisfying of the world, caused the process to be made of the 
admiral, [Coligni murdered in his bed,] and the rest of the 
conspirators. And that as soon as it should be finished, he 
would not fail to send it unto her majesty, his good sister ; 
who, he did assure himself, would interpret in good part his 
doings. He being constrained, to his great grief, to do that 
which he did for his own safety sake ; and which if he had 
not done, both he himself, his mother, and brethren, had been 
in danger of their lives. And that he desired nothing more 
than to continue, or rather increase, amity with her majesty. 
And therefore hoped, that she would not take occasion, upon 
this late proceeding, to suspect the contrary. To which 
Walsingham gave a prudent and agreeable answer to the 
Discourse king. And then he made the king acquainted, that three 
tiiem. of this nation were slain, and that divers were spoiled. For 

which, when the king shewed himself to be very sorry, and 
said, that if the offenders of that party could be produced, 
there should be exemplary justice used, Walsingham said, 
it would be hard to produce them, the disorder being so 
general, and the sword being committed to the common 
people. 

Afterwards the queen-mother, to disguise the matter, sent 
a writing to him, to be sent to the queen, expressing the 
154 summary of this fact: which seemed to be described in a 
disguised method, to cover the execrable manner thereof. 
And being in her presence, she shewed him, that the king''s 
meaning was, that the heads of the conspirators being now 
The queen- takcu away, to continue the edicts, and that every man 
'p*'^."^'^,'' should live in repose and liberty of his conscience. But this 
tion con- was Only still to blind the poor protestants, that they being 
nrotesunts. "ow sccurc, might in greater numbers fall into the hands of 
the butchers, and not stand upon their own guard, nor to re- 
venge themselves. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 229 

For Walsingham, in his coi'respondence with secretary CHAP. 
Smith, let him understand, in a letter dated September 13, 



that albeit it was shewn him, that the heads being taken Anno 1572. 
away, the meaner sort should enjoy, by virtue of the edicts, ^0^* j'ljYve 
both lives and goods, and liberty of their consciences ; which the liberty 
notwithstanding also was assured by print, [which print he sciences, 
enclosed in his letter,] yet nothing thereof was performed ; 
but all extremity used. Which manner of proceeding was 
by the catholics themselves utterly condemned, as he added. 
And that they desired to depart thence out of such a coun- 
try, to quit themselves of this strange kind of government ; 
for that they saw none could here assure themselves either 
of goods or life. 

He further gave him intellisrence : That even still at The cruel- 
Xions, Bourdeaux, and Orleans, great and most barbarous L„ons 
cruelties had been executed. And that at Orleans divers of bourdeaux, 
the Almains had been slain and spoiled. The most part of leans, 
them put to the ransom. For that since justice took not place 
there, they forbore to require redress, but departed thence 
with great desire of revenge. And further, that they were 
preparing the Bastile for some persons of quality : and it 
was thought it was for the prince of Conde and his brethren. 
Marshal Montmorancy was commanded, as it was said, to 
keep his house, and to forbear to make any assembly. 

The news of this cruelty was soon brought to England N^ws 

. 1 • • 1 brought 

by several first, that escaped from Diep ; brmgmg the news hither of 
of the admiraFs murder, with a great multitude of the reli- *^^ massa- 
gion, on the 24th of August, in a most cruel sort : as upon 
the first intelligence thereof the lord treasurer, the earl of 
Leicester, and others of the privy council, wrote, September 
9, unto Walsingham ; and that it gave to her majesty no 
small cause of grief: and so much the more, in that she 
could hear no manner of certainty thereof from him. Of 
whose person also in such a horrid time, her majesty was 
very careful. And notwithstanding the French ambassador The queen's 
affirmed to her, that he was in safety, she was not quiet in ^y^igj"^. 
mind for him, until his own servant came, who had stayed ham. 
long in Bulloin for a wind. 

q3 



230 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK In the mean time the king, as soon as might be, ordered 

^- La Mot to represent this bloody fact of his, as fair as might 

Annoi572.be; namely, that he was of necessity, for safeguard of his 

La Mot's WfQ^ forced to cause such execution to be done upon the ad- 

the queen mii'al and his accomplices : for that he and they had con- 

of the cause spire(j his death. Of which matter the kinar was very well 
of this exe- ^ •/.• »iii- iii 

cation. able to make a verification. And that her majesty should 

155 shortly see, by the process of the admiral then in making. 
And that nothing was meant by the king against the cause 
of religion. 
To prevent For thus he related the matter to the queen and council, 
conlplracy^ when he came to the court ; that when his master the king 
to seize the heard that the admiral was wounded, (which he was two 
° days before, being shot out of a window,) he was greatly 

grieved thereat, and that he determined to have done due 
justice upon the authors of it. In which mind he continued 
until Saturday, [two days after,] late at night. At which 
time advertisement was given him, that the admiral and his 
friends had concluded not to expect the order of the king 
for the punishment of the fact, but would avenge them- 
selves ; and that they would certainly seize the person of 
the king, queen-mother, and his brethren : and so his per- 
son and theirs should be in danger, and a new war should 
thereby be begun. And to make this to be true in the king's 
sight, it was also informed, that some such as were of this 
confederacy with the admiral had for conscience sake dis- 
closed the same ; and that it Avas made the more probable to 
the king, by reason of certain bold speeches used by Teligny 
[the admiral's son-in-law] to the king. Whereupon, said 
the ambassador, the king was so daunted with the present 
fear of his own person, and his mother, and his brethren, 
and of the imminent danger of a new civil war ; and being 
thus overcome with this extremity, and having no time 
long to deliberate thereupon, (scarce the space of an hour,) 
he was in this manner forced to yield to another extremity ; 
which was, to suffer the parties that were enemies to the ad- 
miral to proceed to the execution of him, although not with 
such a general fury as was used. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 231 

After the ambassador had made this fan- story, he prayed CHAP, 
the queen to shew her compassion of the king, rather than ^^^^' 
to condemn him, making great assurance of the king"'s in- Anno 1572. 
nocency herein ; for the intention of his own part being ©nly 
for his defence and safety, against the perils discovered to 
him by the informers. And that the king might find com- 
fort of her, in condohng witli him for this so miserable and 
lamentable an accident. 

But all this was but a second invention to palliate this 
crime, and a purpose of committing more. For the king's 
first report of it to the queen, by his own letters, was quite 
different ; whereby the English court concluded all to be but 
fable, with intent to put a false covering over that horrible 
fact. For thus did the lord Burghley declare the matter in 
his correspondence with Walsingham. 

" The French ambassador, in his negotiation, did seek to A fable in- 
" persuade us, that the king was forced, for safety of his cover'the 
" own life, to cause that execution to be done as it was ; and murder of 
" that thereof we should see the proofs by the admiral's ' """^"^ ' 
" process. And then added. You may imagine how hard a 
" thing it is for us to be persuaded against our natural 
" senses. And how they will accord these two jars, we 
*' know not : for the king's letters first written after the ad- 
*' mu'aPs death did declare it to be done in manner of sedi- 
" tion, and privately, by the house of Guise; who were 
" afraid that the admiral and his friends would pursue 
" against them the avenge for his hurt, [by shooting him.] 
" And that the king's own guard [which he sent to be] 
"about the admiral, was forced; and the king himself 156 
" driven to hold the guards about him in the Louvre for 
" his defence. And now yet it must needs be notified, that 
" the king did, for his own security, cause the execution to 
" be done." 

But this latter pretence the aforesaid privy counsellors, in The queen's 
their letter, soon acquainted Walsingham with; namely, P^"^*'^"*^^"' 
how that ambassador disguised the black business, and made French am- 
a fair tale of the admiral's intention to seize the king, the ^^^^ "'^' 
queen-mother, and his brethren. The said counsellors did 

Q 4 



232 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK then shew him, how very wisely and princely the queen an- 
^- swered the ambassador, viz. to this efFect : " That although 
Anno 1572. «' upon the first report of the general murder of so many, 
" beino- all under his protection in the principal city, it was 
" very hard to conceive well of the king, yet it had been 
" her former opinion of the singular integrity of his actions ; 
" and namely, of his many outward favours that he had, 
" since the time of the admiral's coming to his presence, 
" shewed him and his friends, that howsoever this fact of 
" itself, with the circumstances of so many horrible murders, 
" did outwardly charge the king with all manner of dis- 
" honour that might touch a prince ; yet she, particularly 
" for reverence of his princely state, for her love she bare 
" him ; and finally, for that she had not yet received the in- 
" formation from him, did determine with herself not to 
" pronounce any evil judgment of the king, nor yet to con- 
" ceive that which the most part of all others did conceive 
" of him. 

" But now that she had heard (as she proceeded) by him, 
" the ambassador, in what sort the king had willed him to 
" declare the process thereof, she did much desire the con- 
" sideration of the king's honour, and the continuance of 
" the amity with him. And that she most heartily willed 
" that he might so use the matter in time, as the world 
" micrht find him excusable in one of these two sorts ; that 
" is, that either it might be made manifest to indifferent 
" persons, (that is, to such as were not known to have borne 
" deadly malice to the admiral and his party, now^ mur- 
" dered,) that if the confirmation that was given to the king, 
" of the admiraPs evil intention and conspiracy against him, 
" were grounded upon truth, and not upon malice or pre- 
" text, and if the information might be verified, then might 
*' the kino- be excused in some part, both towards God and 
Her dis- " the world, in permitting the admiraPs enemies by force to 
course with u prevent his enterprises. Although, indeed, the same in- 

liun about " . , , , i i> ^u U 

the murder " formations had been true, yet the manner ot the cruelty 

miraf &c " "^^^^ (^^ ^^^^ '^^^"^ "" ^^'^'^^) ^^"^^ ""^ ^^ allowed in any 
" kingdom or government ; and least in that place where 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 233 

the king might, by order of justice, have done due execu- CHAP. 
tion, both to the admiral and all others that should have ^^^^• 



proved offenders. For (as she said) it could not be de- Anno 1572. 
nied, but the same force that murdered so many mul- 
titudes, might more easily have attached them all, or the 
principals; and brought them to answer to justice, when 
the king would. And of all other the admiral, being on 
his bed, lamed both on his right hand and left arm, lying 
in danger under the care of chirurgeons ; being also 
guarded about his private house with a number of the 
king's guards, and so might have been, by a word of the 
king's mouth, brought to any place, to have answered, 
when and how the king should have thought meet. 
" But the fault thereof, (as she continued,) as to the dis- 157 
order of proceeding, however the information had been 
true, she forbore to impute to the king ; but left the same 
to the burden of others about him, whose age and know- 
ledge ouffht in such a case to have foreseen how offenders 
ought to be punished with the sword of the prince, and not 
with the bloody swords of murderers, being also the mortal 
enemies of the party murdered. The information whereof, 
for the recovery of the king's honour, (which was by the 
facts of others herein greatly touched,) she left to the king 
to be considered, and willed him opportunity to do what 
should be to God's honour and to his own praise. 
" But on the other side, (as the queen more closely sug- Her serious 
gested,) if such information, so suddenly given to the ji^g ^in„°j,^ 
king against the admiral, should not be duly and mani- this emer- 
festiy, without subornation, proved true, (as thei'ein surely 
the manner of the circumstances did lead all indifferent 
persons to think the same not only falsely forged, of pri- 
vate deadly malice to the admiral and his party, but also 
perilously devised, to weaken the king's estate, and to de- 
prive him of the great honour and surety that daily was 
growing unto him by counsels or services of the said ad- 
miral, and his friends, now murdered,) her majesty then 
found the cause of so great importance to be pitied ; wish- 
ing him to have grace to use his power, by faithful coun- 



234 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " sellors and servants, to make an example to the world of 
" the same manner of punishment on such detestable traitor- 
Anao 1572." ous attempts: whereby his honour, which was then much 
" blemished, might be saved ; but principally himself and 
" his person and surety be in good time provided for. And 
" further, she added, that if it should please him therein 
** to require the use of her advice, and of her assistance, 
*' she should not fail but to shew herself in this time a per- 
" feet friend to him, by all good means that were in her 
" power." 
The queen's Then particularly, as to the admiral, she subjoined, 
thepmtes" " That she was very sorry for his death, as for one whom 
tants' tak- a g^g tliought a very good minister to continue amity be- 
arms. " tween them two. And for the rest of the noblemen, she 

" had reason to bewail them for the like cause. And that 
" as he, the French ambassador, could well tell, she could 
" never allow of the taking up of arms contrary to the king''s 
*' commandment. But now perceiving of the king's receiv- 
" ing them to grace, and taking them to his protection, and 
" that it was by consequence of things manifest, that the 
" taking of arms was not against the king's state or person, 
" but to defend themselves in the profession of their reli- 
" gion, according to the king''s own edicts and grants, she 
" did greatly lament their deaths; and that she did surely 
" persuade herself, that if the king should not use his power 
" to make some amends for so much blood, so horridly shed, 
" God, who saw the hearts of all, as well princes as others, 
" would shew his justice in time and place ; when his honour 
" should therein be glorified, as the author of all justice, and 
*' the revenger of all bloodshedding of the innocent."" 

I could not abridge this noble and admirable admonition 
of the queen, to that king's ambassador, shewing botli her 
wisdom and piety, and intimating this treachery to be too 
158 broad to be covered from her by any pretences; and fore- 
warning that king of divine justice and revenge; which, in- 
deed, as a prophecy, fell upon him most remarkably but the 
next year. 
The piocess jj. ^^y Y)e observed here, by the way, that when the queen 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 235 

had desired for her satisfaction that she might understand CHAP. 

particularly the conspiracy of the admiral, which was made ;__ 

the ground of the massacre; and which both the queen- Anno 1572. 
mother and the king had promised, viz. that the process J^^^'^'J^^ "^* 
against him should be transmitted to her, as was related be- the queen, 
fore ; it was not done October 8, pretending it was not yet 
ready. And then Brulart, that came from the king to Wal- 
singham, told him, it should be sent to the queen as soon as 
it was finished ; though, he added, the king had hoped, that 
without further suspense she would have given credit to 
him, as he would have done in the like case to her. 

It would be too tedious to relate all the particulars of this 
massacre. Only that this age may have some idea of such 
a never-to-be-forgotten wickedness, brought about by popish 
zealots, take it from a French historian, that writ the history 
of France, from the reign of Henry II. to Henry IV. French 
kings, translated into Enghsh. The beginning of it was 
thus : " The palace clock struck. Then a noise was heard An account 

^ .of the nias- 

" about the streets of Pans, that the Hugonots were m arms, s^cre. 

*' (they being in their beds,) and meant to kill the king, H^_^story of 

" &c. The gentlemen, officers of the chamber, governors, chap. ix. 

" tutors, and household servants of the king of Navarr and?-^^^'- 

" prince of Conde, were driven out of their chambers, where 

" they slept, in the Louvre ; and being in the court, mas- 

" sacred in the king's presence. The like was done to the 

" lords and gentlemen that lay about the admiral's lodgings ; 

" and then throughout the town, in such sort, that the num- 

" ber slain that Sunday night, and the two days ensuing, 

" within the city of Paris and the suburbs, was esteemed to 

"be about 10,000 persons; lords, gentlemen, pages, ser-Thenum- 

" vants, and of all sorts; justices, scholars, lawyers, pby si- sacre™.^^' 

" cians, merchants, artificers, women, maids, boys ; not 

" sparing httle children in the cradles, or in their mothers' 

« bellies." 

The courtiers of the king's guard, and strangers, that 
massacred the gentlemen belonging to the king of Navarr 
and prince of Conde, said, that in one day, by weapons, 
they had ended those processes, which pen, paper, sentences 



236 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK of justice, and open war, could not find the means to exe- 
______ cute in twelve years'" space. These honourable lords and 

Anno 1572. gentlemen protestants, slanderously accused of conspiracy 

^anderous- ^"^^ practice against the king, being stark naked, thinking 

ly of con- only upon their rest, scarce awakened, unarmed, in the 

against the hands of infinite cruel, crafty, and treacherous enemies, not 

*'»°S' having so much leisure as to breathe, were slain, some in their 

beds, others upon the roofs of houses, and in whatever other 

place they might be found. 

The admi- The admiral's head was carried and presented to the king 

^nt t'o*"^ ^"^ ^^ ^^^^ queen-mother ; and then embalmed, and sent to 

Rome. Rome, to the pope, and the cardinal of Lorain. The common 

people cut off his hands and his privy members, and drew 

his body for the space of three days about the city. Which 

done, it was borne to the gibbet of Montfaucon, and there 

hanged by the feet. 

1.59 " Let the reader herein consider, (saith that French au- 

Tde num- a ^i^qy.) how Strange and horrible a thing it was in a great 

ber and ' *=" .,.,., 

cruelty of " town, to sce at least 60,000 men, with pistols, pikes, 

throats*" " courtlasses, poniards, knives, and other such bloody in- 

" struments, run, swearing, and blaspheming the sacred ma- 

" jesty of God, through the streets, and into the houses ; 

" where most cruelly they massacred all whosoever they 

" met, without regard of estate, condition, sex, or age. The 

" streets paved with bodies cut and hewed in pieces ; the 

" gates and entries of houses, palaces, and public places, 

" dyed with blood ; shoutings and hallooings of the mur- 

" derers, mixed with continual noises of pistols and calivers 

" discharged ; the pitiful cries and shrieks of those that 

" were murdered ; slain bodies cast out at windows upon 

" the stones, drawn through the dirt, with strange noises 

" and whistlings ; breaking of doors and windows with bills 

" and stones, and other furies ; the spoiling and sacking of 

" houses; carts, some carrying away the spoils, and others 

" the dead bodies, which were thrown into the river of Seine, 

" all now red with blood, which ran out of the town, and 

" from the king's own palace.'' 

The ven- And hcncc the aforesaid writer makes this observation : 
geance of 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 237 

Since that time, by that which happened to that French CHAP, 
king, Charles IX. his brother and successor, his mother. 



" his bastard-brother, the house of Guise, the town of Paris, Anno 1572. 
" and all the realm of France, i^ the space of twenty years ^°'^j'"' *^'* 
" after this massacre, it sufficiently appeared, that God re-markabie. 
" vengeth the blood of innocents, and that their death is 
" precious in his sight." 

But this slaughter of those of the religion ended not so ; Nothing 
for there was nothinj]^ meant but extremity towards them. ''"* ^''*'^^*, 

° •/ mity meant 

On the 14th of September, as the ambassador there wrote towards 
to secretary Smith, the young princess of Conde was con- J]°t1o° ^ 
strained to go to mass, being threatened otherwise to go to 
prison ; and so consequently to be made away with. The 
prince of Conde yielded also to hear mass upon Sunday en- 
.suing, being otherwise threatened to go to the Bastile; 
where he would be not like long to abide. And yet the 
Friday before, the queen-mother told him, [Walsingham,] 

nobody's conscience [so writ undoubtedly to be filled 

up in words at length, after this manner,] should he con- 
strained or forced. For, said she, here is the king of Navarr, 
the prince of Conde, and divers others in this court, that 
live with liberty of conscience, and so shall continue. And 
then, after some ciphers, Walsingham adds, " And there- 
" fore I hope her majesty will stand upon her guard, and 
*' strengthen herself with the amity of the protestant princes The pro- 
" of Germany : who, as he heard, were awakened, and mar- *^!'^''"* , 

*' , ' princes of 

" vellously stomached this late cruelty ; and thought that Germany 
" the danger thereof would reach to themselves, if they did ^^^'*'*^°^'^- 
" not seek to prevent it." And then by some other ciphers 
he seems to reflect upon the queen of Scots, and the queen's 
danger by means of her. And advises, that she would not Walsing- 
suffer herself to be abused by her fair speech, having so late Jf^'"'^ '"^" 
experience of her faithless dealing ; and that when once the 
king was possessed of Rochel, which he hoped to have 
shortly, Strozzi was then to go directly for Scotland. 

And indeed this warning the Enghsh court took; andl6o 
upon this news immediately put itself into a posture of de- England 
fence, reckoning that this practice looked over hither. Thus itself upon"^ 



238 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK the lord treasurer piously and providently spake to his cor- 
, respondent in France : " 1 see the Devil is suffered by Al- 



Anno 1572. a mighty God for our sins to be strong in following the per- 
these popish ^j gccution of Christ's members. We are vigilant in our own 

practices. " 

Lord trea- " defence against such treacherous attempts as have lately 
surer^s let- u [jcen put in use there, in France. And also call ourselves 
19.' * " to repentance. A national fast being appointed on this 
" occasion. All the seacoast was put in defence, and the 
*' queen's navy sent to sea with speed : which was so to con- 
" tinue, until they saw further whereunto to trust." And 
tliis was to secure themselves against a fleet preparing by 
Strozzi, (as Walsingham had informed.) Although the 
French ambassador told the court, that the king willed him 
to assure her majesty, that his navy should not any ways en- 
danger her. On which that wise lord said. We have great 
cause in these times to doubt all fair speeches. 
All the Hu- rp^ shew further the extremity used towards the Hugonots, 

gonots _ _ '' _ o ' 

lands to be Walsinffham save intelligence, that all their lands (amount- 
*° ' ing to many millions) were to be sold, and employed in the 

conquests of countries. But he added, that he hoped in 
God it would prove an account without the host ; if God do 
not blind the eyes of the princes of the world : who, joining 
together, should be able to make their parts good against any 
of those that had will to do them liarm. 
One Rou- Nav, one Roulart, a catholic, canon of Notre Dame, and 

lart, a ca- •" 

thoiic, mur-also a counsellor in the parliament, uttering certain speeches 
prison" ""* mislike of these lawless kind of proceedings without jus- 
tice, was apprehended, and committed to prison ; and in 
prison murdered, as disorderly as any of the rest : where- 
with divers of the catholics themselves were offended. On 
which occasion Walsingham reported, that this manner of 
proceeding bred general mistrust in them of the nobility, and 
every man feared God's vengeance. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 239 

CHAP. XVIII. 161 

The motion renewed for the marriage. Walsingham de- 
clares his scruples to that court. An interview desired 
betzoeen the queen-mother and queen Elizabeth. 'The jea- 
lousy conceived thereof. Declined. The French''s dissimu- 
lation. Walsingham'' s letter thereupon. The resentments 
of the English coiLrt. Still more bloodshed. The Mng 
hurt. Ttoo put to death as conspirators : unjustly. The 
French king sends to the queen to christen his daughter. 
Her excellent ansioer. England a harbour for the per- 
secuted French protestants. The queen protects them. 

jDUT notwithstanding this cruel execution, the king and Anno 1572. 
the queen-mother were soon after for putting forward the Tf"^ match 
marriage between duke d^'Alen^on and the queen; and queen 
called upon the English ambassador to further it ; and in "Joy*^^ 
order to that, for an interview. But he shewed what little 
stomach he had now thereunto. And the queen-mother 
asking him the reason, he replied, that this last strange ac- 
cident had bred in men discourses, opinions, and mistrusts ; 
among the which he was not free from his doubts and suspi- 
cions. And that touching the scruples he had of the king's 
and her sincere meaning in respect of the marriage, he had 
three reasons, as he frankly told them, that moved him 
thereunto. 

First, the violating of the late edict, [whereby the king 
granted the Hugonots the free use of their religion,] and 
the present severity used against those of the religion. Se- 
condly, the strange dealing in the first match propounded 
[with his other brother, the duke d'Anjou.] And thirdly, 
certain discourses then given out concerning conquering 
England and Ireland. 

Touching the first, he shewed the queen-mother, that the The scru- 
chiefest cause that moved the queen, his mistress, to make P'''* "°^. 
account of the amity of that crown was, that the king suf- by the nm- 
fered certain of his subjects to enjoy, by virtue of his edict, ''^*''^'''"'- 
the exercise of the same religion her majesty professed. 
Which was, he said, the chiefest ground of the league. 



240 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK Which being taken away, that amity could not but grow 
doubtful. And that the matter of an intej-mew was sus- 



Anno i572.pected but to serve for an entertainment. To the second, 
he shewed how this late accident gave vehement suspicions, 
that the first match propounded was but a kind of enter- 
tainment, to abuse those of the religion. And that the dis- 
courses, though they did but move mean personages, (and 
he hoped their majesties were free from any such intention,) 
yet the strangeness of the late accident could not altogether 
rest free from it. 
162 After she had made him some reply, he added, that he 

His fears offgj^j.gj this late Severity executed there, in Paris, would 

war from _ •' _ _ 

protestant make all princes of the religion to repute the same a gene- 
P"nces. j^j (Jenunciation of war against them ; and which he feared 
would prove as bloody as ever war that happened ; whereof 
he thought the benefit would chiefly grow to the Turk. 
What the And further, the queen instructed him to declare her 
reeled to be i^i^c^ i^^w to that king on this juncture; that for the king 
said to the ^q destroy and utterly root out of his realm all those of that 
king. religion that she professed, and to desire her in marriage 

for his brother [at this time,] must needs seem to her at the 
first a thing very repugnant in itself; especially, having be- 
fore confirmed that liberty to them of that religion, by an 
edict of his, perpetual and irrevocable. 
The queen- But to look a little more upon the intervicxv before 
moves for mentioned. Notwithstanding the late bloody business, the 
an inter- queeu-mother had the confidence, but the next month, viz. 
in September, and almost in the midst of the tragedies in 
France, to propovmd this interview between queen Eliza- 
beth and herself; hoping that by speeches with her to do 
more in forwarding this match with her younger son, than 
by any other way of ambassage ; and to make a quicker 
despatch. And for that end, the cunning and intriguing 
queen offered to come with her son as far as Calais or Bul- 
loign ; and queen Elizabeth to come to Dover. But she be- 
gan now justly to be more wary and suspicious of the 
French. And so in her instruction, wrote this month to her 
ambassador, she signified; directing him to tell the king, 



view. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 241 

that she must needs deal plainly, that this murdeiing of CHAP, 
the admiral, and of so general slaughter of them of the re- ^^'^^- 
ligion, had made such alteration in her majesty, and moved '^""o i''72. 
such doubts in her mind, that she knew not how to interpret 
of the offers of this marriage and of this interview ; espe- 
cially, since the king also had said nothing concerning it. 
The queen-mother's motion was, that they might have a 
communication upon the sea between Dover and Calais, or 
Bulloign ; a matter that seemed strange to the queen ; 
and the more, since the French ambassador had moved the 
queen, that the queen-mother, with her son, was willing to 
come into the realm at such place, and Avith such numbers, 
as her majesty should allow. And that the queen had said, 
she would be better advised by her own ambassador ; who 
should have charge afterwards to understand iier mind and 
the king's. And that upon knowledge thereof, she herself 
would come to a further resolution. 

In short, the queen suspected treachery herein. For the The French 
king at this time kept a great navy and army near Buj._ li'i'S '"iti' 
deaux and Rochel, under the command of Strozzi. Where- abroad, 
by her majesty's merchants, who were wont all the year, s",)'^'^ ''j*^ 
and especially about this time [of vintage,] to traffic that ''»'' •"P'"- 
way for wines and other commodities, divers of them hadghips.^ 
been of late spoiled thereabouts by Strozzi's band, not only 
of victuals and munition, but of money and merchandises, 
and some of them also of their lives. And therefore the 
queen bade her ambassador to require the king to let her 
understand what the meaning might be of that navy. 

In the next month, viz. October, a motion was made again iGS 
by the queen-mother of France, for an interview to be before ^ '"otjoti 
the twentieth of that month ; and the place to be the isle of an inter- 
Jersey. Which the lord Burghley, by word of moutli, told^|.'j"^j ''''" 
the ambassador, seemed to her majesty to be so strange, 
both for time and place, as that if tlie ambassador had not 
shewed the letters from the queen there and the queen- 
mother to that effect, she should either not have believed it, 
or concluded that the ambassador had mistaken the same. 

VOL. II. K 



242 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK Thus plainly did she shew her disgust and just jealousy of 
' these invitations. 



Anno 1572. «' For," as the said lord by the queen's order proceeded 
Suspicion ^^- j^ ^^^^ ambassador, " the 20th of October was not four- 

or treachery ' 

against the " teen days off" from the time of the motion, nor one month 
queen. ^^ from the date of the king's letter to that purpose. And 
" Jersey was a place so far distant, as never king of this 
" land would venture to sail unto, for many causes ; nor yet 
" any merchant would take upon him to pass thiflier al- 
" most in that time. Besides, that the late proceedings in 
" France, to the destruction of all sorts of her majesty's re- 
" ligion, (which also was not ceased, as the queen under- 
" stood,) could not but argue this manner of motion very 
" absurd : and besides would engender in the subjects of 
" this realm such conceits, as it were a dangerous thing for 
" counsellors to be so careless of their prince as to give ear 
" to such motions. And that it was stranger, now to make 
" this motion, when the French ambassador did say at 
" Reading to the queen's majesty there, that the queen- 
" mother was content to come into any place of thjs realm : 
" which was now strangely changed, that the queen's ma- 
" jesty should come over her own seas to the coast of France." 
All this looked as if the French, could they have got the 
queen upon the sea, had intended to entrap her. 
French dis- For indeed, by this time, the French dissimulation be- 
came more and more discovered. This Walsingham, that 
then was among them, shewed in his letters sent over; that 
the more he observed their doings there, the more his jea- 
lousy increased of their evil meaning. And that they never 
spake more fair to the admiral than a few days before he 
died. Nothing was demanded by him that was not granted. 
Insomuch, that Tiligni said to a gentleman, a friend of his, 
a few days before the execution, that their liberal granting 
of requests without any denial, did make him to suspect 
some unsound and hollow meaning ; and thereupon to al- 
lege an Italian proverb to that purpose. He added, that 
the French never used fairer words than now they did, nor 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 243 

fjreater protestation of amity. And that because it was more CHAP. 

• • XVIII 
than was accustomed, and being; now at such a time as the ' 



English had cause to suspect the contrary, he could nof^'^no '^72. 
but be jealous of her majesty's safety. 

The same ambassador (who had been very apt to think The ambas- 
the best of the French court, and the benefit accruing to (."lle^^ri's" 
England by friendship with it) speaks his judgment now in council 

I • • 1 1 1 •^ Lc Tt hereupon. 

another stram, ni a letter to the queen s council. " He con- „^ , . 

' ^ _ Walsmg- 

" fessed lie was deceived by the dissimulation of that court, ham's let- 

" That he was sorry he could not yield that assurance of 24,' ' ^^ * 

" amity that heretofore he had done ; wherein he might 

" seem to have dealt over confidently. But he knew their 

" honours would consider, that his error in that behalf was l64 

" common in a great many wiser than himself. And that 

" now there was there [at the court] neither regard either 

" to word, writing, or edict, were it never so solemnly pub- 

" lished ; nor to any protestation made heretofore to fo- 

" reign princes for the performance of the same; seeing the 

'• king prosecuted that religion with all extremity that her 

" majesty professed ; and was now like to be an instrument 

" to execute any thing by that people offered unto him, to 

" the prejudice of her majesty ; seeing that they now that 

" possessed his ears were sworn enemies to her majesty ; 

" and that the nourishers of the late amity were separated 

" from him ; seeing that the king"'s own conscience (so com- 

" mon a companion is fear with tyranny) made him to re- 

" pute all those of the religion, as well at home as abroad, 

" his enemies ; and so, conseqviently, not to wish one of 

" them alive : he left it to their honours now to judge what 

" account they might make of the amity with that crown. 

" And that, if he might without presumption or offence 

" say his opinion, considering how things presently stood, 

" he thought it less peril to live with them as enemies than 

" as friends." 

Again: "The cruelty here executed is void of all just Bloody hy- 
" defence," writeth the same to the lord Burghley ; " and Lette7to 
" therefore in God's iust judgment is like to receive iust pu-'orJ Bmgh- 
" nishment. And if the same doth not happen so soon as ' 

r2 



244 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " we desire, our sins are the let They here are so far 

^' " imbrued in blood, as there is no end of their cruelty. For 



Anno 1572. " no town escapeth, where any of the religion is found, 
" without general murdering and sacking of them. And yet 
" they protest all this to be done against their wills, though 
" it is evident it is done by their commandment.'''' 

Again, how much in danger the queen was by this hy- 
pocrisy, which was not before discovered, thus he subjoined ; 
The ambas- " That he had not heretofore been so ready to commend 
undeceived " their sincerity as he was forced now to set down their in- 
111 the u fidelity. Surely I cannot see, that all their fair speeches 

i rench pro- ^ ./ ^ i 

testations. " and friendly offers tend to any other end but to abuse 

" Adding, that it was the opinion there of all men 

" of judgment, that her majesty was to look for any mis- 
" chief, that either Spain or that country [i. e. France] 
" could yield. And therefore, that if she should now seek 
" to quiet herself, [by not preparing for her own defence, 
" but sitting stilJ,] they did not see any reason for her to 
" hope to keep the crown upon her head.'" 
The resent- But now at length let us see the resentment of our court, 
Uiese " ^^^^ °^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^" about the queen. Secretary Smith ex- 
French pressed his thoughts in this manner : " If the admiral, and 
the English " all tliose murdered on the bloody Bartholomew-day, were 
court. (( guilty, why were they not apprehended, imprisoned, in- 
" terrogated, and judged ? Is this the manner to handle 
" men, either culpable or suspected ? But grant they were 
" guilty that dreamt treason that night in their sleep, what 
" did the innocent men, women, and children at Lyons.-' 
" What did the sucking children and their mothers at 
" Roan deserve ? at Caen ? at Rochel ? Will God, think 
" you, still sleep ? AVill not their blood ask vengeance ? 
" Shall not the earth be accursed, that hath sucked up the 

" innocent blood poured out like water upon it .'' 1 am 

" glad,'" added he, " yf)u shall come home ; and would wish 

165 "you out of that country, so contaminate with innocent 

" blood, that the sun cannot look upon it but to prognos- 

" ticate the wrath and vengeance of God." 

The earl of 'fhg gaj.j ^f Leicester related the news of this massacre in 

Leicester 
writes to 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 245 

a letter to the earl of Shrewsbury, dated September 6, with CHAP. 

his detestation of it, to this tenor : " That he doubted not ^^"'^' 

" but his lordship had been advertised at large of the tra- Anno 1572. 

" g-ical news out of France ; which had been used with that ^'j*^ ^^^^ °^ 

" cruelty, that he thought no Christian, since the heathen bury this 

" time, had heard of the like. And that it was the more France? ° 

" horrible, for that it seemed it was done with the consent ^^ss. iu Of- 

" of that prince, who had given his faith, and laid his ho- 

*' nour in pledge for the contrary before. But the same 

" God, proceeded he, that had suffered this punishment to 

" fall upon his people for their own sins, would find time to 

" revenge it upon his enemies for his own cause sake. God 

" defend our mistress from the hidden practices laid for 

" her, among these open facts committed, so nearly to 

" tovich her. For she, as he added, is the fountain and the 

" well-spring of the griefs that procure this malice. And 

" though others smart, yet she is the mark they shoot at. 

" And so must she think ; and accordingly must she pro- 

" vide. Or else all will be naught. But his trust was, that 

" the same Lord that had all this while preserved her, would 

" also put into her heart to do that which should be best for 

" her own and her people's safety, &c. Dated from Wood- 

" stock." 

These fearful slaughters of the king's subjects continued 
from one city and town to another. Near a month after that 
at Paris, report came to court, that there was a general ef- 
fusion of blood at Roan, of all that could be imagined pro- 
tcstants ; so that the channels of the streets ran down with 
blood. And this happened there when the English court 
thought all the bloody work was done. The same letters Massacre 
certified, that Diep (where many Englishmen and merchants ^^j p^"p 
were) was kept close ; and the same execution of the true kept close. 
Christians (as Smith writ to Walsingham) expected there. 
Notwithstanding Sigoigne [the governor of that place] did 
warrant all the English to be out of danger, and encouraged 
them not to be afraid. " But,*" said Smith, " what warrant can 
" the French make, now seals and words of princes are but 
" traps to catch innocents, and bring them to the butchery .'''" 

B 3 



246 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK And indeed the king was now grown so bloody-minded, 
as they that advised him at first to these bloody courses did 



Anno 1572. fepent, (as Walsingham wrote,) and did fear, that the old 

erown ^ '^^ji^g would prove true in respect of themselves, Malum 

bloody. He coths'dium consultoi'i jK'Sshiimi. And every body looked 

sword. out for some dreadful accident to happen to him ; and 

reckoned it some plague of what would follow, that in the 

month of December the king was hurt by another man's 

sword ; receiving a little hurt in his left arm. Which was 

not great ; but that every small hurt is great to a prince ; 

as Walsingham said : and he might have added, a token of 

more of his blood to be shed. 

And this passage is worthy to be added to that king's 
horrible guilt of iniquity and bloodshed, related also by the 
English ambassador. That to make the pretended plot seem 
166 the truer, they added the blood of two innocent persons, 
Two upon protestants, named Bricquemont and Cavannes ; who, in the 
tended con- month of October, imderweut a formal trial of justice; as 
tri'ed'^in persous that had been concerned in the late conspiracy, 
form of And were executed on the 22d day of that month, being 
executed, the Same day that the queen of France was brought to bed 
of a daughter. Whose nativity, as that ambassador ob- 
served, was consecrated with blood. The former (who was 
one of the king's eldest soldiers) was asked by the under- 
provost, who was sent to him, to know if he could say any 
thing touching the late conjuration ; which if he would con- 
fess, he should save his life : whereunto he said, that the 
king had never a more faithful nor truer subject. But this 
I know, added he, proceedeth not of himself, but of evil 
counsellors about him. And so lifting up his eyes to hea- 
ven, he said, " O my God ! at whose tribunal seat I stand, 
" and whose face I hope shortly to see, thou knowest well, 
" that I know nothing ; nor did not so much as once think 
*' of any conjuration against the king, nor against the estate. 
" Though contrariwise they have imtruly put the .same in 
" my process. But I beseech my God, that he will pardon 
" the king, and all those that have been the cause of this 
*' my unjust death, even as I desire pardon at thy hand for 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 247 

" my sins and offences." He would have spoken to the ^^^^J- 
king, (who was present at this spectacle,) and said he had 



somewhat to utter unto him. But he said, he saw he might a°«° ^572. 
not use any further speeches. And so shrunk up his shoul- 
ders. He was a gentleman, and yet was hanged : a thing 
very rare in France; especially, he being reputed of his 
enemies to be innocent of the thing that had been laid to his 
charge. 

His death was bewailed of many of the catholics that The king 
were beholders of the same. As were also the king, the J^"oti?e"rr&c. 
queen-mother, the king of Navarr, with the king's brethren, p^^'^^"^^**,^ 
and prince of Conde. Which was generally misliked ; as a deaths. 
thing unworthy of the heads of justice to be at the execu- 
tion of justice. They were hanged about five or six in the 
evening by torchlight. 

It is remarkable also what Walsingham writ into Eng- They made 
land concerning this matter unto the lord Burghley, that biankJ^^to 
they caused these two, a httle before their deaths, to sub- ackm)w-^^^ 
scribe certain blanks. Which they filled up with such mat- spimcy. 
ter as might best prove that there was such a pretended ^^tt^^J^ *« 
conspiracy. Which blanks so filled up, they sent by two Dec. 5. 
messengers into Germany, to shew unto some princes there, 
for the better justifying of the late execution. 

Another piece of French courtship of the queen, at this The queen 
wretched time, was their invitation of her to christen the christen the 
French king's daughter. It was the beginning of Novem- French 

1 1 1 J king's 

ber, that the French ambassador sent word to the lord child. 
Burghley, that the French queen was brought to bed of a 
daughter ; and to know whether her majesty would christen 
it with her own name ; and to send either the earl of Lei- 
cester thither or the lord Burghley, for that purpose, as 
her proxy. Perhaps it was to catch one of those chief coun- 
sellors of the queen's. But the prudent answer the queen 
gave was, that she would not desire to christen it; nor 
would she send either of those lords. But that if the queen 
would desire her to be godmother, she would not refuse it ; 
and would send some person qualified. The king afterwards lOj 
sent an agent to invite her to be gossip with the empress 

R 4 



248 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

ROOK and the duke of Savoy. But the ceremony was not per- 
'• formed before the month of January. 
Anno 1572. The king, for the greater pretended honour to the queen, 
The queen's ggj^j^,^!^ ill December, jMauvesire, ambassador to her, first, 

excellent 

answer for continuance of amity ; secondly, to be godmother to the 
French'^ infant, his daughter ; and lastly, to pursue the request of 
king's am- marriage with the duke d'Alengon. The answer she then 
^wssage to ^^^^^^ j^^ 1^^^. embassador there (to round him in the ear 
again by a second message, for his cruelty, and the many ag- 
o-ravations of it) was to this tenor : " That she was sorry to 
" hear what she had heard of her good brother, (the which 
" sprung from her good-will to that amity.) First, that 
" great slaughter made in France, of noblemen and gentle- 
" men, unconvicted, and untried, so suddenly, as it was 
" said, at his command, seemed so much to touch the ho- 
" nour of her good brother, as she could not but with la- 
" mentation, and with tears of her heart, hear it of a prince 
" so near allied unto her, and in a chain of indissoluble 
'' love knit unto her by league and oath. That being after 
" exposed by a conspiracy and treason wrought against her 
" good brother's person, (which whether it were true or 
" false, being in another prince's kingdom and jurisdiction, 
" where she had nothing to do, she minded not to be curi- 
" ous, yet that,) they were not brought to answer to law 
" and judgment, before they were executed, she heard it 
" marvellously ill taken ; as a thing of a terrible and dan- 
" gerous example. And was sorry that her good brother 
*' was so ready to condescend to any such counsel, whose 
"• nature she took to be more humane and noble. But that 
" when more Avas added unto it ; that when women, chil- 
" dren, maids, young infants, and sucking babes, were at the 
" same time murdered, and cast into the river; and that li- 
" berty of execution was given to the vilest and basest sort 
" of the populace, without punishment or revenge of such 
" cruelty, done afterwai'ds by law upon such cruel mur- 
" derers of such : this increased her grief and sorroAV in her 
" good brother's behalf; that he should suffer himself to be 
" led by such inhuman counsellors. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 249 

" And now, sithence it did appear by all doings, both by CHAP, 
the edicts and otherwise, that the rigour was used only _ 



" against them of the religion reformed, whether they were^""o 1^72. 

" of any conspiracy or no; and that, contrary to the edict 

" of pacification so often repeated, they of the reformed re- 

" ligion were either driven to fly, or die, or to recant, or 

" lose their offices; Avhereby it did appear by all accords 

" now used by her good brother, that his scope and intent 

" did tend only to subvert that religion that she did pro- 

" fess, and to root it out of the realm. At the least, all the 

" strangers of all nations and religions did so interpret it. 

" As might appear by the triumphs and rejoicings, set out, 

" as well in the realm of France as in others. Which 

" made, that it must needs seem strange, both to her and 

" to all others, that her good brother should require her to 

" be godmother to his dear child, she being of that religion 

" which he did now persecute, and could not abide within 

" his realm. And that if she should believe the persuasion 

" of others, and the opinion of all strangers her friends, 

" who were not her subjects, she should in no case conde- 1 d8 

" scend to any association in that or any other matter. 

" But as she had always hitherto, as she concluded, had 
" a special love to her good brother in his younger age, and 
" a desire to the continuation of his good estate and quiet- 
" ness, which she had indeed manifestly shewed, never 
" seeking any advantage of trouble against him, &c.'" [And 
so going on with much douceur, she endeth:] "That 
" notwithstanding that doubt and impediment before men- 
" tioned, she intended to send a worthy personage, a noble- 
" man of her realm, to repair to his court, to visit the king, 
" her good brother, and the queen-mother ; and to do that 
" office which was required. Wishing that these spiritual 
" alliances might be to their comfort, and to the conserva- 
" tion of the amity begun between them." 

England was now very hospitable to such of the religion England a 
as could escape, and had got over hither. And among the g'^^j,""/ 
rest one Avas a great nobleman of France ; viz. the vidame escaped. 
of Chartres. For whom the queen had a great sense of receives the 



250 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 

I. 

Anno 1572. 

vidame, fled 
hither. 
And writes 
in his be- 
half to the 
French 
king. 

The king's 
answer to 
the queen. 



The king's 
demand of 
her. 



Her free 
answer in 
behalf of 
those that 
fled into 
lier domi- 
nions. 



pity. Insomuch that secretary Smith uttered his tenderness 
also, by acquainting the queen's ambassador there, that it 
did liim good to see the princely compassion that was in 
her majesty towards the poor vidame, who was escaped 
by good fortune into England. For whom the queen had, 
at his humble and lamentable suit, written to the king in his 
favour. Which he bade her ambassador deliver with as 
good words as he might; and to require his answer. 

To which letter the king gave this answer, sending the 
message by her said ambassador, that as he was glad any 
way to gratify her majesty, so he could not grant this her 
request, without touch of his honour, to suffer any of his 
subjects to live in a foreign country, without a kind of defi- 
ance of his sincerity, &c. Yet he could, for gratifying her 
majesty, be content that the vidame should return home, 
and enjoy his livings there, with such surety as he should 
not have occasion to doubt his safety. 

But the vidame dared not to trust himself there, notwith- 
standing this protestation ; his hypocrisy by this time being 
well seen through. And the French protcstants fly still to 
England on all opportunities. AVhich occasioned the French 
king to demand, that the queen should admonish, or rather 
command them to avoid the realm, as rebels to the French 
king. 

Upon which the queen gave the earl of Worcester (who 
was then her ambassador there) these instructions, to re- 
turn to that king in answer : " That she did not understand 
" of any rebellion they were ever privy to; and that she 
" could perceive nothing but that they were well affected to 
" their prince. But when sucli common murdering and 
" slaughter was made throughout France, of those who 
" professed the same religion, that it was natural for every 
" man to flee for his own defence, and for the safety of his 
" life. And that it was the privilege of all realms, to re- 
" ceive such woful and miserable persons as did flee to it 
" only for defence of their lives. And that as for their re- 
" turn, she instructed him to say, that the chiefest of them 
" had been spoken unto ; and they made their answer, that 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 251 

'' the same rae-e of their enemies, which made them first to CHAP. 
" flee hither, did still continue the cause of their tarrynig '_ 



" here. For as they did then kill with fury, as it might Anno 1572. 

" appear, the greatest number of those that were killed, ^ "9 

" without the commandment or avow of the king; so it 

" was most like they would execute still their malice, if the 

" persons were there. Against whom it was then, and yet 

" was inflamed, notwithstanding any letters declaratory, or 

" other prohibition by the king. As it was manifest and 

" notorious, that very many had been publicly, and were 

" almost daily slain and murdered in France, that were of 

" their religion, sith these contrary edicts were published 

" and cried by sound of trumpet. 

" And that therefore, until they might see, that the 
" quiet of the realm were better established, the fury of the 
" people, and the bloody murderers appeased ; they would 
" live here, and obey the king's edicts. That they thought 
" themselves unsure there, and had prayed the queen of 
" her mercy to have compassion on their misery. And if 
" so be the king would suffer them to enjoy their revenues, 
" whether they remained here, or went into any other coun- 
" try, the earl was instructed to say, that she supposed 
" they would be as faithful subjects to him as any other in 
" the realm. For others, she espoused none of them. And 
" that if she could perceive at any time, that they were 
" otherwise minded, or should attempt any thing for the 
" disquietment of his person or realm, she would not suff'er 
" them to remain within her realm."" 

The better sort of the queen's subjects were very kind Pitied by 

- , , -, .J tbe better 

unto these poor protestants ; and glad to see them retired ^ort of the 
unto more safety in this country. But another sort (divers of ^"^jf^',^,g j ^^ 
the common people and rabble, too many of them) behaved by others, 
themselves otherwise towards these afflicted strangers, men 
and women, who grudged at their coming hither, and would 
call them by no other denomination than French dogs. 
This a French author sometime afterward took notice of 
in print ; to the disparagement of the English nation, and 
their insensibleness of the misery of others that suffered for 



252 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK righteousness' sake. But George Abbot, D. D. afterwards 

archbishop of Canterbury, could not let this reflection pass. 

Anno 1572. without taking notice of it in one of his morning lectures 

ec ures preached at Oxford ; vindicatiuij our kinjjdom from a 

upon Jo- i^ ' o rt 

nah, by charge that lay only upon some of the meaner and worst 
bot. Print- ^ort. Speaking thus upon this occasion; "How that it 
ed 1600. a grieved his soul at the unkindness of our nation, (those 
" of the common sort,) that had, by occasion of the han- 
" dling of their last great massacre, noted it to posterity, 
" that by a most inhospitable kind of phrase, our English 
" used to term them no better than French dog-s, that fled 
" hither for religion, and their conscience sake. To which 
" the preacher joined also the many conspiracies, which by 
" some of the meaner people in one city of this land, [i. e. 
*' London,] had been oftentimes intended against out- 
" landish folks, [in risings and insurrections against them.] 
" But those, said he, that were wise and godly, used those 
" aliens as brethren : considering their distresses with a 
" lively fellow-feeling ; holding it an unspeakable blessed- 
" ness, that this little island of ours should not only be a 
" temple to serve God in for ourselves, but an harbour for 
1/0" the weatherbeaten, a sanctuary to the stranger, wherein 
" he might truly honour the Lord ; remembering the pre- 
Levit. xix. " cise charge which God gave to the Israelites, to deal well 
" 7aith all strangers ; because the time once was, when 
" themselves were strangers in that cruel land of Egypt : 
" and not forgetting, that other nations, to their immortal 
" praise, were a refuge to the English in their last bloody 
" persecution in (jueen Mary''s days: and in brief, rccount- 
" ing, that by a mutual vicissitude of God's chastisements, 
" their case might be our case. Which day, he prayed, the 
" Lord might long keep from us." 

It was near this time, that another of our authors could 
not refrain his pen from reproaching those of this nation (or 
at least many of them) for this inhospitable temper ; which 
he called, " the inveterate fierceness and cankered malice" 
of the English nation against foreigners and strangers. It 
" is," saith he, " worthy the consideration, to call to me- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 253 

" mory what great tragedies have been stirred in this realm, CHAP, 
" by this our natural inhospitallty and disdain of strangers, 



" both in the time of king John, Henry his son, king Ed- Anno 1572. 
" ward II. king Henry VI. and in the days of later me-p^™^'^^,' 
"mory, &c. wishing, that whatsoever note of infamy we of Kent, 
" have heretofore contracted among foreign writers, by this edit. 
" our ferocity against aliens, that now at the last, having 
" the light of the gospel before our eyes, and the perse- 
" cuted parts of the afflicted church as guests and strangers 
" in our country, we so behave ourselves towards them, as 
" we may both utterly rub out the old blemish, and from 
" henceforth stay the heavy hand of just Jupiter hospitaUs. 
" Which otherwise must needs light upon such stubborn 
" and uncharitable churlishness." 



CHAP. XIX. 171 

The earl of Worcester goes into France to assist at the 
christening of the French bings daughter. The earl a 
Roman catholic ; but loyal. The protestants fiy to Ro- 
chel ; and hold it against the French army. The new 
star in Cassiopeia. Divers of the murderers slain before 
Rachel. Rochel still holds out. Some others of the mur- 
derers slain. Some English offer to raise an army to go 
to Rochel. BooJcs setjbrth to p)ulliate the massacre. How 
the Scots resent the massacre. Now more inclinable to an 
amity zaith England. France Jalse to England in Scot- 
tish affairs ; and to the religion. That king and Spain 
privately conspire. A plot hatching to invade England. 
The pope''s legate in France practising. 

JL HE earl of Worcester was now (in the month of Ja- The queen 
nuary) in France, sent thither by the queen, in the quality ^^'-1 of Wor- 
of her ambassador, partly to be her proxy, to stand in her tester to 
room for godmother to the French king's daughter, as she French 
had promised, and partly to concert the matter of duke'^i'.'s^'s 
d'AlenQon. Being arrived, he was magnificently entertained 
at that court. But it is to be noted, that in the queen's in- 



254> ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK structions, she would not suffer the earl to be present at the 
' mass, when the child was to be christened, though he were 



Anno 1.572. a papist himself, and a favourer of the queen of Scots, 
otherwise a good simple gentleman, (as Leicester gave 
his character to Walsingham.) For thus ran the instruc- 
tions : " If the emperor's ambassador hold the child him- 
" self, you may also do it. But that if you shall peixeive, 
" that any device or other sinister means shall be gone 
" about to bring you to their mass, or any other supersti- 
" tious ceremony, which the order of our realm doth not 
" allow, you shall not consent, nor assist in it ; but ra- 
" ther absent yourself. And understanding that before, he 
" should with honourable excuse require the queen-mother, 
" that the queen of Navarr (to whom she had in this case 
" written her special letters) should be her deputy for him. 
" Or in the absence or let of her, any other princess or no- 
" blewoman ; whom it should please the queen-mother to 
" appoint to it/' 

The child was named Mary Elizabeth, the empress and 
-^ the queen's majesty both giving the name ; as the earl of 
Leicester wrote to the earl of Shrewsbury, in his corre- 
spondence, among other things. One more whereof was, 
the accident that befell the said earl of Worcester in his voy- 

The said age to France. Where, near Bulloign, where he landed, 

earl robbed , i i i i • i i 

by pirates, ^e was robbed by pn'ates ; who were very numerous at that 

time upon the seas, and had taken many merchants' ships : 

which caused the queen to set forth some of her fleet to 

take and disperse them. The success of which (as the same 

172 earl wrote) was, that in the Downs, Mr. Holdstock, that 

went out for the admiral, and had taken on him that 

charge, had taken seven great piratical ships ; and in them 

four hundred men : and in the west there were three or 

four more such ships taken. So that in short he trusted the 

sea should be scoured ; and hoped they that robbed the 

earl were some of them. 

Some ac- The queeu had prudently fixed upon this earl for this 

this noble- honourable Embassage, a person of great honour, and of 

""ii"' the Roman catholic religion, as one like to be the more ac- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 255 

ceptable to that court: for notwithstanding the sUght cha- CHAP. 
racter Leicester gave of him, the lord Burghley recom- 



mending him to Walsingham, in order to his reception of Anno 1572. 
him, when he should come to Paris, told him, that he 
should find him a nobleman of great gentleness and thank- 
fulness. And that he should see good reason to shew him 
all good offices and favours. And adding, that in very 
truth, [such was his merits,] that he loved him dearly. And 
this passage is remarkable of him, that though he were of 
the Romish religion, such was his loyalty and love to the 
queen, that being come to Paris, the countess of Northum- 
berland, who was his sister, sent unto him a messenger, sig- 
nifying her intent to visit him. This he made Walsingham 
privy to. And though she were so nearly related to him, 
yet in respect of his dutiful carriage towards her majesty, 
he did look upon her but as a mere stranger; and so 
meant, he said, to do, until such time as her peace was 
made. Nor would he so much as vouchsafe to give ear to 
any messenger or message from her. And therefore willed 
the messenger to forbear to repair unto him. And so did 
Charles Somerset Qiis brother, as I suppose] behave him- 
self in regard of the message brought to him, utterly refus- 
ing to speak with the bringer. This Walsingham signified 
to the said lord Burghley. 

But now to see a little the issue and event of these cruel The pro- 
and unjust counsels of France ; and what troubles it drew [o^rocLiJ 
upon itself presently ; according to accounts of them written and hold it. 
in private letters of our own statesmen. Many of the pro- 
testants, in the midst of these slaughters, fled away, and got 
to Rochel; which they kept, and defended themselves 
there ; and held out, and raised considerable forces at Lan- 
guedoc ; while the king was troubled to raise men against 
them : for at a diet in Switzerland they agreed to allow no 
man to be sent as a soldier to France ; fearing to be served 
as they had served the protestants there. And the Germans 
(whence also they used to have their supply of men for the 
wars) answered the king's messengers roughly ; who were 



256 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK sent to raise men there; according to Walsinghanfs intelli- 
ffence sent hither. 



to" 



Anno 1 572. The Rochellers took the isle of Ree in December ; wliere- 
iish^eothf- ^y ^^^^y ^^^^ ^^^^ haven free, and might receive sucli suc- 
ther to as- cours as Came unto them by sea. Divers English also came 
thither, to give them their assistance. Insomuch as, in Ja- 
nuary, Mauvesire let the English ambassador at Paris un- 
derstand, that the king was informed, there should be cer- 
tain ships (to the number of fourteen) preparing to repair to 
Rochel. And that thouoh Frenchmen and Fleming-s bare 
the name of them, yet they were not unfurnished of some 
English mariners. And that therefore the king and queen- 
mother desired the queen would give order for the restraint 
of them. 
173 In February secretary Smith wrote to the earl of Shrews- 
Several bury, that the French king made great preparations for 

overthrows . . & r 1 

of the the besieging of Rochel ; but made no great haste thither, 

king's side ^^qj. ^^^t, as it seems, of men.] And that when they came 
before it, to besiege it, the Rochellers gave them divers over- 
throws. And that all kinds of victuals were extremely 
scarce in France. So that great suit was made for some 
wheat from hence. 
Troubles The French court was much aggrieved, as well in this 

France'.' ^^ ^^ Other matters: that things framed so untowardly, and 
Waising- went backward with them, as Walsingham made his obser- 
tends God's vatiou ; and the wisest sort sticked not to say, that the 
revenge, greatest troubles were now but a beginning. And if it 
should prove true that was written out of Germany, that 
the marquis of Brandenburgh was like to be chosen king of 
Poland, they might perhaps have just cause to repent their 
late dealings. But however, added that same ambassador, 
that it fell out so, that we should see that God would work 
somewhat, whereby it might appear that the blood of his 
saints was dear to him. And then added, as it were })ro- 
phetically ; " Perhaps we did build too much upon the 
" courage and wisdom of them that be dead, [viz. tlie ad- 
" miral, &c.] but God can raise up stcmes to set forth his 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 257 

"" glory. So that we need not doubt to see his revenge, un- CHAP. 
" less our sins be the let." Thus did that good man portend 



what indeed came to pass soon after. Anno 1572. 

And so did another, namely, secretary Smith, (in abhor- And so 
rence of the thoughts of this enormous act,) express his from the 
mind upon the appearance of a new star, in his letter to "'^^^' **'^'"- 
Walsingham, dated December 11, writing, "That he was 
' sure he had heard of, and did think he had seen the new 
' star comet, but without beard or tail. Which had ap- 
' peared these three weeks on the back-side of the star of 
' Cassiopeia, and on the edge of the Via Lactea. The big- 
' ness whereof was between the bigness of Jupiter and Ve- 
' nus ; and kept there to his appearance ; he having no in- 
' strument to observe it ; and because of the cold weather 
' also was dark. Which also observed the precise order of 
' the fixed stars, such an one, he said, he had never ob- 
' served, [who yet was a great astronomer,] nor read of. 
' And prayed Walsingham to let him know what the wise 
' men of Paris judged upon it. He knew, he said, they 
' would not think it the admiral's soul ; as the Romans did 
' of the comet, next appearing after the murder of Julius 
' Caesar, that it was his soul. But it may be, added Smith, 
' it may be Astraea, now peeping out afar off in the north, 
' to see what revenge shall be done upon so much innocent 
' blood shed in France at a marriage banquet, and rere- 
' suppers after it." 

But upon so wondrous a phenomenon, what further ob- Life of Sir 
servations the learned Smith made, and what his inquiries 
were, may be seen in his Life written by me. 

Rochel still in the month of March was held by the pro- Rocliei 
testants, and bravely was maintained of them against all the j"^,Q*^°/j^g 
forces of the French king hitherto. And two of the chiefest murderers 
executors of the late murder in Paris were slain in a skir- 
mish happening between the king's camp and those of Ro- 
chel, viz. dvike d'Aumale and Schaviger. The queen's am- 
bassador sent a messenger on purpose to relate to her the 1 74 
particulai'ities thereof. And liad this passage in his letter 

VOL. II. s 



258 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION ' 

BOOK concerning this remarkable just bloodshed upon the shed- 

' ders of blood, that God of that good beginning gave them 

Anno 1572. some hopes, that the blood of the innocent should not be 

Innocent unrevenged. The marshal Tavannes, one of the greatest 

b oofl re- o ^ o 

venged. persecutors at the massacre, died the next year, eaten up of 
lice. And one Besme, who murdered the admiral Coligni, 
had the same year his thigh shot off with a cannon at this 
siege : as Dr. Dale, ambassador there at Paris, in the year 
1573, wrote to the earl of Sussex. 
The queen Many of the English nation, both noblemen and gentle- 
the En-'- *^ "^^^ ^^ anticnty, and great quality, offered now at their own 
lish go to charge to find an army of 20,000 foot and 2,000 horse, for 
six months in Gascoine. And so earnest they were, that it 
was already known to themselves both where the men were 
to be had, and the money too. And they only desired a 
permission from the queen. And the queen had much ado 
to detain them from adventuring themselves thither ; shew- 
ing herself much offended therewith ; and that with great 
charge under- pain of her high indignation. This the lord 
treasurer signified to Walsingham ; and that this was told 
the French ambassador. Who confessed he had understand- 
ing of the same ; and was constrained to confess how much 
his master was bound unto her majesty. This also the said 
lord treasurer writ to Walsingham, and told him withal, 
that he might notify it to the king, and amplify it ; for that 
it was true, and meet to be uttered. 
Books set Thus did these wicked counsels and courses begin to cre- 
ver the late ate work and trouble enough for France. And one part of 
murders, their labour was still to smother the villainy with lies. Books 
were set forth for that purpose. A lewd letter was written 
by one Carpenter, an apostate, in defence of the late do- 
ings, (which Walsingham sent to the lord treasurer ;) writ- 
ten originally in Latin, and then translated into French. 
Divers of them in Latin were spread studiously into Ger- 
many. But the author's lewdness was so well known, as it 
woidd but little help their cause. They were also sent into 
Poland ; labour being now made for monsieur, the king's 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 259 

brother, to be chosen kiiiff there; for the bishop of Valence CHAP, 
had writ, that the late accident would be one of the greatest '__ 



lets to that they were seeking for. Anno i572. 

Scotland was now in civil wars ; the queen of Scots'' party The queen 
on one hand, and that of the kirk (who had set up her p^^"^^!"^ *''* 
young son for king) on the other, labouring to overpower Scotland, 
each other. It was now queen Elizabeth's care to set both 
parties at peace with each other : which in the month of 
August she had pretty well effected. Both parties (as 
secretary Smith informed. Walsingham in their corre- 
spondence) had subscribed and sealed to it : and both like- 
wise had written letters of thanks to her for the pains taken 
by the marshal of Berwic, [Drury :] and likewise professed 
to stand to that order ; which was very honourable both to 
the French king, and the queen, and not dishonourable to 
the Scotch king, viz. that in his infancy such a noble per- 
son should accord to make quietness in that realm. But 
however, this abstinence from war was not so well kept by 
the king's party as reason would ; the town of Edinburgh 
being wholly at the direction of the regent ; and contrary to l^S 
the covenant, he kept the men of war there. Whereof they 
of the castle complained ; as the lord treasurer soon after 
informed the said Walsingham. 

But now, a little time after, let us look over into Scot- The Scots' 
land again, and see what effects this French massacre had aiienatLd 
upon them ; otherwise before not very friendly to Eng- f^om 
land. It opened their eyes, and they began to abhor the 
French, and to abate the good opinion of them, or trust to 
have any help from them. The lord Levingston, and di- 
vers other Scotch gentlemen, were now in France soliciting 
their cause there. But seeing no way to enjoy the liberty of 
their conscience, desired passports of the English ambassa- 
dor there, to return home. Wherein he was less difficult to 
grant their desire than before he was, since they seemed, as 
he saw upon the late accident, to desire most perfect amity 
between the two crowns of England and Scotland in respect 
of the common cause of religion. 

And the said ambassador did suppose, that by their pass- 

s 2 



260 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK ing by that way, [viz. by England,] and receiving good en- 
tertainment at her majesty's hand, they would rather do 



Anno 1572. good than harm at home; that is, by making them in their 
to abetter Country understand what had passed in France; and the 
understand- danger that was like to follow without perfect union be- 
Eiio^iand. tweeu the said crowns. Adding, that some of the wisest 
Waising- gQj.f j]^^^ were there, [in France,! and that were before ene- 

hitm's ad- . , . . . 

vice. mies, and now become friends, did wish that her majesty 

would seek to make reconciliation between earl Morton and 

lord Liddington ; and that she, by some pension, make 

both him and others assured to her. And that they thought, 

that by disbursing 2 or 3000/. a year, she might save the 

disbursing of many thovisands ; besides the avoiding of 

many dangerous practices that were like to grow that way ; 

viz. from Scotland. Walsingham backed all this with the 

consideration of the circumstances of the present time ; 

which rendered tliis device reasonable. 

Smith's ap- To which advicc, I find secretary Smith, in the month of 

t'liereof"" Octobcr, giving this answer from Windsor, in approbation 

The Scots thereof, that the Scots were awakened by those beacons in 

terrified France ; and that the lords in Scotland drew nearer and 

with those nearer to accord. So that now it was rather in hope than 

beacons. ... . . 

in despair, [as it was before.] And that these cruelties in 
France had helped not a little ; and now continuing, would 
much more. And that he [Walsingham] had given good 
advice, that all Scotchmen should not be stayed [that were 
minded to come home from France, where they were prac- 
tising.] And lastly, he added, that some of the late commis- 
sioners [about Scottish affairs with England] had given the 

rest in Scotland a good [jog] to make them awake. 

France What little confidence the queen might put in her late 

to England Icague with France, did before now appear in their under- 
in Scottish ]iand dcalinp-s in Scottish matters. Messengers, that were 

matters. o ' 

Englishmen, often came to Paris from Spain and Flanders, 
to transact matters privately, to blow the coals in Scotland 
against the queen of England. Standen, (of whom before,) 
ill the month of November, arrived at Paris in post out of 
Flanders; and stayed there only five days, having daily 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 261 

-•onference with the Scottish ambassador; together with CHAP. 

. XIX. 

another Englislinian of the same strain, one Liggons, who L 



at his return (which was by post) accompanied him into^""^ ^•^'7^" 
Flanders. Whereby a Scottish man there, that wished con- * 
tinuance of quiet in his own country, feared hereby that 
there was some dangerous practice in hand. And Wilham 
Seers, another Enghshman, and servant to the earl of West- 
moreland, (that headed the rebellion in the north,) arrived 
there, at Paris, likewise, November 24, sent thither by the 
said earl. Immediately upon his anival, Viracque went 
with him to the court. And he reported, that in the north 
country and York, to the borders, all the whole country 
was at the earPs devotion. So that a few men employed 
there by the king, [the French king, to whom this message 
was brought,] might assure him, that her majesty [queen 
Elizabeth] should be kept so occupied, as she should have 
no leisure to send any supply to Rochel : which was sus- 
pected by France. 

And the French also in the mean time laboured to keep The Scot-^ 
up distractions in Scotland ; thereby to consult the better g'^^assa-" 
for the Scottish queen's advantage, now in hold in Eng- dor's pri- 

^ 1 • 1 • 1 • 1 «vate access 

land. It was observed by Walsmgham, m this month otto the 
November, that the Scottish ambassador did daily repair to '^^^^^^^ 
the court, and had often conference with the queen-mother 
at an extraordinary time in the morning; whenas com- 
monly no ambassador had access but in the afternoon. And 
that Ijefore, in talk apart with his friends, he said, that if 
the troubles of Scotland had not been, his mistress had been 
at liberty, and perhaps had enjoyed a better crown than 
Scotland was. And said further, that if his mistress had as 
many good friends in Scotland as she had in England, she 
had not long remained in prison, as she did. And knitting 
up all in the end of this relation, he concluded, Thus you 
see, said he, what a dangerous guest her majesty har- 
boureth. Insomuch that the said Walsingham asserted, 
that the French also had a secret understanding with the 
Spaniard, in order to the destroying of the religion every 

s3 



262 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK where; saying, Surely there is a great mischief a brewing. 
^' And that he was assured, that within these eight days \i\ 
Anno 1572. [meaning by that cipher, probably, the French king] pro- 
tested, that he would never be quiet as long as the exer- 
cise of religion continued in any place of Christendom. He 
added, that he knew further particularly, that their king 
had said, he would never forget Newhaven, until revenge 
were made : so that the said Walsingham professed, that he 
never knew so deep a dissembler as that king. And that he 
was sure, that the murder of the admiral should have been 
executed at Blois, [where the league of peace and amity 
was made, and the greatest friendship pretended,] but 
that they saw him too well accompanied [to be assassinated 
there.] Yet his further intelligence was, that it was agreed, 
that both he and Spain should, for avoiding of suspicion of 
the legate's coming, entertain the 1 3 1 [queen Elizabeth's am- 
bassador, as that cipher seems to import] with good words ; 
and that Spain should make some show, to be glad to come 
to some accord. 
The queen That king, by these his practices, received another dis- 
trust the appointment of a desire he made to the queen ; by her dis- 
Ji'ig- trusting him, and not daring to venture upon his word ; a 

mortification to him. For when, in October, the French 
177a"ibassador signified to the queen, that it was his desire 
that she would send over either the lord treasurer or the 
earl of Leicester, to confirm the league on the queen's side, 
that was made between him and her ; the answer was, 
" That the queen was sorry that there was such an alter- 
*' ation of occasion of doing such an office : for as her ma- 
" jesty before had intention to have sent either one of them, 
" or such other as should have been as agreeable to the 
" king ; so now there was to all the world one great cause, 
" that her majesty might not with honour, nor with law of 
" nature, send any whom she loved, to be in danger, as it 
" seemed they might be, though the king had never so 
" good a meaning : for by the death of so many, whom 
" the king did not avow, nor yet punished the murderers, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 263 

" what could strangers expect; especially, when the king CHAP. 
*' pretended, as by liis own letters it appeared, that it was. 



the fury of the catholics against those of the religion?" Anno 1572. 
It is very likely these prime counsellors of the queen were 
designed to be butchered, could they by this wile have got 
them there. 

The secret ill designs of France against the queen did A private 
now appear more and more. And their favour to the Scot- rying on in 
tish queen was^ learned, notwithstanding their hypocritical France 
pretences, and concealments of their mnids. ihe vigilant England to 
Walsingham gave private intelhgence, that January 19 'nvade it. 
there was a great secret council, (present only the cardinal of 
Lorain and two others,) for dehvering that queen : which 
was, that they should for the present maintain peace with 
those of the religion at Rochel and other places ; because, 
until such time as England might be kept occupied, there 
could grow no thorough redress in France without hazard- 
ing the whole state ; therefore it was requisite to yield to 
them of Rochel. After that was done, the marquis of 
Maine should bring a thousand shot into Scotland, in re- 
spect that he was the queen of Scots' kinsman ; (but this to 
be disavowed by the king.) And so to join the queen's 
party. And then to repair to Edinburgh ; where Lidding- 
ton and George Kirkaldy had promised to deliver up the 
castle to such as the king should appoint ; upon recompence 
to receive some living there in France. And there a suffi- 
cient garrison should fortify other important places, beside 
Dundee, and at Haymouth. This done, the duke of Guise 
should come over with forces to procure the delivery of the 
queen of Scots. And such of that queen's friends that were 
in England would incontinent take arms. Who gave out 
to them in France, that her party and forces were so great, 
that having good leaders and munition, they should be able 
to make their party good enough, and to deliver that queen, 
in despite of her majesty. 

The pope's legate now in France opened the scene still The pope's 

i I o 1 _ leo'ate in 

more, it being learned by the industrious English ambassa- France 
dor there, that among other articles of his instructions, (as practiseth 

' o ^ with the 



264 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK the said ambassador wrote over, December 28,) he was com- 
^' manded earnestly to commend the queen of Scots'' case to 
Anno 1572. the kinff, and to devise with him some means for her de- 
*<•"& hverance. Whereby it might come to pass, that England 

En-^iaiid. might be reduced to the cathohc faith. The Scottish am- 
bassador had more often recourse to him than any other 
ambassador there : which made the Enghsh ambassador, as 
1 78 he said, the rather to doubt some practice. And Hamilton, 
brother to him that killed the regent in Scotland, sent this 
message to duke Chasteauherault, viz. to do what he might 
to keep the castle of Edinburgh, and to maintain his party, 
until Whitsuntide next; assuring him, that by that time 
they should have assistance, both from the pope, Spain, and 
that crown [of France.] This intelligence Walsingham had 
from the messenger himself, who was to carry it : as he 
wrote to the lord treasurer : that the party himself that was 
to do this message made him acquainted with it, who was 
then departed toward Scotland: and had promised to de- 
clare no less to Mr. Randolph, [the queen''s agent in Scot- 
land,] who knew him. Perhaps this messenger was Steward, 
a Scot, that Walsingham sometimes mentioned in his letters. 



CHAP. XX. 

A libel printed in France against the state of England. 
The queen zoould see duke d'Alen^on: xcho still courted 
her. Her resolutions. The Scots move for a league with 
queen Elizabeth. The Papists hope for a golden day. 
Massmongers practise conjuring. Severed of them taken, 
and sent up. The disciplinarians busy. Admonition to 
the parliament. Divers deprived upon the act 13. Eliz. 
Divers disaffected to the government of the church. 
Chark, of Peter-house, expelled for a clerum at St. 
Marys. His appecd to the chancellor of the university. 
Dering, reader of St. PauFs, zc)-ites a reflecting letter to 
the lord Burghley. His anszcer to it. And Dering's 
vindication of what he had writ. 

\VhAT else, but French ill-will to England, could be 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. ^65 

gathered from a most malicious lying book, that was now CHAP, 
printed in France, about the month of January; aimmg 



chiefly against the queen's two great ministers, viz. the lord Anno 1572. 
keeper of the great seal, and the lord high treasurer : wrote ^^^^^^^^ .^ 
by some French rancorous person, having his instructions France a- 
from some crafty rebellious papist of England. Who, f^j^^JJ'^^g^^ur. 
though he meant it maliciously against the whole state, yet er, &c. 
he vented his choler and despite chiefly against those two, 
by nicknames. The good lord Burghley, lord treasurer, 
was so moved at his slander, that he uttered these words : 
" God amend his spirit, and confound his mahce. And for 
" my part, if I have any such malicious or malignant spirit, 
" God presently so confound my body to ashes, and my 
" soul to perpetual torment in hell." 

The subject of this book was concerning the queen of 
Scots, and the case of the duke of Norfolk. Concerning 
the former, it would be said by her friends in France, that 
it was but reason that answer should be made to such 1 79 
books as were published for the condemning of that queen. 
But to have the duke of Norfolk's case brought in question 
[a subject of England, and condemned by public justice] 
iDy those that were counsellors to the queen, to be so mali- 
ciously and falsely calumniated, might not well stand with 
the terms of the amity professed : as that lord wrote to the 
English ambassador. Who had a great mind to understand 
who the author was. And desired him to make his inquiry : Endeavours 
adding, that if by means of the printer it might be found ["^/^f^^hoJ. 
out, he would bestow a reward upon the discovery. But 
that if it could not, then he wished that some means might 
be used, as of himself, to the queen-mother, that the print 
might be destroyed. For that otherwise they should think 
themselves, considering the places they held in this estate, 
not well considered by that estate. He added, that this 
licentiousness, to inveigh against men by name in printed 
books, who did not themselves use by books to provoke 
any, was in all good estates intolerable. And then he add- 
ed, by way of protestation of the integrity and faithfulness 
of both their services : " God," said he, " send this estate 



266 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK "no worse meaning servants, in all respects, than we two 
" have been. Who indeed have not spared labour nor care 



Anno 1572." to serve our queen and country. And if we had not, we 
" might truly avow, neither our queen nor country had 
" enjoyed that common repose that it hath done." 
The queen's The courtships of duke d'Alen9on still went on not- 
last resoiu- withstanding: ; it being; now the month of March, when the 

tions about . . 

D'Aiencon. queen^'s resolutions about it, (as the lord treasurer imparted 
to her ambassador in France, in order to his acquainting 
the king and the queen-mother therewith,) were, that she 
could not consent any person to be her husband, that with 
her authority and assent should use any manner of reli^on 
in open exercise, that was in her conscience contrary and 
repugnant to the direct word of Almighty God : and so con- 
sequently prohibited by the laws of the realm. And that 
she could not accord to take any person to her husband, 
whom she should not first see. That if therefore monsieur 
le Due would obtain her for his wife without sight of him, 
her majesty could not so be had. And yet, that she was 
very loath, that he should think that she desired his coming, 
but as himself should find it meet, by the advice of the king 
his brother and the queen-mother. To whom she remitted 
the consideration thereof: with this assiu-ance, that she 
meant in good faith to marry with him, if upon his sight 
the one might like of the other. And that for the cause of 
religion, he and she might so accord, as that which he 
should demand were assented to, without offence of her 
conscience, and without trouble of her estate. And that 
that point of religion was thought meetest to be left at 
large, to be comnmned upon between themselves. So as if 
it should mishap, that if one of them might not fall in like 
of the other, as to a conclusion of marriage, that the re- 
fusal, or breaking up, migbt be imputed to the cause of re- 
ligion. And so either party might honourably be discharged 
to the world, -and no occasion grow thereby of unkindness 
between them. 
180 The business then coming to this issue, the duke's person 

D'Aien- ^gg ^ Stay to the match, he being, it seems, no very person- 
^on's person '' 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 267 

able man, whereof take this account from the queen's am- CHAP, 
bassador himself; who, when the lord Burghley had re- ^^ 



quested him to shew what his private opinion was of that Anno 1 572. 

marriage, gave him this answer: " That the great impedi- Ijot^ij^^^y" 

" ment he found was the contentment of the eye. That able to the 

" gentleman," he said, " was void of any good favour, be-'i"^^"' 

" sides the blemish of the small-pox. Adding, that when he 

" weighed the same with the delicacy of her majesty's eye ; 

" and considering also, that there were some about her in 

" credit, who (in respect of their particular interests, hav- 

" ing neither regard unto her majesty, nor to the preser- 

" vation of our country from ruin) would rather increase 

" the misliking, by defacing of him, than by dutifully lay- 

" ing before her the necessity of her marriage : and that in 

" true choice the satisfaction of the ear imported more than 

" that of the eye, and so he hardly thought there would 

" ever grow any liking." 

Now let us look over a little into Scotland: where Ran- Scotland 
dolph was the queen's ambassador. The late bloody doings J^king^a 
in France, and the secret hobj league, (which was now dis- league with 

. the GU€6n. 

covered,) to extirpate the true religion, wheresoever it had 
taken root, made those that had the government of the 
kirk of Scotland to open their eyes. Who, in October, made 
and finished certain articles entitled. Articles of the ministry, 
barons, and commissioners o/" the reformed Mrlc in Scot- 
land, in their assembly : given at Edinburgh, the ^Oth day 
of October; to be presented to the king''s majesty, our sove- 
reign lord, by the council, nobility, and states of his high- 
ness''s realm, when they shall be conveniate. I shall only set 
down here the preamble to the said articles, and the con- 
clusion, which do concern entering into a league with queen 
Elizabeth, (the rest relating to their government of the state 
and church of that kingdom.) It beginneth ; 

" Understanding the treasonable cruelty and fearful per- Their rea- 
" secution begun, and intended to be executed against tlie^J*g^°^jJ*-^ 
" professors of God's true religion over all Christendom, Randolph. 
" according to the bloody decrees of the council of Trent ; 
" and assembled at command and desire of your highness's 



268 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " letters, to consider of the common danger, and advise 
I • . 

' " upon the remedies, we have collected certain heads and 

Anno 1572." articles, to be presented to your majesty, and to your 
" honourable council and estates for this your realm ; most 
" humbly requiring the same to be considered. And if 
*' they shall find the same to tend to the advancement of 
" God's glory, your majesty ""s obedience, and the surety of 
" your highness, and us, all your good subjects, professors 
" of the same true religion ; that then the same articles may 
" be allowed of, &c. 

" Lastly, seeing the enemies of God's truth are conjured 
" to suppress the same, and all professors thereof; and that 
" all leeful means of defence are allowed ; that there may 
*' be motion made for a league between your highness and 
" the queen's majesty of England, your realms and do- 
" minions, for resisting of the cruelty and treason of the 
" papists. And that her majesty may be also moved to draw 
" into the same league other professors of the said true re- 
" ligion in other countries. And that thei-e be solempne 
181" bands among the professors of the religion within the 
" realm, to join for resisting of the common enemy. And if 
" they be found negligent, to be esteemed false friends, and 
" excommunication to pass against them therefore.*" 
The papists For matters more domestic, and to come nearer home, 
tbeiTgoid- ^"^ within our own territories, I begin with the papists : 
en day. -^yl^o Were now very busy, and entertained great hopes of 
the golden day, as they called the restoration of the old re- 
ligion into this nation, and the deprivation of queen Eliza^ 
beth, and I know not what. They talked much of a great 
revolution about this year, and a turning back to popery 
again. And they would usually say, they hoped for a day. 
There was a piece of poetry (such as it is) that went about 
in print near this time, called. The practice of' the Devil. 
Wherein the Devil is brought in speaking thus, concerning 
the emissaries of Rome : 
Practice of But iiow, alas! their cloyning is so spyed, 
b" Laur ' '^^^^ there's no way but fly quite ore the seas. 
Ramsey. In England but a few in respect I can hide, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 269 

The gospel so bewrayed their obscured knavery, CHAP. 

But yet some do escape by the means of hypocrisy. '___ 

And bears it out braglie, and little wll say, Anno 1572. 

But few words is best : they hope for a dmj. 

And those that are fled out of country's soyle. 

Have friendship privily to their contentation : 

And watch for the vintage to come to some spoile. 

Greeting by letters their whole generation, 

By subtil ciphering ; which is their demonstration. 

Alluring the rest to stand to their hope. 

That the day is coming, to have again their pope. 

And a little after, the same foul spirit is personated, giv- 
ing his counsel to these sworn creatures of the pope, with 
their golden expectation. 

Practise, prate, and conjure, play Sylvester s part, 
Or Hildebrand, that hel-hound most execrable : 
Poison prince or king, and consume them by art, 
As divers have been stirred by the Romish rable : 
Flatter, ly, and cogg at every man's table ; 
Having blind prophesies, and whisper in their ear, 
That ere long they shal have great change of this geare. 

Among the rest of the methods made use of by the Massmong- 
priests and Jesuits, to amuse their proselytes, as this author J^'^"^" t^°"" 
mentioneth, one was conjuring. A nest of these conjuring ken^m the 
massmongers was discovered now in the north parts by the 
diligence of Gilbert earl of Shrewsbury, lord president of the 
north, and keeper of the Scotch queen ; amounting to a great 
number, that is, such massing priests, as commonly used con- 
juration, to foretell and make the people believe this golden 
day. The said lord president had employed two diligent 
persons, whose names were Pain and Peg, to find them out. 182 
The lords of the council, by letters from secretary Smith, Epist. Com. 

All Salop, in 

returned him their most hearty thanks. And the queen o^c. Ar- 
also, as he wrote, had heard of his careful ordering of those ""•"• 
matters, with great contentation to her highness. And that 
those matters touching the massing, and such disorders, 
were referred to the archbishop of Canterbury, and the rest 
of the great commission ecclesiastical. And that which 



270 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK should appear, by examination, to touch the state and the 
^- prince, was to be referred again to tlie lords of the council. 



Anno 1572. 



discovers 

their prac- concerning them 

tices. '^ 



But to know more perfectly who these conjurers were, 
Keiiet, one ^j^^j j^ wliat their coniuration tended, take the earl's letter, 

of them, 1 «. 1 1 1 • •! 

dated Feb. 1, from Shemeld castle, sent to the privy council 
Which was to this purport : " That he 
had sent up to them one Avery Kellet, servant unto 
Rowland Lacon of Willy in Bridgenorth, esq. who had 
sent him to the said earl, being thereto required by his 
servant, that had searched for him upon his command- 
ment. That this Avery, upon his examination of him at 
the first, would needs seem to be simply plain, and ut- 
terly both innocent and ignorant of any lewd doings or 
practice, either by himself or by any other person. But 
after sharper imprisonment for one night, he confessed 
that he was a dealer with the conjurers; and that he 
brought several books of that art unto John Revel, which 
the conjuring scholars, called Palmer and Falconer, and 
Skinner the priest, did occupy in their practice at the 
said Revel's house. And he said further, that they con- 
jured for divers causes; viz. for hidden money; for help- 
ing the diseased; for knowing some secret place to hide 
them; and to have certain knowledge also touching the 
state of this realm. And hereby the said earl did gather, 
that this Avery could declare some further matter need- 
ful to be discovered. That therefore, considering his be- 
ing there might do more service by conference with other 
examinations, than he could do in those parts, [where he 
was taken,] by trying the more speedily those practices ; 
he thought meet not to stay him any longer, but forth- 
with thus to send him to be used there, according to their 
lordships' wisdoms. 

" He signified also, that he had given order for further 
seaixh and apprehension of such others, as he was in- 
formed of, suspected to be doers, or privy to the said 
practice. Subscribed, 

" Yours at commandment to my power, 

" G. Shrewsbury." 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 271 

And no wonder these northern parts were so replenished CHAP, 
with such popishly affected people, since the late rebellion, ' 

which sprang iience. They were observed to be so many Anno 1572. 
now in Yorkshire, and their numbers still so formidable f^P'^^* ,, 

' _ lornudable 

there, that one Mr. Wharton of Rippon, a worthy gentle- for their 

1 1 • r» ^1 1 • • 1 /I numbers in 

man, and apprehensive 01 the danger arising hence, (where- Yorkshire, 
of he had felt the smart before,) thought convenient to 
write to the lord treasurer at large concerning it : with his 
earnest advice, (the gentlemen in those parts being either 
too weak to take them up, or disperse them, or too well af- 
fected towards them, or related to them, to do it,) that for 183 
the more effectual watching that country, and clearing it of 
such false subjects, some active men of the queen's council 
in the south should be sent down thither : the same gentle- 
man offering freely his own service therein, and to come up 
and give his information. The letter will shew these things, 
and the like, more at length ; and is well worth preserving. 
It ran to this tenor : 

" That it might please his good lordship to be advertis- Warning 
" ed, that when he considered how honourably the estate *'^^'^*°f 

. . . . given in a 

" imperial of this most noble region, ever since the begin- letter to the 

" ning of the queen"'s majesty"'s most gracious reign, (which ^y ^Mr"!^"^ 

" he beseeched God long to continue,) had been most pru- Wharton. 

" dently and politicly governed, and also most godly and 

" virtuously directed, to the advancement of God's true 

" glory, and the singular consolation and comfort of all her 

" grace's faithful and obedient subjects, until then of late, 

" that in those north parts a wicked company or rabblement 

" of notorious, malicious traitors, against all loyalty, and 

" their bounden duties and allegiance, and the great annoy- 

" ing and disturbance of our common peace, committed and 

" stirred up an unnatural, odious, and a most detestable re- 

" bellion. The original whereof was ambition, with im- 

" patient poverty, secretly maligning and repining at the 

" worthy vocation of others, placed in higher authority. 

" And that albeit God had poured down upon them his 
" just vengeance, and had supplanted and overthrown their 
" wicked devices and practices, to the perpetual infamy and 



272 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " extinct of blood for ever; and to the terrible example of 

• " all others, to attempt the like heinous offence ; yet was 

Anno 1572." there a remnant there, which were vehemently to be sus- 

" pccted to be singular favourers and privy supporters of 

" that naughty seditious company. 

" For consanguinity and affinity, with hope for a day, 

" bore there such a stir and a sway, that by means thereof 

" divers good subjects and well-willers were pessuntate, and 

" clear out of countenance in these parties : and all and sin- 

" gular good and politic orders and directions, set forth by 

" proclamation against the maintainers and supporters of 

" the rebellious fugitives, little or nothing at all regarded, 

" or in any way executed. 

Moves for " Wherefore he had thought it his bounden duty, both 

sion of some " foreuempst God, and in discharge of his natural sub- 

of the " jection towards his prince, to signify unto his honour, 

queen's ^i- \ • 111 1 1 -ii'iii-i 

council to that It would please the queen s majesty, by Ins lordship s 
be placed in a accustomed good counsel, and others with whom he misrht 

those north n • • 

parts. " best like, to impart the contents of this his letter; to 

" place there immediately, by a special commission, some of 
" her honourable, most trusty, and dearest friends and 
" counsellors, in the south parts : by whose better industry 
" and vigilant regard our crooTced natures (said he) may 
*' be the more aptly bridled and abandoned: a nest of lurk- 
" ing traitors weeded out, and the secret supporters and 
" favourites discovered, and brought to light. That there 
" was no doubt, but that their common peace (which then 
" stood in great peril) should not only thereby be the more 
" firmly established and preserved, but also that the queen''s 
" majesty, his lordshij), and others of her faithful nobility, 
184" with her poor and loving subjects, should reign and live 
" together in more quiet and better security. 

" My lord, (proceeded he,) remember the effect and 
" famihar example of these two old verses following : 

" Principiis ohsta ; sero medicina paratur^ 
" Cum mala per longas convaluere moras. 

" And further, that it might please his lordship to under- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 273 

" stand, that if bis own health were gud ; or that his habi- CHAP. 
" litv were svich as it was before tliat rusty and liauhy trai- ___;_ 



"tor, Richard Norton, had brought him to extreme po-Anuoi572. 

" verty, he would not have made this his letter to have 

" been an instrument, or a spokesman unto his honoiir in 

" this behalf: but his assui'ed expectation and trust was, 

" that his lordship would vouchsafe to take and receive this 

"his advertisement in gud part; as unfolded out of the 

" bosom of a faithful and obedient subject. And that when- 

" soever it should be his pleasure to send his coiiimand- 

" ment for him, to come before his honour, for further in- 

" telligence, touching the cankered state of that country, The canker- 

" infected with the poison of disloyalty, or otherwise, in ti,g g*oy„\°y 

" these cases to direct him, to the lord president, or vice- 

" president of the queen's majesty's council in those north 

" parts, he would prepare himself to the uttermost of his 

" power, to give his diligent attendance ; and not to leave 

" any person untouched to his knowledge, either with com- 

" mendation or reproach, as he or they had justly de- 

" served.'" 

He sent to his lordship also herewith enclosed, " certain Sends in- 
instructions by way of information, against divers persons, ^°™" 



formations 



St 



" to be put in execution, as should stand with his pleasure, some trai- 

" and other his most singular gud lords of the queen's °^]°^^^ ^^'^~ 

" grace's most honourable privy council. But he thought 

" it very necessary, that the houses [of these] should be di- 

" ligently searched by faithful and trusty commissioners, 

" and the said persons thoroughly examined. For that there 

" was great presumption of their evil practices and behavi- 

" ours ; and great possibility to find in their houses divers 

" letters directed unto them from divers their friends, now 

" beyond the seas." 

And then applying to the lord treasurer concerning him- 
self, and the danger he was like to incur by this faithful 
intelligence, should it be known, he added ; *' My lord, as I 
" have made a singular choice to open these matters unto 
" your honour before any other, as unto such a worthy ma- 
" gistrate, in whom I have reposed my only confidence and 

VOL. II. T 



274 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
I. 



Anno 1572. 



His danger 
for tliis his 
service. 



185 



' trust, so do I likewise most humbly crave your good 
' lordship, that for my faithful and further just service 
' hereafter, I may not only enjoy, and have from time to 
' time, gud countenance, aid, and friendship, l)y your gud 
' lordship's means, as that I need not to fear the violent 
' hands and privy malicious practices of such evil disposed 
' persons, as will not forget (for this mine advertisement) 
' to seek by all means possible to persecute me with secret 

* extremities : but also, that it please your gud lordship to 
' write your friendly letters in my behalf unto the lord pre- 
' sident or vice-president of the queen''s highness''s council 
' in these parties. So that I in the mean time enjoy and 
' have such his good countenance and friendship, as may 
' be a terror for mine adversaries to attempt any matter 
' unlawfully against me. For otherwise, as he gave the 
' reason, he should be either enforced to seek a receptacle 
' for his poor wife and children in the other country ; or 
' else to remain there with continual fear of bodily harm, 

* comforting himself with this saying of Horace, 

" Dnlce et decorum est pro patria mori.'''' 

And then concluding his handsome, well-penned, loyal letter 
with these words: " And thus most hvmibly craving pardon 
" for this my bold writing to your gud lordship, I beseech 
" the Almighty so to prosper all your doings, as may tend 
" to the continual advancement of your honourable estate. 
" From my poor house at Ryppon, the 9th day of Decem- 
« ber, 1572. 

" Your gud lordship humbly to use, 

" and command, during his life, 

" William Whartone." 



The disci- 



The di.snpUnarlan.<i, another sort of men, friends indeed 
^er°^busv ^° ^^^ rcfoi'med religion in this land, but very ill affected to 
for furtiier some of the Constitutions and practices of it; these were also 
now creating trouble and disturbance here ; labouring for a 
still further reformation. The book called The admonition 
to the parliament, that now came forth, and spread abroad 
still more the next year, shewed their discontents, and what 



reforma- 
tion. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 275 

they would have reformed, or rather Avhat they would have CHAP, 
quite cast away, and abandoned in this church. Which 



book, with the answer, hath been at large accounted for, in ^""" i5"2. 

the Life of the learned and excellent Dr. Whitgift, arch- ^'J,,'^j^,,^p 

bishop of Canterbury ; to which I refer the reader. I shall Whitgift. 

add here to all the rest, an extract taken out of the said Ad- T''e Admo- 
nition. 
monition, " containing such slanderous and unseemly terms, 

" as there, by the authors thereof, against the orders of 

" the church of England, and state of the realm that now 

" is, are uttered." Those are all drawn and written out fair 

by archbishop Parker's secretary, but, as it seems probable, 

gathered by the archbishop himself; each folio, page, and 

line, where such obnoxious passages are, set down: and 

that perhaps for the better direction of Dr. Whitgift, to 

take particular notice of in his answer ; who was employed 

therein by that archbishop. The treatise itself they entitled, 

A view of popish abuses yet remaining : which is in two view of 

parts. The notes whereof throughout, in the reflections ^'buses! 

and charges made therein upon the church and the practice '^^S''- G. 

o 1 _ i Petyt, ar- 

thereof, are set down in the said MS. For which I refer mig, 
the reader to the Appendix, being someAvhat too long to in- N". XIX. 
sert here. 

Some of these hot new discipline-men were now com- Field and 
mitted to Newgate. Their fault was, that they had offered JJ'g^^""^^^" 
something to the parliament, earnestly condemning the pre- 
sent settlement of religion in discipline and worship, and 186 
exciting to a further reformation; especially reproaching 
the calling of bishops, as well as divers other matters in the 
religion observed, in very abusive terms. This book, I 
make no doubt, was the same with the Admonition afore- 
said. Two of these were taken up and imprisoned, namely. 
Field and Wilcox, for offering this seditious book to the 
parliament. In vindication of themselves, and petitioning 
for their liberty, they wrote a well-penned letter in Latin in 
the month of September to the lord treasurer Burghley : 
but rather vindicating than blaming themselves for what 
they had done. 

Wherein they write, " That they confided in his singular Their letter 

f-t thence to 

T 2 



276 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " benevolence, which moved them to write, with a firm 

' " trust both of obtaining their hberty, and of propagating 

Anno 1572. " the truth. They were sensible, (how unjustly soever,) 

treasurer " ^^^^^ were spoken against among the nobility by evil men, 

" and how (a thing more horrid) the truth of God was 

" slandered by many. But let truth, (as they proceed,) 

" that seeks no corners, speak for itself; and commending 

" to him their innocency, and the equity of their cause, 

" they very earnestly beseeched him to favour it. That 

" they had indeed lately writ a book, requiring the reform- 

" ation of horrid abuses ; with that intent, that sincere re- 

" ligion, being freed from popish superstition, might be re- 

" stored by the whole parliament, with the queen's appro- 

" bation. But by themselves they attempted neither to cor- 

" rect nor change any thing ; but referred all to their jvidg- 

" ments, according as so great a matter called for. Hoping 

" by this means, that the peace of the church, and the re- 

" concihation of brethren at difference, (a thing to be la- 

" mented,) might be restored. 

The schism " And that by this ecclesiastical hierarchy, not consonant 

churdi la- " ^^ ^'^^ word of God, they had seen a sad schism in the 

mented. " church, disturbances daily stirred up among the godly: 

" that most sweet peace, that ought to be among those that 

" profess one and the same religion, was destroyed. That 

" in the mean time they said nothing of the contempt of 

" good learning, the corruption of the more sincere religion, 

" the depraving of the ministry, tlie increase of sin, and the 

" like, occasioned hereby. All which they reckoned a suffi- 

" cient justification of their writing. They added, that con- 

" cerning these abuses, by them mentioned, all the foreign 

" churches of the purer reformation, and the writings of 

" men most eminent for learning, did unanimously acknow- 

" ledge and own to be very foul." For the rest I refer the 

[N». XIX.] reader to the whole letter in the Appendix, transcribed from 

the original. 



Depriva- Divers of the clergy of this sort, (and perhaps some secret 
the statute papists too,) that had benefices and preferments in the 
13 Eiiz. c. church, were now deprived, for not subscribing to the Ar- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 277 

tides of Religion, according to a statute 13 Elizab. entitled, CHAP. 
An act to reform certain disorders touching ministers of_ 



the church. Whereby all such as had livings, or ecclesiasti- Anno 1672. 
cal preferments, were to subscribe the Articles of Religion, 
agreed upon in the convocation, anno 1562, and confirmed 
by the queen's authority : and order therein provided for 
their reading the said Articles, and for declaring their as- 
sent thereunto, in their parish churches. I find these de- 
prived in the diocese of Bath and Wells. March 21, one 18/ 
Printost, or Printer, was presented to the church of Dun- 1^<^^- ^ath 

, . . . . . ''>"^' Wells. 

kerton, by deprivation of the incumbent for not subscribing coii.ctan. 
the Articles. And June 7, one John Haunce, incumbent ^^J^^ '^^ "j^" 
of the church of Waysford, was deprived of the same ; and 
Edward Bremal, alias Cabel, came in his room. October 1, 
John Gold was instituted to the vicarage of East Cokes, by 
deprivation of the said John Gold, by virtue of the said 
act ; at the presentation of the dean and chapter of Exon : 
the said Gold refusing, as it seems, or neglecting to sub- 
scribe in due time : and so undergoing the penalty of depri- 
vation : and afterwards subscribing, admitted again to the 
said vicarage. 

January 24, William Bele, IVI. A. was presented to the Reg. Bath 
prebend of Schalford, alias Scanford, at the queen's pre-''" 
sentation by lapse: because one Alwood, the then pretended 
canon and prebendary, was mere laicus, as it is set down 
in the register : so esteemed perhaps for having no legal or- 
ders, or "such as were taken at some private congi'egation at 
Antwerp, or elsewhere, as Cartwright and Travers had 
done : and so that mere laic needed no formal deprivation. 
And one more I find, viz. Nicholas Rogers obtained the 
church of Pryston, by the deprivation of Richard Cove, 
upon the same statute of 13 Eliz. in the presentation of the 
queen by lapse. 

There were these deprived in this diocese of Bath and 
Wells, for refusal or neglect of subscription to the Articles 
of Religion. We may hereby guess at the numbers that were 
deprived through the rest of the dioceses for the same cause. 
And from thence also, how many tliere were of the clergy 

T 3 



278 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK of this land, that were tainted with principles dissonant to 
those of the church of England, both puritans and favourers 



Anno 1572. of popery, that hitherto had kept their ecclesiastical livings 
and prebends, till by this statute they were searched out 
and discovered. 
Many in And no wonder those principles of the new discipline 

di^affrct'ed'^ disaffected many ministers to the present constitution of the 
to the con- church, since, in this year and some years before, the uni- 
the church, versities were so heated with these controversies. In Cam- 
bridge were, Cartwright, Browning, Brown of Trinity col- 
lege, Millain of Christ's, Chark of l*eter-house, Dcring of 
Christ's college, and many of St. John's, more than any of 
the rest ; who, being men of some learning, had made a 
strong impression upon many of the younger students. 
Life of These I have taken notice of elsewhere. Only of two or 
Parker, and three of them, I have some other things to add, besides 
Archi)ish()p what I have shewn of them already. 

Whitgift. , , . 

Chark ex- Chark, ui a cleriim at St. Mary's before the university, 
peiied the had rouudly condemned the hierarchy of this church, and 

university, , I'-irr- i c i ii-i 

appeals. the ecclesiastical omccrs thereoi, as we have related in the 
Life of Archbishop Whitgift, under the year 1572: laying 
down these two bold positions ; 

Isti status episcopatus, archicpiscopattts, metropolitana- 
tus, patriarchatus, dcnique papatits, a Satana in ecclesiam 
introducti sunt. 

Inter ministros ecclesioi, non debet allns alio esse sit- 
j)erior. 
188 But he having so openly impugned the established order 
of the church, and so broken the statutes of the university, 
was convented before the vice-chancellor and heads ; and in 
fine, was required to make a public revocation of what he 
had so publicly asserted, or else to be expelled the uni- 
versity. And accordingly, some reasonable time was allowed 
him, to consider what he had to do. But when the time 
came, and he still refused to comply, he was actually ex- 
pelled in February. Then did he make his appeal from the 
judgment of the heads unto the lord Burghley, their high 
chancellor, in a well-penned epistle, in a good Latin style. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 279 

and written in a fair hand, desiring by his lordship's means CHAP. 

lo be restored. Therein he telleth the reason of his banish- ' 

ment from the university. Anno 1572. 

Non dissimulo, quin arg^iimentls e scrijptura, et externa- 
rum ecclesiarum exemplo addiictus, aliqnid abesse puteni, 
quo eccles'ia nostra, nuver e tcnehris vindicata, propius ad 
splendorem TrpooTOTuirov ^cxgaKTYipo; possit accedere, ^c. 

Upon this letter (which may be read in Archbishop Whit- Th^ chan- 

. cellor al- 

gift's Life) the lord Burghley, in compassion to Chark, lows of 
whom he held a good scholar, and in consideration that he ^'"^''^ P"""" 

" _ _ _ ceedings a- 

was somewhat hardly dealt withal, (according to the im- gainst him. 
port of Chark's letter,) wrote to the vice-chancellor, and 
the rest of the heads in his favour. To whom they gave 
him so satisfactory an answer, both in respect of their re- 
gular proceedings and Chark's behaviour, that the good 
chancellor, in his next message despatched to Dr. Byng, his 
vice-chancellor, wrote, " That he was sorry that he was not 
" made privy of Chark'' s^;«ci^-?, as he styled his novel doc- 
" trines against the calling of archbishops and bishops, &c. 
" and for the equality of ministers. And that only by his 
" submission to him, with request of mercy to be shewed, 
" he was moved, he said, to wish as he had done. But 
*' that now he was ready to forbear to entreat otherwise for 
" him, than that he publicly revoke his slanderous asser- 
" tions. And that without the doing of which, he was not 
" worthy of favour. And so he prayed the vice-chancellor 
" to impart his meaning to the senate and his coUegiates." 
Written March the 3d, 1572. Whence it appeared, that 
there was in the university a combination of disaffected 
scholars to the church, and they a very strong party. For 
Chark was, by a consultation of them, appointed to preach 
the doctrine he did. 

Chark"'s cause, and the reason of the chancellory's inclina- The chan- 
tion to have favour shewn him, may appear in a former let- [^pj^j^ ^ ^ 
ter to his vice-chancellor and the heads, upon Chark's per- Shark's re- 
sonal application to him, and his relation of his pretended tion of his 
hard usage. Thus writing, Feb. 20, " That where they had ^^"^^■ 
" expelled Will. Chark, late fellow of Peter-house, for somes.T.B. 

T 4 



280 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " speeches used by him in a sermon he lately had ad cle- 
" rtim; tending to the disturbing of the quietness and peace 



Anno 1572. « of the bhurch, and manifestly contrary to the orders taken 
" for the maintenance of the same peace : that forasnuich as 
" the said Chark had been with him, and partly wisely ex- 
*' tenuating his fault, partly very honestly acknowledging 
189" that ^^ committed the same by overmuch vehemency of 
" spirit; and faithfully promising never hereafter to deal 
" therein again, or in the like, that might be offensive; and 
" had shewed some good parts of nature, and good gifts to 
" be in him ; the which in his [the high chancellor's] opi- 
" nion, it were great charity and good wisdom, by gentle 
" usage and persuasion, rather to reduce to be profitable in 
" the church of God, than by sudden cutting him off from 
" the course of his studies utterly to lose : that therefore 
" these were heartily to pray them, the rather for his sake, 
" and for proof of him hereafter, to receive him again into 
" that university, and his fellowship within the college ; 
" upon his like promise made to them, not to meddle here- 
" after in such kind of doctrine. Wherein if they would 
" shew some indulgence for this time, and the rather sup- 
" press the memory of his said speech and doctrine, for 
" that it was delivered in the Latin tongue, and not popu- 
" larly taught, in his judgment they should do well. And 
" so praying them to do, he bade them heartily farewell." 
Remits him But afterwards, upon a more particular account of Chark''s 
to the behaviour and stiffness before the vice-chancellor and heads, 

heads. 

T. Baker, represented to their chancellor, " he remitted him in an- 

S-r.B. ^, other letter, dated March the 25th, to be ordered as they 

" should think expedient. And that he had now less re- 

*' spect unto him : for that he found not that submission 

" and conformity in him, whereof he had conceived some 

" opinion at his writing of his letters unto them in his fa- 

" vour." But more of Chark's business may be read in the 

Life of Arch})ishop Parker. 

Browning To whom I subjoiu the trouble of one Browning, a fel- 

n^rmoVat ^°^^ °^ Trinity college in the same university ; who under- 

st. Mary's, went the censure of that university also, for a sermon of 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 281 

his, preached at St. Mary's; being one of these novelists. CHAP. 
He was charged for preaching the Novatian heresy. Of^ 



whose matter some notice hath been taken in the Life of Anno 1572. 
Archbishop Parker. To which I add, what concern the uni- ^j^^"|^g'J- 
versity's chancellor had in this business, as well as in that of 
Chark's. He had appealed, it seems, to him, for favour 
against the proceedings of the vice-chancellor and heads 
against him. But Browning being brought to relent before 
the chancellor, had revoked his opinions, and made his sub- 
mission and confession by word of mouth before him and 
others there present ; and subscribed the same. Whereupon 
the kind chancellor desired the vice-chancellor and the rest 
of the heads to receive him. Whose letter to them ran in 
this tenor : 

" That forasmuch as Browning had, both by his speech The chan- 

. Mil 1 • ipcellor s let- 

" before him, and by his confession, subscribed by himsell ^er to the 
" before him, Mr. Secretary, and Mr. Chancellor of the Ex- ^^"i^^«'ty» 
" chequer, did not only affirm, that he was much mistaken him. 
" in his sermon, but had promised to give open testimony of 
" his conformity in those points, wherein he was mistaken, 
" at any occasion that shall be offered unto him. He 
" thought good therefore to write unto them in his behalf 
" in a former letter : and now he sent unto them his said 
" confession subscribed, as they might see ; to the intent 
" they might make some proof, whether he should con- 
" tinue in that conformity and submission that he pretend- 
" ed there, with his lordship and the rest. Which if he I90 
" should do with effect, then they should do well to receive 
" him, and cherish him with all good countenance and usage. 
" If not, then he both referred to their discretion the reform- 
" ing of him ; and very carefully commended to their dili- 
" gence and wisdom the conservation of the peace of God's 
" church, and the good fame of that university." This per- 
son seems to overcome this trouble; but fell divers years 
after into another, with the college and university, for taking 
his doctor's degree at Oxford : which is shewn in the Life of 
Archbishop Parker. 

Edward Bering, contemporary with them, was another, ^^"^^f^^^^ 



282 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK and of good learning, who stood thus affected, and made a 
^' chief figure in the same university near this time. Of whom 



Anno 1572. some things also have been by me written in another place. 
Lifeof Abp. rpj^jg man, by reason of his being a reader in St. Paul's, 

Parker. ^ J o 

London, and a preacher of a ready utterance, and of great 
confidence, did also draw away many proselytes. It was 
therefore thought convenient to silence him from preaching 
his lecture any more. And so he was the next year, viz. 
1573. This man was a great enemy to the order of bishops. 
He was known to the lord treasurer; and took often the 
freedom to write unto him, sometimes earnestly stirring 
him up to favour Cartwright and his opinions, and such as 
were his followers; and sometimes accusing him for his 
faults : endeavouring to make that oreat lord an instrument 
for the bringing about their purposes. And in the beginning 
of this year he sent him a letter so indecently writ, and with 
such rude reflections and charges upon that most pious and 
wise nobleman, that it did somewhat stir his mild and good 
nature, as appears in a letter unto him, dated April 3, 
wherein is seen as well this lord"'s modest and Christian de- 
portment, in justifying himself against Dering, as Dering's 
principles and lofty spirit. It ran to this tenor : 
Lord " That since he received from him, in a piece of paper, a 

kittfr^to^ * " biting letter pretended, as by the beginning of a few of 
him, con. « his lines appeared, for Mr. Cartwright ; whose name he 
relulrin^ ^ " [Dering] reiterated, (willing him not to be in heat at the 
Cartwright. tc niention of his name,) he had been in doubt, he said, 
*' whether he should, either for wasting of his time, or for 
" nourishing Bering's humour, make him any answer by 
" letter : but he yielded, as he saw. That for so much as 
" concerned Cartwright, he answered sine ccccandescetitia, 
" (which was Bering's term to him, that he would not be in 
" a passion at his request,) that his return [back to the uni- 
" versity again, from whence he had lately been expelled] 
" would be very grateful to him, and that he, for his part, 
" wished him well. But for his return to the reading of 
" any public lecture there, (which Dering had, it seems, 
" earnestly moved for, to that lord,) he could promise no- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 283 

" thino- of himself. For he knew no power he had therein: CHAP. 

" thoifgh he knew it to be his duty to further all good [ — 

"learning and quietness in the university; that indecent Anno 1572. 
" contentions might be excluded. 

" That all the rest of his pamphlet or letter (for he would 
" call it no worse) contained divers ejaculations against 
" him : as making him void both of knowledge and godli- 
" ness. But if he were such an one, he should be ashamed, I9I 
" he said, to live in the place where he did ; and might be 
" accounted a mere pagan, without sense or knowledge of 
« his God. And that, except it pleased God to direct good 
" men to think better of him than he [Bering] did, he 
" should not be in danger of vainglory. That though he 
" would not flatly deny his pronunciations of him, or say 
" that he spake not right ; yet that he might be licensed to 
" pray him not by recrimination to charge him, and say, 
« that he justified himself. That, contrary to his hard 
" speeches, through God's goodness, he affirmed, that he 
" had not, to his knowledge, conceived or held ohstinata 
« consUia, [as he seems to have been charged by Bering.] 
« And that further he would say, that through God's good- 
" ness, and through good erudition in his young years, he 
" had beheld the gospel of Christ; not eminus [i.e. at a 
« great distance] now for many years, [as Bering had 
" abusively accused him,] but in very deed, with such in- 
« ward feeling of God's mercy by Jesus Christ, and con- 
" firmed to him by his sacraments, as he trusted he might 
« say with the church. Pater noster, sanct'ificetur Jiomen 
" tuum. And whereas he had pronounced hardly of him, 
" in taxing his religion, [i. e. as it seems, in queen Mary's 
« days,] this calumniation, or uncharitable reprehension, 
" that it proceeded of any just cause, he utterly denied to 
" him, and all his bolsterers, if any he had in this his li- 
" centious liberty of writing what he listed. And that he 
" must bear it with the rest, since he [Bering] wrote tan- 
" qiMin ex suhlimi speculatorio ; [so magisterially and 

" loftily.]" 

He continued his letter to a greater length, with much 



284 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK piety, modesty, and a great government of himself under 
^- such unjust provocations from an inferior. And in the end, 



Dering's 
answer. 



Anno 1572. the worst he said of him, was, " That he wished to himself 
" that which Dering judged he lacked, and to him all that 
" which he seemed to have, and more than by his be- 
" haviour he seemed to have, and both of them to require 
" of God, the knower of hearts, to plant in their hearts the 
" true fear of him, and transplant out of their hearts all 
" seeds or roots of vainglory." The whole letter of so me- 
morable a man deserves well to be read over and preserved. 
Numb. XX. And therefore I have reposited it in the Appendix. 

To this moderate letter penned by the good lord treasur- 
er, (who had been so severely and undeservedly reflected 
on,) Dering in a day or two sends another in answer, so 
full of stiffness, and so abounding in his own conceit, that 
we cannot but gather a character of that man's temper and 
spirit thence. It was writ in Latin, and too long here to re- 
peat. I have therefore only observed briefly divers passages 
in it. As where that lord had taken notice of the liberty 
and boldness he took in his writing, he affirmed, " That in 
' all his letters and business which he ever had with him, 
' he diligently took heed of that, that he did not abuse 
' mercenary praises, either for his own benefit, or that 
' lorcPs damao-e. And that this was all that licence of writ- 
' ing that he so blamed : by which neither of them were the 
' worse. And that his lordship had herein the true cause of 
' that holy liberty which he took ; and which he with the 
' highest injury called libul'mcm et Ucentiam. That where 
' his lordship conjectured, that his piety seemed so little in 
192" Dering's esteem; he prayed him, that he might look 
' again upon his own letter, and if there were any thing 
' therein so unworthy of his honour, or of Dering's func- 
' tion, he should be willing to have such rashness of his 
' punished, if he did not under his own hand confess it. 
' And that to asperse his thoughts and cares to be obsti- 
' nate counsels, such as Satan's were, and which God 

* would one day destroy, was a greater crime than he ac- 

* knowledged to be his. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 285 

" His lordship took it ill that he [Bering] should say, CHAP. 
" that his lordship did for a great many years evange- 



Uum emimis aspicere, nunc fere diligere, i.e. had looked -^""o 1572. 
" upon the gospel a great way off, and scarcely had any 
" love now to it : he answered, he did not thereby deny 
" his lordship's cares above others, to be most ready to 
" propagate the gospel. That he knew, (unless he was 
" much deceived,) that he had done there at court, and 
" how great contest and struggle he had sustained. But, 
" added he, take heed how you think you have here done 
" any thing, so as you ought to do. Set before your eyes 
" your labours, your watchings, your cares, your troubles, 
" your anxieties of your mind. And then [as though all 
" this his pains was only for the aggrandizing and enriching 
" of himself] he asketh him. What at length are the ends 
" to which you devoted your so many heavy tasks ? Whe- 
" ther it were not for your heaping up of honours to youi'- 
" self, and for the increasing of wealth.? O! misery, gotten 
" very dearly ! So it is, my lord, so it is, if yovi deny it to 
" eternity. 

" Whereas the said lord had writ in his letter, that he 
" had dedicated his studies and endeavours to promote the 
" gospel : O ! said Dering in his answer, I wish you this 
" light of the gospel of God, which hath, as you say, en- 
" lightened you cominus, [i. e. so near,] and inwardly ac- 
*' cording to the measure of the gift of' Christ. And may 
" Christ so shed forth upon you his love, that hereafter 
" you may not erninus [i. e. afar off] look upon it, but also 
" be fervent in spirit.*" 

And among other reflecting sayings Dering writ, this was 
one, (in respect of something that was like to be done at 
the parliament approaching,) Nescio quid alimt 7nonstri, qui 
hvfidata atithoritate subnixi, sic ambulant, ut evangeUum 
regni e sublimi despiciant ; i. e. T know not what monster 
they breed up, who, upheld by the authority of a mitre, so 
walk, as looking from on high, in contempt, upon the gos- 
pel of the kingdom. For the favourable acceptation of 
which expression, he prayed his lordship to take heed, how 



286 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK he took his words; and that he should not think he struck 
. at any truly pious man, even though he were a bishop. But 



Anno 1572. jq make amends for this short and imperfect account of the 
former letter, wherein Dering delivered and explained his 
mind and sense to the said lord, and with as much affected 
learning as he could, I have put the whole into the Ap- 

N". XXI. pendix ; especially containing several things of remark in it. 



193 CHAP. XXI. 

A sermon preached hy Cooper, bishop of Lincoln, at PauTs 
Cross, in "vindication of the church of England and its 
liturgy. An anszocr thereto sent to him by some dis- 
affected person. Observations therein made, of bishops 
maintaining an ignorant ministry. Of the Service- 
book. Of the titles and honour of the bishops. Of the 
government of the church. And the applying of some 
places erf scripture. 

The bishop xaND to shew more of the endeavours of the disaffected to 
of Lincoln's ^.|^g church, and its hturgv and rites, Dr. Cooper, the learned 

sermon at ' ^^ ' r ' 

Paul's bishop of Lincoln, having made a sermon at St. PauFs Cross, 
an answer o^ Sunday the 27th of June, touching these matters, (oc- 
thereof sent casioned bv the book called. An admonition to the parlia- 
ment,) an answer was soon penned against it ; which 1 have 
seen in MS. And because I think it was never printed, I 
shall here exemplify it. Wherein will be seen the anger of 
the party against our church''s constitution, and with what 
arguments they maintained themselves, and what objections 
were used against it. It is entitled, A71 answer to certain 
pieces of a sermon made at Paul's Cross, Sfc. by Dr. Cooper, 
bishop of Lincoln. Who this answerer was, I cannot tell. 
But that it came to the bishop''s own hands, appears by the 
address at the beginning, and by a marginal note or two, of 
the bishop's own hand ; Avhicli I shall set down as they oc- 
cur. It begins thus : 
MSS.G.Pe- "Forasmuch, master Cooper, as your sermon, preached 

tyt, aruiig. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 287 

upon Sunday the 27th of June, in anno 1572, did offend CHAP, 
many, and among the rest, me, I thought myself bound 



*« in conscience to deal with you touching two or three ^nn" 1572. 

" points ; leaving other matters to other men, grieved as 

*' much as I : who, I know assuredly, will, either by word 

" of mouth or by writing, or both, talk with you concern- 

" ing the same. But the occasions which moved me to 

" write are these points following ; wherein I dissent not a 

*' little from you : 

" I. In your maintaining of an ignorant and unlearned 
" a ministry. ° I '^'^ not 

" II. In your magnifying of the English Service-book, nor shew ' 
" III. In your defendinff of the ungodly titles and un- ;">'*'^'*^ ^^ , 

-' _ o o J ]ilie well of 

*' just lordship of bishops. them, but 

" IV. In your depraving of that government, which Christ ^i^" ^au^e 
*' hath left to his church. and wished 

" V. And last of all, in your wresting and wringing of nu;,nce only 
*' scriptures from their natural sense and meaning." '" respect 

. . , . n 1 of necessity. 

And then his discourse upon each pomt was as followeth : And in 

I. Concerning the first. You seemed to allow and like JJ'j;PJ J°^ 

well of the unlearned company that now is of English mi- cai priests, 

nisters ; and you seemed in some sort also to dislike them. diLi'nished 

By the way, take this with you ; t'i« »"ev- 

*^ „ . ... 7- • T , • ousness of 

Convenict nemini, qui secum aissiaet ipse. the crime. 

You took occasion to treat of this matter, as I suppose, by B's^op ^ 
reason of a little book, entitled, An admonition to the par- ha.ad. 
liament; which wisheth, (as you all yourselves then did,) 
that every congregation might have a godly, a learned, and 
a painful preacher. But this seemed unto you impossible : 
for they are not now to be had, said you. Neither were 
they at the first to be had, because mutability of religion in 
king Henry'^s days, king Edward's days, queen Mary's days, 
&c. caused many towardly wits to refrain the ministry in 
the beginning of this queen's reign ; and to commit their 
studies to physic, to law, to teaching schools, &c. And 
therefore the bishops were at that time enforced to admit 
into the ministry ignorant and unlearned persons. 

This, so far as I remember, was the effect of your words. 



288 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK For the proof whereof it had been good for you to have 
' shewed, out of the writings of the Old and New Testament, 



Anno 1572. some plain testimonies or examples, and not to have dealt 
so carnally as you did : for both it worketh a suspicion in 
the minds of the hearers concerning your grounded know- 
ledge in divinity, and also declareth that you yourself are 
but carnal. For the things uttered by you savoured not of 
God's spirit, but of the fleshly reason and worldly policy, 
one of the greatest enemies that true religion ever had or 
can have. He that dealeth in such a public place, for the 
stay of the conscience of the auditory, must leave worldly 
reason and fleshly policy as very weak grounds, nay, rather 
no grounds at all, for Christians to stay their faith upon, and 
flee and stick to the holy scriptures only. 

But you then saw, and the rest of your fellow-bishops since 
rmderstood, that if you should deal that way, your juggling 
Avould be espied. And therefore, like crafty michers and 
subtile foxes, you flee into the dark, i^for every one that doeth 
evil hcdeth the I'lght,) and are afraid, like heathen and ethnic 
rhetoricians ; to the end that you might bring those good 
men out of credit with your auditors, contrary to your own 
consciences, to object unto them horrible and wicked \\n- 
truths. (As that they shoidd go about to hinder the course 
of the gospel, and to gape for your livings.) Following in 
this point your most familiar doctor, father Quintilian, the 
orator, who commandeth an adversary to bring and forge of 
another whatsoever by any probable means he can, although 
he knoweth right well that all is false. It had been plain 
dealing for such doughty divines, as yet will seem to be, (if 
ye had then the book before named,) to have taken the places 
of scri})ture there quoted, and to have answered them ; and 
if they had been wrongly applied, to have shewed it to the 
pcojjle. But that way was not best for you : for you saw 
that they were too plain, and could not be rightly gainsayed. 
195 And therefore you not only willingly confessed this to be 
true, that every congregation should have a preacher, as is 
before specified, but did run out into blind and odd corners ; 
to the scouring and sweeping whereof I am enforced to 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 289 

come, seeing you will not deal with the scriptures in the CHAP, 
book cited. ' 



The first reason you made for the bolstering of your Anno 1 572. 
learned ministries was this, that oft altering of religion al- 
tered men's minds for meddling in the ministry ; therefore 
you could have no learned ministers. What is this else to 
say, I pray you, but that they and you too, I fear, did ra- 
ther seek unjust honour and ease in the ministry, than a 
burden or labour ? They forgot, and belike you did not 
well remember, that death itself should not alter their minds 
from that whereunto God's Spirit^, according to his revealed * I did not 
word, had moved them. So that one of these must be ^1,1,1-, but 
granted; either that they were void of God's Spirit, and shewed the 
therefore neither God's children, nor fit men to be ministers Bishop 
of the gospel; or else that worldly preferment and gain, ift^o^per. 
they would take that charge upon them, did stir them 
thereto. And therefore should not be received, &c. 

As for those unlearned ones, whom you call, neither are 
they ministers, though you so term them, neither have au- 
thority to minister sacraments, though you give them pov/er 
so to do, except they can minister the word by preaching 
also. Neither are they called; but they run and seek, and 
by letters come in. Better it were that some honest parish- 
ioners should be appointed to read the scriptures in order, 
till they might have a preacher, than such reading ministers 
should be admitted. Yea, and you and your fellovz-bishops 
shall answer for all the parishes in your dioceses, where such 
insufficient hirelings are. How are such dispensers of the 
word ? How can they divide the scriptures ? What manner 
of watchmen are these ? What kind of light shew such 
forth ? What can be seasoned with such salt .'' How work 
they in the Lord's harvest ? 

And you added further concerning this matter, that there 
were in England 20,000 parish churches, and not 20,000 
preachers to furnish them : so that such ministers as were 
required in so great a number were not to be had. About 
this matter let me ask you one question. Are you sure, 
that that which you speak is true ? I think, for the safeguard 

VOL. II. u 



290 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK of your honesty, (as for your honour I let it pass, as smell- 
ing too much of Antichrist's stencli,) you will answer, Yea. 



Anno 1572. Por if you should answer otherwise, you should doubt of 
your doctrine, and make a manifest lie. Both which are in 
a preacher very notorious faults. And is it sure indeed that 
such a number cannot be found ? Why then do you, by 
urging your gay gear, and enforcing popish abomination, 
hinder them that would enter ? And for the same, by per- 
secuting, as imprisoning, depriving, banishing, excommuni- 
cating, suspending, &c. lessen the number of them that are 
entered ; and, as so many rods of God's vengeance, stop the 
mouths of them that would do good. Belike, either your 
churches are well furnished, and provided for, (which can- 
not be, both because you have confessed the contrary, and 
1 96' also for that you give by your bull-licences, to one man to 
enjoy two benefices, to have three, to have more, and as 
many as he list, or can get,) or else yourselves have not so 
great care for them as you pretend, and would fain seem 
to take. 

For if the one of them, or both, were not true, you would 
deal in another sort than heretofore you have done. Yea, if 
it be true that there want so many ministers, why do not 
you, following Christ's and Paul's example, setting aside all 
Avorldly offices, instead of ruffian-like and idle-serving men, 
take into your houses as many scholars, and instruct them 
(as Christ did his apostles, and Paul those that waited on 
him) in divinity and understanding of the word ; reading 
mito them, and expounding for your own exercise, such 
scriptures as you intend afterwards yourselves to entreat of.'' 
This would help to increase the number of good preachers, 
si hoc vobis ita curce esset, ut simulatis ; and make you such 
bishops as Paul rcquireth ; whereas you have not one thing 
almost that Paul commandeth to be in a bishop, &c. 

Christ doth will his disciples, considering the greatness of 
the harvest, to pi-ay to the Lord of the harvest, to send la- 
bourers into his harvest ; and not to do as you do, to make 
idle shepherds, dumb dogs, sleepy watchmen, blind guides, 
unskilful teachers, yea, bare readers. And St. Paul telleth 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 291 

us, that God hath given some, apostles ; some, prophets ; some, CHAP. 
evangelists ; and some, pastors and teachers :for the gather- . 



ing together of the saints, for the work of the ministry, &c. Anuo 1572. 
Not once making mention of any such lewd and loitering 
ministers as you both make, and thrust upon the congrega- 
tions Justly may your coldness and impiety be repre- 
hended, lx)th for suffering enemies to join with you, I mean 
papists, and also for maintaining idle vagabonds and loiter- 
ing lubbers, who bring not so much as one stone to the build- 
ing up of the Lord's spiritual temple. 

But you add further, that the people should have lived 
like heathens, and without a God in the world, if there had 
not been such made to read the scripture unto them. Now 
surely you shew what a divine you are, (setting aside your 
doctorship,) better in physic, or teaching a school, than in 
the mysteries and secrets of holy scripture. For neither 
doth God allow a reading ministry, because the minister 
must be giSaxrixof, that is, able to teach ; neither is it lawful 
for you to do evil that good may come thereof, unless you 
will have the sequel of the sentence to fall upon your pate. 
And what good hath come by your reading ministers, if you 
truly examine your diocese, you shall be able easily to judge. 
Surely, if you find one in a township able and willing to 
render a reason of his faith and hope, you shall find the rest 
not unwilling only, but unable too. And yet, if the matter 
might be truly sifted, it shall be found, that that one person 
hath not so well profited by hearing of the scriptures barely 
read, without interpretation, but by frequenting sermons in 
other places. But you think you have well mended the 
matter, when you have justified the English ministry, in 
comparison of the popish priesthood, because, as you say, 
they can read their service comely, decently, and distinctly; 
whereas the popish priests huddle it up mthout reverence, igf 
and are rascal companions. 

To answer this : as you make great account of reading 
decently and distinctly, so papists judge it a great glory to 
mumble mattins swiftly; and I cannot but affirm, that a 
great company of your English ministers behave themselves 

u 2 



292 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK as irreverently in saying of the divine service, as the popish 
' priests ; which evidently appeareth, by those gallojiing sir 
Anno 1572. Johns in the country, that have licence from you and other 
bishops to serve two or three cures. And though, either of 
ignorance you cannot, or of Avilfulness you would not see 
this, yet some of your fellow-bishops have seen it ; and there- 
fore in agony and grief of stomach, out of the same place 
have both spoken against it, and wished a redress thereof, 
&c. But, I pray you, how long will it be impossible to 
liave preaching ministers? Could you do nothing therein 
these thirteen years ? If it pleased God to open the queen''s 
majesty's heart, and to put her willing hand thereto, I could 
find means that both the universities and cathedral churches, 
as the matter might be used, should be able to bring forth 
so many preaching ministers within the space of ten years, 
as should serve all England. And no man, that hath reason 
in his head, would or can deny it, the matter is so plain. 
The li- II. The second cause of my writing was, because you 

'"'^^^* commended above the moon the liturgy or form of prayer, 
and administration of the sacraments, which the English 
church useth ; saying, it is most agreeable to God's word 
of any since the apostles' time, and least clogged with un- 
profitable ceremonies. When you uttered this, you had 
forgotten, belike, that saying of the wise man ; He that jus- 
tifieth the zcncked, and he that condernneth thejxist, even they 
hoth are abomination to the Lord. Neither did you remem- 
ber, that he that speakcth lies shall perish ; and. The mouth 
that spealceth lies slayeth the soul. But it should seem, 
that you spake of ignorance, not having seen the forms of 
prayer used in other foreign churches. For if you had cast 
your eye upon that order which the English church in the 
time of queen Mary used, both in Geneva and this realm in 
those days, you should have seen an order not so full of su- 
perstitions. If that will not please you, you may view those 
forms that both the church of Geneva itself, and the re- 
formed churches in France and Germany now use. If those 
like you not, look into Scotland, and consider that order. 
If none of thos6 will content you, because you are loath to 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 293 

go so far, you shall do well to behold even under your nose, CHAP, 
here at home, the French, and Dutch, and Italian churches 



in London ; and you shall see another manner of form, more Anno 1572. 
-agreeable to God's word, and not clogged (that I may use 
your own terms) with so many idle, unprofitable, ungodly, 
and idolatrous ceremonies. For there is among them no 
private communion, no private baptism, no service for the 
burial of the dead, no churching or purifying of women, no 
crossing of infants in baptism, no kneeling at the Lord's 
supper, no hindering of preaching, no expounding of scrip- 
ture by bare reading of psalms, lessons, suffrages, collects, 
patches, and pieces of epistles and gospels; no prescript 
order of service for saints' days, &c. But all things done 198 
in order, according to the apostles' rule, and to edifying. 

If I would enter into the dispraise of the book of ser- 
vice, as you did in the commendation thereof, I could 
avouch, and that justly, more against it out of God's book, 
than you are able to bring for the praise thereof. At this 
time I will say no more but this: find me any form of 
prayer, and administration of sacraments, set forth since the 
apostles' time, more full of corruption than this, except it 
be the pope's portuise, and a book that one Hermannus, 
archbishop of Colen, did make, (out of both which you 
have patched yours,) and I will not only willingly yield to 
it, but as stoutly defend it as you now do. And as for the 
authority of Ignatius, Tertullian, Gyprian, Justin Mai'tyr, 
Eusebius, and others, they were very vainly alleged, and 
brought rather for an ostentation, and to blind the eyes of 
the simple, because you would seem rather to have some- 
what to say, than to confirm any truth. And yet the most 
of them may be j ustly laid against yourself ; and a man may 
with your own weapon easily wound you. If you will 
stand so precisely to their judgment in some points, why 
not also in some others ? You know that in Cyprian's time 
young children were admitted to the Lord's supper, contrary 
to God's Avord ; and men carried off the bread (when the 
sacrament was administered) home to their neighbours, and 
dehvered it to dicm; which, in many men's judgments, was 

u3 



294 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK not lawful. Neither were the other, which were before Cy- 
^' priaiij (as Tertullian and Ignatius,) void of their errors. 



Anno 1572. And jou know that many works are thrust upon us in both 
their names ; of which the best learned doubt whether they 
were theirs or no. And for us to stand so much upon 
men's judgment, seeing that every man is a Itai; and to as- 
cribe so much unto the time wherein they lived, seeing that 
tlie apostle tells us, that the mystery of imqu'ity began to 
rcork in his days, I judge it a mere vanity, and a deluding 
of the simple. 

But I would fain deal in a word or two with you about 
Justin''s place, because you seem to make most account 
thereof: for you guessed that it served well for the main- 
tenance of your bare reading, without interpretation and ex- 
hortation. Yet if you view the place well, you shall see 
that it maketh wholly against you : for he sheweth, that as 
in his time the writings of the apostles and prophets were 
read upon the Sunday in the public assembly, so the read- 
ing being ended, they were expounded and applied to the 
hearers, to the end that the people might better understand 
the mind of the Holy Ghost ; and out of the mouth of the 
minister receive also some comfortable doctrines and in- 
structions. Is it so now ? Are no scriptures now read, but 
interpretation and application follows .'' If you answer truly, 
you must needs say, No ; and withal confess, that this place 
serveth no whit for your purpose, though you did bear the 
world in hand that it made mightily for you. 

Now, if you will hereafter deal out of the doctors, you 
were best look that they serve fitly for your heart, lest you 
utter them to your shame, as you have done these. You 
must consider this much. That there resort to that place 
199 [i. e. Paul's Cross] such as can try all things, and prove the 
spirits, whether they be of God, or no: and, though they 
lack your countenance and estimation, are able to deal with 
you, or the best bishop in this church, in any point of 
Christian religion. Who come not to sleep, as some, or 
for a show, with other some, or to tangle you, (as you un- 
justly report,) but to hear your doctrine, and to search the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 295 

scripture daily, whether things be so that you speak. God ^^^j^' 
give you grace to walk before him with a simple heart, ut- 



terly renouncing all these shifts and shows which you use ^"""^ ^72. 
for the maintenance of your Antichristian honour, and the 
defence of the tale of the beast. For you know that he that 
wallceth uprightly rvalketh boldly and surely ; hut he that 
pervcrteth his zaays shall be Imozvn. And the Lord will 
honour them that honour him ; and they that despise him 
shall be despised. 

III. For that you went about to prove these Anti- Names and 

y , titles of 

christian titles, a?-chbishop, lord bishop, honour, grace, w^- archbishops, 
tropoUtan, primate, dean, archdeacon, official, &c. in mi-'^rdbisliops, 
nisters and preachers of the gospel, lawful, which indeed 
are altogether contrary to God's word. And first, your 
titles of dignity, as lord's grace, lord bishop, honour, &c. 
how repugnant they are to the scripture, every one, that is 
not willingly blind, seeth. And as for your joining civil 
offices to your ecclesiastical functions, how wicked that is, 
none that hath any taste or feehng of godliness can, with- 
out horror and grief of conscience, consider. You know 
that one office requires a whole man ; and he that laboureth 
most faithfully in one function, shall never do his duty in 
such a strait sort as God requireth at his hands. And what 
an absurd thing is this too, to confound those too several 
callings, which in all commonwealths, either of Gentiles or 
Jews, (unless there hath been a very great disorder among 
them,) have been sundered ; and to appropriate them both 
to one person, which have been severally allotted to two ! 
You see that Moses was God's magistrate, appointed to 
hear hard matters among the people, and to give sentence 
therein. And Aaron was the Lord's priest, and laboured 
in that office. So Joshua was the Lord's captain, to go in 
and out before the people. And Eleazar executed the 
charge and function of a priest. But touching this matter, 
I will refer you for this time to the judgment of one of 
your own coat ; I mean Mr. Alley, late bishop of Exeter. 
And this much be generally spoken at this present, con- 
cerning those proud titles and unlawful offices. 

u 4 



296 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK Now because you dealt with some spiritual ones, to wit, 

^- archbishops and mctroj)olitans, I mean, with God's assist- 

Amioi572.anee, to join with you about them. But first you must 
give me leave to disclose your subtilty and craftiness, which 
did on set purpose omit to treat of primates, deans, arch- 
deacons, suffragans, commissaries, officials, chancellors, &c. 
because you were able in defence of them to say nothing. 
For if you had been able concerning them to utter any 
thing to the purpose, yea, though it might have had but 
only a shoAv of some force, you would not have concealed 
it, no more than you did that which you unfitly and weakly, 
God knows, concerning archbishops and metropolitans, then 
spoke. For what a feeble argument is this, There were 
200 archbishops in the first Nicene council, three hundred years 
after Christ, and perhaps before that time : therefore the 
office is agreeable to God's word, and may well be used. 
To speak my mind herein, I judge you will prove this ar- 
o-vnnent ad Grcecas calendas ; so weak, nay, so reasonless a 
reason, was never heard come out of the mouth of any, that 
had but the countenance of learning. 

It is much like a reason that Harding maketh against 
bishop Jewel, for the communion in one kind. INIclchize- 
dek met Abraham coming from the spoil, and offered him 
bread and wine: therefore we must have the sacrament 
delivered under one kind. And this one thing I would 
have you to note, that this word arch is not attributed, 
throughout the whole New Testament, to any officer or 
minister of God's church militant here in earth. Indeed 
St. Peter doth call Christ «e;)^i7ro»y»jv, the ch'uf Shepherd. 
By which he teachcth us, that if any man vindicate or claim 
the same title to himself, or receive it, being by other given 
unto him, he, as nuich as in him lieth, spoileth and robbcth 
Christ Jesus of his glory : because, if he doth not exalt 
himself thereby above God's Son, yet he maketh himself 
equal with him ; inasmuch as he takcth to liim that name 
and title, which by right doth only belong to Christ. 

And as to metropolitajis, and their first original, we 
have little to say besides that which you yourselves confess, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. ^97 

namely, that they were by men devised, for the pacifying CHAP, 
of schisms and controversies in the church. But here is a ^^^• 



question, whether the primitive church ever appointed any Anno 1572. 
such. I am svu'e you will answer, No; because you are not 
able to shew out of the apostles' writings any such order 
was taken among them ; for they had another way to end 
strifes and contentions. If there were any discords in a 
church about any matters and points of religion, there was 
no metropolitan then of the same church to decide the 
matter. But they sent brethren to the ministers and elders 
of another church, who gave their sentence according to 
truth ; and so contentions ceased. This Avas the order 
then ; and in reformed churches, this is, at this day, their 
common practice. And so it should be among us; un- 
less you will blasphemously say, you can prescribe better 
orders for the ending of schisms and quieting of strifes, 
than did the apostles, to whom the Holy Ghost was abun- 
dantly given. 

This then that hath been declared being true, as it is 
the infallible truth of God's Avord, and therefore shall pre- 
vail, what remaineth, but that, if you will be accounted fol- 
lowers and favourers of this truth, you renounce these Anti- 
christian titles and honours, being so directly contrary to 
God's word ; and content yourselves M'ith that ordinary 
function and office, that God in his word hath unto you 
allotted : labouring also earnestly to bring in that way and 
means of pacifying controversies, that God's word appoint- 
eth, and the apostles in their times practised ; and not so 
stoutly to maintain that which man's brains hath devised. 
Because that men's inventions, throughout all the scrip- 
tures, are generally condemned ; especially being so repug- 
nant to God's word as these are. Bind not therefore two 
sins together, by enjoying and defending also these unjust 
matters : for the wise man telleth you, that in one sin you 
shall not be unpunished. 

IV. Because you said, that for the external form of go- 201 
vernment in the church, for administration of sacraments I'^o"" "f 
and ceremonies appertaining to order, to have them done vernment. 



298 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK according to the prescript of God's word, you judged it an 
error ; if this be not blasphemy intolerable, then let all the 



Anno 1572. ^Qj.j(^ judge. Christ saith, that xvhosoever shall speak a 
tion of sa-" '^ord against the Son of man, it shall he forgiven him ; hut 
cranients hlttsphemy against the Holy Ghost shall not he forgiven 
monies. unto men. Hath not the Holy Ghost in the scripture pre- 
cisely pointed out the spiritual government of his church, 
which no mortal creature may alter and change ? Yet you 
in the fulness of iniquity say, we are not bound to that 
order. What voice more blasphemous coidd that Romish 
Antichrist have uttered ? Indeed, if you had dealt only in 
the circumstances of the administration of sacraments and 
ceremonies, your judgment would have been better liked. 
Yet Beza writeth, that they are able to prove, that not only 
the doctrine of the church of Geneva doth agree with God's 
word, but also, that it should not be hard for them to shew, 
that the simplicity of the ceremonies of that church, and the 
whole order of their discipline, are drawn out of the same 
fountain, &c. 

Hereby svirely you bewray yourself to be without skill in 
the holy scriptures, because you make no difference between 
regiment and ceremonies. For regiment we have plain and 
particular commandment, testimonies, and examples. As 
for ceremonies, we have one general rule for all; Let all 
things he done to edify; comely, and according to order: 
because God is the God of peace and order, and not of con- 
fusion. But because you would seem to make this matter 
more glorious, and to get greater credit among the hearers, 
you judged that every godly man in Europe is of your 
mind, if his judgment were asked in these points. And are 
you sure thereof.? Have you travelled throughout all Eu- 
rope, to understand what they think ? I suppose. No ; be- 
cause I have heard you were yet never out of this realm. 
Where then have you seen their judgments.? Writings, I 
think not : for you came to be a divine but yesterday in re- 
spect ; and therefore you could not so soon peruse all their 
works and writings. How durst you then take upon you 
thus to deal in so public and so learned an assembly ? Cer- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 299 

tainly what other men guess at it, I know not ; but, in my CHAP. 
judgment, it is great boldness and folly. And this further, ^^ 



to the overthrow of your assertion, I dare say, that if any Anno 1572. 
learned man^s judgment in all Europe were asked, (except- 
ing atheists, libertines, Lutherans, and papists, who des- 
perately cast from them, and of set purpose refuse this 
godly kind of government,) especially if either they were 
of churches reformed, or had seen them ; that then he or 
they altogether would answer and confess, that this surely 
were not the voice of any one that did preach or profess the 
gospel, but of some scullion of Antichrist's kitchen, or of 
some other instrument that the Devil useth to deceive the 
minds and souls of the simple. 

And as this was most blasphemous and false, so most un- 
true also was that which you, out of the poison of your 
venomous stomach, then uttered against many, who, be- 
cause they desired the reformation of cathedral churches, 202 
the dens of all loitering lubbers and thieves, you unjustly 
accused, saying, that they wished, and sought in like sort, 
the overthrow of colleges and universities. But to prove 
you deceived, and to declare the thing never to be thought, 
much less to be put in practice, this much, in those persons' 
behalf, be truly and faithfully spoken. They have as great 
care (in the spirit of humility be it said) for the mainte- 
nance of colleges, universities, learning, and learned men, 
as you, or any other, possibly can have. And if God had 
given them as many means and as great abilities to do 
good in that behalf, as he hath to you and others, no doubt 
but their love would plainly appear, by their deeds and li- 
beralities, to be far greater than yours or others is. Yea, 
without boasting be it spoken, some of them enjoying spi- 
ritual promotions, as you term them, and some others lack- 
ing the same, have done more good, to the relief of poor 
scholars, than as yet many of your coat and calling. 

Further, you know that it becometh all men, but espe- 
cially bishops and ministers, to speak the truth : and yet, if 
I had not before, according to my duty, reproved you for 
lying, I would here have dealt more sharply with you for 



300 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK the same. Attauicn quod defertur, non aitf'crtiir ; espe- 
cially if you go on forward as you have begun. Nam qui 

Aano IS72. pergit, ea qu(B vult dicere, ea quce non vult, audiet. In the 
mean while, God give you and every one grace to speak the 
trutli to his neighbour from the bottom of his heart. 

Places of V. Because you wrested and perverted sundry places of 

scripture al- . i • i' n i * r. xr 

legeii by the scripture whicli you alleged. As nrst, Nemo potest venire 
bishop. fjfi ^^^^ ^'^gi PqI(-y qui misit me, traxerit eiim. Which you 
English twice for failing, after this sort : No man can come 
unto me, itnless my Father lead him. AVhich interpreta- 
tion savoureth somewhat of Pelagianism, (thougli you and 
your fellow-bishops unjustly charge others therewith,) be- 
cause it seemeth to attribute some small unwillingness to be 
in man, as coming to God ; whereas the apostle telleth us, 
that God zoorJceth in us both the will and the deed, accord- 
ing to his good lileasure. And God''s Spirit sheweth, that 
the imaginations of man's heart are only evil every day. 
So that we cannot of ourselves think a good thought, much 
less do a good and acceptable deed in the sight of God. 
To lead, you know, is not so forcible as to drazv. For 
many times Ave may be led thither, whither we would gladly 
and without resisting go, &c. Our Savioiu' Christ-s mean- 
ing in these words is, both to set forth our unwillingness to 
come unto him, that full fountain and treasure of all good- 
ness, and also to declare the forcible means that God the 
Father doth use ; who, will we or nil we, will draw us unto 
his Son. If you had considered the nature of the place, or 
w'eighed the drift of our Saviour's talk, or scanned the 
Latin or Greek word, you would never have interpreted it 
after that fashion, &c. The Greek word sK-nuas, which ge- 
nerally throughout the scriptures, especially of the New 
Testament, (so far as I have yet read,) signifieth in the 
agent, icith violence to draic, &c. 
203 The second place which you abused was this, Every 
plant xchich my heavenly Father hath not planted shall he 
pluclccd up by the roots. You understand it of doctrine 
only, and not of ceremonies ; as much in this behalf wrest- 
ing the mind of the Holy Gliost in this second, as in the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 301 

former, falsely and corruptly expounding the word. For CHAP 
if you view the text well, you shall see that the matter be 



twixt the Scribes and Pharisees, and our Saviour Christ, Anno 1572. 
was about ceremonies and traditions, as washing of hands, 
&c. In observing of which order, he gave them to under- 
stand, that they were a great deal more precise and rigor- 
ous, than in keeping God's commandments ; and therefore 
calleth them hypocrites: plainly proving, out of Esaiah 
the prophet, that they were deep dissemblers before God. 
With which plain kind of speech, as it should appear by 
the disciples' words to their Master, the Pharisees were 
offended. Whereupon Christ taketh occasion to utter this 
sentence. Every pla7it which my Father, &c. referring it 
not only to doctrine, as you say, because in the next chap- 
ter he dealeth with their doctrines in these words. Take 
heed and hezcare of the leaven of Pharisees ; but also to 
ceremonies, ordinances, and ti'aditions, whereupon in the 
beginning of the chapter the question was made. 

Thirdly, you perverted a place in the prophecy of Eze- 
chiel against such as seek the sincerity of the gospel. That 
you were somewhat earnest against papists, is not to be dis- 
liked ; and would to God you would perform in that be- 
half as much indeed as you prattle in your words. But 
that you joined, as it were in one yoke, papists and zealous 
gospellers, wishing severe punishment, belike, to be ap- 
pointed for them, you were not only misliked, and caused 
many to judge, that you spake rather of choler than cha- 
rity ; but also you and others, by such vehement words, 
have plainly declared yourselves whose children you be. 
To what end, I pray you, should you wish more extreme 
laws and penalties to be made against poor protestants .? 
Certain it is, that unless you took their lives from them, you 
cannot more cruelly handle some of them, than heretofore 
you have done, and at this present do. 

For to let pass your former banishments, imprisonments, 
suspensions, excommunications, deprivations, &c. (by which 
tyrannous kind of dealing you have taken away the means 
by which poor men should live, and so in God's sight are 



302 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK become murderers; for he that taketh away the bread of 
^' the poor, taketh away the hfe of the poor: which we have 



Anno 1572. even now before our eyes, a notable spectacle of your good 
heartedness ;) do you not keep at this hour as godly mi- 
nisters in close prison, so that no friends can come to visit 
them ? Do you not separate them and their wives, which 
in God's sight is a horrible iniquity ? Do you not labour, 
as much as in you lieth, by this your tyrannous dealing, 
to make their wives widows, and their children fatherless ? 
And yet you would have more extreme punishment. Is 
it not punishment enough, think you, for refusing your 
popish apparel, and other relics of the Romish beast, to be 
thrust from house, living, and all that one hath ? Is it not 
a hard censure, for speaking or writing against your mis- 
sals and pontifical, to be imprisoned at your pleasure? Is 
204 it not cruelty almost unheard of, for seeking a reforma- 
tion of religion, to be thrown into Newgate ? Doth not this 
savour somewhat of a bloodthirsty heart ? It argueth to 
me, (I know not what it doth to others,) that you are of 
your father the Devil, who was a liar, and the murderer 
from the beginning. This I can say for them both, that 
by your tyranny and forcible dealings, they, their wives, 
children, and families, are utterly beggared. 

Is not this to rule with cruelty and rigour .'' If Ishmael's 
mocking of Izhach be counted by God for persecution, 
what will the Lord account this your cruel handling ? And 
do you think for it, you shall escape unpunished ? Assure 
yourself, that as you persecute them, so shall you be per- 
secuted ; and as you bring them and theirs to beggary, so 
shall you and yours, for all your lordships, unless you re- 
pent, be brought to as great necessity. Shall I heap up 
examples against you ? Look upon Adonibezek, as right a 
pattern for you to behold, as possibly can be, &c. 

But, methinks, it is reason, that since you linked them 
and papists together, to make their cause more odious, 
(whereas indeed there is no just comparison between them ; 
for papists are traitors to God, and their prince, but these 
as true to both of them, as you, or all the bishops in this 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 803 

realm, meagre your heads,) they should not be more cruelly CHAP, 
handled than papists are. Which of the papists did you 



ever use after this sort? Had not Bonner, while he lived, Anno 1572. 
his strumpet resorting to him daily ? Have not the pri- 
soners, which were removed out of the Tower to the Mar- 
shalsea, the liberty of the whole house? And none for- 
bidden to resort unto them ? Have not you taken some of 
them home to your houses ? set them at your own tables ? 
and made them good cheer? And is those men's case 
worse than these ? I dare therein appeal to your own con- 
sciences. Why do you then miserably misuse them, and 
handle them more cruelly than papists, traitors, atheists, 
felons, drunkards, whoremongers, blasphemers? &ec. Be- 
like, you think, God seeth it not, and therefore say with the 
wicked, Tush^ God careth not for this. Or else you have 
forgotten that God counteth the injury and villainy done to 
his children as done to himself. Let the hard sentence pro- 
nounced against the careless servant somewhat terrify you. 
And flatter not yourselves herein : for surely God is a sharp 
revenger of the injuries done to his saints, &c. 

But to return to the place of Ezechiel. You went about, 
out of these words of the prophet. But I will destroy the 
fot and the strong: and I will foed them with judgment, 
&c. to prove that sharp laws should be made against the 
seely poor sheep, that in your judgment were unruly ; be- 
cause they would not be ruled by the laws, ordinances, con- 
stitutions, and government of Antichrist. Doubtless you 
should have done well to have considered of what fat and 
lusty sheep the prophet there speaketh, before you had pro- 
nounced so hard and shai'p a sentence against the Lord''s 
lambs. The prophet speaks not there of such as refused to 
subject their necks to the yoke of idolatrous slavery ; for 
from that they were commanded to flee, &c. But he speak- 
eth in that place of swelling and lofty spirits, who not only 
exalted themselves above their brethren, but thought also, 
that they had no need to be ruled and governed of God 
himself, &c. Whether this may be rightly applied against 205 
such as seek for the simplicity and sincerity of the gospel, 



304 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK and wish to be subject only to God's will in his word re- 
vealed, or to papists and 3^011, which will not have Christ, 
Anno 1572. by his word and discipline, to reign over you, let all that 
Imve at all any sight in God's word faithfully judge. 

I here link you and papists together, (for which I would 
not have you to be grieved,) more justly a great deal than 
you before did vis; not so much for the likeness of your 
garments and attire, (which is evil,) as for your unwilling- 
ness to submit yourselves (which is much worse) to the 
order and form of remment which Christ hath left to his 
church ; and stoutly defending, as it were for life and death, 
that corrupt and sinful government, which Antichrist, the 
pope, and the Devil, have devised and set abroad for the 
establishing of their kingdom. Sec. 

And thus you plainly see my mind concerning some 
parts of your sermon. I would willingly have dealt with 
you in some other, but that I think I have been somewhat 
long in these, and am certainly persuaded that others will 
either write to you, or talk with you about those points 
which I have not touched, &c. Thus hoping you will 
shortly satisfy them by some retractation or apology, whom 
in so open a place you have deluded, I take my leave of 
you : promising, if you take no regard hereof, not only to 
publish this writing, but also further confutations of other 
men's doings, that your poison be not received of more, to 
their utter confusion. Fare you well. 

Whether the bishop of Lincoln vouchsafed any answer to 
this challenge and threatening, and the many severe and un- 
just reflections made upon all the bishops, and the constitu- 
tion of the church itself, I cannot tell. But, however, I 
have transcribed this long paper, that hence might be seen 
the spirit of this sort of men in these times, rude in language 
to their superiors, dogmatical, confident in their charges of 
popery, persecution, and Antichristianism upon this cliurch, 
and the reformed governors of it, and extolling their new 
discipline. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 305 

CHAP. XXII. 

Serious deliberation about a reformation of divers tilings in 
church and state. Memorials. Lent e7ijoined. Commis- 
sions for concealed lands abused : revoked : but granted 
again. An act against concealers. Grants for penal 
statutes checked and 7-egulated. Massmongers at the 
Portugal ambassador''s house. The queerCs progress. 
Earl of Northumberland executed. The queen hath the 
small-pox. Her letter thereof and of her recovery, to 
the earl of Shrewsbury. She hath fointing jits. 

JjUT that these malecontented men, that pretended them- Anno 1572. 
selves the great reformers of rehmon, might have no iust^«fo''">*- 
and reasonable cause to find fault for want of cori-ection of about in 
things really amiss in the church or churchmen, the wise '^l^""^*^'' ^"'^ 
and good lord treasurer (while the queen was abroad in her 
progress this summer, and he with her) took this matter 
into his serious thoughts, the court being now at Reading, 
and drew up memorials about it. And when the nation 
seemed to be in great apprehensions of plots and dangers, 
the queen herself, in order to her better peace and safety, 
intended a more careful reformation of whatever might be 
amiss in her kingdom, in all sorts of people, laity as well as 
clergy, bishops, ministers of the laws in the several courts 
of justice, commissioners of the peace; and for prudent pro- 
viding against national dangers and insurrections. Inspec- 
tions also were thought expedient to be made into the navy, 
and into the demeanour of the several lord lieutenants of 
the counties, and inquiry to be made after such as were in 
any office, whether temporal or spiritual, that were con- 
temners of the orders of religion established. For this pur- 
pose the same lord treasurer, in the month of October the 
same year, at the same place, (where it seems the queen 
still was,) drew up other memorials with his own hand for Memorials. 
her use, entitled, 

" Certain things necessary to be better ordered. 
" The state of the church cmd religion. The bishops and ^^^- ^"'■?' 

'^ 01 hun. penes 

VOL. IT. X me. 



306 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " clergy [to be] reformed for their wastes of their patrimo 
nies : the neghgence of teaching, and the abuse of plu-" 



Anno 1572. «< ralities and nonresidence by unnecessary dispensations: 
sitatio'n for " ^^^^ decays of churches, chancels, and chapels ordained 
this. " for divine service, to be repaired : the lack of parsons, 

" vicars, and curates in sundry places. 

" The obstinate co7itemners ofreVigion. To be punished 

" according to the laws of the realm. 

207 " The ministers of' the laio to be reformed. Justices of 

iiie lords of u ^ourts and assizes, sergeants, pleaders, counsellors, advo- 

touncii to " cates, proctors, and attorneys, in both laws, would be 

in the Star-" sworn to the qucen's majesty. The excessive taking of 

cliamber. << fees for counsel, and for all other writings in all courts, to 

" be moderated, for the ease of the subjects. 

" The houses of' court and chancery to be visited, and the 
" abuses reformed : whereby no such confluence of unmeet 
" persons, given to riot, sedition, and such misrule, may be 
" permitted. 
The lords of " The councils in the marches of Wales, and in the north, 
t e connci . ^ ^^ ^^ considered ; that sufficient number of wise, able, 
" and meet persons, for the reverence of the place, and for 
" furtherance of justice, to be there placed, and the unmeet 
*' removed; and the abuses of multitude of attorneys'' clerks, 
*' and their excessive fees, also reformed, to the ease and 
" comfort of the subjects. 
The lords of " Thc commissions of the jjeace in all shires to be viewed ; 
e counci . jj ^^^ ^^j^^ unmeet persons removed, and the rooms supplied 
" with more trusty and able persons. 
The che- " That good and faithful men be appointed sheriffs for 

ber, and " this year. 

the queen's <■<. gome consultation to be had how the vent of the com- 

" modities of the realm may be more frequent, as well for 

" her majcsty\s benefit in her customs, as for the Aveal of 

" the owners and workers of the said commodities. 

vice-adnii- " The navy of the realm to be surveyed in every port, 

of'c'astom-* " ^^^^^ ^^^^ numbcrs of ships and vessels, and the mariners 

houses, and " for that purpose. 

of tiie port "That lieutenants be appointed in every shire: and 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 307 

" their power to be limited only to attend to the musters of CHAp, 
" the able people ; to the furnishing of them with armour 1 



" and weapon ; and to have force in a readiness to suppress '^""o '572. 

" any rebellion, or to serve as by her majesty they shall be 

" connnanded ; and not to deal in hearing of matters de- 

" terminable by the laws. That every county be in readi- 

" ness with their captains and leaders : and no musters nor 

" assemblies to be iTiade, but where the lieutenants shall 

" appoint. 

" That the late statute for rogues be diligently and ear- Letters to 
" nestly executed. justices. 

" That knowledge be had who they are in every county xiie oidina- 
" that bear office, either spiritual or temporal, that do not '""^*' ^^'^'^ 

I'll 111 some teiu- 

" resort to their churches ; and who they are that, though porai joined 
" they do resort sometime to their churches, be either con- ^'**' ^^^^' 
" temners or deriders of the orders of relioion established 
" by act of parliament." 

The state now thought it highly needful, upon politic ac- Prociama- 
counts, that Lent, and other yearly fasting times, should be ^^j"^ °^ 
duly observed, according to the ancient orders for absti- 
nence : but the people were not apt at all to comply there- 
with, and could very unwillingly be restrained from eating 
flesh. The queen therefore did now, somewhat before the 
season of Lent, give forth a strict and ample proclamation 
for the yearly observance of that fast, and all other fish 
days, according to the ancient and laudable order for fasting 
those times: " Weighing the great and notable commodities 
" growing by the due observation thereof within her ma- 208 
" jesty's dominions. She, by virtue of that proclamation, 
" commanded all officers, ecclesiastical and temporal, 
" straitly to see the same well and duly observed : willing 
" and commanding them, in the name of Almighty God, 
" to whom they should answer for their peculiar charges, 
" and as they would answer to her for their contempt, that 
" they did not, either by their own example, or by lack of 
" execution of their authority, permit such licentious and 
" carnal disorder, in contempt of God and man, and only 

x 2 



308 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK "to the satisfaction of devilish and carnal appetite:" as the 
' words of the proclamation ran. 
Anno 1572. And for the city and borough of London and Westmin- 
ster, the queen gave charge to the mayor of London, and 
the steward and principal officers of Westminster, to take 
care, that no butcher, poulterer, or victualler should here- 
after kill, sell, or cause to be killed or sold, any flesh be- 
tween Shrove-Tuesday and the Tuesday next after Palm- 
Sunday. And that no table-keeper or inn-holder, &c. should 
dress, or suffer to be dressed or eaten, any flesh within their 
houses in Lent time, or upon any fish-days, upon pain of 
forfeiture of 20Z. : to the queen one half, and the other to 
be disposed by the church-wardens to the poor. And if any 
citizen should offend herein, he was to be disfranchised by 
the mayor and his brethren ; and being a table-keeper or 
victualler, to be utterly disabled to use the same trade : and 
if he were not a citizen, then, besides the said forfeiture, to 
endure ten days"" imprisonment. And if the person offend- 
ing were not able to pay the forfeiture, he was to stand one 
market-day openly upon the pillory during the space of six 
hours. 

Every alderman in his ward was twice in the Lent to 
cause an inquiry and presentment to be made by oath of 
twelve honest and substantial citizens of every ward, (being 
no butchers, poulterers, common victuallers,) what persons 
did offend in eating or killing flesh. One inquiry to be the 
Monday after Midlent-Sunday, tlie other in the week next 
before Easter. The mayor with his brethren to cause once 
every fortnight privy search to be made, by honest and 
trusty persons, of the houses of butchers, poulterers, victual- 
lers, tavern-keepers, for the better understanding whether 
they, or any of them, did offend in the premises: and if 
they found any such, to punish them without favour, af- 
fection, or respect of persons. The like order to be kept 
by the discretion of the steward and head officers of West- 
minster. 

The said mayor and aldermen, and steward, were yearly 
to certify in the court of chancery, before the first day of 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 309 

Easter term, upon pain of an lOOZ. what they had done in CHAP, 
execution of the premises, under their hands and seals, to ^^^^- 
the intent that her highness might consider what dihgence Anno 1572. 
or neghgence was used in the execution hereof. 

But this order was not to punish persons that by the laws 
ecclesiastical and temporal, for needful and just considera- 
tions, were permitted to sell, kill, or eat flesh. And for the 
better intelligence of persons licensed it was ordered, that 
every person having licence should yearly, the first Sunday 
in Lent, notify the same to the alderman of the ward, and 209 
to the curate of his parish, or to one of them at the least, 
where he dwelt, or else the dispensation to be void. And 
this manner the queen commanded to be observed through- 
out all places in her realm, as nigh as might be, with like 
penalty; and especially in towns corporate. From which 
towns corporate, situate within an hundred and forty miles 
from London, certificate, in form aforesaid, was to be made 
in the chancery, at the furthest before the second return of 
Easter term, upon pain of an lOOZ. to be levied to her ma- 
jesty ""s use upon the corporation so making default : and 
from all other corporations further distant, certificates to be 
made before the last day of Easter term. 

She charged, by the said proclamation, all bishops, cu- 
rates, and other ecclesiastical persons, to exhort and per- 
suade the people in their sermons to forbear this carnal li- 
cence, and boldness to break common order; and to let 
them understand the great danger of the wrath of Almighty 
God, that will always light upon rebellious and obstinate 
people. And because this proclamation should have con- 
tinuance, she charged all mayors, sheriffs, and other head 
officers, that it should be proclaimed in every place usual, 
and yearly to be hereafter proclaimed, vipon such market- 
days as should next go before the first week of Lent : and 
that at every leet, at Easter, inquisition should be made of 
the execution hereof. 

This year a command from the queen went forth for the Commis- 
withdrawing her commissions for concealments from all to co°"cef°g^ 
whom she had granted them : which gave a great quieting lands a- 

x 3 ^''''^' 



310 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK to her subjects, who were excessively plagued with these 
commissioners. When monasteries were dissolved, and the 



Anno 1572. lands tliereof, and afterwards colleges, chantries, and fra- 
ternities were all given to the crown, some demeans here 
and there pertaining thereunto were still privily retained 
and possessed by certain private persons, or corporations, or 
churches. This caused the queen, Avhen she understood it, 
to grant commissions to some persons to search after these 
concealments, and to retrieve them to the crown. But it 
was a world to consider what unjust oppressions of the peo- 
ple and the poor this occasioned by some griping men that 
were concerned therein : for under the pretence of execut- 
ing commissions for inquiry to be made for these lands con- 
cealed, they, by colour thereof, and without colour of com- 
mission, contrary to all right, and to the queen''s meaning 
and intent, did intermeddle and challenge lands of long 
times possessed by church-wardens, and such like, upon the 
charitable gifts of predecessors, to the common benefit of the 
parishes ; yea, and certain stocks of money, plate, cattle, 
and the like. They made pretence to the bells, lead, and 
such other like thmgs, belonging to churches and chapels, 
used for common prayer. Further, they attempted to make 
titles to lands, possessions, plate, and goods belonging to 
hospitals, and such like places, used for maintenance of 
poor people ; with many such other unlawful attempts and 
extortions, to a pernicious example, if the same had been 
further used and suffered, by colour hereof. 
Piociania- At length the queen set forth a proclamation, Feb. 13, 
*'",'' ^"^ at Westminster, to withstand this manner of extortion, and 

calling in ' _ ' 

these com- unlawful practices and troubles of her subjects: and com- 
■ mandcd therefore, " That all commissions which were then 
" extant, and not expired, for inquisition of any manner of 
" concealments, should be, by siiperscdea.s out of her coiu't 
" of exchequer, revoked. And because the frauds of of- 
" fenders in such cases did so abound, as it might be, that 
*' they which had already begun, by colour of commission, 
" to use such extortion and vexation for gain, would them- 
" selves so conceal the revocation of their connnission, being 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 311 

but by process of supersedeas, therefore her majesty, to CHAP, 
notify this her gracious disposition more pubUcly to her 



" subjects,' and to procure due punishment of the offenders, Anno 1572. 

" with restitution of things wrongfully taken, gave to un- ' 

" derstand by these presents, that all manner of commis- 

" sions then extant, that had passed from any of her courts, 

" to inquire of any lands, tenements, and hereditaments, or 

" of any goods or chattels, concealed or supposed to be 

" concealed, before the day hereof, should cease, and not 

" continue ; and that no commissioner should, by virtue of 

" any such commission, charge any person to inquire fur- 

" ther of the contents of any such commission. And if 

" any person should have cause to complain of any other, 

" for any manner of extortion or misusage by colour of 

" such commission, the same might exhibit their complaint 

" to the justices of assize the next circuit, or to any other 

"two or three justices in the shire; whom the queen 

" charged to cause the truth of the complaint to be ex- 

" amined, and the offenders to be severely and speedily 

" punished, and to make due and large restitution. Or if 

" the causes of the extortion should be great, or that the 

" offenders could not be fovmd within the county, then that 

" certificate be made thereof by the justices of assize or of 

" the peace, either to the privy council or the keeper of the 

" great seal, to be further tried and punished in the Star- 

" chamber for a further example. 

" But though her majesty meant to relieve her subjects 
" from wrongs and vexations in this sort, yet she gave them 
" withal to understand, that she intended not to forbear, 
" by some better ordinary means, and by persons of known 
" honesty and wisdom, to inquire of such lands and other 
" things as duly and justly did belong to her crown, and 
" were withdrawn and concealed. Wherein such care should 
" be had, as hereafter no commission should be granted, 
" but to such persons as should be reputed of such trust 
" and honesty, as should by no means give cause to offend 
" any, but such as of mei'e wrong would keep and detain 
" things belonging to the crown. 

X 4 



312 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " And she would have her justices of assize to have some 
^* " special care, not only to the premises in that their next 



Anno 1572." sessions, but also to the reforming of certain covetous 
" and injurious attempts of divers that had of late time, by 
" other colour than for her majesty's use, taken away the 
" lead of churches and chapels, yea, and the bells of the 
" steeples, and other common goods belonging to parishes : 
" an example not to be suffered unpunished nor unre- 
" formed." 
Concealers Thus were these harpies and helluones, this turbidum ho- 
but laid mimim genus, these graceless and wicked men, (they are 
iv while. the lord Coke's expressions bestowed on them,) thus were 
211 they for a time laid asleep ; but they awake again at times, 
and plagued the nation throughout this queen's and the 
The church most of the next king's reign. And the cathedral of Nor- 
in Iknger ^' ^1^*^ ^^^d Hkc to liave lost most of its revenues, under pre- 
by them, tencc of Concealment, towards the latter end of queen EU- 
lustit. part zabeth. A patent of ccmceahnent was granted certain per- 
^' sons, who, under obscure words, endeavoured to swallow up 

the greatest part of the possessions of that ancient and fa- 
mous bishopric : which, by the industry and prosecution of 
the then attorney-general, was overthrown. And yet, for 
more surety in a matter of so great weight, a bill was pre- 
ferred in parliament for the establishing of the bishopric : 
Cap. Hi. of which passed as a law, an. 39". Eliz. cap. 22. See this case 
Norwidi"^ at large in the fourth part of Coke's Institutes. 
An act to There was a statute in the 21st of king James I. against 
jmt an end x\\c¥,e concecilers, and all pretences of concealments whatso- 

to them. . , , ^ ^ 7 7 •,/',! 

ever: it was entitled. An act for the general qmet of the 
subject against all pretence of concealment rohatsoever. 
Above an hundred lay hospitals, by the benefit of this act, 
having had priests within them in former days to pray and 
sing for souls, were established against all vexations and 
pretences of concealments. I add only this more concerning 
them : that they began in queen Mary's days; she granted 
letters patents of concealments; and the first was to sir 
George Howard, as the lord Coke writes. 
The oppres- To this I add, that there were now grievous oppressions 

sions by 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 313 

every where, and great complaints, by reason of grants of CHAP, 
commissions upon penal statutes of forfeitures to the crown 



obtained by some greedy persons. Thus, in this 14th year Anno 1572. 
of the queen, (besides her commissions for concealments J""'j""f'*'°' 
above mentioned,) she granted to two persons to compound fcitures. 
for all forfeitures upon nine statutes: viz. I. The statute 
against usury. II. The statute for preservation of wood. 
III. That timber be not felled to make coals. IV. For the 
assize of fuel. V. For the true making of leather. VI. 
Against transportation of corn, wood, and victual. VII. 
For keeping of sheep. VIII. Against extortion of bribes. 
IX. Against procuring and committing wilful perjury. And 
the queen was to be answered the fourth part of the money 
so forfeited and obtained. There was another grant, for 
finding of armour, and against unlawful games. And yet 
another, to make search at sea for prohibited and uncus- 
tomed wares. And, among the rest, there was a grant to 
vex the clergy, (which was by commission to George Delves 
and Lancelot Bostock, esquires,) to compound for offences 
against the statute of no7i-residence, and other offences of 
the clergy, and to take the whole commodity to themselves: 
and a like grant was made to sir Raulf Bagnal. 

But of all these there went such common complaints, and Regulation 
so much vexation of the subject by means thereof all the ^j^g'^^yggj^.g 
land over, that the queen graciously revoked these grants command 

. n ? 1 -n " to the lord 

for the execution of these penal statutes. But tne promoters, treasurer. 
upon this, immediately entered on the prosecutions of such 
transgressions as were put in suit before by those to whom 
the said grants were passed. This created new vexations. 
The queen therefore, that her gracious intentions of reform- 
ing so grievous vexations of her subjects might take place, 
ordered her secretary to signify to the lord treasurer, that 212 
he should give order for the stay of process in that behalf. 
And yet that her laws should not be loose, and void of all 
execution, she would have his lordship and the rest of the 
lords to devise some convenient plot for the execution of the 
same. Which the said lord treasurer accordingly did ; and 
finished it in the next year, viz. 1573. 



314 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK And the provision that was made for the preventing of 
'■ _ tliese vexations, and yet provichng for the execution of the 



Anno 1572. laws, (as the queen commanded,) was tliis: devised by the 
Articles for ^vjgjojn of the said lord, as appears by the hand used in 

tliiit pur- ^ ^ "^ -11 

pose. correction of a draught of the same. It was entitled. 

Articles to be observed by all such persons as have any grants 
i^Jorfi'iturcs tipon penal laws. 

I. That there shall be no inquiry by commission : to the 
end that the charges and trouble of the country, and the 
grudge and murmur that ariseth among the people, may be 
avoided thereby. But to try all their causes by information 
or action in tlie exchequer or king's bench, according to the 
ordinary course of the law. For so the law doth appoint. 

II. That they shall make no composition with any of- 
fender, without the making privy thereto the court wherein 
they shall sue, and also the lord treasurer, or chancellor of 
the exchequer : to the intent, the portion due to the queen's 
majesty may be known to be answered. 

III. That the patentees shall prefer all informations and 
suits in their own names, or in the names of such their de- 
puties as the courts of the king's bench or exchequer shall 
allow of. 

IV. That they shall have no process before the informa- 
tion or action entered in the king's bench or in the ex- 
chequer. 

V. That they shall make no deputies, to execute for them 
in the country, but such as the court of exchequer shall 
allow of. 

VI. That the patentees shall be bound to the queen by 
recognisance in the exchecpier : that if they vex, or cause 
any to be vexed wrongfully, then to pay such cost as the 
court shall tax. And that they shall likewise be bound, that 
they shall make no compositions without the privity of the 
coiu't as aforesaid. 

These articles were very good checks to these greedy 
men, that laboured to enrich themselves by extorting, on 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 815 

pretence of some statutes, from the poor commons, both of cHAP, 
the clergy and laity: being drawn and contrived by the ^^i^- 



wise head of that great and viseful counsellor, and by the Anno 1572. 
direction of the gracious queen to him. 

The Portugal ambassador, under pretence of having mass Mass- 
said privately in his family, by his privilege as ambassador, ^ke^at 
had now a good while entertained several mass-mongers in tbe Portu- 
his house in Tower-street : which was now discovered, and sador's. 
a warrant was sent forth, to attach those of the queen's sub- 
jects that were present there against her laws. The bishop 
of London understanding that this ambassador had fostered 
these persons long time in his house, contrary to our laws, 213 
he and the rest of the commissioners for ecclesiastical mat- 
ters required the sheriff of London, Mr. Pipe, to go and 
apprehend such as he should find there committing- idolatry, 
as the bishop of London expressed it in his letter to the 
lord treasurer : which warrant the said sheriff executed the 
1st of March ; and many he saw there ready to zcorship the 
calf. He apprehended (the rest escaping by the ambas- 
sador's means) four students at the law, most of them Irish. 
These the bishops committed to the Fleet, until the lords' 
further pleasure were known. Francis Gerald (for that 
was the Portugal ambassador's name) offered to shoot dags, 
(which we call pistols nowadays,) and to smite with his 
dagger, and to kill, in his rage. There was found the altar 
prepared, the chalice of their bread-god, and a great many 
Enghsh hid in the house, that were minded to hear mass. 
The bishop gave commission to Norris the messenger to 
apprehend the Portugal and the mass-priest : but the mes- 
senger returned answer, that the Portugal was at the court, 
to complain. He cunningly told the tale first, and made 
himself plaintiff: so that the queen was somewhat offended 
with these proceedings against the ambassador. Upon which 
the bishop, grieved, wrote thus to the lord treasurer : 
*' Truly, my lord, such an example is not to be suffered. The bishop 
" God will be mighty angry with it. It is too offensive. If zeai there- 
" her majesty should grant it, or tolerate it, she can never "P""- 
" answer to God for it. God's cause must be carefully con- 



316 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " sidered of. God willeth that his ministers purge the 
^' " church of idolatry and superstition. To wink at it is to 
Anno 1572. " be partaker of it. He told the lord treasurer, that he 
" would do well to see that idolater and godless man se- 
" verely punished. Or, if you will, added he, set him over 
" to me, and give me authority, I will handle him secun- 
" dunn mrtutesP In another letter upon the same occasion 
he said, " That such idolatry was not to be suffered. That 
" strangers were to be borne with usque ad aras. But 
*' princes might not be pleasured with the displeasing of the 
" Prince of princes. That such toleration would not be 
" suffered in Spain. That this ambassador had mass said 
" in his house for a twelvemonth, and twenty at least of 
" her majesty's subjects used to resort thither. That the 
" queen would do well to send home both Francis Gerald 
" and Anthony Guarrez ; who did but lurk here in the 
" realm as spies to practise mischief: and that they might 
" serve their god Baal at home." 
The queen's The Summer of this year the queen went her progress, 
progress, beginning it in the month of July. In this progress she 
went into Essex. Where, from Havering BoAvre, an ancient 
seat of the kings of England, (and where queen Maud used 
to retire,) instead of going to Enfield, she lay at Theobald's 
(the lord treasurer Burghley's house) three days. And then 
went to Gorambury, (beside St. Alban's,) the lord keeper 
Bacon's. Thence to Dunstable. Tlicnce to Woburne. She 
was also at Killingworth, the seat of the earl of Leicester, 
another of her great peers : where she was most splendidly 
entertained, in the month of August. She also took Read- 
ing in her way, where she remained some time. And at 
Windsor, September 24, she ended her progress : as secre- 
tary Smith in his correspondence acquainted Mr. Walsing- 
ham in France. 
214 AVhile the court was at Killingworth, the carl of North- 
Earl of umberland (who was the chief head of the rebellion in the 
beriand ex- north some years past) was now brought to York, to be ex- 
ecuted at gcuted : and so the carl wrote in a letter to Walsingham, 

York. . , 1 /. 

dated from Killingworth, August 22, that the said earl ot 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 317 

Northumberland suffered death that day. For that the day CHAP, 
before it was ordered, that he should be brought thither ^^"' 



that day, under the conduct of sir Foster, for that Anno 1572. 

purpose. The effect of this just putting to death of a 
traitor did but increase the mahce of the papists ; as was 
found by the dihgence of the said Walsingham, the queen's 
ambassador in France. Who gave intelhgence thence to the 
court here, of a certain popish spy, named Davy Chambers, 
who was lately returned out of England, and had confer- 
ence both with the French king and the duke of Guise, 
and had let fall these words : how that the death of the earl Upon which 

/> 1 t''6 queen 

of Northumberland had mcreased the number of the queen of Scots' 
of Scots' friends; and that she was now grown to have such ^i^^nds^^" 
a party in England, as that five or six thousand shot, with increase. 
some good leaders, would make her strong enough to en-JJ^*|*'"» '• 
counter any forces her majesty could make. He informed 
further, that it was secretly whispered in corners, that there 
was some new practice in hand for the said queen's deliver- 
ance. This intelligence was sent over in October. 

The queen about this time had the small-pox, as her The queen 
disease was commonly said to be. For the true account 'IJ'p^j^'^J^^f 
whereof I will set down a clause or two of secretary Smith's the small- 
letter to Walsingham, written October 13th: "That the^"''* 
" [French] ambassador had audience of the lord treasurer, 
" the earl of Leicester, and some others ; the queen at that 
" time not being perfectly recovered of that distemper, as 
" the physicians said, although her majesty and a great 
" many more would not have it so. But it made no matter 
*' then, as the secretary added, what it was : thanking God 
" that she was then perfectly whole, and no sign thereof 
" left in her face." 

But to pacify her people, especially in the north part, The queen 
where the Scottish queen was kept prisoner by George earl J^JJ^ ^^^^^ 
of Shrewsbury at Sheffield, she so far condescended as to Shrewsbury 

■ • 1 • • n ^ T J of her sick- 

write to him, givmg a description of her disease, and assur- ^^35 ^nd 
ance of her recovery. For the earl, hearing that her ma- recovery. 
jesty was taken ill with the small-pox, was in no small con- 
fusion ; and (though it were reported she was better) hastily 



Armor 



318 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK sent to the lord treasurer, to learn of him her true state of 
^- health : who acquainthig her with the earl's letter, and she 
Anno 1572. knowing what a charge she had committed to him, thought 
fit to take this opportunity to oblige him further with a let- 
ter from herself, (part whereof was of her own hand,) which 
was as followeth : 

Int. Epist. " By the queen. Right trusty and right well-beloved 
Comit. Sa- ii cousii^ ajij counsellor, we greet you well. By your letter 

lop. in Ar- ' o J , / 

chiv. Ottic. " sent to us, we perceive that you had heard of some late 
" sickness wherewith we were visited. Whereof, as you had 
" cause to be greatly grieved, so, though you heard of our 
" amendment, and was thereby recomforted, yet, for a satis- 
" faction of your mind, you are desirous to have the state of 
215 " oi^ir amendment certified by some few words in a letter 
" from ourself. True it is, that Ave were, about fourteen 
" days past, distempered, as commonly happeneth in the 
" beginning of a fever ; but after two or three days, Avith- 
" out any great inward sickness, there began to appear cer- 
" tain red spots in some part of our face, likely to prove 
" the small-pox : but, thanked be God, contrary to the ex- 
" pectation of our physician, and all others about us, the 
" same is vanished away, as within four or five days past 
" no token almost appeared ; and at this day, we thank 
" God, we are so free from any token or mark of any such 
" disease, that none can conjecture any such thing. 

" So as by this you may perceive what was our sickness, 
" and in what good estate we be : thanking you, good cou- 
" sin, for the care which you had of the one, and of the 
" comfort you take of the other. AVherein we do assure 
" ourself of as much fidelity, duty, and love that you bear 
" us, as of any of any degree within our realm. Given at 
" our castle of Windsor, 22d October, 1572, in the four- 
" teenth year of our reign." 

This following postscript is the queen's own hand : 

" My faithful Shrewsbury, let no grief touch your heart 
*' for fear of mv disease: for I assure you, if my credit were 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 319 

" not greater than my show, there is no beholder would be- CHAP. 
" lieve that ever I had been touched with such a malady. XXU, 



" Your faithful loving friend, Anno 1572. 
" Elizabeth." 

Upon this letter let me subjoin the contentation and joy 
administered unto the good earl : expressed by his own 
letter, dated from Sheffield, November 4: " That her ma- The earl's 
" jesty's late letters, which he received with his, [the trea-^^^jg^^ 
" surer"'s,] declaring her highness''s good health, were most 
" comfortable unto him : and in respect of the word written 
" with her own hand therein, far above the rate used to any 
" subject; and that he thought himself more happy thereby 
" than any of his ancestors. And therefore that he meant, 
" for a perpetual memory, to preserve the same safely, as a 
" perpetual evidence of his great comfort to his posterity. 
" And then beseeched his lordship to yield most humble 
" thanks unto her majesty in his name therefore : and also 
" for that it pleased her highness to accept his true and 
" faithful service ; which, by God's grace, (he said,) should 
" never be wanting." 

But the next month, viz. November, the queen was again The queen 

under some disorder in her health, by reason of some faint- !'''^'^c[^'"*' 

. . "ig fitt- 

ing fits: which gave again a mighty disturbance unto herLeicest. 

subjects from the news of it; which now was fled abroad, 
as though she were very sick. Wherefore the earl of Lei- 
cester, to satisfy Walsingham, the ambassador in France, 
did write to him, how this little distemper in the queen 
bred strange bruits at home of her danger, and which he 
might possibly have heard of there: but that she was at 
present in good health. That indeed she had been troubled 
with a spice or show of the mother: but indeed not so; 
and that the fits she had were not above a quarter of an 
hour. 



320 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK CHAP. XXIII. 

I. 

The Great English Bible, called. The Bishops' Bible, 



Anno 1572 



A printed. Some account of this edition ; and other older 
editions. Prophesying set up at Bury hy the bishop. 
The said bishop's admonition to a contentious clergy- 
man. Stays admitting a clerk into a living: and why. 
His advice to his chancellor, upon a distuj-bance of di- 
vine service. His trouble zaith a fraudulent receiver of 
his clergy'^s tenths. Occasions a statute. 

A new edi- Xn this year Parker, archbishop of Canterbury, set forth a 
translation new edition (in large folio) of the holy Bible of the Old and 
seVfort^'^'^ New Testament in English, new translated, and diligently 
compared, by several bishops and other learned divines, 
with the former English translations, and the originals. In 
the beginning, before the Book of Genesis, was the map of 
the land of Canaan ])laced. On which map were the arms 
of Cecil, lord Burghley, engraven, in a void place of it, by 
Humfrey Cole, engraver, born in the north, and pertaining 
to the mint, 1572. In another void place is the printer's 
arms, with this fancy ; a bush with a nightingale on one 
branch of it, and a label proceeding out of her mouth, with 
these words mscnhed. Jug, J7ig, Jug, jug: Cecil, I suppose, 
being at the cost of the engraving the plate for this map. 
There was in this new Bible another map of the holy land, 
containing the places mentioned in the four evangelists, 
Avith other places and towns in Syria near adjoining. 
Wherein may be seen the ways and journeyings of Jesus 
and his apostles, going about to preach the gospel in Judea, 
Samaria, and Galilee. And this therefore was placed be- 
fore the New Testament. And moreover, a new chart of 
the peregrination of St. Paul was set before the epistle to 
the Romans. There were also some coats of arms set in 
other places of the book ; namely, of sucli as were chief be- 
nefactors to the work, and contributors of sums of money 
towards the printing or adorning of it. As, besides the 
arms of archbishop Parker and archbishop Cranmer, pre- 
fixed to their two prefaces, there be the arms of the carl of 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 321 

Leicester at the beginning of the second part of the Bible, CHAP, 
viz. at Joshua; and the lord treasurer Burghley's before ^^^"- 
the third part of it, beginning at the Book of Psalms. Anno 1572. 
Where are also prints of their persons, viz. Leicester in ar- 
mour ; the other in his gown, as a man of peace. And at 
the beginning of the prophecy of Jeremiah stands the coat 
of arms of the earl of Bedford. 

There be also many explanatory cuts dispersed through- Explana- 
out the book. As also divers useful tables for the better un-*°7."I*f 

and tables 

derstanding of scripture history. As, I. At the eighteenth in this 
chapter of Leviticus are two tables, entitled. Degrees q^^ .*' 
kindred which let matrimony ; and. Degrees of affinity or 
alliance which let matrimony. II. Before the book of Ezra 217 
is a table for the understanding of the histories of Ezra, 
Nehemiah, Esther, Daniel, and of divers other places of 
scripture, very dark, by reason of the discord that is among 
historiographers, and the expositors of holy scripture, touch- 
ing the successive order of the kings or monarchies of Ba- 
bylon and of Persia : of the years that the said monarchies 
lasted, from the transmigration of the Jews under Nebu- 
chadnezzar, vnitil the monarchy of the Greeks: and of 
the confusion that is in the names of the kings of Persia. 
III. Before the books of the Macchabees is a third table, for 
the knowledge of the state of Judah, from the beginning of 
the monarchy of the Greeks, where the former table ended, 
until the death and passion of Jesus Christ. IV. There is 
yet another table placed before the New Testament, to 
make plain the difficulty that is found in St. Matthew and 
St. Luke, touching the generation of Jesus Christ, the Son 
of David, and his right successor in the kingdom. Which 
description beginneth at David, and no higher ; because the 
difficulty is only in his posterity. V. There is a fifth table 
before the epistle to the Romans, which shews the order of 
times from the death of Christ ; and a synchronism of the 
years of the reigns and governments of the emperors, presi- 
dents of Judea, and the Herodians, with Christ and St. 
Paul ; to his beheading at Rome ; beguining with Tiberius, 
Pilate, and Herod. 

VOL. II, Y 



322 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK Besides all this, in this Bible is each chapter divided into 
,'erses ; which, I think, no English Bible had before, except- 



V( 



Anno 1572. j^g that of the Geneva translation. And also there be many 
references and marginal notes, to explain difficulties, or for 
observation of matters remarkable. For further account of 
this Bible, commonly called, The Bisliops' Bible, (because 
the bishops were chiefly concerned in the preparing of it,) 

Life of the reader may have recourse to the Life of Archbishop 

Archbishop -p . 

Parker, ^ arker. 

p.403. It is to be further observed in this Bible, that the Psalms 

are printed in two columns; viz. in one column the old 

translation of them, as they were and are in our liturgy ; 

and the new translation of them in the other column. 

AVhere, for preventing any displeasure any person might 

take thereat, as somewhat differing in divers places from 

the reading in the Common Prayer Book, this note was 

prefixed, (by archbishop Parker, I suppose,) which follows : 

A note con-tt Now let the Christian reader have this consideration with 

new trans. " himself, that though he findeth the Psalms of this latter 

lationof <4 translation followino; not to sound so agreeably to his 

the Psalms. , ® . 

" ears, in the wonted words and phrases, as he is accus- 
" tomed with ; yet let him not be too much offended with 
" the work, which was wrought for his own commodity and 
*' comfort. And if he be learned, let him correct the word 
" or sentence (which may dislike him) with the better. And 
" whether the note riseth either of good-will, or charity, or 
" of envy and contention, not purely ; yet his reprehension, 
*' if it may turn to the finding out of truth, shall not be re- 
*' pelled with grief, but applauded to in gladness. That 
" Christ may ever have the praise. To whom, with the Fa- 
" ther, and the Holy Ghost, be all glory and praise for 
" ever."" Amen. 

It may not be amiss here to enumerate some of the first 

and oldest editions of tlie Holy Bible in our vulgar tongue, 

218 which, by the peculiar blessing of God, wei'e vouchsafed to 

An account this land, besides the translation and publishing of the New 

editimis of Testament, which was done by Tyndal about the year 1525. 

the English j^ the vear 1535 the whole Bible was printed in folio, (and 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 323 

that, I think, was the first time it was set forth in English,) CHAP, 
in an old, and, as it seemed, outlandish letter. In the end ^^^*^V 
it is said to be printed in the year of our Lord 1535, and Anno 1572. 
finished the 4th day of October. This Bible I have seen in 
Sion college library, London. It was done by Miles Cover- 
dale, with his dedication thereof to king Henry VIII. en- 
titled, Unto the most victorious prince, and our most gra- 
cious sovereign lord, Tcing Henry VIII. king of England 
and of France, and, under Christ, the chief and supreme 
head of the church of England. Therein he set forth the 
encroachments of the pope upon princes, and Christian 
realms, and especially upon this his majesty's realm ; " By 
*' getting money by his pardons, and by benefices and bi- 
" shoprics, by deceiving the people's souls by devilish doc- 
" trines, and sects of his false religion, and by shedding the 
" blood of many of the king's people, for books of the scrip- 
" ture. And since his imperial majesty was the chief head 
" of the church of England, and the true defender and 
" maintainer of God's laws, he thought it his duty, and be- 
*' longing to his allegiance, to dedicate this translation unto 
" his highness." But I refer the reader to the Appendix, N'.XXII. 
if he be desirous to peruse that epistle ; wherein some 
things may be found acceptable to such as are studious of 
the history of those times, and of matters passed in those 
times. 

What helps Coverdale had in this his labour, especially The helps 
for the supply of his want of skill in the original languages, 1,^0 tifis 
it must be known, that living in Germany, and conversing !»« transia- 
with the Lutheran divines, (many whereof were good Hebri- 
cians,) he had the opportunity of perusing several Dutch 
translations. This may be better understood by what he 
wrote himself in his prologue to this edition. Which began 
after this manner : 

" Considering how excellent knowledge and learning an His pro- 
" interpreter of scripture ought to have in the tongues, and °^"^' 
" pondering also his own insufficiency therein, and how weak 
" he was to perform the office of a translator, he was the 
" more loath to meddle with this work. Notwithstanding, 

Y 2 



324 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 

I. 

Anno 1572. 



219 



Another 
English 
Bible, 
printed 
anno 1537. 



Another 
printed 
anno 1540. 



*' when he considered how great pity it was, that we should 
" want it so long, &c. That for to help him herein, he had 
" sundry translations, not only in Latin, but also of the Dutch 
'' interpreters. Whom, because of their singular gifts, and 
" special diligence in the Bible, he had been the more glad 
" to follow for the most part, according as he was required. 
" But to say the truth before God, he added, that it was 
" neither his labour nor desire to have this work put into 
" his hand. Nevertheless it grieved him, he said, that other 
" nations should be more plenteously provided for with the 
" scripture in their mother tongue than we. Therefore, 
" when he was instantly required, though he could not do 
*' so well as he would, he thought it yet his duty to do his 
" best, and that with a good-will, &c. And that, according 
" as he was desired, he took the more upon him, to set 
" forth this special translation, not as a checker, not as a re- 
" prover, or despiser of other men's translations ; (for that 
" among many, as yet he had found none without occasion 
" of great thanksgiving unto God ;) but lowly and faith- 
" fully he had followed his interpreters ; and that under 
" correction."" 

This book hath in divers places little pictures, explana- 
tory of the history ; as of the creation, the deluge, &c. 
There be no marginal notes, nor any contents before the 
chapters ; as there were in some after-editions, which gave 
offence to some of the churchmen. 

Another English Bible in folio, with marginal notes, was 
printed anno 1537, with an epistle dedicatory also to king 
Henry VIII. subscribed TJiomas Matthew. At the bot- 
tom of the title-page it is said to be set forth zcith the 
king's most gracious licence. This is truly TyndaPs Bible, 
as may be concluded by the two flourished text letters 
W. T. standing at the end of the prophecy of IVIalachi. 

Another large Bible in EngUsh came forth anno 1540, 
the marginal notes being all struck out, as having given 
offence. It was printed by Whitchurch ; and had a large 
prologue before it, made by archbishop Cranmer. And was 
said in the title-page to be printed Jbr the use of the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 325 

churches. In the said page are sculptures of king Henry CHAP. 
VIII., archbishop Cranmer, and the lord Crumwel. And 



this edition is said to be overseen at the king's command- Anno 1572. 
ment by Cutbert, bishop of Durham, and Nicolas, bishop 
of Rochester. Concerning these two last editions of the Life of 
Bible, see what is more at large related in the Life of Arch- cranmer, 
bishop Cranmer. J^-^ 

Again, another edition of the Enghsh Bible came forth Another 
the next year, viz. 1541. And so it is said in the title, The edition, 
whole Bible, ^c. finished \5^\. These two last Bibles also 
I have seen in Sion college library. 

The English Bible was again printed anno 1549- Which Another 
was TyndaPs Bible; and the very same with that which 1549°°' 
was printed 1537, and was called Matthew's Bible. There 
might have been other editions between these two last;^ but 
I have not seen them. 

Now I shall proceed to take notice of some particular Exercise of 
occurrences in the church. Towards the latter end of thcing set up 
year, the exercise of prophesying was set up at Bury St. Ed- ^j^^"*"^* 
munds, in Suffolk, as was used in some other places ofjoh. episc. 
this and other dioceses, to the profit and edification, in the^^'^"* 
knowledge of the scripture, both of the clergy and laity. 
For the exercise was, that certain ministers within a conve- 
nient compass in the diocese, assembled in a parish church 
(commonly in some market town) together ; and there, 
one after another, gave their judgments briefly of the sense 
and import of some place or places of scripture, propounded 
before to be discussed, either by the bishop or the arch- 
deacon's order, or some other of the gravest sort : and then 
lastly, it was determined by a moderator. By which means, 
the ministers were obhged to study, to prepare for the 
better acquitting themselves in these exercises: and their 
knowledge in scripture increased ; and the people also pre- 
sent were edified, by hearing of a sermon then preached. 
But however, these prophesyings (as they were called from 
1 Corinth, xiv.) were in danger of degenerating into con- 220 
troversies and contentious disputings. And the pui'itans took 
their advantage of it by broaching their doctrines. Which 

y3 



326 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK was the cause that not long after, the queen absolutely re- 
^' quired the bishops to put them down. 
Anno 1572. But the occasion of setting up this practice at Bury was, 
The bishop ^i^jjj. ggypral of the sober and well learned people in that 

appoints it 1 1 • 1 /> 1 • 1- 

by his let- neighbourhood sued to the bishop for his licence and ap- 
*^"' pointment; that they might enjoy the benefit thereof, as 

well as other places in his diocese did. The bishop here- 
upon, judging it profitable for the advancement of godly 
knowledge, sent his letters to three of the gravest ministers 
in Bury, to take care of settling this exercise, as to the 
time, place, and persons ; and rules for performance of it in 
the more orderly manner; and that the respective clergy 
should obey their orders herein. Yet warning, that nothing 
be done contrary to the orders and laws of the realm ; but 
all to the furtherance of both laity and clergy in good 
Christian knowledge. For the fuller understanding of this 
exercise, now to be settled in this town, and the bishop of 
Norwich his direction therein, I have put his letter in the 
N". XXIII. Appendix. 

The bishops in these times were careful in their great 
charge, and watchful of the manners and behaviour of their 
clergy, if we may charitably conjecture at the diligence of 
The dealing the rest by one of them. It may deserve mentioning, what 
shop' of ' ^ sharp, and withal grave admonition the bishop above- 
Norwich named gave to one minister of his diocese, that was of a 

with two of . ,. . . 1 Ti • /> 1 • • • 

his clergy, contcutious disposition ; and likewise oi Ins conscientious 
boldness of staying the admission of another into a benefice, 
being unqualified ; though he endangered thereby the dis- 
pleasure of a great nobleman and privy counsellor, viz. the 
earl of Sussex. Both which happened within a few days 
one of another. For the knowledfje and undcrstandino; of 
both these passages, there needs nothing but the rehearsing 
of the said bishop''s letters. 

To Nesse (the name of the contentious clergyman) thus 
he wrote : 

" Mr. Nesse, 
His admo. " I am ashamed to understand of your troublesome and 
one that " disordered behaviour, not only at home, among your 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 327 

" neighbours, but abroad also, and that before the justices CHAP. 
*' and worshipful of the shire. Which being come to my 



*' knowledge, it standeth me in hand to see reformation. Anno 1572. 

" And therefore, by these my letters, I do advise and tJo^g"""*""" 

" straitly charge you, that all former quarrels and matters MSS. D. 

" in controversy may be stayed and forgotten ; and that ep. Eiien. 

" you do forthwith seek in charitable manner to reconcile 

** yourself towards your neighbours : who for their parts 

*' promise the like ; bearing no manner of displeasure to- 

" wards your person, but to your manners, which are out of 

" order. And if you shall reply, that you be not in fault, I 

" answer you, it may be untrue that one or a few shall re- 

" port ; but to be accused generally, and of all that have to 

" do with you, this cannot proceed without your great de- 

" serving. 

" If this my friendly motion shall not persuade you to 221 
*' conformity, I have appointed process to call you before 
" my chancellor, where your cause shall be heard, and re- 
" formed accordingly. But if these ways shall not help, I 
*' assure you I will use more sharp means, intending not to 
*' leave you, until I have either reformed or removed you. 
" Putting you also in remembrance, how slanderous you 
" are, in frequenting a suspected house, and refusing law- 
*' ful matrimony. Herein also I wish you forthwith to avoid 
*' the occasion, for fear of further inconvenience. And so I 
*' leave you to God. At Ludham, this 25th of February, 
" 1572. 

" Your friend in well doing, 

" John Norwic." 

Of the matter the bishop had with the other clergyman, 
this was the purport. 

The earl of Sussex had presented one Mr. Hilton, his He refuseth 
chaplain, to the living of Disse, in his diocese, a good bene- j,,gj.jj f^rin. 
fice, above the value of 30Z. in the king"'s books ; and had sufficiency. 
sent to the bishop to admit him thereunto. But he wanting 
certain qualifications, the bishop refused, and gave his rea- 
sons for so doing in the following letter to the said earl : 

Y 4 



328 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK telling; him, " That since he so well allowed of the man, he 

1 
' " could be contented to admit him to the benefice : but that 



Anno 1572." there was a let that stayed his admission hitherto; which 
" was a branch of a statute made in the last parliament, viz. 
' " that no person, not being a bachelor in divinity, nor suf- 
" ficiently licensed by some bishop, or one of the universi- 
" ties, should take any benefice with cure, being above the 
" value of SOI. as this was. Herein he wished to be satisfied 
" by such as were learned in the laws. Till which time he 
" had persuaded Mr. Hilton to stay his admission. Adding, 
" that if he [the bishop] should not be able by authority 
" of the statute to admit him, nor he [the said clerk] be 
" able to receive the same ; then he assured himself, his 
" lionour would not impute the cause to him, but to his 
" own insufficiency. And that, as for his own part, as it 
" should not become him to attempt any thing contrary to a 
" statute law, so would he be most willing to satisfy his ho- 
" nour herein, or any way else, as knew the Almighty ; to 
" whom most humbly he commended his honour. Dated 
« at Ludham, the 4th of IVIarch, 1572." 

This clerk, the good bishop, as is likely, saw to be igno- 
rant, and of small learning and abilities : and so, to bear 
him out to the earl, in refusing him, took the opportunity 
of the late prudent act, that none but learned and able men 
should possess livings of such considerable value, and to en- 
courage the clergy to take degrees, and study, and become 
preachers. 

The bi- Disorders committed in a church in Norwich, (and so 

shop's or- 1 1 1 • 1 1 -1 T • • 1 

(luis about even under the bishop s eye,) while divine service was read- 
a disturb- j,-,g.^ caused him again to exercise his episcopal authority. It 
prayer time happened in February this year, in the parish church of St. 
in Norwki'i. ^imou, (xi parish noted for their disorders,) at evening prayer, 
222 after the minister had begun, and proceeded to the midst 
of the service, reading the Psalms distinctly to the people ; 
three or four lewd boys, set on by some lewder persons, 
(whether they were papists, or protestants disaffected to the 
liturgy,) came into the church, and as the said minister be- 
gan to read, J/t/ soul doth magn'ifi) the Lord, &c. they 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 329 

brast out into singing of psalms suddenly and vinlooked CHAP, 
for ; and being commanded by the minister to cease, they 



continued singing, and he reading; so as all was out of or-^'^"** 1572. 
der, and the godly, well-disposed auditors there disquieted, 
and much grieved. Of this the bishop having notice, sent 
word to his chancellor to take cognizance of this great 
abuse. Of which nevertheless he had no great marvel, be- 
cause (as he wrote) he could never understand of any good 
order or conformity in that parish ; and as persons that 
had vowed themselves contrary to God and good ordi- 
nances, so it fared with the most part of that parish. He 
also informed his chancellor, of one of them, (who were the 
great setters on of these boys,) and his character, namely, 
one Thomas Lynn; " whose contumelious and disobe- 
" dient dealings, especially in matters of religion and the 
" church, was, as he admonished, most necessary to be 
" looked on ; as one that dared to attempt whatsoever he 
" Ksted. 

" It ought to trouble us both, added that reverend fa- 
" ther, that knowing and being informed often of the mis- 
" orders of that parish, there hath nothing been done to this 
" day ; whereby their lewd liberty had not been restrained, 
" but enlarged.''' And requiring him earnestly to call the 
church-wardens and the parson before him, and whom else 
of the parish he should think meet; and understanding the 
course of these disorderly dealings, he should appoint such 
punishment as the fault deserved. The bishop required his 
chancellor to regulate another as great a fault in this same 
parish also : which was, that where all the churches in 
Norwich did forbear to toll a bell to evening prayer, till 
the sermon was done ; in this parish the bells jangled when 
the preacher was in the pulpit. And they were piping (as 
the bishop expressed it) when they ought to be at the 
• preaching. 

" And herein, and in such like, (as the good bishop pro- 
" ceeded in his letter,) if we shall continue slow and negli- 
" gent in reforming, the blemish and discredit will light 
" upon us both at the length, and that more heavily than 



830 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " will be well borne." [Meaning, that such irregular and 
scandalous practices in divine worship, and contrary to 



Anno 1572. ti^e decency required in the time when it was celebrated, 
must needs come at last to the ears of the queen and coun- 
cil, to answer it.] And so slack, it seems, was the exercise 
of discipline in this civilian, to whom the bishop had com- 
mitted this office, that he subjoined and informed him, 
that the godly sort of the parish had determined to seek 
reformation at the high commissioners' hands: and that 
forthwith ; being weary, as they said, of complaining, and 
finding no redress. And that for his own part, he washed 
his hands of it, and laid the fault in him, if any were; to 
whom he had referred these and such causes in his absence, 
as he knew. But to stay the complaints above, which was 
presently intended, he straitly required him to examine the 
misorder, and to punish it severely ; using this reason to 
223 enforce it, " That it touched the credit of them both in the 
" sight of the world. Our place and calling bindeth us, and 
" God looketh for it at our hands. And so I commit you 
" to the Almighty, this 3d of February, 1572. 

" Your assured in God, 

" Joh. Norwic." 

A great I have one thing more to relate of this pious bishop : for 

the^exche." ^ ^^^^ ^^ revive the memory and actions of these our first 
quer falls protestant bishops and confessors. He had the misfortune 
upon^his to intrust one with the collection of the tenths of his dio- 
bishop; ^ese. Who took the sums that he had received of the 
clergy, and converted them to his own use, instead of pay- 
ing them into the exchequer. So that at length a heavy debt 
fell upon the poor bishop, for two or three years'" arrears of 
the tenths, that almost brake his back, and drove him to 
great necessity. For the revenues of his bishopric were 
obliged to make good this debt to the queen. Which was 
the reason he was fain to absent from Norwich, and live 
more privately at Ludham, a country seat belonging to the 
see. Whence some letters above rehearsed were written. 
This receiver of the bishop''s was one George Thymel- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 331 

thorp: who being behindhand in his payments of the CHAP. 
clergy's tenths, for the twelfth and thirteenth year of the '__ 



queen, a summons came down" from the exchequer to the Anno 1572. 
bishop, to pay them. Whereupon the bishop sent to ^"s !^^ "^*^^"* "^^ 
clergy to produce and send to him their acquittances given his receiv- 
them for their said payments by Thymelthorp ; which the ygred!*^ 
bishop accordingly sent up, that the said receiver might be 
charged with those sums, and that it might be seen how 
he had cheated the bishop. He had made use of this money 
to buy land. And these lands, and other his goods, he had 
fraudulently made over by deeds unto his brother, one 
Rugg, (a clergyman, as it seems,) and others ; and himself 
absconded. The bishop, in this case, made his condition 
known unto the queen by petition, which he desired his old 
learned friend Dr. Wylson, master of the requests, to for- 
ward and countenance. It so far succeeded, that a commis- 
sion was sent down to the high sheriff of the county, to 
make inquisition of what goods and estate Thymelthorp had, 
in order to seize them for the queen''s use. Besides this, 
there was a letter sent before, to the high sheriif, from the 
lord treasurer Burghley, to search for this man; but he 
could not be found. But he found in his house to the value 
of 21 8Z. 15^. 4!d.; his goods, and all his plate and jewels, and 
things of most value, being conveyed away before. He 
found also his will; whereby it might evidently appear, 
that his former deeds of gift, and his feoffment made to 
Rugg his brother, and others, were altogether forged and 
deceitful ; to the defrauding of the queen's majesty of her 
due debt, and the utter undoing of the bishop. The she- 
riff was threatened by Rugg for exceeding his commis- 
sion ; offering him 100 marks, or 1001. in plate, to leave 
the will behind him. Which, when the sheriff refused, he 
threatened him vehemently. Wherefore the bishop prayed 
the lord treasurer, that the sheriff might be further au-224 
thorized with such assistance, and a sufficient warrant for 
bringing away the said will. 

The lord treasurer soon after, sir Walter Mildmay, chan- 
cellor of the exchequer, the lord chief baron, the queen's 



332 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK solicitor, and others of the exchequer, granted out a com- 
^' mission accordingly from the queen; which somewhat fa- 



Anno 1572. voured the bishop against his said receiver. Whereupon by 
A commis- inquisition it was found, as above, that Thymelthorp had 
high she- made all his deeds of gift fraudulently. This gave some re- 
•^'^ ^"."^ition viving to the afflicted bishop ; making this pious reflection 
against in a letter to a friend of his: " Thus doth God deliver his 
" seely poor souls (which meant hurt to nobody) from the 
" falsehood and subtil cozening of devihsh men, or rather 
" monsters of men."" Adding, " You would not think into 
" what rejoicing and gladness all the country (as I might 
" so say) is resolved ; excepting a few Thimelthorpians. 
" The Lord be praised for ever and ever." This he wrote 
from Ludham in January. 
Fraudulent He informed also sir Walter Mildmay, a little after, that 
ances found by authority of the last commission of inquiry, sent from 
by inquisi- ^]^g exchcqucr, it was found by inquest of office, that the 
deeds of gift, and conveyances, made by that deceitful per- 
son, were fraudulently made. And thereupon the sheriff" 
had extended his lands, and such goods as were found, and 
put into inventory ; desiring sir Walter, and the rest of the 
officers of the exchequer, to take order for the sale of those 
lands and goods, or otherwise, that they might be conveyed 
to her majesty's best avail ; to the answering his debt, and 
to the discharge of [the bishop's] poor living, which was 
charged therewith, after 400/. a year, i. e. lOOZ. payable 
each term, and out of which he had paid 400/. and was still 
liable for more. And so pressed vvith it, that he was behind- 
hand to the exchequer, for the debt that was stalled, and 
could not perform his own offer in payment. So that God- 
frey, of that court, had sharp words, because he had not, 
for forfeit of payment of 100/. in arrears, caused the bi- 
shop's lands to be seized and sequestered, out of respect and 
concern for the bishop. And so he wrote to him in Fe- 
bruary. 
Thimei- Thimelthorp was now in prison ; and Avas sued by the 

Hi's' sJbmis- bishop, to repay all that he had paid into the exchequer. 

sion to the ^nd now I find him lunnbly addressing himself to the bi- 
bishop. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 333 

shop; acknowledging his fault by letter, and offering all CHAP, 
satisfaction; using these words, Venio tanquam prodigies ^^"^- 



JH'ms. The good bishop gave a kind answer to him after Anno 1572. 
so much suffering and extremity brought upon him by Jj^'J. J^'.'^^ 
means of the unjust dealings of the other. " That all the letter to 
" world might see through his failings to pay the prince, he ""'* 
" [the bishop] had been and was burdened more than he 
" could bear. And therefore, if by all lawful means he 
" sought to ease himself, neither he nor his friends could 
" justly blame his dealings. That he must pronounce, that 
" if his meaning were advisedly to draw him into the mire, 
" after such courtesy that he [the bishop] had friendly 
" shewed him, and constantly continued, and by so doing 
" caused him to sustain great loss of substance, and brought 
" also his credit into question; assuredly, said he, all per- 
" sons might perceive and deem, that he had given him 
" [the bishop] no cause to think his friendship well be- 225 
" stowed. However, the bishop made him this offer, That 
" if he would pay him what he had disbursed for that debt 
" of his, and would satisfy the prince for the payment 
" yearly at every term appointed, and laid upon him, he 
" [the bishop] would leave all further proceedings against 
" him, and shew him all friendly courtesy as he might per- 
" form, or Thimelthorp desire." 

Then at length he urged to him, " the great necessities 
" he was driven to by his means. That he was forced to 
" live in miserable sort, neither able to maintain a family fit 
" for his place, neither to build nor repair his houses, nor 
" bestow his liberality where he would, neither to keep hos- 
" pitality, or relieve the poor, according to his will, and as 
" was convenient." Yet humanely and christianly conclud- 
ing, " Your loving friend, hitherto unfriendly handled, and 
" yet your assured friend for ever, if you forthwith perform 
" that both duty and conscience bindeth you to." This 
dated from Ludham, March the 21st. 

The aforesaid matter was the occasion of that statute. This deceit 

,■,.■, t • \ ^ • M} o occasions 

made this 13 Eliz. cap. 4. (which the bishop himselt tirst a statute 
moved in parliament : and the bill thereof was by the una- "If^^f^^^'g^t 



334 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK nimous consent of bishops, peers, and commons, approved 
^' and passed ; as he wrote to his friend Gualter. By which, 
Anno 1572. he said, he hoped in a short time to have his losses made 
good ;) viz. to make the lands, tenements, goods, and chat- 
tels, of tellers, i-eceivers, &c. liable to the payments of their 
debts ; and, against fraudulent deeds, gifts, grants, aliena- 
tions, conveyances, bonds, suits, judgments, as well of 
lands and tenements, as of goods and chattels; that are 
said in that statute to be more commonly used and prac- 
tised in those days, than had been seen or heard of hereto- 
fore. Which feoffments, gifts, grants, &c. were devised and 
contrived of malice, fraud, covin, &c. to the end to delay, 
hinder, or defraud creditors, and others, of their just and 
lawful actions, suits, debts, accounts, &c. the parties to 
such feigned and fraudulent feoffments, &c. to incur the 
penalty of one year's value of the said lands and tene- 
ments, &c. and the whole value of the goods and chattels: 
the one moiety to the queen, and the other to the party 
grieved by such feigned and fraudulent feoffments, &c. 
And also being lawfully convicted, to suffer imprisonment 
for one half year without bail or mainprise. 
And an- For to meet with under-receivers, (such as Thimelthorp 

bhhop*r' un. ^^^^j) intrusted by the bishops, there was another statute 
der-receiv- made, for the more effectual avoiding and redress of great 
tenths and deceits done to the queen'*s highness, and to the prelates and 
subsidies, clergy of the realm, by under-collectors of the tenths and 
subsidies of the clergy appointed by and under the arch- 
bishops and bishops. The tenor of it was, That the statute 
made in the thirteenth year of the queen, to make the 
lands, tenements, goods, and chattels, of tellers, receiv- 
ers, &c. to be liable to the payments of their debts, should, 
to all intents and purposes, as amply and largely extend, 
and be construed to extend, to all such under-collectors of 
tenths and subsidies of the clergy : for satisfying of such 
money as they had collected, or should collect, of the said 
226 tenths and subsidies, to the use of the queen's majesty. 
And that every sudi luider-collector should, upon process 
to be awarded out of the court of exchequer, be chargeable 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 335 

to caccount for the receipt of such tenths and subsidies. CHAP. 
And every archbishop and bishop, and dean and chapter, ^ 



sede vacante, to whose charge the collection of such tenths Anno 1572. 
or subsidies did appertain, should be discharged of so much 
of the same of the said tenths and subsidies, as should be 
satisfied to the queen, her heir or heirs, of or by the lands, 
tenements, or hereditaments, goods, &c. of such under-col- 
lectors. By virtue of this act the lord treasurer (who was 
the great instrument thereof) sent his letters, in October, to 
the high sheriff of Norfolk, &c. as we related before. 

And this seems to have been partly effected by the means The bishop 
of the archbishop of Canterbury ; to whom the bishop ad- "^" ^J^^^^, 
dressed in a letter, dated April 2, 1573, to use his interest shop^about 
with the lord treasurer for forbearance ; acquainting him, ness. 
that Thimelthorp had promised an agreement with him ; 
but he could not persuade himself to beheve him, such had 
been his former dealings. And that all that while he re- 
mained in miserable state, paying 400Z. by the year for 
his debt. And that it was supposed by some that were 
learned, that the last statute against the deceit of collectors 
was not sufficient for the sale of this deceiver's lands. So 
that he told the archbishop he was like to be smally relieved 
thereby. That he had therefore been an humble suitor to 
the lord treasurer, that those great payments of his might 
be spared till the next parliament ; where, by farther autho- 
rity, the said statute might be enlarged, and he [the bishop] 
holpen. For truly (said he) I am not able to continue these 
great payments. And prayed his grace, when he saw time 
convenient, to use some favourable words to the lord trea- 
surer, that he might the rather be spared for a time, in 
hope of further relief. 

The bishop's Christian disposition towards this ingrate- other 
ful man may further appear by other his deceitful actions, y|'^^^,P"jjj_ 
having played other tricks with him. He had forged a shop by this 
writing as it were from the bishop ; wherein he gave the 
reversion of the archdeaconry of Norwich to him. And he, 
upon this writing, presented his brother William Rugg to 
it. The bishop, (having indeed the presentation in him- 



336 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
I. 

Anno 1572. 



Thimel- 
thorp, a 
prisoner, 
begs the 
bishop's 
pardon. 



227 



Gualter 
and Zuin- 
glius the 
younger 
come to bi 
shop Park- 
hurst. 

Dec. 6. 



self,) when it fell, had presented Mr. Roberts, a dear friend 
of his, to the same. And this occasioned a suit between 
Rugg and Roberts. Further, he had forged a patent for 
the receivership of Nor^nch. And doubting lest it should 
come to light, threw it into the fire, and burnt it. He had 
a man, to whom he gave 5/. a year, named Ibbots, that 
graved seals, and such like things, very cunningly, (as the 
bishop himself wi-it in a letter to his friend,) who might 
serve his turn in such cases. 

This man I find remaining a prisoner the latter end of 
the next year, and the queen's and bishop"'s debt not yet 
paid ; when he obtained leave of the council (the bishop be- 
ing willing also) to go for a while into Norfolk. Where he 
was twice at Ludham with his lordship : and there, holding 
up his hands, and faUing on his knees, beseeched him that 
he would pardon him the injury. To whom the bishop 
christianly answered, that he would pardon the injury done 
him ; but the payment of money due to him and the queen 
he could not pardon. The conclusion was, that he pro- 
mised he would do all: and so returned to his prison; and 
the poor bishop left in as bad a condition as before. 

Rodolphus Gualter and Rodolphus Zuinglius, the sons 
of those learned Helvetians of the same names, came over 
into. England this year to travel, and to see and study at 
our universities; and were recommended by Gualter, the 
father, to the said bishop Parkhurst. With him they were 
in the beginning of December at Ludham. Where, among 
the rest of the entertainment, he treated them with oysters : 
which the young men wondered to see him eat. But how- 
ever young Gualter ventured at last upon them : for so the 
bishop merrily wrote to his father. But as for Zuinglius, 
(as the bishop went on,) he dared not cum vivis animakii- 
lis congredi. Yet the day after, evaginato giadio, vir se 
prcBstitit : i. e. he drew his sword, and shewed himself a 
man. From the bishop they took their journey to London 
with their letters, and waited upon bishop Sandys there : 
who received them very obligingly, for their relations' and 
country's sake : and assigned each of them 51. against their 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 337 

going to Cambridge. They returned again to Ludham the CHAP, 
same month. And in January following, the bishop sent. 



them, and two more, their fellow-travellers, with a servant ^""o ^^72. 
of his, to that university, the plague being then at Oxford. 
The bishop intended wholly to find Gualter with main- 
tenance, while he remained in England : and so he told 
him. But when Gualter s father had promised in a letter 
to repay him whatsoever sums the young man should take 
up of him, and to reimburse him for his expenses, as he was 
resolved to take that opportunity of shewing his gratitude 
to Gualter, by bearing all his son's charges ; so in no small 
trouble and concern at it, he thus affectionately expressed 
his mind to the said learned man. 

Iniquo ammo fero inJmmaniter ahs tc dictwn: nee dum 
ingratam hane molestiam bene eoneoquerc qiieo. Egoii' ahs 
tc vel hallerum aceiperem? Nondum tihi Tiguri satis- 
Jhctum putas? An ovinem humanitatem mc exlvisse putas? 
Omi Gnalterc, ne quicquam talc in posterum ahs te audiam. 
Nidl'is tuis impensis vivet in Anglia : nidli tibi erit oneri. 
Ego enim hine alam ; et lil)eraliter quidem. Curabiticr ut 
meusjilins, ex me gcnitus, &c. " Wiiat you so unkindly said, 
" I take not well. Nor can I yet well digest this imkind 
" trouble you have given me. Should I receive even a farthing 
" from you ? Do you think that I have satisfied you, when 
" I lived at Zuric with you ? Do you think that I have put 
" off all humanity ? O my dear Gualter, let me hear no 
" such thing of you hereafter. Your son shall not live in 
" England at your charge : he shall be no burden to you 
" here. I will maintain him here, and liberally too. He 
" shall be taken care for, as my own son. This I promised 
" you often by letters, and, God willing, 1 will certainly 
" perform it." 

The bishop, now ready to send young Gualter to Oxford 228 
the next summer, out of his care for him, wrote in J*^"^ ^,0'^,.3'c^re 
both to Dr. Humfrey, head of Magdalen college, and Dr. of Gualter 
Cole, concerning his coming thither : and prayed the former 
to provide him a convenient chamber in his college; and 
that he misht be in fellows commons, and that he would 

VOL. IT. Z 



338 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK see all his expenses discharged from time to time. And to 
^' Quaker himself, being upon his departure to Oxford, he 
Anno 1572. wrote, " When you come to Oxford, you shall be provided 
" with all things. If any thing be wanting at any time, I 
" have written now once again to Dr. Umphrey and iSIr. 
" Cole, to provide the same for you. And at one of their 
" hands you shall receive what you have need of: and I 
" will see the same discharged." Concluding with his coun- 
sel ; " If you apply yourself to your studies, and do well, 
" you shall want nothing, but shall find me, not a friend 
" only, but another father unto you. God keep you, and 
" gi^'6 yo"^! ^^Js grace to do that becometh you, to his glory, 
" and all your friends'* comfort." 



CHAP. XXIV. 

Walsingham, the queen's ambassador in France, impover- 
ished in his embassy, comes home. Dr. Wylson sets forth 
a learned book against usury. Bishop JexceVs letter in 
commendation thereof. Epigrams formerly made by bi- 
shop Parlihiirst, printed. Divers historical matters, both 
of himself and others, gathered from them. 

Waising- W ALSINGHAM, the queen's ambassador in France, 
\y\ll- r'" after he had done her majesty the best service he could, in 
Fniiice, so- this Critical and dangerous year, by his intelligences and 
come home, spics, (which, for thc public good of religion and the state, 
cost him great sums of money, to the impoverishing of him- 
self,) did earnestly solicit all his great friends, to obtain of 
the queen the calling of him home. Thus pleading to one 
of his chief friends at court, (viz. sir Thomas Smith,) " That 
" if the cause of his stay there grew only in respect of her 
" majestv^s service, (as he was told by some letters hence,) 
" though he had, he said, as much cause to desire his re- 
" turn, as any other that was employed in the like service, 
" yet he could with more patience digest thc same, as one 
" that thought both his travail, substance, and life, as well 
" employed in her service, as any other subject she had. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 339 

" TFor indeed both liis substance and life were in great de- CHAP. 

• XXIV 

" cay and danger.] But lie hoped, when her majesty should. 



" see his stay there not needful, she would tender his case, -^""0 ''572. 
" and yield to his revocation." 

I shall only insert this note concerning the necessitous 
condition of Walsingham, in this his public service, that the 
earl of Lincoln, being sent from the queen to Paris, upon 
his own experience of the intolerable charges there, through 229 
the daily increase of dearth, promised Walsingham that he 
would confer with the lord Burghley, to consult with her 
majesty for the increase of his diet. For otherwise he 
should not be able to hold out his monthly charges, now His great 
200Z. a month : notwithstanding his diet was thin; his fa-^^l.^^^^^ 
mily reduced to as small a proportion as might be ; and his living. 
horse being twelve only. 

But the queen could not be drawn to comply with Wal-Kept there 
singhani's earnest request ; knowing how fit and able a per- with'stand- 
son he was to serve her with that prince. Insomuch, that'"= ^'^ ''"■ 

„,,,,. ,. . serahle con- 

at last, for necessity, and want 01 health, his condition wasdition. 
miserable. He remained in France all the winter, even to 
February, when he wrote again, that he hoped his stay 
should not have been so long protracted, and that his miser- 
able case (as he called it) should have been otherwise 
weighed, especially since his stay there could breed but an 
hinderance to himself, and no benefit to her majesty. For 
that the court then removed from Paris ; and he should be 
driven to remain there, and not to follow the same, for lack 
of ability, having neither furniture, money, nor credit. But 
notwithstanding, his return was put ofi^' still. For in the mss. 
next month, viz. March, I find sir Walter IVIildmay solicit- ^"'■^''''""• 
ing the lord treasurer to take a seasonable opportunity that 
offered itself then, to help his brother Walsingham home : 
adding, that without his only help, he feared it would be 
put off again, with such delay as would be, he said, in- 
tolerable to him : praying his lordship to bear with his 
friend that thus jjressed him : and that the reasons were so 
well known to them, that they could do no less. And that 
he would hereby bind Mr. Walsingham for ever to him. 

z 2 



34^ ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK At last, viz. in the month of April, he came home, and 
Dr. Valentine Dale went ambassador in his room. But he 



Anno 1572. was run so far behindhand in his estate by this embassy, 

horn" ^^ ^^^^^' tl^'^^^^g'^^ '^^ lived divers years after, and once more 
was sent ambassador into France afterwards, yet died in 
debt. He was recompensed after his return home, and 

Made secre- made principal secretary of state, with sir Tho. Smith, in 

.11 y s . .^j^^ month of January after. 

Dr. Wyison This year Dr. Wylson, master of St. Katharine's by the 

sets forth J J ^ j 

a book Tower, and master of the requests, (afterwards secretary of 
against state,) oue of the most learned men of his time, set forth a 

usury. ' , _ ' 

Dedicated book against usury : entitled, A discourse upon usury : hy 
to tiie earl ^^^ j^^^ ^f dialofnie and oration, for the better varietit, 

of Leicester. .:7 ./ te >^ o" 

and more delight of all that shall read this treatise : hy 
Tho. Wylson^ doctor of' the civil lazvs, ajid one of the masters 
of her majesty's honourable court of requests. He dedicated 
it to the earl of Leicester, the great affected patron of learn- 
ing and learned men ; wherein he is styled, the high and 
mighty earl. The occasion of his writing this tract was 
this, that usury, in the excesses of it, was now so common 
in the kingdom, that it arose to extreme extortion and op- 
pression. For thus he writes in one place of his book : 
" That ugly, detestable, and hurtful sin of usury, which 
" being but one in grossness of name, carrieth many a mis- 
" chief linked unto it : the same sin being now so rank 
" throughout all England, and in London especially, that 
" men have altogether forgotten free lending, and have 
230 " given themselves wholly to live by foul gaining : making 
" the loan of money a kind of merchandise : a thing directly 
" against all laws, against nature, and against God. And 
" what should this mean, that instead of charitable dealing 
" and the use of almose, (for lending is a spice thereof,) 
" hardness of heart hath now gotten place, and great gain 
" is chiefly followed, and horrible extortion is commonly 
" used." 

And again : " I am sorry to say it, and know it over 
" well ; and therefore I must needs say it ; I do not know 
" any place in Christendom so much subject to this foul 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 341 

" sin of usury, as the whole realm of Endand is at this CHAP. 

XXIV 
" present, and hath been of late years." 



The book is the more to be esteemed, in that the copy Anno 1572. 
was read over and approved by Jewel, bishop of Salisbury, J^'^^JP 
in the year 1569; who wrote and prepared a letter to thejudgment 
author in commendation thereof. The letter was found in ^ fetter' to 
that bishop's study certain months after his death, and sent the author. 

• /> 1 1 1 1 /.Int. MSS. 

by John Garbrand, M. A. m Oxford, and prebendary otjuein. 
Salisbury ; to whom the bishop gave all his papers, writings, 
and notes of all his travails in God's vineyard, and other 
devices of learning. Which letter Dr. Wylson thought fit 
to set before his book, and was as followeth : 

" I have perused your learned and godly travayl touch- 
" ing the matter of usury, Mr. Dr. Wylson, and have no 
" doubt, but if it may please you to make it common, very 
" much good may grow of it. Such variety of matter, such 
" weyght of reasons, such examples of antiquity, such au- 
" thoritie of doctors, both Greeks and Latines ; such allega- 
" tion of lawes, not onely civil and canon, but also provin- 
" cial and temporal ; such variety of cases, so learnedly and 
" so clearly answered ; such learning and eloquence, and so 
" evident witness of God's holy wy], can never possibly 
" passe in vayne. I wil not flatter you : I cannot : it be- 
" cometh me not. I assure you, I like al notably wel ; si- 
" quid inei estjudicii; and if my liking be worth the liking. 

" But of al other things, this liketh me best. Of the 
" three parties, you make eche one to speak naturally, like 
" hymself, as if you had been in eche of them, or they in 
" you. What it shal work in other I cannot tel : for mine 
" own part, if I were an usurer, never so gredily bent to 
" spoyle and ravine, tit suntjwneratores; yet would I think 
" myself most unhappy, if such persuasions could not move 
" me. But what man would not be afraid, to lyve despe- 
" rately in that state of life that he seeth manifestly con- 
" demned by heathens, by the old fathers, by the auncient 
" councelles, by emperours, by bishops, by decrees, by ca- 
" nons, by al sects of al regyons, and of al religions, by the 
" gospel of Christ, bv the mouth of God? Ago breviter, ut 

1 3 



342 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " viJes. Non enim id mild sumo, ut damncm large tarn 
^' " horrendum pcccatum. Id tlbi reUnqiio. 

'^""^ '^^^- " Ut vivat liber, usura pereatr 

" From Salisbury, this 20th of August, 1569." 

The book is written dialogue-wise, (the manner of writ- 
ing in those times,) between a rich worldly merchant, a 
23 1 godly and zealous preacher, and two lawyers, the one tem- 
poral, the other civil : who are all brought in, speaking 
naturally their sentiments upon this argument of the loan of 
money for gain, which is his description of usury; some for, 
and some against it. And this was that which the bishop in 
his letter declared he had such a liking for. 
Some wise Dr. Wylson was a very eloquent man ; and excellent for 
oTdT Wyi- ^'^^ yvajjw-ai (i. e. sentences of great importance and practical 
son. Avisdom) his book abounded with : and a taste of them 

may deserve here to have a place. As, " The Devil, whom 
" that ancient father of famous memory, Hugh Latimer, 
" called, the most vigilant bishop i?i his vocation.''' 

" If there be not as quick weeding hooks, and as sharp 
" iron forks, ready at hand to cleanse soil from time to 
" time, as the weeds are and will be ready to spring and 
" grow up, in the end all will be weeds : and Antichrist 
" himself will be lord of the harvest." 

" Wariness in all things is evermore wisdom ; and of ad- 
" vised dealings come perfection. Things foreseen, do al- 
" ways the less harm." 

" I do wish, that man were as apt to do right, as he is 
" ready to speak of right : and to be altogether as he would 
*' seem to be." 

" Sweet is that sacrifice to God, when the lives of lewd 
" men are offered up to suffer pains of death for wicked 
" doings." 

" As good pick straws, as make laws that want a ma- 

" gistrate to see them well obeyed. The law itself is a 

" dumb mao-istrato to all men : whereas ma(]^istrates are a 

" speaking law to all jx'ople. As one may be a good 

" magistrate to the peoj)le, and yet no good man to him- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 343 

" self; so may one be a good man to himself, and prove CHAP. 
" no good magistrate to the people." XXIV. 

" Diogenes said well, Where neither laws have force, nor Anno 1572, 
" water hath course, there should no man willingly seek to 
" dwell." 

" Plainness of speech, and freedom of tongue, in de- 
" ciphering sin, and advancing virtue, are not the best 
" ways to thrive by." 

I will take my leave of this book, after I shall have men- An usurer 
tioned a pimishment, which the author shews out of the^^f"**!*? 
civil and canon laws, appointed for usurers convict : viz. burial, 
that when they are dead, they shall not have Christian bu- 
rial. And that if any minister do receive any known or 
convicted usurer to the communion, the same priest or 
minister shall be straightway suspended from celebrating in 
the church. And that whoso burieth an usurer so convict- 
ed shall immediately be excommunicated. This Dr. Wyl- 
son fitted with a story he had read. A rich usurer being 
notorious, and therefore often warned to amend ; and yet 
amending never the more, departed this world ; when and 
where he could not tell, (for the book from whence he had 
it went not so far for time and place.) But after the man 
was dead, his kinsman that succeeded him, (as rich men 
want none,) desired to have him buried in his parish church, 
before the high altar. The j^arson being a zealous godly 
man, would not bury him at all, no, not in the churchyard ; 
much less in the church, or at the high altar. His kinsman 
hereupon being greatly dismayed, offered largely to have this 232 
favour. But all would not serve. At length understanding 
that the parson had an ass, which brought his books daily 
from his parsonage to the church, being a pretty distance 
asunder, they politicly desired to obtain this favour for 
him ; that as his ass did daily carry his service-books to the 
church, so it would please him, that for this time the ass 
might take pains to carry this dead ass in a coffin, with this 
condition, that wheresoever the ass stayed, there the body 
should be buried : persuading themselves, that as the ass, 
by an ordinary course, used to go every day from the par- 

z 4 



344 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK sonagc to the church, witli a burden of books upon his 
back, so of course he would take the same way with this 
Anno 1572. dead man"'s corpse, being cliested, even straight to the 
church. The priest, upon their importune suit, was content 
that his ass should deal in this matter for the usurer, and be 
his dumb judge. Who, when he had the chested body upon 
his back, feeling the weight heavier than was wont to be, 
(as usurers want no weight, being overladen with sin,) or 
else by some secret motion of God, I think, as Balaam*'s ass 
was inspired ; so this foresaid beast, being laden and over- 
laden, as it should seem, did fling and take on innnediatcly, 
as though wildfire had been in his tail : and leaving the or- 
dinary course to the church, took tlie straight way out of 
the town ; and never left flinging and running, till he came 
to a pair of gallows at the town''s end : and there wallowing 
himself vmder the gallows with the corpse upon his back, 
did never leave tumbling and tossing himself upon the bare 
ground, till he was clean disburdened of so miserable a car- 
rion : a fit altar undoubtedly for usurers to be sacrificed 
upon alive, or buried under when they are dead ; and a 
most worthy tabernacle, or shrine, miraculously assigned for 
all such lewd saints to be shrouded in, either dead or alive. 
The facetiousness of this story makes me insert it. 
Bishop To this book I add another, for the eminency of the au- 

eni'-rams ^ tbor, sct fortli also this year, by the same Dr. Wylson ; be- 
priiited. iug the elegant Latin epigrams of bishop Parkhurst, written 
in his yovinger days ; (famous for his human as well as di- 
vine learning;) the copy thereof being sent by the author as 
a new year's gift to the said Wylson, his dear friend and 
old acquaintance. Which he called the bishop's good, g'odlf/, 
and pleasant epigrams : and was minded, with the bishop's 
consent, to put them to the press, as fit to be preserved to 
posterity, and worthy j)ublic view. 
His epi- These epigrams (in imitation of Martial) are to be esteem- 

toricai' " " ^^' ^^^^ '^^ mucli because they were pieces of handsome wit 
and fancy, as chiefly because they are historical. Wherein 
Parkhurst doth both give us an account of many remark- 
able passages of the former part of his life, his education, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 345 

his learning, his acquaintance, and his exile and sufferings, CHAP, 
for adhering to the true religion ; but also lets us into much ^^^^' 



of the knowledge of the latter times of king Henry VIII. Anno 1572. 
as also of divers things in the reigns of king Edward VI. 
and queen Mary, especially relating to religion, and of per- 
sons of both sexes, eminent in both reigns, either for their 
rank and dignity, their religion or learning, with their cha- 
racters. 

Concerning himself we learn divers things by some of his 233 
verses ; as that he was born at Guilford in Surry, by his 
epigram to Dr. H. Polsted, a physician of Guilford, conter- 
raneum suum. That he was educated first under the fa- 
mous grammarian, Mr. Robertson, and after, at the school 
of Magdalen college, in those verses, ad Gymnasium Mag- 
dalenense : 

O prcBclara domus, musarum Candida sedes, Sfc. 
Me quoque nutrieras oUm, cuvi parvulus essem, 
Nunc Jactus juvenis^ sum mcmor usque tui. 
That he was in his younger days but of mean circum- 
stances, as appeared by his relation of certain of his 
dreams : 

Somnia me Croesum fecerunt scepe supeirbum^ 

Fit gazis visus sum superare Midam. 
Somno experrectus mox sum mendicior Iro. 
Irics ita usque Jiii, desii at esse Midas. 
And that his profession of the gospel, and abhorrence of 
popery, was the obstacle to his hopes of wealth from one 
Crisp, his father-in-law ; whom, in his verses to Jewel, he 
denotes to be rich : 

Possidet ille gazas, ego paupertatc laboro. 
And when Jewel had asked him the cause he was no 
kinder to him, he answered, 

Impia non possum dogmata Jerre pap en. 
That he was not wanting to himself in his diligence of 
seeking preferment : but had no success. This he expressed 
to one Estwic, his friend, upon occasion of his inquiring of 
him what he was doing : 

Quid Jaciam^ queer is? Venor. Quid? Venor honor es. 
Atjrust7'a : invitis venor adhuc canihus. 



346 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK Yet afterwards his Jmnt'mg was more successful. For he 
'• became chaplain to persons of the highest dignity. As, to 



Anno 1572. Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk. On whom he made a 
funeral epitaph, styling him there, dom. suns clemcnt'issi- 
mus. He was domestic also to the most excellently ac- 
complished woman, for birth and virtue, the lady Katha- 
rine, his duchess. (To whom likewise he wrote some epi- 
grams.) To which honour he attained anno 1542, by an 
address to her in a copy of Sapphics : 

Si veils inter nuvicrare servos 
Me tiios, o gloruijivminannn, &c. 
And which was higher yet, he was domestic chaplain to a 
greater princess, viz. Katharine Parr, king Henry ""s last 
234 queen: as we find also by some of his verses. Wherein, 
when a friend of his asked him v.hv he abode so much at 
court, he gave him the reason, that it was partly the great 
obligingness, affability, and pietv of his mistress, the queen, 
and partly to enjoy the societv and converse (jf some excel- 
lent scholars, that were likewise at court, as Coverdale, 
Huic, ^Imei-, &c. 

Quod tarn volens^ quod tarn hibens, 
RegincB in aula mansito, 
Facit hujus benignitas^ 
Pietas^Jhcilis dementia. 
Neccssitudo addi hue potest, 
Coverdali, Huicci, et jElmeri, 
O! dii, viros quos nomino ? 
After serious deliberation about his entrance into the state 
of matrimony, at last concluding it the most safe and godly 
course, he resolved upon it ; writing thus to his friend : 
Commodius vivit caelebs, sed tutius ille, et 
Sauctius. 
And thereupon concludeth, 

Ipse hrevi castus nernpe maritus ero. 
Though being a man in holy orders, many severely cen- 
sured him for it ; especially such as favoured popery. To 
one he gave this answer : 

Conjugium meditor. Trugide ohstrepis, utque prohro dcs. 
Quid /iar res, csscnt si mihi dcorta '^ Nihil. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 347 

John Jewel, afterwards the most learned bishop of Salis- chap. 
bury, was his scholar in Merton college ; signified in those ' ' 



verses writ to him ; Anno 1572. 

Olim discipulus miki, chare JiieUc,Jiiisti, 
Nunc ero discipulus, te renuento, tuus. 
That he was incumbent of the rich benefice of Cleve : 
but left it upon queen Mary's altering religion, for the sake 
and love he had to Jesus Christ : as he expressed in this 
pious distich to his friend : 

A me cur locuplcs suh'ito sit Clcva relicfa, 
Quceris. Prcn Christo sordida Cleva tnilii. 
The cause of religion was so dear to him, that (besides 
the loss of that) he took up a resolution to leave the king- 
dom, Avhatever dangers and evils befell him, and piously 
commended himself to the protection of God, against hang- 
men and against papists ; putting them together, as equally 
dealino- in blood : 

Nescio quid miJii mens prcEsugit adcssc malor7im ; 

Nescio quid sperem ; nescio quid metuam. 
Quicquid erit, Deus alme, tua me protege dextra ; 

Carnijices perdant me, neque pontijices. 
And now being departed from his native country, and in 235 
his voyage, his heart trembled to think of the cruelties in- 
tended against him and the rest of those pious Christians 
that would not turn papistical idolaters, and dreaded the 
handling of those that remained behind. But especially he 
had a great concern for the princess Elizabeth, and his 
noble patroness, the good duchess of SuiFolk. Praying God 
for his protection of them all, against the wolves, lions, and 
tigers : meaning those inhuman popish persecutors under 
queen Mary, sensible also of the danger the whole kingdom 
was in from foreigners. In regard of which matters thus 
expressing himself, while he was sailing upon the seas : 
Doles mcdigne qui struunt, 
Nostramq7ie vitam quceritant, 
Ne prcevcdeant nobis, Deus ; 
Funes eorum rumpito, 
Laqueos crucntos scindito. 



348 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK Ab liostibus civilihis, 

' Et iwteris, Britanmcum 

Anno 1572. Regnum misericors libera. ' 

Prcenobiles vivos banos. 
Preen obilesqv efoeviin as, 
Elizabetham principem, 
SiiffolcicB, et meam, ducem, 
Deum colentcSy rictibus 
Lupi, leones, tygrides, 
Immanibus ne devorant. 
He and divers more divines, and learned men of the uni- 
versities, and of the church of England, imder king Ed- 
ward, thus hecame voluntary exiles, and settled themselves 
at Zuric in Switzerland : and in their travel, near to that 
place, they were to pass over a very high hill, where was a 
rock, on which he engraved these extemporary verses ; (the 
rest of them having inscribed their names :) 

Hnic inscidpserunt Angli sua nomina saxo, 

Char am qui patriam deseruere suam. 
Deseruere suam patriam pro nomine Christi : 

Quosjbvet, ut cives urbs Tigurina suos. 
Urbs Tigurina piis tutum se prabet asylum. 
O! dabitur grates quando referre pares ? 
He and the other exiles being not only most kindly re- 
ceived at their coming, by Bullinger, Zanchy, Wolphius, 
Gualter, Lavater, and the other ministers and rulers at Zu- 
ric, but also living easily there among them : so much love 
and hospitality had such an impression upon him, that he 
thought he could never sufficiently extol it, nor be thankful 
enough for it : as he expressed it in- these verses : 
Vivo Tigurinos inter humanissimos : 
Quibus veils vix credere, quantum debeam. 
O! quando Tigurinis reponam. gratiam? 
Paikiiurst How kind the divines of that city shewed themselves 
ce'i'ved at (and especially Gualter) to him, John Bale took notice of 
Zuric. in ti^g preface to his books of the Acts of the popes : Vir op- 

Balei Acta . ^, , . p ^ , ^11 s i- • n 

Ronianor. timus (spcakmg oi John I'arkhurst) et meliori jortuna 
Pontif. in (I'ffrnior ; quot nominibus, &c. " An excellent man, and 

Pr.Tfat. m 1 ^ 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 349 

" worthy of better fortune ; upon how many accounts is he CHAP. 
" debtor to you, Mr. Gualter, and the whole city [of Zu- 1 



" ric?]"" Anno 1572. 

The same writer, an exile also then at Basil, records 236 
gratefully the entertainment of the rest of the English there, f^"^** JJ'J^,^ 
That they lived together in one house [like a college of stu- English ex- 
dents.] That Bullinger took a fatherly care of them, and '''"' *''""• 
that by the full consent of the citizens. And he adds, that 
these that were daily with him at Basil, related those mi- 
nisters' care, their trouble, and their paternal affection to- 
wards them, while they lived under the shadow of that city, 
covered against the heat of persecution, with the love of the 
whole people. They related also to him the incredible mu- 
nificence of the magistrates : who most liberally offered by 
Bullinger subsistence, by provision of bread-corn and wine, 
as much as might suffice to sustain thirteen or fourteen of 
them. But the English refusing to be so burdensome to 
them, [having rehef elsewhere,] they of the city were sorry 
that some opportunity of gratifying them was wanting. 

While Parkhurst sojourned here in this place, he ex- 
ercised sometimes his poetical strain. And once, at the mo- 
tion of Zanchy and Wolphius, knowing his genius towards 
poetry, he comprised the Ten Commandments in ten he- 
roic verses. And again, at the desire of the said Zanchy, he 
composed elegantly in Eatin verse the history of the life of 
Christ : shewing the occasion thereof in these words : Cur- 
sus vitcE Doviini nostri et Servatoris Jesu Christi : rogatus 
a D. Hieronymo Zanchio hcec scripsi Tiguri, 1557. He 
beo-an with Adventus Christi in carncm. Then his Nativity. 
Then his Circumcision. Then the Epiphany. Then his 
Disputation with the doctors : and so to the last Judgment, 
in several distinct poems. 

And being settled in this city, Zuric, this safe harbour 
for the poor English exiles, he gave a character of this 
place, in the end of a letter which he wrote to Harley, late 
bishop of Hereford. 

Urbs habet HelveticcB me nunc primaria gentis ; 
Urbs plane armip>otens, pads umica tamcn. 



350 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK Urbsfaainda pits verhi pr<2coinbus^ citri 

'• Urbs expers odii, cadis, avariticB, &c. 



Anno ir>72. He shewed himself a prophet, as well as a poet : comfort- 
ing the English exiles by foretelling the restoration of the 
gospel to England within a short time : 

Numinis ira brevis, bonitas pia g-andia pr<Bbet. 
Est nox tristis ? Er'it postera Iwfa dies. 
And likewise the death of Gardiner, bishop of Winches- 
ter, in a distich to Ponet, who had been deprived of that 
bishopric : 

Salveto nuper prcBSid, prcesulquejtiturus. 
Namque brevi Stephanus, prcBsul, puto, dcsinet esse. 
And so in all probability Ponet had been restored, had he 
lived to return ; but died before. 
23^ But for the historical characters this epigrammatist giveth 
of others of the English nation, both of the nobility and 
clergy, whether papists or protestants, I refer the reader to 
N". XXIV. the Appendix; as containing many things that will be ac- 
ceptable to such as are studious of those times. 



o^O 



CHAP. XXV. 

Remarks upon particidar men. Sparks, a suffragan bi- 
shop. John Fox. John Cottrel. John Rugg. Justinian 
Lancaster. Barthohmexo Clark : his testimonial. John 
Hales : his epitaph. Cardinal ChastilUon : poisoned in 
England. The villain that poisoned him confesseth it 
tzvo years after. Nozcel, dean of St. PauTs, founds a 
free-school in Lancashire. His letter to the lord Burgh- 
leu about it. One Blosse reports king Edward to be 
alive, and that the queen zcas married to Leicester. Mines 
of silver in Cumberland : a corporation for the manage)-?/ 
thereof. 

And as I have thus made mention of several persons of 
figure before, so I shall proceed to add some short notices 
of divers other eminent men, whose preferments or deaths, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 351 

or other accidents, fell within this year, with some remarks CHAP, 
concernino; them. 



Thomas Sparks, bishop suffragan of Berwick, assistant Anno 1572, 
to Cutbert, sometime bishop of Durham, died this J ear. JJ;^']'°i' ^^f- 
And John Fox, M. A. [the martyrologist, if I mistake not,] Berwick 
entitled, Sacri verb'/ Dei professor, promoted to a prebend j'Jj^* , 
in that churcli of Durham, vacant by the natural death of hath his 
that reverend father, dated Sept. 2, 1572. Which prefer- ^--^^.^^jd. 
ment he resigned the next year, viz. 1573. Durham. 

John Cottrel, LL. D. archdeacon and prebendary of John Cot- 
Wells, a great civilian in these times, and before, a mem- ' 
ber of the famous synod anno 1562, dieth. And August 4, 
John Ruffff, M. A. was made archdeacon of Wells, and was John Rugg. 
presented to the church of Winford, by his death, at the 
presentation of Maurice Rodney, of Somersetshire, esq. 

Justinian Lancaster, archdeacon of Taunton, (who also, Justinian 
if I mistake not, was in the said synod,) was presented this J;[»^^^*^^;[-_ 
year, in the month of March, to the prebend of Yatton, in ton. 
the church of Wells. 

Bartholomew Clerk, fellow of King's college in Cam-Barthoi. 
bridge, commenced this year doctor of laws. He was much u.e^uceth!"' 
esteemed for his learning and Latin style ; and whom arch- 
bishop Parker had preferred to the deanery of the Arches, 
and had employed sometime in writing against Saunders 
his book. But having, notwithstanding, enemies, Byng, 
vice-chancellor, and Dr. Whitgift, master of Trinity col- 
lege, and public professor of divinity, both gave hnti this 
testimonial, under the university seal, in their letter to the 238 
lord treasurer: 

" Our duties in most humble manner to your honour Testimonial 
" premised. Whereas this bearer, Mr. Bartholomew Clarke, 1".^,^^' 
" being now lately admitted a doctor of the civil law^ in this MSS. Burg. 
" university, hath earnestly required our special testimony 
" to your honour of that his degree, we could do no less for 
" truth's sake, but according to his petition to advertise 
" your lordship of the same ; adding, moreover, that as 
" well in replying as answering, he did so learnedly demean 
" himself, that he hath thereby not only much encreased 
" the good opinion long sithence conceived of his toward- 



352 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " ness, but also obtained a right commendable report of 
' " those that bear the chief name among: ^is in that faculty. 



Anno 1572." Thus, with our prayer to th"* Almighty for the long prc- 
" servation of your honourable estate, we liumbly commend 
" your lordship to his most blessed tuition. From Cam- 
" bridge, this vi. of December, 1572. 

" Your lordship"'s most humbly at commandment, 
" Tho. Byng, vice-chancellor, 
" Jhon Whitgyfte." 

Tiie (leatii This year put an end to the life of John Hales, a learned 
£^jjiP5 man, and a courtier, under the reigns of king Edward and 
this queen. He made himself known in these times, as for 
his good zeal towards religion, so for his writing in favour 
of the succession to the crown, of the family of the Grayes ; 
one of which family was queen Jane, who was beheaded for 
that cause in the beginning of queen Mary''s reign. Hales, 
for this attempt, imderwent much trouble, as the histories 
of queen Elizabeth's time do relate. He was buried in 
the church of St. Peter's Poor, London ; where, on a brass 
plate against the north wall, was this account of him en- 
graven : 

Dom. Joannes Hales, a pueritia Uteris deditus, c.recl- 
lenti ingenio, dociUtate, mcmoria, studio ct indiistria siji- 
gulari; adjuncta, lingnarum, disci fUnarum, juris, anfi- 
quitatis, rerum divi?iarum, ct humanarum, magna ct mvl- 
tiplici doctrina, instructissinius, evasit. Innoccntia, intc- 
gritate, gravitate, constantia, fide, -pietatc, rcligione, gra- 
vissima etiam agrotationis ct rerum difficiUurn diulurna 
perjyessione, ct in patientia, ornatissinius /iiif, vita: lionis- 
tissime sanctissimeque acta; diem suprcmam 5fo. cat. Ju- 
nuar. 1572, clausit. Anima ejceunte, corp)oris reliqui(V lioc 
loco sitcE sunt. 

Expecto resurrcctionem mortuorum, ct vitani cctcrnam. 

Cardinal To thcse learned men I shall subjoin another churchman, 

poisoned in ^^2. cardinal Chastillion ; who flying hither out of France, 

England. an„o \m9>, for the safety of his life, with the bishop of 

Aries, upon his rctiu*n was basely, by some imknown hand, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 353 

poisoned; but was honourably buried among the metropo- CHAP. 
litans, in the cathedral at Canterbury, which happened in 



the year 1570. But I choose to mention it here, because Anno 1572. 
the vile practiser of this murder was not known till the 239 
latter end of this present year. The reason of his coming 
was supposed to be for rehgion : for arriving at Tower- Annals of 
wharf, Sept. 13, he, with the other bishop, was received 
by some eminent citizens there, whereof the chief was sir 
Thomas Gresham, and (as it seems) by secret order from 
the queen. They were conducted to his house in Bishops- 
gate-street, and there lodged. And the next day he rode, 
attended with the said knight and others, to the French 
church, to shew his approbation, as it might be interpreted, 
of the protestant religion. And thence he went with the 
same state to the Exchange in Cornhill ; and thence to St. 
PauFs church ; and so back to dinner with the said Gre- 
sham. And on some day after, he went to court, to wait 
upon the queen. His name was Edet, or Odet Colllgni, of 
a noble family in France : which made the queen shew him 
great respect. He was also noted by Thuanus for a per- 
son of great virtue and integrity. Being at Canterbury, he 
died suddenly. 

That he was poisoned was not known, nor by whom, till 
in the month of January this year, when intelligence came 
to the English court from Rochel, that a servant of the By his ser- 
iate cardinal Chastillion, put to death there, for going about *''" " 
and conspiring to betray that town, confessed, as he went 
to execution, that it was he poisoned the same cardinal in 
England. 

I shall also add here a remark of another very worthy Dean Nowei 
and reverend man, viz. Alexander Nowel, dean of St. ^°|]"J"^ 
Paul's : who, for the better encouragement of learning and Middieton. 
true Cliristian religion among the rude inhabitants of Lan- 
cashire, he being a native there, was now founding a free- 
school at Middieton in that county, and providing for the 
maintenance of such scholars as went from thence to Brazen- 
nose college in Oxford. A charter for the founding of the 
same from the queen, for the establishing of this Christian 

VOL. ir. A a 



354 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK charity, lay now before the lord treasurer. And now, in 
the month of July, the said dean solicited that lord in behalf 



Anno 1572. thereof; and that for the better maintenance of the master 
and usher, it might be capable of being well endowed : ad- 
dressing to him to this tenor ; " That in the patent of the 
" foundation of her majesty's school of Middleton, and of 
" her thirteen poor scholars of Brazen-nose college in Ox- 
" ford, the sum of the mortmain was not named. For the 
" which, by the advice of sir Walter Mildmay, a blank was 
" left, upon good hope that it would please her majesty to 
" license a large sum to be purchased to so goodly uses ; 
" and in her majesty's name he humbly prayed his honour 
" to finish the good work which he had so happily begun ; 
" and to move her majesty to license the sum of lOOZ. or so 
" many marks at the least, by him and others, to be pur- 
" chased in mortmain, for the increase of the stipends of 
" the schoolmaster and usher, and of the number and exhi- 
" bition of the said scholars, and the better relief of the 
" great company of that poor college : and all to be done in 
" her majesty's name. And to cause the said mortmain to 
" be entered in the blank of the said patent, with a note of 
" her majesty's consent hereunto ; that no doubt may grow 
" by the diversity of the writing." Adding, " Your ho- 
" nour shall hereby bind, not only me, but all the inha- 
" bitants of the rude country of Lancashire, and the scho- 
240 " lars of the said college, next after her majesty, to pray for 
" your honour, &c. 

" Your honour's always to command, 

" Alex. Nowel." 

Dr.Fuik William Fulk, a member of the university of Cambridge, 

France with (afterwards well known for liis learned writings and dispu- 
the lord tations against the Romanists, and head of Pembroke-hall,) 

admiral. ® , . i i i • ^i 

had the honour this year to attend, as chaplain, upon the 
earl of Lincoln, lord high admiral, going to France. And 
so his absence from the commencement being necessary, 
when he was to take his degree of doctor, he obtained the 
queen's letters to the heads, to grant him his degree, not- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 355 

withstanding his absence. And that by virtue of her royal c H AP. 
dispensing with a statute to the contrary. The said letter ^^V. 
to the university deserves here to be inserted, being copied Anno 1572. 
by an exact hand. 

" Elizabetha R. 
" Trustie and welbeloved, wee greet you wel. Wheras R.T.Baker, 
we are informed, that William Fulk, batchelor of di- 
vinity of that our university of Cambridge, hath both 
performed al the scholastical acts that are appointed by 
our statutes for the trial of them that are to be admitted 
to the degree of doctors in the same facultie ; and also 
very neer accomplished al that time of study, which is 
required by the same statutes : these are to let you under- 
stand, that in consideration that he is appointed to attend 
upon our right trustie and right welbeloved cosyn and 
counsellor, the earl of Lyncolne, our high admiral of 
England into France, so that he cannot be present at 
your next commencement, wee are wel pleased to dis- 
pense with him ; and by these presents do dispence with 
him. Requiring ye therefore, that by grace of that our 
said university, he may be admitted to the said degree, 
notwithstanding his absense, in as ample maner as hath 
byn used to be granted there, before that libertie, for sun- 
dry good causes^ was restrained by our statute ; the said 
statute, or any thing contained therin in any wise notwith- 
standing. And these our letters shal be your sufficient 
warrant and discharge in this behalf. Geven under our 
signet, at our mannor of S. James, this 19th day of May, 
in the fourteenth year of our reign." 
One Blosse, alias Mantel, was in the month of January ^^^ Boss 
taken up, for affirming king Edward VI. was yet alive ; and Edward was 
that queen Elizabeth was married about the year 1564 to'"'i"e'&c. 
the earl of Leicester, and had four children by him : and he 
had confidently told the same many times. This was such 
a piece of impudence, that it could not but be taken notice 
of. The latter report he had received fi-om a popish priest, 
as such, making it a great part of their business to slander 



356 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK and defame the queen to the utmost degree, to make her 
odious. And the former lie he had gathered from one in 



Anno 1572. Oxford, in the time of queen Mary. He was brought before 
241 Fleetwood, recorder of London, who examined him: to 
whom he made a confession of what he had said, but with 
sorrow and repentance, though perhaps partial only ; and 
the said recorder consulted Avith the attorney-general, sir 
Gilbert Gerard, what penalty by law should be laid upon 
him ; and whether the crime could be found treason. In 
short, no law then was found to prosecute him. This matter 
being somewhat curious, I will relate both the examination 
of this fellow, as it was taken by the recorder, and sent to 
the lord treasurer, together with his letter, giving a further 
account of his dealing with him, and the judgment of both 
in this case. For both examination and letter the reader 

N°.xxv. may apply himself to the Appendix. 

Mines of Let me add, in the conclusion of this year, that certain 

siiv-er, &c. jj-jjjj g gj.g discovered in Cumberland, wherein was rich 

in Cumner- ' _ _ 

land (lis- ore; whence were extracted copper, lead, and silver: which 
gave such encouragement, that a society, formed into a cor- 
poration of persons of eminent rank, was established, for the 
carrying on the work thereof. For in this 14th of the 
queen she granted letters patents, bearing date the 4th of 
December, of privilege for making of copper and quick- 
silver, by way of transmutation, with other commodities 
growing of that mystery, to sir Tho. Smith, knt. (who was 
the chief contriver,) Robert earl of Leicester, William lord 

A corpora- Burghley, and sir Humfrey Gilbert, knt. who were incor- 
porate by the name of the g-ovcrnoj- and society of the new 
art. They took into the said corporation some High Dutch- 
men, to be joined with them, who better understood the 
practical and laborious part. Among those, the chief under- 
taker was one Daniel Heckstetter, who was termed some- 
times Dr. Heckstetter, and sometimes IVIr. Daniel. In these 
mines the queen had her part, which was the fifteenth 
share; the rest went among the corporation. They ex- 
tracted copper, lead, silver, brimstone, &c. But these works 
stood still this year, 1572, for want of money, and by reason 



same. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 357 

of the disagreement of the Enghshmen in company with the CHAP. 
Dutch. Upon which, one Richard Dudley, a judicious ______ 

person, (and concerned, as it seems, in this business,) did '"^""o 1 572. 
advise, that if they agreed not, and were not wilhng to con- 
sent and agree to all things according to their covenants, 
then those wilf^il persons should lose their portions for a 
time, and the queen to have their parts for three years ; 
and as the quantity or portion required, to pay money after 
the rate. Also, he wished some skilful man to be appointed 
to join with the Dutchmen, for making the assays of copper, 
and for making bargains for wood, seacoal, making char- 
coal, &c. And that the queen keeping them in her hand 
the space of three years, she should come to know and un- 
derstand their commodity, and whether they were to be 
continued ; and, as he supposed, would encourage the 
Dutchmen to travail more earnestly, when her majesty 
should deal in it. 

At length the Englishmen were contented to let the 
Dutch have their parts for three years, and to be at all 
charges. The chief undertaker in this work, Heckstetter, 
at the expiration of those three years, made two petitions to Petition to 
the queen. One, for forbearance of her debt lent ; so as l^^ qut^en 
lier debt might be paid so much yearly, according as the ter carrying 
mines miffht bear, with the favourable consideration of their"" *'"'*^ 

o ' _ _ mines. 

continuance; and the other, that it might be permitted to 
vent and transport over the seas such quantity of coppers 
yearly, as the said Daniel should find merchants willing to 242 
buy of him ; paying her majesty due custom thereof, ac- 
cording to the company's privilege. 

In short, by an extract it appeared, the debt and benefit 
of these works was, that the queen lent to the works, to the 
carrying them on, 2500Z..at Christmas, 1575 ; and was owing 
by the mines 4807/. 19*. 4d ; paid, and owing to the mines, 
from Christmas 1575, to Christmas 1576, 3547/. 7*. lOd ■ 
How the state of these mines stood about this year, 1576, 
will be seen in the Appendix. • j^t,, xxvi 

Towards the end of the year all things were framed to 
quiet, peace abroad and at home. Though (as Dr. Wylson 

A a 3 



358 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK observed in his correspondence with the bishop of Normch) 
that he did not think that princes, being once quiet within 



Anno 1572. their own states, would suffer this state [of England] to be 
long quiet. And so indeed it proved, as we shall find in 
the progress of this history. 

The bishop Xhe parliament being; to sit in April next, having been 

of Norwich ^- , , , 1 / 1 rr. 1 

preparing prorogued to that month by the queen, (to take oft the 
to come up eagemess of the house against the Scottish queen,) the bi- 
pariiament. shop of Norwich, now ancient and sickly, began a month or 
two before to be concerned where he should get lodgings 
when he came up : and therefore sent up a messenger be- 
fore him, to provide some convenient place for his reception. 
The lady Jerningham, of his diocese, had offered him the 
use of an house of hers in the Black-friars : but he had no 
great stomach to accept of her kind offer, because she was 
noted to be a great enemy to religion ; sir Henry Jerning- 
ham, knt. deceased, her husband, having been captain of 
the guard to the late queen Mary. But necessity had no 
law, as the bishop wrote his friend Dr. Wylson ; and that 
therefore, for any thing he knew, he must be contented 
therewithal. 
Tiie ancient This IS but a slight remark, and yet I cannot but take 
th "bishmis. ^^otice of it ; to observe hence how this bishopric was now 
wholly devoid of any house or inn in London or Westmin- 
ster, when as his ancestors, the bishops of Norwich, (as well 
as the rest of the bishops,) had all their inns or houses be- 
longing to their bishoprics, for their harbour, when they had 
occasion to come up to the court or parliament ; a thing so 
convenicMit. But now there was scarce one (except the bi- 
shop of Ely) had any, but what he borrowed or hired, their 
houses having been, either by the latter kings and princes, 
or the importunity of courtiers, obtained from them. Thus 
the bishops of Norwich had their house in St. Martin's 
in the Fields; which came in king Henry Vlllth's time to 
Charles duke of Suffolk. The bishops of Hereford had 
their inn in the parish of St. Mary Mounthaw ; which was 
alienated to the lord Clinton, under king Edward VI. The 
bishop of Lincoln's inn was situate in Holborn, beyond the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 359 

bars; which came afterwards to the earls of Southampton. CHAP. 
The bishops of Chichester had their house in the same. 



street, now called Chancery-lane; built by Ralph Nevyl, Anno 1572, 
bishop of Chichester, near the office called Cursitor's Office. 
Afterwards it came to the earls of Lincoln, and was called 
Lincoln's inn ; now one of the inns of court. The arch- 
bishops of York had their house at Westminster, called 
York-place, where Whitehall now standeth, given to his 
successors by Walter Grey, archbishop of York : but king- 
Henry took it from cardinal Wolsey. The bishops of 
Exeter, their inn was where Exeter-house now standeth. 
The bishop of Bath's inn was likewise in the Strand, which 243 
afterwards came to sir Tho. Seymour, knt. admiral of Eng- 
land under king; Edward VI. who built much there : and 
from him to the earl of Arundel, and had from him the 
name of Arundel-house, now built into a street. The bi- 
shops of Bath, after they were put from this inn, had their 
house in the Minories in Aldgate. Further westward in the 
Strand was Chester's inn, belonging to the bishops of Ches- 
ter ; the same with Litchfield and Coventry. Further that 
way the bishops of Landaff had their inn, lying near the 
church of our lady at Strand. Further still was the inn of 
the bishops of Chester. This house was first built by Walter 
Langton, bishop of Chester, lord treasurer of England. 
Adjoining to it was the bishop of Worcester's inn. All 
these were demolished by the duke of Somerset, for build- 
ing of his own fair palace of Somerset-house. Near the 
Savoy was the bishop of Carlisle's inn ; now belonging to 
the duke of Bedford. Durham-house, belonging to the 
bishops of that see, and still bearing their name, was built 
by Tho. Hatfield, bishop of Durham. Beyond Durham- 
house was the house of the bishop of Norwich; which 
Heth, archbishop of York, bought, for him and his suc- 
cessors, of that bishop ; but is now also become a street. 

I shall only add a letter in French, (intercepted no 
doubt,) wrote by a Scotch nobleman to the pope ; dated 
from Brussels, Jan. 1572. which letter will give further 
light into these times, and the busy dealings of the papists. 

A a 4 



360 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
I. 



Anno 1572. 



Je ne desirois riens iTadvantage, tres heurcux pcre^ &c. 
I should desire nothing more, blessed father, than that it 
might be permitted me to come before your holiness, to 
kiss your feet, and to render you thanks, as well for the 
benefit and pleasui-e made to the queen, my sovereign, 
and to all my country, as especially for the singular love 
which your holiness hath well shewn me, to bear to the 
coming of my son to Rome. Who writ me, the 21st of 
October last, of the good reception and favourable treat- 
ment which it pleased your holiness to make him ; to 
wit, insomuch as to hold and repute him your only son : 
promising him aid of that which shall be possible from 
your holiness, &c. Duke d'Alva, according to whose ex- 
cellence*'s will I am sent by my sovereign and the nobility 
of Scotland, &c. I have nevertheless, and have conceived 
in my heart, a little joy, to understand, that the reverend 
father, Nicolas Sander, goeth to your holiness, whom of a 
long time I have known, a man of good ; whom I much 
love, as he deserveth ; and knoweth very well the state of 
the queen, my sovereign, the condition of her country, 
and of mine ; and the studies and wills of us all, that live 
in the Low Germany, and that which may be done and 
hoped. He shall fully instruct your holiness of the state 
of all things and persons; and shall suggest counsels, 
which will seem most seasonable for the remedying our 
evils. I have laid open to this so fit a man some secret 
businesses of mine, and my special proceedings, and touch- 
ing the state of my country, for that end and purpose, to 
communicate it to your holiness alone. To whose narra- 
tion, that certain credit may be given, I pray again and 
again. Yet so, that the business itself remain buried and 
entire ; and nothing come to light, until it obtains its full 
effect, and be brought to the wished- for issue." 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 361 

CHAP. XXVI. c^*^AP. 

Dr. Valentine Dale goes ambassador to France : the condi- 

tio7i of Rochel. The ambassador'' s letter concerriing- the ' 
successes there against the besiegers. Pacification with 
the protestants. The queen instrumental therein. Oc- 
currences of matters in France., sent hither by Dale. 
Monsieur elected hing of Poland. A safe conduct de- 
sired fb?- him from the queen : and also for duke cCAlen- 
^on. Liberty granted for the Scottish queen to go to 
Buxton well. Orders to the earl of Shrezcsbury. The 
queen suspicious of the lord Burghley''s favouring the 
Scottish queen. His caution in that respect. Earl of 
Leicester esteemed by that queen to be her enemy. How 
far lie was so, as he declared. Queen ElizabetJi's real 
concern for that queen. A plot to deliver her from the 
custody of the earl of Shrewsbury. His chaplain and 
another of the clergy accuse him falsely : examined. 

JLyOCTOR DALE, being now the queen's ambassador in Dale, am- 
the court of France, gives account into England of the state r^an^ce"^ '" 
of affairs there, on which the safety and welfare of thewriteth 
queen and her state did so much depend; especially con- Rochel. 
cerning the religion there, which she laboured, as much as 
she could, to favour, and provide against the oppression of 
those that professed it. In May, the said ambassador wrote 
over to the earl of Sussex, lord chamberlain and a privy 
counsellor, that Roan still held out. And this was so im- 
portant an affair, and did so much employ all the counsels 
and arms of that king, that at court their whole doings de- 
pended upon Rochel ; and of it they wished to be rid one 
way or other, that they might mind other matters. The 
queen-mother herself said, that they were out of hope to 
bring them to any composition, although they did all they 
could to bring them thereunto. And therefore they ap- 
pointed to give them a general assault, as that day, [wherein 
Dale wrote all this, viz. idt. Maii.^ 

Then he went on to describe the town of Rochel, all Rochel de- 
men''s eyes being upon so famous a siege as that was, and f^^^^J^ g ^ 



362 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK especially the English nation ; which, on the account of re- 
^- ligion, wished well to them. It was in a manner (as he de- 
Aimo 1573. scribed it) four square. The west side lay upon the sea; 
the south side upon the salt marshes, full of pits to make 
salt; the north side was overflown with the tide at every 
full water; and the east side, which was only accessible, had 
at the corner toward the south one bulwark, called the bul- 
wark of the port of Cogne ; and at the corner toward the 
north, one other mighty bulwark, called St. Angeli : which 
two bulwarks did flank on the curtain on the east side. 
Monsieur has battered the bulwark St. Angeli, but holds it 
245 not himself; and lays in the ditch at the foot of a breach 
made into the curtain of the wall. They of the town were 
on the rampart, sometimes at the half pike. What trenches 
or fosses were within was not known. There were divers 
The condi- gobious and platforms in that town, that did command the 
chei. rampart at the place of that breach. Now the town being 

thus, as the ambassador added, and their doings here being, 
as he had expressed them in particular advertisements, 
which he enclosed, his lordship (he said) would best con- 
sider the state of that country : and so humbly took leave of 
his lordship, from Moreton, the last of May, 1573. These 
N". XXVII. advertisements I have laid in the Appendix. Where we 
may see the wonderful successes, by the providence of God, 
that poor persecuted people had ; as well as other occur- 
rences in France in that juncture, with relation to England. 
The besieg- To which I may subjoin what Dr. George Abbot (after- 
lousiy sup- wards archbishop of Canterbury) delivered in a lecture at 
plied with Oxford, concerning a kind of miraculous providence, sup- 
Exposit. plying the besieged Rochellers, in their necessity, with food, 
upon Jon. ^Yhere shewing divers instances of God''s providence in pre- 
serving of his church and people, he relates, that after the 
massacre of Paris, the whole power of that kingdom of 
France w^ere gathered together against the city of Rochel, 
and besieged them with extremity, who defended the place. 
And that God, in the time of famine and want of bread, 
did for some whole months together daily cast up a kind of 
(ish unto them out of the sea ; wherewith so many hun- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 36a 

dreds were relieved, without any labour of their own: even CHAP, 
as the Israelites were fed with manna every morning, while ^^^^' 



they were in the wilderness. And as all the while that the Anno 1573. 
enemy was before them this endured, to their marvellous 
comfort ; so, to proclaim to the world God's providence the 
more, when the enemy's tents were once removed, and the 
city was open again, this provision immediately did cease. 
And then the preacher concluded, " That it was a good 
" testification that the Lord of hosts would leave a remnant, 
" even a seed of his faithful, in that land." For this he 
quoted Comment. Religionis et Reip. in Gallia, lib. ii. 

This brave resistance, or rather self-defence, and success Pacification 
of the poor Rochellers, had a good effect in the next month, in France! 
together with the queen's influence in Scotland, and her 
despatching another ambassador, Mr. Horsey, to France. 
For Dr. Dale, in a letter dated the last of June, thus re- 
lated the state of matters in France, to the same earl of 
Sussex : " That things were in such a case in that realm, 
" that they were contented to bear all things : and that they 
" made as though they were not moved with the matters of 
" Scotland : [where their ambassador had no success to pro- 
" voke the Scots, and to continue the differences among 
" them:] nor to be offended with any dilatory answer of 
" the queen, nor with the coming of Mr. Horsey, nor with 
" any other thing that was past ; but took all in good part 
" in outward appearance. And yet," added the ambassa- Dale the 
dor to the earl, " that his lordship did best know how much jor-s^j^etter 
" they might be grieved with those things, and how they concerning 
" might be in doubt what carriage they of the religion Titus B.2. 
" would take, by the coming of Mr. Horsey at this time. 
" And therefore they made the more speed to make some 246 
" pacification. That they had accorded with them of Ro- 
" chel, Sancerre, Montauban, Nymes, free exercise in reli- 
" gion ; and were contented to have no garrison in Rochel, 
" but only that De la Nove should be governor for the 
" king, of certain bands of the town's appointment, and pay 
" for the performance thereof. 

" That the king of Polonia was content to gage his ho- 



364 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " nour, which he made much of now, because of his going 
^' *' into Poland. And yet they of the town 'would not trust 
Anno 1573." him; so much the less, because he gave an escalade of 
" late, during the time of treaty. They found the rampart 
" so trenched and flanked within, at their last escalade, that 
** it was thought they were past hope to do any good by any 
" assault. And now the king of Polonia was so hastened 
" away, that he could not taiTy ; and so was to carry so 
" many of the chiefest gentlemen and soldiers, and so much 
" of their treasure with him. And besides, that here were 
" many in arms in Languedoc, Dauphine, and Berne, that 
" the king was weary of it ; and what would be done, he 
" knew not himself. 

" And so promising to do his diligence, as things fell, to 

" give that lord his best advertisement, if he could, he 

" prayed God to keep his lordship in good health." Dated 

from Paris the last of June. 

The queen By another intelligence in the month of July, the same 

ta^ to thT ambassador sent the earl notice of the peace made between 

peace with the French king, and the afflicted, his subjects ; being 

signed by him on the 2d of July : which was hastened by 

occasion of queen Elizabeth''s sending Horsey thither very 

seasonably, as was suggested before. The capitulation 

whereof that gentleman was promised to have along with 

Iiim when he returned. But yet the terms were such, that 

it was not yet known whether they of Beam, Languedoc, 

and Dauphine had accepted them, or laid down tlieir arms. 

The terms The king had accorded to the exercise of religion to them 

«)"ded7or "^ Rochel, Nymes, and Montauban : but it was with the 

the exercise mislikinc; of divers of those about him. Dale added, that 
f r ■ 
re igion. ]^^> jydg^^fj i]^^^ tj^j^j; little munition, that came out of Eng- 
land to Rochel, preserved the town ; and the countenance of 
Horsey 's coming over had done much good. This letter 
was dated from Paris, July 17. 

Thus, after all that king's murders of his.protestant sub- 
jects, that thereby he might take the surest course to put 
an effectual end to their rehgion, he was forced, after much 
trouble and vexation to himself, and infamy to his name, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 365 

to allow under his own hand the continuance and practice CHAP. 

J, . XXVI. 
OI It. 



By this yielding of the king to his subjects, professing the Anno 1573. 
religion, to suffer them to be at quiet, he, weary of war, [^"p^*"^""^ 
consulted for his own peace and quiet. But yet he obtained sent by the 
not his desired end ; for (as the same ambassador soon after i„to E„g_ 
informed) all parties were in misliking, and every man drew '•'i"''' •'"'y 
the king into disquietness, as much as they might, for the 
maintenance of their faction, [i. e. the bigoted popish fac- 
tion.] And the better to judge of these matters, he sent 
over to the secretary here an extract of an oration of the 
cardinal of Loraine. And beside gave a further light into 
these turbulent affairs now in France, occasioned by the per- 
secution there; which he had gathered with as much care 247 
and diligence as he could. 

" That at the time the peace was thoroughly passed at 
" Rochel, the king elect of Poland, to avoid the murmuring 
" and mutiny of his soldiers, (for that they were unpaid,) 
" unaware to the greatest number of the captains them- 
" selves, conveyed himself privately away ; and took galley 
" at Rochel, feigning to go for his pastime on the sea, and 
" took his voyage presently to Nantes : and from thence, the 
" 20th of this month of July, appointed to arrive at Tours. 
" That the duke of Alengon was king of Navar. And the 
" duke of Guise came from Rochel by land to meet him." 

That neither they of Languedoc and Dauphine, neither 
yet the town of Nismes, did accept the peace. That the 
king elect, for performance of his vow, went from Blois to 
Notre Dame de Clery, on foot. It was said, that the mar- 
shal Tavanes died ex morbo pediculari: which was much 
noted, because he was one of the greatest persecutors at the 
massacre. 

There was a very great report spread, that neither the 
emperor nor the princes of Germany will assure a passage 
unto the king elect through Germany. But that certainly 
was not known, until the time that news might come from 
monsieur Memory ; who went to the emperor for that pur- 
pose. That Alasco, one of the chiefest ambassadors that 



366 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK came from Polonia, was already arrived at Metz, and the 
^' rest were looked for there the 23d of this present. 



Aano 1673. That it was said, that the Muscovite did make prepara- 
tion against Polonia. That it was reported, that the navy 
of the Turk was consumed by fire from heaven. But the 
ambassador that was come to congratulate from Venice did 
report, that there should not be above the number of twenty 
ships of them consumed. It was further said, that the rest 
of the Turk's navy was withdrawn for this year. 

That the peace was not published in the camp nor in 
the town at the coming away of the king elect ; but the 
publishing thereof was referred to the Rochelois. That the 
townsmen came to the king elect, at the departure, and used 
certain speeches touching their submission, duty, and good 
love towards the king, desiring the king elect to be a means 
that such articles as were accorded unto them might be per- 
formed. That to this the king elect answered, that before 
this time, for his part, he had never made any promise to 
the protestants ; but now, since he had given his promise 
for the accord, he himself would see it performed. That 
the king elect being departed from Rochel, it was said, 
there entered in certain ships, English and British, with 
victuals. That the ships that were laid to stop the entry of 
the haven were withdrawn, and the carac burnt, with the 
forts builded by the king elect. 

" That it was said, that the protestants were possessed of 
" a very strong town in Languedoc, called Lodeve, where 
" the most part of the riches of that country was bestowed ; 
" because it was taken, by the situation thereof, to be inac- 
" cessible. That the protestants had gotten the harvest of the 
" country as far as Tholouse, and had devised to surprise 
248 " the town of Tholouse, but were discovered."" I have set 
down the whole intelligence sent by the ambassador, though 
some matters therein are foreign to our history, that I might 
not give a defective and imperfect account thereof. 

And thus the religion in France appeared in better cir- 
cumstances through the late dismal clouds upon it, by the 
influence of queen Eli/abeth"'s counsels, and the blessing of 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 367 

God upon them, notwithstanding the inveterate mahce of CHAP. 

• • W VI 

the enemies of it. 



The next month, viz. August, the French ambassador Anno 1573. 
requested two things of her maiesty concerning the French ^"'° Z"^- 

^ o J J o quests made 

king''s two brothers, while she was at Eridge, the lord Bur- by the 
gavenie's house, in Waterdon forest in Sussex. The one baLTdor^to' 
was for a safe conduct for the new king of Polonia, for him- the queen, 
self, his ships, and train, (among the which should be 4000 
soldiers, Gascoigns,) to be well used in any of her majesty's 
ports, if by tempests any of them should be driven into any 
her coasts. Which suit, although it were reasonable, where Epist. Com. 
good meaning were sure, (as the lord treasurer wrote in ^offiTAr- 
letter to the earl of Shrewsbvuy, August the 10th,) yet atmor. 
this time, for many respects, it was very suspicious : and yet 
in the end the same was granted. But when that king 
should take his voyage, was then uncertain: for they at 
the English court heard from Polonia, that although he 
were chosen by one number, yet another number were not 
thereto agreeing. And that thereto the Muscovite, the king 
of Sweden, and some said the emperor, (who were all com- 
petitors at the election,) did give great furtherance to con- 
tinue the disaccord. 

And the said lord treasurer added, that there were some.ieaionsy of 
at court had entered into some jealousy, that at this time the ^^ l^^fv . 
ambassador had dealt very earnestly for the queen of Scots land com- 
going to Buxton wells, and withal, for a safe conduct forggfs\yjt^ 
the said king's entry into this realm, having such a number ^'^ "^^T- 
of soldiers and ships. But (as though himself were one of 
those jealous persons) he thanked God, that his lordship 
[the earl] was, with his charge, far enough from any ports. 
And yet, as the time occasioned, he advised, that his lord- 
ship might be more circumspect with secresy, without note 
to her or hers. 

The second suit of the French ambassador was, for a like A safe con- 
safe conduct directly for the duke d'AleuQon to come to the f^^ d-Aien- 
queen's majesty, ere long to be at Dover. But thereto such ^o"- 
answer was given to discomfort the wooer, [the said duke,] 



368 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK that the lord treasurer thought that surely he would not 
^' come. And that as yet he was sure none was granted. 
Anno 1573. The French ambassador also solicited for favour to be 
The Scot- she^yed to the Scottish queen, who now pretended to be in- 

tish queen ' ' * 

desires to disposed as to her health, or really was so : and therefore 

foD^wei"''' desired she might have liberty to go to Buxton wells. This 

request the earl of Shrewsbury, that had the charge of her, 

signified to the lord treasurer in the month of August : and 

though it was not thought safe to permit it, in the midst of 

such plottings for her escape, and that the French had now 

a navy and force upon the seas, ready to conduct the 

French king's brother into Poland; yet it was granted. 

Order to upon cautiou givcu to the said earl, to be very watchful of 

the earl of j^^j. jj^ }^gj. journev thither. For thus did the said treasurer 

Shrewsbury . i . r^^i i i i i i 

for the said WTitc to hmi : " That he was now commanded by the queen 
queen's go- u ^^ ^^j.-^^ j.^ j^j^^ ^y^^^ gj^g ^^g pjcascd, that if his lordship 

ing thither. ' . , 

24Q " should think he might without peril conduct the queen 
" of Scots to the well of Buckston, according to her most 
" earnest desire, his lordship should do ; using such care 
" and respect for her person to continue in his charge, as 
" hitherto his lordship had honourably, happily, and ser- 
" viceably done. And that when he should determine to re- 
" move with the said queen thither, it were good, that as 
" little foreknowledge abroad, as might be conveniently, 
" were given. And that nevertheless, for the time that she 
*' should be there, all others, being strangers to his lord- 
" ship's company, should be forbid to come thither, during 
" the time of the said queen's abode there. This he writ, 
" as he added, because her majesty was very unwilling she 
" should go thither : imagining, that her desire was, either 
" to be more seen of strangers resorting thither, or for the 
" achieving of some further enterprise to escape. But on the 
" other part the lord treasurer subjoined, that he told the 
" queen, that if in very deed her sickness were to be re- 
" lieved thereby, her majesty could not in honour deny her 
" to have the natural remedy thereof. And that for her 
** safety, he knew this earl would have sufficient care and 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 369 

" ree-ard. And so her maiesty commanded him to write to CHAP. 
" his lordship, that he might conduct that queen thither \ ' ' 



" and also to have good respect to her. And that, accord--^ "no 1573. 
" ing to this her majesty's determination, the French am- 
" bassador, being with her at the lord Burgavenie's house, 
" had received knowledge from her majesty for the earl 
" thus to do." 

While this queen was here, at Buxton well, the lord Lord tiea- 
treasurer Burghley went thither also for his health. Which trciixtoit 
gave occasion to the queen to suspect that otherwise wary well- 
nobleman ; (especially happening to be there also a year or jp^f(,|j"^j|f" 
two after;) as though he came thither on purpose to ingra-iiim. 
tiate himself with that queen. But hereby he incurred his 
mistress's great jealousy and displeasure. For some of his 
enemies at court took this opportunity to put into the 
queen's head, that he came there with some such intent. 
Which that good lord had enough to do to remove, and to 
persuade the queen otherwise of him a good while after. In- 
somuch, that he declined an honourable motion that the earl 
of Shrewsbury had propounded to him, of a match between 
one of his sons and the said treasurer's daughter. Lest, if 
he should have listened unto it at that juncture, it might 
have increased the queen's suspicion of him. This I find in 
a letter of this lord's, to that earl, in the year 1575. 

The continual jealousy and fear at court now was, of the The fears at 
Scottish queen's being conveyed away out of the earl's cus- Scottish 
tody, to whom the queen had committed her, and of that fi"een's es- 
earl's watchfulness and fidelity in this his charge. This will 
appear by a secret conference that happened between Dr. 
Wylson, master of the requests, and the earl's son, then at 
court ; occasioned by the remove of that queen to Sheffield. 
Which he communicated to his father, in a private letter 
written in May, "That two days ago, Dr. Wylson told May in. 
" him, he heard say, that his lordship, with his charge, was 
" removed to Sheffield lodge ; and that he asked him, whe- 
" ther it were so, or no.? To whom he answered, that he 250 
" heard so, that his lordship, with his charge, was gone 
*' thither of force, till the castle [Tutbury castle] could be 

VOL. IT. B b 



370 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " cleansed. And that further, the said Wylson willed to 
know, whether his lordship did so by the consent of the 



Anno 1573. u (,Qyjjj.j} qj. nyt ? He answered, he knew not that; but 
" that lie was certain his lordship did it on good ground." 
And then he earnestly desired Wylson of all friendship to 
tell him, whetiier he had heard any thing to the contrary ? 
Which the other did swear, he never did. But that the rea- 
son he asked was, because he said once, that lady should 
have been conveyed from that house. Then the lord George 
told him, what great heed and care the said earl his father 
had to her safe keeping, especially being there. That good 
numbers of men, continually armed, watched her day and 
night, both under her windows, over her chamber, and on 
every side of her. That unless, said he, she could transform 
herself into a flea or a mouse, it was impossible she should 
escape. 

At this same time, Wylson shewed him some part of the 
confession of one ; (but who he was, or when he did confess 
it, he would in nowise tell him :) that that fellow should 
say, he knew the queen of Scots hated the said earl deadly, 
because of his religion, being an earnest protestant ; and all 
the Talbots else in England, being all papists, she esteemed 
of them very well. And that this fellow did believe verily. 
The Tai- all we Talbots did love her better in our hearts, than the 
queen's majesty. And this Wylson then told the said earl's 
son, because he should see, what knavery there was in some 
men to accuse. Then he charged the said lord Gilbert, of 
all love, that he should keep this secret: which he pro- 
mised. Notwithstanding, considering he would not tell him 
who this fellow was, he willed a friend of his, one Mr. 
Fi'ancis Southwel, (who was very great with Dr. Wylson,) 
to know (among other talk) who he had last in examina- 
tion. And he understood, that this was the examination of 
one at the last sessions of parliament, and not since. But he 
could not yet learn what he was. 
Scottish That unhappy queen, as indeed she confided much in the 

on Leicestir interest she had in the hearts of a great many of the Eng- 
as her rne- ]ij^}^ nobility and gentry, so she would point sometimes at 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 371 

her enemies. In which rank she reckoned chiefly the earl CHAP. 
of Leicester. Of which, in communication by letter be-^_^___ 



tween that earl and the earl of Shrewsbury, the former Anno 1573. 
understood : being advertised thereof from some talk that 
happened between that queen and him, concerning her ene- 
mies. Leicester, upon this, beseeched his lordship to be- 
friend him so much as to gather, as near as he could, the 
reason thereof. And withal he confessed, " That he was Epist. Com. 
" a true and careful servant to his own sovereign, and o^"*"^"^ "* 
" therein had a respect to none other. Yet that this he'"'^''- 
" might truly say, that he had been no aggravater of that His words 
" queen's cause, neither a hinderer of any favourable incli-°" occasion 
" nation that at any time he had found in the queen''s ma- 
" jesty towards her. Neither will I rob her majesty (as he 
" proceeded) of her due desert, but must confess, that her 
" own goodness hath more natural consideration of that 
" queen, than all the friends she hath beside are able to 
" challenge thanks for. And as I am bound to be most 
" careful for the safety and preservation of mine own so- 25 1 
*' vereign every way; so neither have I been, nor am I, any 
" practiser to do ill offices against any others. And right 
" sorry have I been, when any cause hath been given the 
" queen's majesty to be moved, or to alter those good and 
" princely dispositions, which I have sundry times known 
" her framed unto. And before such time as these causes 
" have barred me so, as in duty I could not be a dealer, I 
" think I was rather thought a friend than an enemy ; and 
" of some too much. Though I knew best, I was but as I 
" ought; and so mean I to remain." Thus that earl en- 
deavoured to set himself in a better opinion with that queen : 
who would soon be acquainted with all this by the earl her 
keeper. But in the end, he beseeched the said earl of 
Shrewsbury to let him know, what cause was now suppos- 
ed : being content to take upon him his own fault ; but to 
have to do with none other. 

And whereas the queen had a little before sent certain The queen's 
special messages to Shrewsbury, concerning a careful look- X^ g^f^^ *^f 
ing to that queen, by her special order given to Leicester ; Shrews- 

B b 2 '""''• 



372 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK he now assured him, that (to be plain with him) he knew 
no other grounds, than was dehvered him by her own 
Anno 1573. mouth. Nevertheless, as he added, he perceived, that he 
had need to look well about him : for there were many eyes 
upon him. Howbeit, one thing his lordship might take 
comfort in; that he found her majesty continued his assured 
good and gracious lady, and that she held still her wonted 
good opinion of him. This was dated from the court, the 
10th of December. 
A plot to Cunning plots seemed the next month to be hatching in 
bring Uie ^|^g north, by the Scottish queen's favourers, to bring the 
Shrewsbury earl of Shrewsbury into distrust and disgrace with the 
cr'rMe.'*' queen ; out of hopes thereby, that he might be discharged 
from the custody of her. This business was managed chiefly 
by two persons that went for ministers and divines, viz. 
Haworth, and one Corker, the earl's chaplain. The charge 
against the earl seemed to be either matter of treachery or 
carelessness. The information whereof was brought u}) to 
the court, and came unto the queen's ears. This bred a 
great disturbance to the faithful earl, when he heard of it. 
And for the clearing of himself, despatched a message, in 
the month of January, to the earl of Huntington, president 
of the council at York, and another to the earl of Leicester 
at the court. 
President of Some papers there were in the hands of the earl of Hun- 
vriterto^ tington, that might have been of good use to \dndicate 
iiini there- Shrewsbury, and which he now sent for. But they could 
"'** ' not be found by him : and upon recollection, he thought he 
had torn them, upon account of their secresy, and that by 
the said earl of Shrewsbury's commandment. But like a 
friend he advised him, not to let that matter trouble him 
more than it required ; not doubting of his provident fore- 
sight in looking to his charge. And then, said he, let the 
Devil and his instruments do their worst. " For my part," 
as he added in his letter, " you shall be sure I will have 
" some care that way also. [That is, of any attempts l)y pa- 
" pists made in those parts of the north, for rescuing the 
" Scottish queen.] And if I hear any thing worthy your 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 373 

knowledge, you shall speedily be advertised. And I trust CHAP. 

^ Y \/ I 

ye shall see the papists of the north, a crooked measure, 



"reasonably met withal. They seek to deceive all men, ^"^""0 1573. 
" but I doubt not they shall be first deceived themselves." ^^"^ 
This he wrote from York, the 18th of January. 

The queen, soon suspecting it to be a falsehood, andThequeeo 
wicked design against the earl, gave a commandment to the them,*^ and 
earl of Leicester for the apprehension of those two mi- """'lers an 

^ ^ . examination 

nisters ; who pretended themselves voluntarily to be gomg of tiiem. 
up with their information. Which Leicester acquainting 
Shrewsbury Avith, and that he should take them up, and 
send them to him ; Shrewsbury answered, that he verily 
thought they were come to London by that time : and that 
he thought fit neither to stay them, nor use any extraor- 
dinary speech or dealing with them ; and to sufler them at 
liberty to return up unto the council, unto which, as they 
said, they had occasion to make their speedy repair : no- 
thing doubting on his part, but that, upon due examination 
of them, they should plainly appear, as they were, vile, 
wicked varlets, and shameful slanderers of true religion. 
Nevertheless, he told the earl of Leicester, he would cause 
diligent search to be made in places in the country where 
they were most likely to haunt. And if they, or any of 
them, could be found, he would with all diligence take or- 
der for the sending them up, according to her majesty's 
pleasure. And then, in a great sense of gratitvide to the 
queen, added, " That he thought himself much bounden 
" unto her majesty, for that her highness'' pleasure was, to 
" have them thoroughly examined and tried : whereby their 
" falsehood might be known ; and so himself to be esteemed, 
" as he doubted not he should be, of her majesty, as he had 
" deserved, her true and faithful servant in all parts of his 
" duty; and wherein, as he proceeded, he trusted in God to 
" end his life, against the wicked practices of all false var- 
" lets, with their maintainers." 

He concluded this his letter to the earl of Leicester with 
these grateful and obliging words; " That he saw his lord- 
" ship's dealings in all matters touching him, not only like 

B b 3 



374 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK "a true nobleman unto her majesty, but also as a very 
^- <* kinsman towards him. Whereof his lordship should well 



Anno 1573." find he would never be unmindful to his power." 
Corker This letter, with another to the queen, the good earl of 

fore^Leicesl Shrewsbury writ the latter end of January. But what was 
t^""- done further in the discovery of this wickedness, (which it 

His letter, g^gj-j^j^^j ^^s cloaked under the profession of religion,) the 
earl of Leicester's letter to that nobleman will acquaint us 
with : viz. that Corker, Shrewsbury ""s chaplain, came into 
London, and repaired to Dr. Wylson, master of requests, 
in order to make his information. Who forthwith brought 
liim to Leicester's house by Temple-bar. He had skulked 
in London for some days, consulting (as it seems) with some 
of his complottcrs for the better management of their enter- 
prise : tliough he utterly denied it. The earl ordered him 
to be kept at Dr. Wylson's, till he were, by her majesty's 
appointment, examined. He then made foul and evil re- 
ports of Shrewsbury. But Leicester told the earl, that he 
was like to prove them, or forswear them, ere he departed : 
and withal, that the queen meant to prosecute his doings 
by due examination thoroughly ; and after that, he should 
receive according to his deserts. And then the earl made a 
253 reflection upon the credulity of Shrewsbury, and good opi- 
nion of the religion of his chaplain, saying, " that his lord- 
" ship might see all was not gold that glistered : and that 
" many had cloaks for all weathers. And so did this good 
*' companion make religion his countenance, to utter his 
" knavery." 

As for Haworth, he was come to Islington. Whither Lei- 
cester had sent to apprehend him. And doubted not, as he 
continued his letter, but his lordship should hear much stuff 
to come out of these two devilish divines. 

1 cannot trace this story further ; but by the honourable 
correspondences of the two earls, we may see enough of the 
intrigues in behalf of the Scottish queen; and how busy the 
popish faction then was. 

I do affect (as may here and in other places be perceived) 
to take opportunities, as they offer themselves, to revive the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 375 

memories of persons of quality and figure, and preserve their CH A P. 
characters, and divers memorable passages of their lives, 



taken from their own authentic writings and letters. A Anno 1573. 
thing that may be acceptable to many. 



""^to 



CHAP. XXVII. 

Foreign popish princes conspire to invade England. A 
French gentleman at the Spaw gives information there- 
of. Papists fied abroad, ccdled home. Edxmrd lord 
Windsor one of these: his plea. Theses propounded in 
LoKvahi, against the jurisdiction of temporal princes. 
Bishop of Durham'' s judgment of them. A commission in 
every county., to punish the breakers of the orders of the 
church service: the bishop of Norwich gives order to his 
chancellor for information of such. Several ministers 
suspended hereupon in the diocese of Norwich : but get 
licence to catechise and preach. A letter upon this to 
that bishop. He restrains them. The lady Huddleston, a 
great papist in Ely diocese, searched for. 

Notwithstanding all the fair show from abroad Confedera- 
towards England, a black cloud hung over it: and thep^;°J°^^^ 
dang-er the queen and state was now in from papists w^as gainst the 

. -r-i 1 /> • • 1 queen. 

very great and immment. For the foreign popish poten- 
tates (the chief whereof was Philip king of Spain) had en- 
tered into a league to invade this land, and to spoil it by 
fire and sword. This was discovered by De la Tour, a 
French nobleman, at the Spaw, unto an English gentleman 
there, named Bromfield ; Bochart, another French gentle- 
man, present. Which relation the said nobleman was moved 
to make, out of that high respect and honour he had for 254 
queen Elizabeth, and for her particular favour and harbour 
which she gave to the poor persecuted people in their own 
country, for the religion. A particular relation of this, writ- 
ten by the said De la Tour in Latin, I met with, among 
the Burghleian papers, to this purport. 

B b 4 



376 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " That the lord De la Tour, bound on many accounts to 
^" " the queen of England, in regard of her hospitality shewn 



Anno 1573." to all the refugees of France, for the word of God ; and 
Discovered u esteeminff the benefits by her maiesty bestowed upon all 

by De la ^ . -' •' -; . ^ 

Tour to an " the brethren professing the same religion to be common 

^rntiemau " ^^ '^"^^ ^"^ ^^^ ^^^ French exiles in Germany, or in any 

at the " other part of the world ; that he being at the Bath near 

P*^^- u Aquisgrane, [Aix la Chapelle,] and holding some dis- 

" course with a certain English baron, and having thereby 

" come to the knowledge of somewhat that concerned the 

" safety of the whole kingdom of England, he would not 

" conceal it. But hearing that a certain noble knight, a 

" captain of the queen''s guards, was in the Spaw, he thought 

" it his duty to certify the said officer, being a person very 

" devoted to her majesty, of certain matters, which a great 

" many princes were contriving, and endeavouring to bring 

'* to pass against the kingdom of England, and of the man- 

" ner by which they thought to invade it on every side. 

" And first, among these confederates against her ma- 
" jesty it was agreed, that the king of Poland, [the French 
" king's brother,] feigning to prepare a fleet for Poland, on 
" the maritime parts, should convert his arms against the 
" kingdom of England ; and on a sudden, if he could, in- 
" vade some port of England. And that, as at the same 
" time, the Scots, persuaded by the cardinal of Lorain, with 
" a very great army, consisting partly of French, partly of 
" Scots, should break into England. And on the other 
" part, the fleets of the king of Spain and of France, being 
" joined, should attempt to seize some port in England. At 
" which time, the duke D'Alva, with the aid of the bishop 
" of Colein and other bishops, and of the duke of Bavai-ia, 
" with 10,000 foot out of Flanders, resolved to wage war 
" with the (|uecn of England. And to the waging of that 
" war, the antichrist of Rome, the king of Spain, and 
" the above-said bishops, and the antichristian order of all 
" France, consisting of all the prelates and papists of that 
••' kingdom, did combine. And lest the courage of all the 
" confederates should ((uail, the cardinal of Lorain, whose 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 377 

" hopes have devoured the kingdom of England in favour CHAP. 
" of his niece, the queen of Scots, had promised to yield 



" the pay of 30,000 men, for one year. Which nation he Anuo 1573. 
" hoped shortly to set at liberty out of the hands of the 
" queen''s majesty. 

" From the premises especially, it was to be conjectured, 
" that there were many favourers of this most wicked con- 
" juration in England, and induced by D'Alva and the car- 
" dinal by money and promises, to take their part among 
" the English as soon as they should see some armies in 
" Endand. And that tlie said baron seemed to think this, 
" Avhen he told him, that when first the army should be 
" transported into England, it should seize some place or 
" town which might be fortified with a wall and a ditch, to 
" be held so long, till men should come together from all 
" parts of England, and join themselves with this army." 25 5 
And then the paper concluded thus ; " That these things 
" were related to him, William Bromfield, by the lord De 
" la Tour : present the nobleman Steven Bochart, lord Du 
" Menillet, the 11th day of August, 1573. Signed, 

" Will. Bromfield. 

" S. Bochart. 

" Bertrand de la Tour." 

For church matters here at home, the queen saw it high Prociama- 
time to provide for the security of the religion reformed, f|,°",^ ^^^ 
and established in her realm. And therefore issued out g|"nst pa- 
proclamations in favour of it, both against the papists and puritans, 
the puritans also. September the 28th, a severe proclama- 
tion went forth against traitors [namely, papists] that were 
fled out of the realm, and against a great number of mali- 
cious libels printed against the government and the queen's 
chief counsellors. Another proclamation was set forth, Octo- 
ber the 20th, against the despisers and breakers of the or- 
ders prescribed in the Book of Common Prayer. The like 
to another set forth June the 11th, before. Both which are ^jfe ^f 
set down in the Life of Archbishop Parker. These two last Archbishop 

11 • Parker, 

looked chiefly towards the puritans. book iv. ch. 

xxiv. xxxiii. 



378 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK And because all English papists, being the queen's sub- 
• jects, now abroad, were commanded to come iiome, upon 



Anno 1573. pain of treason, some pretended conscience for abiding abroad 
^u*^ ^]^'.^]\^ "^ catholic countries, that they might have the liberty of 
ed home, hearing mass, professing still their loyalty to the queen. 
Their pre- Qj^g ^f these was Edward lord Windsor. Who for that pur- 

tence of go- i /» t • i i i? 

ing out of pose wrote earnest letters to the earl of Leicester, the earl oi 
England, gygsex, and the lord admiral; shewing both the cause of his 
Windsor's departure, and withal desiring the queen's leave, being come 
letter Sept. i^yj^^p to eniov his conscience. That to the earl of Sussex 

5. Titus, B. . . 

2. was writ in September : Avherein he thus apologizeth for 

himself; " That he was constrained to make trial of his 
" good lords and friends, among whom he made account of 
" his good lordship ; that he had written to the lord admi- 
" ral the causes at large that enforced him to take that hard 
" course and fortune, with desire to shew the same to him 
" and the earl of Leicester, as three of the noblest managers 
" in this our commonwealth ; the rather to advertise his 
" lordship of the causes aforesaid, in that his sudden al- 
" teration of his present return home, not to be without 
" eminent danger to himself; although, as God knew, no 
*' success in equity but his conscience. That his humble 
" suit now was, but to require his lordship, with the rest, to 
" be a mediator unto the queen's majesty, not to condemn 
" him, but to account of him as one of her loyal, faithful, 
" and loving subjects, in all matters, saving that was due 
" unto Almighty God ; and with her majesty's favour, to 
" live there [abroad] or elsewhere : always shewing himself 
" an humble, careful, and obedient subject, touching her 
" majesty and the realm, salva la consclentia. And thus 
*' humbly ending. From St. Thomas, the 5th of Sept. 
" 1573. Subscribing, 

" Your lordship's poor friend, 

" Edward Windesor." 

256 Another of these fugitives, that went and tarried abroad 
'^''"' ^"li'^' for the sake of his religion, but professing also profound 
gitivc, a loyalty to the queen, was Tho. Coply, whom our historian 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 379 

sheweth to have received much countenance and honour CHAP. 

from two great neighbouring princes ; viz. the king of '__ 

Spain; who ennobled him, and gave him the tide of ^rm;^ Anno 1573. 
master of the Macs, and lord of Gatton, and set him forth ^'^'J^p°"^^'" 
to sea, to make prize both of the Enghsh and Nether- 
landers in the year 1575. And he was recommended to the Camd. Eiiz. 

„ , , . , ,r -r^ -r 1 -1 11 1 p. 208 and 

French kmg by \aux, Don Jolm s secretary; who honoured 220. 
him with the dignity of knighthood, and title of baron, 
about the year 1577. 

A person of his character some may be inquisitive to His petition 
know more of. Some further account of him I give from ^°^ hl^^"^^" 
his own writings and letters. In this present year 1573, he lands, 
sent a petition to the queen, for restoring to him his manor 
Df Gatton in Surrey : which came to the queen by his trea- 
son ; as appears from the survey of the queen's manors. He 
had been now, as the petition imported, five years abroad, 
and had put himself in the king of Spain's service, and was 
at that time there : urging, that it was the necessity he was 
reduced to, by the queen's seizing upon his estate, that 
made him do so. That he had a wife and seven children. 
And concerning that service, he said plainly, that during 
the time he was by his catholic majesty entertained, he 
must and would serve with all fidelity and loyalty, as be- 
came him, both for the honour of himself and his nation. 

His estate was seized for going beyond sea without spe- His plea for 
cial licence. For which, he said, his learned counsel assured yo'„"/sea,' 
him not to be unlawful, by reason of his freedom in the 
staple ; which gave him liberty to pass and repass the seas 
at his pleasure. 

He urged likewise in his own behalf, that during his be- 
ing beyond sea, he had behaved himself dutifully and quietly 
every way : that no person living could charge him with any 
disloyal or undutiful fact. He spake of the very hard deal- 
ings used to him at home, together with his friends and ser- 
vants. And requested of the queen pardon for his de- 
parture to Antwerp without her leave ; and for whatsoever 
offence beside his enemies might have surmised against him, 
for mahce to his person, or love to his livings : and to afford 



380 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK him her gracious licence to remain for so many years, as 

' should please her majesty, in the parts beyond the sea, with- 

Anuo io73.jf, g^gh catholic State, as her majesty should best like of. 
Conveys iiis And as this gentleman requested the queen for his li- 
hi's'-r "^ ""^^^^^^y ^^ staying abroad upon protestation of his loyalty, so 
likewise for the restoring to him his estate on the same ac- 
count. For this purpose he shewed, how he had conveyed 
his lands before his going away. And he thought it was so 
lawful a conveyance, that it could not be entered upon. 
And that he ought not by law to lose it. And then he 
prayed the queen to clear her virtuous conscience, (as he 
expressed it,) for the withholding of his living. 

The next year, 1574, by the queen''s ambassador, Dr. 
Wylson, then at Brussels, the lord treasurer Burghley (who 
was related to him, and his friend) sent an overture to him, 
that in case he would withdraw himself from thence, and 
live in Germany, there should an allowance be made him, 
and some good portion of his living. 
257 The English court seemed to expect some discoveries 
Overtures fj-^jy, \^\^^ . ^yj^Q ^y^g i^ gome rcpute in those parts. And in 

sent to him _ ■• '■ 

by the another of his letters he professed all duty to the queen : 
bassador!'" ^"^ ^^ wished to God he had occasion offered to his affection 
and zeal to her, to testify it, with the shedding of his blood. 
And he seemed to comply with the lord treasurer's motion 
sent by Dr. Wylson, of departing from those parts. For in 
another letter, he desired him speedily to work his desired 
despatch. And the more frank and liberal his dealing 
should appear towards him, the more should be his bond ; 
and the more his shame, if being so favourably restored to 
the service of his natural sovereign, he did not from thence- 
forth employ the best of his forces, to the yielding and 
answering all duties that might be expected of an honest 
man, both in respect of his allegiance and grateful acknow- 
ledgments, 
riomiseth His cause still hangs, the court yet dubious of him, not- 
to make withstandino; all his fair words and protestations. For I 

discovery. o i _ _ 

find, in the year 1577, Dr. Wylson still tampering with 
him. To whom lie jiromisctii now to shew himself the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 381 

queen's true subject, and to make discovery: who had re- CHAP, 
quired him to be plain and faithful in his dealings. 



But this calling home of her subjects was necessary at Anno 1573. 
this juncture, in respect of the foreign popish conspiracy 
above mentioned. And the queen might justly refuse to 
suffer them to remain in Spain, where this lord was, or in 
Flanders, where her popish subjects commonly abode ; be- 
cause of those dangerous principles they sucked in there, 
against the queen's government, especially in spirituals. As 
in Lovain, (where a great many English retired for their 
studies, as well as others,) these theses in the university 
there were propounded some years before this ; making it 
unlawful for the civil magistrate to have any thing to do in 
ecclesiastical matters. They were printed there, and were 
as follow : 

QucBstio theologica. 
Num civilis magistratus, in his quae fidem et religionem Theses pm- 
concernunt, subsit potestati ecclesiasticas, et eidera teneatur lovain. 
in his obedire. 

' Sicut misit me Pater, et ego mitto vos. Joan. xx. 
Amen, dico vobis, quaecunque alligaveritis super 
terram, erunt ligata et in ccelo : et quaecunque 
Propos. \ solveritis super terram, erunt, &c. Matt, xviii. 
Obite praepositis vestris, et subjacete eis. Heb. xiii. 
Reddite quae sunt Caesaris Caesari, et quae sunt 
Dei Deo. 

Conclusio 1. 
Discrimen igitur est inter civilis et ecclesiastici magistratus 
potestatem, in hoc constitutum; ut civilis magistratus ha- 
beat jus et authoritatem praecipiendi ea, quas ad extemam 
morum justitiam, et temporalis vitae quietem ac tranquillita- 
tem pertinent. Sacer vero magistratus supremam habeat et 
absolutam authoritatem praecipiendi ea quae ad Dei justi-258 
tiam et futuri saecuU felicitatem spectant. Qui ob id civili 
est multo sublimior et praestantior. Et proinde civili nequa- 
quam subditus. 

Conclusio 2. 
Quemadmodum igitur corpus subest et sul)servit anima? 



382 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK in hac mortali vita, ita et authoritas prophani magistratus 
^' subesse et subservire debet, in hac eadem mortali vita, po- 



Annoi573.testati ecclesiasticae in his quae fidei, rehgionis et Dei sunt. 
Adeo ut qua^cunque ad profectum rehgionis Christianae a 
legitimis ecclesiae praefectis rite decreta sunt et constituta, 
non tantum teneatur ipse magistratus civihs ilhs obedire, 
sed et co-operari, ut efFectum sortiantur ; subditos authori- 
tate sibi a Deo tributa ad eorum observationem compellan- 
do ; contumaces vero et inobedientes suo modo puniendo : 
nee ahas leges ferre, aut aliter potestate uti, quam fidei et 
religioni expediat. 

Conclusio 3, 
Non est igitur potestatis civilis, constituere pastores, doc- 
tores, presbyteros, aliosque ecclesiae ministros, aut praescri- 
bere eis leges ministrandi ; seu impedire, ne proprio fungan- 
tur officio. Unde recte patres in concilio Triden. statuerunt, 
nefas esse cuilibet seculari magistratui prohibere ecclesiast.ico 
judici, nequem excommunicet ; aut mandare ut latam ex- 
communicationem revocet ; etiani sub praetextu, quod omnia 
quae idem concilium praescribit in excommunicatione obser- 
vanda, non essent observata ; cum non ad saeculares, sed ad 
ecclesiasticos haec cognitio pertineat. 
Conclusio 4. 
Erant igitur qui dicunt, principum esse supplere negli- 
gentiam praesidum ecclesiae in purganda ea a falsa doctrina 
aut falso cultu. Cum potestatis civilis non sit judicare de 
scripturis et fidei dogmatibus, aut discernere veram doctri- 
nam fidei a falsa; sed solius potestatis ecclesiasticae. Cui 
indefectibilitas fidei a Christo permissa est. 
The bishop These Lovanian conclusions were conveyed to the bishop 
of Dur- Qf Durham, who thouy-ht fit to transmit them, enclosed in 

ham's judg- . . .... 

luent of his letter, to sn- William Cecil, secretary of state, with his 
these con- ju^jgj^^gnt of them in these words: " I have sent your ho- 
" nour such conclusions as be disputed at Lovain, and sent 
" over hither. Wise men do mervail, that polity can suffer 
" such seed of sedition : although, for trial of the doctrine, 
" it were not amiss to hear the adversary, what he can say ; 
" vet that doctrine being received, and the contrary suffered 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 383 

" to be spread abroad, to the troubling of the state, in my CHaP. 
" opinion, is dangerous. God turn all to the best. But 



" surely evil men pike much evil out of such books, even Anno 1573. 
" against the polity." 

Against any polity, indeed, but especially against the po- 
lity of England, where the laws of the land make the prince 
svipreme, as well in all causes spiritual as temporal : on 
which foot the reformation of religion in this kingdom 
stood. And these doctrines and opinions, vented and main- 259 
tained in these countries, effectually tended to make the 
queen's subjects there disloyal to their sovereign, turbulent 
and seditious to the state; and therefore there was great 
reason to call for them home. 

As for the queen's subjects in Ireland, the pope took care An Irish 
to continue them tight to his chair, by supplying that king- ^^1,^^^^^} jjj_ 
dom with Irishmen in orders, priests and bishops ; who si^op »* 
were to swear all duty and allegiance to him in the highest 
degree, against all that should oppose the see of Rome. 
And he appointed and nominated bishops for the sees there. 
Some of them were consecrated at Rome. One of these, 
whose name was Dermic O Clier, was consecrated there this 
year, 1573, March 12, (the second year of pope Gregory 
XIII.) bishop of Maion, in the province of Tuam. The 
which consecration was performed by cardinal Sanctorius, 
upon that pope's command, or oracle, as his word was 
styled; vivcB vocis oracido. The original instrument or bull 
of this Irish bishop's consecration, by some means or other, 
was taken, and sent over into the English court. Which I 
have seen among the papers of the lord treasurer Burghley. 
Wherein is certified, that before his consecration he so- 
lemnly swore obedience to the pope, according to the cus- 
tom and manner of popish bishops, viz. 

" That from that hour, as before, he would be faithful 
" and obedient to blessed Peter, and the holy church of 
" Rome, and to his lord, pope Gregory XIII. and to his 
" successors; and that he should discover any practices that 
" might be prejudicial to the rights, honours, privileges, &c. 
" of the Roman church, and hinder them as much as he 



384 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " could. That the decrees of the holy fathers, their rules, 

• " ordinances, reservations, &c. he should keep. And that 

Anno 1573. « he should prosecute heretics, schismatics, and rebels to 

" our lord the pope and his successors, &c. And that if he 

" should know any thing prejudicial to the rights and pri- 

" vileges of the see of Rome to be attempted, he should hin- 

" der them as much as he could ; and, as soon as he might, 

" signify the same to the same his lord, or some other, by 

" whom it might come to his knowledge," &c. This whole 

instrument, at length, will be found carefully transcribed in 

Number the Appendix. I only observe in this oath several obliga- 

xxvii. tions additional, which were not in the oaths imposed upon 

other bishops formerly ; as* may appear by the customaiy 

oath taken by Cranmer. See his Life. Thus this clause is 

Memor. of added, which is not there : viz. " I shall not suffer any thing 

Archbp. a preiudicial to the rijjhts and privilco-es of the Roman see; 

Cranmer. tr J _ o i o 

Append. " and if any such things shall be attempted, I shall hinder 
"°* ' ■ " them as much as I can; and, as soon as I can, shall 
" signify the same to the same our lord, or to some other, 
" by whom it may come to his knowledge. The rvdes of 
" the holy fathers, the decrees and ordinances, reservations 
" or dispositions, promises and commands apostolical, with 
" my whole power I shall observe, and cause them to be 
" observed by others. Heretics, schismatics, and rebels to 
" the said our lord and his successors, I shall, according to 
" my power, prosecute and impugn." This, with other 
clauses, are not in the oath taken by the said archbishoj), 
nor sworn to. 
260 For the more effectual stopping of the variety used in the 

The council pyjjijj, Jivinc scrvicc of the church, and thereby to prevent 

to the com- ^ . . . s^ 

raissioners mucli Strife and contention, a letter was written in Novem- 
for uni- 1 1^ ^l^g privy council, to certain chosen commissioners in 

formity,ana ' . 

executing every shire, for the execution of a late proclamation for uni- 
that pur- formity of religion and common prayer, by way of Oyer and 
pose. Terminer. This met with papists as Avell as disaffected pu- 

ritans. It was penned by secretary Smith, as appears by 
the hand in the minutes ; and was as follows : 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 385 

"After our right hearty commendations. The queen's CHAP, 
majesty being much grieved to understand, that in divers ^^^^^' 
places of this reahn there is much diversity, and there- Anno 1573. 
upon contentions and strifes risen, about the rites and ce- 
remonies of the sacraments and common prayer, hath of 
late set out an earnest proclamation, as you know, that 
speedy care should be had for the reformation of those 
abuses, and preventing of further danger that might 
ensue. The which to be done as carefully and seriously 
as may be, her highness hath made choice of you, as in 
whom her highness doth put special trust, that you will 
execute her gracious will and pleasure declared in that 
proclamation, according as in the act of parliament made 
in the first year of her majesty's reign : and yet ceaseth 
not still to call upon us, to have an eye to the repressing 
of those schisms, contentions, and diversities from the 
orders set forth in the Book of Common Prayer allowed 
by parliament, and thinketh every day too long until it 
be done. 

" Wherefore we have thought good, by these our letters, 
to require you, so soon as conveniently you may, to meet 
and consult a convenient time and place ; and that being 
agreed upon, with all speed to inquire, and try the of- 
fenders according to the law. 

" That her majesty's proclamation may not seem to be 
neglected and frustrate, nor the mischief suffered to pro- 
ceed any further. And what you shall have done herein, 
her majesty's will and pleasure is, that you shall, with all 
convenient speed as you may, certify her highness, or as 
is appointed in the commission, by your letters: and so from 
time to time, as occasion may serve, or that any thing shall 
be done by you by virtue of the said commission. Wherein 
we pray you not to fail : and so commit you to Almighty 
God. From Greenwich, the of November." 

These commissions were made, under the great seal of The com- 
England, to certain persons of trust in the several counties ""f "" '■ 

o ■> r ^ ^ and the 

of the realm, whereof the archbishops and bishops were the queen's 

VOL. II. c c 



386 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK principal, to inquire, hear, and determine especially of the of- 
• fences committed against the orders for divine service. And 
Anno 1573. the proclamation mentioned above was set forth in October: 
thMi'for d) whereby the queen Avould have the laws made in her time 
serving or- for the order of divine service observed, and the offenders 
church. duly punished. And that these her endeavours might the 
more effectually take place, divers things to this purpose, 
by her command, in the said month of November, were de- 
clared by the lord treasurer in the Star-chamber. Which 
Life of are set down at large in the Life of Archbishop Parker. 
Parker, But now see a little the success and issue of this commis- 

P*'*^^* „ sion in Norfolk. The justices in commission there, required 
, . to look after the punishment of the despisers of the orders 
of Norwich of the cliurch, shewed themselves ready to execute the laws 
hU Chan- "pon them, but expected information from the bishop and 
ceiior for his officers. Hereupon the bishop of Norwich writ to his 

brimming in ,, ,,,, /» i i • /> i 

informa- chancellor, " 1 hat tor the better execution of the service 
tions to the u committed to them by the iustices, touching the reform- 

conimis- _ »' J o 

sioners. " ing of sucli persons as should be found any way to dis- 
" obey the orders of the Book for the Form of Common- 
" Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments, it was 
" thought very necessary, that commandment be sent to his 
" archdeacons and their ministers, that they, and every of 
" them, in their several circuits, should give in charge to the 
" clergy and the questmen, to present before them, between 
" this and the first week in Lent, viz. before the first of 
" March next, the names and surnames of all such persons 
" as, dwelling within their several parishes, were negligent, 
'* obstinate, or any otherwise enemies, or hinderers of her 
" majesty's proceedings, contrary to the said book, and the 
" statute provided in that behalf. 

" He prayed and required him therefore, that upon sight 
" hereof, he should send forth his letters to every of the 
" said archdeacons and commissaries, charging them in his 
" [the bishop''s] name, that they duly and with all diligence 
" execute the effect hereof; and to return such certificate 
" to the great inquest appointed to receive the same, he 
" being especially by them requested to have it so. And 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 387 

" herein he prayed them to use their hest diUgence, and to CHAP. 
" move the said commissaries to the hke, as every of them '^ 



"would answer the contrary at their perils." This was Anno 1573. 
dated from Ludham, the 30th of January, 1573. 

Many ministers in this diocese, being found unconform- Some sus- 
able upon this inquisition, were suspended by the bishop ^^"Jj'^p'Ii'^^q 
from reading the common-prayer and administering the sa- cateciiize 
craments ; as may be seen more particularly m Archbishop phesy. 
Parker's Life, But yet, thinking; to make use of them still ^'^'^ °^ 

„ . . Archbishop 

m the great want of preachers to instruct the people in that Parker, 
great diocese, the bishop seemed to have permitted some of P"'*^'^' 
them to catechize the younger sort, and io prophesy in those 
exercises set up in divers places, or winked thereat. But this 
was thought to have been done amiss, by some in the com- 
mission aforesaid, as confirming these men in their want of 
conformity. Therefore one of them, and he of some emi- 
nence, (but concealing his name,) sent his judgment and 
advice to the bishop, in a letter, to this tenor ; (which de- 
serves to be set down at length, for giving more light in 
this matter :) 

" My duty unto your lordship humbly remembered. Epist. Joh. 
" Whereas, sithence my last being with you at Norwich, I Nonv. 
" have been advertised, that divers ministers within your dio- '^''^^- ''°''' 

Kpisc* 

" cese in this county of Norfolk, for their disorderly usage Eiien. 
" in not observing: the Book of Common-Prayer set forth by ^°^ ^^ ^.''*' 

o J J commission 

*' the queen's majesty, or for their contemptuous preaching writes to 
*' or speaking against it, contrary to the queen's highness' j^'^i^'^'^'^il'ij 
" laws, proclamations, and direct commandments given in permission. 
" that behalf, are by your lordship and your officers se-2o2 
" questered, as well from saying the common-prayer or mi- 
" nistering the sacraments, as also from preaching, until 
" they will submit themselves, and live as it becometh good 
" and obedient ministers and subjects in that function. 
" Wherein, for that part, your lordship, in mine opinion, 
*' have done very well ; if, as I am credibly given to un- 
" derstand, your lordship, or your officers, had not given to 
*' divers of them toleration, or licence to catechize in their 

(• c 2 



388 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " parish churches, and to use the exercise of prophesying 
" in the open congregation : which sufferance and permis- 



Anno 1573." gJon is ctcl oppos'itum, and greatly offensive. For whoso- 
" ever should be admitted to instruct and teach in the nii- 
" nistry ought to be modest, no quarrellers, first proved ; 
" and then to minister, if they be blameless. But these, 
" being proved and tried, shew themselves stubborn and 
" obstinate to the whole state, and disobedient ministers or 
" subjects, crossing the prince''s authority and laws ; tiiink- 
" ing themselves wiser than the whole realm is besides, as it 
" seemeth. 

" Surely, my lord, such like are not to be tolerated, or 
" suffered to teach, or use any exercise in the church, until 
" they openly shew an humble submission, and conform 
*' themselves to the order prescribed by her majesty. 
" Wherefore, your lordship shall do well to wink no longer 
" at them, but presently to restrain them wholly, until they 
" will reform themselves. Wherein your lordship shall shew 
" yourself a good pastor, and avoid further inconveniences, 
" that otherwise will, or are like to ensue, as is much to be 
" feared. And if further complaint shall hereupon arise, it 
" is not unlike but that your lordship's lenity and suffer- 
" ance shall be imputed to be the whole or chief offence 
" that may succeed thereof. And thus being bold, as your 
" lordship's wellwisher, to inform you of that which I think 
*' is not fully or at all known unto you, I leave further to 
" trouble you : beseeching God to send you your own good 

" heart's desire. From , the 6th of March, 73. 

" Your lordship's, to his little power, 

" Joined in commission with you, N. N." 

The bishop took well this seasonable and friendly admo- 
nition from this gentleman in the same commission with 
himself; especially also understanding that complaints be- 
gan to be made of this his sufferance. Whereupon, the 
very next day, without further delay, he sent to his chan- 
cellor, to give order for the restraint of this liberty : signi- 
The bishop fying to him, " That he heard, that some of those ministers 

orders bis 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 389 

** that were suspended from the administration and serving CHAP. 
" in their cures, were notwithstanding bold to preach in ' 



^^ prophesies, and to catechize, and therein dealt more libe-Anno 1573. 

" rally than was convenient ; whereby offence was taken, ^''^-est"""^ 

" and he [the bishop] was advertised thereof. For remedy them. 

" and restraint whereof, he required him, that in his name, 

" either by his letter or otherwise, he should send forth- 

" with unto his four commissaries, charging them, and 

" every of them, that they call before them all such of the 

" clergy in their several jurisdictions as had been suspended 

" for causes aforesaid, or given over their livings, straightly 263 

" charging such persons henceforth not to attempt either 

" to preach, or prophesy, or to speak to the congregation 

" by way of catechizing ; unless such person or persons did 

" first, before the said commissary, subscribe, or otherwise 

" openly promise to submit himself to the order and con- 

" formity appointed. And if any person should contemn 

" their said charge, the same to be certified to him, [the 

" bishop,] or other the said commissioners, to be otherwise 

" enti'eated, as the cause should deserve. And herein he 

" wished his chancellor, for his own part, and his other 

" officers, to use all their best endeavours. And so he 

" wished him well to fare. Dated from Ludham, March 

" the 7th, 73." 

And to prevent further addresses to the said bishop in His letter 
behalf of these ministers, but the next day, upon some oc- *° ^ ^^^c ^' 

' J ' r man, a fa- 

casion writing to Mr. Will. Heydon, a gentleman of good vourer of 
quality in those parts, and a favourer of these preachers, nisters. ' 
but in the said commission, the bishop shewed him how ne- 
cessary it was now no longer to suffer them, or wink at their 
preaching ; hinting his own danger, and the notice that was 
taken at it : viz. " That he thought good to let him under- 
" stand, that he had received sundry letters, as well from 
" some in authority as from some of the best worship there, 
" signifying, that the suffering of such persons as were sus- 
*' pended, to preach, to prophesy, and to catechize, was 
" cause of abuse and offence to some : and the same being 
" spoken of, and misliked of some in authority, he [the bi- 

cc3 



390 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " shop] heard of it hardly ; and that he was constrained to 
" restrain the same, unless he would willingly procure his 



Anno 1673." own danger. That he had therefore sent out command- 
" ment, that none such as were suspended, or had willingly 
" given up their livings, should be suffered to speak in pro- 
" phesy or otherwise, as is aforesaid, until such person do 
" so conform himself to the ordinances of the church esta- 
" blished by authority, and do, before the commissary of 
" that circuit, promise the same by word or subscription." 

And then addressing himself to Mr. Heydon : " Let not 
" this seem strange to you, I pray you : for the matter is 
" of importance, and toucheth me so near, as less than this 
" I cannot do, if I will avoid extreme danger. And to pre- 
" vent your purpose in writing or coming over in this case, 
" I do by these most heartily pray you, as a commissioner 
" put in trust, to assist me in this behalf, and not contrari- 
" wise to persuade; since this purpose is necessary, and 
" looked for at both our hands : and being a thing so rea- 
" sonable, I cannot perform my duty if I shall neglect, or 
" partially wink at such doings." And so leaving him to 
Almighty God, with his hearty commendations, subscribed 
himself his assured friend in Christ. Dated from Ludham, 
March 8, 1573. 

The qvieen's proclamation beforesaid, against desplsers of 
the orders of the church, and absenters from the public ser- 
vice of it, looked towards papists as well as others ; and ac- 
cordingly those in commission proceeded according to law 
The com- against them. At this time, a certain popish lady, the lady 
caiT'forT Huddlcston, inhabiting in the diocese of Ely, was one of 
liopish lady, these, avoiding coming to church; and now, upon this in- 
264 quisition, absenting herself from her house: and being 
greatly suspected to contemn the order of religion settled, 
the bishop of Ely, and commission there, being about to 
send for her, she removed herself into another diocese, to a 
place called Harling hall in Norfolk, a great harbour for 
papists. This the said bishop signified to the bishop of 
Norwich, and what a dangerous person she was, and that 
he would do well to use his endeavour to take her. Ac- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 391 

cordingly, the bishop (in whose diocese she now was) framed CHAP, 
a letter to Ashfield, an active justice of peace in those parts, 1 



not knowing any more convenient way to have her appre-'f^"no 1573. 
hended, than to desire him to take the pains, either to travel 
himself to Harling hall, where she was, or else to cause her 
by his letters to come before him ; where she might lay in 
good bonds with sureties of her appearance before the bishop 
of Ely, or other the high commissioners, to answer such 
matters as she might be charged withal: which perhaps 
might fall out (as he wrote) worse than they knew of. For 
surely, as the bishop added, there is a wicked nest of them 
together, as he had been informed He further excited the 
said justice, by telling him, " that his travail herein would 
" be acceptable to God, and profitable to the common- 
" wealth." This was writ Feb. 18. 

But he being justice of peace for Suffolk, and Harling 
hall lying in Norfolk, he could not meddle therein ; desir- 
ing only sufficient warrant, and then, he said, he would be 
ready, not only to fetch that lady, but any other papist 
whatsoever within either of the two shires: praying his 
lordship to follow this matter, which was so well begun. 
The issue was, that the bishop (as he wrote to the bishop 
of Ely) procured a warrant under three of their hands that 
were commissioners, to call the lady Huddleston to answer 
her disobedience. And the rather, because there was, as 
he said, a wicked brood at that house, that ought to be 
looked to. 



c c 4 



392 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
1. 

Anno 1573. 
265 



Sampson 
writes to 
the lord 
treasurer 
for ca re- 
formation 
in church 
gjovern- 
ment. 



March the 
8th. 



His letter. 

MSS. 

13iirshlian. 



CHAP. XXVIII. 

Chief puritans. Sampson and Bering check'ed. Their let- 
ters and apologies : for a reformation of the church'' s go- 
vernment : and against the civil power and lordship of 
bishops. Their solicitations of the lord treasurer to fur- 
ther their discipline. Sampsoii's intercession for his Iws- 
pital: and for Mr. Heton. Bering brought into the 
. Star-chamber for xvords. His letter to the lord treasurer 
thereupon. Articles required of him to subscribe. Other 
articles of inquiry^ for Mm to answer. Moor, of Nor- 
zvich, confutes Br. Pern's sermon. Mr. Cartxcright. An 
order from the commission ecclesiastical for seizing him. 

But especially it was thought very necessary to provide 
for the peace of the church, and due observation of the 
worship of God, against the puritan faction, by reason of 
the great opposition made by divers of their eminent men 
this year, as well as of late, against it. Whereof Sampson, 
master of an hospital in Leicester, was one. Who for that 
cause was, several years before, deprived of the deanery of 
Christ's Church, Oxon. This man made now an address for 
mending the church's government, and to take directions 
from Bucer's book, Be Regno Christi, (whereof he sent him 
an epitome,) for that purpose. He was now taken with the 
palsy, and nevertheless (in March) writ this earnest letter 
(though by the hand of another) to the lord Burghley, as 
one of the last (perhaps) he should write: prefacing the 
same, That it had pleased God to take from him motum of 
half his limbs, though not sensum; which was the cause 
why he then used the hand of another in writing to his 
lordship. And that though this disease was to him evan- 
gelium mortis; and that he thanked God in Christ Jesus 
he was ready at his call to depart in peace, and leave all 
things in this world behind him ; yet that he was con- 
strained, ere he went, to trouble his lordship with two 
things \ which did so prick him forwards, that he could not 
be satisfied but in moving his lordship in the same: because 
in the one he might discharge his duty toward the church 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 393 

of Christ, as in the other his duty towards a dear friend of CHAP, 
his, (which being more private, I shall be silent of it here.) '_ 



Concerning the former, thus he expressed his zeal: "My Anno 1573. 
" good lord, pro Christo Domino dominantium rogo^ ob- 
" sccro, that there may be a consideration had of the state 
" of the church of England. The doch'iiie of the gospel is 
" and may be purely preached in England. Everlasting 
" praise be to his Majesty for it. But the government of 
" the church appointed in the gospel yet wanteth here. 
" The doctrine is good, the government by him appointed 
" is good. These are to be conjoined, and not separated. 
" It is a deformity to see the church of Christ, professing 
" his gospel, to be governed by such canons and customs 266 
" as by which Antichrist did rule his synagogue. I know 
" there is now a great stir about this matter. Much writ- 
" ing, and little help. Yea, of much writing ariseth much 
" gall, and many other odd questions, frivolous and offen- 
" sive. Nee er'it finis qucEstiomim, so long as these conten- 
" tions are on foot. An end there would be : a good end 
" the Lord Jesus send. My lord, this matter of reforming 
" the state of the government of the church was in hand in 
" the days of king Edward. Yea, his father, after the 
" abolishing of the pope's tyranny, thought it necessary to 
" be considered of. And therefore the law of the thirty 
" commissioners was made; which was also renewed in king 
" Edward's days. And something was done then in con- 
" eluding of canons for this purpose. 

" In this time also, that learned Martin Bucer did write Bucer's 
" a book of this matter to that godly king, entitling it Z>e^°°^'°^ 
" Regno Christi. I was so bold the last year, to write to christi, 
"your lordship of it, desiring you to read it. There r^™^*^'^ 
" shall you see what wanteth of the full kingdom of "tended. 
" Christ in this church of England. But because I know 
" your many affairs do call you so diversely, that you can 
" hardly find leisure to read any long tracts, therefore I 
" have sent your lordship an epitome of it, drawn fideliter 
" et siiccinete. The long tract De Matrimonio et Divortiis 
" I have on purpose left out ; for his opinion in divorces I 



394 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " cannot approve. But otherwise, your lordship shall sec 
" him so well and so fully set forth the wants of the things 



Anno 1573. " of Christ''s kingdom in this kingdom, that your lordship 
" shall see what is wanting, and what is to be had and 
" planted. He that concludes, that to have the church go- 
" verned by meet pastors and ministers taketh away the au- 
** thority of Christian magistrates, is by Bucer sufficiently 
" confuted. 

" My lord, I beseech you read it ; and I beseech you 
" again, take the matter to heart. It is the cause of Christ 
" Jesus, and of his church : it toucheth men''s souls. My 
" lord, if you consider deeply, how from time to time God 
" hath dealt with you, surely I know you will confess, that 
" you are bound to do the best to set Christ in his chair in 
" this church of England ; that as he teacheth us, so he 
*' may rule and govern us. True and diligent ministers of 
" the word, attending their flock, as Acts xx. are means to 
" make to God a holy people, and to the queen's majesty 
" good subjects. Help, my lord, this good work of the 
" Lord your God. So shall you serve him that is Rex 
" regum: and he will acknowledge that you have done him 
" good service, when you, and all kings, and all lords shall 
*' appear before him, to be judged of that you have done in 
" your office. 

" Bucer wrote his book in England, being but a stranger; 

" yet of England most aptly, touching the state of it, to 

" the king of England:. but by report of his familiars in 

" Cambridge. And they were the same which are now 

a Grindai. " arclibishops of York a and Canterbury b, bishop of Lon- 

« Sand'^s " done, Bradford, and such like. I know not what confer- 

" ence they had with him when he made the book ; but I 

" am sure, that since his death, in private talk, they have 

'* much approved his book. Let therefore this book of 

" Bucer be called in question among them that aliqidd me- 

267 " lius constitnatur, ct nequkl in proxirna sijnodo asperins 

" constitnatiir. Which I fear, unless your lordship do help,"' 

&c. Concluding, " Good my lord, use your authority for 

" the glory of Christ, and the peace and good of the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 396 

"church. You cannot employ your authority in a better CHAP. 

"VXVTTT 

" cause, nor in better service. And of the Lord Jesus you 1^ 

" shall receive the reward of a faithful servant." Subscrib- Anno 1673. 
ing, " Your humble suppUant and poor orator in et pro 
" Christo Domino^ 

" Tho. Sampson." 

To this exhortation the lord treasurer gave a gentle andTheiord^ 
Christian answer, signifying, that he liked well of his mo- ^^J'^^^";." * 
tion, but that he could not do that good which either Samp- 
son would, or others thought he could. Which Sampson 
followed with another more pressing one ; and explammg 
his meaning more plainly, to be for such a reformation of 
the regiment of the church, as the wholly laying aside of all 
doctors, proctors, chancellors, officials, and other ecclesiasti- 
cal officers belonging to the bishops, that exercised jus ca- 
nonkum, 1. e. papisticum. This whole letter, in answer to 
the lord treasvirer's, may be read in the Appendix to the Book iv. 

•' N". 93. 

Life of Archbishop Parker. 

If he meant, (as he seemeth to do,) that the regiment of 
the church was to be reformed by laying aside bishops and 
their superiority, and setting in the room thereof an equality 
of ministers, Buccr is evidently against him ; who, in the 
said book, propounding to king Edward VI. that religion 
might be restored, and the church of Christ be planted and 
watered with fit ministers, writes thus : Nunc ex perpetua Bucer's 

J. . 1 judgment 

ecclesiarum observatione, ah tpsis jam apostoiis, viaemus, f^j. bishops. 

visum et hoc esse Spiritui Sancto, ut inter preshyteros, qui- 

bus ecclesiarum procuratio est commissa, unus ecclesiarum, 

et totius sacri ministerii cur am gerat singularem ; eaque 

ctira et solicitudine cunctis prceeat aliis. Qua de causa 

episcopi nomen, hujusmodi summis ecclesiarum. curatoribus 

est peculiariter attributum. De Regno Christi, cap. 12. 

pag. 98. " Now from the continual observation of the 

" churches, and that even from the apostles themselves, we 

" see diat this hath also seemed good to the Holy Ghost, 

" that among the priests, to whom the care of the churches 

" most especially hath been committed, one of them take a 



396 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " singular care of the churches, and of the whole sacred mi- 
. " nistry, and have the precedency of all the rest in the 

Anno 1573. " same care and diligence. For which cause the name of 
" bishop hath been peculiarly given to those highest super- 
" visors of the churches."" And again: Hi eiiim, sicut dig- 
nitate et dcmaiidata prima7'ia ecclesiarum soUcitudine, re- 
Uquos omnes sacri ministerii ordines antecedunt, ita dehent 
etiam voluntate et studio, &c. Ubi supra, p. 99- " These, 
" as in dignity and primary care of the churches intrusted 
" to them, go before all the rest of the orders of the sacred 
" ministry ; so they ought also in will and application, in 
" the right administration of the churches, excel all others." 
268 He speaks also in the same chapter in approbation of the 
three orders in the ministry, viz. of bishops, priests, and 
deacons. Nor hath he a word of laying aside the episcopal 
and ecclesiastical officers, viz. chancellors, officials, commis- 
saries, proctors, &c. only advising, (that the bishops might 
not be distracted with other business, but that they might 
wholly give themselves to the promoting of religion,) that 
they should have vicars and others of their clergy to assist 
them, and to take care of other necessary affairs belonging 
to them. 
Sampson's This Sampson, by reason of his incompliance with some 
f,°^,arj5^^j,g customs of this church in the public worship, was laid aside 
hospital at from doing God service therein : yet was of use more pri- 
vately, by governing of an hospital in Leicester ; preferred 
thereto by reason of his former figure in the churcli and 
university, and suffering for the gospel by exile under queen 
Mary. He was careful for the good estate of this hospital, 
having been in great danger of sinking, by reason of the 
concealers, but rescued by the good lord Burghley. Samp- 
son now, having drawn up a book, in order to the better 
establishment of it, came up in the month of July, and 
brought it to tliat lord to read it over, and to consider it, 
that it might take place. But now, having no leisure to 
jieruse it, being ready to attend the queen in her progress, 
Sampson excited him to do it ; praying him, that it miglit 
for that purpose be carried along with him : adding, " That 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 397 

" though this was but a trifle, and such as, in respect of his CHAP, 
continual and weighty affairs, he should not trouble his 



" honour withal ; yet to beggars, their trifle was great, •^nno 1573. 

" Neither was it, as his honour knew, accounted a trifle to 

" hear and despatch the poor in their poor suits. As he 

" had most favourably, not only undertaken, but finished 

" the dangerous cause of his hospital, as he expressed his 

" grateful sense of that good turn. And that for it all the 

" poor there prayed for him, and he with them, that God 

" would bless his honour. And so humbly beseeched him 

" to continue his favour and aid, to the perfect ratifying 

" that which had so well hitherto passed by his hands."" 

This was dated from London, July the 25th. Concluding 

with his prayer, " That God Almighty would direct him in 

" all his affairs, to do that which might be pleasing in his 

" sight ; so that his favour might be to his lordship's com- 

« fort and life." 

I cannot but add one thine more concerning Mr. Samp- intercedes 

" 1 1 • • J ' "'" Heton, 

son, which happened this year ; namely, his compassion and a merchant, 

gratitude also, towards a very good man and an English [J^^^^^J^^Jj"' 

merchant, who had been, in the time of the exile, a very exiles ; now 

bountiful benefactor unto Sampson, and the rest living JJ^^JJ^^ 

abroad in the time of queen Mary ; which prompted him 

now very earnestly to interpose with the lord treasurer in 

his behalf, being now aged, and reduced to straits; giving 

him this account, both of the person and of his request. 

He called it, " A suit in most humble wise for himself ; in- 

" asmuch as it was for such a friend to him, as was alter 

" ego ; and that merito, for that I have, said he, been long 

" to him alte?- ipse. The man he meant, naming him, was 

" that honest merchant, and in his company, a right mer- 

" chant and worshipful, Mr. Heton. That in exile for the 

*' gospel, he relieved many exules Christi, and consumed 

" himself greatly : and that piety planted in his heart had 269 

^' kept him from such courses as some had kept, to their 

" enriching worldly. That his place of service his lord- 

" ship knew. At plus ille et bonus senex, is to him so dear, 

" and his state so much I pity, that if I had power to my 



398 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " will in this behalf, I would not be a petitioner for him to 
^' " any body ; for I know what I owe to him. And they 
Anno 1573." which may, and are some ways bound, as I am, vnW not, 
" or care not, though they know as much as I of him. 
" Hoc unum I presume of your goodness to do ; Avhich is in 
" most humble wise to beseech your lordship to be good to 
" him. The queen''s majesty, of her princely munificence, 
" is bountiful to many. If it would please her majesty to 
" give to this her good subject liberty to transport 3, 4, 5, 
" or 6000 of English cloth, without paying of custom, his 
" old age should be bountifully sustained by her princely 
" liberality.'"' He added, " that he did not, for he dared 
" not, desire his lordship to be the means to move and ob- 
" tain this for him ; but only, that if his lordship could like 
" of the suit to be moved by some other body to her ma- 
" jesty, his lordship would give it his favour and further- 
" ance. And if it should please him to like of the same, 
" and to give his advice how it should be moved, he would 
" follow his lordship's advice in the same : for he reposed, 
" he said, all hopes of obtaining only in his good liking. 
*' In fine, he humbly beseeched his good lordship to pardon 
" him. Amici ccmsam ag-o, tyiriprobi, apud te, Domhie prce- 
" stantiss. sine apud quern nimium audeo. But in this he 
" humbly submitted his request to his wisdom and good- 
" ness." 
Dering, tiie Edward Dering (of whom something the last year) was 
P""*'*"''" another of these principal puritan ministers; who being 
words in reader of St. Paul's, had in his reading spoken some things 
bis sermon. ^^^ ^^^^ interpreted to reflect upon the magistrate, and 
tending to the breach of the })eace of the church. Where- 
upon he was forbid reading, by order of the privy council, 
who were offended with him. He had a good talent in 
preaching, and his congregation was very numerous : but his 
judgment was well known for the bringing in a new model 
of government in this church. On which account he was 
watched by some: and some words that fell from him in 
their hearing brought him to this trouble; though he de- 
nied them utterly, and that they were slanders raised of 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 399 

him. And indeed, in one of his appearances before the at- CHAP. 

V WIT f 

torney-general, the bishop of London did acknowledge he ^ 
could not accuse him thereof. ^""^^ i^^^* 

In the month of September he addressed himself to the 
lord treasurer, (to whom he was well known,) desiring of 
him not to come before their honours again, but that he was 
contented to be judged by the bishops themselves, when 
and where they should command him to appear ; only that 
it might not be deferred, that his place might be occupied 
either by himself or some other; and that he might be 
charged either with words or doings, wherein he had abused 
himself: that upon knowledge thereof, his honour might 
judge what he had deserved; a favour which he would 
deny to none. And that if it were so appointed, that he 
should read no more in Paul's, but faulty or faultless, all 
should be one; then he could but pray to God, that he 
would yet pardon his sins, who had deserved greater an- 27 O 
ger. And withal, beseeched that lord to inquire after his 
doings, till he' could find but two witnesses that had heard 
him speak evil. And if God should never give unto his 
lordship so small a warrant of his evil behaviour, then he 
prayed him to stand his good lord : and either to believe 
his own judgment, who had heard him sometimes, or the re- 
port of a great number, who were daily present. And in 
fine, that he might have that hberty, that in any other place 
where he might be called, he might preach without blame, 
as it was his duty. 

Thus he insisted upon his innocency, and challenged any 
to accuse him. But we shall not long hence find him charged 
in divers articles in the Star-chamber, before the lords of the 
council. And for a further vindication of himself, before 
he should come to answer there, he took his pen, and wrote 
a long letter; which he was minded to send to some one of 
those lords, perhaps to the earl of Leicester ; but after deli- 
beration a day or two, he concluded to send it to the lord 
Burghley. He chiefly laboured therein, to prove the lord- 
ship and civil government of the bishops to be unlawful, and 



400 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK contrary to the scripture ; as the main thing he thought that 
created him enemies. The letter, though long, I will faith- 



His letter 
to tbe lord 
Burghley. 



1 Tim. V. 
19. 



Anno 1573. fully set down from the original; wherein at large he sets 
forth his own case, and then afterwards his arguments from 
scripture against that government. 

" Grace and peace from God the Father, Sec. Bear with 
me, I beseech your honour, though 1 trouble you, and 
let the cause of my grief be the discharge of my boldness. 
It behoveth me to discharge myself from the slanderer, 
lest the gospel should be reproached in me. And it be- 
hoveth you to obey this commandment, Receive no accu- 
sation against a preacher without good and sufficient 
witness. I know, my lord, you will not do it; and I 
have good evidence of your equity in this behalf: but 
yet I am bold to put you in mind of the word of Christ, 
which you cannot possibly remember too often. I ask no 
more than what is due unto me, even from -her majesty ""s 
seat of judgment and justice. If I have done evil, let 
me be punished ; if not, let me be eased of undeserved 
blame. I crave no partiality, but I seek to answer, and 
to make you [i. e. this lord, and the other of the lords of 
the privy council] judges of my cause, before whose pre- 
sence I ought to fear, and whose steps of their feet I do 
humbly reverence. And what, think you, have I done, 
if I should be called, and before your honours be con- 
vinced of these pretended crimes .'* With what shame 
should I hide my face all the davs of my life ? Where 
were the i^joicing that I have in God, in all things that 
he hath wrought by me.'' Where were their comfort, that 
have so desirously heard me.^ AVhere were the good opi- 
nion of many, and all the good-will you have shewed me .'' 
I am not so ignorant, that I see not this. And therefore 
persuade yourself that I am on a sure ground. Trial 
shall teach your eyes and ears a truth. And to persuade 
your heart, I give unto you my faith, I cannot accuse 
myself either of any thought of mind, in which I have 
not honoured the magistrate, and of word of my mouth, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 401 

in which I have not regarded the peace of the church. CHAP. 
And I thank God of his unspeakable mercy, that hath ^^*^'''- 



" kept for me this conscience against the day of trouble. Anno 1573. 

" If you muse now how these slanders have risen, youS/l 
" may easily know : the malice of Satan is great against the 
" ministry of the gospel. I know I have given no cause, 
" more than I have confessed ; and with what words I have 
*' spoken it, I desire to be judged by the hearers. And so 
" much the bolder I speak now unto you, because my lord 
*' of London told me of late, before Mr. Attorney and Mr. 
*' Solicitor, that he could not accuse me of any such thing 
" spoken in the pulpit. Which discharge, as I was glad to 
*' hear, so I would have been much gladder, if upon so free 
" a confession he would favourably have restored me to 
*' any lecture again. But now it is that they know my 
" mind, and long since they have had me in suspicion, 
" therefore they would provide in time to take my lecture 
" from me, lest I should speak any thing that would offend 
" them hereafter. This doing, though it be somewhat 
" strange to punish a man before, lest hereafter he should 
*' offend ; yet I am contented with it, and leave it unto 
" them, that should be as grieved to see so great a congre- 
" gation so dispersed. 

" And because I will not appear to be led by fancy. Declares his 
" wherein of a great many I am thouo;ht to be singular, I^F""'"". 

f^ J o o ' concerning 

" will be bold with you, as the man whom, above others of bisiiops. 
" your calling, I am bound to honour, to shew forth what is 
" my opinion, and the reasons by which I am moved unto 
" it. ^Vherein, my good lord, I most heartily beseech 
*' you, break not, with any violence, the goodness of your 
" nature, to make it favour falsehood ; but love the truth, 
" whereimto you have well inclined, and which shall make 
" you blessed in time to come. I am thus persuaded : 

" The lordship or civil government of bishops is utterly 
" unlawful. My reason is this ; the kingdom of Christ is 
" only a spiritual government : but the government of the 
*' church is a part of the kingdom of Christ : and therefore 

vol.. II. D d 



402 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 

I. 



Anno 1573. 



272 



the government of the cliurch is only a spiritual govern- 
ment. What the kingdom is, and what government he 
hath estabhshed in it, learn not of me, but of God him- 
self. The prophets do plentifully set it forth unto us. 
Esay saith, He shall smite the earth zoith the rod of his 
mouth, and zoith the breath of his lips he shall hill the un- 
godly. And by what authority shall the ministers strike 
with a sword, or with a sentence from a civil judgment 
seat condemn the wicked .f* The glory of the kingdom of 
Christ is thus described : Ride upon the word of truth 
and of meeTcness and righteotcsness ; and so thy right 
hand shall teach terrible things, Psal. xlv. 4. And again ; 
The Lord shall send the sceptre out qfSion, (that is, his 
law,) by zvhich he shall be made rider over all his enemies, 
Psal. ex. 2. And what can be plainer than the words of 
Christ himself; My Mngdom is not of this zvorld, John 
xviii. 36. How plainly doth St. Paul say. The zoeapons 
of our zvarfare, they are not carnal. Thus God hath ap- 
pointed it, to make his power known, that by the foolish- 
ness of preaching he might conjhtind the zvisdom of the 
zvorld, and with the weak strength of the sound of words 
to overthrow the force of the hearts of men. There are 
no chariots that go swift in victory, as the word of truth : 
no terror in the world that so shaketh the bowels, and 
maketh the thoughts to tremble, as the sword of the Spirit. 
There is no sceptre that reacheth so wide a dominion as 
the law of the majesty of God ; which is written in the 
hearts of all the world, and condemneth all flesh before 
the majesty of God. All other force is but little, and we 
may either withstand it, or fly from it. But the power 
of the word is such as shall pass tlirough all stops and 
hinderances. Ezwry mountain shall be brought lozo, and 
every valley shall he filled : crooked things .<ihall be made 
straight, and rough zvays shall he made smooth, that the 
lazo may pass out of Sion, and the zoord of God from Je- 
rusalem. And so to whomsoever the Lord sendeth out 
his voice, it shall surely find him : for it is already in the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 403 

" conscience of man, whence he cannot fly. In his privy CHAP. 
" cliamber it is nearest unto him, and when he is in his bed ^^^'"• 



" it presseth him most. Anno 1573. 

••' Let him therefore that is King of kings have the pre- 
" eminency of government, that is more glorious than 
" princes. And let him, whose dominion is the kingdom 
" of heaven, have the sword and the sceptre that is not 
" fleshly. Let not a vile pope, in the name of Christ, erect 
" a new kingdom, which Christ never knew ; a kingdom of 
" this world, which in the ministry the gospel hath con- 
" demned. Which kind of rule hath set all out of order, 
" and mingled together heaven and earth in confusion ; so 
" that God's ordinance cannot prevail, to deliver the sword 
" into the hand of the magistrate, and take the word into 
" the mouth of the minister. We have forgotten the voice, 
" (which we might better remember,) Put up thy szvord 
" into thy sheath. And we know it not, that if God should 
" fight for his gospel, he could send down many legions of 
" angels to win the field. St. Paul- saith, that God hath 
" chosen the weak things of the world to conjbund the 
" mighty. Which he had not done, if the strength of a 
" kingdom should be in the ministry, or the arm of a prince 
" in the hand of a preacher. 

" And so I beseech you, my good lord, while God hath 
" taken away a courage from princes, that they have suf- 
" fered such a servant to sit in the monarchy o^ the world ; 
" hath not God recompensed the thraldom of their hearts 
" upon their own heads, and made only a proud pope to 
" tread them down all in dishonour.? And in several reigns 
" also, the popish prelacy hath shamed their princes, and 
" sometimes raised up such rebellions, as have cost their 
" kings both crown and life. Of these examples I find a 
" great many. But I remember not one archbishop, or lord 
" bishop, that ever saved a country, or brought peace unto it. 
" Such have been God's judgments upon those that have 
" put from themselves the honour of their crown, and taken 
" justice from the unlawful minister that serveth in the com- 
" monwealth, and made unto themselves new justices of the 

D d 2 



404 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK *' peace and quorum, new barons, new commissioners, new 
" lord chancellors, which their fathers knew not, and taken 
Anno 1573." out of the midst of pastors and bishops of the church; 
" which before was not heard of. 

" And now, as hitherto I have reasoned of the kingdom of 
" Christ, in which and for which the ministry must serve ; 
" so now I beseech you also to consider the authority of 
" the minister. Out of which I will reason thus. The 
2/3 " king''s minister or pastor hath his authority equal over 
" king and subject: but the king's pastor must not execute 
" civil punishment against his prince : therefore the king*'s 
" pastor can be no civil magistrate. The truth of this rea- 
" son is plain and evident. The Lord saith unto his mi- 
" nister. Behold, this day I have set thee over nations and 
" over Mngdoms, to pluck up, and to root out, to destroy, 
" and to thro'iC dozen, to build, and to plant, Jer. i. 10. And 
*' St. Paul saith. He was prepared to cast down every high 
" thing that was exalted against the knowledge of God, and 
" to bring into captivity every thought into the obedience of 
" Christ. St. James sharply reproveth it, if w^e have more 
" regard unto a man with a gold ring and goodly app>arel, 
" than unto a poor man that is in vile raiment. He biddeth, 
^^ preach unto every creature: whose sins you forgive, they 
'•^ are forgiven ; and whose sins you retain, they arc re- 
*' tained. Here is no exception of one or other, but the 
" sins of all are equally to be chastised ; even as grace 
" and mercy is equally preached. And let him persuade 
" himself, whosoever will be exempted from this obedience, 
" to be ruled in the church, God hath also exempted him 
*' from the grace that is dispensed by the church. 

" And how can it possibly be otherwise, when the minister 
" is but the mouth of God, in whose person Christ himself 
*' is either refused or received .'' Before whom to exalt a 
" man, is to set up the clay above the potter ; and to make 
" a difference of persons, before whom there is neither Jew 
" nor Gentile, bond nor free, prince nor subject. 

" My lord, seeing all men are subject before the minister, 
" even as himself also is subject to the words of his mouth, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 405 

" what power, what authority will you give unto him ? Will CHAR 

" you set him upon a seat of justice, and put a sword in his ^^^^^^- 

" hand ? Then bring the prince to plead her cause. Guilty, Anno 1673. 

" or not guilty ? Fie upon the pope, that hath so dis- 

" honoured God, and made the glory of his judgment seat 

" to be spotted in the countenance of a faint-hearted king. 

" We will be no proctors for such an untimely fruit, that 

" hath made princes bondmen, nobility thraldom, and him- 

" self a tyrant. Let us learn a better lesson of our Sa- 

" viour Christ, Date Ccesari guce sunt CcEsaris, et quce 

" simt Dei, Deo. The prince alone is the person in the 

" world, to whom God hath committed the seat of justice, 

" and they only to execute the duty of it, to whom it is 

" committed ; at whose hands God will require it : how 

" they have defended his church, given praise unto well- 

" doing, and revenged the sins of all transgressors. For 

" which end God hath given in subjection unto them the 

" natural man, and hath heaped up unto the rulers all the 

" glory of the world, which whosoever shall seek to spoil 

" from them, he would change the counsels of the living 

" God. 

" The minister is appointed for another defence, where 
" horsemen and chariots will do no good. They may hinder 
" the minister, and make him forget his duty : they cannot 
" profit him in his office and function. He must frame the 
" heart, upon which you cannot set a crown ; and edify the 
" soul, which flesh and blood cannot hurt. He sealeth unto 
" the conscience God's mercies, which are sweeter than life, 
"= and maketh rich the thoughts with righteousness and 2/4 
" peace, which shall abide for ever. To those that are dis- 
" obedient he pronounceth the judgment that maketh the 
" heart afraid ; and to the poor in spirit he bringeth com- 
" fort, which no tongue can express. And to these things, 
" what availeth either sword or spear.? God asketh but a 
" tongue that is prepared to speak ; and he ministereth the 
" power that is invisible. And cursed be the times that 
" have bewitched to set up dumb dogs in so honourable a 
" place. 

D d 3 



406 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 

I. 



Anno 1573. 



Ministers 
not to be 
called lords. 



"If this function were supplied with dutiful officers, the 
sword of the Spirit, which God hath given them, would 
vanquish Satan, and destroy the power of darkness, 
till the knowledge of God were plentiful upon earth, 
and all the joys of heart were sealed unto men in perfect 
beauty ; till the eyes did see great happiness in the face 
of the heavens, and the ear did hear the sweet harmony 
of the forgiveness of the sins ; till the meat tasted of that 
secret manna, of which he should eat for ever, and his 
drink were pure, of the water of life, which proceedeth 
out of the throne of God and of the I^amb ; till his gar- 
ments did smell of the righteousness of Jesus Christ, and 
in life did shine the life of immortality. But I will not 
go about to express it in words, which the ear cannot 
hear, nor the tongue can speak. I beseech the Lord make 
you feel the pleasure of it within, till all the world be but 
dung, as St. Paul saith, in respect of Christ. For in him 
all honour is a glorious blessing, and without him but a 
covering of an after-woe. And when it shall fall in the 
dust, his sight of the sorrow that is behind shall make the 
man to mourn, when it is too late. 

*' If yovi will know this thoroughly and indeed, procure 
their liberty, which will tell you the truth : but if our 
sins shall procure, that instead of truth we shall hear flat- 
tering words, we shall prove it true. Where no p?-ophecy 
is, there the people perish, Prov. xxix. 18. The days to 
come, which are the wisest witnesses, when they shall ask 
your opinion, you shall confess it is true. 
" But now again to our purpose. And because I have 
spoken thus much, I will add the residue, that I may be 
known unto your honour, even as I am known imto my- 
self. As the minister hath nothing to do with the tem- 
poral sword, so much less it becometh him to be called 
a lord. The reason is plain in the scripture. They be 
called Jishers of men, labourers in the harvest, callers 
unto the marriage, servants of the people, workmen, mi- 
nisters, stewards, builders, planters, &c. In all which 
they are removed from a lordship over the people. And 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 407 

*' again, they be called fellow-elders, fellow-helpers, fellow- CHAP. 
" workmen, fellow-soldiers, fellow-servants, fellow-travellers, 



" &c. In which names they are forbidden lordship over Anno 1573. 

" their brethren. And surely, seeing we ought to have a 

" religion in the words of the Holy Ghost, not lightly to 

" change them, it cannot be but great rashness to refuse so 

" many names of society, which God hath given us, and 

" take another name, which is none of our own, and im- 

" porteth a dominion over others. 

" And how can we yet doubt in the question of lordship? 1^ ^ 
*' We appeal unto Christ, and the words of his mouth, to 
" take up the controversy. The disciples had this conten- 
" tion as well as we ; and they strove much who should be 
" highest. Which strife, while our Saviour Christ will ap- 
*' pease, he pronounceth his sentence thus ; He that zvill be 
" greatest among you, let Mm he as the lowest : and he that 
*' zvill be highest, let him be the servant of all. This is the 
*' brief definition of a superiority in the ministry : and this 
** shall for ever determine the controversy, though all wis- 
" dom in the world should reply against it. My lord and 
" the honour both shall be judged Ijy this. If he find his 
" titles given him here, let him rejoice in his portion. If he 
*' have them not hence, he shall not have them of us. We 
" will not so dishonour him that hath given the sentence. 
*' For besides that the words are plain, we have good ex- 
" ample that this must be our trial. When St. Paul had a 
" great controversy with many others, whose authority was 
" most, by this rule he challenged all their preeminence to 
" himself; because he was the least; he had laboured more 
*' than they all ; was more afflicted, more contemned, more 
*' despised ; oftener whipped, scourged, stoned, imprisoned ; 
" in more dangers by sea, by land, of thieves, of murder- 
*' ers, of kinsmen, of countrymen, and of all sorts ; in watch- 
*' ings, prayings, hunger, thirst, cold, nakedness, &c. and 
*' more exercised than any other, 2 Cor. xi.-23. Of this he 
" was bold to set himself up, that no patriarch of the world 
*' had a lordship above him. And to the Galatians, against 
*' all pride and tyranny of false prophets, he maketh his 

D d 4 



408 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " challenge as greater than they all, because he carried the 
____[___" marks of the Lord Jesus in his body. Thus well had St. 
Anno 1573." Paul learned, that the highest in the ministry must be the 
" lowest. And he is the archbishop that hath suffered 
" most. But as St. Paul is a good example, so let our Sa- 
" viour Christ be his own interpreter, that by example and 
" testimony we may be confirmed in truth. 

" Will you know what this meaneth. He that will be 
*' greatest, let him be the least; Nan sic inter vos ? Luc.xxii. 
" 26. That rule and lordship shall not be among you, 
" which God hath o-iven in the king-doms of this world. 
" You must be examples unto your flocks. You shall not 
" exercise any lordships over the heritage of God, 1 Pet. v. 
" 3. These words are plain witnesses in the mouths of 
" two, our Saviour Christ and the apostle Peter. If you 
" will have also an example of this, I will allege you one of 
" great warrant. St. John reproveth one Diotrephes, who, 
" not content with the dignity of ameqyoc, or y^elloza-zoork- 
" ma7i, would needs be a lord, and rule over others ; to ex- 
" communicate and cast out of the church by his own au- 
" thority, 

" Now judge, my lord, by the spirit of -wisdom which 

" God hath given unto you, whether our lordships are of 

" Christ or of Peter; or whether they more agree with 

" Paul or with Diotrephes : and according as you think, so 

" be a witness. And lest the subtilty of some should lead 

" you from truth, as it is plainly proved, so I will plainly 

" confute whatsoever the adversary can object against it. 

276 " They will say, that in these places ambition and tyranny 

Kuraxv^n-j- i( \,^ only forbiddcu. And to ])ersua(le you the better of 

(rioi'C'.iv : the" their learning, they will say, that the Greek word used in 

those words " ^'^^ scripture is xocTtxKugnvsiv, which signifieth to rule with 

in scripture. " severity and rigour. The like is said of the other word, 

" KUTe^oixjiu^uv. But proof of this they can possibly bring 

" none: for the words in nature are indifferent, to signify 

" well or ill. But for our proof, that in this place they sig- 

" nify a lawful rule, St. Luke useth the simple verbs, xu^<- 

" suuv, and £^ou<ria^eiv : which by nature cannot signify an 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 409 

" ambitious or tyrannical, but a lawful rule. And St. Mat- CHAP. 
" thew, as he is written in Hebrew, useth these words ; ^-^^^^^- 
*' which both signify a good government, and a maintenance Anno 1573. 
" of the inferior ; as I have learned of those that under- 
" stand the tongue. And therefore the nature of the word, 
" which openly they preach of, it is all against them in this 
" place. But let the word go, and see the matter. So the 
" vanity of their answer shall the more appear. 

" Cin-ist doth forbid that which in the commonwealth is 
" lawful ; but ambition and tyranny is lawful no where. 
," Christ forbiddeth that which was in the disciples ; but to 
" charge them with tyranny, it is to do them great wrong. 
" Christ forbiddeth to be called in title of honour, svsgyYjrrjg, 
" a good and gracious lord ; a name so far from ambition 
" and tyranny, as the office of a bishop should be from a 
" lordship. And Christ doth not bid them beware of am- 
" bition, but bids them every one to be inferior to other : 
" which is to beware of any lordship at all. And therefore 
" this answer is but to strive against truth, and to shift it 
" away under the name of tyranny ; where our Saviour 
" Christ condemneth all superiority. 

*' And therefore I beseech your honour, my very good 
" lord, be a favourer of the truth, that will prevail. The 
" scriptures that were alleged are no vain autliorities, that 
" are easily rejected, nor any dark speeches, that are hardly 
" understood. The words are written by the apostles and 
" prophets, and they have the strength of the Spirit of God. 
" They shall sound far and near, and accomplish the work 
" for which they were spoken, though all the world were 
" in arms against them. In vain we cry. The state^ the 
" state, and the commonwealth ; where indeed there is no 
" state nor no commonwealth, but a subversion of both. 
" For the lordship of a bishop hath ever been a plague- 
" sore in the state of a kingdom, and is at this day a swell- 
" ing wound, full of corruption in the body of a common- 
" wealth ; as appeareth in Scotland, France, Spain, Polonia, 
" and otherwhere. And yet if the state did require it, the 
" voice of the Lord must be obeyed, though all the king- 



410 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " doms in the earth did fall before it. God is not a man 

[ " that we may control his honour. He hath made both 

Anuo 1573. " heaven and earth; and when he shall appear, all the 
*' creatures of the world shall be moved at his presence ; 
" and the children of men shall throw down their crowns 
" before him. Let us harden our hearts as the adamant 
" stone, not to hear his counsel, yet when the force of his 
" word shall knit together again our bones and ashes, that 
" they may arise into eternal life, we shall say then, Blessed 
" is he that cometh in the name of the Lord. 
277 " For ^^y part, I can but pray according as we are 
" taught, Th?/ king-dam come. That his holy Spirit may 
" make us now obedient, whose majesty, in the time ap- 
" pointed, shall make his enemies afraid. 

" And now to shut up this long discourse, (which yet I 
" pray God it doth not make you weary,) to know better 
" the lo7dihip of a bishop, let us a little remember the ho- 
" nour of our archbishop, which is Jesus Christ. He was 
*' born of a poor woman, in a strange place; and received 
*' into an inn, and put forth into a stable, wrapt in coarse 
*' clothes, and laid in a manger ; persecuted from his swad- 
" dling clothes, into strange countries, returning home in 
*' fear, and often hiding himself; brought up in the sweat 
" of his brows, and the occupation of his father ; mocked 
" with his base parentage, and reproached with the name 
" oi beggarly Nazareth: not one of the nobihty known to 
" favour him, but a poor company, which were basely de- 
" spised. In all his greatest glory he was laughed to scorn ; 
*' and the title of his kingdom was set upon a cross of 
*' shame. And in this estate doth he not say unto his dis- 
" ciplcs, / have appointed you a kingdom, as my Father 
" hath appointed unto me ? Luke xxii. 29- And how can 
" you frame out of this pattern either pope's monarchy 
" or the bishops'' kingdoms ; either a triple crown, so 
" far above princes, or a sumptuous mitre, so unmeet for 
" apostles ? 

" Surely, my lord, this gear it will not stand. It is a 
" plant which our Father in heaven never planted ; and it 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 411 

" will be rooted out. It is of the pope, and it shall drink CHAP. 
" of the same cup of confusion ; of which the pope hath 



" begun unto them. And doubt you not but it is of the Anno 1573. 

" pope : for beside the plainness of the word of God, it is 

" also printed before your eyes, that you might see the 

" truth, though you would not hear it. For where is this 

" lordship in the greatest honour, but where the pope"'s ho- 

" liness is set highest ? Where is it abated, but where the 

"pope's head is broken.^ And where is it rejected, but 

*' where the pope is trodden under feet ? It standeth with 

" the pope ; it reigneth with the pope ; it falleth with the 

" pope ; it is shamed with the pope ; and is it not of the 

" pope ? 

" And what, I beseech you, is the fruit it bringeth ? Is Officials, 

, , ., PI 110 coiiiiuissa- 

" It not the same tliat spnngeth out 01 the pope s breast f ^ies, chan- 
*' What else are officials, commissaries, chancellors, arcJi-'^^^^^^^'^'^' 

"r Court of 

" deacons, &c. which rule and govern by the common Faculties. 

" laws ? Much worse than the statutes of Omri, and all the 

" ordinances of the house of Achab : which uphold in the 

" midst of us a court of Faculties ; a place much worse 

" than Sodom and Gomorrah. Bear with me, thpugh I 

" speak the truth. The great contrariety between the gos- 

" pel and it hath printed in our hearts such a mortal ha- 

" tred unto it, as never hereafter shall be reconciled. And 

" in all that duty which I owe unto your honour in the 

" Lord Jesu, I heartily wish that God may make you wor- 

" thy to help his truth, which will prevail, whether you 

*' help it or no. For God is the father of it, and not man ; 

" and he hath taken the care of it, and not princes. 

" But now I have to answer many thoughts, which very 2^8 
" easily will rise within vou. You will muse first of the ^''^ ^^'^^^ °^ 

•/ ... . . the pnini- 

" state of the primitive church ; and think that Augustine, the church 
" Ambrose, &c. were all bishops. To this I answer, that *^^°j^ |r^^^_ 
" if they were, yet men must not prejudice the word of pared with 
" God. True it is, they were bishops ; but this is as true, 
*' they were no lords, neither agreed with our bishops al- 
" most in any thing, save only names. I. The bishops and 
" ministers then were one in degree : now they are divers. 



412 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " II. There were many bishops in one town: now there 
" is but one in a wliole country. III. No bishop''s autho- 



Anno 1573. " rity was more than in one city : now it is in many shires. 
" IV. The bishops then used no bodily punishments : now 
" they imprison, fine, &c. V. Those bishops could not ex- 
" communicate or absolve of their own authority : now they 
" may. VI. Then, without consent, they could make no 
"ministers: now they do. Vll. They could confirm no 
" children in other parishes : they do now in many shires. 
" VIll. Then they had no living of the church, but only in 
" one congregation : now they liave. IX. Then tliey had 
" neither officials under them, nor commissaries, nor chan- 
" cellors. X. Then they dealt in no civil government by 
" any established authority. XI. Then they had no right in 
" alienating any parsonage, to give it in lease. XII. Then 
" they had the church where they served the cure, even as 
" those whom we call now parish p)'iests, although they 
*' were metropolitans or archbishops. These diversities they 
*' are very great ; and if your honour doubt in any of them, 
" when it shall please your honour, we will refuse no con- 
" ference with whom you will. 

What to be « Again, you will think, if this be thus, how were Mr. 

Craniuer, " Cranuicr, Ridley, Latymer, Hooper, &c. all bishops and 

Ridley, &c. 44 Jords .'' To tliis wc can say no more, but that the Lord 

being bi- _ -^ 

shops. " had not yet revealed it unto them ; but left them in 

" that infirmity, as he left many of his saints before them 

" in as great : and so leaveth yet a great many churches. 

" Notwithstanding we reverence their memory, and love 

" their ashes, which are buried in honour against the day of 

" Christ. 

The bishops a jf y^^ ^^.\\\ object against us the bishops of our time, 

times: what " wc may answer of them favourably, as before. We know 

\" ^"^ ■ . c " their doings : and our hope is of them as of members of 

thought of o I 

them. " the church. We love them as brethren, and honour them 

" as elders. And the Lord grant, that we have no cause to 
" call back this praise, and dare not give it them. But this 
" I must needs say, and freely confess, if I were in one of 
" their places, I should not have been so soon persuaded. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 413 

" We are all men, and born in sin. If one speak against CHAP. 
" our belly, it hath no ears ; or against our back, it hath J ; 



" no eyes. So that we will hardly see or hear a truth. But Anno 1573. 
*' if tlie consent of men of our times may help the cause, 
" then I trust it shall help us, that all reformed churches 
" are of our side : and not one of them is governed by a 
" lord bishop. But men are all men, and not meet to sit in 
"judgment of the truth of God. If there were but one 
" that built upon liis word, he alone were on the rock 
" which should never be removed. 

" The which portion and inheritance of the truth, I be- 
" seech the living God that it may be your lot. That in this 
" great blessing, in which God hath blessed you, you may 279 
" indeed be happy ; and many years may heap up, unto the 
" honour of all men, love of your brethren, favour of your 
" prince, and (which is best of all) righteousness and peace, 
" and joy of the Holy Ghost. That the necessity of death 
" may more increase your hope, and the grave may be ac- 
" ceptable, as to a child of God. 

" You see how bold I have been with ypur honour ; and 
" I am not ignorant what portion of my life I have com- 
" mitted into your hand. But I have done no more than I 
" would have done to her majesty herself, if such occasion 
" had been. For I cannot be persuaded to conceal any 
" truth from such a magistrate as feareth God, and hath 
" advanced his gospel. And if plain speech shall make you 
" favour the cause, the Lord be praised that hath wrought 
" his work in you. If you shall not yet beUeve, God hath 
" a better time to work his will. And I beseech God, in 
" these grievous times, to make me content with a good 
" conscience ; and enrich your honour with such grace, that 
" when you shall think upon him in your bed, and remem- 
" ber him in your night-watches, you may remember the 
" nights of the prophet David, and feel his joy, that is, the 
*' God of glory. Amen. Pr'uno Novembris, 1573. 

" Your honour's bounden in the Lord Jesu, 
" even as his own, 

" Edward Derino-." 



414 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK I shall make no reflections upon this letter, but leave the 
' reader to observe the zeal of these men against the constitu- 
Anno i573.tion of this church, and to weigh the strength of the argu- 
ments used against the English episcopacy. I shall only 
add, that Dering ushered in this his long letter, with an- 
other short one, dated two days after ; importing the pri- 
vacy of his writing it. 

" Gratia et pax. I meant not this letter to your honour. 
" But if God have appointed it for the best, his name be 
" praised. Read it, my good lord, I beseech you, and use 
" it as you will. I never wrote it twice : neither can it pos- 
" sibly be known to any but to your honour only. And so 
" the Lord remember me in this trouble. I wish to do 
" obediently unto you any duty, that you may know the 
" truth." 

To proceed then to his present trouble. It sprang from 

certain things said by him in the pulpit and elsewhere : for 

which he was brought before the lords of the council in the 

Star-chamber : and at a public dinner, where he read a 

chapter, and expounded it, (where Dr. Chaderton, Toy, 

Dering's the printer, and divers others were present,) " speaking 

tered by " against godfathers and godmothers: and that the statute 

iiini : for a ^f provision for the poor was no competent way devised 

which he ^ i i i , , ■ i c i 

was brought " for it. And that he could provide for the poor two ways ; 

stl° chlin " ^^^ °"^ ^^y ^y committing them to the rich, to be kept; 

her. " the other, to what purpose is this superjliiity ? and, what 

lian. ' ^' do we do with so much plate? As though he were for a 
" community of things. That he put off his cap and said, 
" Now I will prophesy, Matthew Parker is the last arch- 
" bishop that ever shall sit in that seat. To which Mr. 
" Cartwright should say, Accipio omen.'''' 
280 For which expressions he wrote a paper to the lords in 
justification of himself, urging in the first place, that in mat- 
ters of accusation, not so much the woi'ds, as the manner 
of speaking ought to be witness of the truth. And then 
he proceeded to vindicate particularly what he had said : 

Number which are contained in the Appendix. 

At this time I find, that in order to his restoration to his 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 415 

ministry, these four articles were required of him by the CHAP, 
bishops, as it seems, (of whom he desired to be judged,) to ______ 



acknowledge and subscribe, viz. that the book, of Articles Anno 1573. 
agreed upon in the synod, 1563, was sound, and according Articles 
to the word of God. 2. That the queen''s majesty was the to sub- 
chief p'overnor, next under Christ, of this church of Eng;- scnbe. 

, , . . . .... ? Part of a 

land, as well in ecclesiastical as in civil causes. 3. That m Regist. 
the Book of Common Prayer was nothing evil or repug- 
nant to the word of God ; but that it might be well used 
in this our church of England. And 4. That the public 
preaching of the word of God in this church was sound and 
sincere ; and the public order in the ministration of the sa- 
craments was consonant to the word of God. To these he 
sent in his answer, writ with his own hand, December 16. 
That as he had promised to set down his mind, how far he 
would yield in any thing he should be required, so accord- 
ingly he had done to those articles which were sent unto 
him : not simply yielding to them, he said, in the very 
words, as they were set down, nor yet so far declining from 
them, as to give any a just offence of disagreement. Then 
he lays down certain exceptions against all but the second 
article. And then, in the conclusion, he declares, concerning 
his conformable behaviour, viz. that while any law did bind His peace- 
him to wear cap and surplice, he wore both. But that when conform- 
he was at liberty, he would not wear them of devotion. And ^^''^ ^<ih^- 

viour. 

that since, he never persuaded any man to refuse them. 

That for the service book, he preached not against it. That 

he came to church to hear the prayers ; and according to 

the book, he would, and willingly did, come to the Lord''s 

supper. But I refer the reader for these matters at large, to 

a book called. Part of a registe?- of sundry memorable Twa^-Page si. 

ters^ &c. 

There were also divers other articles ministered to him other ar- 
in this court of Star-chamber, to the number of twenty, for nistered to 
more exact search and inquiry into his principles and opin-^'°' '" t^e 
ions concerning the church, and its usages, practices, andber. 
clergy, and concerning the queen's authority. As, I. Whe- 
ther the book entitled. The Book of Common Pi-ayer, al- 
lowed bv public authority in this realm, is to be allowed in 



416 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK the church of God, by God's word, or no. II. Whether 
the article set down by the clergy in a synod, and allowed 



Anno 1573. by authority, be according to God's word. III. Whether 
we be tied by God's word to the order and use of the 
apostles and primitive church in all things. IV. Whether 
there be any right ministry or ecclesiastical government at 
this time in the church of England. V. Whether nothing 
may be in the church, either concerning ceremonies or re- 
giment, but only that which the Lord himself in his word 
commandeth. VI. Whether every particular church or pa- 
rish in this realm of England, of necessity, and by the or- 
der of God's word, ought to have their pastors, elders, and 
deacons, chosen by the people of that their parish ; and they 
281 only to have the whole government of the church in matters 
ecclesiastical. VI I. Whether there is equality of all the mi- 
nisters of this realm, as well concerning government and ju- 
risdiction, as touching the ministration of the word and 
sacraments. VIII. Whether the patrimony of ancient time 
given to the church, for the maintaining of learning and 
the service of God ; and to maintain the state ecclesias- 
tical; as bishops' lands, the lands pertaining to cathedral 
churches, the glebe lands and tithes, by order of law, given 
to parsons and vicars, are, by right and God's word, to 
be taken from them. IX. Whether the ministers of this 
realm, of what calling soever, now in place, allowed by the 
laws and orders of this realm, be lawful ministers : and 
whether their administration and ecclesiastical actions be 
lawful and effectual. X. Whether, at a marriage, it is not 
convenient to have a communion ; and convenient for the 
new married persons to connnunicate : and at a funeral to 
have a sermon. XL Whether it be lawful for any man to 
preach, but he that is a pastor ; and he only to preach to 
his own flock ; or that that man may preach without a li- 
cence. XII. Whether it be better, and more agreeable to 
God's word, and more convenient for the profit of God's 
church, that a prescript order of common prayer be used ; 
or that every minister pray publicly, as his own spirit shall 
direct him. XIII. Whether children of such as be perfect 
papists arc to be baptized. And whether infants are within 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 417 

the compass of God's covenant, and have,.faith. XIV. Whe- CHAP, 
ther any ecclesiastical person may have more ecclesiastical 



livings than one. XV. Whether one may be a minister Anno 1573. 
that ha'jli no peculiar flock assigned unto him ; and whe- 
ther an ecclesiastical person may exercise also a civil func- 
tion. XVI. Whether all the commandments of God and of 
the apostles are needful for salvation. XVII. Whether the 
queen of England hath authority over the ecclesiastical 
state, and in ecclesiastical matters, as well as over the civil 
state. XVIII. Whether the queen of England be chief 
governor, under Christ, over the whole church and state 
ecclesiastical in this realm, or but a member of the same. 
And whether the church of England may be established 
without a magistrate. XIX. Whether the queen of Eng- 
land be bound to observe the judicial laws of Moses con- 
cerning the punishing and remitting of criminal offences. 
XX. Whether the queen of England may of herself, and 
of her own authority, assign and appoint civil officers, or 
no. 

To all which Mr. Dering- gave distinct and free answers 
at large : which are also extant in the said register ; with 
this preface to them: " That he humbly beseeched their ho- 
" nours to remember his former protestation. That he never 
" preached against this Book of [Common] Prayers ; and 
" that in his own book, extant in print, he had once spoken 
" to the good allowance of it. Further, that he resorted to 
" common prayers ; and sometimes, being requested, he 
" did, according as it was prescribed, say the prayers. If, 
" notwithstanding, he should be urged now to speak what 
" he thought, whereby he might seem to be called to a 
*' form of inquisition, as there was no law, by which God 
" had tied him of duty to be his own accuser ; so he be- 
" seeched their honours to let this his answer rather witness 282 
" his obedience and humble duty, than be prejudicial, to his 
" hurt and hinderance." 

Mr. Moor, a puritan preacher in the city of Norwich, Moor con- 
was of great vogue, and very popular m that city about pem's ser- 
this time : this man, upon a sermon Dr. Pern of Cambridge """^j,,.,, ^^ 

VOL. II. EC Nonvicli. 



418 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK had preached in the cathedral, took upon him the next 
^" Sunday to confute the doctrine he had preached ; not so 



Anno 1573. agreeable undoubtedly to some puritan principles: and so 

intended to proceed in a further confutation thereof. This 

presently gn-ew to some jars among the citizens, according as 

they stood affected. Which caused Dr. Gardiner, one of the 

prebendaries there, (of whom more hereafter,) prudently to 

inform the bishop (then at Ludham) hereof; and that he 

would write to Moor, and admonish him to go no further 

in the pulpit against Pern ; which otherwise, he said, must 

breed some trouble. Which practice was very common in 

those times in the pulpits of the universities, and St. Paul's, 

and other churches. 

Ecciesiasti- Cartwright, another noted puritan, and obnoxious at this 

sion send time, had given great offence by his public readings and 

forth an or- ^yj.jj.|j^g.g against the constitution of the church, and was still 

der to seize . . ... ■• 

Cartwright. unquiet after his discharge from the university ; insomuch 
that the queen was very angry with him, and would have 
him brought to his trial, to answer for his dealings and mis- 
demeanours. For whom there was now therefore issued out 
a strict order from the commissioners ecclesiastical to take 
him up, in pursuance, I suppose, of the proclamation against 
the Admonition to the parliament, and his vindication of it. 
The said order for the seizing of him was as followeth : 

" To all mayors, sheriffs, bailiffs, constables, headborottghs, 

'* and to all other of the queen'' s majesiifs officers, unto 

" whom this may come or appertain : to every one of 

" them, as well within the liberties as without. 

Mss. G. " We do require you, and therewith straitly command 

Petyt, arm. a jq^^ ^jj^j every of you, in the queen's majesty's name, 

" that you be aiding and assisting to the bearer and bearers 

" hereof, with all the best means that you can devise, for 

" the apprehension of one Thomas Cartwright, student in 

" divinity, wheresoever he be, within liberties, or without, 

" within the realm. And you having possession of his body 

" by your good travail and diligence in this behalf, we do 

" likewise charge you, (for so is her majesty's pleasure,) 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 419 

" that he be brought up by you to London, with a suffi- CHAP. 
*' cient number, for his safe appearance before us, and other 



her majesty's commissioners of Oyer and Terminer in Anno 1573. 
" causes ecclesiastical, for his unlawful dealings and de- 
" meanours in matters touchino- religion and the state of 
*' this realm. And this fail you not to do, every one of 
*' you, with all diligence, as you will answer to the contrary 
*' upon your utmost perils. From London this 11th day of 
" December, 1573. 

" Edw. London. John Rivers, mayor. Wil. Cordel, 
" [master of the rolls.] Rob. Catlyn. Gilb. Gerard, 
" [attorney -general.] Tho. Wylson, [master of re- 
" quests.] Leonel Ducket. Alex. Nowel, [dean of 
" St. Paurs.] Gabriel Goodman, [dean of Westmin- 
" ster.] Tho. Seckford. Tho. Bromley, [solicitor- 
" general.] Will, Fleetwood, [recorder.]" 



CHAP. XXIX. 283 

The p7-ivy council warns those of the Dutch church against 
receiving any puritans. That church''s answer. Letters 
between Rod. Gualter, an Helvetian divine, and the bi- 
shops of Ely and Norwich, concerning the puritans. The 
papists groxv confident. Fears and Jealousies of them. 
The high esteem hadjbr the city of ZuricK', and the di- 
vines of that city. A commission for executing of Bir- 
chet by martial laxo. The eai-l of Sussex to the lord trea- 
surer to prevent it. The qtiee7i's order for his examina- 
tion. A husbandman comes to the bishop of Noricichfor 
orders : refused. A gentleman hath xvoi-ds ivith the bi- 
shop about it : reconciled. A puritan stands to be school- 
master at Aylsham : refused by the bishop : and xvhy. 

x\T this time the lords of the privy council directed a let- Puritans 
ter in Latin, at good length, to the ministers and elders of ^^^^q|[^^,', 
the Dutch church in London. The occasion was, a suspi- cimrcii. 
cion of seditious spirits, that might shroud themselves un- 
der that church, and enter themselves into their commu- 

E e 2 



420 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK nion. The queen indeed had apprehensions, that those in- 
novating persons that were now very busy, might cause 
Anno 1573. those of that church to misuse the privileges, that she, out 
of compassion of their persecutions in their own countries, 
had granted tliem ; they thinking to ingratiate themselves 
with the Dutch, because their devices seemed more con- 
formable to their customs than our forms. 
The lords Tj^g lords put them in mind of the queen's pious commi- 
cii write seration of their condition, that had fled for the cause of re- 
*° ^'''j! ligion into her kingdom, and of the protection she willingly 
to receive had granted them ; and that she therefore expected from 
Etx^Beific t^i^^^ such returns of services and dutiful behaviour, as be- 
Lond, came thankful persons and good subjects. They spake fa- 
vourably of the different practice of their public worship 
from ours ; as all other churches had their variovis customs 
and usages. Non ignoramus variis ecclesiis varios et di- 
ver sos Jam ah initio Christianai religionis semper Juisse 
ritus ac ceremonias : diim hi stantes, illi in genua proci- 
dentes, alii jJt'oni procumbentcs, adorant et jjrecantur. Et 
tamen eadcm pietas est ac religio, si vere^ et ad verum 
Deiim, oratio tendat, absitqne impictas ac supcrstitio, S^-c. 
^SA Non contcmnimus ritus vestros, ncqiie vos ad nostros cogi- 
miis : prohamusque ceremonias vestras, ut vohis et vestrcB 
reip. Wide orti estis, aptas et convenientes, S^c. " And that 
" they were not ignorant, that from the very beginning of 
" the Christian religion, various churches had their various 
" and divers rites and ceremonies. That in their service and 
" devotions, some stood, some kneeled, others prostrated 
" themselves. And yet the piety and religion the same, if 
" they truly, and to the true God, directed their prayers 
" without impiety and superstition." They added in their 
letter, " That they contemned not their rites, neither did 
" they compel them to those used in the English church. 
" And that they approved their ceremonies as fit and con- 
" venient for them, and that state whence they sprang. And 
" therefore they expected in like manner, that that congre- 
" gation should not despise those customs, that out of godly 
" principles, by the labour of wise and learned men, had 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 421 

" been established in this church, and confirmed by the CHAP. 
" blood of many martyrs ; and now a long time settled 



" here. Anno 1573. 

" And therefore admonished them, that they should give 
" no countenance to a sort of tumultuous and unquiet 
" people, who would fain bring in a confusion into the 
" church, nor approve of any of their doings. Nor would 
" they suspect them to be guilty of such imprudence or in- 
" constancy of wisdom. And that they should avoid any 
" thing that might create a suspicion in them, of disturb- 
" ing the peace of this estate and church. And that their 
" wisdom would suggest to them, that such a behaviour 
" might move the queen, who had upon the account of re- 
" ligion received them into her kingdom, to banish them 
" out of it. And so, in fine, they warned them against any 
" such, whether English or of themselves, that endeavoured 
" to blow up such sparks of discord, and to drive them from 
" their flock. And particularly, not to receive into their 
" communion any of this realm that offered to join with 
" them, and leave the custom and practice of their native 
" country." 

And this, in conclusion, they wrote to them out of good- 
will, to prevent any cause of offence, or suspicion of ingra- 
titude or disobedience towards her gracious majesty ; and 
in order to their living here in peace and security : and 
they of the council would be ready to shew them all fa- 
vour. 

The said church prudently caused this letter to be pub- The answer 
licly read in their congregation ; and soon gave a very putdi 
humble and grateful answer, as it concerned them. First, cimrch to 
" Thanking the queen, and their honours, for their mani- eii's letter. 
" fold favours, and the whole kingdom's civility towards 
" them, a company of poor strangers; and that their in- 
*' habiting in the realm found such acceptance ; nor that 
" they were yet weary in shewing them their benevolence. 
" And particularly, they mention the favour of allowing 
" them their accustomed ceremonies in their religious wor- 
" ship, in their own language, being united with the Eng- 

Ee3 



422 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
I. 



Anno 1573. 



285 



lish in matters of doctrine. They hoped, that there 
should not be any occasion given by them to the queen 
or their lordships, to repent of these kindnesses vouch- 
safed them : adding, that it should appear, their honours 
had not been mistaken in their good opinion of them. 
They prayed, that it would please them not to believe or 
regard malicious reports to their prejudice : for that they 
countenanced no such tumultuous people, nor approved 
either of their words or actions. That they were none 
of those that despised the ceremonies of other churches ; 
and that submission was due to what a pious magistracy 
had established, and what they judged was most fit for 
the people, and that tended to. the promoting of god- 
liness. 

'^ That they knew it became not them to be curious 
in other people's matters; much less to encourage any 
changes, or any persons in making them. And the care 
thereof they left to them whom God had ordained for 
the same ; and who by experience best knew what was 
fittest for them who were committed to their charge. 
That for themselves, they promised that they would take 
all care not to do any thing that might give any suspi- 
cion or just offence to the queen or them. And that ac- 
cording to their commands, they would discharge out of 
their communion men of such tumultuous tempers, if 
there should be any : and that no English should be ad- 
mitted among them, who on such principles sought to se- 
parate themselves from the religious customs of their own 
coinitry. That they had but four of the English nation 
in their church: and of each they gave account: two 
whereof had been exiles ; and ever since their return had 
remained with them." This whole letter, with the former 
om the council, remain yet in the archives of the same 
Dutch church in Augustin friars, London. And as they 
were translated from the Dutch, and communicated to me 

T?'"^-???'"^' by one of the ancient elders thereof^, I have thought worthy 

dert. to place in the Appendix. 

Guaitcr of 'pj^jg matter with the puritans (such, I mean, as withdrew 

Zunc writ- ^ ^ 



N». XXIX, 
XXX. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 423 

from our divine service, because of the ceremonies) was CHAP, 
agitated hotly this year, as hath partly been shewed. And 



here I must mention a course that these disaffected men Anno 1573. 
took : which was to appeal to the reformed churches *f'' ^° ,'^'" 

rr ^ shop Cox 

abroad ; particularly that of Geneva and Helvetia ; which concerning 
they did some years ago, as may be seen at large in the^jj^g 
Annals of the Reformation. Whereof the divines of Hel-Voi. i. 
vetia were of great esteem with ours; and that justly too, 
who had so christianly and kindly received and entertained 
them in the late popish reign ; divers whereof were now bi- 
shops. Rodolphus Gualter, one of the chief ministers of 
Zuric, in that country, had been prevailed withal to send 
letters to some of these bishops in their behalf, for some fa- 
vour to be shewn them. Which caused ours to write again 
to him ; to open to him the true state of the unhappy dif- 
ferences and divisions in this church ; and to vindicate the 
proceedings used by the government. Of which. Cox, bi- 
shop of Ely, had written at large to him ; dilating upon the 
unhappy condition of the English church, by reason of the 
present contentions raised in it, by imposing the garments, 
and some other ceremonies, indifferent in themselves ; and 
shewed him fully the state of the controversy. And then 
excited him, according to his wisdom and learning, to write 
a serious letter into England about it. Whereupon Gual- 
ter, in his answer to the said bishop, being more perfectly 
instructed in these matters, shewed his utter dislike and dis- 
allowance of those men, for making such contentions in the 
English church, for such weak causes, as those indifferent 
things required, were ; and excusing himself for a former 
letter in favour of them, as not truly understanding the 
case : for this I refer the reader to archbishop Parker's ^'^^, °^ , 

'■ Archbishop 

Life, where this letter may be read. Parker, 

For this letter, and for another, written some years be- ^j^^g""' 
fore, to another bishop, bishop Parkhurst, in a more mo- 286 
derate style, this pious foreign divine was censured by Bishop 
some here at home. Divers there were that disliked, that ^^^^^^ ^^ 
this foreigner should concern himself in these affairs of our Gnaiter. 

^ .11 MSS.Joh. 

church : and they were such as wished that such stress d. Episc. 

E e 4 E"""- 



424 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK might not be laid upon ceremonies; but that in due time 
^' they might be wholly laid aside ; and a reformation be 
Anno 1573. made in this church more conformable to that of other 
churches; and especially that of Zuric. Gualter''s great 
friend, the said bishop Parkhurst, seems to have been one 
of these. But these censures created a trouble to that mo- 
dest, learned man ; and made him wish, that he had wholly 
forborne writing his said letters, since they were no better 
interpreted. But Parkhurst comforted him, telling him, he 
shoyld not repent his letter writ to him on that argument 
in the year 1566. Which was scarce sharp and vehement 
enouffh, as he said: " For that some of his brethren then 
" were esteemed too rigid and severe. And that now, this 
" year, 1573, some were esteemed too much addicted to ce- 
" remonies. But whatsoever it were, none as he knew, ac- 
" cused him [i. e. Gualter] of lenity : nor, as he judged, 
" ought any one, if he would weigh in an even balance 
" both letters, viz. that to him and that to the bishop of 
" Ely : and that for his part, (as the bishop proceeded,) he 
" did not disapprove of the ceremonies of our church : for 
" he thought them indifferent ; but [speaking his mind more 
" freely in this his private letter to his intimate friend] he 
" could wish, he said, all were like to his church of Zuric." 
Again, to And in another letter to the said Gualter, dated Fe- 
concerniiiT bruary 4, speaking of the bishop of Ely''s letter to him, he 
Cox's letter, f J. jgj^(jjy gave him this advice: Quid D. Eliensis ad te 
scrijiserit, vel quid potius per I'lteras abs te extorserit^ 
ignoro. Certe, mi Giialterc, nolm., nt te nimium hisce rebus 
Jrivolis immisceas. Non equidem nostras cercmonias^ auf 
vestitum, imjrrobo; sed res adiaphoras Judico. At, o utinam, 
utinam, tandem aliquando omnes Angii ecclesiam Tigu- 
rinam^ tanquam ahsolutissimum exemplar, imitandam, sibi 
serio, propotierent. Int. Epist. D. Parkhurst. " That he 
" knew not what my lord of Ely had writ to hin), or rather 
" what he had forced fi-om him by his letters. But truly, 
" my Gualter, I would not have you too much mingle 
*' yourself in these frivolous matters. Not that I disallow 
" of our ceremonies or habits; but I judge them to be 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 425 

" things indifferent. But O! would to God, would to God, CHAP, 
" once at last all the English people would in good earnest 



" propound to themselves to follow the church of Zuric, as Anno 1573. 
" the most absolute pattern." 

Dr. Whitgift was now busy in writing his Defence of his Whitgift 
book against the Admonition ; and hearing that bishop Guaiter's 
Parkhurst had received letters from the said Gualter, and ^'^"'^'"s- 
supposing he had wrote something in them of these present 
controversies, prayed him that he would conmiunicate to 
him those letters ; or at least a copy of them. But the said 
bishop thought fit to yield him neither. The reason, I sup- 
pose, was in favour of his friend, who cared no more to be 
brought upon the stage. For this he mentioned to that di- 
vine ; and added, concerning the said Whitgift, that if any287 
thing made for the ceremonies, he presently clapped it into 
his book, and printed it. 

He gave Gualter also this further intelligence, as the ef- The papists 
feet of these differences among; the professors of the j.g_ ** "^"' ^ 'em- 
formed religion in England. " That great dissensions were confidently 

,, • 1 , 1 , 1 • 1 1 than l)efore. 

" now arisen between the protestants and papists here, and 
" daily did arise : [more boldly, it seems, shewing them- 
" selves.] And that the papists lifted up their crests, and 
" triumphed, as though they had gotten the victory against 
" the protestants : while the protestants walked dejected 
*' and sorrowful. And that at this time there were not a 
" few preachers that had laid down their cures of souls 
" committed to them, and left them to wolves and idiots. 
" And that if he asked him the cause, it was, in truth, be- 
" cause they would not use the linen garment called a sur- 
" plice. Which counsel of theirs," added the bishop, " I do 
" not at all approve." 

To which I will subjoin what the same bishop wrote in Fears from 
the month of February to another of the ministers of that P'^P'f *• 

*' _ Parkhurst 

church of Zuric, namely, Bullinger, " That there were new to BuUin- 
*' and severe edicts or proclamations lately published against ^^"^^ 
" such, Avho either contemned our ceremonies, or refused to 
" observe them. And then prayed, God give it a good 
" issue, and have mercy upon all the churches of Christ. 
" Faxit Deus, nc lateat anguis in hcrba.'''' 



426 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK All this shews the great respect our English divines, and 
'• many of the bishops, shewed to those of Helvetia; between 



Anno 1573. whom there was a continual intercourse of letters. Bullinger, 
*'"''T in a letter to bishop Parkhurst, had wrote, that he was that 

spondence '_ . i • i i u" 

of the bi- year in the seventieth year of his age : to which that bi- 
Nonv°ch s^^op, in his next letter to that reverend father, answered, 
with Bui- that he wished he might live to an hundred, for the church's 

linger. , 

sake. 
His esteem Concerning this Bullinger, and that Gualter, before men- 
^o/zunc'^^ tioned, with the other learned and godly men there at Ty- 

gur or Zuric, thus did Parkhurst, while he dwelt among 

them in his exile, describe them to Cole, a learned man of 

Oxford : 

De Bullmgero, Bibliandro, Martyre, Zanclio, 
Et Gualthero, Gesnero, de Pelicano, 
Nostrum judicium sijbrsan. Cole, requiris; 
Hos ego doctrina eximios, pietate gravesque, 
Judico, qiteis similes perpaiicos hie hahet orbis. 

And of the city itself, this was the praise he gave of it, in 
a copy of verses to Harley, bishop of Hereford, while he 
sojourned there: 

Urbs habet Helveticce me nunc primarta gentis ; 

Urbs plane armlpotens, pacts amica tamen. 
Urbs fecunda pits verbi prt^conibus, atri 

Urbs expers odii, ccedis, avaritice. 
Urbs, e qua pulsa est Venus, Ate, pulsus lacchus. 

Urbs minime Jlagrans ambitione, dolo. 
Urbs, qu(B blasphemos punit, litesque resolvit, 

Urbs, pictatis amans, justiticeque tenax. 
288 Urbs, evangelii quce plantat dogmata sacri; 

Urbs, in qucp nulla estjrrda supcrstitio. 
O! si olim talis tellus Brittannajiiisset, 

Extera regna pits non adeundajbrent, SfC. 

Rirchef s A great cause of these proclamations and strict charges, 

prov'oket'^^ proceeding from the queen and her council, against the pu- 

t he queen ritaiiical sect, was the horrible fact of Burchet, a great 

pS'itans. zealot this way ; who thought it lawful to kill such as op- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. ¥21 

posed them in their endeavours to bring in their model CHAP, 
and disciphne : and accordingly, in the heat of his zeal, as- ^^^^' 



sassinated a courtier in the streets, thinking him to be Mr. Anno 1573. 
Hatton ; though it proved to be Hawkins, one of the cap- 
tains of the queen's navy. Concerning which act, some- 
thing hath been related by me elsewhere. This wicked Life of Bi- 
principle of murdering for God's sake, the queen appre- ^er, b. iv. 
hended so much danger in, as that of her own life, as well '^^^P- ^xxiv. 
as of others of chief rank about her, and so enraged her, 
that at first she commanded this murderer to be imme- 
diately executed by martial law : and a commission for that 
purpose was drawn up. And this she resolved to do, as her 
sister queen Mary had done, in that severe reign, toward 
Wyat : especially having heard it by report of the earl of 
Leicester, and he from the admiral ; yet not with any their 
approbation of such rigorous doings. 

So the queen, in her great closet, at service therein, gave She is 
order to Mr. Secretary to bring to her the commission for ™ e"ule h?m 
execution of this man by the martial law, to be signed by by martial 
her after dinner. But the earl of Sussex, lord chamberlain, 
and the lord admiral, were much against it. And the lord 
treasurer was not then at court, whose only advice was then 
Avanted to prevent it. The earl therefore, even while he 
was at dinner, wrote to him, it being the 28th of October. 
" First, praying God to put it into the queen's heart to do 
" the best, and then acquainting him with particulars. As, 
" that the lord admiral was greatly grieved with the speech, 
" that he should devise it, when as he was directly against 
" it : that indeed he had told my lord of Leicester of the 
" execution done in London in the rebellion of Wyat, but 
" he never told it to the queen : that the earl of Arundel 
'' was also very vehement against it in speech to him, [the 
" lord chamberlain.] He added. That the queen asked for 
" the lord treasurer, and seemed to look for his being at 
*' court, because it was holyday." At length, by the coun- 
sel, as it seems, of the lord treasurer, the queen set aside 
that purpose of hers, of Birchet's speedy execution after that 
manner ; and he had time given him for divers days after. 



428 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK Wlio shewed at length some repentance of his villainous 

^- act; but afterwards repented of his repentance, and justified 

Anno 1573. his doings. Which exceedingly provoked the queen : espe- 

The queen ciallv havino", bv prolonfifing of his life somewhat longer, given 

orders that -^ »' ^ I O & ts ' o 

he be strict- occasiou to another horrible murder, committed by him ; 

lyexainined. j^3^j-,^p]y_^ killing his keeper. She had a mind more fully to 

sift the man, and to learn whence he had imbibed these 

wretched principles ; therefore she would have him severely 

and accurately examined, both by lawyers and divines. And 

289 this she shewed to the lord chamberlain to be her pleasure. 

And that in order thereunto, he should write unto the lord 

treasurer. Which he did the 11th of November, (the day 

before Birchet's execution,) to this tenor : 

The lord " That the queeif s majesty had commanded him to sig- 

w^'Tet'- " "ify unto him, [the said lord treasurer,] that all the 

ter to the «' means that might be, should be used to examine Birchet 

surer about " this night, and to-morrow in the morn before he was to 

'^- " be executed, of the matters ensuing : viz. Whether he 

" did still continue in the detestable opinion which he did 

*' before recant .'' Whom he knew to be of that opinion be- 

" side himself.'* Whether any person were privy to his in- 

" tention to kill Mr. Hatton ? Whether he knew any per- 

" son, beside himself, that had any such intention ? Whe- 

" ther he thought, when he killed his keeper, that he had 

" killed Mr. Hatton ; and what moved him to it ? What 

" had moved him to alter from repenting of his former de- 

" testable acts and opinion ; for the which he had asked 

" pardon of God, of the queen's majesty, of Mr. Hatton, 

*' and of Mr. Hawkins .'' And, to the end the matter might 

" be the more substantially handled, the lord chamber- 

*' lain added, That her highness would have Mr. Solicitor, 

" and the recorder of London, with such other grave men 

" as his lordship [the lord treasurer] should think fittest 

" to examine him very diligently and exquisitely. And 

" also the dean of Paul's, if he were in London, or the 

" dean of Westminster, with such other godly preachers 

*' as his lordship should think fit, to persuade him, for 

" the disburdening of his conscience, and the avoiding of 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 429 

" damnation, to utter the truth in all these matters. Where- CHAP. 
" by her majesty conceived he might be brought to utter all 



" the truth, and to discover all false practices, if such had Anno 1573. 
" been in this matter." 

In this discourse, it is remarkable, the lord chamberlain 
moved her majesty, that Dering or Sampson (if the other 
could not get that which she desired to find) might deal 
with him : to whom, perhaps, as the lord chamberlain sug- 
gested, for the credit and esteem he had of them, he would 
upon their persuasion utter them sooner than to any other. 
But her majesty would not allow of it. 

As for the bishops of the church, they did what in them Laymen 
lay, to take away any thing that might justly give offence : notalimit- 
as in the regulation of their courts, and in requiring com- ted into 

, . , , „ , .... holy orders. 

petent learnmg, and study at one 01 the universities, in 
those that hereafter were to be admitted into the ministry ; 
as well as for their morals. For before these days, near the 
beginning of queen Elizabeth''s reign, and for some years after, 
the bishops were fain sometimes to admit into holy orders 
laymen, and such as formerly had followed trades or hus- 
bandry, and that were but of little learning. Yet if they 
were sober, and of honest lives, friends to the religion, and 
could read well, they would ordain them readers or dea- 
cons, to supply small cures; very many in these times being 
wholly vacant. This was the reason that many times unfit 
men got into the church. But this was much complained 
of; and not without cause. And the bishops resolved, as 
much as they could, to redress this abuse ; refusing hence- 
forth to admit any such to orders, unless so qualified, as be- 
fore. Some canons being made for that purpose, the bishop 
of Norwich had a trial of this, this year ; as I find among 29O 
his letters. 

Mr. Will. Heydon, a gentleman of good quality in Nor- Which oc- 
folk, an earnest professor of religion, and a dear friend of ^^,^3 ^^^^^ 
that bishop, comes in June to Ludham, where the bishop '"«! wiUi 
abode, and brings with him an old man, formerly an hus- of Norwich, 
bandman, past his labour, spent in the turmoils of the 
world, that understood little or no Latin, to be made a mi- 



430 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
I. 

Anno 1573 



Number 
XXXI. 

[XXXI.] 
Mr. Hey- 
don's let- 
ter, desir- 
ing recon- 
ciliatioQ. 



nister. But whatever the sohcitations of Mr. Heydon were 
with his friend the bishop, his obhgations to tlie good of his 
diocese, and care of the church, were such, as he would not 
admit this man into orders. Whereat the gentleman grew 
angry, and the bishop, naturally somewhat hasty, was as 
high ; and very sharp words passed between them : and so 
they parted. Which pleased the adversary : and it proved 
a country talk. But such was the good and truly gospel 
spirit both of the one and the other, that they were both 
within a short time reconciled again : and Heydon, who 
seemed to give the first cause, (being returned home to 
Holt,) first made the offer of reconciliation; upon this pious 
consideration of his, that the enemy might not blaspheme. 
And the good bishop was as ready, with all joy and cheer- 
fulness, to embrace the offer. Allow me therefore to recite 
both their letters, containing in them so much of the true 
Christian temper of brotherly love and condescension : I 
have reposited them in the Appendix. 

The short contents of Mr. Hey don's letter were, "That 
" coming home, he met with some company that ripped up 
" the bishop's circumstances from the top to the bottom, 
" with no little joy ; and that they were much pleased at 
" the difference that had happened between them. He, 
" upon this, considered the zeal of his lordship, and his own 
" also, towards the gospel. And earnestly tendering his 
" lordship's good estate, it put him upon the thoughts how 
" meet and convenient it was that they should be reconciled. 
" And that therefore, though perhaps he might have for- 
" got the duty he owed to his lordship, and that his lord- 
" ship also might have administered some cause for his 
" choler ; yet now considering his duty towards him, [the 
" bishop,] and what credit his dealing ought to win towards 
*' the gospel, and to prevent the pleasure the common 
" enemy, the papist, might take at these jarrings among 
" the chief professors of it ; he, for his part, for what sharp 
" words he had spoken, acknowledged his own infirmity, 
*' and begged his lordship's pardon. And so prayed his 
" lordship to acquit him with a line or two, to the satisfac- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 431 

" tion and quieting of his mind; he making as good ac- CHAP. 
" count of him, as the chiefest bishop in the land." XXlX. 

The bishop, within two or three days"' space, gave him an- Anno 1573. 
swer in a most obhginff Christian manner : shewing; him, "How ^ ''^^ ^'' 

*= " . to ' liops 

" glad he was, and thanked God for it, that he had moved Christian 

" that gentleman's heart so speedily, and, as it were, before ^"*^^^'' 

" the sun''s going down, to forethink himself of something 

" that had been lately done at his house. And then vindi- 

" eating himself in his refusal of that old man, prayed him 

" to bear with him, though he agreed not with him in mat- 

" ters that were in his judgment offensive to God and his own 

" conscience, and slanderous to the church. And bid him re- 

" member that saying, Amiais, sed usque ad arasy And com- 29 1 

ing at length to argue with him about the matter, he asked 

him, " Whether he ought to go clean contrary to that, to 

" which he and all the bishops had subscribed. That his esti- 

" mation would have been much impaired, if he should have 

" granted that request of his. O! Mr. Heydon," added he, 

" I and all other bishops have made too many such. Ne- 

" cessity drave us to do the same. But to continue so to 

" do, it were a fault too heinous. And of late years he 

" had taken great care in that behalf, and so he intended 

" to continue, by God's grace. And then, after some pe- 

" riods, in conclusion he declared to him, that he forgat all, 

" and forgave all unfeignedly : and that he did heartily re- 

" joice to understand the same of him : and lastly, sub- 

" scribed himself, his assured loving friend in Christ."" 

About this time something happened, (wherein the same A living 
bishop was also concerned,) in which I cannot but observe "ng'inX^rj 
the care that was taken by some patrons in these times, that keeper Ba- 
is, such of them as looked upon it as a great trust, and so for want of 
used a conscience, what clerks they preferred to their bene- ^ ^^ '^^'^^^' 
fices, that might be capable and fitly qualified to teach and 
instruct, officiate and give good example to their flocks : and 
so took greater and longer deliberation, before they made 
their choice : or, perhaps, for the want of suflficient clerks in 
those times, out of which to make a choice. One of these 
conscientious patrons I look upon the lord keeper Bacon to 



432 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK be, who had kept the Hvingof Stifkey, in the diocese of the 
^' said bishop, in his hands, vacant now near six months, and 
Anno 1573. so ere long like to lapse to the bishop. To whom therefore 
the lord keeper, in August, sent his letter, not to take that 
advantage ; and that, not having yet a fit clerk to present to 
it, and being now ready to lapse, he would grant him some 
longer time. The obliging answer the bishop gave that 
lord was, " That he would grant him his own whole six 
" months. And that as he was many ways most bounden 
" unto his honour for many benefits, so he was most glad, 
" when any ways he might shew himself thankful for the 
" same : who neither had, nor was able to do it hitherto. 
" That his honour should command his term of six months, 
" for bestowing of his benefice. In which time, nothing, he 
" said, should be attempted to the prejudice of his lord- 
" ship''s interest, or the hinderance of his honourable good 
" purpose, in the placing of an able person : which the 
" good bishop heartily wished, as well for the benefit of the 
" inhabitants, as the neighbours adjoining." And so he was 
persuaded Mr. Nathaniel Bacon [who was the said lord 
keeper"'s son, and to whom he had sent a letter also] would 
have a care thereof. 

Such a conscientious care, I presume, was that also of the 
learned and religious secretary of state, sir Tho, Smith, that 
the schools should be supplied with able men, for the teach- 
ing and instructing the youth of the nation in learning and 
Christian manners : who, in the same month, sent to the 
same bishop, recommending one Johnson to the free-school 
of Aylsham in Norfolk. 

The answer sent by the same person was to this tenor: 
' That the order and foundation of that school was, for the 
' bailiff and headboroughs to present, and the bishop to ad- 
' mit. And that if the bearer should be named and elect- 
' ed, as afore was said, he would be ready to further him. 
' And would admit him, upon the trial of his ability ; and 
' the rather, in that it pleased his honour to commend him ; 
' being every way ready to gratify his honour." 
But by what I have further to relate concerning the pro- 



Secretary 

Smith re- 
commends 
a school- 
master for 
Aylsham 
school. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 433 

viding for this school, the bishop shewed his care of the CHAP, 
schools in his diocese, and his caution, whom he admitted to ^^^^- 
the education of youth, as well as to be ministers, for the ^""o 1573. 
instruction and edification of the people. 

Before Johnson's recommendation to the bishop for this The bishop 
school of Aylsham, one Robert Harrison, M. A. living nLve^dto'*' 
there, a man of some learning, but a puritan, had obtained ^^""'^ =* P"" 
so much favour of several of the aldermen of Norwich, that"^' ^° " ' " 
they recommended him to the bishop, to appoint and con- 
firm him in that place. But this man had but a little before 
shewed his disaffection to the hturgy of the church, by re- 
fusing to have some parts of the oflice of matrimony used at 
his marriage : and thereupon declined to let the minister of 
the parish perform the office. But, notwithstanding, when 
he afterwards promised more conformity and obedience, 
Tho. Peck, mayor, Drue Drury, Francis Roberts, John 
Aldrich, aldermen, wrote a letter to the bishop, to grant his 
consent for the placing of the said Harrison to be school- 
master in the said school : whom they styled an honest, 
learned man : adding, that they had lately conference with 
Mr. Thexton, vicar of that parish, a learned man, as his 
lordship well knew, and with divers others of the ancientest 
and gravest of the town, about placing him in that school, 
and found them well inclined thereto ; notwithstanding he 
had of late given some offence in the manner of his mar- 
riage. For which he had shewed some penitence, and had 
likewise made a faithful promise before them, that he would 
be neither author nor maintainer of any faction there. This 
letter was dated July the 22d. 

To which the bishop the same month gave this grave an- The bishop 
swer; " That he had been greatly laboured and dissuaded, T^"''*^' ^ 

o J ? liini : and 

" both by some of the same town, as by other gentlemen of why. £p. 
" the country, who had their children to bring up, that he hurst.' ^'''^' 
" should not admit this man. And surely, as he proceeded, 
" there are great causes lead me thereto, if they, or any of 
" them, be found true. First, he is a very young man ; and 
" though learned, yet, in respect of his age, and want of ex- 
" perience, not so fit as many others. He is reported to 
VOL. II. F f 



434 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " condemn tlie reading of profane authors to children. 
^- " Then dare I boldly say, he shall never bring up good 



Anno 1573." scholars. And another great matter is, I have been cre- 
" dibly informed, that he hath been troubled with a phrensy: 
" which sickness, as it is thought incurable, so it is most 
" dangerous to admit such a person to have rule over young 
" ones ; that besides his young years hath not power and 
" rule over himself at all times. Touching his offence in 
" the manner of his marriage, the same hath been doubled 
" in him ; that being overnight forewarned by one of his 
" dearest friends, Mr. Greenwood, the schoolmaster there, 
" (the new proclamation then newly set forth considered,) 
" that he should admit Mr. Thexton the vicar, to marry 
" him, and besides that, not to break the order of her ma- 
" jesty's book in any part, yet notwithstanding he enter- 
" prised, as you have heard ; to the offence of divers, and to 
" my great displeasure and discredit : being persuaded that 
293 " fact of his is not unknown to my lord of Canterbury, and 
" others of the best calling. 

" And touching his penitence, it is far from that you 
" write of, that, as I have been informed, he did rather 
" confirm his disobedience, than any way submit himself for 
" the same. And being for mine own part, in respect of my 
" place, as also for duty and discharge of my conscience, 
" bound to have a special care of the youth of the diocese, 
" as the imps that by God's grace may succeed us, by good 
" bringing up, and become worthy in the commonwealth ; 
" I cannot be easily persuaded to admit Mr. Harrison to 
" any such charge over them. And thus I bid you heartily 
" farewell. From Ludham." 

Yet was the good bishop so yielding, that not long after- 
wards, upon other informations concerning this man, as 
though he had been misrepresented, the bailiff and head- 
boroughs presenting him, he admitted him to the school. 
Which, (as the bishop concluded,) coming to the archbishop"'s 
ear, caused him to write to the bishop, blaming him for it. 
Archbishop For in fine, the first report concerning Harrison's behaviour 
book^iV. ^"^ condition proving too true, together with some mis- 
chap. 3S. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 433 

behaviour at the baptizing of a child, the bishop turned CHAP, 
him out again; as hath been related more at large else- ^^^^- 
where. Anno 1573. 

Winiam Hughes, D. D. was this year preferred to the Hughes, bi- 
blshoprlc of St. Asaph. How this man afterwards behaved Jj'/h'^ ^j^ 
himself, leased out the revenues of this see, converted many great mis- 
benefices to his own use by commendams, and misgoverned ^]^enY." 
his diocese, out of a covetous disposition, came to light after 
some years ; informations of many great abuses being 
brought to court against him. Which upon complaint seems inquisition 
to have brought on a visitation of that church ; and in- ^^^^J ^^^"^' 
qulsition to be made concerning the bishop's government, 
and the state of the revenues of the see ; what benefices the 
bishop held in commendam, and what leases he had made, 
and whether to the prejudice of his successors; of his visi- 
tations and his courts; what residence and hospitality among 
his clergy were maintained. And a particular account there- 
of was^ sent up in the year 1587, being drawn up in wi-it- 
ing ; shewing the present state of that bishopric of St. 
Asaph. Wherein Avas discovered, that most of the great 
livings within the diocese, some with cure of souls, and 
some without, were either holden by the bishop himself in 
commendam, or else were in the possession of such men as 
dwelt out of the country. That there were held by him six- 
teen livings, viz. nine cures, and seven sine cures. That 
there was never a preacher within the diocese that kept or- 
dinary hospitality, but only three. Whereby it came to pass, 
that the former accustomed good and charitable housekeep- 
ing was quite decayed in the diocese. And particularly one, 
that had two of the greatest livings in the diocese, was so 
far from keeping hospitahty, that he boarded himself in an 
alehouse. That divers parcels of the bishopric were leased 
out, and confirmed by him, to the hinderance of his suc- 
cessors : some whereof were lordships and manors, others 
good rectories. That he had got all the keys of the chapter 
seal within the keeping of his own chaplains ; that he 
might confirm what he would himself. That in his visita- 
tion, he caused the clergy of his diocese to pay for his diet, 
* F f 2 



436 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK and of the rest of his train, over and above the procurations, 
. appointed by the law for that purpose. And lastly, that by 



Anno 1673. his negligence there were so many recusants in that country, 

■^'^'* as then there were. This is a short abstract of that paper of 

information against that bishop, and was presented to the 

lord treasurer : and that I may not be thought to wrong 

the memory of a bishop long since deceased, and that the 

N°. XXX II. whole maybe preserved, I have left it in the Appendix, 
faithfully transcribed from the original. 

Hughes un- Of one Hughes, (in all probability the same with this bi- 

bea'bfshon. ^^op Hughes,) Davies, bishop of St. David"'s, gave notice to 
secretary Cecil, when in the year 1565 the said Hughes 
made an interest to obtain the bishopric of LandafF, then 
void. And prayed, " That a man of such deficiencies might 
" not fill such a weighty place in the church : for that he 
" was one that was utterly unlearned in divinity, nor was 
" able to render a reason of his faith. And what service 
" could such an one be able to do to God and the queen's 
" majesty in that place, that of all other places had of long 
" time most lacked good doctrine and true knowledge of 
" God ?''"'- But this bishop"'s whole letter, savouring of a 
right Christian and episcopal spirit, and containing some 
other remarks in it, and being but short, I have thought 

[Number w^orthy to be read, and preserved in the Appendix : and also 
■^ to store up as much as we can of the memory of our first 
protestant bishops; especially such as were exiles for the 
gospel, as this bishop of St. David's was one. To which I 
may add, that he was one of the bishops that assisted at 
the translation of the Bible in queen Elizabeth's reign ; 
called therefore the Bishops' Bible. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 437 

CHAP. XXX. 

PilJcington, bishop of Durham, desires the queen's leave to 295 
come up this winter. Lands of the bishopric detained. 
His letter thereof to the secretary Cecill. A contest be- 
tween the bishop of Norwich, doctor Gardiner, and others, 
about the archdeaconry of Norwich. The case. Gardiner 
gets the deanery of Norwich. The bishop and he reconcil- 
ed. Gardiner''s good service to the church of Norwich. The 
bishop of Ely visits St. JohfCs college. Bingham, a great 
soldier, recommended to the lord treasurer. Rcife Lane's 
characters of Leicester, Burghley, Sussex, Hatton, and 
other courtiers. A controversy in BeneH college, Cam- 
bridge. Books now set Jbrth. The queen'' s pj-ogress into 
Sussex and Kent. The bishop of Norwich'' s letter to the 
bailiff of Yarmouth, concerning the punishing of wicked- 
ness there. The unseasonable weather this year. 

J. COME now to represent some particular persons, chiefly Remarks of 
such as belonged to the church; and to gather up divers g^ns^ ^ 
matters of remark concerning them ; tending to retrieve 
memorials of their piety, learning, or other concerns ; hap- 
pening within the compass of this year. 

Pilkington, the grave and truly reverend bishop of Dur- Bishop of 
ham, deserveth to have some notice taken of him here; he-g;"g^^,^™gpj 
ing; one of the pious exiles, that at their return were the the queen to 

^ come up. 

first bishops settled in the newly reformed church of Eng- 
land. He was still alive, but by reason of his age very 
much pinched by the winter's cold in that northern part of 
the nation. The queen required residence of her bishops in 
their dioceses ; and would not permit them to come up to 
London without special leave ; that they might keep hospi- 
tality, and their presence might awe the papists, specially in 
those parts. It was now September, in the declining of the 
year, when this good bishop signified to the lord treasurer, 
both his desire to come into these southern quarters, for 
the avoiding the extremity of the winter-season, and also 
his pious acquiescence in God's disposal of him, whatever 
should happen. For these were his words to that lord; 

F f3 



438 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " That the common griefs that he had suffered there for 

• " sundry winters past, made him to think what he should 

Anno 1573." look for the winter that was then at hand. That it had 

" begun so sharply with him already, that he feared the 

" latter end would be worse. And therefore if his lordship 

" thought good to move her majesty that he might come 

" up this winter, he should desire him to let him under- 

*' stand her highness"' pleasure. That if liis wisdom thought 

" the time served not for such a motion, he should content 

" himself; and commit himself to his hand, that had both 

296 " life and death, health and sickness at his commandment. 

*' There is," added he, " a highway to heaven, out of all 

" countries. Of which free passage, I praise God, I doubt 

" not." 

And then to incline the queen to allow of his absence 
from thence, he shewed, " That the country there (praising 
" God for it) was outwardly quiet enough, and that more 
** continuers than aforetime would abide there : as sir Georo-e 
" Bowes and his brother there, [at Durham,] besides others 
" of the council at York. He appointed nothing, but re- 
" ferred him wholly to his lordship's discretion, to deal for 
" him, as he saw cause. Only this he would crave of his 
" goodness, to know, with such convenient speed as might 
" be, what he might do with good leave, come or tarry ; 
" that he might prepare himself thereafter. For when the 
" weather should be sharper, he should not be able to tra- 
" vel, if he would, hereafter." And then he ended with a 
prayer; " The great God long preserve you to serve him, to 
" his glory, his lordship's honour, and the comfort of the 
" people. 22d of September. 

" Your lordship's to command, 

" Ja. Duresme." 

His letter to It may be added here, concerning this bishop, (because I 
cemiiu°'t'he ^^^^ "^^ ^^^^'^ occasion to Say any thing more of him,) what 



lands of the labour and care he took to preserve the revenues of his bi- 

detained!' shopric, (some parts whereof were unrighteously detained 

till the year 1565,) and the endeavour