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Full text of "Annals of the reformation and establishment of religion, and other various occurrences in the Church of England, during Queen Elizabeth's happy reign : together with an appendix of original papers of state, records, and letters"

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FROM THE LIBRARY OF 
REV. LOUIS FITZGERALD BENSON. D. D. 

BEQUEATHED BY HIM TO 

THE LIBRARY OF 

PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 



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ANNALS ffjAN 20 1932^ 

of X£/t; ci ; ;': ,- ' 

THE REFORMATION 

AND 

ESTABLISHMENT OF RELIGION, 

AND OTHER VARIOUS OCCURRENCES 

IN THE 

CHURCH OF ENGLAND, 

DURING 

QUEEN ELIZABETH'S HAPPY REIGN: 

TOGETHER WITH 

AN APPENDIX 

OF ORIGINAL PAPERS OF STATE, RECORDS, AND LETTERS. 



BY JOHN STRYPE, M. A. 



A NEW EDITION. 

VOL. II. PART II. 

» 

OXFORD, 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS. 

MDCCCXXIV. 



THE CONTENTS 



BOOK II. 
CHAP. I. 



JL HE plunder and massacre at Antwerp by the Spaniard. Anno 1576. 
The damage sustained by the English merchants there ; and 
the barbarous usage of them. Other cruelties exercised in the 
Low Countries. Which causeth the queen to interpose in 
their behalf j and of her own subjects ; by embassies to the 
States ; and to the king of Spain. Jealousy of the French's 
coming into the Low Countries to aid them. The French 
protestants prepare to fly into England. News out of France. 
Order for intercepting letters to the Scottish queen. The bi- 
shop of Chichester visits bis diocese. The disaffected to reli- 
gion there. Account of bis proceedings with them. His let- 
ters to the lords of the council. Many of the queen's subjects 
at mass in the Portugal ambassador's house, at the Charter- 
house. The recorder of London gives account to the court of 
what was done there. Names of popish fugitives ; certified 
into the exchequer. P. 1 . 

CHAP. II. 

The bishop of Exon sends up some that refused going to 
church. Another of his diocese makes nothing of a book- 
oath. His dealing with him. He opposeth the sending down 
a commission ecclesiastical : and why. The bishop of Lin- 
coln preacheth at court. The suitableness of his subject. He 
is concerned as visitor of King's college, Cambridge. Great 
differences in that college. Articles of accusation against Dr. 
Goad, the provost : his answers : his good service to that 
house. Sandys, bishop of London, translated to York : his 
farewell sermon at St. Paul's. Endeavours used to get Bishop- 
thorp from that archbishop. His reasons why he will not part 

a 2 



iv THE CONTENTS. 

with it. Elmer, that succeeded in the see of London, contests 
with the archbishop about the revenues. The case brought be- 
fore the lord treasurer. P- 32. 
CHAP III. 
The bishop of Worcester made vice-president of the marches of 
Wales. The presidents thereof. Curteis, bishop of Chiches- 
ter, preaches at Paul's Cross. Process against the bishop of 
Gloucester from the queen. Pilkington, bishop of Durham, 
dies. His prayers. Dr. May makes interest to succeed him. 
Bishop of Carlisle is made bishop of Durham 5 sues for dila- 
pidations. And Dr. May succeeds to Carlisle. Holds the rec- 
tory of Darfield in commendam. Dr. May's family. P. 50. 

CHAP. IV. 

Rockrey, B. D. of Queen's college, Cambridge, inconformable 
to the apparel prescribed by statute : his case signified by 
the master of the college. One Gawton, a puritan, sum- 
moned before the bishop of Norwich. The matters laid to his 
charge. Is suspended. One Harvey, another puritan minister 
of Norwich, suspended. Gawton's letter to the bishop, dis- 
owning his jurisdiction. A sect of libertines. Dr. Lawrence 
Humfrey made dean of Gloucester. Observation of the 17th 
of November. Irish priests, bastards, dispensed with by the 
pope to take orders. P. 57. 

CHAP. V. 

Manchester college : its revenues in danger. The corn act pro- 
cured for the universities by the lord treasurer. The benefit 
of Sturbridge fair obtained by him for Cambridge. The lord 
treasurer's letter to the queen about his daughter, the coun- 
tess of Oxford. His grave advice to White, master of the 
rolls in Ireland. An edition of the Bible : some account of it. 
Other books now set forth, 1576. The death of Walter earl 
of Essex ; and of sir Anthony Cook. Sir Thomas Smith, and 
others of the court, at Buxton Well. The queen goes her 
progress. P. QJ . 

CHAP. VI. 
Anno 1577. Matters of the Low Countries. The queen's safety concerned 
therein 3 especially the French king's brother entering into 
action for them. The apprehensions of the lord treasurer. 
The lord keeper's letter of counsel to the queen in this junc- 



THE CONTENTS. v 

ture. Reports from abroad concerning the Scottish queen's 
escape. Advice of it sent to the earl of Shrewsbury from the 
court. A matter in Ireland about the cesse; comes before 
the queen and council. The rigorous exaction complained 
of: regulated. P. 93. 

CHAP. VII. 

The queen's ambassador at the council at Frankford : and why. 
Sent to the princes of Germany. New books of religion there 
set forth. The archbishop of York about to visit the church 
of Durham, is refused. The proceedings thereupon. The bi- 
shop of Durham's account of his visitation of his diocese, by 
order from the queen ; and especially of the disorders in that 
church. His letter to the lord treasurer about it : slandered 
and hated. His vindication of himself, for some words of 
his against archbishop Grindal, and the exercises. Bishop 
Barne's pedigree. Cox bishop of Ely's thoughts upon arch- 
bishop Grindal's suspension. The queen's letter to the bishop 
of Lincoln to forbid prophesyings. The bishop of Chi- 
chester's troubles. Caldwell, parson of Winwich, his sermon. 
Dr. Goodman, dean of Westminster, concerning the statutes 
of that collegiate church. P. 103. 

CHAP. VIII. 

Maimed professors in these days. Popish books secretly dis- 
persed. Answered by Dr. W. Fulk. Ithel, a fugitive Lo- 
vainist, comes to Cambridge : discovered. The council's let- 
ter hereupon to the university. Egremond Radcliff, a fugi- 
tive since the rebellion in the north : his letters for the 
queen's pardon, and leave to come home : is put into the 
Tower: set at liberty : his end. P. 123. 

CHAP. IX. 

The queen's progress. The lord treasurer, and others of the 
court, at Buxton Well. The earl of Leicester at Chatsworth, 
entertained there. The queen's letter of thanks to the earl of 
Shrewsbury upon that entertainment. The mortality at Ox- 
ford. The plague breaks out. The diligence of Fleetwood, 
the recorder at London. Sessions at Newgate. An intention 
of lobbing the lord treasurer's house. A privy search in 
Smithfield. Cozeners and cheats, &C-. Phaer, a notable coiner. 

» 3 



vi THE CONTENTS. 

His offer; to discover all the coiners, and such as practised 
magic. P- 134. 

CHAP. X. 

Books translated and set forth in the English tongue. Bullin- 
ger's Decads : to be read by unlearned curates instead of 
sermons. Sarcerius's Common Places. Henry Nicolas the 
author of the family of love, his epistles. The Courtier, by 
Balthasar count Castiglione. The high esteem that book 
obtained. Buchanan's History of Scotland. A blazing star. 
Gualter's letter to bishop Cox about it. Dr. Wylson made 
secretary of state. Some account of him. Put into the inqui- 
sition. His book of the Art of Rhetoric. T. Cartwright 
marries a sister of Stubbs, whose right hand was cut oft. 
Thomas Lever dies. His excellent letter about impropria- 
tions belonging to colleges and hospitals. P. 144. 

CHAP. XI. 

Anno 1 578. Monsieur Gondy, French ambassador, comes to the court with 
intent to go to the Scottish queen. News at court of fo- 
reign matters. Duke Casimire comes to court. His esteem 
here with the queen and nobles. His manifesto in taking 
arms for the defence of those of the Low Countries. Simier, 
the French ambassador, still at court soliciting the amours 
of the duke of Anjou. The archbishop of York continues his 
visitation. Account thereof sent up. The trouble he met with 
about the dean of Durham, Whittingham : by occasion of in- 
quiry into his orders, taken at Geneva. A commission for vi- 
sitation of that church. P. 158. 

CHAP. XII. 

Abbot Feckenham at the bishop of Ely's. Conferences with him 
by the bishop : and by Dr. Pern, dean of Ely. An account 
thereof written to court. Feckenham's confession. The said 
bishop's excellent letter to the queen, being in her progress. 
He orders the stay of vessels laden with corn, passing through 
his liberties, in order to transport it from Lynn. Deodands 
claimed by the bishop of Salisbury, the queen's almoner. Dr. 
Young becomes bishop of Rochester : his character. The 
case between the bishop of Bath and Wells and the lord Pou- 
ht about impropriating a benefice. P. 176. 



THE CONTENTS. vii 

CHAP. XIII. 

Sectaries. Their principles, and dangerous assertions. Coppin, 
a prisoner in Bury. Wilsford ; makes it an high crime in the 
queen to be styled caput ecclesice. Chark and Dering; 
their sayings. A bookseller taken up for selling the Admo- 
nition to the Parliament. Mackworth holds the having two 
wives lawful. Imprisoned in the Marshalsea. The council's 
order about him. Large indulgences accompanying certain 
crucifixes, given by the pope to Steukley. Exeter college po- 
pish. The state of the university of Cambridge. A decree 
made against the disguised apparel of students. Peter-house : 
the state thereof. Dr. Perne, master thereof: his good go- 
vernment. The heads complain of mandamus's to their chan- 
cellor : which he acquaints the queen with. P. 186. 

CHAP. XIV. 

The queen's progress. The university wait upon her at Aud- 
ley End. Her splendid entertainment at Norwich. A sen- 
tence in the star-chamber. Magic practised to take away 
the queen's life. A conjurer suddenly falls down dead. A fo- 
reign physician consulted for the queen's tooth-ache. Dr. Ju- 
lio, the Italian physician, the queen's servant : his suit. 
Shows before the queen, performed by certain of the young 
nobility. Lord Rich assassinated : and another. Remarks of 
some persons of note, dying this year. Sir Nicolas Bacon, 
lord keeper. The lady Mary Grey. The lord Henry Seymour. 
Books now set forth. The Holy Bible ; the Geneva edition. 
Bishop Jewel's Defence in Latin. Mr. Fox's Good-Friday 
sermon at 1'aul's Cross. View of Antichrist. A book against 
the outward apparel and ministering garments. A Display of 
Popish Practices. The Way of Life. Guicciardin's history. 
Books printed in Germany : in a letter to the bishop of Ely. 

P. 201. 
CHAP. XV. 

The queen's match with the French king's brother; concerted. Anno 1579. 
Provoked by a seditious book against it. Issueth out a pro- 
clamation : the sum thereof. Stubbs the author punished : 
remains prisoner in the Tower. His petition. A nobleman 
(thought to be sir Philip Sidney) writes to the queen, upon 

a 4 



vhi THE CONTENTS. 

the parliament's suits to her to marry. The earl of Lei- 
cester under dislike with the queen about this French match. 
His protestation, and offer of exile. P. 228. 

CHAP. XVI. 

Sandys, archbishop of York, troubled for dilapidations by the 
bishop of London. The archbishop's letter to the secretary 
hereupon. The bishop of London moves for a commission 
for inquiry into the dilapidations : and why. Reasons of- 
fered by the archbishop for qualifying the sentence. Diffe- 
rence between this archbishop, and the earl of Huntington, 
and the dean of York. Motions for reconcilement with the 
earl, and the dean. The archbishop's letter about it. The 
dean's vindication of himself. The archbishop's sermon at 
York, on the 17th of November, 1579. P. 245. 

CHAP. XVII. 

Cox, bishop of Ely, defends the see against a lease for Hatton 
Garden. The Lord North's actions against him. Labours to 
resign his bishopric. His letters thereupon ; and requests. 
The bishop of Norwich declines a remove to Ely. His ho- 
nest letter on that occasion. By the lord treasurer's inter- 
cession, the queen grants the bishop of Ely leave to resign. 
Sectaries of the family of love in Norwich diocese. The 
bishop of Norwich prevents a change of some lands belong- 
ing to his church. The bishop of Peterborough endeavours 
to ease a heavy tax laid upon the poorer sort there, for 
draining a common. The bishop of London takes a seditious 
printer, named Carter. Chatham hospital in danger by pre- 
tence of concealment. The bishop of Rochester stirs in its 
behalf. His notes upon the book called, The Gospel of the 
Kingdom. The bishop of Lincoln's letter upon the queen's 
thoughts of removing him to Norwich. The vicar of Cuck- 
field, vicious : the bishop of Chichester required to deprive 
him. P. 258. 

CHAP. XVIII. 

Parry false. Hath leave to go abroad, and give intelligence to 
the queen. Returns. His letters to the lord treasurer ; and 
protestation of service : notwithstanding, privately reconciled 
at Paris. His earnest letters thence, to be employed. The 



THE CONTENTS. ix 

family of love increase. Some account of the first rise of 
this sect here. Some of them in Colchester in queen Mary's 
reign. Freewill men. Christopher Vitelli comes from Delph 
to Colchester. Crinel's confession concerning him and his 
doctrine. Henry Nicolas, the founder of the family of love, 
his doctrines. Libertines : their speculations. A book writ 
against them. Puritans. One of them expostulates with the 
lord Burghley : and that he should use more liberty of 
speech with the queen. The queen calls in her commissioners 
for concealments. Proclamations for the length of swords, 
bucklers, &c. Against carrying and shooting in guns, &c. nor 
where the queen's residence should be. No coats or doublets 
of defence to be worn : nor pocket dags suffered. Procla- 
mations about apparel. Letters from the privy-council for 
keeping Lent. P. 279. 

CHAP. XIX. 
Books published this year, 1579. A confutation of the prin- 
ciples of the family of lovej by William Wilkinson: and 
another by J. Knewstubs. A book in answer to the assertion, 
that the church of Rome is the true and catholic church. 
Tbe Gaping Gulph ; by J. Stubbs. His letters wrote with his 
left hand. Some farther account of him and his abilities. Plu- 
tarch's Lives set forth in English by sir Thomas North. Ca- 
talogue of the bishops of Exon. A book of Simples and Sur- 
gery, by William Bullein. Egyptians and Jews pretending to 
do cures by palmistry and charms in these times. Richard 
Bullein, a divine and physician. Hugh Broughton, fellow 
of Christ's college, Cambridge ; outed of his fellowship 
(founded by king Edward) wrongfully. His remarkable case. 
The decision of a college statute ; being the ground of this 
contention. One undertakes to make saltpetre. One offers 
to fortify the seaports of England and Ireland. The names 
of the queen's privy-counsellors. P. 299. 

CHAP. XX. 

The French king's brother departs. The queen's concern there- Anno 1580. 
at. The French ambassador and prince of Conde" in private 
communication with the queen, about assisting of the king of 
Navar. What it was, the queen tells the lord treasurer. His 
thoughts of Conde's message. The queen's message by Ran- 



x THE CONTENTS. 

dolph to Scotland, in favour of earl Morton, and for re- 
moving D'Aubigny from the king. Her notable declaration 
to those states assembled, by Randolph. Ill counsellors about 
the king: their names and characters. That nation's in- 
gratitude to the queen. Some account of earl Morton. 
D'Aubigny professes himself a protestant. The lord presi- 
dent of the north, his letter concerning these Scotch matters. 
A popish rebellion, and invasion in Ireland. P. 317. 

CHAP. XXI. 

A reformation endeavoured of certain abuses in the church. The 
parliament's address to the queen for that purpose. Her an- 
swer. Church holydays : much sin committed then. The 
disaffected to the church busy. Appoint fasts. A fast ap- 
pointed at Stamford : the lord Burghley's letter forbidding it. 
Beza's book concerning bishops, translated into English. His 
letter to Scotland. A popish school set up at Doway; and 
another in Scotland. Dr. Allen's book. The pope sends 
over priests into England. Intelligence from Switzerland of 
the pope's preparations against England. Commissions for 
search after papists in Lancashire and Yorkshire. The arch- 
bishop of York's letter concerning them. Countess of Cum- 
berland : lady Wharton. Children of northern gentlemen 
sent to Caius college, Cambridge ; Dr. Legg, a papist, mas- 
ter. Intelligence from the bishop of Winton, concerning pa- 
pists in the county of Southampton. A search in papists' 
houses. Sir William Tresham in Hoggesdon. Priests taken : 
their confession. Popish cases found in sir James Hargrave's 
study. P. 331. 

CHAP. XXII. 

Divers popish emissaries taken up. The conference at Wis- 
bich. Feckenham's confession. Dr. Fulk sent by the bishop 
of Ely thither. Account of the conference published. Fulk's 
challenge. The pope's factors abroad discovered by A. M. 
Design in Rome of invading England. Some of the prin- 
ciples taught in the English college at Rome. Campion con-, 
fesses where he was entertained in London, and elsewhere, 
viz. in Yorkshire and Lancashire. Several disputations with 
him in the Tower, in answer to his challenge. Some account 
of Campion, and his course of life. Parry at Paris : cone- 



THE CONTENTS. xi 

sponds with the lord treasurer : intercedes for certain popish 
fugitives: the Ropers: sir Anthony (alias lord) Coppely. Ad- 
vice for defence in case of invasion. P. 352. 

CHAP. XXIII. 

Gualter of Zurick acquaints the archbishop of Canterbury what 
was doing in the synod at Frankford, for union. Formula 
concordia; disliked. Zanchy's confession of faith ; disliked: 
and why. The harmony of confessions : a motion to this ef- 
fect to the king of Navar. Horn, bishop of Win ton, dies. 
Translates two seasonable sermons of Calvin in his exile. 
His apology for his flight. His last will. Dr. Overton made 
bishop of Litchfield and Coventry. Some passages of him. 
Railed upon and abused in the pulpit at Chichester, when 
prebendary there. Two evils oppress bishop Cox. ^Elmer, 
bishop of London, accused for felling his woods. Visits his 
London clergy. The bishop of Norwich, his proposal for ru- 
ral deans in his diocese. Mr. Laurence, a preacher, seques- 
tered by that bishop for nonconformity. Endeavours made at 
court to get him restored. The bishop's letter on that occa- 
sion. P. 371. 
CHAP. XXIV. 

University matters. The heads of Cambridge apply to their 
chancellor about two graces obtained. His letter ; and deci- 
sion. His advice to the vice-chancellor about a fast enjoined 
the university by the bishop of Ely. Great disorders in St. 
John's college. The bishop of Ely moves the lord treasurer to 
finish the new statutes for that college. How things now 
stood in the other university. The two chancellors com- 
pared. William Whitaker preferred to a prebend at St. Paul's. 
The queen's proclamation for horsemen,, and breed of horses. 
The queen sick. A new disease at court, and in the city. A 
list of the great officers of the queen. Public prayers, occa- 
sioned by an earthquake. Earl of Arundel dies. Peregrin 
Bertie claims the title of lord Willoughby and Eresby. P. 384. 

CHAP. XXV. 

Books published this year, 1580. A Discourse of God's Judg- 
ments against great Sins. A description of the earthquake. 
Dr. Fulk's Retentive. His Challenge. Forty popish books in 



xii THE CONTENTS. 

English set forth by this time. What they were. All an- 
swered. The genealogy of Mary queen of Scots : set forth 
by bishop Rosse. Glover, Somerset herald, writes against the 
bishop of Rosse's book. Dr. Dee's Instructions for the north- 
east passage. Everard Digby's dialogue against a book of 
P. Ramus. Answered. The holy Exercise of a true Fast. The 
occasion of the writing thereof. P. 401. 



THE APPENDIX. 
BOOK I. 

NUMBER I. Thomas Cartwright, B. D. lady Margaret profes- 
sor, to sir William Cecil, knight, chancellor of the university 
of Cambridge 5 in vindication of his readings. P. 411. 

Number II. Letters wrote from divers of the university to their 
chancellor, in behalf of Cartwright. P. 412. 

Number III. Epistola alia, D. Cancellario data ; ut restituatur 
Cartwrightns ad legendum. P. 415. 

Number IV. An astrological calculation concerning the queen's 
marriage. Written by secretary Cecil, propria manu. P. 417. 

Number V. The charter for wrecks on the coasts of Sussex ; 
granted by king Henry VI. to Adam, bishop of Chiches- 
ter. P. 418. 

Number VI. Cautions given by Mr. Fox to the reader of his 
Acts and Monuments ; concerning some things mentioned in 
the first edition thereof. P. 419. 

[Number VI.] Dr. Thomas Wylson to sir William Cecil, kt. 
when he sent him the copy of his translation of certain ora- 
tions of Demosthenes, for his patronage thereof. P. 421. 

Number VII. Mr. Walsingham, the queen's ambassador, his let- 
ter from Paris to the lord Burleigh. His discourse with the 
queen-mother, concerning her majesty's matching with the 
duke of Anjou. ibid. 

Number VIII. A motion in parliament, 13 Elizab. about the 
succession to the crown 5 according to K. Henry VIII. his 
will. P. 425. 

Number IX. A letter of Mr. Randolph, the queen's agent in 



THE CONTENTS. xiii 

Scotland, to the lords Graunge and Lyddington : exciting 
them to leave the Scottish queen's party. P. 447. 

Number X. Dr. Stories last will and testament, made at Lo- 
vain, anno 1552. P. 450. 

Number XI. Two letters of Jewel from Oxford, to Parkhurst ; 
soon after the access of queen Mary to the crown. P. 453. 

Number XII. Certain puritans, taking offence against a sermon 
preached by the bishop of Norwich, digested their exceptions 
thereto under certain articles, sent to him by way of letter. 

P. 454. 

Number XIII. A true report of the words and confession ot 
Thomas late duke of Norfolk, at his death on the Tower-hill, 
June 2, 1572. P. 461. 

[Number XIII.] Mr. Dering and Mr. Hansby, the duke of Nor- 
folk's chaplains ; their epistle to him concerning a book of 
prayers, that they had composed by his command, for the use 
of his children. P. 465. 

Number XIV. Five causes shewed against the queen of Scots, 
anno 1572. P. 467. 

Number XV. Whether it be lawful for a protestant to marry 
with a papist? Which question was occasioned by a motion 
of a match between the queen and the French king's brother. 

P. 469. 

Number XVI. A tract of the lawfulness of marrying with a pa- 
pist. P. 470. 

Number XVII. Whether a protestant prince may tolerate mass. 
Both the argument and the answer. P. 472. 

Number XVIII. Another discourse upon the same argument. 

P. 474. 

Number XIX. An extract out of the Admonition to the Parlia- 
ment : containing such slanderous and unseemly terms, as 
there, by the authors thereof, against the orders of the 
church of England, and the state of the realm, that now is, 
are uttered. P. 476. 

[Number XIX.] Field and Wilcox, from Newgate, to the lord 
treasurer; for their liberty : cast into prison for a book of 
reformation, written by them, presented to the parliament. 

P. 482. 

Number XX. The lord treasurer Burghley to Mr. Dering : 



xiv THE CONTENTS. 

who had excited him to restore Mr. Cartvvright ; and 
accused him somewhat rudely of his want of religion. 

P. 483. 

Number XXI. Mr. Edward Dering, the puritan, to the lord 
Burghley : justifying of a former letter, wherein he had made 
some severe reflections upon that nobleman. P. 487. 

Number XXII. Coverdale's epistle dedicatory to his edition of 
the Holy Bible, by him translated into the English tongue, 
annoMDXXXV. P. 491. 

Number XXIII. Parkhurst, bishop of Norwich, to Mr. Tho- 
mas Fowle, Mr. John Handson, and Mr. John Grundye : for 
setting on foot the exercise of prophesy at Bury S. Edmonds. 

P. 494. 

Number XXIV. Notices and characters of divers persons of 
eminence, living in the reigns of king Henry VIII. king Ed- 
ward VI. and queen Mary; given by Parkhurst in his Epi- 
grams. P- 495. 

Number XXV. The examination of one Blosse, alias Mantel ; 
that reported king Edward VI. was alive, and queen Eliza- 
beth was married. Taken by Fleetwood, recorder of Lon- 
don : sent with his letter to the lord treasurer Burleigh. 

P. 503. 

Number XXVI. An extract of the estate of certain mines in 
Cumberland, an. 1576. P. 505. 

Number XXVII. Occurrents at the siege of Rochel : and of 
the election of monsieur king of Poland : sent from Dr. Dale, 
the queen's ambassador in France, to the earl of Sussex ; in a 
letter dated May 30, 1573. ibid. 

[Number XXVII.] The consecration of Dermic O Clier, bi- 
shop of Maion, in the province of Tuam in Ireland. The in- 
strument of cardinal Sanctorius ; declaratory of the same, 
and of the oath of the said O Clier, of fidelity taken to pope 
Gregory XIII. P. 508. 

Number XXVIII. Mr. Dering's answer to certain articles of 
matters that he had spoken at some public dinner : presented 
to the lords of the Star-chamber. P. 511. 

Number XXIX. A letter of the lords of the privy-council to 
the Dutch church : upon occasion of such as found fault with 
the customs of this church. P. 517. 



THE CONTENTS. xv 

Number XXX. Answer of the Dutch congregation to the 
aforesaid letter. P. 519. 

Number XXXI. Mr. William Heydon's Christian letter to the 
bishop of Norwich, for a reconciliation, after some falling 
out with him at his house, about admitting a layman into or- 
ders. P. 52 L 

[Number XXXI.] The same bishop's fatherly and friendly an- 
swer to the former letter. P. 523. 

Number XXXII. A discovery of the present estate of the bi- 
shopric of St. Asaph, in the year 1587. P. 524. 

[Number XXXII.] The bishop of S. David's to secretary Cecil $ 
concerning the filling two Welsh bishoprics vacant. P. 528. 

Number XXXIII. Lands of the bishopric of Durham, some- 
time detained, but restored to bishop Pilkington ; and sold 
away again in the years 1648 and 1649 ; with the names of 
the purchasers, and at what values. P. 529. 

Number XXXIV. A note of the particulars of lands of the 
bishopric of Durham demised to queen Elizabeth, chiefly by 
bishop Barnes. P. 531. 

Number XXXV. Dr. Gardiner to the bishop of Norwich : in 
answer to an angry letter of the bishop's to him, about the 
archdeaconry of Norwich. P. 533. 

Number XXXVI. Dr. Gardiner to Mr. Roberts ; concerning 
the archdeaconry of Norwich : which he sheweth him was 
lapsed to the queen : and so became his by her grant. P. 535. 

[Number XXXVI.] Some heads of the university of Cam- 
bridge, to the lord Burleigh, their high chancellor : acquaint- 
ing him with the case of Mr. Aldrich, master of Bene't col- 
lege, as to his breach of a college statute. P. 537. 

Number XXXVU. A description of the queen's progress, anno 
1573 ; with a particular account of her magnificent entertain- 
ment at Canterbury, by the archbishop : and of her return 
home. Omitted in the editions of that archbishop's Life, en- 
titled, Mathaeus. P. 539. 

Number XXXVIII. The direction of the ecclesiastical exercise 

in the diocese of Chester. P. 544. 

Number XXXIX. A copie of the authorite gyven by the bis- 

shop of the said dioces to the moderators of every several 

exercise : with the names of the moderators throughout the 



xvi THE CONTENTS. 

diocesj and other orders to be observed in the exercises. 

P. 546- 

Number XL. Littleston's declaration, November 1574, of 

certain English gentlemen, that have entertainment of the 
king of Spain. P. 549. 

Number XLI. Scory, lord bishop of Hereford, to the lord trea- 
surer : against some clerks of the exchequer, intending to 
suppress, under the name of colleges, divers parsonages in 
his diocese. P- 552. 

[Number XLI.] Mr. Rafe Lane's account of his offer to go 
into the Levant in the king of Spain's service, against the 
Turk, from his own pen. P. 553. 

Number XL1I. A true certificate and perfect note of fees and 
duties paid heretofore, and now be paid at this present, for 
citations, and all other ecclesiastical instruments, in the bi- 
shop of Norwich's consistory court. P. 555. 

Number XLIII. Sir Thomas Smith, and the earl of Leicester, 
to the lord treasurer Burleigh, members of the society of the 
new art, for transmuting iron into copper : Medley, the chy- 
mist, undertaker. ibid. 

Number XLIV. Sir Thomas Smyth to the lord treasurer Bur- 
leigh ; upon the same business. P. 557. 

Number XLV. Mr. John Dee to the lord treasurer : offering to 
discover to the queen where treasures of gold, silver, &c. 
were hid in the bowels of the earth. P. 558. 

Number XLVI. A proclamation for the redress of inordinate 
apparel, anno 1559. P. 563. 

Number XLVII. Cox, bishop of Ely, to the queen : upon her 
requiring his house in Holborn for Mr. Hatton, her vice- 
chaniberlain. P. 564. 

Number XLVIII. Cox, bishop of Ely, to the queen : who had 
wrote to him to demise the manor of Somersham to her, for 
the lord North. P. 567. 

[Number XLVIII.] Reasons drawn up by Cox, bishop of Ely, 
and sent to the lord treasurer : to tender the state of God's 
ministers. • P. 569. 

Number XLIX. The substance of the complaints of the lord 
North against the bishop of Ely, in his letter to him. With 
the bishop's answer to each. P. 570. 



THE CONTENTS. xvii 

Number L. More objections to the said bishop by the said lord, 
in another letter to him : with the bishop's answers. P. 572. 

Number LI. A large book of sundry articles of complaints 
against the bishop of Ely : with his answers to each. Many 
of those articles false, and matters in all of them misrepre- 
sented. P. 574. 

Causes of complaints against the bishop of Ely, by Hasyl of 
Cambridge, who had been his servant seven years ; of the same 
spiteful nature with the former. P. 589. 

A bill of complaints exhibited by Charles Balam, gent, of the 
Isle of Ely. Also, articles exhibited against the bishop by 
one Radcliff, gent. P. 592. 

Laurence Johnson, (the bishop's imder-keeper,) against the 
bishop. P. 593. 



BOOK II. 

Number I. Jan. 29, 1576. The names of all such, as be certi- 
fied into the exchequer, to be fugitives over the sea, contrary 
to the statute of an. 13 Eliz. &c. And in what countries they 
inhabited. P. 596. 

[Number I.] A prayer composed by Pilkington, afterwards bi- 
shop of Durham, suited to the beginning of the reformation of 
religion under queen Elizabeth. P. 597. 

Number II. Another prayer by the same reverend person ; for 
faithful preachers to be sent out by God, to preach the gospel 
at this needful time. P. 599. 

Number III. Another prayer by the same ; against error and 
popery. P. 600. 

Number IV. Richard, bishop of Carlisle, to the lord treasurer ; 
upon his remove to Durham. ibid. 

Number V. The lord treasurer to the queen : in relation to 
his daughter, and the earl of Oxford her husband, unkind to 
her. Written March the 3d, 1576. P. 602. 

Number VI. The inscriptions upon the monument of sir An- 
thony Cook, kt. in the chapel of Rumford, in Essex. P. 604. 

VOL. II. PART II. 1) 



xviii THE CONTENTS. 

Number VII. Sir Nicolas Bacon, lord keeper, to the queen; 
shewing her three great enemies, France, Spain, and Rome : 
and the remedies to be used against each of them. P. 607. 

Number VIII. Cox, bishop of Ely, to the lord treasurer Burgh- 
ley : upon the queen's command for the suspension of Grindal, 
archbishop of Canterbury. P. 61 1 . 

Number IX. The queen's letter to the bishop of Lincoln, to 
cause the exercises, called prophesyings, to cease in his dio- 
cese. P. 612. 

Number X. The order of the government of the colledge of 
Westminster, syns the last erection, begonne by D. Byll, and 
contynued by me [Dr. Goodman] with the assent of the chapi- 
ter : as appeareth by divers decrees, recorded in the chapiter- 
book. P. 613. 

Number XI. Edward Phaer, condemned for counterfeiting coin, 
his letter from the Tower to the lord treasurer ; offering to 
make great discoveries of coiners, such as used magic, &c. 

P. 616. 

Number XII. George Buchanan to Mr. Randolph, concerning 
publishing his history : and his distemper. P. 619. 

Number XIII. Sandys, archbishop of York, to the lord treasurer, 
concerning his inquiry into the holy orders of Whittingham, 
dean of Durham : for which some complaint was made of 
him at court. P. 620. 

Number XIV. Cox, bishop of Ely, to the queen : his letter con- 
gratulatory to her, now in her progress, and excusing him- 
self for not waiting upon her. P. 621. 

Number XV. Gilbert, bishop of Bath and Wells, to the lord 
treasurer : to hinder a design to impropriate a benefice ; or to 
get a lease of it for 500 years. P. 623. 

Number XVI. Wilsford denyes the queen to be supreme head 
of the church : better informed, writes to the lord treasurer 
to obtain her majesties pardon. P. 624. 

Number XVII. A decree for the restraint of the excess of 
apparel, both for the unreasonable costs and the unseemly 
fashions of the same j used by scholars and students in the 
university of Cambridge. P. 626. 

Number XVIII. The vice-chancellor and heads of the university 
of Cambridge, to their high chancellor ; complaining of the 



THE CONTENTS. xix 

impeaching of their free suffrages in their election of fellows, 
by letters procured from the queen. P. 629. 

[Number XVIII.] Articuli propositi pro parte et nomine illus- 
trissimi ducis Andegavensis, fratris unici regis Gallorum, se- 
renissimae reginae Angliae ; de et super matrimonio inter ipsius 
majestatem, et praefati ducis celsitudinem, 16 Junii, 1579. 

P. 631. 

Responsum ex parte serenissimae reginae exhibitum, 17 Junii, 
1579. ibid. 

Number XIX. The prayer of Mr. John Fox, after his Good- 
Friday sermon, preached at St. Paul's Cross, about the year 
1578. P. 636. 

[Number XIX.] Sir Philip Sidney's letter to queen Elizabeth, 
concerning her marriage. Printed entire from Cabala, p. 363. 

P. 641. 

Number XX. A letter to the queen from some person of quality ; 
upon the subject of her marriage, and the succession moved 
to her by her parliament. P. 652. 

Number XXI. Cox, bishop of Ely, to the lord treasurer : upon 
the queen's leave to resign his bishopric. P. 659. 

[Number XXL] A list of papists imprisoned, anno 1579, in 
divers places in the realm. Their names, qualities, and ages. 

P. 660. 

Number XXII. Prowde, parson of Burton upon Dunmore, to 
the lord treasurer : exciting him to speak freely to the queen 
in behalf of religion, (as professed by some,) discounte- 
nanced. P. 662. 

Number XXIII. Mr. Hugh Broughton, of Christ's college, 
Cambridge, to the high chancellor of that university ; com- 
plaining of his being wrongfully deprived of his fellowship, 
being that founded by king Edward VI. Desiring justice 
against Dr. Hawford, the master. P. 665. 

Number XXIV. The fellows of Christ's college, Cambridge, to 
the chancellor of that university : in behalf of Mr. Hugh 
Broughton, against the master of the college ; who had de- 
clared his fellowship void. P. G67 . 

Number XXV. The lord treasurer to the earl of Sussex. News 

at court, concerning the French ambassador, and the prince 

of Conde from the king of Navar : both together in private 

conference with the queen. P. 668. 

b2 



xx THE CONTENTS. 

Number XXVI. Thomas Randolph, esq. ; late the queen's am- 
bassador to Scotland, to the lord chancellor : concerning the 
Scots king; Daubigny; and Scottish matters. P. 671. 

Number XXVJI. The bishop of Ely to the lord treasurer : in- 
forming him of intelligence be had received of 12000 Italians 
to be sent by the pope and Spaniard against the realm. P. 672. 

Number XXVIII. Rodolphus Quaker, minister of Zurich, to 
Grindal, archbishop of Canterbury : informing him of many 
copies of the excommunication of pope Pius V. against the 
queen, printed at Rome ; to be dispersed : and of the pope's 
and Spaniard's preparation for invading England. P. 673. 

[Number XXVIII.] The content of a letter written by one So- 
lomon Aldred, (sometime a hosier in Birchin-lane, London,) 
from Lions or Rhemes, to Robert Downes, esq. prisoner in 
the gaol of Norwich. P. 674. 

An account of the abovesaid letter, given by Roger Martin, esq. 
and the occasion of his hearing it read, and of the burning 
of it. P. 676. 

Number XXIX. A trewe note of certen artycles, confessed and 
allowed by Mr. D. Feckenam, as well in Christmas holiedays 
last past, as also at divers other tymes before that ; by con- 
ference in lerning before the reverend father in God, the bi- 
shoppe of Elye, and before D. Perne, dean of Elye, master 
Nicolas, master Stanton, master Crowe, Mr. Bowler, chap- 
leines to my lord of Elye : and divers others, whose names 
be here subscribed. P. 678. 

[Number XXIX.] Radulphus Gualter to Grindal, archbishop of 
Canterbury; concerning a purpose in the synod at Frankford, 
of framing a general confession of all the protestant churches ; 
and an harmony of confessions. P. 679. 

Number XXX. The apology of Mr. Robert Horn, (afterward 
bishop of Winchester,) giving the reasons of bis flight abroad 
in the beginning of the reign of queen Mary. Set before his 
translation of two sermons of Mr. Calvin. P. 681. 

Number XXXI. The answer of iElmer, bishop of London, to 
divers objections made to him, for felling and sale of the woods 
belonging to the see. P. 693. 

Number XXXII. A form of government by rural deans, or su- 
perintendents ; exhibited by the chancellor of Norwich, from 
the bishop. P. 695. 



THE CONTENTS. xxi 

Number XXXIII. A letter from the lord Burghley, high chan- 
cellor of the university of Cambridge, to the vice-chancel- 
lor, and the heads of the said university : sending them his 
determination of two graces : whereof there had been great 
debate, between the heads and the other doctors : sent by 
Dr. Barrow. P. 701. 

Number XXXIV. A part of a letter of the bishop of Ely to the 
lord Burghley; of the ill state of St. John's college : for want 
of statutes. P. 706. 

Number XXXV. The names of all the noblemen and great of- 
ficers of the queen, from the beginning of her reign till about 
the year 1580. Drawn up by the lord treasurer Burleigh's 
own hand. P. 707. 

Number XXXVI. A catalogue of all the English popish books 
writ against the reformation of the church of England ; from 
queen Elizabeth's first entrance to the year 1580. With the 
names of such learned divines as answered them. P. 709. 



I 



ANNALS 



395 

OF THE 

REFORMATION OF RELIGION, 

UNDER 

QUEEN ELIZABETH. 



BOOK II. 



CHAP. I. 



The plunder and massacre at Antwerp by the Spaniard. 
The damage sustained by the English merchants there ; 
and the barbarous usage of them. Other cruelties exer- 
cised in the Low Countries. Which causeth the queen to 
interpose in their behalf ; and of her own subjects; by 
embassies to the States ; and to the king of Spain. Jea- 
lousy of the Frenches coming into the Low Countries to 
aid them. The French protestants prepare to jly into 
England. News out of France. Order for intercepting 
letters to the Scottish queen. The bishop of Chichester 
visits his diocese. The disaffected to religion there. 
Account qf his proceedings with them. His letters to the 
lords of the council. Many of the queerbs subjects at 
mass in the Portugal ambassador s house, at the Charter- 
house. The recorder of London gives account to the 
court of what was done there. Names qf popish fugi- 
tives ; certified into the exchequer. 

J.N the month of November, the next year, viz. 1576, the The sacking 
king of Spain's soldiers sacked and spoiled the famous city of Antvver P- 
of Antwerp ; wherein they committed most cruel massacres, 

VOL. II. PART II. B 



2 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK and many barbarous violences and oppressions, not only at 
1L the first heats, when they entered and took it, but many 
Anno 1576. days after; killing in cool blood any Walloons they met 
with, and seizing upon the wealth, treasure, goods, and 
merchandise of all in the place, the English merchants not 
excepted, notwithstanding the king's privilege of peaceable 
living and trade granted them. Which insolences I shall 
here the rather give some brief account of, because of seve- 
ral earnest embassies the queen despatched on this occasion 
soon after. Which I take from an English gentleman, that 
was at that very time at Antwerp, and was an eyewitness 
of what was done, and escaped thence after imminent dan- 
396 ger of his life, and faithfully reported when he came home. 
He seemed to be some public person and agent of the 
queen's, and (as I am apt to believe) was Dr. Thomas Wyl- 
son, who was sent over but the month before. Which ac- 
count was soon after published by him. 
Account " That there lay seventeen thousand dead bodies of men, 

thereof b 5 - « WO men, and children, in the town, slain at that time by 

an English ' J 

gentleman " the Spaniards. That they neither spared age nor sex, 
SpoiTof " tmie nor pl acc > person nor country, profession nor reli- 
Antwerp. « gion, young nor old, rich nor poor, strong nor feeble ; 
" but without any mercy did tyrannously triumph, when 
" there was neither man nor means to resist them. For 
" age and sex, young and old, they slew great numbers of 
" young children, but many more women, more than four- 
" score years of age. For time and place, their fury was as 
" great ten days after their victory, as at the time of their 
" entry. And as great respect they had to the church and 
" churchyard (for all their hypocritical boasting of the 
"• catholic church) as the butcher hath to his shambles or 
" slaughterhouse. For person and country, they spared 
" neither friend nor foe, Portugal nor Turk. For profes- 
" sion and religion, the Jesuits must give their ready coin ; 
" and all other religious houses, both coin and plate, with 
" all other things that were good and portable in the 
" church, were spoiled, because they had ; and the poor 
" was hanged, because they had nothing. Neither strength 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 3 

" could prevail to make resistance, nor weakness move pity CHAP. 
" to refrain their horrible cruelty. And this was not done L 
" when the chase was hot, but when the blood was cold, Anno 1 576. 
" and they now victors without resistance. 

" I refrain to rehearse the heaps of dead carcasses which 
" lay at every trench they entered : the thickness whereof 
" did in many places exceed the height of a man. I for- 
" bear also to relate the huge numbers drowned in the new 
" town. I list not to reckon the infinite number of poor 
" Almains who lay burnt in their armour. Some, their 
" entrails scorched out, and all the rest of the body free. 
" Some, their heads and shoulders burnt off; so that you 
" might look down into the bulk and breast, and take 
" there an anatomy of the secrets of nature. Some, stand- 
" ing upon their wastes, being burnt off by the thighs; and 
" some, no more but the very top of the brain taken off 
" with fire, while the rest of the body did abide unspeak- 
" able torments. I set not down the ugly and filthy pol- 
" luting of every street with gore, and carcasses of men and 
" horses, &c. I may not pass over with silence the wilful 
" burning and destroying of the stately townhouse, and all 
" the monuments and records of the city ; neither can I 
" refrain to tell their shameful rapes and outrageous forces 
" presented unto sundry honest dames and virgins. It is a 
" thing too horrible to rehearse, that the father and mother 
" were forced to fetch their young daughter out of a cloi- 
" ster, (who had fled thither as unto a sanctuary, to keep 
" her body undefiled,) and to bestow her in bed between 
" two Spaniards, to work their wicked and detestable will 
" with her." 

And now to come to their dealing with the English there. The Eng- 
" A poor English merchant, having redeemed his master's 1, , sh ™ e y _ 

r is ? fc> chants in- 

" goods for three hundred crowns, was yet hanged until humanly 
" he was half dead, because he had not two hundred more w ;thai. 
"to give them: and the halter being cut down, and he 307 
" coming to himself again, besought them upon his knees 
" with bitter tears to give him leave to seek and try his 
" credit and friends in the town for the rest of their unrea- 

b 2 



4 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " sonable demand. At his return, because he sped not, (as 
" indeed no money was then to be had,) they hung him 



Anno 1576." again outright; and afterward, of exceeding courtesy, 
" procured the friars minors to bury him. And of the 
" seventeen thousand carcasses found, when the view of the 
" slain was taken, I think in my conscience, that five thou- 
" sand, or few less, were massacred after their victory, be- 
" cause they had not ready money to ransom their goods 
" at such prices as they pleased to set on them." 

As for the injuries done by them on this nation, he thus 
described the same. " We were quiet in the house ap- 
" pointed for the mansion of the English merchants under 
" safe conduct, protection, and placard of their king : hav- 
" ing neither meddled any way in these actions, nor by any 
" ways assisted the estates of the country with money, 
" munition, or any kind of aid. Yea, the [English] go- 
" vernor and merchants (foreseeing the danger of the time) 
" had often demanded passport of the king's governors and 
" officers to depart. And all these, with sundry other alle- 
" gations, we propounded and protested unto them before 
" they entered the English house, desiring to be there pro- 
" tected, according to our privileges and grants from the 
" king their master ; and that they would suffer us there 
" to remain free from all outrage, spoil, or ransom ; until 
" we might make our estate known unto the castellane, and 
" other head-officers, which served there for the said king. 
" All which notwithstanding, they threatened to fire the 
" house, unless we would open the door. And being once 
" suffered to enter, they demanded presently the ransom of 
" twelve thousand crowns of the governor. Which sum 
" being not indeed in the house, neither yet one third part 
" of the same, they spared not, with naked swords and dag- 
" gers, to menace the said governor, and violently to pre- 
" sent him death, because he had not wherewith to content 
" their greedy minds. But in the end, all eloquence not- 
" withstanding, the governor being a comely, aged man, and 
" a person whose hoary hairs might move pity and procure 
" reverence in any good mind, (especially the uprightness 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 5 

" of his dealing considered,) they forced him with great CHAP. 

" danger to bring forth all the money, plate, and jewels 

" which was in the house; and to prepare the remnant of Anno 1576. 

" twelve thousand crowns at such days and times as they 

" pleased to appoint. 

" And of the rest of our nation, which had their goods 
" remaining in their several packhouses and lodgings else- 
" where in the town, they took such pity, that four they 
" slew, and divers others they most cruelly and dangerously 
" hurt ; spoiling and ransoming them to the utmost value, 
" that might be made or esteemed of all their goods. Yea, 
" some they forced to ransom his goods twice, yea thrice : 
" and all that notwithstanding, took the said goods vio- 
" lently from them at the last. And all these injuries being 
" opened unto their chief governors in time convenient, and 
" while yet the whole sum set for several ransoms of our 
" countrymen, and the English house in general, were not 
" half paid; so that justice and good order might partly 308 
" have qualified the former rigours proffered by the soldiers; 
" the said governors were as slow and deaf, as the others 
" were quick and light of hearing to find the bottom of 
" every bag in the town. 

" So that it seems they are fully agreed in all things. Or 
" if any contention were, the same was by strife who or 
" which of them might do greatest wrongs: keeping the 
" said governor and merchants there still, (without grant of 
" passport or safe conduct,) when there is scarcely any vic- 
" tuals to be had for any money in the town, nor yet the 
" said merchants have any money to buy it where it is. 
" And as for credit, neither credit nor pawn can now find 
" coin in Antwerp. 

" In these distresses," said this writer, " I left them the 
" 12th of this instant November, 1576, when I parted from 
" them ; not as one who was hasty to leave and abandon 
" them in such misery, but to solicit their rueful cases 
" here: and to deliver the same unto her majesty and coun- 
" cil, in such sort as I beheld it there."' 1 

So that within three days, Antwerp, which was one of 

b3 



6 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK the richest towns in Europe, had now no money nor trea- 
sure to be found therein, as the said English gentleman 
Anno 1 576. reported, but only in the hands of murderers and strum- 
pets. For every dom Diego must walk strutting up and 
down the streets, with his harlot by him in her chain and 
bracelets of gold. And the notable burse, which was wont 
to be a safe assembly for merchants, and men of all honest 
trades, had now none other merchandise therein, but as 
many dicing tables as might be placed round about it, all 
the day long. 
The mi- And here we may take a view of bloody duke d'Alva, in 

thcLow tne -L° w Countries, where he set up the inquisition. Under 
Countries whose government infinite were the numbers and horrible 
govern- the executions of all people falling under his hands ; whose 
ment. main crime was their profession of the gospel. Whereof 

take this brief account from the relation thereof given in at 
a great and solemn assembly of the princes of the empire at 
General Wormes, anno 1578. Where the lord Aldegond made an 
history of ora tion before them, shewing them the miserable state of 

the Nether- ° 

lands. the Netherlands, and the tyranny of duke d'Alva and don 

Translated j ] in? an( j ^} le ( l ari ger the empire was in thereby. And how 
Giimst. that duke, at a banquet made before his departure, boasted, 
that within the time of his government in those Nether- 
lands, being about six years, he had caused about eighteen 
thousand six hundred men to be put to death by the com- 
mon minister of justice, the hangman; besides an innumer- 
able number that were consumed and murdered by the up- 
roars, mutinies, tumults, and cruelties of the soldiers in 
many places of the same : accounting them also that were 
killed in the wars, &c. Besides the spoil by the oppression 
and insolence of the soldiers in all places where they came. 
And shewing also, by common account, that they had spent 
in making war against the two provinces of Holland and 
Zealand, and in building castles, &c. above thirty-six mil- 
lions of guilders. And that they sought to conquer the 
kingdom of England, under pretence of aiding the impri- 
soned queen of Scotland ; and thereby to obtain the domi- 
nion of the sea, and therewith the rule of the whole world. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 7 

For these causes, and upon these considerations, the CHAP, 
queen despatched three embassies ; all of them chiefly, that [ 



she might keep fair with Philip king of Spain, and withal Anno 1576. 
be a seasonable mediator for the suffering Low Countries, 399 
as well as for the indignities offered her own subjects. In Embassies. 
the month of October, she sent Dr. Wylson, master of the se „ t ^the* 
requests, to the States of the Low Countries, to know the Low Coun - 
cause of the alteration, and what the States purposed ; and 
whether her majesty might do a good office, to pacify their Cott. Libr. 
troubles: and what safety and assurance our merchants 
might have for their traffick there in these troubles : to dis- 
cover whether the French would enter that country, and to 
dissuade it. The instructions bore date the 22d of October ; 
the substance whereof was, " to know of them the true 
" cause of the arrest and committing to prison of those that 
" were of the king of Spain's council in those Low Coun- 
" tries ; and of the besieging of Gaunt castle, kept by a 
" garrison of Spaniards. 

" To let them understand the continuance of desire her 
" majesty always hath had, and yet hath, to help pacify 
" the troubles of that country : if from them she might be 
" advertised which way she might best deal herein. 

" To understand of them what safety and assurance our 
" merchants have, during these troubles, for their traffick. 

" To procure access unto Rhoda: the better, by talk 
" with him, to discover, whether the said State mind to re- 
" nounce their obedience to the king his master, and to 
" cast themselves into the protection of any foreign prince. 

" To signify to the same Rhoda, that her majesty can- 
" not suffer the States to put themselves under the protec- 
" tion of any foreign prince : and that she would do her 
" best to compound the differences between the king and 
" them. 

" To discover what foreign forces either the Spaniard or 
" the States look and hope for : namely, whether they look 
" for any aid of the French."" 

1 T 1 o Sir John 

The next month, viz. November, sir John Smith was smith sent 
sent ambassador to the king of Spain. The cause of send- j? the 

o r King 01 

B 4 Spain. 



8 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK ing him was, " to declare to that king the cause of her ma- 

' " jestj^s sending Dr. Wylson into the Low Countries. And 

Anno 1576. " that in her opinion, no way was so good to pacify and re- 
" tain those countries under his government, as to remove 
" his garrisons, and restore their privileges. And likewise 
" to present to him the supplication and request of the 
" States exhibited to that end to her majesty by monsieur 
** d'Obignie. Likewise to certify, that nothing was per- 
" formed that was promised sir Henry Cobham at his being 
" last in Spain. To excuse the going over of Englishmen 
" to serve the prince of Orange. That her majesty would 
" not suffer these Low Countries to be reduced to a martial 
" government. And finally, to crave a general redress of 
" all wrongs done to her subjects." 
His instruc- For thus more at large the instructions given to her said 
Tttus b 2 am t> a ssador, ran, dated the of November, 1576. " That 
" notwithstanding heretofore she had often, and all in vain, 
" persuaded him to an honourable composition with his 
400 " subjects in the Low Countries ; yet, now at the request 
" of his States, Avho of late sent the baron d'Obignie to her, 
" she becometh a mediator to him in that behalf. 

" That there were two chief means to the said composi- 
" tion. First, to remove all his garrisons and soldiers of 
" foreign countries from thence, the country being willing 
" to satisfy them touching their pays. Secondly, to restore 
" them to their ancient liberties in as ample manner as they 
" enjoyed them in Charles the Fifth's time. 

" That the cause of her sending Dr. Wylson to the 
" States, was to discover the entrance of foreign powers, of 
" which there was great number brought. And whether 
" they minded to swerve from his obedience : minding to 
" do all her best offices to keep those countries in dutiful 
" subjection to him. 

" That the keeping of his garrisons there, which of late 
" had, in Antwerp and Maestricht, committed great out- 
" rages, was the way to bring the people and states to such 
" desperation, that of force they must all combine them- 
" selves to shake off his government. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 9 

" That if there were any offence in them, yet that it was CHAP, 
more profitable and more honourable for a prince, as he , 



" was, to recover them rather by pardon than by sword. Anno 1576. 

" That there was no part of that performed, that the 
" duke of Alva, and secretary Saias, by their handwriting, 
" in his name, promised. 

" That he [the ambassador] deal earnestly with the king 
" for the release of the English imprisoned there, and their 
" goods : requiring the continuance of intercourse, without 
" such usage hereafter towards her subjects. Whereunto 
" if he yielded, to have it assured under the signature of 
" his own hand. 

" To excuse the going over of some Englishmen that 
" served the prince in Holland. Which were such as had 
" served in Ireland, and could not work at home ; and 
" went over by stealth against her commandment. That 
" their chief captain had been punished for conveying of 
" them. And that they could not find in their hearts to 
" serve the king there ; hearing how ill their countrymen 
" were used in Spain by the inquisitors. 

" That the denying sir Henry Cobham's request, made 
" in her majesty's name, to have an ambassador resident in 
" each other's dominions, with freedom for exercise of 
" prayer in their own families, ministered just cause of sus- 
" picion that he made no estimation of her friendship. 

" That if he purposed to make a conquest of the Low 
" Countries, and to plant a martial government there, that 
" was so prejudicial to her state, she neither could nor 
" would endure it. 

" Lastly, to crave redress generally of all injuries done 
" to her subjects by them of his dominions : and namely, 
" for the late outrageous spoil committed upon them and 
" their goods in Antwerp."" 

The next month, viz. December, she despatched sir Ed- And Horsey 
ward Horsey to don John of Austria, that became this Jonnof 
year governor of the Spanish Netherlands. The cause of Austria, 
sending him was, to declare the reason of Dr. Wylson's go- 
ing into Flanders; and of D'Obignie's coming hither: as 



10 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK also of sending sir John Smith into Spain. To wish him to 

' grow to some peaceable end with the States, rather than to 

Anno 1576. p U t in peril the loss of all those countries. And that her 

401 majesty would not suffer them, through desperation, to cast 

themselves into the hands of the French. And lastly, to 

crave restitution of her merchants' 1 goods, and liberties for 

them to depart from Antwerp. 

His in- This was in short Horsey's message ; as appears by the 

TiulsB^ instructions more at large given him, bearing date the 14th 

p. 459. of December; viz. " That the cause of sending Dr. Wylson 

" to the States was to discover, whether they had any pur- 

" pose to withdraw themselves clean from the obedience of 

" the king of Spain or no. If he should understand that 

" they had no such purpose, but that they stood only upon 

" enjoying of their privileges, to tell them, that she would 

" be glad, if she knew how to be a mean between the king 

" and them, for a good end of these troubles. But if they 

" had any intention to renounce the said king^s authority, 

" Avhich he had over them, in the right of his inheritance of 

" the dukedom of Burgundy, that she would, as a confede- 

" rate of the said king, aid him and his true servants, to 

" compel them to their ancient obedience. 

" That the States had sent monsieur d'Obignie to her 
" majesty, to assure her, that they meant nothing less than 
" to withdraw themselves from the king^ obedience; that 
" their taking arms, and doing as now they did, was to de- 
" fend themselves against the great spoils and intolerable 
" outrages of the Spaniard ; and that they desired nothing 
" more than that her majesty would be a mean to the king, 
" that these present calamities there might be appeased 
" otherwise than by arms. To which effect they had a sup- 
" plication, which they desired to be presented to the king 
u on their behalf by her majesty. 

** That thereupon her majesty sent sir John Smith to 
" present the said supplication unto the king in Spain ; and 
" the said Mr. Horsey now to don John. Following that 
" course which she had always taken, by good mediation 
" between the king and his ministers in those Low Coun- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 11 

" tries, and the people of the said countries, to do her CHAP. 
" best endeavour to reduce them to some good pacifica- ' 



il tion. Anno 1576. 

" That she hoped don John, seeing the present state of 
" those countries, would follow that way of redress which 
" should seem best for the king's honour, and the continu- 
" ance of these countries under his government, and re- 
" store them to such quietness, as the ancient intercourse 
" between her subjects and that nation might be reconti- 
" nued. Wherein, if he took not present order, the States 
" were entered into such a secret combination with the 
" French, as would put the king of Spain in peril of the 
" loss of all those countries. 

" That seeing the open actions of the said States declared 
" that they were otherwise affected than heretofore, and 
" ready to run any course, rather than to endure the op- 
" pressions which they have long time felt ; making their 
" demands with the sword in their hand ; he should do 
" very well, having large authority thereto, to grow to some 
" peaceable and quiet end with them : and so to be a mean 
" to convert the king's forces against the common enemy of 402 
" Christendom ; against whom he had done himself great 
" honour. 

" That if don John shall go on by force, and seek to alter 
" the ancient form of government in these Low Countries, 
u whereby they should be forced to cast themselves into the 
" hand and protection of the French, her majesty saw it a 
" matter so perilous to her state, that, as well in respect of 
" herself, as for the compassion she had for those Low 
" Countries, with which her nation had so long amity, 
" would in no wise suffer the same ; but use such remedies 
" as necessity required, both for her own safety, and the 
" preservation of their state. 

" That contrariwise, if her majesty might be plainly made 
" to understand, that the States 1 meaning was to withdraw 
" themselves from the king's government, in demanding 
" that which was not honourable for him to grant, she 



12 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " would join her forces with his, against them and their 
II 

" fautors. 



Anno 1576. " That in his way to don John he should confer secretly 
" with some of the chiefest of the States ; and to persuade 
" them to demand nothing that was unfit for subjects to 
" ask, or a prince to grant. Otherwise they should, what- 
" soever in word they professed, declare their inward mean- 
" ing to be other than they pretended. 

" And that if don John should not yield to reasonable 
" requests, but would prosecute the matter with force, she 
" minded not to see them oppressed, but would aid them 
" by all the good means she might. 

" That if he could learn the said States' 1 proceedings and 
" intelligence with France ; to dissuade them from the same ; 
" as well by offering them assistance from hence, as by 
" threatening; and assuring them, that she would join with 
" don John to impeach their said intelligence. 

" That while he remained with don John, to observe all 
" his actions, both secret and other, as much as he could : 
" what forces he had, or was like to have, and from whence: 
" how he was affected towards her majesty : how he was 
" persuaded of her sincere meaning touching the king of 
" Spain : how he accepted and liked that she should inter- 
" pose herself as a mediator between the king and his sub- 
" jects. 

" And lastly, that he demand of don John restitution 

" and recompence of all things taken away in Antwerp ; 

" and of all wrongs offered to her majesty^ subjects and 

" merchants there, in the late massacre ; with liberty and 

" safe conduct for them all to depart from thence, with their 

" goods that were left, and ships ; according to the good 

" amity and intercourse betwixt her realms and those Low 

" Countries. 11 

The danger The queen was the more jealous of the disturbances in 

ed of the tn °se Low Countries, because she was informed of the 

French aid- French designs there, upon their application to them for 

rag the . , i-ii . 

states. Ti- aid : which she by no means liked of, (as appeared above,) 

tus, B. 2. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 13 

as being a course to betray them to their enemies. And CHAP, 
this a notable paper of intelligence discovered, being sent 



from somebody nameless in those Low Countries; adding Anno 1 576. 

this advice in the conclusion, which was as follows: 

" They are about to play such a tragedy in this country, 403 
touching matters of the state and religion, as if her ma- intelligence 
jesty do not bear therein such a part as she ought, she is 
like, out of hand, to see what she would not. Titus, B. 2. 

" The duke of Alencon prepareth great forces in France, 
which will be in a readiness before midsummer. He doth 
openly confess that he doth nothing without his brother's 
will and consent ; without the which, men of judgment 
had never any great hope of him. Hereby the end of his 
departure from the king is known. And indeed it could 
no longer be hidden from those that are acquainted with 
Bussis voyage to Paris, and his conference had with the 
duke of Guise, the Spanish ambassador, and such like. 
His demands of the States are very small, and in effect 
almost of no weight. He promiseth to drive don John 
out of the country at his own costs and charges. After 
which time, if they do resolve to change their lord, he 
prayeth to be preferred before any other. He giveth it 
out, that he will give an example, or pattern, in these 
countries, of the manner how he meaneth to carry him- 
self in two enterprises, which he intendeth against two 
kingdoms, which he nameth to be Naples and Sicilia. But 
it is feared the nations he meaneth are nearer unto France, 
[viz. England and Ireland.] 

" He must needs shoot at one of these two marks. The 
first, and that which is most to be feared, under colour 
of assisting the States, to oppress them. Which is ga- 
thered by three sound reasons : first, by his former deal- 
ing towards these of the religion. Secondarily, by the 
interest that the crown of France hath in the example of 
dissolving or reforming of this state, [viz. to bring it 
under a more arbitrary government.] And thirdly, by 
the amity and secret intelligence which the king, his bro- 



14 



ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
II. 



Anno 1576'. 



404 



ther, and he, have with the Spaniard : having lately pro- 
cured a truce between the Turk and him, for the further- 
ance of his affairs in these parts. By this first mark, the 
tyrannous authority of the Spaniard shall be established 
in these countries; to their prejudice that know the in- 
conveniencies likely to follow of the same, and have op- 
posed themselves thereunto. 

" The other mark is, to be pricked forward with desire 
of greatness, by winning these countries, or a great part 
of the same, to the crown of France: which, in outward 
show, he seemeth to pretend. And being come with great 
forces, and having great intelligence in the said countries, 
to lay wait for duke Casimire\s person, to despatch him 
out of the way ; the better afterwards to deal with those 
of the religion : which have none elsewhere to trust unto 
in Germany but him. And finally, that having possessed 
himself of these countries, France may be able on even 
side to overtop England, while they do practise new 
troubles in Scotland. 

C( Having these two strings to his bow, he doth so ear- 
nestly press the States here in this negociation ; as whe- 
ther it be to their liking or disliking, he is fully resolved 
to come. The poor men having, as the common proverb 
is, the wolf by the ears, cannot resolve whether it should 
be less hurtful and dangerous for them to have his open 
enmity, by refusing of him ; or to have him in continual 
jealousy, by accepting him to them. 

" To meet these two inconveniencics, the queen is to use 
two remedies. The one is, the war earnestly followed ; 
the other is, to procure a peace. But that would hinder 
greatly her majesty's affairs. For that by such means 
the Spaniard would be put again in authority, if not as 
great as heretofore, yet likely to come to that, by the 
only accident of the prince of Orange's death, if he should 
happen to die. Besides, her majesty should greatly dis- 
courage such as were devoted unto her here, by procur- 
ing unto them a very hurtful and dangerous peace. And 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 15 

" further, there is small likelihood here of acceptation of CHAP. 

" peace, the change of the lord, or alteration of the state, 

" being intended, if not already resolved on. Anno 1576. 

" It remaineth that the queen should take in hand a se- 
" cret war, by strengthening duke Casimir, in such sort as 
" he may be able secretly in her name to make head against 
" the king and his brother, as long as he shall be here ; and 
" to send him over into France, if need should require, to 
" divert the course of their enterprises. For it will be more 
" profitable and necessai'y, that in case this state be driven 
" to change master, they should rather choose a new one, 
" than by yielding themselves unto France, to make the 
" same so strong, that they may be able to bridle their 
" neighbours. 

" For which purpose it were requisite her majesty did 
" not only secretly strengthen the said duke Casimir with 
" the two thousand corslets already required, but also with 
" as many more at her own charges : to the end, that hav- 
" ing armed him to withstand all enterprises against her, he 
" may do her some worthy service in these troublesome 
" times, and upon this so happy occasion ; as, if her majesty 
" do not take her benefit of it now, she is not like to have 
" the like again. 11 

This Casimir was son of Frederick, elector palatine of the 
Rhine ; who came into the Low Countries about this time, 
or before, to assist the States : to whom queen Elizabeth 
sent supplies, according to the advice above given. And so 
also came d'Alencon. But with what success, I leave it to 
the historians of those Low Country wars to relate. 

But the great desire and endeavour of those of the Low Reasons for 
Countries, and their friends here, was to bring the queen to statefnn- 
receive them under her protection, and to take the govern- der her pro- 
ment of them upon her, with convenient forces : which they 
earnestly offered her majesty ; having no great inclination 
to venture themselves with the French : under one of the 
two they found it necessary to commit themselves. And for 
what reasons and considerations the queen should accept 
their offer, a discreet and knowing merchant, (whose name 



16 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK was W. Villers,) then at Middleburgh, thus wrote to a great 
IIj lord, lord Burghley, as I think: out of whose original let- 



Anno l.w.ter, dated March 26, I had the ensuing lines, viz. 

In a letter « And for further intelligence, it may please your ho- 

mantn M " " nour to understand, it is no small grief unto me to hear 

England, a m tn i s country that which I do hear ; considering the 

" offers that have been made by his excellency [the prince 

405 " of Orange] and the states of the countries, to her ma- 

" jesty ; and to be utterly refused [viz. to take them into 

" her protection, and openly to aid them against the king 

" of Spain's tyranny.] I cannot think but that there are 

" some great hinderers of the same ; wherein they may 

" have a good meaning. But I beseech Almighty God to 

" open their eyes, and to turn their hearts ; that they may 

" rather be helpers and setters forward of noble and worthy 

" deeds, than to be hinderers thereof. 

" There never could have happened the like safety to 
*' our most worthy queen and country, as for her majesty 
" to have such a government offered unto her ; the which 
" without comparison are the strongest, and of the greatest 
" consequence, that be in the world. God preserve and 
" keep her majesty from the malice of her enemies and 
" ours, and grant that she may long reign over us : Amen. 
" If it be true, that her majesty hath utterly refused the 
" offer, (as it is here said she hath,) undoubtedly it will fall 
" into the government of the French, or it be six months. 
" It is of a very truth, that there is at this present with the 
" prince certain commissioners out of France for the same. 
" And it is said there shall come ten thousand men from 
" thence, if her majesty do refuse the same. And for the 
" good wills of the French towards us, we do well know 
" they do make account of us to be their ancient enemies : 
" and if the kings of England, in times past, did find it was 
" not for the safety of our realm to have such a neighbour 
" as Calais was, before it was taken by king Edward the 
" Third, how much more are we to consider of these coun- 
" tries, and of the consequence of them every way ; and 
" what will follow, if the French may once possess them ? 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 17 

" And on the other side, if the Spaniard should prevail CHAP. 
" therein, according to his desire, (as I pray God that I do 
" not live to see that day,) unhappy may we then think Anno 1576, 
" ourselves to be, and in worse case than if the French have 
" it. For the settled hatred of the Spaniard doth so abound 
" in their hearts towards us, that they do not let to utter 
" their minds in such speeches to them at Serick seas 
" against her majesty, that no good subject, with a patient 
" mind, can abide the report thereof. I pray God confound 
" them and their evil inventions. I am not altogether out 
" of hope, but that her majesty will be a mean that the 
" enemy may be stayed from his purpose. The provision 
" that the prince hath made for the succour of Serick seas 
" is great. God grant, them good success : they do stay 
" only for wind and weather." 

Yet in the mean time the States, by their privateers, did 
great damage to their enemies that traded to and with 
Spain, and took abundance of their ships and goods ; inso- 
much as the aforesaid merchant writes in the same letter, 
" That the great booties they had taken within the two last 
" months were to the value of an hundred and twenty thou- 
" sand pounds sterling. And yet for the means of the great 
" preparation that was made to remove the enemy from 
" Serick seas, and paying off mariners and soldiers, they 
" were still bare of money.'" 

I add one piece of intelligence more in this letter, as it 
relates to England : " It is said here, there is six hundred 
" Englishmen arrived within this month in Holland. I wish 406 
" it were, or that it may be very shortly, six thousand ; or 
" else I would those that be ready here, to be called home 
" again ; else they will be but as a prey to the Spaniard or 
" the French. For undoubtedly the prince must either re- 
" ceive succours from the French, or else be overcome by 
" her enemies, if her majesty do not even shortly assist 
" them with a great force. 11 

In the mean time the protestants in France were in very The protes 
ill case, and great resolutions taken up to be rigorous with $1^™^ 
them ; insomuch that those innocent and poor people medi- deavom- a 

VOL. II. PART II. C 



18 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK tated nothing now but to leave their country, and to fly into 
' England for their safety : against which, France made all 
Anno 1576. the provision she could to stop them. For, notwithstand- 
EuXnd t0 m 8 tne French king's promise to allow them the liberty of 
their religion, and so some pacification had been made be- 
tween them, yet now all things looked towards a severe per- 
secution of them. And the popish (called the holy) league, 
between the pope, the French king, and the Spaniard, was 
now taking vigorous effect : which those of the religion per- 
ceiving, found it necessary to fly to England for refuge ; 
concerning which, and the present state of affairs in France, 
as fresh news brought over to Portsmouth, the lord Henry 
Radcliff, brother to Thomas earl of Sussex, gave him intel- 
ligence, in the month of January, to this import. 
The inteiii- " That such news as he had received out of France, he 
of "ent'tcT" **■ though good to advertise his honour ; although he knew, 
the earl of « as he wrote, that he [the earl] received the true certifi- 
ComTsuss*! " cate, and he [his brother] but report from friends. That 
Cott. Libr. it on Thursday last, there came a ship from Deep, which 
" arrived there upon Sunday. By which he understood 
" that the French king published and proclaimed, that there 
" should be no more preaching of the gospel in his country. 
" Whereupon divers of the religion were fled ; and divers 
" that would fly, could not : for that all the coasts of Nor- 
" mandy, and the seacoast adjoining, were restrained and 
" stopped. That mons. Melleroy, the governor of Nor- 
" mandy, did assemble force for the king ; and that there 
" had been brought into Normandy divers bands of soldiers, 
" by small companies, which now were discovered ; and 
" that mons. Melleroy had taken order with mons. Sigo- 
" nie, the governor of Deep, that there should be within 
" Deep four or five ensigns, which Sigonie had agreed to 
" receive. That there should be garrisons also in most 
" towns upon the seacoast. That the protestants, as many 
" as could get away, were gone to, the prince of Conde, who 
" had been in Rochel, and had taken order there. That 
" mons. de Montpensier, and mons. de Bedon, being with 
" the king of Navarr, to know what he should do, the king's 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 19 

" answer was, that if the French king would not keep his CHAP. 
" promise, he would make war. That there was great pre- ' 
" paration made on both sides, and cruel war was thought Anno ,1576. 
" to follow. That the pope, and king of Spain, and the 
" French king, had all agreed to make the duke of Guise 
" general of these wars. That duke Casimir had sent word 
" to the French king, that he would prepare great numbers 
" of men of war against him. That the merchants and 407 
" common people of France, upon the seacoasts, were at 
" their wits end, for fear of this war towards. That there 
" was prohibition made that no Frenchman be suffered to 
" fly into England." And then concluding, " Thus have 
" I certified your honour of such news as I have received, 
" although not confirmed. I humbly commit your honour 
" to God. From Portsmouth, Jan. 15, 1576. 
" Your honour's brother, 

" Most humble to command, 

" Henry Radclyff." 

This news was the more strange, because the king, Henry 
III. but lately come to the crown, had made a general peace 
with the confederates, proclaimed through France, and had 
done divers things in favour of the protestants, and would 
have it called his peace. So that they of the religion con- 
cluded it the more firm. Yet by the incessant intrigues of 
the pope, with the duke of Guise, and the popish faction in 
France, that king soon broke his word, and entered again 
into a civil war. 

And in fine, by another letter from court, namely, from The earl of 
the earl of Leicester to the earl of Shrewsbury, may be ob- a pp re hen- ' 
served how matters stood at this critical time between the s | ons a J; this 

. , ... time. Epist. 

Low Countries and the queen ; and likewise with respect to com. Salop. 
Scotland : and what great care was then thought to be had "» Col fcS« 
for keeping a fair correspondence with that king, for her 
better security from all her enemies abroad. The words of 
the said letter, dated February 15, were these. " For the 
" matters of the Low Countries, they go hardly. And 
" truly, my lord, I look for no good from thence. From 

c 2 



20 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " Scotland there is even this day some advertisement of bet- 
" ter hope of the king's good proceedings there, and with 



Anno 1576. « ] ler majesty, than of late we looked for. And it is the 
" greatest care I have,"' 1 as he added, " that her majesty may 
" have good amity with that king. For, if so it may be, I 
" have no great fears, as the world standeth, of all the rest 
" of her enemies abroad whatsoever. And I do not see but 
" that this king may be had, without any very great charge 
" to her majesty. We hear that of late he hath dealt very 
" well against his chiefest papists. God grant that he may 

" so go forward. For if both these and the princes 

" join in maintaining the true religion, it will be the safety 

" and preservation of them both, and of their countries. 

" Your lordship doth hear, I am sure, that the ambassadors 

" are departed towards Flanders, on her majesty's behalf, 

" six days ago ; but the wind doth yet hold them on this 

" side. God send their travail to bring forth good and pro- 

" fitable fruit. The best news I can write your lordship is 

" of her highness good and perfect health. Which God 

" long continue, - " &c. 

Letters and _/\ s for the dangers at home, the greatest proceeded from 

from Scot- the queen of Scots: between whom and divers in Scotland, 

land to the there W as much secret correspondence, as well as with fo- 

Scottish . . . L 

queen. reign princes, her friends. But queen Elizabeth was watch- 
408 ful, and had secret intelligence : as in the beginning of this 
year she knew that there were letters passing, and messen- 
gers coming towards that queen : a matter which required 
the earl of Shrewsbury to have his eyes about him. Sir 
Francis Walsingham now let the earl know, that her ma- 
jesty gave him order to let him understand, that she was 
lately and credibly informed of certain secret messengers 
come out of Scotland, with letters to that queen, his charge; 
and who were already entered England, and by all likeli- 
hood not far from his lordship's house. That her majesty's 
pleasure therefore was, that he should use all the best and 
secretest means he could in belaying the country round 
about, for their apprehension and the intercepting the said 
letters. And by an enclosed note sent, he should read their 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 21 

names, and some more circumstances hereof. This was dated CHAP, 
from the court, the 29th of March, 1576. L 



Besides these popish practices in the north, in the south Anno 1576. 
parts also the papists increase, and religion went backwards: The bisho P 

1 , 1 -11 • • of Chiches- 

as appeared by what Richard Curtess, bishop of Chichester, ter visits his 
signified to secretary Walsingham, concerning what he found d j""; n ' Pa ~ 
in his triennial visitation, finished this year, viz. that they crease. 
that were backward in religion, in the county of Sussex, 
grew worse and worse ; and that chiefly upon the coming of 
don John of Austria, the king of Spain's bastard- brother, 
into the Low Countries this year, to be governor there; 
to vex the professors of the gospel, and to destroy the liber- 
ties of that free people. The bishop, therefore, had cited 
such as were most suspected, by his ordinary authority in 
that visitation. And their names, and the articles where- 
upon he examined them, he thought fit to send withal to 
the secretary : " Thinking it fit (as he wrote) to shew the His letter 
" same to his honour, because there were some of them [i. e. to'the^e- 
" justices of the peace] that pretended well, and yet were cetary. 
" not sound in religion, that went about to make the worst n ce. er 
" of it, [that is, of this his examination and course he took 
" with those he suspected.] And therefore he advised, 
" if it might seem good to their honours, and others of her 
" majesty's most honourable privy council, either to have 
" such of them clean put out of the commission of peace as 
" were in it, or else at least that there might be a Dedimus 
" potestatem to some, to take their oaths openly at the next 
"sessions, to the queen's supremacy; which would be a The justices 
" great stay to the country. For it was commonly and ere- sus P ected - 
" dibly thought, that some of them never took that oath, 
" although it were otherwise returned. And so with his 
" most humble and hearty prayers, he most humbly and 
" heartily commended his honour to God, his good will and 
" pleasure. Dated from Aldingburn, March 24, 1576. Sub- 
" scribed, Ri. Cicestren." 

Then follow, in the said bishop's letter, the names of those justices and 
justices and others so suspected ; and the articles ministered ?* h " s ? ted 
to them. shop. 

cS 



22 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK The names of them that xvere called were these. 

Sir Thomas Palmer, the el- Henry Gosford, of Stansted 



Anno 1576. der, knt. Lodge, gent. 

409 William Shelly, of Michel Jasper Gunter, gent. 

Grove, esq. John Navye, of Racten, yeo- 
Rich. Shelley, late of Worm- man. 

inghurst, gent. John Bickley, gent. 

Thomas Lewknor, of Selsey, John Riman, gent. 

esq. One Hare, of Mr. CarrelFs 
Wm. Dawtre, of Moor, esq. house. 

Richard Ernly, esq. Scot, of Iden. 

Jeffrey Pole. One Tichbourn, of Durford, 
Edw. Gage, of Rentley, esq. gent. 

John Gage, of Firles, esq. Cryer, parson of Westmeston. 

Tho. Gage, of Firles, esq. Gray, parson of Withian. 

Edward Gage, of Firles, esq. The curate of Shepley. 

George Gage, of Firles, esq. John Taylor, parson. And 

J. Shelley, of Pateham, esq. Dr. Bayley. With others. 

But for summoning so many, he seemed to have some 

reprimand from above. For which he made his vindication 
afterwards, as we shall see. 

The articles were these. 

I. How often have you been at common prayer in your 
parish church, since the first of January, 1575, last? 

II. How often have you been partaker of the sacrament, 
otherwise casna dominica, since the same time ? 

III. How many sermons have you heard since the same 
time ? 

IV. Whether do you send any letters or money, or re- 
ceive any letters, from such as be fled beyond seas? 

V. Whether have you any of the books of Harding, 
Stapleton, Rastal, Saunders, Marshal, or of such others as 
be supposed to be beyond the seas, and answered by the 
learned father, bishop Jewel, or some other learned men of 
the religion; or of such as they have answered, printed 
without their answers ? 

VI. Whether do you keep in your house any that come 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 23 

not at all to common prayer: or, whether do you dwell in CHAP, 
the house of any that do not come; or doth receive any 
books or pictures from such as be beyond the seas, since the Anuo 1576. 
first of January, 1575 ? 

This visitation was the more carefully managed by the His method 
bishop aforesaid, by diligent inquisition after the disaffected in j*™^ " 
in religion; because of certain letters sent from the privy them - Pa- 
council, and some orders of the ecclesiastical commission. 
The proceedings and effects whereof, with the discreet me- 
thod used, the bishop thought fit, the next month, to acquaint 
the lords withal, to this tenor : " That it might please their 
" honours to understand the true circumstances of his late 
" proceedings in the matters of religion. That in his late 
? ; visitation, the ministers, and others of that country, com- 
" plained to him, that divers had come out of Kent, Surrey, 
" and Hampshire, not sound in religion. And that of late 410 
" some of them in that country waxed worse and worse. 
" Whereupon he thought it his duty to deal with them. 
" And for the better countenancing and strengthening his 
" ordinary jurisdiction, he mentioned their lordships 1 let- 
" ters, and the authority of the high commission : yet using 
" his own ordinary authority. And thinking with himself 
" that he might be both blamed and charged, if he called 
" some, and left out others, he thought good to cite them 
" all : yet with these cautions and promises, (which in his 
" opinion might satisfy all reasonable persons,) first, that if 
" any knew himself clear, he might certify him [the bishop] 
" under the hand of the curate and churchwarden of the 
" parish ; and then he should not need to appear. Se- 
" condly, if any hereafter meant to conform themselves, 
" notwithstanding any thing past, if they did but write to 
" him, he released them also from appearance. Thirdly, if 
" any were not yet satisfied, and would be content to admit 
" charitable and learned conference ; if they would but 
" come to him the day before, they should have that time 
" and respite which they could reasonably desire. As di- 
" vers did, and had it accordingly granted. And such only 
" to appear, who refused all these. And that for such as 

C 4 



24 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " refused them all, and appeared otherwise than they need- 
IL " ed, he granted them both copies of the articles, and what 
Anno 1576." else either for time or manner they themselves desired. 
" Concluding, thus in most humble and hearty wise he be- 
" seeched the Almighty long to preserve their honours, to 
" the maintenance of the gospel, Ri. Cicestren." It bore 
date April 1577. 
Public mass But popery was discovered yet nearer the court ; mass 
bnssadorof being publicly said in the Portugal ambassador's house, at 
Portugal's t } le Charter-house, many English, the queen's subjects, 
being present at it, the Spanish ambassador being there. 
Fleetwood, the recorder of the city, hearing thereof, and 
by order, as it seems, of the lord treasurer Burghley, from 
court, interrupted them, while they were at their ceremony. 
Upon complaint whereof made by the said ambassador to 
the queen, she was so complaisant as to command the re- 
corder to be committed ; and ordered the lords of her privy 
council to inquire more particularly into the matter, that so 
she might the better and more fully understand it, and be 
able to give the ambassador (who made a great clamour) a 
more absolute answer. Whereupon the lords of the coun- 
cil appointed the lord keeper, the lord treasurer, and sir 
Walter Mildmay, chancellor of the exchequer, to take the 
The privy examination of this matter : writing thus to them ; " After 
lett b t " our h ear ty commendations to your good lordships. Her 
the said am- " majesty being given to understand, that the ambassador 
complaint " °f Portugal doth not rest satisfied with the punishment 

for being « extended by her highness'' order upon the recorder ; in- 
disturbed. . . , , • i i i • i 
" sisting greatly upon the outrage committed by the said 

" recorder, in the manner of his proceeding, in the late 

" search made by him of the said ambassador's house ; as, 

" the beating the porter, the entering in with naked swords, 

" the laying violent hands upon the lady his wife, the tak- 

" ing of the host and chalice, and the breaking open of 

411 " certain doors; and such other like violences; wherewith 

" the said ambassador hath acquainted you, the lord trea- 

" surer: she thinketh it very convenient, lest happily he 

" might aggravate the matter more than there is cause, that 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 25 

due examination be made by you of the said particularities, CHAP, 
by calling before you, as well such strangers as you can 



" learn were there, (not being of the ambassador's family,) Anno 1576. 
" as also such others as accompanied the said recorder, 
" whom you shall think fit to be examined in that matter. 
" Which examination being by you taken, her pleasure is, 
" you shall send hither with all speed ; to the end, that 
" thereupon her majesty may be the better able to answer, 
" in case he shall urge any further satisfaction. And so 
" we bid your lordships heartily farewell. From Hampton 
" Court, the 7th of November, 1576. 
(Signed) 

" E. Lincoln. T. Sussex. Arundel. 

" A. Warwyke. R. Leycester. Fra. Walsingham. 1 ' 

The more regard was now given to this ambassador, be- The recor- 
cause he was ready to depart, having concluded upon a ^Tenfto" 
traffick between both nations. So that the sheriffs and the the Fleet, 
recorder were sent for before the council; before whom 
they spake for themselves. And the lords made a true re- 
port thereof to her majesty. And at their return they said 
to them, that they had done but according to law : yet not- 
withstanding, for honour's sake, and that now seigneur Gi- 
raldo was upon his despatch ; and for that by his good 
means there was an honourable conclusion of traffick brought 
to pass : therefore it was thought meet by her majesty that 
they should go to the Fleet. And thereupon, at the board, 
they received their warrant to Mr. Warden of the Fleet, to 
receive them. All this the recorder writ out of the Fleet 
the same day, (November 7,) wherein they were committed, 
to the lord treasurer : and lastly, thanking him for his great 
care for their well doing; and that he would thank the 
lords, who did as much at that present as possibly they 
could. But the queen's will must stand. 

The lord treasurer had, by a postscript to the council's 
order, advised the recorder to give a just and true relation 
of this whole matter in writing. And accordingly so he did, 
accompanied with his letter : which letter, with his declara- 



26 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK tion at large of his proceedings, I will set down from the 

IL very original, that the merits of the cause may more fully 

Aano 1576. appear: together with other passages, not unworthy our 

taking; notice of. 

The recor- In his letter he shewed the treasurer, together Avith the 

cation of ^ or< ^ keeper, and the chancellor of the exchequer, " That 

what he had « ] ie ] laQ i required Mr. Spinola, [a merchant in London,] 

" in time past, to give seignior Giraldie (that was the am- 

" bassador's name) counsel to amend divers things that 

" were amiss ; and especially touching the repair of these 

" lewd people, the queen's subjects, that came to his mass. 

412" That seignior Giraldie said to his friends, that he [the 

" recorder] bare him malice, and that he did this for malice. 

" Upon which occasion he used these words : My lord, I 

" refer that to God and your lordship's own conscience, I 

" never said we heard that your lordship ever touched any 

" man for malice ; and I thank God even from my heart, 

" that I never used any man living with any malicious deal- 

" ings. He added, that seignior Giraldie' s faults were such, 

" that he did not only malice, but did abhor. Our Lord 

" make him a virtuous man. And then he beseeched his 

" lordship to thank Mr. Warden [of the Fleet] for his most 

" friendly and courteous using of him. And he thanked 

" God for it, that he was quiet, and lacked nothing that he 

" or his bedfellow were able to do for him ; and that it was 

" a place where a man might quietly be acquainted with 

" God. And so prayed the Lord God to bless his good 

" lordship, the lord keeper, and sir Walter Mildmay. It 

" was dated the 9th of November." 

His infor- Then he began his information touching his proceedings 

what was m tne Portugal ambassador's house, with this preface, that 

done at the h e h^ according to the lord treasurer's postscript, writ 

dor's house, with his own hand, set down (and sure he was thereof) the 

when the ver |; rut h without adding; or informing any thing more or 

mass was ^ ° o J o 

saying. less than the simplicity of the matter was in action. 

" Upon Sunday last, at eleven o'clock in the forenoon, 
" Mr. Sheriff Kimpton and Mr. Sheriff Barnes, and I, the 
" recorder, did repair unto the Charter-house ; and knock- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 27 

ing at the gates, no man answered. Mr. Sheriff B. by CHAP, 
agreement went upon the back-stairs, to see that no mass- 



hearers should escape. And after divers knockings at the Anno 1576. 
" gate, the porter came, being a Portugal, who did speak 
" English, and said my lord was not at home. Then, 
" quoth we, let us speak with you, Mr. Porter, for we have 
" brought letters. And the porter answered us very stub- 
" bornly. And at the length he opened the gate, and I, 
" the recorder, put in my left leg, meaning to enter in at 
" the gate. And being half in and half out, the porter, 
" knowing me "very well, said, Back, villain ; and thrust 
" the gate so sore upon my leg, that I shall carry the grief 
" thereof to my grave. Sithence that time my pain hath 
" been so great, that I can take no rest. And if Mr. She- 
" riff Kimpton had not thrust the gate from me, my leg 
" had been utterly bruised into shivers. And besides, the 
" porter began to bustle himself to his dagger, and took me 
" by the throat : and then I thrust him from me ; for in- 
" deed he was but a testy little wretch. And so I willed 
( ' Mr. Sheriff and the officers to stay the fellow from doing 
" any hurt to any other in his fury. 

" After this we passed quietly, all doors being open, out 
" of the hall up the stairs : and at the stair-head there was 
" a great long gallery, that in length stood east and west. 
" In the same gallery all the mass-hearers, both men and 
" women, were standing. For the priest was at the gospel, 
" and the altar-candles were lighted, as the old manner was. 
" After this, we knocked at the outer door of the gallery, 
" and all they looked back. And then Mr. Sheriff K. and 
" I charged all such as were Englishmen born, and the 
" queen's subjects, to come forth of that place. And then 
" came all the strangers running towards us : some of them 4 13 
" beginning to draw first their daggers, and then after they 
" buckled themselves to draw their rapiers. And by that 
" time two bailiffs, errants of Middlesex, (whose names I 
" remember not,) being at the door, did draw their swords. 
" And immediately Mr. Kimpton caused the strangers to 
" be quiet ; and I caused the bailiffs to put up their swords. 



28 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " And then Mr. K. with all the mass-hearers, with seignior 
II ... . . 

" Giraldie's wife, and her maids, were all in a heap, forty 



Anno 1576." persons at once speaking in several languages. 

" And then I said to Mr. Sheriff, I pray you, let me and 
" you make a way for my lady. And so he making way 
" before, I kissed my hand, and took my lady Giraldie by 
" the hand, and led her out of the press to her chamber 
u door, and there made a most humble curtsey unto her. 
" And after, I put out my hand to the rest of her gentle- 
" women, and first kissed it, and delivered them into their 
" chamber also. And Mr. Sheriff Barnes came into the 
" gallery : and so we three examined every man what he 
" was. And first, such as were seignior Giraldie's men, we 
" required them to depart. And after many lewd and con- 
" tumelious words used by them against us, we by fair 
" means got them out of the gallery into their lady's lodg- 
" ing. And then proceeded we to the examination of the 
" strangers that were not of seignior Giraldie's house, nor 
" of his retinue. And they most despitefully, against all 
" civility, used such like words in their language against 
" us, that if our company had understood them, there might 
" have chanced great harm. 

" But in plain terms I said unto them, Sirs, I see no 
" remedy but ye must go to prison ; for most of you be 
" free denizens. And then I willed the officers to lay hands 
" on them ; and immediately every man suddenly most 
" humbly put off his cap, and begun to be suitors, and 
" sought favour. And so upon their submission, we suf- 
" fered them to depart, all, saving Anthony Guarras ; who 
" was not willing to depart from us, but kept us company. 
" And all this done, we examined the English subjects, and 
" sent them to prison ; who, to say the truth, provoked the 
" strangers into fury and disorder against us. For if the 
" English then had, according to our direction, departed 
" from the strangers, and come forth unto us, the strangers 
" had been quiet, and we without trouble. But truly the 
" greatest fault was, that as well the English mass-mongers, 
" as also the free denizens, for the covering of their own 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 29 

" offences, practised rather to have murder committed, than CHAP. 
" to be taken as they were. Ij 

" All this while the mass-sayer stood at the north end of Anno 1576. 
" the altar ; and no man living said a word to him, nor 
" touched him ; saving that he did give to divers of our 
" servants singing cakes : wherewith I was offended with 
" them for receiving that idolatrous bread. And all being- 
" done, and we ready to depart, it was said by a stander 
" by, If ye look in at that door, near the altar, said he, you 
" shall find a number of mass-mongers. And then did the 
" priest take a key out of his pocket, and smiling, opened 
" the door ; and Mr. Sheriff Kimpton, with the priest, look- 414 
" ed in, and there was nobody. 

" And then Anthony Guarras took me by the hand, to 
" see the altar, how trim it was. For Mr. Barnes and I 
" stood afar off in the gallery. And I said to Guarras, Sir, 
" if I had done my duty to God and to the queen, I had 
" taken two hundred here upon All Hollown day last, and 
" as many upon All Souls day also. Ho, sir, said Guarras 
" unto me, become of this religion, and surely you will like 
" it well, and it will be a ready means to make you a good 
" Christian. And so we went near the altar ; where neither 
" he nor I touched any manner of thing. And so we bade 
" the priest farewell ; who gently saluted us. And I sud- 
" denly looking back, saw the priest shake his head at 
" us, and mumbled out words, which sounded diable, and 
u male croix, or to that effect. And then I said to Mr. 
" Sheriff, Sirs, let us depart, for the priest doth curse. And 
" so we departed. Anthony Guarras brought us to the ut- 
" most gate ; where Mr. Sheriff and I invited him to din- 
" ner with us : but he departed back to hear out the afore- 
" said mass. 

" The foresaid Guarras, at this business, said, that he 

" himself was an ambassador to a greater person than ; 

" and so did shake his head. What ! quoth I, do you mean 
" a greater personage than the queen our mistress ? Na, na, 
" said he, I meant not so. No, quoth I, it were not best 



30 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK "for you to make comparison with the queen our mistress. 
IL " Whose ambassador are you then ? quoth I. The pope's ? 
Anno 1576." And then he departed further off in an anger. This 
" Guarras was a very busy fellow in this action. 

" Among all these strangers, I marked one Swygo, who 
" is a free denizen, married to an English woman. He" is a 
" broker, and hath his chief living by our merchants. This 
" fellow made himself more busy than it became him. There 
" was a tall young fellow, an Italian, that was very wanton 
" with us ; and it hath been told me sithence, that he and 
" others are kept here for two causes : the one for uttering 
" the pope's allom ; and the other to serve for intelligencer : 
" which, I think, are very spies. This youth was very busy, 
" and bestirred him as though he had been treading of a 
" galliard. There was one John Chivers, an Irishman, a 
" student of the inns of the chancery ; who, as it appeared 
" unto me, (I having a vigilant eye of all sides,) was a great 
" stirrer of the strangers against us. This young man, 
" when he could not prevail, then he gat up to the south 
" end of the altar ; and there he confronted the mass-sayer, 
" with his cap on his head, who was on the other end, and 
" stood there as though he had been an Italian. His gar- 
" ments were a cloak and a rapier, after the Italian fashion. 
" And when I demanded what he was, be bowed on the one 
" side and the other, as though he had not understood me ; 
" much like the fashion of seignior Giraldie : by which I 
" did note that he had been often there. 

" This is all that I do remember ; and in my conscience, 
" and as I shall answer before God at the latter day, we 
" used ourselves with such humble reverence unto his lady 
" and her family, as more we could not do to the queen, 
" our mistress, save kneeling. 
415 "I sent seignior Giraldie word, as I remember, at Easter 
" last, by Mr. Benedict Spinello, that he should not suffer 
" the queen's subjects to repair to his mass : yea, and that 
" other things also should be amended ; wherewith the people 
" did wonderfully grudge at him : and I am sure Mr. Spi- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 31 

" nello did my message to him in a decent order. This is CHAP. 

" not the first time that his house hath been dealt withal by _ 

" the sheriffs. Strumpets have been gotten with child inAnnoi57tf. 

" his house ; and we of the hospital driven to take order for 

" their keeping. The masters shall justify this. I never 

" saw any ambassador sent out of England, but that he was 

" both wise and virtuous, and was not indebted to any. 

" And whether seignior Giraldie was an ambassador or not, 

" surely, my lord, I knew not, until my lords of the coun- 

" cil had told me thereof upon Monday last, at the council 

" board." 

This shews how jealous the state at that time was of pa- 
pists and mass-mongers, as they called them, and what 
watchfulness to prevent the subjects from lapsing into that 
religion,. 

The state was concerned" to be watchful in these times, Fugitives 
the queen having so many enemies of the popish faction her £" tlfiec j in 
subjects, both at home and abroad ; of the latter sort were quer. 
the fugitives, entertained by the pope and Spaniard. This 
year, 1576, Jan. 29, were certified into the exchequer such 
as were fled over the seas, of noblemen, gentlemen, priests, 
and schoolmasters, to near the number of fourscore ; con- 
trary to the statute reg. Eliz. 13. Their names, condi- 
tions, and in what counties they inhabited, may be read, 
taken from an authentic paper, in the Appendix. No. I. 



32 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



book CHAP. II. 

ii. 

Anuo 1576 The bishop of Exon sends up some that refused going to 
4 16 church. Another of his diocese makes nothing of a book- 
oath. His dealing zvith him. He opposeth the sending 
down a commission ecclesiastical : and why. The bishop 
of Lincoln preacheth at court. The suitableness of his 
♦ subject. He is concerned as visitor of hinges college, 
Cambridge. Great differences in that college. Articles 
of accusation against Dr. Goad, the provost: his an- 
swers : his good service to that house. Sandys, bishop 
of London, translated to York : his farewell sermon at 
St. PauTs. Endeavours used to get Bishopthorp from 
that archbishop. His reasons why he will not part with 
it. Elmer, that succeeded in the see of London, contests 
with the archbishop about the revenues. The case brought 
before the lord treasurer. 

iNI OW to come to some matters occurring this year, where- 
in the bishops were concerned both with the papists and 
with other schismatics and heterodox men, or otherwise 
employed. It was ordered about these times, that such of 
either sort, disturbing the peace of the church, and disa- 
greeing to the religion and worship established, should be 
sent up to the privy council, or to the commission ecclesias- 
„ tical, held at Lambeth ; there to be dealt withal, in order 
to their reducement. 
Bishop of Bradbridge, bishop of Exeter, had now to deal with both 
Exon's deal- sorts Some Cornish gentlemen, being of his diocese, came 
some of his not to church, and were informed of, and brought before 
camTnot a hi m - But ne cou ld not prevail with them, to work them to 
to church. an y good conformity. " Whether the cause was, as he 
" conjectured, the boldness that they had conceived by rea- 
" son of the lenity used in these days, (mild usage hitherto 
" being exercised towards the papists,) or rather their hope 
" of alteration in time to come : because he saw they craved 
" ever respite of time, and in time grew rather indurate 
" than reformable ; as the bishop now, December 3, wrote 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 33 

" to the lord treasurer; when three of them were sent up, CHAP. 

" viz. Rob. Beckote, Richard Tremain, and Francis Er- IL 

" myn ; and now commanded to wait there above. As he Anno 1576. 

" had in some letters before, so now in this, he desired his 

" lordship to prevail with the archbishop of Canterbury or 

" the bishop of London to take some pains with them ; 

" they [there of the ecclesiastical commission] wanting no 

" assistance of learned men and books : adding, that the 

" whole country longed and desired to hear of their godly 

" determination ; namely, what success they should have 

" with these gentlemen." 

Such letters from the lords were not unusual in those 417 
times, to call upon the bishops to look to recusants in their JjjjJj^J^ 
dioceses, that came not to the public service. So after- quiry after 
wards, in the year 1581, the archbishop received a letter, recusants - 
reminding of an act made for the retaining of her majesty's 
subjects in their due obedience, as abusing her highness 1 
former great goodness and lenity, and refusing to conform : 
and that the bishops should make inquiry as well according 
to former certificates heretofore made of recusants, as by 
others. And the next year other letters came from the 
lords to the archbishop and bishops, against recusants, for 
a diligent search to be made of such persons ; and certifi- 
cates to be made, under their hands, of such offenders, and 
their residences, and to send them up. 

The same bishop also this year was concerned, and took The asser- 
pains about a dangerous opinion broached in his diocese. f°£i°di£ e 
There happened a dispute between two, a preacher and a cese ab °ut 
schoolmaster. Whereof the one affirmed, that an oath taken up °nV 
upon a book of the holy evangelists was of no more value, book - 
than an oath taken upon a rush or a fly. Because it was 
nothing, he said, but ink and paper. He that asserted this, 
was one that lived at Liskerd in Cornwall, and taught a 
grammar-school; a young man, lately come thither, and 
not entered into the ministry ; licensed to catechise and ex- 
pound the scripture by Dr. Tremayn, who was in com- 
mission to visit for the archbishop of Canterbury, and com- 

VOL. II. TART II. D 



34 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK missary in all the peculiars. This doctrine being strange, 
offended the ears of the simple Cornish men. And the 
Anno i&76. bishop fearing (as he wrote to the lord treasurer on this 
occasion) some danger that might arise thereby, rode him- 
self to the town of Liskerden, which he found in great con- 
tention and heat one against another : the young man stoutly 
bent to stand in that he had taught. His assertion he de- 
The course Hvered to the bishop in writing. But the adverse party 
taokhvt!- being then absent ; and for that he saw no truth could be 
upon. we ll tried in that tumult," he put off the hearing thereof 

unto the assizes next that should be holden at Launceston 
about a fortnight after. And hereupon the bishop sent to 
Dr. Tremayne, and other learned of Exon, to be there with 
him ; that he might be better able to pacify the stir that 
buzzed in men's heads. He added, " That truly the Cor- 
" nish men were subtle, many of them, in taking an oath. 
" Now, if they should conceive, that in swearing upon a 
" book, no more danger were than upon a rush, the obe- 
" dience that we owe unto her majesty, the trials that we 
" have in assizes and sessions, wherein the controversies 
" were no otherwise commonly tried but by force of a book 
" oath, it might, as he wrote, open a great gap, and let in a 
" floodgate, as it were, to great disorder, and many mis- 
" chiefs in a commonwealth. 

" For the appeasing of the which, he thought best to have 
" the aid and advice of their judges in the assize, being then 
" so nigh at hand." 

The said bishop of Exon was uneasy at this very time 

about an ecclesiastical commission that he heard was suing 

4 18 out, to be granted to divers persons in Devon and Cornwall, 

the meaning whereof he much marvelled at. And that di- 

vers times before, Dr. Tremain had attempted to have the 

same granted to him, and certain his cousins and special 

An eccie- friends. Which the bishop always withstood : knowing, 

smsticai a§ j ie snewec i t } le ] or( j treasurer, that there was no need ; he 

commission 

for this dio- himself having so many officers, and Tremain himself being 
liked by the a commissary in all the peculiars belonging to the church 

bishop : 
and why. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 35 

of Exon. That it should be but a burden and an overcharge, CHAP, 
to weary the people with so many officers. All which must _ ' 
and would lie, he said, upon the popular cost. Anno 1576. 

" My most humble and hearty desire therefore is, (as he 
" subjoined his request to that great lord and favourer of 
" religion and peace,) that your lordship will be good unto 
" the country, and suffer no such commission to be sent into 
" these parties : and that the people, as far as I see, may 
" more quietly be ruled by the orders and laws already re- 
" ceived, and the officers already known, than by new offi- 
" cers which may be appointed, such as will be hardly 
" ruled themselves, when you have put a new sword in their 
*' hands. He said further, that he spake somewhat of ex- Puritans 
" perience. That his diocese was great ; and that the sec- ries j n _ 
" taries daily did increase. And he persuaded himself he creased in 

lllS tllOCCSG 

" should be able easier to rule them whom he partly knew 
" already, than those which by this means might get them 
" new friends : which was the only thing he suspected 
" [as he spake now more plainly] in this new commis- 
" sion." 

And one thing more must be remarked of this good bi- The bishop 
shop; that he found the burden of his episcopal care in le e ^ es h * s ° 
that large diocese so heavy, that he earnestly desired to re- bishopric, 
sign his bishopric, and (which is seldom heard of) to accept t0 h j s 
a lower office in the church, viz. to return to his deanery of deanery. 
Sarum, then, as it seems, vacant ; using these words to the 
aforementioned lord, to whom he was writing : " If it please 
" your lordship to send me hence, and to restore me to the 
" place from whence I came, you could never do me such a 
" pleasure. The time serveth ; the place is open. I wish 
" your lordship's favour were no less bent to drive me 
" hence to Sarum again, than in my first suit for that 
" deanery ; your lordship's help was readier than I was to 
" crave it. Which benefit, if I should forget, I were the 
*' ingratest of all men. I can do no more, (as he concluded,) 
" than profess myself to be at your devotion. And so with 
" his most humble prayer recommended his long preserva- 

d 2 



36 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " tion to God's most merciful tuition. Dated from Newton 
IL " Ferres, the 11th of March, 1576. Subscribing, 
Anno 1576. " Your lordship's own in Christ, 

" William Exon." 

The bishop From this bishop we turn to another, not less worthy, 
preMhe" 1 ' 1 viz - Cooper, bishop of Lincoln : and take notice of a sermon 
this Lent he preached in Lent this year, at St. Paul's Cross, upon Luke 

at St. Paul's. 

41U XV *' Rcddite rationem dispensationis tuce, i.e. Give an 
account of thy stewardship. A proper text for magistrates, 
and all that were in public place and authority : and be- 
fore such the bishop now preached. His sermon he managed 
with so great life, and application to his auditory, that 
Fleetwood, the recorder of London, who was among those 
that were present, was so affected with the discourse, that 
he resolved to forsake a speech that he had prepared to use 
before the queen the next week, when the lord mayor was, 
on some occasion, to be present before her, and to follow 
the matter that bishop had taken in hand, although he 
would not do it (as he said in his letter to the lord trea- 
surer) in that very form, yet to that effect. And that he 
was moved to do for two causes : the one, for that it gave 
occasion to remember my lord mayor, his brethren, himself, 
and all other in London, that had charge and authority of 
government from her highness, that they should, and we, 
yield to her majesty justam rationem dispensationis nostrce. 
The other cause was, for that he, the lord treasurer, both 
could and would use the matter so wisely and learnedly, 
that it might do the more good to awaken them from their 
drowsy and negligent dealings, than the fifty weekly ser- 
mons, and the Easter sermons, yearly preached in every 
mayor's time, either could or should do. 
The said bi- We find the same bishop this year also busy, as being 
^recUo ordinary visitor of King's college in Cambridge. Into 
visit King's which college, at this time, were many evils broken in by 
disorder." 1 intestine jars. Which the lord Burghley, high chancellor 
of that university, had taken notice of. And some of the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 87 

college themselves desired a visitation for the redress thereof. CHAP. 

But the bishop found he could not visit at that time, what- 

ever need there were of it, unless he had some extraordinary Anno 1576. 
authority committed to him for that purpose. And so first, 
the bishop, by his letters, acquainted the said chancellor, 
that divers of the house had made complaint of sundry 
great and enormous disorders, as well touching the state of 
the house, as of certain particular persons in the same : ex- 
hibiting unto him many articles drawn and set down to that 
effect ; the bishop of Lincoln for the time being, being their 
visitor. The bishop found the articles were such as touched 
the state of the house very near ; and therefore required 
speedy amendment. But he answered them, that though 
he were their visitor by statute, yet he had no authority ex- 
traordinary to visit ; his visitation being but a triennio in 
triennium ; and the time since his last visitation there not 
yet elapsed. Nor would he take upon him, he said, to visit 
them extraordinary without authority ; lest his proceedings 
might be frustrate, and to none effect. And though they 
urged him, yet he would by no means visit ; however they 
urged, that the stay of the visitation would be a great im- 
pediment to the state of their college. Then they requested 
his leave, with great importunity, according to the appoint- 
ment of their statutes, to seek redress of the higher autho- 
rity. Whereunto, in the end, the bishop condescended. 

He wrote this to the lord Burghley, adding, " That he His letter 
" was sorry to see so great tumult in a house of study ; Burghley. 
" especially there, where he had beforetime in some part 4 20 
" laboured to join them together in unity and concord. 
" Though he knew not in whether party the cause of trouble 
" was. But that in his opinion it were not ill, if by some 
" lawful and ordinary means the matters might be heard, 
" and some good order set between them. And that if 
" both parties would join together to desire him to visit, he 
" might, by order of statute, deal in it. But because that 
" had not been done, neither could he orderly, nor was 
" he willing to meddle in it. But that indeed, for example 
" sake, he could wish they were visited rather by such or- 

d3 



38 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " der as statute admitted, than otherwise, if they would on 
" both parts condescend thereunto. But, he added, he was 



Anno 1576. " loath to move them unto it, lest he should seem, to some 
" jealous mind, to be desirous more to meddle in their mat- 
" ters than need was. This, as he said, he thought fit to 
" signify to his honour, leaving the rest to his wisdom to 
" consider of: meaning, as it seems, that he should pro- 
" pound it himself to them, being their chancellor." 
Complaints The reason of these disturbances was a malice conceived 
ofthefel- • t jy .Goad, the provost of the college, in several of 

lows against & r o ' 

the provost, the fellows, and especially Fletcher, Lakes, Johnson, and 
Dunning, appearing most in it. The accusations they drew 
up against him were of two sorts, viz. hinderance of learning 
in the college, and hinderance of the college revenues : as, 
granting prejudicial leases ; making an ill bargain of grain, 
to the damage of the college ; taking his - friends and 
strangers with him when he went his progress to view the 
college's estate ; sending some about the college affairs with- 
out the college's consent. Further, they complained of his 
wife; that she came within the quadrant of the college; 
(though she came never twice within the quadrant, but 
kept within the lodgings.) That their statutes did forbid 
the provost to marry ; though the statutes, as the provost in 
his answer shewed, did not forbid the provost's marriage : 
and that the visitor's statutes in the beginning of the 
queen's reign, and the university statutes lately made, al- 
lowed heads of colleges to marry. And many more ar- 
ticles they said they had against him, to the number of 
forty : though they could produce but five and twenty. 
To all which the provost gave in his answers. 
The pro- -For the matter was now come before the lord Burghley, 

vost's an- jfog university chancellor, and others, the bishop of Lincoln, 
good'de- it is like, being one. Who received their book of articles, 
serts to- anc j }ik ew i se hi s answers to each. And as to the articles of 

wards the 

college. his being a hinderance to good learning in the college, he 
gave in a paper, wherein he shewed particularly what he 
had done for the furtherance of learning since his coming. 
As, that he had erected a new library, furnished with 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 39 

books, especially of divinity, of old and new writers ; whereas CHAP, 
the library before his time was utterly spoiled. For the 



furtherance of tongues, he had caused an ordinary Greek Annoi 576. 
lecture to be read ; and a Hebrew lecture, for students in 
divinity, to be read in the chapel ; and lately in his own 
lodging, privately, by one Baro, a Frenchman. For the 
furtherance of the study of divinity, he had procured a di- 
vinity lecture to be read publicly in the common hall by the 421 
said Mr. Baro : who had a stipend of twenty marks yearly 
gathered, without any charge to the college, being supplied 
by contribution from him and the company. That he 
himself ordinarily read a divinity lecture twice in the week 
at morning prayer in the chapel. Besides, he had cate- 
chised unto the whole house in the chapel, exhorted the 
whole company to the reading of the scripture, &c. And 
whereas at his first coming to be provost, there were but 
four ministers in the house, and but one preacher, now 
there were half a score ministers, and half a dozen of them 
preachers. Besides, that he had all ordinary exercises of 
learning duly observed, as well for lectures as disputations. 

He answered also as well the other branch of complaints Founds a 
made against him, namely, about injuries done to the good C opes sold.™ 
estate of the college. As for selling the copes that were 
found in the house, (which was one article ;) he answered, 
that he turned them into money, and bestowed that money 
upon the new library, and books for the furnishing it. That 
he made away with the organs, (which was another ;) he 
answered, he had done it by express command of the bishop 
of Ely, Dr. Whitgift, Dr. May, and Dr. Ithel, the queen's 
commissaries to visit that college some years before, when 
they came into the chapel to prorogue that visitation. And 
the money for the organ was converted to the college use. 

Another article against him was, that he dined not in the 
hall on Easter-day. The reason whereof was, as he an- 
swered, that he was to preach that afternoon at St. Mary's, 
by desire of the vice-chancellor ; and so omitted being at 
dinner that day. 

One of these fellows was Lakes, of a haughty disposition, Lakes. 
d 4 



40 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK who had been provoked by the provost, having reproved 
_him for his habit, unbecoming a scholar. For he wore un- 



Annoi576. der his gown, a cut taffeta doublet of the fashion, with his 
sleeves out, and a great pair of galligastion hose. For this 
disguised apparel, so unmeet for a scholar, the provost 
punished him a week's commons. This had ever after stuck 
in his stomach, and he had sundry expostulations afterwards 
with the provost about it: such was his stout nature and 
impenitency to be reproved. 

After this business had had a full hearing before their 
high chancellor, the provost was cleared, and the main in- 
struments in this disturbance were censured : some of them 
were put into the gatehouse at Westminster, for falsely ac- 
cusing of their provost, and all made their recantations and 
submissions to the provost. Rob. Johnson, a drawer up of 
the articles, made his submission to the provost for writing 
those articles of accusation against him, for carrying them 
up, and endeavouring to make proof of them : Dunning 
and Lakes were committed to the prison of the gatehouse, 
the lord Burghley finding them the malicious inventors of 
many lies against the provost. From thence the former 
writes letters, dated in May, to that lord, wherein he won- 
dered at the blindness of his own mind, and so great a pri- 
vation of his wit and reason ; and calls this his doing,^- 
cimcs hoc sceleratum. He confessed, how he [the lord 
Burghley] had warned him not to proceed in this wicked 
422 enterprise, or to persist in it : foretelling him, that if he did, 
it would have a bad issue, till it had reduced him in the 
end to the utter loss of his fortune, liberty, and good 
name. The occasion of that lord's giving him that advice 
was, that Dunning had refused at first to stand to his ar- 
bitration, and refused his grave counsel. But now he found 
all true ; and did confess, that he hated the provost, and 
for that reason had raised most false accusations against 
him, and that he had employed himself, conscindere male- 
dictis, in reproaching and reviling a man worthy to be seen 
and heard by princes : meaning, I suppose, for the excellent 
eloquence of his sermons at court. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 41 

Stephen Lakes, who was also committed to the gate- CHAP. 
house, thence wrote letters also to the lord Burghley of. 



Peccavi: confessing, that he was one of them that accused Anno 1576. 
their provost gravissimorum criminum gravioribus verbis, sio * ^ this 
as of most grievous crimes, so with more grievous words, ferment 
Then he unrips the whole matter, namely, that enduring a p r vost. 
great while many grievances, (and what they were appeared 
by what Fletcher, another of these accusers, wrote to that 
lord, viz. that preferments went only by favour, without 
merit, and according as they stood affected to a party ; and 
no regard had to industry and learning in their college,) and 
no redress, they agreed to make a complaint ; and Lakes, 
though he pretended very unwillingly, was the man ap- 
pointed to frame the articles against the provost ; others 
were to supply him with materials for those articles ; and 
then the rest were to peruse what he had drawn up, and 
to correct, amend, and add what they thought good. For 
this he was now ashamed, being severely by the lord Bur- 
leigh chidden. 

In short, the provost and some of the fellows (and they 
perhaps such as stood not so well affected to religion) had 
most grievously fallen out and broken to pieces. And the 
matter being thus opened before their judge, he punished 
the ringleaders, some by short imprisonment, others by re- 
primands, all by recantations and submissions : and so re- 
conciled them again ; and withal took order for the redress 
of such things as were grievances indeed. 

This provost, Dr. Roger Goad, preached at court about Dr. Goad, 
four years before, in the year 1572, in Lent, sir Tho. Smith, pr e a ch°eth S ' 
secretary of state, present, who gave the lord Burghley this at court- 
character of him and his sermon, that he preached well, and 
to him seemed to be a very grave and considerate man. 
This year, 1576, he obtained the chancellorship of Wells, 
upon the death of the former chancellor, named Hawthorn; MSS.Matt. 

.... , x . „ , . Hutton, 

presented by lield, citizen and mercer of London, tor uusd.d. 
turn, by reason of the grant of the bishop of the diocese. 

Edwin Sandes, or Sandys, a man of great note for his Bishop San- 

des' farewell 



42 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK piety and learning, sometime an exile and confessor for re- 
, ligion, and who had been master of arts of St. John's col- 

Anno 1576. lege in Cambridge, head of Katharine hall, and vice-chan- 
upon his cellor of that university, and after bishop of London, was 
remove to this year translated and advanced to the see of York, 

York 

March 8, and installed in the person of William Palmer, 
chancellor of York, March 13, following. At his departure 
423 from London, where he was dearly beloved, he made them 
a farewell sermon at St. Paul's Ci'oss. His text was in 2 Cor. 
xiii. For the rest, brethren, farewell. Be perfect, be of 
good con fort, be of one mind, live in peace ; and the God of 
love and peace shall be with you. In this his last discourse 
to the citizens, as he openly avowed how faithfully and 
sincerely he had discharged his duty among them, so in 
most affectionate and endearing expressions he shewed his 
love to them, and acknowledged theirs to him, their pastor. 
Much pious and good counsel he leaves with them. And 
hopes God had placed another very worthy bishop in his 
room ; and so would have the less want of him. He pro- 
miseth not to forget to pray for them, as he earnestly de- 
sired their prayers for him. But take his own excellent and 
right Christian words. 
His protes- " That his conscience bare him record, that he had en- 
cer'^ngthe " deavoured to tread in the same steps [with St. Paul] in 
discharge of « his diligence toward this Corinthian church. That of 
" his doctrine, which was the chiefest point, he dared affirm 
" even the same which the holy apostle did ; / have de~ 
" livered none other unto you, than that which I have re- 
" ceived of the Lord. Yea, safely, in the sight of the 
" most high God, he might say with him, You have re- 
" ceived qfus not the word of man, but as it was indeed, the 
" word of God. And that in the distribution thereof, nei- 
" ther had he used flattery, as they knew, neither coloured 
" covetousness, the Lord would testify. Neither had he 
" sought his own praise, his heart was witness. And this 
" testimony of conscience, that he had dealt sincerely in the 
" house of God, as touching doctrine, had been his great 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 43 

" relief and comfort in all the stormy troubles; which by CHAP. 
" the mighty assistance of Almighty God, he had waded ' 



" throilffh. Anno 1576. 

" That concerning diligence in the execution of his office, 
" although he had a ready will, yet his weak body being 
" not answerable to his desire, as all flesh herein was faulty, 
" so for his part he must plead guilty. One debt and duty, 
" with St. Paul, he professed he had truly paid them. For 
f with a tender affection he had loved them. That the 
" nurse was never more willing to give the breast unto the 
u child, than he had been, that they should suck not only 
" milk, but also blood from him, if it stood them in stead, 
( J or served to their safety. God he knoweth, added he, 
" that with this love I have loved you. That in using cor- 
" rection, I have sought reformation, and not revenge. 
" That to punish, had been a punishment to himself. That 
" he never did it but with great grief. That he always had 
" laboured rather by persuasion to reclaim transgressors, 
" than by correction. With which kind of dealing, be- 
" cause stubborn minds would not be bowed, his softness, 
" he granted, had rather deserved reproof than praise. 

" His life and conversation among them he left wholly 
" to their secret judgments. That he could not say (for 
" who could?) that his heart was clear. That if in many 
" things we offend all, how could any man say he was no 
" sinner, except he said also, that God is a liar ? Howbeit 
" this the God of his righteousness knew, that wittingly and 
" willingly he had wronged no man. If I have, said he, 
" reddam guadruplum, I will render four times so much 
" good. That if any had wronged him, he heartily forgave 424 
" them, and would forget it for ever. That while he lived 
" he would acknowledge, that he had received more good 
" liking, favour, and friendship at their hands, than he 
" could either look for or deserve. That God had, no 
" doubt, his people ; that he had many a dear child in that 
" city. 

* " But now that by God's providence, not by his own pro- 
" curement, he was called from thence to serve elsewhere in 



44 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " the church of Christ, he would, with St. Paul, take his 
" leave of them : and that the more willingly, as well be- 



Anno 1576." cause it was God's good will and appointment, as also for 

" that he trusted the change should be good and profitable 

Elmer, his « un t them ; his hope was, that the Lord had provided 

successor. 

His charac- " one of choice to be placed over them, a man to undertake 
ter of him. « ^[ s great charge so well enabled for strength, courage, 
" gravity, wisdom, skill in government, knowledge, as in 
" many other things, so especially in the heavenly mysteries 
" of God, that he doubted not but his departure should 
a turn very much to their advantage. And that among 
" them, sith a great part of his life was now spent, and a 
" few evil days remained otherwhere to be bestowed, he 
" must use the words of the blessed apostle, For that which 
" remaineth, my brethren^ Jure ye well. My dear and 
" faithful flock, farewell ; my crown and my joy, farewell. 
" Again, with grief I speak it, farewell. I must in body go 
" from you ; yet in heart and good-will I shall be ever 
" with you. You shall ever be most dear unto me. And 
" I shall not cease (God forbid I should) to pour out my 
" prayers before the Almighty in your behalf; that the 
" great Shepherd of the sheep, even the Lord Jesus, may 
" take care of you, and by his holy Spirit direct and govern 
" you in all your ways : and in like sort he most heartily 
" craved at their hands, that they would not be unmindful 
" to pray also for him, that he might walk worthy of his 
" calling, &c."" So grave, so compassionate, so pastor-like, 
did this truly primitive bishop take his leave of his beloved 
people : which I thought worthy setting down, as some me- 
morial of this good man, as also of the obliging, Christian 
behaviour of the citizens of London in these times to their 
bishop. 
He will But no sooner came the bishop to York, but he had like 

w^ti/iK- to have lost one great branch of his bishopric from it : some 
shopthorp. moving for the president of the council in the north to have 
Bishopthorp at present for his use. But the archbishop 
saw the danger thereof, fearing the alienating it at last from 
the see ; the place of the archbishops of that province, their 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 45 

frequent residence. The archbishop was so honest and re- CHAP, 
solute, that he refused to do it, but in the most submissive ' 



manner. I have met with a writing of his own hand, di- Anno 1576. 
latina; therein his reasons : entitled, Certain causes and rea- 
sons, why the archbishop of York should not depart from 
his house called Bishopthorpe, belonging to the see. Dated 
January the %8th, 1576. 

" 1. The house was purchased by an archbishop of that And for 
a see, and given to the dean and chapter there, upon special sons . p ap . 
" trust to reserve the same to the archbishop for the time ° ffice - 
" being : and not to let the same for any longer time than 425 
" during his incumbency, as an house for many opportuni- 
" ties necessary for the archbishop's use. And therefore 
" especially provided to meet with any lease or alienation, 
" which otherwise any archbishop might be induced to 
" make. 

" Item, The archbishop having no house within the city 
" of York, where his most attendance must be for the exe- 
" cution of his office, this house lying within one mile of the 
" city, doth most commodiously serve his use for that pur- 
" pose : that it may not, without great prejudice to the 
" execution of his office, be spared. 

" Item, Good hospitality, required of a bishop, as one of 
" the things which give credit to his function, and so a 
" special means to win the people the better to believe his 
" preaching, shall be greatly, by want of this house, hin- 
' ( dered ; specially, for that the city of York, of all other 
" places wherein his charge is, hath the greatest need, and 
" doth greatliest expect relief. In which city, or any thing 
" near it, he hath no house to keep hospitality in. 

" Item, The archbishop's other house, called Cawood, 
" besides that it is eight miles distant from York, and so 
" shall be occasion of many troublesome journeys, un- 
" meet for a man of his great years, if he should do his 
" duty there ; it is also at certain seasons of the year, by 
" reason of waters and ditches, very unwholesome : and 
" therefore cannot without danger to his health be con- 
" tinually used. The rest of his houses be set so far off in 



46 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK "the utter parts of the diocese, and all the commodities 
appertaining to them so let out, that he cannot make his 



Anno 1576." abode in any of them. 

" Item, There appeareth no cause why the archbishop 
" which shall be, should not enjoy the said house, as in the 
" times of this and other our presidents, the archbishops 
" have had and occupied the same. Neither can there be 
" any colour of necessity pretended, that hath not been at 
" other times, or not heretofore not sufficiently satisfied 
" without the grant of the house to the lord president's 
" use. 

" Item, The house being once possessed by one lord pre- 
" sident, it will hereafter be drawn to like example. And 
" other lords presidents making suit for the use thereof 
" shall more hardly be answered, when there is a former 
" pattern of such grant to the lord president that now is. 
" Whereof will grow matter of grief between the archbishop 
" and them, to the hinderance of her majesty's service by 
" them both. 

" Item, The grant of the house from the archbishop will, 
" in the opinion of that country, seem to tend to the spoil of 
" that see : the blame whereof, wheresoever it shall rest, 
" will be occasion of great discontentation to so many as 
" like the hospitality usually maintained there by the arch- 
" bishops heretofore. 

" Item, It were inconvenient that the archbishop, whose 
" credit must especially further his good government, should 
" enter thither either with the opinion of yielding to the 
" grant of his house, or with note of unworthiness to enjoy 
" the possessions heretofore freely permitted to his prede- 
" cessors. 
42g " Item, The conscience of the archbishop now named is 
" herein to be favoured. Who, as hitherto he hath always 
" professed, so yet assureth himself, that without offence to 
" his duty, he may not give his private assent to the di- 
" minishing of the public patrimony of the church. 

" Item, The lord president shall herein much impair the 
" good opinion conceived of him for the defence of re- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 47 

" ligion, and for sincerity. Whereby hitherto his govern- CHAP. 

" ment hath had special success ; if he shall give the first __ 

" example of taking from that see, which before him hath Anno 1576. 

" not been attempted by any lord president, neither may 

" be, without the great offence and discontentation of 

" many." 

The same bishop, soon after his translation, met with Bishop 
more trouble, happening by a contest Elmer, that succeeded c0 ^en,j s 
him in London, (or some busy lawyer for him,) had with w >th arch- 
him ; who required all the incomes of that see, from Mi- dys about " 
chaelmas last. Sandys, on the other hand, would enjoy the the reve - 
benefits from Michaelmas to Candlemas ensuing; having 
been to that time bishop of London, before he removed to 
York. And pleaded to the lord treasurer, that he had 
spent upon the bishopric of London in hospitality what he 
had received, and 550/. more, since Michaelmas last past. 
That there was no example that he should make any resti- 
tution thereof to his successor. That neither bishop Yong, 
(who was the first archbishop under queen Elizabeth,) nei- 
ther the late bishop of York [archbishop Grindal] was so 
dealt withal ; but enjoyed all that they had received, and 
yet looked so far backward as he [archbishop Sandys] de- 
sired. That indeed his said successor had at first required 
no more than the ensuing Lady-day rent. And that so he 
had said. And he is able, added the archbishop, and I a 
beggar. That he had taken the cost and pains, and his 
successor none. And that if the restitution day looked 
back to the Purification of our lady, it was as much and 
more than he looked for. 

But it seems bishop Elmer, by the advice of some, altered He appeals 
his mind, and now insisted upon the whole revenue fromj^^ 1 " 11 
Michaelmas to be restored to him. And to take off any against the 
pleas of the archbishop to the contrary, gave in a note to ar ° ' ls '° p ' 
the lord treasurer, (to whom he laid open this his cause,) spe- 
cifying what considerable benefits and advantages the arch- 
bishop had received since his coming to York : as first, 
the Lady-day rents, 500/. the demeans, amounting to 



48 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK 400/. the benevolence of his clergy, 800/. and in wood, 
to the value of 3000/. This note the said lord sent to the 



Anno 1576. archbishop, by the hand of one of his servants, that he 

might hear and understand both sides the better. On the 

margin thereof, which he soon sent back to the treasurer, 

with his letter, he gave his answer briefly to each article : 

viz. to the Lady-day rents, " This is untrue by a great sum ; 

" and perhaps some part of the tenths will be required of 

" me." Secondly, to the demeans, he wrote in the margin, 

" Not five pound." Against the third sum, viz. the clergy's 

benevolence, he wrote, " In two years to come." Against 

427 the value he should make of his woods, thus he answered 

in the margin, " He might as well have rated the houses 

" there, to pull down and sell. He [the bishop of London] 

" hath as much wood left at London." 

The arch- And his letter was to this tenor : u My good lord, of 

ktterto " ^ ate ^ came out °f Buckinghamshire. Since what time I 

that lord in « have kept myself here, at the Minoresse, within the 

behalf. " doors, cogitating what to say at the Cross for my farewell. 

Paper Of- a jf t na t na( J n ot stayed me, I had, according to my duty, 

" visited your lordship ere this. Yesterday I received by 

" William Seres a note from your lordship (as it seems) 

" unto me, delivered unto you by the bishop of London, 

" or by his means. If I should say nothing unto it, I trust 

" your lordship can easily espy what spiteful meaning is in 

" it, and what untruth it setteth forth. But I have set a 

" brief and a true comment to this false text, as by the bil- 

" let enclosed your lordship may perceive. 

" Coloured covetousness, an envious heart, covered with 
" the coat of dissimulation, will, when opportunity serveth, 
" shew itself. My lord, I am sore dealt withal, and most 
" shamefully wronged on every side. My only comfort is, 
" that a clear conscience will answer for me before God : 
" and that when I shall be tried, Veritas liberabit me. To- 
" morrow, if I may find your lordship at home, I will at- 
" tend myself, to open this matter more at large. Thus, 
" much bound unto your lordship, and ever yours to use 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 49 

" wherein I can, I recommend you to the good direction of CHAP. 
" God's holy Spirit. From my lodging at the Minoress, 



" this last of April, 1577. Anno 1576. 

" Your lordship's in Christ, ever assured, 
" E. EBOR. 

'* I shall pray your lordship to keep these things to your- 
" self, unto such time as I speak with your lordship. At 
" what time I will give you the reason why I desire it. 11 

In another letter to that lord, I find the archbishop more He vindi- 
particularly endeavouring to satisfy him in these matters ca , t 5 s . ln ' n " 
urged against him ; " That he had served there, at London, reflects 
" until Candlemas last, as bishop, and received the rents b^hL Iff 
" thereof, according to equity and law. That the sum was London. 
" small ; and in that time he spent there one thousand 
" pounds and upwards. That he received somewhat of her 
" majesty's liberality at York, as the lord treasurer knew ; 
" but that the new bishop of London, being at no cost, 
" neither serving the bishopric, received of her majesty's 
" gift in like sort 397/. ; in truth more, added the arch- 
" bishop, than he had deserved any way. And besides, he 
" received in the mean time the revenues of his other Iiv- 
" ings, which amounted not to a little. Concluding with 
*•' this reflection upon the bishop, A greedy desire will never 
" be satisfied. 

" That for the demeans since Michaelmas, at York, be- 
" ing in the lord president's hands, until our Lady-day 
"past, it was easy to conceive what benefit would grow 428 
" thereof to him, the archbishop. But that the demeans in 
" London, saved well in winter, would be as much worth. 

" That if it were lawful for the archbishop of York to 
" sell all his woods upon a day, as this bill seemed to in- 
" sinuate, (rating the woods at 4000/.) then was it lawful 
" for the bishop of London to do the like, who had as 
" much wood left him as his was at York. 

" That it was desire of gain, and envy that the archbi- 
" shop of York should have any thing, or be so dealt with 
" as he himself, that had made him give forth this untruth 

VOL. II. PART II. E 



50 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK "and envious note: wherein he laboured to hinder the 
" archbishop of York, lest her majesty should shew him 



Anno 1576. « further favour; and to set forth the commodities there, 
" as might be thought for a melius inquirendum ; and 
" hereby not to gain himself. For how came he to look 
" for that, that the bishop of York would give his revenues 
"- to so unthankful a man, that so soon as he had holj)en 
" him on with his rochet, was transformed, and shewed 
" himself in his own nature ?" 



429 CHAP. III. 

The bishop of Worcester made vice-president of the marches 
of Wales. The presidents thereof Curteis, bishop of 
Chichester, preaches at PauFs Cross. Process ago hist 
the bishop of Gloucester from the queen. Pilkington, bi- 
shop of Durham, dies. His prayers. Dr. May makes 
interest to succeed him. Bishop of Carlisle is made bi- 
shop of Durham : sues for dilapidations. And Dr. May 
succeeds to Carlisle. Holds the rectory of Darficld in 
commendam. Dr. May's family. 

The bishop x HIS year, Whitgift, bishop of Worcester, was made 
cester is vice-president of the marches of Wales ; a great honour, as 
vice-presi- we \\ as trust . s [ r Henry Sydney, the president, being; ab- 

dent of -Tiii iv i 

Wales. sent in Ireland, the queen s lieutenant there. That office 
Dr. Powei's was first put into the hands of a bishop, viz. Rowland Lee, 
Cambr. bishop of Coventry and Litchfield, the 26th Henry VIII., 
being then sent to be president of that king^ council in 
those marches. In whose time the principality and country 
of Wales was incorporated and united unto the kingdom of 
England, when this bishop and his associates did notable 
good service. He died the 34th Hen. VIII. and lieth 
buried in Shrewsbury. After him another bishop, Richard 
Sampson, who was removed from Chichester to Coventry 
and Litchfield, was (35 Hen. VIII.) appointed lord pre- 
sident of the said marches. Then succeeded first a layman, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 51 

viz. Dudley, earl of Warwick, in the reign of king Edward CHAP. 
VI. And next him William Herbert, knight of the garter, 



earl of Pembroke. After him, l mo Mariae, Nicolas Hethe, Anno 1576. 
bishop of Worcester, became president. Then, 6° Maria?, 
succeeded another bishop, viz. Gilbert Bourn, of Bath and 
Wells. Then, l mo Eliz. the lord Williams of Thame. And 
then sir Henry Sydney, and the bishop of Worcester, vice- 
president, as aforesaid. Omitted in this account, Yong, 
archbishop of York, who had been also president or vice- 
president. And among the presidents of this council of 
Wales, held at the castle of Ludlow, who were wise go- 
vernors, and men of great credit, Dr. Powel, the author of 
the History of Cambria, reckoneth particularly three bi- 
shops, Heath, archbishop of York, Yong, archbishop of 
York, and Whitgift, then living, archbishop of Canter- 
bury. 

Curteis, bishop of Chichester, chaplain to the queen, and Bishop 
a great court preacher, preached a sermon this year at St. v ^\* es 
Paul's Cross, upon Rev. xii. 1, &c. And there appeared « at Paul's 
great wonder in heaven; a woman clothed with the sun, 
and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown 
of twelve stars, &c. It was printed. 

Cheny, bishop of Gloucester, was this year in danger of 430 
falling under the same fate with Parkhurst bishop of Nor- Pr0 . cess 
wich, in the year 1572, running behindhand with the bishop of 
queen for his clergy's tenths. His vice-collector (whose Gloucester 
name was Gilford) having brought him 500^. in debt to 
her majesty. So that in the month of October process 
came down from Mr. Fanshaw and Mr. Godfrey, belonging 
to the exchequer, to the sheriffs, to seize the bishop's lands 
and goods for payment. They accordingly called upon the 
bishop for the debt ; who prayed them to forbear executing 
their office, and promised to save them harmless. And so 
speedily despatched his letters, dated October 5, to the lord 
treasurer, in his and their favour. ■ The sum whereof was, 
that he was ready to pay what was due after some forbear- 
ance. Money, he said, he had but little, spending all hi- 
therto in housekeeping. And, in fine, he made two suits 

e 2 



52 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK to that lord: first, that he might have convenient time to 
IL pay the debt, considering his own tenths and subsidies 
Anno 1576. cam e to 119,1. yearly, besides fees, servants' 1 wages, liveries, 
housekeeping, &c. resolving, that he would for the future 
keep fewer men, cut off his fare, be at less charges, that his 
debts might be the sooner discharged. His second request 
was, that the sheriffs might have no fine set upon their 
heads for forbearing a little time with him. And so in con- 
clusion, humbly craving his lordship's favour ; fearing the 
example (as he said) of the bishop of Norwich. Which 
what that was, is set under the year 1572. 
Archbishop This bishop, who was a Lutheran and a free- wilier, and 
Life^book touched moreover (as was suspected) with popish princi- 
iv. chap. 5. pies, lay under some cloud. See somewhat more of him in 
the Life of Archbishop Parker, under the year 157T,. He 
died in the year 1578, the bishopric lying vacant about 
three years. One reason whereof might be, for the queen to 
satisfy her debt out of the revenues of the see. 
Bishop of This year Pilkington, bishop of Durham, (of whom some 
Durham things have been related elsewhere,) died. And for a me- 
morial of this pious exile and confessor for religion, I shall 
record three godly prayers of his composing. One calcu- 
lated for the beginning of the reformation of religion under 
queen Elizabeth: a second, for faithful preachers to be 
sent forth at that needful time to preach the gospel, and 
for good magistrates to countenance it: and a third, 
against error and popery. All seasonable, especially at 
Book II. that time. See them in the Appendix. The two former 
[N°. I.] II. are set at t he end of his expositions upon the first and se- 
cond chapters of Aggeus, printed about 1559. The third 
at the end of his book, in confutation of a popish paper 
about the burning of St. Paul's. 
Dr. May en- Endeavour was now made for John Mey, or May, (who 
deavours for wag e i ecte{ l fellow of Queen's college in Cambridge, anno 

Durham or 1 • • n i in 

Carlisle. 1550, afterwards created D. D.) a dignified man, and well 
known in the north, being archdeacon of the North Riding, 
either to succeed in that see of Durham, now vacant; or, if 
Dr. Barnes, the bishop of Carlisle, were translated thither, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 53 

that he might obtain that bishopric. His noble friend the CHAP, 
earl of Shrewsbury wrote to the great earl of Leicester at _ 



court, to move it to the queen, and to deliver to her ma- Anno 1576. 
jesty his letter in Dr. Mey's behalf. To whom the earl of 431 
Leicester answered, that her majesty had received the let- 
ter, and took his suit in good part; and added, that he 
knew the said May was like to have good speed for one of 
those bishoprics. That he had some back-friends, but that 
he was then, past the worst; and was much bound to his 
lordship. Adding, that he thought the bishop would be 
appointed shortly. 

The same earl of Shrewsbury wrote also a letter to the The earl 
earl of Sussex, lord chamberlain, recommending to him the bury wr j te " s 
said person, in respect of his good preaching and hospitali- in his be - 
ty : wishing him to be preferred to one of those bishoprics, court. 
or some other : requesting his furtherance therein, as occa- 
sion might serve. That nobleman's answer to the earl of 
Shrewsbury was to this purport ; " That truly he did not 
" know the man, but giving credit to his lordship's know- 
" ledge in those two points, of sound preaching and good 
" hospitality, (which, he said, were the two principal mat- 
" ters to be required in a man to be called to such a mi- 
*' nistry,) he would be glad, at his lordship's request, to 
" give him furtherance in this or any thing else whereinso- 
" ever he should see opportunity. As he wished also to do 
f* any thing his lordship would at any time commit to him." 
This was writ from the court, November the 15th, 1576. 
Subscribing, 

" Your assured friend, 

" T. Sussex." 

In short, Barnes is translated to Durham by the lord Barnes, 
treasurer's interest, upon the account of some good services Carlisle 
he was to do in that capacity for the queen and religion, translated 

v i i ti i i i i i to Durham. 

according as that lord by a letter had suggested to be ex- 
pected from him. His thankful acknowledgments for this 
favour in commending him to her highness, and interposing 
his own credit for his [the bishop's] service, he soon after 

e3 



54- ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK professed in a letter to the treasurer. " Protesting to de- 
" vote himself and his service unto his honour for ever. 



Anno 1576. « And as he had desired him now in that place to take 
" some especial care of certain matters, 1 ' (which, I suppose, 
was to watch any messengers or messages that might come 
from Scotland to the Scottish queen, or from her that way, 
and likewise for the service of religion, to check popery in 
those parts, where especially emissaries were sent to say 
mass, and to make proselytes, and to stir insurrections,) 
" he assured him, that he would not be unmindful to ac- 
" complish his lordship's requests, as he trusted should 
" tend to the advancement of God's glory and her ma- 
" jesty's good service. And that he doubted not he should 
" do it, if he were well backed at the beginning by her 
" highness and that lord, and the rest of the privy-council. 
" And that he had served seven years at Carlisle, and he 
" trusted had discharged that promise that his lordship 
" then made unto her highness in his behalf." The whole 
432 letter, with an &c. of shewing himself thankful, maybe 
N°.IV. read in the Appendix, that I may preserve some memorial 
of bishop Barnes, as I do, as far as I meet with any matters 
of remark, concerning other bishops of these times. 
The new But there followed a contest between the new bishop and 

for h d°naT S Mrs. Pilkinton, the former bishop's widow, about the dila- 
dations. pidations, which the bishop made to amount to a great 
sum, as by a brief of the special surveys appeared ; which 
he sent up to the lord treasurer, who concerned himself in 
the same, in order to make some amicable conclusion be- 
tween them ; and was desirous to have the matter ended 
by arbitration. Which the bishop shewed himself ready to 
comply with : thus declaring to the said lord, " what he 
" had done touching his lordship's request to compromit to 
" order of indifferent men the controversy between Mrs. 
" Pilkinton and him, for dilapidations ; that he did the last 
" summer appoint with Dr. Kingsmel, her brother, to send 
" up some at Michaelmas term last, to deal with them in 
" that cause. And that accordingly he sent Mr. Richard 
" Frankland and another for him. Who waited there at 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 55 

" that term-time, and sought for Mr. Kingsmel. And de- CHAP. 

TFT 

F clared unto Mrs. Pilkinton's proctors, that they attended ' 



" to that end. But none of them would for her deal that Anno 15 76. 
" way, nor be known to have any direction to that end 
" from her and hers. But they had feed three doctors and 
" two proctors to answer him, as like would. Whereupon 
" they informed him to commence his suit : and that since 
" they had used such delays, and so dallied in the suit, (the 
"judge more than indifferently inclining to them,) they 
" had driven him, he said, to appeal to her majesty. 

" So that the next term, as he proceeded, his lordship 
<f should see the original surveys under the hands and seal 
" of gentlemen, wise and right worshipful. And that at 
" his honour's request he would send up some for him, who 
" should attend upon his lordship four days before the next 
" term. And that it would please his lordship to command 
" those that were for Mrs. Pilkinton, then to be before his 
" honour also. And that those whom he should send 
" should deal with them ; and offer such offers on his [the 
" bishop's] behalf, as he doubted not but his lordship 
" should like of, and think to be reasonable and friendly. 
" Notwithstanding, he would not rehearse how ill he had 
*' been handled at Mrs. Pilkinton's hands, and by hers : 
" which his lordship should know hereafter." This was 
written from Aikeland, the 11th day of February, 1577. 
Subscribing, 

" Your honourable good lordship's, 
" Ever in Christ Jesu, 

" At all commandments, 

" Ri. Dunelm." 

Dr. Mey was at length made bishop of Carlisle, by the 433 
intercession of his said friend the earl of Shrewsbury. P r ; Me Y 1S 

liii i p j bishop of 

Which favour he acknowledged by a letter of gratitude, Carlisle ; 
dated June the 1st, 1577, from Huntingdon, being then bi-f roc V re ? 1 

' o ' o j lim D y the 

shop elect: importing, " that having received so many good earl of 
" turns at his honour's hands, he thought it his bounden Sa op ' 
" duty to write these his humble letters of thanksgiving 

e4 



56 



ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK <* unto his good lordship; assuring the same, that as he 
' " took himself more bound unto his honour than he could 
Anno 1576." express, so he would never be unmindful of his duty to- 
" wards his lordship, or any of his lordship's friends ; but 
" to the utmost of his power would always be ready to gra- 
" tify the same any manner of way that should lie in him. 1 ' 
Requesting further of the said earl, to obtain a commendam 
for him, where he might reside, Rose castle being at present 
taken up by a temporal lord, the lord Scroop. Therefore 
he beseeched him to move the earl of Leicester for his com- 
mendam, that among other things he might still enjoy the 
benefice of Darfield, which was the only place that he now 
had to stay in ; considering that the lord Scroop had the use 
of Rose castle till Michaelmas next. And that he had also, 
at the said earl of Leicester's request, parted lately with his 
mastership of St. Katharine's hall in Cambridge, to one of 
his lordship's chaplains, [viz. Edm. Hound.] 

This Darfield was a rectory in Yorkshire, containing no 
less than two thousand souls, young and old : but not com- 
ing all to one church, there being two chapels annexed ; the 
one at Wombe, the other at Worseborough. Which town 
might consist of six hundred souls more. To which parish 
belonged a parson (who was the bishop) and a vicar. Whose 
living consisted of a pension of twenty-two marks : the par- 
son's, of six or seven score pounds by the year. He allowed 
to the curates of the two chapels (whereof the vicar was 
one) five pounds each yearly. And the bishop procured 
quarterly sermons for his head church. But for this, the 
bishop was unworthily slandered and clamoured at by the 
puritan faction after this manner : If one asked, why these 
stipendiaries took so little of the parson, and he receive so 
much, answer was made, that if they refused, the bishop 
would take one or other that came next to hand, and create 
him a shepherd in one day, that would be content to serve 
him for less. Such slanders were easily raised, and then 

Tiiisbi- studiously blown about among the common people. 

armour, and This bishop bore sable, a cheveron, or, between three 

family. cross croslets, fkche, argent. On a chief of the second 

Herald- ° 

Office. 



Darfield 
rectory 
in com- 
mendam 



Part of a 
Register, 
folio 277. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 57 

three roses. Which seemed to be an addition to the bi- CHAP, 
shop's coat; for his brother, Dr. William May, dean of_ 



Paul's, bore it plain. He married Amy, daughter of Will. Anao 1576. 
Vowel of Creke abbey in Norfolk, gent, and widow of John 
Cowel of Lancashire: and had issue, John, his son and 
heir ; Elizabeth, married to Richard Bird, D. D. Alice, 
married to Richard Burton of Burton in the county of 
York ; Anne, married to Richard Pilkington, D. D. John, 
the bishop's son and heir, of Shouldham abbey, comitat. 
Nor. esq. married to Cordela, daughter of Martin Bowes of 
London, esq. and had issue Henry, John, Stephen, Marga-434 
ret, married to Richard Fawcet of Catericks, in com. Rich- 
mond, clerk ; Frances, Fortunata, Frances, Dorothy. 

This bishop's death, place* of interment, and memorial, His death, 
follow : being taken from the register of the parish of Dal-]^ r rh0, 
ston in Cumberland. 

Feb. 15,1591. Reverendus in Christo pater, Johannes 
Mey, divina providentia episcopus Carliolensis, Jwra octava 
matutina decimi quinti diei Februarii, mortem oppetiit, et 
Iwra octava vespertina ejusdem diei, Carliolensi in ecclesia 
sepidtusjkdt. Cujus justa celebrabantur die sequenti Dal- 
stonii. 



CHAP. IV. 

Rockrey, B. D. of Queen's college, Cambridge, inconjbrm- 
able to the apparel prescribed by statute : his case signi- 
fied by the master of the college. One Gawton, a puri- 
tan, summoned before the bishop of Norwich. The mat- 
ters laid to his charge. Is suspended. One Harvey, 
another puritan minister of Norzoich, suspended. Gaza- 
toil's letter to the bishop, disozvning his jurisdiction. A 
sect of libertines. Dr. Laurence Humfrey made dean of 
Gloucester. Observation of the 17th of November. Irish 
priests, bastards. Dispensed zoith by the pope to take 
orders. 

W E turn now to the puritanical sort, and such as refused 



58 



ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
II. 

Auno 1576. 
Rockrey of 
Cambridge, 
incompliant 
to the 
habits. 



435 

The master 
of Queen's 
college, his 
report of 
him to the 
lord Burgh- 
ley. 



conformity to the customs and practice of the church, en- 
joined. Of this sort was one Rockrey, B. D. of Queen's 
college, Cambridge. He was an enemy to the wearing both 
of the apparel required of the clergy and of the university. 
And so inconformable he had been some years before ; and 
was cast out of the college for the same fault, by command 
of the queen's council. But such was the tenderness of the 
lord Burghley, chancellor of that university, that he pre- 
vailed to have him received again, in hopes of better com- 
pliance ; being a person, it seems, of some merit. But in- 
stead thereof, he shewed himself afterwards more averse 
and obstinate than before. So that still complaint being 
made thereof by Dr. Chaderton, the master, some time still 
was allowed him to reform himself. The year being ex- 
pired, and the man as perverse as before, or more, the said 
Dr. Chaderton stated the matter at large to the said lord, in 
a letter dated in October ; and requiring his direction how 
to proceed with him, that would not yet conform to the 
rites and customs of the church and college, viz. 

" That Rockrey, S. T. B. still remained in the college; 
' one not unknown to his honour : who, four years ago, by 
' the public authority of the queen's council, was ejected 
' the college for contumacy ; again admitted by his [the 
' chancellor's] entreaty into his fellowship. But that he 
' from that time had been so averse, not from the rites 
' only, and ceremonies, but even a communi etiam vita, 
' hardly conversing with the rest, that he had offended 
' very many honest men-; and by his evil example had ex- 
' cited others also to the same aru^'ia. That he dealt, as it 
' was fit, with the man at first friendly and piously, but 
' profited nothing. That afterwards, as their statutes re- 
' quired, he admonished him three times that he should 
' compose himself as well in habitu as in vestitu, to the 
' common and approved customs of the university. But 
' he refused to wear either the ecclesiastical habit or the 
' university cap. That this he had signified to his lordship 
' the last year, when he was with him at Theobald's. And 
' that then this was his decree, that he [the master] should 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 59 

" for one year bear his [improbitatcm] stubbornness; but CHAP. 
" that afterwards, unless he conformed himself to the cus- 



" toms of the university, he should pronounce sentence ac- Anno 1576. 

" cording to the statute. He desired therefore his lord- 

" ship's advice by letter or message. For that he could not 

" contain others in their duty and in order, if, as he said, 

" every one might live freely according to their own plea- 

" sure : nor certainly would the laws of the university have 

" any force, unless rebels and stubborn persons were re- 

" strained by punishment prescribed." 

One Gauton, formerly of a trade, now curate of a church Gauton, a 
in Norwich, is called before Freake, the bishop of Norwich, ™ "'^ n in 
for his principles and practices dissonant from the esta- convented 
Wished discipline of the church ; and who had also confuted b^hon. Part 
in his sermon what the bishop's chaplain had preached a of a R e g' s - 
little before. Being summoned before the bishop in his 
house, he began to take notice to Gauton of his taking upon 
him to confute what his chaplain had preached ; and that 
he admonished his parishioners to beware of such false doc- 
trine. To whom Gauton briskly answered, (as he related 
the matter himself,) " Was it not meet for me so to do, 
" since he preached such false doctrine ? As, that we had 
" natural motions to draw us unto God : and, that albeit 
" none came to Christ but such whom the Father draweth, 
" yet all come not whom God doth draw ; but that it is in 
" man whether he will be drawn or no. 1 ' The bishop told 
him, that he did this but the Sunday next after his chaplain 
had preached ; and that he had in the mean time explained 
what he had asserted before, to the satisfaction of all. The 
other replied, Nay, he had made it worse than at first. The 
bishop asked him, Wherein ? Gauton said, for that in his last 
sermon he said, that hearing was [believing] ; and that Paul 
saith, Faith cometh by hearing. But hearing is a natural 
gift. And so we have faith by nature : and consequently 
are saved by nature; as that minister inferred from the 
chaplain's argument. Hereupon the bishop said, he would 
call him to dispute with him upon this point. The other 
answered, that he was well enough able to confute his false 448 



60 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK doctrine. But the bishop said, that was not the matter he 
was sent for : for that he had other matters against him. 



Anno 1576. Then the bishop charged him, that he wore not the sur- 
charged for p ij ce nol . observed the orders of the queen's book, neither 

not wearing r » i 

the surplice, in prayers nor administration of the sacrament. He an- 
"n^thT"" swered, that indeed he wore not the surplice; but other- 
book. w i se he was not to be charged for not observing the order 
of the book : and added very confidently, that he had long 
since heard at the court, that he, the bishop himself, liked 
not so greatly of the surplice ; and that therefore he doubt- 
ed that worldly dignity and vain glory led him to do against 
his own conscience ; and wished him to look if it were not 
so. Whereunto the bishop replied, that there was no cause 
why any should think so of him : for he ware the surplice, 
or the apparel, that was as ill, in his account : or that if he 
were now to say service, or to minister the sacraments, he 
would wear it. To which the other very pertly answered, 
that he was the more sorry. 

By the dean and commissary he was asked, whether, by 
serving his cure in Norwich, he acknowledged himself sub- 
ject to the jurisdiction of the bishop. He answered, that 
he did not acknowledge himself subject to such jurisdiction 
as the bishop did use and claim. And when they willed 
him to beware what he answered in denying authority ; he 
answered, he was not afraid to deny the unfaithful autho- 
rity of bishops, archdeacons, chancellors, commissaries, and 
such like. 

This man, so very impudent and malapert with the bi- 
shop, and with his officers, after divers other articles alleged 
against him, was suspended. And when the bishop told 
him he would suspend him, and he should go again to his 
former occupation ; he said, he thanked God he had an oc- 
cupation, and so, he said, had Paul and our Saviour too. 

The dean sat a little before at St. George's about such 

ecclesiastical matters; but now, about the examination of 

Gawton, he sat in the bishop's chamber : against which he 

The inso- excepted, crying out, This your dealing with me in hugger- 

^tanj * ' e mugger, and in corners, will not further your cause, but 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 61 

hinder it, and further ours. For all men may see that you CHAP, 
fear the light. The dean answered, he was so used at St. 
George's the other day, that he durst not for his life sit Anno 1576. 
there any more. But that Gawton might without peril of 
his life come to the bishop's chamber. One Harvy, a non- 
complier, and a disowner of the bishop's jurisdiction, was at 
that time suspended. But Gawton took his part, and said, 
that Harvy was able by the word of God to prove his call- 
ing lawful. And further he then said, both to the bishop 
and the dean, that they had no authority on their side : but, 
in a confident way of challenge, bade them both take unto 
them whom they would in England ; " We are here not 
" past half a dozen in this city, and (if you dare) confer 
" with us by learning. And if we be not able to prove that 
" we hold by the word of God, we will not only yield, but 
" we will also yield our lives." But the bishop only said 449 
to this, that it was uncharitably spoken ; they sought not 
their lives. 

I might here subjoin the other articles exhibited at this Other arti- 
time against him before the bishop ; with his answers : as, £im. ' 
that he observed not the orders prescribed by the book. 
To which he answered, that he did not think himself by law 
bound precisely to every part of it. Item, That he did not 
read the service appointed, nor the chapters, gospels, and 
epistles, nor the collects ; nor married, and ministered the 
sacraments according to the book. He answered to this, 
that by reason of preaching he omitted some of them, as by 
law he might. That he observed the rest, except in bap- 
tism the cross and vows. Item, That he preached without 
renewing his licence, since the day appointed in the bishop's 
canons. To which he said, he was a minister of the word 
of God ; and therefore that was sufficient authority to preach 
the word in his own parish without their licence. 

One Harvey also, a minister in the city of Norwich, Harvey sus- 
(mentioned before,) was summoned before the bishop of ^°^ hls 
that diocese, May the 13th, for some puritan principles, and 
particularly for preaching against the government of this 
church by the hierarchy of bishops, and their dignity, and 



62 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK ecclesiastical officers. The sufficiency of his calling also to 
the ministry was called into question ; and, at a court held 



Anno 1576. at St. George's church, where the court then sat, suspended 
from his ministry by sentence pronounced by the dean of 
Norwich. At which Gawton beforesaid was present, and 
much displeased at the proceedings with him, carrying him- 
self rudely there, and saying afterwards, when his own busi- 
ness was in hand, that the dean behaved himself not like a 
judge, but very intemperately, like a tyrant against Mr. 
Harvey: and that he was able, by the word of God, to 
prove his calling lawful. 
His bold let- But now what more particularly were this man's prin- 
bishop. Part ciples, an d how affected he stood to this church's constitu- 
of a Regis- tion, may be judged by a confident ruffling letter that he 
sent some days after to the bishop, (for him I take to be 
R. H. subscribed, the writer,) pretending therein to render 
a further account of his behaviour before him in the court 
where he sat as a judge : His protestation, he said, always 
remembered ; meaning the denial of his lawful authority in 
the church, by warrant of the gospel. He first wished him 
peace and truth, if he pertained to God. And then began, 
" That he might see, if he shut not his eyes, how the man 
" of sin, he of Rome, he meant, did pervert and corrupt 
" the doctrine of Christ ; so that not one free spot of it did 
" remain. And that in like manner touching the regiment 
" of the church and discipline, whereas our Saviour, Lord 
" and only King of his church, sate in the seat of judgment, 
" &c. that man plucked him out of his throne, and placed 
" himself there. These things he hoped the bishop knew. 
" That then we had to consider, that when Christ reigned, 
" his officers were bishops and pastors, elders and deacons. 
" In the scriptures of God we found it so. Now when the 
" pope had removed this government, he placed new gover- 
450 " nors of another kind of name and office, that is to say, 
" cardinals, archbishops, lords bishops, deans, chancellors, 
" commissaries, with the rest of that ungracious guard. 
" Thus doctrine and government being both thrown down, 
" it pleased the Lord, in his time, to bestow upon us some 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 63 

benefit. For he had, by means of our good prince, purged CHAP; 
the doctrine of Christ from devilish error; being ready 1V- 



" also to have restored to us true discipline, if our own mi- Anno 1576. 

" serable unthankfulness and lazy slackness had not hin- 

" dered. But you, (meaning the bishop,) and such as you 

" be, whet the edge of your wooden sword, viz. your coun- 

" terfeit authority, to stand in the way to shut the gate of 

" paradise, and to keep us from the tree of life. 

" But to come to the government of the church, he [the 
" bishop] saw, that it was not at all altered ; and he knew, 
" that where the pope's officers, whom he created, did bear 
" rule, there he bore rule himself. So that you see, added 
" he, in this state of the church, the reins of government be 
" not in the hands of Christ, but in the hands of Antichrist. 
" And that whereas they shrouded themselves under the 
" shadow of the prince, saying, that she created them and 
" their authority, &c. but he could discourse of that gene- 
" ration better than so : he knew it of a truth, that the arch- 
u bishop begat them, and the bishop of Rome begat him, 
" and the Devil begat him. So now, in respect of their of- 
" fices, they saw who was their grandsire, and who their 
" great grandsire. 

" But, as he proceeded, that whereas they said, that 
" though the prince did not create them, yet she allowed of 
" them ; he answered, that forasmuch as Christ was the 
" only lawgiver in his church, and the only ordainer of of- 
" fleers therein, if any king or prince in the world ordain 
" or allow other officers than Christ hath already ordained 
" or allowed, we will, said he, rather lay down our necks 
" on the block, than consent thereto. Wherefore do not 
" use to object unto us so oft the name of our prince. For 
" you use it as a cloak to cover your cursed enterprises. 

" That they sought out of her authority to scratch 

" poison, i. e. the hinderance of the gospel of Christ. He 
" bade them remember what they had done. Have you 
" not thrust out some, whom God had placed over his 
" people ; even such as preached the lively word faithfully 
" and sincerely ? Have you not plucked out those preachers, 



64 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " where God set them in? Do you think that this plea, 

" 7" did but execute the law, will excuse you before the high 



Anno 1576." Judge? where you, except you repent with a deep repent- 
" ance, shall stand and tremble like a thief in the jail, and 
ff gnash your teeth. 

" But again, turning to their offices, that seeing he had 
" proved that they were not of God, he asketh the bishop, 
" Who made you so malapert as to sit in the seat of judg- 
" ment in the church, having no warrant for your so doing; 
" sitting and controlling the ministers of Christ ? What 
" shall become of those miserable caitiffs that have over- 
" thrown the government of the church under the gospel ? 
a Well, then, if you be an unlawful judge in the church, 
45 1 « ( an( l I ] lave the truth of God on my side,) then you must 
H needs be an idol. So that if I had reverenced you in 
" your judgment seat, I should have committed idolatry. 
" Wherefore now he saw it was the fear of displeasing God, 
" and not stoutness and contumacy of mind, [as the court 
" had then charged him with,] that caused him to deny the 
" bishop reverence. 

" And therefore at last he gave him counsel in Christ, to 
" have a care for his soul, and in haste to renounce that 
" evil office which he had usurped, and repent him deeply 
" of his horrible iniquity, [in suspending these puritans,] 
" and suffer the flock to enjoy the benefit of their preachers 
" of God's word ; and he himself to serve God in some 
" other calling, until he called him to some right and true 
tt function in his church. And these things he bade him do, 
" lest his sin were greater than it was before he told him. 
" And if he would do thus, he, with his faithful brethren, 
" would pray to God, that these things which he had spoken 
" might not fall upon him.'" These are some brief extracts 
taken out of his very letter, and so much esteemed by that 
party, that it was put in print by them, with several other 
tracts of the like sort. 
Libertines, There was now another sort of dissenters from the doc- 
obligation trine of the church, as the former were of the discipline : a 
to the mo- sor t f libertines they were, that reckoned themselves not 

ral Jaw. J ' 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 65 

bound to the observation of the moral law of the ten com- CHAP, 
mandments ; as being obligatory to such only as were Jews. 1V " 



The broacher of this opinion propounded, for the advance- Anno 1 576. 
ment of it, two questions. First, whether the whole law of 
Moses was given to the Jews, or no ? [And not to the Gen- 
tiles.] Secondly, whether, if it were given to the Jews and 
Gentiles, it were abrogated by Christ's coming, in whole or 
in part? These questions were framed by one Bird, livino- 
about Saffron Walden, in Essex ; where there was a com- 
pany or society of pure brethren, as they were called. To 
these questions, sent to Dr. Whitgift, he gave a long and 
learned answer ; which I have set down elsewhere, and Life of Bi- 
given an account thereof. sh °P Whlt - 

Now was Dr. Lawrence Humfrey, the learned public pro- Dr. Hum- 

fessor of divinity at Oxford, advanced to the deanerv of frey ,uade 

. 1 t_ /.111 dean of 

Gloucester, by the means of the lord treasurer : and upon Gloucester. 

his motion was at length persuaded to wear the habits; 

which he, with Dr. Sampson, some time dean of Christ's 

Church, had refused some years before ; and drew up their 

arguments why they could not comply therewith: which 

made a very unhappy difference then in the church, as may 

be read elsewhere at large. And now, in the month of Life of Bi- 

February, from Oxon, he wrote to this tenor to the saidk e ° p 

lord : " That he had received his letter, and perceived his His letter 

" care for the bettering of his state. That he was loath her J°^ e J™" 

" majesty, or any other honourable person, should think raising con- 

" that he was forgetful of his duty, or so far off from obe- vid. Aiinal. 

" dience, but that he would submit himself to those orders, of Reform - 

P-431. 

" in that place where his being and living was. And there- 45 2 
" fore he had yielded." 

This year began the keeping of the anniversary day of The queen's 
queen Elizabeth's accession to the crown: and so hencefor- ^tcfhToh- 
ward to be observed every year on the 17th day of Novem- served y*ar- 
ber ; or at least this form of prayer was, by appointment, y " 
to be used : which may be worthy to be here inserted : 
printed this year. 

"O Lord God, most merciful Father; who, as upon The prayer. 
" this day, calling thy servant, our sovereign and gracious 

VOL. II. PART II. F 



66 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " queen Elizabeth to the kingdom, didst deliver thy people 
1Ij " of England from danger of war and oppression, both of 
Anno 1576. " bodies by tyranny, and of conscience by superstition : re- 
" storing peace and true religion, with liberty both of bo- 
" dies and minds: and hast continued the same thy bless- 
" ings without all desert on our part, now by the space of 
increase « these eighteen years : we who are, in memory of these 
be'r'aTcord- " thy great benefits, assembled here together, most humbly 
ing to the a beseech thy fatherly goodness to grant us grace, that we 
m^sty's " may in word, deed, and heart, shew ourselves thankful 
reign. « an( j obedient unto thee for the same. And that our 
" queen, through thy grace, may, in all honour, goodness, 
" and godliness, long and many years reign over us ; and 
" we obey and enjoy her, with the continuance of thy great 
" blessings, which thou hast by her, thy minister, poured 
" upon us. This we beseech thee to grant unto us, for thy 
" dear Son Jesus Christ's sake, our Lord and Saviour, 
" Amen." 

Now to cast an eye over into the queen's other kingdom 
of Ireland. 

This year there was to be an ordination, to supply the 
popish church there with mass-sayers, and chantry-priests, 
and for such like offices. At which time there were no less 
than five bastards, some of them, and perhaps all, sons of 
priests, that were now to be entered into the priesthood. 
And, as it seems, such misbegotten persons were bred up 
to some learning, in order to be made priests ; but because 
of certain ecclesiastical canons, such could not be admitted 
The pope into sacred orders; the pope was to dispense with them, 
Sfive' 1 and to take off the baseness of their birth. And so he did 
irishpriests,by a formal bull, and authorized the popish bishop elect, of 
take^rd'ers . Dromore, to admit them to orders. This dispensation of 
pope Gregory (being the original bull) was once in my 
hands : which ran to this tenor, viz. 
His dispen- Gregorius episcopus, servus servorum Dei ; dilecto Jilio 
reS'to" Patricio electo Dromoren. saltern, et aplicam. benedictionetn. 
the bishop Ex parte dilcctorum JiUorum, Joannis Mac Gilmora, et 
ofDromore - Nkolai Mac Var, ac Terentii O Ben A et Patricii etiam 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 67 

O Bengill, Armacan. dioc. necnon Terentii Mac Gracha, et CHAP. 

Remundi Mac Gracha, Clochoren. dioc. et Pelmet O Muri- ' 

gan, Dromoren. dioc. clericor. seu scholarium, nobis fuit Anno *z>76. 

humiliter supplicatum, ut cum ipsis asserentib. se defectus 

natalium de presbyteries et solutis, vel alias genitos, pati; 

ac paucos in Mis partibus, in quibus hazretici catholicis 

prcesunt, existere, qui ad sacros ordines promoveri velint, 

super defectibus humoi. tit, Mis non obstantibus, Joannes, 

Nicolaus, Terentius, O Bingil et Patricius prafati, ex eo, 

<$fc. " The bishop of Armagh being detained then in pri- 

" son by the heretics: having obtained the letters dimis- 

" sory of the neighbouring ordinaries, or their licence, and 

" the rest by the licence of the ordinaries respectively ; by 

" whose testimonies their lives and manners are commend- 

" ed," &Ci Then follows the pope's indulgence, to allow 

the foresaid bishop elect to give them orders, and to qualify 

them for any preferment or benefices whatsoever, in these 

words : Ad ordines prcedictos licentiam et facultatem con- 

cedere et impartiri, de benignitate aplica. dignaremur ; si 

Joannes, Nicolaus, Sf-c. sint idonei, nee patentee incontinen- 

tiaz sint imitatores, sed bona? conversationis et vita?, aliaque 

ipsis merita suffragantur ad humoi. dispensationum gra- 

tias obtinendas, §c. 



CHAP. V. 454 

Manchester college : its revenues in danger. The corn act 
jjrocuredjbr the universities by the lord treasurer. The 
benefit qf Sturbridge fair obtained by him for Cambridge. 
The lord treasurer's letter to the queen aboxd his daugh- 
ter, the countess of Oxford. His grave advice to White, 
master of the rolls in Ireland. An edition of the Bible: 
some account of it. Other books now set forth. The 
death of Walter earl of Essex ; and of sir Anthony Cook. 
Sir Thomas Smith, and others of the court, at Buxton 
well. The queen goes her progress. 

J. HE college of Manchester, in Lancashire, which, main- The ill state 

f 2 



68 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK taining several preachers, fellows there, had a great influ- 
ence through that whole country for propagating true reli- 



Anno 1576. gi on among the inhabitants, many of them ignorant, and 
ter M conte!" man y popishly affected. Nowel, dean of St. Paul's, born in 
this county, was much concerned at the dangerous state of 
it at this time, by reason of the revenue of it leased out to 
Mr. Killegrew, gentleman of her majesty's privy chamber, 
at a very small rent, by a late warden thereof, a papist. For 
the preventing of this great injury, not only to the college, 
but to the whole country, the good dean interposed, and 
wrote a letter to the great patron of religion and learning 
in those days, to this purport : 
Nowei,dean " That he understood by one Carter, a fellow of that col- 
seasonabJv " l e g e ? that in the mean time of the trial of the truth of Mr. 
intercedes. « Warden's dealings, as was appointed by his lordship and 
" secretary Walsingham, the lease of the chief revenues of 
" the college were, under the great seal, passed over unto 
" Mr. Killegrew, upon such condition and small rent as was 
" by the said warden granted ; to the utter undoing of the 
" said college, unless some remedy might be had therein. 
K And that, forsomuch as the cause of the said college was 
" by her majesty committed to them two, these were most 
" humbly to beseech their honours, in respect of the good 
" instruction of the whole people of that country, in their 
" duty to God and her majesty, to be a means that the said 
" college might be preserved in some convenient state : and 
" that the said warden, the author of the ruin of the said 
" college, according as their honours had already taken or- 
" der by their letters, might receive no rents of the said col- 
" lege, until such time as his doings, by the return of the 
" depositions to the articles, from their honours unto the 
" country directed, were fully examined and tried. And 
" that Mr. Carter's great charge, who by his most neces- 
" sary suit, as he [the dean] thought, was greatly indebted, 
455 " might be considered. Whereby their honours should do 
" a deed most acceptable unto Almighty God : who have 
" you (as he concluded) always in his blessed keeping. 1 ' 
Dated Oct. 28, 1576. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 69 

This great and good lord treasurer was now also very in- CHA P. 
strumental to the cause of learning and religion, by procur- 



ing some favours to the universities ; namely, a seasonable Anno J 5 7 6 - 
act of parliament for increasing the commons of the colleges, a bi*statute 
there having been but slender allowances to the students. for the «»i- 
It was called The corn act : which Andrew Willet, D. D. procured by 
commemorates with these words : " The statute of provision Ceci1 - 
u of corn for colleges in both universities, made the 18th ef f charit. 
" her majesty's reign, [i. e. 1576,] whereby it is provided, Acts > P- 
" that in every lease to be made, the third part of the rent 
" should be paid in corn, for the mending and increasing 
" of the common diet : wheat to be served in at 6s. 8cl. and 
" malt at 5.9. the quarter, or so much money, [to be taken 
" at the will of the colleges."] By virtue of which act, the 
benefit upon new leases, which are actually void, without 
reservation of such provision, are doubled, to the great re- 
lief of the company of students : the benefit whereof may 
arise to the increase of more than 12,000/. per ann. in both 
universities. This act, saith the beforementioned author, 
was devised and procured by the prudent and provident 
care of sir William Cecil, lord treasurer, and chancellor of 
the university of Cambridge. I know this act is attributed 
by some to sir Thomas Smith, the queen's secretary ; but 
l)r. Willet, who lived in those times, and was then an uni- 
versity man, no question had good information. It is pro- 
bable, that both the one and the other joined together in 
devising and procuring it. 

This worthy man procured also the settlement of the be- The univer- 
nefit of Sturbridge fair upon the university of Cambridge : j^y^ hath" 
for which I find the vice-chancellor and senate returning the ri * ht of 

-. . _. , . . Sturbridge 

their thanks to him, their chancellor, 8 id. Mar. lhank-f a ir, against 
in g him for his seasonable interposition with the q ueen in the towns - 

. . . . men. 

behalf of the university, for their power in that fair, being 
in danger, by the petition of the townsmen. And the next 
year they wrote a letter to the queen, returning their thanks , 
to her for what she had told the townsmen, bringing her a 
petition for Sturbridge fair, " That she would not take 

f3 



70 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " away any privileges that she had granted that university, 
" but would rather add to them." This matter was in 



Anno 1576. transaction a year or two before; having been first moved 
by Dr. Perne, by whose means many privileges and bene- 
factions were obtained to that university, who, in the year 
1574, applying to their chancellor, lord Burghley, shewed 
him how he was informed, that suit was made by some of 
her highness 1 privy-chamber for Sturbridge fair : for that it 
had stood seized into her majesty's hands si thence the time 
of the reign of her royal father : which, if it might please 
her highness to bestow on that university, it might be such 
a worthy and perpetual monument made by the rent thereof, 
as her majesty had most graciously promised at her last 
456 being at Cambridge, in her highness 1 oration made there: 
and the townsmen that were then occupiers thereof, yield- 
ing a reasonable rent unto the university for their several 
booths. Thus, as he concluded, being bold to put his ho- 
nour in mind of this, referring the whole matter to his ho- 
nour's best consideration, to do herein as he should think 
good, 
in a mat- To which I shall subjoin a passage relating to the above- 
liTm .and The sa *^ excellent nobleman, though of a more domestic con- 
eari of Ox- ce rn ; especially since it reached as far as the queen's ma- 
vrit'estothejesty. About the year 1571, he had matched his daughter 
queen. - Anne (most entirely beloved by him, and one of the queen's 
ladies of honour) to the earl of Oxford : who carried him- 
self unkindly towards her, and absented himself from her ; 
and, upon some discontents, went beyond sea. She was 
very virtuous, but he a great spender ; which prodigality 
put him, as it seems, somewhat behindhand. He had some 
suit to the queen, that might turn to his benefit; which not 
succeeding, he reckoned his father-in-law was not so cordial 
in his business as he expected. This begat estrangements 
in him, both towards his wife and this lord. Tales and re- 
ports in the mean time were spread, and brought even to 
the queen; which might probably have been prejudicial to 
the countess of Oxford, and to the lord her father. There- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 71 

fore, to set himself and his daughter right in the queen's CHAP, 
opinion, he penned this letter, and sent it to her majesty by , 



Mr. Edward Gary, of the queen's chamber. Anno 1576. 

" That as he was wont by her goodness, permission, and His letter 
" by occasion of his place, to be frequently an intercessor*" ^ 
" for others, and therein found her majesty always inclin- 
" able to give him gracious audience ; so now, in the latter 
" end of his years, he found a necessary occasion to be an 
" intercessor, or rather an immediate petitioner for himself, 
" and an intercessor for another next himself; and that in 
" a cause godly, honest, and just." And after some fur- 
ther humble preface and apology, he proceeded to his suit ; 
" That he, by God's visitation, was stayed from coming to 
" her presence ; and his daughter, the countess of Oxford, 
" occasioned by her great grief to be absent from her ma- 
" jesty's court : which nevertheless might be diversely re- 
" ported to her majesty. But that it would please her to 
" continue her princely consideration of them both : of him, 
" as an old sworn servant, that dared appear with the best, 
" the greatest, the oldest, and the youngest, for loyalty and 
" devotion ; and of his daughter, her majesty's most humble 
" young servant, as one that was toward her majesty, in 
" dutiful love and fear, yea, in fervent admiration of her 
" graces, to contend with any her equals. 

" That in the case between the earl of Oxford and her, 
" whether it were for respect of misliking in him, [the lord 
" Burghley,] or of misdemeaning in her, he avowed in the 
" presence of God and his angels, (whom he prayed, as 
" ministers of his ire,) if in this he uttered any untruth, he 
" had not, in the earl's absence, on his part, omitted any 
" occasion to do him good, for himself and his causes; and 
" that he had been as diligent for his causes, as he had been 457 
" for his own. And that if he should, contrary to his de- 
" serts, be otherwise judged or suspected, he should receive 
" great injury. 

" That for his daughter, though nature would make him The coun- 
" to speak favourably, yet now that he had taken God and ford . her 
" his angels to be witnesses, he renounced nature, and pro- behaviour 

& L toward the 

F 4 earl. 



72 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " nounced simply to her majesty, that he did never see in 
, " her behaviour, in word or deed, or could perceive by any 



Anno 1576. « other means, but that she had always carried herself ho- 
" nestly, chastely, and lovingly to him. And now lately, in 
" expectation of his coming, so filled with joy thereof, so 
" desirous to see the time of his arrival approach, as in any 
" judgment no young lover could more excessively shew 
" the same : and whatever things were past, wholly had re- 
" posed herself, with assurance to be well used by him; and 
" with that confidence and importunity made to this lord 
" her father, she went to him ; but there missed of her ex- 
" pectation ; and so attended, as her duty was, to gain some 
" part of her hope."" 

And so this lord ended his letter with this request, " That 
" in any thing that might hereafter follow, wherein he might 
" have wrong offered to him, he might have her majesty's 
u princely favour, to work his just defence for him and his ; 
" though unwilling to challenge any extraordinary favour : 
" for his service had been but a piece of his duty, and his 
*■* vocation had been too great reward." This is in short 
the sum of this lord's letter, wrote in the beginning of March 
this year. But the whole being writ with that elegance of 
style, and to such a person, must not be lost. I have ex- 
No. V, emplified it in the Appendix. 

Lord trea- I have met with an instance likewise of this great lord's 
S ?ce "to Mr w i s d° m ar, d gravity, in the counsel he gave to Nicolas 
White, White, (afterwards sir Nicolas,) master of the rolls in Ire- 
the* rolls in ^ an( ^ : which falling out in this year, I will insert. He was 
Ireland. dear to that lord, and whom he greatly valued for his in- 
tegrity and virtue. This gentleman was now under some 
trouble, the lord deputy, sir Henry Sydney, being disgusted 
at him, something that he had done or spoken being ill 
taken : which made him shy of intermeddling in public 
business, to avoid offence as much as he could. And to 
this he made his friend, the lord treasurer, privy. Who on 
this occasion thus gave his judgment and advice. " I do 
" allow of your wisdom, to forbear dealing in causes other- 
" wise than you are called unto by him that hath there the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 73 

" superior government. And yet in place and time, you CHAP. 

" may not ex professo neglect, by counsel and advice, to ' 

" further God's cause, and your country's. It is likely that Anno 1576. 

" some misconceiving hath been of you there ; that in so 

" many occasions of services, wherein you are skilful, you 

" are not now more used. And so will I think of your 

" abilities to serve, and of your devotion to further good 

" things. And on the other part, I love the governor, and 

" wish him so good success, both for himself and for his 

" office, that if you shall not prohibit me, upon your answer 

" to these my letters, I will make a proof what should be 

" the cause why he doth not make profit of your service." 458 

This was dated from court, the 24th of July, 1576. 

But I find this displeasure of the lord deputy against 
this good man, master of the rolls, was not so easily removed, 
but rather increased. For a full twelvemonth after, his 
friend, the lord treasurer, in a letter, takes notice of it, and 
gives him again his grave advice, to this tenor: " That he His further 
" was sorry to find the lord deputy did not use him both as the same for 
" he had formerly done, and as he [the lord treasurer] recovery of 

J . . the lord de- 

" knew he could merit. But most certainly he perceived, p „ty' s fa- 

" the lord deputy conceived not well nor kindly of his vour - 

" doings there. But upon what occasions, whether justly or 

" conjecturally, or by means of the accustomed factions and 

" partialities [among them] there, he could not tell. Where- 

" fore his advice was, that he [Mr. White] should dutifully 

" esclarish himself to the lord deputy ; and if he would, 

" he might say, that by the lord treasurer he understood 

" the same. For, added the said lord, so well I love my 

" lord deputy privately, and so much I esteem of him pub- 

" licly, for the place he holdeth, that I wish him assisted 

" with all such as I think are wise ; and I also wish, that 

" none such as you are, whom he hath so much in former 

" times avaunced with credit, should for any private re- 

" spect esloyne your good-will from him." 

But how hard it is to recover a great man's favour, when But could 
he hath once taken a distaste, appears by Mr. White's case. ? t ot obtam 
For all the counsel aforesaid, taken and used, had no sue- 



74 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK cess. Whereupon, when the lord treasurer understood, he 
thus expressed his mind: " That he was sorry, that upon 



Anno 1576." his advice given him to seek the lord deputy's favour, and 
" notwithstanding his own writing to him therein, he [Mr. 
" White] could not effectually recover the same. Whereby 
" he feared his lordship had conceived some deep matter of 
" ingratitude, provoked by the said Mr. White. And that 
" if he had given his lordship any such cause, he could not 
i( blame him ; but for God's cause, who forgiveth us all our 
" faults, though he were hard to be recovered ; for, qui in- 
" gratum dixerit, omne malum dixerit. Yet adding, that 
" he should do well, as he knew his own estate, to pursue 
" by all honest means the obtaining of his favour, or the 
" cancelling of his displeasure."" All this I write, to pre- 
serve, as much as I may, any memorials of one of the great- 
est and best statesmen this nation ever enjoyed. And this 
passage, in part, gives some character of his wisdom and 
virtue. 
The Bible Now to note a few books that came forth in print this 
printed in' y ear - One was the Holy Bible, in English, set forth now a 
quarto this second time in the black letter, in quarto, and printed by 
Christopher Barker, the queen's printer; with the singing- 
Psalms, and other prayers ; which had been printed by 
John Day, the famous printer : and this not the first time 
added, and bound up with the English Bible ; but so done 
(and that, as it seems, with allowance) some years before, viz. 
1 569 ; and the said Psalms there set to tunes. Of this 
459 Bible, which seems to be one of the first printed in a quarto 
A Bible in volume, I think, will deserve some account to be given, 
printed The translation is different from the old translation, before 
1569. the Bishops' Bible came forth, which was in the year 1572. 

Each chapter is continued without any break, but with dis- 
tinction of verses, which I believe was the first English 
Bible with verses. The title is, The holi Bible, and no 
more; with a picture of queen Elizabeth. Justice on one 
side of her, and Mercy on the other, setting or holding the 
crown on her head. Fortitude and Prudence upholding 
her throne with their hands. And underneath, a minister 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 75 

in a pulpit preaching, before a great auditory sitting; and CHAP, 
on one side of the pulpit a grave senator in his gown, with _ 



his book, sitting also : which perhaps was designed to be Anno 1576. 

secretary Cecil. Then is there a preface into the Bible fol- Preface to 

lowing : beginning, " Of all the sentences pronounced by 

" our Saviour Christ in his whole doctrine, none is more 

" serious, or worthy to be borne in remembrance, than that 

" which he spake openly in his gospel, Scrutamini scrip- 

" turas. These words were first spoken unto the Jews by 

" our Saviour ; but by him in his doctrine meant to all : 

" for they concern all, of what nation or tongue, of what 

" profession soever any men be. For to all belongeth it to 

" be called unto eternal life, &c. No man, woman, or child, 
(t is excluded from this salvation : and therefore to every 
(i one of them is this spoken ; proportionally yet, and in 
" their degrees and ages ; and as the reason and congruity 
(( of their vocation may ask, &c. If this celestial doctrine is 
" authorized by the Father of heaven, and commanded of 
" his only Son to be heard of us all ; biddeth us busily to 
" search the scripture ; of what spirit can it proceed, to for- 
" bid the reading and studying of it ? &c. How much more 
" unadvisedly do such men boast themselves to be either 
" Christ's vicars, or to be of his guard, to loath Christen 
" men from reading, by their covert scandalous reproaches 
" of the scripture ; or in their authority, by law or statute, 
" to contract this liberty of studying of eternal salvation, 
" &c. Search therefore, good reader, on God's name, as 
" Christ bids thee, the holy scripture, wherein thou mayest 
" find thy salvation," &c. 

And thus concludes ; " Let us humbly, and on our knees, 
" pray to Almighty God with that wise king Solomon, in 
" his very words, thus : O Lord God of my fathers, Lord 
" of mercies, thou that hast made all things with thy word, 
" and didst ordain man through thy wisdom, that he should 
" have dominion over thy creatures, &c. O send her out 
" therefore from thy holy heavens, and from the throne of 
" thy majesty, that she may be with me, and labour with 
" me, that I may know what is acceptable in thy sight, &c. 



76 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " This same preface being before the Bishops' Bible, ap- 
' " pears to be done by archbishop Parker." 



Anno 1576. Then, after the calendar and the Common Prayer, the 
Genesis. Bible begins. Where at Genesis is a print of the creation of 
the world, standing before the first chapter : and the first 
capital letter is set within a picture, that hath archbishop 
Parker's arms impaled with that of the see of Canterbury ; 
which shews this Bible to have been printed with that arch- 
460 bishop's allowance, order, and care. It hath also some mar- 
ginal notes all along. The two first are these : at those 
words, The earth zvas witliout form, the note is, " Although 
" the works of God, both in the creation, and in his spiritual 
" operation in man, seem rude and imperfect at the first ; 
" yet by the working of his holy Spirit, he bringeth all 
" things to a perfection at the end."" The next note is on 
those words, The Spirit of God moved upon, &c. " The 
" confused heap of heaven and earth was imperfect and 
" dark : and yet not utterly dead, but was endued with the 
" power and strength of God's Spirit ; and so made lively, 
" to continue unto the world's end." 

The title of Genesis is, The first book of Moses, called in 
Hebrew Bereshith, in Greek Genesis. The note in the mar- 
gin at Bereshith is, " That is, generation, or creation.'''' 

Then, chapter ii. where paradise is spoken of, is a pic- 
ture representing it, with this title ; " This figure is spoken 
" of in the 10th verse, and representeth the situation of 
" God^s garden.' 1 '' And thus under writ ten ; " If there be 
" any kingdom under heaven, that is excellent in beauty, in 
" abundance of fruits, in plenteousness, in delights, and other 
" gifts, they who have written of countries, do praise above 
" all, the same that this figure representeth : where with 
" the praises of those writers Moses exalteth this paradise, 
" as duly belonging unto it. And it is very well like, that 
" the region and kingdom of Eden hath been situate in that 
" country, as it appeareth in the xxxviith chap, of Esay, 12 
" ver. and the xxviith chap, of Ezek. 23 ver. Moreover, 
" whereas Moses said, that a flood did proceed from the 
" place, I do interpret it, from the course of the waters. As 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 77 

"if he should have said, that Adam did inhabit in the CHAP. 
" floodVside, or in the land which was washed on both 



sides. Howbeit there is no great matter in that: either Anno i57t>\ 
" that Adam hath inhabited in the place where both floods 
" came together towards Babylon and Seleucia, or above. 
" It is sufficient, that he hath been in a place watered of 
" waters. But the thing is not dark to understand, how 
" this flood hath been divided in four heads, &c. But to 
" declare unto you the diversity of the rivers 1 names, be- 
" sides their usual and principal appellations, and how 
" they be called, as they pass through each province, with 
" the interpretation of the same, I think it rather tedious 
" and cumbersome, than profi table," &c. This discourse 
goes on : but this is enough to shew the intent of it. 

In Leviticus, at chap, xviii. are set two tables in columns : 
the one entitled, Degrees of Kindred, which set matrimony, Matrimony. 
as it is set forth, Levit. xviii. The other column is en- 
titled, Degrees of Affinity, which set matrimony, as it is set 
forth, Levit. xviii. 

At Numbers, chap, xxxiii. is a chart, shewing the way that A chart. 
the people of Israel passed, the space of forty years, from 
Egypt through the deserts of Arabia. It containeth also 
the forty-two journeys, or stations, named in the same 
chapter. 

Before the book of Joshua, there standeth the picture of Joshua. 
a phenix, feeding her young ones with her blood : and on 
each, Prudence and Justice. Underneath this distich : 

Matris ut hcec proprio stirps est satiata cruore, 4Q1 

' Pascis item proprio, Christe, cruore twos. 
Taking occasion for this meditation from Joshua, who was 
a type as well as a namesake of Jesus Christ. 

After the books of Chronicles, just before Esdras, [or The history 
Ezra,] is a piece, entitled, A very profitable declaration for ^ c s ras ' 
the understanding of the histories of Esdras, Nehemiah, 
Esther, Daniel, and divers other places of scripture, very 
dark, by reason of the discord that is between historiogra- 
phers, and among the expositors of the holy scriptures ; 



78 



ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK touching the successive order of the king's or tnonarchs of 
Babylon and Persia; of the years that the said monarchies 



Anno 1 57 6. lasted, and the transmigration of the Jews under Nebu- 
chadonozor, until the monarchy of the Greeks ; and of the 
confusion that is in the names of the kings of Persia. It 
stands in three columns, thus: 



That which hap- 
pened to the people 
of Israel during 
these monarchies. 



The monarchy of 
Babylon. 



Of the years that 
the monarchs of Per- 
sia reigned. Of the 
difference of authors 
therein : and of the 
diversity and confu- 
sion of the names of 
the said monarchs. 

The Book of Psalms hath set before it a prologue of St. 
Basil the Great; and a sentence or two of St. Augustin's. 
The Psalms' Then follow certain general notes concerning" all the Psalms. 
Among the rest, these : This [ f ] mark (where it is set) 
signifieth the place to be of great difficulty, and hard to be 
understood or interpreted. Which undoubtedly was in- 
tended for an hint to be cautious of putting our own sense 
upon such places, but modestly to leave them to the learned 
to be explained. Again, where any word is added to the 
Hebrew text, it is enclosed within crotchets, thus [ ]. 

It is noted likewise, that the venerable word jehovah 
was thought more aptly to be translated God, than Lord ; 
for that it might savour of the Jewish superstition : who 
were persuaded that this word jehovah was not to be 
spoken or written ; but instead of it, adonai, in Greek 
Kugioc. that is, lord, Exod. vi. ver. 3. 

Another note was this ; That although we use in our 
tongue to suppose forbidding [or permitting] by this word 
let, as, Let me do it, or, Let him do it : yet it may seem a 
hard manner of speech, especially when referred to God : 
as to say, Let God do it. Wherefore, seeing in Hebrew 
such phrases be the future tense, it was thought best to 
462 translate them by the moods indicative, optative, potential, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 79 

or subjunctive. Besides these general notes, each Psalm CHAP, 
hath its argument or contents prefixed before it. ' 



Within the capital B, the first letter of the word blessed, Anno 1576. 
which begins the first Psalm, there are included the arms of 
sir William Cecil, secretary of state, with his motto set, viz. 
Cor unum, via una. Whereby I conclude, he had a con- 
siderable influence in this edition of the Bible, together with 
the archbishop. This Book of Psalms varieth somewhat 
from the translation of them in the Book of Common Prayer; 
as it doth also from that of Geneva : reading the first verse 
thus, in the present tense : Blessed is the man that walketh 
not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor standeth in the way 
of sinners, nor sittcth in the seat of the scornful. Where 
I observe also the note made in the margin, quite different 
from that of Geneva, at the place, viz. " A man, whether 
" he walketh, standeth, or sitteth, ought to eschew all man- 
" ner of evil devices, works, and words ; and also such 
, " company as be given to those vices." It follows in the 
second verse; But his delight is in the law of God*. -4wcZaj e h vaii. 
in God, his laxv, exerciseth himself day and night. T^t' N T 

The title before the New Testament is, The New Testa- 
ment of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, 1569- And 
at the end is the printer's name, Printed at London by 
Richard Jugg, 'printer to the Queen's majesty. Which 
shews it to come out with countenance and authority. 

Before it is a map, being " A description of the Holy A map of 
" Land, containing the places mentioned in the four evan- L an j. 
" gelists, with their places about the seacoast. Wherein 
" might be seen the ways and journeys of Christ and his 
" apostles in Judea, Samaria, and Gallilee. For into these 
" three parts that land is divided." 

On the reverse page is, " A table to make plain the The gene- 
« difficulty that is found in St. Matthew and St. Luke, ^ of 
" touching the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of Da- Christ. 
" vid, and his right successor in his kingdom. Which de- 
" scription begins at David, and no higher; because the 
" difficulty is only in his posterity. The scheme of this 
" table is as follows : 



80 



ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
II. 

Anno 1576. 



St. Matthew. 



St. Luke. 



David begat 



Solomon, king. Nathan, the king's son. 

The posterity of Solomon left in Ochosias, [which was 

the sixth from Solomon.] Whereby the kingdom was 

transported to the line of Nathan, in the person of Joas, 

son to Judah. Which becrat 



Our Sa 
viour's 
passion 



St. Paul's 
journey. 



Amasias. Levi. 

At the twenty-sixth chapter of Matthew is another table 
for the better understanding of the said twenty-sixth of St. 
Matthew, the fourteenth of St. Mark, the twenty-second of 
St. Luke, and the nineteenth of St. John. Being all these 
evangelists' 1 relations of our Saviour's passion. 

Before the epistle to the Romans, or rather at the end 
of the Acts, is a map, entitled, The cart cosmographie of 
46*3 the peregrination, or journey of St. Paul, with the distance 
of the miles. And another table, entitled, The order of 
times, with this preface : " Here hast thou, gentle reader, 
" for thy better instruction, the description of the journey 
" and peregrination of St. Paul : which is in this second 
" book of St. Luke, called The Acts of the Apostles, most 
" intreated of. And for because thou readest oftentimes of 
" emperors, or kings, or deputies, thou hast set forth to thee 
" the names, the years, and how long every emperor or 
" king reigned, or deputy governed; or under whom any 
" of these acts were done, even until the death of St. Paul. 11 
The which table consisted in these columns. 



Years of the 
emperors of 
Rome. 



Years of the 
presidents 
of the Jews. 



Years of 
the Hero- 
dians. 



Years of 
Christ's In- 
carnation. 



Years of 
St. Paul the 
apostle. 



Psalms in 
metre. 



Private 
prayers. 



After the end of the New Testament, follow the Psalms 
in metre, Imprinted at London by John Day. Being the 
same which we now sing in our public assemblies. 

At the end of these Psalms are added divers good prayers: 
as, a form of prayer to be used in private houses every 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 81 

morning and evening. A prayer to be said before meat. CHAP. 
A thanksgiving after meat. A thanksgiving before meat. ______ 



And yet another after meat. Then a prayer for the whole Ann ° i57C. 
estate of Christ's church ; which is long and pious. Then 
follows a confession of Christian faith. These prayers and 
devotions appear by many passages in them to have been 
composed for the use of the laity, toward the beginning of 
queen Elizabeth's reign, and upon the settlement of the 
reformation in the church of England. 

This excellent and best edition of the holy Bible hitherto This Bible 
was undoubtedly the work of learned hands and heads, and \\ ie ° are / 
such as were well versed in sacred theology, geography, and thc arch - 
chronology : being thereby made so intelligible and useful canter- 
for common readers. And I make little doubt it was the bury * 
effect, both of the pains and directions of good Matthew 
Parker, now archbishop of Canterbury ; who had divers 
years before in his mind the setting forth of another edition 
of the holy scripture in the vulgar tongue, corrected ac- 
cording to the Hebrew, for the use and benefit of the com- 
mon people : which he now brought to pass in a quarto, as 
he did afterwards in the largest volume, according as hath 
been shewn in his Life. And thus I have at large given a 
specimen of this early edition of the Bible, printed again 
anno 1576. Which may not be unacceptable to some 
readers. 

Another book printed this year was, the Zodiack of Life, The Zodiac 
translated into English long verse by Bernabie Googe, and ° .^j, 6 ^ 
dedicated to the baron of Burghley. It was written by an 
excellent Italian Christian poet, Marcellus Palingenius 
Stellatus. Wherein are contained [under the twelve signs] 
twelve several labours: "painting out most lively the4G4 
" whole compass of the world; the reformation of man- 
" ners; the miseries of mankind ; the pathway to virtue 
" and vice ; the eternity of the soul ; the course of thc 
" heavens ; the mysteries of nature ; and divers other cir- 
" cumstances of great learning, and no less judgment," 
as the title ran. Which book the translator many years 
before had dedicated to the same person, and now had pe- 

VOL. II. PART II. G 



82 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK rused, and in every point, as near as he could, to perfect. 
, In this book Palingenius had writ some things not so conso- 



Anno 1576. nant to the Romish religion. For which he made his apo- 
logy to Hercules II. duke of Ferrara, (to whom he dedicated 
his book,) viz. " That if there happened to be something 
" found in it, that should seem in any part to disagree to 
" their religion, he was not to answer for it : for treating on 
" many subjects of philosophical matters, he was driven to 
" allege the opinion of sundry philosophers, especially 
" Plato's scholars. Whose opinions, if they were false, the 
" blame was theirs, and not his : since his intent was, never 
" to step a foot from the true catholic faith. 1 '' It is a piece 
of natural philosophy, and aimeth at the drawing of men to 
morality and piety, and the fear of God, taking his argu- 
ment from the immortality of the soul, and a future state. 
Sir John This year was reprinted sir John Cheek's book, set forth 

book re- by him in the year 1549, upon occasion of a great insurrec- 
pnnted. t - Qn Q f tne comni ons in the west ; when the city of Exeter 
was besieged by them. Wherein the true subject is brought 
in, making close expostulation with the rebel. The book is 
entitled, The hurt of sedition ; hoxo grievous it is to a 
commonwealth. Perused and imprinted by Seres, 1576, in 
a small octavo. It was a very elegant address to the com- 
mons ; who were for making themselves equal with the gen- 
tlemen, under pretence of their grievances to be redressed. 
Perhaps now printed again, to meet with some present dan- 
ger and sedition apprehended at this time. The book be- 
gan ; " Among so many and notable benefits wherewith 
" God hath already liberally and plentifully endued us, 
" there is nothing more beneficial, than that we have by his 
" grace kept us quiet from rebellion at this time. For we 
" see such miseries hang over the whole state of common- 
" wealth through the great misorder of your sedition, that 
" it maketh us much to rejoice, that we have been neither 
" partners of your doings, nor conspirers of your coun- 
" sels," &c. 
Earl of I a( Jd t ne deaths of two men of great quality and worth, 

Essex dies 

in Ireland. tnat ended their lives this year. Whereof the one was, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 83 

Walter, the good earl of Essex, who died in Ireland: CHAP, 
whither he went to serve the queen against her rebels 



there; and was thought to have had foul play for his life. Anno 1576. 
The early news of his death, White, master of the rolls 
there, sent in his letter to the lord treasurer : which with 
great passion he thus began his relation of: " O my good 
" lord, here I must among others advertise you of the dole- 
" ful departure of the earl of Essex ; who ended his life to 
" begin a better, the 22d of September, in the castle of 
" Dublin ; and felt his sickness first at Talaghe, the arch- 
" bishop of Dublin's house, in his journey towards Baltin- 465 
" glass, to meet the earl of Ormond, accompanied with the 
" chancellor, the last of August. That he [White] was 
" much about him in the latter end of his sickness ; and 
" that he beheld such true tokens of nobility, conjoined 
" with a most godly and virtuous mind, to the yielding up 
" of his breath, as was rare to be seen. That two days be- 
" fore he died, he had speech with him of his lordship, [the 
" lord treasurer,] and said, he thought he was born to do 
" him and his good. But now, (said he,) I must commit the 
" oversight of my son and all to him. That he spake 
" also lovingly of my lord of Sussex : with many other 
" things which for prolixity he omitted, and otherwise he 
" ought to have writ : adding, that he [the earl] doubted 
" that he had been poisoned, by reason of his violent eva- 
" cuation which he had: and of that suspicion he ac- 
" quitted this land : saying, No, not Tirrelaghe Lunnagh 
" himself would do no villainy to his person : but upon the 
" opening of him, which, saith White, I could not abide, 
" the chancellor told him that all his inward parts were 
" sound ; saving that his heart was somewhat consumed, 
" and the bladder of his gall empty. That such as took 
" upon them to be his physicians, as Chaloner, Knel, a 
" preacher, and the deputy's physician, called Dr. Trevor, 
" applied him with many glisters, and thereby filled his 
" body full of wind ; which was perceived. So as either 
" their ignorance, or some violent cause beyond their skill, 
" ended his life. His flesh and complexion did not decay. 

,1 9 



84 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " His memory and speech was so perfect, that at the last 
IL " yielding up of his breath, he cried, Courage, courage : 
Anno 1576. " / am a soldier that must fight under the banner of my 
" Saviour Christ. And as he prayed always to be dis- 
" solved, so was he loath to die in his bed. Among others, 
" (as Mr. White added in his letter,) the earl had care of his 
" [White's] second son, who was all this while brought up 
" with the young earl, his son, without any charge to him, 
" [his father,] because his mother was a Devorax: and re- 
" quired Mr. Waterhouse to move his honour, [the lord 
" treasurer,] that he might still attend on his person, and be 
" brought up with him : wherein he referred his cause to 
" his lordship^ accustomed goodness. 

" That his lordship [the earl] had committed to his 
" keeping the patents of his creation and countries there, 
" and made him one of his feoffees in trust. And he hoped, 
" with the deputy's favour, to turn those lands to a reason- 
" able commodity to his son. He sent likewise inclosed to 
" his lordship, the names of such of the earl's servants as 
" were about him in the time of his sickness, and served 
" him most painfully and diligently. For which respect 
" he thought them worthy the favour of all men." 

All this he thought good to signify to the lord treasurer 
concerning the sickness and strange death of this truly 
noble, well- deserving earl. To which I subjoin the rela- 
tion, by letter to the earl of Sussex, lord chamberlain, of 
A letter to his death and burial. " That his corpse was brought over 
chamber- " by him, [who seems to be his executor,] to be buried at 
lain con- « Caermarthen, where his lordship was born : with a request 
earl! 1 " 5 '° " concerning the young earl ; that whereas his lordship, for 
Titus, B. 2. a t h e education of his children, and payment of his lega- 
" cies, by assurance in his lifetime, and by his last will and 
" testament, reposed especially therein his lordship, [the said 
" earl of Sussex,] forasmuch as his lordship had in his life- 
" time divers offices, as keeping of the castle of Caermar- 
" then, stewardship of divers her majesty's seigneuries in 
" those parts of South Wales, the whole fees accustomed to 
" such offices not amounting to above an hundred marks : 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 85 

" which fees his lordship always bestowed upon his under- CHAP. 

" officers : by occasion of which offices, the inhabitants in _ 

" those seigneuries did the rather depend upon his lordship ; Anno 1 576. 

" and now would be sorry, that any other than the new earl 

" of Essex should have commandment in such office over 

" them : and because he [the writer] well understood, that 

" the having of these small offices might be to the new earl's 

" great continuing of the hearts of these countrymen ; and 

" besides might be the better able, when he should come to 

" years, to do service to his sovereign ; he therefore was, in 

" behalf of his lordship and my lord treasurer, to request, that 

" all these offices might be bestowed upon this new earl of 

" Essex : which should be as well executed, as if his lord- 

" ship were of full age. And if occasion of service should 

" require, his lordship might [although he were an infant] 

" have the willing hearts of many to do him service. And so 

" he committed his lordship to the preservation of the Al- 

" mighty." Dated from Caermarthen, the third of October. 

Mr. Waterhouse, (who seems to have been the writer of His funerals 
the former letter,) with the earFs corpse, landed in Caermar- at Carmar- 
thenshire on Saturday ; and from thence by land it was then - 
carried to Caermarthen, where his funerals were celebrated 
with great solemnity. Richard, bishop of St. David's, 
preached upon this text, Blessed are the dead which die in 
the Lord, &c. Among his virtuous accomplishments, he 
spake of his skill in history and heraldry : " Very few no- Hoiinshed's 
" blemen in England more ready and expert in chronicles, ^1°°' p ' 

» . 1264. anno 

"histories, genealogies, and pedigrees of noble men and 157c. 
" noble houses, not only within the realm, but also in fo- 
" reign realms, than this noble earl was. He excelled in 
" describing and blazoning of arms, and in all skill pertain- 
" ing thereto, 11 &c. Further, he made it a part of true no- 
bility, to distinguish true from false religion. " I received, 11 
said the bishop, the preacher, " at his mouth, that there 
" was nothing in the world that could blemish and abase 
" the heroical nature of nobility so much as to have the 
" eyes of the understanding so closed and shut up, that a 
" man of honour should not be able to discern between true 

g3 



86 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " religion, and the hypocritical false religion ; between the 
ll ~ " right worshipping of God, and idolatry ; between the tra- 
Annoi&76." ditions of men and God's word ; but remain subject to 
" lies and superstition, and to call bad good, and good bad. 
" And that to be free from this servile state was a necessary 
" endowment of true nobility." The whole sermon, giving 
a large account of his noble birth and virtuous accomplish- 
ments, is worthy reading. 
46? In the foresaid Chronicle may be read this worthy earl's 
His epitaph. e pj ta p] 1? j n man y elegant Latin heroic verses, giving an ac- 
count of him and his illustrious pedigree. Which, together 
with the sermon preached at his funeral, was presented, 
with a large epistle by E.W. to Robert earl of Essex, his 
son. 
Sir Antho- This year also died, June the 11th, sir Anthony Cook, 
^. y es Cook of Gyddy hall, in Essex, knt. a man very famous as well 
for his own virtue and learning, as for his virtuous and 
learned daughters : the eldest whereof, Mildred, was mar- 
ried to sir William Cecil, lord Burghley, and lord treasurer; 
the second, Anne, matched sir Nicolas Bacon, lord keeper. 
This knight was one of the tutors to prince Edward, after- 
ward king Edward VI. and one of the executors of king 
Henry the Eighth's last will. He was interred in Rumford 
chapel, according to the order of his last will and testament, 
and these words added ; " To be done by the discretion of 
" his executors, with convenient and not excessive charges."" 
At the upper end of the north wall of that chapel is erected 
to his memory a fair monument ; consisting of a figure of 
him in armour, of white marble, kneeling before a desk : 
behind the knight, his two sons, likewise in armour. And 
on the other side, the figures of his lady, and four daughters 
kneeling behind her : and over all their heads, their names, 
and with whom they married ; with various inscriptions in 
Latin and English, and some Greek : which being some- 
what long, I have preserved them (as they, and those excel- 
No. vr. lent personages they commemorate, deserve) in the Appen- 
dix. Only the inscription over sir Anthony, I will here 
insert. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 87 

Dns. Anthonivs Cocus, ordinis equestris miles, ob sin- CHAP. 
gularem doctrinam,prudentiam, et pietatem, regis Edoardi ______ 

Sexti institutor constitutus. Uxorem habuit ANNAM,Jiliam Anno 1576. 
Guilielmi Fitzwilliams de Milto?i, militis, vere piam 
et generosam. Cum qua diu Jeliciter vixit, et supervixit. 
At tandem quum suos, tarn natos, quam natas, bene col- 
locasset, in Christo pie mortuus est, anno cetatis 70. 

His last will bare date, May 22, 1576. The contents His will, 
whereof were : to his son Richard, his best basin and ewer 
of silver, parcel gilt ; his best gilt salt, with other plate. 
Then to his daughter of Burghley, one other nest of bowls, 
gilt and pinked. To his daughter Bacon, one other nest of 
gilt bowls, &c. To his daughter Russel, his second gilt 
salt, &c. To his daughter Killigrew, one nest of white 
bowls, &c. To his son William, his second basin and 
ewer, parcel gilt, &c. To his son Richard, all his household 
stuff and harness, which he had at Giddy hall, and Bed- 
ford's, or any place else. Then for his books, his will was, 
that his daughter of Burghley should have two volumes in 
Latin and one in Greek, such as she should choose of his 
gift. And after her choice, his daughters Russel and Killi- 
grew, two other volumes in Latin and one in Greek, each in 468 
order, of their choice. All the rest of his books he gave to 
his son Richard, and Anthony his son. A farm in Mynster, 
in the Isle of Thanet, with all the stock of cattle and corn, 
to his sons Richard and William jointly, during the term 
yet to come. 

His executors he appointed the right honourable sir Ni- 
colas Bacon, knt. lord keeper of the great seal, and the lord 
Burghley, lord treasurer, Richard Cook and William Cook, 
his sons abovenamed. 

To the two former he gave each 200/. 

To William Cook, and his daughter-in-law, the said 
Cook's wife, he gave his manors of Mawdelyn Laver, 
Markskalls Bury, and Hanghonns, and Withers, in the 
county of Essex ; in such order and sort, and with such re- 
mainders as was by covenant agreed upon by the lady 
Gray and him, in writing, upon the marriage had between 

g4 



88 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK him and his wife. That his daughter-in-law, wife to his 

_son Richard, should have for term of her life the manor 

Anno 1 570. of Chaldwel, with the appurtenances, in the county of Essex ; 

and the manor of Ridden-Court, &c. in Havering, in full 

recompence and satisfaction of all jointure. 

Lastly, his son Richard to have to him and his heirs 
male, immediately after his decease, all the residue of his 
lands, tenements, hereditaments, &c. 

To this learned knight, Peter Martyr, in the year 1558, 
dedicated his commentary upon the Epistle to the Romans : 
dated from Tygur, 8. kal. Augusti. And the reason he 
gave why he chose him above all others for this dedication, 
was, " That considering this work was due to the men of 
" the English nation ; being lectures read by him at Ox- 
" ford, he thought sir Anthony the person most meet to 
" whom they should be presented : that as king Edward 
" VI. this knight's most noble and dear pupil, not long be- 
" fore, received his other commentary upon the First 
" Epistle to the Corinthians, ho might join him, the school- 
" master of so much renown, with his scholar of such ex- 
" cellency. And in respect of that honour and love that he 
" most justly deserved, he added, that when he [P. Mar- 
" tyr] was in the realm of England, he began to love him. 
" And when afterwards God, by his singular providence, so 
" wrought, that he saw him again in Germany, and knew 
" him to be the selfsame man he was before, [that is, a 
" sincere lover of true religion, for which he was now a vo- 
" luntary exile,] he was so affected, that whereas before he 
" did indeed love him, now he loved him most fervently : 
" and oftentimes thought with himself, how he might in 
" something or other signify how much he esteemed his vir- 
" tues ; and how grateful he might shew himself towards 
" him for benefits which sometime he had received from 
" him. 1 ' 
4o*C) Sir Anthony Cook was high steward of the liberty of 
Tins Havering : and so was Richard his son, and Anthony his 

deserts. ^h an d sir Edward his son : and Charles Cook his son 
died without issue. I have set down so much of this gen- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 89 

tleman, especially being in the rank of the most eminently CHAP, 
learned and pious in the age, and such as were the restorers v ' 



of good learning, and furtherers of true religion : by whose Anno 1576. 
means, in a great measure, popery began to be thrown out 
of this kingdom ; and who was an exile for the gospel. 
And particularly his memory is to be preserved, for having 
been one of those that first imbued the mind of that ex- 
cellent prince, king Edward VI. with right principles of re- 
ligion, and an instrument of his extraordinary attainments 
in learning. 

To all which commendations of this worthy man, I must 
add one more, in respect of the singular attainments, that by 
his instruction his incomparable daughters had in learning His daugh- 
and godliness: which some of them shewed in their works te , rs learn " 

o ed. 

published. The lady Anne, wife to the lord keeper Bacon, Books by 
translated into proper English, bishop Jewel's Apology for lat e e ™ md 
the Church of England; which was printed for common published, 
use, and set forth by the special order of archbishop Parker, 
as hath been taken notice of elsewhere, with some additions 
of his own at the end. The lady Elizabeth, his third 
daughter, wife to the lord John Russel, son and heir to 
Francis earl of Bedford, translated likewise out of Latin 
into English, a tract, called, A zvay of reconciliation of a 
good and learned man, touching the true nature and sub- 
stance of the body and blood of Christ in the sacrament. 
Printed 1605, and dedicated to her only daughter, Anne 
Herbert, wife to the lord H. Herbert, son and heir to Ed- 
ward earl of Worcester. In which epistle, the excellent 
spirit as well as pen of that good lady may be seen. Be- 
ginning thus : 

" Most virtuous and worthily beloved daughter ; even Lady Rus- 
" as from your first birth and cradle I ever was most care- daughter 1 " 
" ful, above any worldly thing, to have you suck the per- lady Her- 
" feet milk of sincere religion ; so, willing to end as I be- 
" gan, I have left to you, as my last legacy, this book, a 
" most precious jewel, to the comfort of your soul ; being 
" the work of a good, learned man, made above fifty years 



90 



ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
II. 



Anno 1576. 



470 



Buxton 
wells fre- 
quented. 



' since, in Germany ; after by travail a French creature, 
' now naturalized by me into English." Then, proceeding 
to give the reason of her publishing this piece, she added, 
1 That at first she meant not to set it abroad in print ; but 
' herself only to have some certainty to lean unto in a mat- 
( ter so full of controversy, and to yield a reason of her 
' opinion. But since lending the copy of her own hand to 
' a friend, she was bereft thereof by some : and fearing 
' lest after her death it should be printed according to the 
' humours of others, [such things, it seems, being some- 
' times done in those days,] and wrong of the dead : who 
' in his life approved her translation with his own allow- 
' ance : therefore dreading, she said, wrong to him, above 
' any other respect, she had by anticipation prevented the 
' worst." And then piously and affectionately she con- 
cludes thus : " That she meant it for a new year's gift ;" 
and then, " Farewell, my good sweet Nanny. God bless 
" thee with the continuance of the comfort of the Holy 
" Spirit ; that it may ever work in you, and persevere with 
" you to the end and in the end." And then she ends 
with this tetrastic to her said daughter, suitable to the new 
year : 

IN ANNAM FILIAM. 

Ut veniens annus tibi plurima commodet, Anna, 
Voce pia mater, supplice mente, precor, 

Ut valeat pariterque tuo cum conjuge proles, 
Officitsjunctis, vita serenajluat. 

Elizabetha Russella, Dowager. 

Buxton wells were at this time in great request, for help- 
ing, by its medicinal virtue, persons afflicted with the gout 
and other diseases. One of these patients was sir Thomas 
Smith, the secretary. He was in the summer retired to his 
house at Hill hall, in Essex, by reason of his distemper ; the 
use of his tongue being clean taken away, that he could not 
be understood when he spake ; such was the continualness 
of his rheum, that distilled from his head downward : as 
Mr. Gilbert Talbot wrote in his news from court to his 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 91 

father, the earl of Shrewsbury. And that that day (which CHAP, 
was July the 6th) or the next, he set forwards towards the ' 

baths in Somersetshire: and from thence, about the latter Anno 1 576. 
end of the month, he went to Buxton, to whom Waking- Jr Thomas 

' ' Smith goes 

ham, the other secretary, sent letters thither about that thither. 

time, supposing him then to be there. But all would not 

serve. This his disease proved mortal, and ended his use- Dies. 

ful life the year after. A more particular of his distemper, 

chiefly seizing his tongue, and his pious behaviour in his 

lingering sickness, is related in his Life, written in the year Life of sir 
lg98. Tho. Smith. 

There was also here at Buxton sir Walter MildmayVrhe lady 
lady, using the waters for recovery of her health. She was™" 1 ^' at 
sister to sir Francis Walsingham. Upon both these cour- 
tiers' 1 accounts, the earl of Shrewsbury and his lady shewed 
all respects to that lady. And in acknowledgment thereof, 
in a letter, dated July 3, he told the earl, " that he had 
" great cause to think himself much bound to his lordship, 
" for the great favour and courtesy his sister Mildmay re-» 
** ceived at his lordship's hands, at her being then at Bux- 
" ton. For which, as for all other tokens of his good-will 
" heretofore declared unto him, he wished he had always 
" some occasion to shew himself thankful, not in words 
"only, but in deed." He sent the earl herewithal two 471 
packets for the queen, his charge, [viz. the queen of Scots,] 
with other letters to sir Thomas Smith, who at that time, 
he supposed, was there at Buxton's also. 

. Nor did sir Walter forbear his thankful acknowledg- courtesy 
ments to the earl, for the favours shewed to his wife. Writ- ? |» ewn her 

. . there by 

ing to him three or four days after, [viz. Aug. 3,] from his the earl of 
seat at Apthorp, " That the continual advertisement that btJT^ 
" he had from his wife, of the great courtesy and charge knowiedged 
" that it pleased his lordship and his good lady daily toterhnbm* 
" bestow upon her, gave him just cause to continue also his band - 
** most hearty thanks to his lordship for the same. For 
" that, without that favour and help at his lordship's hands, 
" being at Buxton, in so cold and raw a country, would be 
" very tedious to her. And that therefore they both were 



92 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " the more bound unto his lordship therein; and would to 
" their power be as thankful unto his lordship, as in any- 



Anno 1576." wise they might.' 1 
The queen's The court news now, in the beginning of July, was con- 
progress. cernm g t } le queen's progress this summer ; which was yet 
scarcely resolved upon. Her majesty's determination thereof 
was uncertain, as Mr. Francis Talbot wrote to the earl of 
Shrewsbury from court, in his letter dated July 11, till the 
day before it was appointed to Grafton, and so to Ashley, 
my lord of Huntingdon's house, there to have remained 
one and twenty days. But that present day it was altered. 
And she would no farther than Grafton this year. And so 
the court being dispersed, he having not to do such things 
there, as otherwise his lordship [his father] had commanded 
him, he intended to go presently to Wiltshire ; where his 
wife was with my lord her brother. And after some small 
time of abode there, he would wait on his lordship. 
The coun- Some days before, his other son, Gilbert, gave his father 
Shrew b an account concerning a message he had commanded him to 
at court, do to the earl of Leicester, the great favourite at court ; 
whom therefore he laboured by all means to keep his friend; 
lest any misrepresentation might be made of him at court, 
about that weighty charge committed to his trust and fide- 
lity. The countess of Shrewsbury was lately at court to 
wait upon the queen : whose carriage was so graceful, dis- 
creet, wise, and obliging, that her majesty, and the Avhole 
court, was much taken with her. She was the earl's second 
wife, and was the daughter of Hardwich, of Hardwich of 
Derbyshire, esq. lately married to her : by whom he had 
great wealth. These matters were thus represented by let- 
ter to the earl, by his son Gilbert then at court. 
Lord Tai- " I have had some talk with my lord of Leicester since 
thereof to' " m y coming : whom I find most assuredly well affected to- 
the earl. « wards vour lordship and \ours. I never knew man in 
mor. " my life more joyful for their friends than he, at my lady's 

" noble and wise government of herself, at her late being 
4^2 " here : saying, that he heartily thanked God for so good 
"a friend and kinsman as your lordship: and that you 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 93 

" are matched with so noble and good a wife. I saw the CHAP. 
" queen's majesty yesterday in the garden; but for that 
"she was talking with my lord Hunsdon, she spake no- Anno 1 S76. 
" thing to me ; but looked very earnestly on me," &c. 

Some few days after, his other son, the lord Francis, The queen's 
shewed, " That upon his coming to court, as soon as her lier 
" majesty saw him in the privy closet, she asked him how 
" his lordship and my lady did. To whom he answered, 
" that he had in charge to do both their humble duties to 
" her. And that his lordship and my lady were in best 
" estate, when they heard first the prosperous health of her 
"majesty. And she said, she was most assured thereof: 
" and told him, that neither of their loves was lost unto 
" her. For that she requited it. with the like again ; with 
" other good words to that effect. But because the time 
" would not then serve, she had, he added, no further talk 
" or question with him." The queen began her progress, 
July the 30th, towards Havering. 



CHAP. VI. 473 

Matters of the Low Countries. The queers safety concerned 
therein ; especially the French king's brother entering 
into action for them. The apprehensions of the lord trea- 
surer. The lord keeper's letter of counsel to the queen in 
this juncture. Reports from abroad concerning the Scot- 
tish queeii's escape. Advice of it sent to the earl of 
Shrewsbury from the court. A matter in Ireland about 
the cess ; comes before the queen and council. The ri- 
gorous exaction complained of: regulated. 

xjlS the queen had the last year sent her ambassadors to the Anno 1577. 
Low Countries, to find out means, if possible, for the quiet Low Coun- 
of that people ; so now there appeared but little amends of affecting 
the hard usage and rigorous oppression exercised by king * hls kin S _ 
Philip , s government. Which could not but awake the queen 
and her ministers, and warn them of their own danger from 



94 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK that usurping, ambitious prince, so near them, and likewise 
from France. 



Anno 1577. And in order to their better success, they thought it ad- 
En uTu° UrS v ^ saD ^ e to labour to bring over the prince of Orange, the 
prince of chief defender of those poor people, to quit the reformed 
yieidlnre- religion. Dr. Wylson, the queen's ambassador now at Brus- 
ligion. se ] Sj sen t this intelligence thence concerning that prince : 
" That he was sought unto by all means to yield in reli- 
" gion. And that one Dr. Longolius, alias Leoninus, of Lo- 
" vain, was a principal instrument from don John to work 
" it. Wherein if any appearance were of yielding, the 
" prince should have what he would. Yea, that don John 
" offered him a blank, and would come to him in person to 
" S. Gertrudenburgh ; with further promise, that his son 
" should be sent out of Spain ; and by order taken should 
" succeed his father in all his government whatsoever.*" 
And therefore the said ambassador advised (in his said let- 
ter) the lord treasurer Burghley, (to whom that letter was 
wrote,) that he wished he [that prince] were cherished, so 
far as conveniently might be. Whereof he doubted not his 
lordship would ever have good consideration. And one rea- 
son, no doubt, was to keep Spain, that enemy of England, 
at a distance. 

About this time, or not long after, in the month of May, 

there was a Discourse sent out of the Lozo Countries unto 

secretary Walsingham, dated May 4. And so it is endorsed 

by that secretary's own hand : which therefore is of the more 

Foreign weight. It will give a sight of these foreign matters, as 

matters reaching" unto this kingdom, and the welfare of it: coming, 

reaching B & ' ^ &' 

this king- as it seems, from one of that secretary's secret correspond - 
ents. Advising, how monsieur, the French king's brother, 
was going with an army thither, pretending to assist that 
people, and to work them deliverance, by driving don John 
out of the country; but how jealous they might justly be of 
him ; and that the issue of his success there would be no 
474 more, than to subject them to France, and so to render that 
kingdom more formidable to its neighbours. So that the 
queen was concerned to look about her, and to use all the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 95 

means she could to discourage this enterprise: and rather CHAP, 
to assist duke Casimire, that was coming thither with his 



forces: and secretly to enter into a war, to prevent the Anno 1577. 
States falling either into the hands of France, or further to 
be oppressed by Spain. The discourse is as followeth : 

" They are about to play such a tragedy in this country, intelligence 
" touching matters of the state and religion, as if her ma- sino-ham. 3 " 
" jesty do not bear therein such a part as she ought, she is Titus > B - 2 * 
" like out of hand to see that she would not. 

" The duke of Alanson prepareth great forces in France ; 
" which will be in a readiness before midsummer. He doth 
" openly confess, that he doth nothing without his brother's 
" will and consent : without the which, men of judgment 
" had never any great hope of him. Hereby the end of his 
" departure from the king is known. And indeed it could 
" no longer be hidden from those that are acquainted with 
" Bussi's voyage to Paris, and his conference had with the 
" duke of Guise, the Spanish ambassador, and such like. 

" His demands of the States are very small, and in effect 
" of no weight. He promiseth to drive don John out of the 
" country at his own cost and charges. After which time, 
" if they do resolve to change their lord, he prayeth to be 
" preferred before any other. 

" He giveth it out, that he will give an example or pat- 
" tern in these countries of the manner how he meaneth to 
" carry himself in two enterprises which he intendeth against 
" two kingdoms, which he nameth to be Naples and Sicily. 
" But it is feared the kingdoms he meaneth are nearer unto 
" France. He must needs shoot at one of these two marks. 
" The first, and which is most feared, under colour of assist- 
" ing the States, to oppress them : which is gathered by 
" three sound reasons. First, by his former dealings to- 
" wards those of the religion. Secondly, by the interest 
" that the crown of France hath in the example of the dis- 
" solving or reforming of this state. And thirdly, by the 
" amity and sincere intelligence which the king his brother 
" and he have with the Spaniard ; having lately procured a 
" truce between the Turk and him, for the better further- 



96 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " ance of his affairs in these parts. By this first mark the 
" tyranny of the Spaniards shall be established in these 



Anno i577.« coun tries, to their prejudice, that know the inconveni- 
" ences likely to follow of the same ; and that have opposed 
" themselves thereunto. 

" The other mark is, to be pricked forward with desire 
" of greatness, by joining these countries, or a great part of 
" the same, to the crown of France; which in outward shew 
" he seemeth to pretend : and being come with great forces, 
" and having great intelligence in the said country, to lay 
Duke Casi- « wait for duke Casimire^ person, to despatch him out of 
" the way; the better afterwards to deal with these of the re- 
" ligion, who have none else whereto to trust unto in Ger- 
" many, but him. And finally, that having possessed him- 
" self of the countries, France may be able on every side to 
" overtop England, whilst they do practise new troubles in 
" Scotland. 

" Having these two strings to his bow, he doth so earn- 
" estly press the States here in his negotiation ; as whether 
" it be to their liking or disliking, he is fully resolved to 
475 " come. The poor men, having the wolf, as the common say- 
" ing is, by the ears, cannot resolve, whether it should be 
" less hurtful and dangerous for them to have open enmity 
" by refusing him, or to have him in continual jealousy, by 
" accepting him to them. 

" To meet with these two inconveniences, the queen is to 
" use two remedies. The one is, the war earnestly followed. 
" The other is, to procure a peace. But that would hinder 
" greatly her majesty's affairs. For that by such means the 
" Spaniard shoiild be put again in authority, if not as great 
" as heretofore, yet likely to come to it by the only accident 
" of the prince of Orange's death, if he should happen to 
" die. Besides, her majesty should greatly discourage such 
" as are devoted to her here, by procuring unto them a 
" very hurtful and dangerous peace. And further, there is 
" small likelihood here of acceptation of peace, the change 
" of the lord, or alteration of the state, being intended, if 
" not already resolved on. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 97 

"There remaineth, that the queen should take in hand a CHAP. 
secret war, by strengthening duke Casimire in such sort, _______ 



" as he may be able secretly in her name to make head Anno 1077. 

" against the king and his brother, as long as he shall be 

" here : and to send him over into France, if need should 

" require, to divert the course of the enterprises. For it 

" will be more profitable and necessary, that in case this 

" state be driven to change masters, they should rather 

" choose a new one, than by yielding themselves unto 

" France, to make the same so strong, that they may be 

" able to bridle their neighbours. 

" For which purpose it were requisite her majesty did 
" not only secretly strengthen the said duke Casimire with 
" the 2000 corselets already required, but also with as 
" many more at her own charges. To the end, that having 
" armed him to withstand all enterprises against her, he 
" may do her some worthy service in these troublesome 
" times. And upon this so apt occasion, as if her majesty 
" do not make her benefit of it now, she is not like to have 
" the like again." This advice, as it seems, took effect. 

For of this intelligence, as well as other occurrences of The lord 
the Low'Countries, the secretary Walsingham informed &e tights S 
lord treasurer, now at Buxton Well, being retired thither thereof, 
for his health. And in August he gave the earl of Sussex 
this short account : viz. That the said secretary had adver- 
tised him of the occurrences in the Low Countries: the issue 
whereof he much feared. Both for that don John had se- 
cretly foreseen his power to pursue his attempts ; and that 
he knew the weakness of the States to withstand him long, 
by reason of their divisions, by lack of conductors. Yet, as 
he added, that seeing he seemed to mean ill, he hoped God 
would weaken his power, and infatuate his Italian or Spa- 
nish practices. And so thanked God for these diversions of 
our deserved troubles : reckoning, that these heats abroad 
would divert the disturbances that threatened this land by 
those foreign enemies of our welfare. 

These apprehensions, and the spite of our neighbours The lord 
(however secret and close) against us, stirred up that grave j e ®^ * f 

VOL. II. PART II. H 



98 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK counsellor, sir Nicolas Bacon, lord keeper, to write a large and 
__ earnest letter to her majesty, Nov. 20; and being one of .the 



Anno 1577. last manifestations of his wisdom, dying just about a quar- 
counsei to ter of . aft viz ooth of Feb. 1578, must needs be 

the queen •> 

in this pre- acceptable ; therein giving his sage counsel to the queen in 
ture JUnC " tn ^ s juncture. Being to this purport; " That, that which, 
4^6 " if time and her affairs would have suffered, he meant to 
" have done by present speech, he was driven by absence to 
" do by letter: not doubting nevertheless, that though his pen 
" and speech were not present, yet by her majesty's great 
" wisdom, considered together with the advice of her grave 
" and wise counsellors, all things should be sufficiently fore- 
" seen and provided for. And he trusted, she would take 
" his writing (though not needful) in good part, &c. Where- 
" in he shewed her three great enemies, France, Spain, and 
" Rome, mighty and potent princes. And her danger sought 
" by them very great. The fear whereof was so great in 
" him, that he could not be quiet in himself without re- 
" membering her of the same : and that it was better for 
" him to offend by fearing too much, than by hoping too 
" much. That as these three great enemies had three easy 
" ways and means to annoy her; so she had three ready re- 
" medies to withstand them, if taken in time. The means 
" that France had, was by Scotland ; Spain by the Low 
" Countries ; Rome by his musters here in England. Now 
" the helps, according to his understanding, were these. To 
" withstand France, who had his way by Scotland, was to 
" assure Scotland to England : a thing that was not hard 
" to do. The remedy for the better framing of the Low 
" Countries was, that her majesty should send some man of 
" credit, both to confer with the prince of Orange, and to 
" understand what was thought there to be the best re- 
" medies to defend them, and to meet with all dangers that 
" might grow that way. 

" The remedy to be had here in England against Rome, 
" was her majesty's good countenance and credit to her 
" good subjects, that were enemies to the usurped authority 
" of Rome ; and earnest, severe handling of the contrary 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 99 

" party. And that it was high time so to do; because of CHAP. 
" late times they were grown in their numbers. And be- 



" sides these remedies, that Casimire might be prepared Anno 1577. 
u and ready against all chances." The whole letter, whereof 
this is but a short and defective account, may be read in the 
Appendix. Numb. vn. 

As for Spain, whose king was one of the formidablest of The kingof 

,,„., . _ . _ . , , Spain's lack 

the queen s back-friends, sir John Smith, who was now re- f treasure. 
turned home from his embassy there, brought this intelli- 
gence, that that king, notwithstanding all his mighty trea- 
sure, was in want. Which was no unwelcome news to this 
as well as other countries : as tending to weaken all his am- 
bitious projects. Which news the lord treasurer communi- 
cated to the earl of Shrewsbury in a letter dated in August, 
" That .sir John Smith, now come from Spain, reported, 
" that the king there had great lack of treasure, whatsoever 
" had been said to the contrary. I wish he had plenty of 
" treasure," added this lord, " so we were sure he had 
" plenty of good- will towards us :" meaning how little of 
that he had for the queen and kingdom. 

She was also at this time alarmed by reports brought of Reports of 
secret endeavours from France and the Low Countries, to away tbe s 
convey away the Scottish queen this summer: nay, and' Scotdl 

J J J queen 

that she was escaped and gone. The earl of Shrewsbury, alarms the 
who had the keeping of her, had brought her of late to his court " 
house at Chatsworth. Where he received a letter, writ in 
the month of September, from the lord treasurer, that gave 
him notice of these rumours, and of the apprehensions the 
queen was in, arising hereupon. And withal gave him ad- 
vice (though, as he added, he little doubted thereof) to be 477 
more watchful, however careful and diligent he had hither- 
to been ; and that the queen herself intended to give him 
warning of this danger. The substance of which letter, giv- 
ing account of the particulars of the flying talk at court, 
was as follows : 

" That at his coming to court he found such alarms by 
" news directly written from France, and from the Low 

r2 



100 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " Countries, of the queen of Scots escape, either already 

' " made, or very shortly to be attempted. But that he surely 

Anno 1577." knowing his lordship's circumspection in keeping of her, 

" and leaving all things in that country about him very 

" quiet, and free from such dangers, he was bold to make 

" small account of the news, although her majesty and the 

" council were therewith perplexed. And that although 

" time did try these enough, for any thing already done, to 

Lord trea- " be false, yet the noise thereof, (as the lord treasurer pro- 

the earl of " ceeded,) and the doubt her majesty hath of secret, hidden 

Shrewsbury a practices, to be wrought rather by corruption of some of 

Epist. Sa- " yours [viz. the earl's servants] whom you shall trust, 

lop. m Off. « than by open force, moved her majesty to warn your 

" lordship, as she said she would write to your lordship, 

" that you continue, or rather increase your vigilancy, if it 

" might be ; that you be not circumvented herein.'" And 

then adding his thoughts, " That as he had carried his 

" charge [the Scottish queen] to Chatsworth, so he thought 

" that a very meet house for good preservation thereof; 

" having no town of resort, where any ambushes of re- 

" ceators [receivers] might lie. 

" That in his opinion, surely, although he knew many 
" were desirous that his charge should, be at liberty, yet he 
" himself knew no reasonable cause to move him to think, 
" that she should aventure herself to be conveyed away 
" by stealth, both for the sundry dangers that might light 
" upon her ; but especially, for that being at liberty, if her 
" friends should attempt any thing by force for her against 
" this realm, she might provoke the queen's majesty, and 
" the states of the realm, to work matters to bar her of that 
" interest which she supposed she had. 

" But yet, my good lord, as he concluded, even for the 
" preservation of the honour which you have gotten by so 
" circumspect looking to her, in all this long time of prac- 
" tice, I know you will be as watchful to prevent all at- 
" tempts, as others will be to assail your charge. Thus 
" your lordship seeth how curious I am. All which pro- 
" ceedeth of good-will to your lordship and to your honour. 1 ' 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 101 

Thus he wrote from the court at Deptford, my lord ad- CHAP, 
miral's house, the 7th of September, 1577. Subscribing VL 
himself, Anno 1577. 

" Your lordship's most assured, 

" W. Burghley." 

Now to look over to the queen's kingdom of Ireland. The cesse 
Many persons of quality there were burdened with an ex- lx°*teT Y 
cess of the tax, called the cesse, laid upon them. Which provoke the 
made disturbance in that country: and the lord deputy, sir^y .££'" 
Henry Sydney, or some of his officers, seemed to have too come over 
great hand therein. Insomuch that some lords came over to ° 
make complaint. This payment was an exaction of victuals 
at a certain rate or price, for the maintenance of the lord 
deputy's household, and the garrison soldiers. The rigorous 4^8 
demanding whereof in some countries, and some that were 
more civilized, as in Leinster, made divers of the Irish 
lords refuse to pay it ; as the viscount Baltinglass, and some Camd. Eliz. 
barons and others of the nobility and gentry; and clamoured p ' 219 ' 
much against this usage of them : and asserting, that it was 
not to be demanded but by authority of parliament. How- 
ever, by the judges of that kingdom, it appeared to be an 
ancient privilege of the crown, and a royal prerogative. The 
lords that came over to make their complaint were heard by 
their counsel, but committed to prison, as endeavouring to 
abridge the queen of her ancient rights in that kingdom. 
But yet she was displeased with the rigorous demand of 
the cesse; and liked not that her officers there should rather 
be wolves than shepherds ; and commanded the lord deputy 
to use a moderation herein. 

Now by a letter of the lord treasurer to the earl of Shrews- The mode- 
bury, we have some further light let into this affair. The rate < J eter_ 

■ j 1 . mination 

lords that were thus grieved had sent over one Skurlock thereof by 
and two others, to make their complaints. But upon this ^ n q c "j eens 
the lord deputy shewed his anger against these lords and 
others by some severe proceedings against them. This deal- 
ing of the lord deputy's came before the queen and council, 
being heard fully, and gravely considered : as the said lord 

h3 



102 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK treasurer wrote to the master of the rolls there: and that 
they had made distinction thereof, noting herein wherein 
Anno 1577. the complainants, both here and there offended, not igno- 
Juiy 15. rantly, but wilfully ; and wherein the complaints deserved 
favourable remedy, in respect of the excess of the cesse, as 
it appeared unto them, the queen's council. And therefore 
for the offence committed, both they here, and their authors 
there, had deserved exemplary punishment. And that for 
the remedy of the burden of the cesse, they hoped the lord 
deputy either had or would devise means, to the reasonable 
satisfaction of the parties grieved. And they of the council 
had also, at that present time, collected in writing some de- 
vices to ease the same : which, as things only projected, they 
sent unto the lord deputy. 

The lord treasurer gave the master of the rolls in Ireland 
this account of that affair, and the sense the court had of 
the ill management of the queen's prerogative, in another 
letter, half a year after, using these words : " So plenteous 
" are the affairs of that country [Ireland] to the worst, as 
" I should be more sorry for them, if I did not hope that 
" either malice or lightness did not increase the evil thereof. 
" The matter stirred up against the queen's prerogative for 
" her relief to victual her army, hath been duly corrected. 
" And the parties deserve the more correction, for that in 
" evil handling they hindered a needful matter ; which was 
" to have had the excess of the cesse remedied : which for 
" my part I think needful ; but not in such a strenable sort 
" as it was sought." This was dated from Hampton Court, 
Jan. 18, 1577. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 103 

CHAP. VII. 479 

The queen's ambassador at the council at Frankford : and 
why. Sent to the princes of Germany. New books of 
religion there set forth. The archbishop of York about 
to visit the church of Durham, is refused. The proceed- 
ings thereupon. The bishop of Durham's account of his 
visitation of his diocese, by order from the queen ; and 
especially of the disorders in that church. His letter to 
the lord treasurer about it : slandered and hated. His 
vindication of himself for some words of his against arch- 
bishop Grindal, and the exercises. Bishop Barnes'' pedi- 
gree. Cox bishop of Ely's thoughts upon archbishop 
GrindaTs suspension. The queen's letter to the bishop 
of Lincoln to forbid prophesy ings. The bishojy of Chi- 
chester's troubles. Caldwell, parson of Winwich, his ser- 
mon. Dr. Goodman, dean of Westminster, concerning 
the statutes of that collegiate church. 

AND now for the affairs of religion abroad, as well as here Anno 1577. 
at home, this year, I find these occurrences. 

There was a great and long desired design among all pro- The queen 

. , , . i • ,1 • p sends her 

testants now in hand, in order to unite them in a profession auibassador 
of the same faith and doctrine. In order to which a coun- t0 the coun - 

. cilatFrank- 

cil was held this year at Frankford, for the drawing up a f or d, met 
common confession of all the reformed churches. To this jj °jj£ con " 
council, to assist at it, the queen sent her ambassador, shew- 
ing her concurrence in this useful affair. The province of 
drawing up the form was committed to Zacharias Ursinus, 
the learned professor of Heydelberg, who had formerly 
been an hearer of Melancthon and Peter Martyr. What 
the issue was, and what particular esteem the queen ob- 
tained for this with the protestants of Germany and Swit- 
zerland, will appear from a letter of Ralph Gualter, chief 
minister of Zuric, to the bishop of Ely, written in the be- 
ginning of March. 

" That they were in expectation every hour of prince 
" John Casimire's letter (he was brother to Frederick, elec- 
" tor palatine, and deserved well of religion) unto their 

h 4 



104 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " senate, whereby they might be more certified concerning 

• " the writing of a common confession, which they had de- 

Anno 1577." creed in the synod of Frankford, the ambassador of the 

" most serene queen being present, and moderating the 

" whole business. But that D. Zacharias Ursinus put a 

" delay to the whole business : who declined to undertake 

" the work of drawing it up, which was committed to him. 

" That they knew not yet who was placed in his room for 

" that affair. He added, that the queen in this regard had 

" performed an excellent work, and worthy a nursing mo- 

" ther of the church.'' 1 

480 She had also sent her ambassador to divers of the princes 

riie queen's f Germany about this time on the same account of union. 

embassy to - 1 m . 

the German The good effect whereof was signified by the same divine to 
pnnces. ^ game English bishop : " That in these days he had un- 
" derstood that her embassy to the princes of Germany was 
" very fruitful, especially with Julius, of Brunswick ; and 
" that Augustus, the elector of Saxony, did so receive the 
" ambassador, that from the time the business of Jacobus 
" Andreas, [a learned professor at Tubing,] the chief head 
" of their adversaries, [who opposed some doctrines of the 
" Helvetian churches, being a great ubiguitarian, and was 
" some hinderance to the finishing this common coiifession,] 
" did altogether begin to shake." Then he piously added, 
" That God was to be sought to, that the work so happily 
" begun might be brought by him to the wished for end. 
" For it would very much profit, as he subjoined, that there 
" were extant such a public coiifession of so many king- 
" doms and nations ; which might testify of our consent in 
" faith. Our people (said he) [meaning those Helvetian 
" churches] yield themselves ready and cheerful to this 
" business. But, as I said, this is the Lord's work. I 
" pray that he would here put to his own hand." 11 
New books The reverend and learned man on this occasion acquaints 
ford mart him with some books now set forth, relating to the religious 
set forth, controversies then on foot ; which will not be amiss to set 
down with the rest. That at that fair [at Frankford] he 
had published nothing, besides ten sermons in the German 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 105 

language, of the bread of life , Jesus Christ, and the true CHAP, 
eating of him, from the sixth chapter of St. John ; which VI1, 
if he should hereafter put into Latin, he promised to send Anno 1577. 
him. And that Julius [who was a learned man there, and 
sometime P. Martyr's great friend and assistant, and so was 
now the more esteemed] had sent him a book of Benedict Tal- 
man : whereby the new and monstrous doctrine (as he styled 
it) of the ubiquity of Christ's body was notably confuted. 
And informed him further, that there was in the press a 
learned book of the orthodox consent of the ancient church, 
in the business of the supper of our Lord. 

This good bishop had sent by the way of Frankford unto Money sent 
Mr. Gualter and Julius 13 florens and five German ra- by th % b l' 

shop of Ely 

gions ; which like gifts of money, he and several other to Gualter. 
bishops, that formerly had lived and been kindly harboured 
there, often in gratitude did convey by bills of exchange to 
them and others. For this favour they gave his lordship 
great thanks ; and wished it were in them to gratify him. 
And concerning Julius, now grown old, and his circum- 
stances low, he added ; " You do well, right reverend father 
" in Christ, who have Julius in your regard. For he is 
" worthy to be helped, and hath great need of it."" The 
conclusion of this letter (whence I have taken these things) 
must not be omitted, viz. Hcbc habui quce nunc darem : non 
quod tuam amplitudinem meis opus habere pictem, sed tes- 
tandi officii causa. Deus Pater miserationum tuam senec- 
tam, mi reverende pater, mitiget, et suo Spiritu regat ad 
sui nominis gloriam. Tiguri, 4 Martii, 1578. 

Tuce amplitudinis observa?itissimus, 
Superscribed, Reverendo in Christo Rod. Gualtherus. 

patri, episcopo Eliensi vigilantis- 

simo, domino suo cum omni obser- 

vantia honorando. 

The contents of this letter being of such public and 48 1 
weighty concern, as it was highly approved of bishop Cox, Communi- 
so that he might be prepared to give some reasonable an- SiSter'" 
swer to the same ; he soon communicated the same to the to the trea - 



surer. 



106 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK lord treasurer Burghley; being sent from that foreigner, 
11 • whom he styled the most faithful minister of the' church of 
Anno 1577. Tygur, and successor of Bullinger: whose letter, he said, 
he could not answer, nor satisfy his expectation, unless he 
[the lord treasurer] would in part help him. For that he 
was altogether ignorant of that which Gualter chiefly wrote 
about. And what to write he had nothing certain, or what 
the queen's majesty had done in that which he [Gualter] 
made mention of. " That he seemed to hint magmjicum 
" quid, and worthy the highest praise, that the queen should 
" endeavour that there might publicly be a confession and 
" consent of Christian kingdoms in the true religion of 
" Christ. Which very thing, added the bishop, that it 
" might come to pass, I did not sluggishly wish in my ser- 
" mon, some years ago, preached publicly before the queen. 
" He proceeded, that if he might but get the least notice of 
" such a thing, he should make Gualter's heart very glad : 
" and that he knew and was persuaded this so pious an en- 
" deavour would be very acceptable to Christ himself, and 
" to his little flock most delightful, and most safe for the 
" afflicted church. That Constantine the emperor, truly 
" great for his piety, assisted and helped by the holy clergy 
" and pious princes, (the heretics and schismatics either re- 
" pulsed or bridled by silence,) at last brought the church 
" to the unity of the Holy Ghost, reclaimed from errors 
" and contentions." 

And so concludes his letter to that great counsellor : " You 
" see my confidence towards you, whereby I talk with you 
" somewhat boldly ; whereby I may answer in some mea- 
" sure the wish of a pious brother." It was writ from 
Somersham, May the 16th. 

Now for some particular occurrences relating to some of 
our bishops. 
Ard.bishop Sandys, removed lately from the see of London, succeed- 
SsthV 1 " ed Grindal in that of York; and this year began the visita- 
church of tion of his province. And having heard of some irregulari- 
Durham. ^ .^ ^ e ^^jj f D ur h a m, (that see being now void,) 

Whitting- begins a visitation thereof: the dean whereof, William Whit- 
ham, dean. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 107 

tingham, he understood was no ordained minister according CHAP, 
to the order of the church of England ; having received his 



orders at Geneva in an English congregation there. But Annol5 "7. 
that church refused his visitation : which caused a contest 
between the said church and the archbishop, who claimed, 
as archbishop of that province, a right to visit there ; which 
proceeded even to an excommunication. And for the bet- 
ter searching into the merits of the cause, and for the put- 
ting some goocl conclusion to this difference, a commission 
was at length by the lord keeper issued out to some per- 
sons to hear it. A short account of this take from Fleet- 
wood, recorder of London ; who, in a letter, among other 
his intelligences from court to the lord treasurer Burgh ley, 
now, as it seems, at a distance, (and perhaps at Buxton's 
well, whither he went this year for his health,) writeth in 
these words : 

" There is a broil of excommunication between my lord Proceeds to 
" archbishop of York and the minister of Durham, about !*" u Nation 
" the visitation."" And then gives his judgment: " I think for tlicir de - 
" my lord bishop is in the wrong. My lord keeper grant- ,r>n 

" eth forth a commission for the same cause. 1- ' This conti-A commis- 
nued on to the next year. And the lord treasurer having: SI0n s ranted 

_ J o out tor exa- 

desired of the archbishop a note of the cause between them, minationof 
the archbishop, in a letter to the said lord, acquainted him 
with two persons that were chief in this disturbance, viz. 
archdeacon Pilkington, and one young Bunnis ; precise men y 
as he called them, who wrought all the trouble : and that 
the former was before the council ; " and," addeth the arch- 
bishop, " was too gently used ; and that made him brag." 
And then adding further, " If your lordship knew the usage 
" of that house, verily you would abhor it." But I forbear 
to relate more of this visitation until the next year. 

But as for the bishop of that see of Durham, Richard The state of 
Barnes, being advanced the next year to that church, upon 2* D *52J 
the death of Pilkington ; he had been counselled from court certified 
to make a careful inspection into his diocese, consisting of s i 10 „. 
the northern parts of the land, greatly infected with igno- 
rance and superstition. After diligent and painful travel in 



108 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK his visitation, he gave this account how he found matters 
and persons affected, and what service he had done there, 
Anno 1577. in a letter, dated February the 11th, to the lord treasurer, 
to this tenor : " That though his travel was but simple, yet 
" he praised God it had sorted very good and prosperous 
" success and effect, ad miraculum usque, in a short space. 
" And that since his last letter, he had sent throughout 
" Northumberland ; and found such and so humble obedi- 
" ence, and such conformity unto all good orders, even of 
" the wildest of those people, as truly and before God, (as 
" he added,) he thought better and more plausible could 
" not be found (saltern ad oculum) in many more civil coun- 
" tries of this land. Yea truly, and he doubted not, but 
" that within this half year his good lordship should see a 
" wonderful alteration there. For presently, albeit that 
" there were those that were of late rebels, and most disso- 
" lute gentlemen, that were noted to talk unseemly, and to 
" lie and rail, and deprave good doings in private assem- 
" blies, yet openly they all professed an obedience. And 
" that now within all Northumberland he could not find 
" one person, that wilfully refused to come to the church 
" and communicate, a few women excepted. For he had 
" driven out of that country, he said, the reconciling priests 
" and massers, whereof there was store ; and that they were 
" gone into Lancashire and Yorkshire : but that they were 
" rid of them. And surely such and so full presentments 
" were daily given in of all defaults, as, he thought, they 
" left almost no little trifle untouched : which did much 
" confirm his hopes of speedy good reformation of that 
" country." 
People of And then proceeding to give account of them of the coun- 
their cha- ty P a l atme of Durham, he subjoins : " Yet, in the mean 
racter. « time, I assure your good lordship, those people are far 
" more pliable to all good order than these stubborn, churl- 
" ish people of the county of Durham, and their neighbours 
" of Richmondshire ; who shew but, as the proverb is, Jack 
" of Napes charity in their hearts. The customs, the lives 
" of this people, as their country is, are truly salvage ; but 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 109 

" truly such haste to amend (though it be for some) as is CHAP. 
" zealous : and yet none extremity shewed to any, other- 



" wise than by threatening: which hath wrought pannicum Anno 1577. 
" timorem in their minds ; and in the clergy a good readi- 483 
" ness to apply their travels to their callings. Only that 
" AitgicB stabulum, the church of Durham, exceeds : whose 
" stink is grievous in the nose of God and men ; and which 
" to purge far passeth Hercules' labours." 

Hence it appears what great disorders were in the church The disor- 
of Durham, occasioned perhaps by the too much remissness church of 
of the former bishop. The habits enjoined the clergy seem Durham, 
to have been neglected, and a deviating from the orders ap- 
pointed to be used in divine service. The bishop endea- 
voured to redress all this ; but how small hopes he had of 
success he shewed by these his following words : " I have 
f an external show of some dutiful obedience, but their deal- 
" ings underhand are nothing less. So that he feared he 
" should be enforced to weary his honour and the lords with 
" the reforming of their disorders ; which were more than 
te he was as yet well able to undergo : nevertheless promis- 
" ing he would do all his endeavour first even to the ut- 
" termost." 

And how it stood with him in the affection of the people The bishop 
for this service, and the malice and slander he underwent p eople f or ie 
from manv, take his own words to the same lord : " The his s ood 

... • 1 1 i 1 • 1 ser vice. 

" Lord of his endless and infinite mercies bless her high- 
" ness. And as he hath stirred up her heart to tender my 
" faithful travel in advancing virtue and religion, and in 
" weeding out vices, and banishing popery, superstition, 
" and the remainants of idolatry ; whereby the malicious of 
" this country are marvellously exasperated against me : and 
" whereas at home they dare neither by words nor deeds 
" deal undutifully against me ; yet abroad, (as he proceeded 
" in his relation of these his ill-willers,) they practised to de- 
" face him by all slanders, false reports, and shameless lies ; 
" though the same were never so inartificial or incredible, 
" according to the northern guise : which is never to be 
" ashamed, however impudently they belie and deface him 



110 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " whom they hate, yea, though it be before the honorablest. 
" A vile kind of people, as he saith, Pessirnum hoc homi- 
Anno 1577. " num genus, ex alicua invidia laudem sibi qucerens. Yet 
" that her majesty had tendered and pitied his case, and 
" had required his good lordship to defend his innocency 
" and integrity from their slanders and calumnies ; as his 
" good lordship did advertise him to his greatest comfort. 
" And thereupon he beseeched his good lordship to stand 
" his good patron under her highness : and as he should 
" need, he would fly under his wing. That the former 
" bruits and slanders were vanished ; and a short time had 
(i speedily displayed their shameless and impudent untruths. 
" Wherefore that he trusted he need not to trouble his ho- 
" nour therewith, as now; but only most humbly to be- 
" seech his lordship to stand his good lord, and not to cre- 
" dit any slanders before they were tried, and he answered 
" the same ; and to advertise him [the bishop] what he 
" heard. And if ever he returned untrue answer, let me 
" (said he) be never credited again."" 

And as he had thus cleared himself of slanders raised 
upon him by such as were popishly inclined, so he proceed- 
ed to vindicate himself in a matter relating to Grindal, arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, now lying under suspension and the 
queen's displeasure : who could not obey her command in 
putting down those exercises called prophesies ; holding 
them so useful for promoting learning and knowledge in 
the clergy, and true religion among the people. For which 
disobedience the bishop of Durham had freely censured the 
484 archbishop. Concerning which, thus he expressed his mind, 
in order to the setting himself fair to the said lord, to whom 
he was writing. 
Vindicates " That as touching that he was reported not to have a 
what he had " g°°d mind to the archbishop of Canterbury in the time 
said against « f his trouble, truly, my good lord, I detest his wilful- 
shop of " ness, and contending with the regal majesty, and obsti- 
Canterbiny. u naC y m not yiel^^g to t h a t w hich your honours [of the 

" privy-council] set down, the same being godly and expe- 
*' dient for the time, the malapertness of brainless men con- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. Ill 

sidered; who nowadays, if but a proclamation, a decree, CHAP, 
or commandment come forth from her majesty, and by '__ 



" your honours 1 advice, straightways, and first in their con- Anno 1577. 

" venticles, will call the same into question, and examine 

" and determine whether with safe conscience they may or 

" ought to obey the same : a thing so perilous as none can 

" be more, and savouring of the anabaptismey ; who wish a 

" popular government. 

" In effect, the exercises, though they, being best order- 
" ed, be accounted to be de bene esse, yet they are not de 
" esse religionis sincerce : and therefore not to be so urged 
" of him, as by the same to contend with her highness or 
" her council, to the great hinderance of true religion, &c. 
" Thus much have I said, I think, to two or three persons 
" at the utmost ; and to no mo : and that urged in de- 
" fence of her majesty, when bruits have been that he was 
" cruelly dealt withal, and had not deserved to be strait- 
" ened ; and other slanders dispersed, that my lord of Lei- 
" cester and some others should further his troubles, (which 
" I know to be most false,) I have been forced to affirm his 
" own wilfulness and undutifulness towards his sovereign to 
" be the just occasion of his troubles. And this is true ; and 
" I have said so upon these occasions : and I think it was 
" my duty so to do, in defence of my gracious sovereign, 
" and the right honourable mv good lords of the council. 
" And more I have not done in any wise; nor, but that I 
" was enforced, I would not have done or said any thing of 
" him at all." 

When this bishop was lately come up to London, he 
omitted giving the archbishop a visit. To take off any 
hard interpretation of that neglect, he added, " That pos- 
" sibly some might think much that he visited him not at 
" his last being in London : indeed he once determined so 
" to have done ; but that he was warned by those whom he 
" would obey, not so to do : which ought, he said, to be his 
" warrant." But that the bishop had taken some offence 
against the archbishop, appears by his words that follow : 
" How his grace and his had dealt against him otherwise, 



112 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " he needed not to declare, her highness and his good lord- 
" ship knew. All which notwithstanding, he never minded, 

Anno 1577." if he might, (as he had no power,) to urge her highness 1 
" indignation against any man, neque adder e crfflictionem 
" qfflktor 

Epist. de- While I am giving some account of bishop Barnes, I 

Lifeof the though ^ not amiss to exemplify this remarkable letter; 

Archbishop though some brief notice was given thereof elsewhere, 
rm a . This bishop was of the ancient family of the barons of 

gree and Bernes, of Lancashire. He was bred at Brasen Nose college, 

ments" Oxon : preferred first at York, and was chancellor there ; 
and read divinity publicly there for some years : made suf- 
fragan bishop of Nottingham, anno 1567: thence advanced 
to be bishop of Carlisle : and lastly to this see of Durham. 
His coat of arms and of his family were confirmed to him 
by Robert Glover, Somerset. His patent ran as followeth : 
485 Reverendus in Christo pater, et venerabilis vir, Richardus 

Patent for Barnes, S. T. P. sive Dr. in comitat. Lancastr. ex honesta 

his arms. ,.., • ? 7 r> ■ • 

Vincent, Jumilia, quce a dominis baronibus de Bernes origmem traxit, 
No. is. oriundus. Oxonii apud musas in colleg. JEnestiacensi 
\JEneanasensi\ educatus. Cui per aliquot annos pie et 
provide prcpfuit. Hinc Eboracum. evocatus, almceque illius 
ecclesice metropolitans cancellarius, ac schelarcha [scholar- 
chd] creatus, sacram theologiam inibi ad aliquos annos, 
publice pr celegit et prqfessits est. Deinde episcopus f actus 
[Carliolensis.] Novissime Dunelmium translatus. Ubi 
= Apr. anno jam* ad Dei gloriam episcopus illius ecclesice habenas ac 
gubernacula moderatur. 

The ancient coat of the family of the Barnes was, party 
per pale, or and vert, on a Jesse azure, three etoiles, or. But 
the bishop bore quarterly, namely, that paternal coat. And 
the second quarter was granted to him when bishop of Car- 
lisle, April 23, 13 Eliz. ; which was, azure, a bend arg. 
charged with a bear passant, or, ready to eat a child 
naked, or, betxveen two etoiles of the same. The third as 
the second : the fourth as the first. He had brothers, Oli- 
ver, then Edmund, Edwin, James, Edward, and John ; all 
married: and our Richard, who was the youngest son, mar- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 113 

ried Fredesmond Gyfford, daughter of Ralph Gyfford, of CHAP. 
Claidon, in the county of Bucks ; by whom he had Ema- '__ 



nuel, Walter, Elizabeth, wife to Robert Taylbois, son of Anno 15 ?7. 
Rauf ; John, Barnabas, Mary, Timothy, Margaret, Anna. 

But as for those exercises called prophesy in gs, before The bishop 
spoken of, whatsoever good opinion archbishop Grindal and° h ^'j. s f 
divers other bishops and learned members of this protestant the exer- 
church had thereof, as tending so much to the instruction CIS 
of the people in true religion, and setting the clergy on 
study ; the queen, as it appeared by what the foresaid bi- 
shop wrote, had other conceptions of them, by means of 
some prejudices she had taken up by reports made to her. 
Upon the archbishop's sequestration on that account by the 
queen's command, the aged and learned bishop of Ely was 
much troubled. And in June, the next month after the 
declaration of her displeasure against him, that right reve- 
rend prelate signified his mind to the lord treasurer : shew- 
ing his judgment, that indeed it had been better for the 
archbishop at that juncture to have complied with the 
queen ; namely, for the stop of those exercises for the pre- 
sent : and that in convenient time, good rules about them 
being made and enjoined for regulation of them, they might 
be renewed again ; well knowing how very useful they were 
for the improving the clergy in knowledge, otherwise in 
these times ignorant enough. To this purport was the let- 
ter of that good bishop to the said lord ; which deserves to 
be preserved, for the letting in some further light into this 
affair : writing in this pathetic manner. 

" That it was not without a deep anxiety of heart that His letter 

" he then writ, that her majesty should be so highly dis- J, e en'sdis- 

" pleased with her principal priest : whose indignation was l ,leasure 

ii r^ 7. -rT 1 • 1 tii witharcbbi- 

" death. Dcus mehora. But that a priest should happen shop Grin- 

" to anger so gentle a prince, and such a favourer of sin- dal " 

" cere religion, it drew a fountain of tears from his eyes.'" 

He proceeded, " That from the beginning of their acquaint- 

" ance, both of them (for which he gave glory to God's 

" blessed name) had constantly, through many brunts on 

" all hands, persevered and held out, he [the lord treasurer] 48o 

VOL. II. TART II. I 



114 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " especially. And now at this pinch he exhorted him to 
" perform the part of a man; and it should be a matter of 



Anno 1577." comfort and establishment to his heart. That he under- 
" stood the matter was touching a conference, which had 
" been abused, and being not established by authority, was 
" therefore by authority abolished. This, he trusted, no 
" man did maintain. But yet he hoped that hereafter, the 
" thing being duly and considerately weighed, the queen, 
" seeking especially the glory of God, and the quiet and 
" edifying of her people, would be moved to further consi- 
" deration of the matter. And that when the great idle- 
" ness and lewdness of a great number of poor and blind 
" priests should be duly weighed and considered of, it would 
" be thought most necessary to call them, nay, to drive them 
" to some travel and exercise of God's holy word : whereby 
" they might be the better able to discharge their bounden 
" duty towards their flock. And then he earnestly moved 
" that lord to mitigate the queen's displeasure and indigna- 
" tion against her archbishop : who also had written to the 
" queen [on this subject, as it seems] in all humble manner. 
" And in the conclusion, hints, how such an example in the 
" church of England did but too much resemble the Ro- 
" man tyranny against it. 11 But take this memorable letter 
No. viil. verbatim, as it is transcribed in the Appendix. 
The exer- In Hertfordshire these exercises were used. And not- 
Hertford- withstanding the queen's declaration to have them every 
shire. where cease, yet in some places in this county they were not 

The queen . 

writes to yet laid aside. Wherefore the queen thought fit to write 
the bishop to t ^ e D i s ] 10 p f Lincoln, in whose diocese part of that 

of Lincoln r ' r 

about it. county was, to take order that they be not suffered, accord- 
ing as she had by word of mouth commanded him, and 
other bishops perhaps besides ; and that no other exercises 
be used ; but such as were learned should preach sermons in 
fit time and place : and the Homilies, set forth by autho- 
rity, to be read by other ministers less learned. Signifying 
by her said letter, " That he [the bishop] should effectually 
" remember her speeches to him, to continue and increase 
" his care over his charge in God's church, as the warning 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 115 

" she gave him of the presumption of some, who by singu- CHAP. 
" lar exercises in public, after their own fancies, wrought. 



" no good in the minds of the multitude, easy to be carried Anno 16 77. 

" away- And that notwithstanding she was, since that, in- 

" formed, that in sundry parts of his diocese, namely, in 

" Hertfordshire, those exercises, or, as they termed them, 

" prophesies ', were yet continued, to the offence of other 

" her orderly subjects. And that therefore, for divers good 

" respects, she thought it requisite they should be forborne. 

" Letting him know, that she, desiring to have God's people 

" under her government guided in an uniformity as near 

" as might be, charged and commanded him, as a person 

" whom by his function she looked should satisfy her in 

" this behalf, within his charge to have dutiful considera- 

" tion hereof. And to take order through the diocese, that 

" no other exercise should be suffered publicly than preach- 

" ing, in fit time and place, by persons learned, discreet, 

" conformable, and sound in religion : and reading the Ho- 

" milies, set forth by authority, and the Injunctions ap- 

" pointed, and the order of the Book of Common Prayer. 

" And to signify to her, or her council, the names of such 

" gentlemen and others, that had been setters forth and 

" maintainers of these exercises; and in what places ; and 48/ 

" also such as should impugn this her order. 11 The whole 

letter may be found in the Appendix : which seems indeed No - Ix - 

to be a form of a circular letter to all the bishops, besides 

the bishop of Lincoln. 

Curtes, bishop of Chichester, met with troubles now from Cortes, bi- 
' l . , . ,. , ., • shop of Un- 

certain gentlemen in his diocese ; who were stirred up against Chester, his 

him, chiefly by means of a strict inquiry he had lately made *'" oubles 

J J l J •> from gen- 

in his episcopal visitation, mentioned before, after such as tiemen in 
were unsound in religion : and administered divers articles 
to them for that purpose. Having had information of di- 
vers, not only in his diocese, that came thither from Hamp- 
shire, Surrey, and Kent, not sound in religion ; and among 
the rest, divers of them justices: this had so provoked 
them, that they had combined together, and drew up ar- 
ticles against the bishop, and petitioned against him to the 

i 2 



11G ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK court. Among these were sir Thomas Palmer, knt. Ri- 
ll ... 
chard Ernely, Thomas Lewknor, esq. whose petition ran in 



Anno 1577. this tenor : " That whereas they were of good fame and 
tiona^ainst " crec ht, according to their calling, they referred themselves 
him. Paper- « to the report of the country, and were called by her ma- 
" jesty as justices of peace within Sussex ; the bishop of 
" Chichester had sought by many ways to defame, discrc- 
" dit, and deface them, not only by private talk and speech 
" had with divers persons, and matter gone forth in writing 
" by his lordship to honourable personages, but also in pub- 
" lie and disordered manner; far differing from the virtu- 
" ous, charitable, and good consideration that should be in 
" one of his vocation ; had imagined and surmised great 
" matters against us; on purpose, as they had great cause 
" to believe, to bring them undeservedly into discredit with 
" her majesty and their lordships of the privy-council. There- 
" fore they thought it needful for themselves, and also for 
" others, to express their griefs herein ; and to desire that 
" they might be admitted to their lordships, to purge them- 
" selves of the said undeserved infamy before their lord- 
" ships, or other judges," &c. And likewise to present their 
complaints in many articles against the bishop. For thus 
they proceeded in their petition : 

" That hearing the lamentable cry and complaint of her 
" majesty's subjects against the said bishop, whose faults 
" and disorders they hoped by their lordships'' good means 
" might be redressed, and in that behalf needful to be known 
" to their lordships; and so desired, by the consent also of 
" many of the justices of the peace in that shire, for the bet- 
" ter service of God and her majesty, and for the better 
" quietness of her majesty's subjects, to shew unto them the 
" disorders, injuries, and abuses done and committed by the 
" same bishop, by articles herewith ready to be delivered 
" unto their lordships.*" 
Articles a- These articles were very large and long. Some related 

gainst the ,.,.,. . . i i , ■ 1 

bishop. The to his hindering justice and the queens service: others, to 

contents of injuries done to them, and other misdemeanours. Of the first 
them. J . ' .... 

sort was his contending wilfully, and quarrelling with the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 117 

commissioners joined with his lordship [the said bishop] in CHAP, 
commission for ecclesiastical causes, and with the commis- 



sioners of the peace: in abusing the authority and trust AnDO 1577 « 
committed unto him by the said commission, in bearing and 
maintaining disorderly riots and unlawful acts : in making 
without discretion fond and unlawful licences for keeping 
of May-games, &c: in threatening divers persons that had 488 
honestly done their duties in her majesty's service : in tak- 
ing order for sparing the punishment of offenders : prohi- 
biting without cause some honest persons from the commu- 
nion, only for displeasure conceived by his lordship against 
them : in keeping benefices ecclesiastical without incum- 
bents; employing the profits to his own purse, or at his 
pleasure : taking rewards simoniacally for ecclesiastical liv- 
ings granted by him, &c. : openly citing them [the justices] 
to appear at his consistory, to be reformed in religion, with- 
out any just cause of suspicion, information, or presentment, 
upon untrue surmises of matter, on purpose to vex and 
trouble them, and to bring them into discredit. Also, they 
thought he wanted consideration in appointing so many men 
of such calling and credit [as they themselves were] to ap- 
pear before his lordship [the bishop] in so open a place, one 
day, time, and instant, viz. one knight, eighteen squires, 
some of them justices of peace, and above thirty other per- 
sons, most whereof gentlemen. Also, that his lordship came 
that day with many more men than he was accustomed to 
ride with, being well weaponed ; who stood about the con- 
sistory during the time of his lordship's sitting: and the 
register being his lordship's servant, having his sword holden 
by him in the consistory by a sumner, during the time of his 
lordship's sitting. And that he caused two of the servants, 
upon a surmised warrant made to them, as special bailiffs of 
the same for that time, in a matter of an action upon the 
cause, at his lordship's own suit, to arrest one Rand. Bar- 
low in his said church near the consistory ; and violently to 
have drawn and carried him away, without shewing any 
warrant, until a justice of peace within the city, seeing the 

i3 



118 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK tumult, commanded them, in her majesty's name, to keep 
the peace. 

Anno 1577. To all these articles the poor bishop was fain to come up, 
and make answer. " Imprimis, The said defendant com- 
" plaineth unto your honourable good lordship, that almost 
" all of the articles were ordered by the right honourable the 
" earl of Leicester, about four years ago. And this defend- 
" ant did satisfy his lordship's order, as his lordship know- 
" eth. That almost all of them be very old, and that no 
" subject ought by two statutes," &c. But I shall add no 
more of this matter, to avoid prolixity. This is enough to 
shew the hard circumstances the bishops were often in these 
times put into by means of many gentlemen in their dio- 
ceses, whether popish or puritanically inclined, for the dis- 
charge of their duties, and of the commands they received 
from court. 

The bishop The bishop of Ely, mentioned above, being grown aged, 

edtoresten an( ^ weai 'ied with cares and lawsuits, and desiring to retire 
from the world, had thoughts of resigning his bishopric, 
and to spend the remainder of his days in peace. And in 
order to the obtaining of this, he made use of his old friend, 

His letter fae lord treasurer; to whom he thus brake his mind, (leav- 

to the lord ... . . . 

treasurer, ing further particulars to be opened to him by his son-in- 
law, Mr. Parker, son to the late archbishop of Canterbury.) 

Liters E'- " My very good lord. Christus ad Jinem dilexit snos. 

me!* Pen6S " I doubt not but you will follow his steps, et usque ad 
"jinem veros diliges amicos. Sir, I am now in fine <Eta- 
" tis ; and I heartily pray you help me in fine cetatis. 
" Nam libenter quazro donari rude ; et quod superest vit<B 
" paulo tranquillius peragere. You are the only man to 
" relieve me of my desire. My function requireth a per- 
489 " f ect man - I wax daily very unperfect. Ipsa sencctus 
" morbus est, cum corporis et membrorum imbecillitate. I 
" will commit no more to pen and ink, but will desire your 
" honour to give credit to this bearer, my son-in-law, John 
" Parker; with whom I have conferred: desiring your lord- 
" ship to confer with him at such length as you may most 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 119 

" conveniently spare. And so I beseech the Lord Jesus to CHAP. 
" have you in his blessed keeping, with increase of health 



" and godliness. From my palace at Ely, the 10th of No- Anno 1577. 
" vember, 1577. 

" Your lordship's assured, 

" Richard Ely, manu vacillante.' 1 '' 

It was not before the year 1579, when this resignation 
was prosecuted more vigorously : and with what success 
will be shewn under that year. 

There was now one John Caldwel, parson of the rich rec- John Coid- 
tory of Winwic in Lancashire. Hardly the same with John ^wh^ck 
Coldwel, sometime bishop of Sarum, (though their names his sermon 
were near alike,) who was born at Feversham in Kent ; ad-£ efo ( re t l he 
mitted fellow of St. John's college, Cambridge, anno 1558 ; earl of Di- 
rector of Aldington in the diocese of Canterbury ; domestic Baker, 
chaplain to archbishop Parker ; hardly ever removing out 
of Kent till he got the bishopric. But concerning this Cald- 
wel, I have this remark to make, that he preached a ser- 
mon this year, 1577, before Henry earl of Darby, his pa- 
tron, in his chapel at New Park in Lancashire ; which was 
printed by that lord's command. The main subject of it 
was to shew, what an happy deliverance this church and 
kingdom obtained by queen Elizabeth's access to the 
throne ; and the blessed reformation established by her, to- 
gether with her parliament. Wherein he used these expres- Lambeth's 
sions : " When we were ignorant in God's word, and heard ' rary ' 
" nothing but the sound of a tinkling cymbal ; did we not 
" think superstition to be religion, deceivers true teachers ; 
" vanity to be verity ; the gospel to be heresy : to gad 
" abroad on pilgrimages from this saint to that saint, to be 
" a part of God's service ; men's traditions the command- 
" ments of God ; Antichrist, Christ's vicar ; the man of 
" Rome, who is a creature overwhelmed with all wicked- 
" ness, the beast that did rise out of the bottomless pit, a 
" most holy father? Yea, we thought that God was de- 
" lighted with incense, perfume, wax candles, golden copes 
" and vestments. And we worshipped those things which 

i4 



120 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " our own conscience gave us to understand were no gods. 
IL " We made no difference almost between Christ and his 



Anno 1577. " creatures. We confounded the sign with the thing signi- 
" fied ; and worshipped a wafer cake, which is a creature 
" corruptible, instead of the Maker of heaven and earth ; 
" and believed it was the very body of Christ that was 
" born of the Virgin Mary, and slain for our sins upon the 
" cross. The cause of all which errors was the ignorance of 
" Christ and his word. His text was taken out of Romans, 
" chapter xiii. 11 — 14. And that considering the season, 
" that now it is time that we should awake, Sec." 
Statutes of To the rest of these ecclesiastical persons, and matters, 
giatc° le " wherein they were about this time concerned, I add the re- 
church of i at i on f a purpose this year undertaken, of confirming the 
ster to be statutes of the collegiate church of Westminster, Dr. Ga- 
confimied. ^^ Q^ma!!, c j ean ; chiefly occasioned upon some neglect 
° of residence in the prebendaries, and for their better observ- 
ance of preaching themselves in their turns: which the 
good dean was minded to redress. And moving it to the 
lord treasurer Burghley, the said lord required of him an 
account of the orders of the college, as they were made and 
observed formerly by his predecessor Dr. Bill ; who was the 
first dean of that church after the settlement thereof by the 
queen. Which he therefore sent, drawn up with his own 
hand, in order to a reformation of some things, and for the 
making of some new statutes. The title it bore was, The 
order of the government of the college of Westminster, 
sithence tlie last erection: begun by Dr. Bill, and con- 
tinued by me ; with the assent of the chapter : as appears 
by divers decrees recorded in the chapter-book. This I have 
N°.X. reposited in the Appendix. And with it the dean thus ex- 
pressed his desire in a letter to the said lord : 

The dean's « That he was bold to send his honour a brief declara- 
ceming " tion of the orders used in the government of the college 
them to the « j } j) r ]} n ] anc ] h j m smce the ] ast erection : that it 

lord trea- J . ' . . . 

surer. " might please him to confer the same with the statutes, 

" and to consider thereof, as he should think good. He 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 121 

prayed God that might be done, which might be to God's CHAP. 
glory, the queen's honour, and the good example of the 



" church. He Avished a convenient residence of both dean Anno 1577. 

" and prebendaries. First, That every one might sometime 

" preach in their own persons. Secondly, That they [both 

" dean and prebendaries] might be present in the church 

" to pray, as their most bounden duty was, for her majesty, 

'* being their founder. And thirdly, For the better order 

" and government of the church. That unless there were 

" daily commodity for residence in the church, as it was at 

" Windsor, and such like places, he feared (which he was 

" sorry to speak) the residence would not be so well kept. 

" I beseke your honour, added he, that there may be that 

" moderation used which shall be most convenient for all 

" respects. Hitherto I and the company, I thank God, 

" have agreed very brotherly, and with great quietness, as 

" any such company, I hope ; I would be sorry, if by seek- 

" ing to better things, dissension should grow, or unquiet- 

" ness. My special trust is in God, that as he hath done 

" under her majesty, with motherly care to his church, and 

" your honour, with godly zeal to virtue and learning, so 

" he will work some good effect of this travail. Thus with 

" my continual prayer for you and all yours, I humbly 

" take my leave. From Westminster college this 15th of 

" November, 1577. 

" Your honour's most bounden, 

" Gabrielle Goodman." 

This motion of the dean produced some new statutes ; New sta- 
but how long after, I cannot assign ; but some years after pre _ 
it was, Whitgift being then archbishop. For I meet with P are(1 for 

r the signet. 

an humble request of the dean of Westminster, for confir- 
mation of the statutes, which had been drawn up and pre- 
pared for the signet. And so Dr. Caesar, master of the re- 
quests, had signified; but it seems, not well-pleasing to 
some of the prebendaries, choosing rather to have been left 49 1 
more at their liberty. His said humble request was, " That The dean's 
" whereas in his last he exhibited an humble petition to her e 



122 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " majesty, that it might please her highness, for the better 
" government of that her college, to confirm the statutes 
Anno 1577." for the government thereof, drawn and devised by Dr. 
" Bill, of blessed memory, late her majesty's high almner : 
" it pleased her highness most graciously to accept thereof; 
" and to will, that her majesty's learned counsel might 
" peruse the same, and make them ready to the signet ; as 
" Dr. Caesar, master of requests, and the mover of the said 
" petition, had signified under his hand. That he [the 
" dean] had imparted the same to my lord of Canterbury. 
" And he likewise had perused the said book of statutes. 
" That he did likewise signify his meaning to proceed 
" herein to his brethren, the pi*ebendaries : whereof some 
" did seem better to like the present government ; which is 
" partly according to these statutes, and partly ordered by 
" decrees and discretion. But he [the dean] did hope, that 
" statutes confirmed to govern, and to be governed by, was 
" a more sure rule of government, and more beneficial to 
" posterity. 

" That whereas also it had pleased her highness to ap- 
" point a statute for the double election of scholars in the 
" time of Dr. Bill the dean, which was then begun, and 
" since always continued, there was in the same statute pro- 
" vided, that of the scholars of her majesty's school at 
" Westminster there should be three at the least chosen to 
" each university ; so it was, that my lord's grace of Can- 
" terbury, being then master of Trinity college ; and there- 
" fore requested, that there should be of necessity but two 
" chosen every year to each university, and three every 
" third year. Whereunto, upon the request and persuasion 
" of bishop Grindal, then bishop of London, to whom it 
" had pleased his honour [the lord treasurer] to refer the 
" ordering of this statute, it was yielded. And so it had 
" been ever since most commonly used. But he prayed, 
" that the same statute might remain in force, as touching 
" the number, [i. e. of three,] for the better encouragement 
"of her majesty's scholars; notwithstanding the day of 
" election be altered, which was the same day of the com- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 123 

" mencement in Cambridge. And so humbly desired his CHAP. 

• • VII 
" honour's advice and aid. Subscribing, 



" His honour's most bound, Anno 1577. 

" Gabriel Goodman.'' 1 



CHAP. VIII. 4 92 

Maimed professors in these days. Popish books secretly 
dispersed. Ansxvcrcd by Dr. W. Fulk. Ithel, a fugitive 
Lovainisty comes to Cambridge : discovered. The coun- 
cil's letter hereupon to the university. Egrcmond Rad- 
cliff, a fugitive since the rebellion in the north : his let- 
ters for the queen 's pardon, and leave to come home : is 
put into the Tower : set at liberty : his end. 

JL HE papists still used here their old diligence to pervert Popish opi- 

our people to their errors ; sowing their seeds of disobedience practices 

and superstition. And many of the queen's subjects, how- entertained. 

ever they conformed themselves outwardly to the religion 

established, and the public worship used in the church of 

England, yet entertained favourable thoughts of divers 

popish doctrines and practices. Which sort of men was 

smartly reproved in a sermon preached this year at St. 

Paul's Cross : the preachers name unknown : calling them 

poisoned protestants and maimed professors. Using these 

words, (according to the way of preaching in those days :) 

" How many poisoned protestants and maimed professors 

" have we ? I mean for opinions. For otherwise, who is 

" whole and sound ? You shall have a gospeller, as he will 

" be taken, a jolly fellow, to retain and maintain such 

" patches of popery and infection of Rome ; that, methinks, 

" I see the serpent's subtilty as plainly as by the claw you 

" may judge the lion. One holdeth, faith justifieth ; and 

" yet works do no harm. Another saith, prayer for the 

" dead is charity ; and though it doth no good, yet it doth 

" no hurt. What will you have me say, The Devil go with 

" them ? [as the preacher bringeth in one of these men 

" speaking, that are for praying for one deceased.] Another 



124 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " believeth verily, that infants unbaptized, and dead, can- 
' " not but be damned. Another crosseth me his face, and 
Anno 1577." nose, and breast, with thumb and fingers, and cannot 
" pray but toward the east : and some have not forgot 
" their Ave Maria, although their Pater noster was forgot 
" long ago. Some, and a large sum too, do supersti- 
" tiously, and so sinfully, swear by saints, or every other 
" creature, and think it small offence, or none at all. And 
" when you tell them, it is superstition, and that it is a de- 
" gree to apostasy to forsake the Lord ; Jer. v. that they 
" give to the creature that which is due to the Creator ; that 
" swearing reverently is a piece of the worship of God, 
" and therefore belongs to him alone, and the like ; it is a 
" strange doctrine to them, and unheard of before. And 
" thus they fall a wondering at the very principles of reli- 
" gion." This discourse indeed touched such as were indif- 
ferent in any religion, and grossly ignorant even in these 
days of the gospel, as well as the other sort who secretly fa- 
voured the old religion. 
Ail the po- Indeed the papists privately uttered many books in fa- 
lish books vour of their cause ; and diligently dispersed them ; which 
answered by m jg] lt nave made many of these maimed professors. Wil- 
403 uam Fulk, D. D. sometime of St. John's college in Cam- 
bridge, and after master of Pembrook hall, a learned man, 
from this year and after, let not one of these books in Eng- 
lish that fell into his hands pass without his answer and 
confutation of them ; for the good service of our reformed 
church, and establishment of the common sort of men in 
true religion. This appears by a book which he wrote some 
years after : wherein he saith, that he had attempted to 
fight the truth's cause, within this five or six years past : 
and that he had set abroad sundry treatises in confuting of 
popish books written in English : and that he purposed, if 
God gave him strength, to answer as many as within 
twenty years of her majesty's reign had been set forth by 
papists, and were not yet confuted by any other. And this 
purpose, he added, the papists had not greatly hindered by 
replies, except one only, Bristow : (who had defended 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 125 

Allen's Articles and Purgatory. And none other hitherto CHAP. 

... VIII 

had set forth any just replication to the rest of his writings. 



This I take from a book of his called, A brief confutation Anno 1577. 
of sundry cavils. There he shewed how he was reflected j^fj^ 
on by all the popish writers : every one of them almost, as Purgatory. 
he said, had endeavoured to have a snatch or two at some JJJjJjjJ™ 1 
one odd thing or other in his books ; wherein they would tion. 
seem to have advantage. And that, belike, they would have 
their simple readers think to be a sufficient confutation of all 
that he had ever writ against them. And he thought good, 
as near as he could, to gather all their cavils together, and 
briefly to shape an answer to every one of them. 

We only give this short note of Fulk here. He will shew 
himself more in defence of religion in some few years after. 

These active men of the church of Rome sent their emis- ithel a Lo- 
saries not only into the countries about, but into the uni- cn& har "_ 
versities. One of these was Ithel, a Lovainist, brother to boured at 
Dr. Ithel, master of Jesus college, Cambridge. And upon 
this occasion following, it was feared his brother gave him 
countenance, or at least concealed him. This Ithel had been 
for some time using his arts and insinuations with the scho- 
lars there. At length he was discovered: and the vice- 
chancellor sent intelligence of it to their chancellor, the lord 
treasurer Burghley : and that he was put into the custody 
of his brother in order to reform him. But he was too well 
principled at Lovain, that any good should be done to him 
here. So that his brother was rather to proceed to some re- 
straint and punishment. But he escaped soon, and was 
gone: which gave some just cause of suspicion of the doc- 
tor himself. Which the vice-chancellor thus related to the 
aforesaid lord in his letter written in July this year. 

" That this fugitive Lovainist was returned about three A letter 
" months since secretly to Cambridge. Where he remained, the vice _ 
" corrupting such as he could from the truth of our reli- chancellor. 
" gion here received. And being deprehended, he was com- 
" mitted to his brother, Dr. Ithel, as a prisoner, to be fur- 
" ther dealt withal, either for reformation or correction. 
" And from hence he escaped. And hereby occasion was 



126 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
II. 

Anno 1577. 
Dr. Ithel 
suspected. 

494 

Informa- 
tion to be 
given of 
such in 
Cambridge 
as came not 
to divine 



The coun- 
cil's letter 
to the uni- 
versity. 
Rev. T.Ba- 
ker, S.T.B, 



" given for some sinister dealing of Dr. Ithel. Of whom I 
" would be sorry to conceive as the matter with the circum- 
" stances (not only for his escape, but for his former lurk- 
" ing in the university) doth offer cause. 1 " 1 

By the means of this, and perhaps other Romish emis- 
saries, recusancy was crept into the university, as well as 
other towns and places of the land. Insomuch as it was 
thought meet by the queen, to require an account of the 
names of all such scholars, as likewise of every townsman, 
that came not to church or chapel to hear divine service ; 
and to have an account of the estates of such, and the va- 
lues thereof, sent up. Such a letter I shall here exemplify, 
sent to the university from the privy-council. 

" After our hearty commendations. The queen's raa- 
" jesty's pleasure is, that you shall certify unto us, with all 
" diligence, the names of such persons, as well scholars as 
" townsmen, within the university of Cambridge, as you 
" shall understand do refuse to come to the church to hear 
" divine service. And withal, that you certify their degrees 
" and qualities, with the value of their lands and goods, as 
" you think they are worth indeed, and not as they be va- 
" lued in the subsidy books. And to the end you may do 
" the same with more expedition and better certainty, we 
" think it meet that you use the advice of some such per- 
" sons as you shall know to be well affected in religion, and 
" can best inform you, both for the said university and 
" town, of the particular values of every such recusant : 
" and thereof, as well as you may, to send us a true certifi- 
" cate to be delivered here within seven days after the re- 
" ceipt of these our letters. And for the several colleges and 
" halls of the university, you shall by virtue hereof charge 
" the heads of the same to deliver unto you a true note of 
" the names and degrees of every such person within their 
" charge, as they shall know to be backward in religion, 
" and shall refuse to come unto the church. And that 
" therein neither they nor you, for friendship or otherwise, 
'* to use any respect of persons or degrees whatsoever, as 
" they will answer the trust in this behalf committed unto 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 127 

" you. So fare you heartily well. From Windsor the 15th CHAP. 
" of November, 1577. VIIL 



" Your very loving friends, Anno 1577. 

" W. Burghley, E. Lyncoln, T. Sussex, R. Leycester, 
" F. Knollys, Jamys Croft, Fra. Walsingham, Tho. 

" Wylson/ 1 
" To our very loving friend the vice-chancellor, Sic." 

Egremond Radcliff was another papist of remark in these Egremond 
times, of whom our histories speak. I shall here insert JSj^J 1 ^ 1 ! 1 
some remarkable passages concerning him hitherto scarcely put into the 
known. This man was noble by birth, being the son of rebellion 
Henry earl of Sussex, half brother to Thomas then earl 
of Sussex, lord high chamberlain of the queen's house- 
hold. But being young, and of a haughty spirit, and a 
papist, was engaged in the rebellion in the north, anno 
1569, and made a shift after to fly into Spain and Flanders: 
where he continued rambling about for divers years ; as at 
Bruges and Antwerp. And feeling hardship at length had 
earnestly solicited, by letters, the lord treasurer, as well as 
others, for the queen's pardon ; and that he might come 
into England safely ; and promising all fidelity to her ma- 
jesty : and earnestly desiring to shew the same, by being 
employed by her in some service. But the queen would not 495 
be persuaded to pardon him for some time. However he 
comes to Calais, anno 1575, perhaps under some confidence 
that he might enter within the English territories : which 
he did. But soon after, he was committed to the Tower ; as 
appears by two letters written thence, the one in April, the 
other in May, anno 1577, to the aforesaid lord. 

In his former, he speaks " of his miserable state and long His letter 
" imprisonment : praying his lordship, according to his ac- re ' st ' s- 
" customed goodness and consideration towards him, to un- 
" derstand the extremity he was in. And that he doubted 
" not, but that God would so work in his noble and pitiful 
" heart, that he should find, by some suit made unto her 
" majesty in his behalf, a remedy of his sorrows; wherein 
"he pined and consumed, as one weary of life, and utterly 



128 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " void of consolation. For that in truth he had done all 
IL " which in him lay, to manifest unto the world both his 
Anno 1577." hearty remorse and contrition for his offence, and also his 
" dutiful and earnest desire to recover her majesty's favour 
" with his brother s [the earl's] good liking : and perceiv- 
" ing, for all that, her majesty's indignation, and his lord- 
" ship's displeasure to continue still most heavily against 
" him ; he was driven into so great despair, to consume his 
" days in captivity : which [days] he desired, as became the 
" duty of a faithful subject, to employ to the last of his 
" breath in her majesty's service. And professed to God, 
" that he rather wished with all his heart present death, 
" than any longer continuance of such misery. Most hum- 
" bly imploring of her majesty, for God's sake, to command 
" him rather to be executed, than to let him live in the tor- 
" ment of body and mind he was in. That if her highness' 
" clemency would not suffer her to have the law pass on 
" him, then he humbly beseeched the same to grant him 
" some further liberty. That he might have some li- 
" berty by time to obtain some remission, and her majesty's 
" favour. 

" That he had no power to compass this benefit, but 
" only by his lordship's favour and aid : to whom he was 
" already so much bound, as he knew not how he might be 
" ever able dutifully to acknowledge the least part of his 
" noble dealings towards him. Howbeit his lordship should 
" always find him undoubtedly so grateful, as the expense 
" of his poor life in any service it should ever please his ho- 
" nour to command him in, might enable him. And thus once 
" ao-ain he was bold humbly to beseech his honour to deal 
" for him ; and to send him such answer as should stand 
" with her majesty's pleasure. That through her majesty's 
" mercy or justice, he might be delivered from this despera- 
" tion which afflicted his very soul, as knoweth the Al- 
" mighty, &c. From the Tower, this 20th of April, 1577. 
" Subscribing, 

" Your honour's most humble and obedient to command, 

" Egremond Radeclyff." 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 129 

By another letter of the same RadclifTs from the Tower, CHAP, 
wrote the next month, it appeareth, the queen was incxo- 



rable towards him ; and all further favour she would grant Anno ' 57 ~ 
him was to be sent out of the realm. Which message was ,e . ( i ueon 

o requires 

brought him by his messenger, one Gray. For to this tenor him to de- 
he wrote again to the lord treasurer ; being the last letter I j. ea i m . * 
meet with from him. " That he was given to understand 496 
"from his honour by the bearer, Mr. Gray, how it had, His letter 

. ... hereupon. 

" pleased his lordship to move her majesty in his behalf. 
" For the which, and a number of other his favours shewed 
" him, he rendered his most humble thanks ; acknow- 
" ledging himself obliged to him during his life, &c. That 
" the effect of her majesty's pleasure (which the said Gray 
" delivered him from his lordship) was, that it was not her 
" highness"* pleasure ever to employ him in her services, or 
" to grant him her pardon ; but that he should be dis- 
" missed the realm. He protested before God and the 
" world, nothing caused him to yield himself unto her ma- 
" jesty's mercy, but a just remorse of conscience for the of- 
" fences his ignorant youth committed, and a dutiful desire 
" to repair the same by all loyal obedience, the residue of 
" his life. Which humble submission if it should not stand 
" with her majesty's pleasure to accept, he, as became an 
" humble vassal, should be contented with whatsoever it 
" should please her majesty and grave council to ordain 
" concerning him. So it might please her highness' cle- 
" mency to take a charitable compassion on his poor af- 
" flicted soul, in delivering it from desperation. For no 
" death could be so bitter, that he had rather suffer it, than 
" to remain in this torment of mind he was in ; to find his 
" soul in his sovereign's indignation, in no assurance of his 
" life : often threatened to be banished his country, for- 
" saken of all his friends, a close prisoner, an occasion to 
" the ill-disposed to blaspheme against her majesty, and 
" council's mercy ; a laughingstock to all those that are 
" become my enemies, for the great desire I have always 
" had to recover her majesty's favour, and my country 
" again : and in conclusion, void of all comforts and reliefs. 

VOL. II. PART II. K 



130 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " These (as he concluded) are the griefs of mind which 
' " continually assault me. Wherefore I most humbly be- 

Anno 1577." seech your honour, that for pity sake it will please you, 
" to impart to her majesty and the rest of her council, this 
" my wretched state ; and to procure of her majesty that 
" there may be some speedy order taken for me. Wherein 
" your honour shall do a work of great honour and charity, 
" as knoweth the Almighty, who preserve your honour, &c. 
" From the Tower, the 6th of May, 1577. ," 

He goes And accordingly he went abroad ; and out of need per- 

MniMof ^ a P s P ut l" mse tf into tne serv i ce of d° n Jonn °f Austria : 
don John; but so miserable and unfortunate he was, that upon some 
him to" S accusation, as though he and some other English were en- 
death, tered into a plot to murder that governor of Flanders, was 
executed the next year, though he denied it to the last : be- 
Camd. Eiiz. ing taken in the camp at Namur, with one Gray, (the same, 
p ' 2 ' I suppose, mentioned above, his friend,) and that he was 
set at liberty for that purpose, and encouraged therein by 
secretary Walsingham : very improbable, by what appears 
in his own letters, and that little countenance he had with 
the queen ; and her refusal of his service. 
His piotes- What his necessities were, being abroad, and what pro- 

tations to ., , ■, 111 i/»^» 

be em- testations he made, and methods he used for favour, may 
ployed in ^ e co ll e cted from a letter or two, written by him in the 

service of • i i 1 

the queen, years 1574 and 1575. For this poor unhappy rebel, weary 
of rambling up and down out of his native country, and 
become poor, was very desirous of coming home two or 
three years ago ; and was soliciting then the lord treasurer 
497 for her majesty's gracious pardon for that purpose : attri- 
buting his distress to his youthful heat and ignorance, (but 
not a word of another cause, his zeal for religion.) Insisting 
very much in those his letters upon his desire to shew his 
loyalty to the queen, if she would employ him in some ser- 
vice for her ; and vowing himself entirely at his lordship's 
devotion ; and expressing such like protestations. Whe- 
ther any just suspicions might be gathered hence of his 
guilt, and that he was put to death justly, I leave others to 
judge. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 131 

Thus in the year 1574 he addressed himself to the afore- CHAP, 
said lord from Antwerp : January 28. " If fortune would 



" so hallilye him, as to send him means by some acceptable Ann0 '577. 

" service, to let his lordship see the earnest desire he had 

" to be found grateful to his honour for the great favour it 

" had pleased him to shew him ; although it were with the 

" hazard of his life, yet surely he would attribute it to one 

" of the greatest felicities that could chance unto him, &c. 

" And that although his poor service should never be able 

" to attain to the merit of his honour's great courtesy, yet 

" he affied so much in his lordship's virtue and good na- 

" ture, that he would esteem it no less than our Saviour 

" did the mite of the poor widow : protesting to Almighty 

" God, that he offered himself entirely at his lordship's 

" command with no less devotion. He added, that he had 

" received divers advertisements from one Avery Philips, 

" that at his lordship's earnest suit it had pleased her ma- 

" jesty to pardon his former offence made to her. [But it 

" seems Avery's information was not true.] But which of- 

" fence he would assuredly repair by a dutiful allegiance all 

" his life, faithfully and truly, in all services he should be 

" employed in." 

His brother, the earl, also was highly displeased with 
him. That he might be reconciled to him, he begged the 
lord treasurer likewise to procure it. " That he would be 
" a means to my lord, his brother, that he would pardon 
" his offence : which, God knew, proceeded of youth and 
" ignorance, not of malice. The fault was committed, and 
" he could but be sorry for it, and ready to make any satis- 
" faction he should be able, or that it would please his lord- 
" ship to command him : which he would most willingly 
" do. And so humbly beseeched his lordship, even for 
" God's sake, to deal with his brother in it. For that, if he 
" persevered still in his indignation against him, he knew it 
" would be his destruction, &c. And so humbly desiring 
" his lordship to consider his extreme poverty, which, as 
" God was his judge, as he added, he was utterly unable to 

k 2 



132 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " abide any longer .^ The king of Spain's pension, it seems, 
now grew but low. 



Anno 1577. About half a year after we have this fugitive gentleman 
a°ain the g one to Bruges. And thence in the month of August he 
queen to coutinueth his solicitation to the said lord Burghley. Which 

pardon him. . . ,, „,, 1 

was to this tenor ; " 1 hat, not daring to presume to write to 
" her majesty, his lordship's virtuous inclinations did em- 
" bolden him to move him to stand his good lord, in being 
" a means to her majesty for him : that it would please her, 
" of her accustomable clemency, to pardon those faults, by 
" which, through ignorant youth, and not of malice, (God 
" was his judge,) he had offended her majesty. Which 
" now riper understanding and further grace did cause 
" him to be most heartily sorry for; and prostrate at her 
" majesty's feet, humbly craved pardon for the same : hop- 
" ing her majesty's pitiful nature would follow the precept 
4Q8 " of our Saviour Christ, who willeth no forgiveness to be 
" refused to him, who with humility and repentance craveth 
" it. For which most gracious benefit he promised to God 
" and her majesty, his life should be ready at all times to 
" be yielded in any service it should please her majesty to 
" employ him ; as well to repair his former fault, as also to 
" win of her majesty a degree of credit. And he hoped 
" these few years of tribulation had taught him to know 
" good from evil, and increased his ability to serve his 
" prince and country : which above all things he most de- 
" sired." 
Words be- And that he had been in Spain likewise it appears by what 
andstewklyh® addeth ; " That what had passed between Stewkly and 
in Spain « nnn ni Spain in defence of her majesty's honour, for that 
queen. " he spoke most villainous words of her majesty, his lord- 
" ship had, he thought, already heard. And that he minded 
" to take no entertainment of any prince in the world, be- 
" fore he knew her majesty's pleasure : whose favour he 
ts esteemed more than any worldly preferment. If he did 
" not, he assured his lordship on his faith, he could have 
" very sufficiently to maintain him there, according to his 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 133 

calling, as it was well known to many. And so waiting CHAP, 
her majesty's resolution, to be by his lordship's favour 



" known, &c. Dated August 18. from Bruges in Flan- Anno 157?. 
* ders." 

What fair hopes the next message from England brought His letter 
him, I know not, but it produced this letter from him now 
at Calais, the next year, 1575, as though ready to come for 
England : " That if small benefits did bind good natures, 
" how much ought he to think himself bound unto his ho- 
" nour, since by his only friendship he had recovered grace 
" at her majesty's hands, and good liking of my lord his 
" brother. Which, God was his judge, he esteemed more 
" than his life : as he trusted to give sufficient testimony by 
" his faithful service in all it should please her majesty to 
" employ him. And that undoubtedly his lordship might 
" assure himself of his service, during his life, with no less 
" fidelity and affection, than if he were his own child. He 
" besought his honour to continue so ; and so by his good 
" lordship's favour to intercede with his brother, that he 
" was sure he would at his request support him with suffi- 
" cient maintenance, until such time as it should please her 
" highness to license him to come home. And for fear he 
" should ignorantly offend, he humbly craved of his lord- 
" ship, that he might have some place appointed him, where 
" he should serve. And if it should not displease her ma- 
" jesty, he should be glad to go against the Turk, where 
" he thought he should see best service." And he trusted 
his endeavours should be such, as neither her majesty, nor 
my lord his brother, nor his honour should mislike it. This 
was dated from Calais, March the 25th, 1575. 

The next tidings we hear of him was, that he was come Comes over 
over into England with a merchant : and with protestations leave 
of his duty repaired to the lord Burghley, in order to that What foi- 
lord's recommending him to the queen. Of his access to 
him, he sends word to secretary Walsingham. The queen 
understanding his coming and request, shewed herself dis- 
pleased, and orders Walsingham to tell that lord, " that he 

k3 



134 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK « should, as of himself, advise Radcliff to slip away; for 
' " that he understood secretly from his friends in court, that 
Anno 1577." her majesty was greatly displeased with his presumptuous 
499 " manner of coming over. And that otherwise (as Wal- 
" singham proceeded in relating the queen's commands, 
" that he should say) he doubted, her majesty, as in justice 
" she was bound, should be driven, for example sake, to ex- 
" tend the punishment towards him, that for his former of- 
" fences was due. 11 And for that the queen was doubtful 
of his lingering in the realm, whatsoever promises he had 
made to him, [the lord Burghley,] her pleasure was, that he 
should so offer the matter, that Reins, the merchant, with 
whom he came over, should see him embarked: whereby 
she might be assured that he was departed the realm. But 
not taking this seasonable warning, he was committed pri- 
soner to the Tower. And what befell him afterwards in an«- 
other land was related before. But this is enough to have 
remembered of this unfortunate gentleman and penitent 
rebel, but of a turbulent spirit, Egremond Radcliff. 



CHAP. IX. 

The queen's progress. The lord treasurer, and others of 
the court, at Buxton Well. The earl of Leicester at 
Chatsworth, entertained there. The queen's letter of 
thanks to the earl of Shrewsbury upon that entertain- 
ment. The mortality at Oxford. The plague breaks 
out. The diligence of Fleetwood, the recorder at London. 
Sessions at Newgate. An intention of robbing the lord 
treasurer's house. A privy search in SmitJifield. Cozen- 
ers and cheats, fyc. Phaer a notable coiner. His offer ; 
to discover all the coiners, and such as practised magic. 

AND now let us turn our eyes to more domestic matters. 
The queen's The queen this summer took her progress into Kent, 
X?ye S ar. Surrey, Sussex. Where, according to her custom, she re- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 135 

ceived the entertainments of the nobles, and persons of the CHAP, 
best quality, at their houses : who were glad of the honour, 



and made very expensive preparations for her. Anno 1577. 

Now was the lord Buckhurst to receive her at his house in Sussex 
in Sussex : and therefore sent to the earl of Sussex, lord tertainedat 
chamberlain, to understand when her majesty's pleasure was lord Buck- 
to come into those parts : that as the earl of Arundel, the 
lord Mountagu and others, expecting her presence with 
them, and had made great provisions for her and her reti- 
nue, so he might not be wanting with his : being fain to 
send into Flanders to supply him, the others having drawn 
the country dry before him. And in what concern that 
nobleman was on this occasion, his letter wSpU shew, written 
in the beginning of July : " That he beseeched his lordship Titus, B. 2. 
" to pardon him that he became troublesome unto him, to 
" know some certainty of the progress, if it might possibly 
" be, the time of provision was so short ; and the desire he 
" had to do all things in such sort, as appertained, so great, 
" as he could not but thus importune his lordship to pro- 500 
" cure her highness to grow to some resolution, both of the 
" time when her majesty would be at Lewes, and how long 
" her highness would tarry there. For that he having al- 
" ready sent into Kent, Surrey, and Sussex for provision, 
" he assured his lordship he found all places possessed by 
" my lord of Arundel, my lord Montagu, and others : so as 
" of force he was to send into Flanders. Which he would 
" speedily do, if the time of her majesty's coming and tarri- 
" ance with him were certain. He beseeched his lordship 
" therefore (if it might be) to let him know, by his lord- 
" ship's favourable means, somewhat whereunto to trust. 
" For if her highness should not presently determine, he 
" saw not how possibly they might or could perform that 
" towards her majesty which was due and convenient. He 
" trusted his lordship would measure his cause by his own : 
" that would be loath her highness should come unto him 
" before he were ready to receive her : to hazard thereby 
" his dishonour, and her majesty's dislike." And then 
(fearing that his house might not be agreeable to such a 

k 4 



136 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
II. 



Anno 1577. 



Many of the 
court go to 
Buxton 
Wells. 
The lord 
treasurer 
there ; 



And lord 
Shrews- 
bury ; 



And the 
earl of Lei- 
cester. 



guest) he added, " That he could not but beseech God, that 
" that house of his did not mislike her. That, he said, was 
" his chief care. The rest should be performed with that 
" good heart as he was sure it would be accepted. But that 
" if her highness had tarried but one year longer, we had 
" been, said he, too, too happy : [his house by that time 
" more fitted for her entertainment.] But God's will and 
" hers be done." This was dated July the 4th, 1577. 

Divers great persons of the court took this opportunity 
to repair to Buxton Wells for their health ; as sir Thomas 
Smith, secretary, sir William Fitz-Williams, Mr. Mannors, 
lady Harrington, and among the rest, the lord treasurer 
Burghley. I find him here, August the 7th, " when he 
" began," as he said, " the day before to be a lawnder, hav- 
" ing ended his drunkenness the day before," as he affected 
merrily to express himself in the homely language there, 
for the method then used, first of drinking the waters, and 
then bathing. This account of himself he gave in a letter 
to the earl of Sussex; who was now, notwithstanding a 
hurt in his leg, following the court, wishing him, the said 
earl, long there, as a very useful man to attend the queen 
in her progress : who had wished himself at Buxton with 
the treasurer. In answer to which wish, " the said trea- 
" surer wished the same, (had he not been so necessarily at- 
" tending the queen,) as he knew no nobleman in the earth 
" more to his heart's contentation. And this, he said, he 
" wrote even with the best vein in his heart. 1 ' 1 

The earl of Shrewsbury was likewise there for a gouty 
hand: and both drank and bathed diligently. But upon 
some warning from court concerning an attempt, either to 
rescue the Scottish queen, or some other danger relating to 
her, he was forced to leave the place, and to be gone to his 
charge. 

The lord treasurer set out from his house, Theobalds, 
about July 22. Thence to Burghley house. Thence by 
Darby and Ashborn in the Peak, to Chatsworth, the earl of 
Shrewsbury's house, to lodge there. And so to Buxton. 

The earl of Leicester was at Buxton also the month be- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 137 

fore, viz. in June. And being in those parts, visited the CHAP. 
earl of Shrewsbury at Chatsworth. Where the earl with 



his lady gave him a most splendid and noble reception, and Auno 1577. 
likewise made him some extraordinary present ; and when **"* 
he was at Buxton, discharged his diet. This that earl 
might the rather do, since he knew what a favourite Lei- 
cester was with the queen, and what service such an one 
might upon occasion do him with her. When Leicester 
returned, he acquainted the queen with the great respect 
shewn him at Chatsworth. Which was so highly acceptable 
to her, that she thought fit to write him a gracious letter of 
thanks for the same. And withal had in her mind the 
great dependance she and the whole state of her kingdom 
had upon his vigilance over the Scotch queen, in his keep- 
ing. The letter is worthy the repeating : which was in these 
words, (with her own name on the top of the letter,) viz. 



" ELIZABETH. 

" Our very good cousin. Being given to understand from The queen 
" our cousin of Leicester, how honourably he was not only *° ghrews- 
" lately received by you our cousin, and the countess at bury. 
" Chatsworth, and his diet by you both discharged at Bux- 
" tons, but also presented with a very rare present ; we 
" should do him great wrong (holding him in that place of 
" favour we do) in case we should not let you understand 
" in how thankful sort we accept the same at both your 
" hands, not as done unto him, but unto our own self: re- 
" puting him as another our self. And therefore you may 
" assure your self, that we taking upon us the debt, not as 
" his, but our own, will take care accordingly to discharge 
11 in such honourable sort, as so well deserving creditors as 
" ye are shall never have cause to think ye have met with 
" an unthankful debtor. 

" In the acknowledgment of new debts we may not for- 
" get our old debt, the same being as great as a sovereign 
" can owe to a subject, when through your loyal and most 
" careful looking to the charge committed to you, both we 
" and our realm enjoy a peaceable government ; the best 



138 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " good hap that to a prince on earth can befall. This good 
" hap then growing from you, ye might think your self 



Anno 1577." most unhappy, if you served such a prince as should not 
" be as ready graciously to consider of it, as thankfully to 
" acknowledge the same. Whereof you may make full ac- 
" count to your comfort, when time shall serve. Given 
" under our signet, at our manor of Greenwich, the 25th 
" day of June, 1577, and in the 19th year of our reign. 



The lord I find the lord treasurer now following the queen, she 

the earl of being in the beginning of September at my lord admiral's 
Shrews- house. Whence the said lord treasurer wrote to the earl of 
advice from Shrewsbury, how that at his coming to the court he found 
court. | OU( j a ] arms by newSj written from France and the Low 
Countries, of the queen of Scots' 1 escape, or in likelihood 
ere long to be rescued. On which occasion, what his grave 
and good advice was hath been before shewn. He conti- 
nued his thanks for all the earFs liberal courtesies when he 
was with him at Chatsworth : praying his lordship to assure 
himself of his poor but assured friendship, while he lived. 
The interest The earl, for his generosity and hospitality in his late 
there. entertainments of the earl of Leicester and lord Burghley, 

and likewise for his faithfulness to the queen in his most 
important charge, had great favour at court. And there 
being a controversy in those parts among some gentlemen, 
and wherein himself was concerned, it was provided by 
502 these great men, that none should be in the commission of 
the peace, but whom he approved : as there was great rea- 
son, in respect of any that might secretly favour that queen. 
There was a controversy now between sir John Zouch, and 
sir Thomas Stanhope, and other gentlemen in that country. 
The lord Burghley imparted to the queen his opinion, that 
the fault would be in Zouch, if he were misliked either of 
the earl of Shrewsbury, or others : telling her, " that he 
" took upon him more than was meet, in opposing himself 
" against his lordship, without any cause given him by the 
" earl.'" And upon this, as he told the earl, he found in 
her majesty a great disposition to have all matters ended 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 139 

between them: and required the lord treasurer to advise CHAP. 
the said sir John Zouch to reform himself herein. Which lx * 



he supposed he would do. And whereas there was a report Anno 1577. 
of placing one Sacheveril in commission, indeed it was 
moved there at court : but it was stayed, as the lord trea- 
surer added ; and said further, that he hoped, that neither 
he, nor any other, that should not behave themselves well 
towards his lordship [the earl,] should be put in credit 
there. Nor was it meet, he said, they should. He sub- 
joined, that he found the earl of Leicester, and Mr. Secre- 
tary, all earnestly inclined to maintain his lordship's credit 
in all things that might concern him. 

This Sacheveril, (whose Christian name was Rauf,) it was One Sache. 
moved by some, that he should be high sheriff for Darby- ve ^ elI P" t 
shire. But was put out by the means of the lord Burgh- commis- 
ley : this account being given of him by the earl: " That^y a " 
" he was lately upon very good causes put out of the com- Epist. Com. 
" mission of the peace; and was much more unworthy toQ^° p \' n 
" be sheriff; seeing he could not dispend xxZ. land per an-mor. 
" num, and that he knew him to be a very seditious and 
" arrogant person, and extremely busy in puritanism :" as 
he wrote in his letter, dated November 7 this year. 

In the correspondence between the lord treasurer and A mortality 
the said earl, while he was at Buxton, he briefly acquainted 
him, in a letter, dated August the 4th, of a strange mortal- 
ity at Oxford : where there suddenly died sir Robert Doyly, 
and an uncle of his, Mr. Danvers of Banbury, Mr. Wain- 
man, and the most part of all the freeholders then at the 
assizes ; fifty scholars, and twenty townsmen besides. Of 
this our histories make mention more at large. 

The infection of the plague brake out this year in some The plague 
parts of London: as in the duchy near Temple-bar, and m n(0IK 
the Temple, and came even to the earl of Leicester's place 
in the month of September. Who therefore wrote to his 
steward, Mr. Thomas Dudley, finding fault with the duchy, 
touching their neglect in not removing infected persons : 
and offered very honourably, as much as any should give 
for the relief of the sick [of that distemper,] and for care to 



140 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK be taken of them. And withal, threatened one Ledsham 
the bailiff, (who was his man,) to pluck his coat from his 



Anno 1577. back, and to punish him otherwise for his negligence. This 
Fleetwood, the careful recorder of the city, gave the lord 
treasurer to understand. And the same, being at dinner 
with the mayor, the master of the rolls then present, shewed 
to him privately another letter written to him from the lord 
treasurer himself, concerning the same affair, viz. the plague 
broke out in the duchy, much to the same tenor with that 
from the earl. In the end whereof the said master of the 
503 rolls shewed him that his lordship had charged the recorder 
himself with neglect. Which somewhat touched him, know- 
The record- ing his own diligence therein. And made him thus to shew 
er's care. ^ Q j or( j t reasurer n j s care, and to vindicate himself: " That 
" he had weekly himself surveyed the duchy, and taken 
" that order there, that if the like had been executed else- 
" where, he thought the plague had not so greatly in- 
" creased, as that last week it had. And that he passed 
" twice with all the constables, betwixt the bar and the tilt— 
" yard, in both the liberties, to see the houses [infected] 
" shut." 

We have some account of the malefactors, tried and con- 
demned at the sessions at London about Michaelmas ; as it 
was related by Fleetwood the said recorder, to the lord 
treasurer, by letter. The gaol was full : and eighteen exe- 
cuted at Tyburn. And one Barlow, born in Norfolk, of 
the house of the Barloos, near Manchester, in comitat. 
Lane, was pressed : all of them notable cutpurses and 
horsestealers. He added, " that it was the quietest sessions 
" that he was ever at. That there were not more justices 
" but my lord mayor, sir William Damsel, and himself, 
" [the rest likely now retired into other parts, to avoid the 
" plague.] That there was plain dealing, and neither fa- 
" vour nor partiality shewn. And that the criminals were 
" the most notable thieves in the land. That the court was 
" at Windsor. And that there was not any reprieved." 
[And probably the distance of the court was the cause 
thereof]. 



Sessions 
held for 
Newgate. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 141 

There was a design this winter to rob the lord treasurer's CHAP, 
house. Of this wicked confederacy, the recorder aforesaid, ' 



a diligent and active man, made careful search. And some Anno 1577. 

of them being taken, he took the examination of them, but Usurer's 

could by no means get any thing from them to purpose, house like 

The account whereof he wrote to the said lord in the month bed 

of January : " That notwithstanding Croker, one of them 

" now under sentence of condemnation, very constantly al- 

" ways affirmed the same; they said, Croker was a con- 

" demned man, and of no credit. But now, my lord, added 

" he, you shall see what is fallen out. Two nights past, it 

" came into my head, as I sat in my study, to know what 

" conversation was kept in Smithfield and St. JohnVstreet 

" this Christmas. And thereupon I sent my warrant to Privy search 

" make a privy search. In which search were found a g" ld " 11 

" number of masterless men, brought before me the next 

" day to be examined. Amongst which number there was 

" one Yeamans; whom I knew not. All the rest were 

" very well known unto me, [Newgate birds,] with whom I 

" took order. But as touching Yeamans, who had many 

" friends to speak for him, my stomach grudged against 

" him. And thereupon I sent him to Newgate. There 

" were of the queen's men with me treating for him. And 

" in the end, waxed very warm with me, because I would 

" not dismiss him. 

" This Yeamans assoon as he came to Newgate, and his 
" name entered into the book, Croker standing by affirmed 
" that Yeamans name was called Bullays : and it was he 
" that was sought for by master recorder. For that the 
" same Bullays could make declaration of the confederacy 
" touching the robbing of my lord treasurer. Whereupon 
" the keeper of Newgate brought him and Croker unto me. 
" And in the presence of the queen's men and others, I ex- 
" amined him. And he hath confessed, as by his examina- 
" tion here included, written with my own hand, may 
" appear. 

" My lord, this Bullays, Croker, and Sweeting, in Bride- 504 
" well at work, know nothing of any part of your lordship's 



142 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
II. 

Anno 1577 



Cozeners 
and cut- 
purses. 



And re- 
ceivers of 
stolen 
goods. 



A counter- 
feiter of 
coin. 



Offers to 
make dis- 
coveries. 



" house, nor are acquainted with any of your family. But 
" as I can perceive, Pendred, the two Smiths, and Careless 
" are acquainted with sundry parts of your lordship^ 
" house.*' 1 And then in conclusion, he prayed his lordship 
to know his opinion what was now best to be done. For 
that he meant once again to examine them over. And then 
by advice of the justices to proceed against them at the 
next sessions, tanquam conjbederatores et insidiatores po- 
puli domincB regin. And further, beseeching his lordship 
to send him back this examination, if his mind was that he 
should proceed any further against them : it being sub- 
scribed with testimony. 

And as there were thieves and robbers tried and con- 
demned at this sessions, so there were another sort of male- 
factors punished, viz. cozeners, or cheats, and cutpurses. 
For these the said recorder kept his audit, Jan. 12, which 
was about the week after : that he might know what of this 
sort was sprung up the last year ; where to find them, if 
need were. And then after them, he purposed to deal with 
the receivers and gagetakers and melters down of stolen 
plate, and such like: as he wrote to the lord treasurer. 
And withal sent him a minute of the state and common- 
wealth of the cozeners. 

This year one Edward Phaer of the north, a notorious 
counterfeiter of coin, was taken up and condemned. This 
man wrote a letter to the lord treasurer, praying for his life 
and liberty : and as some recompence for the same favour, 
he offered to discover from time to time all the counter- 
feiters in England. And speaking of a former letter to 
him, the said lord treasurer, in that he put him in mind, 
that he had shewed him " what service was in him to de- 
" serve the queen's mercy. And that it was conscience 
" (God he took to witness) and mere affection to make 
" amends for his former horrid offences, provoked him 
" thereunto; and not the fear of death."" Since which 
time, Mr. Lieutenant of the Tower and one Mr. Herle [a 
dependant of the treasurer] had conferred with him, and 
willed him to shew unto him [the said lord] some partial- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 143 

lars thereunto belonging: of intent, there might appear in CHAP, 
him the same forwardness in actual deed : and to calendar 



the names of some offenders and other confederates, and Anno 1577. 
those that had conference with him about these affairs. 

Upon this he proceeded largely to discover divers things. Mentions 
First, to specify the names of a great many persons, and ^me/with 
many of them gentlemen, and of quality, privy to or eon- h i mia 
cerned in these practices of coining, living in several coun- 
tries : as, in Yorkshire, where he learned first the practice, 
and made many dollars ; likewise others living in Notting- 
hamshire, Northumberland, Lancashire, Lincolnshire, North- 
amptonshire, Kent, Suffolk, Devon, &c. He acknowledged, 
how he made moulds at first, and afterwards found out de- 
vices and tools for his purpose. That he was taken and 
imprisoned, but was stout, and confessed nothing ; and was 
set out at liberty; but went on in his former course; and 
improved in his art. So that his inventions were so inge- 
nious, that his name began to spread in divers counties 
among many even of the gentry. And some had pro- 
pounded, for his more secret and uninterrupted following 
his business of making money, to place him in a castle of 
the lord Mounteagle's. 

Then he moved the lord treasurer that he might have a 505 
place in the mint, only for his subsistence, and be allowed a 
privacy there, to use his art. And that he would insinuate His method 
himself into the smiths, gravers, and alchymists, who, in re- tofind these 
gard of his great reach in that art, would be ready to join from time 
with him ; and by that means he might make the greater 
discoveries ; and they might be taken in the act, and so 
have manifest proof against them. For his instruments 
and working tools were such as were of great speed and 
despatch, and of fine handling ; and that therein he would 
give place to no man. 

He further reveals to the said lord, that he was privy to offers to 
such as used magic, in order to gain, as it seems. And un- disc ° ver 

° * o ' suc h as 

dertook, had he his liberty, to find out a marvellous pack used magic. 
of them, with their books and relics. Which art, he said, 
was accompanied with many filthy ceremonies, as mass, sa- 



144 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK crifice, and worship of the Devil. And by means of his ac- 
quaintance with some of them, would disclose their minds, 



Anno 1577. and by that means also he might be an instrument to save 
many honest men's goods. And all, he protested on his 
salvation, he shewed of zeal and good- will towards his coun- 
try; and was ready to perform as much as he had said, and 
more. And at last he expressed, how he desired nothing 
else for this service, but that her majesty would allow him 
something by the day for his maintenance in the mint. 
This letter of Phaers contains some matters of curiosity ; 
and therefore the copy may deserve to be read in the Ap- 

Numb.xi. pendix. But what credit and success this man found, I 
cannot assign. 



CHAP. X. 

Books translated and set forth in the English tongue. Bid- 
linger 's Decads : to be read by unlearned curates instead 
of sermons. Sarcerius Common Places. H. N. the author 
of the family of love, Ms epistles. The Courtier, by 
Balthazar Castilio. The high esteem that booh' obtained. 
Buchanan's History of Scotland. A blazing star. Gual- 
ter's letter to bishop Cox about it. Dr. Wylson made se- 
cretary of state. Some account of him. Put into the in- 
quisition. His book qf the Art qf Rhetoric. T.Cartwright 
marries a sister qf Stubbs ; whose right hand was cut 
off. Tho. Lever dies. His excellent letter about impro- 
priations belonging to colleges and hospitals. 

DOME of the books that came forth this year, composed 
by foreigners, and esteemed worthy the translating and pub- 
lishing in our English language, were these that follow. 
BuiHnger's The Decads of Bullinger, the chief minister of Zuric in 
Decads. Helvetia, a man very eminent for learning, piety, and wis- 
dom, and particularly, well deserving of this nation for his 
kind entertainment and harbour of our divines and scholars, 
506 that fled abroad in queen Mary's reign : and of note for that 
friendship and correspondence ever after maintained between 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 145 

him and them. These Decads were practical sermons upon chap. 
the chief heads of religion. This book thus translated was 



partly intended for the use of such ministers as could not Anno 1 577. 

compose or preach sermons of their own ; to read these in 

their congregations to the people. The publisher, a person 

of eminency in the church, in his preface before the book, 

speaking of the want of preachers in those times, writes 

thus; " That what there was wanting in many to discharge To be read 

"their duty in this behalf was very lamentable, and asj."''" 5 ^,' 

" much as was possible by some means to be supplied and tlie want of 

" remedied, rather than to be made a common theme and ar- 

" gument of railing; which at that day, - " as he added, " many 

" did. But therein they shewed themselves like unto those 

" which find fault at other men's garments, not for that 

" they loved them, or minded to give them better ; but for 

** that they were proud of their own, and would scornfully 

" shame arid vex others, [who could not wear so good as 

" themselves. 11 ] 

And then proceeding to excuse the cause of this inability The reason 
in many of the clergy, he subjoined, "That the cause <#of lranST* 
" this great want needed not here to be disputed. But in preachers. 
" very deed any man might judge, how impossible it was 
" for so populous a kingdom, abounding with so many se- 
" veral congregations, to be all furnished with fit and able 
" pastors : and that immediately after such a general corrup- 
" tion and apostasy from the truth. For unless they should 
" suddenly have come from heaven, or been raised up mi- 
" raculously, they could not have been. For the ancient 
" preachers of king Edward's time, some of them died in 
"prison; others perished by fire; many otherwise. Many 
" also fled into other countries. Of whom some there died, 
" and a few returned : which were but as an handful to fur- 
" nish this whole realm. The universities were also at the 
" first so infected, that many wolves and foxes crept out, who 
" detested the ministry; wrought the contempt of it every 
" where. But very few good shepherds came abroad. And 
" whereas since that time, now eighteen years, the uni- 
" versities being well purged, there was good hope that all 

VOL. II. PART II. L 



146 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " the land should have been overspread and replenished 
" with able and learned pastors, the Devil and corrupt pa- 



Aimo 1577." trons had taken such order, that much of that hope was 
The Devil M t ^p -p QY va f r(yns nowadays search not the universities 

anil corrupt * J . 

patrons. " for a most fit pastor ; but they post up and down the 
" country for a most gainful chapman : he that hath the 
" biggest purse, to pay largely, not he that hath the best 
" gifts, to preach learnedly, is presented. 
The bishops " The bishops bare great blame for this matter; and they 
clwe? ^ " ac,mit > the y sa y> unworthy men. See the craft of Satan, 
" falsely to charge the worthiest pillars of the church with 
" the ruin of the church; to the end that all church-robbers 
" and caterpillars of the Lord's vineyard may lie unespied. 
" There is nothing that procureth the bishops of our time 
" more trouble and displeasure, than that they zealously 
" withstand the covetousness of patrons, in rejecting their 
" unsufficient clerks. For it standeth them upon of all 
" others, that the church of God doth prosper : in the de- 
" cay and fall thereof they cannot stand, but perish. But 
" however it comes to pass, certain it is, that many are far 
" behind in those gifts which are necessary for their func- 
" tion. And small likelihood is there yet, that the church 
507 " shall be served with better, but rather with worse : for it 
" seemeth not, that patrons hereafter will bate one penny, 
" but rather more and more raise the market."" 

I have extracted the more out of this preface, to repre- 
sent the state of the clergy at this time; and to lay the 
blame of ignorant curates, and the no better supply of the 
churches, where it ought indeed to lie, and to shew the la- 
bours of the bishops to remedy the same. 
Many other The epistler thereof exhorted the more unlearned sort 
rSners' f °" to reatl tnese sermons of Bullinger out of the pulpit. And 
books put f or t h e same purpose partly, as well as for the instruction of 
tish. " S such as were ministers of less learning and knowledge in the 
Latin tongue, many other learned foreigners 1 works of prac- 
tical divinity were translated into English before this time: 
as Calvin's Institutions, Musculus's Common Places, Mar- 
lorat upon St. John's Gospel, Peter Martyr upon the Book 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 147 

of Judges, Gualter upon the smaller prophets, and many CHAP, 
others. 



Now also came forth (being a second edition) the Com- Anno 1577. 
mon Places of Erasmus Sarcerius, a German divine; trans- ^ arcenus ' 

Common 

lated into English ; entitled, Common places of scripture. Places. 
orderly, and after a compendious form of teaching', set forth 
with no little labour, to the great profit and help of all such 
students in God's word as have not had long experience of 
the same: by the right excellent clerk, Erasmus Sarcerius. 
It was translated by Itic. Taverner, clerk of the signet to 
king Henry VIII. who was a man of eminency for learning 
in that king's time, and afterwards. This book was of the 
greater esteem, the translator having dedicated it to the said 
king Henry, by the motion and instigation of Crumwel, 
when lord privy seal : supposing the book would find the 
better acceptance, and be the more read by the king's sub- 
jects, for their righter information in true religion : using 
these words to the king in his epistle : " That the book un- 
" der your majesty's protection and patrociny may the 
" more plausibly and greedily be devoured of the common 
" people. For whose only cause and education, your high- 
" ness, and such as be your most prudent counsellors, have 
" provided divers wholesome books to be set forth in Eng- 
" lish. 11 

As for the book itself, in what esteem it was held of 
learned and religious men in those times, appears by what 
the translator styles it, viz. "A treasure inestimable unto 
" Christian men. In which book he [the author] hath so 
" compendiously, so absolutely and fruitfully handled all 
" the common places of Christian religion, as never afore 
" this time hath been done of any ; namely, in such form. r ' 

In the matter of man's will and the divine decrees, Sar- Free-will 
cerius in this book understood and explained them much JottiM?**" 
as the other great German divine, Melancthon, did in his »° w set 
Common Places, which he dedicated to the said king Henry. bpolr# 
For thus the foresaid Taverner, in his epistle to that king, 
adds ; " That a dangerous piece of work it was, and full of 
" difficulty, so to handle these matters, as should in all 

l2 



148 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

HOOK " points satisfy the expectation of the readers: as declared 
_ " most eloquently, writing to his most excellent majesty, 
Anno 1577." Philip Melancthon, that excellent clerk, in his epistle be- 
" fore his Common Places. Whose judgment this Sarcerius 
" followed well near in all things : only in this they dif- 
" fered ; that Melancthon directed his style to the under- 
" standing only of the learned persons, well exercised in 
" scripture : this, tempered his pen also to the capacity of 
"young students in scripture, and such as have not had 
" much exercise in the same, &c. I grant, as he after pro- 
508 " ceeded, the godly and learned men in the principal ar- 
" tides of our faith do not vary, but do constantly sing all 
" one note. Yet nevertheless, in other disputable matters, 
" (in which it is not meet for every man to wade,) as pre- 
" destination, contingency, free-will, and such like, there . 
" hath been always, and yet is some dissension. So that 
" what one alloweth, another dispraiseth ; what one dis- 
" proveth, another approveth. And yet it cannot be denied, 
" but there is one simple, infallible truth, whoso can attain 
" it, &c. That it was not unknown, what great alteration 
" had lately been among learned men concerning free-will. 
" Some had put free-will in nothing; some, on the other 
" part, have gone about to maintain free-will in all things. 
" Again, others, going in the mean between both these ex- 
" tremes, as Melancthon and Sarcerius, with many other 
" excellent clerks, have denied free-will only in spiritual 
" motions ; and that also in such persons as be not yet re- 
" generate and renewed by the Holy Ghost. And yet in 
" the mean season they take it not so away, that they leave 
" them also in spiritual motions a certain endeavour or will- 
" ing. Which endeavour nevertheless can finish nothing, 
. " unless it be holpen by the Holy Ghost. And this/'' said 
he, " after my poor judgment, is the rightest and truest 
" way." 
H.N. his H. N. [that is, Henry Nicolas,] a notable enthusiast, the 
thelSndiy cme ^ autnor of the sect called the family of love, his epistles, 
of Love. printed in Dutch, came forth this year. Numbers whereof 
were brought over into England, and set on foot that sect 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 149 

here. Which book, being in octavo, bore this enthusiastical CHAP. 
title, EpistolcB H. N. de vernompste epistelen, H. N. fyc. In . 



English, The choice [or chief] letters of H. N. which he by Anno 1577. 
the holy spirit of love hath set forth, and hath written and 
sent to the most, and to those that are lovers of the truth, 
and his acquaintance. And are by him revised and plainly 
declared. Then in the same title-page is the representation 
of a circle with a glory round it, and within the word mn*, 
i. e. Jehovah, and round on the outside of the circle, coro- 
nm assimilabo judicium meum. 4> Esd. v. And then lower, 
these verses ; All scripture given in of God, is needful for 
learning, for punishment, for bettering, and for instruc- 
tion in righteousness. That so the man of God may be per- 
fected, and fitted to all good zvorks, 2 Tim. iii. No prophecy 
in the scripture is of one's ozvn exposition. For there is 
no new prophecy of human will brought forth : but that 
holy men of God have spoken, moved by the Holy Glwst, 
2 Pet. i. 

On the reverse is a picture of the new world, represent- 
ing the victory of the Lamb, and the destruction of Satan. 
Above it this verse, Now judgment goes over the world. 
Now the prince of the world is thrown out, John xii. Un- 
derneath this, Now is happiness, the power and the kingdom 
become our God's, and the might of his Christ, Apoc. xii. 

As for other books, besides those of the subject of divinity, 
there came forth this year the Courtier, by count Baldassar The Cour- 
Castillio, translated out of Italian into our English, (being ie 
now the second time printed,) in four books, instructing the 
behaviour of such as were of the court of princes, whether 
gentlemen or ladies. The translation was done by Mr. Tho- 
mas Hobbie, being himself a courtier. The third part, which A book in 

trrccit vo°"UG 

treated of the behaviour of the ladies of the court, was done among 
anno 1551, at the request of the lady marchioness North- courtiers - 
ampton. The other parts at the request and motion of 
sundry others. The translator dedicated it to the lord 509 
Henry Hastings, heir apparent to the earl of Huntington, 
printed before, anno 1556. This courtly, modish book went 

l3 



150 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK up and down a great while in this kingdom, as well as in all 
_ the courts of Christendom, in three languages, Italian, Spa- 



Anno 1577. nish, and French: but it was not wholly translated and 
published in English till the year 1556, and now reprinted. 
Of this book the translator gives this account : " That to 
" princes and great men it is a rule, who rule others. And 
" that it was one of the books that a noble philosopher ex- 
" horted a certain king to provide him, and diligently to 
" search. For in them he should find written such matters, 
" that friends durst not utter unto kings. To men grown 
" into years, a pathway, for the beholding and nursing of 
" the mind, and to whatsoever else was meet for that age. To 
" young gentlemen, an encouraging, to garnish their minds 
" with moral virtues, and their bodies with comely exer- 
" cises; and both the one and the other with honest quali- 
" ties, to attain unto true noble ends. To ladies and gentle- 
" men, a mirror, to deck and trim themselves with virtuous 
" conditions, comely behaviour, and honest entertainment 
" towards all men. And to them all in general, a storehouse, 
" for most necessary implements for the conversation, use, 
" and training up of men's lives with courtly demeanour." 

These discourses of Castilio had place in the palace of 
Urbin. Where many most excellent wits in this realm had 
made no less of this book than the great Alexander did of 
Homer. And the author, for renown among the Italians, 
was not inferior to Cicero among the Romans. 

Thomas Sackvile (perhaps the same who was afterwards 
lord Buckhurst) wrote those verses in commendation of the 
work: 

These royal kings that rear up to the sky 

Their palace tops, and deck them all with gold ; 
With rare and curious works they feast the eye, 

And shew what riches here great princes hold. 
A rarer work, and richer far in worth, 

Castilio's hand presenteth here to thee. 
No proud, ne golden court doth he set forth ; 

But what in court a courtier ought to be. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 151 

The prince, he raiseth huge and mighty walls ; CHAP. 

Castilio frames a wight of noble fame : *• 



The king with gorgeous tissue clads his halls ; Anno 1577. 

The count with golden virtue decks the same. 
Whose passing skill, lo ! Hobbie's pen displays 
To Britain folk ; a work of worthy praise. 

This Castilio had formerly been in this realm ; when he 
was installed knight of the order, for the duke his master, 
Guidubaldo, duke of Urbin. And was then entertained by 
the earl of Hunting-don. 

One book more I will mention here, which was historical, Buchanan's 
viz.. Buchanans History of Scotland. Which although it"^ n y d ° f 
seemeth not yet fully finished by the author, yet deserveth 
mention, since I have it from his own pen ; and of what ac- 
ceptance it was like to prove to the world, when set forth : 
which was contained in a letter of his own writing: to Ran- 
dolph, sometime the queen's ambassador in Scotland, as well 
as in other kingdoms. By which occasion there was a 5 10 
friendship contracted between those two learned men. It 
will be no ways unacceptable to set down the whole letter in 
the very Scottish style wherein he writ it, in the Appendix : Numb. XII. 
beginning thus : 

" Mauster, I hauf resavit divers letters from you, &c." 
Therein he told him, he was occupied in writing of their his- 
tory, [of Scotland,] being assured by it to content few, and 
to displease many. And that he should end it ere the win- 
ter was past. It was dated from Sterling, 25th of August, 
1577. 

To conclude with two or three matters of note happening 
this year. 

This year was seen a blazing star : which is described by a blazing 
a diligent person in these times, that kept a journal of things star " 
memorable : that it appeared like a great horse's tail. 

It was also seen in other parts. Of which, account was Account 
given from Zuric in Helvetia by Rod. Gualter, in his cor- al ^°| . 3 
respondence with Cox, bishop of Ely : as he did likewise of other P ro * 
other prodigies about this time : which made that good man ! 
apprehensive of some judgments of God hanging over their 

£ 4 



152 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK heads. " That in the month of November they saw a dread- 

IL " ful comet, and that threatened some sad thing. Which 

- Anno 1577." resembled in the beginning the form of falcati ensis, or 

Epist. d. « Turkish cimeter. Nor did he doubt, but that it ap- 

Gualt. . . , c 

Episc. E- " peared to us here. That there were various judgments ol 
lien ' " it. But since nunquam visos impune fuisse constet, that 

" they were never seen but some punishment attended them, 
" we can promise nothing to fall out happy to the world, 
" while it shall thus go on to provoke God's anger by wick- 
" ed works. And besides that, certain prodigious births 
" brought forth lately in Italy, portended many sad effects 
" to that place. In the country of Novar, the wife of a 
" certain doctor brought forth an horrid monster with seven 
" heads, and armed with as many arms, with eagles feet. 
" That at Cherie, [Cherii,] which is a town of Piedmont, 
"of a maid that was dumb, was born an hermaphrodite, 
" from whose head swelled out four horns; and from the 
" hinder part of the head hung down [fascia carnosa] a 
" fleshy swathe : and another that compassed about the 
" neck. The hands and feet were like those of a goose : 
" and that when an Italian, being his friend, asked him 
" what his thoughts were of these strange things, he an- 
" swered according to their idiom, that as when the wives 
" commit adultery, they say they make horns for their hus- 
" bands, so God by that monster upbraided them for their 
" idolatry, while they committed whoredom after that per- 
" sonated vicar of Christ. And which he prayed God many 
" more did not the same. 11 
Tho. Wyi- This year, in the month of September, Thomas Wylson, 
se"reTaryof LL.D. a very learned civilian, master of the requests, was 
state. constituted one of the principal secretaries of state, in the 

room of sir Thomas Smith, deceased, the month before: 
(the memory of whom is in some measure preserved in the 
history of his life, wrote divers years ago by me.) Much 
might be said of this worthy man, Dr. Wylson : besides the 
several books set forth by him, as his Logic and Rhetoric 
in English, his book against Usury, written divers years 
ago, he was employed by the queen in embassies abroad, as 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 153 

we have shewn before. One thing must be recorded to his CHAP. 
praise, in respect of his religion. That being a voluntary 



exile in the time of queen Mary, travelling to Rome, anno Anno 1577. 

1558, he was put into the inquisition there, upon pretence 511 

of writing; his books of the Art of Logic and Rhetoric: as Put into the 

° ° inquisition 

containing heresy in them. And had suffered some tor- at Rome, 
ment, and must have done more; and must either have 
been forced to deny his faith, or been put to death. But a 
fire happening in the prison where he was kept, it seems the 
Roman people with their swords forced the prison to be 
opened, to let out the prisoners, and him among the rest, 
that they might not be burnt in the flames there : a wonder- 
ful providence for him ! 

The occasion of his trouble was an information by some His own 
given of him; concerning certain passages in his said book, j^g°" n f 
not so agreeable to the religion of the Romanists. And so prologue to 
when he came to the city of Rome, he was soon catched up. ^ e ^ c ° f 
Of these informers, and his said sufferings and dangers, take 
his own declaration. " Being somewhat acquainted with the 
" world, I have found out another sort of men ; whom of 
" all other I would be loath should read any of my doings ; 
" especially such as either touched Christ, or any other 
" good doctrine. And those are such malicious folks, that 
" love to find fault in other men's matters, and seven years 
" together will keep them in store ; [so long, it seems, after 
" he had writ that book he was brought into trouble at 
" Rome;] to the utter undoing of their Christian brother. 
" Not minding to read for their better learning, but seek- 
" ing to deprave whatsoever they find : and, watching their 
" time, will take best advantage to undo their neighbour. 1 ' 
And then he proceeds to shew the matter of fact, as an in- 
stance in himself, of what observation he made before of 
malice. 

" Two years past, [this he wrote in December 1560,] at 
" my being in Italy, I was charged in Rome, to my great 
" danger and utter undoing, (if God's goodness had not 
" been the greater,) to have written this book of Rhetoric 
" and the Logic also. For which I was counted an heretic, 



154 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " notwithstanding the absolution granted to all the realm 
" by pope July the Third, for all former offences or prac- 



Anno 1577. " tices devised against the holy mother church, as they call 
" it. A strange matter! That things done in England seven 
" years before, and the same universally forgiven, should 
" afterwards be laid to a man's charge in Rome. But what 
" cannot malice do?" And what follows will shew more of 
the character of this worthy statesman. " God be my judge, 
" I had then as little fear (although death was present, and 
" the torment at hand, whereof I felt some smart) as ever I 
" had in all my life before ; [undaunted in a good cause.] 
" For when I saw those that did seek my death to be so 
" maliciously set, to make such poor shifts for my readier 
" despatch, and to burden me with those back reckonings, 
" I took such courage, and was so bold, that the judge 
" then did much mervail at my stoutness : and thinking to 
" bring down my great heart, told me plainly that I was in 
" further peril than whereof I was aware, and sought there- 
" upon to take advantage of my words, and to bring me in 
" danger by all means -possible. And after long debating 
" with me, they willed me at any hand to submit myself to 
" the holy father, and the devout college of cardinals. For 
" otherwise there was no remedy. 

" With that, being fully purposed not to yield to any 
" submission, (as one as little trusted their colourable de- 
" ceit,) I was as ware as could be not to utter any thing 
512 " for mine own harm ; for fear I should come in their dan- 
" ger : for then either should I have died, or else have de- 
" nied, both openly and shamefully, the known truth of 
" Christ and his gospel. In the end, by God's grace I was 
" wonderfully delivered through plain force of the worthy 
" Romans, (an enterprise heretofore in that sort never at- 
" tempted,) being then Avithout hope of life ; and much less 

" of liberty. 1 have been," added he, " tried for this book 

" tanquam per ignem. For indeed the prison was on fire 
" when I came out of it. And whereas I feared fire most, 
" [to be burnt for a heretic,] (as who is he that doth not 
" fear it ?) I was delivered by fire and sword together. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 155 

" I was without all help, and without all hope, not only of CHAP. 
" liberty, but also of life." X ' 



I cannot but add, how he closeth up this story of his ad- Anno 1577. 
ventures, occasioned by his both religion and learning, and 
having not then any preferment, thus between jest and 
earnest. " That his book was shewed him; and he was de- 
" sired to look upon it, to amend it where he thought meet. 
" Amend it! quoth I; nay, let the book first amend itself, 
" and make me amends. For surely I have no cause to 
" acknowledge it for my book ; because I have so smarted 
" for it. For where I have been ill handled, I have much 
" ado to shew myself friendly. If the son were the occasion 
" of the father's imprisonment, would not the father be 
" offended with him, think you ? Or at the least, would he 
" not take heed, how hereafter he had to do with him ? If 
" others never get more by books than I have done, it 
" were better to be a carter than a scholar for worldly pro- 
" fit. A burnt child fears the fire ; and a beaten dog 
" escapes the whip. And therefore I will none of this book 
" from henceforth. I will none of him, I say ; take him 
" that list. And by that time they have paid for him so 
" dearly as I have done, they will be as weary of him as I 
" have been." 

Thomas Cartwright, B. D. who made himself famous, Tho. Cart- 
both in the university of Cambridge and elsewhere, for his wriffht ™ ar ~ 

<f O ^ ries a sister 

readings and writings against our liturgy and hierarchy, of stubbs. 
married this year the sister of as eminent a man for his 
writing on another subject, and suffering for it: namely, 
John Stubb; whose right hand was cut off for writing and 
publishing a book against the queen's marrying with mon- 
sieur, the French king's brother. I have mention of this 
match from Stubb's own letter to Mr. Michael Hicks, of 
Lincoln's Inn, and one of his acquaintance at Cambridge, 
afterwards secretary to the lord treasurer ; who from Bux- 
ton Wells writ the news of the said marriage, and likewise 
his own thoughts of it : " We have no news here, but that 
" Mr. Cartwright hath married my sister. And if with you 
" also it be publicly known, and any mislike mine act in 



156 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " providing so for my sister, tell him, on my behalf, that I 
" contented myself to take a husband for her, whose liveli- 



Annoi577." hood was learning: who would endue his wife with wis- 
" dom ; and who might leave to his children the rich por- 
" tion of godliness by Christian careful education. And if 
" this apology will not defend me, let him not mervail, if I, 
" esteeming these things as precious stones, while he rather 
" chooseth the worldly, commended things, riches, favour, 
" &c. which I esteem less worth than a barleycorn." We 
shall read more of Stubbs under the next year. 
Tho. Lever This year died Thomas Lever, B. D. master of Sherborn 
dies ' hospital, near Durham : who flourished under king Ed- 

513 ward VI. and was then master of St. John's college in Cam- 
bridge; an eloquent preacher, and a sincere professor of 
true religion, and an exile for it under queen Mary. He 
was highly valued for his learning and piety. And when he 
returned home upon the access of queen Elizabeth to the 
crown, he returned not to the mastership of the college, nor 
to any higher preferment in the church, than to that of 
master of the said hospital. Among other his good merits, 
His address I shall mention an earnest address that he made, not long 
JJiJSJJ^J before his death, to the lord Burghley, that great patron of 
hospitals, learning and piety, in behalf of the revenues of divers col- 
leases. ' leges and hospitals : which, by means of impropriations an- 
nexed to them, had been leased out to tenants, and those 
tenants granted leases to under-tenants; to the great di- 
minishing of the true benefit that should have accrued to 
the members of those religious foundations ; small rents re- 
maining towards the maintenance of poor scholars or other 
poor ; by means of large sums privately paid to those that 
made these leases, in consideration of the good penny- 
worths granted to them. 

This Lever shewed to the aforesaid nobleman, with a 
great concern for these wrongs done to those houses ; and 
begged redress of it from him. And particularly urged to 
Stat. 37. him, for this purpose, a statute in 37 Henry VIII. for the 
Henry ' preventing of these abuses. In which statute there is a pro- 
vision, that no manner lands, tenements, possessions, &c. that 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 157 

were united to any colleges, chantries, hospitals, &c. be not CHAP, 
let or set to farm, but kept and reserved in the manurance, 



tillage, and occupation of the said masters, wardens, &c. for Anno 1577. 
the maintenance of good housekeeping; and that they 
might not make any leases for term of life or years. It 
may be worth repeating the sum of Lever's letter concern- 
ing the premises. 

" That it might please his honour to understand and His letter 
" consider, that in both the universities many leases of im- treasurer ; n 
" propriations were so made, bought, and sold, that some tliat cause. 
" such as had a lease of impropriation from a college did 
" set the same to an under-tenant. And so being indeed 
" neither landlord nor tenant, neither of the same parish 
" nor of the same college ; yet from all these common 
" places and persons, to his own private use, took above the 
" value of an 100/. for a fine, and 20Z. a year for an over- 
" plus of rent. Yea, masters, fellows, and others in colleges 
" which grant leases, take the same under other men's 
" names to themselves, or else fines and overplus of rents to 
" their own private profit. So now, many that should get 
" learning in colleges, and exercise the same in parishes, do 
" seek and take occasion to get private profit from parishes 
" and colleges, from landlords and tenants, to serve them- 
" selves in other places, and other vocations. 

" And as concerning colleges in the university, so it is 
" likewise concerning hospitals in other places. And by a 
" statute made 37 Henry VIII. purposely to preserve public 
" provisions and hospitals from private spoil, such of these 
" leases as have been made since, be utterly void. There- 
" fore if by any means the said statute be now newly put in 
" execution, many leases of impropriations belonging to 
" hospitals and colleges shall be found void. And order 
" may be taken that no lease be made hereafter by any 
" college or hospital of any impropriation, but that the in- 
"cumbent serving the cure shall have all tithes; and pay 514 
" thereof yearly the accustomed rent unto the proprietor, 
" being college or hospital. And so in such parishes, col- 



158 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " leges, and hospitals, all such provision made afore for doc- 
IIj " trine and hospitality, poverty and learning, shall remain, 
Anno 1577." or soon he reduced to the common use now that it was 
" first ordained ; and the daily perverting of the same 
" unto private spoil and profit be reformed or restrained. 
" And herein is great need, desire, and trust of your godly 
" wisdom and authority, to consider the case of colleges and 
" hospitals : and how for them the said statute was in good 
" time well made, and may and should now be well exe- 
" cuted : which God grant. 

" By your honour's to command in Christ, 

" Thomas Lever." 

Upon a flat marble stone in the chapel of Sherborn hos- 
pital, near the altar, is this inscription, Thomas Leaver, 
preacher to Icing Edward VI. He died in Jidy, 1577. 
He was succeeded in that hospital by his brother, Rafe 
Leaver. 



CHAP. XL 

Monsieur Gondy, French ambassador, comes to the court, 
with intent to go to the Scottish queen. News at court 
of foreign matters. Duke Casimire comes to court. 
His esteem here with the queen and nobles. His mani- 
festo in taking arms for the defence of those of the Low 
Countries. Simier, the French ambassador, still at 
court soliciting the amours of the duke of Anjou. The 
archbishop of York continues his visitation. Account 
thereof sent up. The trouble he met with about the dean 
of Durham, Whittingham : by occasion of inquiry into 
his orders, taken at Geneva. A commission for visita- 
tion of that church. 

Anno 1578. IN the beginning of May, 1578, comes monsieur Gondy, 
The French ^ F renc h kings ambassador, into England : whose chief 

ambassador ° ° 

comes hi- business was with the Scottish queen. And therefore came 
tl,er * first to wait upon queen Elizabeth, to have her leave to re- 

pair to that queen. How he appeared at court, and what 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 159 

respects he had there, a letter from court, writ by Gilbert CHAP. 
Talbot to his father, the earl of Shrewsbury, (one chiefly X1, 



concerned therein,) will shew: importing, "that he was Anno 1578. 

" lately come from the French king : and that on May-day 

" he had audience in the chamber of presence, and delivered 

" his message to her majesty with the king's letters : and 

" that he [Gilbert Talbot] heard, that the king sent him to 

" have licence of access to the Scottish queen : and from 515 

" her to go into Scotland : and that the king's letter was 

" only to that end. But that her majesty as yet had de- 

" nied him. But whether he should obtain leave hereafter, 

" he could not tell. Howbeit, he added, he wished his Epist. Co- 

" lordship [the earl] would have every thing in such order "n'offic. 01 ** 

" as he would desire ; lest he [the ambassador] should come Armor. 

" on the sudden, as another did to him (who was then with 

" his charge, viz. that queen) from the duke of Ascoite.'" 

With whom went secretary Wylson's servants, his chief 

secretary ; who was held to be a wise fellow, as Mr. Talbot 

said, [and so thought fit to attend that ambassador, and 

take notice of things that passed.] He proceeded, " That 

" this monsieur Gondy seemed to be a man of great ac- 

" count and port, and was the other day richly appareled 

" in jewels at the court. And that if he should get leave, 

" [i. e. to go to that queen,] it would be expected that his 

" entertainment there should be very great. He thought 

" there would be some other gentlemen sent from thence 

" [meaning from the court] with him down." 

Some further news of foreign matters (wherein England Foreign 
seemed to be concerned) was sent to the said earl of Shrews- John tiie™ 
bury in October from the lord Burghley. Which was, governor of 
" That by letters received but three hours before, he was lands, his 
" certainly informed, that don John de Austria was dead death > &c - 
" of the plague ; and the duke of Parma chose lieutenant ; 
" that the report of the death of Sebastian, king of Por- 
" tugal, and of the two kings of Fess, was true. That the 
" cardinal, named Henry, of the age of sixty-seven, was to 
" succeed : but that he dared not to take possession of the 
" crown until the pope should license him. 1 '' 



160 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
II. 

Anno 1578 
Duke Casi 
mire at 
court. 



Chosen of 
the order 
of the gar- 
ter. 



Gifts to 
him. 



5 16 



That duke's 
obligation 
to England 



Duke John Casimire, son of the elector palatine of the 
Rhine, was now come to the English court : a man of 
• worth and valour, a firm protestant, and a hearty favourer 
of the religion ; and that assisted the Netherlands in their 
defensive wars. He was highly favoured by the queen 
when he came : and at his departure, which was in Febru- 
ary 1578, when he took his leave of the queen, she pre- 
sented him with two cups of gold, of several fashions, worth 
300Z. apiece. But there was, it seems, something to do, 
to bring her hereunto, being a frugal princess, and sensible 
of her necessary and unavoidable expenses. And secretary 
Walsingham was the great mover, and employed therein 
with the queen. He was a few days before chosen of the 
order of the garter : and the earl of Leicester gave him 
for a present a rich collar and george at it, and two georges 
besides ; whereof one of them was an agate, a curious and 
rich piece. Also, the earl of Pembroke sent him from Wil- 
ton (where he now was retired, being not well) a fair george 
at a chain of gold, set with stones, which cost 1501. The 
earl of Leicester gave him also divers other things, as geld- 
ings, hawks, and hounds, wood-knives, falchions, horns, 
crossbows, and sundry pieces of broad cloth, fit for hunting- 
garments, both in winter and summer. For the said duke 
Casimire delighted greatly in hunting, and could choose 
his winter deer very well. A little before, he killed a 
barren doe with his piece in Hyde-park, from among three 
hundred other deer. The earl of Huntington was to go 
with the duke to Gravesend, and sir Henry Sydney to Do- 
ver. And the earl of Leicester had been almost continually 
with him since his coming to London. All this court- 
news did the lord Gilbert write to the earl of Shrewsbury, 
his father, in the month of February. 

And in the next month he communicated to him this 
further intelligence concerning the said Casimire; " That he 
" was safely landed at Flushing, after he had tarried a long 
" while on the coast on this side for a wind :"". adding his 
judgment concerning that duke's obligation, viz. " That he 
" was far to blame, if he spake not great honour of her ma- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 161 

"jesty and her realm. For there was never any of his CHAP. 
" coat, that was able to brag of the like entertainment that _ 



" he had received here. That it was said, that his elder Anno 1578. 
" brother the palsgrave [Frederick III.] was dead. And Casimire 
" then it was supposed, that duke Casimire was to hold his youn , r 
" room during the nonage of his elder brother's son, who i mnce p»'s- 
" was an infant. And if the said child miscarried, the 
" whole was his. And then should he be a very great 
" prince. That it was a great change for her majesty and 
" this realm, if it were so. For then she should possess a 
" noble, honest, able friend of this duke, to pleasure her ; 
" and lose an ill-affected froward Lutheran, if not an ob- 
" stinate papist in heart, of his elder brother." The news 
of the palsgrave's death proved true. 

And having said all this of this worthy German prince, His decia- 
who this year was at the English court, it may not be amiss n ^ s '°" sis t ^ 
to add further, what ingratiated him so much to the people in g the Low 
of this kingdom, namely, that he was so cordial to the in- 
terest of the reformed religion, and the liberty of his coun- 
try, by his hearty and zealous assistance of the oppressed 
in the Low Countries ; in relieving of whom the queen also 
bare a share, assisting him with large sums of money. And 
to justify himself in this enterprise to all the world, he set 
forth a manifesto in the month of June this year, both in 
the German and Latin tongue ; (a copy whereof was sent 
hither to court ;) shewing upon what great reason he under- 
took this expedition : namely, to put a stop to the most 
grievous, tyrannical oppression of those Low Countries, 
being part of his own native country, Germany. It was 
entitled, Brevis et luculenta expositio causarum, gicibus 
adductus illustriss. pr'inceps et domimis, dom. Johannes 
Casimirus, &c. i. e. " A brief and clear exposition of the 
" causes, whereupon the most illustrious prince and lord, 
" lord John Casimire, count palatine of the Rhine, duke of 
" Bavaria, &c. hath undertaken this expedition, to raise the 
" affairs of Belgium grievously afflicted.'" 

It began, Nos Johannes Casimirits, &c. " We, John 
" Casimire, by the grace of God, count palatine of the 

VOL. II. PART II. M 



162 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " Rhine, &c. To all and singular, who shall read this our 
IL " writing, of whatsoever order, dignity, or condition they 
Anno 1578. « be, we offer all our offices, endeavours, and respects ; and 
"have thought fit to signify these things to them: 11 and 
then proceeding in his declaration to this tenor : " That he 
" thought it not very necessary to unfold by many words 
" what had compelled as well him, as his associates and 
" consorts, to this defence : not indeed undertaken with any 
" desire of war, ambition, or their own advantage, but upon 
" great, weighty, and necessary causes, as well of Belgium, 
" undeservedly oppressed, as of the sacred German empire, 
" their common country ; against the violent, unjust, de- 
" structive, and intolerable attempts and assaults of don 
" John of Austria, and of those he had drawn with him 
" from divers, and those also strange nations. For they 
" were persuaded, that whosoever had any regard of ho- 
517" nesty and of their own country, or endued at least 
" with any skill of human affairs, the same did see and 
" know, how his and his associates 1 minds were inclined to 
" peace and tranquillity : and withal did well understand, 
" (which was so known and testified to all, whether in- 
" habitants and citizens of the empire, or of other parts, 
" that the very children were not ignorant of it,) how many 
" things had been acted wickedly, cruelly, inhumanly, and, 
" on those accounts, tyrannically, by the Spaniards, and 
" that sink of people that had been got together by them, 
" in Belgium, now for many years: not without the ca- 
" lamity and destruction of all the neighbouring countries ; 
" and chiefly of the sacred German empire, their dearest 
" country : and likewise what don John of Austria still 
" purposed and attempted, if he could bring to pass what 
" he had conceived in his mind, &c. 

" And, (some periods after,) though nothing would have 
" been more acceptable, than that the imperial majesty, 
" being placed in the highest degree of dignity, and others 
" of the superior states of the empire, would have under- 
" taken this province unanimously ; yet they deferring and 
" putting off this affair for certain causes unknown to him, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 1G3 

" he [the duke J being moved by their dangers and press- CHAP. 
" ing miseries, and weighing what common humanity, what X1, 



" Christian charity towards neighbouring provinces, sogriev- Anno 1578. 

" ously afflicted, and, in a word, what Germany, their com- 

" mon country, (as became a prince sprung of German 

" blood,) and so, in effect, what the whole Christian world 

" required of them ; he could not be wanting to those, thus 

" imploring their help, salva pietate, without breach of 

" piety ; but would herein disburden his conscience both 

" before God and all posterity,'" &c. Protesting, " That it 

" was not the prospect of any private gain, profit, or vain- 

" glory ; but that which he only sought was, the glory of 

" God, and the peace and tranquillity as well of Belgium, 

" as of his dearest country." 

And further, somewhat after, he added, " That he thought 
" it not to be passed over, that it appeared to have been the 
" true religion which he also professed, and which by the 
" singular blessing of God had taken deep root in Belgium, 
" which the Spaniard, the pope, and others, by that tyran- 
" nical Spanish inquisition, by grievous persecution, and by 
" fire and sword, endeavoured to destroy. Like as at that 
" very time don John would endure no mention of peace to 
" be made, unless on that condition first, that the Roman 
" catholic religion only should prevail and flourish in that 
" land." These are some passages gathered out of Casi- 
mire's noble declaration. It deserves to be revived, be- 
cause I do not find it in any of our histories, now extant, as 
I have the first print of it, dated June the 22d, 1578. 
Printed Neapoli Casimiriance. 

Monsieur Simier, the French ambassador, remained here The French 
still in the month of February; the queen continuing hcr^"; i( ^ ( s * a m 
very good usage of him and all his company. He had con- amours for 
ference with her majesty three or four times a week : and 
she was observed to be the best disposed and pleasantest 
when she talked with him, as by her gestures appeared, 
that was possible ; according to the observations that were 
made at court. This was the intelligence sent from the 
lord Talbot to the earl his father. The chief substance of 

M 2 



164 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK that ambassador's embassy was about the queen's marrying 
-with the French king's brother : who was much talked of 
Anno 1578. now t come over into England to court the queen. This 
^ "*■ ° opinion still held. But yet it was secretly bruited, that he 
could not take up so much money as he would, on such a 
sudden : and therefore would not come so soon. Of the 
queen-mother's coming also, it was rumoured at the court : 
and that she also would be here also very suddenly. But, 
saith the said earl's son in his letter to his father, he did not 
believe it. (Nor indeed did she come.] And a few months 
after, viz. in May 1579, the secret opinion then was, that 
the matter of monsieur's coming, and the marriage, was 
grown very cold : [though monsieur came indeed, yet 
without success.] And Simier was like shortly to go away. 
And that lord proceeding further, added, that he knew a 
man in that town, [perhaps the earl of Leicester, who knew 
most of the queen's mind,] that would take a thousand 
pounds, to be bound to pay double so much when mon- 
sieur married the queen's majesty. 

The arch- And now to turn to the affairs of religion and the church. 

bishop of g an( j. ys archbishop of York, continued his visitation of his 

York con- J ' r 7 

tinues his province ; having begun it the last year himself in person, 
visitation. an( j not ky deputies, with great diligence, and to his no 
His care for small expense. Wherein he found great want of good 
JreachlL? preachers to instruct the people, whom he perceived very 
ignorant in matters of religion. And for help hereof, he 
appointed such as were preachers, to take their turns at 
great towns; that there might be sermons preached once 
a fortnight. And he did also preach himself, as well as 
any other. The archdeacon he had appointed to procure 
Quarterly quarterly synods ; and the clergy that should meet there, to 
have some subject of divinity given them ; which they were 
to prepare then to give a discourse of, if they should be 
called out by a moderator appointed so to do. He met 
with two sorts of precisians among the ministers and cu- 
rates, one sort refusing to use the public service as ap- 
pointed by law; the other, asserting the obligations of 
Christians to the old Jewish law. He met also with others, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 165 

and they chiefly women, that would not be persuaded to CHAP, 
come to church ; chiefly influenced by some priests that 



were then imprisoned at Hull. Anno 1578. 

This and various other matters, which the archbishop what was 
discovered in his visitation, he wrote a particular account d ? n . e '" lus 

•i visitation : 

of to the queen : and more briefly the heads thereof to the shewed in a 

Lord treasurer, his friend, dated in April. And was to this the lord 

tenor: " That he had of late wrote to him, by his servant Burghiey. 

" Bernard Mawde: yet having occasion to send up his 

" chancellor, Dr. Lougher, he thought it convenient to 

" trouble him with a few lines. That he had ended his 

" visitation : which he did by himself, and not by deputies, 

" to his great charge. And that now, knowing the state of 

<e his diocese, he had by his letters advertised her majesty 

" thereof: declaring to her majesty, that there [in those 

" parts] was great want of teachers, by reason of an igno- 

" rant people, yet willing and of a capacity to learn. The 

" cause why, was, either the smallness of the livings in her 

" majesty*^ gift, and others ; either for that the best livings 

" were bestowed upon them that never came there. That 

" he set the preachers on work, to give to every market 

" and great town, every second Sunday, a sermon : and in 

" this exercise he had taken upon him to do so much as the 

" best. That for the increase of learning in the ministry, 

" he had ordered, that every archdeacon should keep four 

" synods in the year. The clergy there should be as- 

" sembled : some principal points of religion propounded : 

" all should be prepared to speak; but such only should 519 

" speak, as should by the grave moderators be called there- 

" unto. That they should speak to the matter, and not 

" vagari. And that this should be done among the mi- 

" nisters themselves. 1 '' 

He added, " That he had to do with precise folks there : 
" as well with such as had refused to serve in the church, 
" as the laws of this realm have prescribed ; as with such 
" as have set down erroneous doctrines, binding us to ob- 
" serve the Judicials of Moses. That he had brought the 
" former to good conformity ; the other openly to refuse 

m 3 



166 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " their error: that for the obstinate which refused to come 
" to church, (whereof the most part were women,) neither 



Anno 1578." could he, by persuasion nor correction, bring them to 
" any conformity. That they depended upon Comberford, 
" and the rest in the castle of Hull. And that if order 
w were not taken with them, he feared great inconvenience 
" would follow. That the meaner people there were idle : 
" by reason whereof the country was full of beggars; and 
" the laws provided in that behalf neglected. That they 
" were given to much drinking ; whereof followed great in- 
" continency ; as well appeared by the great numbers of 
" fornicators, presented in his last visitation. - " And then 
he subjoins, " Truly the cause whereof is the want of good 
" instruction. And the cause of the want of that he hinted 
" before. ,, 
The gentry Then he went on to give some account of what he had 
menfinthe observed of the gentry of those parts and the government 
north. there. " That the greater [and more eminent] sort of the 
*' people in that diocese, he meant men in authority and of 
" ability, was indeed hard to know. That they were of 
" great value, [i. e. estate,] and of great courage. But he 
" trusted [as though he doubted it] very good subjects. 
" That he was not made acquainted with the political go- 
" vernment of that country, [i. e. the north,] and therefore 
" could not say much : but he doubted not, but that my 
" lord president, [who was the earl of Huntingdon,] with 
*•* such as he called to take advice of, would very wisely 
" govern, according to the trust that was reposed in him." 
The arch- But by this visitation the painful, diligent archbishop 
slandered could not avoid slander, which reached as far as the court : 
for this vi- aS) f hi s lordly behaviour ; and for some opposition, sup- 
posed to have been made by him against the said lord pre- 
sident of the council in the north; and for getting good 
store of money of his clergy by means of this visitation ; 
and withal for his calling in question Whittingham, the 
dean of Durham's holy orders. These things thus reported 
of him came to the archbishop's ears. And therefore he 
thought it necessary to send up his chancellor, as well as his 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 167 

letter, to the lord treasurer, to be at hand to vindicate him CHAP. 
against misreports; and to satisfy that lord fully in any. 



inquiries he might make of his demeanour, or any other Anno 1578. 
matters concerning those parts. For so he concluded his 
letter : " That if his lordship would be further informed of 
" any matter in that country, this bringer, his chancellor, 
" could fully advertise him ; who was an honest, learned, 
" and wise man. And that if he prayed his lordship's 
" help for any of his [the archbishop's] matters and reason- 
" able suits, he trusted he would help to further them. 
" And thus remaining his lordship's, what he could, he 
" commended the same to the good directions of God's 
" holy Spirit." Ending all, " That he trusted his lord- 
" ship would let him know by this faithful messenger, who 5 20 
" they were that so untruly reported of him ; as, to oppose 
" himself against the lord president ; to use so great lord- 
" liness ; and to collect so great a mass of money of his 
" clergy, in respect of his preaching and travail." Dated 
from Bushopthorp, April 16, 1578. Subscribing, 
" Your lordship's most assured, 
" E. EBOR." 

By means of this letter and this messenger, the arch- The dean 
bishop became acquainted better with his accusation and J am ," r ^ r _ 
blame laid upon him : which chiefly was the matter be- ders called 
tween him and the dean of Durham. For when he visited by the arch . 
that church, he thought fit to call him before him, to shew bisho P- 
his orders that he had received (or rather no orders) at Ge- 
neva, from an English congregation of exiles there, ap- 
pointing him their minister. Several there were in those 
parts (and among others the lord president) that took the 
dean's part against the archbishop. The matter was at 
length carried to court ; and the archbishop represented as 
blameworthy for calling in question the dean's ministry. 
And though this fell out the next year, yet, that I may lay all 
this matter together, I will proceed in the relation of it 
here. 

This was looked upon as reflecting upon the church of 
m 4 



168 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK Geneva, though that church was not concerned in it. His 
good friend the lord treasurer had stood up for him at 



Anno 1578. cour t; and undertook for him, that if the council thought 
Of which g t tQ j f or ] 1UTl to answer this matter in person, he 

information i * 

was made would be able to justify himself, and would be ready at the 
afcourt! 1 " 11 council's command to come up. The archbishop well saw 
the hand of the puritans in all this trouble given him, by 
their suggestions unto their friends at court. And here- 
upon did hint to the lord treasurer, that all was like to go 
into confusion in the church, if every man might enter upon 
the ministry without orderly calling ; and if any one should 
become a minister, that was set up by a few lay people, as 
Whittingham was. " That if his ministry, without au- 
" thority of God or man, without law, order, or example 
" of any church, might be current ; take heed, said he, to 
" the sequel. Who saw not what was intended ? Praying 
" God to deliver his church from it. For his part, he 
" would never be guilty of it ; but should ever mislike of 
" confusion. 11 But see the archbishop's letter entire in the 
N».XIII. Appendix, which will more amply explain all this matter; 
being dated in April 1579. He wrote also at this time a 
large letter to the lords of the council upon the same occa- 
sion. 
A commis- But to fetch this memorable business a little backward, 
sum to the j n ^ 1576, the queen sent letters of commission to 

archbishop J ' * _ , 

and others, the lord archbishop, the lord president of the council in the 
pi P a°nt aC ° m ~ nortn > and the dean of York, for the hearing and deter- 
against the mining divers matters complained of against Mr. Whitting- 
Durham. ham, the dean of the church, and misdemeanours there. One 
whereof among; others seemed to be about that dean's or- 
ders; it being thought not lawful for him to hold that 
deanery in respect of his defect therein ; and worthy of de- 
privation, because his ministry was not warranted by the 
law of the land ; being ordained by a few lay persons in a 
house at Geneva. But the dean of York in this commission 
521 inclined greatly to that dean; and said, among other things, 
that Whittingham was in better sort ordained than our 
ministers in England. And, in the heat, added, that his 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 169 

own ministry was much better than his [the archbishop's] CHAP, 
was. — - — . — 



This dean of York and the archbishop had no good un- Anno 1578. 
derstanding together. For when the archbishop was minded ^f^The 
l o visit the chapter and members of the cathedral church of archbishop 
York, from time to time he protested against his visitation ; ™ aa of 
on purpose, as the archbishop complained, that the state of York, 
the said cathedral church should not come to any account 
or examination. But this by the by. 

What success then had that above-mentioned commission? Another 
But little, by reason of this and some other differences in Jo'vSt 'the 
the commissioners. And therefore in the year 1578, another ch urch of 

* 1 ■ j Durham. 

commission was granted forth from the queen to the said 
archbishop and president, viz. the earl of Huntington, the 
archbishop's chancellor, and others, to visit the church of 
Durham, where things were very much out of order. 

This very commission I met with in Mr. Rymer's collec-The com- 
tion of records and public acts, dated May the 14th, 20 Eliz. ™JJJ 
The commissioners named are the archbishop of York, Convent. 
Henry earl of Huntington, lord president of the North, Ri- p °78s'. 
chard bishop of Durham, John bishop of Carlisle, Thomas 
lord Evers, Matthew Hutton dean of York, sir William 
Mallory, and sir Robert Stapleton, knights, Robert Lough- 
er, and John Gibson, LL. DD. with some others. The 
preamble to the commission shewed the reason of her ma- 
jesty's issuing it out, in these words : Cum, sicut Jidedigna 
relatione accepimus ^celesta cathedralis Dunelmensis, tarn 
in spiritualibus, quam temporalibus suis, injuria, insolen- 
tia et negligentia, quam canonicorum, prabendariorum, 
qfficiariorum, et cceterornm ministrorum ejusdem, gravia 
jampridem incurrerit dispendia : quibus, nisi propediem de- 
bite* prospiciatur , ad irreparabilem jacturam de verisimili 
perveniet, nos, &c. They were authorized to visit, as well 
in the head and members, the cathedral church of Durham, 
and the dean and chapter, and all other members, &c. And 
among divers other things, to require and see the letters and 
muniments whatsoever, of the dean, prebendaries, canons, 
as well for their orders, as benelices obtained by them ; and 



170 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK them diligently to examine and search: and if they found 

' any of them not sufficient on that behalf, to dismiss them 

Anno 1578. from their offices and benefices. This was the paragraph 

that touched the dean. 
The archbi- And in November from Aukland, (whence they returned 
up°anac- S from the visitation,) the archbishop sent letters to the lords 
count of the f t ne council, giving a general report of what they had 
done. Which letters were signed also by the lord president 
and the rest of the commissioners. But the lord president, 
being a favourer of puritans, soon, in the same month of 
November, sent a private previous letter to the lord trea- 
surer about this matter, as not liking the proceedings. And 
for what reasons they were disliked by him, we shall see by 
his said letter, after we have first given a particular relation 
of the matter from one of the commissioners, viz. the chan- 
cellor of the archbishop. 
A relation " Memorandum. W. W. now dean of Durham, hath 
found (lean " not proved, that he was orderly made minister at Geneva, 
Whittmg- t( according to the order of the Geneva [book or office] by 
ders. " public authority established there. 

522 " The objection was, it was affirmed, that he was neither 
Paper-office. « deacon nor minister, according to the laws of this realm, 
" but a mere layman. By way of answer he confesseth, 
" that he is neither deacon nor minister according to the 
" order and law of this realm. But that he is a mere lay- 
" man he denieth. For, saith he, I was ordered in queen 
" Mary's time in Geneva, according to the form there used : 
" which I think to be one in effect and substance with the 
" form now used in England, or allowed of in king Ed- 
" ward's time. Which orders of mine were as agreeable to 
" the law of this realm as any other form, until the eighth 
" year of the queen's majesty's reign. 

" To his confession, that he is not deacon nor minister, 
" according to the laxv of the realm, I add her majesty's let- 
" ter writ to the archbishop of York, my lord and master ; 
" commanding us, the commissioners, chiefly and above all 
" other things, that we should inquire of his ministry ; and 
" limiting, how, if he be not ordered by some superior au- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 171 

" thority, according to the laws and statutes of our realm, chap. 
" then my express pleasure and command is, saith her ma- 



" jesty, &c. What we, as commissioners, as her majesty's Anno 1578. 
" subjects, were to do in this case ; how her majesty's laws 
" were correspondent, and ready for the execution, I urge 
" not, but leave to your honourable consideration, &c. 

" The latter part of his answer is wholly untrue. But I 
" impute it to his ignorance: which is the less excusable, 
" because it is ignorantia juris. For in the first year of her 
" majesty's reign, in the same moment of time, and by the 
" same authority that queen Mary's ordering was repealed, 
" king Edward's was revived. And many learned and godly 
" ministers were made before the eighth year, and since the 
'* first of her majesty's reign. 

" In the eighth year, upon some doubt in Boner's case, a 
" further addition, declaration, and confirmation was made 
" of king Edward's statute, for ordering of ministers, and 
" consecrating bishops. 

" Whittingham's certificate, that he was ordained at Ge- 
u neva. 

" He exhibited two certificates. The first was exhibited 
" by himself at Durham, bearing date July the 8th, the 
" twentieth of the queen, subscribed by eight persons. That 
" certificate had these words, That it pleased God, by lot 
" and election of the whole English congregation, there 
" orderly to choose W. W. to the office qf preaching the word 
" of God and ministering the sacraments.'''' 

Three faults found with this certificate, viz. " That it 
" might have been made in Mr. W.'s chamber, for any thing 
" that appeared in the certificate to the contrary : that they 
" were not sworn witnesses. The archbishop laid hold on 
" those words, by lot and election : offering, that neither in 
" Geneva, nor in any reformed church in Europe, it could 
" be proved, that any such orders were ever used or al- 
" lowed of; first and last only it was seen used in Matthias 
" the apostle. 

" For the confirmation of his opinion, he avouched Mr. 



172 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOO K "" Calvin ; who affirmeth, that the election was not, nor is to 
IL " be drawn into example. In this point Mr. Dean of York 
Anno 1578. " and Mr. Archdeacon Ramesden did not disagree from the 
" archbishop. 

" The next meeting at York, a month after, and more, 
" the dean exhibited another certificate, subscribed with the 
" same persons ; one only of the eight changed, and another 
" set in his place, with the amendment of the faults which 
523 " were in the first. First, It was dated at London, the 15th 
" of November. Second, They were sworn upon the holy 
" evangelists before a public notary. Thirdly, Lot and 
" election was turned into suffrages, viz. It pleased God, by 
" the suffrages of the whole congregation, {English was left 
" out,) orderly to choose Mr. W. W. unto the office of 
" preaching the word of God and ministering the sacra- 
" ments. Further, they say, that he was admitted minister, 
" and so published, zoith such other ceremonies as there is 
" used and accustomed. 
John Bod- " There is no proof of the fact. He knew not the wit- 
" nesses. I know them not ; but only Mr. John Bodley ; 
" whom, for the integrity of his life, and just dealing in the 
" world, I believe to be an honest man." The lawyer here 
objected against these witnesses. [This was pleaded be- 
fore the queen's commissioners at York.] " He shewed, 
" there were wanting external solennitates, authoritatem 
" ordinantis. Which, by Buce^s opinion, ought to be a bi- 
" shop or superintendent. And the Jbrmam ordinationis, 
" which chiefly consisteth in imposition of hands. r> This was 
a paper brought up to court, concerning their proceedings 
with Mr. Whittingham. 
The earl of But now to shew how the lord president thought of these 
ton's ac- dealings, and how he represented the dean of Durham's case 
count of the tQ t j ie j Qrt j t reasurer v i z . "That he had considered with 

dean s case. ' 

" himself of the matter in hand ; which, as hitherto he had 
" seen by the dealing in it, was, he thought, of more weight 
" than some of them did take it to be. And concerning 
" their manner of proceeding therein, in his judgment, they 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 173 

" had need to be better advised, than he doubted they CHAP. 

" should be, except they were from higher authority ad- 

" monished." Anno 1578 - 

Then he proceeded to acquaint his lordship with the mat- 
ter more especially ; viz. " That when they came into the 
" chapter-house, after the reading of the commission, and 
" all the ceremonies passed, (which he perceived to be in such 
" cases usual, before they entered into any dealing,) it was 
" manifest to them all there present, that for that time the 
" purpose was to deal with the dean [of Durham] only ; and 
" with the rest some other time. 

" Against the dean there were articles thirty-five, and 
" interrogatories forty-nine, ready drawn in the hand of 
" the promoter, to be put into the court : with which, 
" as was there affirmed, none of the commissioners ever 
" were acquainted before. They all thought it not unfit to 
" deal first with the dean, because he was the principal 
" man. And then, as occasion served, to deal with the rest 
" of the prebendaries. But some thought it to be most 
" meet to begin their general inquiry of all disorders, and 
" of all persons in that church : which was in the end ac- 
" corded to by all. And so they proceeded to the spending 
" of more time than was intended : and yet done no more 
" at present [that is, when the lord president wrote this 
" letter] than made an inquiry : adjourned the court thi- 
" ther, that is to Awkland, till the 25th of the instant No- 
" vember. 

" Against the dean this matter was first certificated and 
" most especially urged, that he was not made minister ac- 
" cording to the laws of this realm, but is mer£ laicus ; and 
" so to be deprived." Concerning this the lord president 
wrote his judgment thus : " How in other matters al- 
" leged against him there may fall out good cause of de- 
" privation, he knew not ; but if that be the mark, (saith 
" he,) as it is indeed, if the vox populi be true, he wished 524 
" it might be hit some other way, rather than once touched 
" by this that concerned his ministry. 

" The dean made this reply to this article : That he was 



174 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " able to prove his vocation to be such and the same, that 
u ' " all the ministers in Geneva use to have. The lord presi- 
Annoi578. " dent upon this subjoined his opinion: that his lordship 
u [the lord treasurer] could judge what flame this spark 
" was like to breed, if it should kindle : for it could not but 
" be ill taken of all the godly learned both at home, and in 
" all the reformed churches abroad, that we should allow 
" of the popish massing priests in our ministry, and dis- 
" allow of the ministers made in a reformed church. He 
" added, that truly the urging of it in the conference that 
" already they had had, made him greatly to doubt, that at. 
" the next they, the commissioners, should much differ in 
" opinion for this matter ; as already there had been great 
" difference grown between the archbishop and the dean of 
" York upon this case. And for himself, he must confess 
" to his lordship plainly, that he thought in conscience he 
" might not agree to the sentence of deprivation for that 
" cause only. 

" Whereupon he wished, that as for many other causes 
" he could rehearse, but especially this that he had noted, 
" (which indeed was the chief of all,) that they, the com- 
" missioners, might be admonished [i. e. by the council] be- 
" fore the next court day, to proceed in other matters con- 
" cerning the good government of the house, and such like 
" causes; whereof there is store. And in case of depriva- 
" tion, especially for this cause of his ministry, to stay to 
" deal till another time, when with better advice it may be 
" proceeded in : which, he said, might easily be done. For 
" their commission was limited to no certain time ; but had 
" continuance, till her majesty should please to revoke it.' 11 
How far further this commission went with this church, I 
know not ; but the dean's death, happening little more than 
half a year after, might prevent their proceeding further 
with him than hath already been declared. 

I do not find any act of parliament all this while urged 
in vVhittingham's behalf ; though divers years afterwards it 
was said to have been done in such another case, T mean 
in that of Mr. Travers ; who had been ordered by a presby- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 175 

tery at Antwerp : when, his orders being called in question, CHaP. 
the statute of the 13 Eliz. was alleged for the validity of his ___ 



ordination. By which act of parliament their ordination Anno 1578. 
was allowed, who had been ordered by another order than The sta_ 

tute of 

that which was here established: which was for the allow- 13 Eliz. 

ino- their ordination, who had been ordered by another or- !" whlt ' t 
° J tinghama 

der ; being made of like capacity to enjoy any place of mi- case, 
nistry within England, as they that had been ordered ac- 
cording to that is now by law in this case established. 
Which comprehended such as were made priests according 
to the order of the church of Rome. Hence they inferred, 
that were on Whittinghanvs side, that hence it must needs 
be, that the law of a Christian land, professing the gospel, 
should be as favourable for a minister of the word as for a 
popish priest. Which also was so found (as Travers asserts 
in his Supplication to the council) in Mr. Whittingham 1 s Suppiica- 

tion to the 
Case ' council. 

I add further this note of Whittingham, that he and his A note of 
party in the time of the exile of the English in queen ^ Mro" 
Mary's reign, at Frankford, used not the English form of b'es at 
prayer, but the form used by those of Geneva, the purest /^l ° rc 
reformed church in Christendom ; as he writ and styled it in 
a letter to a friend in England. And this occasioned those 
troubles and differences among the exiles there. 

In short, as for the rest of the members of that house, The irregu- 
and their management of that church and the divine service j*"*" 5 " of 

t the dean 

performed there, thus did the archbishop inform the lord and chapter 
treasurer, in another letter dated in April : " That arch- ° f D,,rham - 
" deacon Pilkington, and one young Bunny, precise men, 
" wrought all the trouble. 11 The former had been before 
the council ; and was, he said, too gently used ; and that 
made him brag : adding, " If your lordship knew the usage 
" of that house, verily you would abhor it. 11 [Meaning the 
college, and their irregular ways of the public worship, and 
other customs, and of embezzling the revenues.] 



17C ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



book CHAP. XII. 

Abbot Feckenham at the bishop of Ely's. Conferences with 

Anno 1578. j^ m ^ ^ i s ] W p . an( i fyj J) r . Pern, dean of Ely. An 

account thereof written to court. Feckenham 1 s confession. 
The said bishop's excellent letter to the queen, being in 
her progress. He orders the stay of vessels laden with 
corn, passing through his liberties, in order to transport 
it from Lynn. Deodands claimed by the bishop of Salis- 
bury, the queen's almoner. Dr. Young becomes bishop of 
Rochester : his character. The case between the bishop 
of Bath and Wells and the lord Powlet about impropriat- 
ing a benefice. 

xjLND as we have related these notices of one pious bishop, 
falling within this year, so there occur divers other things 
worthy remark of some others of that order. 

It was the custom in this queen's reign, by her gentleness 

and favour, to commit the popish prelates, and such others 

in orders that had been of note, to the houses and custody 

of the bishops. 

Abbot Feckenham, late abbot of St. Peter's, Westminster, was 

at the bi- retained with Cox, bishop of Ely ; with whom he had been 

shop of now a y ear or more : anc J the bishop courteously suffered 

lily s house. . J , ... 

him to eat at his table. The queen had signified her desire to 
that bishop, to use his endeavour to bring the abbot, being 
a man of learning and temper, to acknowledge her supre- 
macy, and to come to the church. Now what the bishop 
had done herein, he acquainted the lord treasurer by a let- 
ter dated in the month of August. First, giving this cha- 
racter of him : " That he was a gentle person, but in popish 
Conferen- " religion too, too obdurate. And that he had often confer- 
ees wit i (( ence w j t j^ j^ m A n( j t] ier learned men at his request had 

526 " conferred with him also ; touching going to church, and 
" touching taking the oath to the queen's majesty. The 
" bishop added, that he had examined him, whether the 
" pope were not an heretic : alleging to him the saying of 
" Christ, Reges gentium dominantur ; [i.e. The kings qf the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 177 

gentiles exercise lordship over the?n.~\ Vos autem non sic; chap. 
i. e. But it shall not be so among you. That the people XI1, 



" in all his government did contrary to this. And that they Anno 1578. 

" did maintain it by all means, by fire and sword, &c. That 

" his answer was, That that was the sorest place in all scrip- 

" ture against him." And further added, " That when he 

" was in some hope of his conformity, he [the abbot] said 

" unto him, All these things that be laid against me, with 

" leisure I could answer them. And further said, That he 

" was fully persuaded in his religion, which he will stand 

" to. When I heard this, said the bishop, I gave him 

" over; and received him no more to my table." And in 

some zeal subjoining, " Whether it be meet that the ene- 

" mies of God and the queen should be fostered in our 

" houses, and not used according to the laws of the realm, 

" I leave to the judgment of others. What my poor judg- 

" ment is, I will express, being commanded. I think my 

" house the worse, being pestered with such a guest. Yet 

" for obedience sake I have tried him thus long;. 

" And finally, he wished that he and the rest of his com- 
" pany were examined and tried in open conference in the 
" universities: but not as good Cranmer, good Latymer, 
" good Ridley, and others more ; from disputations to the 
" fire. In the mean season, this my guest might have some 
" imprisonment in the university, where learned men might 
" have access unto him." This letter the bishop dated from 
Ely, styling it, that unsavoury isle with turves and dried 
up loads, the 29th of August, 1578. 

Dr. Perne, dean of Ely, was one of those the said bishop Dean of Ely 
desired to have some discourse with the said Feckenham; f onfersw ' tl1 

' him ; and 

which he undertook some months before. And what success the success 
he had, take from his own account thereof, given to the ' ere ° ' 
said lord treasurer ; viz. " That he had divers conferences 
" with Mr. Feckenham, sometime abbot of Westminster, 
" (and that in the presence of divers learned men,) at the 
" request of the bishop of Ely, unto whose custody he was 
"■ then committed. And this, he said, he the rather wrote 
" to his lordship, for that in his opinion it was very good 

VOL. II. PART II. X 



178 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " and expedient to have those things known unto his ho- 

" nour and unto others, which the said Feckenham had in 

Anno 1578." his said conferences confessed and granted unto him and 

" others, before Mr. Nicolls, his honour's chaplain, and be- 

" fore Mr. Stanton, chaplain to the bishop of Ely. And at 

" another time he had granted and acknowledged unto him, 

" in the presence of Mr. Holt, a preacher, and of one Mr. 

" Crowe, reader of the divinity lecture in the cathedral 

" church of Ely. 

Feckenham « First, He did confess, that he did acknowledge the su- 

ledeed the " premacy of the queen's majesty in causes ecclesiastical, in 

queen's su- a suc \ l mann er as it is set forth and declared in her majesty's 

prcniticv 6C- 

ciesiasticai. " Injunctions, set forth by her highness and her clergy, for 

" the true understanding of the words of the act of parlia- 

" ment made for the same. Which injunction I did read 

" unto him, being printed. But that, as Dr. Perne added, 

" he did mislike these words in the act of parliament, that 

527" s ^ e s h° u ld be supreme governor, as well in causes eccle- 

" siastical as civil. Whereby, he said, she had authority 

" to preach and minister sacraments, and consecrate bi- 

" shops, &c. Which was otherwise declared in her majesty's 

" said Injunctions. The which he did very well allow. 

Allowed the " Secondarily, He did very well allow to have the com- 

theTuigar " mon service in the church to be read in the vulgar tongue 

tongue. (( to a \\ tne people that should hear the same. And he did 

" profess unto me, saith Dr. Perne, in his conscience and 

" before God, that he did take the fourteenth chapter of the 

" first epistle to the Corinthians to be as truly meant of 

" public prayer in the congregation, to the edifying of the 

" people, as of public preaching, or prophesying. But he 

" would have this allowed by the authority of the bishop of 

" Rome. 

Found no " Thirdly, Where he, the said dean of Ely, had made a 

the Com- " discourse, and a comparison between the Book and Or- 

moriPrayer. « J er f Common Prayer used in the church of England 

" this day, with the book and order of service used in the 

" church in the time of popery, he saying, that he [Fecken- 

" ham] could find no fault with the Book of Common Ser- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 179 

" vice which was now, except he must condemn that CHAP. 
" which he used in the portas and mass-book: for that we 



" have those Psalms, the Epistles and the Gospels, those Anno 1578. 

" Collects and other prayers, which be either taken out of 

" the word of God, or consonant to the same, and were 

" taken out and chosen by godly, learned men, out of those 

" ordinary prayers that were used in the time of ignorance 

" and superstition : leaving out all other things brought in 

'•' by the inventions of men, into the said portas and mass- 

" book, which had no warrant of the word of God, or were 

" repugnant to the same : he did answer, that he did find 

" no fault with those things which were in the book ; but 

" he wished there should be more things and prayers added 

" to the same. And that as he liked well of prayers therein But would 

" that were made to Almighty God in the name of his Son thereunto* 

" Jesus Christ ; so he Avould also have added the invocation our la(1 y 

" of our blessed lady, and other saints, and the prayers for sa i n t s . 

" the dead." 

All which his, the said Mr. FeckenhanVs, confession, the 
dean tells the lord treasurer, that he had declared unto my 
lord of Ely ; desiring him that he would make the same 
known unto her majesty, or unto his honour. The bishop, But refuses 
upon this confession, had earnestly requested him, [the jj° this bib 
dean,] that he would get his hand and subscription to the confession. 
same. For that the said Mr. Feckenham, after the reason- 
ing that had been with him, said to the said bishop, when 
he, the dean, was gone, that if'he had leisure, he would an- 
swer to all those authorities and reasons that were brought 
out against him in these articles and others. Which thing 
when the dean demanded of him, and he refused to set his 
hand to it, he urged him as vehemently as he could ; signi- 
fying, how great good he might do by the same, in the 
reducing of many from blind and obstinate superstition, 
wherein they were led, rather by his and others'' example, 
than by any reason : reducing also both them and others 
thereby from wilful extremities to some better order and 
godly conformity, and some pacification. 

The dean said moreover, that he needed not be afraid to 
n2 



180 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK subscribe to that, which, in his conscience and before God, 
he did confess to be true. He did also move him, that if he 

Anno i578. wou ld no t give my lord of Ely his hand for these matters, 
that he would write his letters unto the queen's majesty, or 
528 to his honour, [the lord treasurer,] acknowledging the same. 
The which thing the dean further told him, that if he would 
do, he might procure unto himself great favour, both at her 
majesty's hands, and also at his honour's. 

And why. To all which arguments used by the dean, he made this 
answer: " That he was persuaded of a singular good-will, 
" he said, both that her majesty and his honour bore unto 
" him, if he should shew himself any thing conformable. 
** That he thought verily, that if it were not for her ma- 
" jesty and his honour, that it would have been worse with 
" him and others of his sect than it was at that day. For 
" the which, he said, that he did daily, and was bound to 
" pray, for the long preservation of her majesty, and also 
" for his lordship's honourable estate. But yet to subscribe 
" he did refuse ; saying, That if he should subscribe and 
" yield in one thing, he had as good to yield in all. 11 " The 
" which, the dean then told him, was not well said, except 
" he were well persuaded in all. For to yield to that, which 
" he confessed plainly in his conscience before God to be 
" true, was the duty of every Christian man. But to con- 
" fess that which he was not so persuaded of, he would not 
" enforce him [to do] against his conscience. 11 

The dean >j;h e dean ] e nt him a Bible of the annotations of Vatablus 

the Bible and Marlorate upon Genesis. Which were very good books; 

with anno- an( j | ie ^^ g- rea t[y commend them. Of this particular he 

tations. . . . , 

thought fit to acquaint the lord treasurer in his letter. 
Concluding, that Mr. Nicolls, his lordship's chaplain, at- 
tending upon him at the present, could more at large de- 
clare what he had writ. And thus referring the whole mat- 
ter unto his lordship's best consideration, he humbly took 
his leave. From Cambridge, the 11th of May, 1578. Sub- 
scribing, 

" His honour's daily orator always to command, 

" Andrew Perne. 11 



UNDER. QUEEN ELIZABETH. 181 

The same aged good bishop of Ely, in the same month CHAP, 
in which he wrote to the treasurer about Feckenham, con- ' 



gratulated her majesty, now in her progress towards Nor- Anno 1578. 
wich, in an elegant Latin letter: therein excusing his wait- ^ e E ^' *°£ 
ing upon her by reason of his age ; but that he was ready letter to the 

/• i ii • tt j. 1 queen con- 

to creep upon his knees to do her service. He takes occa- gratH jates 

sion to repeat his desire that he moved to her a few years her P r °" 
. . . • i • p 1 • s ress in 

before, to resign his bishopric to her in consideration of his those parts. 

age : when she was pleased graciously to answer him, Not 

yet. Now he moved it again by the example of Moses, 

who, growing old, appointed Joshua his successor : and of 

St. Augustin, who, being aged, procured Alipius to succeed 

him. Then, like a father of the church, took the liberty to 

put her in mind, " That she was the supreme governor of the 

" church of England ; a great trust committed to her by 

" God : that she was the nurse, the defender thereof. And 

" therefore that she should cause that such priests as were 

" idle, or ambitious, covetous, simoniacs, to be driven out 

" of this her church ; and that with shame ; as Christ 

" whipped out such monsters out of the temple : and that 

'.* as for such that were pious pastors, and inflamed with a 

" zeal of true religion, let them be cherished, encouraged, 

" and esteemed worthy of double honour : let them not be 

" despised, trampled upon, and exposed. He told her, that 

" was a weighty saying of our Saviour; He that despiseth 529 

" you despiscth me. And that this contemptuous dealing 

" with her conscientious clergy was the plain way to papism, 

" turcism, and to all wickedness and iniquity. But, as he 

" subjoined, her godly zeal went another way : who had 

" hitherto, by the grace of God, so constantly and success- 

" fully conserved and defended the true religion of Christ, 

" now for this twenty years, in spite of the Devil and all her 

" majesty's enemies. He commended her, not only for her 

" care of her own churches, but that she had a concern for 

" the whole catholic church ; and particularly for the neigh- 

" bouring protestant reformed churches, who had lately 

" sent some learned, able persons to appease the differences, 

" and promote an union in the churches of Germany. 

n3 



182 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " Which caused him to compare her with the emperor Con- 
" stantine : O, queen ! O, woman ! truly godly, that comest 



Anno 1578. " so near to the example of Constantine the Great. 

He proceeded by observing, how wonderfully God had 
blessed her endeavours, that her kingdom lived in godliness 
and tranquillity. And when wars and rumours of wars were 
round about, she in the mean time, by her prudence, pre- 
served peace at home, and likewise contributed her endeavour 
(as much as possible) to procure it abroad. And concluding 
with his own private affair, he thanked her majesty, that she 
had freed him from a tedious lawsuit, remitting it to her 
chancery, that court of equity ; though not without much 
difficulty obtained : and so praying the Lord Jesus to pre- 
serve her highness, increasing from faith to faith, safe for 
many years, blessed in an happy kingdom ; and that at last 
she might obtain eternal life with Christ, in the celestial 
paradise ; subscribing, episcopus tuus humillimus, Richar- 
dus Elien. But the whole letter, in the smooth Latin style, 
in memory of the man, and in respect of the royal person to 
whom he addressed it, as also of the matter whereof it con- 
No. xiv. sists, deserves to be preserved. See the Appendix, where it 

is recorded. 
The bishop J have one remark more to make of this useful, good bi- 
of corn go- shop ; which is this : that for the public good of the country, 
^*° Lynn and especially of the poor, to prevent the advance of the 
portation. price of corn, he appointed some of his officers to seize upon 
certain vessels, which passed through his jurisdiction, laden 
with corn, towards Lynn, where it was transported in great 
quantities. In the month of June, one of these vessels, 
passing through the isle of Ely, was stopped ; and the ma- 
riners brought before the bishop. Of this matter, for the 
better redress hereof, he thought fit to acquaint the lord 
treasurer, in a letter, to this purport: " That there were 
" daily complaints come unto him, that divers persons, that 
" occupied keels to Lynn, did engross in their hands very 
" much corn out of Huntingtonshire and other places, and 
" carried the same by water through his liberties to Lynn ; 
"• and there sold it to merchants, who transported it, he knew 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 183 

" not whither. And that by this means the prices of corn CHAP. 
" began to rise, and the poverty of the country began to 



" grudge very much at it. And that he [the bishop] there- Anno 1578. 

" fore, seeking to redress this fault within his jurisdiction, 

" had given warning to his officers, who dwelt near those 

" waters where they passed, to stay them, and to bring them 

" unto him, that he might see what licence they had so 

" to do. 

" And that even then his officers of a town in the isle, 530 
" called March, had stayed a keel laden with an hundred and 
" ten comb of pease, passing towards Lynn, without any 
" licence at all. That the men that owned the pease were 
" mariners, and had nothing to say for themselves why 
" they did so, but only that poverty constrained them to 
" seek their living. And that this was the first time, as 
" they said, that ever they had begun to do it. Great moan 
" they made, and seemed very sorrowful for their fact. 
" And concluded, that he thought good to give his honour 
' k knowledge of it ; and craved his advice, what he should do 
" in this and the like case hereafter, if it should come to his 
" hands."" This he dated from his house in Donnington. 
And thus we leave this bishop till the next year, when we 
shall have him soliciting the queen for his resignation 

There happened some controversy now between the bi- Matter be- 

. . tween the 

shop of Salisbury, Dr. Piers, and the earl of Shrewsbury, queen's ai- 
about deodands ; which seemed to belong to him- as the ™ oner f nd . 

& the earl of 



queen's almoner, to bestow by his discretion as her majesty's Shrewsbury 

about d 
dands. 



alms. The earl did not deny them, but was willing to com- a3 



pound with the bishop for them for a term of years : and he 
appointed his son, lord Gilbert, then at court, to discourse with 
him thereupon. The sum of which discourse he acquainted 
the earl with, in a letter dated the beginning of May, which 
was, that he had spoken with that bishop, who was almner, 
touching the deodands ; and told him, that he could not com- 
pound with his lordship, or any other ; but that he would be 
contented to appoint a gentleman, whom his lordship should 
name to his deputy, for the gathering of all the deodands, 
which should happen within any of his liberties ; so that the 

n 4 



184 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK gentleman would render his accounts to the bishop once a year. 
' And thereupon he said, that he would command him to deal 



Dr. Young 
becomes 
bishop of 
Rochester. 



Anno 1578. reasonably with his lordship : and that for any right that his 
lordship should have to them within his liberties, unless his 
lordship had special words of limitation in his charter, no 
general words, were they never so large, would be sufficient. 
And therefore he said, that if his lordship would shew his 
charter, and that those special words were found therein, 
he [the lord almoner] would not stand with his lordship and 
others : and required that his lordship would not mislike 
with him ; since otherwise he should be utterly condemned 
by all that should succeed him in that office. 

This year John Young, D. D. master of Pembroke hall, 
in Cambridge, entered upon the see of Rochester. Of whom 
bishop Elmer gave this character : " Commending him for 
" his quickness in government and readiness in learning ; 
" fit to bridle innovators, not by authority only, but by 
" weight of argument." This bishop wrote notes upon H. 
N.'s book, called EvangeUum Regni : which were published, 
anno 1579, when H. N. was the broacher of the sect of the 
family of love. 

The arms granted him upon his becoming bishop by 
garter king of arms, were, gyronne of Jour, gules and 
azure, a lion per Jesse, passant, guardant between two flower 
de luce, or. The patent dated, London, 12th April, 1578. 

I find in the lord treasurer's books the account of the 
yearly value of the income of the new bishop of Rochester, 
thus set down ; holding, it seems, some preferments in com- 
mendam. 

Imprimis, The bishopric valet clare, ii c and iiii xx Z. 

Item, The benefices of S. Muge and Wouldan, clare, cxxl. 

Two prebends at Westminster and Southwel, xlv/. 
Sum, iiii c xl. 

Item, Perquisites of corn. Item, Parcas, [parks,] and 
bosci, [woods.] 

The bishop of Bath and Wells struggled this year with 
Weils stops the lord Thomas Powlet; who attempted to make a per- 
an impro- P et ual impropriation of West Monkton, a good benefice in 

priation. 



His arms 
assigned 
him. 

Sheld. N. 
162. 

This bi- 
shop's in- 
come. 



531 



The bishop 
of Bath and 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 185 

his gift ; but changing his mind, devised to make a lease of CHAP. 
it to the queen for five hundred years ; and to take it again 



of her, without confirmation of the bishop : which he would Anno 1578. 
not consent unto. Of this he, fearing his own strength, 
made the lord treasurer acquainted, and begged his assist- 
ance. This that lord Powlet endeavoured to bring about, 
by making over the patronage to the queen, and by the pre- 
sent incumbent ; who was to make the queen a lease of five 
hundred years, and he to have 80Z. a year for his life, 
(though the benefice was worth an 100Z. per annum,) and 
the incumbent afterwards to have 30Z. a year. But the 
good bishop would not give his hand to it, however earnestly 
by that lord he was moved to do it : " Considering the ex- 
" ample that was like to follow, to the great decay (as he 
" writ) of the clergy, if this should be brought into a cus- 
" torn. And then few benefices of any value, but would be 
" brought to little enough. And besides, by such altera- 
" tions, as the bishop added, the queen would lose her dues ; 
" and the ministers brought to poverty ; and so the gospel 
" and ministry brought at last to utter contempt."" Thus 
that lord's course upon this denial of impropriating it, was 
to give the patronage unto the queen ; and the incumbent 
to make a lease to her, the better to bring it about. All this 
the bishop shewed the lord treasurer ; whose pains was re- 
quired to put a stop to it. The bishop's letter may be read 
in the Appendix, for some memorial of that conscientious N». XV. 
prelate. 



186 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

book CHAP. XIII. 

Sectaries. Their principles, and dangerous assertions. 

Anno 1578. Coppin, a prisoner in Bury. Wilsford; makes it an 
high crime in the queen to be styled caput ecclesia?. 
Chark and Dering; their sayings. A bookseller taken 
up for selling the Admonition to the Parliament. Mack- 
worth holds the having two wives lawful. Imprisoned in 
the Marshalsea. The council's order about him. Large 
indulgences accompanying certain crucifixes, given by 
the pope to Stukely. Exeter college popish. The state 
of the university of Cambridge. A decree made against 
the disguised apparel of students. Peter-house : the 
state thereof Dr. Perne, master thereof: his good go- 
vernment. The heads complain of mandamuses to their 
chancellor : which he acquaints the queen with. 

Several dis- JN O W for the state of religion. Divers there were that 
persons to stirred this year against the present establishment of it ; who 
the religion met ^h trouble for their attempts against its government 

established. .-..,. r ° & 

and discipline. 
John Cop- Q ne f these was John Coppin, now a prisoner in the gaol 

pin, a sec- . . . . . i i • i 

tary. at Bury St. Edmund s, having been committed thither two 

years before by the commissary of the bishop of Norwich, 
for his disobedience to the ecclesiastical laws of the realm ; 
whereunto he would not yet conform himself, although he 
had been sundry times exhorted thereto by many godly and 
learned preachers, repairing publicly to him to bring him to 
conformity : and so Mr. Andrews, a justice of peace, living 
in that town, by letter informed the lord treasurer. And 
his wife, being delivered of a child there, at Bury, in Au- 
gust last ; and it being now December, the said child re- 
mained yet unbaptized. For he said, none should baptize 
his child, except he were a preacher ; and that then also it 
should be done without godfathers and godmothers. This 
man held many fantastical opinions, whereby he did very 
much hurt there, in Bury ; by the common opinion of the 
best, and the most number of learned preachers that had 
conference with him in those matters : who wished him to be 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 187 

removed out of the said prison, for preventing the doing CHAP. 
more hurt ; as the said justice of peace signified to the said 



lord treasurer. Anno 1578 - 

And to understand more particularly what his tenets were, Deposi- 
there were divers depositions made against him before the wor ds 
said Thomas Andrews, esq. the 1st of December, 1578. John jr kea b ? 
Gill, of Barly, in the county of Essex, clerk, deposed, that 
he being prisoner in the gaol of Bury aforesaid, and having 
said morning prayer to the prisoners there, in the morning 
of the feast of All Saints last past, according to the Book 533 
of Common Prayer, one John Coppin, there, and yet pri- 
soner within the said gaol, rebuked this said deponent for 
saying the said common prayer ; and called this deponent 
dumb dog. Saying further, that " whosoever keepeth any 
" saint's day, appointed by the said Book of Common 
" Prayer, is an idolater." And then also further said, that 
" the queen (meaning her majesty that now is) was sworn to 
" keep God's law : and she is perjured. 1,1 To which mali- 
cious, false, and slanderous speech, this deponent desired 
certain persons, standing then there by, to be witnesses. 
Whereunto the said Coppin replied, and said, repeating it 
divers times, that " she was perjured, and that she would 
" confess with her own mouth that she was perjured." To 
which John Gill set his name. This was witnessed also by 
John Harcock and John Carew. 

Which last mentioned gentleman deposed, that Coppin That the 
said, " Whatsoever prince did take their corporal oaths to p"rTu"edT 
" set forth God's glory directly as by the scriptures are ap- and why. 
" pointed, and did not ; they were perjured. And this our 
" prince, if she have sworn so effectually, she will confess 
" herself perjured." Another deposed these words spoke by 
Coppin, " That the queen was perjured by God ; and so she 
" would confess." 

One John Wilsford, a lay puritan, and of some learning, Wikford 
denied the queen to be supreme head of the church. This q ^ e n s t0 ' e 
man having read somewhat in the epistle to the Hebrews be supreme 
about Christ being an everlasting priest over his church, 



188 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK took the confidence to write to the queen, that she was 
guilty of an high crime, to take upon her the title of caput 



Anno 1573. ecclesiaz. This man for this presumption was put into pri- 
son. And afterwards, upon secretary Wylson's discourse 
with him, and stating this matter, viz. how the queen's su- 
premacy respected the civil power of her majesty over eccle- 
siastical persons, he was, or seemed to be, convinced of his 
error ; and soon after begged the lord treasurer, and other 
counsellors of estate, to intercede with the queen for his 
pardon. His letter to them bore date, November the 25th, 
1578, " Praying him and them, with all submission and 
" humble obedience, to whom his impudent behaviour was 
" made known, to be mediators unto the queen's majesty 
" to pardon and forgive, as she was a most merciful and 
" clement prince, this his temerarious presumption, done of 
" good zeal towards her majesty, although void of good 
" knowledge :" thinking (before better information) that it 
would follow, that none could take that title upon him, ex- 
cept the same person would be Christ's adversary, and Anti- 
christ, as the pope was. This letter of this man I leave in 
N-.xvi. the Appendix, to be perused. 

chark and Chark, sometime of Peter-house, and Dering, sometime 
som^of ' °f Christ's college, Cambridge, were chief men and leaders 
their say- among the puritans in these times. A minister of London, 
Earl's m a journal of his under this year, hath remarked these 
Joum. sayings of theirs. All your spiritual building is Babel. 
For lack of holy reformation, your church is Babel. The 
canon laws, give them to be burnt. The episcopal courts, 
to be rooted out, being contrary to God^s word. The French, 
Dutch, and strangers' 1 churches, all utterly refuse our form, 
and condemn it. [Thougli this asseveration of these new 
reformers, those churches took amiss at their hands, and de- 
534 nied the same in divers of their letters sent over hither.] The 
church of Scotland for before it. These were some asser- 
tions of those men's writings. 
Banow and Of this sort was Barrow, (the author of the sect of the 
' Barrowists,) and Greenwood. The sentence of the former 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 189 

was, The further from Romish manners, the purer is our CHAP. 
church. That of the latter was, We mustjlee doctrines ; we XIII> 



must fee rites. Theirs and yours seem popish toys. An "o 1578. 

And what favour and entertainment these principles did A book, 
still find among the common people, may appear from the up for sell 
quick sale of the book of the Admonition to the Parliament, m s the 

„ , ,. . ... Admonition 

set forth divers years before. Against which a severe pro- to the Par- 
clamation had been issued out, forbidding it to be sold, or 1,a m ent - 
kept in any person's possession, upon pain of imprisonment. 
Notwithstanding divers of them were sold by one Wood- 
cock, a bookseller ; who therefore being discovered, was 
taken up and imprisoned by order of the bishop of Lon- 
don ; whose delivery the said bishop thought not fit to grant 
for such a presumption, in vending a book so much tending 
to sedition, without some special warrant from the lord trea- 
surer : to whom he referred Mr. Tothyl, the master of the 
stationers'' company, and the wardens, who came and so- 
licited for that man. And accordingly they wrote their let- 
ter to the said lord ; dated December the 9th. As I have Life of bi- 
mentioned in that bishop's Life more at large. *™^ 

To these I add, that about this time, as near as I can One Mack- 
guess, notice was taken of one Mack worth, a gentleman of J^^£ ut 
Rutlandshire, for having two wives, and holding it lawful Marshaisea 
to have them ; of this matter so exorbitant, and his main- tw0 '^"f. 
taining the same unchristain principle, information was 
brought to the queen ; and, as guilty of a great disorder, 
he was committed to the Marshaisea, and there continued : 
" who having a lawful wife, did not only marry another 
" woman, with whom he had conversation as with his former 
" wife, but also maintained a most detestable heresy, (I do 
" but transcribe out of a letter of the lords to certain gen- 
" tlemen,) as that it was lawful for him so to do."" For the 
lords of the council had caused him to be brought before 
them, to answer the premises. Who at the first persisted in 
his damnable opinion; but afterwards, being conferred with 
by the deans of Windsor and Lincoln, became somewhat re- 
formed touching that detestable opinion, and seemed to re- 
voke the same. 



190 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK And yet nevertheless was committed to that prison, as 

reason was, he should, for so heinous a fact. At which time 

Anno 1578.it seemed good to their lordships to take some order for the 

The lords re ]i e f f tj ie gentlewoman his wife, with some convenient 

take care ° ■ * . .... 1 • i 

for mainte- portion of maintenance of herself and nine children, which 
MrTiviadi sne nac * ky him : who for that purpose wrote their letters to 
worth and certain gentlemen in the country, to view and certify the 
dren.° " " extent and value of the lands and goods of the said Mack- 
worth ; with their opinions touching some competent portion 
of his lands to be assigned for that use. Which they accord- 
ingly did, and returned. 

Upon these proceedings of the lords, Mackworth made a 
motion to them at that time, that he might of himself yield 
a convenient portion for her, and also that she might be 
sent for to come to him ; pretending that he would reason- 
ably satisfy her therein : accordingly it was permitted ; and 
she came up with her brother Thomas Gresham. But the 
care of the lords further extended; and thinking it not safe 
535 that she should repair unto him privately, not knowing what 
ill intentions he might have to do her bodily harm ; for that 
cause they thought good to make choice of three gentle- 
men : praying them, or two of them, as their leisure might 
best serve them, to resort to the place where he remained 
committed ; and to treat with him for yielding some com- 
petent portion of his lands and goods for the use abovesaid, 
during such time as he and his wife should remain asunder : 
and to use the best persuasions they could to draw him 
thereunto ; and promising him that it might be the rather 
a means to procure him favour, if he should be content to do 
so. At which time he might have knowledge of his wife's 
repair unto him, according to his desire. And so she might 
have access in their presence the more safely ; and they, as 
the lords added, might the better discern with what affection 
he had desired the same. 

And lastly, for their better instruction in the matter, they, 
the said lords, sent them, (to be returned again,) as well the 
copy of their letter directed to certain gentlemen in the coun- 
try, [mentioned above,] as the answer and opinion returned ; 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 191 

together with the yearly extent of his lands, and the valua- CHAP, 
tion of his goods; as it was delivered to the said lords. 



And so prayed these gentlemen thus commissioned, to ad- Anno 1578. 
vertise them, the lords, of their proceedings with him : and 
of such matters as they should think good to inform them 
of, touching either of the parties, upon this access in their 
presence. And so bidding them heartily farewell. 

This letter was carried by Mr. Gresham, her brother, to 
those gentlemen, by order of the lords : I have transcribed 
the whole, being, as it seems, a star-chamber business : and 
shewing as well the extent of their care taken against loose 
principles, as this of bigamy was, calling it a detestable he- 
resy ; as also their taking cognizance of the ill usage of loose 
men towards their innocent wives. 

Those of the church of Rome were not negligent this year steukely 
to bring to pass their long intended purpose of overthrowing d "]"| n( !"~ 
the religion, and dethroning the queen. Steukely, that bold from the 
bravo, that was to conquer Ireland for the pope, had ob- 
tained this year from him a number of crucifixes, containing 
notable indulgences ; to incline weak people there to follow 
him in the pope's quarrel, either in person or in purse ; by 
giving money for them : containing very large privileges of 
pardon of their sins, for no great pains taking. And Steukely 
was to sell them, and to make his gain of them, as it seems. 
A copy of these Indulgences was communicated to some 
person of worship, a friend of the cause, by way of letter, 
that seems to have been intercepted : and was as followeth : 

Indulgences granted by our holy father ■, Gregory XIII. 

unto certain crucifixes of sir Thomas Steukley's, the 13th 

of January, 1578. 

I. Whoso beholdeth with reverence and devotion one of The pre- 
these crosses, as oft as he doth it, getteth fifty days of in- b e e ° e fi ts of 
dulgence. As oft as he prayeth upon, or before it, for the them, 
good and prosperous state of the holy catholic church, and 
for the increase and exaltation of the holy catholic faith, and 536 
for the preservation and delivery of Mary queen of Scot- 
land, and for the reducing of the realm of England. Scot- 



192 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK land, and Ireland, and for the extirpation of heretics; he 
shall obtain fifty days of indulgence. And upon festival 



Anno 1578. dayg one hundred. 

II. In going to any conflict or feat of arms against the 
enemies of our holy faith, he shall obtain seven years, and 
seven quarantines of indulgence. And if he die there, at 
least being confessed and houseled at the beginning of the 
war, with contrition of his sins, and calling upon the most 
blessed name of Jesu with mouth or heart, he shall obtain 
full indulgence, and remission of all his sins. 

III. As oft as he shall be confessed and houseled, making 
his prayers by word or mind before the most holy crucifix, 
and praying for the prosperous state of holy church, and 
for the chief bishop, and for the delivery and preservation 
of the aforesaid Mary queen of Scots, and for the reducing 
of the aforesaid realm of England and Scotland; he shall 
obtain all the indulgences that are granted for visiting all the 
holy places, that are both within and without the gates of 
Rome. 

IV. Any night or evening that he shall examine his own 
conscience with repentance of sins ; and intend to amend the 
same, saying the general confession, and bowing or kneeling 
before the holy crucifix, saying three times, Jesus, obtains a 
year and a quarantine of indulgence. 

V. Whoso shall use and accustom to behold it, with de- 
votion to the cross; saying five Pater-nosters, five Aves, 
and some other prayers to our Saviour or to our lady, for 
the exaltation of the holy church, for the preservation of 
Mary queen of Scotland, and for the reducing of the afore- 
said realms, he shall obtain once in his life full indulgence of 
all his sins ; besides the other indulgence of fifty days for 
each time that he prayeth. 

VI. Moreover, in the pain and peril of death, what per- 
son soever, being confessed, and contrite, or giving signs of 
contrition, and shall kiss the feet of the most blessed cruci- 
fix, saying Jesu with heart, not able to say it with mouth, 
shall obtain full indulgence, and remission of all his sins. 

VII. Item, One day in the year, named and appointed by 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 193 

them, that shall have one of the said crucifixes, with the li- CHAP, 
cence of the ordinary of the place, it may be put in any 



church, or chapel, or oratory : and whosoever shall come to Anno 1578. 
visit with devotion the said holy crucifix in the said church, 
chapel, or oratory, saying five Pater-nosters and five Aves, 
praying for the prosperous state of our holy mother the 
church, and for the chief high bishop, and for the preserva- 
tion and delivery of the abovesaid Mary of Scotland, and 
for the reducing of the said realm, shall obtain free indulg- 
ence of all their sins, being confessed, or having the mind 
and purpose to be confessed in due time or place, and to 
amend their former lives and sins. 

VIII. Item, That every Friday that mass is said, or 537 
caused to be said, upon any altar, where one of these holy 
crucifixes is set, one soul shall be released out of purgatory. 

Item, That those indulgences and graces cannot be re- 
voked by any high bishop, except express mention be made 
of the same. 

" Item, I did ask the question, what a quarantine was, 

" of master Dr. [Sanders, I suppose.] And he told 

" me, it was to fast forty days : the same fast we fast in 
" Lent. The which in the old primitive church was wont 
" and accustomed to be enjoined in penance to certain sin- 
" ners for their offences. 

" Thus being bold to molest your worship with these 
61 rude lines, partly by the instruction of our countrymen, 
" lately come hither, [to Rome, as it seems,] who told me 
" your worship was desirous to know the truth herein ; 
" and partly also to shew my humble duty, in that I may 
" or can, to your worship, or any that belong unto you, so 
" long as life in breast abides ; desiring your worship to 
" accept them in good part, with my humble commenda- 
u tions unto your worship, your most loving bedfellow, and 
M all your good and virtuous children, your family, with 
" others my good friends, near unto you." Subscribing 
only the two first letters of his name, J. L. See more parti- Carad. Eliz. 
culars of this in our histories, and what formidable prepara- 1573. 

VOL. II. part 11. o 



194 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK tions were making against England by the pope, and Spain, 
_ and Portugal, wherein Steukley was to be the chief leader. 



Anno 1578. The pope's great champion in Ireland at this time was 
The earl of j ames ear ] f Desmond ; who declared himself to have 

Desmond s 

correspond- taken upon him the protection of the catholic faith in Ire- 
Spa^n 11 land, by the authority of the bishop of Rome, and direction 
of the catholic king : though not long before he avowed to 
return to his loyalty, and had protested obedience and fide- 
lity before the lord deputy, and promised to serve her ma- 
jesty in person against her rebels. To him was the said 
Steukley to repair from Rome, whom the pope had loaded 
with Irish titles of honour, even as high as marquess. And 
also Saunders went from Spain ; that was to transact the 
pope's business as his legate in Ireland, and to assist the 
earl. Ships were to be provided by the king of Portugal, 
with soldiers to invade Ireland, and conquer it. Desmond 
dissembled all this while; while the pope's nuncio, (who 
managed all the cause at Madrid, and despatched messen- 
gers and messages thence,) wrote letters to him : two where- 
of were seized, or by some other means were taken, and 
brought to court. Which being somewhat curious, and 
shewing some intrigues of this conspiracy, I will relate from 
the very originals. They were writ in Latin. The former 
dated from Madrid, the 15th of December, 1578, to this tenor: 
importing the sending over a friar to be a judge in Ireland. 
The nun- M agister Frater, &c. " Master Friar, Matthew de Ovied, 
to him from " whom we have appointed, you being present, to that which 
Madrid. « vour lordship well knoweth, will be there with his letter. 
538 " He goeth with me judge of every matter with diligence ; 
" and takes his journey on purpose, as not in the least suf- 
" fering his duty to be wanting in any thing. I do the less 
" commend the man, and the companions of his faith, since 
" such is his honesty and religion. For I am sure all will 
" receive him with a willing mind. I only pray God, there- 
" fore, that he will perpetually favour the pious attempts of 
" your lordship ; and I pray you may long prosper, Sec 

In Christo servus, &c. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 195 

The other letter to Desmond was dated March the 10th, CHAT. 
1579; which was thus endorsed: The pope's nuncio to . 



James Desmond tie Geraldis,from Spain, by a messenger ; Ann ° i&78. 
in these words : 

Illustrissime domine. Hoc ipso die redditce sunt nobis Another 
Uteres D. V. 20 Febr. in ipso Portugaleti portu, 8fc. Ex nuncio to 
quibus cum in spe simus D. V. ad locum, ubi conventum est, him * 
GallicicB pervenisse, ibique, nisi Sanderum offenderit, p>ro- 
pediem tamen eum Juisse visurum, nuntii hujus opportuni- 
tatem nacti prcesentes istuc mittimus : salutem utrique simul 
ac reliquis nuntiando. L&torque de navigatione, si modo 
recte, ut spero, istuc usque confecta est. Ex Sander o po- 
terit V. D. cognovisse, quce OlyssiponcB in ipso discessu ac~ 
ciderunt. 

This that happened at Lisbon, which the nuncio writes 
to the earl that he should understand by Sanders, was, how 
the fleet there, bound for Ireland, was taking another course, 
viz. towards Africa, by some instigation of advantage that 
way. And thither indeed they diverted, with their fleet 
and forces. " Which was the cause" (as he proceeded in 
his letter, thus Englished) " that I presently travelled thi- 
" ther. And being certified of those things, I sent letters 
" to the king immediately very diligently. And I hope his 
" majesty, considering what I wrote, will at last give liberty 
" to the ships and men ; if not, to the soldiers, to depart 
" thence: [viz. to pursue their designs in Ireland:] which 
" I daily expect greedily to know. Here is at present sir 
" Francis Englefield, [a pensioner of the king of Spain,] 
" with whom I have discoursed at large of the business. 
" And it comes into my mind, that it will not be amiss that 
" your lordship speak with him before he take his journey 
" thence : and with that intent also that he should go also 
" with them. Nor do I see that this would be now expe- 
" dient, but that he should talk with you concerning what- 
" soever belongs to this cause. And in this opinion I am ; 
" although I have not as yet maturely deliberated on it. 

" From the letters which I shall next receive from Lis- 
" bon, I shall easily conjecture whether your lordship can 

o 2 



196 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " there look for any fresher letters; and if there be any 
" thing which yon ought to know, I shall take care that 



Anno 1578. « letters be brought you as soon as may be. The elder 
" son of your lordship came hither from Lisbon safe and 
" sound. I am now thinking that they depart as soon as 
" may be to Complutum, [Alcala, an university,] and that 
" shall be sudden. Farewell. Let this be common with 
" you to Sanders : to whom I wish all happiness. 

" V ester f rater in Christo, Phil. Ep. Placent. 
" Madriti, 10 March, 1579." " Nuntius apostolicus.' 1 '' 

a Barefoot- " Religiosos quoscunque Franciscanos, qnos discalceatos 3 - 
" vocant, comrnendatos habete?" 1 This postscript writ with 
his own hand ; the rest by his secretary's. 

539 By all this it appears how deep this ingrateful earl was 

in this plot: whom the queen, under the name of James 

Fitz Gerald, or Fitz Morish, had granted a full pardon, 

and restored all his manors, when sir Henry Sydney was 

lord lieutenant of Ireland. He was deservedly slain, within 

two or three years, by the hand of a common soldier. And 

Sanders about the same time died miserably. 

The queen These practices provoked the queen at this time against 

the law a- the papists, and made her resolve to prosecute the laws 

gainst pa- against them : which the favourers of the gospel were glad 

pists. & . ... 

of. The old bishop of Ely expressed his mind in these 
words to a great counsellor : " That he much rejoiced that 
" her majesty was somewhat severe against her enemies, the 
" papists. Would God, that all her magistrates, high and 
" low, would follow diligently her godly vein. I trust here- 
" after her highness and her magistrates will prosecute se- 
" verely the same trade. 1 '' 

If we look into our universities, we shall find papists 

there. The diarist that I sometimes transcribe from, (who 

seems to have been a diligent noter of matters of remark 

Exeter col- concerning religion in his time,) notes, that in Exeter col- 

iy g aftwted! l e g e ? Oxon, of eighty were found but four obedient sub- 

MSS. Joh. jects: all the rest secret or open Roman affectionaries : and 

particularly one Savage, of that house, a most earnest de- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 197 

fender of the pope's bull and excommunication [of the CHAP, 
queen.] These were chiefly such as came out of the west- '__ 



ern parts, where popery greatly prevailed; and the gentry Anno 1& 78. 
bred up in that religion. 

As for the other university, great offence was taken at The stu- 
the extravagance of the apparel which was now used there ; cambricta 
so unsuitable to the condition of students, that came thither affect gaudy 
to improve in learning and virtue : the younger sort follow- dppan 
ing much the fashions so expensive. Whereby was occa- 
sioned a great decay and defect in good learning and mo- 
desty. Insomuch that it was feared, that the university, 
that formerly supplied the realm with men of service, for 
their learning and piety, would now become only a store- 
house of loose, unlearned, and insufficient persons ; to the 
damage, and not the service of the kingdom. This evil was 
apprehended so great, that the lord Burghley, high chan- 
cellor of the university, set forth a decree for the reformation 
thereof. Which, from the minutes of it, drawn up by him- 
self, is worthy (though somewhat long) to be transcribed 
and preserved : which I have therefore laid in the Appendix. N°.xvn. 
It was entitled, A decree for the restraint of the excess of mad g ^y ; the 
apparel, both for the unreasonable costs, and the unseemly lji s h chaa - 
fashions of the same, used by scholars and students in that gainst it. 
university of Cambridge. 

This unseemly and disguised apparel, and monstrous dis- 
use of it by the students, (as it was termed,) consisted in ex- 
cessive ruffs in their shirts, the greatness of their hose, and 
in wearing swords and rapiers. These extravagances were 
by this decree to be prohibited by the vice-chancellor and 
the heads of the colleges; who were to meet and confer 
together about it, and to draw up particular rules for di- 
recting the habits to be worn of all sorts and degrees of 
scholars : and expulsion to be executed upon any that should 
transgress. 

Concerning one of the colleges in this university, namely, The g° od 

GSt&tC of 

Peter-house, I may have leave to mention the advantage it p e ter- 

had by a careful, discreet master, viz. Dr. Andrew Perne, house » Dr - 
ti 11 i i » i ' l i >erne mas - 

as well as an excellent head of that university. Among the ter. 

o3 



198 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK improvements he made in that college, a new building was 
made there this year at the college charge, viz. a baking- 



Anno i578. nouse . which was for the principal maintenance and relief 
^ 4tJ of the same. This, upon a particular reason, he acquainted 
the high chancellor with. And that without the commodity 
thereof they were not able to maintain so many fellows as 
they did, by two or three at the least. There were also 
more buildings within that college the same year, but 
nothing at the college's charge. And more chambers were 
wanting for the necessary use of the scholars and students of 
the same at that time ; but they were not of ability to do it. 
This the said master intimated to that lord on occasion of 
his recommending to him, the master, one Egerton, B. A. 
of that college, to be admitted fellow there. Of whose to- 
wardliness in learning he and the fellows had very good 
liking. Notwithstanding, such was the present state of the 
college, that he could not comply with his lordship's request; 
since, as he said, there were divers others of the same house 
of no less learning, but of much less ability to be maintained 
at learning. Of the which some had no other relief, but 
such poor benevolence as they had within the college. Yet 
notwithstanding, the number of fellows and scholars which 
were at that day maintained in the college, and the charges 
of the ordinary commons, were so great, that they could 
make no new election of any new fellow as yet ; except they 
should suffer the college to run into greater detriment, for 
the defraying of the charge of their commons, than the col- 
lege should be well able to satisfy. In which, as he judged, 
he was very well assured that it was not his honour's good 
meaning: and then he proceeded to the mention of their 
buildings. And in the end assuring his honour, that he 
would be as willing to do for the said Egerton, when the 
college should be able to make any new election, as he 
might lawfully and conveniently do, as any in Cambridge 
should be, for his lordship's sake : unto whom, under the 
queen's majesty, he took himself greatliest bound, as he 
would, if he were of ability, declare the same accordingly. 
Thus faithfully did this worthy master govern the affairs of 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 199 

that college, for the good and flourishing estate thereof. CHAP. 
And whose letter I have here set down at the more length,. 



for the better retrieving and preserving the character of Anno 15 78. 
him. 

And indeed such a multitude of mandamuses and letters The univer- 

P , -. . . i c i sities com- 

irom great men were about this time procured from the p i ain of 
court for fellowships, that it grew very burdensome to the manda - 

1 ° . J muses and 

university ; and proved a great uneasiness to the young stu- letters sent 
dents; who hoped to be preferred by their merits: whereas &n u* 
now the ordinary application was to courtiers for their let- Epist. Aca- 
ters to the heads of the colleges, for mandamuses from the 
queen for a preferment. So that free suffrages for elections 
were impeached ; to the discouragement of ingenuity, and 
the countenancing of boldness and importunacy. Whereby 
it came to pass, (according to a letter the university wrote Their letter 
to their chancellor on this occasion,) that the scholars did chancellor, 
neither follow their studies in hope of preferment for their 
diligence and proficiency; nor much regarded their supe- 
riors, as hoping for favour from them : but chiefly from 
courtiers. Besides, hereby the university liberty was in- 
fringed, and their tranquillity disturbed, and the scholars 1 
minds were dejected, and industry languished. These were 
the effects of taking away from them their free votes, of dis- 
posing their fellowships. Wherefore they, the vice-chan- 
cellor and heads of colleges, in a joint letter addressed to 541 
their chancellor, earnestly beseeching him, by his fidelity to 
them, and by his good- will towards them ; and also by then- 
welfare and dignity, which he dearly loved ; Aiifer nobis 
istam mandatorum frequentiam : and that he would so far 
prevail with the queen, when he should see occasion, that 
the liberty which she had once granted, she would leave to 
them free and entire. This whole supplicatory letter may 
be read in the Appendix ; as worthy the preserving, in order n«.xviii. 
to the better understanding the state of the university in 
these days. 

Let me add here the success of this application of the Urge the 
university to their loving chancellor. He was moved, when ^, petition 
he considered what they had urged now, and repeated to the l ueen 

o4 



200 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK him the like again, how these letters discouraged learning; 
. when the worse were preferred before the better deserving : 



Anno 1573. an( J t]n S dispensing with statutes to the overthrow of good 
granting ^ aws an ^ customs ) to tne great hindering of learning, and 
them. utter discouragement of good scholars and hard students, 
that studied out of hope of reward. This was pressed upon 
their chancellor; and he sufficiently sensible of. In this 
Dr. Perne had a great hand, being a great instrument in 
consulting for the benefit of learning there. This lord, 
therefore, took his opportunity to lay this petition of the 
university before the queen. And it had this effect, that she 
promised her mandamuses should be more sparing for the 
time to come : favouring that lord's godly and necessary 
suit, as the said Perne, in a letter, called it. And of this 
his success he [their chancellor] wrote most lovingly in his 
answer to their former letter. But however, it was observed 
afterwards, that since that time there were more manda- 
muses sent down, and dispensations with the statute, than 
were before. Which caused another from Cambridge to him, 
that his lordship knowing the same, would, they doubted 
not, help to redress. 
The master There came a private letter this year to the master and 

of Ciuccn's 

college re- fellows of Queen's college, Cambridge, containing a friendly 
ceives a let- nm j- an( j information concerning such as came to preach 

ter con- ° * 

ceming before the queen : some of them she liked not, in using so 
preachers j^^ freedom with her in their sermons in respect of dis- 
queen. sensions in the church, properly belonging to matters of 
KniVht government; judging they went beyond their bounds. The 
DD - letter is without any name subscribed, only dated in March, 

1578. But I conjecture it was sent from the earl of Leices- 
ter, Dr. Chaderton the master of Queen's great patron ; or 
perhaps from secretary Walsingham. The letter itself I 
here transcribe, as followeth : 
The letter. " Master Dr. I perceive the queen's majesty doth mislike, 
" that of late such as have preached afore her, in their ser- 
" mons entered into dissensions of matters properly apper- 
" taining to matters of government: rather by private advice 
" to be imparted to herself or to her council, than in pul- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 201 

" pits, to the hearing of vulgar people, which are not apt to CHAP. 
" hear such things : especially thereby to catch lightly occa- 



" sions to think either sinisterly or doubtfully of the head Anno 1 578. 
" and of her government. 

" If any allowed to preach, be moved to desire amend- 
" ment in things properly belonging to herself, I do assure 
" myself, she will willingly hear any that shall either desire 
" by speech or writing to impart their charitable conceits. 

" And many times I find even preachers as perverse 542 
" men, led, yea, carried with sinister informations, especially 
" against government. Yet it may be doubted of good men, 
" that all reports are not always true. I wish in my heart 
" no jot of the authority of preachers to be diminished. 
" And yet I wish them not to presume upon their autho- 
" rity, to enter into condemnation of others, without some 
" grounds." 



CHAP. XIV. 

The queerfs progress. The university wait upon her at 
Audley End. Her splendid entertainment at Norwich. 
A sentence in the star-chamber. Magic practised to take 
azvay the queeris life. A conjurer suddenly Jails down 
dead. A foreign physician consulted Jbr the queers tooth- 
ache. Dr. Julio, the Italian physician, the queen's ser- 
vant : his suit. Shows before the queen, performed by 
certain of the young nobility. Lord Rich assassinated : 
and another. Remarks of some persons of note, dying 
this year. Sir Nicolas Bacon, lord keeper. The lady 
Mary Grey. The lord Henry Seymour. Books now set 
forth. The Holy Bible; the Geneva edition. Bishop 
Jewels Defence in Latin. Mr. Fox's Good-Friday ser- 
mon at PauVs Cross. View of Antichrist. A book against 
the outward apparel and ministering garments. A Dis- 
play of Popish Practices. The Way of Life. Guicciar- 
dirfs history. Books printed in Germany, in a letter to 
the bishop of Ely. 

J- HIS summer the queen took her progress into Suffolk 



202 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK and Norfolk. But first in the month of May she took her 

' pleasure abroad to the lord Compton's house at Tottenham : 

Anao 1578. and thence to the lord treasurer's at Theobald's; where she 

rhe queen tarr } ec { three or f our days. From thence she went to Mr. 

visits some J 

of her nobi- Barret's house. But where that was, I cannot assign; some- 
country er wna t, as it seems, in the way to Wansted, in Waltham forest, 
seats. which was the earl of Leicester's seat : where she continued 

five or six days. In July we find her at Hunsdon ; and the 
lord treasurer now at his house at Theobald's, where he had 
entertained her majesty a month or two before. And thence 
he wrote to Mr. Randolph, chamberlain of the exchequer 
and master of the posts, sometime ambassador to Russia and 
Scotland, to signify to him, that she would have the ambas- 
sador of Scotland to come to Hunsdon on the Thursday, 
and the next day to Mr. Sadleir's house in Hertfordshire, 
where she would be. And that considering the high way 
from London was by his house there at Theobald's, and that 
they must have a resting place for dinner-time, he prayed 
The Scots Randolph, in his name, to make that ambassador an offer to 
invited to dine w ^ tn mm there. Where also he [the treasurer] should 
Theobald's. b e tj ie gladder to see him, and he the opportunity to see his 
house, according as he had said he had a desire to see. 
[For a fame went of my lord's splendid buildings here.] 
" Though there were nothing," as that lord modestly told 
him, " worth his desire, considering his foreign travels ; al- 
" though percase," added he, " you may see as much to 
" content you as in Moscovia, [that barbarous country.] 
" With no other I will offer any comparison." He told 
him further, " That my lord of Hunsdon would also meet 
" with him there at dinner. And that the queen's ma- 
" jesty was privy, and well liking of this his invitation. 
" And as the ambassador should assent, so to send him 
" word." This was dated at Theobald's, the 21st of July, 
at night, 1578. 
The queen The queen had been some days before at Havering, in 
End." t V Essex, one of the royal seats ; and remained there several 
days. And after one or two removes she came to Audely 
End. Where the university of Cambridge waited upon her, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 203 

with speeches and disputations made before her, as we shall CHAP, 
hear by and by. Thence she intended to proceed in her 



progress to Suffolk, to the house of the master of the rolls. Anno 1578. 
And if she went not further, which was not presently con- 
cluded upon, (as the lord Burghley writ to the vice-chancel- 
lor,) then she would return by Cambridge, by Mr. Hynde's, 
by Somersham, by Mr. CrumwelTs, and so by Justice Dyer's, 
and the lord St. John's: and so through Buckinghamshire, 
towards Windsor : as it was by the lord Burghley signified 
to the vice-chancellor of Cambridge ; that so the university 
might be prepared to receive her majesty, if she came that 
way. 

But now before we go further in this progress, to relate The univer- 
something concerning the university's waiting upon the ^ ^..^ en b 
queen while she was at Audely End, which was in the lat- u P on tbe 
ter end of July. Dr. Howland, master of St. John's, and there, 
vice-chancellor, had sent his letter to the lord Burghley, 
their chancellor, with notice of their purpose in that respect ; 
and likewise to give them his advice and instructions therein. 
" That they intended to wait upon her majesty, with the 
" heads of the colleges : and to have in readiness some dis- 
" putants upon two moral questions.'" The one whereof 
was, An dementia magis sit laudanda in principe, quam 
severitas. The second, De for tuna et Jato. When they 
intended also to present the queen with a book well bound. 
But what that book was, I find not : perhaps some curious 
edition of the Bible. 

" In answer, their high chancellor heartily thanked them ; Lord 
" and that he liked well of their purpose of presenting: them- Burghiey's 

. r r r o instructions 

" selves unto her majesty at Audley End. And that of the to the vice- 
" two questions, he liked better the first. And that the r^tIb? 
" second might yield many reasons impertinent for Chris- S.Th. b. 
" tian ears, if it were not circumspectly used. But yet he 
" left the further consideration thereof to themselves. That 
" the present to her majesty he allowed of. But that they 
" must have regard, that the book had no savour of spike, 
" which commonly bookbinders did seek to add, to make 
" their books savour well. But that her majesty could not 



204 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
II. 

Anno 1578. 

544 



His orders 
for their 
waiting 
upon the 
queen. 



The queen 
at Norwich, 
The Dutch 
congrega- 
tion there 
wait upon 
her. 



" abide such a strong scent. That they should do well to 
" provide for the earl of Leicester, the lord chamberlain, 
" and the earl of Oxford, some gloves, with a few verses in 
" a paper joined to them, proper to every of their degrees ; 
" so that in number they exceeded not above eight verses. 
" That for himself he could spare them ; so that others 
" might have them. And that if Mr. Vice-chamberlain 
" might have a pair with some verses, it should do well, to 
" conciliate his good-will, being a lover of learned men. 11 
This was dated from the court at Havering, July 15. 

It was not before the 25th of July that the lord Burgh- 
ley could inform the vice-chancellor when the queen was 
certainly to come to Audely End, viz. the next day. And 
forthwith ordering him, that his servant should bring a let- 
ter from him, as vice-chancellor, and from some of the heads 
of the colleges; jointly directed to the earl of Leicester, as 
their steward, and to him, [Lord Burghley,] as their chan- 
cellor : therein requiring those said lords to direct them [the 
heads] at what time and in what order they should think 
meet that they of the university should come. And that 
his particular opinion was, that he thought fittest for them 
all to present themselves in their long black gowns. And as 
for the matter of the oration to be uttered by their orator, 
he knew it must be demonstrative ge?iere, mingled with 
thanks and praise to Almighty God, for his long blessings, 
delivered to the whole realm by her majesty's government ; 
and particularly to the two universities ; which were kept by 
her, as by a nurse, in quietness to be nourished in piety, 
and all other learning; free from all outward troubles, as 
rebellions, and such other innumerable calamities, as other 
countries were then subject unto. And so to the end, with 
thanks to her majesty, and request to continue her favour. 
This entertainment of the queen by speeches, &c. was soon 
after set forth in print, in a book by Gabr. Harvey. 

The queen in her progress, being come in the month of 
August as far as the city of Norwich, among the welcomes 
that were there given her, the Dutch congregation there 
waited upon her : and one of their ministers, (whose name 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 205 

was Herman Modet,) made a Latin speech to her, in grate- CHAP, 
ful acknowledgment of the favours shewed them, and the 



freedom of their religion, and profession of the gospel they Anno 1578. 
enjoyed by her. And in the speech he presented her with 
a representation of Joseph, shewing his affliction and im- 
prisonment ; and afterwards his great preferment. And then 
he aptly applied Joseph's history to queen Elizabeth's suf- 
ferings and advancement. 

This history was artfully engraven on a cup, which he, in 
the name of that church, humbly presented her, being sil- 
ver, and gilt; and a case, having the picture of Joseph upon 
it ; and this tetrastic : 

Innocuum pietas ad reg'ia sceptra Josephum, 

Ex manibus fratrum, carnificisque rapit. 
Carcere et iiisidiis sic te, regina, tuorum 

Ereptam duxlt culmina ad ista Deus. 

Round the cup (worth 501.) was this inscription, Serenissi- 
mcB Anglice regince, Elizabeths, ecclesice Belgicce Nor- 
dovici, ob rcligionem cxidantes, hoc monumentum, et pietatis 
et posteritatis ergo, consecrabant, ami. salut. humance, 1578. 
Within the cup was the figure of a serpent in a round pos- 545 
ture, and a dove in the middle ; and these words, Prudens 
ut serpens, simplex ut columba. 

When the minister that made the speech gave the cup to 
the queen, she said, Grato recipio animo; sed quid ita estis 
obliti vestrum, ut mihi aliquid de vestra paupertate qffera- 
tis, quce nidlius indigco? She then received from the foreign 
churches here 30/. sterling, viz. 10/. from the Walsche 
[Waloons,] and 201. from the Dutch. 

There was written at that time, and published, a large 
and particular account of the queen's splendid entertainment 
there, with the speeches, verses, shows, and triumphs accom- 
panying it : which is transcribed in the additions to Holin- 
shed's Chronicle; as likewise the rest of her progress, through 
Suffolk and Norfolk. 

The queen had been grossly wronged by some of her ser- Some mes- 
vants. Which now being found out, a good piece of justice * e h "^ r ^ he 



206 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK was done upon them in the month of February, at the sit- 
ting; of the lords in the star-chamber. Where four messen- 
Anno 1578. gers were examined, namely, such as were daily sent on 
queen.They erranc i s f rom the court ; who were found, by counterfeiting 

are sen- ' 7 J ~ 

tenced in the hands of the lord chamberlain and the secretary, to have 

chamber, deceived the queen of above 3000/. within six years, they 

and their confederates. Whereupon their sentence was, to 

stand on the pillory at Westminster, at the court gates, and 

in Cheapside, on certain days appointed ; and then to have 

their ears cut off. 

Magic prac- Certain wickedly disposed persons this year practised 

gainst "the magic against her majesty queen Elizabeth, to take away 

queen. Ca- her life. This I take from Meric Casaubon, D. D. (the son 

dul.p.98. °f the great Isaac of that name,) in his book of Credulity 

Bodm. Dae- an ^ Incredxditii : which he had from the credit of Bodin, in 

mon. " . 

the preface to his Dcemonology . Who relateth there, that 
three waxen images were framed ; whereof one was of the 
queen, and the two other of two persons nearest her, (per- 
haps the lord treasurer Burghley, and the lord high stew- 
ard, the earl of Leicester,) which were found in the house of 
a priest near Islington, (who was a magician, and so reputed,) 
in order to take away their lives. Which he repeateth again 
Chap. s. in his second book : and more particularly, that it was in the 
year 1578. And that the English ambassador and many 
Frenchmen did divulge it and report it. And that the busi- 
ness was then under trial, and not yet perfectly known. 
A conjurer Divers such dealers in magic and conjuration seem to 
dead sud" nave been about these times. Such another was this year 
<ieniy. discovered in Southwark, as Stow hath recorded. Who, 
being vehemently suspected for a conjurer, was con vented 
before the ordinary judge there, in St. Saviour's church : 
and being accordingly present, leaning his head on a pew, 
suddenly fell down dead, with some little rattling in his 
throat. There were found about him, under his clothes, 
five books of conjuration, and, among other things, the re- 
semblance of a man in tin, having three dice in his hand, 
and this writing, Chance dice JvrUmately ; besides divers 
papers of such like matters. When the judge declared this 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 207 

as a most remarkable judgment of God, before them all that CH A P. 
were present, upon this practiser of that wicked art. 



Whether it were the effect of this magic, or proceeded Anno 1578. 
from some natural cause, but the queen was in some part of ^ed^ith 
this year under excessive anguish by pains of her teeth ; in- the pain of 
somuch that she took no rest for divers nights, and endured 
very great torment night and day. There was now in Eng- 546 
land an outlandish physician, called Fenot, that happened An out- 
to be then at court. To whom some lords of the council p h ys i e ian's 
applied themselves ; requiring and commanding him to give ^l 1 "' . 
his advice in this extremity for the queen's ease. In obedi- nan. 
ence whereunto that learned physician wrote a long letter in 
Latin unto them, dated the calends of December. Wherein 
first, he shewed, " how dangerous a thing it was for him to 
" give his judgment," cum tot clarissimi doctissimiquc viri, 
qui continuo regice majestati servitio adstant, de hoc affectu 
ambigant, et plcne instructi non sunt : imo inter sc dissenti- 
ant: quomodo ego, qui pus'dlo sum ingenio, qui regiam ma- 
jestatem nunquam allocutus sum, &c. But at length he gives 
his advice to use several things. But, after all, if they 
proved ineffectual, and the tooth was hollow and decayed, 
then he advised that it might be drawn out. Proceeding in 
these words : Sin minus, cogitet stia mqjestas, an expedient 
dentem etiam cum, aliquanto dolore extrahere, quam tot noc- 
tes insomncs agere, ct tot tantaque tormenta et incommoda 
noctu dieque pati Quod si Jcrrum exhorrcscat, op- 
timum esse remedium novi, si in dentis cavitate succus che- 
lidonii majoris indatur, ct cera obturetur, ne in partes sanas 
elabi possit. Parvo in tempore efficit, ut dens citra dolorem 
digitis extralii possit. Idemjacit et radix ejus, si denti sce- 
phes affricetur. 

There was now belonging to the court another physician 
of fame, that was an Italian, named Dr. Julio Borgarucei, 
of whom mention hath been made elsewhere ; a great fa- L,fe °f 

t • /if»i • Archbishop 

vounte of the earl of Leicester, (and of whom stories go, Grindai. 
that he made great use of for feats of poisoning.) This 
Italian doctor had some persons (whether the queen's wards 
or henchmen, I know not) committed to his charge, for in- 



208 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK structing them in learning and in the language. This man 
was a suitor to the queen now for some advantage and bene- 



Anno 1578. fit in regard of his pains and labour, and for his further en- 
Dr. Julio, coura2:em ent therein. That which he desired of the queen 

the Italian » . , „ 

physician, was, the reversion of the parsonage of Midcllewicn. Con- 
to obtain™ cerning the state whereof she had referred the declaration to 
a parsonage ner treasurer ; and bade him speak to him ; that she having 
queen? "^ the particulars, and understanding the true value reported 
by him [the lord treasurer] unto her, she might accordingly 
dispose of it to him. This caused him to betake himself to 
his lordship by way of letter : " Most humbly beseeching 
" his honour for convenient expedition, as should seem best 
" to his wisdom : and that his lordship would favourably use 
" him, as well in favouring his suit, as in rating of the lease, 
" which he demanded in reversion for so many years as 
" should seem to her majesty's goodness and favour to be- 
" stow on him. And in consideration, that in all that time 
" he had served her majesty, he had not had any kind of 
" recompence : albeit he was, he said, well satisfied only 
" with her highness 1 good and gracious countenance; and 
" was contented to give over another suit, wherein Mr. 
" Robert Bowes was concerned. And also, for that it had 
" pleased her highness to grant the same parsonage before 
" now unto one of the guard, called Kell. And there was 
" still fourteen years to come. And to which pleas he added, 
" for that he had often been at great charges to fulfil her 
" highness'' commandments, and never asked any reward. 
" And therefore hoped in this small suit her majesty would 
" of her goodness, in granting him the same, encourage him 
" to take the more pains in his studies ; and to be the more 
" careful and diligent for such as were committed to his 
547 « charge." Concluding, " That he should think himself 
" from time to time most beholden to his lordship, and be 
" bound to pray for him, and ready to serve him with a 
" faithful heart." Writ from his chamber the 21st of Fe- 
bruary, 1579- [anno ineunte.] 
Shows at , At Shrovetide, according as it seemed customary at that 
before the season, were shows presented at court before her majesty 

queen. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 209 

at night. The chiefest was a device presented by the per- CHAP. 



XIV. 



sons of the earl of Oxford, the earl of Surrey, the lords 
Thomas Hay worth [Howard] and Windsour. But the de- Anno ' 578. 
vice (as the lord Talbot wrote to the earl his father) was 
prettier than it had hap to be performed. [The young no- 
blemen, it seems, did not so well acquit their parts.] But 
the best of it, added that lord, and I think the best liked, 
was two rich jewels, which were presented to her majesty by 
the two earls. 

Assassinations were not unheard of in these days. One or violence of- 
two such base acts of malice and violence were attempted s ^ et ' t ° t ,^ 
against persons of quality, in one day, as the lord Talbot in lord Rich, 
his court news writ to the earl his father in February. That 
as the lord Rich was riding in the streets, one Windham, 
that stood at a door, shot a dag [or pistol] at him. Which 
was like to have slain him. But that God so provided for 
that lord, that this Windham having appointed his servant 
that morning to charge the dag with two bullets, the fel- 
low doubting he meant some mischief with it, charged it 
only with powder and paper, and no bullet. And so his 
lordship's life was thereby saved. Windham was presently 
seized by that lord's men : and being brought before the 
council, confessed his intent. But the cause of this quarrel 
he that wrote the news knew not. He was committed to the 
Tower. 

The same day also, as sir John Conwey was going in the And to sir 
streets, Mr. Lodowic Grevil came suddenly upon him, and 
struck him on the head with a great cudgel, and felled him ; 
and being down, struck at him with a sword ; and, but for 
one of sir John Conwey's men, who warded the blow, he had 
cut off his legs. Yet did he hurt him on both his shins. 
The council also sent for the said Grevi], and committed 
him to the Marshalsea. 

I shall take notice in the next place, of some persons of 
quality that died this year. 

This year put an end to the life of sir Nicolas Bacon, Sir Nicolas 
knight, lord-keeper. A man that merited singularly well of Hls°poste- S 
this kingdom, and of the religion : having continued the rit y- 

VOL. II. TAUT II. p 



210 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK space of twenty years keeper of the great seal, and one of her 
majesty's privy council. He departed at his house near 



Anno 1578. Charing Cross, on Friday the 20th of February: and was 
buried in the cathedral church of St. Paul's, on Monday the 

Off. Herald. 9th of March. He married to his first wife Jane, daughter 

of Fernely, esq. and by her had issue, sir Nicolas 

Bacon, his eldest son; Nathaniel, second son; Edward, third. 
Daughters, Elizabeth, married to sir Rdbert Doyle, and af- 
terwards to sir Henry Nevil, knight ; and Anne, married 
to sir Henry Woodhouse. To his second wife he married 
Anne, daughter to sir Anthony Cook, knight, and by her 
had issue Anthony, fourth son, and Francis, his fifth son, 
the great learned viscount St. Alban's. His executors were 
sir Nicolas Bacon and Nathaniel Bacon, his sons. His sole 
548 overseer was sir William Cecyl, knight, lord Burghley. The 
inscription upon his tomb, as it is set down by Abraham 
Fleming, began thus : 

Hie Nicolavm me Bacon um conditum 
Existima ilium, tarn diu Britannici 
Regni secundum eolumen, exitium mails, 
Bonis asylum, cceca quern non extulit 
Ad hunc honorem sors, scd cequitas,Jides, 
Doctrina, pietas, unica et jwudentia, fyc. 

The whole may be read in Stow's Survey, among the monu- 
mental inscriptions in St. Paul's church. 
Lady Mary This year died, I suppose, (for this year her will is dated,) 
Gray dies. ^ ^^ Mary Gray, one of the daughters of Henry duke 
of Suffolk, and sister to Jane, sometime unfortunate queen 
of England, married (somewhat inferior to her blood) to 
Keyes, sergeant porter. By her will she is said to be of the 
parish of St. Botulph without Aldersgate, widow ; of whole 
mind, and of good and perfect remembrance. These were 
Her last some of the contents of her said will and legacies. " Touch- 
" ing my soul, I commit the same to the mercy of God Al- 
" mighty, my Saviour and Redeemer : by whose death and 
" passion only, without any other ways or means, I trust to 
" be saved ; under whose true church I profess myself unto 



will 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 211 

" the whole world, to die an humble and true repentant per- CHAP. 
" son, for my sins committed. And as for my body, I com- 



mit the same to be buried where the queen's majesty shall Anno 1578. 

" think most meet and convenient I give and be- 

" queath unto my very good lady and grandmother, the 
" duchess of Suffolk her grace, one pair of bracelets of 
" gold, with a jankstone in each bracelet : which bracelets 
" were my lady's grace my late mother's: or else my jewel 
" of unicorn's horn : whichsoever liketh her grace best to 
" take. And which she refuseth, to my lady Susan, coun- 
" tess of Kent. To the countess of Lincoln, a girdle of 
" goldsmith's work, set with pearls, and buttons of gold. 
" To my very good lady and sister, my lady of Bartie, and 
" to Mr. Peregrine Bartie, her husband, my best gilt cup 
" and best saltseller." She gave legacies also to my lady 
Stafford, my lady Arundel, lady Margaret Nevil, lady 
Throgmorton, Mrs. Blanch a Parr, her cousin ; Mrs. Du- 
port, her gossip ; Mrs. Morrison, Mary Merrick, her god- 
daughters. Her cousin Edm. Hill, and Tho. Deport, esqrs. 
her executors. 

Sir Henry Seymer, knight, died at his house in Winches- Sir Henry 
ter, the 5th of April, this year. And the lady Barbara his j ies . 
wife, daughter to Morgan Wolfe, died also there, in the 
same house, the 11th of the same month. He had issue by 
her Elizabeth and Jane. Edward Seymour, earl of Hert- 
ford, was his executor. 

Now to take notice of some of the books that came forth 
this year, such chiefly relating to religion. 

First of all, the Holy Bible, printed by Barker, the queen's The Holy 
printer. This sacred book in the great volume having been pi .; nte d, 
but sparingly printed before, was now rarely to be met with. 
Which edition may deserve some particular account to be 
given of it. It seems to have been a new edition of that Bi- 
ble, which was translated and set forth by the English di-549 
vines, exiles at Geneva. It hath many notes in the margin. 
I saw it in Holborn house, anno 1711, among the books of 
the late learned Dr. John Moor, lord bishop of Ely. And 
then took these notes of it. It is entitled, The Bible trans- 



212 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

book lated according to the Hebrew and Greek; and conferred 
u - with the best translations in divers languages: with most 

Anno 1578. profitable annotations upon all the hard places. And other 
things of great importance, as may appear in the epistle to 
the reader. Whereto is added the Psalter of the common 
translation, agreeing with the Book of Common Prayer. 
And then is this suitable text of scripture added, Jos. i. 8. 
Let not this book of the Lord depart out of thy mouth, but 
meditate therein day and night, &c. In the next leaf is the 
epistle: To the diligent and Christian reader, grace, 
mercy, and peace, through Christ Jesus. Beginning with 
a pious and thankful remembrance of the late miseries here 
under a popish government, [viz. that of queen Mary,] and 
of the happy deliverance of the people of the land, and 
the present free profession of the gospel ; in these words : 

The preface." Besides the manifold and continual benefits which Al- 
" mighty God bestoweth upon us, both corporal and spi- 
" ritual, we are especially bound, dear brethren, to give 
" him thanks without ceasing, for his great grace and mer- 
" cies: in that it hath pleased him to call us unto this mar- 
" vellous light of his gospel, and mercifully to regard us 
" after so horrible backsliding and falling away from Christ 
" to Antichrist, from light to darkness, from the living God 
" to dumb and dead idols ; and after that so cruel murder 
" of God's saints, as, alas ! hath been amongst us ; we are 
" not altogether cast off, as most evident signs and tokens 
" of God's special love and favour, 1 '' &c. 

And then these divines proceed to give some account of 
their undertaking: " We thought we could not bestow our 
" labour and study in nothing which could be more accept- 
" able to God, and comfortable to his church, than in the 
" translating of the holy scripture into our native tongue. 
" The which thing, albeit that divers heretofore have endea- 
" voured to achieve, yet considering the infancy of those 
" times, and imperfect knowledge of the tongues, in respect 
" of this ripe age and clear light which God hath now re- 
" vealed ; the translations required greatly to be perused 
" and reformed. Not that we vindicate any thing to our- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 213 

" selves above the least of our brethren. For God knows CHAP. 

XIV 
" with what fear and trembling we have been for the space 



" of two years and more, day and night, occupied therein : An n° 15 ? 8 . 

" but being earnestly desired, and by divers, whose learn- 

" ing and godliness we reverence, exhorted, and also en- 

" couraged by the ready wills of such, whose hearts God 

" likewise touched, not to spare any charge, for the fur- 

" therance of such a benefit and favour of God towards 

" his church, &c. we undertook this great and wonderful 

" work with all reverence, as in the presence of God 

" Which now God, according to his divine providence and 
" mercy, hath directed to a happy and most prosperous end. 
" And this we may with good conscience protest, that we 
" have in every point and word, according to the measure 
" of the knowledge which it hath pleased God to give 
" us, faithfully rendered the text ; and in all hard places 
" most sincerely expounded the same. For God is our wit- 
" ness, that we have by all means endeavoured to set forth 
" the purity of the word, and right sense of the Holy Ghost, 
" for the edifying of the brethren in faith and charity." 

This is the protestation, and this is the account those 550 
reverend and learned professors of religion make for this 
translation, which we call the Geneva Bible; and of the 
marginal notes added to it, where difficulties occurred in the 
text. There is also added in this edition, archbishop Cran- 
mer's prologue to the English translation of the Bible in his 
time. 

Now came forth, in quarto, bishop Jewel's vindication of Bishop 
his Apology of the Church of England, against the cavils vindication 
of Harding and other papists: translated into Latin by gj° rt h B in 
William Whitaker, afterwards the queen's professor of di-w.Whita- 
vinity in the university of Cambridge. It bore this title : 
Joannis Juelli Sarisburien. in Anglia nupcr episcopi, ad- 
versus Tho. Hardingum, volumen alter um. In quo vi- 
ginti septcm qucestiones, et scripturis, et omnium concili- 
orum ac patrum monimcntis, quazcunque sexcentis a nato 
Christo annis antiquiora sunt, disceptantur atque cxplican- 
tur. Ex Anglicano conversum in Latinum a Gulielmo 

p3 



214 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK Whitalcero, coll. sanctce Trinitatis apud Cantabrigienses so- 
li was by the said Whitaker dedicated to Grindal, arch- 



Anno 1578. bishop of Canterbury; Sandes, archbishop of York; M\- 
mer, bishop of London; Whitgift, bishop of Worcester; 
Freke, bishop of Norwich ; and Alexander Nowel, dean of 
St. Paul's. For the reason of his dedication, he addressed 
himself to them in these words : 

Juellum omncs, &c. " You all loved Jewel dearly, while 
" he was alive, and you will not cease as long as you live to 
" remember him with a most dear remembrance, now he is 
" dead." He added, " That he would not insist to shew for 
" what causes, to them especially he dedicated these his la- 
" hours. That would require a long narration, and not ne- 
" cessary. Nor would he tell, for what causes (and those 
" great) he was bound to every one of them. But that he 
" should look upon it as a great favour, if he should under- 
" stand, that his work were approved by such as they. Nor 
" did he desire any greater reward for his labour, than that 
" he mis-ht seem to them not to have ill deserved of the 
" church."'' 
Against Harding's book against Jewel came forth 1568, being a 

book. 1 " 5 '" tnick quarto, with a title scurrilous enough ; viz. A detec- 
tion of sundry foul errors, lies, slanders, corruptions, 
and other false dealings touching doctrine, and other mat- 
ters ; littered and practised by M. Jewel ; in a book lately 
by him set forth, entitled, A Defence of the Apology, Sj-c. 
By Thomas Harding, D. D. Lovanii apud Johann. Fou- 
lerum, 1568. 
Mr. Fox John Fox, the martyrologist, preached a sermon at St. 

P rw £ hes at Paul's Cross this year on Good-Friday. It was printed 
Cross on divers years after, viz. 1585, (unless reprinted that year.) 
day" ™" But appears to have been about this year preached, by a 
passage in the prayer. Wherein, speaking of queen Eliza- 
beth, he saith, that she had then doubled the reigns of her 
brother and sister. So that she had reigned twenty years or 
535 upwards, which fell in with this year, 1578. It was printed 
in twelves, entitled, A Sermon of Christ crucified; preached 
at Pauls Cross on Good-Friday, by John Fox: written 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 215 

and dedicated to all such as labour and are heavy laden in CHAP, 

XIV 
conscience: to be read for their spiritual con fort. It hath 



along preface, To such as are laden in conscience. The AnDOl3 78. 
text was 2 Cor. v. [ver. 20.] which he thus read, or rather 
paraphrased : First therefore, or, in Christ's name, we 
come to you, as messengers, even as God himself, desiring 551 
you ; we pray you for Christ sake, that ye will be re- 
conciled unto God. For him which knew no sin God hath 
made to be sin, that we might be made the righteousness of 
God by him. This tract consisteth of two sermons, or two 
parts of a sermon, enlarged by him more than was spoken, 
to make it a book the more useful to the readers. In the 
conclusion of the first, he made a recapitulation. And then 
proceeded to prayer, in these words : " And now let us pray 
" as we began, making our earnest invocation to Almighty 
" God for the universal state of Christ's church, and all 
" other estates and degrees in order particularly, as custom 
" and also duty required!," &c. And then the Lord's 
Prayer concludes all : like as at the end of the second ser- 
mon, or part, he concludeth with a prayer. Which was long, 
and excellently worded, and somewhat historical of the 
state of the church. Which will be found in the Appendix. N°. XIX. 
Whereby we may observe something of the method of 
prayer in those times, and of the custom of it after sermon. 

About this year came forth a bitter book against the pre- View of An- 
sent establishment of the church of England, charging it lawS) &' c< 
with grievous errors and superstitions, and making it Anti- 
christian : wrote by Anthony Gilbie, and styled, A view of 
Antichrist, his laws, and ceremonies in our English church, 
unreformed. A clear glass, wherein may be seen the dan- 
gerous and desperate diseases of our English church, being 
ready utterly to perish, unless she may speedily have a cor- 
rosive of the zoliolesome herbs of God his word, laid very 
whot to her heart, to expulse those colds and deadly infec- 
tions of popery ; tvhich the attainted potecaries of Anti- 
christ have corrupted her withal: else long she cannot en- 
dure, &c. " Wherefore she [the church of England] piti- 

p 4 



216 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " fully complain eth unto her loving nurse-mother, who hath 
______" next under God nourished and preserved life among us 



Anno 1578. " these twenty years; that she would of her motherly pity 
" once more take view of those perilous drugs, which these 
" unskilful potecaries yet compel her to keep," &c. 

This book is fancifully divided into three or four tables. 

The first table, entitled, The book of the generation of 
Antichrist, the pope, the revealed child of perdition, and 
his successors, Sj-c. Then the generation begins, viz. 

" The Devil begot darkness ; Eph. vi. Darkness begot 
" ignorance ; Acts xvii. Ignorance begot error and his bre- 
" thren ; 1 Tim. iv. Error begot free-will and self-love ; 
" Esav x. Free-will begot merits ; Es. lviii. Merits, for- 
" getfulness of the grace of God ; Rom. x. Forgetfulness 
" of the grace of God begot transgression ; Rom. ii. Trans- 
" gression begot mistrust ; Gen. v. Mistrust begot satis- 
" faction ; Matth. xvii. Satisfaction begot the sacrifice of 
" the mass; Dan. xii. &c." And so after divers genera- 
tions, " Ambition was begot ; Ezek. xxxiv. And ambition 
" begot simony. And simony begot the pope and his bre- 
" thren the cardinals, with all their successors, abbots, 
" priors, archbishops, lord bishops, archdeacons, deans, bi- 
" shops, chancellors, commissaries, officials, spiritual doc- 
" tors and proctors, with the rest of that viperous brood." 
And thus the author is even with the bishops and their of- 
ficers. 
552 The second table, Of the displaying of the pope and po- 
pery in our church of England. 

" The pope of Rome writeth himself father of fathers, 
** and the head of the church. 

" The pope of Lambeth writeth, reverend father, Mat- 
" thew of Canterbury, by the sufferance of God metro- 
" politan and primate of all England : as much as to say, 
" chief head of the church of England." 

[By the mention of this archbishop it appeareth, that 
though this tract was published but this year, (in the 20th 
of the queen,) yet that it was compiled some years before, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 217 

while archbishop Matthew Parker was alive. And very CHAP. 
likely handed about by the party more obscurely, till now 



at length it got out of the press.] Anno 1578. 

" 2. The pope of Rome doth sell sin for money ; as 
" whoredom, or such like. 

" The pope of Lambeth doth the same. And that can 
" his officials and summoners tell, if they list. 

" 3. The pope of Rome forbiddeth marriage and meats. 
" Which St. Paul calleth the doctrine of devils. l Tim - iv - 

" The pope of Lambeth doth the same. A false prophet, John x. 
u and a stranger ; which teacheth the doctrine of devils. 

" 4. The pope of Rome doth command superstitious Exod. xx. 
" holydays to be kept contrary to the commandment of 
" God. 

" The pope of Lambeth doth the same ; and compelleth 
" men to break the commandment of God to observe popish 
" traditions. 11 

And so in this tract the parallel is drawn at good length 
in divers other particulars, under fourteen articles, between 
the pope of Rome and the pope of Lambeth. 

The third table, Containing an hundred points of popery 
remaining : which deform the English reformation. 

" 1. The popish names and offices. The archbishop or 
" primate of England ; whose office standeth not so much 
" in preaching, as in granting of licences and dispensations, 
" according to the canon law. 

" 2. That he is called lord's grace, or gracious lord, 
" contrary to the commandment of Christ ; Luke xxii. 25. 

" 3. That the other bishops are called lords ; have 
" domination, and exercise authority over their brethren, 
" contrary to the commandment of our Saviour Christ ; 
" Matth. xx. 25. 1 Pet. v. 4." And so the writer goes on 
with many other pretended points of popery under the titles 
of the court of Faculties, and the Commissaries court. This 
is signed by A. Gilbie. 

The fourth table, Of the bringing in of divers of the po- 
pish corruptions, yet remaining in our English church. 
Under this table are brought the conjured font ; godfathers 



218 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
II. 

Anno 1578 



553 



A Discourse 
against the 
outward ap- 
parel and 
ministering 
garments. 



History of 
the Refor- 
mation, 
vol. i. 
p. 447. 
Some ac- 
count of 
that book. 



and godmothers ; women to baptize children ; confirma- 
tion, or bishoping of children ; standing at the gospel ; the 
dividing of the chancel, bells, organs, surplices, pricksong, 
and many more ; assigning under what popes they were 
brought in, and in what year. And this fourth table is sub- 
scribed by T. W. [Wilcocks perhaps] as the author. This 
calumnious pamphlet was thought fit to have a place among 
the collections in the book called, Part of a Register. 

The second edition of a book of the same strain came 
forth this year in twelves. It was first set forth in the year 
1565, by such ministers as refused wearing the apparel, 
prescribed to be used in divine service ; entitled, A brief 
discourse against the outward apparel and ministering 
garments of the popish church. It is said to be printed in 
1578 ; but no place where, or person by whom : it seems, 
by the form of the letter, to have been printed in Holland. 
In this edition is an address of the book, speaking thus to 
the reader : 

The pope's attire, whereof to talk, I know to be but vain ; 
Wherefore some men that witty are, to read me will disdain. 
But I would wish that such men should with judgment read me 

twice, 
And mark how great an evil 'tis, God's preachers to disguise, &c. 

Of this book I have given some account elsewhere. Yet 
it will not be amiss to add some other passages, for brevity 
sake omitted there. 

Whereas it was said in favour of the apparel, that it was 
enjoined for order and decency, and for distinction sake, it 
was shewed, " How unnecessary a thing it was, for the mi- 
" nisters to be known from other men. Which might easily 
" appear by that which we read of Samuel and other pro- 
" phets ; of Peter and Paul, and other holy men. Saul met 
'* Samuel, and did not know him by his apparel ; but said 
" unto him, / pray thee tell me, where is the seer^s house- 
" And when the messengers of Ahaziah met Elijah, they 
" did not by his apparel know that he was a prophet. But 
" when they declared to their master, that he was a hairy 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 219 

" man, and one that was girded with a leathern girdle, the CHAP. 
" king knew by that sign of austerity, that it was Elijah 



" the Thesbite. And that John Baptist wore not any kind Anno 1578. 

" of garment, whereby he might be known to be a prophet ; 

" but his apparel was such as was commonly worn in the 

" wilderness, or forest, where his abode was. Peter, when 

" he followed Christ into the high priest's house, was 

" not known by his apparel to be one of Christ's disciples, 

" but by his speech. That St. Hierom did advise Eusto- 

" chium, a virgin ; a garment must be neither too cleanly, 

" nor too sluttish ; neither notable by any diversity 

" That the whole clergy of Ravenna, in the days of the em- 
" peror Carolus Calvus, about the year 876, writ an epistle 
" to the emperor, wherein are these words ; Discernendi a 
" plebe vel cceteris sumus, cloctrina, non veste, conversatione, 
" non habitu, &c. In the Decrees also, xxi. caus. and 4. 
" quest, we read thus ; In priscis enim terwporibus omnis 
" sacratus vir, cum mediocri aut vili veste, conversabatur. 
" By these places it is manifest, that it is nothing necessary, 
" neither according to the example of the first church, that 
" there should be in the outward apparel of the ministers 
" such difference. 

" That at first ministering garments were Jewish. For 
" the Jews, because they were a people given to have a sen- 
" sible God's service, had many goodly glittering things 
" prescribed them, to stay them from receiving of those 
" things, that the heathen nations, from among whom they 
" came, and that dwelt round about them, had, and did 
" use. But none of these garments that Aaron's priests 
" wore did lack their lively significations, to be fulfilled in 
" Christ and his church. When Christ therefore was come, 554 
" and had fulfilled all these things that were by those gar- 
" ments figured, then was there no more use of them. But 
" it remained, that the people that should serve God under 
" grace, should not serve him in figures and shadows, but 
" in spirit and truth. Such parts therefore of the pope's 
" ministering garments, as have been borrowed of the Jews, 
" ought not to be received of us." 



220 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK Again ; "' That some parts of the ministering garments 
" were heathenish ; as the surplice, the tunicles, the chesi- 
Anno 1578." ble, and cope: and some mixed of both; as is the alb, 
" or white linen garment, wherein the priest useth to say 
" his mass. That it appeared by glossa ordinaria upon 
" Ezekiel, that the Egyptian priests used a white linen gar- 
" ment in their sacrifices. The like matter writeth St. 
" Hierom upon the same place. The Jews also had ephod 
" lineum, i. e. a linen ephod, or garment, much like to the 
" pope's holy alb. Platina, in his book De Vestimentis 
" pontific. writeth, that Sylvester the first, about three hun- 
" dred and twenty years after Christ, ordained the sacra- 
" ment of Christ's body should be ministered in a white 
" linen garment only ; because Christ's body was buried in 
" white linen cloth. Of this linen garment Durandus, in his 
" book entitled Rationale divinorum, saith, That of neces- 
" sity it must be had in all holy ministration : and noteth 
" in the same place the signification of it. And Polydore 
m Vergil, They came from the Egyptians by the Hebrews!''' 

Again ; " How these garments have been abused, is rnani- 
" fest to as many as have considered the doings of idolaters, 
" sorcerers, and conjurers. For all these did nothing with- 
" out them. The conjurers and sorcerers can neither have 
" the instruments that they work with, nor use them when 
" they have them ; but they must have some help of some 
'" of these things. Their Aaron's rod, wherewith they work 
" wonders, cannot be had without much help of these 
" things. Their aqua lustralis, the conjured water, (with- 
" out which no circle can be made to keep out the Devil,) 
" can in no wise be made without a surplice or alb. The 
" devils can neither be called up, nor bound when they be 
" called up, nor yet conjured down again, without a hal- 
" lowed stole. If there were no more in vis therefore, but a 
. " desire not to seem to be idolaters, sorcerers, or conjurers, 
" it were enough to move us to refuse to admit the mini- 
" stering garments of the pope's church. But there is more 
" to move us. 11 

Afterwards some of our learned reformers are alleged. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 221 

First, Martin Bucer: who, being required to write his CHAP, 
judgment what, he thought meet to be done in this case, 



answered, That he could be content to suffer some great Anno 1578. 
pain in his own body, upon condition that these things ™)^ u o d f g ~ 
were utterly taken away. And in such case as we are now, m. Bucer. 
he Avilleth, that in no case they should be received. As 
did most plainly appear in that which he writ upon the 
eighteenth chapter of St. Matthew, Woe to the world be- 
cause of offences. Where he saith, that no man will earn- 
estly strive to maintain these superstitious ceremonies, but 
such as be either open enemies to Christ, or else back- 
sliders from Christ. And from Cambridge he writ to a most 
dear friend of his beyond the seas, writ the 12th January, 
1550. Quod me mones de puritate rituum, scito, hie nemi- 
nem extraneum de his rebus rogari. Tamen ex nobis, ubi 
possumus, officio nostro non desumus, scriptis, et coram. Ac 
imprimis, ut plebibus Christi, de veris pastoribtis consula- 
tur : deinde etiam, de puritate purissima, et doctrince et ri- 
tuum. Which words are cited by Theodore Beza, in his 555 
answer to the calumniations of Francis Baldwin. And in 
the same epistle he saith, Sunt qui humanissima sapientia, 
et evanescentibus cogitationibus, velintjermento Antichristi 
conglutinare Deum et Belial. 

" Here is, (as the writer of this tract proceeds,) the judg- 
" ment of Bucer, concerning the retaining of ceremonies, 
" plainly set forth, speaking expressly of this church of 
" England. And this, he [this author] saith, he mentioneth 
" the rather, because it was said by some, that this father is 
" against us." 

[What that very reverend and learned public professor Bucer's 
of divinity in Cambridge thought indeed and held of this ^"^A LaJ- 
controversy, may be fully seen in that argument between co about 
him and A Lasco in the time of king Edward VI. set down Annai. 
at large in the Annals of the Reformation, under the yearP- 172 - 
1564. Wherein he hath these words: Ecclesice in quibus 
viget Christi purissima et prcedicatio et fides, &c. " Those 
" churches, wherein the most pure preaching and faith of 
" Christ obtains, and a manifest and most earnest detesta- 



ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
II. 



P. Martyr. 



Bishop Rid 
ley. 



" tion of all Antichrists appeareth, &c. may piously, holily, 
" and truly to the glory of Christ, use garments, however 
Anno 1578." like to those of Aaron, and the same in matter, shape, 
" and colour, with the papistical." And again ; Antichristus 
non potest, &c. i. e. " Antichrist cannot, by any abuse of his 
" party, so defile, either these garments, or any work of 
" God, that the godly, casting off all abuse thereof, may not 
" also use them to pious significations and admonitions ; 
" and so serve to set forth the glory of God."] 

He proceedeth then to shew the mind of Peter Martyr, 
the learned professor of the other university. Whose judg- 
ment, he saith, was often asked, " who did more than once 
" in his writings call them reliquias Aniorrhaorum? And 
although he did in some case think that they might be 
borne with for a season, yet in our case he would not have 
them suffered to remain in the church of Christ. 

Further ; " That Dr. Ridley, when at his degrading, Dr. 
' Brokes persuaded him to put on the surplice, with the rest 
' of the massing garments, he utterly refused to do so, 
' saying, Truly if it came on me, (meaning the surplice,) 
' it shall be against my will. And when they were put on 
' him, he did vehemently inveigh against the bishop of 
' Rome, calling him Antichrist; and all that apparel 
' foolish and abominable. Hereby it appeared what esti- 
' mation that worthy martyr had of the popish garments at 
' the time of his death : albeit in the days of king Edward 
' he did stoutly maintain them against bishop Hooper. 

" Bishop Jewel, in his Reply to Harding, p. 442, hath 
' these words : Verily in the house of God, that thing is 
' hurtful that doth no good. All the ceremonies of the 
1 church ought to be clear and lively, and able to edify. 
' But in case they want all these properties, as undoubtedly 
' they do, then by this man's j udgment we may well reject 
' them." 

A prayer at At the conclusion of this tract, there is a prayer com- 

tbis tract, posed for the occasion; wherein are these words: "Are 

" not the relics of Romish idolatry stoutly retained ? Are 

" we not bereaved of some of our pastors ; who by word 



Bishop 
Jewel. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 223 

and example sought to free thy flock from those offences? CHAP. 
Ah, good Lord ! these are now by power put down from '_ 



" pastoral care. They are forbid to feed us : their voice we Anno 1578. 

" cannot hear. This is our great discomfort : this is the 

" joy and triumph of Antichrist his limbs, our enemies. 

" Yea, and that is more heavy, increase of this misery is of 55o 

" some threatened, of the wicked hoped for, and of us 

" feared, as thy just judgments against us for our sins." In 

the end of this prayer is brought in the Lord's Prayer, and 

the Creed, after this manner : " In thy name, O Christ, our 

" captain, we ask these things, and pray unto thee, O hea- 

" venly Father, saying, Our Father,'''' &c. And then, " O 

" Lord, increase our faith, whereof we make confession, / 

" believe in God? &c. And then this sentence, Arise, O 

Lord, mid let thine enemies be confounded. 

And this is the sum of that book, which I have been the 
larger in setting down, to supply what was omitted before 
in my Annals ; being a book drawn up by a joint combina- 
tion and assistance, study, and pains of the learnedest of 
that sort of incompliant ministers, chiefly of London. 

Other books of religious subjects printed this year, being 
thought useful books for English readers, were translated 
out of other languages, as many were in these days. One of 
these was entitled, A display of popish practices ; pub- Dismay of 
lished in quarto, in a black letter; being a piece of The- practices, 
odore Beza, in vindication of Calvin's doctrine of predesti- 
nation. Which some person nameless had writ against, and 
endeavoured to confute. It was translated out of Latin 
into English, by William Hopkinson, preacher of the gos- 
pel. Which translator gave it this title ; An evident display 
of popish practices, or patched Pelagianism : xvherein is 
mightily cleared the sovereign truth of God's eternal pre- 
destination ; the stayed groundwork of our assured safety. 
He dedicated it to Elmer, bishop of London ; humbly re- 
commending it to his honour's protection : " whose zeal for 
" the Lord's family he had cftsones experienced to his great 
" comfort, in the time of his being within his j urisdiction in 
" Lincolnshire." 



224 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK The preface of that writer against Calvin's doctrine be- 
gan thus, according to this translation. " Thy doctrine, 



tion 



Anno 1578." John Calvin, (a man much renowned in all the world,) 
Answering « hath many favourers ; but therewithal the same in like 

a book 

against " manner hath many adversaries. But I, who wish there 
doctrine of " ma y ^ e one doctrine, as there is one truth, and all to con- 
predestina- " sent thereunto, if it may be, have thought convenient to 
" admonish thee familiarly of those things which are usually 
u boasted against this doctrine ; that if they be false, thou 
" wouldest refute them : and send thy refutation to us, that 
" we may the rather withstand them ; and do it with such 
" proof as the people may understand. There be many 
" things wherein many dissent from thee. But for the pre- 
" sent, he said, he would deal with him of the argument 
" of destiny, or predestination. Because both this article 
u moved much controversy in the church, which they 
'•' wished might be suppressed ; and also, that his [Calvin's] 
" reason in this argument seemed to be such, as could not 
" be refelled by those books which hitherto he had pub- 
" lished." 

The articles which this writer had gathered out of Cal- 
vin's books (which Beza calleth slanders, and answereth 
distinctly) were such as these. 

u I. The first article, that is, the first slander: God, in 
" the bare and alone determination of his will, hath created 
a the greatest part of the world to perdition. 
557 " II- The second slander : God hath not only predestinate 
" Adam to damnation, but to the causes of damnation. 
" Whose fall he did not only foresee, but would it with an 
" eternal and secret decree ; and ordained, that he should 
" fall. Which that it might come to pass in his time, he 
" appointed an apple the cause of his fall. 

" III. The sins that are committed are done, not only by 
" his sufferance, but also by his will. For it is frivolous 
" to assign a difference between the sufferance and will of 
" God. 

" IV. All the wicked acts that man committeth are the 
" good and just works of God. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 225 

" V. No adultery, theft, or murder is committed, but the CHAP. 
" will of God cometh in betwixt. Institut. chap. xxiv. 

" distinct. 44. Anno 1578. 

" VI. That the scripture manifestly witnesseth, that 
" wicked acts are assigned to God ; not only willing, but 
" the author thereof. 

" VII. Whatsoever men do, when they sin, they do it 
" by the will of God : for because the will of God ofttimes 
" striveth with his commandment. 

" VIII. The hardening of Pharaoh, and moreover his fro- 
" wardness of mind and rebellion, was the work of God. 
" And that by the testimony of Moses, who ascribeth to 
" God the whole rebellion of Pharaoh. 

" IX. The will of God is the chief cause of the harden- 
" ing of men." 

Other articles attributed by this writer to Calvin were, 
" That Satan was a liar by the power of God. That God 
" giveth will to them that work wickedness : yea, he mi- 
" nistereth wicked and unhonest affections, not only by suf- 
" ferance, but effectually : and that for his own glory. The 
" wicked in their wickedness do rather God's work than 
" their own. We sin of necessity by the sense of God, 
" when we sin of our own, or at adventure. Lastly, Those 
" things which men commit by their own wicked inclina- 
" tion, the same also proceedeth of the will of God. 1 ' 

These uncharitable consequences and odious insinuations Calvin and 

i /» ■ • ii -ii j? kis doctrine 

from the doctrine of predestination and the will 01 man, as wronged 
stated by Calvin, highly provoked the church of Geneva. a " e d se n ^ s e r d e " 
Insomuch that Beza, the chief minister there, answered 
every one of those articles with some sharpness ; calling 
them all downright slanders, calumnies, and lies ; and him 
sycophant, and in one place, devil. " Wilt thou, devil, never 
'* leave thy slander P" And by his learning confuting the ad- 
versary's arguments ; and appealing frequently to Calvin's 
own writings ; wherein these dangerous doctrines were ut- 
terly disallowed and discovered by him. And finally, con- 
cludes that this man's doctrine is patched together of the 
doctrines of papists, anabaptists, Servetus, and Pelagius. 

VOL. II. TART II. Q 



226 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK The translation of this book, he that employed himself in 
"' the doing of it did think would be of great use to English 



Anno 1578. readers, his countrymen; especially those that wandered in 
the way of ignorance, and took part with the wicked cause, 
for lack of helps. 
The Way of Now came forth likewise a book of practical religion, in 
L,fe " quarto, translated also out of Latin into English, called 

The Way of Life ; written by a divine of fame in the king- 
558 dom of Denmark; being a Christian and catholic institu- 
tion ; comprising principal points of Christian religion ; 
which are necessary to be known of all men. 
Gratuiatio Gratulatio Waldenensis was set forth this year by Gabriel 
Waidenen- jjgrvey. j t was a description of the queen's reception of the 
university of Cambridge at Audley End, in the precincts of 
the town of Walden in Essex. Printed in Latin by Henry 
Binneman : in four books. The title of the first book, Ga- 
brielis Harveii Xotipe: vel Gratulationis Valdinensis liber 
primus. Ad magnificentissiman principem, et augustissi- 
mam reginam Elizabetham Audleianis cedibus regifice ex- 
ceptam. The second book, to the earl of Leicester. The 
third, to lord Burghley. The fourth, to the earl of Oxford, 
sir Christopher Hatton, and sir Philip Sidney. 
The His- And to conclude : this year also was printed, in a fair folio, 
w 7rs°in be the history of the excellent Italian historian, Guicciardine ; 
Italy, in translated into English by Geffrey Fenton : containing the 
wS by' wars of Italy and other parts, continued for many years un- 
Guicciar- ^ eY sun( Jry kings and princes : wherein much history of re- 
ligion is interspersed ; and of stirs occasioned by the pope. 
The editor dedicated this his translation to queen Eliza- 
Queen Eli- beth. In his epistle he took notice, " of her great skill in 
skiinnhis- " history ; wherein she, far above all other princes, had a 
tory and « most s i n g U lar insight and judgment. And concerning 
ment. " " state and government, [which that book chiefly treated 
" of,] God had expressed in the person of her majesty, a 
" most rare and divine example to all other kings of the 
" earth, for matter of policy and sound administration. All 
" law of reason, of equity, and of other impression whatso- 
" ever, did challenge to appropriate the address of the work 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 227 

" to her. In whom, for her inspired science and spirit to CHAP, 
"judge of monuments and events of things; and for the 



" felicity of her government in seasons so perilous and con- Anno 1578. 

" spiring, all kings and kingdoms and nations round about 

" her, rose up to reverence, in her form of governing, that 

" property of wisdom and virtue ; which, it seems, God 

" had restrained to her majesty only, without participation 

" to any of them. And in that regard they held her, as he 

" added, the sacred and fixed star : which light God would 

" not have put out ; though the devices of men on all sides 

" were busy to draw clouds and dark vails to obscure 

" it,"" &c. And again ; " That God had raised and esta- 

" blished her majesty a sovereign prince of several nations 

" and languages : and with the fruits of a firm and con- 

" tinued peace, had plentifully enriched the people of her 

" dominions ; restored religion and the church of Christ, 

" to dwell anew among us ; made her strength awful to all 

" her neighbours ; and lastly, had erected her seat upon a 

" high hill or sanctuary, and put into her hands the balance 

" of power and justice, to peaze and counterpeaze at her 

" will the actions and counsels of all the Christian king- 

" domsof her time." This I thought worthy the extracting 

from the grave writer ; who lived in, and was an observer 

of these very times : to shew what honour and reputation 

she had by this time of her reign attained to among her 

subjects, and through the Christian world, for her great 

wisdom, learning, favour, and protection of true religion, 

and abilities in government, and awful respect among the 

princes of the earth. 

For what books of note of religious subjects were pub- Books of 
lished abroad, I transcribe a paragraph of the famous Hel- r el 'f l0 |* set , 
vetian divine, Rodolphus Gualter, in an epistle to Cox, bi- in Germany, 
shop of Ely: Ego his nundinis \Francqfurtens'ibus\ nihil 5 50 
in lucem dedi prceter sermones Germanicos X. de pane 
vitce> Jesu Christi, et ejus vera manducatione ; ex Joannis 
sexto cap. Qiios si aliquando Latinos feccro, ad te mittam. 
Julius se mittcre dixit Benedicti Talmanni libellum, quo 
novum illud et portentosum de ubiquitatc corporis Christi 



228 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK dogma, egregie confutatur. Sub prelo est liber doctissi- 
. mus de orthodo.ro consensu ecclesice veteris in negotio ccence 



Anno 1578. Domini. 

The sum of which words was, his mention of three 
books : one was, ten sermons of his concerning the Bread of 
Life, Jesus Christ, and the true eating of him ; from St. 
John, chap. vi. Another, A confutation of the new and 
monstrous doctrine of the ubiquity of the body of Christ : 
by Benedict Talman. A third, Of the orthodox consent of 
the ancient church in the business of the Lord's Supper: 
being a very learned book. 



CHAP. XV. 

The queerfs match with the French king's brother; con- 
certed. Provoked by a seditious book against it. Issueth 
out a proclamation : the sum thereof Stubbs the author 
punished: remains prisoner in the Tower. His petition. 
A nobleman {thought to be sir Philip Sydney) writes to 
the queen, upon the parliaments suits to her to marry. 
The earl of Leicester under dislike with the queen about 
this French match. His protestation, and offer of exile. 

Anno 1579. J. HIS year 1579, the French match with queen Elizabeth 

The French wag eariie stlv concerted. Which some of her wise states- 
match con- J , . . , 
certed ear- men thought necessary, for the security ot the kingdom : 

nestly ' that there might be an heir of the queen's body to inherit 
the crown: though the difference of religion (monsieur be- 
ing a papist) did create a great fear and disturbance in 
most men's minds. So that both bishops and preachers, as 
well as the generality of her subjects, dislike it utterly. 
The arch- The queen thought fit to cast forth some expressions to 
YorkVa ! Sandys, archbishop of York, about this affair. And he, in 
vice of it to his correspondence with the earl of Shrewsbury, thus wrote 
Shrews- from London, March 5, how matters then went: viz. 
bury. a That things were very uncertain : and that he had omit- 

" ted writing to him, because these uncertain times could 
" bring forth no certainties. That the French matter had 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 229 

been long on sleep, and seemed as dead, but was now re- CHAP, 
vived again. That monsieur of late had writ most kind 



" letters, claiming promise, and yielding to all conditions. Anno if>79. 

" That the king had sent a treating message by his legyard 

" ambassador here. That the earl of Leicester, Hatton, 

" and Walsingham, had very earnestly moved her majesty 

" to go forward with this marriage, as her most safety. 

" That hereupon letters were sent by post, as well to mon-560 

" sieur as to Semyer. [Who was here last year courting 

" the queen.] And the answer was given to the ambassa- 

" dor here to his satisfaction. So that, as the archbishop 

" proceeded, it was looked for that both Semyer and other 

" French commissioners should be here before Easter, to 

" make up a conclusion. But what would be the end, added 

" the archbishop, or to what effect this will come, God 

" knew, and not man. Yet, as he subjoined, it was but a 

" few days past, her majesty cast out speeches to him tend- 

" ing that way. But that if these commissioners came, the 

" parliament would hold; if they came not, it was like they 

" would be prorogued until Michaelmas. 11 

But before he concluded his letter, he writ the news : The French 
That at that very time he understood the French ambassa- ^ v a e s d sad ° r 
dor and the rest of the French gentlemen were arrived, to 
solicit this great affair : who were courted by the chief men 
of the court. And the earl of Leicester treated them at his 
house at Wansted: he and his company dining with him 
there. And it being now resolved, that monsieur d'Anjou, 
the king's brother, should come over to wait upon the 
queen in way of courtship, the council was exceeding busy 
in preparing and ordering matters for his reception, in or- 
der to carry on the treaty. This was the archbishop's news. 

" The lord Gilbert Talbot wrote to the said earl, his The coun- 

. , , , sellors ear- 

" father, that the earl of Leicester, and the lord treasurer, nest in 
" though scarcely free of a fit of the gout, (which, as the J J ^J is 
" said lord Gilbert merrily wrote, the lord treasurer was coming. 
" not then at leisure to entertain,) for five days together, in 
" the beginning of April, had sat in privy-council, from 
" eight of the clock in the morning, till dinner-time : and 

q3 



230 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " presently after dinner, and an hour's conference with her 
" majesty, to council again : and so till supper- time. And 



Anno 1579. « a ll this, as far as he could learn, was about the matter of 
" monsieur's coming, his entertainment here, and what de- 
" mands were to be made unto him in the treaty of mar- 
" riage, and such like. And lastly, he assured the earl, 
" that it was verily thought, by a great sort of wise men, 
" that the marriage would come to pass. Yet that never- 
" theless there were divers others, like St. Thomas of Inde, 
" who would not believe till he had seen and felt. That it 
" was said, that monsieur would certainly be here in May 
" next : and that he was with the king his brother in the 
" beginning of the last week, and concluded with him of all 
" his determinations of this matter, with his good consent ; 
" and great commendations to her majesty on his brother's 
" part. Further, that it was said he would be accompanied 
" with two or three dukes, and some earls, and an hun- 
" dred other gentlemen besides, of great and honourable ac- 
" count." 
The preach- But the preachers were not sparing to shew their dislike 
against this thereof: taking occasion in their sermons from their texts 
marriage. to yen t what dangers were like to ensue, if this match 
should take effect. " The preachers," as that lord Talbot 
added in his letter, " are somewhat too busy to apply their 
" sermons to tend covertly against this marriage : many of 
" them inveighing greatly thereat. So that but the week 
" before this letter was writ, her majesty hearing thereof, 
" her express command was, that none should hereafter 
56 1 " preach upon any such text as the like might be inferred. 11 
This above was writ by the said lord Talbot, April the 4th. 
This mar- Yet it was but the month after, the matter grew cooler : 
ter ooois 1 " an d' as tne sa ^ l° r d wrote in another letter, dated May the 
15th, the secret opinion then was, that monsieur's coming, 
and especially his marriage, was grown very cold : and 
that Semyer was like shortly to go over again. He added, 
that he knew a man that would take a thousand pounds in 
London, to be bound to pay double so much, when he 
[that Frenchman] married the queen's majesty. This was 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 231 

then the court talk. And thus this weighty matter wa- CHAP, 
vered. Yet soon after monsieur came privately over, and '__ 



visited the queen at Greenwich. Anno 1579. 

I have met with an original paper, containing the articles Monsieur's 
propounded on the part of monsieur, when he was here, in themar-^ 
order to his marriage ; to be granted by the queen and the "age. 
lords of her council : with their answers to each article. It 
is digested into two columns : the articles in the one, and 
the answers on the other. Which, because I do not find 
them mentioned at all by any of our historians, I shall com- 
municate and preserve in the Appendix ; especially being (Number 
such a considerable part of queen Elizabeth's history : and '> 

of such remark, to shew the prudent wariness with which 
her statesmen proceeded in so weighty a matter ; on which 
the queen's and whole kingdom's future welfare so much 
depended ; and religion chiefly ; with a deference of all to 
the parliament. These articles were presented, June 16, 
and the answers to each the very next day after. The ar- 
ticles bore this title : Articuli propositi pro parte et nomine 
illustriss. ducis Andegavensis, fyc. That is, Articles pro- 
pounded on the part and in the name of the most illustrious 
duke qfAnjou, only brother of the king' of France ; to the 
most serene queen qf England: concerning and upon a 
marriage between her majesty and the foresaid duke's high- 
ness. 

The first article was concerning the rites and ceremonies 
to be used at the celebration of the marriage: that they 
might be such as from all antiquity were wont to be used 
in the marriage of kings and princes. The second, That all 
the duke's attendants and domestics might have the free use 
of the catholic Roman religion in the kingdom of England. 
The third, That after the consummation of the marriage, 
the said duke should be crowned king of England with all 
the usual ceremonies. The fourth, That all donations and 
grants of offices, rewards, &c. should go mutually in both 
their names. Further, That letters patents should go as 
well in his name as in the queen's : also, to have for the 
maintaining of his royal family yearly, 60,000/. sterling : and 

q 4 



232 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK for assurance thereof, to have the duchies of Lancaster and 
IL York during; his life. Further, That the said duke shall 



Anno 1579. give and assign to her majesty 50,000 crowns de soleil pro 
dote ; to be taken from his duchy of Anjou : that in case of 
the queen's death, he should have the education of the chil- 
dren. These are some of the articles. The answer gene- 
rally given, set on the other column opposite, was, to refer 
the consideration and determination of these proposals to a 
colloquy, and to her parliament. But I refer the reader to 
the whole in the Appendix, as far as legible, the rats having 
impaired several words in the paper, where the blanks are. 
562 But how the nation generally stood affected to this mar- 
riage may appear from a bold book printed, the author 
whereof was John Stubbs of Lincoln's Inn. Which gave 
an ill and rude character of the brother of a great prince ; 
with whom the queen was not minded to break. Which 
Aprocia- book came forth while he was here in his courtship. This, 
Saed°b" w * tn otner °ff* ens i ve matters, caused her to set forth a long 
slanders proclamation in the month of September, against the slan- 
against 6 derous speeches and books about the duke of Anjou, and 
monsieur. t h e q Uee n's marriage with him. Which, though it be some- 
what long, yet having so much of the history of that junc- 
ture, and of the state of religion, and the transactions in 
that match, may deserve (the sum of it) to be here in- 
serted : especially the contents thereof being but briefly and 
Annai. Eliz. imperfectly mentioned in Camden's History, 
p. 269. gj ie b e g an w j t h t h e acknowledgment of God's wonderful 

goodness to her : " That she had so good proof of God's 
singular goodness in the continual preservation of her, 
from his first setting her in the throne, as his chosen ser- 
vant, to reign as she had done from the beginning, in re- 
storing and maintaining the truth of Christian religion, 
and of a long and universal peace in her dominions, 
against all attempts of foreign enemies and conspiracies of 
rebels: governing her estate in that sort, as her realm 
was, and had been always free from outward hostility and 
" war, made and denounced by any foreign prince : being 
oftener sued unto by the greater sort for friendship and 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 233 

" alliance, than ever irritated by any messages of war or CHAP. 
" unkindness ; a rare thing to be found in the reign of any xv ' 



" of her progenitors. And therewith also having proof of Anno 1579. 

" the universal love, liking, and favour of her people. As 

" for all these she daily acknowledged her debt, greater to 

" Almighty God than she was able in thankfulness to ex- 

" press; and yet had no cause, through her steadfast hopes 

" in God, to mistrust the continuance of these his graces 

" towards her : of which benefits, so largely bestowed upon 

" her, she would have been loath to have on her behalf 

" made any mention, but that she would not have the ma- 

" lice of some lewd, disordered persons, by sufferance there- 

" of, to work any evil effect, either to irritate unjustly any 

" foreign prince, being in good amity with her, to think 

" themselves for honourable dealing, to be unhonourably 

" used, by word or deed, in her dominions; or to alienate 

" the love and estimation which her people have of her, for 

" her godly, Christian, and peaceable government. 

" And that therefore being lately informed of a lewd, se-Alewd,sedi- 
" ditious book, of late rashly compiled, and secretly print- tl0US book « 
" ed, and after seditiously dispersed into sundry corners of 
" the realm : and that, considering it manifestly contained, 
" under a pretence of dissuading her away from marriage 
" with the duke of Anjou, the French king's brother, a 
" heap of slanders and reproaches of the said prince, bol- 
" stered up with manifest lies, and deceitful speeches of 
" him ; and therewith also maliciously and rebelliously stir- 
" ring up all estates of her majesty's subjects, to fear their 
" own utter ruin, and a change of government : but espe- 
" cially, to imprint a present fear in the zealous sort [the 
" puritans] of the alteration of Christian religion by her 
" majesty's marriage; with many other false suggestions, 
" to move a general murmuring and disliking in her loving 
" people concerning her majesty's actions in this behalf. 563 
" Wherein though the wiser sort, being acquainted by long 
" proof with her majesty's honourable and direct proceed- 
" ings, both in government politic, and in constant main- 
" tenance of Christian true religion, in times of no small 



234 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " dangerous storms, rising from Rome and their adherents, 
' " (from which her own person had not been free,) and that 



Anno 1579." for no other cause, but for the maintenance of the true 
" Christian religion : yet, lest the simpler sort and multi- 
" tude, being naturally affected towards her majesty and 
" her safety, might be abused by the fair title of the book, 
" and the hypocrisy of the author, as well in abusing texts 
" and examples of scripture, perverted from their true sense; 
" and interlacing of flattering glosses towards her, to cover 
" the rest of the manifest depraving of her majesty, and 
" her actions to her people: 
Duke of An- " Therefore her majesty, continuing her intention in the 
cated ind " " g°°d government of her subjects in their due obedience, 
" most earnestly willeth them, and every of them, to under- 
" stand, that first, she cannot but detest greatly, and con- 
" demn such a seditious author, with his fardle of false re- 
" ports, suggestions, and manifest lies, forged against a 
" prince of a royal blood, as monsieur, the French king's 
" brother is ; and such one as was well known to her ma- 
" jesty, even by the confession of the French protestants, 
" (who cannot but attribute all the good they have got, to 
" be by his means,) to have of long time entirely loved and 
" honoured her; and as never could be challenged to have 
" had any ill meaning to her majesty's godly and peaceable 
" government : neither yet to have deserved in his beha- 
" viour at home the malice of any of the subjects of France 
" in any part, dissenting in religion, by any his cruelty, de- 
" ceit, or other unhonourable act or attempt. Which de- 
" vices be full strange to his disposition. Yea, such a 
" prince, as against whose courteous nature and liberal 
" heart no man, after this envious wretch, had' once the 
" face to avouch a gainsay ; as in whom she never could 
" hear the wise and earnest protestants to have noted a 
" vice; and such a one also, as never in any demand re- 
" quired any jot to be changed in the laws, neither in re- 
" ligion or other matter whatsoever : of which her majesty 
" assured all her subjects of her word; which yet was never 
" spotted. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. S35 

" And therefore, whatsoever the seditious libeller had CHAP. 
" sought by these malicious reports of hearsays uncertain, 



of vain guessings and supposals, to persuade others, her Anno 1 579. 
" maiesty, who ought best to understand by the true in- ' rh f ( i ueen 

J \ ° . . .. . looks upon 

"formation of her own faithful ministers; and had just herself as 

" cause of long time, by many good means, to try and ex- ho ^ ^ r £* 

" amine the actions and intentions of the said prince; did this libeller. 

" of her own knowledge declare the said reports to be false 

" and malicious, forged against manifest troth. Whereby 

" her majesty is to be highly touched in honour, in that a 

" prince of such estate and degree, having borne towards 

" her of long time a faithful and honourable good-will, 

" should in this despiteful sort, upon his adventure to come 

" so private as he did, to see her majesty, not without his 

" own peril by seas, and otherwise, immediately, by their 

" printing and libelling, be reproved, taxed, and so falsely 

" his actions condemned, without special fact truly or pro- 

" bably uttered against him. 

" And having not spared the prince, and the master, yet 564 
" could not these libellers imagine their lust in their malice Vindication 
" fully supplied, without dispersing vile, dishonest, railing meQ dation 
" speeches and taunts against his principal minister and am- of the 

1 Tipi- 11 i French mi- 

" bassador, attending here for his master s honourable af- nister. 
" fairs. In whom there hath not been found at any time, 
" in all his negotiations here with her majesty, or her coun- 
" cil in public, or in any other familiar behaviour with no- 
" blemen or gentlemen, any just argument or manifest 
" token of any evil condition, as wherewith he is charged. 
" But contrariwise in this gentleman (being also born of 
" good parentage) there hath appeared singular wisdom, 
" modesty, and great temperance in all his embassy ; to the 
" allowance of the wisdom of his lord and master, in mak- 
" ing choice of such a servant. Who also hath so discreetly 
" governed all his company and train, (which was a great 
" number of gentlemen, and of good calling,) as it hath 
" never been seen in this realm, that half such a number of 
" strangers have been so orderly kept so long a time toge- 
" ther, from common mishaps that fall out full oft among 



236 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK "our own nation. Which wise government hath justly 
' " given more cause of honour, than spot of any disgrace. 
Anno 1579." So as if these kind of barbarous depravings of all men's 
" actions (though they be never so good, honourable, and 
" kind, and not without their own peril testified) should be 
" permitted, it mought be doubted, that it should breed a 
" common loathing of the English nation to all other na- 
" tions of Christendom. 
The pre- " And as for the rest of the contents of the said lewd 
gers by her" " book, tending to open to her subjects such fearful dan- 
majesty's « g ers t h er majesty's person, to the cause of religion, to 
answered. " the whole estate of the realm, and so forth ; and all, only 
" by her majesty's marriage; her majesty cannot but greatly 
" mislike : yea, and mervail, that when she hath had so 
" many solicitations, requests, yea, prayers of her people in 
" common continually, of her estates in every parliament as- 
" sembled almost, importunately; to dispose herself to mar- 
" riage ; as the only remedy to avoid all the perils now 
" threatened by this seditious writing; and namely, to avoid 
" all our greater civil wars and bloodsheds, as between the 
" houses of York and Lancaster are lamentably recorded, 
" for the crown : now nevertheless all the same calamities 
" and mischiefs, thought meet by public advices to be 
" avoided only by her marriage, are by these malicious 
" guessings, and as it were fanatical divination, threatened 
" to fall upon the realm contrariwise, by her majesty's 
" marriage. A strange and a contrary effect propounded 
" out of one selfsame cause. 
Some secret " And yet it was to be especially noted, that nothing was 
innovation " once touched in all these seditious libels, (though they 
intended by " pretended great care for the church, the crown, and com- 
" monwealth,) how by any other good provision (if her raa- 
" jesty should not marry) these so great perils might be 
" avoided, when God should call her from hence. A mat- 
" ter that might in some part have qualified the rest of the 
" rash discoursers, by shewing thereby some sincerity of 
" good meaning to her majesty and the realm. For lack 
" whereof it did manifestly appear, that the only scope 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 237 

" whereof was, under plausible show to distinguish her ma- CHAP. 

" jesty's credit with her good people, and set all at liberty, xv - 

" for some monstrous, secret innovation, without any care or Anuo 1579. 

" memory of provision of surety for her majesty's person, 

" or for peaceable succession, either with her marriage, or 

" without her marriage. Neither was there once, in any 565 

" one sentence of this libel, any so much as a supposal 

" touched of any motherly or princely care to be in her 

" majesty, to provide, that if God should move her majesty 

" to marry, in what sort the same might be honourable to 

" her majesty, profitable to the state of the realm, and not 

" hurtful to the continuance of the peaceable government 

" of the same, both in state of religion and policy. 

" Of all which matters, especially concerning the state of The queen's 
" religion, and continuance of common peace in her do- U g]; e c a are £ f 
" minions, she needed not by words to express her princely religion and 
■•" care in her public actions. For that the effects thereof pea 
" did plentifully give testimony. And so she found her 
" good subjects thankful to her for the same. And yet 
" however the crooked nature of the seditious libeller would 
" not imagine any such princely care in her majesty, nor of 
" any duty in any counsellor as he pretendeth to be in him- 
" self. Yet was there never any treaty or colloquy in her 
" majesty's time, wherein there Avas not special care and 
" provision, with her majesty's good liking, propounded by 
" her counsellors to withstand and avoid, by God's per- 
" mission and favour, the perils so often repeated in the 
" foresaid book. Neither was there any thing of moment, 
" that might concern the crown, or the nation, or the realm, 
" that was ever demanded by this prince, or is otherwise, 
" than should be found meet to be confirmed in parliament, 
" as in former treaties of like marriage have been. 

" So that her majesty had no small cause to be in this The queen, 
" sort grievously offended with such a lewd denunciation to^ e s d a _ f " 
" the people, by so common a false libel, like as by a trump gainst this 
" of sedition, secretly sounding in every subject's ear, both 
" of the manifest lack of her majesty's princely care, if she 
" should mind to marry : and also of the undutiful offices 



238 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " and unnatural intentions of her counsellors, both against 
' _ " God, queen, realm, and people. 



Anno 1579. " And therefore, upon these considerations, and especially 
be esteemed" to arra ig n between her and her subjects that devotion of 
as a traitor- " love which hitherto by God's goodness she hath possess- 
to discredit " e & 5 ner pleasure and commandment was, that no person, 
the queen, it w hich had regard to her honour, should esteem of the 
" said seditious book, or the maintainers or spreaders there- 
" of, otherwise than of a traitorous device, to discredit her 
" majesty, both with other princes and with her good sub- 
" jects ; and to prepare their minds to sedition : offering to 
" every most meanest person of judgment, by these kind of 
" popular libels, authority to argue and determine in every 
" blind corner, at their several wills, and of the affairs of 
" public estate : a thing most pernicious in any state. 
The book " And therefore her majesty willed and straitly charged, 
found i to be" tnat both the foresaid book or libel, wheresoever they, or 
destroyed, « anv ^ ne lik e might be found, should be destroyed in open 
" sight of some public officer : and the favourers or with- 
" holders thereof to be attached, to answer according to 
" their demerits. Given at Giddie-hall in Essex, the 27th 
" of September, in the 21st year of her majesty's reign." 

This notable proclamation (which might be called her 

majesty's declaration to all her subjects) I have set down 

at length, because our historians, neither Stow nor Ho- 

linshed, have taken any notice of it : and Camden but 

566 briefly, as I said before. And the rather, it appearing 

hereby, that her majesty might openly declare, how much 

she tendered an esteem and good opinion of herself among 

her subjects ; and how cautious of giving any offence to her 

neighbouring princes, in order to the preserving peace and 

a good understanding with them. And in sum, that her 

people might confide in her wisdom, and care of the true 

religion established, and good government over them. 

The council It must be added, that she caused her privy-council the 

thearchbi- next montn to write a large letter to the archbishop and 

shop and bishops, concerning this book ; wherein she, together with 

concerning that prince, was so defamed : and to provide that her said 

this book. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 239 

proclamation might be known to all their clergy : that they CHAP. 

might the better know this whole affair, and vindicate her 

. * 

majesty. This letter of the council may be read in the Life Anno 1579. 

of Archbishop Grindal, in the Appendix, Numb. XIII. I 
refer the reader to other historians to relate how soon after, 
the author, printer, and publisher of this offensive book 
were found. The first, namely, Stubbs, and the last, 
namely, Page, having their right hands chopped off, ac- 
cording to a former statute. 

Nor was all his punishment over ; for after this dreadful Stubbs in 
execution done upon the author, he remained in the Tower, petitions for 
Whence his next care was for his liberty. Here he was in his libert y- 
August, 1580. Thence soliciting the lord treasurer for the 
queen's favour for his enlargement, and that in regard of 
his wife's sickness, and promising all faithful obedience to 
her for the future. " That it would please him to testify, 
" that as formerly to her highness, so hereby now to his 
" honour, he professed, and lay forth a sore and sorrowful 
" heart, thus to have incurred her majesty's great offence, 
" and judicial sentence of transgressing the law. Hence- 
" forth vowing that short remainder of his life, and that 
" small of his poor service, wholly to her honour. At least, 
" to pray for her long life, and blessed reign over us."" 

To which I may add his wife's humble supplication to His wife's 
the queen for his liberty : avowing his great loyalty to her, tufn toThe 
and how far his thoughts were of stirring any sedition or aueen for 
rebellion, when he compiled his book, frequently recom- 
mending her to God in his prayers, together with his own 
endeavour to promote religion ; in these words : "In most 
" humble and lamentable wise, &c. That whereas your 
" said subject [J. S.] by reason of the compiling of a cer- 
" tain pamphlet, lately printed and dispersed, hath not only 
" procured unto himself the ill opinion of your majesty's 
" most honourable council, but also hath incurred your 
" highness 1 most grievous and fearful displeasure ; notwith- 
" standing your poor subject's said wife standeth in good 
" hope, and most earnestly beseecheth and beggeth of your 
" most excellent majesty, to be good and gracious lady 



240 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " unto him. And so much the rather, because, that albeit 
" as it seemeth to your majesty's wise judgment, and in the 



Anno 1579." grave consideration of your most honourable council, that 
" the said book should contain matter not only to withdraw 
" the good-will and opinion of your loving subjects from 
" your majesty, but also to move and stir them to sedition 
" and rebellion : yet from the approved knowledge that 
" your poor subject's said wife hath by many arguments, 
" since their intermarrying, of her husband's loyal heart to- 
" wards your majesty, by his daily and earnest mentioning 
" of your majesty to God in his prayers, and by his diligent 
" and constant care for the promoting of religion and the 
567 "church of God; she dared avouch upon her life, con- 
" science, and soul, that her said husband's meaning and 
" intention was therein the glory and honour of God ; 
" next, the preservation and safety of your royal person, 
" and the public weal and benefit of his country." 
Sir Philip Among the rest that liked not this intended royal match, 
letter^ and feared the ill consequences of it, was a very remarkable 
the queen person in these days, even the brave sir Philip Sydney. 
hermar'-^ Who expressed it more prudently in addressing a secret 
riage. letter to the queen herself; whether by her command, to 
shew his judgment; or rather proceeding from his own 
zeal for hers and the whole kingdom's happiness. Which 
letter falling into the hands of the lord treasurer's secretary, 
Mich. Hickes, esq. he took an epitome of it in writing. 
Which I transcribed from that secretary's own pen ; and 
gladly retrieve these remains, as a curious piece of that ex- 
[N°.XIX.] traordinary man, in the Appendix. It contains many brief, 
but bright sentences, shewing his mature judgment, his 
wisdom in counsel, his skill in politics, his acquaintance 
with the Roman history, his knowledge of foreign states 
and kingdoms, and observations thence ; his apprehension 
of the great danger from papists ; his concern for the pro- 
testant interest abroad, (of whom she was the only pro- 
tectress,) as well as the religion at home ; the little or no 
advantage she was like to receive from France; her per- 
sonal danger, in case of a conclusion of this marriage with 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 241 

monsieur : and how clear she was to her own people. So C H A P. 
that in short this letter, abounding with such close applica- 



tion of arguments, seemed to have swayed the queen to de- Ann( > 1579. 
cline this motion. 

To give a specimen of some of these sentences. 

" Too vehement a refuge for so small cause of fear. 
" Nothing can be added to your estate, being already an 
" absolute born, and accordingly respected, princess. 

" What hope to recompense so hazardous an adventure, 
" as to alter so well a maintained and approved trade. 

" As the Irish are wont to say, what need have they to 
" die, that are rich and fair ? So what need have you to 
" change the course of your estate, settled in such a calm ? 

" Such change in bodies natural, dangerous, much more 
" in politic. 

" To so healthful a body to apply so unsavoury a medi- 
" cine. 

" I will not shew so much malice, as to object the doubts 
" of the unhealthfulness of the whole race. 

" The protestants your chief, if not your sole strength. 

" You marry a Frenchman, and a papist ; the son of the 
" very Jezebel of our age : although some fine wits excuse 
" it." But I leave this and a great deal more to be read 
in the Appendix. But for the whole letter, to those that 
are minded to read it, recourse may be had to the Cabala, Cabal. 
sive Scrinia sacra, where I find it. p- 363- 

It is certain the popish party here in England were very The pa- 
jolly at this time: and probably on the fair prospect of this futile 
match. Insomuch that the earl of Leicester, now at Kenel- very jolly, 
worth, his seat, wrote to the lord treasurer, in the month of 
October, in these words : " I do assure your lordship, since 
" queen Mary's time, the papists were never in that jollity 
" they be at this present in this country. I have had some 
" proof upon a case somewhat notorious, even at my com- 568 
" ing hither. Which I will more largely acquaint you with 
" at my return. God of his mercy and goodness defend 
" her majesty from all their devices. But, my lord, they be 
" here, and in more places than here, upon their tiptoes. 

vol. II. I'ART 11. it 



242 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " I protest afore God, I write this simply and plainly to 
" your lordship, as manifest cause doth enforce. Therefore 



Anno 1579. « t ne y were i n time to be looked unto."''' To which I may 
add, that Fitz Morice and the earl of Desmond also in Ire- 
land broke out into rebellion there this year. The former 
had been with the pope, and obtained a consecrated banner 
from him, and letters of recommendation to the Spaniard. 
And also authority of a legate was granted to Saunders the 
Jesuit. 

The queen Yet the queen, in these transactions with that French 

allow raon- prince, took care for the security of religion in her realm ; 

sieur the absolutely refusing to allow to that prince the exercise of 

exercise of ^ . ° ■ * 

the Roman the Roman religion here ; the laws of the kingdom not per- 
rehgion. m itting it, and the dangers otherwise likely to ensue to the 
peaceable state of her subjects considered. Take some 
short account of this matter from a letter of Malvesier, the 
French ambassador, among the papers of the Cotton li- 
brary ; giving this account of his communication with the 
Maivesier's queen. He wrote, " that she had told him, that she would 
Titus B. 2. " m aintain the religion that she was crowned in, and that 
" she was baptized in : and would suppress the papistical 
" religion, that it should not grow. But that she would 
" root out puritanism, and the favourers thereof. And that 
" she had rather be the last of her line without marriage, 
" than monsieur should innovate or alter any thing in her 
" reformed church. Which might suffice in her resolution 
" to content her subjects without further disputation of that 
" which appertained ; and to them [the ambassadors] to be 
" carriers of [to France.]" 
A letter to I meet with a notable paper, being a private letter of 
aboivTher some nobleman, giving his advice to the queen concerning 
marriage, marriage ; when it was propounded by way of humble ad- 
dress to her divers years past. And though it were so long 
ago, yet being a letter to her majesty, and having so many 
remarkable passages in it of this argument, let me have 
leave to preserve a memorial of it here. It was thus only 
endorsed by secretary CecylFs hand, The quccris mar- 
riage, February 10, 1562. It was writ in or soon after 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 243 

parliament-time, by some ancient personage of eminency, CHAP, 
wisdom, and experience ; and that had lately both written XV ' 



to her, and discoursed with her of this affair by word of Auno 1579. 
mouth. The main drift whereof was to persuade her, for 
the peace and quiet, and safe state of her kingdoms, to 
marry. That there might be an heir to succeed her, there- 
by to stop the parliament's urging for an entail to the crown. 
For the letter was occasioned by a suit in that parliament 
moved to the queen for her marriage ; and also for an en- 
tail by heir to be nominated of the succession to the crown, 
in case of her leaving the world without heir. " That the The coa- 
" matter he should write to her majesty about, did import S" cStji- 
" to the contentation and quiet of her own mind, and to brai 7- 
" the perpetual tranquillity and peace of the realm, being 
" perfected in a right course ; or to the contrary, if by pri- 
" vate affection managed, it were otherwise finished than it 
" ought. That the greatest matter that he or any man 
" alive at that day could remember, was now brought into 
" deliberation. And that therefore, as well the parliament's 
" motion, as her majesty's answer, required a serious con- 
" sideration. That concerning the succession, he himself 569 
" had heard king Henry the Eighth say, that the greatest 
*' anchor-hold to this crown after Henry I. took root in a fe- 
" male, Mawde, that king's heir." And then proceeding in 
a long discourse of the pedigree of the kings of England, 
he spake against entailing of the crown to be done by the 
queen, (which some then propounded,) and that she should 
name her successor : to which he said, " that still the suc- 
" cession to this crown was to their own children, or bre- 
" thren or sisters' children : and so left it to the next right 
" heir." 

He took occasion to mention the government of the realm 
of France, that appointed the crown to the heir male only, 
excluding the females. And so, it seems, some liked to be 
done here. Whereupon he shewed, " how after by disheri- 
" son of a female never realm had suffered more calamity. 

" That if her majesty would know wherein the right of 
" succession was by the law of the land, he advised her to 

R 2 



244 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " call together her judges, barons of the exchequer, her 
" sergeants, attorneys general of the duchy and of the 

Anno 1579. " wards: and in her own person to adjure them to declare 
" it unto her under their hands, in whom, by the laws of 
" the land, the right rested. And to keep secret to them- 
" selves their opinion therein, but only reveal it to her ma- 
" jesty. And that then she might close or discover the 
" same, as time should require.'" 

In fine, " He persuaded her to be a sort of Christ, a re- 
" deemer and a saviour unto us : and to take upon her 
" marriage : to bring forth princely children. And then 
" she should not need to fear the entail. Then should her 
" majesty be quiet, and we happy." But I refer the reader 
to the whole letter, (whereof this is but a very imperfect 
scantling,) recommending itself to us, both in respect of 
the dignity of the writer, and the curiousness of the subject. 

Numb. xx. It will be found in the Appendix. 

The earl of And here for a conclusion of this subject, I shall relate a 

Leicester m passage of the earl of Leicester ; who, however he carried 

dislike with * » .. . ' '..... 

the queen it at this juncture, and assisted at the council in this weighty 

French' 16 a ^ r ' ano - entertained the French ambassador, yet fell at 
match. this time in great dislike with the queen. Probably the 
cause was (what Camden writes) his carriage towards Simier, 
the French ambassador, and his endeavour to bring him in 
disgust with her. Which displeasure of her majesty (whe- 
ther this or any thing else was the cause) gave occasion to 
these words in a private letter of his to the lord treasurer : 
" That it grieved him the more, having so faithfully, care- 
" fully, and chargeably served her majesty this twenty 
" years. And then called him [the lord treasurer] to wit- 
" ness, that in all his services he had been a direct servant 
" unto her, her estate and crown. And that he had not 
" more sought his own particular profit than her honour." 
His offer And whereas he had lain under great blame in the 
of exile. thoughts and opinion of divers in the nation, for his sup- 
posed opposition of the queen's marriage, now for his clear- 
ing in this matter, or to atone for his judgment, that went 
contrary to the judgment of all the rest, " he offered, as he 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 245 

" writ, for the avoiding of such blame as he bare generally CHAP. 
" then in the realm, his own exile ; that he might not be 



" suspected a hinderer of that matter, which all the world Anno 1579. 
" desired, and were suitors for." 



CHAP. XVI. 570 

Sandys, archbishop of York, troubled for dilapidations by 
the bishop of London. The archbishop's letter to the se- 
cretary hereupon. The bishop of London moves for a 
commission for inquiry into the dilapidations: and 
•why. Reasons offered by the archbishop for qualifying 
the sentence. ^Difference between this archbishop, and 
the earl of Huntington, and the dean of York. Motions 
for reconcilement with the earl, and the dean. The 
archbishop^s letter about it. The dearts vindication of 
himself The archbishop's sermon at York, on the 11th 
of November. 

IN OW to come nearer to the ecclesiastical affairs. And The bishop 
first, I shall remark a few things concerning some of our ° ont °n d ° n 
bishops. with the 

Sandys, late bishop of London, translated to the see of ^York' 
York, was succeeded by iElmer, archdeacon of Lincoln. about dlla_ 

i 1 -1 ii 11 pidations. 

Between whom, (learned, worthy, and excellent men both, 
and exiles for religion,) grew unhappily a contest about di- 
lapidations, which continued hot to this year. In the Paper 
Office there is a whole packet concerning this lawsuit be- 
tween bishop iElmer and the two archbishops, viz. Sandys, 
and his predecessor Grindal : which continued till the 
year 1584. Of these dilapidations two views were taken, 
one in the year 1577, and the other in 1580. The charges Life of 
brought in for repairs at both views, and something of this ^ lsho P 
controversy, hath been shewn elsewhere. But what related pp.27, 73. 
to the archbishop further, I proceed to shew. Understand- 
ing that the bishop of London had applied to secretary 
Walsingham, to assist and befriend him to the queen, for 

r3 



246 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
II. 



granting out a commission for the dilapidations, the arch- 
bishop addressed a letter, April 20, to the said secretary, 



Anno 1579. importing, 



The arch- 
bishop 
writes to 
the secre- 
tary here, 
upon. 



571 



" That he had learned that the said bishop laboured to 
make him a means unto her majesty for procuring a com- 
mission against him for dilapidations at London. Truly," 
as he began, " he offereth me great wrong, and requiteth 
my friendship toward him with great ingratitude : assert- 
ing, that he found those houses in marvellous great ruin, 
and no show of any reparation done therein in his prede- 
cessor's time. That he neither required, neither received 
one farthing for dilapidations of him. And that in the 
six years he lived there, he bestowed in reparation a suf- 
ficient portion of money for his time ; he verily thought, 
more than in twenty years before. And that if his suc- 
cessor did his part as well, there would be no cause for 
those that came after to complain." 

He added, " How he forwarded what he could his new 
successor to that living, commending him to her ma- 
jesty ; while he lay in London, he [the archbishop] gave 
him all friendly entertainment. That he tasted so much 
of his good-will, that he promised him to require no di- 
lapidations of him. Which thing he told his brother, 
Miles Sandes. Who counselled him to get his [jE liner's] 
promise in writing. Which thing, he said, he omitted, 
not suspecting his word. Further, that when he left 
London-house, he gave him many things. He helped to 
consecrate him, when he wanted others of that province. 
And that as soon as he was made bishop, he set himself 
against him ; laboured to discredit him ; gave further 
notes, not only to the lord treasurer, but also to her ma- 
jesty against him ; and by his means, as he added, hin- 
dered him 1000/. without gaining himself one groat. 
And, that before his [the archbishop's] departing out of 
London, he asked of him 100/. for dilapidations; but 
now he laboured for a great commission, minding thereby 
a greater gain." 
And then applying himself to the secretary, used these 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 247 

words: " Sir, I trust you will not be the means to satisfy CHAP. 
" his insatiable desire, but rather stay his unfriendly deal- 



ing with me. I have ever borne you hearty good-will, and Anno 1579. 
" would be glad if I might stand you in any stead. And 
" as I have at no time given you just offence, so I hope to 
" find you my good friend. As in this matter, so in all 
" other, I will not deserve your disliking. For whatsoever 
" shall be reported, when I shall come to trial, my dealings 
" shall not be discredited." He writ this from Bishopthorp 
by his servant. To whom he had taken order to enter into 
reasonable conditions with the bishop of London, if he 
would not stay for his coming. 

And because there would also arise matter of dispute on The arch- 
the same account between him and the archbishop of Can- canterbury 
terbury, translated from York, he took this opportunity and Yo * k 
heartily to pray the secretary to be a mean for him, that pidations. 
the archbishop of Canterbury might enter into like with 
him for dilapidations, as well at London as at York : say- 
ing, that there was just cause why that archbishop should 
answer him ; though no cause why he [the archbishop of 
York] should the bishop of London. And so concluded, 
" hoping he would friend him in his reasonable causes.'" 
The two archbishops concluded their difference by mutu- 
ally agreeing to put it to the arbitration of the lord trea- 
surer Burghley. But the bishop of London did not think 
fit to submit his matter with the archbishop of York to any 
reference ; his reason will follow. 

The secretary, according to the archbishop's request, Bishop of 
kindly interposed his good office between both : and, it desires a 
seems, had acquainted the queen with it; and, according to commission 
her advice, propounded a reference to the bishop of Lon- d at ions : 
don. He acknowledged himself marvellously beholden unto and *&!• 
the secretary for his readiness in this matter. But that he 
found it not safe, either for himself or his executors, to end 
it any other way than by a commission : which was the rea- 
son he moved for it ; that it might be ended by law. 

The archbishop the next month (viz. June) heartily The archbi- 
thanked the secretary for his travelling with the bishop of secretary to 

r 4 



248 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK London: "and that he should think himself much bound 
" unto him to rid him from such unreasonable dealing, as 



Anno 1579." he styled it: and that he had cause to complain. Yet 
the"queen " ^ e respected the considerations by him remembered, and 
with this « desired a quiet end, fit for men of hrs calling."' He added, 
" That he heard the bishop was minded to attempt the mat- 
572 " ter himself to her majesty. And so purposed to wrong 
" him [the archbishop] unwarranted, by telling first his own 
" case. - " For the prevention of this, he prayed Walsingham 
to acquaint her majesty with the matter, that she might be 
the more impartially informed by a friend to them both. 
He put the secretary again in mind, that after he was con- 
secrated, in the presence of the lord chief justice, he asked 
him 100Z. in full satisfaction. And now I hear, saith he, 
that he gapeth after thousands. 

I can add no more of this controversy, (which lasted 

some years after,) but that after a sentence was given, the 

archbishop offered these reasons for qualifying it. 

Reasons for I. That the archbishop of York did not receive one 

tTe 1 sen- nS penny for dilapidations of his predecessor in London. 

tence a- n. He was so far from wilful spoiling, or from being in 

gainst the . . 

archbishop, any fault, for any decays in the cathedral church, that it 
was proved that those decays had happened by fire from 
heaven. A casualty and misfortune not to charge him, not 
any way to be imputed to him. 

III. He will justify by his oath, that the new bishop of 
London, a little before his consecration, did by express 
words deliberately discharge him from any charge of dilapi- 
dations, by promising him faithfully, that he would never 
demand any. 

IV. It was proved, that he did bestow such a convenient 
portion upon the repair of his houses and church as the 
law required. Which he was informed to be, that a bishop 
doth satisfy, if he shall bestow so much upon the repara- 
tions as he may conveniently spare ; and decently maintain 
and support his estate, according to his dignity and calling. 

V. That the proof made by the bishop of London of the 
decays is utterly insufficient : for that it reacheth only the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 249 

state of the houses and church, as it was in the month of CHAP. 
August, 1580, being four years after the translation of the . 



archbishop from London to York : which was in the month Anno 1 579. 
of March, 1576. 

VI. And where the bishop of London did rely, by his 
counsel, upon certain canons ; whereby they did pretend, that 
a bishop is bound to employ the fourth part of his revenue 
upon the repair of the fabric of the church ; the archbishop 
is so well informed in that point, that these canons be no 
laws in England. That he is contented to refer the solu- 
tion of that point to any indifferent man learned in the law, 
both in England, and in any other place in Christendom. 

VII. That the inequality is great, that the archbishop of 
York, having been bishop of London but six years, is al- 
lotted 800/. and the archbishop of Canterbury, having been 
bishop ten years, to 300Z. 

VIII. The commission for the proceeding is thought to 
be warranted by law, wherein authority of imprisonment is 
given, the matter being particular, between party and party, 
and mere ecclesiastical. 

IX. The sentence unusual and void ; for that it award- 
eth a kind of execution in the body thereof. Where, in all 
other, the party is called to shew cause. And if none be 
shewed, then put in execution. 

X. The statute an. 1 Eliz. cap. 1. whereupon the com- 
mission of delegates is only grounded, uniteth to the crown 
no other jurisdiction, spiritual or ecclesiastical, than by a 
spiritual or ecclesiastical power hath heretofore been law- 
fully exercised, for the visitation of ecclesiastical states or 573 
persons. But the pope, by his usurped authority, had no 
jurisdiction to incarcerate ad instantiam partis; neither to 
excommunicate an archbishop, but by himself in person, by 

a general council or synod. Neither had he authority to 
appoint lay persons judges in ecclesiastical causes. 

These objections were made to the form of the commis- The form 
sion from the queen for inquiry into dilapidations. For so^^^ 0111 " 
it ran in one two years before, granted to bishop Freak, convention, 
who succeeded Parkhurst in the see of Norwich, (wherein 



250 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK this bishop of London was nominated one of the commis- 
sioners.) The words are these : Potestatem et aucthoritatem 



ment. 



Anno 1579. nostras, ad omnia et singula prcemissa exequenda, fyc. im- 
partimus et concedimus ; cum cujuslibet congrucc et legiti- 
mes cohercionis ecclesiastics seu secularis, etiam incarcera- 
tions si opus fuerit, exequenda ea qucR in hac parte decre- 
veritis, potestate. 
Difference This good and peaceable archbishop, as far as I can trace 
archbishop 6 mm > nac ^ tne unhappiness to fall into other contests. Whit- 
of York, and tingham, the dean of Durham, (of whom we have related 
Huntin"- several things before,) still continued there: who was be- 
ton, and friended by the earl of Huntington and by the dean of 

dean of J ° ... 

York. York, two of the commissioners appointed for the visitation 

of the cathedral. This created the archbishop great disquiet- 
ment, by means of their opposition of him in proceeding with 
the dean. 

His resent- This business stuck exceedingly upon his mind. Inso- 
much that he wanted a wise friend at court to disclose his 
troubled thoughts to ; and reckoned none so proper to break 
them to, as the lord treasurer. As he abruptly, in the post- 
script of a letter to the said lord, writ in the summer at Bi- 
shopthorp, signified in these words : " My heart greatly de- 
" sireth to speak with your lordship. I have matter of great 
" importance, and that toucheth me near, to pray your lord- 
" ship"^ advice in. I must hang upon your help." And this, 
it is very probable, brought him to London. Where we find 
him this winter. 

Concerning the earl, (a man of virtue and religion,) he 
earnestly desired a reconciliation might be made between 
them. And for the dean of York, that he might be removed 
to some other preferment ; with whom he saw there could be 
no true accommodation. Nor could he, on his account, 
bring his mind to come to York with any comfort. This 
caused him to pen a letter to the lord treasurer in the month 
of December, being then at London, and laid up with the 
gout, which hindered his coming to him, and from disclos- 
ing his uneasy mind by word of mouth. 

As for the earl of Huntington, the lord treasurer had a 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 251 

purpose to make them both friends: and the same good in- CHAP, 
tention had the earl of Leicester. And for that purpose the X ' 



earl moved this matter at the court, and offered to make the Anno 1 579. 
queen acquainted with it. And said further, that he would f f n J e £™ ™ r _ 
come and dine with the archbishop at his chamber alone ; as ciiiation be- 
lt seemed, for the same good end. But there lay some snare arcn bishop 
under this pretended friendship. For the good archbishop and the 
had no manner of ill-will against that earl, or purpose or Hunting- 
ability, as he said, to do him any ill office. So that in his said ton - 
letter to his friend, in whom he most confided, (viz. the lord 
treasurer,) he used these words : " That he marvelled what 
" it meant. That there was some mystery in it. That he 
" had not a mind, nay, that he could not be hurtful to the 
" earl of Huntington. I friend him (as he went on) as be- 5f4 
" comes me : but my friendship can do him no good. And 
" for my part I utterly dislike these counterfeited reconci- 
" liations ; which come from the lips, and not from the heart. 
" And thus to enter into a sudden, blind reconciliation, with 
" making her majesty acquainted with it, (being acquainted, 
" although not by him, with the earl's manifold wrongs done 
" unto him,) he feared her majesty would not take it in good 
" part. He knew, he said, the earl was in great disgrace. 
" By these means, perhaps,'" he added, " I might bring my- 
" self into like disgrace: which I would be loath to do. - " And 
then he proceeded to shew what he thought convenient in 
this emergence : " That to open this matter to her majesty, 
" he dared to trust none, [no, not Leicester,] except it were 
11 his lordship : whose hearty and constant favour towards 
w him he knew, rejoiced in, and gave God thanks for it. 
" Yet adding, that he dared not to trouble his lordship with 
" such his trifling matters. Thus telling him his thinking 
" in this matter : notwithstanding [ready] to alter, and to 
" be advised in this thing, and all others, by his lordship's 
" better wisdom. 11 

The archbishop had learned, by the earl of Huntington's 
man, that the earl feared he went about to get him removed 
from his office, [of lord president of the north ;] concerning 
which the archbishop makes this protestation in his said let- 



252 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK ter: " Truly, my lord, that thing never entered into my 
IL " heart : neither ever heard I any speech of it. But suspi- 



Anno 1579." cions go for truths with him." 

His suit for And then, concerning his other adversary, the dean of 
oMneTean York, he applied to his lordship, « That he might still be a 
of York: a su itor to him, to be a means unto her majesty, that that 
W y ' " dean might be removed and preferred. Giving this reason 
" for it ; That as long as two banded together, he should 
" never do good there : neither ever minded he [with any 
" inclination] to go thither, [to York. And therefore, when 
" he was in the north, always abiding at Bishopthorp or 
" Southwell" He had not long before spoke with her ma- 
jesty at Greenwich : when he moved her highness in that 
matter. Who answered, That at her coming to London she 
would give him answer; and, as he understood it, to his 
contentation. Then she asked him, whom he would have 
dean there. Whereupon he named three, but especially D. 
Toby Matthew, as the fittest, in his opinion. Of whom her 
majesty liked well. This relation he made to the lord trea- 
surer. And prayed him to stand his good friend in this 
matter. "In nothing," said he, " can you more pleasure me. 
" For I cannot live with that man." And then mentioned 
the bishopric of Litchfield, that would serve his turn. But 
the dean, as it seems, chose to stick where he was, expecting 
some better bishopric in due time. And continued dean 
there all the time of the archbishop. 

In fine, he concluded his letter, " That he had more mat- 
" ters to move his lordship in : but as he had already tired 
" himself with scribbling, lying in his bed in miserable pain, 
" so feared he should too much trouble his lordship with the 
" reading." It was dated the 28th of December, 1579- 

This favour then the archbishop never obtained ; but was 
fain to live uneasy, near such an one with whom there was 
575 such a misunderstanding. The dean's next remove being to 
the bishopric of Durham, 1589. In which year the archbi- 
shop died. * 
The dean of But that we may not be silent concerning the dean, a very 
fo/hh/sS. worthy man, and that well deserved of the church, and the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 253 

plea that he made for himself: in the next month after the CHAP, 
archbishop had thus bemoaned himself to the lord treasurer, 



in respect of the dean's carriage towards him, the said dean Anno 1579. 
appealeth to the same lord in his own defence. Wherein 
he declared, what care he always had to behave himself with 
due respect to the archbishop ; and how desirous to live in 
peace and a good understanding with him. And yet he 
could not conceal his seoret displeasure against the archbi- 
shop, by informing his lordship underhand of the little re- 
gard he had of his clergy ; and hinting what the archbishop 
had said against him [the said lord] by way of blame, that 
he had put him, the dean, into the commission for the vi- 
sitation of the church of Durham. 

The purport of the dean's letter was this : " That he was His letter 
" informed, that my lord's grace of York had complained treasurer! 
" of him : that his lordship [the treasurer] had shewed him- 
" self his very good lord, as always heretofore ; for which 
" he gave his most hearty thanks ; being fully persuaded 
" that his honour would not easily give credit to ill reports, 
" without proof. For truly he did not know that his grace 
" had any just cause against him: and therefore did mar- 
" vel much, when he heard he had complained of him. 
" That he trusted he feared God, and walked within the 
" compass of laws; serving God and her majesty in his 
" calling in dutiful manner, without any great mislike of 
" the better and greater part of the country where he dwelt." 
And then proceeding to his behaviour towards the archbi- 
shop, he useth these words : " Truly, my lord, (I speak it 
" before God,) I have been, and am, and will be, as desirous 
" and as careful to please his grace, even for the common 
" cause sake of religion, as any clergyman in this province ; 
" and will be content to do any thing, usque ad aras, to 
" have his grace's favour. Would to God his grace made 
" more account of his clergy, and of the preachers of the 
" gospel, than he doth ; and sought indeed the peace of 
" Jerusalem. Oh, Jwzo good and joyful a thing were it, 
" brethren, to dwell together in unity! But God hath a 



254, ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 

II. 

Anno 1579. 



576 



a No, he 
only sought 
his advance- 
ment from 
a deanery to 
a bishopric. 



work in hand : his will be fulfilled ; and his name be 
blessed for ever." 

Then he went on to relate his life and conversation in 
mes past, viz. " That he was in Cambridge twenty-one 
years ; and was never sued, never complained upon unto 
any magistrate. That he had been in Yorkshire then 
almost thirteen years ; and never sued, never complained 
upon for any fact. And that if his honour had not put 
him in the commission to visit the church of Durham, 
(for which doing, you [meaning the lord treasurer] were 
blamed openly at Durham by my lord's grace,) he be- 
lieved he had not been complained upon at this time. Yet 
truly, as he added, he dealt as uprightly in that commis- 
sion as ever he did in any thing in his life. God is my 
judge, and they that were present. That there was now 
no dean left in the north parts, but himself. [For the 
dean of Durham died this year.] Would to God I might 
not, after a sort, say with the prophet, Derelictus sum 
ego solus, et qucerunt animam nieam. That his lordship 
had been his special good lord always ; nay, Receptus ab 
imbre, et latibulum a vento, for all injured persons to fly 
unto. 

" And therefore he came to him as to a sanctuary, under 
her majesty, beseeching his lordship to be a mean that he 
might be not discredited, nor condemned without hearing. 
But that if his grace would needs seek his defacing, 
(which he hoped he would not a ,) yet that he would do it 
charitably, openly, orderly, and in writing; that he might 
answer, and have his lawful defence. He beseeched his 
lordship to pardon him, if he were somewhat earnest ; be- 
cause he had not been acquainted with this kind of deal- 
ing. And so praying God to continue his lordship in 
good health, to the comfort of many, he took his leave.'' 1 
Dated from York, the 10th of January, 1579- But this ill- 
will of the dean still continued divers years after, secretly 
informing against the archbishop. 

All that I can add more of archbishop Sandys, under this 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 255 

year, is what follows. On the 17th day of November, the CHAP, 
day of the queen's access to the throne, the archbishop 



preached at York a sermon on that occasion: where he set Anno 1579. 
forth the praise of the queen, and the happiness of her sub- j™j * rch " 
iects under her government. Some part whereof was after preaches at 
this manner delivered by him, (which may deserve a place ,° t Vof No- 
in this history.) vember. 

" As this clay now twenty years fully finished, the Lord 
" in his mercy remembering us, when we little hoped, and 
• " less deserved, delivered vis from the state of miserable 
" servitude, and gave us our gracious sovereign, his own 
" elect Elizabeth, by his grace, our gracious sovereign, the 
" restorer of our religion and liberty. 

" If learning and wisdom be so necessarily requisite in a The abiii- 
" governor, how great is the goodness of Almighty God to *[" a " f J 1 ^" 
" usward, who hath so plentifully bestowed this gift of queen set 
" knowledge and wisdom upon our sovereign, not far infe- hini# y 
" rior to Mithridates for diversity of languages ; but far 
" surmounting all English princes in learning, knowledge, 
" and understanding ! which rare and excellent gift dwell- 
" eth not in her royal breast alone ; but it is beautified and 
" accompanied with sundry other most singular graces. She 
" is the very patroness of true religion, rightly termed the 
" defender of the Jaith ; one that, before all other things, 
" seeketh the kingdom of God. If the threatenings of men 
" could have terrified her, or their allurement enticed her, 
" or any crafty persuasions had prevailed, she had revolted 
" long ere this; so fiercely, by great potentates, her con- 
" stancy had been assaulted. But God hath strengthened 
" his royal handmaid. The fear of God hath put to flight 
" the fear of men. Her religious heart is accepted of the 
" Lord : and glorious also is it in the eyes of men. 

" A prince so zealous for God's house, so firmly settled 
" in his truth, that she hath constantly determined, and 
" oftentimes vowed, rather to suffer all torments, than one 
" jot in matter of religion. She is not fraudulent nor 
" treacherous, but dealeth justly and truly, in word and 
" deed, with all men : promiseth and performeth. Herein 



256 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " her majesty passeth all princes; and therefore in credit 

_ " she is far before others. And her great desire is, that 

Anno 1579. " all men placed in authority under her should deal truly, 

"judge righteously, and give to every man his own accord- 

577 " ing to justice ; matching always with justice mercy : which 

Merciful. K twQ are gQ j m k e( j an( j COU p] e d together, that they may 

" not be severed. No prince of this realm, inclining so 

" much to mercy, did ever less hinder the course of justice 
" than her highness hath done : such as are placed in judi- 
" cial rooms must needs confess. Of nature a prince most 
" merciful ; in judgment upright and just. A prince void 
" of all corruption : a hater of bribes : free in bestowing ; 
" in taking close-handed. One that hath learned, and doth 
" practise, our Saviour's lesson, It is more blessed to give 
" than to receive. A right Samuel, that cannot be charged 
" with indirect dealing. A prince mild as Moses, just as 
" Samuel, peaceful as Solomon, zealous as David. 

" Neither speak I this in flattery, (which thing be far 
" from me,) but in an upright conscience ; not of guess, 
" but of knowledge ; not seeking myself, but the glory of 
" God. That being put in mind of your happiness, you 
" may praise God for his mercy, and glorify him in his 
" gracious gifts. 1 ' This character of that excellent queen 
may the rather be depended upon, both because of the 
preacher's protestation against flattery, and speaking from 
his own personal knowledge and experience ; having long 
known the queen, and well acquainted with the court and 
her proceedings. 
The happy To the which I may add the account he gave his audi- 
niTntof the tors of the queen, in another sermon in York, preached on 
queen. t | ie same anniversary day, in these words : " If any church, 
" any people, any nation in the world have cause to praise 
" the Lord for their prince, this land hath more than any, 
" in respect of the wonderful blessings wherewith God, by 
" the ministry of his handmaid, [queen Elizabeth,] hath 
" enriched us, far beyond all that we are possibly able to 
" conceive, &c. Look upon other princes at this day. Some 
" are drawn with the poisoned cup of that harlot, whose 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 257 

" venom her highness doth abhor. Some have embrued CHAP, 
"themselves in blood: wherewith her majesty did never 



"yet stain the tip of her finger. When they tumble in Anno 1 579. 

" wars, she sitteth in peace. When they break oaths and 

" covenants, she keepeth promise. Therefore God hath 

" blessed the work of her hands. She found this realm in 

" war ; she hath established it in peace. She found it in 

" debt; which she hath discharged. She hath changed dross 

" into silver and gold. She hath, by living within compass, 

" and sparing wasteful expenses, without pressing the peo- 

" pie, or seeking more than ordinary and useful tribute, fur- 

" nished this land with so great a navy, with store of armour 

" and warlike munition, both for defence and offence, as 

" England never had in former times. This I speak, not of 

" flattery, (it was never my fault,) but rather in sincerity, 

" testifying the truth. That seeing your happiness, you 

" may be thankful." 

This archbishop shewed his conscientious discharge of his This archbi- 
episcopal office, and how immoveable he was in his resolution ]J^^^. 
for the well governing of his church, by this one instance that son, nor ad- 
happened this year, while he was in such a dependance upon resignation. 
the said lord treasurer, his friend. That lord had moved 
him to grant the promise of the next advowson of a prebend 
in Southwel upon his chaplain, Mr. Mountford. Which 
request he modestly refused to grant, that he might keep a 
good purpose that he had made, in order to the preferring 
none but worthy men; and that none might obtain preferment 
under him by any sinister ways and means. Which purpose 578 
was, never to grant an advowson before it actually fell void; 
nor ever to take a resignation. According to which resolu- 
tion, when that lord had sent to him (as abovesaid) for the 
favour of such a grant, he returned him this honest answer; 
" That he might command him in what he could. But the 
" truth was, he had never in his life given any advowson of 
" any prebend. That he had given his word to the con- 
" trary : which he might not, he said, recede from. Neither 
" had he at any time admitted of resignation : for that they 
" proceeded of unlawful pactions. 1 ' Again, he added in fur- 

VOL. II. PART II. s 



258 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

ROOK ther excuse to his lordship, " That he had many learned chap- 
" lains, which wholly depended upon him : and as yet. it had 



Anao 1579. « not been his hap to reward them with any living. And 
" that when an ecclesiastical living fell in his gift, he should 
" be thought unthankful, if he should not prefer them be- 
u fore others. Neither did they serve him, but in hope of 
" some requital.'" And then applying further to that lord, 
" I know,"" said he, " that in honour and wisdom your lord- 
" ship will consider thereof. 1 ' 

But that it might not fare the worse with his lordship's 
chaplain, whom he had minded to gratify, the archbishop 
subjoined, that he learned, that Dr. Chaderton should be 
made bishop of Chester, who had a prebend in the church 
of York. And that upon his preferment it was in her ma- 
jesty's donation : which, if it were not granted, his lordship 
might for a word obtain it. 

^ » 

579 CHAP. XVII. 

Cox, bishop of Ely, defends the see against a lease for Hat- 
ton-Garden. The lord Nortli's actions against him. La- 
bours to resign his bishopric. His letters thereupon ; 
and requests. The bishop of Norwich declines a remove 
to Ely. His honest letter on that occasion. By the lord 
treasurer's intercession, the queen grants the bishop of 
Ely leave to resign. Sectaries of the family of love in 
Norivich diocese. The bishop of Norwich prevents a 
change of some lands belonging to his church. The bi- 
shop of Peterborough endeavours to ease a heavy tax laid 
upon the poorer sort there, for draining a common. The 
bisliop of London takes a seditious printer, named Car- 
ter. Chatham hospital in danger by pretence of conceal- 
ment. The bishop of Rochester stirs in its behalf. His 
notes upon the book called, The Gospel of the Kingdom. 
The bishop of Lincoln's letter upon the queen's thoughts 
of removing him to Norzvich. The vicar of Cuckficld, 
vicious: the bishop of Chichester required to deprive him. 

LOX, the learned, well-deserving, and now very ancient 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 259 

bishop of Ely, was fellow-bishop and fellow-confessor with CHAP, 
the former: and his life mixed with continual troubles and XVJI - 



cares, as the other's was, as hath been shewn in the former An «o 1579. 
chapter. 

This bishop was now in chancery, for the preserving the The bishop 
revenues of his see, about the lease made by Goodrick, his of .^ ly ,' slaw " 

* " suit about 

predecessor, of Hatton-Garden. It was a long and charge- Hatton- 
able suit, (as himself expressed it to the lord treasurer,) that GardtM1, 
the see of Ely should not be spoiled by bishop Goodrick's 
lease. By which lease, as bishop Cox added, he meant 
nothing less than the spoil of the bishopric. Her majesty 
being moved diversely by the lord treasurer, by Mr. Hat- 
ton, and by him, the present bishop, had sent to the late 
lord keeper, that the matter should be heard only in her 
honourable court of chancery. And thus far he [the lord 
keeper] had proceeded; viz. he heard the complaint; he 
sent forth commissioners. The witnesses had been examined 
and certified : publication was orderly made ; and the day 
of hearing was appointed that term. And hereupon, it was 
his request to the lord treasurer, (and the rather because 
her majesty was a party therein,) that if need required, he 
would vouchsafe to move the lord keeper in the matter : that 
(whereof he doubted not) equity and justice might prevail. 
And so, like a father of the church, he concluded with his 
prayer ; " That the Lord Jesus would send him long life, 
" that he might be able to prevail especially on God's cause, 580 
" and in faithful travel towards her majesty, and fruitful 
" dealing towards the whole realm. 11 This was dated from 
his house at Doddington, April the 26th, 1579. 

A pretty while after, in the month of October, the busi- A decree for 
ness of Goodrick 1 s lease wanted nothing but the lord chan- Goodrkk's 
cellor's decree to be finished. The good bishop moves his lease - 
said friend, the lord Burghley, to put the chancellor in mind 
to do it. Which now hung only upon a decree to be made 
by him : who, he knew, was well bent, he said, to the jus- 
tice of the cause. 

Still this grave bishop of Ely was vexed with the old con- Lord 
test of the lord North with him; which he called, " the £S£iiS 

s2 



260 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK e * cruel and malicious dealing of Lawrence Johnson and the 
' " lord North." Which last had entered two or three actions 
Anno 1579. against him for felling of wood; and charged him with 
for feS 1 80(W - which if it should take place, said the bishop, would 
wood. make me not worth 18d. This he also opened in a letter to 
his friend, the abovesaid lord : and that Mr. Gouldwel had 
the doing of the matter, and could inform his lordship at 
large. That that lord was upon him last summer, and pre- 
vailed nothing; and that the lord chief justice understood 
the cause at full. And yet the lord North, as the bishop 
added, pretended great friendship. But what his dealing was, 
by reason of some of the honourable council's letters, he [the 
bishop] had rather the bearer should open the whole matter 
unto his lordship, than himself; because there had been, as 
he said, some mystical devices therein. Which bearer he 
desired his lordship to hear, and to give credit to, and his 
best advice therein. 
Desires I n the midst of these his troubles, too heavy for his years, 

queen to re. and all underwent for the preserving of the revenues of his 
sign his bi- bishopric, he earnestly begged of the queen her liberty to be 
granted to him to resign ; and hoped her majesty would also 
give him a reasonable time to depart, and a fit pension for 
his life, and Doddington house, the worst of five belonging 
to his see. 
A pur- This request he made in the latter part of the year: but 

comes to na -d many months before signified his inclination to resign, 
the bishop "When on a sudden he was surprised with the news of a 

of Norwich . ii-i /? tvt • i 

to come up pursuivant sent down to the bishop or .Norwich, requiring 
to court, jjjjjj tQ come U p to cour t, in order to be made bishop of Ely. 
The whole matters, and what the bishop's thoughts and de- 
sires were upon this occasion, take from himself, in his own 
words, imparted in his letter to the lord treasurer. 
The bishop " Right honourable, such news as I suddenly heard of 
ter there- " late, I must needs impart unto you : That a pursuivant 
upon. « came by mv lord North's, and told him, that he was going 

" to the bishop of Norwich, to require him to repair to the 
" court ; for that he was appointed to be bishop of Ely. 
" Sir, no man is better acquainted with this matter than 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 261 

" your lordship. I was and yet am very desirous to be de- CHAP. 

" livered from my charge; for that my age and weakness '__ 

"and imbecility of senses move me thereunto. And not Anno 1579. 

" otherwise than it shall stand with her majesty^ pleasure 

" and discretion. I doubt not but her majesty will have 

" very good consideration of me ; to appoint such a time as 

" shall seem most meet to her gracious wisdonu And then 

" that I may resign with such a pension out of the bishop- 

" ric, as her honourable judgment shall think convenient for 581 

" the little time that I have to live. And that her majesty 

" will cause that I may enjoy the least house that the bishop 

" hath here in these parts, of five houses : which is Doding- 

" ton house ; which I have preserved from great ruin. And 

" thirdly, for that bishop Thirlby, being bishop six years, 

" never came into his diocese; whom, notwithstanding, I 

" could not move to grant me one penny of dilapidations ; 

" though the suit thereof, and the implements of the see, 

" cost me much money in suit : which was a thousand 

" marks : but all in vain. And I constrained to repair all 

" decays of all his houses, after I came to them. I am there- 

" fore to become humble suitor to her majesty, that whereas 

" my successor shall find his houses in good repair, and I 

" content notwithstanding to yield unto bim 100/. or the 

" value thereof, she would vouchsafe to move my successor 

" in this reasonable request. Hoc tibi, quasi ancliorcejir- 

" missimcE.'''' This was dated from Dodington, the 29th of 

April, 1579. 

But this came to nothing, the uprightness of Freak, the The bishop 
bishop of Norwich, not suffering him to comply with terms re f uses the 
that he suspected (not without ground) would be put upon bishopric 
him, in giving his consent for the withdrawing certain of the w hy. 
benefits and revenues of that rich bishopric from it. For 
thus, in a month or two after, he intimated his mind and re- 
solution to the lord treasurer. " That whereas he heard 
" there was speech in court of his being translated to Ely, 
" if the present bishop did resign, he doubted, that there 
" would be a curtailing that good bishopric. And that 
" therefore he writ to his lordship, that if he were removed 

s3 



262 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " thither, he requested that he might have the benefice with 

IIj " such conditions, as neither the commodity of the same nor 

Anno 1579. " his good name might be impeached thereby. Of which two 

" things,"" he said, " he had special regard. And the rather," 

(using these words,) " because I have hitherto come freely 

" unto my promotions : and would be loath now in mine old 

" ase to become infamous, and condemned of the world, as 

" some of my friends are at this present." This was writ in 

the month of June. 

The queen Again, in the latter end of the year, in the month of De- 

gives leave cemDe r, the lord treasurer had obtained leave of the queen 

to the bi- ' . . , . 

shop of Ely for the foresaid bishop of Ely to resign, with consideration 
to resign. ^ j^ s other requests to be granted him. Whereupon he 
humbly thanked her majesty for her great benevolence to- 
wards him : and withal sent up his petitions to the said lord 
to peruse. He mentioned on this occasion, " How well his 
" lordship understood, how he had been handled in the bi- 
" shopric almost for twenty years. That the keeping of 
" Somersham, one part of the lands of the bishopric, created 
"Manerio- " him some trouble. That the a hawking after his manors 
paUones." " were a pleasure to some, [meaning, as it seems, the lord 
" North and others.] That his lordship knew how great a sum 
" of money it cost him, the troublesome bringing of that busi- 
" ness before the queen. Other less matters he passed over. 
" Then he came to bishop Goodrick's lease, which one, with 
" the countenance of a great many of the court, endeavoured 
" to invert. That it scarcely had yet come to an end in the 
" chancery : nor that it was like ever to obtain, unless her 
" majesty, as she had formerly commanded to bring it into 
" the chancery, so now, according to her equity and cle- 
582 " niency, would command the said lease to be altogether an- 
" nulled and cancelled : since equity and goodness required 
" it : and that the lord chancellor knew it well enough. 

" That the queen's majesty did so candidly receive his 
" letters, such as they were, being the signification of his 
" own dutiful mind, he confessed, he owed much to her 
" majesty ; yea, for innumerable other of her benefits. But 
" especially for her great good-will to him, in consideration 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 263 

" of his age and weakness, to deliver him from the burden CHAP. 
" of the bishopric ; and to bestow it upon another. And 



" that if it pleased her majesty, he refused not the bishop of Ann ° 1579. 

** Norwich for his successor." This letter was written by the 

bishop, in his elegant Latin style : and having divers matters 

in it relating to himself and this business, (whereof this 

above is but an imperfect account,) I have preserved it in 

the Appendix. N°. xxi. 

And then he set down his requests upon his resignation, 
with his own hand subscribed : viz. 

" Imprimis, He required a pension during his life, (in The bi- 
" respect of the three noble princes whom he had served,) t^^be 
" out of the bishopric of Ely, as it shall please her majesty granted 

« to set down. Should re- 

" Secondly, Because he hath never a house of his own, he si S n - 
" desireth for the time of his life to have the manor of Don- 
" nington for the rent in the queen's books, with the manor- 
" house and the parks; with all fruits and commodities 
" thereunto belonging, during his life, and one year after, 
" to him and his assigns. 

" Thirdly, The bishop that now is had no dilapidations of 
" bishop Thirleby : although Thirleby received 500/. of bi- 
" shop Goodrick's executors : and yet he left his houses, 
" bridges, loads, rivers, causeys, and banks in great ruin and 
" decay. And also he spoiled the see of the implements of 
" a thousand marks, which king Edward III. left unto it. 
" And yet the said Thirleby was bound by oath to leave it 
" to the see. For the recovery whereof, the bishop that now 
" is spent a thousand marks in suit, and obtained nothing : 
" by reason bishop Thirleby died in prison. 

" Fourthly, And because he never had any penny for di- 
" lapidations of bishop Thirleby, his predecessor ; who in all 
" that time of his bishopric never bestowed any thing upon 
" his houses, banks, bridges, drains, or causeys ; so that he 
" was forced at his first entry to bestow fourteen score 
" pounds upon Waldersey bank, for the preservation of the 
" whole country : besides other things left in great decay, 
" to his great cost. Yet nevertheless he is content to allow 

s 4 



264 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " his successor one hundred pounds in implements which he 
IL " hath made needful for every house. 
Anno 1579. " Item, That the pension may be paid quarterly, in the 
" mansion-house at Donnington. Subscribed, 

" Richard Ely." 

There was another paper of requests sent up by the bi- 
shop in February, that is, two months after, of the same 
substance, only with some additions : as, mentioning his great 
expenses lately in the suit of Brakin for the great lease of all 
583 the demains, for his maintenance of the suit. On these rea- 
sons he desired to be set free from all kind of dilapidations. 
He required to have his half year's rent, due to him at 
Lady-day next: and all other rents and debts whatsoever 
that were due to him before his resignation. That a pension 
of 200Z. may be paid him quarterly, by even parcels, at the 
manor-house at Donnington, out of the soken of Somersham 
and the manor of Haddenham. And that in his old days he 
might be freed from all taxes and subsidies, and setting forth 
of men in time of war, and all incumbrances that the coun- 
try might lay upon him. And also to have the use of his 
parks and grounds unto May-day ; and to have free egress 
and regress unto all the houses of the bishopric, and pas- 
tures belonging thereto, for the avoiding of his stuff and cat- 
tle. And finally, desires that his successor would allow and 
think well of all his grants, as he would his successor should 
do by him. Wherein he hopeth he hath done nothing pre- 
judicial to the state of the see. 
His address In this month of February, I find an address of his im- 
(iueen. mediately to the queen for his licence of resignation. Which 
ran in these words from his elegant pen : which she seemed 
to expect ; viz. 

Diu patri tuo magnificentissimo obscquium prcebui, etjra- 
tri tuo pientissimo, aliquamdiu operam dedi. Denique tua 
majestati midtisjam minis episcopali officio sedulo inservivi, 
augustissima regina. Tandem vero Imjus muneris pertce- 
sus libcrtatem aliquam mild vindicari, et quasi rude donari, 
mco jure poshdo. Idque ob jicstissimas causas : nimirum 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 265 

propter memorice imbecillitatem et virium labefactationem, CHAP. 
et cetatem octogenariam jam incumbentem. Denique quod XVI1 - 



hinc sacro officio conscientia mea satis respondere non valet. Anno \ 579. 
Higus infirmitatis indulgentissime miserta pro eximia tua 
dementia ab istafunctione me liberum fieri a tua majestate 
spero : aliumque et pientiorem, et omnibus modis ad id aptio- 
rem sufficiendum : qui huic Junctioni omnibus modis pie, 
conscienticeque puritate, respondere possit et velit:juxta divi 
Pauli regulam, Finis prsecepti est charitas, in corde puro, et 
conscientia bona, et fide non ficta. 

Atque h(£c est prima et maxima majestatis tuce cura, ut 
quicunque in regno tuo officio, gerunt, sive ecclesiastica sive 
secidaria, hanc D. Paidi regidam accurate atque solicite ser- 
vent. Hanc libertatis mece procurationem humiliter peto ; 
non ut prudenticB tuce prcejudicare velim, sed quod prude ji- 
tice tuce optimum esse judicabitur, id mihi optimum esseju- 
dicabo. Libentius tamen missionem a tua dementia ex animo 
contenderem. Dominus noster Jesus Christus, pro solita sua 
dementia, majestatem tuam myitis annis et corporis sanitate 
et animi pietate, beare ; et ab hostium dolositate tueri dig- 
netur. Ex insula Eliensi vicesimo quarto Februarii. 

It proceeded now so far, that two forms were ready drawn, 
February, 1579. pro resignatione ep'atus Ellens. I. Sce- 
chda resignationis : to be done before a public notary. 
II. Tenor instrumenti conjiciendi super resignationem ep'a- 
tus. Yet I find in June following, 1580, the business was 
not fully completed, though in effect and to all appearance 
it seems to have been, by a letter the bishop then writ to 
his correspondent and friend, the lord Burghley : at the con- 
clusion thereof subscribing himself Richardus Coxns, But 
whatever was the impediment, (whether it were that Freak, Cox still re- 
or any other the queen intended to put into his place, liked sh to ',~ is 
not of the terms of the resignation, and perhaps other terms death, 
propounded to the diminishing of the revenues,) but the old 
bishop held this bishopric to his death; which was in the 584 
year 1581. 

Concerning Freak, bishop of Norwich, besides what I The family 
have observed of him before, this also that follows may be the ^ c I " se 

of Norwich. 



266 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK remarked. The sect called the family of love appeared 
IL much in this bishop's diocese. The bishop had been diligent 
Anno 1579. in searching after them, and endeavouring by punishments, 
as well as other gentler methods, to reclaim them. Some of 
them were by his order imprisoned. But the reports of di- 
vers of these sectaries appearing in Suffolk came to court : 
insomuch that the lords of the council sent letters to the bi- 
shop, to take care for the suppressing of them ; and to cer- 
tify what he had done therein. But though this information 
came to the lords, the bishop had not yet heard of their 
spreading there. But some of them in Norwich and Bury 
The bi- were put into prison. And therefore, as he writ to the lord 
genSto' 1 '" Burghley, he thought the information given was but offi- 
suppress it. c iosa quadam sedulitas of some, cunningly to accuse him of 
negligence in his function. Yet it was well known, on the 
other hand, that he had been thought to have dealt very 
severely and hardly with those of that sect, for detaining 
them so long in prison. And therefore, as well towards 
them as any other that should be suspected to be of that 
family, he promised effectually to execute the said letters 
in his visitation approaching; and to certify accordingly. 
This he writ to the lord treasurer from Ludham, the 4th of 
June, 1579. 
A minister Some of these were of the clergy, and had livings. One 
family. of them vehemently so suspected was incumbent of Sprow- 
ton ; and deprivable in many other respects. The bishop 
craved it of the queen for Mr. Maplesden, his son-in-law, 
archdeacon of Suffolk ; the right of presentation being in 
one Felton, her majesty's ward. 
The bishop This year happened another instance of the paternal care 
his^arTfor of this bishop, in respect of his church of Norwich. One 
his church. ]\/[ r p 00 ]y had brought the dean and chapter of that cathe- 
dral to be willing to make a change of certain of his lands 
with that church for some of theirs : and thereunto they had 
consented. Which would have been the spoil of that church. 
But the bishop seasonably stopped it from proceeding any fur- 
ther ; having dissuaded them from it. Some time after, the 
same gentleman attempted to procure the same lands (being 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 267 

one hundred pounds of old rent yearly) for her majesty in c ^^- 
fee-farm : having by secret reward (as the bishop had learned) 



obtained the good-will of the dean and the greater part of Anno ,579 - 
the prebends. Who being poor (as the bishop writ to the 
lord treasurer, whom he acquainted with the matter) would 
easily bite at so sweet a bait. " Wherefore he [the bishop] 
" for his own part," as he added, " being the head of that 
" church, and moved, in respect of his pastoral charge 
" thereof, to prevent the danger of so great and utter decay 
" of the same, like to ensue the compassing of the suit in 
" hand; his only refuge," he said, " in this case, was unto 
" his lordship, (zvJiom this age and time did acknowledge to 
" be the chief patron and stay, next under her majesty, unto 
" the church of England,) most humbly beseeching his good 
" lordship, (if this practice in hand were not so far past, as 
" it was irrecoverable,) that his honour would put to his 
" helping hand to hold up this particular church, like to fall 
" down, if it were not supported by his assistance." Adding 
further, " that this matter might be stayed by his lordship's 
" mediation unto her majesty, in the behalf of the poor 585 
" church. Wherein, no doubt, he should do God good ser- 
" vice in preserving his temple ; and deserve worthy com- 
" mendation of posterity in that place by this deed ; himself 
' " being, lastly, to be most bound unto his honour for the 
" same, as in many other respects he was." This was dated 
from Ludham, the 7th of August, 1579. 

There was one Lawrence, a preacher, incumbent of some The bishop 

seou esters 

parish in Suffolk, whom this bishop of Norwich had sus- one im- 
pended. The reason whereof was his refusal to comply in ren ™,* r 
his ministration with the rites and usages of the church re- 
quired. And this he did, not only in discharge of his pa- 
ternal care, but also in obedience to certain letters sent to 
him from the court, to suffer none to preach and officiate in 
the church, but such as should conform themselves to the 
rules and practice prescribed in the church of England. 
These letters seem to have been sent to him, and other bi- 
shops, in whose dioceses especially the puritan preachers 
most abounded. But one Mr. Calthorp, a gentleman of 



268 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK some quality in the county, a favourer of Lawrence, endea- 
u ' voured to get him restored by a command to the said bishop 



Anno 1579. from court ; and especially by a letter to him from the lord 
treasurer ; who, he knew, had a great influence with all the 
bishops. Upon his solicitation therefore, to satisfy the im- 
portunity of that gentleman, backed with the good character 
he gave of him, he wrote to the bishop in the behalf of Law- 
rence. But how the case more particularly now stood be- 
tween the bishop and this preacher, take from the pen of the 
bishop himself to Calthorp, upon his receiving the said letter 
His letter, of that lord. " That whereas he had writ to him [the bi- 
reasonf ^ " sno p] m behalf of Lawrence, and had also procured the 
" lord treasurer's letters to the same effect ; he let him un- 
" derstand, that he had not sequestered Mr. Lawrence from 
" preaching by virtue of letters of the lords of her majesty's 
" privy council only ; but also by virtue of certain letters 
" from her majesty ; wherein he was strictly charged to suf- 
" fer none, but such only to preach, as were allowed of into 
" the ministry, and conformable in all manner of rites and 
" ceremonies established in the church of England. And 
" therefore that he dared not attempt to do it. And that 
" whereas it had pleased his very good lord, the lord trea- 
" surer, to write unto him for the same purpose, he required 
" to give him leave first, before he granted his request, to 
" make answer unto the lord treasurer's letter ; and make 
" known unto him the cause of his proceedings, and manner 
" of doing. And then, if it should please that lord to com- 
" mand him, he said he would do it. 

" In the mean season he must pray him to content him- 
" self. For that he might not, upon every motion made, 
" transgress her majesty's commandment : although he bore, 
" as he added, as good will to Mr. Lawrence as he or any 
" man within that country. And so he took his leave of him 
" in Christ.''' It was dated from Ludham, the 1 2th of 
March, 1579. 

Upon this letter of the bishop's, Calthorp despatches 
another letter to the treasurer, desiring earnestly to find out 
some way to restore them their preacher : mentioning the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 269 

great need of him there: and so good a man, as for whose CHAP, 
meetness, he would dare to undertake, the chief of credit in 



that shire should fully certify his honour. An ™ 1*79. 

Let us now turn to another bishop; viz. Scambler, bishop J 8 °. 

1 -. . 1 lie bishop 

of Peterborough. This may be remarked in commendation of p et erbo- 
of his care and compassion for the poorer inhabitants ofj™«^ gto 
Peterborough: on whom lay a heavy tax, the drain of the intaabi- 
Clow's Cross, a common that was to be drained for cattle. 
The benefit indeed great; but the burden of the charge 
laid upon the poorer sort intolerable, even to their undoing. 
These applied themselves to the bishop, making very heavy 
complaints unto him, and begging that a greater share of the 
charge might be laid upon the richer men ; who received the 
benefit as much, or more than they, as they set forth their 
case to him. The good bishop set himself to shew the part 
of a tender and kind pastor in their case: and presently 
thought of applying himself to the lord treasurer: who 
having some estate there, if he could prevail with him to 
begin and to be an example, he concluded the rest would 
sooner follow. But hear the bishop's letter ; therein plead- 
ing with his lordship, " That he would find out means toHisietterio 
" ease these poor people : informing him, that they were so tr ' e e as ° r rer in 
" sore surcharged above their neighbours, and above their <*** be - 
«« abilities, that he was in a great care, and pensive to hear 
" their just moans of complaints. And of himself, adding, 
" that he could do nothing to redress it. That he was there- 
" fore forced, on God's behalf and for conscience sake, as 
" stood with his calling, to become an humble suppliant in 
" their behalf. That in this suit he excluded not the fur- 
" therance of the good work purposed : for he greatly de- 
" sired the going forward of the same. But his suit tended 
" to the procurement of some equality and due proportion 
" of the levy ; that according to the rate of the benefit that 
" every man was to receive by the drain, so every man might 
" bear charge ratably. For that it stood with good law and 
" conscience so to be. And that the rich, of their abundance 
" of wealth, which out of the commons received abundant 



270 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " commodity, might not go easily away, and the poor bear 
" the burden. That their commodity in the soke was to 
Anno 1579. " have Eyc-fcn drained. No other thing was greatly for 
" them to account of, but that. If the same were driven 
" suddenly, it would be seen who were Worthy to bear the 
" chief burden. 

" That if the poor man, of the small store of cattle that 
" he hath, be fain to sell the most or chief part, then had 
" his purse made the fen good for the rich ; and remained 
" himself by that means disabled to enjoy the thing that he 
" had paid for." The good bishop went on pleading fur- 
ther for them, in this manner. 

" That if the artificer or the labourer, which had very 
" few, and many of them no cattle, should at their great 
" charge contribute to this thing deeply, which should 
" chiefly redound to the benefit of the rich husbandman, or 
" rather to his landlord, whose inheritance was many ways 
"bettered ; which might bring in better services, fines, and 
" rents ; in his opinion, he said, it was not so well, as if they 
" bare charge according to the fruit that they should reap." 
He proceeded thus. " It is a heavy burden, my good 
" lord, for the poor parish of Peterborough to pay this tax 
" as it is laid. For if the subsidy books were viewed, it 
" would appear, he doubted not, that they were charged, 
58/ " not with a subsidy or subsidies, but more than their whole 
" substances, that in those books were specified. And yet 
" he knew they were rated as high as their neighbours. 
" And that great pity were, that they should be higher set 
" in this book. The premises considered, that if it might 
" please his honour and his son, to bring in among them of 
" the soke, without trouble of other countries, some pro- 
" portionable charge, which he thought and was assured 
" his grave and charitable persuasion might bring to pass, if 
" he then in person entered into that action, and persuasion 
" with the gentlemen, and wealthiest of the soke, as they 
" repaired unto him; he thought then, with ease reasonable, 
" the whole soken bearing together might perform that 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 271 

" charge that upon the soke was laid. And so the work go CHAP. 
" forward : which otherwise the necessity of the surcharged '__ 



" might be a trouble and impediment unto.'" Anno 1579. 

And then concluding : " This cause I right humbly com- 
" mend unto your honour : who, if you did know the truth 
" fully, I am sure would see redress without my requests, 
M even for the pity of the poor that God hath planted in 
" your heart, and for the rueful moan that poor men do 
" make, whose voices the Lord heareth. To whose ever- 
" lasting mercy, and continual favour in this world, and in 
" the world to come, I betake your honour with my hearty 
" prayers. 11 Dated from Peterborough, the 7th of August, 
1579. Subscribing himself, 

" Your honour's at command in the Lord, 

" Edmund Petriburg. 11 

Elmer, bishop of London, had now found out a popish a printing 
printing-press in London, and one Carter the printer ; and j^"j b is ^" e 
had put him into the Gatehouse. He had printed several bishop of 
books against the queen and the state of the church establish- 
ed ; and against the queens statesmen, particularly the lord 
treasurer Burghley and the late lord keeper Bacon. The 
bishop commended the examination of this printer to the said 
lord treasurer, and to deal with him according to his wisdom ; 
as his letter imported : which was as ensueth : 

" Right honourable and my singular good lord. I have 
" found out a press of printing, with one Carter, a very lewd 
" fellow. Who hath been divers times before in prison, for 
" printing of lewd pamphlets. But now in search of his 
" house, among other naughty papistical books, we have 
" found one in French, entitled, The innocency of the Scot- a book 
" tish queen, a very dangerous book. Wherein he calleth J nn o Cen ™ 
"her the heir apparent of this crown. He inveigheth of the 
" against the execution of the duke of Norfolk ; defendeth Q Uee n. 
" the rebellion in the north ; and discourseth against you 
" and the late lord keeper. I doubt not, but that your 
" lordship hath seen it. Nevertheless, I thought good to 
" signify thus much unto your lordship, that you may deal 



272 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " with the fellow, who is now near you, (in the Gatehouse,) 
" as to your wisdom shall seem good. I can get nothing of 



Anno 1579." him: for he did deny to answer upon his oath. When 
" your lordship shall be at any leisure to deal in the matter, 
" I will send to you the wardens, [of the Stationers' com- 
" pany,] who will inform you further of another book which 
" is abroad; wherein her majesty is touched ; and of certain 
588 " other new forms which he [Carter] hath made, and will 
" not confess them. Thus, with my humble duty unto your 
" lordship, I take my leave, from my house at London, by 
" Paul's, this 30th of December, 

" Your lordship's humbly to command, 

" John London." 

Carter the How this man got off now, I know not, (surely by the 
cutecT CXC " mildness of the government ;) but it was his fate to come to 
Stow'sAn- a shameful end. For, four or five years after, he was tried, 
cast, and executed as a traitor for printing a book, called, 
A treatise of schism. 
The bishop Young, master of Pembroke-hall, in Cambridge, and bi- 
ter^nter- sno P °f Rochester, now worthily concerned in a matter of 
poseth for charity, solicited in behalf of Chatham hospital, within his 
hospitd™ diocese, against some concealers, as they were called; en- 
deavouring to swallow up some revenues belonging to that 
house, upon the pretence of concealment. And the matter 
being brought into the exchequer, the good bishop betakes 
himself to the lord treasurer, (the common patron of the bi- 
shops, and all others in distress,) in a letter dated in Octo- 
ber; importing, " That he was advised by some of his 
" church of Rochester, that there was a suit in the exehe- 
" quer, attempted against the poor hospital of Chatham, in 
" his diocese, to the utter spoil and undoing of certain poor 
" lazars, and other poor aged and impotent persons, there 
« resiant at this present : and not only of them, but of a 
" great number of other such like, as might stand in need of 
" the like relief in that place in time to come." He added, 
" That he could not but in most humble wise, by these few 
" lines, crave his honour's good favour towards the said poor 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 273 

" people and hospital. Whereby that extremity which was CHAP. 
" meant towards them might be avoided; and the good re- xvtl 



" lieve towards that poor miserable people which were then Anno 1579. 
" there, and which might be hereafter, (as it was at the be- 
" ginning well meant,) continued. The bishop had heard, 
" that the said poor hospital had been heretofore eftsoons as- 
" sailed : but, as he tells that lord, notwithstanding, hitherto, 
" by the bishops of this see, and the dean and chapter, who 
" (as his honour should be made privy) had great evidence 
" to shew for the said hospital, it had been preserved. And 
" that their assured trust was, that his good lordship, ac- 
" cording to his accustomed goodness towards all such erec- 
" tions and foundations, would stand good lord, so far forth 
" as justice would permit, to the same poor people, and to 
" them. So should they of the hospital and themselves [of 
" that said church] both think themselves bound to pray unto 
" God continually for the continuance of his lordship's good 
" estate." Dated from Bromelie, the 20th of October. Sub- 
scribing, 

" His honour's most humbly to command, 

" John Roff'ens." 

This bishop of Rochester, some time before, when H. N.'sThe bishop 
book, called, Evangelium regni, i.e. The gospel of the ^^ter^notes 
dom, found so much countenance here in this land, (and had upon h. 
so many that ran into this sect, called the family of love,) ca 'ij e d,The 
writ some brief notes upon that book, put into Latin. Gospel of 
Which will give us some account of that admired enthu- dom. 
siastical book. 589 

" As the Latin is mean, so is the style or manner of 
" writing dark and obscure in many places. And although 
" the author had not set to his name, yet it should seem to be 
" some friar's doing, or some other that favoured the church 
" of Rome. 

" The greatest part of the book is nothing but a brief 
" discourse, either a rehearsal of the story of the Bible; as 
" appeareth from the 5th chapter to the 27th and 28th 
" chapters. And his collection is none other, but such as 

VOL. II. PART II. T 



274 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " any meanly learned may gather by diligent reading of the 
" scriptures. 

Anno 1579. " The author doth much pretend to the Holy Ghost, 
" and entitleth his book, An epistle written from the Holy 
" Ghost : which is to be suspect of high revelations ; dan- 
" gerous to deceive the simple. 

" In treating of Antichrist, in the 28th chapter, he teach- 
" eth no certain doctrine, who he is, and where to be found ; 
" that we may know him, and beware of his doctrine : but 
" it seemeth altogether doubtful : insomuch, that the note 
" in the margin saith, O that this Antichrist were known / 
" Whereas, if the author would have dealt plainly, and ac- 
" cording to the scriptures, he might easily have shewed, 
" that Rome is the seat of Antichrist. And that the suc- 
" cession of popes, and that body and kingdom, is the very 
" Antichrist mentioned and described in the 2 Thessal. ii. 
" Apoc. xiii. 17, &c. 

" In chapters 31, 32, the author H. N. bewray eth him- 
" self to be a papist. First, because he calleth the church 
" of Rome, the communion of all Christiaris : whereas it 
" is but a particular church, fallen away from the universal 
" church of Christ. Secondly, Although he seemeth to con- 
" fess, that the church of Rome hath not that perfection of 
" religion, which it had in times past, (which the papists do 
" and must grant,) yet he seemeth to allow, and speak 
" reverently of all popish orders, as they be now. 

Chapter 3i. u The pope he calleth the chief anointed, the chief bi- 
" shop, the high priest ; who hath his being in the most 
" holy sanctuary of true and perfect holiness, most holy 
" father. Next unto him he placeth the cardinals ; whom 
" he calleth most holy and famous : and he saith, that they 
" are next the most ancientest and holy father, the pope, in 
" most holy religion and understanding. Next unto cardi- 
" nals he reckoneth bishops ; whom he calleth chief priests. 
" After bishops he nameth curates, deacons, &c. After 
" those he maketh mention of- monks ; whom he com- 
" mendeth as men addicted to holiness, and separated from 
" the world and all carnal desires. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 275 

" But most plainly the author shews himself a friend to CHAP. 

XVII 
" the church of Rome ; saying, that many, through conten- . 



" tion and discord, did cast off the church of Rome; and Ann ° i"9. 

" did blaspheme her with her ministries ; and of their own 

" brains pretending the scriptures, have brought other mi- 

" nistries of religion. They spoke much of the word of 

" God. Who doubteth, that this is the voice and judgment 

" of papists against protestants and true Christians ? 

" The rest of the book, from the thirty-fourth chapter 
" unto the end, is of the calling of the gentiles, and of the 
" grace of God offered to the world in the last age of the 
" world : which seemeth to be the best part of that book. 

" Thus have you a taste of this book, gathered as the 590 
" time would serve. Whereby it appeareth to be no such 
" precious piece of work as of some it is supposed to be. 
" Such fair shows and glorious titles may soon deceive the 
" simple, to have such books in more adoration than the 
" holy scriptures. But we have Moses and the prophets ; 
" let us hear them, and judge all others by them. 

" We are sure that the holy scriptures were written by 
" (the Spirit of love and truth) the Holy Ghost; and con- 
" tain all true and necessary and sufficient doctrine for our 
" salvation. Let us not hold upon men. Prove all things ; 1 Thess. v. 
" hold that which is good. Believe not every spirit; but l j' ollI1 j v . ,. 
" prove the spirits.'''' 

These good notes of the bishop of Rochester fell into the 
hands of some of this family of love. And they made the 
best reply they could to each paragraph. And this, William 
Wilkinson, of the diocese of Ely, (who wrote a confutation 
of some of their articles,) published this year with his own 
book ; as we shall read by and by. Yet I cannot but set 
down the conclusion of this lovely author's reply, suitable to 
their pretended principles. " Therefore save labour for 
" making any further reply hereunto, lest you do but 
" lose your travel herein. For Christ with his holy ones 
" [those of the family] will not now, in this same day of 
" their love, (like as do the princes of the earth, whose 
" kingdom is of this world,) set up and maintain his king- 

t 2 



276 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " dom with contention and discord, but with peaceableness, 
" lovingkindness, and longsuffering." 



Anno 1579. Concerning Cooper, bishop of Lincoln, a learned, good, 
The queen's an( j diligent prelate, I have also a remark to make. The 

intention of ° f . . . .__ . . _,, 

removing queen, intending a remove of the bishop ot Norwich to EJy, 
ofLi'nco'in as was? above shewn, thought of this bishop to succeed him 
to Norwich, there. But this motion was not agreeable to the bishop of 
Lincoln's mind, when he was made acquainted with it : for 
indeed he knew that would have been but of little advan- 
tage, and more expense to him; the revenue of that bi- 
shopric being little more, and the care of the diocese in 
respect of the largeness of it little less ; and also, the trou- 
ble, by reason of the wayward people there to the established 
orders of the church, much more. Therefore, in answer to 
the lord treasurer, who had sent him a letter, importing the 
queen's said purpose, he gave this discreet, modest, and wise 
answer. 
Which that " That he had received letters from his honour, touching 
cihieTto 6 " " ner majesty's gracious disposition to remove him from 
accept : " Lincoln to Norwich. That it had pleased God by her 
y ' " majesty's goodness, to set him in place and calling far 
" above his deserts or worthiness : for neither was there in 
" him (as he humbly proceeded in his letter) any thing 
" worthy such value of learning, nor any ability, sufficient 
" to discharge so great a burden. Only this I may say, 
" (that I may use his own pious words,) in the fear of God, 
" that whatsoever is in me, either in body or in mind, with 
" God's gracious assistance, I have bequeathed to the ser- 
" vice of his church and benefit of my country, when and 
" where it shall seem convenient, not to myself but to them, 
" whom he hath placed in authority to rule me. 
50 1 " But that if the judgment might rest in himself, he had 
" no desire to remove : and he trusted God's grace would 
" so assist him, as he should never ambitiously seek and la- 
" bour for removing, though it might turn greatly to his 
" worldly benefit. That in this case that now he writ of, 
" were he never so desirous for any respect to remove, he 
" saw nothing that could incline him thereunto. The great- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 277 

" ness of the charge and number of churches would be CHAP. 
" either little or nothing diminished. The troublesomeness . J 



" and the danger of the diocese far greater than where he Anno 1579. 

" was then, as late experience had declared. The credit of 

" the place nothing more : the benefit of the living no whit 

" amended : the charges of the alteration very great ; as his 

" wisdom well knew ; neither by his own poverty able to 

" be sustained, nor by the benefit of the living to be re- 

" compensed. 

" Wherefore he heartily desired his honour so to deal in 
" this case, as her majesty might graciously spare him, and 
" suffer him to be where he was, rather than to be trans- 
" lated. And thus he ceased, desiring God long to preserve 
" his honour to his glory. 11 Dated from Lincoln, the 8th of 
June, 1579. 

Curtess, or Coortess, bishop of Chichester, was called The bishop 
upon by some at this time to deprive the vicar of Cuckfield, ter require j 
in his diocese, a very vile and vicious man, and to place a t0 deprive 

• J , • 1 • . , , the vicar of 

more worthy and sufficient man m his room ; and charging cuckfield. 
the bishop himself, as it seems, with some neglect in his of- 
fice and care of his diocese, in permitting such a minister to 
officiate in the parish ; wherein the number of the communi- 
cants were eight hundred, and the inhabitants well affected 
to religion, and the living sufficient for a learned preacher. 
But as for the pastor he was informed against, " That he was His crimes. 
" no better than idolum; void of all learning and discre- Pa P er0ffice - 
" tion ; a profaner of the sacrament, a depraver of preachers, 
" a scoffer at singing of psalms, a common alehouse hunter, 
" accused of incontinency, amaintainer of strumpets 1 causes, 
" a seeker to witches, a drunkard, a quarreller and fighter ; 
" convicted for a common barrator ; infected with a loath- 
" some and contagious disease : his talk was of ribaldry : 
" consignafois in natura, and a contemner of her majesty's 
" laws and justice. 11 A hideous character indeed of a clergy- 
man, if there were not some malice at the bottom. 

The tidings of his behaviour came to court ; as his accu- The bishop 
sation was brought into the ecclesiastical commission. Inso- surer con . 
much, that the lord treasurer had wrote to the bishop con- ^ ni , n ^ s 

T 3 cation. 



278 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

B]0 O K cerning the ill account he had heard of this man ; done per- 
haps out of respect to the bishop, whose son, or relation at 



Anno 157.9. least, he was; (his name being Edmund Coortess;) having 
been charged, (as he told the bishop he had been in- 
formed,) both with insufficiency of learning, and also with 
evil demeanour. To which the bishop in answer, in respect 
of his sufficiency, writ, That he was ordained by the bishop 
of Ely ; and that Dr. Whitgift was then the positor, [poser;] 
and that he had been a student at St. John's college. 

This vicar had been summoned before the commissioners 
ecclesiastical ; and as yet no sentence had passed against 
him : but remained still in his place. Whereat several per- 
592 sons, his parishioners, and gentlemen there, resorted unto 
the said lord treasurer, for the removal of so scandalous a 
person. That lord was moved upon these complaints to 
send again to the bishop, to suffer him to abide no longer 
in his living ; since he had been blamed for that neglect. 

His case lay To whom he gave this answer ; " That his causes had 

before the 

ecciesiastu " been heard before archbishop Parker and bishop Sandes, 
cai commis- a an( j divers others, and yet the cause depended before the 
" high commissioners in St. Paul's ; and that from thence 
" an inferior judge could not well call the same. And 
a therefore, that he feared some men rather sought to ali- 
" enate that honourable loving affection, which they knew 
" or heard his lordship had borne to him of late, to his great 
" comfort ; than for any likelihood of ability in him [the 
" bishop] to perform this request : and therefore had pre- 
" ferred this suit to his lordship. That if it were through 
" ignorance, they dealt not in an unknown matter. That it 
" was a love to his books, prayers, and preaching, his juris- 
" diction, and the disposition of other livings in his gifts, 
" granted over to others. And that his only desire was to 
" live in quiet. And so concluded, that he would not for- 
" get in his daily prayers to recommend his honourable ser- 
" vices to God, his most merciful protection and direction. 
" Dated from Cherisworth, the 30th of March, 1579." 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 279 

CHAP. XVIII. 593 

Parry false : hath leave to go abroad, and give intelligence 
to the queen. Returns. His letters to the lord treasurer : 
and protestation of service : notwithstanding, privately 
reconciled at Paris. His earnest letters thence, to be em- 
ployed. The family of love increase. Some account of 
the first rise of this sect here. Some of them in Col- 
chester in queen Mary's reign. Free-will men. Christo- 
pher Vitelli comes from Delph to Colchester. CrineTs con- 
fession concerning him and his doctrine. Henry Nicolas, 
the founder of the family of love, his doctrines. Liber- 
tines. Their speadations. A book writ against them. 
Puritans. One of them eocpostidates with the lord Burgh- 
ley. And that he should use more liberty of speech with 
the queen. The queen calls in her commissioners for 
concealments. Proclamations for the length of swords, 
bucklers, fyc. Against carrying and shooting in guns, 
SfC nor where the queen's residence shoidd be. No coats 
or doublets of defence to be worn : nor pocket dags suf- 
fered. Proclamations about apparel. Letters from the 
privy-council for keeping Lent. 

As for the state of religion now, I meet this year with Anno 1579. 
some letters of William Parry; who had privately recon-^jkj 1 ^ 
ciled himself to the church of Rome, and was a sworn ser- a spy abroad 
vant to the pope and his cause ; and undertook for that queeiu 
purpose no less a villainy than to kill queen Elizabeth ; 
having the encouragement of the pope, and one of the car- 
dinals, to execute the same. For which barbarous design 
he suffered the death of a traitor in the year 1584. This 
man had earnestly requested (and that with solemn protesta- 
tions of his zeal to the queen's service) of the lord treasurer 
Burghley, to travel abroad to do the queen service, as a 
spy and private intelligencer in the popish countries : which, 
he being a subtle, quick man, and of good parts, the queen 
had yielded unto. And some years before this, both from 

t 4 



280 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
II. 

Anno 1579. 
Returns 
home. 
His protes- 
tations to 
the lord 
treasurer. 



594 



Goes pri- 
vately 
abroad. 
Writes to 
the trea- 
surer in 



Rome and Siena, he had advertised the treasurer of such 
matters as he had heard and seen in those parts. 

And now this man being come home, writ to that lord, that 
he was returned; and weary with his long journey, de- 
ferred his attendance upon his honour till his coming to 
court ; and, (with glorious words,) that he would humbly 
wait upon the same, being most desirous to live and die 
in his good favour, upon hope to be able to do his lordship 
some good service, [such] as he never intended to do or 
offer to any before that time ; pretending some special mat- 
ter, whatever it was. 

Thus far he carried all things smooth, (but scarcely sin- 
cere,) till after his going abroad again into France, (which 
was soon after,) privately, and without the knowledge of 
any. And being at Paris, where he was reconciled, he still 
pretended all sincerity and faithful observance towards the 
treasurer. And this year, 1579, January 15, he excused 
his departure so suddenly and secretly. Writing, " That 
" his departure out of England might in reason leave cause 
" of offence behind him ; his necessity and his demeanour 
" on that side might, and he trusted would, in part crave 
44 pardon for him. The rather, if it might please his lord- 
" ship for his dutiful mind, and privy good- will borne 
" (though not discovered) unto his lordship, to receive him 
" into his lordship's good favour and protection. And that 
" having not, since the death of his very good lord and 
" master, the earl of Pembroke, served or followed any be- 
" sides her majesty, (whose faithful poor servant and sub- 
" ject he would ever be,) he hoped his lordship would not 
" reject his humble suit ; grounded upon no greater war- 
" rant than his desire to deserve well of him by such ser- 
" vice as he should be able to do him hereafter.'" And 
concludes, the better to conceal his treachery, and obtain 
his end, (viz. a good salary to maintain him abroad in the 
pope's service,) " My good lord, pardon my plain nature, 
" if I am at any time less ceremonious than your greatness 
" or my duty do require. And be assured to find in me all 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 281 

"plainness and truth:" [this damnable hypocrite hoping CHAP. 
with this clause to impose upon the treasurer.] Adding, XVIII. 



" That if it might stand with his good pleasure to bind him Anno 1579. 

" to such observations [there at Paris] that might do him 

" service, he would do his duty, and endeavour to satisfy 

" his lordship's expectation. That in the mean time, and 

" always, he would not fail dutifully to pray to God to bless 

" him with long, happy, and healthful years."" 

And this crafty man so artfully concealed his falsehood, Writes to 
that it seems this great statesman discovered it not : Parry lord for ser , 
from time to time sending him letters of intelligence from vice and 
abroad: but serving in truth the popish interest all the ment 
while. Thus I meet with another letter of his writ the abroad - 
next year, 1580 ; therein endeavouring much to get employ- 
ment under that lord. And in another he writ, " That he 
" was emboldened, as he did in his last, to lay before him 
" his service : the service of such an one as studied daily, 
" how, and in what sort he might best and most accept- 
" ably discover his readiness to honour and serve him." 
Divers other letters he sent to that lord in hypocrisy ; so- 
liciting for service, pretending great loyalty, and ambition 
of doing service to the queen; but in truth to serve the 
ends of the pope, and those that were of that church, and 
sworn enemies to her and her kingdom. The further rela- 
tion whereof I shall reserve to the next year. 

The queen and government were however watchful Papists im- 
against papists, as well they might, to prevent dangers from P nsone • 
them : who were very busy to destroy her, and seize her 
kingdoms, as well as to overthrow the reformed religion 
established. There were also great numbers of such disaf- 
fected in the kingdom. Which may be conjectured at by 
the numbers of such as were at this time in durance, in the 
prisons in London, Southwark, and Westminster ; as in the 
Tower, in the Fleet, in the Marshalsea, in the King's 
Bench, in the White Lion, in Newgate, in the Counter, 
and the Gatehouse ; likewise in the custody of the bishops 595 
of Ely and Rochester : and many more in the prisons of 



282 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK the several counties. A list whereof may be seen in the 

Appendix, taken from a paper of state. 

Anno 1579. The sect of the family of love (as they affected to call 

[N-. xxi.] themselves) began now mightily to take place with many in 

ofL^in- tnis kingdom. They were especially observed to be in the 

crease. counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. Some that were the chief 

leaders, the bishop of Norwich took up, and laid in prison 

both in Norwich and Bury. Which notwithstanding, the 

report of their increase in those parts had caused the lords 

of the council to write to the bishop for the suppressing of 

them ; as we have shewn before. 

The first The sect and the followers thereof prevailing now and 

sect here in some years before, it may be worth relating somewhat of 

England, fa^ hi storv . which I shall take from writings and books 

of those times. " The ancient and famous city of Colches- 

" ter was, in the troublesome times of queen Mary's perse- 

" cution, a sweet and comfortable mother of the bodies, and 

" a tender nurse of the souls of God's children," (as I tran- 

Confuta- scribe from a book printed this year in confutation of this 

tlon " family ;) " and was at that time the more frequented, be- 

" cause it afforded many zealous and godly martyrs : who 

" continually with their blood watered those seeds, which 

" by the preachers of the word had been sown most plenti- 

" fully in the hearts of Christians in the days of good king 

Colchester. " Edward. This town, for the earnest profession of the 

" gospel, became like unto the city upon a hill ; and as a 

" candle upon a candlestick, gave light to all those, who, for 

" the comfort of their consciences, came to confer there, 

" from divers places of the realm. And repairing to com- 

" mon inns, had by night their Christian exercises : which 

" in other places could not be gotten." For proof whereof 

he refers the reader to that which was truly reported by 

Edition the Mr. Fox, in his book of Acts and Monuments. That at the 

first >P ,606, King's-head in Colchester, and at other inns in the said 

town, the afflicted Christians had set places appointed by 

themselves to meet at. " Where, lest Satan should be 

" thought to be idle, &c. he stirred up divers schismatical 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 283 

W spirits: which, even in the great trouble of the church, CHAP. 
" sought to be teachers of that, whereof they had no under- 



" standing. And thereby turned the knowledge of God's Aimo 1579. 
" testimonies (which in many of them, though it was small, 
" was somewhat) to vain and contentious jangling ; where- 
" by the dear saints of God were not a little disquieted. At 
*' such time especially as some of them, being condemned to 
" death, looked to taste of the same cup which had been 
" in full measure poured out upon their brethren. For not 
" only in the private assemblies here did these swarm, to 
■ " pervert the right ways of the Lord, but also in divers 
" prisons in London, they kept a continual hand : where 
" they scattered their heretical doctrines among such as 
" were committed for the love of the gospel." 

And these persons were the more dangerous, because infected 
they were such as had imbibed principles of Pelagianism, gi an ism, 
Arianism, and anabaptism; and endeavoured to infuse the Arianism > 

. ana ana- 

same into those good men and women professing and suf- baptism, 
fering for the gospel : as will appear by and by from their 
doctrines. 

Some of the chief among them were these two; John 596 
Kemp and Henry Hart: which two were informed against Jj^ and 
in queen Mary's time by one Thomas Tye, a popish priest Henry 
of Much Bently in Essex, near Colchester. These were w Jf me ^ ee " 
those they ca\\edfree-witt men: for so they were termed of jnCokhes- 
the predestinators ; as the said Tye informed the bishop of 
London, in whose diocese they were. And there were thir- 
teen articles drawn up, to be observed among their com- 
pany, that adhered to them. Of this Henry Hart, John 
Careless the martyr said, That he had shamefully seduced, 
beguiled, and deceived many a silly soul by his foul Pela- 
gian opinions, both in the days of king Edward and queen 
Mary. There were certain articles of Christian religion, 
which Careless had sent to Tymms, a prisoner for the gos- 
pel in the King's Bench : and these Hart undertook to con- 
fute. One Gybson was a companion of this Hart; whoGybson. 
sought to pervert and turn from the true doctrine to Pela- M c „ 

gianism twelve godly Christians, that were martyrs. KempP- 1531 - 

Kemp. 



284 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK was a great traveller abroad in Kent, instructing and con- 
u ' firming the gospellers: whom Tye informed to be of the 

Anno 1579. same sect; but slandered him, coming off perhaps from 
them, being vindicated by Mr. Fox ; relating his godly and 
Christian doctrine. He was alive even in these times of 
queen Elizabeth, and a preacher in the Isle of Wight. Of 

Trew. this company also was one Trew of Kent : who albeit be- 
fore, for the truths sake, he lost his ears, for persuading the 
people from going to mass, yet afterwards happening in the 
company of Pelagians, he became a deadly enemy to Care- 
less ; as appears by Careless' s examination, which he with his 
own hand penned in prison before he died ; to be seen at 
large in the Book of Martyrs. 

These errors were now improved, by occasion of the same 
and other doctrines, brought over from the very town 
where H. N. lived, and taught them : although his sect af- 
terwards obtained here a more lovely name. 

Viteils Christopher Vitells, a joiner by trade, with his complices, 

comes from came out f D e lph in Holland, to Colchester, in the reign 

Delph, and x . . ° 

spreads his of queen Mary ; and joined himself with the professors of 
Cokhester. tne gospel there ; and taught that the godly have in them- 
selves free-will to do good ; and could not away with pre- 
destination. Now concerning this Vitells, and the doctrines 
he broached, the confession of one Henry Crinel, that was 
then among the professors there, and heard his doctrines, 
but better instructed, will give account. His confession was 
as followeth : 
The con- " About the third year of queen Mary, anno 1555, at 
H. S crin°ei " Michaelmas, or not much after, I Henry Crinel, of Wil- 
conceming '< lingham in the county of Essex, came to the town of 
" Colchester ; where I happened into a common inn. The 
" cause of my repair thither at that time was, that I was 
" desirous to provide, that my conscience should not be en- 
" tangled with the popish pitch. And being there, I met 
" with divers of mine acquaintance ; and also with stran- 
" gers, who came thither, to confer concerning the safety 
" of their consciences. Where William Raven of St. Ives 
" was : who came thither at that time with me, and was my 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 285 

"bedfellow; having likewise fled, being in danger for reli- CHAP. 
" gion. There we found, at our coming thither, one Chris- 



topher Vitells, a joiner: who, so far as I could at that Anno 1579. 
" time learn, held many strange opinions ; and also taught 
" divers points of doctrine scarce sound, and such as seemed 
" to be before unheard of. The which joiner, (as he then 597 
" privily dissembled, so since he hath been noted openly 
" for his cunning wit and curious fantasies,) being, as it. 
" seems, weary of his occupation, left the craft of joining, 
" and took unto him a new trade of life. So that of a sim- 
" pie scholar, he became a great and learned schoolmaster 
" of the doctrine of a man who lived, as he said, beyond 
" the seas, of a holy life and upright conversation. This 
" man he praised very much, and reported many wonder- viz. H. N. 
" ful things of his angelic behaviour. Who afterwards I 
" understood to be one Henry Nicolas, a mercer of Delph 
" in Holland. 

" The special points of heretical doctrine, that the said viteii's doc- 
" joiner did then and there teach, [and learned of the man rmes * 
" aforesaid,] were these. First, That children ought not 
" to be baptized until they come to years of discretion. 
64 Secondly, He found fault with the litany, in the Book of 
" Common Prayer, set forth in king Edward's time ; af- 
" firming, that it was not the right service of God. 1. Be- 
" cause it was said, God the Son, Redeemer of the world : 
" for, saith he, Christ is not God. 2. Because it is said, 
" Have mercy upon us, miserable sinners : for the godly 
" sin not, saith he : and therefore need they not to use that 
" prayer. Thirdly, He affirmed also, that the pope was not 
" Antichrist. But he which doth not that which God's law 
" commandeth, neither fulfilleth the requiring thereof, he is 
" Antichrist. And so are there many Antichrists. 

" Furthermore ; at the same time one John Barry, ser- 
" vant unto Mr. Lawrence of Barnehall in Essex, came to 
" the same inn, to reason with the joiner about the divinity 
" of Christ, which Vitells denied to be God. And after 
" they had entered conference, alleged that place out of 
" Philippians, chap. ii. 5. Let the same mind be in yon, 



286 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " which was in Christ Jesus : who, being in the form of 
' " God, thought it no robbery to be equal with God. Yea, 
Anno 1579." quoth Vitells, the same mind must be in you which was 
" in Christ. And there he stopt him : which words so often 
" he repeated, that he put Barry to silence, and blanked 
" him. So that he had not a word to say ; to the great of- 
M fence of divers ; and especially of two women gospellers, 
" who came with Barry, to hear him and Vitells confer 
" about this matter. And to say the truth, Vitells babbling 
" did so astonish divers there present, and myself also, that 
" I was fully minded to go to Oxford to ask counsel of bi- 
" shop Ridley and Mr. Latymer concerning that matter, 
" had I not met with some men, to satisfy my conscience in 
" the mean season. 

" The which joiner at that time wandering up and down 
" the country and towns, to visit his disciples, came to the 
" town of Willingham, where I dwell ; and sent for me to 
" come to speak with him at an alehouse. But I sent him 
" word, I would not come at him, nor have to do with him. 
<( This is very true : and so I testify with mine own hand. 
" By me Henry Crinel of Willingham.' 1 '' 

This Vitells, the chief patriarch and great doctor of the 

family of love, afterwards recanted openly, and upon his 

repentance which he shewed, had been received into the 

church. But the family here denied it : though many then 

alive could aver it to be true. 

5Q8 Henry Nicolas, the father of this sect of the family of 

H. N.'s doc- love, wrote a famous book, called Evangelium regni, 

in his book mentioned before. Wherein were found these errors, blas- 

of the Gos- phemies, and absurd doctrines and asseverations : " That 

pel of the r 

Kingdom. " the day of the Lord (by him preached) is the appearance 
" of our Lord Jesus Christ in the resurrection from the 
" dead. Wherein the law and the prophets, and all that 
" is written of Christ, becometh fulfilled, Es. xxvi. c. 
" 1 Cor. xv.j£ Luke xxiv. e. Further, he saith, he is the 
" angel of the Lord, or messenger before him, for to pre- 
" pare his way, Matth. iii. a. Matth. xi. b. and to publish 
" an everlasting evangelie, Matth. xxiv. Apoc. xiv. unto all 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 287 

generations, languages, and peoples, according to these CHAP, 
promises. He saith, the family is the rest of God from 



" the beginning, for the people of God; and for all re- Annol5 79- 
" pentant persons : and is appeared in the last times, ac- 
" cording to the promises. 

" He permitteth to every nation what religion they will ; 
" so they held with his heresy of the love. 

" He received this message of his evangelie from the 
" mouth of God himself. He maketh the day of publish- 
" ing his evangelie to be the last coming of Christ in judg- 
" ment, with thousands of saints. The day of the love is 
" the last coming of Christ. That the ceremonial law is 
" needful to be observed. That our baptism is but an 
" handful of water. He denied the outward admission of 
" ministers. That the family shall be in all perfection ever- 
" lastingly upon earth : to the end, that God's will might 
" be done in earth as it is done in heaven. That the Ro- 
" mish church hath obediently grounded itself on the ser- 
" vices and ceremonies ; which are the prefiguration of true 
" Christianity and her services. Condemneth as many, as 
" out of their knowledge, which they take out of the scrip- 
" tures, had brought in certain services and ceremonies in 
" any other wise and order, than the church of Rome ap- 
" pointed, [and they must be the protestants,] as unorderly 
" rejecting and blaspheming the catholic church of Rome. 
" That it is mere lies and untruth, which the scripture- 
" learned, through the knowledge which they get out of 
" the scriptures, institute, preach, and teach. In short, he 
" saith, God raised him up (which lay altogether dead, 
" without breath and life) from the death, anointed him 
" with his godly being, named himself with him, godded 
" him with himself." These and many more of his wild 
sentences and opinions were collected out of his evangelie, 
or gospel, by a reverend author, and set down in his book, 
A confutation of certain articles against this sect, which we 
shall give account of by and by. 

The libertines also came under the denomination of this The liber- 
family, and sprang from them. The sum of whose loose doctrines. 



288 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK opinions, set down and gathered from their books by the 
IL abovesaid writer, take as follows. 1. They affirmed, that 
Anno 1579. the preaching of the word was not the ordinary means to 
come to the knowledge of the word; but by reason. 
2. That no man that is faulty himself can preach the truth 
to others. 3. Those preachers which did take in hand to 
preach the word of God before man be regenerated, took 
the office of the Holy Ghost out of his hand. 4. Those that 
were doctors and learned could not preach the word truly : 
the reason was, because Christ said, It was hidden from the 
wise and prudent, and was revealed to sucklings and babes. 
5. There was no Devil but such as the painters made. 
599 6. They which have the Spirit of God know all things. 
7. That we ought not to give our alms to beggars : for that 
they lived in the consumableness : and that there was no 
beggar in Israel. 8. That marriage was a sacrament, and 
wonderful speculation. 9. That there were mysteries and 
great speculations in the mass, if they could be attained 
unto : and that it was a God-service. 10. Also, that the 
service that we had taken for a God- service was not so. 
And in so taking it, both they and we were deceived. 
11. That Adam did not sin at all. Their reason was, that 
Adam did not sin, but the woman. 12. That there was no 
man God's child, but he that could shew his pedigree. 
13. That the martyrs in queen Mary's days ought not so to 
have died : for in so dying they destroyed the temples of 
God. 14. That whosoever had God's Spirit could not sin. 
And that the prophet David did not sin after that time 
that he had received the Holy Ghost. 15. That a man 
ought not to weary his body in travel and labour : for they 
said, the Holy Ghost would not tarry in a body that was 
weary and irksome. 16. That where there was any conten- 
tion, there was not the Spirit of God : for that the Spirit 
was not divided. 17. That the witch, which raised up the 
Devil in the likeness of Samuel, was no witch, but the wis- 
dom of God ; and the spirit that she raised up was Samuel 
himself. 18. That Adam was the son of God otherwise 
than by creation. 19. That there were many books, be- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 289 

sides the Bible, which Esdras speaketh of, that should be CHAP. 

YV1 1 1 

revealed and come abroad before the end. 20. That the _J "_. 

Bible was not the word of God, but a signification thereof. Anno 1579. 
And that it was but ink and paper : but the word of God 
was spirit and life. 21. That they might not speak the 
truth boldly and openly ; because the truth would not be 
heard. 22. That there were some then living, which did 
fulfil the law in all points. 

All these tenets were either found expressly asserted in The spirit 
their books, or confessed and owned by them in conference, °- c e " "" 
as was ready to be testified by those that had talked with vaiieth 
them. So strangely had the spirit of enthusiasm anAfa- mm ^ 
naticism transported many in those days. And the prin- 
ciples so evidently glancing favourably towards the religion 
of popery, rather than that of the reformation, may give 
good ground to conjecture that the hand of the enemy was 
in all this schism. And all this large historical account of 
the family of love shews, what reasons the queen had to 
send her letters to the bishop of Norwich, to take care for 
the suppression of this wild sect, as was related before : 
which notwithstanding got ground. 

And now to come to this present year 1579, and to see The danger 
what footing it had now gotten : this I take from the wdrds resy ^ ( [J S 
of the writer of the Confutation, printed this year, in his time ' 
epistle dedicatory to the bishop of Ely. " The danger of 
" this poison flowed from this lovely family . Of the heresy 
" itself, in one word to utter the truth of that which almost 
" by the experience and practice of three whole years [now 
" it was September, 1579,] he had found to be true, that it 
" was the most pestiferous and deadly heresy of all other. 
" Because there was not almost any one particular erro- 
" neous and schismatical fantasy, whereof the family of 
" love had not borrowed one branch or other thereof. The 
" increase of it was great, and that daily ; because the with- 
" standers were not many. The defenders were wily as 
" serpents, and would fain in life seem innocent and un- 
" blameable. In profession of the one they boasted very 
" much : of the other, they walking very closely, did justify OOO 

vol. 11. part 11. u 



290 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 

II. 

Anno 1579 

Their 
books. 



" themselves, because few had to find fault with them. 
" Yet had they their loathsome spots and ugly deformi- 
" ties. 

" Their books were many, disorderly and confusedly 
" written, both for matter and manner of things delivered 
" in them. Their phrases were such as the scripture 
" speaks of; clouds toithout water, lightning without rain. 
" Their blossoms were as dust, and their fruit as rotten- 



This sect 
continued 
to later 
times. 



Puritans. 
One of 
them writes 
for favour 
to the lord 
Burghley. 



Thisfamilism could not be rooted out, (however absurd 
it was,) but it remained even to the last age ; when one 
Randal was a preacher to these sectaries, in an house within 
the Spittle-yard without Bishopsgate, London, in the year 
1645, teaching this very doctrine, and many people flock- 
ing after him. Which gave occasion to a book to be writ- 
ten against them in the said year, bearing this title : A brief 
discovery of the blasphemous doctrine offamilism : first 
conceived and brought forth into the world by Henry 
Nicolas of the Low Countries ; and now very boldly taught 
by one Mr. Randal, and sundry others in and about the 
city of London: whom multitudes of people do follow, and 
which doctrine many embrace. 

The disaffected to the communion of the church of 
England, and such as laboured after a discipline different 
from that established, were now very uneasy ; having re- 
ceived several checks, and some of their leaders called up to 
answer for their disobedience. At this time they used their 
interest with the good lord Burghley. And he, though 
steady in the principles and practices of the church, yet re- 
commended sometimes their causes to the bishops, whom it 
concerned, and so left them. I will specify the earnest 
letter of one of them, writ to him this year ; with the argu- 
ments he thought fit to use to him, with a freedom not 
very decent, nor perhaps very acceptable to a person of his 
quality. Putting him in mind of his good education in his 
younger years ; of his hearty embracing of pure religion ; 
and withal, his frailty in too much compliance with the re- 
ligion under qtieen Mary ; checking him for his going along 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 291 

with this present queen, and those that laboured to hinder CHAP, 
any further reformation of what was wanting towards the ' 



purity and right discipline of the church: and exciting An no 1579. 
him now to more zeal for this, and to make more bold ap- 
plication to her majesty in that behalf. This man was one 
Prowd, parson of Burton upon Dunmore. 

" He tells him first of his bringing up in true religion : The sum of 
" of things published by him, to the comfort of the bre- ns e ter * 
" thren ; which made him ever to love and reverence him 
" in his heart. Of the report of him afterwards, that he 
" had openly revolted from religion, to idolatrous service in 
" queen Mary's reign. By which he consented to all the 
** blood of the prophets and martyrs then shed unright- 
" eously. And that he came not to God's persecuted 
" church, [fled abroad into voluntary exile for the gospel,] 
" that was not polluted with idolatry. For whose sake, 
" and for the sufferings of the just, he persuaded himself, 
" that he and all then in authority fared the better : that 
" he confessed not his open fall into sin, nor asked mercy at 
" God's hands for it, as others did. That afterwards he 
" gave his consent to the building of God's church, not 
" built in all points so perfect as the other, that was built 
" without any lawful or godly magistrate ; and left in those 
" days for an example to have been followed. And that he(?Ql 
" was one of them that at the first maintained that for which 
" many godly men lost their livings : and by little and 
" little, by the practice of papists, good justicers displaced ; 
" profitable exercises put down : as likewise prayers and 
" fastings sometimes used ; where tears were shed for their 
" own sins, and for the abomination of Jerusalem. And 
" adding, that it was said likewise, that he feared to exas- 
" perate the prince, and to make her worse in religion. 
" That he spared his plainness ; and had not dealt with her 
" so plainly from time to time as his knowledge required, 
" both touching God's church and her own preservation, 
" and the safety of the commonwealth, and the increase of 
" God's gospel. Of all this he knew little but by hearsay. 
" But that the knowledge of God and the benefit of his 

u 2 



292 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
II. 

Anno 1579 



ISKXXII. 



Abuses of 
commis- 
sions for 
conceal- 
ments. 



A procla- 
mation 
against 
them. 



The griev- 
ance. 



" prince should move him to be bold and courageous ; ven- 
, " turing his life for her, as she did daily for him. And 
■ " when could he do God, and his prince and country, better 
" service than now ?" 

At last he seemed to hint at the duke of Anjou, who 
was coming into the kingdom to court the queen ; shewing 
his concern, lest his practice of popery here might be pre- 
judicial to the state of religion ; fearing that he was too 
well fixed in that religion, to make any promise or profes- 
sion to the contrary. And all this letter he committed to 
his lordship's discretion: which as none but himself knew 
the writing of, so he might burn it, if he pleased. These 
are but short contents of this letter. The whole, from the 
very original, I have preserved in the Appendix ; where it 
may deserve remark, how this man took upon him to judge, 
censure, rebuke, and counsel that great privy-counsellor. 

Frequent wrongs had been done unto cathedral churches, 
colleges, hospitals, the companies in London, and other 
religious foundations, by means of commissions for con- 
cealed lands and possessions ; obtained of her majesty by 
men that shewed themselves greedy of getting what they 
could by that means, whosoever suffered by it. Of this, 
great complaints had been made to the lord treasurer, as we 
have in other places of this book, and elsewhere, related. 
This abuse came to the queen's ears. For the remedying 
whereof, she graciously set forth her proclamation, for re- 
voking certain commissions for penal statutes, about these 
concealments. 

Setting forth, " That she found great miscarriage in the 
" execution of sundry her grants, made to divers persons 
" touching certain penal statutes, made and set forth for 
" the common benefit and utility of her people, and touch- 
" ing the obtaining and recovery of lands and tenements 
" concealed, and of sundry bands, forfeitures, and other 
" things pretended, to be unjustly withholden and concealed 
" from her highness and her crown. By pretence whereof, 
" she perceived a great number of her loving subjects, con- 
" trary to the intention of her said grants in many cases, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 293 

" (though not offending,) to have been greatly vexed and CHAP. 

" molested : and the law not thereby any thing the better 

" executed, but in some parts rather impaired. Nor any Ann ° iwtf. 
" such profit recovered or obtained to her highness, as upon ob ° ta - jj"^ 1 
" such executions and concealments was pretended. 

" That she, most graciously minding the common quiet 
" and profit of her subjects, and willing to remove all occa- 
" sions of such griefs to her people, as things whereof she 602 
" always had had, and still hath, utter misliking, expressly 
" willed and commanded, that the execution of all such 
" special grants and commissions, made to particular per- 
" sons touching the premises, and all commissions not 
" being returned into any her majesty's courts of records, 
" made upon and by virtue of any such grants, shall 
" from henceforth cease. And that no new commissions 
" upon any the grants aforesaid do from henceforth pass 
" any her majesty's seals ; nor any process or writ to be 
" awarded, nor information from henceforth received, upon 
" or by virtue of any such grant or commission. 

" And further, no commissions, or commissioner, or other 
" person whatsoever, already authorized to execute any 
" such grant or commission, from henceforth to deal or 
" proceed any further by inquisition or juries, examination 
" of witnesses or certificate, or by any other ways and 
" means whatsoever ; to execute any the said grants or 
" commissions, upon pain of imprisonment, and incurring 
" her majesty's displeasure, &c. 

" She prohibited all justices of the peace, mayors, she- 
" riffs, constables, &c. as they tendered the avoiding her 
" high displeasure, from henceforth to be in any wise aiding 
" or assisting to the execution of any the said statutes or 
" commissions. And the justices of the peace, mayors, 
" sheriffs, &c. to attach and apprehend all and every such 
" offenders that should presume to execute any of the said 
" grants or commissions : and them to commit to the 
" common gaol of the county, there to remain without bail 
" or mainprise, until her majesty's pleasure, &c. 

" Provided nevertheless, that where, by means of the JjjJjJJJJ. 

U 3 pending. 



294 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " said grants, divers suits were already commenced by the 
lL " parties, and some of them depending in sundry her ma- 

Auno 1579." jesty's courts by way of information, or otherwise, at the 
" charge of the said patentees, she being minded to put the 
" same suits to some good end, with the reasonable conten- 
" tation of her subjects ; by virtue hereof authorized the 
" lord chancellor, the lord treasurer of England, the chan- 
" cellor of the court of exchequer, and the barons of the 
" same court, or two of them, whereof the lord chancellor 
" to be one, for all causes determinable in the chancery ; 
" and the lord treasurer one for all causes determinable in 
" the exchequer : to hear, order, end, and compound all the 
" said causes, as should stand with equity, to the quiet of 
" the parties molested, and the reasonable satisfaction of 
" the patentees. Dated at Greenwich, the 15th of De- 
" cember ; the 22d year of our reign. 11 

Prodama- To this proclamation let me add two or three more, pub- 

tion for the K s wi this vear. One was for the length of szoords and 

length of J • e -i iv p i j 

swords, &c. daggers, &c. for the better prevention of shedding of blood. 
This was but the proclaiming again of the branch of a for- 
mer proclamation, published the 12th of February, in the 
eighth year of the queen's reign, anno 1566, concerning 
swords, daggers, rapiers, and bucklers : commanded by her 
highness to be put in execution ; and of all her loving sub- 
jects to be obeyed and kept, upon pain of her majesty's 
high indignation, and the penalty in the same contained. 
The branch or clause of the said proclamation was : 
6*03 " Item-, Her majesty ordereth and also commandeth, that 
" no person shall wear any sword, rapier, or such like 
" weapon, that shall pass the length of one yard and an half 
" a quarter of the blade at the utmost ; nor any buckler 
" with any point or pike above two inches in length. And 
" if any cutler or other artificer shall sell, make, or keep in 
" his house, any sword, rapier, dagger, or such like, con- 
" trary hereunto, the same to be imprisoned and make fine 
(i at the queen's majesty's pleasure; and the weapon for- 
" feited. And if any such person offend a second time, 
" then the same to be banished from tliat place and town 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 295 

"of his dwelling. Given at our palace at Westminster, CHAP. 
" the 12th of February, in the 22d year of our reign." 



The queen also shewed her care of her peaceable sub- Anno 1579. 
jects, by issuing out her proclamation in the month of July, t j™^™.^ 

the year before, viz. the 21st of her reign, against carrying the com- 

J Till r nicm use °* 

pocket pistols, called dags, handguns, harquebusses, call- carrying 

vers, and coats of defence. And for the preventing her da S s > &c - 

good subjects being abused or wronged, travelling abroad 

in their lawful callings, she would not suffer any to carry 

such private arms. And this was issued out for the further 

direction and more effectual taking place of some former 

proclamation. 

The purport of this proclamation was, " That the dis- 

" order was grown very great in common carrying of dags, 

" pistols, and such like, not only in cities and towns, but in 

" all parts of the realm in common highways ; whereby her 

" majesty's good, quiet people, desirous to live in peaceable 

" manner, were in fear and danger of their lives, to travel 

" abroad for their necessary business, by means of the mul- 

" titude of the evil-disposed, that commonly carried such 

" offensive weapons ; being in time of peace only meet for 

" thieves, robbers, and murderers. Whereupon, upon the 

" general complaint made by the multitude of her peace- 

" able people, she gave strait charge to all manner of 

" officers, to whom the execution of the former proclama- 

" tion did appertain, that they should with speed take or- 

" der, how the contents of the said proclamation might be 

" speedily put in due execution. And to that end she 

" commanded all mayors, sheriffs, bailiffs, &c. to assemble 

" themselves to some accustomed places ; and there to set 

" special order, and appoint special ministers to inquire of 

" the default of the execution of the foresaid proclamation, 

" and to provide duly for the execution thereof. 

" She took notice also of great disorder grown of common 

" carrying abroad, in towns and fields, great pieces, as har- 

" quebusses, calivers, &c. under colour of learning, or exer- 

" cising to shoot therein, to the service at muster, appointed 

" in sundry counties, for the common service of the realm. 

u 4 



296 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK "A matter to be in good sort favoured ; but not to be mis- 
' " used. But through the general carrying of them in 



Anno 1579." places not appointed for such musters, and by frequent 
" shooting with them in and near cities, towns corporate, 
" or the suburbs thereof, many harms did ensue, and occa- 
" sions like to increase of great danger by such liberty, per- 
" mitted for the use of such offensive weapons : therefore 
" she forbade all to shoot in these great pieces; in any 
" manner of handgun, harquebuss, &c. charged with bullets, 
" or without, in any place, but only in and at the places 
" that are or should be appointed for common musters, by 
o04 « the direction of the commissioners for general musters ; 
" or else at and in such places as are or should be ap- 
" pointed for meet places, either within great cities, or the 
" suburbs, or in places far from towns of habitation; for 
" the exercise of shooting in such pieces. 

" No persons also should use any shooting in any small 
" pieces, within two miles of any house where her majesty 
" should reside, during the time of her majesty's residing. 
" And she charged the marshal of her house to be careful, 
" by himself and his ministers, to see the due observation 
" thereof. And if he should find any to offend therein, not 
" only to commit him to prison, but to advertise the queen 
" or her privy-council thereof; that some further extraor- 
" dinary punishment might be extended upon such auda- 
" cious persons, as should adventure to offend so near the 
" place where her majesty's person should be. 
Privy dou- « Divers of late also wore privy coats and doublets of 
fence. " " defence : thereby intending to quarrel and make frays 
" upon others unarmed : and to presume audaciously to 
" apparel themselves with the same privy armour, not only 
" within cities, towns, and public assemblies, but within 
" her majesty's court. Which was to the great offence 
" and contempt of her highness, and to the hurt of divers 
" her majesty's good subjects. Therefore she expressly did 
" prohibit all and every of her subjects whatsoever, the 
" wearing of any such private or secret kind of coat or 
" doublet of defence. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 297 

" And she charged all manner of officers in cities, towns, CHAP. 
" and other places, to make search for all manner of small 



dags, called pocket dags, as well in any man's house to Anno 1579. 
" be suspected for the same, as in the shops and houses of 
" artificers that used to make the same. And also them 
" shall seize, and take into their custody. 

" None to make or amend, or to bring into this realm 
" any such dags, commonly called pocket dags, or such 
" like, upon pain of imprisonment. And wheresoever any 
" have made any such small-shot, to be bound in reasonable 
" sums to the queen, not to make nor put to sale, or other- 
" wise utter any such small pieces as were commonly called 
"pocket dags, or that may be hid in a pocket, or like 
" place about a man's body, to be hid or carried co- 
" vertly, &c. 

" Her officers that had authority to inquire of the breach 
" of her majesty's peace, to assemble themselves presently, 
" and so monthly, between this and Christmas next. And 
" there by a jury of sufficient persons to be sworn, or by 
" other ministers, to be by them deputed, to inquire of the 
" observation of all the points herein contained. Given at 
" our manor of Greenwich, the 26th of July, the twenty- 
" first year of our reign." 

That which gave occasion to this was two accidents that The occa- 
happened about that time ; which highly provoked the p r ° D cl ° ma !. ,s 
queen, and justly moved her; (as well as her regard to hertion. 
honest subjects, for their safe and quiet passing abroad 
about their lawful occasions :) one was, the discharging of a 
piece while the queen was in her barge with the French 
ambassador, going to Greenwich ; which wounded one of 
her bargemen : the other was, a pistol shot at some one 
person of quality not far off the court. 

A proclamation came forth also this year (as there had Piodama- 
been divers before) about apparel, for checking the exorbi- parel orap " 
tances and expenses thereof, and for preserving a distinc-605 
tion in the queen's subjects according to their different 
qualities. This was entitled, A proclamation, with certain 
clauses of divers statutes and other necessary additions ; 



298 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK first published in the nineteenth year of the queen : and now 
revived by her highness 1 commandment, to be put in execu- 



Anno 1579. tion, upon the penalties in the same contained. This bore 
date the 12th of February, the twenty-second year of the 
queen. Another proclamation for apparel was set forth in 
the year 1577, with certain additions of exceptions. And 
before that, in the year 1565, dated in February, the eighth 
year of her reign ; of which I have taken notice elsewhere. 

Another proclamation was set forth, occasioned by slan- 
derous speeches and books published against the duke of 
Anjou, that was come over to court the queen. This, may 
be read before. 
The obser- Care was taken yearly for the due observation of Lent, 
Lent""- an d f° r abstaining from killing and eating flesh during that 
quired. season. And proclamations from time to time were issued 
out for that purpose. But this year a strict letter was sent 
from the lords of the privy-council to her majesty^ justices 
of the peace, for the pressing and better observance of the 
same. The minutes whereof (being reviewed and corrected 
in many places by the lord Burghley's own hand) do follow ; 
viz. 
The lords " After our hearty commendations. Albeit that it were 
ofthecoun-« to |j e l 00 k e( J f or that the considerations of yourselves, 

cil's letter 

for that " having charge hereto, and her majesty^ former procla- 
purpose. « rnations and commandments also, from year to year ex- 
" pressed by our letters, in a matter so necessary for good 
a order, and so beneficial to the commonweal, should move 
" you to have care to the due keeping of abstinence from 
" eating flesh in the Lent, and the days appointed for the 
" forbearing thereof; yet seeing by sundry means we are 
" given to understand, how negligently the same is looked 
" unto in sundry parts of this realm ; and especially in inns 
" and taverns, common tables, tippling and victualling- 
" houses ; and that by sufferance and impunity thereof 
" such licentiousness is rather increased than repressed : 

"It hath been thought necessary, and so it is precisely 
" commanded by her majesty, that you should be now 
" eftsoons straitly charged, more severely to see unto your 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 299 

" duty in this behalf. And not only to have care to put in CHAP. 
" execution her majesty's said proclamation, and such or- XVI11 - 



" ders as have been heretofore appointed against the killing, Anno 1579. 
" dressing, and eating of flesh in those times, and in such 
" common houses of assembly ; but also to devise, by all 
" other good means, how the offenders in this case may be 
" restrained and punished for such disorders. And in that 
" part we think you should do very well to appoint spe- 
" cial pei-sons, being thereto well disposed, to use searches 
" weekly, or oftener, in the towns and thoroughfares, where 
" inns, and such common houses for eating and drinking, are 
" kept ; at such times as there shall be any suspicion that 
" there is any offence committed in the case aforesaid." 
[All this that follows is the lord Burghley's own hand.] 
" And upon knowledge of the breach of good order inThepunish- 
" this case, to cause open punishment, not only of such as 
" shall eat meats so prohibited, but of the housekeepers 
" and utterers. And for more punishment, if they be vic- 
" tuallers, besides imprisonment, to discharge them from 606 
" victualling ; and there to bind them for more terror. 
" And where you shall think it also convenient, upon any 
" probable suspicion, either of butchers or victuallers, to 
" bind them in some good sums of money to her majesty's 
" use, not to offend in this behalf: and in the rest to follow 
" the orders prescribed in the former proclamations and 
" letters sent for that purpose." 



CHAP. XIX. 

Books published this year. A Confutation of the principles 
of the family of love ; by William Wilkinson : and an- 
other by J. Knewstubs. A book in answer to the asser- 
tion, that the church of Rome is the true and catholic 
church. The Gaping Gulph ; by J. Stubbs. His letters 
wrote with his left hand. Some further account of him 
and his abilities. PlutarcKs Lives set forth in English 
by sir Thomas North. Catalogue of the bishops of 
Exon, A book of Simples and Surgery, by William 



300 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK Bullein. Egyptians and Jews pretending to do cures 
by palmistry and charms in these times. Richard BuU 
Auuo 1579. lein, a divine and physician. Hugh Broughton, fellow 
qf Christ" 1 s college, Cambridge ; outed of his fellowship 
(founded by king Edward) wrongfully. His remark- 
able case. The decision qf a college statute ; being the 
ground qf this contention. One undertakes to make 
saltpetre. One offers to fortify the seaports qf Eng- 
land and Ireland. The names qf the queers privy- 
counsellors. 

IN OW I proceed to the mention of divers books that came 
forth this year : and some accounts thereof, and their au- 
thors ; with some other private matters incident. 
A Confuta- One was writ against the sect of the family of love ; of 
tion wnt wn j cn several things have been said already. It bore this 

against the ° •> 

family of title, A confutation qf certain articles, delivered unto the 
family of love : with the exposition qf Theophilus, a sup- 
posed elder qf the said family, upon the same articles. 
By William Wilkinson, M.A. and student in divinity. 
Printed by John Day, dwelling under Alder sgate, 1579. 
The bishop To this book the bishop of Ely gave his own testimonial in 
commend!"- tnese words : " Perusing over this little treatise of Mr. Wil- 
tionofit. " kinson, I could not but allow his diligence and painful 
" travel in this heretical and schismatical world. And I 
" would heartily wish of God, that our church of England 
" might be well weeded from those two great errors. For 
" it is high time. 

" Richard Ely." 

(Joy To this bishop he makes the dedication of his book. And 
To him he the rather, because, he said, within the Isle of Ely, and 
his book*- otherwhere within his lordship , s diocese, divers did suspect 
and why. that to be true which common fame reported, that daily 
those increased : which in the end, he feared, might won- 
derfully disquiet (as it had already began in divers places) 
and molest the church of God. 
The writer's In the epistle to the reader, he tells him of what principle 
principles. j ie wag ,. yy£ « Q ne y^ heartily desired the promotion and 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 301 

" furtherance of God's true religion ; the increase of a true CHAP. 
" faith, the fear of God, the quietness of our English 



XIX. 



" church, and the utter ruin and abolishing of all papistry, Anno 1579. 
" atheism, and heretical sects and schisms whatsoever ." 
And that which gave occasion to his writing this book 
was, that he reading certain books of H. N. and conferring 
with certain of that lovely family in the Isle of Ely, was by 
them requested to set down unto them in writing, for his 
further instruction, those doubts, which he did not under- 
stand, either by the means of the unusualness of their me- 
thod in writing, or the novelty of their far-fetched phrases, 
or their wrong and wrested allegories, or their divinity not 
heard of ; all in an affected rough-trotting style. 

His method was this. In the beginning of his book he Fourteen 
set down, A brief view of the heresies and errofs ofH. N. heresies and 
under fourteen articles ; which he confutes in his ensuing errors by 
treatise. First, That we have no church. Secondly, That taught, 
we have no truth. Thirdly, We have no baptism. Fourth- 
ly, We have no forgiveness of sins. Fifthly, We have no 
ministry. Sixthly, Concerning being united and godded 
with God. Seventh, What he saith of himself, and his ex- 
traordinary calling. Other articles were concerning his re- 
velations : of shrift used in his family : that he disliked the 
preaching of the word ; and what he termed it. That it 
was lawful for those of the family to dissemble. He makes 
God the author of sin ; and the sinner guiltless. This is in 
short the sum of those articles that Wilkinson gathered out 
of H. N/s book ; which he exhibited unto a friend of his to 
be conveyed unto the family qflove, that he might be cer- 
tified of the doubts in them contained. At length one who 
called himself Theophilus, sent him answers to them with a 
letter, and an exhortation annexed; beginning thus : " ToTheophi- 
" the collector of these after expressed articles, that out of ^ t o hi™~ 
" his malicious mind perverted the sense and true mind of answer. 
" the author, and framed sundry of them into errors ; and 
" to the rest of his assistants in these and such uncharitable 
" dealings, wheresoever they be, greeting." Wilkinson re- 
plies to Theophilus paragraph by paragraph ; and proves 



302 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK his assertions out of their own books. And concludes his 
* book by a short tract, consisting of Notes to know an here- 



Anno 1679. tic, especially an anabaptist, [whose opinions this family 
espoused,] with the opinions and behaviour of them out of 
divers authors. And particularly Bullinger ; who shewed 
the several sorts and sects of them : as anabaptists, apo- 
stolus ; such used no weapon, staff, wallet, shoes, money, 
&c. They preached on housetops, &c. Anabaptists, spi- 
ritual, sinless anabaptists: anabaptists, that use to hold 
their peace, and pray : anabaptists enthusiasts ; that boasted 
much of the Spirit and revelation. Gross and impure ana- 
baptists, called free-brethren ; libertine anabaptists. The 
anabaptists of Munster ; that despised and spoke against 
magistrates. 
608 Another book, in quarto, came forth this year against the 
Another same family, by J. Knewstubs : called, A confutation of 
against this certain monstrous and horrible heresies, taught by H. N. 
Knewstubs an ^ emorace d by a number who call themselves the family 
of love. Dedicated to the right honourable Ambrose earl 
of Warwick, master of her majesty's ordnance. In this 
epistle he commended unto his honourable care " the re- 
" dress of a dangerous enormity, which of late had broken 
" out in this land : he meant this atheism, as he called it, 
" brought in by H. N. and that his household, who would 
" be called the family of love. And that this service, which 
" his honour might do unto God, would be great : and that 
" the cause so nearly touching the glory of God, he was in 
" good hope, that this which had been said by him would 
" sufficiently persuade his honour to enter into some speedy 
" care and consideration to suppress so great and grievous 
" a danger." Such were the apprehensions of this sect at 
this time. 
A book The same author set forth another book, against another 

against the sort Q f errors . De mp- an answer to certain assertions, tend- 

assertion, _ ° 7 

that the ing to maintain the church of Rome to be the true and ca- 

Rome is° tn °hc church. It was dedicated to those gentlemen in 

the true Suffolk, whom the true worshipping of God had made right 

worshijful. This book was occasioned by one who had 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 303 

drawn up certain assertions, and required Knewstubs (in CHAP, 
way of challenge) to answer them. But after he had made 



his answer, the other, who gave him the said assertions, Anno 1579. 

would not vouchsafe the reading of them : perhaps lest he 

should be convinced. Whereupon he was advised by some 

of his friends to publish them. Of these assertions, the 

first was this : " It is an article of our faith, to believe the 

" catholic church ; whose schoolmaster is the Holy Ghost. 

" And therefore in the Creed that article is placed next to 

" the article of the belief of the Holy Ghost. By whose 

" continual instruction and assistance being directed, she 

" cannot err in matters of faith. For, as St. Paul saith, 

u she is columna et Jtrmamentum veritatis. So that we 

" are all bound here to believe and obey : yea, however it 

" seem to our sense and understanding." This is a taste 

of these assertions, which that learned man thought fit to 

answer, and to make public his answers to. 

Now came forth also that famous book (mentioned be- The Disco- 
fore) of J. Stubbs against the French match, monsieur being ^ff*" 
then come into England ; which highly provoked the queen, Guiph. 
as well as reproached that prince. It was entitled, The 
discovery of a gaping gulph; wherein England is like to 
be swallowed by another French marriage, if the Lord for- 
bid not the banns, by letting her see the sin and punish- 
ment thereof. Therein is this expression : " Her majesty's 
" father, king Henry the Eighth, had a law passed by parlia- 
" ment in his time, that whoso had unlawfully known that 
" woman with whom he was like to marry, and did not be- 
" fore marriage come and bewray it, should, upon the mat- 
" ter afterward detected, be holden little better than a 
" traitor. His care to have a good woman was Christian 
" and royal. He wist well, as the preamble of those sta- 
" tutes purposed, besides the private contentation to him- 
" self, that as well the sins of fathers and mothers, as the 
" plague of their sins, descended to the children. And 
" considering the children were to be left governors of the 
" land, (which so also might have part in the punishment,) 
" his care was so much more to be approved, because itwas609 



304 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " also for the commonweal. 11 Reflecting by these words upon 

' the dissolute life of monsieur. 

Anno 1579. These and many such like expressions were so provoking, 

ditious ' Se " * nat a P roc l amat i° n was issued out, as was shewn before, 

book. against the book ; wherein it was styled, " a lewd, sedi- 

" tious book, rashly compiled, and secretly printed ; and af- 

" terwards seditiously dispersed into sundry corners of the 

" realm ; containing an heap of slanders and reproaches 

" against the said prince ; bolstered up with manifest lies, 11 

&c. and a great deal more contained in that proclamation. 

A letter of I meet with a letter of this Stubbs to his friend and 

author,' camerade, Mr. Michael Hicks, then of Lincoln's Inn, (of 

with his which inn of court Stubbs was,) writ with his left hand, his 

left hand. . . . .. y . rt 

right being cut on; being yet a prisoner in the Tower: 
subscribing himself, after his name, Sceva ; as he usually 
did at the end of his letters, of which I have seen some. 
Part of this letter was in these words : " I recommend me 
" to you, and your honest crew, [some of their society in 
" Lincoln^ Inn.] The Lord make you all to increase in 
" ability and hearty will to serve the Lord and his church. 
" Farewell to all. Pray for your old restrained friend, that 
" he may never commit any thing unworthy any your godly 
" acquaintances, or that should make you ashamed to ac- 
" knowledge him to be that he is, your loving and faithful 
" fellow, 

" John Stubbe, Sceva. 11 

Anotheriet- Another letter of his, writ with his left hand, the next 
good pur- y ear 5 was dated in July, 1581, being then at Thelmeton in 
pose. Norfolk, [or Thelveton.] Wherein he writes with a great 

sense of religion, and purpose of a more strict behaviour to- 
wards God ; with counsel of the like import to Mr. Hicks, 
his foresaid old friend. Whose conversation, with some 
other gentlemen, used to be more facetious and airy : writ- 
ing thus familiarly : " I pray thee, good Michael, pray for 
" me, that after so much time to no purpose spent, I may 
" now give myself from such delights or companions which 
" are vain, and have no furtherance in them to godliness ; 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 305 

but rather draw back from an earnest profession thereof. CHAP. 

• ATI V 

And that now, after forty years almost of my vain life, I 



" may redeem the time, by giving myself seriously to a sin- Anno is?9. 

" cere profession of Christ : so as I may feel the power of 

" his death and resurrection in my soul and body. That I 

" may give continually some time to an ordinary and stand- 

" ing exercise of the word. That I may choose the godly, 

" and none other, to be my company; and to be ashamed to 

" have any other for my near familiars. That, finally, I may 

" determine upon some certain calling ; wherein to serve the 

" Lord, and my country, where I dwell. Pray this for me, 

" and I will pray also the same for you. If you have lei- 

" sure, write again. The Lord direct you in all these by his 

" holy Spirit, and keep you ever his. Thelmeton, 22d of 

" July, 1581. By your own and constant friend, 

" John Stubbe, Sceva." 

I transcribe the whole letter, for the substance of it, as His associ- 
well as the writing ; proceeding from such a memorable as character 
well as unhappy gentleman, more out of honest zeal than before his 
malice. I add, that he was sometime of Bene , t college in 
Cambridge, and removed thence to Lincoln's Inn. His ac- 
quaintance and associates there were of the more learned and 6lO 
ingenious sort : as Drury, Blyth, Spenser, Brenthwait, Cal- 
thorp, Southwel, and Mr. Hicks, afterwards one of the se- 
cretaries of the lord treasurer Burghley. All whom he styles, 
in one of his letters, " his good masters of the bar, and 
" friends of Lincoln's Inn. 11 And how well he was esteemed, 
before he fell into his troubles, may appear by a letter writ- 
ten by Robert Southwel from Venice, in his travels, to his 
friend, the said Mr. Hickes, in the year 1575. " I know 
" none that in every account I reckon of more, than of your- 
" self; or unto whom I am more beholden : joining with you 
" Mr. Stubbs. Which as I would choose for commissioner 
" of the weightiest cause that ever shall behap me, fee.' 1 

And the esteem that he had afterwards for his learning He answers 
and abilities may appear hence, that the lord treasurer car d'naiAi- 

VOL. II. PART IT. X lish Justice. 



306 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK chose to employ him some years after in answering a po- 
pish book, of great vogue in those times, called, The Eng_ 



Anno \H9-lish Justice, written by cardinal Allen, upon the execution 
of certain popish traitors. Which book was answered by 
this man. And the copy being finished, the aforesaid lord 
thought fit to have it carefully reviewed first, and examined 
by some judicious persons, before it should be published. 
For which purpose he desired two learned civilians, Dr. 
Byng and Dr. Hammond, to peruse it, and give him their 
judgment of it ; which accordingly they did : and the ac- 
count they gave thereof, take from their own letter ; viz. 

Byng and '< Our humble duties premised ; according to your lord- 
Hammond ,,.■■•« i , i ■, 
approve his sm P s commandment, we have perused the treatise wntten 

wntmg. a by Mr. Stubbs in defence of the English justice, erewhile 

" impugned by a Rhemish Romanist. The author's travel 

" had so well throughout acquitted itself, as it little needed 

" any censure, much less ours. Nevertheless, sith your lord- 

" ship was pleased to have it reviewed, we have joined in 

" conference with the writer about such places as might 

" seem to have most occasion of doubt. Touching the 

" work, it is more than time, in our opinion, it were abroad; 

" not only for the better staying of such weak ones, as may 

" lightly be carried away with fair shows of the adversary, 

" but also for the repressing of some insolent vaunts, lately 

" given out by petty pamphleteers of that Romish faction, 

" who had dared so highly to magnify that popish libel ; as 

" though it were for workmanship unmatchable, and for 

" sound matter uncontrollable by ours. But, God be 

" thanked, it is ripped in sunder ; and the rottenness of 

" every member in such sort discovered, as all their shifting 

" surgery will never recure it. 

" For the rest, we have not further to say ; but referring 

" all to your honourable wisdom, we humbly take our leave, 

" and commit your good lordship to the blessed protection 

" of the Almighty. The 11th of July,, 1587. 

" Your lordship's humbly at commandment, 

" Tho. Byng, Jo. Hammond. 1- ' 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 307 

To these books already mentioned, let me add one or two CHAP, 
more, that appeared in print this year. '__ 



One was Plutarch's Lives; translated into English by sir Anno 1579. 
Thomas North, from the French, done by Amiot, abbot of Ol 1 
Bellozane : with his epistle dedicatory to the queen. Where- LivesTn S 
in he gave her this compliment : " Though this book be no English. 
" book for your majesty's self, who are meeter to be the 
" chief story, than a student therein ; and can better under- 
" stand it in Greek [in which language it was writ by the 
" author] than any man can make it in English. 1 '' In the 
epistle to the reader he hath these words in commendation 
of history ; " All other learning is private, fitter for univer- 
" sities than cities ; fuller of contemplation than experience ; 
" more commendable in students there, than profitable unto 
" others. Whereas stories are fitter for every place ; reach 
" to all persons; serve for all times; teach the living; re- 
** vive the dead. 11 

Now came forth a Catalogue of the bishops of Exeter ; Catalogue 
collected by John Vowel, alias Hooker, gent, concluding llomof' 
with John Wolton ; preferred to that bishopric, and conse- Exeter, 
crated by archbishop Grindal, August, 1579 : a professor of 
divinity, and a preacher of the gospel, and universally seen 
in all good letters. So his character there ran. This Cata- 
logue is transferred into Holinshed 1 s Chronicle. 

A book of Simples and of Surgery was set forth also now; Book of 
though writ divers years before, viz. in the year 1562, by the |j^" and 
author William Bullein ; published, it seems, now after his 
death. By this book it appears, there were in those early 
times quacks and empirics ; called by him dog-leeches, and 
Egyptians, and Jews : all pretending to the telling of for- 
tunes, and curing by charms. That author thus describes 
them. " They [dog-leeches] buy some gross stuff, with aDog- 
" box of salve, and cases of tools, to set forth their slender eec es " 
'* market withal, &c. Then fall they to palmistry, and telling 
" of fortunes ; daily deceiving the simple. Like unto the 
" swarms of vagabonds, Egyptians, and some that call them- 
" selves Jews : whose eyes were so sharp as lynx. For they 
" see all the people with their knacks, pricks, domify'mg and 

x2 



(308 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK "figuring, with such like fantasies. Feigning that they have 
__ " familiars and glasses ; whereby they may find things that 



Anno 1579. « be lost. And beside them are infinite of old doltish witches, 
" with blessings for the fair, and conjuring of cattle. And 
" that is the cause that there is so much idleness, and infi- 
" delity is practised in this ill estate, &c. These be worse 
" than the subtle limitours and begging friars, which de- 
" ceived many through hypocrisy, and more hurtful than 
" the crafty pardoners ; which preached remission of sins in 
" every parish church, with bells, and pardons from Rome. 
" These be worse than vagabonds, beggars, robbing the peo- 
" pie : nay, more hurtful than private murderers, in killing 
" men for lack of knowledge.'' 1 
Rich. Bui- This William Bullein, in his said book, takes occasion to 
lem, a di- men j-i on his brother Richard Bullein, a divine by profes- 

vine and 7 . . 

physician, sion, but a learned physician also ; living in the beginning of 
queen Elizabeth's reign. Who practised the art chiefly in 
Christian charity, for the comfort and relief of the poorer 
sort. Whose memory therefore deserves a line or two in 
our history. Of whom he gives this account : " That he 
" was a zealous lover of physic ; more for the consolation 
" and help of the afflicted sick people, being poor, than for 
" the lucre and gain of the money of the wealthy and rich. 
" And that although he professed comfortable cordials and 
6l 2" heavenly medicines for the soul, being a divine, yet he 
" had good experience of many infirmities and sicknesses in- 
" fecting the body of mankind ; and had done many good 
" cures.' , ' , And speaks particularly of his medicine for the 
gravel in the reins, and for the stone. And promised, if it 
pleased God, that it should hereafter come abroad to the 
profit of the commonwealth of the English nation. And 
then this writer sets down particularly his brother's receipt 
of a syrup for the stone, and an electuary, pills, and plais- 
ter. Both these brothers lie buried in Cripplegate church ; 
where were inscriptions upon their grave-stones. 

This gives occasion to descend to some remarks on two or 
three other persons, (and they of the university,) which this 
year brings to my hand. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 309 

Dr. Hatcher, of King's college in Cambridge, came on CHAP, 
vice-chancellor this year. He was an old acquaintance of. 



the lord Burghley, the high chancellor. And as well in re- Anno ,5 79- 
spect to him, now chosen his vice-chancellor, as of his care the chan _ 
towards the good state of that place of learning, wrote this «"« °j 

° i"- - 11 • i • Cambridge 

friendly as well as hortatory letter to him ; all in his own t0 Hatcher, 

I i his vice- 

nand. chancellor. 

" After my very hearty commendations to you. By your T. Baker, 

" letter of the 7th of the last month, I received advertise- " 

" ment from you of the choice made of you to be vice-chan- 

" cellor of that university for this year following. Whereof 

" I was very glad to understand : not doubting, but that, 

" both for the particular knowledge I have of you myself; 

" and the rather also for the good approbation of the uni- 

" versity, who by general consent have chosen you to that 

" place ; you will so execute that place, as it requireth, and 

" as my hope and desire is. Wherein, as you shall have 

" need in any cause to use mine assistance, you shall find 

" me ready, according to my wonted manner. And so I bid 

" you heartily farewell. From my house at the Strand, this 

" first of December, 1579- 

" Your loving old friend, 

" W. Burghley." 

This Dr. Hatcher is memorable in King's college for a Hatcher's 
Catalogue which he drew up of all the provosts, fellows, and h ^,f coU 
scholars of the King's college of the blessed virgin Mary lege. 
and St. Nicolas in the university of Cambridge : being a 
manuscript ; and containing historical collections of such of 
that college, their characters, places, and preferments, unto 
the year 1563, but carried on and continued by some other 
hand. The first person set down was William Millington, will. Mil- 
born at Pockington, in the county of York, Dr. of divinity, hn S ton - 
elected from Clare-hall, by our royal founder, king Henry 
VI. April 10, 1443, to be first provost, &c. 

A cause happened this year concerning a fellowship ofH. Brough- 
Christ's college in Cambridge, possessed by Hugh Brough- Christ . g 
ton : out of which, after some years' enjoyment of it, he was college. 

x3 



310 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK ejected by Dr. Hawford, the master. The cause may de- 
serve to be recorded, both in respect of the eminency of the 



Anno 1579. person, being one of the greatest scholars in Christendom, 
both for Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and Talmudical learning; 
and likewise for the cause itself, being about a fellowship, 
granted to that college by king Edward VI. The master, 
6 1 3 in his proceeding against Mr. Broughton, went upon a com- 
mon statute of that college; and subjecting the new fellow- 
ship to the rest of the statutes. One whereof was, that there 
should be no two fellows at the same time there, that were 
born in the same county. And it appearing, that Broughton 
was chosen into this fellowship, there being one of the same 
county with himself fellow before ; on this ground he was 
thrown out of his fellowship by the master, two or three fel- 
lows consenting herein with the master ; though more of the 
fellows consented not. The master urged also, that he had 
not taken orders ; which was required by statute. 

Brough- M r Broughton had appealed to the high chancellor of 

ton's plea . ..,.,- , . , , , *? . P , , 

about his that university in his hard case. And he had writ favourably 
fellowship. to jjjg mas t er m jjj s behalf. But he would not comply, as he 
pretended, against the statute ; being about also to send up 
some to his lordship, to shew the reason for what he had 
done. On the contrary, these things following were urged 
on Broughton's side : That his fellowship was peculiar, and 
different from the other fellowships of the college, subject to 
those statutes. That indeed it was designed for a student 
in physic. And that there was a box of writings, that settled 
the terms of that fellowship : which box, with the writings 
in it, was lost in the way to Cambridge, to have been brought 
to bishop Ridley, when he was come to be visitor there. 
He pleaded further, that there had been formerly two fel- 
lows of that house of the same county ; whereof one enjoyed 
king Edward's fellowship. All this Broughton gave the 
high chancellor to understand in a letter, which he himself 
composed and sent, being himself then at Durham, that so 
he might the better understand the constitution thereof; 
when Dr. Hawford's messengers were coming up, to give his 
own reasons to the said chancellor. But to see the business 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 311 

more fully, I have reposited that learned man's letter in the CHAP. 
Appendix : desiring justice against the master wrongfully ' ' 



depriving him. Anno 1.579. 

This being an university matter, and depending for some N °' XXI11, 

/» 1 n i « • • ml The high 

years alter, let me say a few things more concerning it. 1 lie chancellor's 
lord Burghley, their said chancellor, upon his understanding fav ' ourau 'e 

° J ' . ' r ° judgment of 

of this cause, had writ two or three letters back to the col- his cause. 
lege; which were favourable in Brough ton's behalf: namely, 
that equity made on his side, [however the rigour of the sta- 
tute seemed to be against him.] And that if king Edward 
were alive again, silere leges potius mallet, quam utilitas col- 
legii et dignitas academite suprema lex non esset. So was 
that lord's prudent and incorrupt judgment of it. 

And as the master, with four of the fellows, had by their Several of 
letters given the chancellor their reasons for the depriving of let e ter e s ° Q VS 
him; so the rest of them, being eight, (who were against the cha »- 
this proceeding,) and with whom this fellow had a great 
esteem for his learning, wrote their letters also to the same, 
shewing what their thoughts were; being excited there- 
unto, that so good and probable a cause might receive no 
damage by their silence. And therein they took notice how 
his lordship had patronised this man's cause : which exceed- 
ingly rejoiced them. 

They wrote also another letter to sir Walter Mildmay, And to sir 
That he would not suffer alumniim suum This scholar, one \ a , 1 , ter 

L ' Mildmay, 

that was (it seems) maintained by him, or had some exhibi- in behalf of 
tion from him, for reading a Greek lecture perhaps in the 
college] to be thus pulled away from the bosom of their col- 
lege, to their great calamity; partly, because of his great 6l 4 
skill in Greek, Graios musarum agros colentem. And such 
a value they had for him, that they wrote also to his brother, 
a lawyer ; that he would do the part of a brother, and de- 
fend his brother's cause. And to Mr. Hugh Brough ton 
himself, then being at Durham, that he would come up and 
return, the better to manage his own cause. But his want 
of health hindered him. And when the master pronounced 
him not fellow, these fellows did severely and sharply resist 
him ; as well because they thought it inhuman and unjust to 

x 4 



312 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



versy. 



The ques- 
tion to be 
decided. 



BOOK do such an act, indicta causa, as because by right, and upon 
very just causes, they reckoned him fellow; and bare very 
Anno 1579. hard the loss of such an one. But take all this more per- 
fectly in their own words, in a well-composed letter in Latin, 
N°. xxiv. with their own names subscribed, set in the Appendix. 
The vice- But finally, when this cause could no otherwise be adjust- 
and two ' e d? Or. Hawford refusing to revoke what he had done, in 
heads decide t } ie year 1581, it came to an effectual determination by the 

this contro- . ii-i«i • 

vice-chancellor, and two other heads of the university, by 
their interpretation of that college statute, by which the said 
master had proceeded : there being a statute, that made it 
to belong to the vice-chancellor, and two other heads of 
houses, (ordinary visitors of that college,) to define and de- 
termine the sense of any statute in doubt. So Dr. Perne, 
vice-chancellor, adjoined to himself John Bell and Robert 
Norgate, doctors of divinity, in this affair. The question 
was, Whether he that was designed for that fellowship of 
king Edward's foundation, is held to be of any particular 
county, as prescribed in a statute of that college ; or may be 
freely taken out of any county, or of such a county, of which 
some other fellow before was found to be ; or not ? Their 
judgment was in the negative ; viz. That the statute did not 
oblige him that had this fellowship to be of any particular 
county. The college also produced abundant testimony of 
their custom, from the first founding of the said fellowship, 
to have been always, or for the most part, so observed by 
them, (which was the best interpreter of law.) In which 
college two of the same county had been admitted, upon 
the account and privilege of that royal foundation. 

And so the said vice-chancellor and doctors did interpret 
and declare the words of the forementioned foundation. 
" That it shall be lawful for the masters and fellows of that 
" college to choose a worthy and learned man for fellow 
" into that foundation, nulla comitatus habita ratione, ex 
u quo sit oriundus : whether he alone be of any county, or 
" any other before him be found to be fellow of the same 
" county with him." And then another question among 
them was, " Who, of all the fellows, was to be held king 



Their inter- 
pretation of 
the statute. 
MSS. Aca- 
dem. penes 
me. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 313 

" Edward's fellow? 1,1 The vice-chancellor declared that to CHAP, 
be the place which Mr. Hugh Broughton lately had, and X1X " 
him that afterward should succeed in his room. And upon Anno 1579. 
this judgment the chancellor sent to Dr. Hawford for 
Broughton's readmittance to his fellowship. But whatever 
the reason was, he returned no more (I think) to the college. 
And though this matter of that fellowship seemed so firmly 
settled by that decision, yet I find the same contest arose in 
that college but about four years after, concerning one Os- 
born, who had obtained king Edward's fellowship, And 
then it went the other way. 

The names of two or three more occur this year, being 6l 5 
persons eminent for their great skill in providing necessaries 
for the strength and defence of the kingdom. One of these One Engei- 
was one Leonard Engelbreght. The lord treasurer Burgh- p^f^f ™~ 
ley had before promoted the making of saltpetre in Eng- making 
land; knowing the great use of it; in order to the being ever England. 
in a posture of war, since the queen and kingdom had ene- 
mies round about them. For this purpose he treated some 
years past with the said Engelbreght, a gentleman, born at 
Aken in Germany : who required a commission from the 
queen, for the making of it within her dominions ; and 
power to sell his saltpetre within the realm, at his most pro- 
fit, for the space of twenty years ; preferring always the 
queen's majesty's service with such quantities as should be 
requisite for her, before all others. And that the rest he 
might transport with the queen's licence. And to give the 
tenth pound in weight of all such saltpetre to be made by 
him or his. [This that follows is added by the lord trea- 
surer's hand.] And if he do not continue yearly in the 
making of saltpetre, so as her majesty may have sufficient 
quantities for her service, then the licence to cease. 

This seemed not to take effect. For the same lord trea- Terms be- 
surer, in this year, 1579, agreed for the making saltpetre ^ n an |j 
with one Cornelius Stevenson, another foreigner, by articles one Steven- 

, . i 1 • • i 1 i j? son f° r the 

between the queen and him; viz. a lease to be made irom ss 
her to the said Cornelius, of a portion of ground in the east 
bailiwick of the New Forest, in the county of Southampton, 



same. 



314 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK lying together, commonly called Asshers. Whereof fifty 
. acres were set thinly with beeches, oaks, thorns, holly : and 



Anno 1579. three hundred and fifty acres waste ground, of heaths and 
furzes. This he was to have and enjoy fifty years ; if he, or 
any of his seven sons, should live so long : yielding and pay- 
ing unto her majesty and heirs the yearly rent of 10/. And 
to deliver at the town of Southampton twenty ton of salt- 
petre, good, perfect, and well refined, for the sum of 40/. 
for every ton. And to deliver to her majesty twenty ton, 
before the feast of John Baptist, 1580. And to deliver 

yearly the same quantity at the said feast If at any 

time the queen may have any quantity of saltpetre, of like 
goodness, delivered at the city of London upon a less price 
than 40/. the ton ; then Cornelius, or his assigns, to deliver 

all the saltpetre he shall make at the same price If he 

make defect in delivering yearly the same quantity, then the 
lease to be void. 

What sue- And for the more probability of its taking effect, sir Edw. 

cess he had Horsey, governor of the Isle of Wight, wrote to the lord 

in his un- J 7 ° . 

dertaking. treasurer, about May 25, this year, that Cornelius had 
made a good quantity of saltpetre ; which he saw himself 
in the vessels a-boiling about twenty days past ; and was 
then come to perfection. And that five or six days past, one 
of the officers of the forest brought him some of the same 
stuff, which was not then refined ; but by this, he thought, it 
might be, and more made. That Cornelius promised it 
would take good effect : and that otherwise it would be his 
utter undoing: for his charge was great. He went then 
for a time to Dorsetshire, to another work he had there, for 
making of alum : such a genius this man had towards such 
works. 

Cornelius, in June, 1580, writes to the lord treasurer to 
this import : " That whatsoever good might happen to the 
" commonwealth, by his service, must needs be imputed to 
6l6"his lordship. For as at the first his great care and 
" zealous good-will to further such a service for his coun- 
" try, was such as did much encourage him to attempt 
" so chargeable and hard a thing; which the multitude 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 315 

" thought impossible to be done; so if his wisdom had not CHAP. 

" been the only means, whereby his great faults [in failing ' 

" in his terms] had been borne withal, it had been long ago Anno 1579. 

" overthrown, to his utter shame and undoing. And that 

" sir Edw. Horsey had lent him money to go on. That he 

" had with much ado brought to work this point ; that he 

" found, that the earth which had been housed but since 

" Christmas last, yielded such quantities of stuff, as assured 

" him of treble increase in continuance. That at first he lost 

" all that he had ever bestowed in one whole year, by reason 

" of unseasonable weather. He requested the supply of 

" 100/. without which he was unable to finish this great 

" work : whereupon, he said, he had bestowed lOOOZ. 11 What 

success this business further had, I know not. 

For the same end and purpose, viz. the safety of the land, Lane's de- 
fortification was -also necessary. One Kate .Lane, a project- f ort ifica- 
ing gentleman of these times, (especially in martial affairs,) tions - 
offers to the lord treasurer devices for fortification: now 
especially for the seaports, when some invasion was this year 
expected. What he would undertake, and what satisfaction 
he would give, to assure the queen to make good what he 
offered, let his letter to that lord speak, as follows : 

" Knowing how grateful a thing it hath been to all princes His letter to 
" in any necessity, to have in time special service offered unto ^ e e J,° r ^ r< 
" them : and how lamentable ruins by hostile invasion or at- 
" tempts may befall to a whole kingdom, for want of a timely 
" provision, (in appearance though small.) Forasmuch as I 
" understand, by no vulgar report, her majesty is likely this 
" year to be attempted in more places than one ; I have 
" therefore presumed at this present, for her majesty's ser- 
" vice, and for the safety of the whole estate, against any 
" foreign force whatsoever, to put your lordship (as my most 
" special good lord) in remembrance of such a mean, as shall, 
" with the favour of the Almighty, to the end aforesaid, be 
" of great force, of small charge ; and in very short time to 
" be accomplished and finished. 

" Sir, my plat briefly doth concern an ordinance and for- 
" tification of all the harbours that her majesty hath, either 



316 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK "in England or Ireland The same to be for three months 

II • 

' " tenable, against any power or battery royal, either by sea 



Anno 1579. " or land The work of the said fortification to be both 

" begun and also to be accomplished, ready for the said de- 
" fence, within the space of one month after the first spade 
" shall be put in the ground : and that without further set- 

" tling and seasoning And because neither her majesty 

" shall adventure any charge, nor your lordship any speech 
" or commendation of any my sufficiency, without some 
" apparent proof and ocular testimony beforehand; I am, 
" (having warrant for the same,) in any convenient place of 
" ground, wheresoever to be assigned unto me, to make a 
" demonstration of my aforesaid offer ; by rearing the first 
" turf, and laying forth the first ground-plot, both spacious 
" and massive, ready afterwards, and easy to be finished and 
" perfected by every common labourer, even with common 
" direction, for the defence above-mentioned. 
6l7 " The time of this my trial shall be seven days. The 
" charges 20Z. to be laid out upon eighty labourers. The 
" time for finishing and perfecting the same for defence one 
" month. The charge of the whole ; the first 20Z. three 
" times triplicated ; and four times doubled. The first proof 
" whereof, viz. of the first seven days, shall be at my charge : 
" being no less desirous to do her majesty some effectual, 
" important service, than glad, that her majesty should not 
" altogether be ignorant, both of my dutiful devotion any 
" way to serve her majesty, and of some sufficiency (more 
" than looked for at my hands) in some effectual sort to per- 
" form the same.' 1 

I end this year with the names, titles, and offices of those 
that were now of her majesty's privy-council. 

The lords 1. Sir Thomas Bromley, kt. lord chancellor of England. 

an dithers 2 Lord Burghley5 i ord treasurer of England. 

queen's 3. Earl of Shrewsbury. 

pmy coun- ^ Earl of Lincoln, lord admiral. 

Anno 1579. 5. Earl of Sussex, lord chamberlain of the household. 

6. Earl of Arundel. 

7. Earl of Warwick, master of the ordnance. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 317 

8. Earl of Bedford. CHAP. 

9. Earl of Leicester, master of the horse. 



10. Lord of Hunsdon. Ann0 15 ™- 

11. Sir Francis Knolles, treasurer of the household. 

12. Sir James Crofte, comptroller of the household. 

13. Sir Christopher Hatton, vice-chamberlain. 

14. Sir Henry Sidney, kt. of the order, lord president, &c. 

15. Sir Francis Walsingham, and 

16. Mr. Thomas Wylson, esq. principal secretaries. 

17. Sir Raufe Sadler, chancellor of the duchy. 

18. Sir Walter Mildmay, chancellor of the exchequer. 

■^j>— 



CHAP. XX. q is 

The French king's brother departs. The queerfs concern 
thereat. The French ambassador and prince of Conde 
in private communication with the queen, about assisting 
of the king of Navar. What it was, the queen tells the 
lord treasurer. His thoughts of Conde s message. The 
queerts message by Randolph to Scotland, in favour qf 
earl Morton, and for removing HAubigny from the 
king. Her notable declaration to those states assembled, 
by Randolph. Ill cottnsellors about the king : their names 
and characters. That nation's ingratitude to the queen. 
Some account qf earl Morton. D'Aubigny professes 
himself a protestant. The lord president qfthe north, his 
letter concerning these Scotch matters. A popish rebel- 
lion, and invasion in Ireland. 

XT was not before this year, 1580, that monsieur departed Anno 1580. 
home out of England, re infecta, to the nations great satis- P uke d ' An - 
faction. He took shipping for Flanders; and minded to ou t of Eng- 
land at Flushing ; where the Estates were to meet him. land - 
Thence intending for Antwerp. Whither he went to assist 
those of the Low Countries against the Spaniard. He was 
very honourably attended with many of the nobility : and 
there went over with him the earl of Leicester, the lord 
Hunsdon, the lord Charles Howard, the lord Thomas How- 



318 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK ard, the lord Windsor, lord Sheffield, lord Willoughby, and 
• a number of young gentlemen beside. As soon as he came 
Anno 1580. to Antwerp, all of the English nation returned back. And 
upon report of a great scarcity both of victuals and all things 
else in Flanders at this time, the earl of Leicester carried over 
with him fifty beeves and five hundred muttons, for the pro- 
vision, during their being there. 
The parting The departure was mournful between her highness and 
sorrowful. mo £gi eur . s ] ie loath to let him go, and he as troubled to 
depart ; and promised to return in March. But how his 
causes in the Low Countries would permit him was uncer- 
tain. He took shipping at Sandwich. But in the way be- 
twixt Canterbury and Sandwich, a French gentleman, called 
La Fine, lost a portmanteau, full of jewels, esteemed in value 
to be 6000 crowns : which caused the gentleman to stay in 
England, in hopes to hear some good tidings of them. The 
lord Howard went away the night before, to see the ships in 
readiness. And being aboard, in the night-time, by the for- 
getfulness of a bow, the ship was set on fire in the gun-room. 
And before it was espied, it had almost got to the powder. 
By great chance, a man of that lord's laid himself flat in the 
flame, and tumbled in it : and so stayed the fire from the 
powder, till water came ; otherwise it had blown up the ship, 
619 and all that were aboard. That party was scorched, both 
face and hands ; and his girdle burnt. It was one of the 
greatest ships. 
The queen All this was the news at court, sent to the earl of Shrews- 
Uto hfm'to b ul 7 by his son, Francis Talbot. As also that the queen 
Canterbury. herself accompanied monsieur as far as Canterbury. And 
that she was minded to go to Greenwich or St. James's ; 
though Greenwich was not now altogether free of the plague. 
- At her return she meant to lodge at no place in which she 
had lodged as she went, [to prevent, as it seems, the re- 
viving the thoughts of monsieur.] Neither would she come 
at Whitehall ; because the place should not give cause of 
remembrance of him to her, with whom she so unwillingly 
parted. Where we cannot but observe, that such was her 
majesty's presence of mind, and care of her subjects 1 wel- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 319 

fare, that she subdued her private affection for the public CHAP. 

, XX. 

good. 



I add a private accident happening to the French am-Annoisso. 
bassador this summer, in June 1580, who riding abroad to 1 ^^™' 1 
take the air, in his return came through Smithfield : where stopt : and 
at the bars he was stayed by those officers that sat there, w y ' 
to cut swords; by reason his rapier was longer than the 
late statute made for the length of such weapons, (for which 
the queen issued out a strict proclamation the last year ;) 
which put the ambassador into a great fury, drawing his 
rapier. In the mean season the lord Henry Seimour came 
in ; and so stayed the matter. The queen hearing of it was 
greatly offended with the officers ; but imputing it to their 
want of judgment, that matter passed off. 

This ambassador did earnestly ply his grand business this The queen 
summer. And being at Nonsuch, in the month of June, *" m ^ un *. ve 
private communication was held between them for some cation at 
hours ; present only Leicester and Hatton, the lord trea- 
surer coming thither that evening. The prince of Conde The prince 

of Co 
court 



was now also there : who came to solicit the queen's assist- ° 



ance in behalf of the king of Navar, his brother, and the 
protestants in France. So that she had two very weighty 
matters this summer upon her hand : wherein the matter 
of religion was interwoven, as well as the safety of herself 
and her kingdoms. 

Concerning the particular state and management of these what the . 
affairs, the lord treasurer gave account to the earl of Sussex ^ is je c c on ^ 
in a private letter at Nonsuch, whither he was newly come munication 
from Theobald's. " That repairing towards the privy- by t ' he ]ord 
" chamber to have seen her maiesty, he found the door at P u, "S l ? ley to 
" the upper end of the presence-chamber shut. And then 
" understood that the French ambassador had been a long 
" time with her majesty ; and the prince of Conde' also. 
" That that evening the ambassador acquainted him [the 
" lord treasurer] with a part of their proceedings ; being 
" pleased with her majesty for her temperate dealings. 
" That he found Conde 1 s disposition rather inclined to move 
" troubles in France than peace. And that he thought 



320 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " verily, that those troubles and that prince's coming was 
' " encouraged from England. And that it augmented this 

Anno 1580." his suspicion, that he saw such great favours shewed to 
" that prince by certain of the council : who had been with 
" him at the banqueting-house, where he was lodged. 1 ' 1 

He added; " That the queen late at night told him her 
" dealing with them both : commending the prince's mo- 
" desty in declaring the cause of his coming to be, to shew 
" her the just causes that had moved the king of Navar 
" to take arms for his defence against Montmorancy and 
" Byron ; and shewing many particular causes. Which 
O20 "the ambassador endeavoured to retort to the king of 
" Navar. Then entering into the particulars of the war 
" between the two kings, he at length concluded, that he 
" came to entreat her majesty to obtain, that the French 
" king would suspend his judgment both against the kijig 
" of Navar and him ; and to accept them as his dutiful 
" subjects, as they meant and intended sincerely and plain- 
ly ; without attempting any force, otherwise than their 
" defence against their oppressors. 

" That the prince went to his lodging with the earl of 
" Leicester; and Wylkes, clerk of the council, attended 
" him. That he perceived, by her majesty, that the just 
" cause of his coming was for money : to be repaid her ; 
" part by the said king, part by himself, Casimire and cer- 
" tain princes protestant : and a part that she herself would 
" bear." The treasurer gave his judgment in this manner: 
" That he wished her majesty might spend some portion to 
" solicit for them some peace, to the good of the cause of 
" religion. But to enter into war, and therewith to break 
" the marriage, [which was still in hand,] and so to be left 
" alone, as subject to the burden of such wars, he thought 
" no good counsellor could allow." These are some pas- 
sages of this letter, writ by this great statesman concerning 
the address of two such eminent persons to the queen, and 
her account thereof from her own mouth to him : with 
other court news ; and that from one privy-counsellor to 

N'o.XXV. another. It deserves a place in the Appendix. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 32J 

What the queen's wisdom directed her to do, with re- CHAP 



xx. 



spect to the solicitation of the prince of Conde and the king 
of Navar, concerning assisting them in a war with the Annol58 °- 
French king, will appear by a letter which secretary Wyl- ^ tt !^ n 
son at this time wrote to the abovesaid earl of Sussex, the French 
" Touching the prince of Conde, he is to be sent back as vour f 
" he came, without hope of aid. And this day, or to- Cond ^ 
" morrow, he is to be despatched to go into Germany, 
" from whence he came, to duke Casimire. Her majesty 
" hath written to the French king in his favour ; and will 
" use all that a Christian prince may do, to accord things 
" amiss, and to bring him to the king's favour again. 1 ' But 
the king of Navar stood upon his defence against marshal 
Byron and Montmorancy, and would not make any offen- 
sive war. 

Speeches were raised now, that the prince of Orange was Report of 
arrived at Dover. And reports were also given out, that f orange 
the king of Navar was in Guernsey. Such applications and k, j n s of 
were made in these times by foreign princes of the religion coming. 
to the queen. But these reports proved not true. 

Now something concerning Scotland, as far as England Scotch 
was concerned. To which a practice of the French there™. t0 
gave a great jealousy. One of that nation, but of Scottish England. 
blood, D'Aubigny, was come lately into Scotland, and be- come s to 
came very dear to the young king ; and the rather, being Scotland 
of kin to him, being a Stuart. He performed his part so France, 
well, that in effect he governed him, and had a great in- 
fluence in all public affairs. But he was reckoned a pa- 
pist, and in the interest of France. And it was feared he 
would procure for the king a wife of the popish religion : 
and at length bring in popery by that means into that 
land, and overthrow the religion. The queen therefore 
found it highly necessary to put a stop to the proceedings 
of this French favourite. And by a declaration very freely 
delivered by Randolph, her ambassador, before the king 621 
and states assembled at Edinburgh, February 27, plainly 
opened this matter, and the danger thereof: shewing at the 
entrance, how well she had deserved both of the king and 

VOL. II. PART II. Y 



322 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
II. 

Anno 1580. 
The queen's 
declaration 
by her am- 
bassador to 
the states of 
Scotland. 



Complaint 
of D'Aii- 
bigny. 



that nation. The effect whereof (taken from Randolph's 

own paper) follows. 

" The queen's majesty, my sovereign, hath been a friend 
unto this country ever since she came to her crown. She 
hath borne a special love unto the king ever since he was 
born, and singular care of his country. She hath never 
sought a foot breadth of the ground of Scotland, nor to 
hurt the liberties thereof. That she had never sought to 
draw the king out of his own country into England, or 
elsewhere, as her enemies then about his grace had given 
forth, and taken colour thereupon to trouble others. 
That she had spent her treasure, and the blood of her 
people, to save Scotland from the conquest of France. 
That she had means enough to have entered and con- 
quered the country, (if she had sought it,) when the king 
was young, his mother in England, and all the nobility 
and people of Scotland were divided, and in distress. 
That she might have taken occasion of just revenge, 
when her officers and subjects were slain in her own 
realm at the Redswyre. But the contrary disposition 
had ever been in her majesty, through the care she ever 
hath had to preserve the king and his country, by reason 
he was her nearest kinsman, her nearest neighbour, in 
one island ; and that few other princes in the world 
agreed with them and their subjects, in professing one 
religion. That she found the thankful minds of all his 
regents in his tender age ; and they found her assistance. 
That she found the king ever loving and affectionate 
unto her, until now of late within this year or more, that 
the lord D'Aubigny, being purposely sent hither to dis- 
solve that happy unity and love between their majesties, 
had so far prevailed, as, See. That he was become master of 
his grace's person, of his ear, of his counsel, and of his 
whole estate. That he had alienated his grace's m ind 
from the amity of England ; and to think nothing plea- 
sant but the motion of France: from whence he never 
gat good turn, nor so much as to call him Icing. 
" That he had brought his grace to enter into suspicion, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 323 

and cast off all such his" own subjects, as had preserved CHAP, 
his life and estate unto these years. That he had made 
his grace call home, and cast himself into the hands and Anno i58o. 
counsel of such as were ever enemies to his estate and 
authority. That he pressed him to make war with 
England, although it would offer peace, and keep it with 
him. That he had brought his grace to be weary of his 
ministers, and to think them factious and railers. That 
he had brought him to be more dissolute in speech ; nay, 
will teach him worse conditions, as may appear, to marry 
some papist ; yea, to leave the land, if need be, wherever 
he will have him to go. 

" That in the mean time no sound advice was taken for 
the quieting of the borders ; for punishing the murders, 
nor mischiefs ; nor how the king's estate should be main- 
tained : but for poverty, to drive him to leave the realm, 
or to seek the lands and lives of his nobility and barons. 1 '' 
He proceeded after all this plain language thus : " The 
queen's majesty, my sovereign, hath cause to take this in 
heart; seeing what the loss of such a young and noble o2 2 
prince, of so religious and virtuous expectation, being so 
near, her cousin and neighbour, may work to her; she 
means not to seek to remedy it by her own force, or by 
any device of hers, if the nobility of Scotland will do it 
themselves. And in the doing whereof she will coun- 
sel, favour, and assist them, even to the hazard of her 
own crown. 

" Thus, my very good lords, the care I have of the king 
himself, the love I bear unto your country, the inconve- 
niences like to follow on both, the likelihood of the over- 
throw of religion in time, and the breach of amity be- 
tween the two realms, moveth me thus earnestly to speak ; 
and further to proceed otherwise than I would, if I had 
not to do with those, whom I both honour, love, and am 
ready to serve." 

For several that were now about the king of Scots, and ill counsei- 
his governor, by evil counsel abused his good nature, by the king of 
nourishing him in delights and pleasures unfit for his age, Scots. 

y2 



324 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK and unseemly for the good and godly behaviour of a prince : 

_ persuading him to alter his affection towards the queen's 

Anno 1580. majesty of England, his best friend and kinswoman; and 

to grow in suspicion of his best servants and nobility. 

Their names, as I find them in an authentic writing, which, 

I suppose, was Randolph's, now the queen's servant there, 

and their ill characters, follow. 

Their « The first and chiefest was the lord Daubigny, his cou- 

mss. T. " sin-german : a man born in France ; depending upon the 

n\!\ d iv Ph ' " nouse °f Guise ; a papist in religion, brought up as most 

" of them were in that country : promoted here to be lord 

" chamberlain, and chiefest person about the king : made 

" earl of Lenox, and captain of Dunbriton ; the place of 

" greatest commodity to receive strangers into the country, 

" or to convey the king, as is greatly to be doubted to 

" be Daubigney's drift and purpose. He hath continually 

" his ear at downlying and uprising ; a maintainer of pa- 

" pists, rebels, traitors, and such as ever served against the 

" king, and are enemies to all virtue. He brought over 

Monber- " with him a notable personage, called monsieur Mon- 

" berneau, a Frenchman, of kin to his wife ; hardfavoured, 

" licentious, audacious, but not stout, proud, as his nation 

" is, arrogant in his speech, bold, and beggarly : to be 

" short, of no good condition or honesty ; and of such a 

" life, as when men will speak of a pocky knave, it is used 

" for a common proverb, He hath danced in MonbcrneaiCs 

" breeches. This man is so familiar with the king, that in 

" all pastimes he is a companion ; in all councils he is one ; 

" in all assemblies none more forward or near the king: than 

" he. The best that his friends can say for him is, that he 

" is a jester, a cracker, and a man to make the king merry. 

sir Robert " The third person is the lord Robert Steward, son to a 

steward. « j^^ ag gome ga y . k ut Qne ^^ brought up in France : 

" where he tasted of such manners, that he yet savoureth of 
" all the evil that may be spoken of that country. A 
" cuckold ; a wittol. Et quid non ? 
Lord Sea- " The fourth is the lord Seaton ; in the last point agree- 
" ing with the lord Robert. In many other parts of vil- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 325 

" lainy far surpassing him ; as swearing, lying, whoredom : CHAP. 
" never friend to the king, but servant to his mother : a . 



" practiser, a trafficker ; a traitor to his king and country. Anno 1580. 

" The next is captain James Steward, second son to the Captain 
" lord Veletre, the accuser of Morton ; audacious, proud, steward. 
" of no religion, and an undertaker of any enterprise of mis- 623 
" chief devised by D'Aubigny or the faction ; lately made 
" a counsellor : tutor of the earl of Arran, become deaf, 
" and captain of the new guards of sixty halberdiers to wait 
" on the king. 

" The earl of Argyle, a great man of birth ; sober in Earl of Ar- 
" wit, better ruled by his wife, than well advised to follow sy e ' 
" her counsel ; subject unto D'Aubigny, and wholly at his 
" devotion. 

" The earl of Montros, a personage good, in wit reason- Earl of 
" able ; double in dealing, and false to his friend : enemy to 
" Morton. 

" S. Combe : neither stout, constant, wise, nor honest ; s. Combe. 
" but false, feeble, and full of flattery. 

" The master of Ogylby, vain and foolish ; prating and The master 

,, i • • i n • i . of Ogylby. 

" lying, without faith or honesty. 

" Mr. Henry Kier, of chief credit with D'Aubigny : both Henry Kier. 

" subtle, false, and crafty : neither faith nor honesty are to 

" be found in him. 

" William Scawe is clock-keeper ; and John Hume Scawe. 

1 . . Hume. 

" master of the ratches ; as himseJi is the worst. 

" Many other tattlers and praters, and petty companions 
" there are : glad when they can get their word about, be 
" it never so untrue, or to little purpose : not respecting 
" what they speak, or of whom ; so that either credit or 
" profit may be won at the king's hands. God amend them 
" all, and send the king better governors over him ; make 
" him Josias, to live in the fear of God, and send him long 
" life." 

Such was the loose court of this young king, and such 
the gentlemen that bore him company, tending to his ruin : 
which our historian (who published his history of queen Henry Kier. 
Elizabeth in the beginning of this king's reign over Eng- S11 a h m ann . ' z 

Y 3 1579, 1580. 



326 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK land) thought fit, or was commanded to conceal, or to re- 
present more favourably : since it is evident, how sensible 



Anno 1580. the queen was of the methods of this court, and more per- 
fectly knew by her ambassador resident there ; however 
negligent they made their king of her admonitions. 
The queen Furthermore, how unfairly and disingenuously they dealt 
well withal with her majesty, who sincerely favoured the king and 
Scots. 6 Scottish nation against the endeavours of the popishly af- 
Epist. T. fected, her said ambassador shewed in a letter writ to secre- 
tary Wylson from Berwick, being discharged of his em- 
bassy, and remaining there as yet : viz. " That ever since 
" he entered Scotland, he found himself as one scarcely with 
" himself, [in his first he wrote, beside myself,] by the un- 
" certain, unreasonable, and ingrate dealing of that king 
" and council : neither mindful of her majesty's benefits 
" past, neither weighing the danger that they stand in, if 
" they have not her majesty's favourable countenance. 
" Which so mych hath tormented me, (for that, alas ! I 
" wish that nation well,) as truly it hath passed any grief 
" that ever I had. And now finding their despite and wil- 
" fulness so great, I know neither what to do nor say for 
" them. To cast them off will be peril to ourselves ; for 
" that they will seek others as cumbersome, or more hurt- 
" ful than they are to retain them; beside the pride we put 
" them into, if their greedy appetites be not satisfied, we 
" shall be as unsure of them as now we are. To seclude 
624 " them for a time from all kind of traffick and dealing with 
" us; to hold a hand hard unto them, until they feel the 
" wants of such benefit as our country yieldeth unto them, 
" perchance may sooner bring them to reason, or make 
" them work or find out some remedy amongst themselves, 
" than either by fair means to use them, or by force to 
*' annoy them. 

" I leave this to the judgment of others wiser than 

« myself." 

Randolph And further, concerning these affairs with Scotland with 

chancellor respect to England at this time, the said ambassador shewed 

concerning to t h e \ or ^ c h ance llor, while he was at Berwick. His en- 

liis embassy 
in Scotland. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 327 

deavours to persuade the king and his council to hearken CHAP, 
unto the terms for accommodating the disturbances in that , 



kingdom ; and his putting them in mind of the many good Anno isso. 
turns done them by the queen ; and his advice to take her 
counsel for the indifferent trial of earl Morton, [who was in 
the English interest, formerly regent and governor to the 
king, now made a prisoner by Arran,] and for the removing 
of count D'Aubigny [now made earl of Lenox] from the 
king ; who, he said, was a man utterly averse from true re- 
ligion, and that opposed a good understanding between the 
two nations. But notwithstanding the great pains he [the 
ambassador] had taken for the effecting these matters, all 
proved to little purpose. Nay, so hated, that he was fain 
to get out of Scotland as fast as he could, for fear of his 
life ; having libels set up against him, and a gun once shot 
in at his chamber window. 

That as for earl Morton, now in prison, he was rich, and Earl Mor- 
had both lands and friends. These, and the doubt of hie b y Q the fec . 
power in his prosperity, procured him many enemies ; and tion. 
many of them formerly his friends : insomuch that there 
was little hope of his life ; divers of them and of his ser- 
vants now proving his accusers. Some charging him to be 
guilty of the present king's father's murder ; others, that 
he was consenting to the poisoning of the earl Athol ; 
others, that he had an intent to take the king, and to have 
killed several of the great earls. But. whether these accusa- 
tions were grounded upon truth, or upon malice, was 
doubtful. But to read all this news more particularly, I 
refer the reader to Mr. Randolph's own letter, which he Number 
shall find faithfully exemplified in the Appendix. XXVL 

It must be observed here concerning earl Morton, that The queen 
such an esteem the queen and the English court had for 
him, that this summer she had writ to him very graciously, 
offering to do all that he should think meet: and upon 
whose answer a resolution of the queen's was like to follow. 
These are the words of secretary Wylson in his correspond- 
ence with the earl of Sussex ; and therefore it is probable 
he was not so profligate a man as those Scots of D'Au- 

y 4 



328 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK bigny's party would make him. Otherwise it is not credible 
the queen would have so espoused his cause, though they 



Anno 1580. afterwards brought him to his death. 
D'Aubigny But now the news came, that monsieur D'Aubigny pro- 
himseif a fessed himself of the reformed religion. And so the earl of 
pmtestant. Shrewsbury's steward, Bawdewyn, wrote to him from court 
in July, that it was certainly given out, that he had pro- 
fessed himself one of the reformed religion in Scotland, and 
had renounced all papistry. But whether sincerely, or in 
policy, may be questioned. Yet after all, Lenox was re- 
moved ; and went back into France. 
The earl of L e t. me add what one of the great peers of England's 

Hunting- pi , i n 

ton's judg- thoughts Were of this treatment or the queen by the Scots ; 
meat of the v j z t j ie ear j Q f Huntington, at this time lord president of 

Scots deal- . 

ing with the the north ; who had received some letters from Randolph, 

<|ueen * with a packet from sir John Foster upon the borders. 
And from the intelligence sent by them concerning the in- 
terest of Lenox [i. e. D'Aubigny] in the Scotch court, 
which prevailed beyond that of the queen, that earl gave 
his judgment in these words : " That if they reckoned their 
" cards well, it would not be good for them to lose our 
" sovereign [meaning the queen] for such a new friend as 
" Lenox, neither for any other, as he thought; for the 
" amity of England was more fit for them than the favour 
" of any other could be, their own king excepted. And 
" that against him her majesty did never desire the good- 
" will of any of those subjects : but in all her actions had 
" shewed herself desirous to preserve him and that state ; as 

" he knew, and they must grant." Then the earl prayed 

Randolph to advise the lord SefFord, [a Scotch nobleman,] 
(of whom that ambassador conceived a great opinion, and 
of his house, and such of his name and friends,) to con- 
tinue true and faithful to their sovereign. Which, he said, 
they might do, and yet continue willing to enter and main- 
tain all good offices and friendship between the two coun- 
tries. 

Lord Sea- By one party or other this lord's house had been fired ; 

firedf wm '' and hard speeches had been given out about it : as though 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 329 

it had been done by the treachery of some English. On CHAP, 
which occasion the said lord president added, " That it was 



" more than he knew to be intended. Neither did he like Anno isso. 

" of such speaking. But for their satisfaction [who mis- 

" doubted it was done by the English ; and so a matter 

" proper for the lord president of the north to inquire into] 

" he said, that it was plain to them [of that nation] and all 

" others, by that which Mr. Randolph did in the court with 

" the king and nobility, for and in the name of our sove- 

" reign, [the queen,] that her majesty's good-will to the state 

" continued : and that if any thing fell out otherwise than 

" well, the fault was likely to be in them, and not in us, [the 

" English."] 

He proceeded thus : " That he could wish, that they and The lord 
" others had more regard to religion, and the godly policy JjJJgJJi 
" established in both realms, as he thought, chiefly by the some of this 
" means of the queen, his sovereign, next under God, than a ' 
" desire to seek revenge for particular quarrels. Which, 
" as they handled the matter, might breed no little evil to 
" both states. And of this surname, he could wish the 
" abbot of Newbottle especially to be drawn to accept of 
" o-ood and sound advice. That there were others also that 
« he could name unto him, [Mr Randolph,] but the time 
" would not suffer him. And he hoped, he knew them 
" well enough : and how unfit it was for them, or any 
" other, to malice Morton, more than to regard their king 
" or their country ; or to think one Domberry [D'Au- 
" bigny] and his counsels better, than of the advices and 
" requests of his sovereign the queen, he thought no man 
" of judgment doubted." 

And so concludeth with these words : " Well, to end ; 
" for my part, he and all others of that nation shall find me 
" inclinable to do all good offices towards them, so long and 
" so far as I see them to love the religion, and to be well 
" devoted to the queen, my sovereign, with a due regard of 
" duty to their king and country. And thus with my very 626 
" hearty commendations, I commit you to the protection of 



330 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " the heavenly Father. At Newcastle, 25th of Febru- 
IL « ary, 1580. 



Anno 1580. « Your loving friend, 

" H. Huntingdon." 

Rebellion in The news at court was, that king Philip of Spain pre- 
Desmond P area * mightily against Portugal : although merchants 1 let- 
ters came daily, that the pope and he prepared against 
Ireland. And that land indeed was now oppressed with 
the popish nobility and gentry there : who had raised a re- 
bellion against the queen ; headed by the earl of Desmond, 
lord Baltinglas, with an invasion of Italians and Spaniards, 
accompanied with the pope's blessing, as was shewed before. 
Hist, of ire- Some also of the queen's party were unfaithful; and fa- 
cox J.367. voure d the other side. Of these earl Kildare and his son-in- 
law, lord Delvin, were suspected. The lord deputy ap- 
pointed that earl, with archbishop Loftus, to be governors 
of the pale during his intended progress : who going to 
parley with the lord Baltinglas, which was to no purpose, 
the earl unadvisedly returned to Dublin. The enemy taking 
the advantage of his return, did mischief in burning places. 
The earl was imprisoned upon this occasion ; and the news 
sent to the lord treasurer in England, by sir Nicolas White, 
master of the rolls there, (with whom a constant correspond- 
ence was held.) 
The Which lord thus expressed his concern about it, and the 

tne"iord S ° f comm i ttm g °f tne eai *l °f Kildare and the baron of Delvyn : 
treasurer " Sorry I am that they should give cause : but more sorry, 
lereupon. ti ^^ ^ ^jjj happen in so unseasonable a time ; when 
" the whole body of that realm is so far out of temper, as 
" the dislocation of such members must needs work a de- 
" formity to the body. The will of God be done, to the 
" maintenance of his glory, and the preservation of that 
" crown upon her head : where it ought by justice only to 
" stand." [As the pope was minded now to place it upon 
that of the king of Spain.] This he wrote January 3. 
These confusions and rebellions still continued more and 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 331 

more in Ireland the next year; and these were that good CHAP, 
lord's contemplations thereupon, in a letter to the master of. 



the rolls: " I do heartily lament the lamentable state ofAnnoisso. 

" that country. And the more I am therewith grieved, in 

" that I see the calamity to continue, or not to diminish. 

" And yet I see no way how to remedy it : neither in so 

" doubtful opinions as there are both there and here for the 

" remedy, dare I lay hold of any of them. And yet I do 

" not think the remedy is desperate, if good and wise men, 

" addicted to public state, were therein employed. And 

" thus uncomfortably I end ; referring the success to God's 

" mercy, to be extended both to you and us ; whose sins I 

" am assured do provoke him to chasten that nation so 

" sharply. I think a late direction from her majesty, to re- 

" duce her army to a convenient number, will mislike many 

" there, that otherwise are not provided to live in their 

" lusts, but by wars and spoils." 



CHAP. XXI. 627 

A reformation endeavoured of certain abuses in the church. 
The parliaments address to the queen for that 'purpose. 
Her answer. Church holydays : much sin committed 
then. The disaffected to the church busy. Appoint 
fasts. A fast appointed at Stamford: the lord Burgh- 
ley's letter forbidding it. Beza's booJc concerning bi- 
shops, translated into English. His letter to Scotland. 
A popish school set up at Doway ; and another in Scot- 
land. Dr. Allerfs book. The pope sends over priests 
into England. Intelligence from Switzerland of the 
pope's preparations against England. Commissions for 
search after papists in Lancashire and Yorkshire. The 
archbislwp of Yortfs letter concerning them. Countess 
of Cumberland : lady Wharton. Children of northern 
gentlemen sent to Caius college, Cambridge ; Dr. Legg, 
a papist, master. Intelligence from the bis/top of Win- 
ton, concerning papists in the county of Southampton. 



SS C 2 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK A search in papists' houses. Sir William Tresham in 
' Hoggesdon. Priests taken: their confession. Popish 

Anno 1580. cases found in sir James Hargrave's study. 

Petition in j_\| OW for the state of religion. A reformation of several 

parliament . ... 

for reforma- abuses in the church was moved again in a sessions of par- 
abuscf ' lament this year, (as it had been in a former, anno 1575,) 
the church, by a petition then to the queen for that purpose. Many 
abuses were specified therein : as, the great number of un- 
learned and unable ministers ; the great abuse for excommu- 
nication for matters of small moment ; the commutation of 
penance; the multitude of dispensations and pluralities, 
D'Ewes' and other hurtful things to the church. And some of the 
30T302 P ' members were appointed, in the name of the whole house, 
to move the lords of the clergy to continue unto her ma- 
jesty the prosecution of the purposes of the reformation : 
which the vice-chamberlain, and the secretaries, and chan- 
cellor of the exchequer had, as of themselves, moved unto 
those lords; and should impart unto their lordships the 
earnest desire of the house for redress of other griefs, con- 
tained likewise in the same petition, as to their good wis- 
doms should seem meet. 
Some mem- Some days after they waited upon the bishops with the 
upon the same message ; and in the name of the house desired them 
bishops for to ; om ^th them m the sa i c { petition to her maiesty. Who 

that pur- „ , „. -ii-i i p j 

pose. found some of the said lords not only ready to confess and 

grant the said defects and abuses, and wished a redress 

thereof; but were very willing to join with the said com- 

The queen mittees in moving her majesty in that behalf. And accord- 

b dd them d t0 m gty afterwards they joined in humble suit unto her high- 

Her answer, ness; and received her majesty's gracious answer. Which 

k^S was? that as s ] le h^ the } as t sessions of parliament, of 

her own good consideration, (and before any petition made,) 

committed the charge and consideration thereof unto some 

of her clergy, who had not performed the same according 

as she had commanded ; so she would commit the same 

unto such others of them, as with all convenient speed 

should see the same accomplished. And that it should be 

neither delayed nor left undone. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 333 

For this they all rendered unto her majesty their humble CHAP, 
thanks. This was reported back to the house. And withal 



master chancellor of the exchequer declared, that the only Anno lsso. 
cause why no due reformation had been already made, was ^ e h ^ se 
by reason of the slackness and negligence of some others ; quainted 
and not of her majesty nor of the house: alleging, that^ 1 
some of the bishops had done something in those matters, 
delivered by her majesty to their charge ; as, in a more ad- 
vised care of making and ordaining ministers, &c. : and so 
in conclusion moving- the house to rest satisfied with her 
most gracious answer ; and to resolve upon some form of 
yielding thanks unto her highness for her gracious accepta- 
tion of their petition, and putting her in remembrance of 
the execution thereof. 

The queen had been displeased of late with some in the par- 
liament, that had attempted reforming matters in the church 
without her allowance : but now, upon their petition to her, 
all was made up again. For she insisted upon her su- 
premacy in things ecclesiastical as well as civil, and required 
application to be made to her, before she would suffer any 
to meddle with any alteration or regulations of them ; and 
then her orders and directions to be given to her clergy by 
herself. 

What came further of this doth not appear in this ses- The convo- 
sion of parliament, by any thing set down in the journal of upon re _ 
parliaments. But, I suppose, the queen upon this ordered forming 
her privy-council to send that order, as above-mentioned, to 
the convocation. Which was now ready to regulate, re- 
dress, and amend all such matters as might require the same. 
Which was the way which the queen required reformation 
in matters of religion to be done : as their proper business 
of meeting together. This convocation took cognizance of A letter 
the new heresy of the family of love ; and concerning those pr i V y. coun . 
that refused to conform themselves to the religion received Cl1 to . the 
in this kingdom : a letter of these two things having been 
sent to the archbishop of Canterbury from the privy- Bishop 
council, he accordingly sent to the convocation. For what L ;f e DO ok 
was done in this convocation, I refer to another book. n. chap. 11. 



334 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK Among others, one great abuse in these times was the 

' abundance of sins committed on the church holydays : which 

Anno 1580. evil disposed men took hold of to dishonour God, and break 

churctThe. ms ^ aws on tnose c ^ a y s more tnan others, that should by 
lydays. them have been set apart for his worship, service, and ho- 
nour. This the aged, good bishop of Ely complained of 
to the lord treasurer, in these words: " Pauca pie sapien- 
" ti ; There is a mass of sin [committed] in all church 
" holydays : whereby God's service is let and hindered ; 
" which we in our times ought with all diligence to stay. 
" And because in these things ye be most ready to do most 
" high service, I am the bolder at this time to move your 
" lordship in this matter. Thus the Lord have you in his 
" blessed keeping, both in this life and in the life to come." 
629 Written from his house at Downham, the 30th of July, 
1580, with his name only subscribed with his own hand; 
being now very aged, and sick of the palsy, dying the next 
year. 
Many ill- In the mean time, the disaffected to the reformed church 
the C c hurch nere established by law were continually crying out for 
of England, more reformation. Their preachers shewed much spiteful 
rashness, both in their doctrines, and more publicly and 
openly in their books ; calling the ministers of the church 
reproachfully, dumb dogs, &c. as I find noted in a diary by 
Theyap- one Earl, a minister in London. This sort of men ap- 
point fasts. p 0m t e d fasts to be kept by their own authority. Which 
was an encroachment upon the state, and the queen's power 
in spiritual matters. And therefore was resented and for- 
bid. 
One ap- Notice was given for the keeping such a fast in Stamford 

Stamford m Rutlandshire by one Johnson, and divers others, in the 
The lord month of July this year. This place peculiarly belonging 
letter to the to the lord treasurer Burghley, he sent a letter to the alder- 
aiderman to man Q f tnat town, forbidding him to permit such a fast, 
it being an innovation ; and relating the matter as he 
had heard it ; viz. that this Johnson (who was parson of 
Luffenham in the diocese of Peterburgh, and a good 
preacher) had a disposition to come to Stamford, which 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 335 

was in the diocese of Lincoln; and with six or seven other CHAP, 
preachers to erect a new innovation : and thereby decreeing 



to that people an universal fast; and to continue there heAnnoisso. 
knew not how long. Upon which thus that gentle lord 
wrote : 

" Although he commended his zeal towards that town, 
" to move them to such divine actions, as fasting and hear- 
" ing of sermons, (whereunto he wished all the people there 
" more given than he thought they were,) yet considering 
" this was an action that might seem an innovation in the 
" orders of the church ; which were known, how they were 
" established by parliament, without any other innovation 
" to be admitted ; at the least, no like matter (as this is in- 
" tended) ought by another private person, as Mr. John- 
" son was, to be practised out of the diocese and place 
" where he hath cure ; nor yet in any other bishop's dio- 
" cese, without the prescription of the bishop, or ordinary, 
" or their permission : that he had thought good, for the 
" avoiding of offence, that might grow hereof; and for that 
" manor of the burgh was his inheritance, [viz. Stamford,] 
" and that the rule of the burgh belonged to him ; to re- 
" quire and advise him to give Mr. Johnson warning to for- 
" bear from any such attempt in that town : but if he were 
" disposed there to preach, that he may so do, if he have, 
" as by likelihood he hath, licence of the bishop of the dio- 
" cese. And that any other so might do, having licence, in 
" usual manner and sort, as in other places was accustomed. 
" And adding, that if the said alderman found it meet, he 
" might do well to exhort men to fast and pray, being two 
" necessary actions for Christian men to use." 

And to make episcopacy shake, and to incline the people Beza's Dis- 
to change the government of this church by bishops intOg isl * 
that of elders, this year the said disaffected procured the translated 
translation into English of Beza's discourse of bishops inij sn . ° 
Latin ; done, as was thought, by Field, one of the chief 
puritan ministers. In which book Beza makes three sorts 
of bishops : viz. of God ; that is, their own elders at Ge- 
neva : of men ; that is, of human appointment ; of this sort 630 



336 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK were ours of this church of England: and of the Devil; 
' and these he made to be the bishops of the church of Rome. 

Anno 1580. In which book he also affirmed, that all bishops, other than 

tb^ofbi sucn as nac ^ an ec l Uimt y among them, [which were the only 

shops. bishops he would allow, if they were of God,] such must of 

necessity be packing and gone. And that the chief elders 

[who were to come in their room] should be admitted to be 

present in parliament, as the bishops were, and to deal in 

spiritual causes, and to answer in place of God, if any other 

matters fell out, wherein the lords would be resolved. 

Beza's let- And this year the said Beza wrote to one Lawson in 

ter to one Scotland ; who had informed him of an attempt that was 

in Scotland _ r 

about bi- made there in the behalf of bishops, [perhaps for the restor- 

s ops * ing them,] and how it was defeated by the reformers. Beza 

expressing his infinite joy at it, begins his letter in this sort, 

though he was then sick : Beasti me, &c. " You have made 

" me a happy man, 11 &c. These things, and the like, (which 

Survey of \ have mentioned,) Dr. Bancroft took notice of in the Sur- 

cipi'me, vcy of the pretended discipline ; though it was divers years 

p. so. edit. a ft er that ne wrote his book, after long; provocation of these 

1593. or 

men's public writings against this established church, her li- 
turgy, and episcopal government. 
The Eng- The factors for the pope, and for restoring of his religion 
clergy set and authority in this kingdom, were active now also. And 
upaschool j. f ur ther these their designs, the English popish clergy 
who fled into Flanders, by the instigation of William Allen, 
a Jesuit, a man of notable parts, and great esteem among the 
fugitives, assembled themselves together at a town there, 
called Doway ; and there set up a school. The pope gave 
them an annual pension, or rather a maintenance; pur- 
posely to plot and contrive ways to expel the queen, and 
A school of demolish the church of England. After they had tarried 
Scotland, there some years, upon some troubles they removed most of 
them to Scotland : where the queen of Scots allowed them 
a pension, and liberty to set up another school for the edu- 
sir Hen. cation of English youth who would come thither. Here they 
Memorial. wcre taught all manner of ways to divide the protestants of 
Hunting England, in principles of religion, as also to withdraw them 

the Rom. & ' f r & 

Fox, p. 1 3 1 . 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 337 

from the form of prayer established. And there was an CHAP, 
oath the scholars of this college took ; viz. " I A. B. do XXL 



" acknowledge the ecclesiastical and political power of his Anno isso. 

" holiness, and the mother church of Rome, as the chief Their oath - 

" head and matron, above all pretended churches through- 

" out the whole earth. And that my zeal shall be for St. 

* Peter and his successors, as the founder of the true and 

" ancient catholic faith, against all her heretical kings, 

" princes, states, or powers, repugnant unto the same. 

" And although I A. B. may pretend, in case of persecution, 

" or otherwise, to be heretically disposed, yet in soul and 

" conscience I shall help, aid, and succour the mother 

" church," &c. 

This Dr. Allen, the better to recommend this college at Allen's 
Doway, and another lately erected, set forth a book, called, ha?f ofthe 
An apology and true declaration of the institution and en- Uvo En s- 
deavours of the two English colleges. Which received a leges in 
learned answer by Dr. Bilson, warden of Winchester, in the Flanders « 
year 1585 ; which hath been observed and spoke of else- 
where. To which I refer the reader. 

The pope now began about this time first (or at least 631 
now first taken notice of) to send forth a whole swarm of Priests se "t 
boy-priests disguised ; and provided at all essays with secret instructions 
instructions, how to deal with all sorts of men and matters : from the 

pope. 

and with commission from Rome, to confess and absolve all Bilson's 
such as they should win, with any pretence or policy, to ference," &c. 
mislike the state, and affect novelty. And to take assurance 
of them, by vow, oath, or other means, that they should be 
ever after adherent and obedient to the church of Rome, 
and to the faith thereof. And all this under the conduct of 
one [Campion,] a man more presumptuous than learned : as 
his writings and disputings, while he lived, declared. 

The good friends of England and of the English church, Rome's di- 
I mean the divines of Switzerland, (with whom and our bi-^™£ 
shops was maintained a constant good correspondence, ever England, 
since they were harboured kindly and friendly with them, in f ro mZu- 
queen Mary's bloody reign,) gave intelligence of the popish lick - 
diligence at this time. One letter from thence was sent to 

VOL. II. PART II. z 



333 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK the bishop of Ely ; who despatched notice of it to the good 
_ lord treasurer, beginning with these words: " Antichristi 
Anno 1580. " incendium accenditur Romce, et in omnemjere orbem di- 
" vulgatur : as we lately heard from our true friends ; and 
" who heartily favour both our kingdom, and queen, and no- 
" bility : that the pope's bull, by the means of Alexandrini 
" Cardinally was to be published against the queen: and 
" five hundred copies of it to be printed, in order to be 
" dispersed in those parts of the world that were adjudged 
" most catholic. And that Antichrist and the Spaniard 
" consented in the same thing; viz. that twelve thousand 
" Italians, as the report went, were to be listed into the Spa- 
" nish service. The bishop added, that this news was sent 
" him over but just then from Helvetia, from the godly 
" brethren there ; who, he said, though they were far 
" distant from us, yet were near us in their prayers."" But 
for a standing memorial of the friendship of that people to 
us, as well as of that good bishop, I have transcribed his 
xxvu. letter in the Appendix concerning this intelligence. 
Guaiter This news concerning England, Gualter, one of the chief 

thcfarch- divines °f Zuric, had also writ to Sandys, archbishop of 
bishop of York, in his correspondence with him. And towards the 
of a design latter end of this year, in March, having further knowledge 
of invading Q f these destructive designs against the queen and realm, 

England. ° . . 

gave account thereof also to Grindal, archbishop of Canter- 
bury, out of his sincere and most hearty love and concern 
for both, and the religion here professed ; viz. that the bull 
of pope Pius V. wherein he had divers years ago excommu- 
nicated the queen, was published anew in five hundred 
copies, by the cardinal abovesaid, as he had the news from 
some merchants of Norinberge, trafficking at Rome; that 
so the knowledge of it might come to all the courts of the 
catholic princes. And divers reasons were given for the do- 
ing of it. One was, that the English ambassador might be 
removed from Portugal. Another, to hinder the intended 
marriage between the French king's brother and the queen. 
And a third, and that the chief, that all catholic princes 
might withdraw themselves from any understanding with 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 339 

the queen : so as to give her no assistance against the Spa- CHAP, 
niard ; who was now preparing a mighty fleet against Eng- 



land. These advices were written from Rome in January. Anno i580. 
And the Spaniard the rather took this opportunity to in- 
vade this land ; hearing of many Roman catholics, the 
queen's subjects, here at home, that were moving sedition. 632 
" But he knew, as he subjoined, that God was the King of 
" kings, and that Christ would preserve and defend those 
" kingdoms which afforded safe harbour to his church : 
" which our serene queen had so many years done. But 
" that it was, he said, necessary for us to be upon our 
" watch against Antichrist ; who took all occasions to over- 
" throw the kingdom of Christ. That he had writ to the 
" same effect to the archbishop of York, and also to the 
" bishop of Ely ; but yet thought fit also to write the same 
" to him : the one dwelling at a great distance from Lon- 
" don, and the other by his great age obliged to tarry at 
" home. And therefore he thought it necessary to signify 
" the same to his grace : not doubting but that his care 
" and solicitude for them [the queen and her realm] would 
" find acceptance. 11 The whole of this relation from that 
learned man, in his letter to the archbishop, I shall, as it 
deserves, subjoin in the Appendix, to that other written to Number 
the bishop of Ely. XXVIIL 

The apprehension of the dangers approaching from these Commis- 
foreign as well as domestic practices put the state upon^™^* 
methods to prevent the same. And understanding how Lancashire 
stirring the papists were, especially in Lancashire, in July wry ofpa- 
this year a commission was issued out from the queen, and P' sts - 
sent down thither ; directed to the earl of Darby ; who was 
very diligent in that affair. And so Walsingham, her ma- The earl of 

iesty's secretary, informed the lord treasurer ; that the earl Darby , diH " 
ill- in P . s ent there- 

shewed himself more forward in that matter : and thereby in. 

greatly advanced that service. That the said lord would 
therefore move her majesty to write a letter of thanks to 
him : which he reckoned would greatly encourage that gen- 
tleman, as he said, being of a very gentle disposition. And 
that if her majesty, in consideration of his service, would 

z 2 



340 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK call him to the board, it would greatly increase his credit, 
1L and make him the better to serve her highness. Walsing- 
Anno 1580. na m 5 before this, had dealt with the queen for this pur- 
pose : who would not as yet be drawn hereunto ; partly 
in respect of his weakness, (being but in a crazy state of 
health,) and partly that others of his calling might look for 
the like ; as Walsingham wrote. 
Papists in In Yorkshire and in the northern parts were likewise 
Thearch- g reat numbers of papists. The archbishop of York was not 
bishop's di- wanting in discovering them, by virtue of the ecclesiastical 
finding commission ; stirred up likewise by letters from court and 
them. tne q Ueenj to be diligent therein. An account of what they 

had done, and the pains they had taken in this matter, was 
sent up to the council. But many of these papists got fa- 
vour at court by interest made with the queen. This the 
archbishop took notice of ; and withal thought it some dis- 
couragement to their proceedings. He desired countenance 
to be given them ; and they should make a greater progress 
still in finding these mortal enemies to the queen, and the 
peaceable state of the kingdom. All this he signified in a 
letter to the lord treasurer, written in August, from Bishop- 
thorp. To this tenor : 
His letter " That it should not be necessary to certify him at large 
niissk>ners" " of their proceedings there in matters ecclesiastical : for 
proceed- a tna t t h e y nac i ft one i n a book =en' up here withal to the 
1DSS ' " body of the council. That tney nad painfully travelled 

633 " in this matter. And great good, he doubted not, would 
" come of it. And that the lord president had greatly fur- 
" thered it, and done notable good service. That as they 
" had begun, they purposed to proceed. And that with a 
" great deal better courage, if they might be assisted by her 
" majesty, and by the lords of the council. Adding, as a 
" reason, that except good countenance were given them, 
" and their proceedings took full effect, without any back- 
" calling of the same, all their labour would be lost." 

© * 

Beckwith a Then he remembered his lordship of a forfeited obliga- 

papist. t ^ ^ one jj ec | <w j t h^ [a papist; perhaps given to the 

queen of not going out of such a compass, upon a penalty,] 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 341 

that a good portion thereof might come thither ; for the re- CHAP. 
lief of the officers; whose labours, he said, [in discovering XXL 
papists,] were nothing recompensed. Further, telling his Anno i580. 
lordship, " that after presentments given in by the several 
"juries, they [the commissioners] were to enter into this 
" action again by God's grace. And that then they should 
" in short time clear all that country of perverse papists ; 
" and reduce it to good conformity." This he writ from 
Bishopthorp, the 22d of August, 1580. 

There were two ancient ladies of quality in these nor- Countess of 
thern parts that were papists, who were not as yet sum- land Lady 
moned before the commissioners ; viz. the countess of Cum- Wharton, 
berland and the lady Wharton ; with whom the archbi- 
shop took pains (more privately) to reduce them. Of whom 
he gave the abovesaid lord this account, and what success 
he had with them. " That he had dealt by private letters, 
" as well with the countess-dowager of Cumberland, as also 
" with the old lady Wharton, for their conformity in mat- 
" ters of religion. 1 ' 1 And that as for that countess, she pro- 
mised that her whole counsel should be dutiful. But the 
lady Wharton would neither conform herself, neither yet 
her family. Whereupon the archbishop apprehended an ill 
consequence, viz. " that this stout obstinacy gave an ill ex- 
" ample ; and bred great hurt in that country ; and would 
" make many others undutiful." 

The archbishop also wrote his private letters unto her The arch- 
majesty touching this matter, and prayed to know her fur- J^P ^ 
ther pleasure. And this he acquainted the lord treasurer of these 
with : and withal prayed him to move her majesty to deal th n e n q Uee ° n . 
roundly with all the obstinate, of what calling soever, [noble 
as well as mean.] For if any were dispensed withal, ail our 
labours, saith he, will be lost. 

With this letter, (that I may lay these things together,) He moves 
I will here give another of the archbishop's to the same BV ^ e ^. 
person upon the same subject, wrote the next year. Where- the queen's 

*,,. .. _ • , •*/• i attorney to 

in he shewed his zeal for the suppression ol popery, and be 
particularly in those northern parts, Avhere he was particu- 
larly concerned, and where it seemed chiefly to prevail: and 

z 3 



sent 
down next 

assizes. 



342 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK likewise in the university of Cambridge ; where, in a certain 
college there, he had heard of the master and a fellow be- 



Annoisso.ing papists, that instructed their pupils in popish princi- 
ples : (who, when they came down into the north to their 
relations and friends, maintained arguments they had learned 
for popish errors, and divulged them among the people in 
their disputations.) Moving his lordship, as chancellor of 
that university, to interpose his own authority for prevent- 
ing so great an evil. His said letter ran in these words : 

" My good lord, I am to move you in two matters ; 

" wherein I know you may greatly benefit the church of 

634 " Christ. Thone is, that your lordship would be a means, 

" that the queen's attorney might come into Yorkshire the 

" next assizes, to finish that which he wonderfully well be- 

" gun. It would no doubt daunt all the papists, and cut off 

" some of such as pervert the rest. 

And that « The other is, forasmuch as you are chancellor of the 

mi^ht take " university of Cambridge, you would take order, that Dr. 

no pupils, u Legg, master of Caius college, should take no more pu- 

pish. " pils, to breed and train up in popery ; as hitherto he 

" hath, and still doth. All the popish gentlemen in this 

" country send their sons to him. He setteth sundry of 

" them over to one Swayl, also of the same house ; by 

" whom the youth of this country is corrupted : that at 

" their return to their parents, they are able to dispute in 

" the defence of popery : and few of them will repair to 

" the church. Perhaps your lordship may mislike to be 

" troubled with these small matters, seeing that ye are 

" throughly occupied in most weighty affairs. But I am 

" persuaded that your lordship cannot bestow your labour 

" in matter more tending to the good of God's church ; the 

(( advancement whereof I know you heartily seek. I minded 

" to have spoken thus much to your lordship by mouth, if 

" the parliament had holden. - " This was dated from Bi- 

shopthorp, the 14th of February, 1581. 

Popish gen- In the diocese of Norwich were divers gentlemen of the 

committed Romish religion now taken up, and committed to custody 

to prison in j n tne g ao ] at Norwich : as namely, Robert Downes, of Great 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 343 

Melton in the county of Norfolk, Michael Hare, Roger CHAP. 

XXI 

Martin, Humfrey Bedingfield, and Edward Sulyard, es-. 



quires : who had a common chamber and table ; where they Anno 1580. 

met, and eat their meals together. But something fell out 

in the month of October which created them some trouble, 

and brought them under examination before the bishop of 

the diocese. It was a letter from abroad, to Downes, writ 

by one Solomon Aeldred, that had been splendidly treated 

by the pope : of which he gave that gentleman an ample 

relation, and persuaded him to come over to them : with 

other matters in that letter of suspicious consequence. This 

letter Raphe Downes of Lincoln's Inn delivered to him, and 

presentlv went away without any other speech. In this let- A letter 

• j c \ , . ,1 .from Rome, 

ter mention was made of a great many pope s bulls sent 

over. This letter Downes began to read in the common 
room, to the rest of the aforesaid gentlemen, then met ; and 
at the hearing of the entertainment the pope ordered to be 
given to Eldred, (who had been but a hosier in London,) 
and to his wife and another woman, and six of his gentle- 
men to attend upon him at a place twelve miles distant 
from Rome, they could not but laugh ; and it became 
some matter of mirth to them : which did a little discom- 
pose Mr. Downes. But when Mr. Hare took the letter, and 
read further ; and at length began to read secretly to him- 
self; Downes finding it to be no more but a matter of ri- 
dicule to them, (and danger perhaps to him,) snatched the 
letter away, and threw it into the fire, and burnt it. This 
presently made a noise ; and the report of it came to the bi- 
shop's ears. 

Downes, to prevent any suspicion that might be taken 
against him for burning this letter, as though some treason- 
able matter were contained in it, thought it his best course, 
in order to clear himself, to send this letter following to 
the bishop. 

" May it please your lordship. That this last night, by a 635 
" kinsman of mine, letters were delivered unto me, coming {^"^ 
" from beyond the seas: which being read amongst some of the bishop 

z 4 



344 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
II. 



" us, prisoners here, there did appear some matters, which 
" being considered in some sense, may seem to towche her 
Anno 1580. « majesty, mine own allegiance towards her highness, and 
about a let- a dewtv to my country. And for that we will not conceal 

ter which J ■ J J 

he burnt. " any matter, that may any wayes towch her majesty, or the 
" estate of this realme, which we are all bownd to preserve, 
" as our selves ; wee have thought good, in discharging of 
" our dewties and allegiances, to reveal the same to your 
" lordship : that upon the hearing and examination of the 
" matter by your lordship, you may use your lordship's 
" discretion, for the revealing of it, as it shall seem best 
" unto you : beseeching your lordship, for that the matter 
" doth chiefly towch me, that I may come before your 
" lordship spedily ; for the uttering of the trewth, in dis- 
" charging of my dewty and allegiance. Thus I humbly 
" take my leave. From my chamber at the gayler's. 

" Your honour's at commaundment, 

" Robert Downes." 



[Number 
XXVIII.] 



Advices 
concerning 
popish re- 
cusants in 
Southamp 
ton. 



This prudent course Downes, and the rest concerned, ad- 
visedly took. And the bishop forthwith examined this mat- 
ter to the bottom by divers interrogatories put to each of 
them. To which they gave free answers. And besides, 
Downes and the four other gentlemen set down under their 
.hand the sum and contents of the letter, according as they 
could remember it. And these papers were sent up by the 
bishop, viz. both their examination and confessions. For the 
contents of the letter, as set down by Downes and the rest, 
see them preserved in the Appendix : wherein also they 
profess their true loyalty and acknowledgment of the 
queen's supremacy, and fidelity to their country. 

In the county of Southampton, washed on one side by the 
sea, (and so conveniently situate to let in priests from 
abroad,) were many of these papists. And so multiplied by 
revolting from religion, that the bishop of Winchester, in 
whose diocese it lies, near about this year sent intelligence 
thereof to the lord treasurer and other lords of the council ; 
in order to repress the boldness and waywardness of the re- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 345 

cusants in that county : with his advice in these particulars CHAP. 

XXI. 

following : . 



First, That it may please your honours to renew the Anno i5so. 
charge of diligent looking to the seaside and the creeks, for 
the coming in or passing forth of evil-disposed persons. 

Secondly, That it may please you to give charge to the 
sheriff and some other of the most forward gentlemen, once 
in a month or three weeks, upon the sudden to have privy 
search in sundry suspected places ; whether it is thought 
the Jesuits, or seminary men, have their recourse and re- 
fuge, to seduce her majesty's subjects. 

Thirdly, That an hundred or two of obstinate recusants, 
lusty men, well able to labour, may by some convenient 
commission be taken up, and sent into Flanders, as pioneers 
and labourers : whereby the country shall be disburdened 
of a company of dangerous persons, and the residue that 636 
remain be put into fear ; that they may not so fast revolt 
as now they do. 

Fourthly, If it shall please your honours to grant liberty 
to any of these gentlemen, as shall compound with her ma- 
jesty according to your lordship's late letters, that the same 
may not be suffered to remain in the said shire ; but to be 
assigned to some other place, where they may do less harm. 
For undoubtedly they that have remained there have stole 
away the people's hearts mightily, and daily do continue so 
to do. For even this last Easter, upon some secret pact 
purposely wrought, five hundred persons have refused to 
communicate, moi*e than before did [refuse to do it.] Which 
will fall out to great inconvenience. [The rest of this paper 
is torn.] 

This search continued in this year 1580, and also in 1581, Search in 
1582 ; and still further, both in the houses where papists hoUses in 
inhabited, and in prisons, where they were committed fopHoggesdon. 

1 J .-. Paper Omce. 

priests, for popish books, and other superstitious things 
brought over, consecrated by the pope. Among other 
places in and about London, search was made in certain 
popish gentlemen's houses in Hoggesdon, by order from 
the privy-council, by the high constable. As in the house 



346 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK of sir William Tresham : where (according to an account 
. sent up) were found he and his lady, and three daughters, 



Anno 1580. L ew is their son, and divers servants: and among the rest 
Tresham!™ Henry Gilbert, his butler, and Denis Parret, who had this 
mark (j^- set at their names ; signifying, perhaps, that they 
Popish were suspected to be priests or Jesuits. Here they found 
pictures ano ^ to °k away a painted crucifix on a table, hanging by the 
taken. lady's bed side : the Jesuits' Testament in English : Offic. 
BeatcB Maria, ii. : a Manual of Prayers, dedicated to the 
gentlemen of inns of court : Vaux's Catechism ; the first 
book of the Christian Exercise: a book of prayers and 
meditations : a painted crucifix upon orange-coloured sa- 
tin : a picture of Christ upon canvass. Of the persons above- 
named only two would be known [those marked, as it 
seems] to be able to read and write ; and to be no further 
learned. All we found there, which we left behind, (as it 
follows in the writing,) was, a new-fashioned picture of 
Christ in a great table ; and a tabernacle of sundry painted 
images, with leaves to fold, serving, as should seem, for a 
tabernacle or skreen to stand upon an altar. 
Mr.Tho. At Mr. Thomas Wilford's house in Hoggesdon aforesaid, 

1 or ' were he and his wife ; servants divers, men and women ; 
one Valentine, who served as a tailor four years ; James 
Elston, one year ; Thomas Howman, butler, served him a 
year and half; William Marks, about nineteen years of 
age, who had served him from his childhood. [This last 
had a jf^r ] The three above-named confessed themselves 
able scarcely to write their names : but the boy could nei- 
ther write nor read. Books brought thence : a mass-book, 
old : a written catechism : Officium B. Marice ; a very old 
one : an epistle of the Prosecution of Catholics in England; 
the same in Latin : a book against the unlawful insurrec- 
tion of the protestants, with certain leaves torn out: Ca- 
techism, ex decreto Consilii Trident. 
Ka/rip- In the said Hoggesdon was searched also Mr. Ra. Tip- 

pin °* ping's house. " In all these three houses, commandment 

" was by us given, according to our directions, to the several 
637 " masters of the said houses, upon their allegiance, to see all 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 347 

a the foresaid persons forthcoming, until they should be dis- CHAP 
" charged of them. 11 '_ 



Some priests were taken: who, when they were exa-Anno 1580. 
mined, stoutly denied, that they persuaded any of the{*™ 8 ^ 
queen's subjects to obey the pope, depriving her of her 
sword and sceptre ; or that they were bound to assist him, 
or whom he should send to take the same by force of arms. 
And they protested earnestly, in open audience, that they 
had no such meaning ; but for their parts did account her 
their lawful and true princess, and taught all others so to 
do : having first gained, like wily friars, a dispensation at 
Rome, that to avoid the present danger, they and all other 
their obsequents, might serve and honour the queen for a 
time, until the bull of Pius V. might sufficiently be exe- 
cuted. [So it ran in the dispensation of Campion and Par- 
sons, as was set in the margin of Dr. Bylson's book.] " And True Diffe- 

rence, &c, 

" it may be (saith that writer) the common sort of such as b y Byison". 

" they perverted were not acquainted with these heinous E P' st - ded - 

" mysteries. But yet this was the full resolution of them 

" all, as before was reported, as well appeared by their exa- 

" minations. And this very conclusion stood in their written 

" books, as a ruled case, that they must rather lose their 

" lives than shrink from this groundwork ; that the pope 

" may deprive the queen of her sceptre and throne. Be- 

" cause, say they, it is a point of faith, and requireth con- 

" fession of the mouth, though death ensue. [Where in 

" the margin is set, In their Case of Conscience, the 55th 

" article.] 

Now as to their cases of conscience, I have this to add. Popish cases 
One way the papists now used to preserve themselves, and ° ci g°" e re _ 
to avoid the danger of the laws made against them, that solved, 
they propounded several questions in point of conscience to 
their learned, Jesuits chiefly: who accordingly gave fa- 
vourable solutions to them, containing many courses and 
methods for concealing their religion ; but allowing no com- 
pliance with the schism. Such questions sir James Har- 
grave propounded to some Jesuit, whose name I do not 
meet with, (perhaps Campion,) and accordingly had answers 



348 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK given to each of them. Which, both questions and answers, 

were found in the said sir James's study in July, 1580. 

Anno 1580. This being, in my judgment, a curious paper, I shall here 

give, as I found it in Latin, among some state-papers, to 

this tenor in English. 

Popish « I, Whether I may have psalms and chapters read in 

and an- " English in my chapel, before my family and others, truly 

swers found a translated, in the order prescribed by heretics, and fol- 

in sir James A J 

Hargrave's " lowed by them. 

study. u j j n em ^ Whether I may have read the English pro- 

" cession [that is, the Litany, I suppose] as it is now set 
" forth. 

" Anszoer, Privately to pray in psalms truly translated ; 
" and to read chapters translated, for instruction, so as best 
" edify, I think it good. But to set forth the same for 
" common service is an abhorrence and contempt of the 
" other good use, before had, if it be done without public 
" authority of the catholic church. And if fear of the 
" world, which is evil, be the cause of it, the fault is in- 
" creased. And if the hearers shall think it to be the new 
" prescribed order, then is the procurer scandali causa, i. e. 
" the cause of scandal ; besides dissimulation in that which 
" is done. And whereas, consensus cum malis est malus, 
" i. e. consent with the evil is evil, it should be thought the 
" procurer doth give his consent, although not expressed, 
638 " at least he doth it interpretative. Therefore we must 
" take heed, that by shunning one schism, we fall not into 
" another. 

" III. Item, Whether I may be confessed to a priest, 
" being in schism, except in articulo mortis, i. e. at the 
" point of death. 

" Anszver, A schismatic ritely and catholicly ordained at 
" first, hath order, but not the execution of order. And if 
" he administer any sacraments, he sinneth damnably. And 
" although he confer the sacrament upon the adult, yet he 
" would not receive the grace of the sacrament, in part 
" given, if it be uncertain that it is a sin. Whosoever 
(* doubts, the sin is certain. But they who by ignorance are 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 349 

" there baptized, thinking, that it is the church of Christ, CHAP. 
" in comparison of them, he sinneth less, if they are X ' ' 
" wounded in the sacrilege of schism. Aug. de Baptis. libro, Anno 158O, 
" cap. 5. The same is to be thought of the other sacra- 
" ments as of baptism. 

" But in case of extreme necessity, where a catholic shall 
" not be found, by whom he may receive it, and keep ca- 
" tholic peace in his mind, if presently he depart out of this 
" life, we do not think him catholic. If he recover, let him 
" return to the catholic church, &c. Aug. ibid. cap. 2. 

" IV. Item, Whether I may be godfather to any that is 
" christened after the manner now used. And if it be not 
" lawful in mine own person to do it, whether I may send 
'* my deputy or no. 

" Answer, To bring children, and to offer them to be 
" baptized by heretics or schismatics without the church, is 
" to agree to schism. He that doth it by another seems to 
" do it by himself. 

" V. Whether I may see service, such as is not allowed 
" by the catholic church, with a priest in schism or no. 

" Answer, With heretics and schismatics we must neither 
" pray nor sing. He that communicates and prays with an 
" excommunicate person, whether clerk or laic, let him be 
" excommunicated. Counc. Cartli. cap. iv. 72, 73. 

" VI. Whether I may not be present at any schismatical 
" service: so that I neither communicate with them in 
" prayer nor in sacraments. 

" Answer, It is one thing to be present at the schismati- 
" cal prayers, only to observe their manners, which many 
" catholics have done : another, to pretend in countenance 
" and gesture to pray with them, although it be not done 
" in mind ; for to do that is by the bystanders interpreted 
" consent. For we communicate not with the sins of others, 
" but by consenting and favouring. 

" VII. Whether any benefice that shall be vacant, being 
" in my gift, it shall be lawful to present one to the sup- 
" posed bishop, or no. 

" Answer, The patron of a church is, as it were, the pa- 



350 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " tron of the people, and he ought to present, to be insti- 

IIj " tuted, a shepherd, not a wolf, as far as he can understand. 

Anno 1580. " Otherwise he shall be the author of a scandal; to wit, 

" such by whom scandal cometh. Yet he may yield to an- 

" other the right of patronage before the church be vacant 

639 " for that turn ; saving to himself the right for the time 

" hereafter: or to permit to lapse to the collation of the 

" ordinary. 

" VIII. " Whether it be lawful to say divine service or 
" to celebrate, where the communion or other their schis- 
" matical service hath been frequented. 

" Answer, I think places being heretofore consecrated, 
" and now polluted with the conventicle of heretics, are to 
" be reconciled by catholic bishops. But although it be not 
" yet done, if the constitution of the church is not despised 
" concerning this thing, I think a catholic man may law- 
" fully in any place lift up pure hands to God. 

" IX. Whether my chaplain may be permitted, for con- 
" ference sake, and better instruction of the catholics, to 
" read such books as are prohibited by the late council of 
" Trent ; and especially such books as are set forth by the 
" new superintendents. 

" Answer, It seems to be a constitution of the council of 
" Trent ; of not reading the books of heretics. Whether 
" the ordinary of the place can dispense with men learned, 
" constant, and not easily yielding to seducers ; that they 
" may have and read them, to stir up the people, and to 
" move them concerning their errors: the tenor of the con- 
" stitution is to be kept. 11 

Certain other questions to be resolved. 

" I. Whether any man reconciled may have his child 
" christened of any being in schism, unreconciled. That is, 
" whether both the priest, godfathers, and godmothers 
" ought to be within the unity of Christ's church. 

" Answer, To the first, all the parties, as well the priest 
" as godfathers and godmothers, ought to be in the unity 
" of the catholic church. And the parents being in that 
'-' state, ought not to procure any other to be present ; but 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 351 

" to avoid, if they can, that none being out of that state CHAP. 
'* shall be present at the ministration of the sacrament. And XX1, 



" yet, if others be present, being no parties to the ministra- Anno 158O. 
" tion, it forceth not. 

" II. If it be not lawful to have any but such as be re- 
" conciled, then the child being first christened after the order 
" of the catholic church, whether afterwards I may have in 
" open show, within mine own house, some things read in 
" English : as a gospel and certain prayers ; and also other 
" godfathers to bear the name, which be in schism. 

" Answer to the second, It is not lawful: for it is not 
" good in any such thing to dissemble with God, by some 
" convenient sort to excuse the manner that you would 
" use. 

" III. Whether any priests reconciled may read such 
%i things in English, and not hereby fall into schism. 

" Answer, It is not lawful for any such priest as is named 
" in the said article to do any such thing. 

" IV. If any child being christened in schism, whether 640 
" exorcism, cream, and oil, and other things wanting, ought 
" to be added. 

" Answer, It is not necessary for such things to be done. 

" V. Whether there may be any more godfathers and 
" godmothers than two ; that is, one godfather and one 
" godmother at the most, according to the decree of the 
" late general council of Trent. 

" Answer, The old accustomed order may yet be used, 
" or the other followed, as it shall please you. Because the 
" decree is not yet here promulgated. And also the cause 
" of that decree is only to avoid the increase of spiritual 
" kindred among such persons as are marriageable. 



352 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
II. 

Anno 1580. 



CHAP. XXII. 



Divers popish emissaries taken up. The conference at Wis- 
bich. FeckenharrCs confession. Dr. Fulk sent by the bi- 
shop of Ely thither. Account of the conference published. 
Fulk^s challenge. The pope^s factors abroad discovered 
by A. M. Design in Rome of invading England. Some 
of the principles taught in the English college at Rome. 
Campion confesses where he teas entertained in London, 
and elsewhere, viz. in Yorkshire and Lancashire. Several 
disputations with him in the Tower, in answer to his 
challenge. Some account of Campion, and his course oj 
life. Parry at Paris : corresponds with the lord trea- 
surer: intercedes for certain popish fugitives: the 
Ropers: sir Anthony {alias lord) Coppely. Advice for 
defence in case of invasion. 

v^AMPION, one of the chief of these emissaries of Rome, 
with others of them, were now discovered, and taken up; Cam- 
pion put into the Tower, and many of them sent to Wisbich 
castle, where Watson and Feckenham now were. It pleased 
the lords, and others of her majesty's privy-council, after 
those recusants were committed there, to direct their letters 
to the bishop of Ely (in whose diocese the castle was wherein 
those prisoners were kept) to provide that they might have 
conference, (if they would admit any,) and be called upon to 
come to church, and to hear the preaching there. 

Whereupon the bishop made choice of Dr. Fulk, a learn- 
ed professor of divinity in Cambridge, with some others, 

confer with w hom he purposed to send unto them. And him he desired 
them. 

(as Dr. Fulk tells us himself) by his chancellor, Mr. D. 

Bridgwater, to repair unto him in the Isle of Ely. From 

whence he sent him with a gentleman of his house, to signify 

Brief confu- 1 them that had the charge of those prisoners, the cause of 

sundry ca- his coming. Whereupon ensued a certain speech made by 

viis and him, in the presence of certain honest men, specially called, 

quarrels. L . i/?i 

p. is. and required to be witnesses; besides a number oi good 

641 credit. The sum whereof was written at that present time 



Campion 
and other 
priests 
taken and 
committed. 



The bishop 
sends learn- 
ed men to 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 353 

by three or four that came with him. Of which one was a CHAP. 

learned preacher, and collected what was spoken, to certify . '___ 

the bishop, as near as could be, what communication had AnQOl 580. 
passed between them ; without any further purpose of publish- 
ing the same. But the copy thereof coming into the hand Dr. Fulk's 
of a friend of Fulke's at London, and by him communicated c ° nference : 

' J afterwards 

to some other of his friends, at last it came into the printer's published. 
hands; who suddenly set it abroad, without the knowledge occasion.* 
of Fulke or his friend. Means was made to have the printer 
punished. And had not Campion's proud challenge come 
even in the nick, that reverend and learned man could not 
have been persuaded by his friends to have suffered that 
party to go so clear as he did. 

Thus he thought fit to vindicate himself from a certain Vindicates 
popish book, being an epistle of the Persecution in Eng- ^^1 
land ; done, as it was thought, by Parsons. Wherein this against a 
matter is related so, as though he, for a little vainglory, pub- der. S 
lished this account. " The vainglory,"" as that author wrote, 
" of contending cum magnatibusf i. e. with those noble- 
men, as he called Watson the bishop, and Feckenham the 
abbot ; so long since by lawful authority deprived of such 
dignities. The author of that epistle relateth this conference 
with them thus : " That he crept secretly into the castle un- 
" looked for, and without any authority : and that he came 
" to offer them conference by no public authority. And 
" that he commanded them to be brought into his presence.'" 
But, as Fulke answered, " Did he command them by his 
" private authority ? Or were they who had them in custody 
" so simple, that they would obey an unknown person, a 
" mean man, of small or no account, coming without autho- 
" rity ? In truth, he gave no commandment for their ap- 
'* pearance before him : only the bishop's will was declared 
" by his gentleman, his servant, unto their keeper. 1 "' But 
to go on with the truth of the relation. All reasonable con- 
dition of books, time, and order for the conference was of- 
fered them. But something stayed them ; whether the dis- 
dain of Fulke's person, or more the fear of the weakness of 
their cause, that they would not adventure their credit in 

VOL. II. PART II. a a 



354 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK trial by disputation. And in the end they concluded, [viz. 
' Watson and Fecknam,] that all disputation in matters of 
Anno 1580. faith was unprofitable: alleging examples of the disputa- 
tions in the convocation-house in the beginning of the 
queen's reign ; and the conference at Westminster in the 
presence of almost all the learned and wise of the land. 

And thus Dr. Fulke was fain to justify himself by giving 
this just relation of this intended conference, which was de- 
clined, and of the account of it in print. And thus falsely 
also another popish writer represented this conference : as, 
" That Fulke only looked into Wisbech castle ; and printed 
" a pamphlet in his own praise : and that he attempted the 
" matter without authority." 
Conferences But as for Fecknam, there were this year (in which he 
between the came tQ "Wisbech) several conferences held with him by the 

bishop of . ' J 

Ely and bishop of Ely, in the presence of Dr. Perne, the dean, and 
divers of his chaplains, and other learned men : wherein he 
confessed in his conscience his allowance of divers things 
used and practised in the present reformed church : as of 
the common service to be good in the mother tongue, and 
such as was understood of the common people. And so he 
642 acknowledged that of St. Paul, 1 Cor. xiv. was to be taken. 
Also, that he found no fault with any thing set forth in the 
Book of Common Prayer now used in the church of Eng- 
land. But his desire was, to have all the rest of the old ser- 
vice that was taken away, to be restored ; as the prayers 
to saints, and for the dead, &c. and that then he would 
willingly come to church. Also, that he very well allowed 
of the oath for the queen's supremacy, as it was interpreted 
in her majesty's Injunctions, and that he was ready to take 
that oath whensoever it should be offered. But that he 
would not come to the service of our church, though he 
thought it in his conscience lawful, because he is not of our 
church for lack of unity; some being protestants, some pu- 
ritans, some of the family of love ; and because it was not 
set forth by authority of a general council. And lastly, that 
he would not conform himself to our religion, because he 
could see nothing sought for, but the spoil of the church. I 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 355 

refer the reader to the Appendix, for this popish abbot's CHAP. 

whole confession, taken out of the original paper, subscribed 

by himself; and signed by the bishop of Ely and some of Anno uso. 
his chaplains; and endorsed thus by the lord Burghley , s N ° ,XXIX# 
hand, Feckenhani's Confession. 

I add this further concerning that learned professor, Dr. Fulk's 
Fulk, that he made this year a challenge openly in print to£ ha,len s e 
all learned papists, in his book called The Retentive; inpists. 
answer to Bristozv's Motives. And three years after, in his 
Confutation of sundry cavils, &c. he repeated it with these 
words : " If you be so sharp-set upon disputations, as you 
" pretend, why doth never a papist of you all answer my 
" challenge, made openly in print almost three years ago, set 
" before my Retentive? Wherein you may express what you 
" have in maintenance of your opinion, without suit, without 
" dang-er ; and to the best and surest trial of the truth.' 1 

A great many of these English factors for the pope were Names of 
about this time discovered by one of themselves; and the^ c e t( ^ pes 
several places abroad where they resided. This man's name abroad dis- 
was Anthony Monday, sometime of the English college at A.Yionday. 
Rome: one of these thus discovered by him was Wood- 
ward, at Amiens ; who persuaded this A. Monday, and one 
Thomas Newel, rambling thither, to go to Rheims, and take 
orders. He was at length the pope's scholar at Rome : but 
afterwards came into England, and turned protestant ; and 
wrote a book concerning them and their way of living, call- 
ed, The English Roman life. Therein he also nameth Dr. The English 

R . I °f 

Bristow at Doway ; Dr. Allen at Rheims, afterward made a oman 
cardinal ; Dr. Lewis at Rome, archdeacon of Cambray ; Dr. 
Morris, rector of the English college or hospital in Rome ; 
Mr. Deacon at Lyons; at whose house certain treasonable 
words were spoke by Henry Orton, one of them that were 
condemned afterwards in England, but not executed, but then 
lying in the Tower: at Milain, at cardinal Borrhomeo's pa^- 
lace, Dr. Robert Griffin, confessor to the said cardinal: Steuk- 
ly, and three more popish gentlemen at Rome, in great credit 
with the pope ; the first appointed with an army to invade 
England, but slain in the battle of the king of Portugal. 

Aa2 



356 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK This put a stop to that invasion. These three other gentle- 
. men came from the north parts of England, (as Dr. Griffin 



Anno 1580. told Monday and his fellow, dining with him on a Christmas 
day,) and were to go forward with Steukly in the enterprise, 
and to have the pope's army committed to their conduct ; 
and so to overrun England at their pleasure. And then they 
643 would make (as Dr. Griffin proceeded in his narration) kings, 
and dukes, and earls at their pleasure ; every one, according 
as they thought well of. And that they got letters from Dr. 
Saunders, Dr. Allen, Dr. Bristow, and others; who thought 
very well of their intent. And therefore forwarded them in 
their letters, so much as they might, to Dr. Lewis, Dr. Mor- 
ris, Dr. Moorton, and other doctors and gentlemen at Rome. 
They followed the suit to the pope's holiness ; informing, 
how they had already won such a number of English to 
join with them, when the matter came to pass, that, granting 
them his holiness's army, they should presently overrun all 
England, and yield it wholly into his hand. But the pope, 
when he had scanned this business ; well noting the simple 
and arrogant behaviour of the men, as this writer relates, 
and their unlikelihood of performing these things ; they were 
denied their request, and sent away without recompense. 
Not but that the pope was well enough disposed to invade 
Ens-land, but was more inclinable to send his forces to the 
Spaniard for that end, as we heard before. 
The raillery Queen Elizabeth, as the same writer further informs, was 
litem? thus reproached by an English priest at Rome: « That 
against the « proud, usurping Jezebel ; whom God reserveth to make 
queen. ^ j^ ^ p U "blic spectacle to the whole world, for keeping that 
" good queen of Scots from her lawful rule. But I hope 
" ere long the dogs shall tear her flesh ; and those that be 
" her props and upholders." These words that priest spake 
in the English college to A. Monday, when he came there 
first. 
How the Concerning such as came to Rome, to the English college 
pope is to tnere , thus the priest abovesaid told A. M. " Such as come 
by those " to this holy place must faithfully bend his life and con- 
to^mT " versation to honour and reverence our provident and holy 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 357 

" father the pope, in all things that shall like him to com- CHAP. 
" mand ; to hold and confess him the universal supreme '_ 



M head of Christ's church ; and embrace his decrees as the Anno i580. 

« only ordinance and will of God. For he is the person of 

" God on earth ; and he cannot err, because the Spirit of 

" divine grace guideth him continually. He hath authority 

" over all kings and princes, to erect and suppress whom he 

" pleaseth ; (and that shall England well know, ere long.) 

" To honour and obey him ; to be a true and faithful sub- 

" ject of his church ; and to live and die in his cause : this 

" ought to be the intent of all that come hither." So fast 

were they to be held in the pope's fetters, that expected 

maintenance here from him in his college. 

And so far was the plot against England at this time ad- Many ap- 
vanced, and with such confidence of success, that they had ^ t0 be 
already doomed a great many of the queen's chief ministers, destroyed 
and other zealous protestants, both of the laity and clergy, there carry- 
For the aforesaid priest, in the garden with A. M. pulled 1D S on - 
a paper out of his pocket, saying, " I have a bedroll of them 
" here ; who little know what is providing for them ; and I 
" hope shall not know it, till it fall upon them.'" Then he 
read their names unto him ; [we are left to conjecture who 
they were : very probably these were some ; the lord trea- 
surer, the earl of Leicester, secretary Walsingham, Mild- 
may, &c] and opening the paper further, at the end were 
more names ; as of magistrates, and others belonging to the 
city of London. Among whom was Mr. Recorder, [Fleet- 
wood,] Noel, dean of St. Paul's, Mr. Fox, Mr. Crowley, and 
sundry others. And he well remembered, that no one was 
named, but he had the order of his death appointed ; either 
by burning, hanging, or quartering, and the like. But the 644 
realm was aware of these designs, how private soever the 
enemies practised : and the favourable providence of God 
disappointed them. Campion 

One of these taken up was Campion the Jesuit, one of confesses 

persons thn,t 

the chiefest and busiest in perverting the queen's subjects ; entertained 
and had no small success therein ; being a person zealous for Jj m ^ fi 

A a3 



358 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK the cause, and of some learning. Among the papers I have 
conversed with, I find one containing his confession of the 



Anno 1580. persons with whom he was entertained. But first he under- 
went the rack in the Tower, before he could be brought to 
do it, but favourably. He confessed he was in the houses 
of the lord Vaux, sir Thomas Tressham, sir William Catesby, 
knights, in the summer, 1580. These persons being inform- 
ed of Campion's confession, and required in her majesty's 
behalf, by her majesty's commandment, to answer unto the 
lord treasurer, the lord chamberlain, and the earl of Leices- 
ter, upon their oaths, whether, to their knowledge, he had 
been at any of their houses sithence June, 1580, (when Cam- 
pion came over,) refused so to do. And the lord Vaux refused 
a AJi within to answer thereunto upon his honour. ^Notwithstanding, 
crotchets tne y were severally informed, that Campion had confessed 
is written jj ie game. Whereof the direct confessions were read to them, 
lord trea- And after their refusal to purge themselves by their oaths, 
surer's they were afterwards charged in her majesty's name, upon 
their allegiance, peremptorily refused to answer.] All this 
that followeth in the said paper hath Campion's name in the 
margin, as matter confessed by him. 

Henry Perpoint, esq. Jervyse Ferpoint, his brother. That 
he was there at the last Christmas, and tarried there until 
the Tuesday after Twelfth-day. Brought thither by Jer- 
vyse Perpoint. Confessed by both the Perpoints. He said 
masses, and confessed Jervyse every week. 

Henry Secheverel, esq. That he was there about the 
Wednesday after Twelfth-day last. Tarried there one night. 
Confessed by Mr. Secheverell. And that he said one mass. 
■ ■■ - Langford, esq. That he was there two nights, 
about Thursday and Friday after Twelfth-day last. Con- 
fessed. And that lie there said two masses. Jervyse Per- 
point confesseth it also. 

The lady Fuljanes. That he was there one night, about 
Saturday after Twelfth-day last. Jervyse Perpoint [con- 
fesseth] that they stayed there two nights ; and said two 
masses. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 359 

Powdrel, gentleman. Himself confesseth his being CHAP. 

there with Jervyse Perpoint, and Gylbert, after Christmas 1_ 

last. Where Campion said mass. Anno 1580, 

Ayres of the Stiple, gent. [This is the confession 

of Jervyse Perpoint, whose name is in the margin.] That 
he brought Campion thither about Monday sennight after 
Twelfth-day last : where they met with Tempest by former 
appointment. After which Campion confesseth, he went 
northward with Tempest. And that they kept company 
together about nine clays. And will confess no place of 
their being, but at Janes. 

The proclamation made for these Jesuits, &c. was the 
24th day of January, anno 23 rcgiiue, nunc. And all fol- 
lowing received Campion after that proclamation. 

John llookeby, of Yeafford, gent. He confessed Cam- 645 
pion was at his house the Saturday next before Candlemas 
last, being the 28th of January. 

Dr. Vavasor, Mrs. Bulmer, sir William Babthorp, kt. 

Grimston, gent. Hawkworth, gent. Asculph 

Clesby, gent. That he [Campion signed] was at all these 
places after the 28th of January last : and before Midlent, 
it appeareth by comparing of his confessions. 

William Harrington, gent. That he was there fourteen 
days, about Easter last. Made there part of his Prophecy 
book. Brought thither by Smith, Mrs. Harrington's bro- 
ther. Mr. Harrington confesseth, he [Campion] came to 
his house about Saturday the third week in Lent last : stay- 
ed there about twelve days: knew him not for Campion 
until he was upon departure. 

Talbot, of , esq. Thomas Southworth, gent. Lancashire. 

Bartholomew Hesketh, gent. Mrs. Allen, widow; Richard 

Hawghton, of the Park, gent. Westby, gent. 

Rygmaidcn, gent, [signed] Campion. That he was in these 
places between Easter and Whitsuntide last past. For all 
that time he bestowed in Lancashire, at Mr. Talbot's and 

Mr. Southworth's. He went with Mr. More, of , 

Yorkshire, and his wife, Mrs. More : he having before been 
his scholar. 

Aa 4- 



360 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK — — __ Price, esq. William Griffith, esq. the lady Stoner; 

! ■■ Est, gent, the lady Babington ; Mrs. Pollard, widow ; 

Anno 1580. Yeate, gent, [signed] Campion. That he had been at 

all these places sithence Whitsuntide last. At Priced in his 

absence. At Mr. Griffith, his wife. Morris, being 

there at the lady Stoner's, John Stoner. Sely's man being 
there at Mr. Yeate's. All these that were taken with 
him, privy to it. And at Griffith's, Parsons and he [Cam- 
pion] met ; and were all together at Stoner' s lodge. 
Campion in From this curious original paper Campion is traced from 
and Lanca- Christmas to Easter, and thence to Whitsuntide, through 
shire. Yorkshire and Lancashire ; and the divers and sundry po- 

pish gentlemen, ill affected in those parts to the queen and 
her government, who had received and entertained him se- 
cretly ; and at whose house this Campion, and Parsons, the 
other Jesuit, and emissary from the pope, met ; on purpose 
to lay their treasonable plots in this kingdom. Whereby all 
these persons, men and women, were brought into danger of 
their lives by harbouring them against an act of parliament 
and the queen's proclamation. 
The lord There seemed to have been some doubt at court, how to 

advireto P rocee ^ against him and the rest. And the lord treasurer, 
proceed by absent then from court, was desired by secretary Walsing- 
these «nis- nam *° g* xe n ^ s grave advice about it. Who gave this an- 
saries of swer to the secretary, That he thought it convenient and 
necessary that the law should pass upon them ; writing thus 
to him : " That as for those lewd fellows" (as Walsingham 
had called them,) " lately sent from Rome into England, he 
" advised him to move her majesty, that the lord chancellor, 
" by conference with the recorder, might devise some way, 
" agreeable to the law of the realm, for the punishment of 
" them.'" Which Walsingham answered, he would not fail 
to do. And this whole trial at large is preserved to us by 
Stow in his addition to Wolfe's Chronicle. 
The confer- Campion, who was a mighty boaster, had sometime before 
Campion 'in ma ^ e a ^d challenge, and published it against protestants: 
the Tower, which it was thought fit to answer. And so some of the 
challenge, learned clergy were appointed to enter a public disputation 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 361 

with him in the Tower, upon his own arguments and CHAP, 
reasons. Of which conferences or disputations witli him, I xxn - 



proceed to give some brief account. They were four. The Anno i580. 
first was begun, ult. August, 1581, managed against him by 646 
two deans, viz. Nowel, dean of St. Paul's, and Day, dean of 
Windsor, in the chapel of the Tower. They came to ex- 
amine the untruths of his own book, wherein he made so 
large a challenge, rather than to dispute and wrangle. And 
so they entered upon the first part of his book ; wherein he 
charged the queen's merciful government, and those that 
professed the gospel, (as he did in the preface of his book,) 
with unusual cruelty and torments, practised upon his fel- 
lows in religion. And then they came to the matter of his Deans of 
book. And " First, That we had cut off many goodly and^" d ^'j_ 
" principal parts of the holy scriptures, and the whole body sor confer 
" thereof, of mere desperation and distrust of our cause. 11 W1 im ' 
And the first proof he named was the epistle of St. James : 
for which he quoted Luther : but the deans produced the 
book which was entitled, De Captivitate Babylonica, and 
cleared Luther. In the afternoon they had another confer- 
ence; when there were several other papists present also; 
as Hart and Sherwin, who spake frequently on the side of 
Campion and his arguments. 

The second and third conferences, on the 18th and 23d Dr. Fuik 
days of September, were managed by Dr. Fulk and Dr. ^ ld d °!'' f , 
Goad, heads of colleges in Cambridge. In the second con- with him. 
ference, they proceeded to the third chapter of Campion's of their ^ 
book, wherein he slandered the church of England, and conference, 
the whole church of God, for his definition of the catholic 
church : for that it was asserted by them to be invisible. In 
the afternoon they disputed upon this question, Whether 
the visible church may err. The third day's conference was 
upon these two questions ; which were Campion's assertions. 
I. Christ is in the blessed sacrament substantially, very God 
and very man. II. That after the words of consecration, 
the bread and wine are transubstantiated into the body and 
blood of Christ. 

The fourth day's conference, September 27, was managed 



362 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK by Mr. Dr. Walker, and Mr. William Chark, opponents, 

and Campion respondent. The questions were, I. Whether 

Anno 1580. the scriptures contain sufficient doctrine to salvation. II. 

Dr -Waiter Whether faith only iustifieth. The third and fourth of 

and Mr. J J 

Chark hold these conferences were begun and ended with godly prayers 
day'fcon- b y tne divines on the protestant side. 

ference. These conferences were so carefully recollected by the di- 

These con- x ' mes themselves, that they set their own hands to them, as 

ferences . 

published : testimonies of the just and true accounts given thereof. And 
w iy * some months after, they were published : on this occasion, 
partly, that all might see what, strength of argument this 
confident challenger was master of; and chiefly, because 
very false and untrue reports hereof were first printed by 
others, that were favourers of Campion: who had most 
unjustly aspersed the protestant disputants, and extolled the 
Jesuit, as obtaining the victory, and putting the others to 
silence. Insomuch that the two deans were fain to print a 
recital of certain untruths scattered in the pamphlets and li- 
bels of the papists, concerning the former conferences, with 
a short answer to the same. Therein is mentioned, how it 
was observed concerning the Jesuit, that he was so hot and 
passionate in his arguings : rising up sometimes from the 
form on which he sat ; did cast tip and fling with his hands 
64 f and arms; did knock and beat upon his book, upon every 
other word, with an exceeding loud voice and sharp counte- 
nance : which made one of the antagonists, speaking in 
Latin, use these words : Qui hie mos est, mi homo ? Quis 
hie gestus ? Et loqueris, et pulsus Jbres. Gloriosus miles. 
Projicis umpullas, et sesquipedaUa verba. 

As for the three last conferences, they were faithfully 
gathered out of the notes of divers that were present, and 
writ there what was spoken, and after were perused by the 
learned men themselves ; and lastly, published by authority. 
And so it was certified in the preface by John Field, one of 
those that took notes. And they are signed at the end of 
each conference by the hands of the parties that held the 
discourses. 

But an inconvenience was observed in these disputations, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 363 

which prejudiced and hindered the good use and benefit that CHAP. 
mig ht otherwise have been made of them. For the ma- '_ 



naging, these discourses with Campion were too confused, Anno 1580. 
and required better regulation and order, for the more ef- 
fectual putting to silence this boaster. This Thomas Nor- Advice for 
ton, D. D. was sensible of; who was one of the disputants j^'J^ 011 
appointed; who therefore advised a more suitable method confer- 
to proceed in : which he himself followed in another con- 
ference. An account of the inconveniences of the former 
conference, and how to regulate them that should be hereaf- 
ter, (for more, it seems, were intended,) he wrote in a letter 
to the lord treasurer ; who had sent to him for the notes of 
the last rencounters with that Jesuit : propounding it to his 
lordship, and the rest of the most honourable, to think of 
some amendment of the order in their course of treaty to be 
had with him. And he prayed his lordship to pardon him 
to say, that he thought the course hitherto taken, either by 
lack of order, or moderation, or convenient respect of ad- 
mittine; men to be hearers, had been both fruitless and hurt- 
ful, and subject to great harm, by reports. That the last 
time he was a means, by advice, to have it in some such form 
as did better content. And the order to set down the objec- 
tions and answers, and to repeat them written, so as the par- 
ties should acknowledge them to be their own, before any 
answer or reply made unto them, did greatly satisfy the 
hearers : being so surely used, that in the whole day Cam- 
pion could not complain, that he [Walker] did wrong him 
in any one word, but always confessed, that his sayings were 
rightly conceived, and honestly set down. By which means, 
as he added, confusion was avoided, by-talk was cut off, 
and he was hardly driven to the wall. What he once had 
granted, he could not resume. And our cause, said he, is 
not so subject to the false reports of his favourers. 

He concluded; " My poor opinion herein, which my good 
'* friend Mr. Dr. Hammond doth also allow, I am bold to 
'* send to your lordship. I beseech you pardon me with 
" your accustomed goodness. What service I can do to the 
" church of God, to her majesty, or your lordship, I 



364 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
II. 

Anno 1580. 



Life of Abp. 
Parker. 
Appendix, 
N«.LXXIV. 

648 

Some ac- 
count of 
Campion 
and his 
course of 
life. 



Tir whits in 
the Tower 
under exa- 
mination. 



" trust you retain favourable opinion of my readiness, so 
" far as I am able. 1 ' What scheme and method this learned 
man propounded more at large, for the more regular and 
profitable arguing with this Jesuit, and what persons he 
thought proper to be the disputants, I will not repeat here, 
but refer the reader to another book, where they may be 
found. 

We shall take our leave of this unhappy man, after we have 
heard the character and particular account given of him and 
his course of life, before his face, by one of the disputants, 
viz. the foresaid Walker, in the entrance into the last day's 
conference. Beginning in these words to the assembly then 
met : " Gentlemen, ye shall understand, that we be sent hi- 
" ther by authority to talk and confer with one, called Cam- 
" pion ; an Englishman born, and brought up in this realm, 
" in schools and places where good learning hath been 
" taught. So that he might have been a good instrument 
" in this commonwealth, and God's church. But contrary 
" to his bringing up, his friends'' expectation, and hope that 
" this church might have conceived of him, like an unnatural 
" man to his country, degenerated from an Englishman, an 
" apostata in religion, a fugitive from this realm, unloyal to 
" his prince ; hath not only fled to the man of Rome, an ad- 
" versary to Christ and his doctrine, but hath got a courage 
" from that Romanist, with certain other his sectaries, to 
" come into this realm again, to undermine the gospel of 
" Christ, to seduce God's people, and withdraw her majesty's 
" lawful subjects to disobedience and sedition. And hath 
" been (disguised in ruffian's apparel) in divers places of this 
" realm, to plant secretly that blasphemous mass and other 
" popery. Whereunto it appeareth he hath allowed many 
" unstable tools. And in Yorkshire, where his sectaries and 
" disciples are apprehended and justly imprisoned; now they 
" rage, as I hear say, and curse him, that ever he came there. 
" Ye see what manner of man we are to talk withal." 

Beside this Campion, and other priests, being popish emissa- 
ries, now in the Tower, under strict examination, there were 
some of the name of the Tirwhits also under examination, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 365 

and were as obstinate as the rest to confess any thing: and CHAP, 
so secretary Wylson, in a letter to the earl of Sussex, lord 



chamberlain, absent then from the court, wrote, " That he Anno i580. 
" had been at the Tower, to examine the two Turwhits ; 
" whom he found very obstinate in religion." 

The queen had now remaining abroad (besides these Dr. Parry 
Jesuits) other enemies that were papists; as, the earl of ^™^ n 
Westmerland, sir Anthony (called lord) Coppley, and the service 
Ropers. And for these, as occasion served, Dr. Parry, (be- PariS) & c . 
fore spoken of,) in his letters writ often to the lord treasurer, 
did the best offices he could. This Parry went abroad, 
partly, or indeed chiefly, for debt, and partly to be a pre- 
tended intelligencer for the service of the queen : for which 
office he most earnestly solicited the lord treasurer, with 
most solemn protestations, how faithful he would be to her 
majesty's interest, and promised what service he would do 
her in Paris, Venice, Rome, and other places abroad. This 
is that Parry that, a few years after, was executed for under- 
taking the murder of the queen ; and coming over for that 
intent. This year I find him in Paris : where his short or 
long abode, as he wrote to that lord, depended upon his 
good or ill speed in his service, intended and protested in his 
former letters. His artificial hypocrisy may be seen in an- 
other of his letters from Paris this year to the same lord ; 
which ran in these words : 

" My lord, the name and title of a true subject have been His pro- 
" always so dear unto me, that I cannot but hold him and jj^tyintf 
" his religion far suspected, that practiseth any thing against letter to 
" her majesty; whose government and fortune have been no tI ! e e asnrer 
" less comfortable to all good men at home, than strange 64$ 
" and fearful to her enemies abroad. God preserve her for 
" th 1 one, and defend her from th 1 other. I have hereto- 
" fore purposely written some ordinary letters to your lord- 
" ship, that thereby I might without suspicion write to you 
" still : and thus long deferred to look carefully into any 
" thing, until I might be settled; and better acquainted 

" with some men's proceeding on this side I do find 

" my credit and favour to be such with the best of the Eng- 



366 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " lish and Scottish nation in Rome and Paris, (by the hope 
" conceived of my readiness and ability to serve them,) 



Anno 1580. « that I doubt not within few months to be well able to 
" discover their deepest practices, if the same may be nou- 
" rished with her majesty's reasonable charge, to be be- 
" stowed, as occasion shall serve, in trifling gifts (rather of 
" pleasure than price) and friendly entertainment : the 
" true manner whereof shall always appear to your lord- 
" ship. Some [at] court have heretofore sought to draw me 
" into this course : which as I refused then, so will I for- 
" swear to follow, if it be not your pleasure to embrace it, 
" and like it in me. I have long (so God help me) faith- 
" fully and heartily honoured and loved your lordship, 
" and yet forborne to be troublesome unto you. Good 
" my lord, begin to look favourably upon me, and I will 
" end in doing you service." 
Suspected But that lord was somewhat suspicious of him, and cared 
lard. * not as y et wno 'ly to trust him, unless it were in buying him 
books set forth in those parts, &c. which Parry perceived, 
notwithstanding all his protestations he had made. Now he 
begs him to begin to look favourably upon him. 
Recom- In the same letter (which was dated May 1) he men- 

pap"^* rationed his late commendations of Mr. John Roper and 
tives to t-he ]yj r4 Thomas Roper to him, for their readiness and ability to 
surer. serve him : well worthy of his good opinion and counte- 

The Ropers. nance> And beseeched his lordship to take some occasion 
to thank them for their loving and friendly care of him in 
his absence : but so as his service might be secreted from 
every creature, except her majesty and his lordship. " And 
" as he said before, so lie said again, that if he were less 
" ceremonious than he should be in writing unto his lord- 
" ship, he trusted he would pardon him : who had, he said, 
" rather serve him in deeds, than please him in words." 
The earl of And then in another letter, writ a month or two after, he is 
land." 1 advocate for the rebel earl of Westmorland in these words : 
" That if the most humble submission of the unfortunate 
" earl of Westmerland might by his lordship's means be 
" made plausible to her majesty, (his life and liberty only 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 367 

" reserved,) he was ready, with greatest repentance of his CHAP. 
" error and fault, committed in his youth, to fall at her. 



majesty's feet. I know not," added he in his intercession Auno isso. 
for that earl, " whether the reclaiming of desperate men do 
" agree with our state and policy : and yet it is daily seen, 
" that the kings Christian and Catholic [i. e. of France and 
" Spain] do it ; yea, sometimes with advancement. But 
" the cause was so great, that he dared not adventure to 
" speak much of it ; and therefore did wholly refer it to his 
" lordship's wisdom and gi-ave consideration. If the mo- 
" tion were seasonable, (as in truth he thought it to be,) 
" and the service not offensive to her majesty, it might 650 
" be delivered into the lord ambassador's hand, who (as the 
" earl told him) by one Calvi an Italian, did offer to deal 
" in it, and within few days to despatch it. And that the 
" earl had often, by himself and others, spoken with him 
" herein : but that her majesty's pleasure and his lordship's 
" opinion, as in every thing, should be his rule in this." 
This was dated July the 30th, 1580. 

Again, the same year, from Paris, he undertakes to be aSirThomas, 
mediator for another popish fugitive, viz. Copply, a knight, c ppiy. 
called lord Copply, a pensioner to the king of Spain, writing 
thus : " That if his former letters touching the lord Copply 
" proved serviceable to her majesty, and profitable to the 
" state, he should think himself very happy to have adven- 
" tared thus far, for such an one as was very like to be 
" found, for his deserts hereafter, worthy her grace's and 
" his honourable favour. That the necessity of the time, 
" his credit heretofore in England, his long services, well 
" entertained abroad, joined to the earnest and constant 
" speeches of his dutiful desire to serve her majesty, (if 
" the same were taken in time,) put him out of doubt that 
" her majesty should have good cause to thank his lordship 
" for the so seasonable recovery of so necessary, a subject. 
" That he sued for no greater a privilege than many a true 
" and faithful subject did graciously and daily enjoy ; that 
" his land, liberty, and reputation should undertake for 
" his good demeanour ; and that time would undoubtedly 



368 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " discover, how far he was from thought to offend her ma- 
"' "jesty." 



Anno 1580. And then, with all the earnestness he could in behalf of 
this fugitive, he concluded with these words : " Truly, my 
" lord, there is nothing more apparent in the face and 
u countenance of the whole household, than a determina- 
" tion religiously to perform at the least whatsoever I have 
" written. For my part, &c. I do presume, under correc- 
" tion, to put you in remembrance how much the recovery 
" and restitution of such a gentleman (in whose blood and 
" race your children have, and your lordship, by this good 
" turn, shall be ever assured to have interest) may prove 
" worth in the opinion of every good man."" We may add 
more of Parry's sly letters hereafter. 
Hitchcock's We heard before what fierce resolutions were taken by 
tract for pope and Spaniard, combined in a pretended holy league, 
against an against queen Elizabeth and her realm ; which caused a 
f ^"'mss g reat consternation in the people at this time ; the prepara- 
tions making by them being given out to be exceeding 
great ; and the more formidable, by reason of the secret 
correspondence of great numbers of the queen's treacherous 
subjects at home, with them abroad. In this juncture, one 
Robert Hitchcock, a military gentleman, shewed his zeal 
and loyalty, by presenting to the queen a tract, by him 
written upon the like occasion nine years before ; directing 
a manner and method of defence against an expected in- 
vasion, with a new dedication of it to her ; " Praying her 
" majesty to hear the true and faithful mind of her humble 
" subject, poured out at the feet of her sacred majesty, 
" touching the raging, feigned holy league. Wherein, he 
" said, he had set out his poor opinion, both of the landing 
" of the enemy, and what peril it might breed, if it were not 
" prevented in time ; and also, of their repulsing again, 
" with triumphant victory, if order were used, and his poor 
651 " labour accepted in good part: which he humbly presented 
" unto her excellency ." 
The vast Therein he shewed her the absolute need for her subjects 

numbers of to ^ t ii sc i p ] me( j an j trained in skill of arms ; who might 

the enemy r " 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 369 

otherwise well be amazed, when they should see such nura- CHAP, 
bers of enemies, as the bruit and report was, to seek them 



at their own doors. And added, that he was awaked out of Anno ,58 °- 
his sleep by such ugly and monstrous bruits, as the confe- terr y the 
derates of that feigned holy league, and their friends, had 
now thrown abroad within her majesty^ kingdoms, to the 
great terror and disquiet of her loving subjects. The num- 
ber of these enemies was reckoned so vastly large, as to be 
able to invade the land on several sides of it at once. For 
those princes confederates intended so to proportion them- 
selves, and manage their doings, to breed a terror in the 
subjects 1 hearts : and therefore would agree to land with 
several powers, in as many places as they could at one 
time, and think the matter thereby half won. 

Now for the making provision for this their stratagem, His counsel 
this gentleman advised the queen how to prepare sufficient in case of 

y . an invasion 

armies to defend the realm on all sides, by allotting fit in several 
numbers of men against such as should invade on any orf^"" tie 
every side of the kingdom : namely, such as inhabited in once - 
the country on the respective sides of it : dividing the force 
of the land in six several parts ; and to apportion to them 
such shires as best should serve for repulsing them that 
should come : viz. the first part to be Northumberland, 
Westmerland, the bishopric of Durham, Yorkshire, Rich- 
mondshire, Cumberland, Lancashire; and six shires more 
that way, to serve the north parts from Trent. Lincoln- 
shire, Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, and four more shires, to 
serve the east parts. Kent, Sussex, Surrey, and four more 
on that side, to serve the south parts. Cornwall, Devonshire, 
and three more bordering counties, to serve the west parts. 
All the twelve shires of Wales, with Monmouthshire, Here- 
fordshire, and Worcestershire, to serve for the defence of 
Wales, Milford-haven, and the rest thereabouts. The city 
of London, Middlesex, Hertfordshire, Bedfordshire, Buck- 
inghamshire, Northamptonshire, being the sixth part ; to be 
about her majesty, to relieve the rest where need should re- 
quire. And the land being thus divided into six parts, Six hun- 
there would be in every of those six parts an hundred thou-*^*ki"" 

VOL. II. PART II. b b 



370 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK sand able persons ; which might right well be levied to re- 
pulse the enemy. 
Anno 1580. And then he wished, that the charge and government of 
persons every of those six parts might be committed to one noble- 

might be" . 

levied. man. And he (if it so pleased her majesty) to be called 

the general of that part of the land that he shall have 

charge of. The which noblemen should be wise, valiant, 

true, and unfeigned lovers of their commonweal. And they 

to have assistants, deputy-lieutenants, &c. 

A way to And at last, towards the conclusion of his discourse, he 

vwr^ - knS i a ddeth» that he was of opinion, (which he referred to men 

to humble of better judgments,) that he knew the way both to turn 

the Spam- an( j divert king Philip's determination from hence, mind it 

he never so earnestly : and also to take from him and the 

Spaniards, that thing that is and hath been their only pride 

and upholder of all their great bravery and acts done in 

these latter days. Both which her majesty's subject was 

with all humbleness ready to open to her highness, if she 

liked so to command him. 

652 And also to declare to her highness the way and means, in 

And to pre- j^g simple iudgment, how to avoid rebellion in her land. 

vent a re- 

beiiion at And that the confederates should be out of all hopes to 
home. have or receive any succour or aid by any her majesty's 
subjects, at their landing here, come when they will. And 
so humbly praying the Lord God of Israel to send his 
angels with the sword of his glorious power, to defend her 
majesty, her realm, and people from her enemies. 

Such gallant men and true firm subjects had the queen 
at this time to counterbalance the other sort. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 371 

CHAP. XXIII. 

Gualter qfZurick acquaints the archbishop of Canterbury 
what was doing- in the synod at Frankford, for union. 
Formula concordige ; disliked. Zanchy's Confession of 

faith ; disliked : and why. The harmony qf confes- 
sions : a motion to this effect to the king qf Navar. 
Horn, bishop qf Winton, dies. Translates two season- 
able sermons qf Calvin in his exile. His apology for 
his fight. His last will. Dr. Overton made bishop qf 
Litchfield and Coventry. Some passages qfhim. Railed 
upon and abused in the pulpit at Chichester, when pre- 
bendary there. Two evils oppress bishop Cox. jElmer, 
bishop qf London, accused for felling his woods. Visits 
his London clergy. The bishop qf Norwich, his proposal 

for rural deans in his diocese. Mr. Laurence, a preacher, 
sequestered by that bislwp for nonconformity. Endea- 
vours made at court to get him restored. The bishop^s 
letter on that occasion. 

JNOW to record some notices of our reverend bishops and Anno isso. 
divines, as they occur under this year. 

A great and useful matter had been transacting in Ger- 
many now for two years; viz. for the allaying and pa- 
cifying the differences of the churches in Germany, chiefly 
concerning the presence in the eucharist : such were, on 
the one part, those Lutherans called ubiquitarians, (whereof 
Jacob Andreas, a learned professor, was the head,) and 
the evangelici of divers sentiments, the other. In a sy- An endea- 
nod held at Frankford, commendable endeavours were VOUI Y" a 

' _ synod at 

used, to frame such a confession as all the churches of pro- Frankford, 
testants, not only in Germany, but in all other places, might 
accord in. And what was done in this matter, and how 
this great affair stood, Rodolph Gualter, of Zurick, gave 
Grindal, archbishop of Canterbury, an account in a letter 
sent to him this year, in these words : Ln Germania 2)assim6b3 
dat concordia formula, &c. " That that form of a concord What was 
" to be agreed to by all, gave disturbance in Germany, i, " 6 ^^ 
" Which Jacobus Andreas, successor to Brentius, and the in a let * er 

b n of Gualter 



372 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
II. 



to the .arch 
bishop of 
Canter- 
bury. 



" apostle of ubiquity, (as he calls him,) with his confederates, 
_ " had framed : and to which three electoral princes, viz. of 
Anno 1580." Saxony, Palatine, and of Brandenburgh, with many 
" others, had subscribed ; but the most illustrious prince 
" William of Hesse and the prince of Anhalt stiffly op- 
" posed. That there was some sharp dispute between the 
" agents of the three electors and the prince of Hesse ; 
" who would not be moved from the defence of the true 
" doctrine which he had received. That as for that com- 
" mon confession of faith, that by a decree of the synod 
" of Frankford was drawn up in the year 1577, by the 
" learned Hierom Zanchy ; it ought to have been examined 
" by the church of Helvetia, and by Beza of France ; that 
" it might also have been known to other churches. And 
" his phrases and expressions were so much in the school 
" way, that it wanted both brevity and clearness."" Gualter 
proceeded, with respect to the distant churches ; " That 
" considering the long delay that must needs be, before all 
" the churches, so far distant from one another, could by 
"mutual correspondences agree and accord in the same 
" confession ; and that many would not depart from their 
" formerly received opinions, and would retain their own 
" terms and phrases ; therefore, by the counsel and advice 
" of the most illustrious John Casimire, they thought it 
" more advisable that a harmony of all the confessions 
" should be written ; with some marginal notes set here and 
" there, to illustrate such things as seemed more obscurely 
" spoken. That hence might appear the consent of the 
" evangelical churches : and about this did Beza, Dana?us, 
" and one more, chiefly employ their pains. But Beza's 
" sickness had put some stop thereunto ; which otherwise 
" might then have been finished. And of this he, the 
" writer, thought fit to certify his grace the archbishop." 
But for all this and more, it is better to take it in the words 
of the letter itself, written by so eminent a foreigner to so 
great a personage, about so weighty a concern of the church : 
which I have therefore laid in the Appendix. 

But there was another reason, more secret, beside that 



[Number 
XXIX.] 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 373 

above-mentioned, why Beza and the French divines liked CHAP. 

• • XXII 

not of that Confession of faith, drawn up by Zanchy, that . 



learned professor of Heidelberg; namely, the acknowledg- Anno ,580 ' 
ment of the ancient government of the church by arch- confession 
bishops and bishops. Which gave occasion to that learned disliked by 
man afterwards to vindicate that part of his Confession : wny . 
which Dr. Bancroft took notice of in a book by him written Surve y °. f 

...... the Disci- 

not long after. In that Confession, speaking of bishops, he piine. 

useth these words : Non improbamus patres, &c. " We do Zanchy, 

'* not disallow the fathers, in that after a divers way of dis- ca p 2 e '*' 

" pensing the word, and governing the church, they mul- 

" tiplied divers orders of ministers : seeing it was lawful so 

" to do, seeing they did it for honest causes, appertaining at 

" that time to the order, decency, and edification of the 

" church." And in the next article, Hac ratione, &c. " For 

" this reason, viz. that the nurseries of dissensions and 

" schisms might be taken away, we think that these things, 

" which were ordained before the council of Nice, concerning 

" archbishops, nay, as touching the four patriarchs, may 

" be excused and defended." 

Here Dr. Bancroft addeth this remark, that when this 6*54 
book was perused, and this clause found in it, then a de- An 1,ar - 
vice was had for the staying of it; under pretence, that confessions 
now it was thought more meet that there should be an to be made- 
harmony made of all the confessions of divers churches. 
But Zanchy himself makes this the chief cause (as that au- 
thor observed) why his book did mislike some of them : for 
that he had written as before was mentioned of bishops. 
For so he saith, Magnus quielam vir, &c. M That a certain 
" great man" (meaning Beza, as it is supposed) " did write 
" unto him of this matter as followeth : Your Coiifession was 
" read by me, and N. and others, with great delight. It is 
" written most learnedly, and in a most exquisite method. 
** And if you except that which you add towards the end, 
" touching archbishops and the hierarchy, mihi summopere 
" placuit, i. e. it pleased me exceedingly. ," 

But Zanchy upon this occasion (as it seemed) printed his Archbi- 
said Confession, with certain annotations. In which he^X *™,_ 

Bb3 



374 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK shewed three reasons for his allowance of archbishops and 
bishops. The first grounded upon the practice of the pri- 



Anno i58o. m itive church, presently after the apostles"' time. The se- 
Zanchy y con d, for that he thought it his duty, in the draught of his 
De Reiig. said book, to have regard to those reformed churches which 

p. 2 12. . . 

retained both bishops and archbishops. And the third, be- 
cause all the reformed churches generally, although they 
had changed the names, yet in effect they kept the au- 
thority : as where they had superintendents, and general 
superintendents. " Nay,"" said he, " where these new Latin 
" names are not admitted, yet there were in those places 
" usually certain chief men, that did in a manner bear 
" all the sway." 1 The manner of his setting down of his 
first reason, and that in his own words, was this that 

Survey of follows : which I transcribe from Dr. Bancroft's transla- 
te Discip. • 
p. 137. tlon - 

edit. 1593. CumhancconscriberemJideiCo7ifessionem,hc. "When 
" I writ this Confession of faith, I writ all the things in it 
" of a good conscience : and as I believed, so I freely spake, 
" the scriptures teaching men so to do. And my faith, first 
" of all, and simply, doth rely upon the word of God ; and 
" then, somewhat also upon the common consent of the 
" whole ancient catholic church, if the same be not repug- 
" nant to the scriptures. For I believe, that what things 
" were defined and received by the ancient fathers, assembled 
" in the name of the Lord, with a general consent of them 
" all, and without any contradiction of the holy scriptures ; 
"the same surely, although they be not of the same au- 
" thority with the holy scriptures, yet did they proceed 
" from the Holy Ghost. Hereof it cometh to pass, that 
" those things which are of this nature, neither would I, 
" neither dare I, with a good conscience, disallow them. 
" And what can be shewed more certainly out of histories, 
" out of the councils, and out of the writings of all the an- 
" cient fathers, than that those orders of ministers, of the 
" which we have spoken, have been ordained and received 
" in the church, by the general consent of all Christian 
" commonwealths ? And who then am I, that should pre- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 375 

" sume to reprove that which the whole church hath an- CHAP 
i *» XXIII. 

" proved ? 



Anno 1580. 



Concerning this endeavour of a concord between the pro- 
testant churches, I meet with a fragment of a letter, writ to t0 the £" )g 
some chief French divine, belonging to the king of Navar. of Navar 

00 . for concord 

It imported, that the Formula Concordia was sent into 1 ranee between the 
by Henricus Mollerus, and Christopherus Pezelius, t^o ^f™J n and 
eminent German divines : notifying, that many of the Ger- churches, 
man princes and magistrates of cities had agreed to it. t>55 
But yet if the king could not consent thereto, that then he 
would permit, in order to this happy and most desired con- 
cord, that some pious and learned men might meet, and find 
out some way of an union between the churches of Ger- 
many and France. The letter had this inscription : Hac a 
dnis. doctoribus Hen. Mollero et Christophero Pezelio ex 
Germania scribuntur. The letter follows. 

Nunc in aidis audimus cudi responsum multorum no- 
mine, propediem ad vos mittendum. Id vero quid sit, etsi 
certo exploratum non habeamus, tamen non desunt qui in 
hancjere sententiam illud conceptum esse affirment. Con- 
sensisse nimirum principes Germanics, non paucos, et ur- 
bium magistratus in doctrina Jbrmidam, quce titulo For- 
mula Concordia, non multo ante est edita. Earn doctri- 
nam, qua hoc libro comprehensa sit,judicare se, consentire 
cum doctrina prophetarum et apostolorum : et testimonia 
habere literarum sacrarum certissima. Earn igitur si pro- 
bet rex Navarrceus, posse consensum inter Gallicas et Ger- 
manicas ecclesias constitui, dudum exoptatum. Sin dissen- 
tiat, turn vero non displicere sibi, ut de tota re inquiratur 
accuratius ; et adhibitis utrinque viris piis et doctis, ratio 
aliqua ineunda concordia ineatur. 

The copy of this, letter seems to have been sent to some 
of our bishops here in England ; to let them understand 
what laudable attempt was now making, in order to the 
uniting the protestant churches of those two nations, since 
their Formida Concordia was not like to obtain that end. 

Home, bishop of Winchester, departed this life in the Home, bi- 
month of June this year : a learned confessor for religion, whiton 

b b 4 dies - 



376 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



Translates 
two ser- 
mons of 
Calvin in 
his exile. 



BOOK choosing exile, and forsaking his native country, and his 
preferments under queen Mary, for Christ's sake, being 
Anno 1580. then dean of Durham. Some part of his writings, in his 
peregrination abroad, in memory of this pious bishop, I 
shall give some account of, as I have met with them. Two 
seasonable sermons of John Calvin he translated out of 
Latin into English, about the year 1554, while he was in 
exile ; very seasonable for the afflicted professors of religion 
in those times: but printed and set forth not before the 
year 1584, by A. M. and dedicated to the earl of Leicester : 
so it appears by the title-page. " Because these sermons 
" have long lyen hid in silence, and many godly and re- 
" ligious persons have been very desirous of them, at their 
" earnest request they are now published by A. M." [An- 
thony Monday, I suppose ; of whom before.] The first is, 
A godly sermon to fi.ee idolatry, from Psalm xvi. 4. / will 
not communicate with their bloody sacrifices, neither will I 
take their names in my mouth. In this sermon all Chris- 
tians are admonished to flee all outward idolatry. The 
second sermon was, An exhortation to suffer persecution ; 
that we may therein follow Jesus Christ and his gospel. 
The text, Heb. xiii. 13. Let us go forth to him xoitltout the 
gates, bearing his opprobrie. 

Before both these sermons is set Home's preface, called, 
The apology of Mr. Robert Home : beginning, Peace and 
mercy from God the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, &c. 
This Apology is a little tract, containing about thirty or 
forty leaves. Therein he gives account of himself, and of 
the reason of his flight : which was without the knowledge 
65o of any of his friends. And this Apology was written for 
their satisfaction. There are many things in it of remark ; 
as concerning the bishop of Durham, [Tonstal,] and his hard 
and unjust dealing with him ; and likewise of Gardiner, 
bishop of Winchester, now lord chancellor; and the sad 
change there was of things upon the access of queen Mary 
to the throne. And towards the conclusion, he shewed the 
reason of his translating those sermons ; namely, for the sake 
of his friends at home, left in the midst of so much idolatry: 



Home's 

Ay logy. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 377 

that they might learn to bear Christ's cross. And further, CHAP, 
what his intention was in this interval, to employ himself 
in; viz. to prove the mass to be the greatest heresy, bias- A >m° 1580. 
phemy, and idolatry ; and that from scripture and the an- 
cient fathers. This Apology therefore is well worthy the 
preserving, as well to let in light into those times and men, 
as for a remembrance of that very worthy bishop, and some 
remarkable passages of his life and sufferings. I have, 
though somewhat long, laid it in the Appendix. Therein N°. XXX. 
he relates at large, how he was summoned up from Durham 
to the privy-council. And thereby the bishop of Durham 
and the bishop of Winchester accused him of divers things, 
that were merely false, on purpose to bring him into trouble: 
as, that he, being dean of the church, took upon him to 
meddle in the bishop's office. That in his new learning 
he preached heresy. That he was a Scot : though he were 
an Englishman, and so born. That he brought a wife into 
that church, where never woman came before. That he 
had received three letters from the queen, to appear before 
the council, and obeyed neither of them. Of all these accu- 
sations he vindicates himself in this Apology. 

This bishop's last will was once very obligingly shewn me Bishop 
by sir Henry St. George, sometime garter king at arms ; wi °, ri 
who was derived from him by one of his daughters. ItMss.D. h, 
bore date the 29th of March, 1579, whence I transcribe Garter. 1 ^ 

these contents. " Sick in body, but in perfect memory 

" My body to be buried in my cathedral church, before 
" the pulpit where that it now standeth, in seemly sort, 
" without any pomp or blazing ceremony : in the earth to 
" rest and sleep in hope, till the day of the general resur- 
" rection. I will and bequeath to the same my cathedral 
" church at Winton, all my historical books, Greek and 
" Latin, ecclesiastical and profane ; to be laid up and used 
" in the library belonging to the same church. Item, I be- 
" queath to Magdalen hospital, nigh Winton, 30Z. Item, 
" I give, &c. to the poor hospital of St. Abbe's, nigh Win- 

" ton, SOI. To the poor of the city or town of Duresme, 

" 40/. To Paul Dayrel, my nephew, my best basin and 



Home's last 



378 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
II. 

Anno 1580 



657 



Margery 
Home, 
lady Day- 
rel. 



Overton 
made bi- 
shop of 
Litchfield. 



" ewer. My third basin and ewer, all white, without gilt, 
" to the child which my daughter Rebecca Hayman goeth 
" withal. To Richard Ackworth, my nephew, my hu- 
" manity books, Greek and Latin. The residue of all 
" goods and chattels, unto my four daughters, Anne Day- 
" rel, Mary Hales, Margery Dayrel, and Rebecca Hey- 
" man. I make Mr. Watson, dean of Winchester, Mr. 
" Dr. Ebden, and John Dayrel and John Hales, my sons- 
" in-law, my executors. Sir Henry Wallop, knt. sir Richard 
" Norton, knt. and sir William More, knt. assistants to mine 
" executors. I give unto every one of them one of my 
" best horses. To Thomas Parker, my servant, over and 
" above his wages, 8/. &c.'" This will was proved the 27th 
of June. 

Margery was grandmother to sir Henry St. George 
abovesaid ; and was born in Frankford, while Home was 
an exile there. She was married to sir Thomas Dayrel, of 
Lillingston, in the county of Bucks. His other daughter 
married Dayrel, of Cales-hill in Kent. This, sir Henry told 
me, he had from his mother. 

William Overton, D. D. was made bishop of Litchfield 
and Coventry this year, upon the death of Bentham, the 
last bishop there: this Overton, in king Edward's days, 
when he was a scholar at Oxford, received, by the means of 
secretary Cecyll, one of the exhibitions, going out of the 
abbey of Glastenbury. And in the beginning of queen 
Elizabeth's reign was granted him, by her, one of the best 
prebends of Winchester. And soon after, he had the par- 
sonage of Rotherfield in Sussex, better in value than 200Z. 
a year ; and had preferment also in the cathedral church of 
Chichester. He first sent word to court, in a well-penned 
Latin letter, of the death of Barlow, bishop of that see, one 
of whose daughters the said Overton had married. In the 
year 1569, the dean of the church, Richard Curtess, being- 
nominated to succeed the bishop there, the said Overton 
sued to his friend sir William Cecil, that he might be made 
dean ; and that he might resign his treasurership into the 
hands of the queen for that deanery : which treasurership, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 379 

as he wrote, was greater and better than it. But he desired CHAP. 

YY III 

it, to prevent some harm, that the dean, now to be made 



bishop, might do him: between whom there had been Anno 1580. 
quarrels. And being now bishop, he might be in a stronger 
capacity of offering him wrong, unless he were to succeed 
the dean. But notwithstanding, he obtained it not. 

The earl of Leicester also was Overton's patron. But 
whatever the cause was, he lost his favour, when he was 
bishop of Litchfield and Coventry ; and was called an apo- 
state from him. 

Let me insert one thing here concerning this reverend Defamed in 

. . « . . i a sermon at 

man, which I meet with among papers of those times : that Chichester, 
while he was treasurer of that church of Chichester, he had 
a very angry adversary in the same church, one Drant, 
(whether he that was archdeacon of Lewis, or some other, 
I know not,) to that degree, that he could not contain his 
reproaches of Dr. Overton privately, but most rudely as- 
persed him openly in that church, in most indecent lan- 
guage, no way beseeming the mouth of a preacher in so 
public a place, betraying his own malice, and envy, and 
pride, and conceit of himself. His words were these: 
" That Dr. Overton was a very hypocrite, a noble, a glo- 
" rious, an everlasting hypocrite ; and nothing else but a 
" mere satchel of hypocrisy. That he was brimful, topful, 
" too, too full of hypocrisy ; and though he danced in the 
" net of hypocrisy, yet he would discover him, and whip 
" him naked. That he was like a vice in a play, represent- 
" ing a grave mans part, and had no gravity : he swelling 
" with the title of a doctor, and had no doctrine. Concern- 
" ing doctrine and learning, he said, that the said doctor 
" did not understand nor feel the deepness of his sermons ; 
" neither could it ever be told him, for him. And that he 
" was sure, that neither the said doctor, nor all the doctors 
" that made him a doctor, nor all his friends, take them at 
" all, all, even every one, should ever be able to find out the 
" divinity that was in his sermons. 

" Furthermore, that whereas this doltish doctor, that had 658 
" nothing but the bare title of a doctor, and came by the 



380 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " degree by some sinister means; and therefore forced to 
" allege Dr. Humphrey, Goodwin, Cooper, &c. as wit- 



Anno 1580." ncsses ; he said, that himself, with two others, had taken 
" more pains in London, and brought more things to pass 
" among the squeamish heads of the Londoners, than ever 
" did this doctor, or three of the best doctors that ever 
" dubbed him a doctor, had done or could do." 

Then fell he to defaming him, as touching his life and 
conversation, with covetousness ; " That he was a co- 
" vetous treasurer, [of the church of Chichester,] never 
" leaving heaping up this earthly treasure. That he was a 
" greater doctor of leases, a spoiler of woods upon the pre- 
" bend and hospital. That he was a poster and scudder 
" for benefices. That he laboured for the deanery, and 
" then for the bishopric. And that he made suits for the 
" archdeaconry, to prevent him [Drant.J Insomuch that 
" the queen told him [Drant] with her own mouth, that a 
" doctor of divinity had been with her for it before he 
" came. I warrant you, quoth he, the horse sweat apace. 

" Further, he charged him with keeping excessive fare ; 
" heaping dishes upon dishes. And yet when he had most 
" dishes upon his table, yea, when he had most, yet had 
" he more benefices. Further, how for vain ostentation he 
" would set forth his plate upon the cupboard in battle 
" array. Further, that he is too, too nice in trimming up 
" his house, and setting his cushions in order. And that 
" himself being there one day, he did on purpose spit upon 
" one of the cushions, in despite of such curiosity ." 

What kind of man this Drant was, may further appear 
by a passage or two in a sermon by him uttered at Crip- 
plegate church, London. " No man ought to correct his 
" brother for an oath. For these oaths, quoth he, By God, 
" By our lady, By the mass, By my faith, were but oaths 
" of course. Neither that frizzled hair should be forbidden. 
" For, said he, such may be as honest, if they list, as those 
" that go with proud plain hair. Also he said, that those 
" that translated the English Bible understood not the He- 
" brew tongue as he did ; and therefore had translated it 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 381 

" false." There is no way of bringing this preacher off, CHAP, 
and excusing his extravagant expressions, but by saying, as 



surely he was, that, in an overweening conceit of himself, Anno i580.~ 
he was disturbed in his mind. 

To take one view more of the ancient, pious, learned The bishop 
confessor and bishop, bishop Cox. Which take from his^iJ^" 1 " 
own pen to his old friend, the lord Burghley ; complaining J woe ^ 8 
of two evils that now oppressed him in his very old age : hha. 
one might have a redress by the favour of that lord ; the 
other only from God. Thus writing, Duo mala me pre- 
munt ; the one, hospes malus et inutilis, i. e. a bad guest, 
and good for nothing. He meant Fecknam, sometime Abbot 
abbot of Westminster, that had been committed to his 
house ; and had remained there so long, till he was weary of 
him. And that it would be an obligation to him, if at 
length, by his lordship's means, he could get rid of him. 
Which favour the bishop hereupon seemed to obtain, the 
abbot beins; removed to Wisbich castle. The other incon- 
venience he commended to his Lord God, and only wise 
physician, through Jesus Christ; viz. corpus nimirum di~vbQ 
midia parte langiiidum, his poor paralytic body. This 
was writ in June this year from Downham. 

Of another of the worthy confessors and bishops of these The bishop 
times, viz. iElmer, bishop of London, it must be remem- i,rf oraied 
bered what troubles he met with from his ill-willers ; who against for 
brought informations against him at court tor spoiling of woods. 
his woods belonging to his bishopric: as though he h"i 22?" 
done great damage therein to the revenues of the same. Bishop je\- 
What the accusations were, and his answers thereto, were 7g " ' e ' 
very briefly related in that bishop's Life : but to see all the 
articles of his accusation, and what his distinct answers were 
to each, sufficiently clearing himself, and shewing the false- 
hood of his accusers, I have set the bishop's paper, taken 
out of the Paper Office, in the Appendix. xxxT 

How this bishop visited the city of London this summer, a visitation 
in the month of August, and distributed books of articles '" London 

o ' by this 

to the clergy, and tables of injunctions, and many other bishop, 
things, for their due and regular demeanour of themselves 



382 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK 
II. 

Anno 1580. 

Ch. v. p. 80- 

A contribu- 
tion of the 
London 
clergy, for 
the building 
of a church. 



MSS. D. 

Joh.episc. 

Elien. 



Bishop of 
Norwich, 
his proposal 
to a synod 
for rural 
deans, or 
superin- 
tendents. 



Number 
XXXII. 

He seques- 
ters a mi- 



and their respective flocks ; and how in November follow- 
ing the said clergy of London were summoned again, 
chiefly for the making inquisition after recusants and pa- 
pists, may be seen in the Life of Bishop Mlmer. 

The said clergy had also this year a summons, by order 
of the privy-council, to meet at Christ's Church, London : 
where each minister of every living was appointed to pay 
the sixtieth part of the value of his benefice, towards the 
building of a church in Denbigh ; ruined, as it seems, by 
some accident. This from the diary of Mr. Earl, minister 
of Allhallow's, Bread-street; who added there, that he 
paid his part thereto. 

A very remarkable paper I once met in the Cotton 
library, (the date not set down, but, as near as I can guess, 
belonging to this time, or near it,)' containing a proposal 
made by the bishop of Norwich, [Freak,] sent by his chan- 
cellor to a synod held in that diocese ; recommending rural 
deans, or superintendents, to inspect and take care of the 
diocese under the bishop; and particularly for providing 
monthly prophesyings, (if it might be permitted,) or ser- 
mons, in the several deaneries, to be preached. At which 
the respective rural deans to be present, and, to prevent 
schisms and factions, to be moderators. And thereat like- 
wise various businesses, respecting the abuses of bishops 1 
courts and their offices, and inspection into the behaviour of 
the clergy and laity in each parish, to be transacted. It 
bore this title, A form qf government exhibited by the chan- 
cellor of Norwich : beginning with this preamble ; " The 
" strength of God's enemies being grown so universal, and 
" their spreading so dangerous to the state ; and licentious 
" looseness of life, through corruption of ecclesiastical offi- 
" cers, so untamed ; that it is time that ecclesiastical go- 
" vernment be put in due and severe execution without 
" affection and corruption, according to the wholesome 
" laws provided and established in that behalf," &c. This 
I have thought worthy the preserving, shewing the pastoral 
care and diligence of this bishop in his diocese. 

This bishop of Norwich had this last year sequestered 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 383 

one Mr. Laurence, a great preacher in Suffolk, for his non- CHAP. 

• - W FIT 

conformity to the ecclesiastical laws and prescriptions esta- 



blished; the queen, as well as the privy-council, having Anno isao. 
lately directed their commands to him and the other bi-^ s ^° om 
shops, not to permit such refusers to preach. This man preaching, 
had a good character in those parts of Suffolk where he 660 
lived ; and the want of him was said to breed great grief 
among the people. For the restoring of him, Mr. William 
Calthorp, a gentleman of that country, addressed a letter 
to the lord Burghley at court, that he would send to the 
bishop, to take off this preacher's sequestration, that he 
might preach again. This produced a letter from that lord 
to the bishop in favour of the said Laurence. Which 
coming enclosed to Mr. Calthorp's hands, he accordingly 
conveyed it to the bishop; who, notwithstanding, still let 
the sequestration remain ; since, how good opinion soever 
himself had of the man, he could not do it, unless he had 
disobeyed both an order of the privy-council, and another 
letter of her majesty, as he expressed to the said Mr. Cal- 
thorp. This caused that gentleman to write again a second 
letter, dated from Weybered, April 1580, to the said lord, 
reporting the bishop's neglect ; and adding, " what great 
" need there was of so good a man among them ; for whose 
" meetness, as he wrote, he dared well to undertake, the 
" chief of credit in that shire should fully certify his ho- 
" nour : and that, in respect of preferring so good a cause, 
" to so great benefit in those parts, it would please his lord- 
" ship, by such ways as should to his honour seem best, to 
" get restored their preacher to them again. 11 

To which I will here subjoin the bishop's prudent letter The reason 
to the said Mr. Calthorp, in his own justification ; which himshewed. 
ran in this tenor : " That whereas he had written to him in 
" the behalf of Mr. Laurence, and had also procured my 
" lord treasurer's letter to the same effect ; in answer 
" whereto he must let him understand, that he had not se- 
" questered Mr. Laurence from preaching by virtue of an 
" order of my LL. of her majesty's privy-council only, but 
" also by virtue of certain letters from her majesty ; wherein 



384. ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " he was straitly charged to suffer none but such only to 
" preach as were allowed of into the ministry, and conform- 



Auno 1580. " able in all manner of rites and ceremonies established in 
"the church of England; and therefore he dared not at- 
" tempt to do it. And whereas it had pleased his very 
" good lord, the lord treasurer, to write unto him for the 
" same, he [Mr. Calthorp] must give him leave first, before 
" he granted his request, to make answer to the lord trea- 
" surers letters, and to make known to him the cause of 
" his proceeding and manner of doings ; and then, if it 
" should please that lord to command him, he would do it. 
" And that in the mean season he must pray him to content 
" himself: for he might not, as he added, upon every mo- 
" tion made, transgress her majesty's commandment ; al- 
" though he bore as good- will to Mr. Laurence as he, or 
" any man within that country. And so took his leave of 
" him in Christ. 1 '' Dated from Ludham, the 16th of March, 
1579. 



66l CHAP. XXIV. 

University matters. The heads of Cambridge apply to 
their chancellor about two graces obtained. His letter; 
and decision. His advice to the vice-chancellor about a 
fast enjoined the university by the bishop of Ely. Great 
disorders in St. John's college. The bishop of Ely moves 
the lord treasurer to finish the new statutes for that col- 
lege. How things now stood in the other university. 
The tzoo chancellors compared. William Whitaker pre- 
ferred to a prebend at St. Paul's. The queen's proclama- 
tion for horsemen, and breed of horses. The queen sick. 
A new disease at court and in the city. A list of the 
great officers of the queen. Public prayers, occasioned by 
an earthquake. Earl of Arundel dies. Peregrin Bertie 
claims the title of lord Willoughby and Ercsby. 

INOW we turn to the universities; and shall make relation 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 385 

of some remarkable matters, wherein they, or some members CHAP, 
thereof, were concerned. xxiv. 

A controversy happened this year between the masters Annoisso. 
and heads of colleges in Cambridge, and the vice-chancellor T he ° ut ." 

° . . doctors in 

and doctors of the town : the latter having obtained two Cambridge 
graces against the former ; but surreptitiously, as was said, V r ^" s 
and also against the statute. These two graces were, " That against the 
" all out-doctors, not being heads of colleges, be joined 
" with the doctors that were heads of colleges, in the ap- 
" pointing and pricking of officers ; though by the statute 
" the same were expressly limited to the heads. 11 The se- 
cond, " That doctors in divinity be compelled to preach as 
" frequently as other younger divines. 11 This matter there- Complaints 
fore being complained of by the heads, was brought before '? e ^ to 
their high-chancellor, the lord treasurer Burghley, to haveceiior. 
these graces regulated, or rather revoked. But he, being 
employed at that time in state-affairs, and it depending so 
much upon the statutes of the university, prayed the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, that he would take the pains to ex- 
amine it carefully, one doctor of each party being then 
come up. Which the archbishop accordingly did ; and the 
sum of what his judgment was, he wrote at length to the 
said chancellor: which I do not here repeat, it being en- 
tered into that archbishop's Life. GrintN 
But the letter decisive of the said high-chancellor to the b - '"• p- 250. 



•&* 



The chan- 



vice-chancellor and town doctors, whereby he put a conclu- 
sion to that controversy about the said two graces, he sent cisive letter 
by Dr. Barrow, one of the doctors that was come up ; be- ° em ' 
ginning with his good wish for them all : viz. " The grace 
" of God's Spirit, to lead and conserve them in concord and 
" peace. So that the knowledge of God might increase 
" among them ; and that by their dissensions the enemies 662 
" of learning and the gospel had not just occasion to rejoice, 
" and spread abroad slanderous reports, to the defaming of 
" the whole body of that university. 11 And then afterwards, 
" that he had recommended this controversy to his very 
" good lord, the archbishop of Canterbury's good grace, to 
" consider of their letters ; and to hear both parties, Dr. 
vol. 11. part 11. c c 



386 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK "Barrow and Dr. Howland; and to peruse the statute 
u ' " mentioned in this debate; and to call to his grace also 



Anno 1580." some persons of experience in university matters: which 
" accordingly he had done very diligently and painfully; 
" as by the letter of his grace to him [the chancellor] he 
" had signified. And that his grace had plainly imparted 
" to him what he thought thereof. Wherewith, after some 
" further consideration of that particular chapter of the sta- 
" tute, he himself did concur: who had pronounced the 
" same verbally to the said doctors. And did further ex- 
" press his censure and determination in writing : which he 
" most earnestly required them, per omnes charitates, to 
" accept of, as from one that was touched with no particular 
" affection towards any person. But in the sight of God 
" (whose assistance by the spirit of peace he had invoked) 
" he declared his mind. Which was, that it was neces- 
" sary those two graces should be reputed as void, and 
" none." 

His reasons. Then he gave some reason for this his decision: viz. 
" Because he could not allow any decrease attempted, to 
" please a multitude, to the violation or altering of her ma- 
" jesty's statute, so lately and with so great deliberation 
" made. And that they ought to have made him, who was 
" their highest officer, first acquainted, having always shewn 
" himself very mindful of their causes; and to have had his 
66 clear consent, as well to the violating or changing of their 
" statutes, as he was at the first a principal author to pro- 

" cure them That for the intention of their other 

" grace, viz. to compel doctors to preach oftener, he liked 
" well of all voluntary actions, especially in such actions as 
" preaching was. Wherein he thought admonition more 
" convenient, than to make new laws so suddenly against 
" laws in use. And so far forth he was moved to have them 
" preach, as he wished them to lose the name and prefer- 
" ment of doctors, that would leave the office of doctors ; 
" which is, by etymology, to teach.'" The whole excellent, 
wise letter, wherein is much more contained, and somewhat 
large, being all minutes of that lord's own writing, I refer 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 387 

to the Appendix. He also wrote another grave letter to CHAP, 
the heads, that were of the other party. ' 



Another occasion of address to him was given this uni-Anno 1580. 
versity, by reason of an order that came to the vice-chan- xxxni 
cellor, in September, from the bishop of Ely, enjoining a Life of 
public fast to be kept there with sermons : a thing that the p 25a ' 
wary university doubted whether they might comply with, A fast en- 
without giving offence to the queen, or transgressing itnythlTbishon 
law of the kingdom ; since such fasts, used sometimes among to be kept 
the puritans, made them obnoxious. It is worth taking no- vers j ty- 
tice, what wary answer that wise man, their chancellor, gave 
them, who had thus prudently requested his advice herein, 
notwithstanding that bishop was their diocesan. It may be 
observed here, by the way, that in the beginning of this 
year, the archbishop of Canterbury enjoined to all his dio- 66*3 
cese prayers and devotions to be used on Wednesdays and 
Fridays, upon the account of a terrible earthquake; and also 
prayers in every family ; and had appointed a form for that 
purpose. And the cause that might probably move this reli- 
gious prelate to call for fasting unto those under his care and 
inspection, was the mighty preparations that were now mak- 
ing abroad by the pope and his sworn confederates of the 
holy league, to invade this land : of which news came from 
all parts, and to this bishop from his friends in Helvetia. 

But to proceed to the letter the chancellor wrote to the 
vice-chancellor, containing his grave judgment and advice 
in this point. Which was in these words : 

" Mr. Vice-chancellor, I have considered of your letter, The chan- 
" and of the bishop of Ely's also, sent to you. And where ^chan^ 
" you desire to have my counsel and present direction in cellor, with 
" the matter mentioned in the bishop's letter, I thank you thereupon. 
" for the respect you have of me, as being your chancellor : 
" and I am sure that the matter propounded, bearing the 
" name of a public Jast, is not expressed to me with the due 
" circumstances, either by the bishop's letter to you, or by 
" your own ; so as either the counsel or direction, as you 
*' desire, is unmeet for me : not knowing by what authority 

c c 2 



388 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " the bishop cloth prescribe this at this time; or how far 
" the circumstances that concern me be intended by his 
Anno 1580. " lordship, or by such as he authorizeth thereto. And yet, 
" if the same may be done, as his lordship writeth, that all 
" things shall be done in order and comeliness, I think that 
" there can be no just offence taken thereat. I were greatly 
" overseen, if I should not allow both of fasts and of ex- 
" hortation thereto : and I think the same ought to be ac- 
" companied with two elder sisters, although I find no 
" mention thereof in the bishop's letter: that is, oi prayers, 
" which are for all persons to use ; whereas fasting is not 
" expedient for all persons : and the second is alms, in re- 
" lieving of the poor ; which is the action of the rich. And 
" therein I think my lord himself will begin the example 
" most abundantly. 

" But some direct answer to yours : I, as a public coun- 
" sellor of the realm, cannot warrant by my directions in 
" the church, but that which I find established by the laws 
" of the realm, or by the usual practice of the church ; as 
" by direction from the metropolitan, or by synod, appro- 
" bated by the queen's majesty's authority, as head go- 
" vernor. And if the form which my lord of Ely shall pre- 
" scribe, or his delegates shall devise, may accord with any 
" of these authorities, I wish it should take place, and wish 
" it good success ; to move Almighty God to mercy, and 
" to forgive us, by the means of the three actions : that is, 
" our offence in gluttony, by fasting ; our general in all, 
" and particularly, in abusing the plentifulness of his word, 
" by invocation and repentance, uttered in public prayers ; 
" and, thirdly, in abuse of our wealth, by distributing alms 
" to the poor. 

" All which three actions I think so necessary, as without 
" we be by some means more moved thereto, than I can see 
" we are yet disposed of ourselves ; surely we ought by 
" God's justice to fear the withdrawing of all that wherein 
" we now abound ; that is, in all bodily and ghostly food; 
" and, thirdly, in worldly wealth. 
664 !.« But in what sort those good exercises shall be begun 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 389 

" and continued, I must leave it to the discretion of the CHAP. 
" preacher, who can best tell how to apply the same. Not XXIV - 



" all in one sort. For, as I said, I think every person, with- Anno 1580. 

" out difference, is not to be enjoined to fast. For I am 

" sorry to consider, how many poor people are forced to 

" fast for lack. And among the scholars, I know a great num- 

" ber are very near the same, for lack of allowance of diet ; 

" as I think there are in some colleges a number that have 

" too great an allowance. And if I were to give my advice, 

" surely such would be moved to abstinence, and to employ 

" their increase of allowance to such as lack. And so at one 

" time there should be both fasting and alms exercised. 

" As for prayer and invocation for mercy, I know there 
" is none to be excepted or exempted. And yet some are 
" more to be sharpened forward herein than others. For I 
• do not think with the Stoick, omnia peccata be paria. 
" Well, good Mr. Vice-chancellor, bear with my hasty 
" writing: for I can but wish well to this action; and hope 
" that the preachers will do herein their offices as preachers 
" and exhorters, not as devisers or commanders of new 
" orders in the church. Lest thereby, in meaning well, they 
" may yet by novelty give cause of offence. From Rich- 
" mond, the 15th of September, 1580. 

" Your friend, 

" W. Burghley." 

As to one of the colleges in this university of Cambridge, Great dis- 
viz. that of St. John's, great disorders were committed ^ j S n n" s 
therein, and all things there in confusion. And the great college, 
reason thereof was, that they were as yet without statutes ; am ° ge * 
the old ones being so blotted, defaced, and interlined, that 
they were of no use : whereby the government of the col- 
lege was very lax. There had been some years past visitors 
appointed for this college, to make new statutes, and to 
settle that considerable house of learning. Of these visitors, Visitors 
the bishop of Ely was one, and Dr. Ithel, his chancellor, thereof - 
another: but this latter, a very useful man, was now dead. 
And things remaining there still in so ill a posture, the said 

c c 3 



The bishop 
of Ely to 
lord Burgh- 
ley in be- 
halfthereof. 



390 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK good bishop called upon the lord Burghley to forward this 

' good work, (he himself having once been of that college, 

Anno 1580. and still a great friend and patron to it,) in a letter, dated 
from Downham, in the month of June, to this import: 
' That it was now three years since a visitation of that col- 
' lege was intended. That they, the visitors, had deprived 
' them of their statutes. That they had now no rules, no 
' lectures, almost no disputations in effect; no govern- 
' ment, no order, no obedience, no reverence : all went 
' into confusion. Scarce half of the senior fellows there. 
' All scattered here and there. The master a good man, 
' but often absent at his livings. That he would therefore 
' procure the statutes to be finished, that Dr. Ithel had told 
' him were even brought to a conclusion, and get them 
l confirmed by the queen. Wishing so weighty a matter 
' were finished before his death, which he hoped was near." 
This is the sum of what the bishop's letter contained, being 
writ in Latin to that lord : which is transcribed thence ver- 
vvv b i e ^ hatim in the Appendix. 

Q*g5 As for the other university, that of Oxford, the great earl 
The univer- of Leicester was their high-chancellor. And how things 
tort and t jj e stood there, both in respect of religion and learning, and 
chancellor the revenues of it, a book writ about this time gave this ac- 
Leicest. count; which I will take leave to transcribe, always allow- 
1 °""j lon " ing for the spite thereof. " The priests and Jesuits exe- 
" cuted here within the land, and other that remain, either 
" in prison or abroad in corners, are they not all, in a man- 
's ner, of that university? I speak not to the disgrace of any 
" that remain there, or that have issued out thence into the 
" Lord's vineyard. But, for the most part, they of this our 
" time, have they not either flown beyond the seas, or left 
" the places for discontentment in religion ; or else become 
" serving-men, or followed the bare name of law or physic, 
" without profiting greatly therein, or furthering the service 
" of God's church or the commonwealth? And wherehence, 
" I pray you, ensueth all this, but by reason the chief go- 
" vernor thereof is an atheist himself, and useth the place 
" only for gain and spoil ? For herehence it cometh, that 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 391 

" all good order and discipline is despoiled in that place; CHaP. 
" the fervour of study extinguished; the public lectures. 



" abandoned, (I mean of the more part;) the taverns and Anno i58o. 

" ordinary tables frequented; the apparel of students grown 

" monstrous ; and the statutes and good ordinances, both 

" of the university and every college and hall in private, 

" broken and infringed at our good lord's pleasure, without 

" respect either of oath, custom, or reason to the contrary. 

" The head officers are put in and out at his lordship's dis- 

" cretion ; and the scholars places either sold or disposed 

" by his letters, or by those of his servants and followers. 

" Nothing can be had there now without present money. It 

" is as common buying and selling of places in that univer- 

" sity, as of horses in Smithfield." 

And then he makes comparison between the two chan- The two 
cellors: him of Oxford, that he had spoke of before, and £ f ^^ ors 
the other of Cambridge, viz. the lord treasurer Burghley, universities 
after this manner. " If there were not other things to de- con,pan 
" clare the odds and difference between him [the chancellor 
" of Oxford] and the other [him of Cambridge] which he 
" cannot bear ; so that every way he [earl of Leicester] 
" sees him to pass him in all honour and virtue ; it were 
" sufficient to behold the present state of the two univer- 

" sities, whereof they are heads and governors Let 

" the thing speak for itself. Consider the fruit of the gar- 
" den, and thereby you may judge of the gardener's dili- 
" gence. On the one side, look upon the bishoprics, pas- 
" torships, and pulpits of England, and see whence princi- 
" pally they have received their furniture for the advance- 
" ment of the gospel. And, on the other side, look upon the 
" seminaries of papistry at Rome and Rheims, upon the col- 
*{ leges of Jesuits, and other companies of papists beyond 
" the seas, and see wherehence they are especially fraught," 
&c. 

This for the universities. To which I add the mention W h' ita ^ er 
of a very learned man and writer, fellow of Trinity college preferred to 
in Cambridge, namely, William Whitaker, B.D. who, by the ce iiorshipof 
favour of the said chancellor of that university, was made ?Lg au A ^_ 

C C 4 rlem. 



392 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK chancellor of St. Paul's church, London, this year: who 

shewed his grateful heart towards that lord for this favour, 

Anno 1580. i n a well-penned letter in Latin: the sum whereof I will 

repeat. Recente too auctus et omatus beneficio,Jacile 

666 aliter non potui, nee quidem Jus esse eccistimavi, quin ut 
pro tantis in me meritis tuis, quanta hactenus extiterunt, 
aliquas tandem tibi, si non quotes debcrem, at quotes pos- 
sem, agercm gratias, &c. " For this last benefit especially, 
as for former expressions of favour, he returned him all 
possible thanks. For what his lordship's mind long since 
towards him was, and his judgment of him, he had suffi- 
ciently understood by marks, and the speeches of many. 
Whence he took as well the greatest pleasure that he 
could please his lordship, being a person altogether most 
worthy praise, and most wise, and in a sort divine : and 
also he became much more cheerfully to follow those stu- 
dies, for which he once began to be known unto him. But 
he passed over his former and old good turns, and came 
to that which was the greatest of all, and lately conferred 
to him. Wherein indeed were, as he proceeded, many 
things, for which it ought deservedly to be most grateful 
and most desirable to him. For that it happened at that 
time to him, when he could neither think nor imagine 
any such thing. And it the more delighted him, that it 
came from his lordship almost before it was heard of by 
him ; and was brought into the society of that college and 
church, in which his best uncle, Dr. Alexander Nowel, 
had lived now many years with singular praise. But 
certainly, added he, to confess ingenuously, although in 
this favour were many great things, yet nothing seemed 
greater and more joyful to him, than that it proceeded 
from his lordship. For the remembrance of his judgment 
delighted him more, than the greatness of the fruit itself 
accruing from it." It was dated from Trinity college, 
3 idus Septembr. 1580. 
Prociama- The queen, sensible of her danger from abroad, issued 
tion for out a proclamation i n April, in order to the strengthening 

horsemen, * r » ^o o 

and breed herself with sufficient numbers of horsemen especially, and 

of horses. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 393 

for the breed of horses. Setting forth, " How she found, by CHAP. 

" the view of the last certificate of musters, the number of _J '_ 

" horsemen especially, in certain counties, to be much less Anno 1580. 

" than she looked for, considering the great charge that 

" from time to time had been given by letters, directed by 

" her highness 1 special commandment, from her privy-coun- 

" cil unto such of the justices of the peace to whom the 

" principal care of the musters had been committed, to see 

" as well such laws and statutes put in execution as tended 

" to the maintenance of horsemen, and also other good orders 

" and directions, sent to the said justices, tending to the 

" same end. That she was also given to understand, that the 

" most necessary and profitable laws, provided for the breed 

" and increase of horses, were either not at all put in execu- 

" tion, or very negligently; whereby numbers of serviceable 

" horses, that heretofore had been bred within this realm, 

" were preatly decayed : whereby great numbers of her 

" subjects were in danger of great penalty, if her majesty 

" should seek the due execution of her laws. 

" Therefore that she found it expedient to make choice of 
" certain principal noblemen of this realm, and others of 
" her privy-council, to whom she had of late given au- 
" thority under the great seal of this realm, to see due exe- 
" cution of the laws and statutes of this realm provided in 
" that behalf; and of such other orders as heretofore had 
" been taken, or by them might be devised hereafter, as 
" well for the increase of the number of horsemen, as also 067 
" for the breed of horses. 

" The due execution of the said statutes and orders, tend- Preadmoni- 
" ing to -a common defence of the realm, wherein every 
" good and faithful subject is interested, and ought to be 
" careful of the same : therefore the punishing with all se- 
" verity such as should be found offenders here was very 
" necessary. That the queen, having a great disposition to 
Ci have her subjects forewarned of her good pleasure and 
" intention, thought it necessary and expedient, both to no- 
" tify unto them the great dislike she hath of the remissness 
" that hath been heretofore used in a matter tending only 



394 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " to the security of her person, the public defence of her 
" dominions, and the particular benefit of every good sub- 



Anno 1580. « ject; and not meant to be a precedent to draw any person 
" into any other charge or burden. 

" That after this admonition given by publishing this 
" present proclamation, whosoever should be found to of- 
" fend in the premises, should receive such punishment as 
" by the laws and orders of this realm might any ways be 
" inflicted upon them : and that she had given special 
" charge and strait commandment to the said commis- 
" sioners, to see such as should hereafter be found offenders 
" punished with all severity. And she ordered the justices 
" of peace, and other public ministers, to see due execution 
" of such order, as by the said commissioners from time 
" to time should be devised and set forth for the advance- 
" ment of this service, 11 &c. Given at the palace at West- 
minster, the 13th day of April, 1580, the 22d year of her 
majesty*^ reign. 
The queen We descend now to take notice of a few matters more 
fails sick private and domestic. This summer the queen fell sick. 

by catching L x 

cold. Whose sickness seems to have been occasioned by her bath- 

ing, which her physicians persuaded her to do : when, either 
taking cold, or by some other accident, she presently sick- 
ened, and so continued two days together; but within a 
short time after she recovered again. So the earl of Shrews- 
bury was informed by a letter from Mr. Bawdewin, his 
steward, then at court. But secretary Wylson, in a letter 
of his of court-news to another noble peer, the earl of Sus- 
sex, relates, that her distemper proceeded from her writing 
a private letter upon Sunday, at night, to monsieur, to be 
sent away immediately ; and taking cold thereupon, since 
had kept her chamber. 
A new The foresaid Bawdewin, in the same letter to that earl, 

sickness mentions a new, strange sickness then at court, and in the 

at court. . & . 

city, which grieved men in the head, and with a stitch over 
the stomach. But few died thereof, though many were in- 
fected with it. And it was credibly reported, that forty stu- 
dents in Lincoln's Inn were taken with the said malady in the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 395 

space of twenty-four hours. At the court, the lady Lincoln, CHAP, 
the lady Stafford, and the lady Leighton, were at that time ? 



sick thereof; and many of the inferior sort. The lord cham- Anno i58o. 
berlain, then at his house at Newhall, [in Essex,] was said 
also to be sick thereof. 

It being now a season usual for the queen to make her The queen 
progress, there was a desire in the countess of Shrewsbury JJJjjJ^ 
to have the honour of the queen's company at Chatsworth, by the 
the noble seat of that earl. For which end she sent a letter c0 
to the lady Burghley, the lord treasurer's lady, that she 
would find a way to move it to the queen. But the said 
lord declared unto his lady, when she spake of it unto him, 
that her majesty was unwilling to take that journey; and 66*8 
that so he had advertised the said lady Shrewsbury. But 
the lady Burghley moving him again in this matter, he ut- 
tered his mind to this effect: " That he had moved her ma- 
" jesty, whom he found resolutely bent against going thi- 
" ther : and that both because of the busy affairs with 
" which she was troubled at that time, and also by reason 
" of her sickness, the opportunity served not for him to 
" proceed any further with the queen on that behalf; which 
" otherwise he willingly would have done.' 1 '' Adding this 
secret advertisement, (as a true friend, and one that knew 
well the queen's disposition, and the present state of affairs,) 
that if her majesty should perceive that either he, the earl, 
or she, the countess, were earnestly suitors for her coming, 
she would perceive a mislike of them for the same. And so 
he let them understand. 

Of what nobles and gentlemen the queen's court con- Noblemen 
sisted, and who her great officers were from the beginning ^ e f im J e ~ r 
of her reio-n unto this time, and who were deceased, a cer-the queen. 
tain list will shew ; drawn up by the lord treasurer's own 
hand : from whose paper I transcribe it. 

Lord chancellors. Lord treasurers. Lord great chamberlains. Those that 

f Archbishop Hethc. f Marquis of Winches- f Earl of Oxford. The fa- have a cross 
f Sir Nicolas Bacou. ter. ther. were dead. 

Sir Thomas Bromley. Lord Burghley. Earl of Oxford. The son. 

I omit the rest, being many : choosing to set the whole list 
in the Appendix. N-.xxxv. 



396 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



BOOK A great and terrible earthquake happened this year, 
IL April 6, Wednesday in Easter holydays, felt in London and 
Anno 1580. other parts of England. Whereupon an order of prayer 
wa b yer^t°o f was appointed to be used upon Wednesdays and Fridays; 
be used for to avert and turn away God's wrath from us, threatened by 
quakT. " the late terrible earthquake. And was to be used both in pa- 
rish churches and households too. In this book of prayers 
is a long prayer, yor the state of Christ's church, to be used 
on Sundays : and there was a rubric, That the curates shall 
call upon their parishioners, to cause their families every 
night, hefore their going to bed, to say the prayer set out 
for that purpose, meekly kneeling upon their knees. It 
began, " O eternal, mighty, and most loving Father," &c. 
a godly There was also a godly admonition put forth by au- 

forth^iT* thority? to be read at such times, as an homily. Therein 
this occa- were these words, shewing how the people of this land were 
degenerated, and become great sinners, in order to the 
stirring them up to repentance : " Who complaineth not of 
corruption in officers, yea, even in officers of justice, and 
" ministers of the law ? Is it not a common by-word, (but 
' I hope not true, though common,) that as a man is 
'friended, so the law is ended? In youth, there was never 
' like looseness and untimely liberty ; nor in age, like un- 
' steadiness and want of discretion, nor the like careless- 
' ness of duty towards others. The boy mateth the man of 
' aged gravity, and is commended for that for which he de- 
" serveth to be beaten. Servants are become masterless, 
66$)" and followed with masters; and masters, unable to master 
their own affections, are become servants to other folks' 1 
" servants, yea, and to their own servants too. Men have 
" taken up the garish attire and nice behaviour of women ; 
and women, transformed from their own kind, have gotten 
up the apparel and stomach of men. And as for honest 
and modest shamefastness, the preferrer of all virtues, it 
is so highly misliked, that it is thought of some folks 
scarce tolerable in children. 

" Hatred, malice, disdain, and desire of revenge for the 
weight of a feather, are the virtues of our young gentle- 
men, in commendation of their manhood and valiantness. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 397 

" Deep dissimulation and flattery are counted courtly be- CHAP. 
" haviour. Might overcomes right, and truth is trodden 



underfoot. Idleness and pride bring daily infinite num.- Anno 1580. 
" bers to that point, that they had rather rob, and be 
" shamefully hanged, than labour, and live with honesty. 
" Usury, the consumer of private estates, and the con- 
" founder of commonweals, is become a common (and in 
" some men's opinions commendable) trade to live by. 
" Faithfulness is fled in exile, and falsehood vaunteth him- 
" self in his place, till he have gotten great sums of money 
" into his hand, that he may pay the bankrout, to the undoing 
" of such as trust him. The sabbath days and holydays, or- 
" dained for the hearing of God's word to the reformation 
" of our lives, for the administration and receiving of the 
" sacraments to our comfort, for the seeking of all things 
" behooful for body and soul at God's hand by prayer, for 
" the being mindful of his benefits, and to yield praise and 
a thanks to him for the same, and, finally, for the special 
" occupying of ourselves in all spiritual exercises, is spent 
" full heathenishly in taverning, tippling, gaming, playing, 
" and beholding of bear-baiting and stage-plays ; to the 
" utter dishonour of God, impeachment of all godliness, 
" and unnecessary consuming of men's substances, which 
" ought to be better employed. The want of orderly disci- 
" pline and catechising hath either sent great numbers, 
" both old and young, back again into papistry, or let 
" them run loose into godless atheism." This is a period of 
that homily, composed upon the foresaid earthquake. 

In Hith, one of the cinque ports, above three miles and Kiibum's 
an half from Folkestone, this earthquake was so great, that ^£ 7 p ° 
the bells in the church sounded. And the first of May fol- 143. 149. 
lowing was another earthquake in Great-Chart, in the same 
county of Kent; which so affrighted the inhabitants, that 
they arose out of their beds. The appointment of prayer 
upon this earthquake by the archbishop of Canterbury, and 
confirmed by strict order of the privy-council, is more at Grind. 
large taken notice of in that archbishop's Life. And how cll ' p ' 2 4 8# 
the bishop of London speedily appointed prayers through J 5 ?'- Elm - 
his diocese may be seen in that bishop's Life. p .78. 



398 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK This year died Henry earl of Arundel; being an old cour- 
tier, and a very princely man in all his actions. Among other 



Anno 1580. things that were remarked of him this was one, that he always 
of Arundel s P a ^ e ms own natural language in foreign courts. Concern- 
dies, ing which custom of his, Dr. Wylson tells this passage: that 
y son s on a t j me> passing from England towards Italy by her majes- 
ty's licence, he was very honourably entertained in the court 
at Brussels by the lady duchess of Parma, regent there. And 
sitting at a banquet with her, where also was the prince of 
Orange, with all the greatest princes of the state, the earl, 
670 though he could reasonably well speak French, would not 
speak one French word, but all English, whether he asked 
any question or answered it. But all was done with truck- 
men, [interpreters.] Insomuch as the prince of Orange, mar- 
velling at it, looked aside on that part where Dr. Wylson 
himself stood, a beholder of the feast, and said, " I marvel 
" your noblemen of England do not desire to be better lan- 
" guaged in foreign languages." This word was by and by 
reported to the earl. Quoth the earl again, " Tell my lord 
" the prince, that I like to speak in that language in which 
" I can best utter my mind, and not mistake."" 
Berty, his I have a note here to make of the very ancient and noble 
title" V* tbe ^ am ^y °f l ^ e Berties: to which the barony of Eresby per- 
Eresby. tained before the conquest, as was asserted by Peregrine 
Bertie, son and heir of the duchess of Suffolk, upon occa- 
sion of a controversy happening this year, 1580, for the 
title of lord Willughby and Eresby : which, it seems, was 
not allowed by the queen. There is a paper among the 
Burghleian MSS. which at large endeavours to prove this 
lord's title to it ; shewing how this barony, before the con- 
quest, belonged to the see of Durham. And that at the 
conquest by the conqueror, with the bishop's consent, it 
was given to Pinzon ; who thereby became lord of Eresby. 
His tenure. And his tenure was, to serve the said bishop of Duresm, at 
' the day of his consecration, in the office of skewer : which 
service, by special words in the grant, might not be done 
by any other deputy than his eldest son, being a knight, or 
by some other knight. Therefore it argued in himself a 
higher degree, as to be a baron. And the same style to be 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 399 

incident to the head manor of that barony, by name Eresby : CHAP, 
which ever had, and hath divers manors, as members be- XXIV - 
longing to the same. For otherwise the bishop might take Anno i580. 
lack of so honourable tenure. For if it would descend to 
an esquire, and convey to him no higher degree, the right 
tenant should be unable to do the service belonging to his 
tenure : which should be a great absurdity and inconveni- 
ence. 

This above is part of a paper thus entitled, Allegations His aiiega- 
and Proofs; proposed by Richard Bertie, esq. for his claim h £™_^ 
and interest to the name and style of lord Will ugh by, of and title. 
Willughby and Eresby, in the right of the lady Katharine, 
duchess of Suffolk, his wife, daughter and heir to William 
lord Willughby and Eresby, deceased. This controversy, 
which happened about this time, was heard by some whom 
the queen especially deputed for that purpose : who made 
a decree for granting him his style. But the paper, con- 
taining the said decree, is indeed but a draught of it. Whe- 
ther it passed at this time, I find not. But I find Peregrine 
Bertie styling himself lord Willughby and Eresby, was not 
allowed yet by the queen : which occasioned him in great 
discontent to apply himself to the lord treasurer by way of 
letter ; wherein he writeth thus : 



" That he found his senses so overcome with just pen- His letter 

^to the lor " 
treasurer. 



siveness, that he could not presently write so fully as the, 



" treasurer's person and his own cause required, by com- 
" mending it to his honourable and friendly defence, &c. 
" And his chiefest care was, that her majesty might not be 
" induced sincerely to interpret worse of his claim than the 
" matter ministered occasion, because he took the title and 
" claim of Willughby and Eresby." He added, " That the 
" question was handled in king Henry the Eighth's reign, 
" And the right upon claim made by sir Christopher Wil- Q j j 
" lughby, younger brother and heir male to the lord Wil- 
" lughby, my grandfather, was adjudged to the duchess, 
" my dear mother. 

" Now if my right, after sentence given ; after so long 



400 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK " seizin, and a dying seized of the duchess, shall be called 
" in question, I must needs think myself an abortive, and 



Anno 1580. " born in a most unfortunate hour; that her majesty had 
" rather spoil her crown of a barony, than I should be 
" the person should do that service. But in case your ho- 
" nour shall, of your friendly disposition towards me, and 
"justice, safely pilot me over this tempestuous sea, you 
" shall confidently account, that thereby you have erected 
" a pillar in your own building, which shall never shrink or 
" fail you for any stone whatsoever. And thus reposing my- 
" self wholly on your honourable goodness, with hearty 
" prayer for your so good estate, I humbly take my leave. 
" From Willoughby House. 
" Your lordship^ humbly and assuredly at commandment, 

" Peregrine Bertie. 11 

His early To add a remark or two of this gentleman ; who made 
proficiency a considerable figure in queen Elizabeth's reign. When 

in learning, \ • n 11 t> /-i-ii 

by secretary young, he was chiefly under the eye of secretary Cecil, by 
Cecil's care.^g earnest rj esn . e f his pious mother the duchess : and by 
his means and care he profited in good learning, as well as 
other courtly accomplishments. So that in the year 1568, 
being not above fifteen or sixteen years of age, he wrote a 
handsome Latin epistle to the secretary. Wherein he ex- 
pressed his thankfulness to him for his fatherly love, which 
he had always shewn towards him : mentioning, how desir- 
ous he had been of his proficiency in good learning; and 
promising him to use diligence to attain it. 
The duchess So that he was bred at court, and had learned there to be 
sends for somew hat wild ; insomuch that his gracious, good mother 

her son ° . 

from court, desired his tarrying no longer there : and in the year 1577, 
writ to the said Cecil, (now lord Burghley,) " entreating 
" him, for God's sake, to give the young man, her son, good 
" counsel ; to bridle his youth, and to help him to despatch 
" him the court : that he might go down to his father ; 
" while, she trusted, all was well. 11 

Goes to the He was warlike and militarily disposed ; and went into 
the Low Countries with the earl of Leicester. And at Zut- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 401 

phen he unhorsed a great captain, and took him prisoner, CHAP, 
as Camden writes. He assisted the protestants in France. 



And in the year 1585 he was in Crounenburgh in Ger- Annol58 °- 
many : sent thither to raise succours for the king of Navar, n ,^ le Vof~the 
either by men or money. But he received a marvellous cold Germans, 
answer. Thus expressing his success in a letter to the lord 
Burghley : " That they understood better, proximus sum 
" egomet mihi, than they had learned humanum nihil a me 
" alienum puto. And that the state of the German princes 
" continued still in their deep security and lethargy ; care- 
" less of the state of others ; dreaming of their ubiquity. 
" And some of them, as it was thought, inclining to be Spa- 
" nish and popish, more than heretofore."" These are some 
historical passages among a great many more that I could 
relate of this right noble gentleman. 



CHAP. XXV. 6- 2 

Books published this year. A Discourse of God's Judgments 
against great Sins. A Description of the Earthquake. 
Dr. Fulke^s Retentive. His Challenge. Forty popish 
books in English set forth by this time. What they were. 
All answered. The Genealogy of Queen Mary, queen of 
Scots : set forth by bishop Rosse. Glover, Somerset herald, 
•writes against the bishop of Rosse^s book. Dr. Dce^s In- 
structions for the North-cast Passage. Everard Digby's 
dialogue against a book of P. Ramus. Answered. The 
holy Exercise of a true Fast. The occasion of the writ- 
ing thereof. 

J- HESE books following I find came out this year among 
others. 

A discourse, containing many wonderful examples of a. discourse 
God^s indignation, poured forth upon divers people for donation. 
their intolerable sins, &c. Printed by the queen's printer, 
Christopher Barker. In the title-page was added, that a 
part of it might be read instead of some part of the homily. 

VOL. II. TAltT II. d d 



402 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK It was composed therefore, as it seems, upon occasion of 
Ilj the earthquake : for then followed in the book a report of 



Anno 1580. the earthquake ; which is thus described : 

A descrip- " On Easter Wednesday, being the 6th of April, 1580, 

tion of the « some what before six o'clock in the afternoon, happened 

earthquake. . - , 

" this earthquake. It was not great in respect of contmu- 
" ance of time, continuing little above a minute of an 
" hour ; and no great harm done. It shook all houses, 
" castles, churches, and buildings wherever it went, and 
" put them in danger of utter ruin. Yet within this realm 
" it overthrew few or none, saving certain stones, chimneys, 
" walls, and pinnacles of high buildings, both in this city 
" [London] and divers other places. None received bodily 
" hurt by it, save two children in London, a boy and girl ; 
" being at a sermon in Christ's church by Newgate-market. 
" The boy was slain outright by the fall of a stone, shaken 
" down from the roof of the church ; and the girl was sore 
" hurt at the same instant, and died within few days after. 
" It was universally almost at one instant. It was not only 
" within this realm, but also without ; where it was also 
" much more violent, and did much more hurt. It struck 
" exceeding horror into men's hearts." 

In this book the author labours to prove, " that this 
" earthquake was not natural, but of God's own determi- 
" nate purpose ; to make the very foundation and pillars of 
" the earth to shake, the mountains to melt like wax, the 

" seas to dry up to shew the greatness of his glorious 

" power, in uttering his heavy displeasure against sinners. 
673 " For in earthquakes that proceed of natural causes, there 
" were these signs, which were not in this : as, a tempestuous 
" working and raging of the sea, the weather being fail', 
" temperate, and unwindy; calmness of the air, matched 
" with great cold ; dimness of the sun for certain days be- 
" fore ; long and thin strakes of clouds appearing after the 
" setting of the sun ; and the weather being otherwise clear : 
" the troubledness of water ever in the deepest wells; 
" yielding moreover an infected and stinking savour : and 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 403 

" lastly, great and terrible sounds in the earth, like the CHAP. 
" noise of groanings, or thunderings, as well afore as after ] ' 



" the quaking. But none of these happened before the Anno 1; > 80 - 
" coming of this earthquake." 

This year Dr. Fulke, professor of divinity in Cambridge, The Reten- 
set forth a book which he called his Retentive, in answer to " 
Bristow's Motives, intended to bring protestants over to the 
Romish church. In this Retentive he made a challenge 
openly in print to all learned papists, to dispute with them 
the points in difference : and three years after, in his Con- 
Jutation of sundry cavils, he repeated it in these words: 
" If you be so sharp upon disputation, as you pretend, why 
" doth never a papist of you all answer my challenge, made 
" openly in print almost three years ago, set before my Re- 
" tentive? Wherein you may express what you have in 
" maintenance of your opinion, without suit, without dan- 
" ger ; and to the best and surest trial of the truth." 

Unto this year, and in it, that is, from the beginning of Forty po- 
queen Elizabeth's reign to this time, came forth in ^arint ^ forth in 
near forty popish books, written by English fugitives, th . is °. ueen ' s 
against the reformed religion professed in this land: and time, 
all answered by divines of our own. The names of all which 
books, and those that gave answers to them, are set down 
in a tract of Dr. Fulke, a great champion of our church in 
these times; who himself answered many of them. The 
list whereof may be found in the Appendix. They are set Numher 
down by the said Fulke in the page next after the title of XXXVI - 
his book, printed anno 1580, entitled, Stapleton and Mar- 
shal coiifuted. 

In the year 1580, the bishop of Rosse, the Scottish queen Genealogy 
Mary's great agent, and sometime her ambassador to queen (meg^f 
Elizabeth, procured to be printed at Paris a genealogy of Scots: 
the kings of England ; to shew the right title to this king- p ar j s . ' 
dom, coming to the said queen Mary. The pedigree is 
displayed in a fair large table containing three sheets of pa- 
per. In one corner of this table it is thus written : 

Cum nonmdli, regnandi cupidine, nescio quibus titidis, 
ad Anglicani regni diadema aspircnt; ad tollendam om- 

d d 2 



404 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK ncm hac de re dubitationcm, hoc schcmate provisum est: 
quo constat, Henricurn VII. Anglice regem, cujns fcvlix 



Anno \?>Mjaustaquc sit memoria, ex Elizabctha conjuge tres tantum 
liberos superstitcs reliquisse ; Henricurn ejus nominis octa- 
vum, Margaretam majorem natu jiliam, Jacobo IV. Scoto- 
rum regi nuptam ; et Mariam Lodovico XII. Francorum 
regi primum, deinde Carolo Brandono, Suffolcicc dud, col- 
locatam. Henrici VIII. itaque sobole dcjiciente, succes- 
sions regnorum Anglice ct Hibernian jus ad serenissimam 
Mariam Scotorum reginam, Jacobi IV. ct Margaret ce ex 
Jacobo V. Scotorum rege eorumjilio, neptem, ejusque dein- 
ceps liberos, rectissime, aliis omnibus exclusis, devolvi de- 
bcrc, hoc schema intuentibus apparebit. 
674 And at the bottom of another corner was this writing : 

Lectori Benevolo. 
Habes hie {lector benevole) continuam jlorcntissinii An- 
glicani rcgni abhinc quingentis annis successionem. Quant 
non tarn serenissimce Scotorum rcgincc Marice, ejusque jilio, 
optioUce spei principi, gratificandi studio, proponere volui, 
quam ut sublato omni de legitima successione scrnpulo, to- 
tius BritannicB dignitati, pad ac saluti consulatur ; et om- 
nis seditionis materia, qua hide suboriri posset, penitus 
extinguatur. Vale ; et huic nostro laborifave. 

J. Lesleus, episc. Ross. Parisiis, anno mdlxxx. 

Glover, a Glover, a learned man, Somerset herald, this year writ a 
wHtes'a book against the said bishop of Ross ; who, beside this pe- 
book digree, had writ a tract in defence of the queen of Scots' 

Scottish C title to the crown of England. Which book of Glover's, 
queen's j t ] nn k, was never printed ; but remains in the Heralds 1 
Office in London. Of this book I have made mention be- 
fore. 
a book of Dr. Dee, the famous astronomer, set forth a book for the 
the Catte* Cathay voyage, which was intended this year for discovery 
voyage. f the north-east parts of the world. It was entitled, In- 
structions for the two masters, Charles Jackman and Ar- 
thur Pett, in two barlcs, the George and William : given 
and delivered to them at the court-day, Iwlden at the Mus- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 405 

covy-house, the 17th day of May, 1580. With which instruc- CHAP, 
tions a new chart, made by hand, was given also to each . 



of the said two masters, expressing their Cathay voyage Anno ,58 °- 

more exactly than any other yet published. It began, " In 

" the name qf Jesus. If we reckon from Wardhouse to Col- 

" goyeve island, 400 miles, 11 &c. It was found among the 

MSS. of the lord treasurer Burghley ; and was afterwards 

printed by Mr. Hackluit, in his book of voyages. I only 

mention an addition in the conclusion of the MS. left out 

in print. The last period is this: " You have opportunity 

" also to sail over to Japan island ; where you shall find 

" Christen men, Jesuits, of many countries of Christen- 

" dom, and perhaps some Englishmen. At whose hands 

" you may have great instructions and advice for. our 

" affairs in hand. 11 Thus far the print. Then follows in 

that MS. " God be favourable to these attempts, greatly 

" tending to his glory, and the great honour of this king- 

" dom. Amen.'" 

Let me add here the mention of a book writ against Eve- Everard 
rard Digby ; the same with him, I suppose, that was fel- J^tJs 
low of St. John's college in Cambridge: against whom Dr. against Ra- 
Whitaker, the master, took occasion by some branches of 
statute, to expel him the college : especially suspecting him 
to be a papist. Of which matter see the Life of Archbishop Life of 
Whitgift. This Digby had writ somewhat dialoguewise w r £ it „jft° p 
against Ramus's Unica Mctlwdus : which in those times b.iii. c.19. 
prevailed much ; and perhaps brought into that college to 
be read ; the rather, Ramus being a protestant, as well as 
a learned man. Whereupon one Francis Mildapet, a Na- 
varrois, writ against Digby, in vindication of Ramus, a 
small book, entitled, Admonitio ad Everardum Digby, An- 
glum, de Unica P. Rami Methodo, rejectis ccsteris, reti- 
nenda. It was printed at London, and dedicated to Philip 
earl of Arundel : beginning thus ; Prodiit non ita pridem 
Everardi Digbei adversus Unicam P. Rami Mcthodum dia- 
logus ; equidem, ut multi opinantur, magis audacter emis-S'Jb 
sus, quam erudite contextus, ut ego existimo, non ita magno 
judicio institutus. Attulit enim ad eandem pervellendam, 

D(13 



406 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

BOOK non vim acutissima. rationis, sed commentum ingenii sui: 
illudque per omnes dialogi partes itajusum sine artificio, 



Anno 1 580. 1t f quidvis potius agere, quam de methodo disserere vide- 
atur. That is, that this dialogue was thought by some to be 
more boldly sent abroad than learnedly composed : and this 
writer esteemed it framed with no great judgment; and 
more wit than reason appeared throughout in it. So that 
Digby seemed to oppose Ramus's philosophy chiefly out 
of a prejudice against him upon the account of religion. 
But that which Digby's adversary did, was, as he said, that 
he thought it not amiss to unravel the artifice of that book ; 
and to admonish Digby freely, and yet modestly, of retain- 
ing that only method. 

a book Another small book was this year printed with allowance 

about fast- ..,..„ . . , 

i,ig. concerning jasting ; with directions for a right and practi- 

cal observation of it : entitled, The holy exercise of a true 
Just, described out of God's word. That religious exercise of 
jasting, it seems, in those times, was very much neglected 
by those that professed the gospel, upon the prejudices that 
had been taken up against it, by reason of the superstitious 
practice of it among the papists ; the book having this ex- 
pression towards the beginning of it : " Let the papists go, 
" who, through a shameful superstition in it, rather pine 
" away their souls, than take down their bodies. It is a 
" shame to speak how few there are that bear the name of 
" gospellers, that have so much as the knowledge of this 
" exercise ; so far are they from any lawful and right prac- 
" tise of it : for a great number, as a needless thing, reject 
" it altogether, (as shaking off the pope's yoke from their 
" own necks,) by using, or rather abusing their liberty. 
" Likewise another sort of men there were then among 
" them, who thinking it fitting to the Christian profession 
" to keep the flesh in some bridle, allowed indeed of the 
" exercise of fasting ; but for want of a better, they stuck 
" still in the mire of a popish fast. For remedy whereof this 
" treatise was set forth, that the true fast might be under- 
4 ' stood by both parties.' 1 

And as an argument to this duty, the threatening sword 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 407 

haneinff over the nation was as a call from God thereunto, CHAP, 
to avert that feared judgment : the writing having this ex- 



pression, (with an eye to the queen's many popishly affected Anno isso. 
subjects ready to rebel in all parts of her realm.) " The 
" sword hath been shaken at us, both in the north by trai- 
" tors, and in the south by disordered wicked persons.'" 

And thus this History is brought to the twenty-second 
year of queen Elizabeth's happy reign. 



i) d 4 



APPENDIX 



OF 



ORIGINAL PAPERS; 



REFERRED TO IN THE ANNALS. 



APPENDIX. 



BOOK I. 



Number I. 
Thomas Cartwright, B. D. lady Margaret professor, to sir 
William Cecil, knight, chancellor of the university of 
Cambridge ; in vindication of his readings. 

v-^OMMUNIS totius literatorum hominum nationis (bono? Paper office. 
ratissime vir) patronus et propugnator cum sis, in bonam 
spem venio, ut ipse quoque in aliqua parte curae et solicitu- 
dinis tuae maneam. Et cum multi docti viri singularem 
tuam experti sint, et praedicarint humanitatem, patere, 
quaeso, me hominem non a Uteris prorsus alienum, illius 
quoque fieri participem. Video, et quidem meo cum magno 
malo sentio, quam sit verbum illud verum, Nihil esse ma- 
gis quam calumnia volucre ; nihil citius emitti, facilius 
nihil dilatari. Quae si nostris parietibus constitisset calum- 
nia, et aulas et tui imprimis honoratissimi viri aures non 
pulsasset, multum esset de dolore meo detractum. Mihi 
vero homuncioni te virum honoratissimum objici, et tan- 
quam adversarium opponi, id me demum pungit acriter. 
Hie ego primum eu9yyAcocrc-ouj (ut ille loquitur) desidero, qui 
si non defuisscnt, nulla mihi apud te purgandi fuit necessitas. 
Liceat enim mihi apud te, quod vere possum, libere 
etiam profiteri, me esse a seditione et contentionis studio 
aversissimum, nihil docuisse quod ex contextu quern tracta- 
bam, non sponte flueret: oblatam etiam de vestibus occa- 
sionem, praetereundo dissimulasse. Non nego quin docuerim 
ministerium nostrum ab avitae et apostolicae ecclesiae mini- 
sterio deflexisse : cujus ad puritatem nostram exigi et effor- 
mari cupiebam. Sed dico hoc a me placide et sedate factum 



412 AN APPENDIX 

BOOK esse, ut in nullius nisi aut ignari aut maligni auditoris, et 
lj calumniarum aucupis, reprehcnsionem potuisset incurrcre. 
De quibus tamen universis audio me apud tuam Pra^stan- 
tiam insimulari. 

Quaeris, qui ista confirmem ? En ! fero tibi (honoratissime 
vir) plurimorum et incorruptissimorum hominum, qui inter- 
fuerunt, testimonium. Parum certe abfuit, quin academiam 
innocentiae meae testem protulissem. Nam nisi mihi ro- 
ganti vicecancellarius concionem cogere abnuisset, equidem 
non dubitarem, quin ilia a me, contra quae perhibentur ca- 
lumnias, sententiam diceret. 

Non possum omnia, quae ea ipsa lectione, quae istum ru- 
morem pepererit, continebantur, xon-a hsirrov epistola inclu- 
dere; sed me nihil eorum quae proposuerim, tibi roganti 
inficiari velle polliceor sancte. Et cum meae improbitatis (si 
quae sit) supplicium non recusaverim, tuum in praesenti 
causa, quoad ilia justa fuerit, imploro patrocinium. 

Ergo, ne patiaris (honoratissime vir) certorum hominum 
odio, me, imo ipsam veritatem, obrui. Nam cum mihi priva- 
tim invideant, per honestum et gloriosum pads et ecclesia. 
2 nomen oppugnare volunt. Dominus Jesus tuam indies spi- 
ritu sapientiae et pietatis Prsestantiam augeat. 9 Julii, anno 
1570. 

Honoris tui studiosissimus, 

T. Cartwright. 



Number II. 
Letters wrote from divers of the university to their clianeel- 
lor, in behalf of Cartwright. 
Payer office. MAGNUM sane acerbumque dolorem cepimus, hono- 
ratiss. vir, ex eo, qui ad nos pervenit nuper, rumore, de 
molestiis tuis, et alienata a Cartwrighto nostro voluntate. 
Nam cum tibi omnes tanquam patrono singulari, ac acade- 
miae parenti unico devinciamur, Cartwrightum vero singu- 
lare literarum ornamentum eximie diligamus, nihil potuit 
nobis acciderc quam ut ad curas et labores tuos a nobis 
quicquam addcretur, aut ille in discrimen nominis et existi- 



OF ORIGINAL PAPERS. 413 

mationis suae cuique bono veniret. Putavimus itaque officii BOOK 
nostri esse, et ejus quam tibi debemus observantiae, aegritu- '. 

dinem illam ex falsa tantum opinione contractam levare, et 
Cartwrightum, si fieri potest, in veterem locum apud te, et 
gratiam reponere. Et quamvis videri possimus parum con- 
siderate facere, qui in maximis occupation ibus, et qui bus 
paene conficeris, reip. negotiis, tibi per literas obstrepere 
non vereamur ; putamus tamen non convenire, ut cum alii 
ad accusandum fuerint tam celeres, nos ad defendendum 
non simus tardiores : beneque speramus, quod istam defen- 
sionem, quam falsam accusationem, multo libentius auditu- 
rus sis. 

Primum itaque de Cartwrighti nostri moribus non erit 
necesse nobis multa dicere. Putamus neminem esse, qui 
eum alicujus criminis, aut in tota vita maculae faedioris cri- 
minetur aut accuset, sed tamen, ut Honori tuo constet, qua- 
lem illis hominem vocant in invidiam, hoc de eo vere affir- 
mamus, quod exemplar sit pietatis et integritatis, et quod 
quo propius ad illius vitas consuetudinem et instituta acce- 
dimus, eo nos ipsos plura faciamus et amemus. 

Religion-em scimus sinceram esse, et ab omni labe puram. 
Non enim emersit solum ex vasto et infinito papisticarum 
haeresium pelago, dulcissimaque Christianae religionis aqua 
se proluit, sed etiam ad nullam earum opinionum futilium 
et levium, quae quotidie disseminantur et disperguntur, 
tan quam ad scopulum impegit. Ad sacram scripturam, re- 
gulam morum et doctrinae certissimam se astrinxit ; neque 
unquam aut errore lapsus, aut novitate seductus, illius li- 
mites, quod scimus, transilivit. Itaque magnum in eo non 
solum adversus senescentes Romanensium fabulas, a quibus 
magnopere non metuimus, sed etiam peregrinas vafrorum 
hominum opiniones, quae graviorem plagam minantur, prae- 
sidium ponimus. Atque idem de eo tu tibi certo potes pro- 
mi ttere. 

Doctrinam suspicimus et veneramur. Vere n. de eo dici 
potest quod est alicubi apud poetam, Qua 1 liberum hominem 
aequum est scire, solertem dabo. Junxit, quod ille in magna 
laude posuit, Graeca cum Latinis. Addidit etiam ultra, 



414 AN APPENDIX 

BOOK quod erat non exigui laboris, Hebraica. Atque ita quidem, 
' ut etiamsi in singulis pares aliquos, in universis certe supe- 
riorem invenimus neminem. In ea vero quam profitetur 
theologia quantum valeat, ex eo potest intelligi, quod tanta 
omnium ordinum multitudo atque frequentia ad eum audi- 
endum quotidie confluat, tarn diligenter attendat, in ej us- 
que scntentia libenter conquiescat. Neque vero hoc fit 
propterea, sicuti fortasse quidam tibi in aures insusurrave- 
runt, quod semper veniat novus, et peregrinis sententiis au- 
ditorum aures titillet ; sed quod acutus sit in interpre- 
tando, felix in docendo, denique quod rerum gravitatem 
atque pondus sententiarum verborumque copiam superare 
videatur. 

Itaque hsec nostra de eo sententia est, quam neque preci- 
bus ullis, neque privata amicitia persuasi ad te scripsimus, 
sed quia virtuti hominis et pietati favemus. Nunc humil- 
lime rogamus Honorem tuum, ut siquam de eo pravam opi- 
3nionem concepisti, deponas, atque nobis potius, qui vita; 
ejus et religionis et doctrinse conscii sumus, fidem habeas, 
quam rumoris, qui auctorem non habet, aut certe multa non 
satis candide interpretantem. Conservato, Cancellarie dig- 
nissime, academiae tuae virum eum, cujus semper cupientis- 
sima fuit, cuj usque postquam nacta est, voce fruitur avidis- 
sime. Dignissimus est tam celebri academia alumnus, dig- 
nissimus tanto patrono cliens. Fuit in omni vita magno or- 
namento et splendori academia? tuae: sed nunc demum 
multo quam antehac unquam majori. Non enim solum co- 
litur a nobis domesticis et familiaribus, sed a peregrinis 
multo magis ; quorum exilium lenitur suavitate ingenii ejus, 
et doctrinae. Quique non dubitant eum cum iis conferre, 
quorum tam illustris est apud exteras nationes, et pervagata 
fama. 

Pauci sumus qui hoc a te rogamus ; rogamus tamen voce 
multorum. Nemo enim fere omnium est, qui eum non ad- 
miretur, non diligat, non omni ratione defendendum putet. 
Si igitur academiae tuae prodesse vis, nihil utilius, si gratifi- 
cari, nihil acceptius potes facere, quam si Cartvvrightum ei 
conserves et quovis in ea honore dignum censueris. Deus 



OF ORIGINAL PAPERS. 415 

O. M. te reip. et nobis quam diutissime servet incolumen. BOOK 
Vale. Cantabrigiae, quinto nonas Julii 

Honori tuo devinctissimi, 

Gulielm. Pachet. Richardus Grenham. 

Edmundus Rockrey. Richardus Howland. 

Robertus Tower. Simon Buck. 

Robertus Lynford. Edmundus Sherbroke. 

Robertus Soome. Georgius Joy. 

Bartholomeus Dodington. Alan Par. 

Osmundus David. Thomas Aldrich. 

Joannes Swone. 

Joannes Still. 
Honoratissimo viro D. Gulielmo Gualter. Alen. 

Cecilio rcgice majcstati a se~ Robertus Holland. 

cretis, et academue Catabrigi- 

ensis cancellario dignissimo. 



Number III. 
Epistola alia, D. Cancellario data ; tit rcstituatur Cart- 
wrightus ad legendum. 
VIX credas, ac ne putes quidem (honoratissime vir) Paper Office, 
quantum nobis Cantabrigiensibus alumnis tuis nuper grati- 
ficatus sis, quantumque abs te beneficium accepisse arbitra- 
mur. Num cum avide jam diu expectaremus quid de Cart- 
wrighto nostro futurum esset, multaque pericula animo vol- 
veremus, fama non dubia ad nos pervenit, omnia illi apud 
te feliciter et ex votis nostris contigisse. Criminationibus 
enim illis, quibus injuste vexabatur, te eum perhumaniter 
liberasse : literasque ad praesides nostros, ad eorum animos 
leniendos, qui te contra eum exacuerant, misisse. Et quod 
unum laetemur maxime, ad ecclesiam poliendam, et nitori 
suo restituendam, operam promisisse. Quare non tu solum 
fecisti, idque merito, Cartwrightum, virtutis pietatisque tua? 
testem et praeconem, sed nos etiam, quotquot sumus, mul- 
toque plures, qui illius studio et doctrina ad religionem in- 
stituti, in Christiana rep. majore cum fructu deinceps ver- 
sabimur. Sed vide quam nihil sit omni ex parte beatum. 



416 AN APPENDIX 

BOOK Intervenit huic voluptati nostrse, quam ex tua in Cart- 
wrightum facilitate percepimus, dolor non mediocris, quod 
etiamsi nobis per te restitutus sit, vivat tamen in silentio, 
neque ad solitum docendi munus admittatur. 

Hie igitur ad te, Cancellarium nostrum dignissimum, et 
patronum singularem, iterum confugimus, supplicesque ro- 
gamus, ut schola illi pateat, et ne ab eo cursu prohibeatur, 
in quern ingressus est cum magna laude sua, et utilitate 
nostra non minore. Est quidem nobis valde jucundum, 
quod bene tibi de eo persuaderi passus es : cui si hoc etiam 
addideris, ut illius doctrinam regustemus, qua jamdiu 
4magno cum dolore caruimus, ultra tibi in hoc negotio, nisi 
quod urgeat vehementius, molesti non erimus. 

Antea pro Cartwrighto tantum apud te intercessimus ; 
nunc agimus communem causam. Non enim illius tantum, 
sed nostra etiam interest, ut illi ha?c facultas permittatur. 
Atque te quidem ad id scimus satis facilem et propensum 
esse : quia tamen ii, qui sub Honore tuo gubernacula reip. 
nostras commissa sunt, hoc recusant facere: concede nobis 
et Cartwrighto rogantibus, ut majore abs te aucthoritate ad 
id confirmentur. Ita fiat, ut studiis nostris quam optime 
consuluisse videaris, et integerrimi hominis existimationi. 
Quam eousque necesse est, tanquam ad metas, hserere, 
quoad interpretandi munus illi restitutum fuerit. Lites 
ullas aut controversias non est cur verearis, habes sanctissimi 
viri fidem, scil. ne ullius quidem vulneris cicatricem refri- 
caturum. Perge itaque ut ccepisti de eo bene sentire, et ab 
injustis malevolorum calumniis vindicare. Atque sic ha- 
beto neminem esse, vel propter religionem et doctrinam, 
tanti viri patrocinio et tutela digniorem. Devis Opt. Max. 
Honorem tuum quam diutissime incolumem conservet, et in- 
stituta fortunet. Vale. Cantabrigiae, tertio idus Augusti. 
Dignitatis tua? studiosissimi, 
Thomas Aldrich, Simon Bucke, 

Ruben Sherwood, procu- Robertus Tower, 

rat. acad. Edmund Rookrey, 

Alanus Par, Robertus Soome, 

Roger us Brown, Robertus Rhodes, 



OF ORIGINAL PAPERS. 417 

Edmundus Chapman, Joannes Moore, BOOK 

Hugo Boothe* Thomas Barbar, 

Will. Tabor, Hen. Knewstub, 

Gualterus Alen, Thomas Leache. 

Robertus Holland, 

Edmundus Sherbroke, 
Robertus Willan, 
Richardus Grenham, 
Georg-ius Slater. 



Number IV. 
An astrological calculation concerning the queen'' s mar- 
riage. Written by secretary Cecil, propria manu. 

De significationibus !ma domus, et de conjugio. 

SIGNIFICATORES conjugii sunt quinque; Sol etMSS.Burg. 
Mars, Cancer signum, Luna et Saturnus. 

Sol et Mars reperiuntur in signis negantibus conjugium. 
Igitur negant aflfectionem moventem ad conjugium. 

Sed domus septimae Cancer, et ejus domina Luna conju- 
gium promittunt optimum. 

Saturnus vero loci sui ratione, conjugium promittit setate 
consistente : et ex dispositione significatorum, principaliter 
ex Saturno in angulo occidental!, expectatur tarditas con- 
jugii; et quod post maturam aetatem habebit juvenem vi- 
rum, qui an tea non duxit uxorem, circa annum suae astatis 
31 labentem. 

Uni tantum viro socia dabitur. Colligitur ab eo, quod uni 
tantum planetae matutinati, videlicet Saturno, applicata. 
Idem etiam testatur constitutio solius Mercurii inter me- 
dium coeli et Venerem. 

De qualitate viri sui. 

Cum extraneo contracturam matrimonium indicat pars 
conjugii in nona domo. Similiter peregrinatio Saturni prin- 
cipalis significatoris conjugii, virum extraneum promittit. 

Abhorrere et non multum delectare videtur in conjugio, 5 
praecipue in medietate vita?, indicant Mars et Venus in sig- 
nis masculinis, et Saturnus in septima. 

VOL. II. PART II. f. e 



I. 



418 AN APPENDIX 

BOOK Viro obediet, reveretur, et in magna sestimatione habebit 
. eum, indicat utrumque luminare in signo fcemineo. 

Perveniet ad matrimonium prosperum, sed tarde et post 
multa consilia, et vulgarem ubique gentium rumorem. Et 
de ejus matrimonio erit ubique locorum maxima disputatio 
et altercatio per multos annos, universis personis, priusquam 
ad matrimonium perveniet. Et tamen sponsa fiet sine ullo 
impedimento. Haec colliguntur ex trino aspectu Martis, 
Veneris et Mercurii, et ex sextili aspectu Saturni et Solis. 

Vir prsemorietur, et tamen diu vivet cum marito ; et pos- 
sidebit muta [multa] bona viri. Id Saturnus in septima af- 
firmat. 

De liberis. 

Nullus planetarum reperitur in locis prolium, excepto 
Marte, qui parcos liberos promittit ; nisi trinus Veneris as- 
pectus ad cuspidem domus filiorum ipsius Martis judicium 
annullaverit. 

Verum Venus est in domo propria, conjuncta Mercurio, 
domino filiorum. Et idcirco spes maxima datur de filio uno 
robusto, claro et felici in aetate sua matura. Luna in Tauro 
unam filiam designat. 



»*&» 



Number V. 

The charter for wrecks on the coasts of Sussex ; granted by 
king- Henry VI. to Adam, bishop of Chichester. 
PaperOffice. HENRICUS Dei gra. rex Anglie et Francie, et dom. 
Hib. Omnibus ad quos presentes literse pervenerint, Sal. 
Monstravit nobis venerabilis pater Adam epus. Cicestren. et 
custos privati sigilli nri" 1 , qualiter quamplurima dominica et 
collata prope costeras maris in comit. Sussexie situata exist- 
unt, homines et tenentes ; non solum ipsius epi" 1 , verum etiam 
homines tenentes canonicorum, et aliorum ministrorum ejus- 
dem ecclesie, necnon residentes super eadem dominica, ma- 
neria, terras, ten 1 et feod"' per admirallium nostrum Angl 1 et 
ejusdem locum tenentem, ac eorum deputatos, officiarios et 
ministros multipliciter, &c. 



OF ORIGINAL PAPERS. 419 

Clam 1 etiam per cartam et diploma manerii de Ripla cum BOOK 
hundred 1 et ecclesia et pertinentiis suis, tempore conquestus ______ 

Angl. et a tempore quo non existat memoria. 

Item, Clam 1 wrakea maris per omnes terras et feod 1 sua ja- 
cent, juxta mare de tempore ante conquest. Angl. et a tem- 
pore quo non exstat memoria : et quod ipse et predecesso- 
rum suorum plene usi sunt libertate predict. &c. 



Number VI. 

Cautions given by Mr. Fox to the reader of his Acts and 
Monuments ; concerning some things mentioned in the 
first edition thereof. 

MR. GEORGE BLAG is named one of the privy chain- P. 1427. 
ber. Nbta bene, That tho 1 he were not admitted as one of the 
privy chamber, yet his ordinary resort thither, and to the 
king's presence there, was such as tho 1 he were one of 
them ; and so commonly taken. 

In the story of the duke of Somerset, where it is ?aid,P. 1545. 
that at the return of the earl of Warwic out of Norfolk, 
there was a consultation among the lords, assembling them- 6 
selves together at the house of Mr. York, &c. against the 
duke of Somerset : here is to be noted, that that coming of 
the lords to the said house of Mr. York, was not immedi- 
ately upon the duke of Northumberland - ^ return, but first 
he went to Warwic, and from thence, after a space, came to 
that house aforesaid. 

Item, Here is also to be noted touching the said duke of 
Somerset, that albeit at his death relation is made of a sud- 
den falling of the people, as was at the taking of Christ; this 
is not to be expounded as that I compared in any part the 
duke of Somerset with Christ. And tho 1 I do something 
more attribute to the commendation of the said duke of So- 
merset, which dyed so constantly in his religion ; yet I de- 
sire the gentle reader so to take it not, that I did ever mean 
to derogate or impair the martial praise or facts of other 

k e 2 



420 AN APPENDIX 

BOOK men ; which also are to be commended in such things where 
' they wel deserved. 

p. 1360. Item, Touching the duke of Somerset, where the story is, 

that he was attainted, read indicted. 

P. 1579. Item, Where mention is made of one Nicholas Under- 

wode to be the betrayer of the duke of Suffolk, joyn with 
the said Underwode also Nicolas Laurence, alias Nicolas 
Ethel, keeper of Astely-park. Who taking upon him and 
promising to keep the duke for two or three days, until he 
might find some means to escape, conveyed him into a hol- 
low tree, and after most traiterously bewrayed him. Both 
these live, one at Coton by Nun Eaton, and the other at 
Nun Eaton. 

p. 1580. Item, In the story of sir Tho. Wyat, there is also to be 

corrected, that where the story saith, that he was taken by sir 
Clement Parson, which was not so, nor he no knight, amend 
it thus : that he came first to Clarentius, being sent unto 
him, and after yielded himself to sir Morice Barckey. 

The martyrdome of one Snel, about Richmond, [in York- 
shiref] in Q. Maries time, omit in the history. There 
were two of the Snells taken up for their religion. One, 
after his toes were rotted off by lying in prison, by order of 
Dakins, the bishop of Chester's commissary, and so went 
upon crutches, at last went to mass, having a certain sum of 
mony given him by the people. But in three or four days 
after, drowned himself in a river called Swail, by Richmond. 
The other [Snel] was burned. 

A story of one Laremouth omit in the body of the history. 
He was a Scotchman, and chaplain to the lady Anne of 
Cleves. The story, for the strangeness and incredibility 
thereof, he would not insert in his history of the Acts and 
Monuments. But being testified by one Thorn, a godly mi- 
nister, yet alive, which heard it of the mouth of the party 
himself, he added it here. He heard a voice sounding in his 
ears, being in prison in Q. Maries days, Arise, go thy ways. 
Which he giving no credit to at first, the same words were 
spoken the second time ; which was about half an hour after. 



OF ORIGINAL PAPERS. 421 

So he arising upon the same, immediately a piece of the pri- BOOK 
son fell down : and as the officers came at the outward gate of ' 
the castle or prison, he leaping over the ditch escaped. And 
in the way, meeting a certain beggar changed his coat with 
him ; and coming to the sea shore found a vessel ready to 
go over, was taken in, and escaped the search. 



•g» 



[Number VI.] 

Dr. Thomas Wylson to sir William Cecill, ht. when he sent 
him the copy of his translation of certain orations of De- 
mosthenes, for his patronage thereof. 

ET jam quidem Demosthenis tres Olynthiacas orationes, Epist. mss. 
cum quatuor Philippicis, tandem aliquando indigenas feci, r ^ or ' V1 ~ 
et nostrates, ut potui : sed ita tamen ut advenas, ut ex ser- 
mone cognoscas. Tam enim concisus orator iste est, tam 
astrictus, et acumine sic ubique excellens, ut illud in eo to 
dsivbv vix sermone nostro explicari possit, aut ingeniosi nostri 7 
tenuitate comprehendi. Sed quomodocunque a me conversse 
sunt, si tu eas in tuo nomine apparere patieris, ego in vulgus 
emittam tanti viri orationes, et formis excudendas parabo. 
Sed ita, si tu nostra? imbecillitati sic suffragaberis, ut igna- 
vorum quorundam contumelias tuo spiritu et gravitate com- 
pescantur. 

Number VII. 

Mr. Walsingham, the queeii's ambassador, his letter from 
Paris to the lord Burleigh. His discourse with the queen 
mother, concerning her majesty's matching with the duke 
of Anjou. 

IT may please your lordship to advertise her majesty, PaperOffice. 
that Mr. Cavalcant arrived here the 24th of this month : by 
whom I received her majesties letters. The contents where- 
of after I had perused, and conferred with him touching his 
proceeding, for that both the king and queen mother were 
departed out of this town, the one to S. Leggiers, the other 

e e 3 



422 AN APPENDIX 

BOOK to Monceons, to bring the duke and dutchess of Lorain 
L onward on their way; it was agreed between us, that he 
should repair the next day to Monceons to the queen mother 
there, to deliver her majesties letters ; as also her answer to 
the articles propounded by the king. Touching his pro- 
ceedings with her, I refer your lordship to his own letters. 
By him I understood at the return, that Q. mother would 
speak with me at her return to the town, if I had any thing 
to say unto her. So the 26 of this month [April] she re- 
paired hither. And for that during the time of her abode 
here, she could have no leisure ; she sent me word, that the 
next day, in the morning, I should repair unto her to S. 
Clou, four English miles from Paris; and that there I 
should have audience. So according to her appointment, I 
repaired thither the next morning, and at the time of my ac- 
cess unto her presence, I shewed her, that I was come thither 
to know how she rested satisfied with the answers she receiv- 
ed from her majesty, sent by Mr. Cavalcant, to those articles 
as were propounded by the king and her, to the end I might 
advertise her majesty. 

She shewed me, that the answers made unto the articles 
seemed to her not to be direct ; saving that which was made 
unto the second article concerning religion. Which, saith 
she, is very hard, and neerly toucheth the honour of my son ; 
so far forth, as if he should yield thereto, the queen, your 
mistress, should receive also some part of the blemish, by ac- 
cepting for an husband such an one, as by sudden change of 
religion might be thought drawn through worldly respects, 
void of all conscience and religion. I reply ed, that I was 
willed to say unto her from her majesty, that she doubted 
not but that monsieur, her son, by her good persuasions, 
would accept in good part the said answer. Who meant not 
such sudden change of religion, as that he or his houshold 
should be compelled to use the rites of the English church, 
contrary to his or their consciences. But forasmuch as the 
granting unto him of the exercise of his religion, being con- 
trary to her laws, might, by example, breed such an offence 
as was like to kindle such troubles as lately reigned in 



OF ORIGINAL PAPERS. 423 

France ; whereof both her self and her said son had too good BOOK 
experience ; she therefore hoped that he, who, if the match ' 
proceeded, was to sayle with her in one ship, and to run one 
fortune, would not require a thing which she by no means 
could yield to : who tendred nothing more than the quiet 
and repose of her subjects. And therefore, in respect thereof, 
could by no means consent to any such permission, as by any 
likelyhood might disturb the same. 

To which she replied, that the not having the exercise 
was as much as to change his religion : which thing he could 
not do upon a sudden, without the note to be of no religion. 
Which dishonour I am sure (added she) no respect can draw 
him to endanger himself to. And as he in respect of the said 
ignominy is resolved fully not to yield ; so can I with no 8 
reason persuade him thereto. And as for any peril that may 
happen by the same, I think rather it shal be the best way 
of safety for your mistress : who always, by the way of his 
brother's sword, should be the better able to correct any such 
evil subjects, as should go about to disturb the repose and 
quiet of her estate : which she may assure herself he wil do, 
without having respect to any religion : whereof lately some 
trial hath been made, by his consenting with the king, to 
have some good justice and example of punishment don at 
Roan. 

In answer whereof, I then besought her to consider as 
wel the queen's danger, as her son's honour. I shewed her 
that of this permission three great mischiefs would ensue. 
First, the violating of her laws. Secondarily, the offence of 
her good and faithful subjects. And lastly, the encourage- 
ment of the evil affected. Which three mischiefs if you wil 
weigh, said I, together with your son's honour, you shall find 
them of great moment : and that the queen's majesty, my 
mistress, hath great cause to stand to the denyal of any such 
permission, whereof is like to ensue so manifest peril. And 
as for the aid of the king's sword, I shewed her, that I 
thought, that the example by permission would do much 
more harm, than either his own or his brother's sword could 
do good. For that the issue of our mischiefs by civil dissen- 

e e 4 



424 AN APPENDIX 

BOOK sions fell out commonly to be sudden and short, but very 
' sharp ; and were not drawn in length, as those that happen 
in other countries : we having neither walled towns nor forts 
to retyre to, thereby to protract our warrs. 

To this she answered, that she feared that her son would 
too soon be overcome with the queen's persuasions in that 
behalf; who was more zealous than able by reason to defend 
his religion. Whereby the same inconvenience of example 
wil not long last. For, saith she, it is generally feared by 
the catholics, that this match wil breed a change of religion 
throughout al Europe. In the end, she concluded, that 
neither monsieur, her son, nor the king, nor her self, could 
ever yield to any such sudden change for any respect : nei- 
ther could her majesty wel desire it, considering how much 
it would touch his reputation, whom she is to match withal, 
if it procede. 

I asked then of her, whether she would have me so to ad- 
vertise her majesty. She desired me in any case so to do ; 
and to know directly, whether by yielding or not yielding 
to the said second article, with al reasonable caution, she 
meant to procede or forbear. Whereof she desired her ma- 
jesty, at the furthest, to have answer within ten days ; for 
that the king stayeth his progress onely upon that. And if so 
be she meant to procede, then to send the articles that are 
to be propounded by her majesty. Monsieur de la Mot, as 
I learn by monsieur de Foix, hath given very honorable 
report of the queen's procedings, assuring them, that there 
is nothing but sincerity meant. If her majesty resolve to 
procede, I learn that monsieur de Foix shal come over with 
the king's answer to such articles as shal be propounded by 
her majesty ; and so to grow to some true conclusion. And 
so having nothing else to advertise her majesty at this pre- 
sent, I most humbly take my leave of your honour. At 
Paris, the 28th of April, 1571. 

Your honours to command, 

Fra. Walsingham. 



OF ORIGINAL PAPERS. 425 

Number VIII. BO j OK 



A motion in parliament, 13 Elizab. about the succession to 
the crown ; according to K. Henry VIII. his will. " 

SO great a matter as we have in hand, which concerneth Cott. Lib. 
the whole realm universally, and every one of us particularly, 
I think I should not need any long proheme to purchase 
your favours, to be content to hear, or to move you to be 
attentive to mark, what shal be said. For as we, a few, be 
chosen of an infinite multitude, to treat and do those things 
that shal be for the benefit of the commonwealth, and be 
put in trust for all the body of the realm, so I trust hath na- 
ture graffed in us a desire to seek those things that may do 
us good, and avoid that may do us hurt. 

Wherefore not minding to use mo words than needs, 
nor fewer than methinketh the greatnes of the cause re- 
quired! , I wil directly procede unto the matter. The hor- 
rible murthers and bloody battels, that were of long time 
between the factions of the red rose and the white, the 
houses of York and Lancaster, for the crown of this realm, 
by the happy marriage of king Henry VII. and Q. Eliza- 
beth, were ended. Whereby great quietnes and peace 
(thanks be unto God) hath followed in this realm. God 
grant it may so continue. This K. Henry VII. and Q. 
Elizabeth have issue K. Henry VIII. the lady Margaret 
and the lady Mary. K. Henry VIII. had issue king Ed- 
ward, Q. Mary, and Q. Elizabeth, the queen's majesty that 
now is. The lady Margaret was first maried to James, the 
king of Scots ; who had issue James, king of Scots, father 
unto Mary, now queen of Scots. After his decease she 
maried the earl of Angus ; and had issue by him, the lady 
Margaret, now countess of Lenox. The lady Mary, the 
other daughter of K. Henry VII. was first maried to Lewis 
the French king, and had no issue by him. After that she 
was maried to Charles duke of Suffolk, first secretly in 
France, and after openly in England. The duke and shee 
had issue the lady Frances and the lady Eleoner. The lady 
Frances being eldest was maried to the marques of Dorset. 



426 AN APPENDIX 

BOOK By whom she had issue the lady Katharine and the lady 
' Mary. The lady Eleanor was maried to the earl of Cum- 
berland, and had issue the lady Margaret, now wife to the 
lord Strange. 

By the statutes of the 28th and 35th of K. Henry VIII. 
the crown was entayled, as yee know, for lack of issue of 
K. Edward, to Q. Mary, and after to the queen's majesty 
that now is. And for lack of heirs of their bodies, to such 
person or persons, in remainder or reversion, as should please 
K. Henry VIII. and according to such estate, and after to 
such maner, form, and fashion, order or condition, as should 
be expressed and limited in his letters patents, or by his last 
will in writing, signed with his most gracious hand. For the 
more sure establishing of which succession, we the subjects 
of this realm (besides our promises by that act declared) 
were al sworn by oath, that we should be obedient to such 
as K. Henry, according to his said statute, should appoint 
to succede to the crown, and not to any other within this 
realm ; nor to any foreign authority, power, or potentate. 
Which words I beseech you to imprint wel in your minds. 
Whereupon some say, K. Henry made his will accordingly, 
and put the heirs of the lady Frances first ; and next of the 
lady Eleanor, in the remainder. Others say, that he made 
a will, but not to the statute ; for it was not signed with his 
hand ; and some say, that he made no will at all. 

The question groweth, whether the heirs of the Scottish 
queen, or the heirs of the lady Frances and the lady Eleanor 
be next inhei'itors to the crown ; if it should please God to 
take from us the queen's majesty, without heirs of her body. 
Or whether none of them is inheritable ; whereunto I wil 
declare my mind and judgment. For the legacies and be- 
quests that Henry the king made to divers, both of lands 
and mony, declare manifestly that he made a will : for al 
were performed and satisfyed. As I am informed also, after 
his decease divers indentures tripartite were made between 
10K. Edward, the executors of K. Henries will, and others. 
And divers letters patents passed under the great seal of 
England, in consideration of the accomplishment and per- 



I. 



OF ORIGINAL PAPERS. 427 

formance of K. Henries will. Thirdly, There was a will in BOOK 
name of K. Henry enrolled in the chancery, and divers con- 
stats thereof made under the great seal. 

In the which will the reversion of the crown was in the heirs 
of the lady Frances first; and after of the lady Eleanor. 
Finally, in the same will there was a clause, that al other 
wills made at any other time, should be void, and of none 
effect. Which needed not, if there had not been other wills 
made at any other time ; and those signed with his hand. 
Al which be evident arguments, that K. Henry dyed not 
intestate ; but that he made a will : and that it was the same 
Avill that was enrolled in the chancery. For it is not to be 
thought that such enrollment was in vain. If this will was 
made according to the statute, then it is without al doubt, 
that as we be bound, and have taken them for kings and 
queens that be expressed in the statute by name, so we be 
bound to accept them that be declared by the will in re- 
mainder or reversion ; that is, the heirs of the lady Frances 
and the lady Eleanor. For they be expressed in the will, 
and ought to have it by like authority and title, as others 
expressed in the same statute. Because it was in like man- 
ner don with the consent of the whole realm, and confirm- 
ed with our oaths : which not being contrary to God's law 
and the law of nature, and being in our power to observe 
and keep, we ought not in any wise to alter or break. For 
you know the judgments of the Lord are certain, that he 
wil not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain. 
And so the act and wil is a bar and conclusion [exclusion] 
to al others, be they neerer of bloud, if any be. 

But some say, it is no will made according to the statute. 
Why so ? Because it is not signed with the king's hand, say 
they. I pray you consider wel the matter. If it should 
now be doubted, whether it was his hand ; and that none 
should be interpreted his hand, but that was written with 
his own fingers, yee should adnull some of his parlaments, 
made by king Henry VIII. For the statute made in the 
33d of K. Henry VIII. cap. 21. saith, that the king's royal 
assent by his letters patent under the great seal, and sign- 



428 AN APPENDIX 

BOOK ed with his hand, and declared in the higher house to the 
L lords and commons, is of such force as if he were pre- 
sent. According to which act, divers assents of parlament 
were made ; and in some of them [some] were attainted of 
treason, and suffered. Now if we should doubt whether it 
were his hand or not, we might perchance bring such things 
in doubt as we would not gladly should come in doubt. For 
we should put whole parlaments in doubt. 

But it may be, sith by these statutes that power was given 
to K. Henry, that he might make his will of the crown, 
(which otherwise by law he could not do,) reason it is that 
he followed the form that the law prescribeth. If he have 
not done it, then it is void in law : for because forma dot 
esse rei. To this I answer : that albeit it were not signed 
by his hand, yet it is not a sufficient cause that we should 
reject it. For if the form be so necessary to be observed, 
why, I beseech you, do you allow Q. Maries parlaments, 
that were called by writs without the addition of the title 
and style of supreme head in earth of the church of Eng- 
land, &c. when there was a special statute, and of the great- 
est importance therefore before made, of purpose to declare, 
that the bishop of Rome had none authority in this realm ; 
and chiefly upon this case : for that K. Henry, seeing his 
daughter Maries stubbornness and malice to his doings, 
and her fond devotion to the pope, meant, that if she should 
at any time come to that place, she should not, if she would, 
undoe that he had done. If yee wil say, that these words of 
supremacy mean [need] not, albeit there were such a sta- 
tute, much less say I these words, with his hand, need in 
this case. For if yee mark wel the consideration, why this 
authority was given to K. Henry VIII. for the establishing 
of his succession, yee shal find, that it was to none other 
end than the statute of the 28th of Henry VIII. declareth : 
that is, because after his life, this realm should not be desti- 
tute of a lawful governour ; which yee see in this part by 
this will is fully performed. 
1 1 For by this will he hath put no remainder out. First, 
The heirs of the lady Frances, and then of the lady Eleonor: 



OF ORIGINAL PAPERS. 429 

who being next of the bloud and kin, and such as he loved, BOOK 
and had no cause to hate, nature did move, and reason did ' 
teach him to prefer above all others. The heirs of the Scotch 
queen, you know, he did cease to love. For king James, 
when he had promised to meet him at York, mocked him ; 
and after made war against him. And when the lords of 
Scotland, after king James's death, had promised him the 
marriage of this queen, they deceived him. And her mary- 
ing with the earl of Angus was not only without his con- 
sent, but also unorderly and unlawfully don, as it is said. 

And for these words in the statute, The wil to bee signed 
with his hand, they are not of necessity, to the end that it 
was meant for the succession. For he might have appointed 
a successor certain, without his hand-writing. But for a 
more surety, that there might not be any counterfeited will 
in his name ; which cannot be presumed of this will, when 
those be named in remainder, that of nature and right ought 
to be preferred thereunto. Shal we then with cavilling of 
words go about to subvert the statute, when by true mean- 
ing of the statute, without injury to any, we may maintain 
and preserve our country in quietness and safety ? Surely, 
in my judgment, there is no reason, equity, nor conscience, 
that can lead us so to do. 

But say they, it is not his wil, signed with his hand, as his 
statute requireth. How prove they that, sith it must be dis- 
proved by a sufficient number of witnesses ? such as I take 
the law civil and common doth allow. For by what law it 
was made, by that law it must be disproved ; or by com- 
paring of the hand and sign wherewith the prothocal is sign- 
ed with other writings that were signed with his hand. But 
such conferring cannot be, because the original cannot be 
found. And to say the very truth, after the will was once 
proved and allowed, (which I take to be sufficiently don, 
where it is enrolled in the chancery, and published under 
the great seal of England by king Edward VI. being su- 
preme head in earth of the church of England, and so suffi- 
cient,) ordinary [original] and prothocal needed not, for the 
record was of more strength. 



430 AN APPENDIX 

BOOK But say they, there can be no such record found in the 
*• chancery. Whether there be a record remaining thereof, or 
not, I know not, but sure I am there was a record thereof, 
and divers constats made of it under the great seal of Eng- 
land ; for every of the executors, and also for some others. 
But I pray you tel me, is it reason, because the original, 
nor any record thereof appeareth, the right of those that bee 
in the remainder should be lost ? Do men loose their inheri- 
tance, if their inheritance be by force, or otherwise destroy- 
ed ? Did sir Richard Sackvile, sir John Mason, sir Henry 
Nevyl, the heirs of sir Philip Hoby, loose their right to the 
bishop of Winchester's lands, because the record was de- 
stroyed ? I trow, you wil deny it : because the last parlia- 
ment yee did orderly restore them. And albeit there be some 
of the constats do remain ; and also copies thereof, and the 
memory thereof is yet so fresh, that albeit al the constats and 
copies were destroyed, yet there be men living that do re- 
member there was such a wil ; and that the remainder was 
declared to be in the heirs of the lady Frances, and after of 
the lady Eleanor. 

But let us consider, I beseech you, at what time, and to 
what purpose and end, the record and the wil was defaced 
and destroyed. It was don in queen Mary's time, as the 
common report goeth. And it must be presumed, so wise 
and circumspect men as then bare the sway of the realm, 
would not do it for nought. Was it because Q. Mary would 
not satisfy the bequests and legacies therein declared ? That 
cannot be ; for al were largely performed and payd, before 
her time, to the uttermost. Was it because they would not 
have the obits and masses therein expressed, continued ? 
That cannot be thought, when she, and those that did it, 
put their chiefest trust of salvation in masses and obits. 
Was it because they tendred so much king Henry's ho- 
nour, that they would not have it appear, that his wil after 
his death, and his doings in his life were contrary? How 
could that be, when by al means they could, they laboured 
to undoe al that he had don, to dishonour and debase him 
12 in every thing; and, as some think, burnt also his bones. 



OF ORIGINAL PAPERS. 431 

Was it because there was any thing in his wil that might BOOK 
authorize the executors to withstand queen Mary's affection ? l ' 
None were so pliable to her devotions, as the executors and 
those that were named in the wil. Was it because they 
would defeat the queen's majesty that now is of her right of 
the crown ? That could not be ; for she claimed not by the 
wil, but by the statute. 

Sith then none of these causes that I have told you serv- 
ed to maintain their doings for the destruction of this will ; 
and that both the original, and also the record of the wil be 
destroyed ; it must needs of necessity be concluded, it was 
only don, for that they knew the wil to be lawful, and saw 
none other way to deprive the heirs of the lady Frances of 
their right to the crown ; or else that they had no cause to 
concele it. Which to imagine of them (esteeming them- 
selves so wise and so learned) would be deadly sin ; con- 
sidering that William Sommer used not his madness to do 
any thing, but he would render some reason or colour for it. 
And I pray you, is it like, when lust was law, will reason, 
wrong right ; and some so earnestly laboured, contrary to 
the law and their oaths, to dissolve the acts of succession, if 
they had known that any man could justly have preferred 
their purpose, and said it was a counterfeit wil, would they 
not have made him to have don it by hook or by crook, for 
hope of reward, or for fear of torture ? Would they not 
have don it by some colour of law, by examining of wit- 
nesses? Should it not have been published in the star- 
chamber ? preach'd at Paul's Cross? declared by act of par- 
liament ? proclaimed in every quarter of the realm ? Yes, 
doubtless, nothing should have been omitted that had been 
possible to have been devised, whereby so manifest an un- 
truth, so much to their commodity, might have appeared. 
But because they saw they could not do it justly, nor yet 
handle the matter so craftily, but every man would perceive 
their doings, and in time disclose their jugglings; therefore 
belike, like politic men, they took an unorderly means, and 
destroyed the whole record. 

If then no witness could be found, and now some wil ap- 



432 AN APPENDIX 

BOOK pear, methinks it were a very strange thing. For if it should 
be said, either it must needs be his will signed with his hand, 
or els it is no wil at al, it wil be as easy to prove the one, as 
to deny the other. But say they, it cannot be but a will. 
For there be eleven witnesses, men very honest and substan- 
tial, that with the subscription of their names to testify the 
same. And upon that foundation the executors proved the 
will, took upon them the administration ; and have in every 
point fulfilled it. Surely it cannot be denyed but the wit- 
nesses were very honest men, substantial and worthy to be 
credited. But the self same witnesses that say it was a will, 
affirm in like manner, that it was signed with the king's own 
hand. For the words of the will be thus: " In witness 
" whereof we signed it with our own hand in our palace at 
et Westminster, the 3d day of December," &c. being present, 
and called to be witnesses, these persons that have written 
their names under, John Gates, &c. 

So that I can see no remedy, but either both must be grant- 
ed, or both denyed. That is, that either it is no will, or els 
it is signed with his own hand. Against their own testimo- 
nies can none of the witnesses come. If they do, they dis- 
credit themselves. If any of the executors wil go about to 
impugn this foundation and testimony of the witnesses, then 
shal he not only destroy his chief building, but also now say 
against that that he hath manifestly before confessed ; when 
he allowed it, and procured it to be enrolled and put forth 
under the great seal. And so with his doubleness shal make 
himself no meet witness. Besides these two kinds of wit- 
nesses, I cannot imagine [others.] For some of the execu- 
tors, and these eleven witnesses, were such as were continu- 
ally waiting upon the king's person. If any other will come 
forth, and say it is not his hand, then it is to be considered, 
how many, and what they be. Not one or two will serve the 
purpose. They must be many, and those omni exceptione 
majores. If they were privy or consenting to the embroil- 
ing of the p?~othocal, or destruction of the record, then the 
law will not admit them for witnesses. For it accounteth 
them falsarios, and so infamous. 



OF ORIGINAL PAPERS. 433 

But sitli in this will, which is called king Henry's will, BOOK 
there is this clause, that all other wills made at any other lj 
time should be void, it appeareth then, that [he] had other 13 
wills. If any man will deny it, not only the words of the 
will (which otherwise should be in vain) will plainly reprove 
him, but also there be yet living that have seen the same : 
and how some of them were interlined by king Henry ; and 
some of them, in all or the most part, written with his own 
hand. 

But perhaps it will be doubted, whether there were any 
successor limited and forth set in the said wills; which me- 
thinketh ought not. For it will appear by manifest pre- 
sumption. First, It is not to be doubted, sith king Henry, 
so long before, like a prudent prince, foresaw the dangers 
the realm mought have fallen into for the uncertainty of 
succession ; and that he had procured authority and power 
by his parliament to establish it ; and that minding in his 
old days personally to invade France ; but that like a good 
father of his country, with good avisement and deliberation, 
he made his will, and established the succession. Now, se- 
condly, it must needs be, that in that will so made before 
his going over, the limitation of succession was in such man- 
ner and form as is declared in his last will. For, as I said 
before, there was no cause why he should bear any affection 
to the Scottish queen, nor yet to the lady Lenox : and 
having no cause to be offended with his other sisters (the 
French queen's) children, it is to be judged, that he would 
not leave it to any other before them ; especially, when he 
had none other kinsfolks of his whole bloud to leave it unto. 
Thirdly, This last will can be no new will devised and made 
in his sickness ; but the copy of his former will, and fair 
written ; if it were not the very old will. For if it had been 
a new will they devised, who could think, that either himself 
would have declared manifestly himself contrary to himself, 
or that any man durst have moved him to put so many 
things therein, contrary to his honour. And sith it seemed 
to be so before written of his own advice, and no man durst 
move him to alter it in those points that were against his 

voi,. TI. PART II. f f 



434. AN APPENDIX 

BOOK honour; much less durst they themselves advise any new 
succession, or move him to alter it, otherwise than they found 
it : when they saw it otherwise could not naturally be dis- 
posed. 

And therefore if it could be justly proved, that this will 
that you call king Henry's will, were not signed with his 
own hand, as it will be a very hard matter to prove negati- 
vum factum ; yet cannot it be denyed, but some of the other 
wills (out of which this will was copied) was written and 
signed with his own hand ; or at the least enterlined. Which 
may be said a sufficient signing with his own hand ; albeit 
perhaps at this present the very originalls cannot be brought 
forth. 

Sith then it appeareth that king Henry made a will : sith 
it appeareth by the testimony and subscription of eleven 
witnesses, that it was signed with his own hand : sith it was 
so proved by the executors : sith it was, as his will, enrolled 
in the chancery, and published under the great seal of Eng- 
land : wherein it was written, that it was signed with his own 
hand : sith the prothocal and the record be without order 
destroyed : and sith there can come forth no such witnesses 
to disprove it, as the law admitteth for sufficient, and as we 
ought to credit : sith he had other wills written with his own 
hand to the same effect that this will is; methinketh, that 
there is no reason nor colour to men, as to think that this 
was not king Henry's will, made according to the statute ; 
and that that we call king Henry's will is the very true, 
right will, and that by the statute and by our oaths we be 
bound to receive them for kings and queens, that be in re- 
mainder by the will, if it shall please God to take the queen 
from us without issue. 

But let us admit an untruth, that there was no will, to the 
end there may nothing be imagined, that cannot justly be 
answered. And that the truth may be known, (which for my 
part I only desire may appear to all men,) who is the right 
and lawful heir in reversion to the crown ; it will be said, 
the Scottish queen ; because she cometh of the eldest sister, 
and is next of bloud to king Henry VIII. according to the 



OF ORIGINAL PAPERS. 435 

maxim in the law. Truth it is, there is such a maxim : but BOOK 
it may not be so largely taken, but it must be restrained to ' 
such as be inheritable by the laws of the realm. Which be 1 4 
such as be born in the king's allegiance, of father and mother 
English ; or out of the king's legiance, of parents English, 
and in the king's legiance. For if yee will put strangers and 
right English in one case, what availeth the liberty of Eng- 
land, or what profiteth it to be an Englishman born ? Yea, 
it were a great deal better to be born a stranger, than an 
Englishman : for strangers, albeit they have not so great 
commodity in England in all things as Englishmen have, 
yet in some things they have more : neither be they bound 
to serve the realm with their witts, to maintain it with their 
goods, serve it with their bodies, defend it with their bloud, 
as we be : but may come when they will, tarry as long as 
them listeth, and depart when it pleaseth them. 

Wherefore by nature there ought to be great difference 
between strangers and Englishmen : and those should enjoy 
the sweet, that be bound to tast of the sowre. And so our 
laws have provided, if ye will suffer them to stand in force. 
For the statute of the 23 Edward III. (which expoundeth 
the law in this case) saith, that the king's children, whereso- 
ever they be born in the realm, or without, be inheritable to 
their auncesters : and that others which from time to time 
shall be born out of the legiance of the king, whose fathers 
and mothers at the time of their birth, be at the faith and 
legiance of the king of England, should be in like maner 
inheritors to their auncestors. Whereby it is a consequent, 
a contrario, that these that be born out of the legiance of 
the king of England, be not inheritable to this realm. And 
so it appeareth by Bracton, that the old law before was. 
For he saith in one of his exceptions thus ; Stent Anglicus 
non auditur in placitando aliquem de terris et tenementis in 
Francia ; ita non debet Alienigena et Francigena, qui sunt 
ad Jidem regis Francice, audiri placitando in Anglia. In 
another place, Libro 4<to de exception, dilatoria, Bracton 
saith thus : Ita respondere poterit, qnod particeps, de quo di- 
citur, nil capere potest, antequam fiat fides regi Anglice. 

Ff2 



436 AN APPENDIX 

BOOK And Lit. saith, as yee know, " That in an action real or 
L " personal, brought by one born out of the king's legiance, 
" it is a good plea for the defendant to say, that the plain- 
" tiff was born out of the king's legiance." 

But some say, that Scotland is a member of the crown of 
England : and therefore the people therein born be in the 
legiance of the king of England. Although Scotland by 
right belong to the crown of England ; yet it is not a sufficient 
cause to prove, that the people born in Scotland be in the 
king of England's legiance. It cannot be denyed, but that 
Normandy belongeth of right to the crown of England ; yet 
it followeth not, that the Normans therefore be in the le- 
giance of the king of England. Now, albeit Normandy be- 
longeth to the crown of England ; yet because the people 
thereof declined from their faith and allegiance that they 
ought to the king of England, and became subjects, and 
gave their faith and legiance to the French king, their lands 
were eschiated; as appeareth by the statute, De Prerog. 
Regis, cap. 12. Callis was a member of England. The peo- 
ple therein born, when it was under the government of Eng- 
land, as free of England as those that be born in England. 
But yet now being in the French king's hands, those that 
be born there, be no more free in England than those that 
be born at Paris. So in like manner, albeit Scotland belong 
of right to the crown of England, and the king of Scots 
have sometimes done their homage therefore to the kings of 
England : yet we see they have of long time forsaken their 
faith and legiance to England, and have not only become 
rebels, but rather have been taken for enemies to England. 
For they have been [not] unusually ransomed upon their 
taking, like enemies, and not executed with death like tray- 
tors. And by that means king James, their now queen's 
father, was at the time of his birth, and at his death, out of 
the legiance of England. Wherefore to say, that she was born 
in the king's legiance, because she was born in Scotland, is a 
mere cavillation, secundum non causam, ut causam ; more 
worthy to be laughed at, than requiring any answer at all. 
Now let us compare these things together. You know, 



OF ORIGINAL TAPERS. 437 

that the Scottish queen is not the king of England's child, BOOK 
nor is a free- woman of England. Wherefore by the laws L 
of England she cannot inherit in this realm. And if yee \ 5 
desire a precedent and an example for the very self same 
cause that we now treat of, ye may find it in the chro- 
nicles, how Margaret, daughter and heir unto Edward, the 
outlaw, son and heir to Edmond Ironside, king of England, 
being maried to Malcolme, king of Scots, never claimed the 
crown of England, nor any of her children after her. But 
both her husband, and her three children after her, and 
their issue, kings of Scotland, did homage to the kings of 
England. 

But it will be objected, that K. Henry II. was born 
out of the king's legiance. His father was no denizen; and 
yet he inherited the crown. True it is, that he was born 
out of the king's legiance : but whether he was free or no, 
that is uncertain. Albeit it is to be supposed, that his 
grandfather minding that he should succede, omitted no- 
thing that might serve for that purpose. But this ye may 
know by our chronicles, that he came in rather by election 
and consent of the realm, than by inheritance. For Henry 
I. procured, that the clergy and nobility should be twice 
sworn to the succession of Maud the empress his daughter, 
and her heirs. And for breaking that oath, and receiving 
Stephen, the history sheweth, how the realm was marveil- 
lously plagued, and especially the clergy and nobility ; and 
that by Stephen himself. And besides, if we will weigh 
the matter indifferently, we may truly say, that Henry II. 
enjoyed the crown lawfully by inheritance. For albeit 
Maud were not queen of England de facto, yet was she de 
jure: for Stephen was but an usurper. And so king 
Henry was the queen's child. Which yee se, by the sta- 
tute of Edward III. is free, wheresoever he be born. 

Another objection there is in Richard II. how he was 
born at Bourdeaux, out of the realm, and yet was king. 
To this I answer, he had it justly ; for he was born of 
father and mother English. Thus I take it to be very 

Ff 3 



438 AN APPENDIX 

BOOK plain, that the Scottish queen can make justly, by the law 
l ' of England, no claim to the crown thereof; because she 
hath no right in law nor reason. 

And therefore will procede to the examination of the 
title of the lady Lineux [Lenox.] Whom perchance some 
will think to have the next right, because she was daughter 
to the lady Margaret, the eldest sister of K. Henry VIII. 
Truth it is, she was her daughter : but her father, the earl 
of Angus, was a Scot, an alien, and no denizen. But it 
will be said, it maketh no matter what her father was ; for 
she was born in England, as it cannot be denyed she was. 
For, as some say, the law of England alloweth every person 
to be English, that is born in England, of whatsoever na- 
tion that his parents be ; if his parents, or father only be 
adjidem regis Ang-lice, that is, sworn to be true to the king 
of England, and his subject ; as the earl of Angus, at the 
birth of the lady Lineux his daughter, was not. 

Perchance it might somewhat make for that purpose in 
the opinion of the common people: albeit in very deed, 
and by the laws of the realm, it seemeth nothing at all. 
For it appeareth [by] 14 Edward III. and 14 Henry VI. 
that albeit an alien be sworn to be true to the king and the 
realm in any leet or session ; yet he is [not] abled thereby 
to purchase lands, but he must be enabled thereto expressly 
by the king^ letters patents. But that the child should in- 
herit, and the father not free in England, it cannot but 
seem very strange, how any such opinion should be con- 
ceived by any man learned. For it differeth from the laws 
and policy of all other places of the world, [and] written 
law of this realm. None is to maintain it ; and reason, 
whereon such custom should be grounded, hard I think it 
should be to find. In all other places the law is, Partus 
sequitur patrem. That is, the child shall be counted of 
that nation where his father was born. If the father be 
French, whersoever the child be born it shall be counted 
French. Or if he be Italian, the child shall be Italian : 
if he be Dutch, the child shall be Dutch ; except the father 



OF ORIGINAL PAPERS. 439 

hath forsaken his own native country, and hath not only BOOK 
given faith to another prince or state, but also is admitted 
to be a citizen or freeman there. 

And the reason seems to be this, that sith a man is na- 
turally disposed to live in some society, and must needs so 
live, if he will indeed live well and safely like a man, and l6 
not wander abroad like an unreasonable beast, he must 
joyn himself to some one society or congregation : wherein 
as he desireth to enjoy the benefits that grow of such civil 
society, so it is meet and reasonable that he should be par- 
taker of the burthens, and faithfully to maintain and defend 
it, by which he himself is preserved and maintained. And 
because God first made man, and of man woman, and hath 
made him a more apt instrument to serve in the common- 
weal, in the functions both of the mind and of the body ; 
therefore is man preferred to woman, and thought the more 
worthy person ; not only by the laws of nature, but also by 
all other laws, and by the laws of this realm ; as appeareth 
47 Edward III. And so the children in all other places 
follow the condition and state of their father, as the most 
worthy person ; which others do also here in England. 
For the law in like maner saith, Partus sequitur patrem. 
Which, if it should be examined only in the cases of the 
bondman and his wife, and that the child should be bond or 
free, according to the condition of the father, then it is no 
maxim, as the law termeth it. For a maxim is a rule that 
serves to rule and discuss more cases than one. 

But let us seek if we can find out a reason to maintain 
this opinion, that every person born in England, of what 
nation soever the parents be, shall be free. For positive 
law written, that is contained in the book of the Exposition 
of the terms of the laws of England: (which of what au- 
thority it is, I know not.) But what saith that book ? verily 
thus : " If an alien come and dwell in England, which is 
" not of the king's enemies, and there hath issue, this issue 
" is not alien, but English." But now such alien was the 
earl of Angus : for as the chronicle witnesseth, he came not 
into England with mind to tary and inhabit ther?. But 

Ff4 



440 AN APPENDIX 

BOOK after he had maried the Scottish queen, both without K. 
' Henry his brother's consent, and also of the councils of 
Scotland, there fel such variance between her and him, and 
the lords of Scotland, that she and her husband (like 
banished persons) fled and came into England, and wrote to 
the king for mercy and comfort. The king enclined to 
mercy, sent them apparel, vessels, and all things ; willing 
them to live still in Northumberland, till they knew further 
of his pleasure. Whereupon they lay still at Harboute, 
where she was delivered of the said lady Lyneoux. And 
after, when the king sent for her and her husband, the earl, 
to come to the court, and the earl promised so to do, and 
she was coming and asked for him, he was returned to 
Scotland, (belike to his own wife, as ye shall hear here- 
after,) or mistrusting that the king had understanding, how 
he had distained and abused his sister : and so she came 
without the earl to the court. When the king heard that 
the earl of Angus was so departed, he said, it was done like 
a Scot. And so after this queen had taried a year in 
England, she returned to Scotland. Whereby it may ap- 
pear, that the said earl of Angus is not of that sort of aliens 
of whom this book of the Exposition of the termes of the 
laws of England speaketh. For he came not into England 
to dwel, nor had any dwelling place there : but rather was 
to be judged as a guest ; or as a bird, that for a time 
leaveth his native country while the foul weather lasteth : 
or as a wild beast chased with hounds out of his haunt, 
flyeth, till he perceive they persecute him no longer. And 
so the lady Lineoux can claim no benefit by this law, if it 
be taken for law : but rather it maketh altogether against 
her. 

Moreover, statute there is none to maintain this opinion, 
that saith, every person is English that is born in England, 
of whatsoever nation his parents be. Then of necessity it 
must be by custom, if it be law : which having no reason to 
maintain it, or if it be contrary to reason is no law, have it 
never so long continuance ; but is, as evil, to be abolished, 
as the laws of the realm do plainly teach us. For they say, 



OF ORIGINAL PAPERS. 441 

customs not grounded on reason, or contrary to reason, BOOK 
cannot prescribe. „ 

But yee will say, the reason is to entice strangers the ra- 
ther to come into this realm. What enticement can it be, 
where they themselves shall not, by their coming, be free, 
nor may purchase any land to leave to their posterity ? 

And albeit that reason maintained this custom, yet can it 
not serve the lady Lenoux. For her father, the earl of 
Angus, came not into this realm to inhabit and dwel in the 1 7 
same, as before is sufficiently declared. Perchance it will 
be said, that it is the nature of the soil to make all such bee 
born in England, free of England. But how happeneth it, 
that this property is private to England, and not common 
to all other countreys ? Truly, this is not allowed in any 
other country: and not without good reason. For the 
constitution of kingdoms and states, ordinances of cities 
and commonweals, and the liberties and freedoms thereof, 
are not by nature, but come by the consent of men and 
mens laws. And they receive none to be free, and they 
allow none to be free in their commonweals, but such as 
either for the faith and truth their parents, being citizens, 
bare thereunto, they do not suspect but that they will walk 
in the steps of their parents fidelity ; or else are such as 
upon great consideration and promise of their faith and 
allegiance, they do newly admit citizens. Of which number 
young babes cannot be for simplicity. The magistrate can 
have no respect of them : nor they be not able to make any 
promise, or bond of fidelity to the commonwealth. For as 
the commonwealth is bound to preserve them that be free 
thereof from injury and injustice; so it doth require of 
them promise to be true thereunto, to serve and defend it to 
their uttermost power. 

And mark, I pray you, now into what absurdities ye 
shall fall, if this should be admitted for law, that every one 
born in England should be free in England, of whatsoever 
nation his parents were. I ask this question, If the child 
of an alien born in England should be free in England ; 
and by reason his father is a Scot before also in Scotland, 



442 AN APPENDIX 

BOOK (as doubtless by the law he is, wheresoever he be born,) if 
__ wars should happen, (as it hath done many times between 
these two realms,) whose part shall he take ? No man can 
serve two masters at one time, saith the right Lawmaker, 
and also common reason. If he follow the Scotch part, 
then he is a traitor to England. If he should with Eng- 
land, then he is a traitor to Scotland. If he will take part 
with neither, then is he a traitor to both. For every man 
by the laws of nature, (which is God's law,) and by the law 
of every realm, is bound to declare himself a member of one 
commonwealth : that is, to bestow his life and goods in the 
defence thereof, when need requires. Therefore I ask, 
which part it is like that he will take, that is a mongrel of 
both nations ? Truly in my judgment, there is no reason to 
move either England or Scotland to think such a person 
can be true to either of them both. For it hath been a 
principle received of all men, even as long as division of 
states and commonweals have been, that no man can be a 
citizen of two cities or commonweals ; because he cannot 
serve them both at once. Wherefore I cannot see how 
this proposition, that every person born in England (of 
what nation or parents soever he be) should be free in 
England, should be justified by law or reason. And 
therefore the lady Leoneux can take no benefit thereby. 

But admit the law of the realm were certain, that all 
children born in the realm should be free, of whatsoever na- 
tion the parents were : if it be true that is reported, the 
lady Leoneux is clearly excluded by the laws of the realm 
to be heir of any person, of any possessions within this 
realm. For as it is said, when her father, the earl of An- 
gus, was maried to the Scottish queen her mother, he had 
another wife living. Wherefore a divorse was sued between 
him and the Scottish queen. And after the same divorse, 
the Scottish queen, in the life of the earl of Angus, the 
lady of Lineux father, maried the lord MufFyn. AVith 
whom she continued all her life, as man and wife, without 
any trouble or appele to revoke the divorse. But it may be 
said, that divorse cannot disable the lady Lineux to be in- 



OF ORIGINAL PAPERS. 443 

heritor to the crown of England. For albeit he had an- BOOK 
other wife living at that time he maried the Scottish __ 
queen ; yet forasmuch as she was ignorant thereof, and 
maried him bona Jide, the child born of them is by the 
common laws lawful. True it is, that by the common 
laws she is legitimate : but the laws under which we be 
born, whereunto by God's law, and the law of nature we be 
bound ; and whereby in cases of inheritance we be, and 
must be ruled, do not allow her for legitimate : that is to 
say, inheritable ; as it doth not likewise others in other 
cases. 

The canon law saith, if a man beget a child of a woman, 18 
not maried, and after the birth of the child do mary her, 
the child shall be counted legitimate, and as if it had been 
born in lawful matrimony. But the laws of England be, 
and ever have been contrary ; that it shall not be taken for 
legitimate, albeit that great suit hath been made to the con- 
trary : and to bring the laws of the realm to agree with the 
common laws in this point, as appeareth in the statute of 
Marton, cap. 9- So in like maner albeit the common law 
alloweth the child born in second mariage, the first not 
being dissolved, to be lawful, if any of the parents think 
the mariage good ; yet do not the laws of the realm allow 
the same. But because the first mariage was never law- 
fully disallowed, but that one man can have but one wife at 
once, it accounteth the second mariage void ; and the child 
born therein it adjudgeth bastard, and not inheritable in 
this realm : as appeareth by Glanvile, Bracton, and Britton. 
And all the whole course of our laws received and used 
from the beginning to this present time. 

Wherefore the lady Leoneux can pretend justly no title 
to the crown of England. So that it may appear by the 
laws of the realm, neither the Scottish queen, nor yet the 
lady Leoneux have any maner of title or claim to the 
crown of England, be they never so neer of bloud. The 
one because she is not the king's child, nor free in England ; 
the other, because if she were free, that yet the law cannot 
allow her for legitimate, as inheritable to this realm. 



444 AN APPENDIX 

BOOK And therefore as the next of bloud, and the true and 

\ just heirs of our laws, the crown ought to descend to the 

heirs of the French queen ; which be the daughters of the 
lady Frances and the lady Eleanor. And presently to the 
lady Katharine, being the eldest daughter to the eldest 
sister, the lady Frances. 

Against these heirs of the French queen is objected : say 
they, These cannot inherit. Why so ? Because they were 
not lawfully born. For Charles, duke of Suffolk, had at 
that time, when he maried the French queen, another wife 
living; that is, the lady Mortymer. To this I answer, 
that altho' it were true, that the lady Frances and the 
lady Eleonor were not lawfully born, (as it is not true, as 
ye shall hear hereafter,) yet it hurteth not the title of the 
heirs given by king Henries will. For it is appointed to the 
heirs of them, not to themselves, as the will plainly de- 
clareth. But verily, this is a mere slander grown altogether 
on malice; and no accusation made upon any just presump- 
tion. For I beseech you tell me, is it like, or can any 
reasonable man think, if duke Charles had had another wife 
living, when he had maried the French queen, that king 
Henry would have consented, that his sister should have 
received so great an injury, that she should have been kept 
for a concubine ? Would the council have suffered so great 
infamy to have come to their master's stock ? Would the 
nobility of the realm with so great triumph have honoured 
so unlawful an act ? Would the common people, who many 
times are ready to speak evil of weldoing, have holden their 
tongue in so manifest adultery ? Is it like, that in so long 
time as the French queen and the duke lived together, as 
man and wife, (that is, all the days of the French queen,) 
that she should not have heard of it ? Was it possible, that 
among so many women, that daily resorted unto her, (whose 
natures are to seek for all such things, be they never so 
secret, and to communicate them to others,) that none 
should have told her ? Is it to be believed, that she, con- 
trary to the nature of all women, would have content that 
another should be partaker of that flesh, that she, according 



OF ORIGINAL PAPERS. 445 

to God"s word, took only to be her own ? Or can any man BOOK 
think, that any woman can be content to live in mean de- 
gree, when she may be a dutchess ; as the lady Mortymer 
should have been justly, if she had been the duke's wife? 
Surely, methinks, there is no reason to make any man to 
think, how much less to report so. 

But suppose that the duke had another wife living, at 
what time he maried the French queen ; yet forasmuch as 
he and she were maried openly, continued together all their 
lives, as lawful man and wife ; and nothing said against 
them; and every man took them for man and wife: and 
that the lady Frances and the lady Eleonor were not, 19 
during their lives, taken to be bastards ; now, after their 
death, neither they, nor their children may by the laws of 
this realm, be convented therefore. For the laws of the 
realm say thus, Necjustum est aliquando mortuum facer e 
bastardum, qui toto tempore suo tenebatur pro legitimo : as 
appeareth by judgment given at Westminster, 13 E. I. 

But for the declaration of the truth of this matter, and 
to pluck out of the heads of the people their fond opinion 
and consideration ; and maintained of s