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ANNALS , Tfeb 6 i932 




















Good Reader, 

i HAVE little to say by way of preface, upon the appear- 
ance of this third volume of the Annals, but only that T 
have herein continued them for several years further, moved 
by the same good end and purpose I wrote the former; 
namely, (for the service of the present generation, as well 
as for posterity,) to communicate some more light to the 
last wonderful age, when queen Elizabeth ruled these king- 
doms, and to the settlement and continuance of our excel- 
lent reformed religion, and the amazing concurrence of 
God"'s blessing therewith, in spite of all worldly opposition, 
however formidable and malicious; and also to let the 
world know, that I have digested and compiled this vo- 
lume carefully (as I have done the former) out of my large 
store of collections made from authentic original papers, 
and that, I protest, with the same diligence, fidelity, and 

And here, on this account, I think myself bound, and do 
take this occasion, to vindicate my credit and reputation, in 
respect of my truth, faithfulness, and ability in what I have 
formerly writ and published; having been not long ago 
very rudely dealt with by one Daniel Williams, presbyter 
of the church of England, in his English translation of a 
French book, entitled, A defence of the vaUdity of the 
English ordination: writ in French by father Francis Cou- 
rayer, canon regular and librarian of St. Genevieve at Paris. 
Which translated book was printed at Paris anno 1725. 
When (page 50) I am thus by the translator accused and 
exposed : 


" Mr. Strype, in his Life of Cranmer, without any hesita- 
" tion placeth the consecration of Barlow in the year 1535. 
" in the same place observing, that the record of it was 
" not inserted into the register any more than the consecra- 
" tion of Edward Fox for the bishopric of Hereford. 
" What led this author into this mistake is, that having 
*' placed Fox, bishop of Hereford, consecrated on the 26th 
" of September, 1535. and being about to make known 
" that the instrument of it had not been inserted in the re- 
" gister any more than that of Barlow's, he had forgot to 
" set down the consecration of the latter, but mentions both 
" together, as though they had so happened."" 

Now I will take leave to set down my very words in that 
place of the book of Memorials of Archbishop Cranmer, con- 
cerning these two bishops. Whereby the reader may the 
better judge of my Jbrgetfnlness, and running into an error 
without any hesitation; two gross faults I am charged 
Cranm.Me- " Sept. the 15th was the act of confirmation and election 
mor.p.37. ,, ^f Edward Fox, elect of Hereford, and of William Bar- 
" low, prior of the priory of canons regular of Bisham, of 
" the order of St. Augustin Sarum, for the bishopric of 
" St. Asaph." [And no date set.] 

" The consecration of these two are not inserted in the 
" register." 

Hence it is plain I write there concerning the confirma- 
tion of those two bishops, and not of their consecration. 
Whose consecrations, as I expressly subjoin, were omitted in 
the register, so that the error must be charged upon the 
censurer himself, in his so careless misreading consecration 
for confirmation. 

And for the better satisfaction of myself and others, I 
had recourse to my transcripts from that register, where it 
is thus entered, next after Shaxton s consecration, Apr. 11. 
1535.) " Edward Fox, elected and confirmed for Hereford, 
" Sept. 15, 1535. And next stands the confirmation and 
« election of William Barlow, prior of the priory of ca- 
" nons regular, &c." the date here omitted. And so I left 


it without date in the book ; and the date of the day there 
set was intended only for the former bishop's confirmation ; 
though elsewhere in the register, the archbishop's certifi- 
catory of Barlow's confirmation was Feb. 22. And so, in 
short, I leave the case between me and my critic to the 
judgment of candid readers. 

But this is not all ; but I must add with what words an 
annotator, in his notes at the bottom of the page, exposeth 
me, and my readers too, concerning those Memorials of 
Archbishop Cranmer, and whatsoever else I have writ: 
" It is a misfortune that must attend ordinary readers in 
" their perusal of the several laborious tracts published by 
" Mr. Strype, to be led into errors : few writers having 
" committed more mistakes than he hath done; which weak 
" or malicious adversaries may one time or other make ill 
" uses of. The writings will not always fall in the hands of 
" such candid, judicious readers, as our author hath ; and 
" therefore it would be an act of great charity, or rather 
" justice to the public, and reputation to himself, to review 
*' what he hath already written : for I have ocular demon- 
" stration, that his very numerous escapes would make a 
" complete volume. Would he take leave of the world with 
" his retractations, how beneficent, how praiseworthy an at- 
" tempt would that be! I cannot promise him large collec- 
" tions on this subject. Here is a complication of mistakes 
" detected by our dispassionate author, D. W."" 

I shall not reflect upon these lines ; yet cannot but ob- 
serve what credit is to be given to his or his friend's ocular 
demonstration^ by those gross mistakes above. This person 
hath prescribed me a task indeed : to look over all the 
works that I have published, and to examine them again 
from the records, and original MSS. and authentic papers, 
whence I have collected and digested them. That truly 
would effectually put a stop to the publishing this, or any 
more of these Annals of our church, or any other important 
affairs incident in queen Elizabeth's reign. And then per- 
haps he and his party would obtain their ends; that I 
should no further disturb them and their principles. 

a J) 


But, in short, I must tell him, and certify all others, that 
it would be but a great deal of labour lost, and time spent 
in vain ; since what I have entered in my copies, and pre- 
pared writings for the press, were always reviewed by me, 
and carefully compared with the records and originals by 
me transcribed. And moreover I have ever been very care- 
ful and punctual in all my collections thence : whereof I 
have many volumes (now bound up) taken by my own pen, 
and with mine own eyes, and made use of no other tran- 
scribers or amanuenses ; unless what some learned friends 
abroad, and in the universities, had communicated to me. 

And I may add, that I dare say I have, for many long 
years together, conversed with historical MSS. (falling 
within the scEcidum reformatum,) whether records, regis- 
ters, instruments, letters of statesmen, as well as other pri- 
vate letters of the court and nobility, together with very 
many ancient printed books of those times, (having met 
with some special advantages that way,) more than many 
men alive have done. And when afterwards I was pur- 
posed, for the public good, to digest and publish some of 
these pains of mine, I ever made it my resolution to be just, 
faithful, and impartial in what I should deliver and recom- 
mend unto the world from thence. 

And truly I may well bear the discouragement and ca- 
lumnies of one, or a few unknown, prejudiced persons, con- 
sidering the approbation and encouragement I have had for 
many years of so many otherwise learned and able persons, 
of the clergy as well as laity, of this kingdom, as also that 
of Ireland, (of better rank than " ordinary readers, led by 
" me into errors,"") and of their good acceptance of what I 
have written, as also their earnest desires of my continuance 
and proceeding therein. 

And that I may not make this a mere boast, I am com- 
pelled, in respect of my reputation, so much injured, to give 
a few testimonials from some of them, of me and my writ- 
ings, that I may leave some better character behind me. 

The reverend Mr. Nicolas Battely, deceased, (who set forth 
a second edition of Somner's Antiquities of Canterbury, with 


large additions,) had imparted unto me several choice tran- 
scripts out of the records of that church of Canterbury, while 
I was writing archbishop Cranmer's Memorials. And the 
book being printed, and one of them presented to him, I 
desired him that he would take the pains to read it over 
with care, and to observe impartially, without favour or af- 
fection, what errors or faults he should discover therein, (as 
he was a man well known to be very studious and learned 
in such antiquities,) and I should take it kindly at his 
hands. Accordingly he favoured me with a letter, dated 
from Beaksborn, near Canterbury, in the year 1694, (the 
same year the book came forth;) wherein were these words: 
" That I having desired him to read my book with some 
" strict scrutiny, he had accordingly sent me some animad- 
" versions upon some passages in it ; which, as he added, 
" were no objections against any clause of my history, but 
" only some observations to the story, and some small ca- 
" vils, hardly worth taking notice of." 

The reverend Mr. T. B., S.Th.B., another of my corre- 
spondents, (well known for his learning, and great searches 
and knowledge in the history of this church and kingdom,) 
divers years ago, viz. an. 1707, (upon some occasion, in a 
private letter to me,) had these words : "I have not read 
" any books with more pleasure than I have done yours ; 
" nor met with any thing that beareth more lively impres- 
" sions of sincerity and truth : and it is that maketh me so 
" officious in serving you.'" I hope that reverend person 
will excuse me in thus openly using his name, declaring his 
good opinion of me, (especially upon this occasion,) for the 
preserving my good name to posterity, and reputation of 
what I have ^vrit. 

And when the book of the Life and Acts of Archbishop 
Parker, by me compiled, was propounded to be printed by 
subscription, anno 1709, I had the testimonial of several bi- 
shops, eminent as for their piety, so for their learning and 
knowledge of the history of this church, as folio weth : 
" Dec. 7, 1709. Whereas the learned Mr. Strype hath for- 
" merly, with much faithfulness and skill, written the Life 

a 4 


" of Arclrfjishop Cranmer, and other eminent persons, and 
" containing in them many original papers, relating as well to 
" tlie ecclesiastical as civil affairs of this realm ; wherein the 
*' rights and supremacy of the crown are maintained, the 
" objections of papists confuted, and the piety, justice, and 
" wisdom of the first reformers defended : and whereas he 
" is now writing the Life of Archbishop Parker, in which 
" he hath further justified the reformation of the church of 
*' England, and given light, in a number of particulars, to 
*' the history of it, which will be of true advantage to the 
" protestant cause and interest : we do therefore earnestly 
" recommend his useful and judicious labour to the learned, 
" as being truly worthy of their favour and encouragement. 
" Signed, H. London, W. Lincoln, J. Ely, C. Norwich, 
" E. Gloucester, T. Chkhesterr 

And I thank God, my reputation remains fair still : as 
appears by that favourable character lately given me by the 
present archbishops and bishops, upon my late publishing 
of the two former volumes of the Annals ; set to the book 
by the printer, though contrary to my will, lest I might 
seem to affect vainglory. 

Rut now to draw to a conclusion, as to my present un- 
dertaking-. As tlie former volumes reached to near half of 
queen Ehzabeth's reign, and have been received with gene- 
ral approbation, as an useful work, so I now offer the con- 
tinuation of the history in a third volume, carried on in the 
same method, and supported with the same helps and in- 
structions of original papers of state, records, and various 
other choice MSS. as the others were. 

And therefore I doubt not but it will find the same ac- 
ceptance ; especially since there will be found in this vo- 
himc divers curious historical remarks of affairs happening 
within this period of years: and particularly two grand 
emergences; viz. transactions with Mary queen of Scots, 
anil chiefly the last proceedings with her ; which will give 
greater and truer light into that unhappy event : and the 
other, the intended invasion of this land by the king of 
Spain''s invincible rinnndfu vainly so called : discovering 


many passages thereof, not found in our printed histories. 
Also, in the relation (contained in this book) of the state of 
the reformed religion in this kingdom, are shewn many sin- 
gular matters of note, and the wonderful success it had, 
notwithstanding the great opposition it met with from 
popish powers abroad, as well as zealots and the new re- 
formers at home. 

To conclude. As in my Ecclesiastical Memorials many 
ample accounts were given of the affairs and events of this 
church, and the state of religion under three princes, king 
Henry, king Edward, and queen Mary, successively, di- 
gested in three volumes; so I have endeavoured to con- 
tinue them in three other volumes under Annals, commenc- 
ing at the reign of the next succeeding princess, the glo- 
rious queen Elizabeth. And for some commendation of the 
usefulness of those Memorials and these Annals, I cannot 
but repeat what the late most reverend and pious Dr. Te- 
nison, archbishop of Canterbury, said, when I presented 
my first volume of Annals to him ; viz. " That Josephus 
" Scaliger, that great scholar, told some of his learned 
" friends, that he liked Baronius better than Bellarmine ; 
*' quoniam Uistoria est : whereby matters of religion might 
" better be judged of than by controversial writings, as those 
" of Bellarmine were." 

I must call this volume my last, (though indeed it reach 
not by divers years to the end of that queen s reign,) be- 
cause it is the last conclusion of my labour therein; my 
great age and frequent infirmities disabling me from going 
further in this work. And I thank God, that hath length- 
ened out my life and strength beyond what I could have 
expected, to have gone so far as I have done ; and that, I 
hope, not without some profit and use for promoting true 
religion, grounded upon the gospel, accompanied with unity, 
peace, and concord : which God grant. 


CHAP. 1. 

iNj EGOTIATION about queen Elizabeth's marriage with the Anno i58i. 
duke of Anjou : succeedeth not : notwithstanding confident 
report of it in France. Occurrences in Scotland ; sent from 
Randolph, the queen's ambassador there. The ill condition 
of Ireland ; lamented. The queen sends forces to the French 
king, in defence of Roan. Don Antonio, expulsed his king- 
dom of Portugal, solicits the queen for aid against Philip king 
of Spain. Mature consultations thereupon. The prince of 
Conde comes' into England, to solicit the queen in behalf of 
the protestants in France. He and the French ambassador 
with her in conference. The queen imparts the sum thereof 
to the lord treasurer : and the treasurer to the earl of Sussex, 
Instructions to the queen's ambassadors in France about a 
secret league between the king and the queen. Page 1. 


Episcopal visitations of the city of London and St. Edmund's 
Bury in SuflFolk. Disorders thereby the preaching of Hand- 
son and Browne. The bishop of Norwich's complaint of the 
latter to the lord treasurer. Some justices of the peace favour 
these preachers. Philips a preacher, and Day, the bishop's 
commissary, used hardly by them. Day's letter to the bishop. 
Gaiton, a puritan pi-eacher. His doctrine. Articles drawn up 
against those justices. Their answers. Some account of 
Handson and Brown. Randal of the family of love : the bi- 
shop of Exon's proceedings with him. Crompton, a justice of 
peace, commits a minister going to read service. The bishop 
of Coventry and Litchfield takes the minister's part. P. 20. 



Cox, bishop of Ely, dies : his will. And Barkley, bishop of Bath 
and Wells, dies : his character. Grants of the queen to Ed- 
ward Stafford, esq. of concealed lands. The lord treasurer's 
judgment of a lease of them. Disorders about religion in 
the inns of court. A letter from the star-chamber to the 
ecclesiastical commissioners thereupon. Romanists busy. 
Campion writes to the privy-council concerning the Jesuits, 
and his mission. A private letter of a Jesuit concerning Cam- 
pion and his disputations ; and the resolution of the Jesuits. 
A copy of verses made by a papist, beginning, The cross ap' 
pears, &c. The cruel burning of Atkins at Rome for religion. 


The seminaries busy. Sir Francis Knolles's letter concerning 
them. Search for papists. Proclamation against harbouring 
Jesuits, and such as went hence to Paris, Rhemes, Doway, or 
Rome, for education : and for their revocation. Conferences 
with Jesuits. One of them reclaimed. Recusants in the dio- 
cese of the bishop of Coventry and Litchfield. Schismatics. 
A libertine 5 his doctrines. Endeavours of some puritans. 
Their prayers. P- 56. 


University matters. Tenets of Baro, lady Margaret professor at 
Cambridge. Contest between him and Chaderton about them. 
A bachelor of arts makes an invective against the duke 
d'Anjou. Called before the vice-chancellor. His letter to the 
university's chancellor about him. One in Trinity college in 
trouble, Cains college. Number of students in Cambridge. 
Sheriffs of Oxon : their oath to preserve the privileges of that 
university : favour to schoolmasters. Mulcaster, a learned 
schoolmaster, takes notice of it thankfully. Winchester col- 
lege, their address to the queen, Lincoln's Inn choose Chark, 
a puritan, for their preacher, *• 68.' 


Edward, earl of Oxford : displeased with the lady his wife. 
Whence occasioned. Her humble letter to him. Matters be- 
tween him and the lord Burghley, her father. His three 
daughters, endowed with lands by the lord Burghley. The 


earl's debts. Motion made for espousing Anne Cecil and 
Philip Sydney in their childhoods. Elizabeth, the lord trea- 
surer's other daughter, married to the Lord Wentworth's son. 
Other motions of marriage for her. Lord Thomas Paget and 
his wife part. A note of Manwood, lord chief baron, Nudi- 
gate, steward to the duchess of Somerset, his death ; and last 
will. The duchess, his executrix. A note concerning her. 
A woman steals : her horrible perjury. A woman deals in 
necromancy: drowns herself. P. 81. 


Books set forth this year. English Justice, by cardinal Allen. A 
Discovery of Campion, the Jesuit, by A. Monday. The Eng- 
lish Roman Life in the pope's college at Rome, by the same. An 
Answer Apologetical, by Dr. Haddon and John Fox, to Osorius, 
a Portuguese bishop, his Invective. The unfolding of sundry 
Untruths, &c. in answer to a book writ by a libertine. Cas- 
talio's book of Free- Will, complained of. A View of Antichrist 
in our English Church unreformed ; writ by certain puritans. 
Exposition of the Symbol of the Apostles, by J. Field. Two 
sermons of J. Bradford, the martyr, published by T. Sampson. 
Examination of certain ordinary complaints. Positions for 
Education of Youth in Learning, by R. Mulcaster, a school- 
master. A Discourse of Royal Monarchy, by Charles Mer- 
bury. The Pathway to Martial Discipline. Another, called, 
A compendious Treatise, de re rnilitari; dedicated to Mr. Phi- 
lip Sydney. A brief Conceipt of English Policy. Eirenarcha, 
of the offices of justices of peace, by W. Lambard. The Pen- 
tateuch in six Languages : an ancient copy thereof sent to the 
lord treasurer from Beza. P- 93. 


The French match Uke to succeed : and a league with France. Anno 1.582. 
Treaty with Mary queen of Scots, frustrate. Parties in Scot- 
land. Ireland chargeable. Plots. Parry in Venice and Lyons : 
his intelligence thence : writes in favour of the good knight. 
A proclamation against harbouring Jesuits and priests : and 
going to the colleges at Rhemes, Rome, &c. and for such there 
to return. Sessions at London. Mass-mongers, libellers, &c. 
The queen assists the protestant churches. Duke of Bipont, 


prince palatine, conies into England. Wieius, his agent. 
Letters of the queen's ambassador in France concerning Ge- 
neva and the duke of Savoy. Beza to the lord treasurer in 
behalf of Geneva. The prince of Orange's death foretold by 
the pope's nuncio and the Spanish agent. P. 1 1 1 . 


A contest with the bishop of Coventry and Litchfield about the 
chancellorship. The case referred to civilians and judges. A 
petition about it to the privy-council. This bishop's troubles 
in his diocese. Vexed with lawsuits. The earl of Leicester 
his enemy: and why. The lord treasurer his friend. Desires 
a commission ecclesiastical. Names of recusants convict sent 
up. The ill state of his diocese by papists, and exempt juris- 
dictions. His letter to the lords. A wicked scandal, contrived 
against and cast upon the archbishop of York, discovered. 
Judgment in the star-chamber upon the actors, sir Robert 
Stapleton, and others. The archbishop's earnest letters to 
the lord treasurer about his case : his letters of thanks to 
the queen, and treasurer. They make open confession at 
York of their treachery ; but with little show of repentance. 
The archbishop's speeches to each of them. P. 131. 


The bishop of Peterburgh addresseth the queen for confirmation 
of their statutes for residence. Commission for concealments 
in the diocese of Lincoln, whereby the clergy are oppressed. 
The bishop's complaint thereof to the lord treasurer. En- 
snaring interrogatories put to the ministers and church- 
wardens. The said bishop's letters in behalf of his clergy, 
and his own episcopal jurisdiction, encroached upon, and his 
courts. The commission stayed by a supersedeas, sent down. 
The bishop of Lincoln acting in an ecclesiastical commission 
upon one Mackworth, for having two wives. The trouble of 
Scory, bishop of Hereford, from sir Henry Sydney, president 
of Wales. His rigorous government. The state of the bi- 
shopric of St. David's : greatly wronged by pretended con- 
cealments. P' 158. 

Puritans. An inscription about the queen's arms in a cluirch in 


Bury; abusive of the queen. Wright, domestic chaplain to 
the lord Rich : his troubles : informations concerning him : 
and his answers in the consistory. Romish priests. Ex- 
amination of lord Vaux, and sir Thomas Tresham, who en- 
tertained Campion. Lord Vaux's confession. Sir Richard 
Shelly, lord prior of St. John's of Jerusalem, abroad : de- 
sires to come home : offers to make discoveries to the queen : 
a safe conduct granted him : his loyalty. Some further ac- 
counts of him, and his family of the Shelleys. Bourn late in 
the inquisition. One Gower, a fugitive, comes to the English 
ambassador at Paris; desires conference with some learned 
about his religion. Is suddenly cast into the bishop of Paris's 
prison. Seminary priests and mass-hearers brought to the 
sessions at London. A box of stamps for popish libels taken. 

P. 175. 
Anderson made lord chief justice of the common place : the 
manner of admitting him to the bench. Endeavour to get the 
place by bribery. Riots in Finsbury by some youths of inns 
of chancery : indicted. The recoi'der of London informs the 
lord treasurer thereof. The slaughter at Paris Garden on the 
sabbath. The lord mayor's letter to court about it. A pre- 
tended conspiracy in Ireland : some in the court and London 
said to be concerned in it. Mirfin, the discoverer and informer 
thereof, false ; and proves a notorious forgery. The earl of 
Embden to the lord treasurer. Mr. Wentworth, lord trea- 
surer's son-in-law, dies. The queen, and other lords, by let- 
ters, condole with him. The lord treasurer's daughter, the 
relict of Mr. Wentworth, dies : the queen's message by the 
secretary's letter to him to come to court. P. 198. 


Blank, lord mayor of London, presented to the queen. The 
recorder's speech to hfcr. Her answer. The increase of build- 
ings in the city : the inconvenience thereof. Mr. Rich in 
the Fleet : his crime : sues for his liberty : his protestation : his 
letter from Leigh to the lord treasurer's secretary. John 
Stubbes^ (whose right hand had been cut off,) his letters of 
good counsel. Fleetwood, recorder of London. Controversy 
in Christ's college, Cambridge, about the fellowship of king 


Edward's foundation. A dispensation for a fellowship in Pe- 
ter-house, complained of. Books published this year. The 
Elementary. Elprjvapxioi, sive Elizabetha : a book appointed to 
be read in schools. The Bible : printed in quarto, with a Ca- 
techism about Predestination. Golden Epistles. P. 211, 


Anno 1583. The queen's declaration upon sending away the Spanish ambas- 
sador. Motion for peace between the queen and king of Spain. 
An Italian propounded for a mediator. The queen against it : 
and why. She protects those of the Netherlands : relieves 
Geneva. Complaints by Mary queen of Scots ; with answers 
to them. The queen's expostulatory letter to king James of 
Scotland. The excess of retainers checked. The queen's kind 
letter to the lord treasurer, under some discontent. P. 228. 


Apprehensions from papists. The archbishop of York's letter to 
the bishop of Chester ; exciting to diligence. The bishop 
and the earl of Darby, acting in the ecclesiastical commission. 
The bishop of St. David's visits his diocese : the corrupt state 
thereof. The bishop of Norwich weary of his diocese: and 
why. Desires a remove. Two of this bishop's servants taken 
at mass. A divinity lecture settled at Litchfield. The dean's 
account of it. The bishop of Lincoln removed to Winton. 
The bishop of Meath moves for schools in Ireland. Matthew 
made dean of Durham. P. 241. 


The queen grants a commission ecclesiastical. The letters pa- 
tents. Cawdry, a puritan, deprived. Withers of Danbury 
writes to the lord treasurer in behalf of the puritans. Their 
case recommended to the council, in a letter from the gentle- 
men of SuflFolk : the lords' instructions to the judges of assize 
thereupon. Proceedings against the dispersers of Browne's 
books at Bury St. Edmund's : and against papists. Thejudges' 
account of the assizes held there. Popish books set forth : 
Theses Anglorum Rhemensiuvu Dr. Allen's Defence of the 
English Catholics. Parrie's letter from Lyons and Paris. 
One Touker, late in the inquisition at Rome, comes home: 


makes discoveries. The bishop ot Rosse. Dr. Lewis in Rome. 
Dr. Oxenbridge at Wisbich; his submission and subscription 
to the supremacy. P. 259. 


A project for prevention of falling away in religion. The va- 
lidity of popes' bulls in England, for pluralities^ &c. Contro- 
versy between the stationers of London and the university. 
One of Kings college expelled the university : and why. 
Books printed this year. Bishop Jewel's sermons. De Justi- 
ficatione, set forth by John Fox. Sermons of Faith, Hope, 
and Charity, by Bernard Ochine. Defence of the English 
translation of the Bible, by Dr. Fulk. The English Rhemists" 
Testament. Cartwright sets upon the confutation of it. The 
Practice of Prelates. Jesus Psalter. Defensative against the 
Poison of Prophecies, by the L. Howard. Execution of Jus- 
tice, for Maintenance of public Peace. A Declaration of the 
favourable Dealing with certain Traitors. A Report of the 
Discovery of Newfoundland. L. Latymer comes from France. 
Suspected, and taken up. Dean Wotton's legations. Lord 
Wentworth dies. Coiners. P. 277. 


Consultation about annoying Spain. Captain Hawkins's advice Anno 1584. 
therein ; viz. to assist the king of Portugal. The queen's 
transactions with the agents of Holland. She is concerned 
for the murder of the prince of Orange. Her careful letter to 
the duke of Monpensier about that prince's daughters. The 
lord treasurer to the king of Navarr. Prince palatine comes 
into England. A scandal of the earl of Shrewsbury. Popish 
plots. An association of the nobility and gentry. Mendoza, 
the Spanish ambassador, sent away. Stafford, the queen's 
ambassador at Paris. His intelligence concerning him, and 
English fugitives there. The faction of the Guises. A new 
parliament : usage of parliament. Supplication for learned 
and preaching ministers. Petitions for that end : and for re- 
gulation of divers things in the church. Answers of the arch- 
bishop and bishops thereunto. P. 304. 


A convocation. Articuli pro clero. The archbishop's cares, 

VOL. III. PART 1. b 


Comforted by sir Christopher Hatton. James Diggs, ordi- 
nary servant to the archbishop. Dr. Drurie's advices to him 
about Melius inquirendum. Dr. Howland made bishop of Pe- 
terburgh. The bishop of Lincoln's Admonition. A book 
called The Abstract, for bringing in another discipline : an- 
swered. The Counterpoison. Dr. Copcot's sermon at St. Paul's 
Cross. A brotherly and friendly counsel to the ministers for 
peace and concord. P. 330. 

The bishop of Winchester goes down to his diocese ; desires a 
commission for recusants in Hampshire. Subscription re- 
quired by the archbishop, of the clergy of Lincoln diocese, 
now void. Account thereof from the archdeacon. Their 
backwardness. Contest about settling a master of the Tem- 
ple. Hooker appointed. Travers's Supplication. Christopher 
Goodman ; a note of him. The popish faction. Their great 
plot. The queen of Scots privy to it: her letter. Sir Francis 
Englefield's letters to the pope and Spain. P. 346. 


Parry executed for treason. A cardinal's letter to him. His 
speech at his execution, His account of his condition and 
quality, by himself given : false and hollow. Solicits to be 
master of St. Katharine's near the Tower ; or for a deanery, 
&c. Account of him for some years past. Lives abroad. His 
letters from Paris, Venice, and Lyons. His intelligence from 
abroad to the lord Burghley. Comes home. He flies abroad 
again: and why. Prayers appointed (upon Parry's treason) 
in the queen's chapel, and in parliament : order of prayers 
for Winchester diocese. Parry's bold letter to the queen from 
the Tower. A nephew of Parry's executed. P. 360. 

CHAP. xxn. 

Dangers from papists in Cheshire and Lancashire. Creitton, a 
Scotch Jesuit, from Rome ; taken : and examined. Popish 
books ; writ upon the execution of Jesuits. Books in answer 
thereto. Proved that they were traitors by the statute of 
king Edward HI. Dr. Whitaker's application to the lord 
treasurer for the mastership of St, John's college, Cambridge : 
his letters. Lord Burghley to the provost and fellows of 


King's college, in behalf of Mr. Cowel. Winchester college 
in danger, by means of forged writings. Dr. Bilson the war- 
den's good service. Remarks on several persons. As, Richard 
Rogers, suflFragan of Dover. Manwood, lord chief baron. 
Daniel Rogers. John Fox, his request for his prebend. 
Hurlestone of Cheshire. Sir Edward Stradling. John lord 
Russel. Sir Philip Sydney. Emanuel Demetrius. P. 382. 


Account of the quarter sessions at London. Books. A Defence 
of the English Catholics' Execution of Justice in the Land. 
A Declaration of Parry's Treasons. BuUinger's Decads in 
English. An Answer to the Abstract. A declaration of eccle- 
siastical Discipline. The ancient History of Wales, by David 
Powel, D. D. Description of Lincoln, byW. Larabard. Gua- 
vara's Epistles, translated out of Spanish. A Sermon of 
Wimbledon, preached anno 1388. P. 406. 


The queen moved to assist the Netherlands. Saravia's letter Anno 1585. 
from Leyden, for that purpose. The earl of Leicester goes 
over. Orders to the vice-admiral of the queen's fleet with 
respect to the king of Spain's seizing English ships : for re- 
prisal. A parliament. They enter into an association for the 
queen's safety. Laws made against seminaries and papists. 
The speaker's speech to the queen. A book of petitions from 
the papists. Shelly the presenter of it : his examination. The 
parliament consult concerning the Scots queen : her case 
propounded. The queen's concern at the yielding up of Ant- 
werp. Hereupon she takes the protection of the Netherlands. 
Instructions to her ambassador. P. 417. 


The queen endeavours a league between the king of Scots and 
herself. Occurrences in Scotland. Instructions to her am- 
bassadors sent to that king. The French ambassador's inter- 
cession for the Scots queen. Her letter to the lord treasurer. 
A diligent search at the seaports for dangerous persons com- 
ing now into the realm. Letters from the privy-council. 
Young gentlemen to be trained in the musters ; and made 

b 2 


officers. Colleges for popish seminaries abroad : Dr. Bilson 
concerning them. Alfield arraigned for bringing in Dr. Al- 
len's book: some contents of that book. John Prestal, a 
conjurer. Philip, earl of Arundel. Edmund Nevyl, alias lord 
Latymer. Prisoners in the Tower; their case and letters. 
Robert Turner, professor of divinity in Ingolstad. His letters 
to cardinal Allen : and to Hilliard. P. 437. 


Usury practised in York. The archbishop brings it before the 
commission ecclesiastical : his letter to the lord treasurer 
about it. The dean of York openly dissents. Articles against 
him in the star-chamber by the archbishop. The dean's sub- 
mission to the archbishop. This archbishop preaches at 
Paul's Cross, upon a day of thanksgiving for a deliverance of 
the queen from a conspiracy. Scory, bishop of Hereford, 
dies. Ecclesiastical exercises in the diocese of Chester. The 
bishop prescribes rules for the clergy to be observed in those 
exercises. Bishop Scambler translated from Peterburgh to 
Norwich. His complaint of his predecessor. Curtess, bishop 
of Chichester, dies poor, and in the queen's debt. Inventory 
of his goods. Complaint made by the bishop of Litchfield 
and Coventry, against Beacon ; about collecting the queen's 
subsidy. His letter thereupon to the lord treasurer. Cox, 
bishop of Ely, vindicates his liberties in Holborn against the 
city of London. The revenues of the dean and chapter of 
Norwich in danger, upon pretence of concealment : the case : 
the suit with sir Thomas Shirley : referred. P. 464. 


A motion made by Travers to Hooker, now become master of 
the Temple 5 to stay for a call of the people. His answer. 
Cartwright returns home. Some university matters. One 
called before the vice-chancellor of Cambridge, for a sermon 
ad clerum about keeping the sabbath. A new printing press 
at Oxford. A book of Ethics being the first book printed 
there. Contest about the anticjuity of the universities. Lord 
Lumley gives books to Cambridge. The want of an univer- 
sity in Ireland. Slanders raised of the lord treasurer. Some 
variance between the earl of Leicester and him. Letters 


between them. Philip earl of Arundel fined. His debts. 
Edward lord Bcauchamp. Davys finds out the north-west 
passage. His letter to sir Francis Drake, P. 493. 


Books set forth. The Great English Bible. A Declaration of 
the Causes of the Queen's giving Aid to the Low Countries. 
A summary Report of the Earl of Northumberland's Treason. 
The true and lawful Right and Title of Don Anthonio to the 
Kingdom of Portugal. The State of the English Fugitives un- 
der the King of Spain. The true Difference between Chris- 
tian Subjection and Unchristian Rebellion: by Dr. Bilson. 
An Apology and true Declaration of the Institution of the 
two English Colleges at Rome and Rhemes. A Defence of 
English Catholics. Pilkington's Exposition upon Nehemiah. 
Certain Prayers and other godly Exercises, for the seventeenth 
day of November. A godly and necessary Admonition con- 
cerning Neuters. Moral Questions in Latin : by Case of Ox- 
ford. Exploits by the English in the Netherlands : by H. 
Archer. Leicester's Commonwealth. P. 510. 


Matters about the queen of Scots. Resolution to bring her Anno 1586. 
to her trial. Her removal. Sir Amyas Paulet, her keeper, 
faithful. The queen's letter to him. A commission prepar- 
ing for her said trial. The judges consulted about it. Letters 
from Popham, attorney-general. Consultation after her trial 
and condemnation, of putting her to death ; which the queen 
was against. Objections and answers for the queen's satis- 
faction. Dr. Dale's letter to the lord treasurer for that pur- 
pose. Considerations offered to the queen by parliament. 
Moved, to disable the Scots queen from inheriting. An- 
swered. What precedents might be found. Joan of Naples. 
Petition of both houses to the queen ; for the Scots queen's 
execution ; and her answer. The queen of Scots executed. 
The queen highly provoked at it. The lord treasurer forbid 
her presence. His letters to her. Davison, her secretary, 


suiters for it. His character. Interrogatories put to him : his 
answers thereunto. P. 523. 


Revenge meditated for the Scots queen's death. Not safe to 
call in the assistance of Spain, in taking this revenge. Advice 
of the event thereof from a statesman in England to one 
about that king's court. His deliberation about it. Several 
writings and books on this occasion. A MS, of the order 
and manner of the Scots queen's execution. The dean of Pe- 
terburgh's speech to her at the scaffold : and prayer. Her re- 
sentments thereof. A book, De Maria Scotorum Regina, to- 
taque ejus contra Regem Conjuratione. Another book, Maria 
Stuarta innocens a Cade Darliana : a tract. Sentences agains 
the queen of Scots. Ccedes Darliana : a book dedicated t( 
cardinal Allen at Rome. P. 547. 


A league made between the queen and the king of Scots, The 
grudge of some of the Scotch nobility at it. Dangers on all 
hands from abroad. Drake sent forth with a fleet. Intelli- 
gence from the Isle of Wight. The queen charged to sow se- 
dition among princes. Answered. The king of Navar's dan- 
ger. Consultation for him. The queen ready to assist him at 
Rochel. An English officer going to serve in Holland taken 
by the Spaniard : examined. His answers. Upon some over- 
tures between the queen and Spain, the advice of Ramelius, 
the Danish ambassador. Difference between the lord deputy 
of Ireland and council. The bishop of Meath's letter there- 
upon. P- ^^7. 

Sir John Perrot contends with the bishop of St. David's about 
the stewardship of that bishop's courts. The case. The bi- 
shop of Meath forfeits double fruits. His case referred to 
Perrot, his enemy. Comes into England about it. Oppres- 
sions of the clergy in Yorkshire, by pretence of concealments. 
Occasions the archbishop's letter. Letters from the queen 
and council to the bishops, to obtain lances from the clergy 
for the Low Countries. Accounts thereof from the bishops. 
Sums raised for that purpose in every diocese. The state of 
the church of Westminster. The state of Geneva, Their 


dangerous condition. Their letters to the lord treasurer, to 
solicit the queen for aid. Beza's letters. P. 583. 


A popish conspiracy, to raise a rebellion, and murder the queen. 
Parsons, the Jesuit, to cardinal Allen at Rome ; now soon 
after his arrival here in a mission. Creicton, a Jesuit, his 
reasons for the catholics their taking up arms. Ballard, a 
priest. Savage and Babington ; their confessions about the 
plot. The city rejoice. The queen's kind letter to them. 
The justices of Suffolk to the council, concerning yearly pay- 
ments, by popish gentlemen, recusants there. Resolution 
taken against papists in prison. Topcliff's discovery of the 
practices and resoi'ts of seminaiy priests in and about Lon- 
don. Cotton, a Jesuit, and Perpoint, gent, a recusant, taken 
up ; their examinations. P. 599. 


Anthony Tyrrel, priest, his confession in letters to the queen 
and lord treasurer. His discoveries of Jesuits, and other Ro- 
man catholics. His recantation. His revolt : and his letter 
to the queen after it. A discourse proving the treason of the 
priests and others of that religion, executed. Divers tracts 
and speeches concerning papists ; and cases concerning the 
dealings with them. Cardinal Allen's concern with sir Ed- 
ward Stanley in betraying Deventer in Holland to the Spa- 
niard. He, with the pope, moves for an English seminary 
of soldiers. Their use. Writes a book for them. P. 615. 


Travers acquaints the lords of the council with his lectures at 
the Temple, and conference with Hooker, the master of the 
Temple, upon some points. A religious company complained 
of to the archbishop, for certain opinions. What they were. 
One Barrel pretends to cast out devils. White, an enthusiast 
anabaptist^ calls himself John a Baptist : his examination. 
Discoinses and speeches in parliament against receiving the 
disciplinarian model. A dearth. Whitaker the public pro- 
fessor of divinity, and others, stand to succeed Howiand, 
made bishop, in the mastership of St. John's college. Cam- 


bridge. Puritans in Christ's college. That college visited by 
the vice-chancellor. They refuse bis Injunctions. P. 632. 


The printing-press at Cambridge. The archbishop's order to 
the university about books to be printed there. His letter to 
the heads about grunting licences to university preachers. 
That university and town at difference. Their petition de- 
livered to the lord Burgbley, their chancellor. The duchess 
of Somerset, her last will : her jewels : her letter to secretary 
Cecil, concerning the lord Hertford, her son, in the Tower. 
Sir Philip Sidney's last will. A letter of the young earl of 
Essex. The character of Davison, late secretary. Fleetwood, 
recorder of London, his diary. Books printed. Books of Pe- 
trus Bizarus, a learned Italian here. P. 650. 


Anno 1587. Don Antonio, beat out of his kingdom of Portugal 3 his miser- 
able condition represented to the lord treasurer. Sir Francis 
Drake takes a rich ship of Portugal: his success at Gales. 
Intelligence from Scotland by a priest there. Remembrance 
for Portland castle, sent to the lord treasurer from sir Walter 
Raleigh. Orders for the lieutenancy of Hampshire. Care 
taken about the justices of peace. Bishop of Peterburgh, his 
letter concerning them in his diocese. Letters also of the 
same concern from the bishops of Hereford, Norwich, Win- 
chester, Bath and Wells, and York. A letter from Dr. Knib- 
bius to Rogers, the queen's ambassador, concerning the earl 
of Leicester's departure from Holland. Two military dis- 
courses ; by Rafe Lane : seasonable at this juncture. P. 662. 


Southwel, a collegiate church, endeavoured to be gotten from 
the archbishopric of York. The archbishop's application to 
stop it. Required by the queen to be present at the council 
of the north in York. Barnes, bishop of Durham, dies : 
some account of him. Endeavours at court for the dean. Dr. 
Toby Matthew, to succeed him. The dean's letter thereupon. 
The decay of that bishopric by reason of long leases. Trou- 
bles of that collegiate church by reason of suits. The pre- 


sent ill state of the bishopric of St. Asaph. That bishop's 
commendams. The queen requires a lease of Dunnington, be- 
longing to the bishopric of Ely, now void. The dean and 
chapter thereof, their letter to the lord treasurer hereupon. 
A large commission of concealments granted to Edward Staf- 
ford. The contents thereof. Lands of four vacant bishoi)rics 
sued for to the queen by the earl of Leicester, in exchange. 

P. 677. 

A synod held by the disciplinarians : orders, consisting of six- 
teen articles, there concluded. One Durden, in Cambridge, 
calls himself Elias. His examination before the vice-chan- 
cellor. His pretended visions. Letter of intelligence from 
an English priest in France. Anthony Tyrrel, a priest, re- 
nounceth his religion : revokes what he had renounced : 
his protestations, in some letters. Weston, a Jesuit : he 
with some other priests pretend to cast out evil spirits. A 
new commission of the peace for Lancashire. The effect 
of it for the discovery of priests. Fleetwood, parson of 
Wigan, his letter. A commission ecclesiastical, A note taken 
of the catholic gentlemen in each county, and of their liv- 
ings. P. 690. 

A book entitled, Theatrum Crudelitatis Hcereticorum in Anglia. 
Another book, called. Execution of Justice in England. Car- 
dinal Allen's book in answer to it, called, A true, sincere, and 
modest Defence of Catholics, &c. Vindication of the Execu- 
tion of Justice, in answer to Allen. Stubbe, the writer, his 
letter to the lord treasurer. Some university matters. Abuses 
in the colleges at Cambridge ; which causeth a letter from 
their chancellor. Contests between the town and university. 
Edmunds, the mayor, discommoned. Matters of St. John's 
college : some letters of Dr. Whitaker, the master. P. 705. 


Sheffield of Christ's college accused for a sermon preached at 
St. Mary's. An end of the vice-chancellor's visitation of that 
college. Some account of Downham, one of the fellows. 
Chadwic, of Emanuel college, called before the heads, for a 
sermon of his preached in St. Mary's. An epistle of gratitude 



to the lord Burghley from the university of Oxford. Occa- 
sional remarks upon some persons of eminency in these 
times ; viz. William Lambard. Lord treasurer Burghley. The 
earl of Oxford, his son-in-law, discontented. Letters between 
them. Angry words at court from the earl of Leicester to 
the lord treasurer. Their letters hereupon to each other. 
The death of the lord treasurer's mother. On which occa- 
sion the queen's message to him. Earl of Leicester's debts. 

P. 718. 
John Fox, the martyrologist, dies. His Acts and Monuments, 
Some account of that book, and the editions, and enlarge- 
ments. The great esteem of the book and author. His judg- 
ment of the government of the church by archbishops and 
bishops. Archbishop Whitgift's value of him. His monu- 
ment. His Life in Latin : written by his son Samuel. His 
books. His posterity, A Latin epistle to the puritans. Vin- 
dication of the English Justice^ by J. Stubbes. Latin poems, 
by Newton of Cheshire. P. 735. 











Negotiation about queen ElizabetJCs marriage with the duke 
ofAnjou: succeedeth not: notwithstanding corifident re- 
port of it in France. Occurrences in Scotland; sent from 
Randolph^ the queerCs ambassador there. The ill condi- 
tion of Ireland ; lamented. The queen sends forces in 
defence of Roan. Don Antonio^ expulsed his kingdom of 
Portugal, solicits the queen for aid against Philip king 
of Spain. Mature consultations thereupon. The prince 
of Cond^ comes into England, to solicit the queen in be- 
half of the protestants in France. He and the French 
ambassador with her in conference. Instructions to the 
queerCs ambassadors in France ; assisting monsieur, going' 
into the Netherlands. And a secret league between that 
king and the queen. 

OTILL the queen's chief statesmen consulted for her ma^ Anno issi. 
jesty's marriage, as concluding it the best way to establish J"o^''^a"*^^ 
and strengthen the kingdom, and to secure England against singham, 



BOOK tlie uncertainty of a successor, as well as for other causes. 

Walsineham was now in France her ambassador, transact- 

Anno issi-ino- that desio-n. He sent two letters in the month of Au- 

ambassador ^^^ 1581, to the earl of Sussex, lord chamberlain, con- 

m France, & ' ' _ ' _ ... 

concerning ccming the present state of this grand affair : referring bun 
marHage" ^ to the account he had given at large of his negociation with 
2 monsieur, in his other letters both to the queen and the lord 
treasurer, and the success thereof. And let the earl fur- 
ther in general understand, " That monsieur finding by his 
" [Walsingham's] answer, delivered unto him in her majes- 
" ty's name, that her highness waxed cold in the matter of 
" marriage, in respect of the mislike that she saw her sub- 
" jects would conceive, to have her realm throAvn into fo- 
" reign wars, by reason of that match ; yet notwithstand- 
" ing did very constantly resolve that he would follow his 
" pursuit ; and would not be dissuaded from it by any rea- 
" sons that he [Walsingham] could allege in that behalf. 

" And that touching the league [offensive and defensive] 
" between the queen and his brother the king, he told him, 
" [the ambassador,] that he thought his brother would very 
" hardly consent unto it, unless it were accompanied with 
" the marriage : but that he promised to employ his friends 
" to prepare his mind to hearken to it. And indeed, added 
" Walsingham in this letter, whether the marriage be or 
" be not, considering the present action his highness hath 
" embraced, [viz. his defence of the Low Countries against 
" Philip king of Spain,] his lordship [viz. the earl] could 
*' easily perceive how much it stood him upon to be coun- 
" tenanccd in it by such a league, both for the encouraging 
" of his friends, and discouraging of his enemies." 

He proceeded to hint to the earl another affair, concern- 
ing the queen's supplying monsieur with money, absolutely 
necessary to the carrying on his war, " That he understood 
" by a gentleman, which was very inward with monsieur, 
" and also greatly devoted to her majesty, (as his lordship 
" might perceive by the letters,) that monsieur's affairs were 
" reduced to such extremity for want of money, that unless 
*' her majestv did relieve him, he was like to remain at a 


" stay. He beseeched his lordship, therefore, (who could CHAP. 
" consider of what importance it was to her majesty not to 

suffer the gentleman to quail in his enterprise,) to put to A""" i^^'- 
" his helping hand, to procure that he might be relieved. 

Concluding, " That he took upon him to assure himself, 
" that if any defect or error fell out in this his service, he 
" should find the earPs honourable favour to excuse the 
" same to her majesty, according to the comfortable promise 
" it pleased him to make him at his departure. Dated at 
" Fere en Tartenoys, the 5th of August, 1581." 

Monsieur, the amorous duke, was now come again into 
England, to prosecute his love-business with the queen ; and 
succeeded so far in it, that she gave him a ring off from her 
finger, (saith our historian.) Whence a common report pre- Another 
sently arose, that the match was undoubted : and Mauvi- report in 
sier, late ambassador from the French king, told that king f 'ance of 

the SUCC6SS 

as much. Whereat Walsingham, now at Paris, and the of it. Cott. 

other English ambassador there, were under a great sur-ll''': ^J}]^^' 
& ' ® _ B. 2. Eliz. 

prise, having had no account thereof sent them. And this Camb. sub 
caused another letter from Walsingham to the earl, import-''"' '■^^'" 

, Walsing- 

mg, " That his lordship, by the general letters sent unto ham to the 

"the lord treasurer, should perceive how that they [the ^'^''^ *'^ ^"*' 

" queen''s ambassadors] were now at a stay for their treaty, 3 

" up6n some new comfort monsieur Mauvisier had put the 

" king in ; that her majesty is fully resolved to proceed to 

" the conclusion of her marriage. Which if it were true, 

" then they, her majesty's ambassadors there, were hardly 

" dealt withal : for that they were not privy thereto. And 

" that if it were not trvie, then had the advertisement done 

" a great deal of harm many ways." 

And then giving his judgment, he adds these words: 
*' Surely, my lord, if her majesty be not already resolved 
" touching her marriage, it will behove her to grow to some 
" speedy resolution therein. For the entertaining of it doth 
" breed her greater dishonour than I dare commit to paper: 
" besides the danger she daily increaseth for not settling 
" her estate ; which dependeth altogether upon the mar- 
" riage. And so forbearing further to trouble his lordship, 

B 2 


BOOK "he most humbly took his leave at Paris, the 26th day of 
^' Aucrmt, 1581 ;' 

Anno 1581. But this confident report soon vanished. For to give 

some further account of this courtship this year, take a 

short extract out of a letter of Brook, the queen''s ambassa- 

The French dor in France, writ unto her, viz. " I perceive, and it Uke 

displeased " your majesty, how monsieur Mauvisier, in his last letters 

about the « written from thence, sheweth he hath no further hope of 
match, . 1 T 

" the marriage ; understanding your intent to be tor to en- 

" tertain him graciously, and no more : and so to pass the 
" time. And therefore he [the said Mauvisier] required to 
" be revoked. I suppose," added the ambassador, " he did 
" write this, being in some passion : for not many weeks 
" since, he sent assured hope of the marriage." Thus this 
matter wavered about this time. 
Occurren- As for Scotland, among the occurrences there this year, 
land. sent to the lord treasurer Burghley by Tho. Randolph, the 

queen's resident there, these are some, as I take them from 
the original letter : " That the lord Flemming, sir Thomas 
" Carre of Furnehorst, sir James Baford, John Matland, 
" sometime secretary to the king's mother, with many other, 
" forfeited in the civil dissensions, and for the murder of the 
" king's father, and his two regents, were, with their chil- 
" dren, restored to their blood and possessions ; condition- 
" ally, that they should abide the laws for the said murder, 
" when the king should please to call and charge them there- 
" with. But the lord Flemming was not restored to his 
" whole possessions : and Baford had his pacification but 
" for three years. This favour was obtained to them by 
" the special suit and means of the duke [of Lenox.]" 
The sad case If we look over into Ireland, it would give a very sad 
prospect, in respect of the wars, and also the great differ- 
ence and quarrels that were there among the queen's officers, 
and the exceeding expenses she was put to. Of wliich that 
wise statesman, the lord treasurer, thus wrote his mind to 
Lamented one of them : " That he did heartily lament the lamentable 
Biirgiiiey. " State of that country : and that he was therewith more 
4 " grieved, in that he saw the calamity either to continue, or 


" not to diminish: and yet he saw no way how to remedy CHAP, 
it. Neither in so doubtful opinions as there were, both . 

" there and here [at home] for the remedy, dared he to lay Anno i58i. 
" hold on any of them. And yet he did not think the re- 
" medies desperate, if good and wise men, addicted to pub- 
" lie state, were therein employed. And concluding, thus 
" I uncomfortably end, referring the success to God's mercy 
" to be extended both to you and us ; whose sins, I am as- 
" sured, do provoke him to chasten the nation so sharply. 
" Adding, that he thought well of a late direction from her 
" majesty, to reduce her army to a convenient number there, 
" that otherwise were not provided to live in their lusts, but 
" by wars and spoils."" This letter was dated at Westmin- 
ster, December 15, 1581. 

The queen was now engaged with the French king, and The queen 
assisted him with supplies against the Spaniard; who was p^j^nge a. 
now comina: to Diep, the earl of Essex being her general, p'nst the 

IT /• 1 Spiiniard. 

and sir Roger Williams, a brave soldier, one ol her great 
officers there. By the forces of the duke of Parma, Roan 
was taken ; and the said duke himself was hastening thither 
with his army : and the French king himself was then be- 
fore Roan, besieging it, and in apprehension of a battle with 
the said duke; which made him request of her majesty to 
send him more forces, and speedily. 

Sir Henry Unton was now the queen's ambassador in 
France ; and upon a letter of his to the lord treasurer, ac- 
quainting him with the affairs there, the said lord wrote him 
an answer at some length : the contents of which the said 
sir Henry wrote on the back-side of it, being a short sum- 
mary of the letter ; which shews as well this ambassador's 
great exactness and diligence, as the particulars of this ex- 
pedition: which our histories, for ought I find, are silent 
of. What was thus written by way of contents, was as fol- 
io weth. 

" Mv letter expressing the king's request for further aid. The queen 

, f *? 1 1 1 1 -J r U to Unton, 

" unpleasant to her majesty, thougli she laid no lault on 1,^^ ambas- 
" mc. ^^^^^ '° 

" Her majesty made answer thereunto by her own letter, 



BOOK " whereof he [the lord treasurer] sendcth copy, to infer to 
" the kin": the unseasonableness of the time. 

Anno 1581. " Her majesty suspecteth that the king's state is made 
" worse than the same truly is, in respect of the contrariety 
" thereof to sir Roger Williams's report. 

" The news of the duke of Parma's entrance not likely to 
" be true : neither that he can come so soon to Roan, but 
" that the king may before gain mount S. Katharine ; and 
" afterwards go and make head to him. 

" Sir Thomas Leyghton ambassador sent over. 
" Marvaileth that I have not received his former letters. 
" Wisheth me to learn exactly the state of the king's forces. 
" Hopeth shortly to receive news of the taking of the mount 
" S. Katharine." 

The whole letter, being a discovery of a considerable piece 
of our history, I have transcribed from the original, and laid 
Number I. it in the Appendix of Originals. 

5 Philip, king of Spain, was the queen's fatal enemy, which 

she well knew ; and therefore was not wanting to defend 

herself and her kingdoms against him : though as yet no 

The queen open breach between them. This year she was inclined to 

assist don take part with don Antonio, late king of Portugal ; but 

Antonjo, j^g^j- ^^^j. ^f ]^jg l^ingdom by the said kino- of Spain : who 

lung of Tor- . . o i 

tugai, a- took possession of that crown unjustly. But both France 
PhU^ "^ "^ ^"^ England intended to assist him : for into England, en- 
couraged by France, he now was come. If we turn back to 
the last year, when this expulsed king first shewed his com- 
plaint to the English court, it was thought a fit opportunity 
offered the queen to enable her to check the malicious pur- 
A raotion poses of king Philip : and by preparing a fleet to assist don 
^jj^^ji^^^j,,^"" Antonio, to be able to defend herself thereby, in case of an 
open hostile invasion of her kingdom, even then feared. 
There was then an expert soldier, and accomplished gentle- 
man in matters of war, named Rafe Lane, who in a private 
letter shewed his thoughts to the lord treasurer on this oc- 
casion ; " That being moved of zeal to her majesty's safety 
" and service, he humbly offered to his lordship the consi- 
" deration of the plot touching the report of king Antonio 


" to her majesty for .lid ; and many singular advantages CHAP, 
*' and guard of her kingdom, which she might gain hereby, ' 

" which he proceeded to shew." The Avhole letter, being Anno 1 58 1. 
somewhat large, I leave to be read in the Appendix. Con- [Numb. I.] 
cerning don Antonio's business, some particulars of it may 
be collected from a discourse thereof between Edward 
Brook, the queen's ambassador in France, and count Vimi- 
oso, the Portugal king's agent there. The account of which 
is best taken from the said English ambassador's own letter 
thereof, written to sir Francis Walsingham, the secretary, 
in May this year, lately come from France. 

" That the count Vimioso arrived there [in France] the The queen's 
" second instant, being very well lodged, and furnished of i,i France, 
" the kino-'s stuff; entertained of the king's officers; and ^^'^ '^•'"'^■; 

° " rence with 

" his diet provided and defrayed. That he [the English the Portu- 

" ambassador] the same night went privily unto him : de- |||,\t^^^^*' 

" daring the affection the queen's majesty had to maintain 

" the liberties of them and their country ; as also that she 

" affected don Antonio, and the justice of his cause. But 

" for that their case required rather help than open demon- 

" stration of a complement, he thought it more convenient 

" to visit him in that manner. The rather likewise, that if 

" the queen, his sovereign, should otherwise make show to 

" friend don Antonio, it would minister occasion of greater 

" jealousy to king Philip : whereby he might be provoked 

" to deal more rigorously with such of their confederates as 

" were in Portugal. The which being respected, he should 

" do his kingdom the greater service, and find the apter 

" means to deliver his country from the oppression of the 

" Spaniard." 

He added, " That the said Vimioso seemed to accept of 
" his [the English ambassador's] coming, and of the choice 
" of the time and manner : discoursing to him of his hard 
" adventures, first passed in Barbary, when he was taken pri- 
" soner in the service of don Sebastian, their late young 6 
" king : acknowledging to have received his liberty by the 
" means of king Philip. For the which he was to adven- 
" ture his life in his service, the liberty of his country and 

B 4 


BOOK " honour reserved. And that for those causes he had put 
^- " himself in tliose hazards ; repairing to those princes, [in 
Anno 1381." France, &c.] of whom he hoped to find that honour, as 
" they might receive help in the redress : not meaning, as 
" he proceeded, to enter into discourse, how necessary this 
" action was to be embraced by the French king and the 
" queen of England. For that he ensured himself their 
" own judgments, and the advices of their counsellors, were 
" sufficient to penetrate : which would be considered for the 
" benefit of their own estates. But that he was disposed to 
" declare the right of his king, and to shew the justice done 
" to the right of Portugal, with desiring their aid of men 
" and means for the many and just considerations. 

" That as for the particularities touching the queen, he 
" would leave to communicate with him therein, until he 
" had conferred with the Christian king and the queen his 
" mother."" That to all these speeches, he [the English 
ambassador] only answered him thus: " That as for the 
" good-will and disposition of her majesty, his king and 
" nation should find to be such, as the benefit of her mean- 
" ing should be rather shewed towards them by her gra- 
" cious deeds, than by many promises and outward shows : 
" such was the manner of her sincere proceeding. 

*' He said, how Rodrigo de Souza [don Antonio's am- 
" bassador] had informed him of her most royal dealing : 
" purposing, after he had done his affairs in that court, [of 
" France,] to repair into England." 

It must be remembered here, that the queen had sent 
Prim, her agent, to the emperor of Fez and Morocco, in 
behalf of don Antonio, in compassion of his condition. And 
what success that affair had, the lord treasurer had commu- 
nicated to this English ambassador by Waad, one of the 
clerks of the council. Concerning which thus the ambassa- 
dor proceeded in his letter: " For that Mr. Waad had 
" shewed him his honour's letter, with the instructions for 
" to deal in the matter which Prim brought, he desired the 
" count, it would please him for to confer with Mr. Waad, 
^' as with a confident gentleman, and one trusted by his 


" honour, [the lord treasurer,] that he [the ambassador] CHAP» 
" had understood by the said Mr. Waad, that he had passed ^' 
" speeches with the count about those afFairs." Anno issi. 

Further, " That on the twenty-second in the morning, 
" the count Vymyos did send him word, that he would in 
" the afternoon visit him. And he accordingly sent his 
" coach and horses for to serve him and his company. But 
" that it seemed he changed his purpose, and sent Prim 
" unto him with a message, as that he would be glad to 
" have him [the ambassador] resort to him. But he willed 
" Prim to say unto the count, that he could wilhngly do 
" any thing that might give him honour : but that there 
" were in this case these respects to be had in consideration. 
" First, his coming thither unto the court for to address 7 
" himself and his negociations unto their majesties : so as 
" by open coming in visitation, he [the ambassador] should 
" give cause of mistrust to their majesties, that he did it to 
" intrude himself into some deahng with the count ; and to 
" seek by conference to undermine their affairs. Moreover 
" that it was the manner of proceeding of all such as were 
" distressed, for to seek unto princes, and to all their minis- 
" ters. And that therefore he was to enter into considera- 
" tion hereof what he thought good. 

" That upon this, in the evening, don Juan de Souza 
" repaired unto him, [the ambassador,] and required him 
" to think, that the count would willingly visit, but that 
" he was loath to give any cause of misliking unto their 
" majesties, [the French king and the queen his mother.] 
" Otherwise that he was willing of himself to repair unto 
" him. For that upon the speeches he passed with their ma- 
" jesties there was cause, importing the queen's majesty's 
" service, for to declare unto him."" 

And then, as to that message from Vimioso, the ambas- 
sador told the said messenger, " That for his part, he had 
" done the office of his sovereign, as servant, to visit him, 
*' being a personage of that merit : and that he was willing 
" rather to consent he should do all things to the advance- 
" ment of his affairs, than to the impeachment. That there- 


BOOK " fore, if he found it convenient for the affairs which he had 
' " dealt with their majesties, to confer with him, [the am- 
Annoissi." bassador,] in respect it touched the queen, his sovereign, 
" he hoped he would deal accordingly. Then don Juan 
" de Souza required him, that he might in the night meet 
" with the same count beside his [the ambassador's] lodg- 
" ings; and he would confer with him. He assented to it; 
" because he pretended it would somewhat import her ma- 
" jesty. But about nine o'clock he [Vimioso] sent an ex- 
" cuse in writing:." 
The French I shall add somewhat more, to make up this vacancy and 
sol!fe hesi- silence of our historians in this part of queen Elizabetli's 
tation. history. It seems it was a tender point to meddle in don 
Antonio's affair: and not to attempt the provoking the for- 
midable king of Spain. Insomuch that the French king 
was in some hesitation of giving assistance to this expulsed 
king : and that crown had more mind this work and charge 
might be undertaken by the queen. And Vimioso, by shift- 
ing conference with the English ambassador, seemed to have 
some doubt of her. All this, with other matters, may be 
gathered from another letter of intelligence from Brook, the 
foresaid ambassador, to secretary Walsingham, writ May 6. 
Brook, the " That there were which secretly persuaded the king for to 

ambassador ,c_ n -i • i i ■ • i i <-, ■ i 

ill France, ""^l it Unnecessary to break mto wars with the Spanish 
his inteiii- « king, for his brother's sake only, [duke of Anjou, now in 
" the Low Countries, contriving to get honour and govern- 
" ment there,] except there should be offered some other 
" just quarrel. And yet notwithstanding the king had not 
" only given open entertainment unto the count Vimioso, 
" being required to the contrary by king Philip's agent ; 
" but did appoint monsieur Villequer to confer with the 
8 " said count, for the means to be taken and used for the 
" restitution of don Antonio," 

And concerning the conference between the said count 
and the English ambassador, thus he repeated the matter 
to the secretary : " That the count did, after his first com- 
" ing [to France], pretend to have meant to come to confer 
" with him, [the ambassador,] but that when either he at- 


" tended on his coming, or that he [the ambassador] offered CH AP. 
" to meet him in some convenient place, or otherwise in ^- 

"the evening to visit him privately, it was deferred and Anno issi. 

" shifted, until the day of parting ; whenas he sent one of 

" his gentlemen to let the ambassador know he purposed to 

" repair unto Tours. Whereon, remembering how once he 

" had said, it was requisite he might speak with me upon 

" causes [as the English ambassador's letters proceeded] 

" which were necessary for the queen's majesty to know, 

" I resolve (seeing I thought it not convenient to repair 

" myself to him publicly) for to entreat my lord Sandys to 

" vouchsafe, under colour of visiting don Juan Rodrigo de 

" Souza, to address himself unto the count; and to let him 

" understand, how I had been most willing for to have taken 

" my leave of him ; as also to be informed so much of his 

" affairs as were necessary for her majesty to be certified of. 

" The which the lord Sandys performed. Whereon the Lord Saa- 
" count answered to my lord, first, with my giving of thanks ^*" 
" for my first visitation ; as likewise for those further de- 
" monstrations and offers to repair unto him. But he said, 
" they found not her majesty so affected to the state of 
" Portugal as there was cause. Howbeit, whether it pro- 
" ceeded of fear or love towards king Philip, he did not 
" know. Alleging moreover, that it appeared in some sort 
" how there should be in her majesty's council persons of 
" quality, which affected the Castilian king : lamenting how 
" it had not pleased her majesty to give in her letters the 
" title which belonged to their king, [in not styling him king 
" Antonio:] nor yet admitted his [the said king's] ambas- 
" sador to have public audience. 

" That he rehearsed these points Avith some earnestness, 
" seeming to think they were indignities. Wherewith con- 
" sequently he took occasion to praise the acceptance and 
" favour this king [viz. the French king] had in his court 
" apparently used toward him : resting much satisfied in all 
" those commands he had required of their majesties [the 
" French king and queen-mother.] 

" My lord Sandys answered to these former speeches 



Anno 1581. 


BOOK " thus: First, how her majesty did favour the justice of 
" their cause, and had dealt to their contentation, as it 
seemed, by the report of Rodrigo de Souza. But whereas 
there had not been that open show made by her majesty, 
as was now here used by this king, that there was greater 
cause for this king to perform the same, in consideration 
of the queen, and the king''s mother's pretence. The 
count lastly praised her majesty's virtues, shewing how 
he purposed to write shortly by the king's ambassador, 
Juan Rodrigo de Souza ; or else to repair into England 

He concluded his letter, " That the count and Rodrigo 
de Suza parted thence yesterday by water to Tours. And 
from thence it was signified to him, that he meant to go 
to monseignieur. That Rodrigo de Suza said to him at 
his last visitation, how this king offered the count Vimioso, 
that if don Antonio should decease, he would furnish him 
for forces to recover the realm of Portugal ; notwithstand- 
ing the judgment of them of quality in that country was, 
without money there would be little help had for Portu- 
gal as yet from those parts : except some ships might shift 
by sea, and about the out-islands, and watch for to fetch 
the Indian fleet." 

This affair of restoring don Antonio was transacted some 
time before, while Walsingham was ambassador in France, 
and then moved at the English covirt. To which a passage 
or two in the treasurer's correspondence with him will give 
some light : suggesting, why the queen dealt so warily in 
this matter ; namely, that she might not draw all the fury 
of king Philip upon herself: and that she might first be as- 
sured of the French king to bear his proportion of charge 
and forces, and to be true to her : the subtile queen-mother 
endeavouring to plunge the queen into this business with as 
little danger and expense, as might be, to themselves. The 
words of the lord treasurer, in his letter to Walsingham, 
Compi.Am- were, " That the French ambassador, with the French 
bass.p.394, 4c Portuguese consul, were with her majesty, with letters 
" from the queen-mother : of great earnestness to her ma- 

tioii about 
do a Anto- 



'* jesty, to aid don Antonio : by that name, but not by that of c H AP. 
*' king Antonio. Whereof,"" added the writer, " the French *• 

" king made reason for the queen-mother"'s pretence." For Anno issi. 

she pretended title to the kingdom herself. In another of 

the said treasurer''s letters : " How don Antonio may be re- 

*' lieved, there had been no delay on the queen's part, other- 

" wise than that she would be well assured, that for yield- 

" ing relief unto him (which both the French king and the 

" queen-mother had often solicited) she might not receive 

" offence of the king of Spain. But that the French king 

" would join therein with her majesty as well for the charges, 

" as to withstand the offence. And for this that a private 

" league might be entered into by them both. Which the 

*' French king cunningly declined." 

At length, after some months, don Antonio's earnest ap- a fleet to 
plication for aid was listened to, especially a considerable |"^ ^^* ?"* 
advantage being like to be obtained by a fleet to be set out for don An- 
from England to the Azores isles, belonging to the Portu- °"'"' 
guese; upon the prospect of the treasure and wealth that 
might be brought thence, after a successful fight with the 
enemy there. The two great seamen, Drake and Hawkins, 
with divers merchants and others, willing and desirous to 
be at the charge of the expedition themselves, the queen 
also to bear some charge, since don Antonio had delivered 
her a very costly jewel for that purpose. Ten thousand 
pounds was computed might accomplish the charge. This 
looking so plausibly, and our brave sea-commanders, and 
other English, so forward, it was not slightly recommended 
to the queen, and espoused by her. And so it laid before 10 
her council ; whether, without breaking terms with the king 
of Spain, and that according to the law of nations, she might 
not assist another king, oppressed by a third. The latter 
requiring so much caution and deliberation, the great states- 
man, the lord treasurer, absent now, as it seems, from court, 
was required to give his judgment in this weighty question, 
which he did at large under his Own hand. 

But, in short, the result of his advice was, that however 
this action was judged, not to violate the peace of the king 


BOOK of Spain; yet he would so take it. And though a commis- 
^* sion to sir Francis Drake, and king Antonio's war was just, 

Anno 1581. in order to recover or to preserve his kingdom, he yet held : 
yet the king of Spain would take the action, as maintained 
by the queen : and so as he found himself able, would re- 
venge himself upon her, and arrest and take her people, 
ships, and mariners, coming within his power ; and on this 
occasion might give new supports to Ireland, and relief to 
The action, t^e king of Scots to be an ill neighbour. And then he ad- 
of the^iord vised, if the voyage proceeded not, then the said king to 
treasurer, j^^^^ j^jg iewel affaiu of the queen : the preparation that was 

laid aside. •' . ^ , i i i i- T i j i p 

made, to be viewed, and sold, and distributed ; and the lour 
ships which the king had desired, and the munition, to be 
sold to him by a bond, and the pawn of another jewel. This 
curious paper, being of this wise counsellor's Avriting, 1 have 
transcribed, as containing many remarks, and preserved in 
No. II. the Appendix. But though this expedition, as it seemed, 
failed at present, yet divers years after, when open wars 
brake out between the queen and Spain, this action was ef- 
fectually entered into, and prosecuted successfully, to the 
infinite damage of Spain, as is related at large in our his- 
tory, made in the year 1589 ; when the queen, by Drake, 
invaded Spain and Portugal, king Antonio with some forces 

Civil wars for divers years had vexed the kingdom of 

France; occasioned by the implacable malice of the duke 

of Guise's faction, and the Roman catholics siding with them 

A private against the protestants, called Hugonots. The chief heads 

conference ^^^ ^^lis side were, the kino; of Navarre, and the prince of 

between the , 11 i 

queen and Coude, his brother, a firm protestant, as well as a brave sol- 
Imbas'sTdor ^ler, and very active. Applications were sometimes made 
and prince ^ the queen on this account, being a favourer of the op- 
pressed, especially for religion. The foresaid prince was 
now come into England ; both to vindicate their cause, and 
(more privately) to endeavour to engage the queen on their 
side with men and money. But she prudently forbore to 
do that, any further than to be a mediator for peace be- 
tween them, and for the liberty of religion to be granted to 


the protestants. Yet she seemed to favour the prince of CHAP. 
Conde and his cause : to whom she now gave a private au- ' 

dience, together with the French ambassador, at her court of Anno issi. 
Nonsuch, and only one or two of her privy council present. 
An account of the conference she imparted to her treasurer Tiie sum 
the same night. And what the particulars of it were we are .^j, j^,_ 
enabled to discover from the secret letter of the lord treasurer pa""^* to her 


to the earl of Sussex ; who thus related the matter : 

" That coming; from his house at Theobald's to the court 1 1 
" at Nonsuch, and repairing to the privy chamber to have 
" seen her majesty, he found the door at the upper end of 
" the presence-chamber shut: and then understood, that 
*' the French ambassador had been a long time with her 
" and the prince of Cond<! ; and none other of the council, 
" but the earl of Leicester and Mr. Vice-chamberlain ; se- 
*' cretary Walsingham being sick then in his chamber. But 
" that, about seven of the clock, that said ambassador being 
" about to depart towards London, came to him, [the lord 
" treasurer], and told him a great part of their proceedings ; 
*' being well pleased with her majesty for her temperate 
" dealings, and no wise contented with the prince of Conde; 
" in whom he found more disposition to move troubles in 
" France, than to enjoy peace. And that the ambassador 
" added, how he verily thought, that those troubles in 
" France, and the prince''s coming hither, were provoked 
" from hence. To which the lord treasurer subjoins, that 
' " herein he himself knew nothing of certainty, but should 
" be sorry it should be so in truth. Nevertheless that it 
" augmented the ambassador's suspicions upon the sight he 
" had of the great favours shewed to that prince by certain 
" counsellors here, [probably those two present at the con- 
" ference, as well as others.] Which he understood had 
" been many times, both on Friday and Saturday, [that is, 
" the days next before the conference,] with him at the 
" banqueting-house, where he was lodged." 

And then the treasurer proceeded to shew the earl, how 
the queen, late that evening, told him of the dealing with 
the ambassador and the prince. " Wherein she commended 


BOOK " the prince's modesty in declaring the cause of his coming, 

' " to shew to her majesty the just causes that had moved 

Anno 1581." the king of Navarre to take arms for his defence against 

" the marshals Montmorency and Biron ; of whose violences, 

" as he supposed, without warrant from the king, he shewed 

" many particular cases. To which the ambassador made 

" defence, by retorting to the king of Navarre the occasion 

" of those marshals'' actions to have grown from the king of 

" Navarre first. The prince also declared the causes of his 

" coming from S. John d'Angeli to have been to serve the 

** king in his government of Picardy ; where he sought to 

'* obtain the good-will and liking of the towns in Picardy. 

" Because the king and his mother also had assented, for 

" their parts, that he should have the government ; saying, 

" that they found the states of the country unwilling: which 

" was, as he understood, but a suggestion by means of the 

" house of Guise, to the end that D'Aumale might have 

"the government from him. And so he coming into Pi- 

" cardy found : as namely, the people of Soyssons, the people 

" glad of his access. And yet notwithstanding, his adversa- 

" ries, on the part of duke d'Aumale, procured contrary 

" suggestions to be made to the king. And in the end, he 

*' found certain numbers of men of war amassed by the lige 

" of Picardy to have trapped the prince. And thereof com- 

" plaining, and finding no remedy, forced to flee towards 

12" Almain, leaving the house of La Fere guarded. And 

" perceiving that the French king was induced by his ad- 

" versaries to credit their false complaints, he came hither 

*' to entreat her majesty, that the French king would sus- 

" pend his judgment both against the king of Navarre and 

" him ; and accept them as his most dutiful subjects, as 

" they meant and intended sincerely and plainly, without 

" attempting any force, otherwise than for their defence 

" against their oppressors. 

" And to this, as the lord treasurer added, as he under- 
" stood, the ambassador used small defence ; but excused 
** the king as one that was very loath to come to terms of 
** war. But he argued, that his master was so provoked, 


' as he thought it a very hard matter to stay him from pro- CHAP. 
' ceeding with such force as God had given him, to the ex- ' 

pending of his hfe and crown. Anno issi. 

" The ambassador went to London, and the prince to his 
' lodging, conducted by my lord of Leicester; when Wilks, 
' the clerk of the council, attended upon him. That by her 
' majesty he perceived the just cause of his coming was for 
' money in this sort, that is, after this rate the charges to 
' be borne ; viz. a part by the king of Navarre and his part ; 

* another by Cassinlere, [brother to prince palatine,] and 
' certain princes protestant ; and a third was required from 

* her majesty. What that may prove, I know not, as this 
' wise and wary statesman concluded. I wish her majesty 
' might spend some portion to solicit for them some peace, 
' for the good of the cause of religion. But to enter into a 

* war [with France], and therewith to break the marriage, 
' [now in hand, and endeavoured with the duke of Anjou, 
' the French king's brother,] and so to be left alone, as sub- 
' ject to the burden of such a war, I think no good coun- 
' sellor can allow." 

The prince, within a day or two, went thence to Flush- 
ing : from whence he went by sea to Colen ; and so to Al- 

But I have here somewhat of importance further to add Matters 

11- transacted 

concerning France and England, transacted this year by di- between 
vers honourable commissioners on both sides, about a firm ^"f p"j||,j.e. 
league between both princes. And how matters were con- 
certed between them, in order to the strengthening them- 
selves against the Spaniard, who threatened them both, hav- 
ing now seized the kingdom of Portugal, and busy in mas- 
tering the Netherlands, a curious paper of the lord treasurer 
Burghley^'s will give notable information ; and particularly 
concerning entering into a secret league between them : of 
which affair I find not a word in our historian of queen Eli- 
zabeth's reign. An exact transcript whereof follows. 



BOOK A note of such things as were agreed on at the conference : 
and other things propounded, and not agreed on, Aug. 

Anno 1581. 23^ 1581, between the commissioners of the queen of Eng- 
land and the French king. 

Matters a- J ^\^q treaty made in Charles IX. his time shall be con- 
greed upon. ... 

firmed, with an addition to be joined to the same, for the 

redress of piracies. II. That the treaty offensive shall be 
only for conservation of state, without naming any person. 
III. That if the invaders of any of the confederates shall 
13 not, after admonition given, stay his proceeding, and make 
restitutions, then the prince confederate shall denounce war 
unto him. 

Things propounded, but not accorded. 
Matters I, Whether after the denomination of the war, the princes 

fn'rase of confederate are to assail the prince invading with their forces 
invasion, joined, or apart. If the forces joined, what number it is 
thought meet the said forces should consist of ; of what qua- 
lity ; horsemen or footmen ; for how long time to be con- 
tinued ; and how and by whom the charge thereof shall be 
borne. If with separate forces, then what numbers shall be 
thought meet to be employed. Whereof how many by sea, 
how many by land ; or whether all by sea, or all by land : 
and for how long they shall be continued. 

Whether those forces agreed on for the defence may not 
be thought sufficient for the assistance of the prince confe- 
derate at the charges of the giver. And whether it may not 
be at the choice of the confederate that is assailed, to have 
the said number of men, or so much money as may wage 

A note of such things as are to be resolved hy the queen''s 
majesty, touching the secret league between the French 
hing and the qticcn : at the same time as the above league 
in 1581. [This league was for assisting the king's brother 
going to the Netherlands.] 

A secret I. What of money her majesty will be content to contri- 

bute : in what sort, openly or secretly. II. To what sum 
we shall press the king to yield unto, in proportion of that 


which her majesty shall be pleased to supply : whether dou- CHAP, 
ble or treble more than the said sum Avhich her highness ' 

shall be content to contribute. III. How long her majesty Anno issi. 
will be pleased to contribute the said sum ; and upon what 
considerations ; whether by way of loan, or otherwise. And 
if by way of loan, what caution she will require. And whe- 
ther it were not meet to covenant with him to procure the 
bonds of the states, ad viqjorem cautelam, within some con- 
venient time, for the repayment of the same. IV. Whether 
her majesty could not best like, that this secret treaty be- 
tween the king and her pass only by mutual promise, to be 
contained in private letters under their own hand. 

On the margin of this paper the lord treasurer, being re- 
quired, I suppose, by the queen, set answers in his own 
hand. And in another paper likewise, under his own hand, 
they are thus answered, as instructions to her commissioners'" 
inquiries, as above. 

Answer to the three first articles. 

Her majesty for answer hereunto saith. That she cannot The lord 
resolve upon any particularities concerning the said first three ^^^^^^^^^1^^* 
articles following, until it may be understood upon what thereof, 
points this secret league is to be made. Nor until she shall 
be informed, according to my [the lord treasurer's] late 
writing to you, [the English commissioners then in France,] 14 
what may be thought will be the monthly charges of mon- 
sieur's actions [in the Low Countries.] And how the same 
may be borne by contribution of the states of the Low 
Countries, according to their compacts ^vith monsieur. And 
thereupon also what shall be further thought necessary for 
a supply of the said charges : and how the same may be an- 
swered by monsieur his own expenses. And how much his 
brother, the French king, will yield unto. To wliom, for 
the honour of the crown of France, this cause doth princi- 
pally belong. And when her majesty shall understand from 
the same probable estimation hereof, she may then, having 
your advice also, resolve of such portion as shall be meet for 
her to yield. 

c 2 


BOOK Answer to the fourth. 

Her majesty liketli best to have this treaty secretly handled 

Anno 1581. for sundry respects, which will hardly be kept secret, if all 
the French commissioners that now treat with you shall treat 

also of this secret league. 


Episcopal visitations of London and St. Edmond's Bury. 
Disorders there by the preaching of Handson and Brown. 
The bishop of NorwicKs complaint of them to the lord 
treasurer. Some justices of the peace favour these preach- 
ers. Philips, and Day, the bishop''s commissary, used 
hardly by them. Day''s letter to the bishop. Gaiton, a 
puritan preacher. Articles drawn up against these Jus- 
tices. Their ansioers. Some accounts of Handson arid 
Broxone. Crompton, a Justice, commits a minister going 
to read service. The bishop of Coventry and Litchjield 
takes his part. 

Episcopal JjUT now we come to matters at home. Aylmer, bishop 

London." ^ ^^ London, held a visitation this year of the clergy of Lon- 
don, at the convocation house : where he administered arti- 
cles to them ; and made certain inquiries. His articles were, 

Mr. Earl, (as I take them from the diary of one of the clergy then 
ott. 1 rar. pj-gggj^j ■^ J gtraitly to keep the Book of Common Prayer 
and Sacraments. II. Not to use invectives in their sermons. 
Forbid by the statute established. III. None to be so 
hardy as to refuse wearing the surplice in their ministration. 
15 IV. None to add, alter, or diminish any thing in divine ser- 
vice. Then for the inquiries. I. If any that had cure of 
souls did not also administer the sacraments. II. If any did 
not observe the ceremonies to be used at baptism and mar- 
riage. III. If the youth were catechised. IV. What mi- 
nisters who utterly refused to read the Homilies. V. What 
uncharitable preachers, that called others that preached not, 
by ill names, as dwjib dog, &c. Some further account is 

Pr. 1701. given of this visitation in the Life of Bishop Aylmer. 

p. 81. 


This year also, Freke, bishop of Norwich, visited the town CHAP, 
of St. Edmond's Bury ; occasioned by the disorders there. 

(of wliich the queen"'s commissioners for causes ecclesiastical ^'ino i58i. 
at London had informed him,) against the due worship and ^isitatioa 
service of God prescribed and used in the Common Prayer, of St. Ed- 
Many of the people at and about Bury were carried away ry. 
into a dislike thereof by two ministers there, viz. Handson 
and Browne. And of this, and of the effect of this visita- 
tion, the bishop gave this account to the lord treasurer in his 
letter written from his house at Ludham, April 19- 

" That being informed of many great disorders in that The bishop 
" town and country thereabouts, as well in the clergy as the j,;^ account 
" laity : whereof, beside the general complaint, the high thereof. 
" commissioners at London, understanding of the same disor- 
" ders, had advertised him thereof in letters : requiring him 
" to take order therein. And that thereupon he did in per- 
" son, with other of his associates in commission ecclesiasti- 
*' cal for those parts, visit the said town. In the which were 
" found great defect among the people. Some whereof were 
" desirous in dutiful affection to have her majesty's proceed- 
" ings observed: others, on the contrary, being given to fan- 
" tastical innovations. There were, moreover, divers matters 
" of importance exhibited and proved against Mr. Hand- 
" son ; who was, as he added, in very deed, the only man 
" that blew the coals, whereof this fire was kindled. That 
" it was therefore thought meet, for the better quiet of that 
" place, that he should be suspended from preaching, unless 
" he could be contented to enter into bond to her majesty, 
" as hereafter to teach and preach the word sincerely and 
" purely, without impugning or inveighing against the Com- 
" munion Book, the order of government, and the laws of 
" this realm now established. Which after he refusing, he 
" was thereupon, and remained, inhibited to preach." 

Adding, " That hereof he thought fit to inform his lord- Articles 
" ship, and also the rest of the lords of the council, if so it 'Jfa,'|i^*„n, 
" should like their lordships. And that herein the bearer 
*' was to attend, and follow their lordships' directions. And 
" that he had, for his and their lordships' better instructions, 

c 3 


BOOK " sent therewith a copy of the articles, and proofs thereof, 
" preferred against Mr. Handson ; reserving his [the bi- 

Anno 1581." shop's] proceeding therein taken, to their lordships' judg- 

" ment and consideration.*" 
And Herewith he also sent unto his lordship other articles mi- 

nistered against one Robert Browne, a minister, (from whom 
the sect of the Brownists,) and his personal answers there- 
unto. That the said party had been lately apprehended in 
1 6 that country, upon complaint made by many godly preach- 
ers, for delivering unto the people corrupt and contentious 
doctrine ; which the bishop sent up under divers articles to 
His charac- the Said lord treasurer. Of whom he gave this further cha- 
racter ; " That his arrogant spirit of reproving was such as 
" it was to be marvelled at : the man being also to be fear- 
" ed, lest if he were at liberty, he should seduce the vulgar 
*' sort of the people, who greatly depended on him : assem- 
" bling themselves together, to the number of an hundred at 
" a time, in private houses and conventicles, to hear him, 
" not -without danger of some evil event. At last he was dis- 
" missed, and sent out of the diocese ; but returned again." 
The bi- -^^^^ ^uch was the busy zeal of this Browne, and being 

shop's com- also backed with some gentlemen in those parts, that the bi- 
Browne's shop's visitation had done but little good ; and the disorders 
J:?"""S'"^° continued there: notwithstanding at the assizes the iudijes, 

his diocese. ^ ... . . j o ^ 

viz. the lord chief justice and justice Anderson, shewed the 
statutes for the breach of these orders of the church, and 
threatened the punishment due to the breach of them. The 
bishop could make but his complaint to the court : which he 
did by another letter, writ in August following, to the same 
statesman ; especially informing him, how these disorders 
were bolstered by certain gentlemen from about Bury ; 
shewing, " That Mr. Browne's late coming into his diocese, 
" and teaching strange and dangerous doctrine in all disor- 
" dered manner, had greatly troubled the whole country, 
" and brought many to great disobedience of all law and 
" magistrates. That yet by the good aid and help of the 
" lord chief justice, and master justice Anderson, his asso- 
" ciate, the chiefest of such factions were so bridled, and the 


" rest of their followers so greatly dismayed, as he verily CHAP. 
" hoped of much good and quietness to have thereof ensued, 

*' had not the said Browne returned again, contrary to his Anno issi, 
" expectation, and greatly prejudiced those their good pro- 
" ceedings : and having private meetings in such close and 
" secret manner, that he knew not possibly how to suppress 
" the same." 

He went on, adding, " How sorry he was to foresee, that 
*' touching this his diocese, what must needs in short time, 
*' by him [Browne] and other disorderly persons, which only 
" sought the disturbance of the church, be brought to pass. 
" And that therefore the careful duty which he ought to 
" have to the country, being his charge, enforced him most 
" earnestly to crave his lordship's help in suppressing him 
" especially : that further inconvenience might follow by this 
*' his return : and in procuring for the lord chief justice and 
" Mr. Anderson such thanks from her majesty, for their 
" painful travail in that behalf, that thereby they might be 
*' encouraged to go still forward in the same course."" 

And then the bishop came to the mention of the gentle- 
men in those parts that favoured these disturbers of the 
peace of the church : and prayed the lord treasurer's advice 
and assistance concerning them, in these lines following: 
" And herewithal, if it would please your lordship to give 
" me your good advice, how to prevent such dangers, as 
" through the strange dealings of some of the gentlemen 1 7 
" in Suffolk about Bury is like to ensue, I should be much 
" bound to your honour for the same. Which gentlemen, 
" winking at (if not of policy procuring) the disordered sort 
" to go forward in their evil attempts, and discouraging the 
" staid and wiser sort of preachers, (as by sundry letters 
" which I send your lordship by this bringer may appear 
*' more plainly unto your honour,) will in time, I fear me, 
*' hazard the overthrow of all religion, if it be not in due 
" time wisely prevented. And so leaving the rest to the fur- 
" ther declaration of the bringer, he humbly betook his good 
" lordship to the protection of Almighty God." Dated from 
Ludham, August 2, 1581. 

c 4 


BOOK And to explain this latter part of the bishop's letters, I 
'■ proceed to shew what usage two persons received, partly for 

Anno 1581. preaching quietness and submission to government with re- 
spect to these seditious practices, and partly for informing 
against the instruments and promoters thereof. 
Some gen- For there was then a minister at Bury, that had preached 
tien.en fa- ^]-,g doctrine of Submission and obedience; and reflected upon 

vour the i i t i i 

factious, those preachers that made these disturbances among the peo- 
and threat- , ^ other ecclcsiastical officers did their duty in ordering 

en others. 1 _ ,. 

presentments to be made of disordered persons. But divers 
gentlemen, and they justices of the peace, had checked them 
for thus doing, and threatened them. Two letters were sent 
to the bishop from such as Avere thus used. 

The one was from Oliver Philips, shewing him how he 
was reviled by the justices of Bury, for preaching obedience 
to the queen's laws ; whose letter ran in this tenor : " That 
" he had been requested by his brother and others to preach 
As Phiiips's 'f the Sunday before at Bury : and that only for preaching 
obwUence " obedience to the queen's laws, and speaking somewhat 
to the « sharply of those that were contemptuous and disobedient 
" to the same, he had been called before the justices of the 
" peace ; and used with very evil manner of speeches and 
" threatenings, being termed a seditious person ; one that 
" moved the people to sedition ; a Jesuit, and roguing mi- 
" nister ; such an one as preached out of his own cure. And 
" that he was threatened to be bound to his good behaviour, 
" But that in the end they had bound him over to answer 
*' it at the next assizes to be holden among them." And 
then the minister subjoins to this complaint of his to his di- 
ocesan : " These, methinks, be hard dealings towards the 
" ministers in your lordship's diocese. And except your lord- 
" ship do speedily provide some remedy against these evils, 
" there will be no quiet dwelling in your lordship's diocese, 
" for anv minister which means to conform himself," Add- 
ing, " that in these things which he had written unto his 
"lordship, in every point, he would justify and approve 
" them before his lordship ; or else let him have the greatest 
" punishment his lordship could devise for him." Conclude 



ing, " Thus taking my leave of your lordship, 1 beseech God CHAP. 
_" long to preserve you in health and prosperity among us. ' 

*' Your lordship's most humbly to command, Anno issi. 

" Oly. Philips." 

This for Philips. The other was Day, who was an eccle- 18 
siastical officer of the said bishop of Norwich, residing at^"^^^*^^ 
Bury. He writ another letter of complaint to him, of the ing quest- 
justices' usage of him, for swearing questmen to bring in 
their presentments against such as came not to church. And 
his case he also thus laid open at large. 

" That sir Robert Jermin, sir John Higham, and Mr. His letter 
" Badbie, had dealt very unjustly and revengingly with J^j,,^p 
" him ; and did mind very imperiously to proceed. The 
*' cause was, that he did the Friday before call certain ho- 
" nest men of both the parishes of Bury, purposing to make 
*' them questmen. For that one there, named Mr. Gaiton, 
" [who seems to be a minister of the parish,] had so conti- 
*' nually cried out against him, for punishing such as came not 
" to church. And as for questmen who should present them 
*' unto him, he could hear of none. That the foresaid jus- 
*' tices did presently then send for him. And for that he had 
" so done, and had also sworn six of them, not making the 
*' justices first privy unto it; they called him Jack and 
*' Knave, he knew not how often. And for that so like a 
" Jack and Knave he had done knavishly and lewdly, as they 
" said, he should to the gaol. There was no remedy, unless 
" he did put in sureties for his forthcoming at the next ses- 
*' sions holden at Bury; and in the mean time to be of good 
" behaviour. And so Mr. Dr. Wood, Mr. Rob. Golding 
" were bound for him. And so they remained." 

And then he proceeded thus, shewing further the ill state 
of these affairs. " Of truth I confess, I dare scarcely do any 
" thing touching my office for fear of violence ; I do see the 
" lewd sort so animated against me. And then he prayed 
" his lordship would confer with one Mr. Davie, or some 
" other, what he were best to do. I thank my God, (as he 
** went on,) I care not, what man can do unto me. My only 


BOOK " desire is, to continue my good name and credit with the 
" honest in the best manner that I may." 
Anno 1581. Then he shewed the bishop what his purpose was in these 
his circumstances. " That in the beginning: of next term, 
" or sooner, if it should be thought best, to kneel before her 
" majesty ; and to lay open, how they had dealt with him 
" from time to time ; and for what cause. Humbly to crave, 
" that by her means he might have the countenance of an 
" honest man, so long as it should appear that he was not 
" dishonest. And then he requested that it might please his 
*' good lordship to let him have his letters, directed unto her 
" majesty in that behalf for him : testifying therein, what he 
" [the bishop] found to be in him, and of all their troubles, 
*' and the justices their continual abusing of him ; [that is, 
" in the discharge of his office in the ecclesiastical court.] 
" And that he doubted not, but that as it would make for 
" his credit, so it would work for his [the bishop''s] great 
" quiet also."" 
19 And how earnest he is in this request, his following words 
declare ; " My good lord, I do most humbly desire that it 
*' may so be; and that you will so tender my credit, and 
" stand with me, as my honest life and faithful dealing shall 
" or may seem to urge. Otherwise I do not crave."" 

Nay, and this was not all the trouble he met, namely, 
from the justices; but he was baited from the pulpit, when 
he was present, by Gaiton, a puritan preacher: which he thus 
relates in the same letter. " Mr. Gaiton forgetteth himself 
" daily more and more in the pulpit, both in abusing me, 
" and also divers others ; and that with untruths. He was 
" not ashamed to say in pulpit in my presence, that I, who 
" would punish such as were absent from church, did dine 
" with one whom I had licensed to be away in the afternoon. 
" He said also, that we urged orders so long as orders main- 
" tained superstition : but all other orders were no orders. 
" He concluded by the first of the Acts of the Apostles, that 
" no one man might appoint ministers but the disciples in 
" every parish, and none other. He would needs urge also, 
" that none might be suffered in the church, but preachers 


' only; neither ought any in government of the church to CHAP. 
' be urged other than God in his word commandeth." ^^- 

And then the writer concluded, " That to be brief, noAnnoissi. 
' minister as yet they had in St. Mary's church, [one of the 
' parish churches, by reason, as it seems, of the differences 
' in the town,] neither did he know what to do, that they 
' might have one. That, for himself, he must seek his quiet, 
' as he might : and he did not doubt, but by his [the bi- 
' shop's] help to obtain it. That Mr. Badbie [one of these 

* favourers of the party] had called him Toss-pot, and 

* otherwise greatly reviled him. Oh ! that your lordship 
' would but send for him, and bind him over to his good 
' behaviour. And that he should greatly hereby encourage 
' him to go forward. At the least, he added, he would make 
' friends to be in commission of the peace. Otherwise he 
' feared there would be no dwelling there for him. He left 
' all to his lordship's good care of him. And then piously 
' ends with his prayer, God work for me his will. Sub- 
' scribing, Your lordship's most faithful in God, 

'* John Deye." 
" Postscript The justices do threaten to do many things." 

This Dr. Deye was commissary to the bishop of Norwich, 
or to the archdeacon of Sudbury. 

This Gaiton, of whom all this complaint was made, was a Gaiton, a 
preacher in Norwich some years before. And suspended by t'^'^^'^'^T '" 
the bishop about the year 1576, after an examination of him suspended 
before the bishop and dean ; for that in his pulpit he had I'hop^Vart 
taken upon him to confute his chaplain's sermon, and admo- "^ * Regist. 
nished the parishioners to beware of such false doctrine. 
This gave the occasion of his being cited, and charged in 
several articles ; as, for his not wearing the surplice, nor ob- 
serving the order of the queen's book, neither in the prayers 
nor administration of the sacraments, which was the cause of 20 
his suspension : but how he came afterwards to get off his 
suspension, and to preach at Bury, 1 know not. But I am 
apt to think he did it by the slackness of discipline, and out 
of the countenance he met with there, notwithstanding his 


BOOK former suspension; since it appears that his opinions and 

^- practice were the same. This matter between him and the 

Anno 158 1. bishop's court, and proceeding, may be read more at large 

Annals, vol. in the second volume of my Annals. 

11. b. 2. c. 4. -gjj^ j.^ ggg ^ Yittie farther what issue this matter had. The 

The bishop ^ ■, . , „ ^ ■, • ^ n i 

i)refers arti- good bishop found himself not Strong enough to encounter 
cies against ^.j^ggg ffentlemen and justices, who carried all before them in 

the justices. o J ■' 

their countenancing of these disaffected persons to the, or- 
ders and discipline of the church. And therefore he appHed 
himself again to the lord treasurer ; sending the very letters 
aforesaid of Philips and Day to him to peruse, with his own 
letter. Wherein he shewed how far he had proceeded with 
these justices, in articles drawn up against them, to the num- 
ber of twelve, which he sent to the said treasurer. The chief 
whereof were concerning their rigorous dealing with the 
commissary Dr. Day, and Philips the preacher : and bind- 
ing some others to their good behaviour, that stood for the 
due observation of orders, as appointed in the church. The 
justices' answers to those articles sent to the lord treasurer in 
their own vindication, being somewhat long, may be found 
N«.lii. in the Appendix ; being entitled. The answer of sir Robert 
Jermin, sir John Higham, 'knights, Robert AsJi/ield, and 
Thomas Badbi/, esqrs. gentlemen of Suffolk and Norfolk, 
to certain articles objected against them by the bishop of 
The sum of In these articles they were charged to countenance diso- 
the articles, ^jejient and disorderly men. Particularly, that they favour- 
ed Coppin and Tyler, who some years ago were imprisoned 
for spreading of Browne's books, which condemned the 
Book of Common Prayer, and the whole constitution of the 
church: and that for obtaining the freedom of these spreaders 
of those books, the said justices had used their endeavours 
with the judges. That they refused divers ministers, ordain- 
ed by the bishop, because they were ignorant, and could 
only read. That they were for nothing but Geneva psalms 
and sermons. That they endeavoured to remove one Wood, 
a minister, from his living, because he only read ; and 
gave him warning to be gone: and put the parish upon 


choosing another, though the collation was in the bishop. CHAP. 
That at an inn, called the Angel, they meddled in ecclesi- _______ 

astical causes, that belonged to the bishop. That they joined Anno 1531. 
their authority together against the commissary, and threat- 
ened to send him to the gaol. That violence and violent 
speeches were used towards him ; and their part sir Robert 
Jermin took; and denied him justice; and denied him to have 
any authority, as a magistrate : and further, that they bound 
him, a bishop"'s commissary, to his gvocl behaviour. That 
Mr. Philips, for a sermon preached at Bury, exciting to obe- 
dience to the queen and her laws, was required and bound 
to an appearance before them. 

Upon these articles preferred against them, and an appeal The jus- 
the bishop had made to the queen against tliem, they were ^Jlg^^i. '"^^ '^ 
cited up to answer before her: where, after their said an-swersto 
swers given in, (smartly and rudely in some places retorting ^ , 
upon the bishop,) they required the lord treasurer that they 
might be dismissed by the queen to their own country ; and 
that he would be their petitioner to her for that purpose in 
these words : " That now they had been called out of their 
*' own country, and every street sounded their disgrace, 
*' wrought by the bishop, that either they might deserve the 
" just deserts of their doings by due punishment ; or being 
" cleared, both in her majesty''s royal judgment, or his lord- 
" ship's opinion, the bishop, for his bold and untrue sug- 
" gestions, might be so censured, as they might, with the 
" restitution of their poor reputations, be attended with some 
" good comfort upon their places. In which they desired 
" no longer to live, than they should be found very loyal 
" and dutiful to their so gracious sovereign."'"' 

I have this to add concerning the aforesaid preachers, sir Robert 
Handson and Browne ; the former yet remaining under sus-''*^™'" *'"^" 

•' _ _ o _ count of 

pension. The lord treasurer had examined his case himself, Handson. 
and had wrote a letter to the bishop, that upon due refor- 
mation of what was done amiss by him, he might be restored 
to his preaching. And sir Robert Jermin on this opportu- 
nity, with the lord North and some others, wrote to the bi- 
shop on his behalf, to this purpose : " That since his lord- 


BOOK " ship had examined Handson's case at length, even as it 
^' " was set down at the hardest against him, and in his [sir 
Anno 1581." Roberts] opinion, very indiscreetly, as he said, in many 
" the most principal parts thereof; and that they knew his 
" ministry to have been very profitable to a great number ; 
" that they who sought to remove him, were rather adver- 
" saries than friends to the truth : that for matter of faith 
" and manners he was ever held a sound teacher ; and that 
" in these indifferent things he had never laboured much : 
" that therefore, in consideration of these things, he [the bi- 
" shop] would give him liberty to exercise his ministry.*" 
To which the bishop''s resolute answer was, " That unless 
" he would publicly confess his fault, and to be bound to 
" follow another course, he would not set him free." 

And upon this denial of the bishop, sir Robert and others 
apply earnestly to the lord treasurer again, that notwithstand- 
ing the bishop''s refusal, he would grant him the freedom to 
teach the people, and take off his suspension. But this I 
conclude that lord would not do, nor would arbitrarily in- 
trude so far into the bishop"'s right. Nor did he ever go 
farther than persuasive letters to the bishop sometime in be- 
half of such ministers, who, notwithstanding some scruples, 
brake not off communion with the church. 
And And then as for Browne, this favourable account the said 

tiT7"ni' *" ^^^ Robert gave to the treasurer of him ; and how he dealt 
treasurer, with him now upon his second coming. That Mr. Browne 
came by chance to Bury : that he [sir Robert] sent for 
him, and moved him to be careful of his proceedings. He 
told him, how dangerous his course seemed in the opinion of 
many honest and godly men ; and how apt the adversaries 
of the truth would be, to slander and discredit the profession 
and professors of the truth, if these his singular conceits 
might not be warranted by the word and Christian policy. 
22 " To which Bi-owne's answer,"" as sir Robert added, " had 
" many things that were godly and reasonable, and, as he 
" thought, to be wished and prayed for. But with the same, 
" there were other things (in this his answer) strange and 
" unheard ; and the means to put the same in execution, as 


" they reached beyond both their callings, being private ; so CHAP. 
" he [sir Robert] thought them over dangerous to be re- 

tained in opinion." [He meant, in reference to the opinion Anno issi. 
about setting up a new discipline, and overthrowing the pre- 
sent established church government by episcopacy.] " And 
" then moving the said lord treasurer to advise Browne to a 
*' more careful regard of himself in so deep and dangerous 
" a matter ; the man being young both in years and expe- 
" rience ; and to threaten him, that he should be very 
" sharply censured to the example of others." And he pre- 
sumed his lordship should do a good and honourable deed 
in staying him from going too far ; and making him of a 
man very able, so very fit to yield the church his profitable 

But these courses went on at Bury for some years, the Errors 
ministers varying from, or altering the Common Prayer at arikiryr 
their discretion, disliking the order of it, and depraving the 
book ; asserting the queen''s supremacy to be only in civil 
matters, not religious ; and some also holding certain here- 
sies, as that Christ was not God, &c. and many young mi- 
nisters of this sort increasing in those parts ; and all this in 
great measure by the favour of some of the justices. Till 
in the year 1583, they received a check by some severe pro- 
ceedings at the assizes at Bury, sir Christopher Wray, lord 
chief justice, being upon the bench ; when many were con- 
victed, and some, obstinately persisting, put to death ; and The judge's 
the justices reprimanded, and warned to keep the peace : as*^^|^^ ^^' 
shall be shewn at large when we come so far. The bishop, 
quite weary of living there, got a remove, a year or two 
after, to another bishopric. 

I meet this year with an instance of the pastoral care of OneRandai, 
another bishop, in taking cognizance of some heterodox opi-„,iiyofjoye^ 
nions in one of his diocese : and his proceedings against him. deprived by 

. / r ® . the bishop 

John, bishop of Exon, had received information against one of Exeter. 
Anthony Randal, parson of Lydford, of the Jximili/ of love, a 
sect that spread about these times in that diocese, as well as 
in other parts ; whom, for his damnable doctrines and here- 
sies, the bishop had deprived. This man taught and assert- 


BOOK ed, that the creation of the world, and the three first chap- 
^' ters of Genesis, were to be understood allegorically, and 
Anno I08I. were not so true literally. That as many as received Jesus 
Christ did perform all the moral law, and lived without 
sin. That the Lord's supper and baptism were not sacra- 
ments. That the church of England is a false church, and 
so is the Roman. And that there is a third church, which 
shall stand, when the other shall fall. And either church, 
being authorized by the prince, must be obeyed. These 
opinions, under divers articles subscribed by his own hand. 
Appendix, are set down at large in the Life of Archbishop Whitgift ; 
No' III ^° which I refer the reader. 

23 But Randal, however by the bishop for these gross tenets 
Complaints deprived, rested not so ; but had the hardiness to complain 
bishop in above against him, as suffering wrong at his hand : having 
the court oif^Yst appealed to the Arches, and thence to the queen's dele- 
gates ; whence, notwithstanding, the bishop had his proceed- 
ings approved and ratified. But this sectary desisted not, 
but clamoured about the bishop unto the council ; and stood 
still in his opinions, and obstinately maintained them at that 
present, owning them under his hand, and that in the pre- 
sence of divers public notaries. The original whereof re- 
mained in the bishop's registry, as a perpetual testimony 
against him. A copy whereof the bishop thought fit to send 
The bi- to the lord treasurer Burghley ; accompanied with a letter 
•toThe'iorr^^^"^ the said bishop to him. And that because, as he wrote, 
treasurer Randal had many complices ; and that hurtful sect of the 
him! ^^^ Jumily of love began to creep into that country. Of wliich, 
therefore, he had brought twenty to open recantation in his 
cathedral church. " And in consideration of the premises, 
" he beseeched his lordship, that his sentence given against 
" the said Randal, and ratified as aforesaid, might have 
" good countenance and liking at his hands. And that he 
" requested it, not so much for his own credit, as for the 
" peace and quiet of God's church : which, by means of 
" Randal and his adherents, was very much disturbed." 
This letter was dated from Excestre ; and I have exempli- 
No. IV. fied it from the originaL 


Something happened this year in the diocese of Coventry C H AP. 
and Litchfield, wherein another bishop also was concerned, ' 

named Overton, bishop there; wherein he shewed both his Anno lasi. 
courage and his paternal care of his clerffv : wherein also *^ case be- 

^ i^ ^ c?J ^ tween the 

may be observed how, in these times, some parts of that dio- bishop of 
cese stood affected towards religion, and how forward to re- ^^ ,"[ "^Litdi- 
ceive the old abandoned religion of Rome ; which seemed fi^'"!' ^^<^ «• 

, I • !• 1 • 1 justice of 

now to many to be upon the pomt or bemg restored, upon peace. 
the French king's brother*'s courtship of the queen. The 
case was this : a justice of peace there, (whose name was 
Crompton,) on pretence of his office to inspect the beha- 
viour of the clergy, and to punish them, if they any way 
varied from the orders of the church, or neglected their con- 
formity to the forms prescribed, caused a minister in his 
own church, going to perform his office, to be carried away 
by a constable to gaol ; and left the congregation without 
any service. This disorderly proceeding with a minister in 
his own church coming to the bishop's ears, he thought fit 
to call the justice before him, by his ordinary jurisdiction, 
and to examine what he had done, and to vindicate his cler- 
gyman, who was indeed a man of good desert. And of this 
he thought good, in a letter to the lord Burghley, lord trea- 
surer, to make complaint; and to acquaint him with the 
whole state of the matter: and withal hinting, how unfit 
some in commission were of that place and trust. The 
letter shall follow, which will give hght into some public 
affairs in those times : namely, " How ready the people there His letter 
" were to take great boldness upon small occasions, (as he ||.p^I.',^rlT 
" had wrote to him in a former letter,) and how apt they concerning 
" were to stir at first, if they were not suppressed betimes. "' ' 
" That he signified to his lordship by the same letters, that 
*' there were not wanting among- them some of the better 
" sort, and of the justices themselves, that fed the people's 
" humours, and gave spirit and courage unto them in their 
" folly. And because as then he writ but darkly unto him, 
" (for that he had but an inkling of matters,) he promised, 
" that as he should afterwards further sift out the truth, so 



BOOK "he would let him understand more of it in time. It was 
^' " so now, that upon better examination he had learned both 

Anno 1581. " certainly : both the matter how it stood, and the occasion 
" whereof it grew. That there was a great muttering 
" among the people of late, and in one of the most dan- 
" gerous parts of all that shire, [Staffordshire,] namely, in 
" the Morelands, that the mass in all haste should be set up 
" again." 
Report in And upon this report the bishop adds, " That when he 
oTsetrnT " ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ supposed it had been but the murmuring 
upthemass.« humour of the papists; because it was commonly sur- 
" mised by them, that, upon the coming in of the duke 
" [d'Anjou], religion would straight have a change. But 
" as this peradventure might be some cause of that sudden 
" muttering and surmise, though it was not all, nor the 
" chief, so it was rather occasioned merely by the rash and 
" preposterous (I cannot say, added the bishop, whether I 
" may say ill meaning) behaviour of one of their justices. 
" The matter was this. One Richard Crompton, a lawyer, 
" and a justice of the peace of that shire, about the very 
" time that the assurance between the queen's majesty and 
" monsieur began to be talked of among the people, came 
" into his parish church, at the time of divine service, with 
*' an araimge [some weapon, it seems] on his side, and a 
" great bastingdow in his hand ; and going up to the church, 
" without stay or reverence used in the place, called the mi- 
" nister unto him, as he was beginning to say service, and 
" said unto him. Sir Hu, come hither, I must first talk with 
" you, ere you begin. And so being come unto him, he 
" carried the minister down the body of the church towards 
" the church porch. And when he was there, he asked, 
" whether there were any constable there or no. And 
" when the clerk answered, there was none, he bid him go 
" fetch one, for he must send the minister to gaol. Where- 
" upon it flew abroad straightway, and grew to this speech, 
" that the mass should be set up, and established again ; 
" for one of the queen's own justices had been himself in 


" the church, and drove out the mmister, that he should CHAP. 
" say no more this new service, and had sent him already ' 

" to the gaol for saying it. Anno issi. 

" Speeches thus passing, the minister made complaint 
" unto him [the bishop] both of the justice's ill behaviour, 
" and of the people's readiness to look for a change. That 
" upon the complaint made, he sent for the justice by his 
" ordinary jurisdiction, and ministered articles unto him, to 
" be examined of, according to the evidence that was given 
" in against him. That the justice, as he denied not some 
" distvu'bance to be made by him, so he would confess no 
" fault ; but coloured his doings with pretence of law and 
" show of justice ; namely, that the minister refused to wear 25 
" the surplice ; and that he would not keep the accustomed 
" place of prayer, where service was wont to be said, but 
" stood lower to the people, and turned not his face upward 
" toward the east, but downward to the west ; and that he 
" left out some piece of the service, and used not the order 
" of common prayer according to the book, as it is set out, 
" and established by act of parliament. And therefore he 
" thought good to forbid him the service altogether, and 
" sent him to the gaol." 

Concerning which accusation of the justice against the 
minister, thus the bishop subjoined : " That these and such 
" other like were his excuses for the fact : but that all, upon 
" due proof, were found to be either fond or trifling, and 
" very false and untrue. And therefore he (the bishop) told 
" him, that he would signify unto his lordship [the lord 
" treasurer] his rash and undiscreet dealings herein : as now 
" he had done." 

And then applied himself unto his lordship after this Complaint 
manner: " And surely, my honourable good lord, if such flgjj„^^i^.ej 
" light-headed justices, or otherwise hollow-hearted, shall 
" be suffered still in their office, and have authority, as they 
" have had, it will not only be long ere the people be re- 
" claimed, but also it will give occasion hereafter of more 
" heartening." 

And concerning this minister that was so used by the jus- 

p 2 


BOOK tice, he seemed to fare the worse, because of his worth. For 

^- this was the character that the bishop gave of him : " That 

Anno 1581. " if the poor minister that was so misused by him had been 

The bi- i( gy^^g itrnorant dolt, and but a sayer of his service only, 

shop's good o 1111 111 

character of" the matter had been somewhat less, though not tolerable: 
in'uTed'by" " ^"^ ^^ ^'^^ ^ "^^" cudued with good gifts, a diligent and 
the justice. « zealous preacher of the word, counted rather too painful 
" in his charge than otherwise ; sober in his life and beha- 
" viour, and not to be touched for his conversation any way. 
"And therefore the other's outrage and rashness no way to 
" be tolerated and borne withal." 

Nor did the bishop like that a justice should take upon 
him to correct a clergyman for a neglect in his ministry, as 
taking the office out of the diocesan's hand. For thus he 
proceeded ; " And what if the poor man had in something 
" offended by ignorance or oversight, your lordship know- 
" eth, there had been other ordinary means to be used for 
" his correction in church causes ; and not every justice of 
" peace to intermeddle in such matters, before there be 
" need. I thank God, I can and will refonn such faults, 
" when I hear of them. If I cannot, I will pray aid of 
" others. And if I will not, they may complain of me, and 
" reform it themselves.*" 
This justice But then, as to this justice, he gave this information of 
a pap's • Y\\m : " That the truth was, Mr. Crompton was supposed 
" to be a papist in heart, and was a friend unto papists, 
" and a great receiver of papists to his house. And that 
" therefore that which he did he might seem not to have 
" done in way of reformation, but for malice to the religion. 
26 " And that indeed he had so bewrayed himself by this fact, 
" that that very sort did note him a very papist for it ; al- 
" though he were so noted for other things before."" 

And then, upon this occasion, the said bishop gave the 
treasurer his advice : " Your lordship, and the rest of her 
" majesty's most honourable privy-council, may think of 
" him, and such others here, as it shall please you : but me- 
" thinketh, under your lordship's corrections, if he and such 
" others as he were clean discharo^ed out of the commission. 


"i ye should do God good service, and a great good turn to cHAP. 
" the country. For in my opinion they love but to wait for ^^- 
" a day ; and in the mean time bolster ill subjects in their Anno issi. 
" obstinacy and contempt. He hath some fellows : I would 
" to God more zealous men were put in their places. And 
" so leavino; the further consideration thereof under their 
" honourable wisdoms, he humbly took his leave. Written 
" from Eccleshal, the 15th of Jan. 1581. Subscribing, His 
" lordship's most bounden, 

" W. Coven, and Litch." 


Cox, hislwp of Ely, dies : his zoill. Arid Barkley, hisliop 
of' Bath and Wells, dies : Ms character. Grant of the 
queen to Edward Stafford, esq. of concealed lands. The 
lord treasurer'' s judgment of a lease of them. Disorders 
about religion in the inns of court. A letter from the 
star-chamber to the ecclesiastical commissiojiers there- 
upon. Romanists busy. Campion writes to the privy- 
council concerning the Jesuits, and his mission. A pri- 
vate letter of a Jesuit concerning Campio7i and his dis- 
putations ; and the resolution of the Jesuits. A copy of 
verses made by a papist, beginning. The cross appears. 
The cruel burning of one AtK'ms at Romejbr reiigion. 

-L HIS year concluded the life of Cox, bishop of Ely. He Death of bi- 
left in good debts 2322Z. By his last will and testament he Hrs^eg°a-' 
gave these legacies. To the lord treasurer Burghley, a ring, "^'^- 
two ounces, value Gl. To the archbishop of Canterbury, to 
the bishop of Lincoln, and to Dr. Lewis, to each rings, one 
ounce and an half, value U. 10s. To Roger Cox 100/. To 
Richard Cox 100/. His books of the old doctors he gave to 
the library at Ely. These following to be paid within one 2/ 
year from the 22d of July, 1581, [the day of his death, or 
the day his will bore date.] To the poor in Somerham, in 
Doddington, in Downton, in Wisbich ; to these each 53/. 
To the poor in Holborn, and Feny Stanton, 10/. To the 



BOOK poor in Buckingham town, 51. To the poor of Harrow of 
^' the Hill, in Bucking-hamshire, of Wickendove, three miles 

Anno 1581. by Stony Stratford, of Whaddon, of Nash, in the parish of 
Whaddon ; to each 10/. To the poor scholars of Peter- 
house, and of another college in the university, 5/. each. To 
Mrs. Parker, to Mrs. Collet, and to Mrs. Bullingham, 20/. 
apiece. To John Parker, archdeacon of Ely, 40/. To 
Richard Arkenstal, Richard Upsher, John Chapman, Henry 
Mannox, William Rente, his servants, 51. 61. 13*. 8d. 4/. 40*. 
These legacies amounted to 155/. 13*. 4£/. In plate to Mr. 
Richard Cox, and Mrs. Rachel Cox, 20/. The whole sum 
of his legacies came to 945/. 3*. 4c/. These particulars I 
take from a copy of his will. 
Made arch- He was made archdeacon of Ely, anno 1540, in the room 
£17^1540. of Tho. Thirleby, the king's chaplain, made bishop of West- 
Conven- minster : the presentation being in the king, by reason of 
ymes. ^^^^ ^.g^^^Q^j^^ pf t]-,e g^id Thirleby to that bishopric, 32 Henry 
VIII. For so that king's writ ran, Dilectum capellanum 
nostrum, Richardum Cox cler'iciim, voh'is prcEsentamus : di- 
rected to the reverend father in Christ, Thomas [Goodrich] 
bishop of Ely. Witness the king at Westminster, Novem- 
ber 24. 
Sutton One remark I add concerning this good bishop: that 

cles to bf-*" Thomas Sutton, the founder of the Charter-house, school 
shop Cox's jj^(3 hospital, by his last will and testament, among the rest 
of his legacies, gave certain legacies to the children of that 
bishop : and that out of gratitude to his old schoolmaster. 
For when Cox was master of Eaton school, he had this Sut- 
ton his scholar for three years. And then he went to Mag- 
dalen and Jesus colleges in Cambridge. The words of his 
will are these. Item, I give to every one of the children of 
Richard Cox, late bishop of Ely, who shall be living at the 
time of my death, 10/. apiece of lawful money of England. 

This bishop's learning, his piety, his zeal for true reli- 
gion, his exile, how instrumental he was in promoting the 
reformation at court, (whither he was preferred by king 
Henry VIII. to be the instructor of the young prince, and 
his almoner,) and what reputation he had then for a sin- 


gular scholar, just and good man, may be gathered from a cH AP. 
copy of verses of Leland, written to Thomas Legh, of Ad- "^• 

hno-ton, esq. who had requh-ed Leland to tell hhn, if heAnnoissi. 
knew any person in the world (that so generally abounded ^'"^.^"op'y 
with wicked, false men) that might be in all respects said of verses 
to be endued with faithfulness and integrity: Leland gives j"^^J^ "^^ L'^" 
him answer, that he knew one such, and that was Cox. 
Which he elegantly shewed in a copy of verses, viz. 

Ad Thomam Leghum, armigerum, Adl'mgtonensem, dc Ric. 28 
Coxiijide et integritate. 
CumJ'ucis adeo laboref orbis 
Totus, me rogitas, amice, narrem 
Ore ut veridico tibi petenti, 
Si diivi jeppererim, omnibus fidclem 
Quern possem numeris virum probare. 
Talem me volo repperisse, credos^ 
Albo rarior est ac ille corvo. 
Novisti bene Coxium pium ilium , 
Sacri evangelii tubam sonoram : 
Quern clarus patricc pater Britannus 
Dilectuvi rcfovct, suoquc nato 
Inscrvirejubet, probum tcncllo. 
Is virjudicio omnium piorum 
Omni ex parte jidelis integerque, t^c. 

Tliis year also, November 2, died Gilbert Barkley, bishop Bishop of 

,,.,.. , , • ,,T 11 1 Bath and 

of Bath and Wells, m his episcopal house in \Vells: whose ^^^,,3 ji^.^ . 
register began April the 20th, 1560, and ended October 28, 
1581. Wherein I observe, at a royal visitation, anno 1560, Collect. 

1 T 1. i^ 1 T T TJ '^''*"- W"*- 

a sentence of deprivation given by John t ottrel, J^l^.rJ. ^^,j, 
archdeacon of Wells, and the bishop's vicar-general, against 
Bourneford, prebendary, and rector of Clotworthy ; Cratford, 
rector of Lediard Laurence ; Giles Hillinge, prebendary, and 
rector of Shillgate ; and Bartholomew Blithman, prebendary, 
and rector of Cosington ; by reason of their absence, and 
contempt regi(B visitationis. 

D 4 


BOOK December 15, 1561, Tho. Maister was presented to the 
^' church of Sutton Bingham, united, annexed, and incorpo- 
Anno 1581. rated to the church of Chilton, during the time of his in- 
cumbency in the same, authoritate Matthcei Cantuar. ar- 
chiepiscojji, et regico majestatis cari/irmatione. This Tho. 
Maister had been presented the year before. May 17, by the 
queen to the said church of Chlkon. This Maister was son, 
or some relation, to Dr. Maister, the queen's physician. 

I meet with a pretty strange dispensation in this bishop's 
register, under the year 1564, July the 12th. When Tho. 
Harrington was presented to the church of Kilston, by the 
death of Henry Simmons, at the presentation of John Har- 
rington, esq. he was a scholar of Oxon, of eighteen years 
old, 7iuUo clericali ord'me insignitus ; and obtained licence 
of the archbishop of Canterbury to retain the same church 
to lawful age : and then, if he were promoted to holy or- 
ders, to the title of the perpetual benefice. But these let- 
ters of the archbishop's were to be of no avail, unless con- 
firmed by letters patents from the queen ; dated July 28, 
1564 : which was done the same day. This Simmons was 
presented to this church of Kilston, anno 1560, by the re- 
signation of Mr. Geo. Carew, at the presentation of John 
Harrington, of London, esq. 
The bi- -yy-g Jigmiss this bishop Barkley with this character : that 

shop s ciia- ^ ^ *' . . /.i-/. 

racter. he was a man of great gravity, and singular integrity or life; 
and being an exile under queen Mary, resided with many 
other worthy confessors at Frankfort, in Germany : and ad- 
vised Dr. Traheron, who read lectures there to the English 
upon Revelations, chap. iv. to print his readings : which he 
did. This bishop had a charter for the setding of his bi- 
shopric ; but not so full as the charter granted by queen 
Mary to his predecessor, Gilbert Bourne, many things being 
left out in the last charter to this bishop. In the year 1572, 
lie had a Ions; fit of sickness for nine or ten weeks. After 
29 that, not able to ride, nor well to go, keeping his chamber, 
as a lame man, of the sciatica in his left leg ; doubting in 
himself then, whether he should ever have the use of it again, 


as he wrote in December, 1572, to his friend bishop Park- CHAP. 


hurst : though he made shift to hold out to this year, being 

eighty years of age ; as Godwin writes. -Anno issi. 

I shall leave one remark of him : which shewed him to stops a par- 
be an honest as well as a stout man for the good of the l^^.^f.^T" 
church, by seasonably stopping a part of the church's pa- propriated. 
trimony from running into a layman's purse ; when the lord 
Tho. Pawlet, dwelling within the county of Somerset, pa- 
tron of a good parsonage, viz. West Monkton, endeavoured 
to impropriate it to himself and his heirs for ever, as was 
related at large, vol. ii. under the year 1578. 

Now was coming forth another commission from the queen Commis- 
for recovering such lands and revenues as formerly belonged sealed 
to churches, religious houses, colleges and hospitals, granted i*"'^*- 
by parliament to the crown. Many of which being concealed 
in this queen's reign, she, to gratify some of her courtiers, 
had granted them, or some good portions of them ; namely, 
what they could by search discover and find out : which 
commissions made great havock sometimes of the small live- 
lihoods of the livings and salaries of ministers and chaplains, 
the poor inhabitants of hospitals, &c. in case it was found 
they were given for superstitious uses. Therefore, as such 
a commission had been granted to Edward Stafford, esq. Granted to 
and some other gentlemen pensioners, was called in, as it ^^^^^^^^j 
seems, another was made this year for his use and benefit, 
with more tenderness and caution towards many that might 
suffer by it ; but still with certain rents payable by him to 
the queen. It was called, J warrant to Edxvard Stafford, 
esq. for parsonages, chapels, guilds, ^c. dissolved : the copy 
whereof shall be exemplified from the minutes, with the 
lord treasurer's hand interlined in some places, (which I 
have enclosed in crotchets ;) intended by him for the mo- 
derating of this grarit, and stopping the violences that these 
C07icealers, as they were called, would have been apt to use 
towards the churches and the clergy thereof, the hospitals 
and chapels. 

It specified, " A lease, granted by the queen to this Ed-Thecon- 
*' ward Stafford, one of her gentlemen pensioners, of all i*"Jg°^i^j. 

ed him. 


BOOK " parsonages impropriate, free chapels, guilds, chantries, 
^' " hospitals, &c. that had been dissolved, and were wrong- 
Aunoi53i." fully detained from her, and which of right belonged to 
" the crown, since such a year of king Henry VIII. Or 
" which might afterward be found out and discovered by 
" the said Edward Stafford, his deputies, &c. Yielding 
" and paying therefore unto her, or her successors, during 
*' such lease or leases, certain yearly rents : and after such 
" rate as the same were valued at in the book of first-fruits 
" and tenths. And likewise granted unto him advowsons, 
" presentations, donations, &c. of all parsonages and vicar- 
*' ages, being without cure, profaned, wasted, &c. Also all 
" advowsons, presentations of parsonages, vicarages without 
" cure, prebends presentative, &c. which were concealed, 
" wrongfully detained, &c. And that did of right belong to 
30 " her majesty, presentations, donations, &c. to give, dispose, 
" and present unto the same, being become void, during 
" such a certain term. 

" And then, by the same commission, to the lord trea- 
" surer, the chancellor of the exchequer, &c. she command- 
*' ed them from time to time, upon information given by 
*' the said Stafford to them, to cause to be made books and 
" writings as should be requisite to be passed from her of the 
" premises, or any other part thereof: and for certain new 
" rents according to her letters patent. And that if any 
" variance, suit, debate, controversy, &c. might happen by 
" any claim or complaint in or about any of the premises, 
" or concerning any manner of presentation, removing, or 
*' displacing any parsons or vicars, then the grants to be 
" suspended till it should be heard and determined in her 
" court of exchequer, by them the lord treasurer, chancel- 
" lor of the exchequer, &c. for the time being, for any mat- 
" ter belonffino; to the revenue of the crown." These are 
the brief contents: but the whole grant and commission 
No.V. will be found exemplified in ^he Appendix. 

As to that particular above, of a lease to Stafford of par- 
sonages, colleges, hospitals, &c. concealed, it became a ques- 
tion concerning the queen's making leases of some such. I 


find the lord treasurer Burghley setting down his judgment CHAP, 
in writing ; no question upon the queen's and counciPs re- ^^^' 

quiring his opinion in this affair. This I have from minutes Anno i58i, 
of his own pen. The year when he wrote this his iude-ment^*"^*^ ^^^^' 

1 .' ^ JO surer s 

IS uncertain : but hereabouts it must be. This I look upon judgment 
as a curious piece : and therefore shall set it down from the "^j^^^ ^"^ 
original. lands, &c. 

" My opinion on a sudden, under correction of such of 
" her majesty's learned counsel, as can better inform how 
*' her majesty may make such a lease of the contents. 

I. " The first seven se'-'eral things may, I think, be 
** granted by her majesty. But in good reason her ma- 
*' jesty's title ought first to be found by inquisition. And 
" so her majesty's title being of record, the grant may more 
" orderly pass. Otherwise many things under this title 
" may pass without warrant. But so not honourable to 
" pass her majesty ; where they shall pass upon wrong to 
*' pre-occupiers. 

" As for parsonages impropriate, free chapels, guilds, 
" chantries, lay-prebends, there is not so much regard to 
" be had as upon colleges, and especially hospitals. In 
" which last I saw by a grant made by her majesty to cer- 
" tain of her guard of the hospital of Ledbury, what incon- 
" venience had followed, if great care had not been. 

II. Secondly, " For parsonages and vicarages without 
*' cure containeth great uncertainties. And wheresoever the 
" patronages thereof did belong to any subject, the queen's 
" majesty hath no interest therein ; but by lapse to have 
" one presentment only. The depopulation or profanation 
" maketh no title to the queen's majesty. And therefore 
" her majesty cannot make any grant thereof. 

III. " The third, for parsonages and vicarages without 31 
" cure, cannot be granted by her majesty, but where she is 

" patron ; or where she is entitled by lapse, 

IV. " The fourth, for the like with cure, and for pre- 
" bends that are concealed, and belong to her majesty's 
" patronage, may be for the first time granted by her ma- 
" jesty's patents. But after that they cannot be accounted 


BOOK " concealed. And thereby the curate cannot have conti- 

*• " nuance, otherwise than that her majesty shall make a gift 

Anno 1581. " of the patronage, [or] of the inheritance of her patronage. 

" How these kind of parsonages or vicarages shall be 

" given, I know not. But if the patentee shall have any 

" profit thereby, they must be sold, and not given. And 

" openly to assent thereto will be held for a man that hath 

*' thereof a conscience. 

" But these articles would be considered by some that 

" understand more than I do, that her majesty's grants may 

" be grounded upon justice, or at the least some colour of 

" justice. And for any profit to pass from her majesty, I 

" weigh it not. But I wish that profit were double, in re- 

" spect of the gentleman, who indeed hath deserved as much, 

" and can deserve more.*" 

Conimis- This is a second time the inns of court and chancery were 

siasticai for taken notice of, to harbour persons popishly affected. The 

the inns of rvovernment thoueht it very necessary to check and restrain 

court. " a J J 

considerable numbers there ; and many of them of quality ; 
and so more apt to influence others in the kingdom with 
principles contrary to the laws established for good order 
in the church. As in the 11th of the queen, anno 1569, the 
council had wrote to those inns, with orders granted for the 
government of those that inhabited there. And then some 
were reconciled, and others expelled. But disorders hap- 
pening again in those houses, and information thereof made 
in the star-chamber, a letter was sent thence to the queen's 
commissioners ecclesiastical, to take cognizance thereof; and 
to send for the benchers and ancients, and inquire after 
these disorders. Which was this year, or near it ; and ran 
in this tenor : 
Letter to " After our very hearty commendations. Where in the 
theni^from << -jlth year of the queen s majesty's reign, in the term of 
chamber. " Easter, we did, by our letters to the ancients and benchers 
" of the inns of court, signify what order was then taken in 
" the star-chamber for reformation of a sort of persons 
" about that time detected to be in the same houses, of dis- 
" ordered demeanour and perverse disposition, especially 


« aoainst the laws and orders ecclesiastical of the church. CHAP. 
■" 111. 

Which orders being of good length by our said letters 
" then declared and explained, we understand were for that Anno issi. 
" time reasonably executed, to the reformation of some ; 
" which were thereby profitably reconciled ; and to the ex- 
" pulsion and secluding of some others that were so per- 
" verse, or rather seditiously bent to continue in disorder, 
" as by no convenient persuasion they were then reformed. 
" But after some time expired, as we are now credibly 
" informed, the former disorders are received, or rather in- ^ 
" creased, for lack partly of the continuance of some of those 3 2 
" disorders within the houses, by the ancients and benchers; 
" and partly, for that such regard hath not lately been had 
" by the commissioners ecclesiastical to understand of the 
" said contempts, as was necessary. 

" Wherefore, considering how necessary a matter it is to 
« proceed, if in those houses, consisting of so great compa- 
" nies, where properly obedience to laws and observation 
" of good orders should be professed, and the contrary 
« thereof not nourished, and that by sufferance the mis- 
" chief may, by the authors of such contempts, be dispersed 
« abroad in the realm : and that with the more facility and 
" danger also to increase, where the offenders shall gather 
" credit among the vulgar sort, by profession of the know- 
" ledo-e and execution of the common laws of the realm : 
" we have, upon good deliberation, thought it very neces- 
" sary, that your lordship, and others having sufficient au- 
" thority from her majesty to see to the due execution of 
« all the laws ecclesiastical, should hereof be informed. And 
" so we require you, that you will speedily, before the end 
" of this term, send for some of the ancients and benchers, 
" of the discreetest and dutifuUest of every house or inn of 
" court, and likewise for some of the inns of chancery ; and 
" inquire of the disorders in these kind of causes, concern- 
" ing the observation of the laws ecclesiastical, and the 
" riohts of the church. And as ye shall find the same dis- 
" orders likely to be increased, so to consider how the same 


BOOK " may be reasonably and speedily redressed : using therein, 
" as cause shall require, conference either with the lord 

Anno 1581." keeper of the great seal of England, and the two chief 
" justices, or any of them : to whose party doth belong, as 
*' we understand, some regard for the good ordering of the 
" said houses or inns. And thereupon, as far forth as ap- 
" pertaineth to the authority of your commission, to reform, 
" or otherwise to correct the parties offending, and to limit 
" some good oi'ders for the due service of God in those 
" houses ; and to stay and reform the rest from the entry 
** into like offences. Wherein surely the whole realm shall 
" take no small profit, both for the honour and service of 
" God, and for the better administration of laws : and finally, 
*' by the giving of a general good example of obedience to 
" the rest of the subjects." 
Papists, Je- The state found it necessary now to secure the govern- 
suits, and ment against the Romanists : who were very busy in cor- 

seniinaries " , , _ . 

busy. ners, both seminaries and Jesuits, to withdraw the queen's 

subjects from their allegiance, and to plot treasons. Where- 
of Campion had given sufficient cause of jealousy ; who was 
executed with some other priests and Jesuits this or the last 
Campion's year. I meet with a bold letter of his to the privy-council, 
priv'v-coun- "P^*^ his first comiug into England : wherein he confidently 
c«i- and frankly declared himself of the society of Jesus ; and 

that thereby he had devoted himself, honour, life, and all, 
to the pope's service. His letter, shewing his resolution, 
and confidence, and his zeal to the pope and his cause, was 
chiefly to make a public challenge of dispute with all the 
most learned divines and lawyers in the land, and to require 
them of the privy-council, nay, and the queen herself, to be 
33 present : desiring them to grant him a quiet audience of 
what he should say before their honours. " And that his 
" discourse sliould be, first, of religion, so far forth as it 
" touched the commonwealth and the nobility. And se- 
" condly, that before the chief doctors and masters of both 
*' universities, he would avow the faith of the catholic church 
" by proof invincible, scriptures, councils, fathers, histories. 


" and reason. And before the lawyers, spiritual and tem- CHAP. 
" poral, he would justify the same faith, by the common 

" wisdom of law.'''' Anno 1681. 

Further, he frankly declares to them, " That he had 
*' vowed himself to the society of Jesus, and had taken 
" upon him a warfare in the banners of obedience, and re- 
" signed all his interest of worldly wealth, honour, and plea- 
" sure. And that at the voice of their general provost, 
" which was to him a warrant from heaven, and an oracle 
" from Christ, he took his voyage from Prague to Rome, 
" where the said father-general was always resident ; and 
" from Rome into England ; as he would joyfully have 
" done into any part of Christendom, or heatheniss, had 
*' he been thereto assigned. And that his charge was, with- 
*' out cost to preach the gospel, to administer the sacra- 
" ments, to instruct the simple, &c. to confute errors, &c." 

And as to their society, he informed thus much of them, 
(with the preface of Be it knozcn 7into them,) " That they 
" had made a league, (all the Jesuits in the world,) whose 
*' succession and multitude must over-reach all the practices 
" of England, cheerfully to carry the cross that they should 
" lay upon them, and never to despair of the recovery of 
" them [viz. the realm of England] while they had a man 
** left, to enjoy their Tyburn, or to be racked with their 
** torments, or to be consumed with their poison." 

And so concluded, as it were threatening, and in an as- 
surance of success, " That the enterprise was begun : that 
" it was of God, and could not be withstood : and is the 
" faith that was at first planted : and so it must be restored." 
This was the brag, resolution, and protestation of Campion, 
in the name of that society. And therefore the state, with 
good reason, thought it necessary to secure itself against 
them by its laws and watchfulness over such a generation 
of devoto'^s. But let the reader peruse the whole letter in 
the Appendix. No. vi. 

And consequent to this. Campion afterwards, being now Campion's 
a prisoner, made a bold challenge to dispute with the P^'o- to'^j's^u^e 


BOOK testants certain points of religion. And accordingly divers 
' disputes and conferences were held with him in the Tower, 

Anno 1581. in the month of August, which were set down afterwards 
in writing by the learned men themselves that dealt therein; 
and were printed, in 1583, by Alexander Noel, dean of 
St. Paul's, and published upon occasion of writings dispersed 
by some papists, extolling Campion's disputations, to the 
overthrow of his adversaries. Wherein it is said, " That 
" the catholics, by the judgments of those that were not 
" wedded wholly to will, did get the goal." And again, one 
of them had these words: " In my soul I protest, that in 
34 " any indifferent judgment, the adverse protestants were 
" quite confounded. And if I were not a catholic already, 
" the only hearing the conference would have made me 
" one." This I took out of the preface to the reader, by 
Alexander Noel and William Day, both deans, and dispu- 

Conferences tants with that Jesuit. There were three other conferences 
with him, viz. the 18th, 23d, and 27th of September, 1581, 
which were after set down in writing by John Field ; and 
perused by the learned men themselves that disputed with 
him, in order to the publishing the same. These things I 

Annals, vol. pass over, having mentioned them more at large elsewhere. 

u.c ap. 22. goQj^ after Campion's condemnation, and before his exe- 

joices at cutiou, ouc of the Same order shewed his great satisfaction 

Campion's ^^^^^ j-^jg brother, (as he called him,) as well as his compa- 
suffenngs. _ _ ' ^ . ^ . / 

nion, was like to make so glorious an end ; mentioned in a 

letter to another of his friends, written from l^ondon ; whi- 
ther, after some absence, he was newly returned: confirm- 
ing him and them in his absence, and assuring them of his 
own constancy and resolution to die in the cause, as others 
had bravely done, and as Campion was now ready to do. 
This letter seems to have been intercepted, and so brought 
into the hands of the queen's council : for I met with it 
among the papers of state in the Paper-house. And there- 
fore, though it be somewhat long, it will deserve to be here 
exemplified. Which will shew their firm purpose to pro- 
mote their religion to the peril of their lives, and how fully 


persuaded they were in the goodness of their cause, and the CHAP. 
success of it, and their steadiness in carrvino- on of their '___ 

affairs in this realm. Annoiosi. 

" My dear good friend, Pax Christi, c^r. That he un- Uis letter 
' derstood of the late advancement and exaltation of his condemna- 
' dear brother, Mr. C. and his followers, [Brian, Sherwin, t'O" of 
' &c.] Our Lord be blessed for it. It was the joyfullest and others. 
' news, in one respect, that ever came to his heart since he Paper- 
' was born. I call him brother.^'' as he added, " for that once 
' God made me worthy of so great preferment, [viz. to be 
' admitted into the society of Jesus.] But that now he 
' took him rather for his patron [to pray for him and pro- 
' tect him] than for his brother ; whose stejjs he beseeched 
' Christ he might be worthy to follow. That there was 
' nothing happened to him which he looked not for, some 
' time before, and whereof he made not oblation to God, 
' before ever he set forth to go towards England :" [that is, 

vowed his life to promote that cause.] 

And then, as for the disputation which he held with our 

learned divines, thus he also triumphed : " That he looked 
' for this end [meaning triumphant end] of the disputation 
' also. And surely, added he, where I heard how pros- 
' perously God turned them to the glory of his cause, that 
' he would have his life also. For that it was like his ad- 
' versaries would never put up so great a blow Avithout 
' revengement upon his blood. His impertinent and mali- 
' cious witnesses God will judge. But yet he beseeched 
' the divine Majesty, if it were his will, to pardon them, 
' and give them grace to repent, and prevent his great 
' wrath, due to their most grievous iniquity. There were 
' men in the world which drank blood as easily as beasts did 35 
' water. And because the earth did not open, and pre- 
' sently swallow them down, they thought all was w^ell. 
' Sed lieu ! (said the prophet,) Jiixta est dies perditionis^ 
' et adesse Jesthiant tempora. 

'' That it might be as truly spoken of Mr. C. as ever 
' Ezekiel spake it of the like, Effas. est sanguis ejus in lim- 
' pidissimam petrani, et non in terram, id operiatur pul- 



BOOK " vere. His blood is shed upon a most clear stone, to be 
' " seen of all men ; and not upon the earth, that it may be 
Anno 1581. " Covered with dust ; the pretended dust of feigned treason, 
" wherewith they go about to cover his blood; his blood! 
" Away with every little air of consideration that comes 
" near it. Your conscience and mine, and the knowledge 
" of God Almighty, with all the saints of heaven, are privy, 
" and shall bear witness at the day of judgment, of his pure 
" innocency in all such matters and meaning, either by fact, 
" word, or cogitation. This hath he protested, and will 
" protest, I know, upon the perdition of his soul at his 
" death. For yet I am not certified that he is dead. And 
" we [Jesuits] protest the same before God, and men, and 
" angels in heaven. And all that ever we have dealt withal 
" in England, shall testify the same both living and dying, 
" upon their salvation and damnation in the life to come. 
" All which, seeing it serveth not in Westminster-hall, we 
" are content quietly to leave it in God's hand, and to refer 
" it only to the tribunal of Christ ; qui cum temp, acccpe- 
" rlt, decernet causam nostram^'' 

The writer goes on : " That I am so far touched in the 
" same matter, as master Criss telleth me, I cannot but 
" take it most thankfully at my good Lord'^s hands, M'ho 
" vouchsafeth to lend me a portion in sorte sanctorum. 
" Free I am of any thought of such matters as were ob- 
" jected, God and my conscience, and my friends with 
" whom I converse, do know and rejoice. But I know it 
" was not easy for the lamb which drank beneath at the 
" end of the river, to justify to the wolf drinking at the 
" head spring, that her drinking beneath did not trouble 
*' the water. And the reason was, for that the wolf was 
" minded to cat her. My blood, therefore, must satisfy 
" this matter, which, by God"'s holy assistance, I remain as 
" resolute, and willing to yield, when his divine Majesty 
" shall appoint the day, as ever I did to pay my debt that 
'• I did owe, or to receive any benefit from his most merci- 
" ful hands. I remember often, to my great comfort, tlie 
" saying of St. Paul, Deo manifcsti sumns, ct spcro in eon- 


*' scientiis vestris manifestos nos esse. If we be mistaken CHAP. 
*' of men, yet God is not deceived. And therefore for my ^^'' 

" part, I do seek daily and hourly, according to the mca- Anno 

" sure of his holy grace given me, to walk in his sight, and 

*' to imagine him present in all my actions, even as though 

" he were presently to enter into judgment with me. Which 

" attention, I trust, though I be otherwise a greater mise- 

" rable sinner, shall so direct my life for all such matters as 

" our enemies do object, as I shall little fear the judgment 

" of man, nor the accusations of Eliot Iseariot, [so styling 

" him who, it seems, was some secret informer against the 

"Jesuits,] and his compartner for the matter itself: that 86 

*' is, the advancement of God*'s glory, by persuading my 

" countrymen to virtuous lives and true religion. For which 

" cause only I was sent hither." 

In which resolution he would persist, using these words : 
" I will, by God's help, never cease, either dying or living, 
*' as long as my soul is able to move any part within me, 
" from the prosecution of so good and godly a purpose. 
" For I know it is written. Usque ad viorteiri certo projns- 
" titia. In which respect I confess that I fear little any 
" mortal power, which killeth the body, and after hath 
" nothing to do more : for that I have my Master's com- 
" mand for the same. And not only that, but his war- 
" rant : Capillus de eapite vestro non peribit. And thus 
" much of myself, and of those holy men that are dead. 
" Qui visi sunt oeuU^ insipientiuin mori : illi autem sunt 
" in pace. 

*' Now though you, my dearly beloved, and the rest of 
" niy good friends with you, I see no cause for me either 
" to comfort or encourage you, the very letter itself is most 
" sufficient for both. For what greater matter of comfort 
" can there be to us that are catholics, than to see God work 
" these strange wonders in our days, for the advancement 
" of his and our cause : that is, to give such rare grace of 
" zeal, austerity of life, and constancy of martyrdom unto 
" young men, learned men, brought up in the adversaries'" 
" own schools; and to whom, if they would have followed 

V 9 


BOOK "the pleasures of the world, or yielded in any one little 
^' " point against the truth, it had been lawful to have lived 

Anno 1581." both in favour and credit. This cannot come of flesh 
" and blood, but must needs be an argument of God's mer- 
" ciful meaning towards us, if we be humble and patient 
" under this his fatherly rod and chastisement. 

" Ajrain : what can be more forcible to encourage us to 
" all virtue, and imitation of these men's fortitude, than to 
" see children to go into heaven before us. You know who 
" used this argument, when he said, Regnum Christi vim 
" pat'itur, et v. \j. e. tnolent'i] illud, &c. Which if ever it 
" were fulfilled, now it is, where the tenderest and frailest 
" flesh passeth violently to heaven, through wrackings, hang- 
" ingSj drawings, and quarterings ; and through a thousand 
*' miseries more, which are laid upon them. 

" Wherefore let other men follow the pleasures of the 
" world and lewd life as much as they will, now is the time 
" for us to make ourselves everlasting princes, by gaining 
" of heaven. Qui 7iocet, noceat adhuc^ et qui in sordibus 
" est, sordescat adhuc, saith our Saviour. And on the other 
" side, Qui Justus est,Justi/icetur adhuc, et qui sa7ictus est, 
" sanctijicetur adhuc. Ecce ! venio cito, et merces mea mecum 
" est, reddere unicuique secundum opera sua. 

*' Now for this time,- my dear good friend. From R. in 
" L. this present 26th of November, 1581. 

" Your own bounden in most hearty good- will 
" for Christ and his cause." 

37 By way of postscript, this followed : 

" The cross appears, Christ doth approach, 

" A comfort for us all : 
" For whom to suffer or to die, 

"Is grace celestial. 

" Be therefore of good courage now, 

" In this your sharp probation, 
" Which shall you bring to glory great, 

" And miffhtv consolation. 


" If you persevere to the end CHAP. 

" Of this sharp storm indeed, ' 

" You shall confound both foe and friend, Anno 168I. 

" And heaven have for meed. 

" God make us mindful of all his sweet promises, and 
" our own duty: which is sufficient armour for all assaults 
" of our enemies. Commend me heartily to my daughter 
" Cr. and your little family, and the rest of your good cora- 
" pany : willing them all to be of good comfort, and to pray 
" for us, as we shall for them. Weakness now is come to 
" such a head, that the festered sores thereof must needs 
" break out, whereby, I hope, all infirmities will be healed. 
" In the mean time they intend to do us a good turn against 
" their wills. I hope we shall so disclose the fond forgery 
" of our enemies, God willing, this week, as it was never 
" since the queen came to her crown. God, for whose cause 
" we suffer, defend the truth. I have saluted your friends, 
" who re-salute you. Our Lord be with you and yours ; 
" and all the faithful (Christian) afflicted flock." 

Concerning this Campion, I have one thing more to add. Young 
which a learned man that hved in that very time related of U"r*^cam- 
him: that there were despatched into the realm, under theP'°"'«^o"- 

duct. Dr. 

conduction of one more presumptuous than learned, [mean- bus. True 
ing this Jesuit,] a whole swarm of boy-priests, disguised, '^»''J^'=*- 
and provided at all assays with secret instructions how to 
deal with all sorts of men and matters here ; [in England ;] 
and, with commission from Rome, to confess and absolve 
such as they should win, with a pretence or policy, to mis- 
like the state, and affect novelty ; and to take assurance of 
them by vow, oath, or other means, that they should be 
ever after adherent and obedient to the church of Rome, 
and to the faith thereof, &c. Religion sounded often in 
their mouths, and the faith of their fathers. And yet that 
poison they carried covertly in their hearts, and cunningly 
in their books; that her majesty's beguiled and deceived 
subjects, by the very sentence of their Romish faith and 
absolution, were tied to obey the pope, depriving her ma- 


BOOK jesty of the sword and sceptre, and bound to assist him, or 
whom he should send, to take the same by force of arms 

Anno ) 681. out of her hands. 

38 But when some of these were taken up, and brought to 
their trials, they denied this, and earnestly protested, in 
open audience, that they had no such meaning; but for 
their parts did acknowledge her majesty for their lawful 
nispensed and true princess, and taught all others so to do : having 
pope for ly- ^fst obtained, like wily friars, a dispensation at Rome, that, 
1"S^ ^ ^ to avoid the present dangers, they, and all others their ob- 
sequents, might serve and honour her highness for a time, 
until the bull of Pius V^ might safely be executed. [This 
was the dispensation of Campion and Parsons.] And that 
this was the resolution of them all, appeared by their exa- 
minations. And that conclusion stood in their written books 
as a ruled case, that they must rather lose their lives than 
shrink from this groundwork, that the pope may deprive 
Their cases her highness of her sceptre and throne ; because, they say, 
science. ^^ is a point of faith, and requires confession of the mouth, 
Artie. 55. though death ensue. 
Tiieir (lati- This daugerous, if not devilish doctrine, (saith the fore- 

V'eroiis doc- .,, ,. ■ -, itij-i 

tiiiie. said learned writer,) was not printed or published m the 

sight of the queen's subjects, until the time of some of the 
chief procurers and kindlers of this flame, for these and 
other enterprises of like condition and quality, were by the 
just course of the laws adjudged to death. 

But there happened this year an example of papal per- 
secution at Rome, upon an Englishman, which exceeded 
much any persecution complained of in England ; which 
was executed upon one Richard Atkins, an Hertfordshire 
man : who seemed indeed to be somewhat disturbed in his 
head : but however that hindered not the Romanists'' rigor- 
ous dealings with him. I relate it from one that was in 
the English college at Rome ; and there either saw or heard 
One Atkins ^^ fi"om some that were present. 

put into tiie This Richard Atkins, out of his zeal, travelled to Rome, 
lit'^Riinie: awd coming to the English college there, knocked at the 
and why. ^Qor ; aiid beinec let in, told the students there, that he 

Engl. Rom. ' r> ' 



came ovingly to rebuke the great misorders of their lives ; CHAP. 
which he grieved to hear, and pitied to behold. And that 

he came also to let their proud antichrist understand, that Anno i58i. 
he did offend the heavenly Majesty, rob God of his honour, 
poisoned the whole world with his abominable blasphemies; 
making them homage stocks and stones, and the Jllthi/ sa- 
crament, [as he called it;] which was nothing else but a 
foolish idol. Upon this, one Hugh Griffin, a Welshman, 
and one of the students, caused him to be put into the in- 
quisition. But, however it came to pass, he was, after cer- 
tain days, dismissed. Afterwards, one day going in the 
streets, he met a priest carrying the sacrament, and being 
offended to see the people so crouch and kneel to it, he 
caught at it, to have thrown it down, that all people might 
see what they worshipped. But missing his purpose, and 
it being (luckily) judged by the people, that he did but 
catch at the holiness that they say comes from the sacra- 
ment, upon mere devotion, he was let pass, and nothing said 
to him. 

Few days after he came to St. Peter's church, where di- 
vers were hearing mass ; and the priest being at the eleva- 
tion, he, using no reverence, stepped among the people to 
the altar, and threw down the chalice, with the wine ; striv- 
ing likewise to have pulled the cake out of the priest's 39 
hands. Presently divers rose up, and beat him with their 
fists : and one drew his rapier, and would have slain him. 
In brief, he was carried to prison, where he was examined 
wherefore he committed such a heinous offence. He an- 
swered, that he came purposely for that intent, to rebuke 
the pope's wickedness and their idolatry. Upon this he was 
condemned to be burnt; which sentence, he said, he was 
right willing to suffer. And the rather, because the sum of 
his offence pertained to the glory of God. 

During the time he remained in prison, sundry of the 
English came to him, willing him to be sorry for that he 
had done, and to recant his damnable opinions. But all t,he 
means they used was in vain ; and he confuted their ways 
by divers places of scripture : and willed them to be sorry 

E 4 


BOOK for their wickedness, while God did permit them time. For 
the manner and cruelty of his execution, a wliile after, I re- 

Anno 1581. fer the reader to the Appendix. 

N". VII. 


The saninaries busy. Sir Francis Knolles's letter concern- 
ing them. Search Jbr papists. Proclamation against har- 
bouring Jesuits, and such as xvent hence to Paris, Rheims^ 
Doway, or Rome, Jbr education : and Jbr their revoca- 
tion. Co7iJerences with Jesuits. One of them reclaimed. 
Recusants in the diocese of the bishop of Coventry and 
Litchfield. Schismatics. A libertine ; his doctrines. En- 
deavours of some puritans. Their prayers. 

Seminaries J^ HESE Seminaries were now very busy in London, as 

treep into u • i i • • i i 

houses, and well as HI Other places, creepmg mto houses, to pervert tne 
say the people, and keep mass-saying: insomuch, that sir Francis 
Knolles, a courtier, and treasurer of the queen's chamber, 
thought fit to put the two great statesmen about the queen 
in mind of it ; and to stir them up to look to them ; and to 
Jet tlie law take its course against such of them as were 
taken, the safety of the queen and the whole nation de- 
pending so much upon it. And now going into the coun- 
try, to the quarter-sessions at Oxford, in the month of Sep- 
tember, he left this remembrance in a letter to them both, 
viz. the lord treasurer and the earl of Leicester. 
Sir Francis " The papists' secret practices by these Jesuits, in going 
KnoiU's's i( ^ hovise to house, to withdraw men from the obedi- 

letter to be ' 

watchful of '< ence of her majesty, vmto the obedience of the false ca- 
" tholic church of Rome, hath and will endanger her ma- 
40 " jesty's person and state more than all the sects of the 
" world, if no executi(m shall follow upon the traitorous 
" practisers that are for the same apprehended : or at the 
" least, if execution shall not follow upon such of them as 
" will not openly and plainly recant. Thus desiring their 
«' lordships, that are the two heads of the two universities of 
*' England, to pardon mv boldness herein ; because that I, 


" that am an unworthy person, and half an abject, do ex- CHAP. 
" pect great good things at their lordships'^ hands ; Avhich 

hath emboldened me hereunto. And so I take my leave Anuo i58i. 
" of your lordships. At London, going into my coun- 
" try, &c. September 29." 

Some of these, according to this gentleman''s counsel, were 
afterwards executed about the beginning of December ; viz. 
Campion, before spoken of, Sherwin, Brian, and another. 

Diligence was now used in finding out papists in Lon- Search for 
don ; and that by searching for such persons as came not to London " 
church. And accordingly a list was sent in the month of 
Jime, of such throughout each ward of the city, with their 
names ; whereof some wei'e strangers of other countries, 
many English. Of these strangers were Horacio Pallavicino, 
Andreas de Low, living in St. Dunstan*'s, Acerbo Vilutelli, 
Paulus Justinian, Augustin Graffigner, Nicolaus Gocha, 
Jerome Benalio, Morice VaYi Coleyn, Alpher Delymer, 
Lewis de Pace, John Calvetto. Some of these were agents 
to foreign princes. These generally lived in Tower-street 
ward. Several of the English, whose names were brought 
in, lived in St. Helen''s. The whole number in all was about 
one hundred and ten. 

And not long after, a proclamation came forth to attach Prociama- 
seminaries, and their aiders, abettors, counsellors, and hos-Jp"g^j_* ° 
tages, [i. e. harbourers.] naries, &c. 

Inquiry now also was made after such as sent their sons inquiry 
abroad for education : which gave a just suspicion that they ^^'^^.'p^*"'^^' 
might be tinctured with popish principles at their coming abroad for 
home, and more disaffected to the laws of the land. And in 
pursuit of these, the clergy of London had a summons in 
the month of January, to make inquiry Avhose sons were 
sent abroad beyond the sea, to study, and acquire learning, 
either at Paris, Rheims, Doway, Rome, &c. And also what 
servants were sent abroad. 

This visitation was authorized by a proclamation, set Prociama- 
forth in the said month of January, for revocation of sun- fg^'ocatio ^ 
dry her majesty ""s subjects remaining beyond sea under co-"f such. 
lour of study, and as lived contrary to the laws of God and 


BOOK the realm: and also against retaining of Jesuits, and mass- 
ing-priests, sowers of sedition, and other treasonable at- 

Anno 1581. tempt ; the tenor whereof was, " That the queen was given 
" to understand, that certain colleges and societies under 
*' the name of seminaries^ had been of late years erected by 
" the bishop of Rome, as Avell in that city of Rome as in 
" the dominions of other princes ; especially for the subjects 
" of her kingdoms and dominions ; with intent and purpose 
" to train and nourish them up in false and erroneous doc- 
" trine: by which means divers of her good and faithful 
" subjects had been thereby perverted, not only in matters 
4 1 " of religion, but also drawn from the acknowledgment of 
" their natural duties unto her highness as their prince and 
" sovereign, and had been made instruments in some wicked 
'* practices, tending to the disquiet of the realm and other 
" her majesty's dominions ; yea, to the moving of rebellion 
" within their natural countries : 

" That she thought it very expedient, as a thing apper- 
*' taining chiefly to a Christian prince, to have a special care 
" to see her subjects trained up in truth and Christian re- 
" ligion, grounded merely upon the word of God, and not 
" upon men's fancies and vain traditions; to use all means 
" of prevention that might tend to the remedy thereof. 
*' Wherefore she did straitly charge and command all 

Children, " gucli her subjects, as had their children, wards, kinsfolk, 

wards, &c. , , i i i • i i 

" or any other, over whom they had special charge, or to 
" whom they did contribute to their maintenance and re- 
" lief, remaining in the parts beyond the seas, to give no- 
" tice, within ten days after the publishing of this present 
" proclamation, not only unto the ordinary, the names of 
" such, their children, wards, or kinsfolks, or such other to 
" whom they had given any aid for their charges, as should 
" be beyond the seas, at the time of the publication hereof, 
" without her majesty's special licence remaining in force, 
" and not expired ; but should also procure a return of 
" them within the space of four months after notice given 
" by the said proclamation. And then the persons, and 
" other persons afoi'csaid, immediately upon the return of 


" their children and other persons, to give knowledge CHAP, 

" thereof unto the bishop or ordinary. And in case they 

" returned not upon the knowledge of this her highness's Anno i58i. 

"pleasure, given by the said parents and other Persons Jj"^'^^*^^°^_ 

" aforesaid, not to yield them any contribution or relief, di- ing. 

" rectly or indirectly ; nor should be privy to, or conceal 

" the contribution of any other, without disclosing the same 

" to the bishop or ordinary, upon pain of her highness''s 

" displeasure, and further punishment, as for their contempt 

" therein might justly be laid upon them. 

" That it should not be lawful, after six days expired, Relief and 
" for any merchant, or other whatsoever, by way of ex-jj^nce.' 
" change or otherwise, to exchange, convey, or deliver, or 
" procure any money or other relief, to or for the mainte- 
" nance of any person beyond the seas, which by the intent 
" of this proclamation were prohibited to have or receive 
" any out of her majesty''s dominions, upon pain of her 
" highness"'s displeasure, and such further punishment as 
" might be imposed on the offenders in that behalf for such 
" their contempt and offence. 

" That it should not be lawful for any, of any degree or Not to go 
" quality whatsoever, to depart out of the realm, without realm. 
" the queen's special licence. 

" That her majesty was given to understand, that divers 
" of her subjects trained up in the said colleges and semi- 
" naries beyond the seas, whereof some carried the name of 
" Jesuits, under the colovu" of a holy name, to deceive and Jesuits. 
" abuse the simpler sort ; and were lately repaired into this 
" realm by special direction from the pope and his dele- 
" gates; with intent not only to corrupt and pervert her 42 
" good and loving subjects in matter of conscience and reli- 
" gion, but also to draw them from their loyalty and duty 
" of obedience, and to provoke them so much as shall lie 
" in them, to attempt somewhat to the disturbance of the 
" present quiet ; and through the goodness of Almighty 
" God, and her majesty''s provident government, this realm 
" hath for many years enjoyed. 

" She therefore, foreseeing the great mischief that might 


BOOK " ensu€ by such like instruments, whereof experience hath 

^' " been of late seen in the realm of Ireland, did therefore 

Anno 1581. '« notify unto her subjects, that if any of them, or any 

Penalty to jj |^ within hcr hiffhness's dominions, after the publish- 

receive " _ _ , "^ . . 

them. " ing of this present proclamation, did receive, maintain, 

" succour, or relieve any Jesuit, seminar?/ man, massing 
" priests, or other persons aforesaid, come, or which should 
" come, or be sent into this realm, or any other her do- 
" minions ; or should not discover the receiving and har- 
" bouring of them, or any such vagrant persons as might 
" be justly suspected to be of such quality and ill con- 
" dition ; as also in case they should remain with them at 
" the time of the said publication, or afterwards, should 
"■ not bring them before the next justice, to be by him 
" committed to the common gaol, or before other pub- 
" lie officer ; to the end they might in like sort be com- 
" mitted, and forthcoming to be examined, and to receive 
" such punishment, as by her majesty shall be thought 
" meet according to their deserts: tlien they should be re- 
" puted as maintainers and abettors of such rebellious and 
"seditious persons; and receive for the same their con- 
" tempt such severe punishment, as by the laws of the 
" realm, and her highness"'s princely authority, might be in- 
" flicted upon them. 

liewurd for " And that if any other her subjects at any time cer- 

iiiscovering ;; jj^i^ly know any such persons repaired into this realm for 
" the purpose aforenamed, and therefore give knowledge 
" to any of her majesty's officers or ministers, whereby 
" either they may be or shall be taken and apprehended by 
" the said officers ; then the informer or utterer shall have 
" her highness's reward for every such person by him or 
" them disclosed and apprehended, such sum of money as 
" shall be an honourable due reward for so good service; 
" besides her majesty's most hearty thanks for the discharge 
" of their duty in that behalf 

Merciiunts. " Provided nevertheless, that it shall be lawful to and 
" for factors and agents for any lawful merchants, in their 
" trades and merchandise in any parts beyond seas, and for 


"-mariners in their necessary voyages, to pass and remain CHAP. 
" beyond the seas without incurring any manner of con- 

" tempt, so long as they should be employed about such Anno 1 58 1. 
" their voyages and merchandising, &c. Given at her ma- 
" jesty's palace of Westminster, the 10th of January, in the 
" twenty-third of her majesty's most noble reign." 

As many seminaries and mass-priests, and such like, were, 
by means of the former proclamation and search, taken up 
this year, and committed to prison ; so care was taken that 
conferences might be held with them, to convince and re- Conferences 
claim them. And such as were, had not only their liberty, ^^^^ semina- 
but other favours shewed them. One of these thus con- ries takea 
ferred with and reclaimed was John Nicolls, a Jesuit, late ^^ 
a prisoner in the Tower, now become a preacher. And his 
condition being but needy, having left his former practice, 
whence his subsistence came, such was the kindness of the 
court, that the lord chancellor Bromley, and the lord trea- 
surer Burghley, and others of the council, sent to the arch- 
bishop in his behalf, that some collection might be made for 
him. And a contribution was accordingly made for him by 
the bishops of the province. For further knowledge where- 
of, I refer the reader to the Life of Archbishop Grindal. Book ii. 

But the emissaries of the pope were so exceedmg busy at 
this time, and especially in the parts about Shropshire, 
and the counties thereabouts, that conferences were not 
enough to bring these men to a better mind towards re- 
ligion and their country ; and more rigorous methods were 
required; and particularly an ecclesiastical commission : Ecdes]n&t\- 
which therefore the bishop of Coventry and Litchfield now gjon f^ r^.' 
called for. It was not unknown to the queen and her coun- cusants. 
cil, how dangerous a condition those parts there were in, by 
reason of recusants. And therefore had directed their let- 
ters to him in October the last year, for searching out and 
certifying the recusants within his diocese. And for better 
execution of that service, to join with him some other in 
commission, within the counties of Warwick, Darby, and 
Salop. But the bishop being now in London, it being par- 
liament time, and for other lets, could not go down into 



Anno 1581 

Their pro- 
ceedings in 

Bishop of 
and Litch- 
field's in- 
thereof to 
the court. 


the country. He therefore sent copies of those letters to 
the other commissioners that were in the country : and 
withal sent his own letters unto them for their careful per- 
formance of their duties. 

Afterwards he received a certificate of their proceedings 
from them that were appointed for one of these countries, 
viz. Salop, which now in April he sent to the lord treasurer 
to be perused at his pleasure. And by him to be imparted 
to the rest of her majesty ""s most honourable privy-council, 
when he should see cause. And in this one country, which 
was one of the best and most conformable parts of his dio- 
cese, there was near one hundred detected and presented 
for recusancy. And some of the gentlemen in commission 
wrote in their private letters to him, that they could get 
but four only to be bound, [to their good abearing or ap- 
pearance,] the rest refusing most obstinately to come be- 
fore them. Whereupon the bishop put it to him, the said 
lord treasurer, what great need they should have of the 
high commission in that country, and other shires of his dio- 
cese, worse than that : which he left to his honourable con- 

He added ; " That he knew his lordship should hardly 
" have leisure to look over these matters at that busy time. 
" Nevertheless, he thought it his part, as soon as it came to 
" his hand, to send the same unto him. That he had yet 
" heard nothing: from the other commissioners for the other 
" countries. But he did heartily recommend two of the com- 
" missioners for Shropshire to his lordship, being bound, 
" as he wrote, to interpose his censure and judgment of 
" them that had done this work : which was, that as he had 
" heretofore heard great commendations of them for their 
" wisdom and zeal in all godly and Christian affairs, so at 
" this time they deserved no less, but a great deal more, for 
" their great, pains and good order that they had taken in 
" this matter, and wished that they might hear of it from 
" their lordships, to the better encouraging them in such 
" their serviceable and dutiful travail ; being, as it should 
" seem, not only forward in affection of mind, but also able 


" for their skill and learning, to perform any greater ser- CHAP. 
" vice that they might be called unto. ^^' 

" And being desirous to go down into the country, toAnnoi5Si. 
" join with them in this so needful cause, he earnestly be- 
" seeched his lordship to use a means to her majesty to give 
" him leave to depart, without any further leave taking, 
" the case standing with him as it did : for that indeed his 
" house had been somewhat hardly visited with that loath- 
" some disease, [the plague, it seems.] Commending, in the 
" mean time, his causes to his friends to follow, and the 
" means to him and the earl of Leicester, and the success 
" to God.'' This was writ from Chelsea. These causes 
seem to be concerning his claim to the ancient episcopal ju- 
risdiction over the city of Litchfield; which the citizens 
were endeavourino- to resume to themselves against the bi- 
shop : which we shall hear more of under the year ensuing. 
And likewise a contest about the chancellorship of the dio- 
cese between the bishop and one Beacon, who pretended a Life of 
right to that preferment ; and who brought the cause before Arciibishop 
the privy-council : which matter is related elsewhere. Book ii. 

Several schismatics and men of heterodox opinions shewed '^ ^''' " 
themselves this year. The chief of these was Robert .Schisma- 
Browne, the separatist, at St. Edmond's Bury; and Hand-l!"' 

' i ' . ' Browne, 

son, a preacher that blowed up coals of innovation ; in- Handson, 
veighing against the Communion Book, the order of church 
government, and the laws of the realm established. These 
were taken notice of by the bishop of Norwich, and others 
in the ecclesiastical commission, as hath been shewed be- 
fore : and of Browne more may be seen in the Life of Arch- Book iv. 
bishop Parker, if this Browne be the same with him. There '^'*''' 
was also Randal, a minister of the diocese of Exeter, of the 
family of love ; of whom before. 

There was also now one J. B. in London, a Zi6^r/m^, A libertine, 
whose principles were shewn in a little book that came forth J^j'^J^^"'^' 
this year, in answer to diverse assertions and strange doc- 
trines of the libertines ; viz. that the first table of the law 
taught us our duty towards Christ's godhead ; and the 
second table, our duty towards Christ's manhood. That 


BOOK Christ was the Samaritan that helped the wounded man 
mentioned in St. Luke. That faith was the hoht of the 

Anno 1581. soul. That the tree of knowledge of good and evil in para- 
dise was a fig-ure of God's law. That the tree of life was a 
figure of God's gospel. [As though men's fancy was to al- 
legorize every matter of fact related in scripture.] That 
the flaming sword was a figure of the threatenings and jus- 
tice of God. That the water in baptism was not a holy 
water in respect that it was applied to a holy use. That the 
ordinary and common washing among the Turks and Jews 
45 was the same to them that baptism was to us. That no- 
thing can be counted holy, unless it be perfect. That Christ 
in his human soul descended into the place of torment, ap- 
pointed for the wicked, called hell. That the place of hell is 
in the centre ; that is, the middle of the earth. That it is 
utterly evil for the elect, to think, speak, or hear of the fear 
of God. 

Further, that papists, puritans, protestants, and ihe Jli- 
milij of love be utterly deceived, and in the state of con- 
demnation, save he alone, [that asserted these tenets,] and 
those that took part with him. That no outward thing, as 
the works of sanctification, unfeigned forgiveness of others, 
or such like, can be pledges, either to ourselves or others, of 
our election. That we may as well say, Christ is flesh of 
our flesh, and bone of our bone, as to say, We are flesh of 
his flesh, and bone of his bone. That the word kingdom in 
the Lord's Prayer is to be understood only of the kingdom 
of love and mercy, and not the kingdom of justice and 
power. That Christ did not fully finish our redemption 
upon the cross : but that he suffered somewhat afterwards. 
That the last words which Christ spake upon the cross 
were these. My God, my God, zchy hast thou Jbrsakcn me ? 
That all the Jews generally should be called to the know- 
ledge of God. That the word sacrament is not to be found 
in the scripture : and therefore not to be used ; but the 
word record: which he went about to prove from 1 John 
V. 7, 8. That there will come a time wherein there shall be 
no need of sacraments in this life. The reason, because there 


will be such multitudes converted, that there shall be no chap. 
leisure to minister the sacraments unto them. That it is ^^' 

hypocrisy for one Christian to reprove another for swear- Anno 158 1. 
ing, or any such other offence : which he called but trifles. 

The answerer, T. W. digested these tenets into twenty 
articles, and gave distinct confutation to each : and tells us, 
" That he was acquainted with this libertine, J. B. nine or 
" ten years. From whom he heard these and many such 
" cursed conclusions : as, that there was not need to pray ; 
" especially for forgiveness of sins : and that if we keep our- 
" selves within our castle, Christ, nothing that we can com- 
" mit in this flesh can be sin unto us. And if now sith we 
" are married to Christ, there are no more men, because all 
" are become women." Books he penned, which this an- 
swerer calleth beastly. One he entitled his Music ; another 
his Ax, and adds, " That might they be brought to light, 
" and other such like books, the world should then see a 
" whole sea of such like absurdities and falsehoods broached 
" and shed abroad."" 

But when these wild tenets and assertions were charcred These te- 


upon him, he shifted them off, by denying that he hadjiijerti,,,. 
said them, though T. W. the answerer, and others, had '^^J'** '*"'' 
heard many of them from his mouth. But, saith the an-oneot 
swerer,. it was a practice among those sectaries to say and ^''^.^^ "?" 
unsay. And so did this libertine broach many wild doc- 
trines which he disavowed and denied when charged with 
them, though they were spoken in the hearing of a great 
many. " And so experience had taught," added he, " that 
" it had been the very use of sundry heretics, as in old 
" time the Presilianists, and in these days the family of 
" love, to say and unsay." And therefore he advised the 46 
godly Christian not to credit this or that en-oneous per- 
son, upon a bare denial of their untruths ; but, for the bet- 
ter sifting of them, to require a plain and open confession of 
the contrary truths. This answerer speaks in his epistle of Swamis of 
swarms of atheists, epicures, anabaptists. Pelagians, and the ^l^^^ *' 
family of love, which that present corrupt age unhappily 
hatched, and overmuch cherished. 

vol,. III. T 





Anno 1581. 
Other doc- 
trines of 
Book ii. 
chap. 18. 
The endea- 
vours of the 

Part of a 

Anno 1581. 

See divers more of these speculations of the libertines, 
in the second volume of the Annals, under the year 
1579. And by comparing those with these, it may ap- 
pear they did not agree in one set of uniform principles, 
but varied according to their conceits and enthusiastical 

Very earnest and diligent now also were the other sort of 
the disaffected to the church established; namely, against 
the episcopal government of the church, and the usages and 
ceremonies required and practised in it, as antichristian. 
How averse their minds were to these matters, may appear 
by a prayer they set forth the twenty-third of the queen, 
set at the end of one of their books. Which ran in these 
words : " O Lord God ! grant for thy mercy's sake, that as 
Jehoshaphat, in the third year of his reign, destroyed the 
high places and groves out of Judah, and sent his 
princes and priests, and gave them the book of the Lord 
[law] with them to reform religion by ; and so fear came 
upon every city, that they made not war against Jeho- 
shaphat : so, Lord, we humbly beseech thee to strengthen 
the queen"'s highness with thy holy Spirit, that in the 
twenty-third year of her reign she may cast down all the 
high places of idolatry within her land, with the popish 
canon law, and all superstition and commandments of 
men : and to pluck up all filthy ceremonies pertaining 
to the same. And that her highness may send forth her 
princes and ministers, and give them the book of the 
Lord. That thereby they may bring home the people of 
God to the purity and truth of the apostolic church. And 
then shall the fear of the Lord come upon every city and 
country ; that they shall not make war against our Jeho- 
shaphat. The very enemies that be without, shall be 
compelled to bring presents to her grace. 
" Thus, O Lord, grant, that her highness may not only 
have a happy, long, and prosperous reign, with peace of 
conscience, in this life ; but also in the life to come, her 
highness may enjoy, by the merits and death of Christ 
our Saviour, life everlasting. To which, with the Father 


" and the Holy Ghost, be all honour and glory, for ever CHAP, 
*' and ever. Amen. 

" And let all her majesty's true subjects say, Amen.'''' Anno issi. 

By which prayer it appeareth what opinion these new 
reformers had of this church at this time, notwithstanding 
the reformation of it : holding it as corrupt by idolatry and 
superstition as the Jewish church was when Jehoshaphat 
first entered upon the reformation of it. This prayer is set 
at the end of a book then set forth, entitled, A view of An- 
t'lclirist, &c. in our English cJmrch unreformed. 

To which I will add another composition of Thomas 47 
Wilcock and John Field, set at the end of a book of theirs, 
called, A confoss'ion of foitli, entitled, A prayer for M^ Another 
faithful. Viz. " O Lord God, and most merciful Father ! ^J^l^^^ ^^_ 
" we beseech thee, for the honour of thy holy name, to de-tichrist. 
'' fend us from the antichrist of Rome, and from all hisj^egjgj^ 
" detestable enormities, manners, laws, garments, and cere- 
" monies. Destroy the counsels of all papists and atheists, 
" enemies of the gospel, and of this realm of England. 
" Disclose their mischief, and subtile practices. Confound 
" their devices. Let them be taken in their own wilinesses. 
" And strengthen all those that maintain the cause and 
" quarrel of thy gospel, with invincible force and power of 
" thy holy Spirit. So that though they be destitute at any 
" time of worldly aid and comfort, that yet they fail not to 
" proceed and go forward toward that true godliness com- 
" manded by thy holy word, with all simplicity and sin- 
" cerity, to thy honour and glory, the comfort of thine 
" elect, and the confusion of thine enemies. Through 
" Christ, our Lord and Saviour. Amen. Amen. And say 
" from the heart, Amen.'''' 

F 2 



BOOK University matters. Tenets of Baro^ Margaret professor 
at Canibridg-e. Contest between him and Chaderton 

Anno 1581. about them. A bachelor of arts makes an invective 
against the duke d'Anjou. Called before the vice-chancel- 
lor. His letter to their chancellor. One in Trinity col- 
lege in tronble. Caius college. Number of students in 
Cambridge. Sheriffs of Oxon, their oath. Sheriffs'' fa- 
vour to schoolmasters. Mulcaster, a schoolmaster. Win- 
chester college, their address to the queen. Lincoln's Inn 
chooses Charkfor their preacher. 

IN O W to look over into our universities, and among the 
learned there. 
A doctrine Peter Baro, a Frenchman by birth, was now ladv Mar- 

of Bare, • i i • . 

Margaret garet professor at Cambridge; whose doctrine about wii- 
professor. f^g^gQi redemption somewhat varied from, or thwarted some 
of the articles received in the church of England, as some 
of the learned there thovight : among the rest, Lawrence 
Chaderton, B. D. fellow of a college there ; who preached 
publicly against those tenets of that professor, in a sermon ; 
of which William Dillingham (in a book writ of the said 
Chaderton''s life, printed anno 1700) gives this account : 
48 " That his nova dogmata, brought M'ith him into Eng- 
" land, dissonant from the truth and doctrine of the church 
" of England, he refuted in a sermon, being then bachelor 
" of divinity. For which Baro cited him into the consistory, 
" before the vice-chancellor and other heads, by arguments 
" written by him in his own defence. Which Chaderton 
" learnedly and acutely answered." 

Barons theses were these : 

Primus Dei amor est de naturafdeijustijicantis. 

Fides justijicans prcBcipitur in Decalogo. 

Chaderton defended the contrary. But afterwards they 
seemed each of them to come nearer to one another by softer 
words ; and yet both abounding in their own sense. These 
writings of Chaderton, Dillingham, the writer of his life, tells 
us, he foimd in searchine- certain old scrtnia of the univer- 


sity ; which he delivered afterwards to the university, to be CHAP. 

preserved among their xsjjxi^Aja. In the conclusion he thus ' 

declared himself to the heads; " That God was witness, Anno 1 58 1. 

" that in these cases he neither publicly nor privately spake 

" any thing, either out of a study of contradiction, or with 

" any mind of speaking evil of any man, but only publicly 

" to teach and defend the true doctrine of the church of 

" England, (of which he professed himself a member, ' 

*' though the least of all,) that had been impugned by a 

" man, however dear to him : especially the sense of the 

" place of scripture, which he took for his text, requiring it." 

How the matter of that controversy stood, and how the 
case came before the chancellor of the university and the 
archbishop of Canterbury, divers years after, and Baro's 
troubles, may be read at large in the Life of Archbishop Book iv. 
Whitgift, under the year 1595. 14^^15. ' 

As monsieur, the French king's brother, was here, court- 
ing the queen, which was not acceptable to very many in 
the kina-dom, so neither to some in the universities. We An invec- 
have heard of the Gaping Gtdph, wherein England was ^^ (^^m- 
like to be devoured ; a book writ by Stubbs ; for which he bridge 

• 1 1 J c: 1 against 

was punished with the loss of his right hand, bo here anionsieur. 
bachelor of arts, sir Morden of Peter-house, ventured to 
declaim in the schools against the said monsieur. In whose 
speech were such bold expressions, that it soon came to the 
ears of Dr. Perne, the vice-chancellor. Who calling the 
heads together, sent for the scholar, and his oration, and 
committed him to prison. And withal, that no displeasure 
might be taken by the queen against the university, he ad- 
dressed a letter to the lord Burghley, their chancellor, ac- 
quainting him with the whole matter. And then desired to 
know his pleasure in this affair. But, like a tender patron of 
the scholar, he mitigated, as much as he could, the crime, 
in respect of the person ; who was of a melancholic disposi- 
tion, and loved a solitary life. And withal giving the chan- 
cellor the cause the scholar gave of his speech, to be, only 
to exercise his oratory in imitation of Tully. 
' F 3 


BOOK But the vice-chancellor's letter unfolds at large, and more 
^- particularly, this cause. Which ran to this tenor : " That 
Anno 1581. " whereas there was a young man in Cambridge, a bachelor 
The vice- « ^f ^rts, of Petcr-house, called sir Morden, who in his 
letter con-*" problem kept in the logic schools, the 28th of April, 
cerning it. 44 j^^^j ^ lewdly in his oration inveighed against mon- 
^^ " sieur. As soon as he [the vice-chancellor] had under- 
' " standing of it, he immediately sent a beadle for him, 
" and for his oration, and for such bachelors as were pre- 
" sent, to come before him in the consistory, in the presence 
" of certain of the heads of the colleges and doctors, that 
" were then with him in the regent house at a congrega- 
" tion. Before whom, after that he had read part of the 
" said oration, seeing it was made as an invective against 
" monsieur, he demanded of the said Morden, What he 
" did mean so wickedly, and like a madman, to abuse any 
" manner of person, much more so noble a prince, and in 
" that place, contrary to the order of the schools, and con- 
" trary to all godliness, honesty, and wisdom ? That he an- 
" swered. He did it for exercise of the imitation of Tully. 
" The which answer (as the vice-chancellor writ,) did ap- 
" pear in some part to be true, by the sentences and phrases 
" taken out of Tully's orations contra Verrem et Catili- 
" nam ; but wickedly, and without all discretion applied 
" against monsieur. For the which he took it his duty to 
" commit him to prison, till he knew further of his [the 
" said chancellor's] pleasure, after that his lordship had seen 
" the said lewd and slanderous oration against such a noble 
" prince at this time ; and also till his honour should un- 
" derstand of the state of the said bachelor, who had no 
" living in Cambridge, and was of no credit or estimation 
" any way : for that he was well known, both in the college 
" and otherwise, to be so greatly troubled with melancholy, 
" that he had lived almost solitary, without any discretion ; 
" or troubled in his wits greatly : and having a great wean- 
" ing of his own wit and learning, appeared puffed up with 
" vainglory and madness, had played this mad part, wor- 


** thy of such correction, as should be thought convenient CHAP 
*' to his honour's wisdom, for his wicked and slanderous _____ 

*' oration; though he were of no wisdom, as appeared evi- Anno issi. 
** dently by the same ; nor yet of any credit or estimation. 

" Thus being right heartily sorry (as he went on) to trou- 
** ble your honour at this time any kind of way, I pray Al- 
*' mighty God to direct you with his holy Spirit in all your 
** honourable and weighty affairs." 

And then he concluded with some account of the present 
state of that university, in respect of the scholars' habits, 
and the decency and sobriety of their behaviour; which 
had been disorderly before, and complained of: and con- 
cerning some controversies with the townsmen : all was now, 
by his, their chancellor's care and advice, in peace, quiet, 
and good order. As the vice-chancellor proceeded in his 
letter : " That all other things were very well and in good The present 
" order in the university, both for the exercise of learning, ofthatj,„i. 
*' and also for comeliness in apparel, and manners of scho- ^'^•■*'*y- 
*' lars, as it was this prox. [last] year. And the town and 
*' they had agreed well of all those things wherein they 
" craved his honour's help. And that for the which they 
*' were daily bound to pray to Almighty God, for his ho- 
** nour's long preservation in all godly prosperity. From 50 
" Cambridge, the 29th of April, 1581. Subscribing, 
" Your honour's daily orator, 

" Andrew Perne." 

The bearer of this letter was Mr. Nevil, senior proctor of 
the university. 

There is also a remark I have to make of another scho- One of Tri- 
lar of this university, namely, one Medolph, a fellow of "^ trouble^ 
Trinity college : who had maintained some opinions, that ^^\ sp^^^ 
touched upon the church of England, as it seemed, and of 
savouring some odd and dangerous principles against the 
state of it. For which he was called before the master and 
fellows, and required his answer to what he had asserted. 
But not giving them that satisfaction they required, they 
did resolve to deprive him of his fellowship. But the lord 

F 4 


BO (IK Burghley, that university's compassionate chancellor, hear- 
^' ing this, reckoned they had proceeded too rigorously against 

AiiDo 1581. him. And therefore loath, that a young scholar, and hope- 
ful person, should be thus exposed to need, and thrown out 
of a place of study, and improvement of himself in litera- 
ture, resolved to have the cause brought before him, to hear 
it : and required the articles against him to be brought to 
him. Whose humane, discreet,- and wise letter to the master 
and fellows deserves to be here repeated. 

" After my hearty commendations. Where I am given to 
*' understand, by some personages of good regard, that you 
" have lately intended the deprivation of one Medolph, fel- 
" low of your house, for some opinions maintained by him, 
" wherewith he was charged, and whereto, as it seemeth, 
" he hath not by his answer satisfied you ; as believing, 
" and thought by you, sufficient to answer his accusation : 
" being pcradventure more hardly construed than his mean- 
" ing was by the same answer, if the same were to be inter- 
" preted indifferently, and according to his meaning: and 
" though haply the offence of the said Medolph may be 
" very great herein, and deserving punishment, yet seeing 
" the proceeding of you against him in so high a degree as 
" deprivation, is as great a punishment as can be inflicted 
" upon the greatest disordered persons in any society ; 
" whereto it is thought this his offence cannot any way 
" come near ; and being as great a punishment in such a 
" civil government, as death to a malefactor and infringer 
" of the laws in his kind : 

" I cannot think it convenient, neither do I allow in a so- 
" ciety professing Christian society and charity, any such 
" extreme punishment to be imposed upon any, especially 
♦' being fellow, and of account and credit, in a public uni- 
'* versity and society, as yours is, without greater and more 
" urgent cause thereto, than I understand. And therefore, 
" or ever you shall proceed to the publication of your de- 
" privation against him, I am to, and hereby do, require 
" you to stay the same, until such time as you shall have 
" sent up to me the articles wherewith you charge the said 


" Medolph, and whereto he hath made his answers, that do CHAP. 
" not satisfy you : that it may be considered how far his . 

offence shall deserve such strict punishment, or mitigation, Anno issi. 
" as shall be thought to answer the quality of his offence ; ^ ^ 
" or that he may be induced by fairer means to satisfy 
" you. 

" And if you shall have any further or other matter to * 
" charge the said Medolph with, than this, to which he hath 
" made answer, yovi shall do well likewise to send the same 
" up, to be likewise considered of. For my meaning is so 
^' to temper this cause, as neither 1 would have any error or 
" offensive opinions maintained against the state of our 
" church ; neither yet would I that every opinion miscon- 
" ceived, or opinion that may by argument be misinterpret- 
" ed offensive, should so sharply be punished, as I know de- 
*' privation is to a poor student and scholar ; whose reforma- 
*' tion were to be otherwise sought, in a case of no greater 
*•' weight than, as I am informed, this is." 

What the opinion of this man was, that varied from, or 
was opposite to the doctrine or practice of the church, I find 
not ; but the wisdom of the chancellor, and his care, as of 
the university in general, so of every member thereof in par- 
ticular, brightly appears in this his letter. 

Dr. Legg of this university, master of Caius college, was Master of 
popishly affected ; and bred up young gentlemen, his pu- ]e!^'e"popish- 
pils, in popish and disloyal principles. And many gentle- ly affected. 
men in the north, that were Romanists, or that way dis- 
posed, sent their children and relations to him for their edu- 
cation ; who sent them back strengthened more in popery. 
Sandys, the good archbishop of York, knew this, and sent 
an earnest letter this year to the lord treasurer, to inform him 
thereof; and to be a means to stop Legg from taking any 
more pupils, to prevent his infusing bad principles into them. 
The archbishop'^s letter is transcribed, and may be read in Annals, vol. 
the former volume of the Annals. ch. 21. 

A paper was sent up, as it seems, to the high chancellor Number of 
of this university, giving an account of the numbers of the anTstu-* 
professors and students thereof; and Avhat need there was of <'«"*« •" 



BOOK more encouragement for them, considering their numbers. 
'• It began at this year, 1581, and so to the year 1588: viz. 
Auiio 1581. " Anno 1581, Numbers of all the preacliers in Cambridge. 
" Their numbers amounted to 131. 

" Numbers of all the readers and auditors of every lec- 
" ture in Cambridge amounted to 1862.*" 

The year uncertain, but not long after the former : " Stu- 
" dents within the colleges of Cambridge, 1950. Graduates, 
" 657. Preachers, almost all unprovided for, 122. Besides 
" many which be ready to be employed. 

" Of these there be poor students, which be very godly 
" and painful ; and for lack of exhibition shall be forced to 
" forsake their studies, 269. 

" May it please you to consider of their relief; and to 
" give intelligence of your liberalities herein to Mr. Dean of 
52 " PauPs. By whom, Avith the assistance of some others, it 
" shall be well bestowed." 

By which address it appears, that the foregoing account 
of the numbers of the learned men and scholars there, was 
sent up in order to encourage their studies; that the church 
might be furnished with able persons and men of learning ; 
the want of which was the great complaint of these times. 
And for this purpose a liberal contribution was made among 
well disposed persons ; and especially in the city of London ; 
and the dean of Paul's appointed the treasurer. 

The former list ends at the year 1588. " Scholars, pro- 
" fessors, and auditors in that university, then were in num- 
A contio- Controversies between the university of Oxford and the 
ed about an townsmen. Continued sharply from the year 1575 to this 
T*^' ff*^ f'"^^ present year, (unless pacified for a while,) by the favourable 
Oxford. countenance and determination of the lord treasurer, were 
composed ; and particularly about every high sheriff of the 
county, to be obliged, in the entrance upon his office, to take 
an oath to uphold and defend the ancient statutes, privileges, 
and customs thereof. For this his singular and seasonable 
favour, tliey, in the name of tlie university, sent him an epi- 
stle of great thanks, their long troubles with their neighbours 


being now at an end, by his means. Wherein they acknow- CHAP, 
ledge his favour shewed them ; particularly in two things, 

viz. in vindicating their ancient privileges, which had been ^°^° ^^^^' 
mightily opposed by the juries of the citizens; and that he 
ordered, that the sheriffs of Oxford, according as they were 
wont, and ought, should swear to the observation of their 
statutes, and to the defence and safeguard of them. Begin- 
ning their letter with the happiness of the other university 
in such a patron of them and their studies, as he was : Quam 
sit heata et felix respvhlica literaria {illustrissime domine) 
quod te virum prudentia ornatum singulari^ et summa pr<B- 
ditum authoritate nacta sit patronum et dejensorem, testis 
est non ilia modo Cantahrigiensis academia, &c. That is, 
" How blessed and happy the commonwealth of learning 
" was in him, a person adorned with singular prudence, and 
" endued with chief authority, its patron and defender, the 
" university of Cambridge was witness ; which happily en- 
** joyed rest and quiet under his patronage," &c. Among 
the expressions to set forth their thanks, they promise him, 
that they would never be overcome by his own Cambridge 
in loving and honouring him, and in all kind of duty, satis- 
fying his honour in any thing, and at any time they might 
shew it. But I leave the whole copy of that university's let- 
ter in the Appendix. NXVill. 

This letter was written in June ; and not many months The univer- 
after, viz. in November, they address to him again, when a\^J^ °^^^ 
new sheriff was to enter upon his office; of whose backward- surer, con- 

■ • 1 • Ti • I. cerning 

ness to such an oath, to mamtam their hberties, as above, swearing 
they were jealous. They now sent him up a copy of their tj|^^!'^s'» 
statute relating to the sheriff of Oxford ; and prayed him to 
oblige the said sheriff, that there might be no delay or pro- 
crastination in the swearing him in that behalf. The letter 
wa sas followeth : 

Statiitum est {honor atissime vir) nt vicecoines,ej usque vi- 53 
cem gerens^juramentum prccstaret de ohservandis academi(B 
nostrcB privileges. Quoniamque jam tempus instat, quo se- 
nescenti veteri novus est successor sujjiciendus^ cujus deju- 
ramento anxii sumus, et soliciti ; ah amplitudinc tua sup^ 


BOOK jd'^^^^ rogamus, ut subvenias huic nostrcB soUcitudini. Non 
erubescimus id a te per literas pefere JiumilUme, quod nobis 
Anno \58\. omnium maximum sit, et maxime necessarium. Honori tuo 
nostra omnia commendatissima esse cupimus : tum nihil ma- 
gis, quam ne tempus exigendi hujus sacramenti, aut omitta- 
tur, aiit prorogetur. Omriis enim procrastinatio periculi ple- 
na. Hoc, quojeliciores maturioresque Jiaheat successus ; te, 
tuum honorem, tuam vitam, salutem, cogitationes, consilia, 
Divini Numinis majestati et hmiitati, commendamus. Oxon. 
14^0. Jcalendas Decemh. anno salutis 1581. 

Honoris tui studiosissima, 

Academia Oxon. 

For the statute which the university sent up with the 
former letter, being their charter granted them 29 Edw. III. 
N". IX. for the sheriffs oath, I betake the reader to the Appendix, 
where the copy of it is reposited. 

From the universities, I pass on to a passage or two which 
I meet with, falhng in this year, concerning the instructors 
Favour of youth in schools of lesser eminence. The favour shewn 
sciTJo'imas- ^o schoolmasters in these times was remarkable, being com- 
ters. monly freed from taxes and ordinary payments, and had ex- 

emptions from personal services ; commonly charged upon 
other subjects. Which Richard Mulcaster, an eminent 
Element, schoolmaster in London, in his Elementary, (a book of his 
^'■^^'' setting forth the next year,) called, " the munificence, and 
" that extraordinary, of our princes and parliaments towards 
" their whole order [of schoolmasters] in the country ""s be- 
" half." But it seems, in a subsidy given the queen about 
this year, or the next, some that were assessors had cessed 
all schoolmasters, though it was not done before ; or at least 
starting a question about it, upon some quarrel against some 
few of them: and so seeking the damage of all. Which Mul- 
caster styled, " scant charitable dealing the damages of a 
The school- " number, by quarrel to some few." But upon this, the 
"ress^o the schoolmasters make an humble address to sir Walter Mild- 
judges, may, chancellor of the exchequer, sir Roger Manwood, lord 
chief baron of the court of exchequer, Ro. Sute, John Clinch, 


and John Sotherton, esqrs. barons of the exchequer ; beseech- CHAP, 
ino- them, for the common benefit of a number of poor men, 

to favour them in this matter. Whereupon it pleased them Anno issi. 
to take the cause to protection ; and to construe the statute 
both as the parliament men did mean it, and as they had 
still enjoyed it, to the common benefit of their whole com- 
pany. Upon which that writer concluded, " That this their 
" great goodness to the favour of their order, as it deserved 
" at their hands an honourable remembrance, so it bound 
" them further to the common care, for the which they had 
" been favoured." 

I come now to note a mark of the queen's regard to col- 5 4 
leges of learning and religion, by what happened to Win- Ti^« q^ueen's 
Chester college. She had this year requested a favour of the Winchester 
warden of that college ; which was, that they would grant ^^^^^S^- 
her a long lease of the rectory of Downton, in their gift. 
With which she intended to gratify Mr. Wilks, clerk of her 
council, and one who by embassies and messages had well 
deserved of her. This the college could not tell how to deny 
the queen, though the fear of such like grants for the future 
did discourage them ; only the queen had graciously pro- 
mised them, that it should be no precedent, and that she in- 
tended now to make no such requests of them at any time 
hereafter. They humbly and readily granted her letter; 
but withal put her in mind of making good that promise, by 
some assurance from her. Their letter to her may deserve 
our reading. It is as foUoweth : 

" May it please your most excellent majesty, answering Their letter 
" the request of your majesty's letter, and our willing and *" ^''^^J^^^^i*' 
. " most dutiful disposition and promise to accomplish the 
" same. We, the warden, fellows, and scholars, clerks of 
" this college, have sealed and confirmed the lease unto your 
" highness for forty years, of the parsonage and rectory of 
" Downton, in the county of Wilts. The rather, our duties 
" with all humility considered, for that we are given to un- 
" derstand, that the said lease is by your majesty intended 
" to be conferred on Mr. Wilks, one of the clerks of your 
" majesty's most honourable privy-council, in consideration 


BOOK "of his service done unto your majesty and the realm. 
" Which, with our said duties, we have herein specially con- 

Anno 1581. " sidered : and do most humbly desire and beseech your most 
" excellent majesty, that this our grant may, for the time to 
" come,by your majesty's princely affection towards the main- 
" tenance of learning, be a sufficient occasion to make a stay 
" of the like suits to be hereafter tendered by any person of 
" your highness. So as our hope conceived, and your ma- 
" jesty's promise thereunto most graciously yielded, may by 
" your highnesses special letters be effectually signified, to 
" remain ^vith us, as a particular act of your majesty's most 
" gracious good meaning : to discharge us of the hazard of 
" the decay of our maintenance, the hurting of so worthy a 
" foundation, and the burden of our consciences, being 
" sworn to the preservation thereof, as far forth as the au- 
" thority of our founder might extend ; and our oath as du- 
" tiful subjects may be measured by your majesty, and the 
" laws of your realm in that behalf provided. 

" And therefore, with the performance of our duties and 
" profession, as is before mentioned, we do eftsones most 
" humbly, and with all dutiful submission, very earnestly 
" desire your most excellent majesty to have a gracious con- 
" sideration of our present estate, and as a true mother of 
" all virtuous and good learning, to yield unto a speedy de- 
" fence against all other attempts, as may be, to the opening 
" of so large a gap, as, by this our extraordinary grant unto 
*' your majesty, may hereafter, by your authority, be en- 
*' tered into : wherein hoping to find your majesty our gra- 
** cious good lady, we beseech Almighty God to preserve 
55 " you in health and happiness, long to reign over us, to the 
" overthrow of your enemies, and the comfort of us all, your 
" dutiful subjects. From your college near Winchester, 
" this 13th of March. 

" Your majesty's most humble and obedient subjects, the 
" warden and fellows, and scholars, clerks of St. Mary's 
*' college of Winchester." 

ciiark no- Lincoln's Inn, another society of learned men of another 



science, had not yet a constant preacher fixed among tliem, CHAP, 
as other of the inns of court had. And they were in this, ^' 

or near this year, resolving upon some able preacher to offi- Anno issi. 
ciate among: them in that quality. Mr. Chark of Cambridge, P^''acher of 

o . . Lincoln s 

late of Peter-house, was the man they inclined to. But he inn. 
was a person disaffected to the habits of the clergy, and to 
the present government of the church by metropolitans, 
archbishops, bishops, &c. which he had openly preached 
against in St. Mary's, Cambridge, some years before : and 
was now in the household of the duchess of Somerset ; and 
esteemed for his good parts and eloquence. But first the so- 
ciety had moved Mr. Chaderton, an eminent man of Cam- 
bridge, and Mr. Reynolds, another man of note in Oxford, 
to be their preacher ; but they were not minded to leave their 
present places. But then Chark was next in their view. And 
in order to that, they applied themselves to the bishop of 
London, for his approbation and allowance of him : which 
he refused not, as knowing his abilities. But withal, advis- 
ing them to apply to the lords of the council for their allow- 
ance first, as not willing to admit him of his own sole autho- 
rity : which accordingly they did, by using the interest of 
some person at court, that had been of their society, to pro- 
cure some of the lords to approve of the said Chark to be 
their preacher. And accordingly wrote a letter to him for 
that purpose ; which was to this tenor : 

" Where we have been a long time desirous to have a Their letter 
" preacher in our house, like as in other houses of court ; ti'er'*to*pr'o- 
" and having made offers to divers, as, to Mr. Chaderton, cure the ai- 
" Mr. Reynolds, and others, could not procure them thither, him. 
" by reason tliey are not willing to leave the places and 
" charges they are in already, and thereupon have at 
" length chosen Mr. Chark, we have thought good to ac- 
" quaint the bishop therewith, to the end we might have his 
" lordship's allowance therein ; who, although for his own 
** part he doth very well like of Mr. Chark for many good 
" gifts in him, whereof also himself remembered some par- 
" ticulars, and gave him his very good commendations, yet 


BOOK " he wished the lords to be made acquainted therewith. To 
" the end that their good allowance and approbation might 

Anno 1581." concur with his, for Mr. Chart's better encouragement 
" and countenance in that place. And forasmuch as we 
" are desirous thereof ourselves, and consider that you are 
" (as we do all account you) one of us, we have thought 
" good to use your good means in procuring some letters 
" from the lords and others, to such effect as may seem good 
" to their lordships. Wherein we would have been ready 
" to have given our own attendance, but that we have so good 
" and ready means as you are, on whom we are bold to lay 
" this burden for this time. And so fare you well. Your 
" loving friends,'' &c. 

The person to whom this letter was written appears not ; 
yet I verily believe it was either Vincent Skinner or Michael 
56 Hicks, both of that society of Lincoln's Inn, and both secre- 
taries to the lord treasurer Burghley at this time. And so 
had a greater opportunity of promoting the request of these 
gentlemen. Who had the success desired from the lords. 
As appears by their letter to the bishop of London, [bishop 
Elmer,] as follows . 
The lords to " After our hearty commendations. Where we are given 
the bishop a j.^ understand, that the bench of Lincoln's Inn have made 

of London, 

recom- " choice of late of Mr. Chark to be their preacher, as other 
Chark"^ " houses of court have likewise done of others ; and that 
" your lordship, having been made acquainted therewith, (as 
" in these causes we think is requisite,) have desired, not- 
" withstanding your own good liking, to have some signifi- 
" cation of ours also ; we, considering the great hope of good 
" to be done by such means in those places, and understand- 
" ing the ability of Mr. Chark sufficient for that purpose, 
" have thought good to join our good liking to yours, to the 
" furtherance of so good a service, as we hope this will be, 
" to God, and to her majesty. And so we bid your lord- 
" ship right heartily farewell. Your loving friends," &c. 

This Chark was a puritan, and for the new disciphne, and 
against the government of the church by bishops : of whom 


you may read more in the Life of Archbishop Whitgift. CHAP. 
But perhaps his principles were moderated by this time, and ' 

better regulated. Annoissi. 

B.i. c.7.sub 
. anno IS??. 


Edward, earl of Oxford : displeased xoith the lady his wife. 
Whence occasioned. Her humble letter to him. Matters 
between him and the lord Burghley, her father. His three 
daughters, endowed xoith lands by lord Burghley. The 
earVs debts. Motion madejhr espousing Anne Cecil and 
Philip Sidney in their childhoods. Elizabeth, the lord 
treas'urer'' s other daughter, mar7'ied to the lord Went- 
wortlis son. Other motions of marriage for her. Lord 
Tho. Paget and his wi/e part. A note of Manwood, lord 
chief Justice. Nudigate, steioard to the duchess qfSome?'- 
set, his death ; and last will. The duchess, his executrix. 
A note cmicerning her. A woman steals: her horrible per- 
jury. A xvoman deals in necromancy : drotons herself, 

IN OW for a few more private and domestic matters, that Tiie eaii of 
fell out within this year. "''"" "f '- 

'' _ ned to the 

The lord Burghley, lord treasurer of England, had, divers lord trea- 
years before, [viz. 1571,] disposed in marriage his daughter jj^u„iftpr- 
Anne, a lady in the queen's bed-chamber, to Edward earl of '''^content- 
Oxford, that had been his ward. She was a very accomplish- c ^ 
ed and learned lady. William Lewen, LL.D. was her in-Hercharac- 
structor in learning. And when he had desired of the lord \^'^' ^'^; 

o ^ Lewen, her 

treasurer, her father, some certain place and employment, instructor, 
she also writ to him, her letter dated at Wivenhoe, a seat of 
the earPs, in Lewen"'s behalf; and prayed her father to re- 
commend him to the queen, to translate into Latin, from our 
mother tongue, the works of bishop Jewel ; and that he was 
very desirous to employ his pen therein : and this, that he 
might become known to her majesty. In Lewen's letter to 
the lord treasurer, he styled her, Mea, mei studiosissima, 
hera, in respect of her kindness and good- will towards him : 
and in respect of her own ingenuity and virtue, he com- 



BOOK mended her in these words ; Hera mea, et ingenii et naturce 
^- bonitas, a te quideni, ipso patre, hausia : i. e. My lady, the 
Anno 1581. goodness of whose both wit and nature is from you, her fa- 
ther, derived. 

Well, this for her character. Her father advancing her by 
her marriage to the title of countess ; here was honour for 
her, yet little contentment. For he soon proved unkind to 
her, an excellent, well deserving lady, and most dear to her 
father : the earl having taken some exceptions to the lord 
Buro-hley ; as in not procuring him some place and other fa- 
vours from the queen. So that in disgust he soon absented 
himself from her, and went abroad to travel. The main 
cause was, he was very extravagant, and had run out. En- 
deavours were now made to make up matters, and beget a 
reconcihation between him and his lady ; whom he now pre- 
tended some jealousy of, or some other crime, whereof she, 
a very virtuous woman, was altogether innocent. Which in 
how humble and obliging a manner she avowed the same, 
and how desirous of his return to her, her letter from her 
father's house, whither she was now retired, will shew. 
Which ran in these words : 
The coun- " My lord, in what misery may I accuse myself to be, 
to'thJead " that neither can see any end diereof, nor yet any hope, 
her hus- " how to diminish it ? And now of late having some hope 
" in my own conceit, that your lordship would have renew- 
" ed some part of your favour that you began to shew me 
" this summer, when you made me some assurance of your 
" good meaning, though you seemed fearful how to shew it 
" by open actions. Now after long silence of hearing any 
" thing from you, at the length I am informed, (but how 
" truly I know not, and yet how uncomfortably I do feel it,) 
" that your lordship is entered into some misliking of me, 
" without any cause in deed or thought. 

" And therefore, my good lord, I beseech you, in the 
" name of that God that knows all my thoughts, and my 
" love towards you, notwithstanding your evil usage of me, 
" let me know the truth of your meaning towards me, upon 
" what cause you are moved to continue me in this misery ; 


" and what you would have me do in my power, to recover CHAP. 
" your constant favour. So as your lordship may not be. ^^' 

" still led to detain me in calamity, without some probable -Anno issi. 
*' cause ; whereof I appeal to God I am utterly innocent. ^^ 
" From my father's house in Westminster, this 7th of De- 
" cember, 1581." 

To search a little into this earPs displeasure and discon- Earl of ex- 
tent with his innocent lady. By this time he had run out a^°in^i"J"°" 
great part of his estate, and was got deep into the queen''s own house, 
debt ; and consorted with such persons whom the queen had 
a jealousy of, as the family of the Howards, and others po- 
pishly affected. So that I find him now committed to his 
house. But by his father-in-law the lord Burghley"'s inter- 
est with the queen, she had promised him his liberty. We 
may guess at his restraint by the message she sent him by 
her secretary Walsingham, in these particular points. First, 
That she would have heard the matter again touching Henry 
Howard, [who was brother to the late duke of Norfolk, be- 
headed,] Southwell, and Arundel, [the duke's son.] Uncer- 
tain I am what that matter was; whether a quarrel, or a 
lawsuit about lands. Secondly, That she understood, he 
meant to cut down all his woods, especially about his house: 
which she did not so well like of. As also, That he should 
sell so many lands elsewhere, as he had done a great many 
before. And lastly. That she had heard that he had been 
hardly used by some of his servants during the time of his 
commitment. Wherein she promised her aid so far as she 
could with justice, to redress the loss he had sustained there- 

He had sold lands, among others, to the lord Darcy and Sells lands 
sir William Walgrave ; and being gotten into the queen's ^^^ °^^j 
debt, the lands that he had sold to them were in danger of Waigrave. 
being extended. And he had entered into bonds to such as 
had purchased lands of him, to discharge them of all in- 
cumbrances. And to those two gentlemen he had entered 
into statute of great sums for their discharge. But the earl 
was dilatory, and they had entreated him to discharge her 
majesty's debt : and did seem willing at last to bear a bur- 



BOOK den thereof, if by his means the same might be stalled, and 
paid at some convenient days. For obtaining this, the earl 

Anno 1581. desired the lord Burghley^s assistance; and that (as he 
wrote in his letter to him) " for the saving of his honour, 
" and the securing his wife\s jointure."" And this he knew 
would go a great way with him, her tender father ; and that 
the queen's not yielding thereto might give a new occasion 
to the earl to fall out with his countess. 

The lord Burghley, perceiving how the earl went on 
spending, partly mortgaging, and partly selling away his 
The earl lands and demeans, and also had made sales and leases 
fended with greatly disadvantageous to himself, sent for one Amyse, his 
the lord servant, [perhaps his steward,] telling him, that he should 
and^whT. take his opportunity to advise his lord to leave the whole 
management of his estate to him, the said Amyse, or to some 
other faithful servant ; and to resolve not to treat, or make 
any bargain with any hereafter himself. But at this, when 
the earl came acquainted with it, he was highly enraged. 
And thus expressed himself in the postscript of a letter he 
had sent to that lord for some considerable favour : " That 
" he now understood the mean opinion he had of him, and 
" the small good- will he bare him. And that though he 
59 " were nearly allied unto him, yet he meant not to be his ward 
" nor his child. And that he was free, and scorned to be 
" offered that injury, to think that he was so weak of go- 
" vernment as to be ruled by servants, or -not able to govern 
" himself. And that his lordship would leave that course, 
" as hurtful to them both ; if he would have him make ac- 
" count of his [the lord Burghley's] friendship." As threaten- 
ing to take another course, if his lordship took that: not 
thinking fit to take his counsel, that was the wisest counsel- 
lor in the nation. This happened in the year 1584. 
The lord His lady had three daughters by him ; who (with their 

Burghley i^jother, the countess) lived with the lord Burghley, their 

leaves lands ' ' pi' 

to the earl's grandfather. And who by his last will had left jewels among 

daughters. ^^^^^ ^^^ conveyed lands to each of them; unless by default 

of issue. And then those lands were to return to his own 

heirs of his body. But upon the death of that lord, the earl 


began to stir, and claim to have his daughters, (his countess CHAP, 
being now dead too,) probably to finger their estates left 

them. But this, sir Robert Cecil, the deceased lord Burgh- Anno issi. 
ley's son and heir, would not consent to; and was suspicious 
of the earFs appointing some rude, violent persons to steal 
the young ladies from Tybald's, the house where they were 
at the death of the lord Burghley, who, though not by his 
will, yet by word of mouth to Bellot, his steward, and one 
of his executors, did appoint these his grandchildren, daugh- 
ters of the earl, to be taken care of, and kept by his son, sir 
Robert. And this he desired Bellot to tell the earl. And 
Mainard [who was his secretary] would witness it. So that 
if the earl should now demand of sir Robert the custody of 
his children, he ordered the said Bellot thus to answer the 
earl ; That he, or any body besides, could not have them. 
For that if he looked into the deeds, whereby the lord 
Burghley had conveyed them these lands, he should find, 
that for default of issue, the said lands came to the heirs of 
his body : and whether he, that never gave them a groat, 
had a second wife, and another child, were a fit guardian to 
them, he bade him consider it himself. He advised also his 
said steward, that when he, the said sir Robert, should be at 
court, attending his office of secretary of state, to have a care 
these ladies were not stolen away by the earl's means ; and 
wished they had some honest men there, whilst Bellot was 
absent from them. 

These ladies, by the care of their uncle, sir Robert Cecil, The earl's 
matched honourably; being all countesses by their marriages: „*arria^*^es 
viz. Elizabeth, matched with William, earl of Darby ; Brid- York's He- 
get, with Francis, lord Norris, earl of Barkshire; and Susan, " ^^' 
with Philip, earl of Montgomery. 

This was the man that " set his patrimony flying," said the Lands sold 
historian in the Life of Queen Elizabeth. Some of his sales J^^Jf ^^ ^^'^ 
may be seen in the Appendix, with the names of the pur- N". X. 
chasers. And his debts to the queen. 

I add but one thing more concerning this lady, Anne, A motion 
countess of Oxon. That she and sir Philip Sidney, being phmp sid- 
both children, earnest motions were made by sir Henry Sid- °^y ^"^ ., 

• * Anne Cecil, 

G O children. 




Anno 1581. 

Cecil mar- 
ried to the 
lord Went- 
worth's son. 

Sought in 
before by 
noble per- 

ney, his father, and the earl of Leicester, his uncle, might 
be espoused. And sir William Cecil, her father, accorded 
upon articles with them upon the match : he to pay such a 
portion, and sir Henry to make such settlement. The only 
difference was, that sir Henry and the earl were for making 
the match firm and absolute between them, though yet but 
children. But sir William Cecyl, her loving father, could not 
be drawn to that ; but thought it convenient, that both pai • 
ties should like each other. " In die mean time," as he told 
N. White, an intimate friend of his, " as I wish Philip Sid- 
" ney full liberty, [that is, to make his own choice,] so 
" surely Ann Cecyl shall have it also." 

This year another of the lord treasurer''s daughters, Eliza- 
beth Cecil, was married to William, eldest son of Thomas, 
lord Wentworth, the last English governor of Calais. This 
match also unhappy, by the untimely death of her husband, 
who died within the year; a worthy and hopeful young 

While this lady was but in her childhood, the lord Burgh- 
ley, her father, was not without applications of very honour- 
able persons, to match their young sons with her. As ap- 
pears by letters to him from the lord Buckhurst and the earl 
of Essex, and offers made him for their sons, in the year 
1573. The former propounded his eldest son Robert, and 
to make his estate worth SOOO/. per annum. And if at years 
of discretion his son liked not of her, he promised 2000 
mark towards her portion, to be given within two years after 
such refusal. Devereux also, earl of Essex, made proffer of 
his son, lord Ferrers, the same year, to her father. And 
would assure them 2000 mark a year in land, besides the 
houses, demeans, and parks. And promised to allow his son 
lOOZ. or 200 marks by the year for his education, while he 
was young ; and to settle a jointure of 500/. per annum upon 
his daughter. And upon their marriage to part witii a con- 
venient portion for their maintenance during his own life. 
And at years of discretion, if the match should not go for- 
ward, to give to his daughter 2000/. towards her portion. He 
promised likewise, for himself, his fast love and friendship 


towards his lordship : and adding, that there was an equality CHAP. 
sufficient in their years, and no great distance in neighbour- ' 

hood between Tybald's and Bennington, [the former the Anno issi. 
lord Burghley's seat, and the latter the earFs, in Hertford- 
shire.] And that such an occasion might make him like well 
of his lands in Essex : and where, if God should send him 
life, he might hereafter shew all offices of friendship to the 
good countess; [viz. of Oxford; who was often in that county 
of Essex, where the earl her husband''s demeans lay.] All 
this the earl of Essex propounded by way of letter from 
Knockfergus in Ireland ; professing to do this to express, 
the best way he could, his sense of that constant favour and 
love that that lord had shewn him. And therefore resolved 
to make the offer of the most sufficient pledge of his good- 
will to him ; namely, of the discretion, education, and mar- 
riage of his eldest son. 

But none of these proposals of marriage took effect, the 
lady, as was said before, having the lord Wentworth''s son 
for her husband. The wedding was celebrated at Tybald's 
with great pomp and abundance three days together, viz. 
February 26, 27, 28. 

A domestic jar happened between the lord Thomas Paget 6 1 
and his wife. He was the son of that great and learned 
statesman, lord William Paget, employed in places of trust 
and honour by king Henry VIII. king Edward VI. and 
queen Mary ; and who died at his house in Drayton, and 
was there honourably interred, in the year 1563. Of this 
noble lord, and of the use made of him for his great abilities, 
I have made divers memorials elsewhere. He had two sons, 
who succeeded their father in the barony, Henry, and this 
Thomas, unhappy in his wife. So that the differences be- Lord Paget 
tween them, in fine, came to that point, that this year they ^J?^^ |j?^ 
were parting asunder, on certain conditions. Wherein thisgreeing, 
lord obtained the favour of the lord treasvirer to be concern- ^' ^ ' 
cd, as a mediator, and at both their desires, the decision left 
chiefly to him : which that lord expressed in his letter to 
him, viz. " That he humbly thanked his lordship for the 
*' good desire he had to be a mediator in his unfortunate 

G 4 


BOOK " case, and which it pleased God it might be better. But 
" that in the mean while this course which they had agreed 

Anno 1581." upon was a less ill than a worse, viz. in living together 
" with continual jars. These articlings (he added) needed 
" not; but that it pleased her to use it for a delay. For if 
" she could tell (said he) what would please herself, this 
" business were soon at an end. And that every day she 
" came in with one new demand or other, and resolved upon 
" nothing. Yet would he ever be ready to do what he 
" should." 

The day before, he received the lord treasurer''s letter, 
with the articles. To which he returned his answers en- 
closed : concluding, how sorry he was thus to trouble his 
lordship. This was dated from London, March 21, 1581. 
I set down this note of this lord, being the son of so emi- 
nent a person. I add concerning him, that, whether it were 
out of discontent, or zeal to popery, he fled three or four 
yeai's after into France, with Charles Arundel, and some 
Cam. Eiiz. others, devoted to the Romish religion, upon one Throg- 
P" ^^'*' morton''s commitment about the Scots queen. 
A charge of I meet this year with a remark upon another person of 
ing upon rank, viz. sir Roger Manwood, lord chief baron : Avhether 
baron Man- j^j^g matter Were justly charged upon him, I leave to the let- 
ter of a gentleman, one Barry, sent to the said lord chief ba- 
ron from Dover castle : as making use of the queen''s name 
and authority to get certain lands and possessions into his 
own hands from the right owners, and some of them minors: 
for this original and somewhat sharp letter from the said 
})erson, I find wrote to him, viz. 
MSS. Cecil- " My humble duty unto your lordship remembered. 
" Where yovu* lordship hath, by many indirect means, 
" sought to have the tenants'* lands in Sandhills, and Mar- 
" shal lands in Sholden and Deal : and now of late, to bring 
" yovir purpose to pass, you have sent an injunction, to en- 
" join some of the tenants out of possession, and to bring 
*' the same to your hands, or your assignees, by colour of 
" a pretended right of the queen's majesty to these lands ; 
" some part of these lands do concern me in the right of my 


" dauffhter and her children. The which I am not to de- CHAP. 

• • VI 

" part from, without making her majesty privy to your 

"indirect dealings. At whose hands, he added, that heAnnoissi. 

" doubted not but to find both favour and justice. That it "2 

" seemed by some speeches his lordship gave out of late, 

" that he might do what he would, not to be undone by 

" any subject in this land. Whereby his lordship made 

" him to call to mind a speech he heard him once utter : 

" which was, that in the Common Place there was all law 

" and no conscience. In the King's Bench both law and 

" conscience. In the Chancery, all conscience and no law. 

" And in the Chequer, neither law nor conscience. Your 

" lordship (as he concluded) being now judge of that court, 

" I trust there is both law and conscience ; or at the least, 

" law. For that you were once one of the justices of the 

" Common Place. 

" Thus hoping your lordship will not be offended for 
" seeming to maintain my right, and theirs that cannot help 
" themselves, being in minority ; ceasing from troubling 
" your lordship ; praying to God to turn your heart, or 
" sending you shortly into Abraham's bosom : to which I 
" think 500 in Kent would rejoice. Amen. 

" Your lordship's to command, 
" From Dover Castle, the 6th of Aug." " Barry." 

This year died Francis Nudigate, esq. that was steward Francis Nu- 
to Anne, duchess of Somerset, widow of Edward, duke of dies. His ' 
Somerset: who, getting a considerable estate under her, ^^st will, 
gratefully made her his executrix, and left the main of his 
substance, or indeed all to her, giving away but few or no 
legacies ; and recommending it to her charity to be liberal 
to the poor, where need was, and to one or two of her ser- 
vants, unrewarded as yet. And because in his will several 
directions were given her concerning the disposal of some- 
thing by way of charity, which may deserve a remark, and 
may leave a grateful and good character of him, I shall re- 
hearse some part of it. It began, 

" Our help is in God and in his holy name. Into whose 




Anno 1581. 


hands, by this my last will and testament, I first commend 
my soul to be saved only by faith in Christ's blood-shed- 
ding. My body to be buried in Han worth, or elsewhere, 
as shall please her grace, at her good pleasure. Desiring, 
and therewithal charging her grace, that it be done with- 
out any of those pompous mournings and charges of blacks, 
as is wonted usually. Chiefly, my mind is, that the poor 
and prison houses may be somewhat liberally remembered, 
on her grace's behalf and mine : and referring +he sums 
to her grace*'s good devotion. And according as I have 
received all my preferment by the duchess's marriage, so 
do I, in few words, will and bequeath unto her all that I 
am able any way to give her. That is to say, all my 
goods and leases, chattels, plate, jewels, cattle, both horses, 
mares, geldings, oxen, kine, sheep, corn, housed or sown. 
And also other household stuff, stock, and stores, &c. 
Together with all such debts as are at this present, or 
shall any time hereafter, be due unto me from any per- 
son, by bond, covenant, or otherwise. And also to give 
and bequeath unto my said duchess all, and all manner 
of lands, both freehold and copyhold, which I have in 
England, as well that which • is not set down herein, but 
nevertheless that which also follows particularly by name, 
my house at Canon-row, purchased of the lord Houns- 
don, in the city of Westminster, &c. the manor of Little- 
ton, in the county of Middlesex; the manor of Little 
Ashield, in Surrey, otherwise called Priory Farm, &c. 
All which I give wholly and fully to my said duchess. 
Nevertheless my desire is, that her grace will be good to 
her old servants on my behalf; especially Dickenson, and 
her clerk Saunders ; who have had small preferment for 
long service. 

" And unto Saunders my full promise is, to let him have 
20 nobles a year, till I provide him a farm for his life and 
his wife's ; or for 21 years. Which, if God send me life, 
as I mean to perform, so my will is your grace to accom- 
plish the same. And my further desire is, that her grace 
do see my niece Besse Saunders brought up and bestowed. 


" And that your grace bestow some rings, as remem- CHAP. 
" brance, &c. _ 

" And thus committing all things to my said duchess; Anno 1 58 1. 
" whom I make my full and sole executrix of this my last 
" will and testament. Dated at Hanworth, the last of May, 
" 1580;^ 

There was also taken by a notary his consent for the gift 
of Great Ashford, his last purchase, in these words, 26th of 
Jan. 1581. Mr. Francis Nudigate was content, and did 
give his lands and tenements he lately purchased unto the 
right honourable the duchess of Somerset, and imto her 
heirs for ever. To this, among other witnesses'" names sub- 
scribed, were her two sons, E. Hertford and H. Seymour. 

Upon the foresaid desire and will of the said testator, in A note 
behalf of Dickenson and Saunders, (who married his sister,) ^11"^^^^ ^i- 
I cannot but observe the nejjlect (shall I say .'*) or ingrati- Somerset, 

... . his execu- 

tude of the duchess, too visible in her last will, made sometrix. 
few years after, viz. 1587 : who gave tiierein to these two 
persons, so specially mentioned and recommended to her, 
thus sparingly, as foUoweth : " I give to my servant, Wil- 
" liam Dickenson, 10/. of lawful English money, to be paid 
" him for an annuity, or pension, of my executor, yearly 
" during his hfc. Item, I give to Richard Saunders, my 
" servant, 51. of like lawful English money, to be paid him 
" for a yearly pension during life." 

The desperate temptation of money, how it draws people A woman 
into horrible wickedness sometimes, and particularly per- forswears 
jury, appears in a matter happening this year in January. '"^'■^'^•'^ ^""^ 
A French merchant, in a bag sealed, delivered 401. to a 
carrier's wife of Norwich, to be carried thither, to some cer- 
tain correspondent of his. But she secretly conveyed the 
money to an house a good way off the inn : and within a 
quarter of an hour the French merchant came again to see 
his money packed up. But the woman denied that she ever 
received one penny, with most horrible protestations. Upon 
this, secretary Walsingham (who was made acquainted with 
it) wrote to Fleetwood, I'ecorder of London, (from whose 
letter I have this relation,) and the Frenchman. And after 


BOOK great search made, the money was found and restored, she 
not knowing of the same. The recorder examined her in 

Anno 1 681. his Study privately. But by no means would she confess 

"'* the same : but did bequeath herself to the Devil, both body 

and soul, if she had the money, or ever saw it. And this 

was her craft, that she then [when she said so] had not the 

money : for it was either at her friend's, where she left it, 

or else delivered. Then he asked her, whether the French 

merchant did not bring her a bag sealed, full of the metal 

that was weighty ; were it either plate, coin, counters, or 

such like: then said she, I will answer no further. And 

then the recorder, using the lord mayor''s advice, bestowed 

her in Bridewell; where she was punished, being well 

whipped. It was observable what she said then, that the 

Devil stood at her elbow in the recorder''s study, and willed 

her to deny it. But so soon as she was upon the cross to 

be punished, he gave her over. 

A woman The Same recorder, Fleetwood, about this time, acquaint- 

mancer ^d Secretary Walsingham, in a letter to him, of another 

drowns her- strange accident ; of a woman, named Mrs. Norton, that 


had drowned herself. She was mother-in-law to one Tho- 
mas Norton, a person of some reputation in London ; whose 
father was then aged, and sick in bed. In her youth she 
was bred up in sir Thomas More''s family : in which place 
she learned idolatrous toys, (I transcribe from the recor- 
der's letter,) and usages in the night ; so as thereby she was 
led by evil spirits sometimes to hang herself, and sometimes 
to drown herself, as she did at last. Some part of her lewd 
demeanour was in the exercise of necromancy : that is to 
say, in conferences and speeches had (as she thought) with 
dead bodies, being of her old acquaintance. The recorder 
writ this accident tlie rather to the said secretary, because 
she had left behind her divers children, brothers to the said 
Thomas Norton, which were shrewdly given. And that 
if ihe old man should then die, it was to be feared all his 
goods would come to a spoil. And therefore he proposed, 
that if iVIr. Peter Osborn [who was a worthy citizen and re- 
membrancer of the exchequer] had a commandment, he 


could devise some good order (as he, the recorder, thought) CHAP, 
for the saving of things that might be lost. And he prayed ' 

his honour to make the lord treasurer [who was master of Anno 1 58 1. 
the wards] acquainted with the unfortunate case. Such was 
the care of this good recorder, of the children of the city. 

CHAP. VII. g5 

Books set forth this year. English Justice^ by cardinal 
Alien. A Discovery of Campion, the Jesuit, by A. Mon- 
day. The English Roman Life. Answer Apologetical, 
by Dr. Haddon and J. Fox^ to Osorius^s Invective. The un- 
folding of sundry Untruths^ <§-c. in answer to a booh writ 
by a libertine. Castalio'^s book of Free- Will, complained 
of. A Viezv of Antichrist in our English Church unre- 
formed. Exposition of the Symbol of the Apostles, by 
J. Field. Txvo sermons of T. Bradford, the martyr. 
Examination of certain ordinary complaints. Positions 
for Education of Children in Learning, by R. Mulcaster. 
A Discourse of Royal Monarchy, by Charles Merbiiry. 
The Pathicay to Martial Disciprme. Another, called, 
A compendious Treatise de re militari ; dedicated to 
Mr. Philip Sydney. A brief Conceipt of English Policy. 
Eirenarcha, of the office of justices of peace, by Mr. W. 
Lambard. The Pentateuch in six Languages : sent from 

In this year, I find these books printed ; set forth by per- 
sons of divers principles, the authors. 

English Justice : a book set forth by cardinal Allen, of English 
the sufferings, deprivations, and banishments of the catholic '^"**!'^^' ^^ 

^ ^ y ' cardinal Al- 

clergy and laity, vmder queen Elizabeth, chiefly upon herien. 
access to the crown, in these words : " We yield unto the 
" libeller (as he styled him that gave occasion to his writing 
" that his English Justice) fourteen noble and most worthy 
" bishops at one time, [who were deprived,] inferior in vir- 
" tue and learning to none in Europe ; who were all de- 



Anno 15S1. 


prived of their honours and high calhngs : and most of 
them imprisoned, and spitefully used in all respects : be- 
side the famous confessor, archbishop of Armachar, pri- 
mate of Ireland, and a number of bishops of that coun- 
try. Next, we yield you in banishment two worthy Eng- 
hsh prelates of the same dignity : the one [viz. Pate] dead, 
the other [viz. Goldwel] yet ahve in Rome : three elects, 
bishops, all now departed this life. We name the ho- 
nourable abbot of Westminster, [Feckenham,] four priors, 
or superiors of religious covents, with three whole co- 
vents, put out of their possessions, either into prison, or 
out of the realm. In the same case were a dozen of fa- 
mous, learned deans, which, next to the bishops, do hold 
the chief dignities in the English cathedral churches; 
fourteen archdeacons ; above threescore canons of cathe- 
dral churches ; not so few as an hundred priests of good 
preferment in queen Mary's reign, besides many one made 
in our banishment, and since martyred ; fifteen heads or 
rectors of colleges in Oxford and Cambridge, men of 
great importance in those universities and in the com- 
monwealth ; and with them, and the rather by their good 
example and provocation, not many years after, many of 
the chief professors of all sciences, and above twenty doc- 
tors of divers faculties, for conscience sake fled the realm, 
or were in the realm imprisoned. And both at the first, 
and in divers years since, have many of the very flower of 
the universities come over, both into the society, [of Je- 
sus,] seminaries, and other places famous for learning; 
where, through God's goodness, and the great benignity 
of prelates, princes, and catholic people, they have passed 
their long banishment in honest poverty^, and some in 
worshipful callings and rooms in tmiversities, with as 
much grace and favour as to foreigners could be yielded ; 
in no place, thanks be to our Lord God, impeached of 
crimes or disorders. Whereof we can shew the honour- 
able testimony of the best, where we have lived in all na- 
This was in answer to what the libeller (as he styled him) 


wrote, viz. " That very few were fled for religion, other CHAP. 
" than such as were not able to live at home but in bee-- ^'"* 

" g3,ry, or discontinued for lack of preferment, which they Anno 1 58 1. 
" gaped for unworthily in universities and other places, or 
" bankrupt merchants," &c. 

And then this writer shewing the difference between those 
that left them and those that came over to them, both in 
respect of number and quality, thus he boasts : " So ear- 
" nestly they woo every poor apostata, lewd scholar, and 
" loose companion, that for weariness of banishment, loose 
" life, or impatience, looketh homeward toward heresy, or 
" carnal liberty, or licence again, &c. While we, in the 
" mean space, receive hundreds of their ministers, a num- 
" ber of their best wits, many delicate young gentlemen, 
" and divers heirs of all ages, voluntarily flying from their 
" damnable condition, and seeking after God : and many 
" of them also becoming priests or religious." This is the 
strain of the foresaid book : and as far as the writer is to be 
depended on, we may learn how the state of the kingdom 
stood as to popery, and particularly the industry of these 
English learned papists abroad to make proselytes. But 
this book was substantially answered a year or two after, 
viz. 1583, in a book called The Aiisxcer to English Justice. 

The Discovery of Campion, the Jesuit: a book that came The Disco- 
out about this time; writ by A. Monday, a man the better ^"^ ^^^^^ 
able to discover what Campion was, and his courses, himself 
having sometimes lived in the seminary at Rome, the pope's 67 
scholar there ; and afterwards came home, and fell off from 
them. His book he presented to Bromley, lord chancellor, 
to lord Burghley, lord treasurer, and to the earl of Leices- 
ter. This writer made a further discovery of the English 
at Rome, in another book which he printed some years after, 
and dedicated it to the same noble persons. It was called 
The English Roman Life. " Discovering the lives of such 
" Englishmen as by secret escape left their own country to 
" live in Rome, under the servile yoke of the pope's govern- 
" ment. Also after what manner they spend their time 
'' there : practising and daily looking for the overthrow and 


BOOK " ruin of their princess and country." And further account 
• may be given of this book hereafter, in the course of the 

Anno 1581. history. 

An Answer This year also came forth an Answer Apologetical against 
^r/o Oso- J^i*ome Osorius, a Portuguese bishop of Sylvain, being a 
rius, pretty thick quarto, translated out of Latin into English, by 

James Bell, and dedicated to the lord Arundel. That which 
gave occasion to this book was this. This Portugal bishop 
had writ a long epistle in Latin to the queen ; in which he 
fancied many monstrous errors to be received in our church ; 
and with reproachful railings depraved the professors of 
that gospel. This somewhat provoked Walter Haddon, a 
learned civilian ; insomuch that he gave answer to several 
particular points in his book : which he did in a very ele- 
gant Latin style; thinking that what he had writ might 
have better informed and satisfied the man. Of this I have 

Vol. i. chap, given some account in mv Annals. After a year or two, 
32 and 37. J %/ 

Haddon was appointed the queen's agent in Flanders, and 

was leger at Bruges. At which time another Portugal 
bishop, called Emanuel d'Almada, undertook the defence 
of his friend Osorius ; and stuffed a great volume full of 
slanders and brabbles : and in the end of his book caused 
certain ugly pictures to be pourtrayed, thereby to defame 
Haddon's personage; one of their ways of answering an 
Apology for author by personal abuses. In this Apology, (for so he 
Daimad'a ^ Called it,) Haddon seeing how it was filled with scoffs and 
absurdities, (which two things being taken away, there re- 
mained nothing else beside,) after some deliberation with 
himself, he despised the answering of it. 
Character Two years being past, Tho. Wilson, LL.D. (and Had- 
o sorius. jj^j^ig friend,) returning from Portugal to England, brought 
over, at Osorius's request, several volumes of the said Oso- 
rius, framed into three books. One of them he delivered 
unto Haddon. He perused it once or twice, (as he tells us 
in his epistle,) and trusted that Osorius, being now installed 
a bishop, would have been a much more modest man than 
he was before; but found that it fell out quite contrary. For 
instead of a civil and sober person, he found him a most fri- 


volous sophister; for a grave divine, a childish counterfeit; CHAP, 
and for a discreet bishop, a most shameless railer : and that , 

hereunto was added store of vanity and proud haughtiness. Anno 1 58 1. 

He concludes his epistle with these words : " That he trust- 

" ed it should easily appear, both that he had not less pi- 

" ously than necessarily entered into the honest defence of 

" his country : and that the reader also might as plainly 

" perceive, how maliciously and wickedly England had beenoS 

" accused and depraved by her cursed enemy, Osorius." 

And as Haddon's epistle, so his answer, ran in a pretty 
sharp style against his adversary ; whose way of writing 
gave just cause of provocation, which may be seen in one 
passage of his Invective : " If after this doctrine of this new Osmius's 

1 Invcctivt?* 

" gospel and new religion was brought into England, there 
" were brought therewithal also honesty, integrity of hfe,"" 
&c. Then, a httle after : " But if none were reforme'd by 
" the study of this new doctrine ; but rather, if ever si thence 
" all rashness, unshamefastness, and lechery have been em- 
" braced in all places : if intolerable pride and arrogancy 
" have now taken surer footing than before : if seditions, 
" uproars, and rebellions have been more easily raised : if 
" treason have more boldly attempted the royal majesty, 
" and have more freely pursued the blood of princes," &c. 

Dr. Haddon died before he had finished his answer. The Fox conti- 
remainder of Osonus s book (which Avas the greater part) answer to 
was undertaken by John Fox, the martyrologist ; who had Osonus. 
an excellent Latin style, as Haddon's was, and withal was a 
very learned divine, and was thoroughly acquainted with 
the history of this church, and particularly the steps of the 
reformation : and so able to write in vindication of it. This 
book, wrote by these two Englishmen, contained a very 
learned vindication of protestants, and a confutation of the 
doctrine and practices of the church of Rome ; and was ma- 
naged with a brisk style against that bishop, whose book 
was all invective. 

Fox began his answer with some notice of Haddon, de- Some notice 

, 1 1 -111 n of Haddon. 

ceased. " That so long as the nation had that excellent 
" learned man, as the church of Christ had a very worthy 



lies and 

BOOK "and valiant captain; so had Osorius a courageous and 

' " puissant encounterer, and meet conqueror of such a mon- 

Anno 1581. u gj.gj.^ ^^ ^^^j ^^^^^ there was much cause to move them 
" and all the learned to much sorrow and grief of mind ; 
" who had lost so great and learned a ringleader of learn- 
" ing : the loss of whom did by so much the more increase 
" their heaviness, in respect of that present enterprise, un- 
" dertaken against Osorius, by how much they were bereft 
" of so singular a patron."" 

He took notice of Osorius's plenty of lies and slanders : 
and particularly of two notorious lies concerning Luther ; as 
though he wickedly taught extreme desperation, and a bold 
and presumptuous confidence of salvation. Other of his 
insufferable calumniations taken notice of by Fox were 
these : that where Haddon had named the sacred doctrine 
of the gospel to have been the discipline of Luther, Zuin- 
glius, Bucer, Calvin, &c. he replied, " That those men liad 
" not only, with the rules of their doctrine, but also with the 
" ill example of their lives, rooted out all shamefastness, 
" modesty, civility, and obedience : and instead of faith and 
" freedom, they had bestowed upon their families presump- 
" tion and rashness, together with unpunishable licentious- 
" ness of sinning. That they had, instead of true righteous- 
" ness, brought in a false and deceitful righteousness. That 
69 " they had made God the author of all wickedness. The 
" decayed church, which they pronounced to restore to her 
" ancient integrity, they had defiled with more abomina- 
" tions. So that by how much the more a man did decline 
" to their discipline, so nmch tlie more he was estranged 
" from all shame and chastity." And again : " A man 
" might descry the nature of this doctrine by the very foun- 
" dation of this church" [of England.] Which he proved 
thus. " Because Venus and Cupid were the founders of it; 
" bi'each of laws, and contempt of the pope, increased it : 
" flattery and lying had supported it : greedy covetousness 
" had established it : cruelty against the saints had sancti- 
" fied it : timorous fear of men had straitened it. Finally, 
" a doctrine of men, not sent by God, but stirred up by 


" Satan, had, with most troublesome error, poisoned it."" CHAP. 
By this period the strain of the man was visible. And to ^^^' 

have the reformed church of England thus represented to Anno 1581, 
the world in a Latin book, was not to be borne without ef- 
fectual vindication, and some sharpness too ; which between 
Haddon and Fox was done well : and the translation into 
English was set forth this year. 

Fox endeth all with a very pious wish of unity and agree- 
ment among all Christians, and in a holy life suitable to their 
profession : " Most heartily wishing to all the elect saints 
" of God, whosoever profess his name and wear the badge 
" of Christianity, that, departing from iniquity, and gather- 
" ing all together in one uniform agreement of sincere doc- 
" trine, by the enlightening and inspiration of the Holy 
•' Ghost, we may be altogether received into that heavenly 
*' Jerusalem, and into that kingdom of immortal glory and 
" eternal felicity, which shall never have end : not for the 
*' works of righteousness which we have done, but for the 
" love of our Lord and Saviour Jesu Christ ; who suffered 
" for our sins, and rose again for our justification." 

There was in these times a certain libertine in London, The Un- 
that had vented divers odd opinions, that headed, as its",ndryUn- 
seems, that sect. A little book, in twelves, in answer tot™ths, &c. 
him and his doctrines, was set forth this year by one T. W. jrainst a li- 
entitled, The unjvlding of sundry untruths and absurd •^'^rtme. 
propositions, lately propounded by one J. S. a great fa- 
vourer of the horrible heresy of the libertines. This book 
was printed at London by Thomas Mayne, Avhence we are 
told, that the said J. S. Feb. 26, 1580, uttered these speeches, 
[I suppose in some preachment,] which the said T. W. an- 
swered distinctly. I. That the first table of the law taught 
us our duty towards Christ's godhead. And the second 
table our duty towards his manhood, &c. They are to be 
found before, chap. iv. p. 63, 64. 

Theyree-will men (as they called them) at this time gave Castaiio's 
some disturbance by their doctrine. And now they had „,°,j ^^^^^ ' 
procured Castaiio's books to be printed here, or brought 
over hither. Sir Francis Knollis, treasurer of the queen's 

H 2 




Aono 1531. 


Sir Francis 
letter to the 
court con- 

men, sec- 

\'iewof An- 
Part of a 

household, a zealous man against thi.s doctrine, and thought 
it liighly convenient to have the book searched for, and the 
reading of it hindered; and that because, as he said, the 
anabaptists, and such as were for perfection in this life, went 
along with them. This inoved him to write a letter to the 
lord treasurer and the earl of Leicester, to this tenor : 

" My very good lords, your ableness and readiness to 
" do g(X)d in these perilous days of traitorous practices, 
" both against God and against her majesty, doth embolden 
" me to presume to remember your good lordships, that by 
" your good means order may be taken that the true au- 
" thors and favourers of the setting forth of Castalio's book, 
" with the abuses of the bishop of London in that behalf, 
" may be diligently examined, and bolted out. That the 
" hypocrisy herein used being known, the pestilent doctrine 
" thereof may be the more soundly suppressed. For it 
" seemeth to me that these yree-zvill meyi^ or anabaptistical 
" sectaries, do follow the same scopes that the deified men 
" of the Jcim'ilij of love do follow; saving, that the same 
" perfection that xhejumily of love do pretend to obtain by 
" virtue of love, the same perfection do Castalio his sectai'ies 
" pretend to obtain by the virtue oi faith. But it is not by 
*' faith in believing to be saved in the merits of Christ, but 
" by a faith in believing that every man is able to fulfil the 
" law of God : and that the cause why men do not fulfil the 
" law, is the want of this Castalio his belief. Now both these 
" sects do serve the turns of the papists ; as all free-xoill 
" 7nen and justiciaries, or justificrs of themselves, do. Yet 
" this difference is betwixt the papists and these sectaries, 
" I do mean touching their practices here in England. For 
" these sectaries are more hypocritical, and will sooner deny 
" their doctrines and assertions, to avoid punishment, than 
" the papists will." This was writ in September 29, 1581, 
at London. 

A view of Antichrist ; his laws and ceremonies in our 
Eng-lish church nnre/brmed; was another puritanical book 
that came forth about this year. The beginning of this 
book shews the purpose of it : viz. " A clear glass, where 


*' may be seen the dangerous and desperate diseases of our CHAP. 
*' English church : being ready utterly to perish, unless she 

" may speedily have a corrosive of the wholesome herbs of Anno i58i. 

*' God his word laid very hot to her heart ; to expulse those 

" cold and deadly infections of popery, which the attainted 

" apothecaries of Antichrist have corrupted her withal : else 

" lonsi: she cannot endure. And which more increaseth her 

" griefs, having relief daily offered unto her by her skilful 

" physicians, that would administer the same, is denied 

" thereof: and they also resisted and hated, because they 

" will not mingle their putrified drugs with the said pure 

*' confection : which to do were present death."'"' ' 

The substance of this book is digested under divers tables. 
First, the book of the generation -of Antichrist, the pope, 
the revealed child of perdition, and his successors. This 
began thus : " The Devil begot darkness, Eph. vi. Dark- 
" ness begot ignorance. Acts xvii. Ignorance begot error 
" and his brethren, 1 Tim. iv. Error begot free-will and 
" self-love, Esa. x. Free-will begot merits, Esa. Iviii." &c. 
The second table, of the displaying of the pope and popery 
in our unreformcd church of England. The third table, 
containing an hundred points of popery remaining : which 
deform the English reformation. At the end of this third 
table is subscribed, A. G'llhe : who I suppose therefore was 
the writer. The fourth table is, of the bringing in of divers 
of the popish corruptions yet remaining in our English ^ 1 
church. The beginning is, " The conjured font brought 
" into the Roman church by pope Pius I. ann. \^1, as wit- 
" nesseth Platina and Sabellicus," &c. At the end of this 
table, or chapter, is subscribed T. W. which I suppose was 
Tho. Wilcox ; a great man for the new platform. 

There came out also this year, An Exposition of the t^z/w- Exposition 
hoi of the Apostles ; or rather, of the articles of Jhith. I^' boi of the"' 
which the chief points of the everlasting and free covenant Apostles, 
between God and the faithful is briefly and plainly handled: 
gathered out of the catechising sermons of Gaspar Olevian, 
professor of divinity at Hydelberg : and translated out of 
Latin into English, by John Field, who prefaced it with a 

H 3 


BOOK long epistle dedicatory, concerning the busy Jesuits, unto 
his patron, the right honourable Ambrose, earl of Warwick, 

Anno issi.niaster of the queen's majesty's ordnance, and knight of the 

noble order of the garter. 
Two ser- Now were printed two sermons preached by John Brad- 
Bradford ford, the martyr in queen Mary's days. The one of Re- 
the martyr, pgntance, the other of the Lord's Supper. The epistle to 
the reader was written by Tho. Sampson. That of Repent- 
ance was printed before by Bradford himself: that of the 
LorcTs Supper never printed before. Now both these were 
set forth with a long preface of the said Sampson ; who was 
a man of learning and note under queen Mary, and an exile 
for religion. It may be worth setting down this preface 
from so eminent a man, and one that knew Bradford, and 
so was able to give some account of that holy man ; and 
which Mr. Fox is silent of in his life and martyrdom. He 
tells us, that he knew him familiarly : and adds, that he 
must give God that praise for him, that among men he 
scarcely knew one like him. And that as he knew him, so 
he knew how it pleased God, by effectual calling, to turn 
his heart unto the true knowledge of the gospel. But I 
will rather leave the rest of these remarkable memorials of 
this heavenly confessor and martyr, transcribed in the Ap- 
N". XL pendix. 

A brief Ex- A compendious and brief eocamination of certain ordi- 
©rdh^ers" i^ary complaints of divers our countrymen in these our 
<^om- days. " Which although they be in some unjust and fri- 

" volous, yet are they all, by way of dialogue, thoroughly 
" debated and discussed." Imprinted 1581. A book in 
octavo, written by W. S. gent, which he dedicated, in an 
epistle. To the virtuous and learned lady, queen Elizabeth. 
In which epistle he thus writes : " That being enforced by 
" her majesty's late singular clemency, in pardoning certain 
" his undutiful misdemeanours, he sought to acknowledge 
" her gracious goodness and bounty towards him, by exhi- 
" biting to her this small and simple present. Wherein he 
" had endeavoured to answer certain quarrels and objec- 
" tions, daily and ordinarily occurrent in the talk of sundry 


" men, &c. Alleging such probabilities as he could, to stop CHAP. 
" the mouths of certain evil affected persons. Which in 

" their curiosity required further satisfaction in these mat-A°"o '^^i- 
" ters than could well stand with good modesty." 

It is a dialogue between a knight and a merchantman, a 
doctor, a husbandman, and a craftsman : and consisteth of 
divers complaints. As the complaint of the husbandman, 
by reason of enclosures. Complaint of dearth of victuals, 72 
by artificers. Complaint of the decay of towns, by mer- 
chantmen. Complaint of craftsmen against gentlemen, for 
taking of farms. The gentleman complains, that he cannot 
keep countenance as he was wont to do. The doctor's com- 
plaint was, for want of men of his art. And another com- 
plaint was against learned men. And here the author en- 
ters into discourse in behalf of learnins: : whether a com- 
monwealth may be well governed without learning. That 
the learned have always had the sovereignty over the un- 
learned. Whether a man may be wise without learning. 
That learning supplies the lack of experience. That expe- 
rience is the father of wisdom. The wonderful gifts that 
we have by learning. That there is no faculty but is made 
more consummate by learning. That knowledge in moral 
philosophy is most necessary for a counsellor. What makes 
learned men to be so few ? 

In short, this author laid down his design in the first page 
of his discourse, viz. What things men are most grieved 
with. Then, what should be the occasion of the saiue. And 
that known, how such griefs may be taken away, and the 
state of the commonweal reformed again. 

Now came forth also an excellent book for the education Positions 
of youth, set forth by Richard Mulcaster, master of thetion. 
school erected anno 1561, in the parish of St. Lawrence 
Pountney, by the worshipful company of Merchant Taylors 
in London. The book was called Positions. Wherein those 
positive circumstances be examined, which are necessary Jhr 
the training up of children, Jbr sJcill in books or health in 
their bodies. In his epistle, which is writ to queen Eliza- 
beth, he gives the reason why he calleth his book Positions: 

H 4 


BOOK " Because intending to go on further for the advancement 
^- " of learning, he thought it good at the first to put down 
Anno 1581." certain grounds very needful for his purpose. For that 
" they be the common circumstances that belong to teach- 
" ing, and are to be resolved on ere we begin to teach. The 
" end, he saith, of his whole labour (thus bespeaking her 
" majesty) was to help to bring the general teaching in her 
" majesty's dominions to some good and profitable unifor- 
" mity : which then, in the midst of great variety, did either 
" hinder much or profit little ; or at the least nothing so 
" much as it were like to do, if it were reduced to one cer- 
" tain form. This he recommended to the queen ; which 
" would bring great honour to her majesty's person, and 
" profit to the whole realm. That as king Henry, her fa- 
" ther, vouchsafed to bring all grammar into one form, 
" the multitude whereof being some impediment to school 
" learning in his time, and thereby purchased himself great 
*' honour, and procured his subjects a marvellous ease : so 
" he exhorted her majesty, by that royal example, to fur- 
" ther that book [the grammar] to a refining, but also the 
" reducing of all other school-books to some better choice ; 
" and all manner of teaching to some readier form. Can 
" so great a good but sound to your majesty's most endless 
" renown P" as he concluded. The next year we shall hear 
of another book of his concerning education, published, 
called The Elementary ; wherein we may see more of this 
73 Now also was printed a book, called, A discourse of royal 
A Discourse ^Q^^^^;^^ . ^y^jt \^y Charles Merbury, gent. I take notice 

of Royal . .■,„■, , 1 ,• n ■ tt 

Monarchy, of it as well for the author as the subject ot it. lie was a 
traveller, scholar, and courtier, and much esteemed by the 
gentry of the nation : and whose book was, by the bishop 
of London's desire, perused by Thomas Norton, one of the 
city counsel, and their solicitor ; whole allowance and ap- 
probation is given to it. In this book is shewn the opinion 
of monarchy in queen Elizabeth's time. Thus he writeth : 
" Whereas he [i. e. the prince that governeth this kingdom] 
" is not to receive his power from any, so is he neither to 


"be subject unto any higher power, either at home or CHAP. 

" abi'oad. Though some did maintain, that a prince is ^^^' 

"subject unto the states and peers of the realm, as the Anno i58i. 

" kings of Lacedaemon were to the ephori : an opinion (if 

" it were not well tempered and conveniently limited) most 

" prejudicial unto the state of a monarchy; perverting and 

" converting the same into a mere aristocracy. Much less 

*' is he subject in any thing unto the multitude of the com- 

" mon people : who, as they have more authority, are for 

" the most part most insolent, and more disposed unto re- 

" bellion. Wherefore, in all well ordained kingdoms, these 

" have no other than a voice supplicative. 

" But some will ask, if this great monarch of ours shall 
" not be subject vnito the laws, customs, and privileges of 
" the covmtry where he governs ; unto the oath which he 
" taketh at the entrance ; unto such covenants and promises 
" as he maketh unto his people ? Unto whom we answer, 
" That our prince is subject unto laws both civil and com- 
" mon, to customs, privileges, covenants, and all kind of 
" promises ; so far forth as they are agreeable to the law of 
" God. Otherwise we think that he is not bound to observe 
" them. Wherein we neither diminish the liberty of the 
" subject^ supposing all laws to be good, or ought to be 
" good : neither do we enlarge too much the power of the 
" prince, as to make him lawless, subject neither to God''s 
" law nor man's law. As some flatterers persuade the pope 
" and emperor that they are above all laws, and may use 
" the bodies and lives of their subjects at their lust and 
" pleasure ; taking from them their lands, goods, and liber- 
" ties, without right or reason. A thing expressly contrary 
" to the word of God, (Thou shalt not covet thy neiglihours 
*' Jwuse, &c.) And a doctrine most pernicious unto princes : 
" who, putted up with such opinions, should take their 
" course unto a tyrannical kind of puissance, making their 
" covetousness confiscation, their love adultery, their hatred 
" murder. And as the lightning goeth before the thunder, 
" so they, depraved with such corrupted counsellors, should 


BOOK " make the accusation to go before the fault, and the con- 
^' " demnation before the trial.'"' 

Anno 1581. This Merbury was a very accomplished gentleman, bred 
Merbury ^p under Dr. Humfrey at Oxford, who was his tutor, in 

the author : . ,. „ , • * r> i 

who. the studies of humanity. Afterwards, at court, a servant 

to the lord chamberlain, [earl of Sussex.] He and his fa- 
74 ther dependents on the duchess of Suffolk and the duke of 
Suffolk : and had a revenue and pension from them. 
The Path to ^ book of martial discipline now also came forth in quar- 
DiscipUne. to, entitled, 7'he path to martial discipline; the author, 
Thomas Styward. Who, (as he wrote in his epistle,) as in 
nature he delighted in martial studies, so by practice had 
achieved some experience therein. And indeed it was need- 
ful now for the English people to understand war ; having 
so spiteful, threatening, and withal powerful adversary, as 
Philip king of Spain. And this the author makes the rea- 
son of his publishing a book of this argument, viz. to teach 
the English arms, in order to defend their native country 
and liberties. " That whereas, by the prudent government 
*'' of our most blessed and virtuous princess, we have the 
" happy quiet that no realm ever tasted of, the which he 
" beseeched the living God long to continue ; yet weighing 
" the condition of the world, it was a thing impossible for 
" any realm or dominion always to live in peace, without 
" the use of the sword : wishing with his heart, that the 
" subversion of divers states, through idleness, and con- 
" tempt of these warlike orders, might be so imprinted in 
" our hearts, as we might ^ath most willing minds pro- 
" secute the ancient order of the Romans : the which in 
" peace were not sluggards, or delighted in idle and wan- 
" ton pastimes ; but in every city and town the noble sena- 
" tors and captains appointed such as had experience, that 
" at certain times of the year they should not only train 
" them that were ignorant, but used such warlike games, 
" as to the furthering of those affairs was thought most 
" meet. This martial discipline was now judged very ne- 
" cessary."" 


The same year I find another book of the art of war was, CHAP. 
writ, and printed in quarto, entitled, A compcncUous trca- 

tise de re militari. Concerning principal orders to be ob-Annoissi. 
served in martial affairs. Written in the Spanish tongue ^ ^p'^'^^'j? 
by that worthy captain Luis Gutierres de la Vega; and'itari. 
newly translated into English by Nich. Litchfield. This he dedicated 

. to Philip 

dedicated to the worshipful Mr. Philip Sydney. And the Sydney, 
reason of it he added ; " Because he found none more for- 
" ward to further and favour martial knowledge ; being of 
" himself most ready and adventurous in all exercises of 
" feats of war and chivalry. And therefore he presumed 
" to dedicate the tract unto him. Dated from London, 
" Dec. 9, 1581." 

And he added this remark of it ; That it was lately found Found in a 
in a fort in Ireland, where the Italians and Spaniards hadi^j,j_ 
fortified themselves. Which by fortune came into his hands 
by a soldier of good experience, who lately served there. 
Which after this gentleman, the translator, had perused, 
and taken the advice of some better in understanding than 
himself in those affairs, (which very mvich liked and al- 
lowed the work,) he was greatly boldened and encouraged to 
enterprise the translation thereof; partly, because these prin- 
cipal orders were always to be observed in warlike govern- 
ment ; and chiefly, because in our English tongue he found 
not the like extant, for the necessary instruction and gene- 
ral commodity of our common soldiers. 

And how undisciplined and raw in matters of war owc*j^ 
English now were, and what just apprehensions of danger I'^e exer- 

• . 1 i? /> • f-i 11 1 „cise of arms 

arismg hence irom foreign arms, Styward, the author or„ecdfui. 
the former book, shewed in an elegant copy of verses set 
before it : suggesting how very suspicious their present con- 
dition was, and exciting them to take warning by other 
neighbouring countries that were fallen under miseries and 
calamities from such as by superior force invaded them. 
These verses began ; 

As wisdom wills us to regard what jilagues in time do hap > 

On such as seek for to be rockt always in pleasure's lap, &c. 


BOOK But I choose rather to lay this piece of old English poetry 


in the Appendix, which will both entertain and instruct. 

Anno 1581. Another j)olitical book came forth this vear upon occasion 

■ of the dearth of victuals, and the high prices of all other 

nation of things ; which now Avere become much dearer than ever 

divers Com- |jgfQj.g . ^yri^jd^ caused murmurino's and discontents amonjj 

plaints. ^ _ '^ 

the people. The author undertook to look into the reasons 
thereof, in order to pacify and quiet the queen's subjects. 
The book was called, A compendious or brief exanmiation 
of certain 07'dinary complaints of divers our countrymen 
in these our days, &c. By W. S. gent. The running title 
was, A hricf concei_pt of English yolicy. It is writ by way 
of dialogue, between a knight, a merchant, a doctor, a cap- 
per, [or a tradesman,] and an husbandman. Where thus 
one of them is brought in speaking : " Such poverty reign- 
" eth every where, as few men have so much to spare, as 
" they may give any thing to the reparation of ways, 
" bridges, &c. And albeit there be many things laid down 
" now, which before time were occasion of much expenses, 
" as maygames, wakes, revels, wagers at shooting, wrest- 
" ling, running, and throwing the stone or bar ; and be- 
" sides, the pardons, pilgrimages, offerings, and many such 
" other things : yet I perceive we be never the wealthier, or 
" rather poorer, &c. That there was such a general dearth 
" of all things, as before twenty or thirty years had not 
" been, not only of things growing within the realm, but 
" also of all other merchandise, Sec." The author, some 
learned man, dedicated this his book to the queen ; because 
those popular quarrels and objections reached unto her ma- 
jesty in daily and ordinary occurrents. That upon his zeal 
and good meaning towards her estate, he was earnestly 
moved to undertake this enterprise. 

In this year, Mr. W. Lambard of Lincoln's Inn, gent, a 

Eirenarcha. learned lawyer and historian, set forth a book, called J^i7T»- 
archa, concerning the office of such as were justices of the 

Dedicated peace, which he dedicated to sir Tho. Bromley, lord chan- 

J°.j Xt/' ccllor of England. In that epistle he spoke W his great 

eel lor. 


learning in the laws of England, in these words: "You, CHAP. 
" who do go beyond them all (in the perfect knowledge of 

" our law) that have gone before you -in that honourable Anno 1^8 1. 

" place which you now hold. And praying him, that, ac- 

''' cording to the rule of law, (in his own hands,) he would 

" rectify the commission of the peace, and some other 

" crookedness, whereof that book [of his] should bring 

" complaint before him."'' 

And in the same epistle he gives us the occasion of his 7" 
engaging himself in the study of our laws concerning jW- o,^ of*^his 
tices. Which was the command of the said lord chancellor, writing tliis 
that his name should be put into the commission of the 
peace for Kent, where the said Lambard lived. " At which 
" time he thought it his part, as well for saving his good 
" lordship blameless in the choice, as also for his own in- 
" formation and discharge in the service itself, to look dili- 
" gently in that portion of our law which concerneth the 
" office of the peace ; wherewith he had before that time 
" very little or no acquaintance. And therefore in greedy 
" appetite, he began first with M. Fitzherbert's treatise of 
" the Justices of Peace : then went he to another ancient 
" book of the same argument, but of an author unknown to 
" him : and thirdly, he came to M. Marrow's reading. All 
" which when he had perused, he seemed to himself, as he 
" added, to have taken some such taste of the thing that he 
" sought, as did rather incense than satisfy his thirst and 
" desire. And calling to mind that it was truly said, 

Gratius ex ipsojbnte h'lbuntur aqucR^ 
" he betook himself to the old and new books of the com- 
" mon laws, and to the volumes of the acts and statutes ; 
" and from his collections thence, framed a model thereof in 
" that book." 

There was another edition of this book in the forty-fourth 
year of queen Elizabeth, 1602. revised, corrected, and 
enlarged. Where, in the proeme, he declared that his pur- 
pose was to compare the writings of some others that before 
had wrote of the duties of justices, [viz. Marrow and Fitz- 
herbert,] with the book cases and statutes that had risen of 


BOOK latter times. And out of them all to collect some body of 

' discourse that might serve for the present age, and some- 

Anno 15S1. what further the good endeavour of such gentlemen as were 

not trained up to the continual study of the laws. 
Collections 1,^ this year also, or the year before, I meet with a MS. 

of the Pro- i • 

phets, &c. (whether printed afterwards or no, I know not,) entitled, 
concerning Certain Collections out of the Prophets and the Nexo Testa- 

the conver- _ . 

sion of Is- ment ; concerning the conversion and restitution of Israel. 

"^^ • Whereupon doth depend the general judgment, and the 

general restitution also of heaven and earth. By R. E. anno 
1580. This author, whose name was Roger Edwards of 
London, dedicated his book to the lord Burghley, lord 
high treasurer, lord Francis Russel of Bedford, lord Rob. 
Dudley, earl of Leicester, to Dr. Elmer, bishop of London, 
and many more. 

Pentateuch, To all the rest I add Beza's valuable gift, presented this 

bv Beza. 

year, towards the furnishing of the new library at Cam- 
bridge ; being an ancient copy of the Pentateuch in six lan- 
guages : with his letter to the lord treasurer, chancellor of 
that university, when he sent it. Which, it seems, his ne- 
phew Anthony Bacon brought along with him from Ge- 
neva, where he had been, and visited that learned man in 
his travels. Upon whose motion and encouragement Beza 
presumed to write a letter to him : especially upon that oc- 
casion that offered itself, namely, the presenting him with 
something that he believed would not be unacceptable to 
him. That he had got a copy of the five books of Moses; 
printed either at Constantine in Africa, or at Constantinople, 
many years ago ; which he asked leave to call The Hexa- 
^'J glott: viz. the Arabic, Persian, barbarous Greek, and an- 
cient Spanish : set forth for the use of the Jewish syna- 
gogues : besides the Hebrew and Chaldee. Which, for the 
rarity and antique novelty, (as he might call it,) he thought 
chiefly ought to be sent to his honovir. Which might serve 
as a monument worthy his wisdom and excellency, to be re- 
posited in a library, then a preparing by him in the univer- 
sity of Cambridge, the chief care and government whereof 
was committed to him. 


And so concluded his letter, praying him to take in good CHAP, 
part his boldness, as a testimony and pledge of that high 

esteem he had for his lordship. Dated from Geneva, 8. id. Anno 1 58 1. 

December 1581. But the whole letter, in elegant Latin, 

ought to be preserved, in grateful memory of the donor. N^xiir. 

Which ancient book, I suppose, still remains in that library ; 

as it hath been often made use of by our commentators. 

And in another letter to that lord, the next year, he per- Moves the 

suaded him to procure the printing of the said Pentateuch, ^y^er to get 

which he had sent him the year before : at least the Per- '^ printed 

sian, Arabic, and vulgar Greek versions, with the Hebrew 

verses added. Which might, he said, be done at no great 

charge, by Plantin at Antwerp. And that such an edition 

would be highly profitable to the whole Christian world, 

and procure to himself an immortal name. And so prayed 

him to think again and again upon it. This letter of Beza 

will not be improper to be joined to the former in the Ap- N". XIV. 



The French match like to succeed: and a leagne with 
France. Treaty tcith Mary queen of Scots, frustrate. 
Parties in Scotland. Ireland chargeable. Plots. Pariy 
in Venice and Lyons : his intelUgence : writes in favour 
of the good knight. A proclamation against harhouring 
Jesuits and priests : and going to the colleges at Rheims 
and Rome. Sessions at London. Mass-mongers, Sfc. The 
queen assists the protestant churches. Duke of Bipont, 
prince palatine, comes into England. Wierus, his agent. 
Letters of the queens ambassador in France concerning 
the Duke of Savoy. Beza's letter to the lord treasurer in 
behalf of Geneva. Prince of Orange'' s death foretold by 
the pope^s nuncio. 

As to the match with France, which still stuck upon Anno i582. 
terms required on the part of the French king, he seemed The French 
now to incline. So the queen's ambassador wrote to the to terms 


BOOK lord chamberlain in a letter dated September 26, 1582; ad- 
vertising his lordship, how they in that court gave him to 

Anno 1582. understand, that the king had the last week written into 
about raon- England, and to his brother, the duke, that his maiesty was 

sieur s o ' ^ ' o j 

match. willing to grant to all demands made (on the English side) 
7^ for the effecting of the marriage. And that he further 
heard tell, that the king was inclined to enter into league 
with her majesty ; about which commissioners from both 
princes were busy the last year, as hath been related. And 
then the said ambassador made this observation hence ; 
" That such were the occasions of the world, as they per- 
" suaded more in princes, than any person could do." Add- 
ing, " That the king was at that time very weak, and at 
" Moulins, and intended to repair easily to St. Germaines 
" on Leye." But that disease of the king proved not mor- 
tal, being reserved some years longer for a more violent 
death, as their histories shew. 
A fine coach The quceii had sent the French king a present of Eng- 
sent to the j^^j^ dogs. And he was now preparine; a very splendid cha- 

queen by o tr ir o J r 

the French riot, to present again to her. And so the ambassador sig- 
'"^' nified in his letter to her majesty, viz. " The French king 

" hath commanded to be made for your majesty an exceed- 
" ing, marvellous, princely coach. And to be provided four 
" of the fairest moiles which are to be had, for to carry 
" your highness's litter. The king hath been moved to 
" shew himself in this sort grateful to yoiu* majesty on the 
" receiving those dogs, and other singularities you were 
" lately pleased to send unto him, for his falconer." 

Something I have to insert here of JNIary the Scotch 

queen, taken from certain notes of the lord treasurer 

Treaties Burghley's hand. It hath been shewed before concerning 

with the several treaties with her by honourable agents from queen 

Scots queen _ >' o i 

broke off: Elizabeth. Besides which, a fourth treaty began, anno 1582; 
w ly. ^^q^j^i-j^ij^ gij. Walter Mildmay, a chief privy-counsellor, Avas 
employed. And while the proceeding therein was a little 
suspended upon a practice of an answer from Scotland, 
touching the Scotch king's disposition ; her majesty disco- 
vered, that the duke of Guise was preparing some attempt 


against England for the Scottish queen. For whose enlarge- CHAP, 
ment also Francis Throgmorton at the same time practised ^"^' 

an invasion to be made into this land ; and other traitors to '^nno i582. 
be accepted. Which being discovered, and he apprehended, 
gave cause that this treaty proceeded no farther. To which 
I will subjoin what follows in the same MS. concerning 
other treaties the two next ensuing years ; viz. 

In anno 1583, the earl of Shrewsbury and Mr. Beal were 
appointed by her majesty to deal with the Scotch queen in 
another treaty, with promise to return sir Walter Mildmay; 
if she would discover certain practices against her majesty, 
which she pretended to know. While this treaty was in 

hand, by the Scotch queen's pro [procurement] and 

direction, the duke d'Aubignie, [Lenox,] the lord Fen- 
hurst, and sir James BafFord, all mortal enemies to the state 
of England, were brought into Scotland. And so the treaty 
was broke off by that occasion. 

Last, in anno 1584, another treaty was entered into with 
Nau, the French secretary. At which time the treasons and 
practices of Parry were discovered. And so the treaty 
ceased. By all which it is evident, that the Scotch queen 
hath never entered into any treaty, but only of purpose to 79 
abuse her majesty with some treacherous attempts or other : 
as the writer of these notes concluded. 

In that kingdom of Scotland were great disturbances this Factions in 
year, raised by two factions there ; whereof one of them, ' ^^ *" ' 
that pretended to be of the protcstant side, viz. earl 
Goury, Mar, and others, by a wile seized the king's person 
in a castle, and there detained him, till he should have re- 
moved the duke of Lenox from him, whom they esteemed 
to be of the popish faction, and should do other things, as 
they thought good ; as our historian relates. And to smooth Camb. Eiiz. 
over the better this their exploit, in thus handling their 1532. 
king, they published a declaration, which bore this title : 
Ane declaratioun of the just and necessary causes, moving'The king of 
us of the nobility of Scotland and uthers, the now Mnsfs ^*^°** ''f" 

^ ij ^ ' o tamed m a 

faitlvful subjects, to repair to his highness presence, and to castle, 
remain with him: ^or resisting the present daungers ap- 




Lamb, libr 
xviii. 6, 

The ill state 
of Ireland. 

BOOK 2^co,r'mg to God's true religion, and professors thereof, and 

'_ to his highness oxvn person, state, and crown, and his 

Anno \b^2.j'aitJiful subjects that hes constantly continued in his obedi- 
ence ; and to seek redress and rcjbrmation of the abuse and 
confusion of the commonxvealth ; removing from his ma- 
jesty the chief authors thereof, &c. Directed from Strive- 
ling with special command, and licence to be jn'inted, 1582. 
This remarkable declaration is still remaining in Lambeth 
library. This party queen Elizabeth favoured, because 
they opposed the Guisian faction there, very busy, implaca- 
ble enemies to her, and were at this time intent upon an 
invasion by the way of Scotland. 

As for Ireland, it was oppressed with wars and commo- 
tions, and the ill management of the queen''s officers there. 
Insomuch that the lord treasurer, who knew well how ex- 
pensive that kingdom was, had these words in a letter of 
his to sir Nic. White, master of the rolls there ; " That he 
" knew not how to relieve that miserable country, and la- 
" mented the state thereof: as finding it to take as much 
" harm by physicians and surgeons ; I njean," said he, 
" captains and their bands, as it did by rebels." It was 
written from the court at Oatlands, September 11, 1582. 

Plots were carrying on every where against the queen and 
government by papists : and Parry (not yet discovered to 
be such a traitor) among the rest very busy abroad in such 
work ; though he cunningly made the lord Bux'ghley be- 
lieve at first, that he was a very diligent spy for the queen 
in divers parts abroad. And often writ his letters of intelli- 
gence concerning them to that lord, and to the secretary. 
Take some minutes of a secret letter or two of his, wrote in 
March ] 582, from Venice, of news and reports abroad of the 
queen, and of her persecution of the Romanists. Where he 
took occasion to mix his thoughts about the French king, 
and the king of Spain, and the queen''s concerns with each. 
Whereby might appear how his inclination stood ; that is, 
favourably to Spain, and that interest. " That the late en- 
" terprisc in Flanders, reported there [at Venice] to the 
" great dishonour of the French, had filled those parts full 

Parry's in- 

From Ve- 


"of expectation what the queen''s majesty would do:"'' CFlAP. 
[meaning, whether she would assist and protect those of the 

Low Countries against king Philip, she having counte- Anno i582. 

nanced and granted men and money to the French king's "^ 

brother for that purpose, but was gone away lately in some 

disgrace home.] " And that as her government had hitherto 

" been thought to exceed all the pnnces of her time, so it 

" was looked, that her majesty should now serve herself on 

" all good occasions pretended for her quietness and better 

" assurance."" [No longer to stir up so great a prince as the 

king of Spain, who must needs create her and her kingdoms 

great disturbance.] He added, " That the French king 

" and his mother did find themselves grieved for some 

" liberal speeches used of them in that town, [viz. Venice.] 

" But that that commonwealth had the honour of princes in 

" great regard, and could not abide to have them touched 

" by word or writing That it had been told him 

*' in great secrecy, (though, he said, he might not avow it,) 
" that the queen-mother lieth in the wind, and watcheth to 
" give our queen [Elizabeth] a mate, and would undoubt- 
" edly do it, if her majesty did not look well to her game." 
[Meaning, by the crafty insinuations of that queen, to bring 
about the match between the queen and her son, the duke 
d'Anjou, a person loose enough, and with whom she was 
not like to live with comfort.] 

He went on with his intelligence. " We hear of great 
" and daily preparations for the sea in Naples, Spain, and 
" Portugal. But not that don Antonio's fortune" [whom 
queen Elizabeth favoured against Spain] "can serve him to 
" offend the king catholic. It is judged a very slender po- 
" licy, that we, having no ambassador in Spain, do still en- 
" tertain the Spanish ambassador in England : where I fear 
*' me there is too much to be done by money ;" [viz, money 
distributed by that ambassador to carry on his designs.] 
" That many were of opinion, that it was a matter of less 
" difficulty for us to confirm that ancient league with Bur- 
" gundy," [another favourable word for Spain,] " than to 
" continue our intelligence with France : with whom for 



BOOK " five hundred years I do not find that we have had any 
long peace. And out of doubt 1 am, that we have very 

Anno 1582. " mighty enemies in France to our quietness. Our traffick in 
" the Levant cannot but be dangerous, and full of adven- 
" tiu'e for our merchants, so long as we stand upon doubt- 
" ful terms with Spain. The prince of Orange is thought 
" now to live in more danger than ever ; and that he shall 
" not long escape, if practice may prevail." [This shews 
Parry to be acquainted with the intrigues of Spain, that 
prince being basely shot by a Burgundian some time 
after.] " The new book at Rome, dedicated to the cardinal 
" S. Sixti, and entitled, De persecutione Angl'icana, hath 
" raised a barbarous opinion of our cruelty. I could wish," 
added he, " that in those cases it might please her majesty 
" to pardon the dismembering and quartering." And in 
the end of his letter he gives a hint of Shelley, (a fugitive 
who was made lord prior of St. Johns's of Jerusalem by 
queen Mary, and now, as it seems, at Venice.) " Sir Ri- 
" chard Shelley is very desirous to return, and promiseth 
" very great services, if he be not disquieted for his con- 
81 " science." This letter was dated from Venice the 4th of 
March, 1582, without any name subscribed. 
His letter In another letter from Venice, dated January 28, he sug- 
n °M a place gested to the same statesman, to whom he addressed before, 
fit for Intel- how he was placed in that city, a place fit for intelligence : 
'S""''^- a That if he should write to his lordship, that either that 
" place was so barren, or himself so slothful, that he could 
*' not honour and serve his lordship as he was wont, he 
" should greatly err. But being first desirous to under- 
*' stand from his lordship, in what kind his service might 
" best like him, he had purposely forborne to be too busy in 
" writing. And being greatly looked upon, [as a spy,] it 
" might greatly import him to look how and what he 
" wrote. He found it a matter very unpleasant, to be 
" troubled or tied to the advertisements of ordinary occur- 
" rents, [which was then chiefly required of him.] And 
" that yet if any thing liappened that he should think 
"to be of importance, he would not fail to advertise his 


" lordship. That that place [Venice] was very plentiful of CHAP. 
" good and bad [news] ; but the best was hardly to be had '__ 

" without charge:"" [an argument used to increase his sa- Anno 1 582. 
lary.] " Which he could think well bestowed, to look into 
" three men"'s proceedings in that town." Who were agents 
perhaps of some foreign princes ; whose servants he might 
corrupt by money. 

The writer then turned to the English merchants'" trade Tratfick 

■ t th > 

there ; viz. " That our traffick into the Levant did and Levant. 
" would more and more offend many. And that there was 
*' nothing- undevised that might tend to the discredit of our 
" merchants, or increase of their danger. [Out of hatred 
*' and malice to the English nation.] But that if our wool 
" were wrought at home, and our clothes (almost out of 
" price) well made, it could not but marvellously enrich our 
" state.*"' 

He adds, " That he had sent to his lordship two Italian 
" books by sea ; and that he would send him many mo, if 
" he were as able as he was willing."'"' 

Another business of his letter was concerning a g-oocl 
knight; whose name he mentioned not. It was undoubt- Sir Richard 
edly sir Richard Shelley, abovementioned, who departed the ■'oo'd 
out of England for his religion : but of better principles of ^"'S'^** 
loyalty than the Jesuits and seminaries. This gentleman 
Parry met at Venice, and fell into acquaintance with him : 
and being known to the lord treasurer, took the oppor- 
tunity, in his correspondence with that lord, to move him 
in his behalf. " That in his letters he had writ to his lord- 
" ship how willing the good knight, mentioned in his ho- 
" nour's letters, was to come home, so as he might be war- 
" ranted by passport to come and go safely. For, as his in- 
" tent was (as it had been always) honourable and dutiful 
" to his prince and country, so he was loath that his coming, 
" only to discharge his duty to her majesty in matters that 
" he might not write, or commit to any man, should turn 
" or be wrested to his harm or dishonour. Neither did he 
" think, that any man could work this readiness in him, but 
" that he had a singular good opinion and hope of her ma- 

I 3 




Anno 1582. 

letter of 
from Ve- 
nice to the 
lord trea- 

Would be 
thought a 
true man. 

letter of 
his from 

" jesty''s gracious and his lordship's real dealing and pro- 
" ceeding. And so hoping to hear from his lordship con- 
" earning the good knight, he committed the same to 
" God,"" &c. Of this sir Richard Shelley we shall hear from 
his own letters afterwards. 

Parry's great drift was to conceal his treachery and false- 
hood, and to make the English court believe him a true 
man. Thus in another letter of his to the lord treasurer a 
few days after, viz. March the 10th, from the city : " That 
" he would forbear writing of trifles, [matter of less con- 
" cern,] not troubling his lordship with them : and would 
" reserve himself wholly for such special service as he 
" should think fit for the queen's majesty, and grateful to 
" his lordship, and Mr. S. [secretary.] He knew his lord- 
" ship could not lack any ordinary occurrences out of all 
" parts, nor such as were of greatest importance from great 
" personages, &c. I have presumed, that your lordship 
" hath ever esteemed me for a true man to my prince and 
" country : so much that whatsoever do come to their ears, 
" I beseech you to promise for me; and I will not fail to 
" perform it, God willing." [This last period hath a line 
drawn under it, by the lord treasurer's pen, as his custom 
was in passages of letters sent him of more remark.] 

" I pray you tell Mr. Secretary, that here is such a 
" speech of the persecution and cruelty, that your lordship, 
" sometime in the same predicament, is almost forgotten ;" 
[that is, in respect of other of the queen's counsellors for 
these proceedings.] " My lords of Huntington and Leices. 
" ter, and Mr. Secretary, are the men most wondered at." 

Let me subjoin some more of this false man's intelligences 
the next year ; when he was now rambled to Lyons in France. 
Whence he wrote to the same lord a letter, dated May the 
10th, to this import: " That his great liking to live in the 
" state of Venice was overruled by the necessity of his de- 
" parture," [whether by being suspected to be a spy for the 
queen, or rather for his running in debt more than he could 
pay, as he was a riotous and great spender in England,] 
" though I liavc not perhaps fully satisfied the expectation 


had of me, yet have I done the best to serve the queen's CHAP. 
majesty. If I be not mistaken, I have shaken the foun- 

" dation of the Enghsh seminary, that at Rheims; and ut- Anno 1 582. 
" terly overthrown the credit of the Enghsh pensioners in "ifj^j^ggr- 
" Rome. My instruments were such as passed for great, ho- vices at 

,11 nil ^ T J Rheims and 

" nourable, and grave. Ihe course was extraordmary and Rome. 
" strange: reasonably well devised, soundly followed, and 
" substantially executed ; without the assistance of any one 
" of the English nation. Your honourable favour and Mr. 
" Secretary's hath overthrown my credit with our country- 
" men on this side. Yet if I were well warranted and al- 
" lowed, I would either prevent and discover all Roman 
" and Spanish practices against our state, or lose my life, in 
" testimony of my loyalty to the queens majesty, and duty 
" to my honourable friends, that have protected me,"" [All 
this craftily by him insinuated, to create a firm trust and 
confidence in him and his service.] He goes on. " If it 
" please your lordship to confer with Mr. Secretary, touch- 
*' ing my letters herewidi sent, to advise and direct me, I 
" am ready to do all I shall be able and am commanded. 83 
" Whatsoever I have already spent, I do think well be- 
" stowed. But it is neither my poor state, nor any trifling 
" allowance that will serve to do that is to be done ; the 
" meanest man that is to be followed and courted [abroad 
" where he was] being a secretary." [Thus hoping to get 
a liberal salary from those against whom he was all this 
while practising.] 

" I have taken my leave of ordinary occurrences long 
" ago, as little worth, and less availing our state. I am pro- 
" mised very good intelligence from Venice. If it be per- 
" formed, your good lordship shall be well served. 

" I came from Baden, [in Switzerland,] where the diet is 
" holden. The ambassadors of France, Savoy, and the can- 
" tons and confederates, were assembled. The ambassadors 
" of Zurick, Bern, and Geneva, [protestant states,] told me 
" they had small hopes of any accord. They mean to urge 
•' the matter to some sound resolution. I find the French 
'' king greatly mistrusted. Geneva is in good hope to be 

I 4 


BOOK " relieved out of England. I spake with Mr. Beza. I think 
_____" the man greatly decayed, and not long lasting.'"' [But he 


Anno 1582. was mistaken ; Beza lived many a year after, to 1605.] " I 

*' was also with Mr. Gualter, [an eminent minister of Zu- 

" rick,] a good man, and well affected to our nation. I was 

" very well entertained, and presented in Zurick and Ge- 

" neva." This was the sum of his letter from Lyons. Thus 

Parry went in a mask hitherto, and fared well by that means. 

We shall hear more of him and his intelligence the year 

ensuing, from Lyons and Paris, still cloaking his malice. 

A procia- A large proclamation came forth in April this year 

against Je- against Jesuits and seminary priests, and against the har- 

suits and bourers of them, and such as sent their children to the col- 
seminaries, 1 1 /. 1 1 •PI 1 Ti> J 

and their leges abroad, for the better security oi the queen s life and 
reign, and the government and religion established ; which 
I shall here set down, the rather, since our historians are 
silent of it, and may serve considerably to enlighten that 
part of the history of those times, and of that popish, busy, 
dangerous faction. 

It set forth, " How the queen's majesty had heretofore 
*' been given to understand, that certain societies and con- 
" venticles, some under the name of seminaries, and some 
" of Jesuits, had been of late years erected by the bishop 
" of Rome, as well in the city of Rome, as in the dominion 
" of other princes ; namely and especially, for the natural 
" born subjects of her majesty's kingdoms and dominions ; 
" with intent and purpose to train them up in false and er- 
*' roneous doctrine : by means whereof divers of her ma- 
" jesty's natural born subjects had not only been perverted 
" in matters of religion, but also sought, drawn, and per- 
*' suaded from the acknowledgment of their natural duties 
" and allegiance unto her majesty, as their natural prince 
" and only sovereign; and by special direction from the 
" pope and his delegates had been made instruments of 
" sundry wicked, traitorous practices ; tending not only to 
" the moving and stirring up of rebellion within their na- 
" tural countries, (which, through the goodness of Almighty 
" God, and her majesty's provident government, had al- 


" ways been foreseen and prevented,) but also to the endan- CHAP. 
" gering of her majesty's most royal person. That her , 

"highness hereupon foreseeing the great mischief that Anno i582. 

" might ensue such traitorous and wicked instruments, did°^ 

" therefore, by her proclamation, bearing date, at her palace 

" at Westminster, the 10th day of January, in the twenty- 

" third year of her most prosperous reign, notify unto her 

" subjects, That if any of them, or any other within her 

" highnesses dominions, after the publishing of that her 

" proclamation, should receive, maintain, succour, or relieve 

" any Jesuit, seminary man, massing priests, or other like 

" persons aforesaid, which should come or should be sent 

" into this realm, or into any other her dominions, or 

" should not discover the receiving or harbouring of the 

" same persons, or any such vagrant, counterfeit persons, as 

" might justly by their behaviour be suspected to be of 

" such quahty and ill condition : as also, (in case they 

" should remain with them at the time of the said procla- 

" mation, or afterwards,) should not bring them before the 

" next justice, or before some other public officer, to the 

" end they might be in like sort committed, and forthcom- 

" ing to be examined ; and to receive such punishment as 

" by her highness should be thought meet according to 

" their deserts ; that then they should be reputed as main- 

" tainers and abettors of such rebellious and seditious per- 

" sons ; and receive for the same their contempt, such severe 

" punishment, as by the laws of the realm, and her ma- 

" jesty''s princely authority, might be inflicted upon them. 

" That si thence which time some example having been 
" made for the condign punishment of such as have con- 
" temptuously broken her highnesses express commandment 
" in that behalf given by the said proclamation ; and some 
" of the said traitorous persons, as namely, Edmund Cam- 
" pion, Jesuit, Raulphe Sherwine, and John Briant, semi- 
" nary priests, having disguisedly and very secretly wan- 
" dered in the realm, and at length apprehended ; and so 
" tliereupon justly, lawfully, publicly, and orderly indicted, 
" arraigned, condemned, and executed for divers treasons ; 


BOOK " ^^^ some others their complices having been likewise 
I- " justly and lawfully condemned for the like crimes : her 
Anaoi58'j. " majesty finding, what through the obstinacy and malice 
" of some, and the wilful ignorance of many others, that 
" neither the said proclamation nor the said examples have 
" wrought such effect of reformation, as, upon good hope 
" conceived of this her forewarning, her highness had ex- 
" pected and desired; and perceiving withal, that some 
" traitorously affected have of late, by letters, libels, pamph- 
" lets, and books both written and printed, falsely, sedi- 
" tiously, and traitorously given out, that the said most hor- 
*' rible ti'aitors were without just cause condemned and 
" executed ; had therefore thought good to make known 
" unto her good and faithful subjects, and generally to all 
" others within her dominions, whereby they might not be 
" abused nor inveigled by tiiose and such like most wicked, 
" false, and dangerous traitors and seducers, that it had 
" manifestly and plainly appeared unto her highness and 
*' her council, as well by many examinations, as by sundry 
g5 " of their own letters and confessions; besides the late ma- 
" nifest attempts of the like companions, directed by the 
" pope out of number, of the said seminaries and Jesuits, 
" broken out to actual rebellion in Ireland ; that the very 
" end and purpose of these Jesuits and seminary men, and 
" such like priests, sent or to be sent over into this realm, 
" and other her majesty ""s dominions, from the parts beyond 
" the seas, was not only to prepare sundry her majesty's 
" subjects, inclinable to disloyalty, to be up, to give aid to 
" foreign invasion, and to stir up rebellion within the same ; 
" but also (that most perilous is) to deprive her majesty 
" (under whom, and by whose provident government, with 
" God's assistance, these realms have been so long and so 
" happily kept and continued in great plenty, peace, and 
" security) of her life, crown, and dignity. 

" That seeinp- the jjreat mischief that otherwise mig-ht 
" ensue unto the whole estate of her majesty's realms 
" and countries, if these attempts were not more severely 
" looked unto and punished ; and to tlic intent none should, 


after the publication liereof, excuse themselves by pre- cHAP. 
tence of any ignorance ; her majesty did therefore hereby ^^"• 

signify to all her loving subjects, and all other within her Anno i5852. 
" dominions, That all the said Jesuits, seminary men, and 
" priests aforesaid, coming into these her dominions in such 
" secret manner, were, and so, of all her subjects aforesaid, 
" ought to be holden, esteemed, and taken for traitors to 
" her majesty, her crown and realm. And that all such as, 
" after the publishing of this proclamation, should wittingly 
" and willingly receive, harbour, aid, comfort, relieve, and 
" maintain any such Jesuit, seminary man, or priest, as was 
" aforesaid, should be and ought to be dealt with, used, 
" and proceeded on, as willing and witting aiders, com- 
" forters, rehevers, and maintainers of traitors, committing 
" high treason to her majesty's person : and that every such 
" person, as shall have any such Jesuit, seminary man, or 
" priest, in his or her house or company, at the time of the 
" publication hereof, or after, knowing him to be such, 
" and shall not forthwith himself do his or her best endea- 
" vour to bring him, or cause him to be brought before the 
" next justice of the peace, or other public officer, to be 
" committed to prison ; whereby he might be forthcoming 
" to answer his offence, according to her highnesses laws ; 
" that then every such person shall be deemed, taken, and 
" dealt with, as a maintainer and aider of traitors as aforesaid. 
" And that every person, wittingly concealing any such Je- 
" suit, seminary man, or priest, or any their practices afore- 
" said, shall be deemed and taken to be in case of mispri- 
" si on of treason. 

" And moreover, her highnesses pleasure and express 
" commandment was, that none of her subjects, nor any 
" other under her obeisance, shall suffer their children, or 
" any other, being under charge or government, except 
" lawful merchants, and such as without covin shall be 
" affents or factors for lawful merchants, in their trades of 
" merchandise beyond the seas, and mariners for their voy- 
" ages, to depart out of this realm without her highnesses 
" special liceijce first had and obtained ; upon pain of her 



BOOK " highriess''s displeasure, and such further punishment as 
" may be imposed upon the offenders in that behalf, for 
Anno 1582." such their offence and contempt. And that as well all 
86 " such of her majesty "'s subjects as were at that present of 
" the said seminaries and Jesuits, erected beyond the seas 
*' as aforesaid, and shall not return within one quarter of a 
" year after such proclamation made ; as all other which, 
" after the proclamation hereof, shall pass over the seas, 
" and be of any of the seminaries or societies erected as 
" aforesaid, shall be \pso facto taken, reputed, and esteemed 
" to be traitors to her highness"'s person, her crown and 
" realm : and that all maintainers, aiders, relievers, and 
" comforters of such persons, shall be esteemed, taken, and 
" dealt with as maintainers, aiders, relievers, and comforters 
" of such traitors. Given at our manor of Greenwich, the 
" first day of April, in the 24th year of our reign." 

This was a second proclamation against the harbourers 
and maintainers of these Jesuits and seminaries ; and was 
thought necessary to be set forth, to vindicate the queen and 
state in the late execution of some of them ; many letters 
being writ, and libels scattered about, to defame her majes- 
ty, as though those traitors were put to death unjustly: and 
to declare to all her subjects their due deserts as traitors ; 
and how apparent their purposes were to raise rebellions in 
her kingdom, nay, and sought her life and crown ; and there- 
fore how necessary this her care was for the prevention 

Of these busy factors for popery at this time, came a let- 
ter to the lord treasurer from Fleetwood, the recorder of 
London ; informing him of what was done at one of their 
sessions, to this tenor: " That they had been every day oc- 
" cupied with seminary priests, mass-mongers, libellers, and 
" such like. And that in the first week of Lent, it fell out 
" that there was a book cast abroad in connnending Cam- 
" pion [the Jesuit that was lately executed] and his fellows, 
" and of their death. That he [the recorder] pursued 
*' the matter so close, that he found the press, the letters, 
" the figures, and a number of the books. And that being 

&c. at the 
sessions at 


*' in this search, one Osborn, a seminary priest, came droop- CHAP. 
*' ing into a chamber where Mr. Topchff, of the court, and ^^^^^' 
" himself were. Him they examined. Anditappeared,thathe Anno 1582. 
" was a seminary priest, and had dwelt at the hospital [for *^*.''°''"» '"J 

•i i ^ r L priest and 

" the English] at Rome four years. And after, he was pro- Franciscan 

*' fessed into a house of the Franciscans, being barefoot fri- "^'^' 

" ars, that lived by begging. And that he laboured, as he 

" said, by cutting of wood, and bearing of it upon his back. 

" That they also [of that order] lay upon no beds, but 

" tumbled in the straw, like swine. That they used no shirt. 

" That they had no more garments but such as they daily 

" wore : the which were slender, thin, and extreme cold. 

" Their diet slender, and they eat but once a day. They Et sunt un- 

*' drank water. They might touch no money. diqueobruti 

*^ •' pediculis. 

" He [this friar] added further, that being of this order 
" but seven weeks, it being so strait, he was driven to flee, 
" and come into England. And in Christmas he said Sun- 
" day masses at Mr. Browne's house, the lord viscount's bro- 
" ther, before the lady Vaux and certain others; and that 87" 
" in crastino epiphani(B, he said mass in the Fleet, [where 
" many recusants were committed,] in the lord Vaux's cham- 
" ber, [to whom he was related,] before that lord, Mr. 
" Tresham, Mr. Tyrwhit, and others. For the which of- 
" fence, these three were upon Wednesday after convicted 
" in Guildhall, at an o?/er and determitier. Where the said 
" Osborn gave lively evidence; although they before judg- 
" ment did stoutly deny the same. Yet after, they did most 
" humbly submit themselves unto her majesty ; and so de- 
" parted to prison again." 

At this court of oi/er and determiner were others arraign- 
ed for hearing mass at a house of Mrs. Alford's, in Salisbury- 
court, viz. Mrs. Rogers, sometime wife of Bernard, steward 
of Gray's Inn; Mrs. Alford, the wife of Fr. Alford; Mr. Ro- 
gers, a gentleman; and one Hyde, Mrs. Alford's man. The 
seminary priest was one Dean. The said Hyde (who was 
reconciled by Dean) and Dean himself gave the evidence. 
And for that cause Mr. Secretary's pleasure was, that they 
should be spared. Mrs. Alford was also spared, because Mr. 


BOOK Francis is bound for her; and she promised to go to the 
' church. This favourable deaHng was by Mr. Secretary ""s 
Anno 1582. order. 

The queen All the busy managery of affairs at home and abroad now 
Nether- ^ turned upon the hinge of religion. And as the queen saw 
lands. how little Safety there was for her from Spain or France, 

being so vigorously set to extinguish the reformed religion, 
she shewed herself a friend to the Netherlands, who were 
now defending themselves and their liberties against Spain 
with their arms. 
Duke of ^° vnth the other reformed churches, and protestant 

isipont princes in Germany, she kept a correspondence : and name- 
England, iy? with the prince palatine of the Rhine, one of which 
liouse was duke of Bipont, or Deuxpontz ; who divers years 
past came into France with a strong army of Germains, to 
aid the prince of Navarre, in the civil wars there upon the 
account of religion. To which duke the queen sent a great 
sum of money into France by sir Thomas Gresham, the 
qvieen's factor then at Antwerp, out of her good will to 
those poor oppressed churches: this was in the year 1569, 
Wierus his when ouc Wierus, a learned man, was his agent here. 
■ Where he was transacting his prince''s business with the 
queen; and received great respects from Cecil, the secre- 
tary, and afterwards from the same when lord treasurer. 
The son of this duke, and prince palatine, whose name and 
title was George Gustavus, palatine of the Rhine, duke of 
Bavaria, count Veldent, &c. was now coming into England, 
attended with Wierus'^s brother. With whom he sent a letter 
to the said lord treasurer; the contents whereof shew the high 
esteem that statesman had of that agent ; and that agent*'s 
character of him, in these words : " That by reason of those 
" not only admirable, but also most amiable qualities which 
" he saw and experienced in him twelve years ago, [1569,] 
" when he was agent for his prince palatine of the Rhine ; 
" he could not nor ought to omit, that his brother, with his 
" prince, should repair to his lordship without his letters, as 
" witnesses of his most humble observance of him. And that 
88 " wherein he might, cither in the least or greatest matters. 


" any ways serve him, he would endeavour to prove before chap. 
" all men, as long as he should live, that he should never ^'''• 

'* repent of his favour and protection, [diejitele,'] which he Anno 1582. 
" desired to receive of him, or rather to be continued to 
' him. And of the favours which he [the lord treasurer] 
" should, according to his singular humanity, shew to that 
" prince and his brother, both of them his admirers ; and 
" which he was able to do in that great place whei-ein he 
" was. And so he should oblige all that illustrious family, 
" heretofore most addicted to him in many respects." Writ- 
ten from Veldent, July 26. Subscribed, Tucb generosissiriKB 
excellenticB humiliter addict issimics, Theod. Wiems, Dr. ar- 
chisatrapa comitat. Veldent'icB. 

As those protestant German princes palatine had all re- 
spects at the English court, so to another foreign prince the 
queen shewed as little affection ; namely, the duke of Savoy. The duke of 
Who laboured all he could to swallow up the neighbour f''™^',! j;!''^ 

J. O IJliccIl S dlU- 

city, Geneva ; and that chiefly out of his pretended zeal to iiassador in 
destroy the religion there professed. The citizens this year letters ' 
are applying themselves, (as they had done before,) by their *^'^"* '^'™* 
agent, monsieur Mallet, to her majesty for her assistance, 
and now in their great danger from that duke, to grant them 
a supply of money. And out of compassion to them, she ap- 
pointed a voluntary collection to be made in all the dioceses 
for that city ; and the privy-council directed their letters to 
the archbishop of Canterbury, for his setting it on foot by 
his letters to the bishops of his province. The success where- 
of may be read in Archbishop Grindal's Life, under this year Book ii. 

1582. chap. 14, 

There was a letter (not mentioned there) of the syndics The city of 
and council of Geneva, then addressed to the lord treasurer, let^'erWthe 
laying open their present distressed condition ; and thereby '"'"'^ t""*^*" 

... *' surer, 

to use his interest to move the queen to favour their request, shewing 

And that backed with another from Beza, their chief minis- ^^*."'' *=°"" 

' dition. 

ter, to the same lord, to this tenor: 

" That he, depending on his benignity, so much spoke of Beza to the 

" by all foreigners ; which though he might seem thereby J.^"'" 't^ei?' 


BOOK " too confident, yet partly his equity, and partly their ne- 
" cessity would easily, he hoped, excuse. 
Anno 1 582. " That uo doubt it had been told him, what snares had 
city in their u ^gen laid for their city of Geneva, and with what force it 

present ne- •' ' 

cessity. " had been assaulted ; and how wonderfully God had deli- 
" vered it that present year. That he knew very well how 
" greedily it was desired by the enemies of the gospel : and 
" that beside those that had declared an irreconcileable war 
" against the gospel, it had other enemies, whatsoever was 
" pretended to the contrary, in respect of the opportunity 
" that the situation of that city afforded. And how much 
" the defence of that city imported, he [the lord Burghley] 
" sufficiently perceived. And that most assuredly in this 
" state of things, as long as that pj-opugnaculum, that for- 
*' tress of the Helvetian churches, and that most seasonable 
" refuge of the French churches, stood, they must despair 
" of executing the council of Trent, was the true scope of 
" all those warlike attempts, either in France, or in those 
89 " their countries. And he hoped that these pontijicians, 
*' leaving them [of Geneva] behind, whatsoever success 
" openly they might have against Holland, (which he pray- 
" ed God to avert,) they might pass over the sea, and make 

" other attempts [he meant upon England.] 

" On these accounts he beseeched that lord, to whom he 
" writ, that by his power with the queen, in that their 
" scarcity of money, to obtain of her money, for the assist- 
" ance of that city and church ; that had not illy deserv- 
" ed of others, and also sometime hospitable to this nation." 
This letter, dated October 10, proceedeth further : to take 
off a prejudice that might remain in the queen''s mind against 
Geneva, he endeavoured to clear that church and city of it ; 
namely, " That it was a receptacle of certain wicked per- 
" sons : which he affirmed was a shameless slander, since 
" there was no city under heaven that received strangers 
" with more careful and accurate examination of them, and 
" where right judgment was more severely done. And for 
" this he appealed to the English themselves ; some whereof, 


" of all ranks and qualities, had honoured their state and CHAP. 
" school with their presence." 

And whereas there was another thing that might give a Anno 1582. 
disgust against Geneva; that also he thus took off: " That 
" he remembered there was a book set forth there [at Ge- 
" neva] by a certain Englishman, in the unhappy times of 
" queen Mary, which gave the queen''s majesty offence : 
" [this book seems to be Goodman"'s, against women's go- 
" vernment:] but that as soon as it was known there, it was 
" evident that it was condemned and suppressed, by the 
" judgment of that church, and by the authority of their 
" magistrates. And that as for the diversity of some indif- 
" ferent rites, and of the different manner of the government 
" of their churches, far be it, that the minds of those that 
" plainly agreed in consent of the same doctrine should be 
" divided. And he appealed to his lordship how mode- 
" rately they always spoke and wrote, being required of 
" those matters." 

These particulars, and several others mentioned in the 
abovesaid letter of Beza, makes me reckon it worth reading 
over, and preserving in the Appendix, exemplified from N». xv. 
the original. This letter was accompanied and brought with 
the beforementioned from the council of Geneva, to the same 
statesman: which is also added in the Appendix, written inN^.xvi. 
French. And what good success these applications had in 
the English court and church, may be found in the Life of 
Archbishop Grindal before shewn. 

Concerning this duke of Savoy, Brook, the queen''s am-TheEng- 
bassador in France, in a letter to secretary Walsingham, ''*!' ambas- 

. . . . sador in 

gave this notice privately : " That it was given him to un- France to 
" derstand, how that duke had given order to win chevalier ^y^^'^i^^^^^ 
" Briton [who was a servant of monsieur, the French king"'s ham. 
" brother] to become at his devotion, and to repair unto his 
" court; where he promised to do him much honour. Upon 
" which he thought good to put the secretary in mind, that 
" if the said chevalier should depart from monsieur's service, 
" and be entertained by the duke, if he would, he might do 
" her majesty secret service in that court, and might comedo 



BOOK " by intelligence to many matters intended against her ma- 
" J6Sty and those of this religion, now that the said duke had 

Anno 1582. " shewed himself so great an enterpriser against those of the 
" religion. That he [the ambassador] thought he had some 
" of his acquaintance which would assure him that the said 
" chevalier Briton should do her majesty secret service." 

The said ambassador propounded another project to the 
secretary against the duke of Savoy : " I know not whether 
" your honour may think it good, that by monsieur's means, 
" the prince of Geneva, son to madam de la Granache, 
" may be gotten out of prison, where he lieth in Paris; 
" who might be raised up as an opposite instrument vmto 
" the duke of Savoy and those of the house of De Ne- 
" mours." 

In the same letter he informeth, " That he had been ad- 
" vised by a person of great quality, who had conversation 
" with the nuncio and Spanish agent, that they were as- 
" sured the prince of Orange had such an indisposition of 
" health, [as though he were poisoned,] that he could not 
The prince " live above a month or six weeks." And upon this the am- 
^p jjg''^|yj_ bassador gave his probable conjecture, " That the report 
in a month, <« concerning that prince might be so given out, in respect 
" of his indisposition of health, that he could not live be- 
" yond such a time, to cover a wicked design about this time 
" against his life." And indeed so it proved ; for he was 
shot by a young, desperate fellow at Antwerp, in the hall, 
He is shot, close by the door of his withdrawing chamber, the bullet en- 
tering in at his throat under the right chap, being so near 
that the fire entered with the bullet into the woimd, burning 
his ruff and his beard, and pierced his jugular vein; and 
came out at the left cheek, hard by his nose. The surgeon 
being called, found that the fire which had entered into the 
wound had cauterized the jugular vein, and done him much 
good : wherefore the wound was not mortal. But it proved 
otherwise. The villain was immediately thrust through with 
an halberd. That which moved him to do the villainy, as 
General the liistoriau relates, was tiie temptation of a great sum of 
th'^x'^th*''^ money promised by king Philip, to any who should kill that 


prince. In his preparation for that act, he was confessed by CHAP, 
a Jacobine friar, wlio fortified him in his resolution ; per- 

suading him, and making him beheve, that he should go in- Anno isss 
visible ; and gave him some characts in paper, and certain gV *^q ■ _ 
little bones; [of some saints perhaps;] which they found ston. 
in his pockets, with many conjurations written. And so he 
was accompanied witb the monk to his enterprise. And this 
I relate, the rather, upon occasion of the English ambas- 
sador''s intelligence of the reports at Paris, of the short- 
ness of the prince of Orange's life. 

CHAP. IX. 91 

A contest with the bishop of Coventry/ and Litchjield about 
the chancellorship. The case referred to civiliaiis and 
Judges. A jjetition about it to the privy-council. This 
bishopPs troubles in his diocese. Vexed with lawsuits. 
The earl of Leicester his enemy. Lord treasurer his 
Jriend. Desires a commission ecclesiastical. Names of 
recusants convict sent up. The ill state of his diocese by 
papists, and exempt jurisdictions. His letter to the lords. 
A wicked scandal, laid to the charge of the archbishop of 
York, discovered. Judgment in the star-chamber upon 
the actors. The archbishop's earnest letters to the lord 
treasurer : his letters of thanks to the queen, and trea- 
surer. They make open confession at York of their trea- 

INI OW for some collections of remark concerning some of 
the bishops, falling within this year. 

There happened a sharp contest between Overton, bishop a contest 
of Coventry and Litchfield, and one Dr. Beacon, about tlie^''*^*'l'^ '^'' 
chancellorship of that diocese, the bishop having granted it ventry and 
to him, and afterward with his consent joined Babington, ' '^ ^ • 
M. A. with him, granting the place to them both, conjunc- 
tim et divisim, and to the longer liver. And lastly, upon 
pretence of Non %iser, excluding Beacon wholly, and grant- 
ing the whole office to the latter. This occasioned a resist- 

K 2 


BOOK ance and disturbance in the cathedral church, which amount- 
ed to a riot. The bishop then adjourns the court to his own 

Anno 1582. palace, to be holden there; Beacon resorting thither also to 
offer his service and duty, that no advantage might be taken 
against him for No7i user. But the gates Avere shut upon 
him. Tlie case came into the star-chamber : and so thence 
to the privy-council ; and they referred it to the archbishop 
of Canterbury. And he, by a commission of visitation of 
that diocese, to the bishop of Wigorn, to examine and de- 
cide this controversy. And how far this matter proceeded 

^'^^, ?^ . under both archbishops may be read in their Lives, to which 

Archbishop . 

Grindai, I refer the reader. But I have still some other things to re- 
Lif^'^of ^^^^ concerning this notable case, that had been carried into 
Archbishop SO many courts, brought before so many judges, and the 
p. lof! ' eminentest civilians then in the land, shewing their learning, 
and giving their judgments therein. 
92 Babington was now constituted sole chancellor by the bi- 
shop. The archbishop committed this matter to the judg- 
The case ment of Dr. Aubrey and Dr. Hammond. And the case, as 
learned drawn up by Beacon, they thought fit to put to some of the 
lawyers. leametlest of the common law, viz. 

" Qucer'itur, Whether these circumstances may not ex- 
" cuse Dr. Beacon by law from the danger of Non user ; 
" attending neither by himself, nor his deputy afterward ; 
" until full order to establish right and quietness concluded 
" and taken. 

" Ansiver of lawyers. These circumstances amount to 
" a disseisin; and Dr. Beacon disseized of his office. Where- 
" fore during the time he is so wrongfully kept from the ex- 
" ercise of his office, Non user cannot prejudice him. For 
" Non user is not a cause of forfeiture ; but in case where it 
*' is voluntary. 

" Tho. Egerton. Yelverton. 

" Fra. Beaumont. Johnson. 

" Secondly, Whether the grant passed by the bishop, as 
" before, his lordship in his own person, or by any other, 
" may intermeddle in the exercise of jurisdiction, or exclude 


" the patentees, so that his lordsliip allow them the fees and CHAP. 
" profits growing by the office. And whether one patentee ' ' 

may exclude another. If both, or either a wrong, how Anno i582. 
" the patentee may remedy himself. 

" Answer. Where the fees be casual and uncertain, grow- 
" ing by the exercise of the office, the bishop cannot law- 
" fully exclude or remove the grantee. But if the fee be a 
" certain sum of money, the grantor may discharge the 
" grantee of the exercise of his office, allowing him his fee. 

" Tho. Egerton. Yelverton. 

" Fra. Beaumont. Johnson." 

The case drawn up by the bishop, as the former was 
drawn up by Beacon, was thus. 

" The office of a chancellorship within the diocese is 't'he case 
" granted to one for term of life. The bishop, by the pro- |,j. t^e bi- 
*' curement and consent of the same grant, doth sell and de- ^'""P- 
*' liver, as his act and deed, another patent, of the same of- 
" fice to the former grantee, and to A. B. jointly and seve- 
" rally to the longer liver of them. Which was delivered 
" into the hands of a third person; upon condition A. B. 
" shall assure unto the other a certain yearly annuity, dur- 
" ing life. A, B. refuseth to make such assurance. 

" Quare, Whether the first patent be void by the making 
" of the second. And whether the second be also void, by 
" the non-performance of the condition. 

" Anstoer. The second grant being delivered by the bi- 
" shop, as his deed, and not as an escrozoe, taketh presently 
" effect, as an absolute grant to the joint patentees ; and the 
" condition void. But if it were delivered as an escrowe, 
" then the first grant standeth in form, till the second per- 
" formed. 

" Tho. Edgerton. Fra. Beaumont. 
" Yelverton. Johnson." 

Upon this judgment of these learned lawyers, Dr. Aubrey 93 
and Dr. Hammond decided this controversy. But Dr. Ba- 
bington would not stand thereto ; but put up a petition to 



l?OOK the lords in this contest between him and Dr. Beacon. 
Which was as follows. 

Anno 1582. 

Babing- " To the right honourable, the lords of her majesty's most 
ton's peti- a honourable privy-council. 

tions to the ■* •' 

privy-coua- u rpj^^ ^^.j^^ ^^^^^1^ y^^ -q^. ^^brey and Dr. Hammond in 
" the cause committed unto them between Beacon and Ba- 
" bington seemeth insufficient and uncertain. For the same 
" is in part referred, and doth in truth wholly depend upon 
" the allowance or disallowance of the lord bishop, who is 
" in no sort or condition tied to the same order : but at 
" good liberty to frustrate and make void the said joint 
" patent, in case it shall by law be voidable. Wherefore 
" Babington most humbly beseecheth your _ honours, that 
" the consent to be given to the said order may be respited 
" him, until the lord bishop shall either have yielded his 
" consent, or otherwise do shew some lawful cause before 
*' your honours, as touching the insufficiency of his said 
" joint patent. For Babington, in truth, would be very loath 
" to contend with the lord bishop, his master, in and about 
" the said joint patent, except the same shall appear and be 
" found good and sufficient ; or otherwise to trive over his 
" interest he hath or may have in or to the said office, by 
" reason of any other more assured grant made unto him 
" from the said lord bishop of the same. 

" Where it was likewise thought good and determined by 
" your honours, that all suits and controversies between 
" Beacon and Babington should be compromitted and com- 
" pounded ; the said doctors have only made order, as 
" touching the interest in and to the said office; leavinff 
" Beacon and Babington at full liberty to prosecute the said 
" suit against each other. Whereupon Beacon, even sithence 
" the order made, doth proceed in his suit against Babing- 
" ton. Wherefore Babington being very loath to dwell in 
" controversy with the said Beacon, in case they be ap- 
" pointed to join together in execution of the said office, 
" humbly desireth your honours, that either all causes and 
" controversies between them mav be ordered and conclud- 


"ed; or otherwise, that the said Beacon and Babington CHAP. 

• • • IX 

" may be at Uberty to try Hkewise, by due course of law, 

" their right and title in and to the said office. Anno i582. 

" Also, where it is ordered by the said doctors, that Mr. 
" Weston, register, should collect the fees indifferently for 
" the said parties ; and to answer monthly to either an ac- 
" count of the same, Babington humbly beseecheth your 
" honours, that he may have the collections of such fees and 
" profits as are due, unto himself. For that he would be 
" very loath to expect the account or allowance of any other 
" in that which is his benefit, living, and maintenance. And 
" doth offer to become bound, not to intermeddle with any 
" fee or commodity due to the said Beacon. 

" Your honours' humble and most obedient orator, 

" Z. Babington." 

I have other papers before me concerning this conten-94 
tion, which created so much trouble to the good bishop ; as 
namely, his reasons propounded against admitting Beacon 
to the chancellorship ; and Beacon''s tedious answers to these 
reasons. Which being long, I will not exemplify them here, 
but choose rather to reposit them in the Appendix. But theN". xvir. 
bishop"'s reasons, which he offered to the council, or to those 
to whom the matter was committed, I will here subjoin, for 
his vindication. 

" First, Because the said Beacon hath no patent of vali- Reason why 
" dity. And therefore the bishop doth not think good to refused"*^ 
" bind himself to a man being free from him, and from all Beacon. 
" men. The reason is proved thus. Beacon had two sole 
*' patents and one joint patent. The first made void by the 
" acceptance of the second. And the second by the accept- 
" ance of the third. And the third is void, because it is 
" sealed and delivered to a third person, to the use of the 
" patentees. But upon condition. And the condition is not 
" performed. And besides this, though all or any of the 
" patents were good, yet for the defect of due execution, 
" they be forfeited, as by public instruments testifying the 
" same it may appear. 

K 4 


BOOK " Secondly, Because the said Beacon, though lie had a 
^ " good patent, yet is not a fit man to exercise the office. 
Anno 1D82," The reasou is proved thus. Beacon is very unskilful in 
" the law : and, for lack of knowledge, not able to give a 
" sentence, nor to judge of causes aright. B. is very cor- 
" rupt, and hunteth after bribes; whereby justice may be 
" perverted. B. is a great favourer of such as are enemies to 
" the queen's laws, and disturbers of the state : as namely, 
" of one Marbery ; who, for his anabaptism, or such like 
" schismatical or heretical opinions, hath been committed, 
" and is still put to silence, and deprived of his ministry. 

" Thirdly, Though he were fit, yet is he the bishop's 
" deadly enemy : and therefore not to be trusted. The rea- 
" son is proved thus. B. defaceth the bishop in all places 
" where he cometh. B. calleth the bishop, heasili/ knave, 
" horsoii JiJiave, pejjuT'ed man, simoniacal bishop, kc. B. 
" entereth into conspiracies with others, to deprive the bi- 
" shop of his bishopric ; and hath divers ways sought to en- 
" trap him, and bring him in danger of the law. B. hath 
" stood in open accusation of the bishop at the council- 
" table ; and hath procured the dean of Litchfield to do the 
" like. B. hath joined himself with the bishop's enemies in 
" all matters. B. hath been a treacherous and perfidious fel- 
" low to all his masters, the bishops, whom he hath served 
" heretofore. And therefore B. is nowise to be trusted." 
What answer Beacon framed to these articles in his own be- 
half, consult the Appendix, number as above. 
The ground This bishop had the misfortune to be opposed by the 
ofthebi- jg^j^ ^^^ chapter of his church from his first entrance 

shoj) s trou- _ ... 

bies from almost into his bishopric, which was in December, 1580. 

. ^^j ^j^^ abovesaid Beacon, the chief manager of the quarrel 

on their side. The main ground of it was, that the bishop 

had demanded some assistance from them and the wealthier 

95 of his clergy, under his great charges, too burdensome for 

him, in his entrance upon the bishopric : which was their 

Subsidium suhsidium charitativum, as it was called ; and for which 

charitati- {j^gi-g ]^^({ he^n some precedent in that episcopal see. But 

vum. ' . 

thev of Ills church denied to give it. And that which added 


to the bishop's trouble was, that the great earl of Leicester, CHAP. 
who was formerly his patron and friend, had relinquished ^^' 

him, and countenanced him not in this affair. Of this and Anno 1582. 
other things he made his complaint at large in a secret letter 
to the lord treasurer, his other friend and patron. 

" That that earl fell oft' from hini, and rather took the Vexed with 
" other side. The cause whereof, he said, he knew not, un-g^j'^f^^^t^'l^ 
" less it were for apostasy^'' [Which what the bishop meant '''« enemies. 
by it, seems to be, that he had applied himself to the lord 
treasurer, and took him also for his patron, and depended 
not upon Leicester alone.] His present troublesome con- 
dition he unfolded to the said lord treasurer in the month 
of February. " Which he called his laying forth his griefs 
and oppressions, sought to be brought upon him by his 
adversaries. Whereof one Boughton was one of them : 
who had brought many suits against him, both at quarter 
sessions and assizes; and preferred bills against him in 
the star-chamber and in the common-pleas. And all from 
the countenance of the earl of Leicester, and from private 
letters. That he [the bishop] had writ to him: which 
that earl had communicated to his enemy. So that here- 
by his own counsel, for fear of displeasure, dared scarcely 
to encounter him in his causes. So that, as he added, he 
might almost say, he was denied that which every com- 
mon . subject might claim, viz. the court of justice, and 
benefit of her majesty's laws. That Beacon also, [of whom 
so much hath been related already,] who before feared 
him, did now triumph over him, by means of the coun- 
tenance of such who had set him on ; and made bold to 
sue and trouble him every where at his pleasure ; in the 
star-chamber, in the chancery, at the council-table, before 
the archbishop of Canterbury, in the common-pleas, at 
the assizes and sessions, yea, and in his own consistory. 
And brought action upon action against him, almost for 
every thing he did, and for every word he spake. Inso- 
much that, as he added, these suits put him behindhand, 
and so consumed him, that he should hardly be able to 
recover it of a long time." 


BOOK One ground of these vexatious actions commenced against 
him was, that being a stirring man, and observing the an- 

Anno 1582. cient jurisdictions and privileges of the see encroached upon, 
thractioil'i^ both by the city and the church, he claimed them, and en- 
brought a- deavoured to recover them, and to overthrow those pretend- 
''"■ ed exemptions which obstructed his visitations. Concern- 
ing which he gave the lords of the council an account; and 
laid the justness of his course before them, in a letter writ 
in May following. Which is hereafter exemplified in the 
No. XVIII. Appendix. 

These were some of the complaints, with many more, the 
poor bishop made to that lord : whose letter I had rather 
to be read also at large in the Appendix. It is not unlikely 
he had the more enemies and ill-willers, his diocese (espe- 
96cially Staffordshire) abounding with papists, and other dis- 
affected : which he was no friend to. And had called this 
year upon the court for a narrower search after such by a 
commission ecclesiastical. 
The bi- But this bishop's troubles came to some conclusion this 

shop s trou- ' . . 

bies ended year by means of a commission. And however they repre- 
by a com- gented the bishop as covetous, and contentious amono- his 

mission ec- . » 

ciesiasticai. clergy, yet they were not without fault towards their bishop: 
which those in the commission took notice of, and shewed 
him so much justice and favour, that he might not be hin- 
dered nor discouraged in the discharge of his episcopal of- 
fice. This, with the designs of his prebendaries upon his 
first coming among them, he acknowledgeth in another let- 
ter to the lord treasurer, dated from Eccleshal, April 8, to 
this tenor. 

Signified by « That the prebendaries of Litchfield, which had so mis- 

him to the ii- ^ -i • -x • ^ p ii-i 

lordtrea- " used him, had received judgment from the high commis- 
surer. <.<. gJo^ers due to their deserts. For which he was in erreat 


" part to thank his honourable lordship. And that there 
" had been marvellous plats [plots] laid then, in the begin- 
" ning of his government, to have dawcd him, [as he ex- 
" pressed their purposes upon him.] And surely, added 
" he, they would have done it indeed, but for such honour- 
" able countenance and backing. And that if any body 


" should be able to charge him with wrong or wilfulness in CHAP. 
" any of his doings, (the case on both parts indifferently 


"heard,) he would lease his credit for all. But that he Anno 1 582. 

" trusted he so tempered himself in all his affairs, both ec- 

" clesiastical and temporal, that till manifest fault and ob- 

" stinacy appeared in the offenders, he never sought any 

" remedy by law ; but compounded and ended all matters 

" at home. And so would do, if he were not forced to the 

" contrary."" 

And then to take off any surmises that he was conten- 
tious, as some had laid to his charge, he proceeded in these 
words : " My honourable good lord, it is a country full of 
" quarrels ; and they will join together notably to lade me 
" with troubles and griefs ; and if I should not repress them 
" in the beginning, they would overcome me for ever. And 
" therefore I follow that old rule, Principiis obsta, though 
" to my great travel and charge. If any shall inform your 
" lordship against me, (as I know they have done already, 
" and will do still,) I refer myself wholly to your own ho- 
" nourable judgment and order: only 1 desire to be heard 
" as well as they. The first tale is good, till the second be 
" told. And thus presuming overmuch upon your honour- 
" able patience, to trouble you with so tedious letters, I 
" humbly take my leave. 

" Your honour''s most bounden, 

" W. Coventry and Litchfield." 

This careful and active bishop observing the popish fac-Thisbi- 
tion at this time so great in his diocese, for the discovery ^'"^^j^*'^^* 
and suppressing of that sort, earnestly required a commis-s'on«cciesi- 
sion ecclesiastical to be granted from the court : applying papists, 
himself for that purpose to the lord treasurer, and acquaint- 97 
ing him with a speech he had lately made to the queen, (as 
it seems, in a sermon,) concerning her danger from papists. 
In his letter he shewed him, " That he had sent up Mr. 
" Plaisted to attend upon him and the earl of Leicester; 
" and Mr. Secretary, for their furtherance in the high com- 
" mission. That the time now was somewhat quiet, and 


BOOK " the opportunity good to make the motion. And the ra- 
^' " ther because of late he had been held, as he said, before 
Anno 1582. " her majesty, (and with her good liking, as it seemed,) to 
"• move her to the earnest repressing of the papists, and fur- 
" thering of God's cause, and the gospel, as she had already 
" graciously begun. That he told her highness in these 
This « plain words. That full little did she think, zchen she was 

I*peech'to " ^^* ^'^^ ^'o??*' den, to live to he queen of England, such 
the queen « ^^;,,^^.^ fjig practiees of the pajnsts to eut he)' off from that 
thep"p^s"f. " expectation, and to cut off' themselves also from that dan- 
" ger and fear, which they had of her, if she should reign. 
" And yet God had mightily and miracidonsly preserved 
" her, as we saw, from the hands of her enemies ; only, or 
" chiefly for that purpose, to re-erect his hingdom, to ad- 
" vance his glory, and to restore and establish his gospel, 
" and the true Chi-istian religion among us. And there- 
*'*fore as God, even God alone, beyond the expectation of 
" man, had settled her in her royal seat for that purpose, 
" and she also had most honourably and graciously per- 
^^ formed that good purpose of God in her, so she might 
" thinJc, that the same God, for the same piirpose, had main- 
" tained hitherto, and wotdd still maintain and defend her 
" in her state, maugre the heads of all her evil willers, 
" though the Devil himself, and his vice-devil, the pope, and 
" all the pojnsh enemies she had in the world, conspired 
" never so much against her. These, he said, with much 
" more, it pleased her majesty to take graciously at his 
" mouth, declaring then God's message unto her. And 
" therefore, as he concluded, he trusted her highness would 
" as graciously accept of his lordship's suit now in his be- 
" half, tending to the same purpose and effect." 
The news of This commission, which he saw such great need of in his 
vkt^sl^nTup diocese, I suppose he soon after obtained ; because the next 
by the bi- news we hear from the council to the bishop was, to return 
up the names of all the papists convict there : which in the 
mondi of May he did ; together with his letter at large to 
the coimcil, desiring such a commission, as necessary ; dis- 
covering therein also the ill state of that diocese and coun- 


try, in many other respects : as concerning the city of Litch- C H A P. 
field ; and concerning the prebendaries of that church, who 

had their pecuHar jurisdictions by themselves; and so, as Anno 1582. 
exempts, out of his reach : concerning the softness of bishop 
Bentham, his predecessor: concerning the civil government 
of the city ; and the charters and liberties granted to the 
bishops by former princes infringed : and the dividing of 
the city from the see ; the ill government of it : (saying, 
that " in short they lived as they listed, both in the city and 
" in the church." Further, that bishop gave the council to 
understand, how the ancient privileges and liberties of the 
bishopric were conveyed from him, or encroached upon ; 98 
the ill state of Staffordshire : disturbances by papists in 
some churches ; and arresting of some persons in the church, 
even at the time of the communion, particularly by some 
officers of the lord Paget. All this the zealous bishop writ 
at large to the privy-council. See the letter in tlie Appen- 
dix, set before. A copy of which he thought fit to send to 
his friend, the lord treasurer, with this letter following. 

" Right honourable, I have written up at this present to His letter 
." the whole body of the council, partly for answer to your!" ^^^ ^'"^'^ 
" honourable letters, lately sent to me for the certifying of shewing the 
" the convicted recusants in my diocese; partly for other diocese. 
" matters occurrent, as in need and duty I thought requi- 
" site. I am bold to send your honour a copy thereof here 
" enclosed ; to the end, if it please you, you may aforehand 
" be acquainted with the point. I humbly beseech your 
*' good lordship, as you were always wont in these and other 
" my suits, to give me your honourable countenance : where- 
" by my want, or excess, if I shall be found therein, may, by 
" your good means, either be pardoned or excused. Certes, 
" my honourable lord, I am here in a very perilous coun- 
" try ; and, if I may speak it without offence, the very sink 
" of the whole realm, both for corrupt religion and life, ^ 
" And therefore would gladly have such reasonable assist- 
" ance and backing, as might be to the better furtherance 
" of my service. I am still ready to trouble your lordship, 
" as one of those whom I think to have great care of the 




A horrible 
plotted a- 
gainst the 
bishop of 

" public causes, I trust therefore you will not be offended 

" with my often and tedious letters unto you. Touching 

Anno 1582. " mine own matters, both for that I have already in expe- 
" rience of your lordship's honourable friendship towards 
" me, and also for that of late I heard from Mr. Plaisted 
" of your lordship"'s countenance there, I acknowledge my- 
" self most bounden to you, &c. Dated from Eccleshal, 
" the 20th of May, 1582." 

Now we proceed to relate an injury of no common size 
done to another eminent person of the episcopal order, viz. 
to Sandys, archbishop of York, by a wicked slander, and 
vile artificial prosecution of it : so base, that the like was 
scarce ever heard of before; and that created that good 
bishop the greatest trouble that ever he met with in his life : 
sir Robert Stapleton, a knight of Yorkshire, being the 
great contriver of it. The end whereof was to get a good 
lease of the lands, and great sum of money from the arch- 
bishop. The business was acted in the month of May, 1581, 
at Doncaster, where the archbishop in his journey lodged. 
Here Sysson, the host, caused his wife to go by night into 
the archbishop's bed to him : and he presently after fol- 
lowed, with his dagger in his hand, into the chamber ; which 
he put to the archbishop's breast, his man Alexander being 
in company with him : and Maude, that had been the arch- 
bishop's servant, present too, and in the plot. The words 
that Sysson used, when he came into the chamber, and saw 
his wife in bed with the archbishop, was, GocTs prccioits I'l/e^ 
I loill marJi a xvhore and a thief. Sir Robert Stapleton was 
then in the inn, though he pretended not to be there at that 
99 time, or privy to any such thing, and to be the archbishop's 
friend. But that he was there, it was justly presumed: for 
Sysson sending his man for him, he presently came in in his 
apparel, (so that he had not undressed himself, however late 
it was,) expecting to be called in, according to the plot laid. 
And Sysson requiring 800/. of the archbishop, Stapleton 
brought it down to 600/. 

In this distress the poor archbishop was fain to comply 
with Sysson, and the rest of the conspirators. And to con- 


ceal this abuse done him, and the shame that would attend cHAP. 
it ; which he perceived would reflect not only upon his own '^• 
reputation, but the church too; in this distress he yielded Anno i582. 
in some measure to a lease of some lands of the bishopric 
to Stapleton. But after, when the knight would further 
make his own terms with the archbishop, and require still 
more lands, manors, and benefits, to the utter impoverish- 
ing of the see, the good archbishop resolved then no longer 
to conceal the matter ; but to send up the whole cause, and 
the truth of their horrible dealings with him, in a letter to 
the lord treasurer Burghley ; and he to acquaint the queen 
with it. 

But first I must relate by what means it came to this is- The queen 
sue. Sir Robert Stapleton, besides what he had obtained y^''""''^* ^ 

r ' lease ot 

already of the archbishop, still intended to make a greater Southwei 
benefit of him ; and having some interest with the queen, bishop.^"^*^ '" 
petitioned her to get the rich manors of Southwei and 
Scrowby for him. And having the archbishop thus, as he 
thought, in awe, threatened him to discover all, unless he 
would comply with the queen's letters to him, to grant long 
and unreasonable leases for the same. But notwithstand- 
ing, the archbishop was at a point, whatever came of it, not 
to yield in a demand so destructive to the see ; and intend- 
ing to come up himself, but prevented by sickness, wrote 
his letter to the queen, offering to lay down and quit the 
bishopric ; and all rather than to do it. With which letter 
he sent another to the lord treasurer: shewing the hard- 
ships required of him, and the great damage that he should 
do, not only to himself, but to all that there should succeed 
him, and his own steadiness in so good a cause ; deserving, 
for the honourable memory of this archbishop, to be exem- 
plified here from the very original ; and was as followeth : 

•'' My honourable good lord : of late I received a letter Whicli the 
" from her majesty, earnestly requiring me to grant unto Suseth to 
" her highness one manor in lease, according to a lease con-S''*"': and 
" ceived and sent withal. In the letter one manor is re- letter to the 
" quired without name : but in the lease two of the greatest '"'"'' **■**" 

/r X 1 1 • 1 surer. 

" manors 1 have be comprised, to wit, Southwei and Scrow- 


BOOK " by, with all their manors, houses, woods, parks, rents, re- 
" versions, liberties, privileges, and all other commodities 
Anno 1582." whatsoever can be named, belonging unto the same, to 
" be granted for Ixx years, a certain rent reserved. The 
*' rent for Scrowby reserved in this new lease is xl pound 
" by year. But in truth, by all ancient records, and in my 
" yearly accounts at this day, Scrowby, with its members, 
" amounted to clxxZ. by vear. And so is answered. This 
" lease excludeth the bishop of York out of Nottingham- 
" shire, from all houses, lands, and livings ; and will grow 
100 " in time to be a loss to the see of York of as many thou- 
" sand pounds as it is now required to be let for years. 

" I am fully persuaded her majesty was never made ac- 
" quainted with the contents of this lease, the inconveni- 
" encies whereof are so great, that, with a good conscience 
" towards God, I can never consent unto it. 

" 1 was fully purposed to answer this person ; but after 
" three days journey, I fell so weak and so sick, and so still 
" remain, that I could travel no further. And therefore 
" forced by my letter to answer her majesty. Which thing 
" I have done in such sort, as I hope her majesty will be 
" fully satisfied therewithal. But whatsoever shall fall out, 
" I trust your lordship will favour this honest cause: no 
" wight upon the earth more loath to displease her majesty 
*' than I, as one most bound unto her highness ; if the grant- 
" ing of this lease would not highly displease God, kill my 
" conscience, and spoil the church of York. My good lord, 
" extend your wonted friendship. And if her majesty can- 
" not be satisfied with my answer, and so shall dislike of my 
" service, then to offer unto her highness in my name the 
" resignation of the archbishopric ; that one may be placed 
" that can better serve. And my resignation shall be ab- 
" solute, and it shall stand in her majesty's pleasure to give 
" me ought or nought to live on, during these few evil days 
" which I have to live. I will hope in God, that he will 
" make an end of all my travels before I depart out of this 
" place. Thus, my good lord, commending me and this 
" good cause unto your honourable consideration, I com- 


" mend you to the good direction of God's holy Spirit. CHAP. 
" Southwel, this xxivth of November, 1582." ^^- 

All this while the knight was labouring to get some good Anno 1582. 
lease of the archbishop by the queen''s means, if not that 
which was formerly requested. And so far at length her 
letters prevailed, that a lease was by him sent up made to 
her majesty ; and so to be conveyed over to him. Nor was 
that acceptable to Stapleton. Who came therefore to the 
archbishop at Bishopthorp ; and urged him about the same 
business. "And therewith vain and proud speeches, he Words of sir 
" lying sick in his bed, (as the archbishop related it to the^^"^'^''^^^''' 
" lord Burghley, in another letter to him,) wonderfully mo- the archbi- 
" lesting him : saying, he was the queen''s messenger to him, ** °^' 
" and might say what he would. The archbishop said, thaf 
" he was ready to follow the tenor of her majesty's letters, 
" and grant whatsoever her majesty required of him. But 
" his commission by word of mouth had no end : putting 
" in and out, altering and augmenting at pleasure. That 
" he surveyed all his lands : picked out what liked him, to 
*' see what the farmers would give. So that he, said the 
" archbishop, is the lord of my livings, and the leasor of my 
" lands. That his letters to her majesty, wherein he will- 
" ingly granted her highness's whole request, he would not 
" receive at his [the archbishop's] hands, but needs he must 
" have the conveying of the lease. But that he minded not 
" so to gratify his enemy. That to prevent him, he pre- 
" sently sent up by post his letter of his resolution of grant 
" unto her majesty. And that he would, within fourteen 101 
" days next, send up the lease sealed and confirmed accord- 
" ingly. So that there should be no fault in him, except it 
" were a fault to beat down his pride." 

The archbishop further added concerning this adversary 
of his, " That he reported of him to a person of great ho- 
" nour, that he had him on the hip : that one Rawley would 
"prove him an usurer: and that he himself would make 
" him [the archbishop] glad, ere it were long, to pray her 
" majesty to take in lease Southwel and Scrowby. And 
" that yet it Avas not four days before he wrote this letter, 



BOOK "the same person (as the archbishop added) deeply sware 
" unto him, in the presence of Mr. Cheeke, [viz. Henry 

Anno 1582. « Cheeke, secretary to the council in the north,] that he 

" never had, neither ever would speak evil by him." 
The arch- But the knight little knew at this time that the archbi- 
veaJs'th'e" shop had a little before discovered all his practice. For 
viiiainyused|jeij^o- no longer able to bear his dealings with him, and that 
him!"^' he should have him thus upon the hip, (to use the knight's 
phrase,) he had, about a fortnight before, by a letter to his 
friend, the foresaid lord, opened the whole work of dark- 
ness. And by his means the queen herself was fully ac- 
quainted with it ; which affected her with exceeding indig- 
nation against the actors, as we shall hear in the sequel. But 
take his first letter in this discovery of iniquity : thus ad- 
dressing to that lord. 

" My good lord : In rehus adversis amicus certus cerni- 
" tur. I find myself more bound unto you than to any 
" man living. At a dead lift you are my most faitliful 
" friend. I have need of your present help : otherwise, 
" like to be oppressed with great and shameful wrong. 
" False informers have prevented me. I was upon the way 
" fully purposed to have opened unto you their treachery, 
" and to have prayed your aid for their condign punish- 
" ment. My only fault is, that I have concealed the thing 
" so long. I was drawn thereunto by their deep oaths that 
" my good name should never come into question. In re- 
" spect of the gospel, I have suffered myself thus shame- 
" fully to be abused. But hereof, my lord, assure yourself, 
" I am in this matter, wherewith they chiefly charge me, 
" most innocent from all criminal fact. And that I swear 
" unto you by the living God, and as I shall be saved by 
" Jesus Christ. So that you need not fear to defend my 
" just cause, which thing cannot be dishonourable unto 
" you." 

The archbishop sent his chancellor Went with this to his 
lordship ; " who, he said, should impart unto him the whole 
" practice and treachery contrived against him : praymghini 
" to hear his said chancellor. That he was a man of inte- 


" grity and fidelity, and would tell him nothing but the CHAP. 

" truth." He added, " That he put his whole trust in his ^^- 

" lordship. That he would use the means, according to his Anno i582. 

" wisdom and wonted favour, to deliver him from this great 

*' wrong offered him. That he had a great while languish- 

" ed, and been almost swallowed up with sorrow, lest the 

" word of God should hear evil by him. But now when 

" the false informers had disclosed themselves, and done 1 02 

" their worst, he, as he concluded, encouraged himself to 

" this battle, as well trusting in his own innocence as in the 

" lord treasurer's old, wonted, assured favour. Thus with 

" his prayers, &c. Dated from Bishopthorp, the 6th of 

" Jan. 1582. Subscribing, 

" Your lordship's most assured, and so bound, 

" E. Ebor.'' 

And this letter was backed to the same lord by a second ; The arch- 
styling sir Robert and Sysson, the two contrivers of this '^j^g^^'gV 
mischief, "evil men, and who had deserved severe punish- verepunish- 
" ment. For monstrous (he wrote) had been their trea- 
" chery and cozenage against him." Adding, " I know 
" your lordship, in respect of God's cause, and in respect 
" of innocence, and somewhat of me, your old poor well- 
*' wilier, will not suffer these wicked men to escape condign 
*' punishment." 

When the queen was informed of this vile and base com- The queen 
bination against the archbishop, she was hiffhlv incensed at '"""^"^'^ 

o r' o J when she 

so notorious a crime. And forthwith letters from the court heard it. 
were sent down ; one to Sysson, and another to Stapleton ; 
to summon them up to answer certain accusations to be laid They are 
against them. In short, they were brought under strict*"™™""^ 
examination of their doings. And interrogatories were ad- 
ministered to them, and the rest engaged in the fact. Which 
may be read at large in the Appendix. And the matter, by No. XX. 
the care and diligence of the lord treasurer, was brought to 
such an issue, that all was discovered, and the shame and 
wickedness appeared to all. 

And the queen commanded sir Christopher Hatton, her 


BOOK vice-chamberlain, to signify the content she took in the pro- 
• ceedings. Who thus wrote to the said treasurer her inajes- 
Anno 1582. ty"'s mind therein; together with his own joy and satisfac- 
tion on the same account. 
Hatton to « My very good lord, I thank God from my heart that 
surer upon " your trouble in this great cause hath brought forth so 
the disco- a ^Jessed an effect. Innocency is delivered. Truth hath 

very. . •' 

" prevailed, to God's glory, and due commendation of your 
" wisdom and goodness. Her majesty rejoiceth exceedingly 
" in it, and jieldeth her most gracious thanks to your lord- 
" ship for your so grave and wise proceeding in it. 

" My lord of Leicester hath her majesty's direction to 
" signify thus much of her pleasure, M-ith some further 
" matter unto your lordshi]). Dated the 24th of Fe- 
" bruary." 

And so likewise, on this occasion, the archbishop was not 
})ehindhand in returning his thanks, for clearing his inno- 
cency, and discovering the treachery against him. Whose 
letter neither can I omit ; writ from his seat near York, and 
was as followeth : 
The archbi- u ]y,jy honourable good lord, I cannot requite your great 

shop's letter -^ o ' i j o 

to him. " goodness towards me, but by my earnest prayer. All the 
*' rest that is in me is not able to answer unum pro mille. 
1 03 " Without your constant favour and present help, doubtless 
'^ mine innocence should have been condemned, and the wick- 
" ed justified. But my God hath raised you up to stand in 
" the gap, for the trying further of this treachery, and the 
" clearing of mine innocency. As herein you have served 
*' the Lord Jesus, in removing this great offence from his 
" spouse, the church ; so will he, no doubt, requite you for 
" the same, sevenfold in your bosom. 

" I hear the knight [sir Robert Stapleton] hath confessed 
" his treachery ; not penitently, bvit threateningly. My lord, 
" after he hath answered and satisfied the church, by this 
" his vile practice mightily offended, then let him do to me 
" what he can. I fear not his worst. I know in what safe 
" state I stand. My conscience will not accuse me. Et 
*' veritaf) Uberabit. If they had not inventetl, that the strum- 


" pet should say I solicited her, they should have had no- CHAP. 

" thing wherewith to colour their treachery. But God doth ^^' 

" know, and my conscience doth ever record with me, mine Anno 1582, 

" innocency. Yet can I never stand clear in the sight of a 

" great sort ; neither can God have his glory ; except, as 

" the church hath been publicly offended, so it may be pub- 

" licly satisfied. I know your lordship, as well for the zeal 

" you have to God, as also for the love you bear to justice, 

" will see this vile treachery openly punished, and stoutly 

" finish that you have so stoutly begun. The cause is 

" God's ; the praise will be yours : and I most bound ever 

" to pray for you. God send you health, and the spirit of 

" fortitude, to suppress all falsehood. And thus I humbly 

" take my leave, commending your good lordship to the 

" good direction of God's holy Spirit. Bishopthorp, this 

" 28th of February, 1582. 

" Your lordship's most bounden, 

" E. Ebor." 

Upon this course taken, Stapleton seemed at first to be Stapieton's 
penitent and sorrowful, and willing to make his acknow- i^fo^^g^"^ 
ledgment to the archbishop. But it was but in appearance. °^ t° ^'"^ 
For he soon grew cold and remiss; and threatening the surer, 
archbishop some ill turn : as the archbishop's letter above 
hinted. Insomuch that information thereof was given to 
the lord treasurer, then absent from court : who forthwith 
sent his servant, secretary Maynard, to the earl of Leices- 
ter, to let him know as much, and to acquaint the queen 
with it. And what the effect of this message was, and how 
the good queen had resented it, and her order thereupon, 
will appear by the earl's letter in answer to that of the trea- 
surer, viz. 

" That he had declared to her majesty the advertisement The eari of 
" that his servant Maynard had brought him that after- ""^f^Ys 
*' noon, touching sir Robert Stapieton's coldness again, or t''^ queen 
" rather cholericness, towards the archbishop ; as had ap- 
" pearcd by his late words and speeches. That her majesty 
" had willed him to signify to him, [the lord treasurer,] that 



BOOK " her pleasure was, for that she doubted that Mr. Staple- 
" ton had too much intelhgence where he then was [under 

Anno 1582." some favourable restraint,] that he so suddenly seemed to 
1 04 « change his manner of dealing, that he should be forth- 
" with committed to the Fleet, to close prison : and that he 
" [the treasurer] should send for the warden of the Fleet ; 
" and give him charge, upon his duty to her majesty, for his 
" strait and close keeping of sir Robert, till he had further 
" order from her majesty. That Maude likewise, if he dealt 
" not plainly, be committed to some sharper and stralter 
" place : and such other as were touched with this cause, 
" Sysson excepted, who seemed to justify his confession. 
" And that her majesty would have sir Robert"'s answer 
" under his hand, as he confessed any matter worthy set- 
" ting down ; and would know, if that he hath already con- 
" fessed were not under his hand. 

" That her majesty was very earnest in this cause : that 
" it be not now handled to her dishonour, and the blot of 
" the bishop : and that she found him like to prove inno- 
" cent in this accusation : and feared his lordship''s sickness, 
" and other weak handling, might hinder it ; which his lord- 
** ship's travail had brought to so good pass. That thus 
*' much more her majesty said, that if the imprisonment of 
" the Fleet were not sufficient, she would be content that 
*' his lordship and he [the earl] and they [the rest of the 
" star-chamber] should commit him to what place they 
" should think most fit. So earnest, added the earl, was 
" she to have the matter truly well handled, for the trial of 
" the truth and purgation of the bishop. 

" Thus have I done (as he concluded) her majesty's com- 
*' mandment touching this matter ; being loath and sorry to 
*^ trouble your lordship, knowing how much troubled you 
" are otherwise. But her majesty reposeth great confidence 
" in your lordship's direction. And so praying to God to 
" send your lordship as good health as I wish myself, I end. 
*' At the court, this 28th of February, 1582. 

" Your lordship's assured friend, 

« R. Leycester." 


This command of the queen brought on a further trial of CHAP, 
these men ; in order to a more perfect knowledge and dis- 

covery of the whole matter. And a commission was sent Anno issa. 
down to those parts where the villainy was acted, for the ^^^""^™'^" 
stricter examination of the parties and the cavises, in order down to ox- 
to the exemplary punishments of the delinquents. Of this ,jesses. 
commission, in another letter to the lord treasurer, the arch- 
bishop seemed to be the chief instrument ; that so his inno- 
cence might the more evidently appear in those parts where 
he lived; and that chiefly by the just and open punishment 
of.the guilty : and advising, that the knight, being the chief 
contriver, might chiefly be punished. And this letter (though 
somewhat long) I will also insert, the rather, as containing 
several things more particularly, as the afflicted bishop re- 
lated his own case and circumstances; upon a new commis- 105 
sion now sent down into those parts to examine witnesses. 

" I fear that I trouble your lordship too much with myTiieardihi- 
" many letters : but the necessity of my case forceth me, ^op^ftrea- "^ 
" and the persuasion that I conceive of your approved surer; re- 

_p , quirina; 

" friendship, and your most firm favour towards me, em-j,„i,iic pu- 
" boldeneth me so to do. Your lordship's last private let- "'s'>'"e" • 
*' ter maketh the commissioners here to retire. And this 
" new commission warranteth them fully to receive wit- 
" nesses for the better trial of this treachery. So that I 
" doubt not but that I shall be cleared here in all respects. 
" God shall have the glory : and after her majesty, you de- 
*' serve the chief praise. For if your lordship had not stood 
" stoutly at this stern, to break the violent charges of the 
" sea, doubtless, ere this, I had suffered shipwreck. Here- 
*' in you have served God, who can and doth requite it. 
" But truly, my lord, except public punishment follow upon 
" this public offence, neither can my good name be repaired, 
" neither can the church of Christ be satisfied. For it is 
" here given out, as well by the knight's friends, as also by 
" the papists, that these parties now troubled, must needs 
" confess somewhat, as also be lightly punished, to cover 
" the bishop's fault. If they may escape, as is looked for, 
" they will insult more than hitherto they have done. 



BOOK "I think your lordship somewhat perceiveth how they 
^' " labour already to fall from their former confession. And 

AiHio i382.« I assure myself that your lordship, if it were but only in 
" respect of God's cause, will be the means to see this foul 
Tiie ca]jtaia « fact throughly piuiished : and especially the captain of 
spilacy!^""" " this conspiracy. He in this action is causa sine qua non. 
" For never durst the others, his confederates, have enter- 
" prised this vile practice, but in sure persuasion that he 
" would bear out this matter. So that it is the knight which 
" in right should bear the great burden ; or rather, answer 
" for them all. His sacrifice must make the satisfaction. 
" I seek not private revenge, God is my judge. And with- 
" out the public punishing of him, neither shall I, nor any 
" other of the clergy, be able to live in countenance or safety. 
" And for my part, I will never live a bishop with so great 
" diserace. But it maketh small matter of me ; the com- 
" mon cause is to be considered ; nay, the church of Christ 
" must be satisfied. This is not my fancy, but the judg- 
" ment of the wise ; the common cry of the world. And 
" for clearing of your lordship, as also of others, my honour- 
" able good lords, from suspicion of affection, or partiality 
" towards me in this cause, it is thought most convenient 
siai-cham- " it sliould receive judgment in the star-chamber, a court 
" of great equity, and void of all suspicion of partiality. 

" But I fear this thing will be hardly brought to pass 
" without your lordship's special favour and furtherance. 
" Neidier mind I to move the matter to any other. For as 
" yet it seemeth to be scant ripe, before I know your lord- 
" ship's pleasure therein. For in this, as in all other, I will 
" wholly rely upon your lordship, and follow your direction. 
" Yet can I see no other way how I may escape perpetual 
106" infamy, neither the church of Christ an incurable wound 
" of offence. And better a millstone about my neck, and I 
" hurled into the sea. I trust, therefore, your lordship will 
" not mislike hereof: but rather advise me, when the time 
" shall be convenient to lay my suit that way. And I shall 
" humbly pray your lordship to acquaint my chancellor with 
" your opinion herein ; that he may speedily impart the 



" same unto me. There be some of the council that require CHAP. 


" my presence in London. Truly, my lord, my weakness 

" will not suffer me, as yet, to travel. For grief hath so Anno i582. 
" overgrown me, and this vexation hath so feebled me, that 
" I am forced as yet to keep my chamber, against my fol- 
" lowing this matter in person. 

"An opinion of some would argue in me an earnest and 
" a revengeful mind : others would travail with me for a 
" mitigation of their punishment. And that were to pro- 
" cure shame to myself, and slander to God's gospel. And 
" a great sort would say, that I were commanded to come 
" up to answer for myself. Neither do I think it fit for my 
*' age and calling, to trudge up and down about this mat- 
" ter, or to stand at the bar for my defence. All these 
" things notwithstanding, if her majesty shall not dislike of 
" it, and if it shall please your lordship so to advise me, I 
" will, soon after Easter, adventure upon the journey, if it 
*' should be to the loss of my life. 

" And stark tired with the writing this long letter, (I 
" wrote not so much these four months past,) I take my 
" leave of your good lordship, commending the same to the 
" good direction of God's holy Spirit. Bishopthorp, March 
" the 23d, 1582. 

" Your lordship's most bounden, 

« E. Ebor." 

In short, the case was heard in the star-chamber, wit-Tiie judg- 
nesses examined, and at last judgment was given, that the |","'|^/gj^" 
knight and the rest should go down to York ; and there chamber in 

1 p 11 • II- 1 • J 1 J behalf of the 

beiore all, m a public manner, at the assizes, declare and avciibishop. 
confess this their vile practice, with other penalties ; for the 
vindication of the archbishop's innocency, and for the giv- 
ing satisfaction to the church. These their confessions were 
made before the archbishop, then also present : who, after 
they had ended, gravely and piously spake to each of them ; 
yet smartly now and then, laying this business close to them, 
in order to make them sensible of their impiety, and to bring 
them to repentance, and also forgiving them. This confes- 


BOOK sion of sir R. Stapleton and the rest, and the archbishop's 
. answers to them, (which will shew more particulars of this 

Anno 1582. treachery,) are well worthy reading. And therefore, being 
No. XXI. somewhat long, I have preserved them in the Appendix. 
Their mis- One would have thought that the judgment of the lords, 
at their thus despatched and performed, should have put an end to 
confessions. j.}jig business. But it did not. For the knight made but 
a mock-business of his confession, and of his asking the arch- 
bishop forgiveness ; and his behaviour appearing so confi- 
dent. And he and Maude coming to the bar to read their 
107 confessions, and make their submissions, both wore white 
ribands about them : the knight appeared with a white ri- 
band cast about his body ; and Maude the like tied about 
his arm. And the knight told one of his friends that shewed 
himself dejected for him, and said, " That there was no 
** cause why this should breed any sorrow in him. For he 
" came now but to serve her majesty, as he had done in 
" weightier affairs heretofore ; and doubted not to do here- 
" after." So that tfee voice of the people in that shire and 
the next ran especially upon two points, observed by all men 
in their submissions : first, their white ribands, an unusual 
or rather new fashion ; yet having a certain signification. 
Secondly, their saying by them often iterated, of their coin- 
ing" hut to serve her majesty; to fulfil her majesty's com- 
mandment : which were so taken and interpreted : as, in the 
first, professing their unspotted innocency : in the second 
they declared, that notwithstanding the former, for her ma- 
jesty''s pleasure they were thus punished, and thus disgraced. 
Which words seemed to divers wise men most pestilent and 
heinous ; and to the queen's majesty most injurious. 
Tiie archbi- This disorderly behaviour, even at their submissions, com- 
fonns'the peHcd the archbishop, not only upon his own account, but 
lord trea- chiefly for the queen's honour, to send another letter to the 
of. lord treasurer: in the entrance whereof he shewed him, 

" That he had followed his good advice and counsel ; and 
" that he had followed the example of his master Christ, 
" and forgiven his persecutors and enemies, who had many 
" ways crucified him. Inwardly, he had done it at the com- 


" mand of God ; outwardly, because his lordship so moved CHAP. 
" him." Informing him, " That in the parties themselves 

"there appeared neither any humility, neither any spark Anno 1 682. 
" of repentance ; saving only in the Scot, [viz. Alexander, 
" Sysson's man, who was in his confession very penitent.] 

" That the knight came to the bar in great bravery, with 
" proud looks, and disdainful countenance and gesture : hav- 
** ing a great white riband in baudrick sort cast upon a black 
" satin doublet. That he read his submission with so low 
" a voice, and so running, as one reading a letter, as fast as 
" he could. Of the presence he could not be heard nor 
" understood. And that it was most scornfully done, with- 
" out any token of repentance. And that when he had 
" made an end, he said thus : Now I have read it verbatim^ 
" and fulfilled her majesty's commandment. 

" That Mallory read more soberly, yet without any token 
" of repentance. That Maude abused the judgment of the 
" star-chamber, and the whole presence most lewdly. That 
" he came in with a black satin doublet, with a white ri- 
** band fast about his right arm. That 'le spoke so low, and 
" read so disorderly and disdainfully, that the justices of 
" assize rebuked him sharply ; he alleging, that he could 
** not well see, nor hear, neither speak. And so derided 
" the order, and laboured to deface him, [the archbishop.] 
" That the Scot [Alexander] was the only man that hum- 
" bled himself, and with tokens of repentance prayed mercy." 

And then the archbishop subjoined, and shewed that lord 
to whom he writ, " That he considering what was fit for 
" him to do, and not what they deserved, forgave them all 108 
" so far as became a Christian, and as God required of him : 
" yet with protestation, that he left the order of the star- 
" chamber in its full form. And requested the justices of 
" assize to spare Maude the pillory, and the Scot his ear. 
*' Which things, notwithstanding, added the archbishop, he 
" would never have done, but in respect to his lordship"'s 
" letter. For, he assured him, more proud, impenitent, 
*' scornful men never came in public place to ask forgive- 
« ness." 


BOOK The archbishop told more of their wicked practices against 
^' him, even after their public confessions, to blot him and 
Anno 1582. clear themselves. Insomuch that he wrote, " That the case 
" had stood far better with him, if they had not come down 
" at all. And that he doubted not but that his lordship 
" would consider of these disorderly doings, even as might 
" best serve to God's glory, and for the honour of the lords 
" of the star-chamber : whose judgment they discredited, 
" and whose order they utterly contemned. And that for 
" himself, he saw that while he lived there, he should hve 
" both in great misery and in great danger ; and should la- 
" bour unprofitably, hurling pearls before swine ; and be- 
" stow all his labours upon an unthankful people." This 
writ from Bishopthorp, the 2d of August, 1583. 
One only Nor was there any of this company that shewed true 
shewed" re- repentance at their confessions, but Alexander Farly, the 
pentance, gcot, their servant : who, before he began to make his con- 
forgiSss. fession, voluntarily acknowledged his fault, and craved par- 
don of the archbishop, and that he w ould grant him a re- 
lease of the loss of his other ear, one having been cut off 
before his coming down to York. And standing upon the 
pillory, he prayed for my lord archbishop : at whose hands, 
he said, he found more favour than at any man's else. And 
being demanded concerning his obstinacy, why he never 
confessed his lewdness before the sentence was ready to be 
given, lie answered, it was to keep his oath taken for the 
concealment of it. When this man came to York, to receive 
judgment, he willed all serving men to take heed of gentle- 
men, and not to trust them ; for their flattering promises had 
provoked him to that wickedness : and then they left him 
in that misery. 

This unadvised behaviour brought those men into new 
troubles. For they soon were summoned up again, and 
committed to the Fleet ; and came into examination in the 
star-chamber about the white riband, and a whetstone also 
that hung at it, when the knight was at York, reading his 
confession. 1 am sensible I have been somewhat long in 
my relation of this accident happening to archbishop San- 


dys: my purpose being to retrieve and preserve, as much CHAP, 
as I can, the memory of these first bishops under queen 

Elizabeth, the great directors and instruments of our refor-Anno 1582. 
mation. Whereof this learned, pious exile and confessor, 
as well as prelate, was one of the chief. 

But this business ended not yet. For I find sir Robert stapieton 
Stapleton was proceeded against sharply for his misde- commiued 
meanour. For he was deeply fined, and committed a pri- ^ ^''^ 
soner to the Tower ; and remained there, and in the Fleet, 
in the years 1583 and 1584. Which affliction seemed tolO^ 
humble him, and bring him to repentance. For thus I find 
a letter of his to the lord treasurer importing, as I take it 
from the original, viz. " That as my great follies and of- His letter 
" fences deserve the punishment that willingly and with 
" contentment I do endure, so I humbly crave, upon my 
*' true repentance, that your lordship would please, for the 
" relief of my weak body, most deeply decayed with long 
" restraint in prisons, close and unwholesome, to be a mean 
" unto her majesty for my liberty of this house : whereby 
" in taking air and convenient exercise by walking, I must 
" hope for the remedy that by physic is denied, both for 
" the unfit season of the year, being intemperately cold, and 
" his feebleness and inability of stomach, iniapt to receive 
" medicine. He added, that he dared not trouble his lord- 
" ship with long letters, but did beseech him, for Code's cause, 
" to mitigate his displeasure, which he confessed he had 
" largely deserved. That the Highest knew he was right 
" woe for it, and did purpose to become a new man in low- 
" liness and integrity of life. That this was the same duty 
" that he offered to God for his sins : and he verily hoped 
" his most gracious sovereign would not refuse it : neither 
" that his lordship would reject that just petition of him 
" that was in misery. Even so he humbly took his leave, 
" beseeching God to preserve him in all honour and happi- 
" ness. From the Tower, the 24th of December, 1583." 

And I find the said knight in the Fleet in May, 1584, 
petitioning the said lord to procure the release of his impri- 
sonment and fine; all writ with his own hand, to this te- 


BOOK nor: " That as one most heartily sorry for his great of- 
' " fences, he did lay himself at his lordship's feet ; craving 

Anno 1582." his mercy and honourable favour towards the relief of his 
nitenUetter " P°°^ estate by release of his grievous imprisonment and 
of the same. " heavy fine. He acknowledgeth, that his lordship had of 
" late been pleased to mitigate his extremities in more ho- 
" nourable sort than he was able to deserve ; he humbly 
^' craved, that for God's cause he would continue his good- 
" ness, especially at the present, sithence upon some ready 
" help consisted his great good or harm, to the establish- 
" ment or utter overthrow of his poor house and children. 
" All which he committed to his honourable consideration, 
" &c. Dated from the Fleet, the 27th of May, 1584. Sub- 
" scribing, 

" Your good lordship'^s, in all duty and service, 

" R. Stapleton." • 


110 CHAP. X. 

The bisJiop of Peterhurgh addresseth to the queen Jbn con- 
Jirmation of their statutes for residence. Commission 
for concealments oppress the clergy in the diocese of Lin~ 
coin. The bishop'' s complaint thereof to the lord trea- 
surer. Ensnaring intei-rogatories put to the ministers 
and churchwardens. The said bishop'' s letters in behalf 
of his clergy^ and his 0W7i jurisdiction^ encroached upon. 
The bishop of Lincohi in an ecclesiastical commission 
upon Mackxvorth, for having two w'lves. The troubles 
of Scory^ bishop of Hereford, forom sir H. Sidney, lord 
president of Wales. His rigorous government. The 
state and revenues of the bislwpric of St. David's. 

-L RANSACTIONS of remark of some other bishops hap- 
pening this year, follow. 
The bishop Edmund, bishop of Peterburgh, had now some business 
brir^h*en ^^ her majesty : which was, to have the statutes of the 
deavours cathedral church confirmed ; chiefly to oblige the prebenda- 


ries thereof to residence. The want of which he made com- CHAP. 
plaint of to her, in a long letter, dated June the 19th, from 

Peterburgh ; introduced with this humble, apologizing pre- Anno 1682. 
face : " That he knew not whether he should beg-in to crave t^^^ confi""- 

o ^ ^ mation of 

"pardon for his boldness in presuming, after his simple the statutes. 

" manner, to write to her most excellent majesty, or to 

" make his excuse, that he had deferred until that day to 

" signify unto her a matter of so great necessity as that 

" which he was to declare. Wherefore touching both those 

" points, determining to rest upon her accustomed favour 

" and royal virtue, he proceeded to his purpose. Letting 

" her understand ; 

" That her good and gracious father, king Henry VIII. Addressed 
" had erected in Peterburgh a cathedral church. And that^^^^l^Ty^" 
" kind of foundation implied always a society of learned p"*^* 
" men, stayed and grounded in all parts of religion, apt to 
" preach the gospel, and convince errors and heresies, which 
" in the singleness of opinions (where particular men over 
" particular churches, as pastors, are set, within the dio- 
^' cese, where it is chief) may happen to arise ; and fur- 
" ther, to assist the bishop, the head of the diocese, in all 
" godly and wholesome consultations. Insomuch that theThecathe- 
" cathedral church ought to be, as it were, the oracle of the the oracle. 
*' whole diocese, and a light unto all places lying near it. 
*^ And that after this house [of God] was erected, there 
" came to the same certain statutes for the government 
" thereof, under his majesty ""s name : and so had conti- 1 1 1 
" nued; not without regard the rather through a confir- 
" mation made of them by her majesty's visitors, appointed 
" for that place and country adjacent, anno primo of her 
" most happy reign. Insomuch, that a long time after his 
*' coming to that bishopric, he did, (he said,) as well he 
" might, contain the prebendaries of the said church in the 
*' duties of residence, hospitality, and preaching the word, 
" indifferently well. 

" But that (as he went on) of late years these good of- 
" fices were diminished ; and at the last, in a manner, he 
" spake it not without deep sighs, almost clean vanished : 


BOOK " insomuch as, he said, he dared not express unto her how 
" little residence was there ; beinoj loath in any wise to trou- 

Anno 158-2. " ble her majesty therewith, if he had been able to reform it 
" of himself. That he had extended his authority and force 
" of jurisdiction to the uttermost, and followed the seventy 
" of laws in higher courts, pretermitting no means under 
" her majesty, to redress that which was, and still remained, 
" amiss : and had not found either very good success, or 
" mean charges, expenses, and trouble. That the chief and 
" sole cause, in a manner, of all this matter, besides the 
" perverseness of men^s natures, being the uncertainty of the 
" authority of the statutes of the said church ; the fro ward 
" and disobedient always pretending for their defence, that 
" the same were and are of no force ; and that they stand 
" at liberty to do, or not to do, the premises at their plea- 
" sure. Because they were not extant under the great seal, 
" and indented."" 

And thus having shewed the cause of his complaint to 
the queen, he proceeded to make his request : " Wherefore 
" he, styling himself her majesty's most faithful and poor 
*' subject, appointed under her to that church and govern- 
" ment, most himibly pi'ostrated himself before her in this 
" matter, as of great importance, both in respect of God''s 
" glory, and of her father's and her own renown, for this his 
" majesty's most famous work of erecting cathedral churches, 
" instead of monkish and superstitious houses, was, and so 
" still remained, the beauty of the reformation of religion, 
" and the greatest benefit next to the doctrine of the gospel 
" itself, that the church of God in his realm received at 
" his most royal hands, far exceeding all other acts that 
" were done by any of his progenitors before him ; and 
" surmountins; all that was like to be done in any time to 
" come : if that which his will founded might likewise be 
" well governed." 

And then further to press his motion, he used these words 
to her: " Let not then, I most humbly beseech you, the 
" matter of government of these houses, (for tiiey all that 
" are of your father's foundation be in like uncertainty of 


" the authority of their statutes, and especially this church CHAP. 
" where I am,) stand any longer doubtful; but let it be 

"by your most sacred majesty decided and determined. Anno 1 582. 

" under what rules and orders they shall live. And so shall 

" the holy plant of your father''s hand be by you well nou- 

" rished and cherished ; and you shall be rightly heir, as 

" well of his glory, as you are of his imperial crown and 

*' dignity. And the Lord shall bless, prosper, and multiply 

" your days and years ; to the great comfort of the church, 112 

" and all your most faithful subjects."" 

And still to excite the queen to a despatch of this busi- 
ness, he added : " That this thing, until it be perfectly 
" finished, being a matter that needed no long delay for the 
" difficulty, nor would be deferred for the great utility, all 
" celerity would seem little to him, being an old man, de- 
" sirous to leave his church in good order before he died : 
" and knowing that it was now more than ten years since 
" it was moved by him and others to their archbishop that 
" was dead ; and by him to her majesty, as he said, to be 
" reformed : concluding, that he that was loath to begin to 
" write, now found difficulty to make an end, because of 
" the weight of this matter that he was entered into. But 
" because he was grown to more length than he purposed, 
" he must of necessity make an end : most humbly beseech- 
" ing her majesty to pardon him in that he dared to pre- 
" sent, after his rude manner, this, or any cause unto her. 
" Subscribing, 

'' Your majesty's most faithful subject, 

" Edmund Petriburg." 

The commission for concealed lands and estates, granted Commis- 
out by the queen, created great perplexities and wrongs to ceaiments 
the clergy, as at other times before, so this year ; the queen in the dio- 
gratifying some of her dependents, and particularly the^oin com-^ 
gentlemen pensioners, with these commission*. Whereof oneP'*'"'^d o^- 
of them was Edward Staffiard. Whose deputies extreme 
dealing with the clergy in the large diocese of Lincoln, was 



BOOK 'It length complained of by Cooper the bishop, to the lord 
^- treasurer : who was the clergy's chief patron, to whom they 
Anno 1582. usually applied in their distresses and hardships, often now- 
adays put upon them. 

These deputies of Stafford, that the poor clergy in this dio- 
cese might be sure to be well squeezed, were instructed to 
administer to the ministers and churchwardens Articles of 
Inquiry ; and which they would deliver no copies of. The 
sum of which articles the bishop sent up to the said lord 
treasurer, enclosed in his own letter to him, for some redress 
of his clergy. I shall first set down the articles, and then 
his letter, which will give us a plainer discovery of this 

The articles had this title : A note of certain articles of- 
fered by Mr. Stafford's deputies to all the clergy generally, 
so Jar as they to them have been offered, and can be remem- 
bered. For copies, they themselves would deliver none. 
Articles of *' Imprimis, Where you are parson, vicar, or curate. 
to'^TrLnf " ^"^ ^° whom the gift of that parsonage or vicarage doth 
&c. by the « belong. And how long have you been possessed of it. 
* *' And whether you be incumbent upon it. 

" 2. Item, Of what age you were at the first taking of it. 

" 3. Item, Whether you have any more benefices than 

" one ; and how you are qualified. And by whom. Whe- 

113" ther under the hand and seal of any nobleman. And whe- 

" ther you be dispensed withal according to law. 

" 4. Item, Whether you have read the articles within 
" two months next after your admission to any parsonage or 
" vicarage. And every year after, once. And whether you 
" have subscribed thereunto. 

" 5. Item, Of what degree you are. And whether you be 
" preacher ; yea, or no. And whether you are licensed 
" thereunto. 

" 6. Item, Whether you observe the order of prayer, and 
*' do administer the sacrament, in such sort as is appointed 
" and commanded by her majesty in the Book of Common 
** Prayer. 


" 7. Item, Whether you have married in such sort as is CHAP. 
" appointed by her majesty's Injunctions ; having the hands ^' 

" and seals of two justices of peace allowing thereof. Anno 1682. 

" 8. Item, Whether you do use the church ornaments 
" and rites, as are appointed by authority. 

" 9. Item, Whether you have paid your yearly tithes and 
'^ subsidies ; yea, or no. If not, how long is it since you ' 

" made default. And how much is behind. 

** 10. Item, Whether you have used any simony, or other 
" unlawful means, to come by any such parsonage or 
" vicarage, &c." With a great many mo, more dangerous 
a great deal of answers unto directly, upon a man''s oath. 
Which the ministers were not able to bear away. And all 
this by force, they say, of viis et modis, [a term that ran in 
their commission,] as the bishop added at the end of these 

" II. Articles, or interrogatories to be ministered to the 
" churchwardens and sworn men, touching their ministers. 

" Imjjrimis, Whether is your parsonage impropriate : 
" yea, or no. If it be, to what abbey, &c. did it belong. 
" Who is the farmer thereof. And from whom hath he his 
" lease. At whose hands purchased he it. 

" % Item, Who is the vicar of the same. How long hath 
" he been vicar there. By whom was he presented. And 
" what is the value of the said vicarage. 

" 3. Item, Whether is your said parson resident upon the 
" same. And what hospitality doth he keep. 

" 4. Item, What your parson''s or vicar's name is, not 
" being impropriate. And how long he hath been parson or 
" vicar there. 

" 5. Item, Whether the parson or vicar hath any more 
" benefices or ecclesiastical promotions : yea, or no. What 
" are the names thereof. And how many he hath. Who be 
" the patrons ; and within what diocese lie they. And how 
" long hath he enjoyed or occupied them. 

" 6. Item, How long hath he been instituted, and had 
" his induction for the second, third, or fourth benefice or 

M 2 


BOOK " spiritual promotion. And what day, to your knowledge, 
' " took he possession of the same. 
Anno 1582. '< 7. Item, Whether hath he a licence or dispensation to 
*, " keep so many benefices : yea, or no. And by whom he is 
" qualified. 

" 8. Item, Whether hath he compounded for his said be- 
** nefice, yea, or no, in the office of the First-fruits. 

" 9. Item, What profit hath he received of his first bene- 
" fice, since he was admitted to the second, having no dis- 
" pensation. 

" 10. Item, Of what age was your parson at the time of 
*' the admitting him to the said benefice. 

" 11. Item, Whether was your parson made deacon be- 
" fore his admission to the said benefice. 

" 12. Item, Whether did your parson, within two months 
*' after his induction, publicly read the articles in the 
" church, whereof he hath cure, in time of common prayer. 
'' And therewith at such days and times, as yearly they be 
" appointed, according to a statute made the 13th Eliz. that 
" now is. If not, when, and how long it is since he made 
" default. 

" 13. Item, What reward, or sums of money, or other 
" consideration, or thing, did your parson give promise, 
" yield or pay, for or in respect of having or obtaining 
" your said benefice. And by whom. 

" 14. Item, How many benefices hath your parson at this 
*' present ; or how many hath he had at one time, since he 
" was an ecclesiastical person. And which of them had he 
" first. What be the numbers thereof. Where lie they. 
" How many miles distant the one from the other. 

"15. Item, YsfhaX, faculty, licence, or dispensation hath 
" your parson to enjoy mo benefices than one. If he have 
" a hcence, what date beareth it, or under what seal ob- 
" tained he the same. 

" 16. Item, Whether your parson be chaplain to any 
" nobleman ; by colour whereof he doth enjoy a plurality. 
" Of what calling; is his said lord and master. And whether 


" did he obtain, under his lord and master''s hand and seal, CHAP. 
" a sufficient testimonial into a court, when he obtained his 
" licence where he then served, according to a statute in Anno 1 582. 
" that case provided. 

"17. Itern^ Of what clear yearly value be the said bene- 
" fices, according to the valuation in her majesty's books. 

" 18. Item, Whether he have paid his subsidies and 
" yearly tenths due for his said benefices. If not, when and 
" how long is it since he made default. 

" 19. Item, Of what degree in school is your parson. And 
" whether useth he to preach. Or if he do, whether he be 
*' sufficiently authorized thereto. 

" 20. Item, Whether hath your parson subscribed to the 
" articles: if not, how long is it since he made default so 
" to do. 

" 21. Item, Whether hath your parson married in such 
" sort as he ought to do, having two justices of peace"'s 
" hands for the allowing thereof. 

" 22. Item, Whether your parson have, or do minister 
'' the sacraments, say service in the church and chapels ; 
" using such rites and ceremonies, as the laws of this realm, 
"Book of Common Prayer, and Injunctions do permit: 115 - 
" and how long he hath done contrary. 

" 23. Item, Whether your parson have been resident 
" upon his benefice since the time of his possession. If 
" not, how long hath he been absent in one year. And the 
" cause thereof. 

" 24. Itei7i, Whether your parson have spoken at any 
" time in the church, or otherwise, in the derogation of the 
" Book of Common Prayer, or in ministering the sacra- 
" ments in such manner and form as in the said book is set 
" forth." 

In regard of these deputy commissioners, and these their 
ensnaring inquiries, to get money out of the poor clergy, or 
to imprison, or deprive them, and to get the benefices into 
their hands or patronages, and likewise their encroaching 
upon the jurisdiction of bishops herein ; the good bishop of 
Lincoln wrote an earnest letter to the lord treasurer, (as 

M 3 


BOOK was mentioned before,) dated Sept. 23. And giving further 
^' light into some of the grievances of these commissions, I 
Anno 1582. shall give the tenor of it from the original. 
Ttie bishop « That it might please his honour to understand, that at 
to tiiTlord " that present he was forced in behalf of the poor preachers 
treasurer, «< ^^^ ministers of his diocese, to desire his lordship''s advice 

for advice i • i j 

concerning " and direction in a matter very mghly touchmg them, and 
mission" " wherein, in his poor judgment, (he said,) they were of- 
" fered very hard dealing by the deputies of Mr. Stafford. 
" That they entered not into his diocese till that present 
" time. And now they brought down with them a com- 
" mission out of the exchequer to certain gentlemen of 
" every shire, to inquire for the lapse of such benefices as 
*' were granted to Mr. Stafford. Which, as he took it, were 
" only those that fell to her majesty's gift by dissolution of 
" abbeys, and none other. That the manner of the inquiry 
"mentioned in the commission was only this; Vel per sa- 
" cramentum proboruvi, et legalium hominum ; vel aliis 
" viis et modis, qiiibus melius poterint. And that by this 
" latter claim of viis et modis, they took upon them, with- 
" out consent or knowledge of the ordinary, by the bailiff 
" of their hundred, to summon all the clergy, even curates 
" and readers ; and to offer them an oath to answer to cer- 
" tain articles. Which articles comprehended all manner of 
" faults, either by law or by statute, or by injunction, or by 
" order appointed in the Communion Book : whereby any 
" minister might lose his living, or come into any punish- 
" ment by such faults committed. 

" Which, as he proceeded, in his opinion, was more than 
*' the meaning of the queen's majesty in her commission, or 
" more than the words in law could carry. For that this 
" was more, added he, than episcopal jurisdiction. And that 
'* if her majesty had granted this authority to Mr. Stafford, 
*' or to his deputies, especially to such deputies as they 
" were, bishops or other ecclesiastical officers in this realm 
" should have little to do. And yet the ministers very 
" simply reformed, if they would give any money. And 
" that this aiuhority used they, not only to such ministers 


"as had ecclesiastical livings of the patronage from the CHAP. 
*' queen, but (as he had written) to all other. 

" Wherefore he desired his honour, even for God's sake, Anno 1582. 
" most humbly, in the behalf of the poor preachers, that ^^^ 
" his lordship would vouchsafe to help him with his direc- 
" tions in this case ; and to signify, whether the ministers 
" ought to obey this manner of dealing, and to be their own 
" accusers, to their utter undoing. That the better sort un- 
" doubtedly were greatly discouraged and dismayed ; see- 
" ing themselves more extremely dealt withal than the resi- 
*' due of the queen's majesty's subjects. For in the inquiry 
" for concealed lands and other things contained in her ma- 
" jesty's grant to Mr. Stafford, there were none such extra- 
*' ordinary means used ; but only juries impannelled, by in- 
" struction to inquire of such things as were thought to be 
" wrongfully detained from her majesty. Which manner of 
" dealing, if it were used toward the ministry, no complaint 
" should be made. Herein he most humbly and earnestly 
*' desired his honour's direction : for that he knew he [the 
** lord treasurer] had examined the value and force of 
" their commission. And both he, and the poor ministers 
" of his diocese, should be bound to pray for the continu- 
*' ance of his honour. Which God, he prayed, would pros- 
" per to his glory." 

And then, by way of postscript, he heartily desired his 
lordship's answer with some speed. For that the matter was 
hotly and hastily followed. No delays of time or consulta- 
tion would be granted. 

The effect of this seasonable intercession of the good bi- 
shop to a good friend at court in such straits, was, that a 
stop was immediately put to Stafford's commission. For a A Supei-- 
Supersedeas came down to his deputies, against the unlawful Stafford's 
methods taken by these men, in managing their commis-' 
sion. Whereupon the said bishop wrote a letter of thanks to 
the statesman that procured the stay thereof so speedily. 
For his letter bore date but six days after his former; 
wherein he gave the treasurer information of these doings For which 

in his diocese : yielding most humble and hearty thanks to returns 

^ 4 thanks. 

, comiuiS' 



BOOK his lordsliip for his honourable favour, in staying, hy Stc- 
jjcrsedeas, the disordered proceedings of Stafford's deputies 
Anno 1582. against the clergy of some part of his diocese. 

But because there was no doubt some fair and plausible 
account would be given of the course taken in prosecuting 
this commission ; and so some crime might be laid to the 
bishop, in what he had said or done in the representing 
thereof: therefore he proceeded in his letter, for prevention, 
to open their doings more at large. Using these words : 

" For that I know not what information they will make 

" unto your honour upon this stay, I am bold to signify 

" unto your lordship such disorders, to the proof whereof I 

Disorders a yf\\\ gtand. First, That they summoned the clergy by 

in execixt- .,.^ ' , . -^ . , . r>j j 

ing this " the bailiffs and constables, without any notice given to 
me, or to my chancellor, or to any other ecclesiastical offi- 
" cer ; although we were all present in the country when 
" it was done. Secondly, That they summoned the whole 
" clergy, parsons, vicars, curates, and readers : whereas her 
" majesty's grant to Mr. Stafford, as I take it, touched only 
" those benefices that came to the queen's disposition by the 
" dissolution of abbeys, chantries, &c. only. And there- 
117" fore, as I think, he cannot meddle with those ministers 
" that have their benefices of other patrons. Thirdly, That 
" they offered a number of articles to the ministers upon 
" their oaths, very captious and dangerous to answer unto, 
" against themselves. And this also was generally offered 
" to all. Fourthly, They inquire upon these ministers by 
" the oath of their parishioners in a great many articles. A 
" number whereof appertain nothing to the queen's ma- 
" jesty's grant. For they see thereby certain words in her 
" majesty's commission out of the exchecjuer : by force 
" whei'eof they ma}^ not inquire of penal statutes or injunc- 
" tions, which appertain unto the ministry. And so at this 
" present they affirm unto me, that their learned counsel 
" did tell them." 

He further informed the lord treasurer, what sort of men 
the parties wei'e, that hitherto were assigns for IVIr. Stafford 
within his diocese : namely, for Huntingtonshirc two, one 


of them a collar-maker : for Buckinghamshire two others; CHAP 
all of them very mean persons. And that there were with ^' 
them some common promoters, and other ordinary and busy Anno 1582. 
men, to be, as they said, their solicitors, and followers of the 
cause. That there was not one of them tolerably affected 
in religion ; and some of them known to be backward. 
And therefore their proceeding against the clergy the more 
to be suspected. Who were or should be for the other 
shires of his diocese, he knew not. For that in Lincoln- , 
shire, Leicestershire, Bedfordshire, Hertfordshire, he did 
not yet hear that any had begun. Wherefore in conclusion 
the bishop humbly desired his loi'dship, when those com- 
missions should come forth, to have consideration of the 
things beforementioned. 

The same bishop of Lincoln I find acting this year in The bishop 
an ecclesiastical commission against one Mr. Mackworth, g^Jg^"g^^^"_ 
for wickedness and heresy, two gross crimes; namely, for ca' commis- 
lying with another woman, his wife being alive, and affirm- ^ackworth. 
ing the lawfulness of having two wives. He was also very Annals, 
unkind to his wife: so that there was mention of a separa-^"'* V' 
tion. This cause (which had been before the lords in the 
star-chamber) was set upon by several persons in an eccle- 
siastical commission. And an account of which, and what 
judgment was passed upon him, thus the bishop gave to the 
lord treasurer in the month of January. 

" That it would please him to be advertised, that on the The pro- 
" 18th and 19th days he was at Stamford, to deal with Mr. ^n'tf j^J^g. 
" Mackworth, Where after a sermon, to the reproof of his i»ent upon 
" wickedness and confusion of his heresy, in a very great 
" assembly, as well of the gentlemen as of the common 
" people of the country round about, he was convented be- 
" fore him, [the bishop,] and other of the commission eccle- 
" siastical ; viz. sir Tho. Cecille, Mr. Haulle, Mr. Wowr- 
" lich, and others, sitting with him. And that at the 
" time he behaved himself very rudely. But that in the 
" end he was contented to submit himself to such sort of 
" acknowledging his fault openly as they should appoint 


BOOK " him. Which was, that on two several Sundays, in two seve- 
^" " ral churches, after a sermon made in each place, he should 

Annoi582." particularly acknowledge his faults and errors, in such 

118" manner as they [the commissioners] should lay them 

" down in articles. 

Mack- " That in the afternoon his wife's proctor moved for a 

move'i'foTl'' " separation ; and order to be taken for his giving security 

separation. <' of living for her and her children. That after much way- 

" wardness in challenging his wife's brother, as the cause 

" and follower of all his trouble, he earnestly desired that 

" the matter might not proceed to separation : offering the 

" commissioners to put in a bond, as they should desire, to 

" his wife's friends for her security, to have an honest and 

" quiet life with him, as with a loving and Christian hus- 

" band : adding further, that if sentence of separation 

" should be given, it would be an occasion of great grudge 

" between them ; so that they should not at any time here- 

" after live together so quietly as now they might. 

" That they went forward, and prepared the matter to 
" sentence, taking consultation, until the next day in the 
" afternoon. At which time he earnestly, and with some 
" tears, renewed his former motion. And they understood 
" that the gentlewoman was not unwilling thereto ; but left 
" herself to the commissioners directions, if they did think 
" it safe for her so to do: nevertheless they thought it not 
" to stand with their duties to accept any such reconcili- 
" ation, before they had imparted the same unto their ho- 
" nours [of the privy-council, in the star-chamber, as it 
" seems ; from whom the cause might have been sent to the 
" bishop and the rest.] That therefore they deferred the 
" sentence to the 30th day of January, to Bugden. Where 
" Mr. Mackworth must appear, to hear the resolute order, 
" the one way or the other." 

And so depending upon their order, the bishop con- 
cluded, " That they heartily desire their honours' direction 
" therein : that if he would yickl to such conditions as the 
" gentlewoman and her brother should think reasonable, 


" whether it be their honours' pleasure, that they should CHAP. 
" accept that reconciliation, and proceed no further to di- ^' 

" vorce. And that they might know it, if it might be, by Anno i582. 
" the 30th of that month." My intelligence reacheth no 
further in this matter. But these few memorials are enough 
to shew the paternal cares and concerns of this and other 
bishops in these times. 

But I go on now to a remark or two of another bishop, 
falling out this year. The bishop of Hereford had very 
hard dealing; and perhaps chiefly upon the like commis- 
sion of concealments, as that abovementioned in another 
diocese. And I the rather take notice of this bishop, whose 
name was Scory, having been one of king Edward's bi- 
shops, and returned from exile upon queen Elizabeth's ac- 
cess to the throne, and one of the bishops that assisted at the 
consecration of archbishop Parker, the first archbishop upon 
the reformation. This ancient venerable bishop was vexed Trouble of 
by the council of the marches of Wales, whereof sir Henry shon'of ' 
Sidney was president. By whom the rest of the council Hereford. 
were led, in effect, as he pleased. I have briefly taken notice 
of this bishop's case elsewhere ; but now shall relate it more Life of 
at large. To the common patron of the bishops and clergy jq|' *" 
this bishop appealed in a letter written to him in the month 1 1 9 
of November. Thus shewing his condition : 

" That he was now in his old age compelled to seek re- His letter 
" fuge and aid of him, [the lord treasurer,] and others herpja^nt to 
" majesty's most honourable privy-council, as the only help^''^ ^^^^ 
" next her majesty, to see justice and equity to be given and coun- 
*' unto her highness's good subjects. Therefore his humble '^''" 
" petition unto his honour now was, that by his good and 
" favourable means he might be heard before the said lords. 
*' To whose justice he appealed from the strait doings and 
" inquisitions of the lord president and others there : call- 
" ing in question his [the bishop's] name, by examining 
" thousands to his great discredit and injury. And that if 
" in their great inquisitions they could charge him worthy 
" of discredit, he appealed to their honours for the hear- 


BOOK " ing: and to suffer shame and punishment, if they found 
^- " him worthy of the same. And that he had good cause to 
Auuo 1582. " appeal from the said lord president, and some of the 
" council there, (viz. whom he used to pleasure him when 
" he would.) For that except Mr. Justice there were none, 
" he said, but whom it was his pleasure to have : and he all 
" those times absent. That it might appear plainly by their 
" examinations and inquisitions of the country, on all and 
" every interrogatory, as should please certain base commis- 
" sioners, without calhng him first to answer the same ; or 
" to know what he could say therein. Besides divers other 
" dealings, not used to any bishop of this realm, since the 
" conquest, he was sure. 

" That he had referred the relation hereof to his son, the 
" bearer ; and humbly prayed his lordship that he might 
" be heard. And that the said lord president, and Mr. Fa- 
" bian Philips, the executioner, and practiser of the said 
" commissions and inquiries, might certify their doings 
" against him, [the said bishop.] Whereby their honours 
" should the better see and judge the injury and discredit 
" he had by their doings received. This was dated the 
" 20th of November, 1582 : and subscribed, 

" Your good lordship's to command in the Lord, 

" Jo. Heref." 

Tbe presi- The abovesaid lord president was very rigorous in these 
ouria ^°'^' P^''^^ *^^ ^^^^ principality of Wales, by commissions which he 
Wales. got for squeezing money out of the poor people, upon pre- 
tence to save the queen's charges for the maintaining of 
her council there : as, by virtue of a commission to require 
twenty pounds monthly upon recusants for not coming to 
church : and by colour of this and other commissions he 
pressed the inhabitants, and the clergy, and chiefly this bi- 
shop, in large and arbitrary payments. Which therefore 
Whitgift, bishop of Worcester, and one, I think, of the 
council there, freely informed the lord treasurer of in a let- 
ter : how inconvenient those commissioners were ; and their 


burdening the queen's subjects there for their own gain. CHAP. 
See the Life of Archbishop Whitgift. ^- 

But still the next year I find the same bishop of Here- Anno 1582. 
ford''s complaints continued against the arbitrariness of the'"''^^"^, 

^ _ . "^ . Archbishop 

said lord president, in respect of his abuses and outrages Whitgift, 
offered in his government. Of which he, being now come^i""^"* 
up, thought to have spoken to the lord treasurer in per- j 20 
son; but being gone from his house without Temple-bar Sir Henry 

, , • 1 1 • • 1 • 1 • Sidney's ri- 

mto the country, he acquamted him with it by a private gorous go- 
letter, wrote in June, 1583, especially that lord being de-\*^"^"\'^"^°^ 

, , . 1 ^the princi- 

sirous to understand further touching the government ofpaiity. 
that principality : of which the bishop, in his said letter, 
gave him this account ; viz. 

" How the same, for the four years last past, had been 
" governed by the lord president, and such as he had for 
" the more part attendant about him, that were at his de- 
" votion and commandment, his lordship might require the 
" same of the bishop of Worcester, [Whitgift,] and some 
" other of the most worshipful of the said principality ; 
" whom he [the lord treasurer] knew to be best affected. 
" For the fame commonly was, that there were never such 
** devices to get money as had been lately practised. Which 
" he thought would appear, if but half the inquisitions 
" were orderly made thereof, as his lordship had lately un- 
*' towardly made against him, [the bishop.] He added, that 
" there was a gentleman of worship said at his [the bishop's] 
" table, about the beginning of April last, that the said lord 
" president had received, within two years last past, 30,000/. 
" But what was answered to her majesty, said the bishop, 
" his lordship [as lord treasurer] best knew. And that not- 
" withstanding, they said that the queen's house there was 
" in debt. Whether it were so much, he doubted, (as the 
" bishop went on ;) but a principal attorney, and one that 
" had something to do in the fines, said to a man of the bl- 
" shop's, (as he told him,) that none were there rewarded 
" any longer than they could bring in money. 

" That for his own part, he did not intend to accuse 
" his lordship of any matter, were it ever so evident, that 


BOOK " touched not her majesty, her state, crown, or dignity: 
I- " yet for that he was sworn one of the council there, it was. 
Anno 1582." he Said, his part, either to her majesty, or to his lordship, 
" [the treasurer,] (who above others took care of the good 
" government of her subjects,) to intimate some occasions to 
" inquire further ; if he so thought good."' 
The bt- This poor persecuted bishop, having stayed in town thus 

quest'to\"he long till the summer of the next year, 1583, now upon his 
lord trea- departure gives his friend, the lord treasurer, the melan- 
choly account, how uncomfortably he was hke to spend the 
remainder of his days in his diocese, by reason of the hard 
usage he was like to meet with, by means of the president, 
in these words: "And now I humbly take my leave of 
*' your good lordship, and intend to return to my charge, 
" where I am persuaded I shall live in small security of life, 
" goods, or fame. Of the last whereof, he adds, his lord- 
" ship, [the president,] and his, had already utterly spoiled 
" him. For now in the said principality among some of his 
" friends, I am committed to the Fleet among others [of the 
" clergy] deprived. [Meaning, as it would be given out 
121 " there.] And among the lawyers, the tempters here, I 
" must with six bishops make a purgation." 

And then in conclusion he requested, " That if his good 
" lordship, in consideration of the lord president's greatness, 
" by allies, friends, and authority, and of his own littleness 
" by wanting the premises ; of his desire of revenge ; and 
" ability to perform the same ; and of his [the bishop's] 
" weakness the same to defend or avoid ; would be a means 
" to her majesty, that he and his might be either exempted 
" from his lordship's authority, to answer in the courts 
" there at Westminster, as other bishops out of the said 
" principality did use to answer ; or else to be removed to 
" some other place ; where he might be in some safety out 
" of his lordship's reach. And by obtaining this for him, 
*' he should be bound with a grateful mind to ascribe to his 
" lordship's goodness the security and quietness he should 
" thereby enjoy, the few days he had to live : which the 
" three and twenty years last past [during which time he 


" had been bishop there] he could never find in the said CHAP. 
" principahty." ^- 

Richard Davies, bishop of St, David^ dying in theA"noi582. 
month of October, the last year past, an account was taken ^° account 
of the revenues of that bishopric, by order, as it seems, of shopric of 
the lord treasurer, and sent up this year to him by some Qf, ^t. David's, 
ficer or steward of that diocese. Whereby it may appear, 
how much wrong that bishopric received, and was diminish- 
ed in its revenues, by means of a commission of concealment, 
granted to one Carey, a groom of the queen's privy cham- 
ber, his rigorous proceedings by virtue thereof; and how 
impoverished it was now at that bishop's death : being re- 
duced from four hundred and fifty-seven pounds, odd mo- 
ney, de cla7'o, (as it was given in 27 Henry VIII.) unto 
two hundred and sixty-three pounds. This record, tran- 
scribed from the original, is preserved in the Appendix. N". xxil. 
And hereby may be gathered also how much the revenues 
of the church in this reign suffered by these commissions of 
concealments, granted now and then : and what a Httle gainer 
the crown was by them. 

CHAP. XI. 122 

Puritans. An inscription about the queen's arms in a church 
in Bury ; abusive of the queen. Wright, chaplain to the 
lord Rich. His troubles. Informations concerning him. 
And his anszvers. Papists ; lord Vaux, and sir Thomas 
Tresham. Their examinations. Lord Vaux's confession. 
Sir Richard Shelly abroad. He offers to make discoveries 
to the queen. A safe conduct granted to him. His loyalty. 
Some accounts of him and his family. Bourn late in the 
inquisition. One Gower, a fugitive, comes to the English 
ambassador at Paris ; desires coiiference with some learn- 
ed about religion. Is cast into the bishop cf Paris'" s pri- 
son. Seminary priests and mass-hearers brought to the ses- 
sions at London. A box of stamps for popish libels taken. 

IN OW to gather up some things concerning the ill-willers 



BOOK to the church establislied, and its constitution; viz. those 
called puritans and papists. 
Anno 1582. How the town of St. Edmund''s Bury in Suffolk stood af- 
fected to puritanism, hath been shewn somewhat largely be- 
fore. I shall relate one remark more of an act of some of 
this sort ; which shewed they had no good opinion of the 
queen, for her maintaining the church in the present ser- 
A spiteful vice, doctrine, and rites thereof. And that appeared by cer- 
inscription ^jjjj^ words somc of them caused to be set on either side of 

on the 

queen's the queen's arms in the church there, viz. after this manner. 

arrns in 

church. The queen's arms. 


1 know thy works, 
that thou art nei- 
ther cold nor hot. 
I would thou wert 
cold or hot. 

Therefore because 
thou art luke- 
warm, andneither 
cold nor hot, it 
will come to pass, 
I will spew thee 
out of my mouth. 

Four or five words of these verses were painted by the 
painter : and then, by advice, the rest was staid ; and these 
words following put in the room ; viz. 


I know thijivorks, 
and thy love, and 
service, and faith, 

thy patience, and 
thy works; and 
that they are 
more at the last 
than at the frst. 

And then this sentence next after: Notwithstanding, I 
have ajcio things against thee, that thou suffer est the wo- 
man Jezebel, xchich muketlt herself a prophetess, to teach and 
to deceive my servants ; to make them commit Jbrnication, 
and to eat meat sacrificed unto idols. 

Thus bold and seditious some of this faction were. But 
it was soon reported up to court ; and tlie matter resolved 


to be strictly examined. And on the back side of this infor- CHaP. 
mation was writ, by the lord treasurer Burghley's own hand, ^^' 

in order to the finding out the authors, the names of such Anno 1582. 
as were to be called up ; viz. 1. The minister. [He, proba- 
bly, in whose church this inscription was set, and who pei-- 
mitted it to be done.] 2. The boohhinder : whose name was informa- 
found to be Tho. Gybson, a bookbinder in Bury; who*;;";,'','""'' 
had caused the first sentence to be put up. This man had 
printed Browne's books. 3. The painter's name. What the 
further discovery of this was, and the conclusion, I find not. 

I meet with one Robert Wright, a puritan preacher, now Matters 
in the Gatehouse in Westminster. He had been domestic ^Ty^f^ "ft" 
chaplain to the lord Rich's household at Rochford. Pro- ^ puritan, 
ceedings of Elmer, bishop of London, with him in the com- 
mission, have been shewn in the Life of that bishop* Articles Life of Bi- 
were laid to his charge, containing; divers matters relating to ^^°P ^^'" 

t' _ <-5 to mer. 

his principles and practices in those parts of Essex, where 
that lord's seat was. The particulars whereof I shall now 
shew more at large from the original papers. The beginning 
of his troubles was, that he had spoke some time ago against 
keeping the queen's day. Which, he said, was to make her 
an idol. Which she heard of, and was very angry. Upon 
this, he was brought before the bishop and the ecclesiastical 
commissioners. Then the bishop charged him openly in the He is 
consistory, that he had slandered the queen, and was worthy '"'°"»''* ^'^' 
to lie seven years in prison. And that for Wright's saying, commission 
that the queen's majesty knew what was done in the lord 
Rich's house, [when they had their exercises.] But Wright 
answered only, M^ yivono. 

His keeper being a man that favoured puritanism, having 
some secret word from the secretary, let him go home into 
Essex, to see his wife lying in, and a child he had of about 
twelve weeks old. But he could not be so secret, but Dr. . 
Ford, the civilian, advocate against him in court, saw him 
going to Tooby in that county, to his wife's brother, one Mr. 
Butler, and told the bishop : who thereupon threatened to 
complain to the queen of the keeper. Upon this, Wright Addresseth 
writeth to the lord Burghley, acquainting him vAxh it in Ji,g ""./" 

VOL. III. jj 



BOOK tliese words: " O my lord, I most humbly crave your lord- 
" ship''s favoiu*, that both I may be delivered from such un- 

Anno 1582. « pitiful minds ; and especially, that your lordship will stand 
fornuour. " good lord unto my keeper, that he may not be discouraged 
1 24 " from favouring those that profess true religion." This was 
written in May, 1582. 

But that statesman upon this occasion, and the informa- 
tions given in against him, sent him the notes of matters laid 
to his charge : and what answers he had given to each, viz. 
Articles of " Being examined of the Book of Common Prayer, whether 
t'oTi'iif -^"^ " ^^ ^^'^^'^ good and godly ;, he said he could not answer 
with iiis " what he thought of every particular ; because he had not 
" read the same. Again, what he thought of the rites and 
" ceremonies used publicly in the church ; he refused to 
" make answer thereunto. ■ Being examined touching the 
" form of ordaining ministers in the church of England ; he 
" answered, that he did not know of any form appointed for 
" the ordaining of ministers of this church, but by hearsay. 
" Confesseth, that being a layman, he hath preached and 
" catechised in the houses of the lord Rich, and Mr. But- 
" ler of Tooby : also in the house of the lord Gray, and 
" lord St. John^^s of Bletso, at several times, within two, 
" three, or four years past. That in preaching he used to 
" say prayers of his own devising: never used to pray as in 
" the Book of Common Prayer : never prayed for archbi- 
" shops and bishops. That he catechised the servants of 
" the lord Rich, and others that had been there, at eight 
" and nine at night. Confessed, that he is not licensed to 
" preach ; and that he needed not any hcence, because the 
" preaching and catechising was private. He was charged 
" to have spoken against the authority of archbishops and 
" bishops : and to have said that they are clogs of Anti- 
" christ, and might not be called lords. This he neither de- 
" nied nor confessed. That the election of ministers ought 
" to be by the flock and congregation. He confessed, that 
" he was chosen in this sort in the house of the lord Ricli. 
" And he said in honourable presence, that he was pastor 
" of that house, and had cure of tlieir souls. 


" Confesseth, that he had gone over the seas to receive CHAP. 
" orders: and that he received orders of Villers, and other ' ' 

" ministers at Antwerp." [As Cartwright: and here Tra-Anno 1682. 

vers was ordained. This Villers was a Frenchman and 

preacher. He had been in England, and read a divinity 

lecture ; and chaplain afterwards to the prince of Orange : 

but an enemy to England, as our historian tells us.] But tocamd.Eiiz. 

go on with this man's confession. " He affirmeth, that every J''^^^" 

*' minister is a bishop. The manner of his admitting to the 

" ministry he doth not answer, being charged by his oath. 

" He hath used one Greenwood to say service in the house 

" of the lord Rich ; not following the order of the Book of 

" Common Prayer. This Greenwood was a man known to 

" have given over the ministry : and to leave his function 

" for disliking he had of the orders prescribed by the Book 

" of Common Prayer.'" 

Together with these articles and his answers, sent to him 
by the lord treasurer Burghley, he sent also another paper 
of depositions against him ; which bare this title : 

Matters proved against Wright, by clepositloii of sworn 125 
witnesses, by virtue of a commissloii sent down. 

" He called the preachers that followed the Book of 
" Common Prayer dumb dogs. That the ministers were 
" thieves and murderers. And that there are no lawful mi- 
" nisters in England. 

" That the people were drawn away from a sermon at the 
" church at Rochford, by the tolling of a bell, to a sermon 
" preached by Wi'ight, in the hall at Rochford. 

" Being examined by what authority he preached ; he 
" answered, he was called by the reformed church. 

"He affirmed that the lords of the council did know of 
*' him, and also of his preaching. 

" That the preachers and ministers called to the lord 
" Rich's house, were taunted and rebuked by R. and Wri. 
" [lord Rich and Wright.] Found fault with the laws ec- 
" clesiastical, and depraved the ministry. 

" That preachers were openly examined and rebuked for 
N 2 


BOOK " their sermons in a great audience in the hall of the lord 

. " R. by procurement of Wright.''"' 

Anno 1582. rpj^g witnesses against him (whose names are set down at 
the bottom) were, Nicolson, rector of South-church ; Ber- 
nard Turner, vicar of Shopland ; Bowden, rector of Leigh ; 
Berriman, clerk ; Arthur Dent, preacher ; Edward Barker, 
clerk ; and otiiers. 

To these notes, sent him by the lord treasurer, he gave a 
long answer; and used these words, in good assurance of 
his own opinion : " That if his lordship would vouchsafe to 
" read his long and tedious answer, he must needs lift up 
" his hands, and thank the Father of lights, as St. James 
" speaks, for his excellent and right noble humanity." 

Now here should follow a modest and wary answer of 
Wright^ given in by him, and sent, as it seems, to the same 
lord ; mollifying and excusing all his words, assertions, and 
doings, laid to his charge, as abovesaid. But it being somc- 

N". XXIII. what long, I choose to leave it transcribed in the Appendix. 

N». XXIV. As also his answers in vindication of himself, to those depo- 
sitions against him, mentioned above ; and clearing himself, 
as well as he could, of them. 

Now to cast our eyes upon the malecontents and enemies 

Papists. to our church and establishment, I mean the papists; to 
discover a few things concerning some of them, and their 
.actions under this year. 

Among several who had entertained Campion the Jesuit, 
executed a year or two before, and that were privy to his 

Lord Vaux, treasonous purposes, the lord Vaux, and sir Thomas Tre- 

andsirTiio-^l^^^^ were fouud, committed, and fined. To examine and 

mas 1 re- ' 

sham, on- deal further with them, the lord treasurer and sir Walter 

Cainwlon " Mildmay were appointed commissioners from the queen. I 

Lord trea- meet with tlicsc brief memorials ; and the substance of what 

moriais""^ was spoke by them, being by the queen''s authority brought 

before the two said persons. Lord Vaux first desired the 

queen's favoiu\ Secondly, confessed his fault, in refusing 

1 26 before to answ^er upon his oath, whether, to his knowledge, 

Campion was within his house. Thirdly, he desired to be 

spared from coming to church, until he may be otherwise 


resolved in his conscience. And yet he is content to be in- CHAP. 

structed by any that shall be appointed thereto. That he '_'_ 

hath no other house near London, but one that he hath Anno issa. 
hired of the lord Mordaunt. 

Sir Thomas Tresham answereth in substance to all, as the 
lord Vaux had done. He hath no other house near London, 
but one in Tuthill-street. 

Soon after, the lord Vaux (upon whom a heavy fine was 
laid) relenteth, whose confession was as followeth : 

" Whereas I, William Vaux, lord Harawden, was called Lord Vaux's 
" before the lord Burghley, lord treasurer of England, and '^°" ^*s'<>"' 
" sir Walter Mildmay, knight, chancellor of the exchequer; 
" and in the queen's majesty's name willed to declare what 
" I had to say by word of mouth for myself, agreeable to 
" my sundry writings of submissions, sent to the council ; I 
" did then humbly declare, that I did most heartily, and 
" above all worldly things, desire to be restored to her ma- 
" jesty's favour, as a most obedient subject to my sovereign 
" lady and queen : and so I did acknowledge my most 
" bounden duty to be ; and for whose health I did also 
" daily pray, and would during my life. 

" Secondly, Being demanded what I thought of my of- 
" fence, for which I was first committed to prison, I did 
*' humbly confess, that I do now know, that I did grievously 
" offend, that I did refuse to answer upon my oath, do now 
" know upon better instruction, that in that refusal I did 
" grievously offend ; and if it were to be done, I would not 
" so offend, nor will hereafter ever offend in any like case ; 
" beseeching her majesty to be my gracious lady, and to 
" forgive and pardon me for the same : and to have com- 
" passion for me for the great fine set upon me for the said 
" offence. 

" Thirdly, Being demanded, whether I would, as I am 
" bound by the laws of the realm, come to the church : be- 
" ing also admonished, that I should not be molested to 
" answer to matters of opinion and controversies of religion^ 
" but should therein be dealt withal by instruction ; I de- 
" sired most humbly to be forborne to be compelled to come 
" n3 


BOOK " to the church. Not for that I should so do in contempt 
" of her majesty, or of her laws; but that my conscience 

Aiiiio 1582. " only, and notiiing else, as not thereto well persuaded, did 
" stay me. And yet I did and do offer willingly to hear 
" any instruction, whereby my conscience may be better in- 
" formed and satisfied ; and will admit any conference with 
" any learned persons to inform me herein, so as it shall ap- 
" pear not to come to the church upon any contemptuous 
" meaning, but only for ofll'ence of my conscience. 

" And in this sort, as I did in speech answer and declare 
" at more length in my most humble sort to the said lord 
" treasurer and Mr. Chancellor, so in testimony hereof I 
" have in this writing repeated the substance thereof; and 
" do confirm the same by my handwriting." 
1 27 This was drawn up by the hand of the lord treasurer, 
being the sum of what the lord Vaux had verbally confess- 
ed, and was now to subscribe, in order for favour to be 
shewn him. There was one of this name, viz. Vaux, secre- 
tary to don John of Austria, (but whether this lord Vaux, 
or his relation, I know not,) who recommended Thomas 
Camd. Eiiz. Coplcy, a fugitive, to the French king, to be made a baron. 
sub aim. More strict laws were made by the parliament that sate 

More laws ^^^'^ Y^^^i against the papists. Which was found necessary 
made by the ^q ]jq done, those recusants increasing by means of seminary 

parliament . . 1 i i • *^ 

against the pricsts and Jcsuits, great numbers of tliem secretly coming 
papists. from their colleges abroad into the kingdom, to pervert the 
queen*'s subjects. And what disturbances were made by 
some of the popish gentry, even in the churches in Stafford- 
shire, (which abounded with papists,) even at the time of di- 
vine service and communion, may be seen in a letter of the 
bishop of Coventry and Litchfield, written to the council, 
N". XIX. specified in the Appendix. 

Among such Romanists as lived abroad, and withdrew 
themselves for their security from the laws of the land 
against popery. Dr. Shelly was one, of the ancient family of 
the Shellies, of Michel Grove in Sussex, called sir Richard 
Shelly, being lord prior of St. John's of Jerusalem. A man 
he was of learning ; and liad removed himself to Malta, 


where the Enghsh of this order had privilege. He was one CHAP, 
that professed all loyalty to the queen, and disowned those 

methods that the Jesuits and priests acted by, in obedience Anno i582. 
to the bishop of Rome, and making disturbance in the 
queen's dominions. He now earnestly desired to return to Sir Richard 
his native country ; and by a letter to the lord treasurer, ,„.-o/j/^[ 
(who was his acquaintance and alliance,) made that his re- John's, de- 
quest to come home ; having only the favour of a grant of g^j^g home. 
his own religion to enjoy to himself, without incurring dan- 
ger for that cause. 

In his letters to that lord he desireth to see the queen, And to 
and have leave to come over, to discover to her, for her own ^^^^^ ^J^'^°' 

' ' veries to 

safety, such matters as to letters was not to be committed. And tiie queen, 
that the late tragedies committed by papists, as the wars in 
Ireland, were by a generation [Jesuits] that he never liked. 
He desired a passport for him and his folk, to come and go 
without any further examination, (as upon occasion minis- 
tered of just jealousy had been taken of others,) and with- 
out any manner of communication to be held with him, sav- 
ing of matters of state, and for the queen's safety, and of 
his country. This was the substance of such a passport as 
he desired. And to the same import he had written to 
secretary Walsingham, for this end, that he might confer 
with her majesty and their honours de summa rerum. His 
circumstances were now become more strait, which inclined 
his return into England, since, as he wrote to the foresaid 
lord plainly, " That Jacomo di Bardi, a merchant in Venice, 
" where he resided, had failed with his stock, that he had 
" lived upon, ever since he forbore the king of Spain's pen- 
" sion and wages. So he was now driven to straits. He 
" hoped that lord would see that he should not be brought 
" to furpis egestas?'' 

Yet again this same year the lord treasurer received from 1 28 
Shelly another letter. Where within a small piece of paper. His secret 
of his own hand, (whereas most of the rest was of another's 'jj^^^^J' 
hand,) he gave him intelligence of the danger of England 
from the Spaniard, and other matters. And so it seems pro- 
bable he did often before give private information to that 

N 4 


HOOK lord of foreign matters, wherein the queen might be con- 
ce.rneA : in these words: " Albeit I trust it be not needful 

Anno 1582. a ^.q py^ your lordship in remembrance, that you have a 
" good eye to the Spanish army ; w^hich is here thought to 
" l3e of XI. m [eleven thousand] men. Yet for that is here 
" whispered, (and that res est soUiciti plena timoris amor,) 
" I thought it my duty also to write you thus much. And 
" further, to beseech you, that kissing the queen''s hands 
" with all dutiful reverence, in my behalf, you assure her 
" majesty, that father Possovino, the Jesuit, now here [at 
" Venice] towards Rome, with an ambassador from Musco- 
" via, hath commission, from what other princes of Germany 
" I wot not, but certainly from the elector of Saxony, to 
" the said pope, in matters of religion." 

He was called in Venice, illnstrissimo seignor, il conte 

ConcUilio [from concha, a shell.^ And under that title he 

instructed the foresaid lord to direct his letters to him. 

Is employed Here he held a correspondence with that lord and secretary 

to the state \Ya|sinp;ham : who now employed him in a business depend- 

of Venice. o i J i _ 

ing between the queen''s merchants and the state of Venice. 
In which he took such pains, that though it proved unsuc- 
cessful, yet the reporting of his diligence therein to the 
queen, she took it in very good part. And this lord took this 
opportunity to intercede to her for him ; representing him as 
a loyal subject to her ; and for her allowance of his return 
home : Avhich Shelly took gratefully. For so he declared 
The profes- himself to that lord in another letter, " That he was bounden 
ti'd"rt^ **'* " to his lordship for the testimony it pleased him to give to 
" her of his perpetual fidelity ; which had been," he added, 
" always accompanied with a particular and partial affection 
" to her royal person. But the queen's terms, it seems, were, 
" that he should turn to the church of England." To which 
he answered, " That he besecched her wisdom in no wise 
" to procure or wish him to change his religion ; which 
" taught him the reverence he owed, and the obedience 
" that he was bound to observe, to her royal state. And 
" that he made loyalty and obedience to princes, to depend 
" upon his catholic profession." 


And concerning his loyalty to the queen, (which this year CHAP, 
was called in question, the English fugitives having given ^ ' 

such reason, by their plots against her, to doubt of it,) he Anno 1582. 

appealed to a letter which he had wrote divers years before, 

[anno 1575,] whereof he sent the said lord treasurer a copy, 

for the vindication of his constant affection to her majesty. 

The intent whereof, as he said, was, " That it might please Always 

" his honour to consider, that he had been, and always was, [j|Jj^^'j •■^- 

" one man: and whatsoever his religion had been, he had to be by his 

" always respect to the duty of allegiance ; and that he had '^^ '='""' 

" always tendered the queen's safety, and that of his coun- 

" try, so much as any of them that enjoyed most wealth at 

" home. That he was employed by king Henry VIII. and 129 

" king Edward VI. and by them esteemed loyal, and faith- 

" ful too : appeahng to that lord as knowing it." 

Further, " He called God to witness, that he departed Why he 
" not from the realm with determination to forsake the "^{^J^^^ 
" queen's service ; no, nor then to abide and live abroad nei- 
" ther. But that he went to Antwerp to suit of three thou- 
" sand crowns, that one Francis, a Milaner, had failed widi 
" all of his. But that it stopped his coming home again, and 
" made him resolve to retire some where, till things were 
" better settled, when he heard that the crucifix was in 
" Smithfield broken and burnt in bonfire. And though he 
" was encouraged to come home, with remembrance of that 
" service done to her majesty in the time of her adversity, 
" whereof the king of Spain was his witness ; and of her 
" majesty's gracious accepting of him at his coming out of 
" Flanders, and the kindness that he [the lord Burghley] 
" then and always shewed him ; yet he feared at the fury of 
*' the people." 

Again, I find him thus avowing his loyalty in another let- 
ter: making loyalty and obedience to princes to depend upon 
his religion. And the contrary, disobedience, flowed from 
leaving the catholic religion ; in these words : " Whereas, His con- 
" in place of this conscience and this patience, [both which paUence*." 
*' he had shewed, being taught it by his catholic religion,] 
" wheresoever our discipline is neglected, there follow strait 


BOOK " contrary effects of licentious liberty and disobedience, di- 
rectly against the absolute authority and inviolable ma- 


Anno 1582. " jesty of the prince's state; and all is applied to a popu- 
" larity ; that being let loose. 

" Qua data porta ruit, et terras turhine pcrjlat. 

" Which he talked not as a clerk, or disputed as a scholar, 
^ " but simply reported that he had seen, and wished to be 

" weighed." 

Though I have related so much of this gentleman, I can- 
not but add a few more remarks of him, to revive his me- 
mory, which is in effect lost, however a great courtier he 
was, and employed in matters of state, and of an ancient 
worshipful family. 

For his free profession of loyalty, and losses sustained, he 

was reduced by this time to narrow ciixumstances : and so 

he said, that the schism [meaning the reformation of reli- 

ffim] had driven him to nullosque lares, inopemque senec- 

tam. And made him address thus for favour of the queen. 

Recom- " That she Avould once reward him, as God did Job, 

mends his « omnia duplicia ; seeing she had seen that he was a man of 

thriiueen : " such faith and honour, as voluntarily had chosen to en- 

his faith u jjj^j^,g three and twenty years exile and poverty, rather 

and honour. . " . , . , n 

" than to prevaricate any way, either m the cause, or oi my 
" princess ; and rather than to dally either with my con- 
" science or my allegiance ; which constantly cost him full 
" dear, for one respect in England, and for another in 
" Italy, [where he met with hardships, because he would 
" not assist or approve the plots of other fugitives against 
" the queen.] That in regard of his lack, he hoped the 
130 " queen would supply it from home. As for that he could 
" obtain abroad, he would not buy it so dear." Subjoining, 
" I will rather starve, than remedy my necessity with any 
" design upon me to be made, for the dommage of my 
" prince or country." 
Informs In another letter he informed the lord treasurer concern- 

concerning i^„ ^1j^. disloyal fugitives of England, in these words: " The 

the Enghsh " J t^ ,. ,, iiij 

fugitives. " busy heads of the Englishmen, that seemed to be abroad 


" only to hinder each other, both there and at home ; and all CHAP. 
" to discredit their nation, and to undo, for so much as in ' 

" them did lie, our noble natural country.'" Upon these Anno 1582. 
accounts of his principles they discredited him at Rome 
with the name of a spy, for the dutiful affection that he 
shewed her majesty. 

In short, the queen the next year granted him leave to The queen 
come home ; and allowed him [which till now she would not {^"^^rd ^"^ 
e-rantl the liberty of his conscience. But the Enghsh papists Sbeiiy to 

, 11 177 7 • n 1 . come home. 

(whom he called, the base, busy generation of our promoters) 
went about to abase him, as a spy, and to disgrace his going 
home, as though it were only for fear, and that he dared not 
abide any longer abroad. And it is likely the queen was the 
more inclined to Shelly's return, for his avoiding the inqui- 
sition, which he was in great danger of. For he was in- 
quired after in the inquisition at Rome, by the information 
of divers English zealots, as in one of his letters he signified: 
" That every varlet might make him to be inquired for in in danger 
" the inquisition ; but that the proudest of the priests dai'ed "jsition' 
" not adventure to accuse him." Adding, " That he would 
" write to the cardinal of that office, who," as he said, " had 
" complained to him of the perverseness of our nation, when 
*' he caused to be delivered Mr. Poynes and Mr. Bouser: 
*' [persons, it seems, that had been in the inquisition, whom 
" he got delivered.] And that he would write to those car- 
" dinals, to beseech them that these might themselves be 
" laid fast, and bear the pain that the accused should bide 
" that were not convicted." 

In the correspondence between them, the lord treasurer The queen 
liad assured him, (at which he rejoiced, as he wrote,) that^^j^,, j^,,g,_ 
her majesty had no worse, but rather better opinion of his ly's faith- 

• fulncsSa 

faithfulness and zeal to her royal state, than of many, being 
better warranted by her licence to be abroad than he was. 
" By which words of his lordship, he said, he gathered his 
" lordship's grounded opinion and knowledge of his loyal 
" proceeding alway, and also the particular intelligence that 
" his lordship had (very meet for a man of his calling) of 
" our countrymen's behaviour, that were abroad. Where- 


IJOO K " by," added he, " hanged not a tale, but a great talk, to be 
^- " had with his lordship at his coming home.'''' This was writ 

Anno 1582. in May, 1583. 

Her letter With his passport the queen granted him the favour of a 

to him. letter, signifying the same : and declaring therein her natu- 
ral abhorrence " of bloodshed, and those executions, [which 
" about this time were done in England;] which she avowed 
" to be driven to by the deep malice of her enemies : seek- 
" ing the way to make her odious, and to put her in hazard 
" of her state," as she wrote. The queen also granted the 
131 like favour to his nephew, Shelly, of Michel Grove, whom 
she styled he?- loving subject; notwithstanding their con- 
science in religion, since they were true and loyal to her. 
' This nephew had been in those parts, [in the inquisition, as 
it seems,] and released. 

Upon this grant of the queen, he kissed her majesty''s 
gracious hands ; and would make use of as soon as he had 
despatched the matter concerning her merchants, to get the 
impost laid upon them taken off, liinted before. 

His safe The sqfe conduct the queen granted him was, to come 

into the realm without examination, or other kind of moles- 
tation for his conscience in religion. He took up a thousand 
crowns of gold, for to defray the charges of his return home, 
there in Venice, to be paid by exchange by his nephew here 
in England. But I find he returned not yet into England. 
But kept his correspondence with the lortl treasurer. 

Let me add a few more memorials of this English gentle- 
man, that made such a figure abroad for his zeal to his Ro- 
man catholic religion, and yet firm allegiance to his sove- 
reign : it being my intent, in these collections, to retrieve, as 
much as I can, the memory of eminent persons in these 
times, by this time almost sunk into oblivion. 

King Hen- jjg reportetli in one of his letters, how king Henry VIII. 

with iiim spake once kindly to him of his father. And that he loved 

father.*"* him very well. But that by the lord CrumweFs means his 
father had lain under much trouble : saying, " That in the 
" lord Crumwers time he passed storms, and suffered great 
" loss.''' Yet it was after recompensed very liberally. The 


kino- told sir Richard at Deptford, where sir Edward Ro- CHAP. 
gers carved, and he attended, concerning the great good 

O ' „ -- -^ — 

cheer he received at Michel Grove [in Sussex, his father's Anno 1 582. 
house] at supper. The king then spake much of his fa- 
ther's uprightness in the discharge of the law, who was a 
judge. And that the king forced him to be so, much against 
his will : for that his father's father put him, being his el- 
dest son, into the inns of court, but to learn to understand 
his own evidences. And so he came to the knowledge of the 
law : never thinking at first to practise, but that the k-ing, 
much against his will, made him both sergeant and judge. 

He gave this further particular account of his family and Family of 

^ , « T r>,i IT • 1 the^hellies 

of himself: " That all the family of the Shellies m her ma-iojai. 
" jesty's reign, both men and women, the queen knew to be 
" her affectionate and assured subjects, and such as would 
" rather die, than do or consent to any thing against their 
" duty of allegiance. And that for himself, he was a moral 
" and religious, but no way a partial nor a factious catho- 
" lie." And as for the other sort of catholics, that were for 
sowing seditions, and changing the government, whereof 
there are many where he was, he gives this account of 

" The practice of our peevish, perverse countrymen was The malice 
" first to get him out of Rome ; and since, with no less envy "^j^ ^^ "^' 
" and malice, to prevent the service that he might do his Rome 
" country at home: to spread abroad that he was in dis-^tm. 
" grace with the pope and with the king of Spain ; and ere 
"long that he was or should be in the inquisition. But 132 
" that," added he, " neither is, nor ever was so ; and so but 
" a slander. For in Rome and Spain, (for so are his words,) 
" nothing doubting of my religion, they do not only to- 
" lerate, but allow and like of my due and true affection to 
" my prince and country, and acknowledge me for such a 
" kind of subject as they wish their own state to be peopled 
" with. Though this is without show. But alleviating the 
" fact which per irgnone di stato they are found to main- 
" tain." 

He was verv great with the pope and the Spanish king. Great with 

-' " ' ' the pope 


BOOK "I may and dare speak with these two princes more confi- 
'^ dently than any other man not armed with the circum- 

Anno 1582." stances that accompany my person." And concerning his 
of Spahf ^^^^*^ts and sufferings for the safety and the good of his 
country, in opposing and discovering the destructive pur- 
poses and plots of the Jesuits and their party, thus he writes 
to the foresaid lord: "It is seldom seen that a man should 
" lose that 1 have lost, not only with patience, but without 
'* any grudge ; yea, and with continuing such carefulness 
*' and forwardness to serve and save my country, as though 
" I had been hired thereto with more than hath been taken 
" from me: yea, and forbore entertainment to avoid jea- 
His memo- " lousy at home. And that he had given in, and his lord- 
safety of his" ship would see them, the stout and sterling memorials, as 
country. a j-jg termed them, in Flanders, in Spain, and in Rome ; 
" whereby, I trow, 1 have discovered the very way of our 
" safety and salvation, &c. to the end our safety may be 
" grounded upon the faith of honourable princes ; that 
" have need, and will be glad of us ; and not hang upon 
" the infidelity of hired soldiers, failed merchants, and sedi- 
" tious commoners."" 

I have yet one remarkable passage more to relate con- 
cerning him. About the year 1583, there came to him one 
Gilbert Bourn, a relation perhaps of the popish bishop of 
that name, under queen Mary, and like enough the son of 
sir John Bourn, secretary of state to that queen. This 
gentleman, a Romanist hy religion^ but of principles more 
loyal than the rest, got acquaintance with Shelly in his tra- 
vels ; liking his temper, and expressing so much dislike of 
the disloyal carriage and practices of many of those Roman 
catholics of the English nation, and their unnatural dealing 
One Bourn against thcir sovereign and country. This man havino; o-ot 
iyasedi- ^ Written book, that was secretly conveyed about in Rome, 
tious book, and other parts among catholics, brought it to the know- 
ledge, and lastly, to the hands of sir Richard. For which 
they hated this Bourn. A book, as the said sir Richard 
styled it in his letter to the lord treasurer, (whom he ac- 
quainted Avith it,) of slanderous mid false irifamy^ touching 


the first cause of our schism, and of the queen''s majesty ''s CHAP, 
mother. This must be Sanders''s book, (that was handed ' 

about in divers copies before it was printed,) that made the Anno 1 582. 
queen's mother to have been king Henry VIII.''s natural 
daughter, and afterwards his strumpet, and afterwards his 
queen. This vile book sir Richard answered, to the honour 
of his queen and country. And it came soon to the sight of 
the pope : and was allowed both of himself and of all the 
greatest cardinals in Rome, if we may believe him. 

His own words are these: " For the defacing and abo- 133 
" lishing whereof, I penned a little treatise, that came to 
" the pope's sight, &c. I say, for the handling and true tell- 
" ing of that story. But for my readiness to deal in the 
" matter, and my being so forward in the queen's defence, 
"it is by our English promoters' whisperings so scanned, 
" and so commented upon by a baser and a more factious 
" sort of cardinals, that it was concluded 1 was the queen's 
" fed man. Which opinion being so false, as your lordship 
" knows, is yet so nourished by their malice, that Mr. 
" Bourn, being after imprisoned in the inquisition, was. Bourn in 
" among other things touching me, thereof examined spe- ^j^^V^"*^"'" 
" cially. Not that the pope, or the cardinals of the inquisi- 
" tion, nor none of them all, saving the French cardinal of 
" Sens, bishop Ross, and Dr. Lewis, that were Stewkley's 
" counsellors, but none of the college [at Rome] that I 
" know of, had any misliking of my dealing. But rather 
" indeed so well like of my faithfulness in allegiance, as 
" her majesty doth most graciously bear with my conscience 
" in religion." 

This Bourn had been kept three years in the inquisi- English 
tion ; and no manner of fault could be proved against him. tj,e inqui- 
Sir Richard Shelly got him released: and withal wrote to *'*'«" ^y 

''. ° . promoters. 

some of the cardinals, beseeching that such promoters 
which caused so many English to be clapt up without any 
cause, (unless mere suspicion,) might themselves be laid 
fast, and bear the pain that the accused should abide, that 
were not convicted. And in another letter of Shelly's to 
the said lord, by Bourn, now going into England, telling 


BOOK that lord therein, " That this his punishment, however un- 

^' " deserved, was all for the best ; to bring him home the 

Anno 1582." sooner to serve his own country, bearing so true a heart 

" to her majesty as he hath shewed : and coming abroad 

" but for to learn, hath well profited both in learning and 

Bourn. " experience. Which good qualities, he trusted, would re- 

" commend him to his lordship's favour in all occurrences ; 

" and the sooner at his [Shelly'' s] intercession." 

But I shall add no more of this catholic loyal gentleman 
at present : of whom other notices may occur hereafter. 
There is but little of him in our published histories of these 
Hoiin- times ; and therefore I have writ the more of him : only in 
Chron. Holinshed's Chronicle, where the trial of Campion and 
p. 1325. other Jesuits and seminaries are set down at large, it is told 
how there was one Cradoc, a merchant then at Rome, who 
related, that there was one Dr. Shelly, the English prior, 
who was a knight of the Rhodes, for that he somewhat 
spake against cruelties that were used to his native country, 
[as was now done in the inquisition,] was somewhat mis- 
liked of, and had almost been turned out of his office. 
J. Gower, a I meet with another English Romanist, living abroad for 
minded to ^is religion, or rather fled abroad for his life, being one 
turn pro- concerned in the rebellion in the north ; whose name was 

testant. ... -r» i i 

John Gower, now at Pans. This man comes to Brook, the 

queen's ambassador there : and shewed himself willing to 

become of the reformed religion, as professed in England. 

The whole business, and the hard measure he met with, by ' 

134 that account, I had rather leave to be understood by the 

letter which the said ambassador writ to secretary Walsing- 

ham about him, and what discourse he had with him, and 

the event. 

Comes to " I have thought it convenient, right honourable sir, to 

the queen's u inform vou uow, how, about the latter end of May, there 

ambassador j ' ' ^ .' ' 

in Paris. " came unto me one, who named himself John Gower, ap- 
" parelled after the manner of a Jesuit, when they disguise 
" themselves to pass abroad, somewhat unknown. Giving 
" me to understand, that he was one of them that took 
*' arms in the nortli, witli the two earls of Westmerland and 


" Northumberland. The which he did then, provoked, as CHAP. 
" he said, only for the affection in his conscience he bare 

" unto the pope"'s religion ; and not unto any unloyal, ma- Anno issa. 

" licious intent towards her majesty. So as he then escap- ^°J^^*°" ''' 

" ing out of the realm had sought ever since in the mostotho,D. 4. 

" part of his time by reading, for the further knowledge of 

" the papists'* religion, the which he professed ; saying, he 

" had notwithstanding ever abstained from those that were 

" factious and seminary men. And how a year passed 

" through the means of his friends, especially my lord chief 

" justice Wrey, he had recovered her majesty's pardon : 

" having, while he continued the same conversation among 

" the catholic priests, through reading and studying the 

" scriptures, grown to doubt of some points which they 

" held for religion. Whereon lately he came to this town 

" [Paris] with a letter from Dr. Allen, addressing him to 

" Dr. Darbishire, [sometime chaplain to bishop Bonner,] 

" and other Jesuits, for a supply of money to carry him 

" into England ; and reporting to those Jesuits, according 

" to their accustomed order in the like case, they demanded 

" his opinion of certain articles; to the which, he said, he 

" answered somewhat contrary to their expectation, render- 

" ing them doubtful of his opinion. Whereby he at that 

" time failed to receive relief at their hands : and thereon 

" began with himself to think good for to repair unto me, 

" [the English ambassador,] beseeching me, he may have 

" means to go into England : whereby he may enjoy the 

*' benefit of her majcsty"'s gracious pardon. 

" After the said Gower had uttered this much unto him, 
" he asked him, what points they were he found in read- 
" ing of the scripture, wherein he varied from those of the 
" papists'* profession. He shewed him, [the ambassador,] he 
" thought not well of their having of candles, lights, bells, 
" and their images in churches. Then the ambassador told 
" him, he was glad the reading of the scriptures had in any 
" sort benefited him. And demanding further, what he 
" thought of the pope's authority, he answered, that he 
" esteemed his power was as other bishops. Then he in- 

VOL. III. o 


BOOK " quired what his opinion was of the mass. He told the 
' " ambassador, he thought it a high point to answer reso- 

Aiino IS82. " lutely : but desired, that through conference and dispu- 
" tation he might grow to some settled opinion. He there- 
" upon further said, since he was coming to God, and shew- 
" ing also to have a mind to be restored unto her majesty^s 
" favour, he was right welcome to him : exhorting him to 
" be of good courage ; for that he would not only seek he 
" should have conference with some well informed, and 
135 " learned in the scriptures; but he would likewise give him 
*' means to pass into England. 

" Gower then declared, how he suspected those Jesuits 
" would seek the means in some sort to trouble him. The 
" ambassador willed him not to fear. So he parted. And re- 
" sorted to the ambassador again in the afternoon. Where, 
" whenas he [the ambassador] went with him apart into his 
" garden, taking with him the New Testament, both in 
" English and French, and turned to the places concerning 
" the Lord's supper; beginning with St. Matthew, until 
*' they came unto the place of St. John, the sixth chapter, 
" where it is read, how it zvas Sphit that quiclceneth, the 
^''Jlesh prqfiteth nothing, &c. Upon the shewing of which 
" words, he grew vehement and obstinate. ' Whereupon the 
" ambassador left dealing with him concerning the supper 
" of the Lord. And entered into inquiry of him his opi- 
" nion, what he thought of the authority of the bishop of 
" Rome. He told him, that the said bishop had been 
" taken of long time by the ancient fathers to be the head of 
" the church. Wherewith he alleged these words of scrip- 
" ture ; Tu es Petrtis ; et super hunc p)etram (edificabo eccle- 
" siam meam. Then he shewed him, that it was only to be 
" understood of the confession of Peter's faith ; upon the 
*' question afore asked of all the apostles. So it was no par- 
" ticular grace to Peter more than to the rest: because 
" Christ gave them all the Holy Ghost. Notwithstanding 
" the said Gower remained appassionatcd in the opinion of 
" the pope's supremacy. Through the which the ambassa- 
" dor added, he was moved to say unto him, that he varied 


" from the satne speech, which he had at the first meeting CHAP. 
" delivered unto him. Wherefore now findino- him waver- ^^' 

" ing in his sayings, he made him to doubt of a dissembled Anno i582. 
" meaning. So as lie could not deal, he said, any further 
" with him : until he resolved to speak more overtly ; and 
" that with truth. 

" He did then very earnestly persuade the ambassador 
" to have some learned person to dispute with him in the 
" points of controversy in religion. The which the ambas- 
" sador shewed, he could not yield then unto; because it 
" appeared, he came not with a clear mind unto him, nor 
" resolved in the principal points ; which concerned her 
" majesty's high authority, and his due obedience unto his 
" natural prince. And in this sort, he writes, they parted."" 

The ambassador shews further in his letter, " That he 
" had been informed, how afterwards, upon complaint of the 
" Jesuits, this Gower was sent to the bishop of Paris his 
" prison ; where he had been kept so secretly in that man- 
" ner, as he [the ambassador] could not have him spoken 
" with : and lately had been removed unto the conde?'g-erie. 
" But at length the ambassador, recovering the copy of his ^ 
" examination, thought good to send it unto his honour, 
" [the queen's secretary,] to the intent that upon the sight 
" thereof he might direct him, whether he should by the 
" way of complaint to the king, or otherwise underhand, 
" procure his liberty : and so send him into England ; or 
" else leave the said John Gower to himself: thus attend- 
" ing the secretary's pleasure: and that he had caused him 136 
" to be inquired for at the prisons, but they would not be 
" known of any English man to be there. He had deferred 
" to write any thing of this, until he had understood thus 
" much of their manner of proceeding with him. The ra- 
" ther, because the said Gower and his disposition was al- 
'* together unknown to him ; referring the same to his ho- 
" nour's wise consideration. This was writ from Paris, July 
*' the 11th, 1582." 

The said ambassador. Brook, was addressed to a few letter to the 
months after, bv a letter of Mr. Paget ; the same, I sup- secretary. 

' •' '^ ' ' r Cani.Eliz. 

O 2 p. 295. 


BOOK pose, with Charles Paget: of whom our historian makes 
mention, for his busy letters to do service to the queen of 
Anno 1582. Scots, and of his being engaged in Babington's treason ; as 
his brother or relation, the Lord Paget, (who fled abroad,) 
was deeply devoted to her : and of whose aversion to the 
reliffion established somethincr hath been said before. In 
his said letter to the ambassador he made profession of 
much loyalty to his queen and country, and, as it seems, an 
offer of shewing his fidelity, by some discoveries of the 
practices of the fugitives. But the ambassador was not 
very ready to give credit to him, as being not unacquainted 
with his principles. At the same time Paget sent another 
letter, which he entreated the ambassador might be con- 
veyed to secretary Walsingham. Which, according to his 
request, was sent with his own. " Therein wishing he might 
" mean sincerely, and deal uprightly, as I think your ho- 
" nour [as he proceeded] should be glad he should do. 
" That which I pray God he may perform : being as will- 
" ing to do for him good offices towards your honour, as 
" he is ready to require the same ; if otherwise he do not 
" give all satisfaction to her majesty : referring the con- 
" sideration of this to your judgment. Thus I humbly 
" take my leave." From Paris this was dated, October the 
S4th. But how false he was, and how deeply engaged for 
the Scots queen some years after, Babington''s trial will dis- 
cover, under the year 1586. 
The record- Many popish priests had of late flocked hither from the 
of seniinary English seminaries abroad, to pervert the queen's subjects 
priests in from her to the pope ; and many masses were said in pri- 
vate houses by them : and disloyal principles instilled into 
the people"'s minds ; insomuch, that as severe laws were the 
last year made against them, so now a more watchful eye 
was over them : and many of these priests and Jesuits were 
discovered, taken up, and some executed, as our histories 
shew. And in the city of London, at the sessions held in 
the month of May, some of the massmongers, and such as 
were present at the masses, were brought out of prison, and 
examined, in order to judgment. The account whereof, 


who they were, and what was discovered, I take from a C H A P. 
Diary of Fleetwood's, the recorder, sent up to the lord 

treasurer; according to his custom. The contents whereof Anno isaa. 
were, " That he and his officers in the city had been every His diary 
" day occupied with seminary priests, massmongers, libel- "j^l^^^ *'^*' 
" lers, and such like. And that in the first week of Lent a 
*' book was cast abroad, commending of Campion and his 
" fellows, [executed for treason,] and of their death. And 
" that he [the recorder] pursued the matter so near, that 
" he found the priest, the letters, the figures, and a number 
" of the books. And being in the search of one Osborn, a 13/ 
" seminary priest, and professed Franciscan, being taken, 
" was now examined."" The description of the man, and the 
confession he made, and what else was now done with 
others taken at mass, I refer to what was related before, 
chap. viii. being all favourably dismissed at that time ; and 
not dealt withal according to the rigour of the law against 
the sayers and hearers of mass ; and that undoubtedly by 
private order of the queen, who was merciful, and declared 
against persecuting only for religion. This order secre- 
tary Walsingham sent to the recorder and the court, then 

At this time the said recorder sent to the lord treasurer a box of 
a box of popish stamps, which he took in his search. Con-P°^p^ 
cerning which he thus writ to him: " I have sent unto for printing 
" your honour a box of such stuff as these libellers use for 
" their print. Adding, that there were certain Irishmen, 
" that were utterers of the last lewd book, writ in vindica- 
" tion of Campion, and the other Jesuits, executed for 
" treason." 

But some there were in these times, professors of the Ro- So™^ ca- 

T • 1 o !•«• • 1 I'll tholics of 

mish religion, but of different judgment, as to their loyalty loyai prin- 
and obedience to the queen, as being their sovereign ; and "pies. 
utterly disapproving those methods used against the prince, 
and quiet of her realm, upon pretence of religion. One of 
these, of more remark, was sir Richard Shelly, entitled lord 
prioi' of St. John'' s of Jerusalem : of whom we have more 
to say afterwards. He was a zealous papist, and lived 



BOOK abroad for the free exercise of his rehgion ; who, when 

' some of these more peaceable Roman cathohcs were impri- 

Anno i582.soned and troubled for hearing mass, had these words in a 

sheu'-'^one'^ private letter to his nephew Shelly, of Michael Grove : 

of tiiese. " Great jealousy and suspicion, of late years especially, 

" given by the heads of some seminaries and unnatural 

" subjects, that are abroad, hath been cause, that the faith- 

" ful, and her majesty's true servants, have suffered divers 

" ways. Which for a common quietness we are bound to 

" take in patience ; and to attribute this adversity rather to 

" another cause, than to her majesty, both of nature and of 

"judgment unfeignedly pitiful and compassionable." He 

meant the Jesuits, and the purpose of their mission hither. 

As he wrote to the lord Burghley, in a letter near this time, 

anno 1583, " That the misery that all Christendom then 

" suffered for, was by the sending of these Jesuits into Eng- 

" land, after such a sort as it was and had been vised. 

138 CHAP. XII. 

Anderson made lord chief justice of the common place: 
the manner thereof. An endeavour to get the place by 
bribery. Riots in Finshury by some of the inns of chan- 
cery : indicted. The recorder of London iiiforms the 
lord treasurer thereof. The slaughter at Paris Garden 
on the sabbath. The lord mayor'^s letter about it. A pre- 
tended conspiracy in Ireland. Mirjin, the discove?'er 
thereof. False; proves a notorious Jbrgery. EarlofEmb- 
den to the lord treasurer. Mr. William Wentworth^ lord 
treasurer'' s son-in-law, dies. The queen, and some lords 
by letters, condole with him. The lord treasurer'' s daugh- 
ter, the xmdoxo of Mr. Wentworth, dies: the queen'' s mes- 
sage thereupon to him by her secretary. 

Anderson SeRGEANT ANDERSON was this year, in the month 

made lord _ / 

chief jus- of May, advanced to be lord chief justice of the common 
common"^ place. The manner and ceremony of admitting liim to that 
place : tiie office I take from the intelligence the foresaid recorder 

manner of . 



Fleetwood sent thereof to the lord treasurer; which was as CHAP, 
follows : " On Saturday in the morning my lord chancellor 

" did a while stand at the chancery bar on the side of the Anno 1582. 

" hall. And soon after that the justices of the common place 

" were set, his lordship came to the common place, and 

" there sat down, and all the sergeants standing at the bar. 

" My lord chancellor called sergeant Anderson by name : 

" declared unto him her majesty's good liking and opinion 

" of him, and of the place and dignity that her majesty had 

" called him unto. And then my lord chancellor made a 

" short discourse, what thfe duty and office of a good jus- 

" tice was. And in the end his lordship called him up 

" into the midst of the court, and then Mr. Anderson 

" kneeling, his commission was read. And that done, his 

" lordship took the patent into his hand ; and then the 

" clerk of the crown, Powle, did read him his oath. And 

" after, he himself read the oath of supremacy ; and so 

" kissed the book. And my lord chancellor took him by 

" the hand, and placed him upon the bench. And then 

" father Benloos, because he was ancient, did put a short 

" case. And then sergeant Fleetwood put the next. To the 

" first, my new lord chief justice did himself only argue. 

" But to the next that Fleetwood put, both he and the re- 

" sidue of the bench did argue. And 1 assure your good 

" lordship, [added the recorder,] he argued very learnedly ; 

" and with great facility delivered his mind. And this one 139 

" thing he noted in him, that he despatched more orders, 

" and answered more difficult cases in that one forenoon, 

" than were despatched in a whole week in his predecessor's 

" time." 

But somebody, it seems, there was, belonging to the ex- Tiie place 
chequer, that by large bribery would have gotten mto tnis vomed to 
place himself, had not the just lord treasurer stopped it. For bj obtained 
thus did the recorder privately hint the report thereof to 
the said lord. 

" Mv lord, under Benedicite, there runneth a marvel- The le- 

•' p colder to 

" lous speech over all London, that greater sums of money ti,e lord 
" were offered (to whom I know not) than I may well write [[^^^'^^j^'j;;^^ 

o 4 


BOOK "of, by one of the exchequer. And all was for this office 
'■ " [of lord chief justice]. If it were true, the party did not 

Anno 1582." well : if it Were not true, the first reporters were much to 
" blame, to scandalize such an officer of her majesty. By 
" which means he is grown into a greater discredit than 
*' may be in a short time easily forgotten." Adding, (to the 
lord treasurer's honour,) " That it was almost in every 
" man's mouth, that his lordship, after that he had under- 
" standing of the offering of such a mass of money, was the 
*' means of keeping him from that cushion."" Concluding, 
" Truly, my lord, it was well done." 

To add here a few more private and domestic matters. 
Notwithstanding the dreadful judgment of God, the plague 
that this winter lay upon the cities of London and West- 
minster, it restrained not the looser sort here from open and 
notorious wickedness. One particular passage, in Christmas 
Riots in holidays, or soon after, was this : A number of loose young 
by"som7of ™Gn, of the inns of chancery, committed riots and great 
the inns of disturbances in Finsbury. The inhabitants made their com- 
dncery. pj^^^^^g . ^^^ ^^^^ blades were taken up, and brought before 
Fleetwood the recorder and others. And after examina- 
tion, what was found of their misdemeanours was sent to the 
lord treasurer. But the crimes were by him found to be 
such, that that good and circumspect lord, reckoning the 
wickedness not fit so to pass, especially the dreadful hand of 
God at present so heavy upon the city, ordered the recorder 
to take several grave justices of the peace with him, and to 
reexamine this disorder : which he did with Seckford of the 
court of wards, Mr. Harris, Mr. Smith, and Mr. Young, 
justices. Who did it most exactly, and swore witnesses 
upon the same : and the chief of the two liberties there ex- 
claiming upon these youths, the justices would needs have 
them indicted. 
Indicted. And so they were, " for common disturbers of the peax, 
*' for nightwalkers, for breakers of glass windows, lanthorns, 
" and such like ; and principally for the great riot they had 
" committed the 2d of January. And one of them, named 
" Light, was especially indicted for singing in the church 


" upon Childermas day, Fallantida diUi,'" &c. [an idle CHAP, 
song then used.] The bishop of London was present at his 

arraignment; who confessed all that he was charged with. Anno 1582. 
The residue not arraigned then, but they were indicted. 
This, and what follows, I transcribe from the recorder's ac- 
count thereof to the said lord treasurer. " That the earl of 140 
" Leicester had been sued unto by the principals of New 
" Inn and Lion's Inn, for the setting at liberty of these 
*' young gentlemen. He beseeched his lordship to be 
" good unto them, for his good lord of Leicester's sake. 
" But looking through into their misdemeanours, he thought 
" the inhabitants would cry out, if Kniveton and Light 
" were not bound to their good behaviour. And that if the 
" other were set at liberty, he perceived they did intend to 
" lead a new hfe. That the bench at the gaol delivery of 
" Newgate took order, that Light, who was convicted, 
" should be bound to his good behaviour. He did not see, 
" he added, how he could well be discharged from that 
« bond." 

And of these two sparks the recorder bestowed these 
words : " I do suppose that Li. and Kniveton are de- 
" scended of the blood of Nero the tyrant. I never knew 
" of two such tyrannical youths : the elder not being twenty 
" years old." Adding his prayer for them : " I beseech 
" God to make them his servants." 

That which he further added concerning this disorder 
was, " That the lord chancellor, by Mr. Harris the justice, 
" sent word unto them, that they should proceed at the 
" sessions against them for the satisfying of the people. 
" And that if the principals were looked unto, and espe- 
" cially of New Inn, all would be well. And so concluding, 
" beseeched his good lordship to be good unto the residue 
" of them. For surely they are most penitent for their mis- 
*' behaviour. But for Light and Kniveton, he saw no grace 
" in them. And so humbly took his leave of his good lord- 
" ship." 

In the Diary of the said recorder, of transactions in the 
city, customarily sent to the lord treasurer, he mentioned 


BOOK ''^ the punishment of the violators of the sabbath by God's 

" providence at Paris Garden in Southwark : where were 

Anno 15S2." sports on tliat day for entertainment of great confluences 

The tie- « ^^ people to See them, mounted upon scaffolds, which fell 

in Paris " down."" The day after this dreadful fall of them, sir 

divinejud^-Tho. Blank, mayor, sent notice of it to lord Burghley, 

inent. the treasurer. Whose letter ran in this tenor : " May it 

o?f letter " please your lordship to be advertised (which I think you 

thereof to « have already heard) of a great mishap at Paris Garden. 

" Where, by ruin of all the scaffold at once yesterday, [be- 

" ing the Lord's day,] a great number of people are, some 

" presently slain, and some maimed and grievously hurt."" 

He addeth piously, " It gives great occasion to acknowledge 

" the hand of God for such abuse of his sabbath day ; and 

*' moveth me in conscience to beseech your lordship to give 

" order for redress of such contempt of God's service." 

Adding, " That he had to that end treated with some jus- 

" tices of peace of that county, [of Surrey,] who signified 

" themselves to have very good zeal ; but alleged want of 

" commission. Which he and they humbly referred to the 

" consideration of his honourable wisdom. And so he left 

" to trouble his lordship. At London, the 14th of January, 

" 1582. Subscribing, 

" Your lordship's humble 

" Tho. Blank." 

141 A conspiracy in Ireland against the queen was now dis- 
A prcteiuied covered by one Mirfin: entered into by himself and divers 
against the Confederates, with the earl of Desmond and Westmorland, 
queen in yiz. sir Georffc Hastiuos, [the earl of Huntington's bro- 

Ireland. o & ' l o 

tlier,] Walter Hastings, William Agard, and others. But it 
was reckoned, and so proved, an accusation, false, foolish, 
improbable, and impossible, considering the circumstances ; 
and discovered at length to be a notorious forgery. The 
paper containing the confession of the said Mirfin, or Mur- 
fin, was found among the MSS. of the lord treasurer, and 
therefore I shall set it down, though somewhat large ; and 
is as follows : 


" Murfin informeth of heinous treasons conceived against CHAP, 
her majesty''s person and government, by sir George 

" Hastings, Waher Hastings, and WiUiam Agard ; affirm- Anno isss. 

" ing them to be confederates with the earls of Desmond Jj^^^thereof 

"and Westmorland, and many noblemen and gentlemen, by Mirfin. 

" and others in England, to a very great number. 1. This 

" conspiracy he saith to have been three years past." 

[About which time, indeed, the pope and the king of Spain 

had prepared a great fleet to invade and conquer Ireland ; 

and assist the rebels there.] " II. He affirmeth the manner of 

" executing thereof to have been agreed, that Mirfin should 

" have been conveyed into Ireland, to make dollars and 

" Portuguese, to bear the charges of an army, and to make 

" poisoned balls of fire, to burn stones, and to kill with sa- 

" vour : which he saith he can do. III. That an army 

" should have been raised in Ireland, and conveyed over 

" into the north of England about Durham : and to take 

" castles ; and to deliver the Scotch queen. And to stay at 

" Nottingham till sir George Hastings and his confederates 

" should come to them with another army. IV. That then 

" these armies should march to London. Where the city 

" should be in readiness to assist them ; being raised by 

" William Webb, late sherifi" of London, Hugh Offley, 

" Giles Garton, Richard Staniherst, and others. VI. That 

" from thence they should go to the court, and take the 

" queen and her council, and put them to death, and set 

" up the Scottish queen, and marry her to sir George Has- 

" tings, and crown him king. VII. That sir George Has- 

" tings used conjurations with Mirfin and others, to know 

" whether sir George should outlive his brother, and be 

" king ; and to the same intent had sundry old prophecies. 

" VIII. That sir George Hastings, Walter Hastings, and 

" Agard, did swear to Mirfin, and did cause Mirfin mu- 

" tually to swear to them, faithfully to execute, and truly 

" to keep secret the premises. And for assurance of their 

" oaths did drink together wine mingled with their own 

" blood. IX. He exhibiteth certain papers, indented under 

" his own hand, containing his own oath to the effect above- 


BOOK " said: and one under the hand, as he saidi, of sir George 
" Hastings, Walter Hastings, and Agard. All sealed with 
Anno 1582." strange seals like crosses; and subscribed, as he saith, 
" with red ink, made of wine and their own blood. X. He 
" exhibiteth also a paper, containing a prophecy, which, as 
*' he saith, sir Geo. Hastings did shew him three years 
*' since, anciently written in an old book ; containing hor- 
" rible treason ; the destruction of the queen, the rooting 
" out the race of Henry ; which is, Henry, Edward, 
142 " Mary, Phihp, and EHzabeth : the setting up of the house 
" of Poles, [from a lady of which family he was derived :] 
" his avauncing of the Scottish queen, marrying her to sir 
" George Hastings ; crowning sir George ; the defaming of 
" the queen's counsellors by special names of murderers, 
" usurers, extortioners, thieves, epicures, bawds, &c. and 
" such other slanderous matter. XI. He exhibiteth also 
" another paper sealed with a heart, containing a bond 
" to him of 10,000/. made by sir George Hastings. All 
" these writings are of Mirfin's own hand. XII. He ex- 
" hibiteth also other papers, lately written by himself, con- 
" taining the discovery of another treason about three 
" years ago ; conspired to murder her majesty and her 
" council in her court, in most monstrous, horrible, and in- 
" credible manner. Wherein he chargeth for conspirators 
" a great number of the nobihty, and some of her majesty's 
" council, and many knights, gentlemen, and others, both 
" in the court and elsewhere. XIII. Sheweth, that to have 
" found out the bottom of the said treasons he purposed 
" to come, near three years past, to London, to disclose the 
" said treasons. XIV. That sir George Hastings, and Wal- 
" ter Hastings, and Agard, fearing the same, did seek his 
" life in Leicestershire : for which cause he came hastily to 
" London. XV. That they pursued him, and sought his 
" life at London ; and suborned false witnesses against 
" him. Whereby he was indicted and arraigned at London 
" for slanderous speeches against the queen. XVI. That 
" being in prison in the counter, he fell acquainted with 
" Richard Staniherst, and one Ferpoint, under pretence of 


'« teaching them secrets in alteration of metals. Where CHAP. 

... XII 

" they being of the Hastings' conspiracy, did practise with 

"him to join again with them. For proof whereof heAnnoi582. 

" sheweth a letter of plain conspiracy under their hands, as 

" he saith. XVII. Being removed to the king's bench 

" about March last was twelvemonth, he did in September 

" following fall in acquaintance there with one Clement 

" Draper, prisoner in the same place, by means of one 

" Thomas Lodge, also prisoner. XVIII. That there came 

" to him to the bench, Walter Hastings, and Agard, with 

" tempting either to draw him again into the conspiracy, or 

" to kill him. And he called them rebels ; and escaped 

" them. XIX. That Clement Draper, being one of this 

" conspiracy, did make suit to have Mirfin to lie with him 

" in Draper's chamber : which was in the end of September, 

" 1581 ; and was the first time of his acquaintance with 

" Draper, or his wife. XX. That he meaning to find Dra- 

" per's conspiracy, did disclose the said treasons to Draper ; 

" and among others, how Webb, Offley, and others, be- 

" ing of Draper's alliance, should in London join in the 

" treason. XXI. That Draper solicited Mirfin, to teach 

" him to alter metal into silver and gold : and that he told 

" Draper he could so do : and promised Draper to teach 

" him. XXII. That Draper, Webb, and Chtherow, and 

" others of Draper's friends, practise with Mirfin, to go for- 

" ward with the said treasons. XXIII. That it was de- 

" vised among them, that Mirfin should go over sea, to 

" make gold and silver, and to coin dollars and Portuguese. 

" XXIV. That he used sundry shows and conjurations 

" with and upon Draper; and took tlie parings of Draper's 143 

" nails, and the hairs of his beard, and other follies, to 

" make Draper trust in him ; and so to see the bottom of 

" Draper's treasons. XXV. That it was agreed, that Mir- 

" fin should be conveyed over sea, as Draper's factor: and 

" there execute^ the treason of sir George Hastings and 'For his 

" the rest. And that to this conveyance, Webb, Ofl'ley, treason, 

" Garton, and others of Draper's friends, were privy, and see art. 

" had promised him shipping and lodging. XXVI. That 


BOOK " to this intent Draper had delivered Mirfin 700/. in part 
^- " of payment of 2000Z. XXVII. That to make Mirfin as- 

Annoi582. " sured of him, Draper had conveyed to Mirfin a deed of 
" gift of all his goods, an assignment of all his debts, and a 
" bond of 2000/. XXVIII. That Draper, Clitherow, and 
" Draper's wife, had signed with their hands, and sealed 
" one deed, and signed with their hands one other deed ; 
" declaring at large his said treasons, and the whole manner 
" thereof: and naming Webb and the rest to be conspira- 
" tors there. And for proof thereof he sheweth the said two 
" deeds, so subscribed and sealed by Draper, Drapery's wife, 
" and Clitherow, as he saith. XXIX. To draw him the 
" more into the same treason, he sheweth also, that Draper 
" and his wife had given by their deed, under their hands 
" and seals, to Mirfin the body of Draper's wife, &c." With 
other articles of this Mirfin, so vile and loose, and improba- 
ble, that I omit the mention of them. 

" There are also found in the cvistody of Mirfin sundry 
" blanks, or sheets of white paper, having written in the 
" lower part of those blanks the name of Clement Di'aper, 
" Elizabeth Draper, Fra. CorA'ozv, Draper's servant, and 
" others : over which were to be written whatsoever Mirfin 
" would. There are found also the seals wherewith the said 
" papers of oaths of sir George Hastings, Walter Hastings, 
" and Aoard were sealed. There are also found certain 
" small pieces of paper, wherein are oftentimes written, as 
" it were, assays of the names of Clement Draper and 
" others : and among the rest, of the loi*d treasurer, by the 
" name of W. Bnrghley ; very like unto their own hands. 
" And many other papers of letters, hands and names of 
" other persons ; containing matters of express treason."" 
He was charged by Draper, that he shewed to him a grant, 
imder the queen's hand, for letters patents to be made to 
him and Draper about registering bonds and assurances. 
Which grant or warrant, he said, was brought unto him by 
Moukl, my lord treasurer's servant : Avhich cannot be with- 
out forging her majestv^s sign manual, which is high trea- 


After this, followeth a confutation of Mirfin's informa- CHAP, 
tions. And a great deal of it himself confessed. And all ^^^' 
that concerning the Londoners [Webb, Clitherow, Draper, Anno 1 582. 
&e.] were but imaginations, and false, upon vain suspicions, 
drinking of wine and blood ; and the subscribing paper with 
wine and blood he confessed to be false. The papers were 
all of his own handwriting ; and he acknowledged he forged 
them ; as the hands of sir George Hastings, &c. The red 
ink, which he called wine and blood, wherewith the papers 
were signed, was found in a glass in his chamber, and con- 
fessed by his servant that he bought it lately: in short, he 
was found a most notorious villain, a notable forger, and a 144 
most wicked rogue. This business came before the council, 
and he was examined by certain persons by their order. 
And they charged him with treason. And Draper"'s wife 
was found a virtuous and good woman. 

What passages of remark I meet with concerning that 
great and wise statesman, the lord Burghley, 1 frequently 
enter, to preserve his memory to grateful posterity. Among 
whicli a letter may deserve a remembrance here, sent to him 
from a German prince, viz. the earl of Embden ; to shew The earl of 
both the honour he had with foreign princes of the religion, ready to 
but chiefly, what favour and regard his royal mistress had with ^"^'^ *'>" 
them abroad. This German had sent his agent, and professed letter to 
all readiness to serve her maiesty, and still desired she niio^ht*''^ *''®*' 

o J ' ^ CM surer. 

be assured thereof. He also communicated the great and 
happy endeavour of a reformation of religion in another part 
of Germany, namely, that of Colein, by Herman, the good 
elector and archbishop thereof: besides some more private 
matters contained in that counts letters. In his answer he 
wrote, " That he was but newly recovered of his chronical The lord 
" distemper, the gout, Avhich he called his Jamiliar disease, ^^^^J^^ ^ 
" when those honourable letters were delivered him : and 
" that they came seasonable to him, and administered re- 
" freshment, by so illustrious a hero's remembrance of him, 
" to restore his diminished strength." He proceeded, " That 
" they had various reports of what had been done by the 


BOOK " archbishop of Colein. That nothing had been attempted 
• " many years past, more to increase the strength of the 
Anno 1582." gospel in Germany, than that notion of the archbishop, if 
" it succeeded well. And he hoped the Christian religion, 
" professed by that protestant elector of the empire, and 
" other princes, would very much prevail against the Ro- 
" man antichrist throughout all Germany. And whereas 
" he desired him [the lord treasurer] should recommend his 
" pains and service to the queen, he said, he would do what 
" his excellency required. But that there was no need to re- 
" commend that to her, since she was fully persuaded, that 
" his service was always ready, whensoever occasion requir- 
" ed." In the same letter he took notice of two more pri- 
vate matters. The one was concerning a pair of fine horses 
the count had presented him ; and the other of a great sum 
of dollars, that Stafford, when he was the queen's ambassa- 
dor in those parts, had borrowed of him ; and not yet paid 
Mr. Went- To this Worthy lord happened this year a loss, which afflict- 
lo'rdt'rea-^ cd him much ; namely, the death of his son-in-law, William 
surer's son- Wentworth, eldest son of the lord of that name, a person of 
dies. ' great virtue : who had but the year before married his 
daughter Elizabeth. And the surprise of it aggravated his 
grief. For coming home from the city (where the plague 
now was) to Tybald''s, his country seat, found him newly 
dead there. He was to have met with the queen at Hart- 
ford ; but his son-in-law being dead, he sent to the secretary 
Walsingham to excuse him to the queen. Walsingham en- 
145closeth his lordship*'s letter in one of his own, to the vice- 
chamberlain, sir Christopher Hatton, to the end he might 
acquaint the queen with the reason of the treasurer"'s ab- 
Secretary The Secretary, by way of condole, addressed a letter to 

ham to that his lordsliip ; where speaking of the queen, wrote, " That 
thL oc'ca'- " ^'^^ ^^^^ ^^ j'^'*'*- cause to be grieved, for the public, as his 
sion. " lordship for his part." He added, " that the taking away 

" a man of his virtue and hope, in this corrupted age, Mas 


" an argument of God's displeasure towards us:" conclud- CHAP, 
ing with this prayer, " The Lord give us grace to make ^^^' 
" our own profit thereof; and send your lordship patience Anno issa. 
" to bear this cross laid upon you in that Christian course 
" that becometh you." 

The queen also sent Mr. Mannours, the earl of Rutland's The queen 
son, to the lord treasurer, under great sorrow, to comfort '^"?,'^°,'" 

' o 5 With him. 

him from herself : and a letter also with him from the vice- 
chamberlain, importing as much. Letters also of condolence 
were sent him from divers others of the nobility on this sad 
providence ; as the lord chamberlain, earl of Sussex, and the 
earl of Leicester. 

Hatton the vice-chamberlain's letter signified not only the 
queen's concern for him, but he likewise expressed therein 
his own great sorrow ; and endeavoured by pious arguments 
to mitigate that lord's trouble. The letter deserveth to be 
inserted. Which was as follows : " My singular good lord. The vice- 
" her majesty standeth so much moved with your sorrowful l^^in'^'^ietter 
" letters, as she findeth herself much more fit to accompany ^^ '''m- 
" you in your griefs, than to comfort yoif in this your irre- 
" coverable loss. Your lordship, so well and holily instruct- 
" ed in God's fear, and so well exercised with the mutable 
" accidents of this wretched world, will call reason to your 
" relief, with thankfulness, that God, the creator of us all, 
" hath called this his virtuous and zealous creature to the 
" participation of his heavenly inheritance. We should 
" lack of duty towards our Redeemer in resisting this his 
" will, and shew a kind of envy in lamenting this his glo- 
" rious exchange, out of a frail and sinful life, to an ever- 
" lasting mansion and heaven of joys. 

" My very good lord, cast off this woe, let it not touch 
" your heart, in which the wisdom of this our world and 
" state hath found him sent for many years, to God's glory, 
" the realm's safety, and your immoi'tal renown. Her ma- 
" jesty sendeth your good, noble friend, my lord Mannours, 
" to you ; who will more largely impart her pleasure unto 
" you. And so with my humble prayers to God for your 

VOL. III. i> 


BOOK " long life and comfortable being, I most humbly take my 
^' " leave, in haste, this 8th of November, 1582. 
Anno 1582. " Your good lordship*'s 

" Most bounden poor friend, 

" Chr. Hatton." 

Lord Went- The grief on his father the loj'd Wentvvorth's side pro- 
wort i to Juced this letter to the lord treasurer; " Praving his lord- 

the loni ' .' O 

treasurer " ship to bear with him, that he had not written to him be- 

said loss. "" foi'^- That the loss, common to them both, was such as 

1 46 " ^^'oul^^^ have staid a wiser man than he was. And that 

" although many crosses had fallen upon him, yet none so 

" great as this. But he thanked his God, that he had made 

" the burden somewhat the lighter, that he liad left his 

" daughter with child. Whom if it pleased God to bless 

" them, as his prayer was, they both should have some 

" comfort after this sorrow. Praying his good lordship to 

" continue that good-will and favour towards him that he 

*' would have done, if his son had lived, until he had de- 

" served the contrary. And leaving his lordship, he had 

" sent that bearer to declare unto him his opinion, as con- 

" cerning the will, and other things. Whom he beseeched 

" his lordship favourably to hear ; and look, what his lord- 

" ship should do in these matters, he should Avillingly agree 

" to.'' This letter was dated from Mile End, the 10th of 


Lord trea- But what became of this great belly, we may soon con- 

*"'^^V, elude from the death of the widow, the relict of the said 

daughter, ' 

relict of Mr. Mr. Wentworth : she died within five months after him, viz. 

vo^r"!! dics.i^^ April, 1583, repeating a fresh grief to the lord treasurer, 
which caused his close retirement. As the queen Could not 
want his advice, so she sent again a gracious message of 
condolement to him ; and withal required his presence by 
her secretary, Walsingham, to divert him from his sorrow : 

The queen's to this import ; " That as she was pleased for a time to per- 

h'in?'^^^ " " ^"^^ ^^^^" ^^ wrestle with nature ; not doubting, but that 
" wisdom and religion had wrought in him, ere this, that re- 


" solution that appertained to a man of his place and call- CHAP. 
" ing; so now she thought, that if the health of his body ^'^" 

" might so permit, he should do better to occupy himself in Anno 1582. 

" dealing in public causes, than by secluding himself from 

" access, to give himself over a prey unto grief. And par- 

" ticularly, that she would be glad of his advice in a matter 

" of weight, concerning an offer lately made unto her by the 

" Scots queen, sent to court from the earl of Shrewsbury, 

" [who was her keeper.""] 

CHAP. XIII. 147 

Blanks lord mayor of London., presented to the queen. The 
recorder''s speech to her. Increase of buildings in the 
city : the inconvenience thereof. Mr. Rich in the Fleet : 
his crime : sues for his liberty : his jjrotestatioii : his 
letter from Leigh, to the lord treasurer''s secretary. John 
Stubbs, {zchose right hand had been cut off,) his letters of 
good counsel. Fleetwood, recorder of London. Contro- 
versy in Chrisfs college, Cambridge, about a fellowship 
of king Edward's fotindation. A dispensation for a fel- 
lowship in Peter-house, complained of. Books published 
this year. The Elementary. Elpvjvap^la, sive Eliza- 
beth a: appointed to be read in schools. The Holy Bible: 
printed in quarto, with ci Catechism about Predesti7iation. 
Golden Epistles. 

ijUT to gather up a few more historical notices; which 
may inform us of particular persons. 

Blank, elected lord mayor of the city of London, was on Blank, the 
the 6th of May, being Sunday, presented before the queen, "J^t°j'fJ^" 
then being at Richmond. How it came to pass that the the queen, 
mayor was not presented before, (since the common time of 
presenting the new mayor at Westminster is about the fes- 
tival of St. Simon and Jude,) I know not upon what occa- 
sion. The queen graciously accepted of him. And the lord 
chamberlain made him knight : and he kissed her majesty's 

p 2 


BOOK hand. The recorder then made her a speech ; all tendhig 
' then to the great comfort of the mayor and all his brethren, 
Anno 1582. the aldermen. And that chiefly the queen shewing herself 
wonderfully well pleased in all things ; saving, for that some 
young gentlemen, being more bold than well mannered, 
stood upon the carpet of the cloth of estate, and did almost 
bear upon the cushion : insomuch that her highness found 
fault with the lord chamberlain, and Mr. Vice-chamberlain, 
and with the gentlemen ushers, for suffering such disorders. 
This is the relation the recorder sent to the lord trea- 
surer of this affair : and withal adding, that she found fault 
with him, (which must be attributed to her modesty,) for 
giving more praises unto her highness, as particularly touch- 
ing the advancement of religion, than, as she said, she de- 
served. " But,"" said the recorder, " my good lord, I said 
" nothing, but truly and justly, as it was indeed." And so 
they all departed. 
148 And now we are fallen into the city of London, it may 
not be out of the way to make a particular remark of it. 
Which the said recorder noted in another letter this year to 
the said lord. London now was daily increasing by new 
buildings. By means whereof, as the inhabitants greatly 
multiplied, so they were, for the most part, of the more or- 
dinary and poorer sort, which, among other inconveniencies, 
brought in this, that cheats, and thieves, and pickpockets 
increased much. Of this the recorder gave that lord some 
account, in relating what occvn-red in a sessions this sum- 
New build- " That among other things here happening, there were 
London. " none worth writing of, .save this one thing ; that here are 
The in- « forty brabbles and pickeries done about this town more in 

crease of iiit n 

loose per- " any one day, than, when I came first to serve, was done 
sons there- a jj^ ^ month. The reason thereof is these multitudes of 

by. Heetw. 

Record. " buildings ; being stuffed with poor, needy, and of the 
" worst sort of people. Truly, my singular good lord, I 
" have not leisure to eat my meat, I am so called upon. I 
" am, at the least, the best part of an hundred nights in a 
*' year abroad in searches," &c. 



A supplicatory letter next comes to my hands, to be men- CHAP, 
tioned, wrote to the lords of the council by Richard Rich, ______ 

related to the lord Rich. This gentleman had been a pri- Anno 1582. 
soner in the Fleet for three years. And his crime was, as it ' * P"' 

-z _ ' soner in the 

seems, for favouring Stubbes, (of whose terrible punishment Fleet ; his 
we heard before,) and for keeping his book in his possession, trolfto the 
after the proclamation to bring it in ; being levelled against '°'^'*^- 
the queen's matching with monsieur : and so he became ob- 
noxious to the law, and under the queen's displeasure. He 
humbly begged of the lord treasurer to obtain his liberty. 
" He spake of his reverend fear, that flowed from a most 
" loyal heart, which, both in liberty and restraint, he ever 
" had borne to his liege and most gracious sovereign : his 
" dutiful mind still kept to conform himself to her high- 
" ness's laws; and his settled purpose and endeavour, which 
" daily rested in him, to advance by all means the religion 
" of God, now established in her highnesses dominions ; 
" which he prayed might be continued down, and enlarged 
" for ever. Then he spake of the hard portion that was then 
" allotted him ; and in what sort, and with whom he suffer- 
" ed : that it bred in him astonishment. He heard of the 
" sharp threatenings which his known enemies breathed 
" forth against him. That he sustained undeserved re- 
" proach : found few friends that would regard the inno- 
" cence of his soul. That he was well nigh clean discom- 
" forted, and ready to faint under the burden thereof. And 
" that it would please God to stir up his honour, in consi- 
" deration of his long imprisonment, impoverished estate, 
" charge of wife and children, and her majesty's conceived 
" displeasure towards him, to respect his great distress, and 
" to become his special patron, and by his honourable means 
" to procure his release."" This was writ the 14th of April, 

But now to know more particularly wherein this gentle- Mutters 
man had offended, behold the matters charged upon him charged 

' . . upon nira. 

by Tho. Chambers, his own servant, in his letters to the 
lords, dated primo Martii, 1579- In the margin thereof is 
set by the lord Burghley's own hand, What was found in 149 



BOOK the examination of the several heads and articles of the ac- 
^' cusat'ion: wherein the lord Rich himself was touched. Take 

Anno 1582. all thus exemplified from the original: 

" Right honourable, and my very good lords : the mat- 
His crimes. « ^gj^g x,o be objected against Mr. Richard Rich, the elder, 

" are, 
My lord " First, That he had a book set forth by Mr. Stul)bs, 

Rich took It u gjj^gg j]^g proclamation made against the same. And that 
nephew, P. « the same was seen in my lord's house, is to be proved by 
burnt 'it*" " 1^1'- ^I>^dlins, archdeacon of London; who saw the same, 
immediate- « aj^^j advertised my lord, that his place was not fit for that 

ly after the 
proclama- DOOK. 

^'*'"- " That he is a great favourer of one Dyke : who in his 

Christmas. " sermou inveighed against statute-protestants, injunction- 

In a sermon a j^g,, jjnd such as love to jump with the law. The wit- 
in my lord's /> , ^ i i i • 

gallery. My " nesscs of tliese words are a number present at the heanng 
'"If, ^1'^'' " of the same. 

saith, he 

was not at « That he advised my lord to go to Geneva, when the 
le sermon. ^^ j, ^j.j. ^f monsieur his cominij was rife. And this is to be 

My lord de- t ^ 

nieth this « proved by a letter about the 12th of the queen under the 
hHlith^"*" queen's majesty's hand, before granted by her majesty to 
that he " my lord, and one Mr. Sullyard. Which letter my lord 
licence. " caused me to search for, and shew unto him ; which, he 
And so, in j< gg^-^j ^yould not servc the turn; for that the date thereof 

some speech 

of late, he " was expired." 

told the ^^ I ^ ^l^^g o-entleman was released out of prison, partly 

company f' ... . . . ' 

thereof. by meaus of the solicitations of his friend, Mr. Michael 
Mr. Rich jjicl^s to the lord treasurer, to whom he was secretary. 

set at liber- ' ' _ •' 

ty. And being now at Leigh, the lord Rich's house, he sent 

him a letter, acknowledging thankfully the favour he had 
received. " Thanking him again and again for his further- 
" ance of his release ; and the more for the speed which he 
" procured, in the quick despatch thereof." Mr. Rich takes 
this occasion to mention a former acquaintance and friend- 
ship between them, (perhaps at the inns of court,) but dis- 
continued by long and far distance of time and place : say- 
Mis letter iug, " That he [Mr. Hicks] had gained the start of him in 
lortUrea- " ^'"^ ^'^^*^ '^^ ^'^^^'' friendship, by the opportunity which his 


" suit had offered to his hand; and wherein with love and CHAP. 
" faitlifuhiess he had approved himself towards him. But 

" for himself, he was as one cast behind to buckle up his -^""o 1.582. 

surer's s 

" feeble strength, and endeavour himself to overtake, or at ^^"^^ * ^^' 

" least to follow so fast as he might reach him, without hope, 
" for want of breath, to overgo him. That yet, God will- 
" ing, his desire should strive, and his heart thirst for Mr. 
" Hicks^s good. And that he should in better colours find, 
" if his country life might happily yield him any good fruit 
" or effect thereof." 

And to shew the good temper of this gentleman, and his 
religious disposition, and his counsel to a courtier, I shall 
continue his letter : " In the mean time, as my best service, 
" and good that I can do you, I will, as it shall please God 
" to assist me, offer some sacrifice for you, that you may re- 
" tain and increase your old love, and hold out to walk in 
" the integrity and uprightness of your heart in that place, 
" where you are called to serve. Where his gifts that the 
" Lord hath intrusted you withal may gloriously shine, and 
" happily be employed to the comfort and benefit of many : 
" and yet not without some use and lawful interest to your 
" self. That when it shall please God to single you out to 1 i)0 
*' another estate and condition of life, you may depart thence 
" with the spoil of those riches and virtues, which the place 
" and people where you are may yield you ; and wholly 
" shake off from your feet that corruption and dross, which, 
" without grace, and great heed and watchfulness, might 
" easily creep vipon you ; and by degrees wax bolder to en- 
" counter with you : and at the last hazard to choke or 
" captivate that cheerful liberty and freedom of heart, which 
" to retain and cherish is (as I know you feel and taste) the 
" welcomest guest in our life, and the sweetest persuader, 
" and the strongest comforter in death," &c. And so in 
conclusion recommended him to the good providence of the 

As we heard of Mr. Stubbs before, and of his book, so I stubbs's 
find him now after his restraint retired to Catton, near Nor- ^^f,^ ^oun. 
wich ; where he still held his correspondence with his former ^'^^ ^" t^e 

^ treasurer's 

< P 4< secretary. 


BOOK friends and society of ingenious men, and chiefly of such as 
'_ had been of Lincoln's Inn ; one of whom was the foremen- 

Anno i582.tioned Mr. Hicks, the lord treasurer''s secretary. The con- 
tents of a letter to him shew him to have been a pious man, 
and endued with a quality of taking all opportunities of 
giving good counsel. For such was the purport of his said 
letter. Thus, upon occasion of the present infirmity of Mrs. 
Hicks's mother, a virtuous good woman, " He wished her 
" with a sound and strong; mind to bear the infirmities of 
" her diseased body f adding, " That it was not the bodily 
" affliction [wliereof he had experience] could vex the free 
" mind of a full persuaded Christian. As on the contrary, 
" no soundness of body could hold out against a discontent- 
" ed and impatient spirit." 

Another occasion he took of writing his good counsel to this 
his friend, was upon the reflection that he made upon their 
former looser conversation, when they were students of Lin- 
coln's Inn. " I might," as he writeth, " find matter to de- 
" plore the folly and idleness of our mispent youth, together 
" with some warm exhortations to the redeeming of time, 
" passed in pastime ; the redeeming of it, I say, by spending 
" the rest with more conscience, to our building up in faith, 
" and faithful conversation, whereby we may in some godly 
" vocation glorify our God, and benefit our brethren ; and 
" withal live like Adam's children, as we are, upon our own 
" sweat. Let us pray for one another, that we may thus 
" live to the comforting and joy one of another." 

And so concluded with a little strain of his wit : " Com- 
" mend me to my old good friends; and let me hear sometimes 
" how you and they do, and how this world goeth : whether 
" it standeth still, as the o\d philosojjhers say ; or else, whe- 
" ther it turneth about, and the heaven standeth still, as the 
" neosophlsters affirm. Farewell, and say so for me. The 
" Lord Jesus keep you ever his. Catton, by Norwich, the 
"30th of July, 1582. 

" Your own loving and assured, John Stubb Sceva." 

Fkftwood, Fleetwotxl, recorder of London, (of whom before,) a very 

ri'corder of 


learned and deserving man, and not less diligent in his of- CHAP. 
fice, being now quite weary of this place, by reason of the ^^^^' 

toil and fatigue of it, and withal discouraged too; earnestly Anno i582. 
applied himself to his ffood friend, the lord treasurer, to be ^""^""' '^^' 

A^r o ^ sires a re- 

released, and to be made one of the queen''s sergeants. I lease. 
will give his own case and desire in his own words. " My 151 
*' singular good lord, &c. I never rest. And when I serve 
" her majesty the best, then I am, for the most part, the 
" worst spoken of; and that many times in the court. I 
" have no man to defend me. And as for my lord mayor, 
" my chief head, I am driven every dav, to back him and 
" his doings. My good lord, for Christ's sake, be such a 
" mean for me, as that with credit I may be removed by her 
" majesty from this intolerable toil. Certainly I serve in a 
*' thankless soil. There is, as I learn, like to fall a room of 
" the queen's sergeant. If your lordship please to help me 
" to one of those rooms, assure your honour that I will do 
" her majesty as painful service as six of them shall do : 
" help me, my good lord, in my humble suit ; and I will, 
" God willing, set down for your lordship such a book of 
" the law, as your lordship will like of. This Easter even, 
" 1582, Bacon house." 

Now to pass to the state of learning. Something occurred 
this year in two colleges in Cambridge about fellowships, 
viz. Christ's college and Peter-house, that gave disturbance. 

Thomas Osborn had been for some years fellow of Christ's Contest 
college, elected to that commonly called king Edward's fel- '^j""*^^,'"^ 
lowship, as founded by him in that college. Whereby he fellowship 
reckoned himself exempted from some statutes of the college college, 
concerning the -qualifications of such as Avere to be admitted Cambridge. 
fellows: as, that there be not more than one of the same coun- 
ty fellows at the same time ; and to be bound to take orders, 
or profess some science within such a time. Osborn had been 
fellow three years or more, by virtue of a dispensation from 
the queen, to establish him the firmer against college statutes. 
But now the master and fellows were minded to out him of 
his fellowship, as unqualified, and to elect another person in 
his room: urging, that the said fellowship was tied to the sta- 


BOOK tutes and ordinances of that said college^ and that by order 
of tlie foundation, which shew the same. This grew into a 
Anno 1582. great debate between Osborn and the college, on plea that 
his fellowship was exempted from the ordinary college sta- 
tutes. And he a})pealed to the lord Burghley, lord high 
chancellor of that university. By whom a visitation of the 
college was instituted ; to inquire into the true estate of this 
controversy by the statutes, and report it accordingly unto 
him to decide. He appointed the ordinary visitors of that 
college; who were the vice-chancellor, Dr. Howland, and 
two of the senior doctors, viz. Pern and Bell. And they de- 
termined the cause on Osborn''s side. There was also before 
this, another visitation of the college about this matter, ap- 
pointed by the high chancellor, his vice-chancellor, visitor, 
and two other doctors, his assistants ; who also gave the in- 
terpretation of the statute in favour of Osborn. 

But notwithstanding this determination of the case, the 
master and fellows were resolved to proceed to the election 
of another fellow. And their chancellor commanded them 
to forbear, and to bring the case up before himself, to judge 
of the arguments on both sides. The minutes of which let- 
ter follow. 
152 " After my hearty commendations. I have received your 
Their chan-" letter, and I find by you, the master, and certain of the 
the cause " fellows of the college, touching your- proceedings, tending 
up before a ^q {]^g removinfj of Mr. Osborn, one of your fellows, and 

himself. . ^ -^ . 

*' to the placing of another : thereto moved, as you write, as 
" well by my letters, as that the time was expired, which the 
" said Osborn had claimed to enjoy his fellowship by her 
" majesty's prerogative. On the other part, I have also re- 
*' ceived letters from Dr. Howland, my vice-chancellor, and 
" Dr. Pern, and Dr. Bell, two of your senior doctors, by 
" which they informed me, that notwithstanding, that by the 
" acts of master Dr. Pern, being vice-chancellor, and two se- 
" nior doctors, and now in this vice-chancellor's time, with 
" two like senior doctors, your visitors, the interpretations of 
" your statutes, for the country and pi-of'ession of the fel- 
" lowship that Mr. Osborn hath of king Edward's founda- 


" tion, was otherwise expounded, than you would have the cHAP. 
*' same. And also where they, at the time of this your pro- ^^^^• 
" ceeding to choose another fellow, enjoined you to stay the Anno losa. 
" proceeding therein. Besides, as they inform me, my let- 
*' ters were kept from them so long, and that on purpose, as 
" that you might have full advantage against Mr. Osborn 
" for not being minister. 

" For these informations, of these whom I have more 
" cause to credit than yours, I cannot allow of this your 
" manner of proceedings therein. And yet nevertheless, for 
*' that I will not condemn you before you be heard, I re- 
" quire you, the master, with two of your fellows, to be with 
" me the day of next month. At which time I mean 

" to call unto mine assistance some persons of judgment and 
" learning, to hear the matter of question between you. 
" And in the mean time I straitly command and enjoin you, 
" the master, in as strait manner as I may, being your chan- 
" cellor, and so your visitor, and as you will answer to the 
" contrary at your utmost peril, to continue the said Osborn 
" in his place, with such privileges and profits as belong to 
" the same." 

This contest between Osborn and the college, notwith- The case re- 
standing it was brought thus far, yet continued two years J|"*|^j.^j°jjj_ 
longer, before it came to a final decision. Their high chan-shop and 
cellor thinking it scarcely reconcileable with justice, to vio-„thers. 
late the fundamental statutes of the college, referred, at last, 
the consideration of the whole case, the examination of wit- 
nesses, and the judgment and conclusion, to the archbishop 
of Canterbury, Goodman, dean of Westminster, and two 
chief learned civilians, Dr. Aubrey and Dr. Ri. Cosin. And 
now shall follow what the judgment was of the visitors of 
the college, that is, the vice-chancellor, and the two doctors, 
his assistants ; and then the final decree made by the arch- 
bishop, and the other three, as I take them from the origi- 

The question brought before the visitors was, Utrum, qui The quos- 
ad illud sodalitium electus et admissus, teneatur ad aliquam *'°" stated. 
sacri ordinis vel professionis rationem^ in statiitis illiu^ col- 


BOOK leg-ii prcescriptam, servandum ; sivey &c. " Or whether 
^' " such a fellow might lawfully, being elected and admitted 

Anno 1582." as beforesaid, enjoy the rights and emoluments of the fel-. 
1 53 " lowshijD ; although he be not entered into sacred orders, 
*' and study any profession." Which question they thus re- 
solved ; and declared, " That it was lawful for the mas- 
" ter and fellows to choose a fellow into that place, nulla 
" sacrl ordinis vel pnrfessionis ratione habita. And being 
" admitted and elected into the fellowship, he ought not to 
" be compelled by the statutes of the college to take holy 
" orders ; but freely may study what profession he please ; 
" and enjoy all rights and profits of that fellowship." 

The final decree made by the archbishop and the other 
three, in the month of October, 1584, appeared by an instru- 
ment signed by their hands, declaring their judgment in 
this controversy ; viz. 

First, That whosoever enjoyed king Edward's fellowship 
was bound, according to the true force of the foundation of 
the same college, to all the statutes, laws, ordinances, and 
constitutions and customs thei'eof, and to the observance of 
them, as well as any other fellow. The contrary to which, 
they said, seemed hard to them, as well because it tended to 
declare the foundation of the said fellowship, rather than 
any part of the statutes. As also, because it was contrary 
to the words of the statute. Wherein that caution is had, 
that within the year of admission every fellow be ordained 
priest. And that never at one and the same time there be 
two chosen to be fellows of the same county. In which re- 
spect they think, that they [the visitors] had exceeded the 
bounds of that authority that was committed to them. 

Secondly, Although Tho. Osborn, a Northamptonshire 
man, from which shire another of the fellows came, against 
the genuine sense of the statutes ; and the said Osborn first 
elected, and by the royal dispensation he was dispensed with 
for three years from his admission fellow, not to take priest's 
orders ; and thereby brake and violated the meaning of the 
statute : yet because it was not equal that he should be pu- 
nished for the error of them who thought they lawfully 


elected him ; and that it should be thought as a fraud upon CHAP, 
him, in that he followed the sentence of them on whom ^ 

the interpretation of the statute was incumbent: and soAimo i582. 
took their sentence, interpretation, and matter judged by 
them as true : and because there was no reason why the 
adverse party should go so hastily to a new election, before 
the former interpretation had been rightly revoked and de- 
clared null or unjust; nor equal that this should be to his 
prejudice ; therefore they decreed that the said Osborn 
should be admitted into his fellowship. Yet so, that he 
should within two months at least be ordained priest; 
otherwise his place to be actually void in the said college. 
And John Powel, who was chosen into Osborn's place, was 
to come fellow into the next vacation of a fellowship ; that 
seeming agreeable to equity and justice. And that in the 
mean time the said Powel to be maintained in fellow's com- 
mons, by the master and fellows, at their common charge 
and expense. This was signed by the archbishop of Can- 
terbury, and the three others ; and withal is added the lord 
Burghley their chancellor's own hand; confirming and 
establishing what they had declared as their judgment and 

This same year another trouble arose to Peter-house in a manda- 
the same university, upon a letter obtained from the queen ™"j/*'fgj"",J 
to that college, to receive one sir Rushbrook to be fellow : of Petei- 

t ■ n IT if! house coni- 

such letters commg often, to the discouragement ot thCpiainedof. 
students there, the preferring of unfit persons, and laying 154 
the college under burdens unnecessary. This occasioned Their letter 
the master and fellows to address a letter to their patron, *° *^""'"*" 
lord Burghley, and chancellor of that university ; signify- 
ing what great inconveniences they should draw upon their 
college, if letters should be so frequently obtained for fel- 
lowships. " That it would cumber them with more fellows 
" than their poor revenues could maintain. And so burden 
" the college: and by this means also of a sudden over- 
" thrown, by unfit and unmeet persons to be preferred by 
" those letters: and the ancient liberty impugned, when 
" statutes were so ordinarily dispensed with ; oath and con- 




Anno 1582 

procures a 
tion for a 
in Peter- 
contrary to 
divers sta- 


The Ele- 

" science neglected ; unworthy men placed ; the worthy 
" discouraged ; the church and commonwealth hindered." 
For within three years, at the queen's commandment, were 
chosen three fellows there, by letters procured from their 

And one but the last Lent was admitted fellow, that 
would not for a considerable time yet come into profits, for 
want of avoidance of a place. And besides, they m-ged, 
that they had divers bible-clerks, very toward scholars, as 
well for deserts sufficient, as by statute of foundation quali- 
fied every way, in many degrees to be preferred before sir 
Rushbrook, and that, to speak the truth of him, he was not 
answerable in many respects to the commendation given of 
him to her majesty- 

And a year or two before, I find one Richard Betts got 
a dispensation from the queen to the same college, to be ad- 
mitted fellow, though he was master of arts ; which was 
contrary to the statutes : who were to be chosen while ba- 
chelors, or not at all. For by an old statute, none that is 
master of art may be admitted to the society. And by an- 
other old statute he could not be fellow, because he was 
born in the south parts of England. The queen dispensed 
with both statutes. 

Books must come under this head of learning. Some 
that were set forth this year were these as follow. 

The Elementary. As the last year Mulcaster, a learned 
and accurate schoolmaster in these times, had set forth a 
book called Positions ; therein beginning to lay down a 
more exact method of educating and bringing up of youth : 
so he went on with his method in publishing this year his 
Elementary., the first part : which treated of the right writ- 
ing of our English tongue. And as the former was dedi- 
cated to the queen with high elogiums of her learning, so 
this he dedicated to her great counsellor, the earl of Lei- 
cester, with high strains of praise given him, as a great 
patron of learning, and of both the universities : " Praying 
" God to preserve his honour, as a counsellor of most trust 
" to a prince of most wisdom, to beautify nobility, to 


" avaunce knowledge, and to assist his country both in true CHAP. 
" religion and politic rule/"' In this his elementary insti- ' 

tution, his purpose was " to handle all those things which Anno issa. 
" young children were to learn of right, and might learn of 
" ease, if their parents would be careful a little more than 
" ordinaiy. These were five in number, all infinite in use, 
" principles in place ; viz. reading, writing, drawing, sing- 
" ing, and playing. And that in the right coiu'se of best 
" education to learning and knowledge, all these, and only 155 
" these, be elementary principles, and most necessary to be 
" dealt withal." And then he proceeded to shew how they 
were warranted by general authority of all the gravest 
writers and all the best commonweals. In another chapter 
he gave his opinion of the best writers concerning the choice 
of wits fit for learning. And the subject of another is, how 
his Elementary makes the child capable of most commend- 
able qualities : with many other matters of education inge- 
niously and learnedly discoursed. And in the end of the 
book is added, a 'peroration to the gentle reader : wherein 
many things are handled concerning learning in gene- 
ral, concerning the nature of the English and foreign 
tongues, &c. 

There was also published this year another book in ele- Eiizabetha, 
gant Latin, heroic verse, by Christopher Ockland, school- ^^^^^ ' 
master also, some time of the free-school in South wark, 
afterwards of Cheltenham school ; entitled, 'ElpYjvap)(^la, sive 
Eiizabetha. De pacatissimo AnglicB statu, imperante Eii- 
zabetha, compendiosa narratio. Hue accedit illustrissimo7-um 
virorum, qui aut jam mortui,J'uerunt aut hodie sunt Eli- 
zabethcB regincE a consiliis, perbrevis catalogus. 

It is printed in octavo ; and consisteth of two books : the 
former is entitled, Anglorum Prcelia ; beginning at the year 
1327, and ending at the year 1558, the year of queen Eliza- 
beth"'s access to the throne. Where beginneth the second 
book, entitled Eiizabetha ; describing her life and happy 
reign unto the year 1582. The dedication of it was to Mil- 
dred, the learned lady, and consort to the lord Burghley, 
in a handsome poem. The title of the dedication ran, Ad 


BOOK prcEnobilem, et in primis eriulitamja'mina'm, ufriusquc lite- 
raturcB et GrceaB et LatintB peritis.simam, dominam M'll- 

Anno ] bS2. dredani, dynusta'. Biirgldoii^ 7nagni AnglicE thesaurarii^ 
conjuge m la u da ti ,s-s i ma m . 

In this book the author gave characters of all that queen''s 

N". XXV'. great ministers. I shall exemplify one of them in the Ap- 
pendix ; viz. the lord treasurer Burghley, and the rather, he 
being a man of great figure and worth. I cannot but hint 
one of the first historical passages of the book : describing 
that queen's first entrance on the government of the king- 
dom : taking care that religion should first be reformed, 
and then the state ; in these verses : 

RelUgio ante alias res; dein respublica curce, 
" i. e. Bibiia Omnihus extemplo patejit divina ^ vohintns, 

Sacra. j^^^ latens, ^e. 

And in the margin are these names set, as chief promot- 
ers then of this pious j)urpose; viz. Assertores hi/Jus pro- 
positionis: Edm. Gryndal,ep. Cant. ; D. Sandys, ep. Ehor.; 
Rob. Horn, ep. Winf.; Jo. Scory, ep. Heref.; R. Cox, ep. 
Ely ; J. Jewel, Jo. Elmer, D. Whithed, E. Gest. 

This tract was of such esteem, that it was printed and 
reprinted in half a year's time : and the book possessed by 
sir Christopher Hatton, the queen's vice-chamberlain, (and 
who afterwards was lord chancellor of England,) hath his 
name written by himself, both at the beginning and end 
156 thereof; as I have seen it, shewing his value thereof. Of 
whom the writer gives this character in the same book. 

Splendidus Hatton. 
Ille satellitii regalis ductor, ovanti - 
Peetore, Mceecnas studiosis, maximns altor 
Etfautor vcrcc virtutis, munificusque. 

Appointed J Ijave one thing more to add concerning this poem ; that 
in s(ii<3o)s. it was so acceptable and approved, that the lords of the 
cpiccn's privy-council sent their letters to the commissioners 
for ecclesiastical causes, ordering the public receiving and 
teaching of these books in all grammar and free-schools 
within the realm. The contents of what the lords writ was. 


*' That the subject-matter of the said book was worthy to CHAP. 
" be read of all men, and especially in common schools, ^'*^' 

"where divers heathen poets were ordinarily read and Anno 1 582. 
" taught ; from the which the youth of the realm did ra- 
" ther receive infection in manners, than attainment in vir- 
*' tue. In place of which poets, they thought this book fit 
" to be read and taught in the grammar schools." Then 
the order followed in these words: " Therefore we re- 
" quire you upon sight hereof, as by our special order, to 
*' write your letters unto the bishops throughout this realm ; 
" requiring them to give commandment, that in all the 
" grammar and free schools within their several dioceses, 
" the said book may be in place of some of the heathen 
*' poets, [sCich probably they meant as were lascivious and 
*' immodest,] received and publicly read and taught by the 
" schoolmasters," &c. This was dated from Greenwich, 
from the court, the 21st of April, 1582, and signed with 
all these names : Edzo. Line. Amhr. Warzcick, Bob. Leices- 
ter, James Croft, Fra. Knolhjs, Chr. ILatton, Fra. Wal- 

And as this was directed to the ecclesiastical commis- 
sioners, so they signified the same to the bishops. May the 
7th following, under their hands, viz. Joh. London, Da. 
Lezais, Bar. Clerk, W. Leicin, Owen Hopton, W. Fleet- 
wood, Pet. Osborn, Tho. Faiisliaw. 

Also another good treatise appeared in print, entitled, A A Treatise 
treatise of reformation of religion. Divided into seven ser- "lo,/ '''^'"*" 
mons, preached in Oxford, by Herbert Westphaling, D. D. 
who was a canon of Christ Church, and after bishop of He- 
reford. To which were added two sermons of the Supper 
of the Lord : the first preached at Oxford, the other at 
PauPs Cross. These seven sermons are about reformation 
of our church from popery ; from that text, St. Matth. xxi. 
And Jesus went into the temple, and cast out those tJiat 
bought and sold, &c. The general questions handled in 
these sermons follow in the page after; viz. I. Whether 
religion ought to be reformed where God is not rightlv 

VOL. iir. Q 


BOOK served. II. To whom it pertaineth to reform that which is 
amiss in religion. III. By what rule the reformation is to matle. The reason of his publishing this treatise, the 
author gives in his epistle to the reader, dated from Christ's 
Church. " That being moved by some to publish what he 
" spake of that text of scripture, he thought good to have 
" it in some readiness, and to lay it by him for a time. 
157 " And considering how busy the adversary was, and many 
" among us remained unreformed in religion ; he could 
" not but condescend to the motion, which long before was 
" made vmto iiim : for the more desirous the enemy shewed 
" himself to sow tares, the more carefully ought the hus- 
" bandman to see, that there be sowed good corn : and the 
" more need our weak brethren have of help, the more 
" ways should we use to do them good." The sum of the 
discourse is, that the reformation of religion must be made 
by the scriptures only. 
The Bible This year was also printed at London, the Old and New 
4to" \vith"a Testament in quarto, black letter. Where it is remarkable, 
catechism, at the end of the New Testament is added a catechism, that 
was framed by some person unknown, (whether Cartwright, 
Travers, or some others,) entitled, Certai?i questions a7id 
ansxcers touching the doctrine of predestination ., and the use 
of God^s xcord and sacraments. Wherein the doctrine of 
absolute election and reprobation is asserted. And this ca- 
techism joined to the Bible without any public licence and 
authority (as it seems) remained in after-editions of the holy 
Anti-Armi- scripture for divers years. For so, as I have it from Prin, 
niamsm, ^|^^^ these questions and answers were always printed at 
the end of the Old Testament, and bound up and sold, cum 
privileg-iOf with the authorized translation of the Bible, till 
the year 1615. Since which no Bibles of this sort, he says, 
were printed. " Therefore," addeth lie, " use it as a preg- 
" nant testimony, a punctual declaration of the doctrine of 
" our church in those })articular points of controversy." 
But if it were so, it would surely have been put into the 
former editions of the Bible in folio : and would have had 


some countenance from the bishops and clergy hi convoca- CHAP. 
tion, or from the commission ecclesiastical. But because this *_ 

catechism is now somewhat strange and vmknown, I have Anno 1 582. 
given it a place in the Appendix. N». xxvi. 

This year also was printed an English translation of a 
book called, The history of the discovery and conquest of 
the East Indies ; enterprised by the Portingals in their 
dangerous navigation in the time of Jcing Don John, the 
second of that name. Set forth in the Portingal language; 
by Hernan Lopes de Castaneda, [who lived in these Indies 
many years ; his father having been judge there, appointed 
by the king.] And now translated into English by Nicolas 
Litchfield, gent. Imprinted at London, 1582. The first 
book ; there being two more. The epistle dedicatory is to 
sir Francis Drake. This Portugal author was, when he 
wrote this book, of the college of Coimbro ; and, as it seems, 
a Jesuit. 

To the rest I add a book, called Golden Epistles, as well Golden 
out of the remainder of Guevarra's works, as other ancient ^'^ "' 
Latin, French, and Italian. Set forth by Geffrey Fenton ; 
and dedicated to Anne, countess of Oxenford, anno 1582. 
In the same volume are added, Jamiliar epistles of sir An- 
thony de Guavarra, preacher, chronicler, and counsellor to 
the empevor Charles V. Translated out of the Spanish 
tongue by Edward Hello ws, groom of the leash. Im- 
printed and corrected anno 1584. Dedicated to sir Henry 
Lee, knt. master of the leash. 



^"^i^^ CHAP. XIV. 

Anno ift83. '^^^ queens declaration upon sending axvay the Spanish 
158 ambassado7\ Motion for peace between the queen and 
Tiing of Spain. An Italian 'propounded for a mediator. 
The queen against it: and ivhy. She protects those of 
the Netherlands : relieves Geneva. Complaints of Mary 
qxieen of Scots : with answers to them.. The queen'' s ex- 
postulatory letter to king James. The excess erf retainers 
cheched. The queerCs Icind letter to the lord treasurer, 
under some discontent. 

Dangerous _L HE State of the kingdom, and the queen's own life and 

conspiracies _ ... , , 

against the saiety, were now in immment hazard, by means of secret 
queen and conspiracies entered into, and carried on at home, by 
many of her popishly affected subjects, and by the king of 
Spain, and his English pensioners abroad : the detaining 
The Spa- the queen of Scots being the great pretence : Mendoza, 
sador con- the Spanish ambassador here, zealously carried on the de- 
cerned in it. sign, deeply concerned herein. So that upon some discovery 
hereof, he was called before the queen's council to be exa- 
mined of his doings; and such matters evidently proved 
against him, that the queen charged him to be gone out of 
her dominions. And so to Paris he privately conveyed him- 
self; and then, with many English fugitives there, went on 
more securely with his business. But this being such an 
unusual way of treating a prince's ambassador, without 
staying for his prince's recalling him home, the queen 
thought fit to have a declaration drawn up at large, vindi- 
cating herself to the king of Spain, and all other princes, in 
sending away that ambassador in that manner : for she 
knew the proud king Phihp would resent it. 
The queen's This notable declaration I find not in any of our histo- 

declaration . ,.. ii-i- i- '• e 

upon send- I'l^ns ; and givmg such liglit m our history, in respect or 
ing him j]^g pj^j- abovesaid, I think worthy to be preserved : which 
I found among the papers of the lord Burghley, lord trea- 
surer, and believe it to be of his own drawing up. See it 
[Number exemplified in the Appendix. The title was, Declaratio 
eorum quce circa Mejidozce catholici regis legati missionem 


acciderunt ; una cum responso ad ejusdem objecta contra CHAP. 
suam majestatem. It was endorsed on the back-side thus: 

A declaration of sundry unkindnesses offered her majesty ^^^^^ ^^^^^ 
by the king- of Spain. Jan. 15, 1583. 

There were some overtures now in hand of entering into Consuita- 

„ , I tion of 

communication concerning terms oi peace between the queen pg^ce be- 
and Phihp kinff of Spain; and some fit mediator was con-*^'*^''" ^''^ 

-. , 11TT queen and 

suited of for that purpose. Some propounded an Italian Spain. 
prince ; who seemed to be the prince of Parma. But him 
the queen would not allow of, as no proper person in this 159 
affair, both in respect of the contrariety of religion, and of 
opening the state of the more secret concerns of the realm 
to such a foreigner as an Italian. There is a paper of state Deiibera- 
(which I have before me) containing, A discourse ag^^i'^^st compound- 
admittiuQ' an Italian to be a mediator of peace between the '"S '"^"eis 

... T • 11 1 -1 /.I ^^'th that 

said queen and king. It is all drawn up in the name or the prince. 

queen, as though it were for instruction to her ambassador 
or aoent. And it ran to this tenor : 

" That to deal with a foreign prince for the compound- 
" ing of matters with Spain, and making an Italian instru- 
" ment, considering what hath passed heretofore, with also 
" our present estate, is one of the most dishonourable 
" courses that may be taken, for these causes underwritten : 

" First, an Italian, being not subject to the crown of this The queen 
" realm, is no ways bound, neither by love nor fear, to keep jfjlijan^** 
" secret matters committed to his charge to deal in. And '° ^^ ^ ™^- 

, . ,, . , . , liiator of 

" they being as they are, in a manner all vainglorious, and peace be- 

" chiefly such as are to take such matters in hand, wilP"'^'"" 

" make known, by divers means, to their kindred, and to 

*' their special friends in their country, the important af- 

*' fairs committed to their charge ; procuring the glory 

" thereof, first underhand, to themselves, whether they 

" prosper therein or no. But in case they prosper, and 

" bring these matters to pass, then shortly after will books 

" and pamphlets come forth of the ways and means that 

" were used. But such an instrument or instruments, as 

" were in those affairs, implied greatly to the dishonour of 

" such as took that course. 



BOOK " And by making a foreigner a second instrument, being 

^' " of religion different from us, it is doubtful of the sincere 

Anno 1.083. " dealing of such a prince, that rather willeth peradventure 

" our ruin, than our honour and prosperity, how good show 

" soever he maketh in taking the same matter in hand ; and 

" for the keeping secret of the said affair, committed to the 

" same second mean or instrument, it is impossible : for 

" there is no prince, that will deal in any foreign matter of 

" importance, and chiefly of this nature, but that he will 

" communicate the same with his council, to consider of the 

" ways and means, how, and with what honour he may 

" take such an affair in hand : which when he hath con- 

" eluded, then he must deal for the bringing the same 

" to pass by a third instrument : which must be an anibas- 

" sador, specially instructed and sent into Spain for the 

" purpose aforesaid : who being there arrived, he shall not 

" so soon have dealt with the king in those affairs, but that 

" the ways and means that have been used for the com- 

" pounding of those matters will enter into the ears of all 

" ambassadors there resident; in such sort as the news 

" thereof will be spread both far and near, greatly to our 

" shame and dishonour : for thereby will be discovered our 

" weakness every ways. Whereof it is likely to come to 

" pass, that the most princes and states of Christendom, as 

" well our friends as our foes, that have seen how bravely 

" and resolutely we have entered and taken these wars in 

" hand ; and thereby have entered into an opinion of the 

" strong situation of our country, as also of our riches and 

l60" strength both by sea and land, to annoy such as will be- 

" come our enemies, will bring them into a contrary opi- 

" nion, either of lack of power, sufficiency, and judgment, 

" every ways to proceed and maintain those wars which we 

" have so bravely taken in hand : or else, that we are afraid 

" without cause, or not at unity among ourselves. 

" Which opinion, if it should be conceived among our 
" friends, will bring us to a great disabling and abasing ni 
" their account ; and may cause them of friends, as they 
" were before, to become our disdainful enemies; when 


" they shall perceive no certainty nor assured strength in CHAP. 
" us, to defend their weak estates, nor our own honour. ' 

" And peradventure also the same conceit may cause, with Anno isss. 

" the king of Spain and his associates, a contrary event ; 

" that instead of peace, which we do expect by a course be- 

" fore taken in hand, may be an occasion to make such 

" princes to associate, unite, and combine themselves, to 

" make upon us such a war, to tear us as hath not been 

" heretofore intended. 

" But whatsoever shall come to pass by this foresaid man- 
" ner of proceeding, I come to conclude, that no honour 
" nor surety can any ways grow or redound unto us, or 
" those that we protect, [perhaps those of the Low Coun- 
" tries,] but most assured danger to our friends and our 
" estate : for admit, that all matters, as well for such as we 
" protect, as for ourselves, were compounded in a manner 
" to our desire ; yet neither can they, nor we, stand in 
" longer surety than until that the said king of Spain and 
" his associates shall not be able to annoy us : for it is not 
" to be believed, that a prince of so great resolution as he 
" is, and that doth take matters so at the heart, as his na- 
" ture is to do, will any longer forbear the taking of any 
" advantage either of them or us, than until time shall pre- 
" sent, unto him or them, opportunity to our danger or mis- 
" chief." 

This wise and wary consultation shews the ground of the 
queen's inclination to assist and protect the Netherlands, 
well knowing what an enemy king Phihp was to her. 

And to this also must be attributed the care of her she supplies 
own concerns, as well as the assistance she gave this year Jj^^^^^* 
(both before and after) to die city of Geneva, with season- money. 
able supplies in their present danger. That city was now 
in great distress by the duke of Savoy; who out of pre- 
tended zeal against those professors of the gospel, (termed, 
by the Roman church, heretics^) but chiefly to enlarge his 
own dominions, was come with his arms against them. 
Whereupon the city was driven to crave aid and contribu- 

Q 4 , 


BOOK tion from the queen and her subjects that professed the 
^" same reformed rehirion. And for the better forwardino- their 

Anno 1583. business, as they had sent their letters the last year to the 
lord treasurer Burghley, their friend, to intercede for them 
to the queen, so now they address another to him, consider- 
ing their imminent danger. It was wi-it in French from the 
syndics and council of Geneva. And imported ; 

Their letter « 'j,]^^^ |)y ^\^q lord MaiUet, their beloved counsellor, 

to the lord '' •-i-<iii i-/r*\ 

treasurer. " (who was the last year ni England about their aitairs,) 
" they understood the affection that lord [viz. lord trea- 
161 " surer] had for them, and how he had been the principal 
" instrument \vith the queen of her benefaction and libera- 
" lity towards them. That they would never omit to ac- 
" knowledge their obligation towards him, and would pre- 
*' serve and perpetuate the memorial thereof towards them. 
*' Which should always be a just occasion for them to thank 
" God, who had raised up such a seigneu?- de merite, [lord 
" of merit,] as he, to favour their estate on such a needful 
" occasion. And that hence they gathered hope that God 
" would continue to them an assurance of him, according 
"to the beginning which he had shewn them, and would 
" not suffer such to persecvite them for the cause of the re- 
*' ligion which they made profession of, nor to triumph 
" over them ; and would take his own cause into his own 
" hand, and would make his strength and power appear in 
" their weakness. 

" But that it had pleased God at that present time to exer- 
" cise them with divers threatenings of their enemies : and 
" had now brought their ill-wills to a head, which for a long 
" time they had conceived against them : that they had 
" brought garrisons near their town, and entertained sol- 
" diers near about them ; and that they had hindered them 
" from bringing corn for their provision. That there was 
• " a report of the passing of 12,000 Spaniards through Sa- 
" vov and Burgundy: which they feared were coming 
" against them. Whereby they of Geneva could enjoy but 
" little rest, but that they set against these human con- 


siderations, tliat the power of God (by the which they CHAP. 
subsisted) would guard and preserve them for his glory. ;_ 

" And as for human means, whereof it pleaseth God to Anno 1 583. 
" serve himself for the deUverance of his, they assured 
" themselves, that he and other lords, that had shewed 
" themselves affectionate towards them, would continue 
*' more and more to favour them, according to such occa^ 
*' sions as should present." But the w^hole letter must be 
read in the Appendix : where I have exemplified it from theN».xxviI. 
original. It was dated in December ; and subscribed, Les 
syndiques et conseil de Geneve, vos Men voluntaires et cif- 
Jxctionez amis. 

It doth not plainly appear what relief or money was sent 
them of Geneva the last year, or before. But I find on theiMonies sent 
back-side of this letter, by the lord treasurers own hand, 
these sums mentioned, sent, as it seems, at this time. 
4000 nobles. 300 nobles, 100/. 

4000 nobles. 300 nobles, lOOZ. 

200 nobles, mi. \2>s. 

And as we have already mentioned some of the letters Divers mes- 
and messages of the syndics and council of Geneva to this £,f f.^uj 
kinsrdom, and namely, to the lord treasurer, in their neces-from 

. thence. 

sity ready to be swallowed up by popish zeal, and the 
worldly ambition together of the duke of Savoy ; viz. in 
the years of 1582 and 1583 : so other letters I meet with 
addressed hither afterwards for favour and assistance in 
the years 1586, 1589, and 1590, with their seal ; which was 1^2 
large ; being the half spread eagle, the head crowned, look- 
ing towards the left : impaling a key erected. The shield 
lying upon a roundlet. Round which is written. Post tene- 
hras lux. 

Mary queen of Scots (a prisoner in England) had made Scots 
divers complaints of lier hard usage by the queen : Avhich ^Q^^pjaj^t 
were drawn up. And it lay now on her majesty to vindicate against 
herself; and to retort them back upon that queen: which ^abeth. 
was Randolph, queen Elizabeth's ambassador's part to do. ^"'^ ^^^ 

••11-11 1- p 1- T ambassa- 

Which because it will illustrate this part of our history, I dor's an- 
shall set down both the complaints and answers, as I find^"^"^*" 


BOOK them in one of the Cotton MSS. with this title, Extracts 
^' of the queen of Scots griefs, to'ith the answer's made to the 
Anno \b%3.same, Nov. 2, 1582, and Apr. 6, 1583. 

brar°"ju- Object. Her majesty's ministers have practised troubles in 
lius, F. 6. her realm, and stirred up her subjects to rebellion. Proved 
by the deposition of witnesses ; confronted with one name- 
less: whom she charged to have been a principal actor 

Respons. Randolph, who seems to be the nameless man 
whom she meaneth, being charged by Johnson (infamous 
and a condemned man) to have delivered unto him, the 
said Johnson, certain money for the lord of Pataro, did 
clear himself sufficiently of that imputation : and in respect 
of the good offices done by him, was after required by her- 
self to be contented therein. 

The intended alteration of government. The sudden 
death at Deep of the Scotch nobleman that misliked of that 
place. Her breeding of divisions among her nobility. Her 
persecuting of Murray. Her setting Huntley on work to 
overthrow the state of religion. Her practices with David 
ao-ainst the state. The murder of her husband, and other 

disorders were the cause of her own troubles. 

Object. Her rebels supported and relieved by her ma- 

Object. Frogmorton, by her majesty's direction, per- 
suaded her to subscribe the demission [of the crown to her 

Respons. Throgmorton had no such direction. Yet could 
not his advice be prejudicial unto her; considering, that in 
law an act done by such as were in durance is of no validity. 

And besides her subjects being from her, she was in 

danger if she had not consented to the demission. 

Object. A diamond received by her, as a token from her 
majesty ; with a promise that her majesty would assist her 
ao-ainst her rebels. Upon which assurance she adventured 
after her defeat to cast herself into the arms of her majesty's 

Rcsjjons. That friendly promise was made l)efore her 


husband's death ; when she carried herself well. Promises CHAP, 
and the bond of friendship are subject to different interpre- 

tation, and grounded upon virtue. By her miscarriage of Anno 1 583. 
herself afterward, this ground failed. And therefoi'e her 
majesty was consequently no more tied to such promise. 

Object. But in the way she was suddenly stayed and com- 
mitted. If her majesty charge her with the matter of her 
intended match with the duke of Norfolk, she answered, 
that the same was allowed and subscribed by the principal 
counsellors of this realm. 

Respons. The treaty of that marriage tended secretly to 1 63 
her majesty's overthrow. Whose counsellors were abused 
with false services and pretences. The rebellion in the 
north, &c. do sufficiently prove the same. 

Object. She mought not be suffered to send to her son 
while she was at liberty. 

Respons. The king at that time denied the access of any 
minister of her majesty into his realm. And delayed four 
months the answering of her letters written to him about the 
intended seinge. 

Object. She hath made many overtures, and large offers, 
for the establishing of some amity between the two crowns. 
The purpose thereof then did .... the last winter. But she 
hath since been .... to send them before. [The sense imper- 

Offereth to stand to her justification. Her right to this 
crown is the cause of the practices of her enemies against 
her. Chargeth my lord of Hvmtingdon with practising in 
Scotland. Her majesty sending suddenly to him without her 
privity. Her majesty sendeth suddenly to her son without 
her privity. 

Respons. She had, without her majesty's privity, con- 
trary to her promise made to Beal, given her assent to the 
association between her and her son. And it was found by 
experience that she had always practised the disquieting of 
the realm. 

Object. Chargeth Mr. Bowes with practising in Scotland. 
An army sent to the borders, to impeach the execution of 


BOOK iVIorton. Required, that none of her majesty ""s ministers in- 
tenneddle any lon<yer in the affairs of Scotland without free 

Anno 1589. liberty, or the assistance of some of the French ministers. 

Respons. Her majesty hath found in her a disposition to 
trouble both England and Scotland. 

Object. Complaineth of the hard usage tliat she re- 

Respons. Her practices against the state, and abusing of 
her majesty ""s former favours extended towards her, do de- 
serve worse usaffe. 

Object. Whereas slie hath been charged by my lord of 
Shrewsbury, to have dealt with her son, for releasing unto 
lier of her title to the crown, without her majesty's privity, 
contrary to her promise made unto Beal ; she answereth, 
that she made unto Beal certain overtures tied unto condi- 
tions : which conditions being not performed, she was again 
at liberty. 

Object. Denieth, that ever she was content to follow her 
majesty's advice; being uncertain what the same would be : 
or that her ministers should be at the direction of her ma- 

Object. Her enemies here hold intelligence with the rebels 
in Scotland for the o\'erthrow of her son. 

Respons. Her son's own letters and speeches, delivered 
to the French king's minister, and her ministers, do witness 
the contrary. Her majesty hath settled his estate, and pro- 
tected him from apparent ruin and overthrow : which he was 
likely to have run into, by following the violent course where- 
unto he was led. 

Divers of these complaints, so sharply objected by the 
Scots queen, may be read in her own letter (the contents 
briefly here abstracted) written to queen Elizabeth : which 
164 is extant in her history by Camden. And the answers are 
some brief heads in vindication of the queen to each objec- 
tion, used by Randolph, her ambassador. 
Camd.Eiiz. In the midst of these her troubles and afflictions, a conso- 
anno I'ssa. ^^.tory letter at good length was sent her from an eminent 
person, unnamed, who had formerly been her ambassador 


in England, (the bishop of Eoss, no doubt,) her busy agent, CHAP, 
now at Paris. At whose desire and instruction it was di-awn '_ 

up and endited in an elegant Latin style, by one Rob. Tur- Anno i583. 

ner, an English zealous fugitive there, and sometime scho- ^J^^l^^^^^ 

lar to Campion the Jesuit. Beginning, Cum permuUi, (sere- sent to the 

tiissima 7-egina,) me narronte, cognovissent, quibijs miser'tis ^^"^^^ 

implicita, &c. The purport of which letter in English was, 

" That when he had related to many, in what miseries she 

" was sunk, and with what frauds she was ensnared, and 

" compassed about with such various calamities, it very in- 

*' wardly affected them. But that when they understood, 

" that all this befell her upon the account of the catholic 

" religion ; how constant she was in keeping it, how mag- 

" nanimous always in defending it ; they did not then so 

" much lament her misfortunes, as laying aside all their 

" grief for her, congratulated her piety, constancy, and 

" greatness of mind. And wlio could call her miserable, 

" added he, whom Christ called happy? For if they, who 

" for religion suffered imprisonment for Christ, underwent 

" danger of their lives, for righteousness entered into storms 

" of persecution, were to be called blessed ; on what account 

" might she be called, or thought to be miserable ? That 

" the evenness of her mind, wherewith she bore all her suf- 

" ferings, sprang from nothing but that virtue itself had 

" fallen down from heaven into her mind, and occupied all 

" her thoughts. And that she measured the matter, not with 

" human sense, but with a divine mind. That it seemed to 

" be above human nature, or at least above the virtue of 

*' this age ; that her mind was fortified with patience, joy- 

" ful in the sharpest afflictions, free in the straitest custody, 

*« happy in the greatest miseries, &c. Which things, as he 

" proceeded, gave him cause to believe, that in a short time 

" those miseries would be seasoned to her with sweetness ; 

" while she, perhaps, neither hoped nor thought any such 

" thing ; and her imprisonment and dangers recompensed 

*' with the highest felicity ; since God delivereth his people 

" out of danger, when they are judged to be past all hope." 

By this, the writer seems to hint at, and to be privy to, that 


BOOK plot that was setting on foot by Babbington, for this queen's 
escape, or before that by Throgmorton, Paget, and others. 

Anno 1583. TeUing her farther, " That as God deUvered David from 
" the grievous vexation of Saul, and the apostle Paul from 
" the cruel fury of Nero, that lion ; so he could restore her 
" to the commonwealth, and the commonwealth to her ; and 
" the church to both. He proposed to her thoughts some 
" of the Scots kings, Malcolme, and the Bruces ; some 
" whereof were kept in custody in England. And God re- 
" stored them to their liberties : and heaped up upon them 
" afterwards more ample honours than they had before. He 
" bade her be of good heart by their examples, and hope for 
1 65 " greater things. And that Almighty God, moved by the 
" prayers of many for her, wovdd free her from her dan- 
" gers, and would adorn her with far greater honours, 
" would increase the sweetness of her liberty, enlarge the 
" borders of her kingdom."" [This indeed would have prov- 
ed true, if the plots that were now carrying on could have 
succeeded, to have dethroned queen Elizabeth, and advanc- 
ed her into her place.] Adding, " That God would never 
" fail to be a father to her, if she would go on to be a daugh- 
" ter to him." 

He sent her also, with this letter, an history of the kings 
of Scotland, which he had compiled in English, when he 
was a resident in England ; and now at his leisure had im- 
proved it by the history of their country. The reading of 
which might serve her in her afflictions. And likewise to 
make use of for the benefit of her son : to excite him to fol- 
low his ancestors in their virtues. I shall repeat no more of 

[Number this letter to this captive queen, but leave it in the Appen- 


dix to be perused. 
The queen's And uow we are engaged in Scottish matters, it may not 
tory ktter be out of the way to relate a disgust that queen Elizabeth 
to king jqq]^ ^.q ]^i„g James, the Scots queen's son ; who had, it 
seems, demeaned himself about this time in that ingrateful 
manner, which she reckoned he ought not to have done to- 
wards her, who had done many good offices in his king- 
dom for him. He had sided with those of his nation that 



were papists, and ill-willers to her majesty. This gave oc- CHAP, 
casion to the queen to write to him this letter following : ;__ 

" Among your many studies, my dear brother and cousin, -^nno i583. 
" I would Isocrates his noble lesson wei'e not forcjot, that S'"*:*^' ''^'"* 

» ' Julius, F. 6. 

" wishes the emperor, his sovereign, to make his "words of 
" more account than other men their oaths ; as meetest signs 
" to shew the truest badge of a prince's arms. It moveth 
" me much to moan you, when I behold, how diversely 
" sundry wicked paths, and like also evil illusions wrapt 
" under the cloak of your best safety, endanger your state 
" and best good. How may it be, that you can suppose an 
" honourable answer may be made me, when all your do- 
" ings gainsay your former vows ? You deal not with one, 
" whose experience can take dross for good payment, nor 
" one that easily will be beguiled. No, no, I mind to set 
" to school your chiefest counsellor, and am sorry to see 
" you bent to wrong others : yea, those which if they had 
" not even then taken opportunity to let a ruin that was 
" newly begun, the plot would have perilled the more, than 
" a thousand of such men"'s lives be worth, that persuade 
" you to avouch such deeds, to deserve a Sawle's pardon. 
" Why do you forget what you writ to myself with your 
" own hand, shewing how dangerous a course the duke 
" [viz. Lenox] was entered in ? though you excused your- 
" self to think no harm therein. And yet they that with 
" your safety preserved you from it, you must seem to give 
" them reproach of guilty folk, 

" I hope you more esteem your honour, than to give it 
" such a stain, since you have protested so often to have 
" taken these lords for your most affectionate subjects, and 
" to have done all for your best. To conclude, I beseech 
" you, pass no further in this cause, till you receive an ex- l66 
" press messenger, a trusty servant of mine ; by whom I 
" mean to deal like an affectionate sister with you ; as of 
" whom, you shall see plainly, you may receive more honour 
" and contentment, with your surety to your rest and state, 
" than all this dissembling will or can bring you to. As 


BOOK " knoweth the Lord, to whose most safely keeping I do 
• " commit you, with my many commendations to your per- 

Anno 1583. " son. The 7. August, 1583." 

The excess By a proclamation the queen now set forth, it appeareth, 
checked by ^^^^ the gentry in these days were addicted to make great 
a severe shows of scrvaiits and retainers^ with costly badges, and 

proclama- ... , i • i • i • 

tion. liveries, to attend on them in their houses, or journeys, or 

appearances at court, or elsewhere : and this oftentimes be- 
yond their quality, and to their great expenses. Insomuch 
as it was called in the said proclamation, a pernicious sore 
in the commonwealth. Nor was this the first time it received 
a check, and was forbid by act of parliament and her pro- 
clamation : stinting these retainers under certain rules and 

Camd. Eiiz. limits, as far backwards as the year 1572. But the whole 

^ ' state of this evil will be understood by the proclamation. 
And this I the rather mention, because our historians are 
silent of it. The cause of the setting it forth is shewed in 
the preamble, viz. " The inconveniences and enormities 
*' that had universally grown in the realm bv unlawful re- 
*' taining of multitudes of unorderly servants by liveries, 
" and otherwise, contrary to the ancient statutes of the 

Number " realm." I leave this proclamation to be read in the Ap- 



I meet with another letter of queen Elizabeth, wrote to 
the lord Burghley, her treasurer; shewing her high esteem 
of him, and his abilities for her service. That which gave 
the occasion seems to be, that he had petitioned her ma- 
jesty, that he might lay down his office, and leave the court, 
and retire to a private life. Whether this proceeded from 
some discontent, or upon some displeasure he conceived the 
queen had taken against him, or, more probably, some hard 
words that some of the council had used towards him, (per- 
haps it was the earl of Leicester,) and other misreports given 
out concerning him, which he resented. But the queen 
could not part with such an useful counsellor, and such a 
faithful treasurer; and knew his merits and wisdom too well 
to yield to his petition. And with her own hand wrote him 


a short comfortable letter, between jest and earnest, styling cHAP. 
him sir Spirit : the reason Avhereof I leave to others to con- ,^'^' 

jectlire. Anno 1583. 

" Sir Spirit. I doubt I do nickname you. For those The queen's 
" of your kind (they say) have no sense. But I have of J^^"^';[^J°^''" 
" late seen an ecce signum, that if an ass kick you, you feel 
" it so soon. I will recant you from being Spirit, if ever 
" I perceive that you disdain not such a feeling. Serve 
" God, fear the king, and be a good fellow to the rest. Let 
" never care appear in you for such a rumour : but let 
" them well know, that you rather desire the righting of 
" such wrong, by making known their error, than you to 
" be so silly a soul, as to foreslow that you ought to do, or 
" not freely deliver what you think meetest, and pass of no 
" man so much, as not to regard her trust, who putteth it 
" in you. 

" God bless you, and long may you last, Omnino, E. R." 
On this letter (wherein the queen expressed so much kind- I67 
ness and value for him) the lord treasurer endorsed, Receiv- 
ed the 8th of May, 1583. 


Apprehensions from papists. The archbishop of Yorlc's let- 
ter to the bishop of Chester ; exciting to diligence. The 
bishop and the earl of Darby, acting in the ecclesiastical 
commission. Bishop of St. David's visits his diocese : the 
corrupt state thereof. The bishop of Norxoich zveary of 
his diocese : and xohy. Desires a remove. Two of this bi- 
shop''s servants taken at mass. A divinity lecture settled 
at Litclifield. The demi's account of it. The bishop of 
Lincoln removed to Winton. The bishop of Meath moves 
for schools in h'eland. Matthezo made dean of Durham. 

JN OW we shall apply ourselves to take notice of matters Affairs of 
more nearly relating to religion, and to the labours of the 
bishops in behalf of the reformed church established, with 
respect both to papists and innovators and schismatics. 



BOOK The kingdom was at this time in great apprehensions 
_from the papists, and their seminary priests, skulking about 


Anno 1583. every where; especially in the north parts. On which oc- 
The archbi- j.^g-jQ^^ Sandys, the good archbishop of York, laying to 
yS to the heart the great impiety of the age, and what tares the 
hi? To ''^ enemy had sown in the Lord's field, composed a raronitory 
vince, to letter (as it seems) to the bishops of his province, to exert 
TommJn^ and Stir themselves up with more vigilancy in their stations, 
enemy. Xn his letter to Dr. Chaderton, bishop of Chester, (which is 
still extant in one of our university libraries,) he thus de- 
Librar. livered his mind : " That being stirred up by a pious cha- 
Caiul'con'! " rity, and brotherly good-will, he thought it his duty to 
" exhort him, that as the same burden lay upon them, and 
" the same account was to be given of the discharge of their 
" office, so they should weigh unanimously what kind of 
" persons they ought to be ; to shake off security and drow- 
" siness, redeem the time, make themselves ready to battle, 
" to take the sword and armour of the Spirit, to defeat the 
" common enemy, and to defend the faith even to blood and 
" death." 

Then he proceeded to shew him, "-How God had set 

" them over nations and people, to extirpate and root out, 

168" to destroy and throw down, and to build up and plant, 

jer. i. 10. " [in allusion to God's commission to his prophet Jeremiah.] 

" That therefore it was their parts, by the sharp sickle of 

" God's word, to cut away the fibres of superstition and 

" the roots of idolatry ; and by the propagation of the gos- 

" pel, to plant good fruit in the minds of men, and to build 

" up the walls of Jerusalem, and the holy temple, as much 

" as lay in them ; and with all earnestness to shake down 

" the cruelty and tyranny of Antichrist; and by diligent 

" preaching, to establish the kingdom and empire of the 

" Son of God. And that God did not only require their 

" labour in feeding the flock, but also expected that sin 

" might not go free of punishment ; that lust, wickedness, 

" and dissolute manners should be checked and restrained, 

" by executing severe law and punishment. And so they 

" might consult better for the safety of their sinking coun- 


try ; and more successfully disappoint their rage, who de- CHAP, 
sired to see it afflicted and distressed. And that neither ' ' 

" wealth nor power, nor friendship nor profit, might so Anno 1533. 

" sway them, as to obstruct them from doing the Lord's 

" work strenuously. And that the stubborn and contentious 

" enemies were to be checked with a rod of iron ; at least to 

" be restrained from infecting the sound with their leprosy. 

" That the little foxes were to be caught that destroyed the 

" vines; and that especially, that nets should be laid for the 

" papal stragglers, those brands of sedition, and pests of the 

" church."'"' Adding, " how this was the worst sort of men, 

" and the calamity of our land ; who, by too much licence, 

" were made worse ; and now becoming fierce by impunity, 

*' waxed bolder, to the very great danger of all good men."''' 

And for the better execution of this, he exhorted the bi- 
shops, " That according to the authority committed to 
" them, they should call to their assistance those, whom 
" they knew endued with piety, and that were sound in the 
" faith ; and to require their dihgent labour under those so 
" uncertain and dubious concerns of the church and com- 
" monwealth : and considering how many enemies they 
" had, and in what difficulties they were, to omit nothing 
" that might conduce to the common safety ."'"' These are 
some brief contents of the foresaid archbishop''s excellent 
letter to this bishop of his province, all in Latin. The 
which is worthy preserving. And therefore I have exempli- 
fied it in the Appendix. No.xxix. 

For in Cheshire and Lancashire, that bishop"'s diocese, 
popish priests and seminaries chiefly took up their residence, 
being harboured with popish gentlemen, and others of that 
religion, that lived there ; and there making proselytes. But 
many of them were discovered and taken, and committed to 
the castle at Chester ; till within a year or two past ; when, 
by order of the council, these recusants, that for their obsti- 
nacy were detained in that castle, were conveyed to Man- 
chester, to a place there provided, and named the New New Fleet, 
Fleet: the said council giving the commissioners ecclesiasti- Manchester 
cal their reasons for this removal of them : viz. Thev con- f""" P°P'*** 

R 2 




Anno 1583, 


A collection 
for these 

ments for 
their diet. 

sidered, that the place was more fit and convenient for that 
purpose than the castle of Chester. For that the inhabitants 
of Manchester were found to be generally well affected to 
religion ; and that the castle stood too near unto the sea- 
coast. And as many of that sort as were taken up were 
thenceforth committed to that new prison in Manchester. 

And one was appointed that might be faithful to the 
queen, to be keeper of that prison, and to oversee and take 
care of those that were or should be committed there ; and 
for the maintenance and diet of those among them that were 
poor. This person was Robert Worsely, esq. And for the 
necessary supply of this charge, the council appointed a col- 
lection of 8d. per week from every parish in the diocese, by 
authority of some statute for the relief of prisoners in the 
county gaols. Though this produced great murmurings 
and opposition, as we shall shew by and by. 

This year Mr. Worsely sent up to the council an account 
of his charges for the diet of the prisoners ; which amounted 
to 6501. Sixteen recusants were there committed ; whereof 
six were priests, and the rest persons of such poor estate, as 
they were not able to answer the charges of their said diet. 
This was certified by Worsely to the lords. And thereupon 
they sent their letters to the council in the north, to examine 
his accounts, and to see him satisfied out of the fines laid, 
by authority of the ecclesiastical commission, upon recu- 
sants ; and likewise from the collections, appointed by the 
statute of the 14th of the queen, towards the relief of pri- 
soners ; which of itself would not suffice to reimburse the 
said W^orsely. And therefore to receive his full payment 
from the fines at the hands of the said commissioners. 

For this parochial collection (which was thought meet by 
the council now more especially to be made) met with great 
opposition. And so some of the justices in those parts in- 
formed the privy-council; as being a benevolence rather for 
other poor prisoners, and for the setting of vagabonds on 
work, than for supplying such recusants. There was also a 
petition to this purpose, drawn up and subscribed by many 
in those parts, the better to countenance the business. And 


amonff the subscribers were divers who were foreigners, and CHAP, 
lived not there, and counterfeit names, and ot gentlemen s . 

servants: that the number of names might make the com- Anno isss. 
plaint the more plausible. And among the rest they had 
prevailed with the lord Strange, the earl of Darby's son, to 

Upon this the council writ their letters to the earl of Dar- The council 
by and the bishop of Chester, (who were the chief of the °f jy]^^^^'' 
council in the north, and who had advised the lords to this and^bishop 
method of raising money for the abovesaid use,) directing about the 
them still to go on therein ; as thinking it very convenient 'Collections. 
to have the same collection continued : yet desired to have 
their answer and opinion therein ; and till then to make some 
stop. The council's said letter I have reposited in the Appen- 
dix, where the matter may be understood more perfectly. N°- XXX. 

The earl and bishop soon gave their answer accordingly 
to the council. Whereupon, by another letter, they signified, 
" That they thought it very requisite and convenient their 
" lordships should proceed in the said collection according to 
" their former determination : seeing by their lordships, and 
" most of the justices of peace, and gentlemen well affected 
" to the service, it was thought to be very beneficial for the 1 7^ 
" country, as their supplication and letters to their lord- 
" ships, they [the council] said, they had seen. And that 
" as for such gentlemen as had laboured to the contrary, 
" seeing they had not only abused their lordships, [the earl 
" of Darby, bishop of Chester, and others of that council,] 
" but also them, [the queen's privy-council,] pretending that 
" the country was therewith much aggrieved, they thought Some disaf- 
" fit that some of them should be sent for thither, [to the J^''^^^^ p^^s 
" court,] to attend upon them, to render an account of their sent for up. 
" dealings in that behalf. And they prayed their lordships, 
" as so required and authorized by them, [the council,] to 
" send for some of the principalists of them, (as they should 
" think meet,) that did impugn the said contribution ; and 
" especially Richard Bold : and to take bonds of them, unto 
" her majesty's use, in good sums, for their appearance be- 
" fore the council by such a day ; and of such of them that 

R 3 



Fines aris- 
ing from 
the recu- 

BOOK " subscribed on both sides, or promised in words to join 
^' '< with them [the earl and the bishop] in the action, and af- 
Aiiiio if)S3." terwards left it. 

" The council also were desirous to be truly and particu- 
" larly informed, whose names were subscribed in a coun- 
" terfeit hand, and by whom, and what they were, that to 
" abase them [the council] with abundance of names, had 
" caused the names of their servants to be set to the said 
" petition ; and especially what they were, that had allured 
" any that belonged to his lordship, [the earl,] and his son, 
" the lord Strange, to subscribe to the said supplication : 
" alleging, although untruly, that their lordships [the earl 
" and bishop] favoured their actions. And to send them up 
" also, that were charged with some lewd misdemeanour." 
This letter was dated from St. James's, the 2d of December, 

Information was also given to the council by those peti- 
tioners against the parochial collection, that the fines cessed 
upon the recusants in that diocese of Chester would amount 
to 3000Z. as though the earl of Darby, and some others of 
the council there in the north, had put a good part thereof 
into their pockets. But it appeared, by the letters of that 
earl and coimcil, and a certificate returned into the exche- 
quer, that the total sum of all the fines imposed came but 
to 757/. 13s. 8d. whereof 40/. 14.s. had been only received. 
And for the levying of the remainder, further order should 
be taken by the council there. And the person that thus 
had misinformed the council concerning the fines, the coun- 
cil in those north parts meant to send for him; and take 
such further order with him, according to the council's let- 
ter to them, as should be to their satisfaction. 

But the earl of Darby, who bare a very sincere and ho- 
nest heart to the queen and government, was somewhat dis- 
couraged at those rumours and reports that were carried up 
of him, as well as of the bishop. But it could not but speak 
comfort to them both, that the council thought fit, at this 
juncture, by a kind letter, to thank him for his labour in 
this cause, and that he should acquiesce in their exceeding 

A kind let- 
ter of tiie 
council to 
the earl. 


good thoughts of him. And signified to him, " That her CHAP. 
" majesty was so far from conceiving any ill opinion of him 

" for his doings, that her highness, having been by one of Anno isss. 

" the council, from time to time, made acquainted with the 1 7 1 

" same, did so accept of his lordship"'s service in that coun- 

" try, that next unto God"'s goodness, she thought his lord- 

" ship to have been the principal cause of the staying his 

" country from falling into popery, by the good assistance 

" of the bishop, and great pains in the execution of the 

" commission directed unto him. And in which good course 

" her majesty (as they wrote) prayed his lordship to conti- 

" nue, and to assure himself, that he should want no coun- 

" tenance nor backing that might be desired from thence, 

" for the furtherance of that service. 

" And that herein,"" as the council added, " his lordship 
" might account of them, as of his good friends : who would 
" not fail at all times to do that which should be most con- 
" venient for the advantage and maintenance of his lord- 
" ship's honour and good name : whereof they had as great 
" a care as of their own." This letter, dated December the 
2d, 1583, was signed by Bromely, lord chancellor; Burghley, 
lord treasurer; earls of Lincoln, Bedford, Leicester; Crofts, 
Knolles, Hatton, knights ; and Walsingham, secretary. Un- 
der the next year we shall understand more of this bishop, 
and of those transactions with the papists in those parts. 

But now we proceed to take some notice of another bi- 
shop, viz. Marmaduke, bishop of St. David's, (confirmed 
December 6th, 1582,) who this year visited his diocese, the Bishop of 
year after his preferment to it ; which he found in a very ^i^giteth his 
woful condition, both as to the clergy and people, and the diocese. 
revenues and benefits of the bishopric. A particular account 
whereof, after he had finished his visitation, he gave in his 
letter to secretary Walsingham : which was as follows. 

" Salutem et jjacem in Christo Jesu. Epist. epi- 

" Having, right honourable, perused my diocese, as well \^°^' ^^"^* 
" in clero as populo, I find great wants, both in the one and 
" the other. In the clergy^ very few sufficient men. Their 
" benefices poor ; and yet many of them hardly obtained, as 

R 4 



BOOK " with money, or granting for lease; and they not having 
^' " the third penny. 
Anno 1583. " In the people, small popery, but greatly infected (by 
" want of preaching) with atheism ; and wonderfully given 
" over to vicious life, Sec." 

But the rest of his letter I omit, having given an account 
Life of of it elsewhere. It was dated from Brecon, the 16th of Sep- 
Archbishop ^g^^^jg,.^ 1583; and subscribed, Humhly at your lionotirs 
p. 270. command, M. Meneven. 

This letter will serve to give light into the corrupt state 
of that part of the kingdom ; and particularly in what a 
case the former bishop left his diocese. 
The bishop We heard something before of the disturbances made in 
uneasy^'de-^^^'^ dioccsc of Norwich by the affecters of innovation ; and 
sires a re- particularly at St. Edmund's Bury ; and how the bishop's 
officers, in their visitation, were opposed, and the discou- 
ragement they met with, and the countenance that some jus- 
tices of the peace there gave to these disobediences; the pu- 
ritans spreading their principles also in other parts in Suf- 
folk. Whereupon the bishop, finding how little he could 
correct and remedy these disorders, became uneasy in his 
diocese : so that he earnestly desired a remove ; despairing 
172 of enjoying any peace or quiet there; rather than to abide 
there to so little purpose of working any reformation, but 
sure of continual vexation and trouble. Whereupon he ad- 
dressed to the lord treasurer, to stand his friend to the 
queen, either for his remove to another diocese, or to retire 
to a private life ; Dr. Dale having before shewed him some 
comfort in respect thereof, from the endeavour tlie said lord 
had used with the queen in that belialf ; which occasioned 
him to back a former address with another. His letter, dated 
from Ludham, the })lace of his present retirement, will make 
his case much plainer : which ran to this tenor. 

" That he understood by Mr. Dr. Dale, master of re- 
" quests, how myche he was bound unto his lordship for 
" furtherance of his remove from that troublesome and un- 
" quiet place where he was, unto some place of more quiet. 
" And as he was most bound unto his lordship for his 


" good favour therein, so he humbly besought the continu- CHAP 
" ance thereof." And then usinff these words. " No comfort, ^^ * 

" God knows, have I here, but continual crossing and over- Anno isss. 

" thwarting, to my great grief and unquietness : neither 

" look I for any better. And that if it pleased not her ma- 

" jesty so graciously to deal with him, as to bestow upon 

" him some more peaceable and better place, where he 

" might serve God in his calling, in quietness of mind, he 

" would then be a most humble suitor unto his good lord- 

" ship, to be a means for him to be discharged of all toge- 

" ther. That he might lead a private life ; where, during 

" his life, he might pray for her majesty's continual preser- 

" vation ; and for his good lordship long in honour to con- 

" tinue : and as one having been long and dangerously sick, 

" and one now newly recovered, he prayed God long to 

" preserve his lordship in health." Dated from Ludham, 

the 29th of August, 1583. Subscribing, 

" Your good lordship's humbly at commandment, 

" Edmund Norwich." 

1 find this bishop obtained his request, being translated 
the next year to Worcester. 

But a matter, not many months after, happened in this 
bishop's family, that was in danger to expose him to cen- 
sure, and which his enemies were likely to make use of to 
his prejudice : namely, that two of them were taken at mass. Two of this 
Which as soon after the bishop understood, forthwith he '^'*,^°i''? ^*" 

^ _ ' mily taken 

made another application to the said lord treasurer ; to pre- at mass. 
vent an enemy's information, and so to take an advantage 
against him on that account ; which they would be apt 
enough to do. Therefore he thought it best to give the first 
intelligence thereof to the court, before it might be misre- 
presented by his ill-willers. These said two persons of the 
bishop's family, one his butler, and the other, his calling was 
the practice of the law, did frequent the public service and 
sermons in the bishop's house, as the rest did. But when 
these were, at a sessions, brought before the justices to be 
examined, they would not suffer the bishop to be present, 1 'J 3 


BOOK though he were in commission as well as they. Now what 
reports they might make, the bishop was jealous of. And 

Anno 1583. therefore despatched a faithful servant of his own, plainly 
and truly to relate the thing, with his own letter from Nor- 
wich, to the said lord treasurer. Of which letter this was 
the purport ; which will more fully relate the case. 
His letter " That there had been of late certain persons detected for 
sure/aboot " repairing to mass there in Norwich. Among which com- 
it- " P3^".y two of his retinue were discovered : the one being 

" his butler, the other a lawyer, a man of small reckoning, 
" and before this detection, such as did frequent divine ser- 
" vice, both in his [the bishop's] house and at church. 
" That in them he had been notably deceived, by reason of 
" their conformity : and therefore least of all feared any 
" such sequel as was fallen out. That this accident, as it 
" did not a little disquiet him, in that it had been his chance 
'• to retain some evil affected persons ; so, considering the 
" strange dealing of some justices there, (who had laboured 
" in the sifting out of this matter,) he was moved to think, 
" that they sought to pervert the actions of those men to his 
"reproach; and so consequently thereby to confirm the 
" untrue reports given out of his supportation of papists. 
" For, as he observed, after such time as one of the said 
" parties was sent for, being desirous himself to have been 
" admitted to hear his examination, in that he was their as- 
" sociate in the commission of peace; and that he would 
" very willingly have bestowed his travail with them in the 
" service of her majesty : that he was, notwithstanding, ex- 
" eluded. 

" He humbly therefore prayed his lordship to suspend 
*' his censure of him, in respect of his mishap ; and to give 
" the bearer audience and credit, in that he should say for 
" his [the bishop's] innocence and defence, for any presump- 
" tions that were or might be virgcd against him ; meaning 
" not herein to trouble his lordship with any long apology, - 
" the bearer being instructed to answer all objections. Only 
" he hoped, that his lordship, knowing partly his adversa- 
" ries in those parts, would accept their informations accord- 


" ingly ; who witli vigilant eyes watched all opportunities to CHAP. 
*' discredit him : being ready to wrest every event to the ' 

" worse sense. And thus being bold to write to his honour Anno isss. 

" upon all urgent occasions, persuading himself of his best 

" interpretation of this chance, he so left his lordship to 

*' God's protection, with the remembrance of his humble 

" duty. Dated from Norwich, the 14th of January, 1583. 

" Subscribed, 

" Your lordship's humbly at commandment, 

" Edmund Norwich.*" 

And now let us look over to the cathedral church of a divinity 
Litchfield ; and there we shall find a divinity lecture, want- 1^.^,'^"'^ '" 

_ ^ ' Litchfield 

ing to be read in that church, notwithstanding the learned cathedral. 
men belonging to it. Archbishop Whitgift had been ap- 
pointed their visitor the last year, (being then bishop of 
Worcester,) upon occasion of great diiferences arisen between 1 74 
the bishop of the diocese and the dean and chapter, as may 
be seen more largely in that archbishop's Life. And among Book ii. 
other things he found wanting there, one was a divinity lee- '^ ^^'^' ^' 
ture : which he informed the lord treasurer of. This moved 
the council to send their letters to the said dean (Dr. George 
Boleyn) and chapter, for that purpose, in the month of 
January, the last year. Which letter is inserted in the Life 
of the said archbishop. But it was so represented by one of 
that church, no good friend to the dean, as if he had 
slackened so good a purpose. The reason of some delay 
was, in truth, because the dean was then at his residence in 
Canterbury. But when he returned to Litchfield, he and 
the chapter soon came to a cheerful resolution and con- 
clusion of that necessary affair. Yet the delay caused a let- 
ter from the lord treasurer to him : at which he was some- 
what nettled ; as appeared in his answer, viz. " That his The dean's 
" lordship wrote on a false suffg-estion. And he marvelled ''^"'''' *° ^^^ 

. . "" lord trea- 

" that his lordship [the bishop of Worcester] should write surer in ex- 
" unto his honour any thing; that should concern their ""*'^ °£. 

^ c5 hi 111 self. 

" estate, and chiefly himself, [the dean,] upon any one 
*' man's information, before his lordship [the bishop, their 


BOOK " visitor] had spoke with him; whom he knew to be no 
" dissembler, but one that would speak the truth, were it 

Anno 1583. '< good or bad, well or ill : but were matters otherwise than 
" they should be, they might easily have been reformed by 
" good advice, and diligent performing the same ; which 
" well I wot, (added the dean,) his lordship would have 
" given ine, because he had ever been his very good friend 
" and tutor in Cambridge, and was still his good lord. And 
" if all things were well, (as he proceeded in his and the 
" chapter"'s vindication,) then it were good with good coun- 
" sel to keep them well, while they had them well." 

And upon this, he, the dean, went to the bishop, their 
visitor, to tell him the truth of this matter, that he should 
not hereafter be deceived. The which at his return, in the 
chapter general, (which was June the 24th,) fell out accord- 
ing to his [the dean's] saying. For at the chapter it was 
concluded, that there should be a stipend of 40/. a-year ; 
whereunto every prebendary and dignitary must give a 
tenth. And look what there wanted by a tenth, the ciiapter 
should supply it of their commons. And because there were 
many of the prebends very small ; so that if this should be 
continually exacted of them, (as the lecture must be con- 
tinual,) divers of the prebendaries which were to succeed 
should not, in two or three years' space, enjoy any part of 
the prebend, by reason of their duties to her majesty, the 
bishop, and the chapter, at their first entrance : it was agreed, 
that every prebendary coming hereafter into a prebend of 
lOZ. or under, should pay nothing to the reader for his first 
year. But that which should be due by any such preben- 
dary, to pay for that first year, should be supplied by the 
commons of the residcntiarics. All these particulars of the 
settlement of that lecture the dean thought fit to acquaint 
the aforesaid statesman with, and the rest of the queen's 
council ; to rectify a false suggestion of Beacon, one of their 
church, given in : and then subjoining these words in his 
own vindication : 
175 " According to my duty, I have informed your honours 
" of nothing but the truth ; and endeavoured, as much as 


" in me lay, to accomplish the motion made by your ho- CHAP. 
" nours'' letters for the establishment of a lecture in the ' ' 
" church; the which I have ever thought necessary: and Anno i. '383. 
" was therefore a suitor for your honours'* letters; because I 
" could do nothing of myself." This letter was dated at 
Litchfield, the 28th day of August, 1583 ; and subscribed, 
" Your honours' humble orator, George Boleyn." And by 
postscript is added, " The lecture shall be read twice 
" every week, viz. every Wednesday and Friday." 

In the latter end of this year, the queen cast her eye Bishop of 
upon Cowper, the bishop of Lincoln, a man of excellent '"*^" " , 
abilities and known worth, to remove him from thence totoWinton. 
the see of Winton, void by the death of Watson, the last 
bishop. Of which purpose of the queen, when archbishop 
Whitgift acquainted him with, he thankfully acknowledged 
in a letter to the lord treasurer, who had been instrumental 
therein ; piously expressing his low conceit of himself for 
such a preferment, and imploring the assistance of God's 
Spirit in the discharge of his duty in the service of the 
church; and to direct him with his grace. But take the letter 
from his own pen. 

" My duty considered, right honourable, I understand. His letter 
" by my lord of Canterbury, that her maiesty hath shewed*" the trea- 

•' •' . . . •' . surer there- 

" her gracious liking to have me placed in the see of Win- upon. 
" Chester. As the place is of dignity and value of living, 
" much better than I am in, so the Lord God, that seeth 
" mine heart, knoweth, that it is five times more comfort 
" unto me, that it hath pleased God to have so favourable 
" opinion of me. And I most humbly and heartily beseech 
" him so to comfort me, and strengthen me with his Spirit, 
" that I may do that service in the church that may most 
" redound to his glory. 

" I am also to yield unto your honour most hearty thanks 
" for your lordship's great favour and furtherance in the 
" cause. But the recompense that I must yield to your 
" lordship must be only to study to satisfy your expectation 
" in that room : whereunto I beseech Almighty God to di- 


BOOK " rect me with his (jrace. Unto whose tuition and blessing 



" I commit your lordship at this time. This 3d of March, 

Anno 1583." 1583. 

" Your honour"'s in Christ to command, 

" Thom. Lincoln." 

This bishop It was not long after he came to the bishopric, that a re- 
siandereii to ,j. ^^^^ carried about, that he was covetous. And this 

be covetous. ^ ' 

charge of covefousness^ upon one that enjoyed so wealthy a 
bishopric, was like to render him odious among the people 
of that diocese, that expected, as was customary, so much 
hospitality. Which accusation was studiously spread by one 
sir Richard Norton, an officer of that bishop ; and who 
threatened also to carry this information to court. The 
cause was, it seems, because the bishop had refused to ad- 
1 76 vance his salary, and the benefit of his place. But this was 
a crime very unjustly laid against the bishop; and which he 
was of all things least guilty of. And therefore, to preserve 
a reputation in the diocese, and to vindicate himself from 
such slander, so unworthily laid upon him, (and that by one 
under him.) he thought it his best way, (in order that the 
court might be truly acquainted with his circumstances,) to 
apply himself to the lord treasurer ; and to lay before him 
at large his necessary expenses and payments, as bishop of 
Winchester, and \v1iat at most his own income amounted to ; 
especially now, at his first entry upon that see. His letter 
will unfold all this ; and withal give some knowledge of the 
defalcations of the revenues of the other prelates. 
His letter He wrote, " That his credit had ever been more dear 
in vindica- a ynto him, thau either living or other worldly benefits ; 

tion of . Ill ii'iii 

himself. " especially to tliem whom he knew to be honourable and 
" wise. Wherefore he desired his lordship's favom'able in- 
" terpretation, if at this time he shewed himself somewhat 
" more jealous than needed in that respect,"" &c. For the 
whole letter, transcribed from the original, I refer the reader 
[Number to the Appendix ; for some further remembrance of that ex- 
XXX.] cellent and learned bishop. And to the letter he added an 


exact schedule of the whole value of the bishopric, and the CHAP. 
charges payable out of it. That laying it before that states- XV- 
man, he might the more perfectly understand his circum- Anno 1 583. 
stances, and prevent any misrepresentations of him, and 
clear himself of that unjust calumny of being covetous. 
Which schedule follows in the transcript of the letter. 

The bishop of Meath, in Ireland, sent this year a letter The bishop 
of importance to the court. In which kingdom, one cause of "^ ^,'^l"' 

"Uj" 11 II 07 moves tor 

the tedious and cliargeable wars there was owing to the io-- an univer- 
norance of the inhabitants, bred up in blind superstition, and "^^'" 
having no opportunity of instruction in the truth. For an 
university and schools they were destitute of; where the 
younger sort, especially gentlemen, might come to good 
learning, civility, and right knowledge of religion. This the 
said bishop of Meath took the opportunity, when he was in 
England, in a sermon or two before the queen, earnestly to 
inculcate ; moving her majesty to erect an university in that 
kingdom ; setting forth so effectually the excellent use there- 
of to extinguish those sad wars, and tending so much to 
their loyalty and subjection to their prince, that it moved 
much the queen and all the nobility present; and particu- 
larly the lord treasurer : who saw well, and was sensible of 
the grievous charge of that war, and the tumults there. 

And upon this, all the court were in earnest consultation 
of the method and way to bring this about. But all cooled 
within a little time, and came to no effect. But that good 
bishop being returned to his diocese, and some years passed, 
and nothing done, gives a gentle reproach to the court for 
this neglect in a letter to the lord treasurer, and moves now Moves the 
for a lesser matter, but of the same nature, and for the same '1"^*'° ^°'" * 
end ; namely, that the queen Avould grant him liberty and 
assistance to build a free grammar school in a certain con- 
venient place in that kingdom, in a town wherein he was 
born, (according to an act passed in that parliament for erect- 
ing free schools in that kingdom,) and that it should be call- 
ed. Her majesty's school. And that he, the bishop, would I77 
himself take care for the building and finishing of it. And 
doubted not, but that there would be many well disposed 



BOOK gentlemen and others that would assist and contribute. This 


' excellent letter of the bishop of Meath, written from Dublin 
Anno 1583. in the month of October, deserveth to be preserved. See it 
No. XXXI. exemplified in the Appendix. 

The time of the bishop's motion for founding the univer- 
sity above mentioned was at least seven years ago : which 
may be conjectured from a discourse the lord treasurer held 
with that bishop about it when he was in England ; who 
then advised, that Mr. Elmer was the fittest man to be pro- 
vost and overseer of it : the same that was afterward bishop 
of London in the year 1576. And let me add, on this occa- 
sion, that some years before that, the want of schools and 
an university was felt in that kingdom of Ireland ; and 
Schools and propounded to the English court to establish. For I meet 
^t "forire ^^^^^^ ^ tract in manuscript framed about the year 1570, by 
land reconi-one Rowland Whyte, Fo?' the refoj'mation of Ireland. De- 
1570. dicated to Will. Cecil!, secretary. Wherein, among other 
things, he propounded the foundation of twelve free schools, 
and one university : " Both to be maintained in her ma- 
" jesty's name continually : that the godly order of virtu- 
" ous discipline in the schools might fashion the Irish race 
" towards good and perfect subjection ; in such sort, that 
" by the open light thereof, in time they might forget what 
" their auncestors' old dispositions had been to the contrary. 
" And that as the institution of the free schools was for the 
" entering of young children in good principles and rules in 
" the English tongue ; so for their more perfect learning and 
" knowledge and judgment, it would be a profitable foun- 
" dation, to ordain an university in some place of the realm 
" where her highness should think most expedient. By the 
" appointment whereof most men would be allured to set 
" their children to school, considering the perfection of 
" learning within the realm so ordained : causing also men 
" of years to become studious, of whose profit the common 
" people should participate. And by them, being favourers 
" and furtherers of the truth, would be defaced the wicked 
" wants of old orders, lawless lives, salvage ways, and 
" enormities ; the very natural men of the country, through 


" their wisdoms (thus won in such an university) reprov- CHAP. 
" ing the vicious affections thereof, and provoking by their ^^' 

"•examples and skilful persuasions, the contrarv. And so'^""" i-^S3. 

" would prove a good help to subdue sin. And the rather 

" prevailable, because of the inward repugnance that by 

" this means shall be wrought between the well taught 

" and virtuously disposed, and the wilfully ignorant, fro- 

*' wardly given, of one religion ; yea peradventure of one 

" kindred or family. So that thus contention and discord 

" might bring commodity, and do good. Where now the 

*' raw realm leaneth one way for the most part, without in- 

" struction, true teaching, or dissuasion from wilful de- 

" meanour ; rather than to those that with humility be 

*' willing to learn. The credit of their own countrymen 

*' shall profit much for the establishment of their faith, fear, 

" and obedience toward God and their prince, with love to 

" their neighbours, as Christian men be bound to do."" 

All this I have added, to shew how this was propounded l/S 
by some eminent hand many years before this advice of the 
bishop of Meath, as the best method to civilize that rude 
country, by imbruing the minds of the Irish with good 
learning, to be obtained by means of an university and 
schools among them. 

This year Tobie Matthew, dean of Christ Church, Oxon, Tobie Mat- 
and who had other preferments, a worthy man and an elo- V""'"' T'^" 

'■ ' J dean of 

quent preacher, was preferred to the deanery of Durham, Durimm. 
chiefly by the interest of the lord treasurer Burghley, his 
great patron. To which place he was nominated a year be- 
fore, by the recommendation of the said lord to the queen. 
But it had a pretty long delay before it was finished. As 
appears by his letter to that lord, dated in May, 1582, 
thus bespeaking him to forward his business with the 
queen: "That by his good word, which it pleased his He solicits 
" lordship to afford him unto her highness towards the T''" '"''^ 

J >^ treasurer 

" deanery of Durham, to his great furtherance, and greater for his de- 
" credit, he was encouraged to move her highness again ^J'^**^'^- 
" for her resolution and his despatch. And that he was 
" nothmg so importune with his honour, as many good men 
vor.. III. ■ s 


BOOK " of that church and country were earnest with him, to do 
' " what in him lay for expedition."" And the reason he gave 
Anno 1583. thereof follows ; viz. the miserable condition of the deanery. 
" For that he was credibly informed, that many things 
" there went to wrack. The houses decayed ; the game 
" spoiled ; the woods wasted ; tlie grounds unlet ; yet not 
" uneaten," &c. 

Nor had the queen passed the grant in August follomng : 

when I find another letter of Dr. Matthew to the same 

The ill slate lord, " That he would be his good lord, as he had hitherto 

deanery, " been, in the despatch of the deanery : and that especially 

now void, a at that instant, the state and condition thereof being such, 

" as unless the dean that next should be might be inducted, 

*' and keep his residence there by the space of one and 

" twenty days together, before Michaelmas next, the whole 

" crop, as well of hay as corn, as all other fruits, belonging 

" to the tithes and glebe land, (which was valued two parts 

A local sta- <" of three in that living,) must by a local statute of that 

" church accrue to the prebendaries resident there this year 

" past : so as the next dean should for the year to come 

" have no manner of provision wherewith to keep house ; 

" and so be the less able to do good in preaching or govern- 

" ment: where, they said, many regarded hospitality very 

" much ; who being lost at the first, would hardly be won 

" a good Avhile after." 

He^iroceeded further, " To remember his lordship withal 
" in what decay and dilapidations the dean's mansion houses 
" were fallen ; what spoil and waste, as well of woods as of 
*' other conmiodities belonging to their dignity, had been, 
" and would be, during the vacation ; and in how great 
*' need the divided church did stand of some indifferent go- 
" vernor: how incommodious the season of tlie year would 
" hereafter be to remove so far from these parts, &ec. Con- 
" sideration whereof he most humbly referred unto his 
'• lordship's great wisdom and favourable furtherance. That 
" as he was already much bounden to her majesty's good 
" inclination towards him, so for her gracious expedition of 
1 79 " liis suit he might be more indebted to his honour. For 


" the continuance and increase w hereof he should daily c HAP. 
" pray to Almighty God." This was dated the 25th August, 


1582. Auno 1683. 

Well, notwithstanding all this supplication, it was not Dr. Mat- 
before August this year, 1583, he was. inducted. And in ducred"' 
September following he sent a letter of gratitude to his pa- 
tron and friend, the foresaid lord Burghley, thanking him 
for his grave counsel he gave him upon his going down to 
Durham, and in another letter sent him since his coming 
there. On occasion of which counsel, the dean in his reply 
said, " That he trusted the grace of God would enable him 
" to follow it, to the discharge of his calling; as it had 
*' persuaded him to like thereof, to the contentation of his 
" mind. And promised to be reformed by his authority, 
" and directed by his wisdom ; even as by the Socrates or 
" Solomon of this age." And then upon occasion of that 
lord's moving him for a lease of Pittington, which it seems 
was double leased out before, the dean informed him of it, 
and that there had been sixty leases, nay, and seventy more, 
made in the times of his two former predecessors, viz. Whit- 
tingham and Wylspn. But I refer the reader to the dean's 
whole letter, reposited in the Appendix. No.XXXIi. 

This learned dean was afterwards successively bishop of 
Durham, and archbishop of York. He was born in Bristol, 
but of Welsh extraction. Died March the 29th, 1628; aged 
82; as appeareth by the inscription on his monument in 
York cathedral. 

CHAP XVI. 180 

The queen grants a commission ecclesiastical. The letters 
patents. Cawdry deprived. Withers of Danbury writes 
to the lord treasurer in behalf of the puritans. Their 
case recom,viended to the council, in a letter from the 
gentlemen of Suffolk : the lords'' instructions to the judges 
of assize thereupon. Proceedings against the dispersers 
of Brown''s books at Bury St. Edmund's : and against 
papists. The judges'' account of the assises held there. 

s 2 


BOOK Popish hooiks set Jbrth : Theses Angloruni Rhemensuiin. 
' Dr. Aliens Defence of the English Catholics. Parrie's 

Anno 1583. letter Jrom Lions and Paris. One Touker., late in the in- 
quisition at Rome, comes home: mah-es discoveries. The bi- 
shop of Ross. Dr. Lezcis in Rome. Dr. Oxenbridgc at Wis- 
hich ; his submission and subscription to the supremacy/. 

An eccie- J- HE queen set forth a commission ecclesiastical this year, 
commis according to an act of parhament in the first year of her 
sion. reign : finding it in these times so very necessary to pre- 

serve obedience to the laws framed for the reformation of 
rehgion, and keeping the queen's subjects in true obedience, 
and conformity to what was established upon very wise and 
mature dehberation ; for the security and quiet of religion, 
and due and firm loyalty and fidelity to the prince. And 
that we may see the nature and power of such a commission, 
I shall here set it down, as it was confirmed by the queen's 
letters patent, dated December 9, 26 regin. authorizing 
the archbishop of Canterbury, the bishop of London, and 
divers others, or any three or more of them, to inquire, 
among other things, of the statute of the first of her reign, 
concerning the Book of Common Prayer ; with this clause 
The matter also contained in the same letters patents ; " And we give 
*'^^*' " and grant to them full power and authority, to reform, 

" redress, order, correct, and amend, in all places of this 
" realm, all errors, heresies, schisms, abuses, contempts, and 
" enormities, spiritual or ecclesiastical, whatsoever, which, 
" by spiritual or ecclesiastical power and authority or juris- 
" diction, can or may lawfully be reformed, ordered, re- 
" dressed, corrected, restrained, or amended by the censures 
" ecclesiastical, deprivation, or otherwise, &c. 

" And upon proof whereof had, and the offences afore- 
*' said, or any of them, sufficiently proved against any per- 
" son or persons, by confession, lawful witness, or by any 
" due manner, &c. that then you, or three of you, shall 
" have full power and authority to order and award such 
181" punishment to every such offender, by fine, imprisonment, 
" censure of the church, or otherwise, or by all or any the 


" said ways; and to take such order for the redress of the chap. 
" same by your wisdom and discretion, as shall be thought ^^^- 

" meet and convenient; as by the same letters patent more Anno 1583. 
" at large appeared. 

" And further, as they found in that statute of the first 
" of the reign of the said queen ; by Avhich it is enacted, 
" That the offender against the act concerning the Unifor- 
" mity of Common Prayer, and being thereof lawfully con- 
" victed according to the laws of the realm, by virtue of 
*' twelve men, or by his own confession, or by the notorious 
*' evidence of the fact, should forfeit, for the first offence, 
" the value of his spii'itual living for one whole year, and 
" should suffer six months imprisonment. For the second 
" offence, to be committed after such conviction, he should 
" be deprived ipso facto of all his spiritual livings. And for 
" the third offence, to be committed after two convictions, 
" as is aforesaid, he should be deprived of all his ecclesias- 
" tical living, and be imprisoned during his life." 

This I take from a book printed in the black letter, in what the 
two columns, Latin and English, entitled, De jure r^^'w ''"^'^" * 

' o ' ' .y to power ec- 

ecclesiastico. Wherein is shewn briefly what this ecclesias- ciesiasticai 
tical jiu'isdiction and power granted to the queen was by 
the foresaid statute, viz. By which it was enacted, " That 
" such jurisdiction ecclesiastical, as by any spiritual or 
" ecclesiastical power hath heretofore been, or may lawfully 
•"' be exercised for the visitation of the ecclesiastical state 
" and persons, and for reformation and correction of the 
" same, and of all manner of errors, heresies, schisms, 
" abuses, offences, &c. within this realm, should for ever be 
" united and annexed to the imperial crown of this realm. 
" And that her highness, her heirs and successors, should 
" have full power and authority by virtue of that act, by 
" letters patent under the great seal of England, to assign, 
" nominate, and authorize such persons, being natui-al born 
" subjects, as her highness, her heirs and successors, should 
" think meet to exercise and execute, under her hisrhness, 
" her heirs and successors, all and all manner of jurisdic- 
" tions, privileges, and preeminences in any wise, touching 



BOOK *' or concerning any spiritual or ecclesiastical jurisdiction 
*' within these realms of England and Ireland ; and to visit, 
Anno 1583." reform, redress, order, correct, and amend all such errors, 
" heresies, schisms, abuses, &c. which by any manner spi- 
" ritual or ecclesiastical power, authority, or jurisdiction, 
" can or may lawfully be reformed, ordered, redressed, cor- 
" reeled, &c. to the pleasure of Almighty God, the increase 
" of virtue, and the conservation of peace and unity of this 
" realm." This I set down thus at large, to shew that spe- 
cial power by which the queen acted in those ecclesiastical 
commissions she so often sent forth. See more of this com- 
mission, and the archbishop''s acting in it, in his Life. 
Cawdry (le- By the above-mentioned commission, Robert Cawdry 
the com- was deprived of his benefice of LufFenham, before those 


high commissioners there named ; as well for that he had 
preached against the Book of Common Prayer ; as also for 
that he had refused to celebrate divine service according to 
the said book : and shewed particularly wherein. Which 
sentence of deprivation was given by the bishop of London, 
cuTfi assensii A. B. C. D. collegarum. This case of Caw- 
I82drie''s was solemnly and oftentimes debated at bar, by the 
covmsel of either part, and at the bench of the judges. See 
this controversy more at large, taken from authentic papers, 
shop Ayi- in the Life of Bishop Aylmer. 

mer,ch.viii. This Commission, proceeding from the queen''s care of re- 
puritan his ligion, leadeth us to take some view of such as were disaf- 
addressto fectcd either to our church''s liturffv or government. A 

f'e i"'"'i , 11 11 . • • 111 

treasurer, large addrcss was made about this tnne to the lord trea- 
surer Burghley, in behalf of these, by one Withers, rector 
of Danbury in Essex. The cause thereof was, his great 
concern for the differences that were among the queen^s 
subjects about matters of religion ; the loss of peace and 
love, and the sufferings of such as complied not in all the 
articles required. 

Upon these reasons he was by some persons persuaded 
(especially when subscription to the Common Prayer was 
re(|uired) to make the said address : and was the more in- 
clined so to do, having knowledge of this lord's great con- 


cern and care for religion, and the experience he himself CHAP, 
had of his kindness towards him. ^^^' 

Withers was a man of account, and had been abroad A""o '583. 
among the learned reformers in Helvetia, and was himself^'* J "''?- 
conformable to the orders of the church. And therefore coutrover- 
I the rather give some brief account of his said letter. ^^^ '" ^'^^ 

*=• church. 

Therein he shewed, " How he had long wished, with all 
" his heart, that in these outward things contentions were 
" laid apart ; and that men would conform themselves to 
*' her majesty's laws and pleasure. But that herein there 
" had been faults on both sides : for that as in the one 
" there had been an over earnest standing in trifles ; so on 
" the other, too severe and sharp punishment of the same. 
" That he thought reverently of the Book [of Common 
" Prayer,] and the authors thereof; and yet notwithstand- 
" ing he thought with Augustin, that it was a reverence 
" due only and alone to the canonical books of scripture, to 
" think that the authors of them, in their writing; of them, 
" erred in nothing ; and to none other books of men, of 
" what learning or holiness soever. 

" But two sorts of things there were particularly that 
" might hinder many from subscribing to the Common 
" Prayer Book, and which he wished might be amended ; 
" viz. First, Such as could not be defended ; and secondly, 
" Such as with a favourable interpretation might stand, yet 
" gave the adversary shrewd advantage. 

" The which things, with some others, (as private hap- 
" tism by any present, and communicathig the sick with 
" the minister only,) in the beginning of her majesty's reign, 
" when some of the bishops were charged with by the 
" learned of foreign churches, they in this wise excused 
" themselves, as I myself (added Withers) saw in their 
" letters of answer, which by Mr. Bullinger and Gualter 
" were shewed me at Zurick, in the year 1567; namely, 
" that they, nor none of them were of the parliament house 
" at passing of the book, and that they had therefore no 
" voice in making of the law. But that after it was passed, 

s 4 


BOOK " they being chosen to be bishops, must either content 
^- " themselves to take their place, as things were, or else 
Anno 1583." leave them to papists, or to them which were not much 
" better, that is, to Lutherans. But that in the mean time 
" they both professed not to urge their brethren to those 
" things, and also wlien opportunity should serve, to seek 
183" reformation of them."" Divers other scruples and objec- 
tions are in that letter enumerated against the Common 
Prayer, But 1 choose rather to leave them to be read at 
Number larfife in the letter : see the Apijendix. This Withers was 


formerly a minister in St. Edmund's Bury, and one that re- 
Life of fused wearing the habits; but upon suspension, complied, 
Parker'''"^ in a letter writ by him to archbishop Parker, in the year 

book iii. 1565. 

V -1 Divers of these scrupulous ministers, that had livings in 

PuDtan mi- i 

nisters in the county of Suffolk, were prosecuted for divers neglects 
S'cuted.'"^*' or variations in the performance of the public service: as, 
not wearing the surplice in their ministration, omitting the 
sign of the cross in baptism, and tlie ring in marriage ; al- 
tering some words in the solemnization of matrimony ; and 
the non-observing of ceremonies. For these things they were 
informed against, and some of them indicted and arraigned. 
Address Upon this, some of the gentlemen and justices of the peace 
som"'^en-°^in those parts made a supplication and complaint to the 
tiemeu to queeu's privy-council ; aggravating the matter, and pray- 
le counci . .^^^^ ^ i-e^dress of Certain ignominious injuries offered to them, 
and to certain godly ministers, by divers and sundry in the 
same county, not favouring the true reformation of religion, 
as they informed. And thus they declared their grievance : 
" Wo see, right honourable, by too long and lamentable 
" experience, that the state of the church (especially in our 
" parts) groweth every day more sick than other ; and 
" they, whom it most concerneth, have been so careless in 
" providing the means, as the hope of her recovery waxeth 
" almost desperate. Which enforceth us, as in all former 
" times, so now especially, to resort unto your good lord- 
" ships, whose hearts God hath seasoned widi a tender care 


" of his glory, and the beauty of his place, whose walls and CHAP. 
" bulwarks you tell ; and whon), we know, it would pity to ^^^' 

" see them in the dust. Anno i583. 

" These towers of Sion, the painful pastors and ministers 
" of the word, by what malice we know not, they are mar- 
" shalled Avith the worst malefactors : presented, indicted, 
" arraigned, and condemned for matters, as we presume, of 
" very slender moment. Some for leaving the holydays un- 
" bidden ; some for singing the psalm Nunc dim'ittis in 
" the morning ; some for turning the questions in baptism 
" concerning faith from the infants to the godfathers, 
" which is but you for thou; some for leaving out the cross ' 
" in baptism ; some for leaving out the ring in marriage. 
" Whereupon the law, neither the lawmaker, in our judg- 
" ments, had ever regard, but meant indeed to bridle the 
" enemy. Yet now, (a most pitiful thing to see,) the back 
" of this law turned to the adversary, and the edge, with all 
" the sharpness, laid upon the sound and true hearted sub- 
" ject. 

" We grant order to be the rule of the Spirit of God. 
" We desire one uniformity in all the duties of the church ; 
" the same being agreeable to the proportion qfj'a'ith. But Ceremo- 
" if these weak ceremonies (and their like) be so indifferent, ""^^' 
" as their use or not use may be left to the discretion of 
" the ministers, we think it, in duty, (and under your fa- 
" vourable correction we speak it,) very hard to have them 184 
" go under so hard handling, to the utter discredit of the 
" whole ministry and profession of truth. And, which is 
" more, we, that be magistrates, and under her majesty, - 
" have, as we think, equivalency of voice, and know that 
" law and justice is one, and may not be avoided, do for- 
" bear to speak what we know, lest, by our severing in opi- 
" nion, law should be rent, and justice cut in twain ; and 
" so the minds of the people, which are so easily distracted, 
" carried hither and thither, to the niovino; of further in- 
" convenience : and so, by our silence, ministry and magis- 
" tracy brought into open contempt. 

" If therefore it may be lawful to speak but truth for 


BOOK " ourselves, this is our course: we serve her majesty and 
' " the country ; not according to our fantasies, as the world 

Anno 1583." falsely bears us in hand, but according to the law and 

The law. a statutes of England. We reverence both the law and 

" the lawmaker. Law speaketh, and we keep silence. Law 

" commandeth, and we obey. Without law, we kiiow 

" that no man can possess his own in peace. By law we 

" proceed against all offenders : we touch none that law 

" spareth, we spare none that law toucheth. Hinc illce la- 

Faniiiy of " chryiucE. We allow not of the papists their treacherous 

baptists'' " subtilties and hypocrisies. We allow not of xhejhmily of 

&c. " love^ an egg of the same nest. We allow not of the 

" anabaptists, nor of their community. We allow not of 

" Browne, the overthrower of church and commonwealth. 

" We abhor all these. No, [we] punish all these. 

" But now, humbly upon our knees, we pray your good 
" lordships to give us leave to advertise you, how the ad- 
" versary very cunningly hath christened us with an odious 
" name, neither rightly applied, nor surely rightly under- 
" stood : to the end, no doubt, that we being occupied in 
" the defence of our innocence, they might have the greater 
Puritanism. " freedom to go about their hateful treacheries. It is the 
" name of piiritanism. We detest both the name and he- 
" resy. It is a term compounded of all other heresies 
'' aforesaid. The papist is pure and immaculate : he hath 
" store of goodness for himself, and plenty for others. The 
^'"Jhm'ily cannot sin : they be so pure^ that God is homini- 
^'- ficd in them, and they deified in God. But we, thanks be 
" to God, do cry in the bitterness of our souls, Peceavimns 
" cuvi jiatrihus nostr'is. We groan under the burden of our 
" sins. We confess that there be none worse before God. 
" And yet before the world we labour to keep ourselves 
" and our profession unblameable. This is our puritanism. 
" It pleaseth them to use this name to ministers, to ma- 
" gistrates, and to others ; especially to such as have an 
" eye to their juggling. And the name being odious many 
" times with the ignorant sort, it makcth the person odious. 
" A shrewd device ; and herewith somewhat dangerous : 


for we know, that every simple man in these parts, CHAP, 
(thanks be to God and her majesty,) by hearing the word ^^^' 

of God read and preached, do condemn and contemn the Anno isss. 
gross errors and trumpery of Rome. But the subtil ties 
of Rome are not so soon espied. Jesuits and seminaries Jesuits. 
are not odious names with papists. And if in time such 
might be lodged here by the pope's harbingers, and good 185 
subjects cunningly wounded with lewd titles and names 
falsely applied, God save his church, our queen and 

" We very humbly desire, right honourable, not to be- 
come offensive unto you, either in length, or in so plain 
delivery of this matter : for were the cause but ours only, 
we should bear and forbear ; but when it stretcheth even 
to the periling of church or commonwealth, or both, (for 
they cannot but as twins live and die together,) and un- 
less we would forget all duty to God and man, and suffer 
an invasion of all order, we cannot but unfold before 
your honourable judgments the particulars of that so 
great discomfort. If your good lordships shall please to 
call us to the trial and proof of these matters, it is the 
thing we most desire. If otherwise you shall think good 
to dispose another course, as we are most bound, so most 
ready, to submit all to your graver wisdom. 
" Our God, for his Christ''s sake, bless all your studies and 
labours, employed for the preservation of her majesty's 
godly and peaceable government of this land, arid the free 
passage of the gospel, the root of all the rest. That not 
we alone, but the age to come, may speak of your praises 
in all the streets and corners of our city. So most hum- 
bly recommending ourselves and our best service to your 
continual commandments, do take our leave." 
This earnest address seems to have had some success with 
the lords ; especially as to the rigorous dealing with some of 
the ministers, for some omissions or variations in the use of 
the book ; chiefly by information of inquests of some not 
well affected to religion ; as appeareth by some instructions 
to the judges in the assizes of this circuit about them : for 


BOOK there was, adjoining to tlie former supplication, another pa- 
'• per directed to the judges, thus endorsed: A letter of the 

Anno \t>8i. council to thc judge s of assize : whicii ran in these words : 

Letters " After our very hearty connnendations. Whereas we 

cmlndi'to " are informed, that heretofore, at tlie assizes in your cir- 

the judges a guit, divers good preachers, and other godly disposed, 

about'the " have been indicted, (by colour of law,) for things not so 

puritans, a much against the matter and very meaning of the law, as 

" in some show swerving from the letter thereof. Namely, 

" for not using the surplice ; resorting to sermons in other 

" parishes for want at home; leaving out some collects on 

" the days of preaching ; for using private prayers in their 

" houses, and such like. All which, we suppose, cometh to 

" pass by the practice of some informers, not so well dis- 

" posed in religion ; as also of men returned upon great 

" inquests, many times such as be still in ignorance, and 

"cannot brook the gospel; and being in love with the li- 

" cence of former times, cannot so well endure the present 

" plain teachers ; who, by laying open their faults, would 

" draw them to a more precise and gospel-like life. 

" These are therefore to desire you, and heartily to pray 
" you, that in every sitting of your circuit you sift and ex- 
" amine the affection of such informers touching religion ; 
186" and thereafter give ear unto them. As also to have a 
" special regard, that the inquest at large may be religious, 
" wise, and honest. And if, notwithstanding your diligence 
*' in this behalf, such juries nevertheless creep in, as by like 
<' information molest good men ; that yet your speech, and 
" whole proceedings against them, at the bar, or elsewhere 
" called before you, may be according to their (piality : not 
" matching them at bar, or in the judgment, with rogues, 
" felons, or papists; but rather giving appearance, in the 
" face of the country, what difference you hold between 
*' papists, dissenting from us in substance of faith to God 
" and loyalty to ovu- prince, and these other men ; which, 
" making some conscience in these ceremonies, do yet dili- 
" gently and soundly preach true religion and obedience 
" to her majesty ; maintaining the connnon peace in them- 


selves and in their auditors. So shall the country learn CHAP. 
thereby, at the assizes, better to reverence the gospel, and 

love the ministers and professors thereof. Thus pro- Anno i583. 
" niising ourselves thus nnich at your hands, we bid you 
" heartily farewell."" 

As in Suffolk, so chiefly about Bury St. Edmund's, were 
no small numbers of such as were affected with gross errors 
and heresies; and that brake off all communion with the 
church. Some of the chief of these were Robert Browne, Browne and 
(of whom somewhat before,) and Harrison, teachers: whotaristsin 
writ and dispersed books of very ill principles. And Cop- K""")^- 
ping and Fawker, great dispersers of them. And one Tho. 
Gibson, in a church of the said town, had caused to be 
written an infamous inscription about the queen's arms, 
styling her Jezebel, as was shewn before. 

These persons last named, at an assizes held at Bury this Called at 

1»-|» • 1 -1 '11* ^^^ clSSlZCS 

year, were called into question, and severely punished ; sir t^,ere, and 

Christopher Wray going that circuit. They were charged punished. 

for denying the queen's supremacy. The trial of these, and 

their judgment, was declared in an account given thereof 

by the same judge to the lord treasurer : " That Elias 

" Fawker, (so writ in the judge's letter,) John Coppinge, 

" and Tho. Gibson, were convicted for dispersing Browne's 

*' books and Harrison's books. The first two executed in 

" the time of the assizes ; the former on Thursday, the 

" other on Friday. The book acknowledged her majesty 

" civilly. But so was their terms, and no further. And 

" though Dr. Stil [the archbishop's chaplain] and others 

" travailed and conferred with them, yet they were at that 

" very time of their death unmoveably of the same mind." 

These Brownists, (for so was the sect called,) and the Brownists, 

n .^ • • 1 1 • • r> their charge 

cause oi their punishment, are thus given us in one ot our ^^^^ crime? 
historians: " Elias Thacker was hanged at St. Edm. Bury Stow, 
" in Suffolk, June the 4th ; and John Copping on the 6th p. 1174. 
" of the same ; for spreading certain books seditiously 
" penned by Rob. Browne, against the Book of Common 
. " Prayer, established by the laws of this realm." Their 
books, as many as could be found, were burnt before them. 


BOOK But here he that reads this must be cautious how he un- 
derstandeth the cause of their execution extending: to death : 

Anno 1583. for it appears by the judges"' letter, that it was for their de- 
187 nial of the queen's supremacy in all causes; which they al- 
lowed only in civil. And this chiefly the judges thought fit 
to take hold of in the book. 
Papists con- And as there were brought into judgment at this assize 
the assizes divers of the puritan sect, so also there were convicted here 
at Bury. several of the popish faction. From whence was appre- 
hended great danger at this time. Whereof the said lord 
chief justice Wray informed the said lord treasurer, in the 
beginning of his said letter, viz. " That he would please to 
" be advertised of their proceedings in that assizes at Bury, 
" and of the state of that country. That there were con- 
" victed divers gentlemen for recusancy and papistry ; who 
" were sent in by the bishop [i. e. of the diocese]. As Mr. 
" Hare, Mr. Sullyard, and Marten, and others, to the num- 
" ber of seven : who all continued in their obstinacy. That 
" there were some others, to the number of tiiree, brought 
" in by the slieriff : all which did reform themselves; and 
*' so were discharged. All the rest appeared not, but N^07i 
" est inventus, returned upon every of them. 

" That these gentlemen that were convicted, as the bi- 
*' shop said, were committed to him by my lords of the 
" council : and so were his prisoners ; desiring after convic- 
" tion to have them again. But that because after their 
" conviction this time twelvemonth he suffered them ever 
" sithence, for the most part, to be at large, we [viz. the 
"judges] have taken bonds of them, either to pay the 
*' money at the end of three months, or else to render their 
" bodies to the gaol, according to the statute." Adding, 
" Their bonds we take by discretion : for the law is, they 
" should pay it within three months, or else be impri- 
" soned." And then leaving this matter between the bishop 
and them [the judges] to the privy-council, they thus con- 
cluded ; " That if their lordships' pleasure were, that they 
** should continue the bishop's prisoners, and in bonds to 
" him there, it was reason they should be discharged of the 


" bonds they [the judges] had taken. But if their lord- CHAP. 
" ships thought better of tlieir bonds, then they were to be ^^^' 

discharged of the bishop's bonds." Anno issa. 

The popish cause in the mean time was earnestly carried 
on by the English Roman catholics abroad ; which did con- 
firm the more the said faction at home. This the learned 
did by their books. 

The English seminary college at Rhemes had laboured, The semi- 
some few years ago, to promote their cause, by making and [i'|,7ufes set 
publishing an English translation of the New Testament ; forth books, 
thereby to expose our English translation, and to make the 
scripture speak favourably of their church and religion : of 
which we shall relate other particulars afterwards. Now Theses An- 
this year they set forth certain disputations, called theses, of ^i"^""en. 
three of their learned men; viz, GifFord, Raynolds, ands'i^"!- 
Foster. They were printed in three large sheets of paper ; 
each dedicated to some great man, with an epistle. These 
disputations I found among the lord Burghley''s papers : 
which were thus endorsed by his own hand, Theses Theolo- 
glcod Anglorum Rhemensium. 

The first is made by Will. GifFord to Lewis, the cardinal 
of Lorain, archbishop and duke of Rhemes. The theses 
are, De cultu externo, contra hcereticos. Beginning with De 
sacramentis in genere : and then treating of the seven sa- 188 
craments in particular. And after, De oratione et aliis qf- 
Jiciis, quibus -extra sacranienta colHur Dens. 

The second disputant was Will. Raynold, of the same 
college of Rhemes. His theses were, De ecclesia, ejusque 
monarchia, et hierai'chia. Dedicated in an epistle to John 
Baptist, bishop of Ariminum, and apostolical nuncio to the 
most Christian king. He hath a thesis, after that of the 
church, De conciliis. 

The third disputant of the same college was Seth Foster : 
who dedicated his theses to Philip Boncompagnoun, cardi- 
nal, and protector of the EngUsh colleges. His thesis bore 
this title: Assertioncs de vera hominis justificatione ; con- 
tra hcBreticos hujus temporis. 

About this year another book was written in favour of^^*'"^*'^ 

Dr. Allen 


BOOK the English catholics ; the author Dr. Allen, afterwards car- 
dinal Allen: entitled, A defence of the English catholics: 
Anno i583.a,,i(j ^as in knsvver to a book called. The execution ofjus- 
o" theEno--^^^^ ^^ England; against those seminaries, Campion and 
lish catho- other popish traitors, lately executed. Of this book of Al- 
len's take this remark : that it was sent to Dr. Parry (of 
whom before) out of France ; or he met with it there : and 
he lent it unto Edmund Nevyl, to confirm him, as it had 
done Parry himself, to kill the queen. How it confirmed 
Fowiis's Parry, his confession shewed. " That it redovibled his for- 
°34o'^^'*^' " mer conceits : that every word in it was a warrant to a 
" prepared mind. It taught, that kings might be excom- 
" municated, deprived, and violently handled. It proved, 
" that all civil wars or foreign, undertaken for religion, were 
" honourable." 
Parrie's let- And now we are fallen upon Parry, as we have exposed 
France^&c ^"'"^ "^ ^^^ hypocritical letters before, and his pretences of 
loyalty, when nothing but vile falseness was at the bottom ; 
so now I shall present one or two more of his letters from 
Lions and Paris. Where we shall see his pretended great 
officiousness to serve the queen abroad, and to be a spy 
upon her enemies, and informer of occurrences on her be- 
half. But his previous concern was, that the lord treasurer 
should believe him a true man: thus he wrote from Venice 
the latter end of the former year. 
His inteiii- From Lions in France he addressed a letter, dated the 
Lions. ^Re- l^th of June, to the said lord treasurer. Therein he re- 
commends commended a fit person for the English court"'s private in- 
nice, telligencer in Venice, when he was gone : whom he had be- 
fore commended to Mr. Secretary ; being a very sufficient 
man to be entertained there for her majesty's service. That 
he was beloved, well acquainted, and esteemed among the 
Venetian gentlemen. And that he was greatly affected to 
our state, and very ready to serve, if his lordship and Mr. 
Secretary should think good to use him : and that he was 
resident, as he thought, for some of the greatest princes m 
Germany. And he added, that he could assure his lord- 
ship, that he was a very honest, sufficient man. 


His further intelligence in this letter was, " Concerning CHAP. 
" Mr. Arundel, [a busy man,] that he was departed thence 

for England. And concerning Mr. Umpton, [the queen's ^""o i^sa. 
" ambassador in France,] that he spake very great honour ^ "'P^""- 
" of his lordship, and confessed himself most deeply bound 9 
" to the same; and vowed all readiness in him to serve his 
" lordship. That he was a very proper and thankful gen- 
" tleman, full of devotion to his prince and country :" add- 
ing these words, (shewing his pretended loyalty ;) " I would 
" to Christ England bred no other." Concerning Ireland Ireland, 
thus he informed; " That the Irish practice was nevermore 
" hotly solicited : but all were deaf that should hear, and 
" began to despair of any good to be seen in their time in 
" England." And so concludes with a prayer, (that came 
not from his heart:) " Which [i. e. England] God will, I 
" trust, as he hath long, preserve." 

Again, some months after, I find him at Paris. Whence And from 
in October he writ again a letter to the treasurer, to no great *'^'*' 
import, but of the coming of sir Edward Stafford thither, to 
be the queen's resident ; and in his retinue Mr. Will. Cecil, 
(the said lord treasurer''s grandson,) whom he fovmd there 
in his travels. Of whom he gave a good character, knowing 
how acceptable it must be to that lord, his grandfather, viz. 
" That his good-nature and towardness began to make a^^''"-Ceeii 
" '^^^y good show already. That he [Parry] would do his' 
" best to make it appear how much he was bound to his 
" lordship." And concerning one Mr, Bird, whom his lord- 
ship had appointed to be his governor, and to attend him in 
his journey, he added, " That his lordship, in his opinion, 
" had made a very good choice of him ; ^whose government 
' and care of Mr. Cecil could not be amended. That he 
" was very well lodged, in good air and neighbourhood." 
And that Mr. Pallavicini [an eminent Italian merchant in 
London, now there, as it seems, in some of the queen's busi- 
ness] had especial care of him ; and so had my lord ambas- 
sador and his lady. 

I forbear to say any thing more of this man, till next 



BOOK year, when lie was conic home, and his treason (hsco- 


Anno 1683. There was next, returning home from Rome, one Francis 
One Touker fpoyj^g,. ^j. Tuckcr, a merchant that had been in the inqui- 

in the in- ' ' _ ^ 

quisitioii sition there ; and who afterwards was very instrumental to 
home. the lord treasurer, in giving information of such ill-affected 
persons whom he had known at Rome or Italy ; being re- 
commended to that lord by sir Richard Shelly : telling him, 
in one of his letters, that he was now coming home : and ad- 
vised that lord to talk at length with him, and to take par- 
ticular information by him ; whom he took to be a very ho- 
Fit to give nest man. And again, in a letter, (whereof this Touker was 
L'Tnce ^^^^ bearer,) he shewed that lord hoAv fit a person he was to 
give information and intelligence; " Who going and coming 
" as a mercliant ; and now so warranted in Rome and Na- 
" pies, and being languaged and expert, and bearing so true 
" a heart to his country, as he [Shelly] had conceived by 
" his resorting to him ; should be able to discover to him 
" the humour that then ran abroad towards our country: 
" which he assured his lordsliip had been lofty and threaten- 
" ing; and at that present time more than ever, without re- 
" spect, [meaning, perhaps, of the person of the queen her- 
" self."] As he also mentioned to that lord, for the same 
purpose, another Englishman, named Pyne, lately also de- 
190livered out of the inquisition; to discourse with him, when 
he came into England : it being so necessary to know as 
much as might be of the English, and their practices there 
at Rome. 
Makes dis- Of the former the said lord made use, and employed liim 
coveiies of ^y^en he camc into England ; and he became an useful per- 

the English . ■ • ■ r S • T J 

at Rome, son in giving iniormation concerning divers dangerous pa- 
pists then in England, that came from abroad : concealing 
himself, as though he were a friend to the fugitives, for the 
more advantage of his conversation with them. He had 
been in the Marshalsea by that lord's private order, (where 
were committed divers of that sort,) to view those prisoners, 
and to talk with them : some whereof were his acquaintance 


at Rome: whence he misht get some more knowledo-e of CHAI 

• XVI 

tlieir affairs. I have before me a letter of this Tucker, or 

Touker, to that lord, informing him what he had done, and'^""" '583. 
what discoveries he had made, viz. 

Tliat he had been three times at the Marshalsea ; and Informs 
found there one Tither, with whom he was acquainted in so,i,e jn'the 
Rome. And that upon his request, Tither promised to ^'^""s'la'^^a- 
send to Rome, to the rector of the English seminary there, 
to get one Chr. Tater delivered out of the galleys, to which 
he had been condemned by the inquisition, with another 
Englishman. This Tater''s wife had made her interest with 
Touker, to obtain this favour of Titlier. She also laboured, 
by the means of him and others in the Marshalsea, to get a 
letter from the queen of Scots to the pope, for the more ef- 
fectual obtaining her iiusband's deliverance. And also to get 
a letter from Feckenham (sometime abbot of Westminster) 
to the cardinal there. The same Tither, having a corre- 
spondence in Rome, proffered to convey Touker''s letters to 
Fitz Herboi'd, some great Englishman there. Also, he bade ' 
him beware of one Woodward ; who had served Dr. Wen- 
don in Rome : who now, it seems, discovered too much of 
the English doings there. 

He added also, in his said letter to the treasiu-er, this in-Tlie pope 
telligence; That there came in April last from Rome to Na- [j-^^^^*:^ ^^ 
pies an Irishman, whom the pope created bishop of Ross^o^s- 
in Ireland, and gave him authority to make priests. By 
which authority he gave orders to as many as came, and got 
much ntioney. And that the archbishop of Naples forbade 
him ; but the pope's nuncio maintained his doings. And 
when he went from Naples he carried with him great store 
of pardons and agnus net's, to the pope''s friends in Ireland. 
I forbear repeating other informations in this letter ; leaving 
the whole to be read in the Appendix. Number 

Concerning this bishop of Ross, sir Richard Shelly, in his ' ' ' 
correspondence with the lord treasurer, informed, that be ^^"^'^"Ji™]'^ 
was one of Stewklie''s great counsellors ; and addeth, That 
the realm, and his lordship especially, had a perilous and a 
spiteful enemy of him. 

T 2 


BOOK Svich another was Dr. Lewis in Rome. Whose character 
' the said Shelley gave that lord, and advising- him of his being 

Anno 1583. now come home from thence; who was another of Stewk- 
Dr. Lewis jj^-v^ Counsellors. And that he was here in good repute: 

comes from _ ^ a 

Rome. which he wondered at. He advised that lord to beware of 

him ; and he especially, of all men living. And that he was 

the deepest and doublest dissembler that ever he knew 

since he was born ; who had now (as he added) lived in 

the world threescore and four years. 

191 Among the Roman catholics here at home, divers were 

taken up, and imprisoned in AVisbich castle ; for refusal to 

Dr. Oxen- take the oath of supremacy. Among these was one Oxen- 

wfbn" bridge, LL.D. But this year he submitted; owning the 

castle, sub- quccn for supreme on earth. Which he did under his hand 

in these words following, written May the 14th, 1583, from 

Wisbich castle : " I, Andrew Oxenbridge, doctor of laws, 

" do frankly and from my heart acknowledge and avow her 

Acknow- " niost gracious lady Elizabeth, now queen of England, to 

ledgeth the u |jg niost rightful and lawful queen thereof de jure: as 

queen's su- n ^ • • ^ ^ p ^ ^ ^ n 

premacy. " whereof she is most justly possessed from the hrst day 01 
" her reign till now. And to her majesty alone, as to my 
" most just and sole sovereign magistrate, I owe all my loy- 
" alty, service, and whole duty of subjection, next under 
" God. And even so will I repute her majesty during life ; 
" against the bull, if any, be it of Pius V, Gregory, or any 
" other pope, heretofore or hereafter. 

" Furthermore, if any man, pretending catholic Roman 
" religion, be of mind, that the pope, for one cause or other, 
" may depose her, or dispense with her subjects' oath and 
" loyalty; I hold it a traitorous article, such as I do not be- 
" lieve; but contrarily, am ready, and vow to spend my life 
" and goods, for the peace and quiet of queen Elizabeth, 
" and this present state, against whatsoever invader, dis- 
" turber, or imderminer, by what authority and bull or di- 
" rection soever he shall do it, of prince or priest, potentate 
" or prelate, namely, of the pope himself: by what juris- 
" diction, power, or name, be it soever he command. 

" And as touching: matter of religion, to avoid all show of 


" obstinate holding any thing by me once received; I pro- CHAP. 
" mise, that if in conference with any learned man, (which 

" being sent by authority, I will willingly admit,) he can Anno 1583. 
" convince me, by the only scriptures of the old and new 
" Testament, to hold any error, I will yield me to better 
" reason, and thank God. 

" All this I protest simply and plainly, according to the 
" plain sense of the words ; abhorring all hidden sophistica- 
" tion, and dissembled reservation of private sense, or secret 
" interpretation, which may never so little impeach, qualify, 
" or modify the expression most common and readiest tak- 
" ing off the very words, as they lie and offer themselves, 
" without forced understanding. 

" Per 7ne Andream Oxenbrcge."" 

CHAP. XVII. 192 

A project Jbr prevention of falling aivay m religion. The 
validity/ of popes' bidls in England^ for pluralities, Sfc. 
Controversy hetiveen the stationers of London and the 
university. One of King'' s college expelled the university: 
and xohy. Books printed this year. Bishop JezveVs ser- 
mons. De Jtisti/icatione, by J. Fox. Sermons of Faith, 
Hope, and Charity, by Bern. Ochine. Defence of the 
English translation, by Dr. Fidk. The English Rhe- 
mists'' Testament. Cartwright sets upon the confutation 
of it. The Practice of Prelates. Jesus Psalter. Defensa- 
tive against the Poison of Prophecies, by L. Hoxoard. 
Execution of Justice, for Maintenance of public Peace. A 
Declaration of the favourable Dealing with certain Trai- 
tors. A Report of the Discovery of Nexvfoundland. L. 
Latym,er comes from France. Suspected, and taken up. 
Dean Wotton''s legations. L. Wentioorth dies. Coiners. 

J- HE eyes of the queen and her friends were now open, Resolution 
and saw well the treacherous designs of the English papists, ".j ^'^^'j"""' 
to overthrow her and her government, and to place the papists. 
Scots queen in the English throne; assistance being also ex- 

T 3 


BOOK pected from Spain, and other popish princes: and how busy 
the seminaries were every where, drawing away the qvicen's 

Anno 1683. subjects to popery. And therefore it was the great purpose 
of the council to put the hiws of the land more vigorously 
in execution, and to proceed to the best and most effectual 
metliods to stop these evil men, and to keep the queen''s sub- 
jects faithful to her, and the religion established. And me- 
thods were thought of for this purpose. 
A iiroject I find this year, among some papers of state, a paper en- 
?',T'^'*"t'f 'n ' t^^'^'^^j ^ project for a remedy hoxo to prevent the present 
iii^ away toJhlUng mvay in religion ; namely, to that of Rome. This 
Papery- paper seems to have been offered to the lord treasurer 
Burghley ; for the date is set on it by his own hand ; viz. 
Nov. 1583 ; near after Campion''s time. The writing on this 
paper followeth. 

" For the stay of the present falling away, two things are 
" to be provided. Tlie one, that such as are ah-eady be- 
" come recusants, may, with all severity, abide and sustain 
" such punishment as the law doth lay on them. That such 
19'^ " as be ringleaders and instructors in the catholic religion 
" may be kept so straitlv, as no access may be had to them. 
" And some order taken, that they may be in Christian sort 
" conferred with by some leai'ned divines. The other, how 
" such as are not already infected may be preserved. Whicii 
" is to be performed by these ways following. 

I. " To provide, that there may be placed in all pastoral 
" charges men of that zeal, that rather seek the good than 
" the goods of the church. 

II. " That such ministers whose life is offensive may be 
" removed out of the church. 

III. " That the people may be diligently catechised. 

IV. " That non-residents may be forced, either to conti- 
" nue upon their charges, or to contribute a moiety of their 
" livings to such as shall supply their places. 

V. " That such books as are sent out, impugning our 
" religion, may be presently answered. 

" For the better performance of these points, the reme- 
" dies following are to be put in execution. 


I. " For the first, for that such as be patrons, and have CHAP. 

. XVII. 

the bestowing of pastoral livings, have more regard to 

"their own particular profit, than to the benefit of the-^""" i^'^^. 

" church ; and therefore, when the bishop misliketh of their 

" choice, and refuseth to admit their clerk, they bring a 

" Quare inipedit against the bishop: for the help thereof 

" order is to be taken by her majesty, that the proceedings 

" therein may be stayed in all judicial courts. 

" It shall be also requisite, that every bishop shall certify 
" the several cures throughout his diocese ; with what per- 
" sons they are now furnished ; how many learned, and how 
" many unlearned ; who be the patrons; and what value 
" the livings be of. 

" It is further to be provided, that the two archbishops 
" shall have the names of such learned and sufficient minis- 
" ters as are unplaced ; remaining as well in the universi- 
" ties as out of the universities. To the end, that when any 
" cures fall void, the bishop, in whose diocese the same shall 
" be, may advertise the archbishop. And so appoint some 
" one of the parties abovesaid to supply the place. 

II. " For the second, it shall be necessary, that a general 
" visitation may be had, and a denunciation may be made, 
" that if any can charge any minister with oft'ensive life, or 
" that he is remiss in his function, he shall be admitted to 
" inform against him ; whether he may be either reformed 
" or removed. 

III. " For the due execution of the third, it shall be re- 
" quisite in every diocese, that certain of the best affected 
" preachers may be appointed to see the same duly put in 
" practice. It shall be also necessary, that a catechism also 
" may be made ; that may contain answers to such objec- 
" tions as are made by the adversaries ; to serve the learned 
" sort. 

IV. " For the execution of the fourth : First, the bishops 
" in their dioceses, where the said non-residents do remain, 
" are to deal with them by persuasion to yield thereunto. 
" Whereunto if they cannot be induced, then are they to 
" be referred over to the lords of the privy-council. 

T 4 


BOOK V. " For the fifth, certain are to be appointed in the two 
*^ universities, to take upon them that charge. AVho for 
Anno 1 583. <' their better encouragement are to receive some reward, 
194 " upon some contribution to be levied for that purpose. 

" And whereas there is a kind of schism grown in the 
" church for matters held indifferent, which doth minister 
" unto the adversary some advantage, to the defacing of 
*' our religion, it shall be very necessary, that some way be 
" taken, how this schism may be helped. 

" For the better execution thereof it is to be considered, 
" that such as are noted to be over-precise do not stand too 
" much upon those things that are indifferent, as they do 
" upon other great abuses in the church : as followeth. 

" That ignorant and unpreaching ministers should be 
'' made. That non-residences should be tolerated. That 
" excommunication, which is the severest censure of the 
" church, should be abused, as it is. That the visitation of 
" the bishops tend to tlie particular profit of themselves and 
" their chancellors ; and none to the redress of the church, 
" That divers popish canons continue still in use, to the of- 
" fence of the godly. For the redress whereof, no care hath 
'* been had. 

" And therefore, if these and the like abuses might be 
" removed, such as stand upon some precise points, being 
" by the bishops in brotherly and charitable sort dealt 
" withal, might be reduced to conformity : and the schism 
" and offence that now* reigneth might be removed. Where- 
" by they would all concur together in the advancement of 
" religion, and withstanding the common enemy." 
The validity Pluralities and non-residences formerly granted by hulls 
c.f popes' fi'om the pope, occasioned about this year a notable argu- 
ment at law, by two learned lawyers, sergeant Fleetwood 
and sergeant Walmesly ; the latter arguing for the validity 
Abstract of of a })ull from Rome. The case was, " Whether a bull, brief, 
or'a'dia"*^*^ '' ^^ ^^y f^^^l^y granted imto any subject of this realm from 
ment. " tile see of Rome, in the time of queen Mary, or else, &c. 

,, for the enjoying of many benefices, or being non-resident, 
,, or such like, be pleadable in any her highnesses courts, or 


" allowable within any of her dominions." This cause was CH AP. 
argued at the bar of common pleas between the two ser- ^^'1- 

geants; and passed by the judgment of the Avhole court, Anno 1 583. 
proved the contrary. 

If we look now towards the universities, and the state of 
learning; that of Cambridge resented now an injury done 
them by the stationers' company of London : who, upon 
pretence of their privilege of printing, would not allow a 
printing press at Cambridge; though it were a privilege 
granted formerly to the university, and long enjoyed by 
them. The stationers of London had now seized the print- Controver- 
ing press of Thomas, their printer. Whereupon the vice-^'^Ydgl^'^'"' 
chancellor. Dr. Bell, and the rest of their heads, apply to about a 
their high-chancellor, the lord Burghley, to stop these pro- p^ess' there, 
ceedings of this company: shewing the injuries they had 
sustained already, by hindering the printing of Mr. VVhi- 1 9^ 
taker's book, [that, I suppose, writ against Campion's Ten 
Reasons,] and others, ready for the press ; to the prejudice 
of learning. The stationers' pretence Avas in respect of schis- 
matical books in danger to be published hence. And indeed 
there was such an one printed the next year; which arch- 
bishop Whitgift took notice of in one of his letters. But 
to satisfy their chancellor in that point, they assured him, 
" That Thomas, their printer, was a godly and honest 
" man; and promised that their press should not be abused, 
" in publishing things prohibited, or inconvenient for the 
" church or state of the realm. And this they promised the 
" rather, because they had granted liberty to him to use his 
" press, upon condition he should stand bound to such arti- 
" cles as he, their chancellor, and the rest of the heads, 
" should tie him to. And as the chancellor had made a 
" motion to them to come to a conference with the stationers 
" about this their privilege, they shewed themselves willing 
" thereunto, if they would send thither some certain man 
" from them with sufficient authority for that purpose." 
But the whole letter of the vice-chancellor and heads to their 
chancellor, concerning one of their privileges, requires to be 




Anno 1583. 
The sta- 
to tlie lord 
against the 

His letter 
to the uni- 
T. liaker, 
S.Th. B. 


preserved. Vid. Ap})endix. In conclusion, they prayed his 
lordship, that their press might no longer be stopped. 

It may not be amiss to give some further account of this 
university printing press, from a letter or two of the lord 
Burghley, their chancellor, in order to the settling this their 
privilege, (which I received from a learned member of that 
university,) against the company of stationers of London, 
who had applied themselves to the said chancellor : shewing 
him, besides the university's encroachment upon their privi- 
leges, certain objections against their intender printer, Tho- 
mas, and likewise the danger of publishing ill and dangerous 
books thence. Which occasioned the said chancellor to send 
this grave advice to Dr. Bell, the vice-chancellor, and the 
rest of the heads, viz. 

*' After his hearty commendations unto them; that where- 
as they had been desirous of late to put in use a privilege 
granted unto them, among other things, by king Henry 
VHI. for erecting of printing within that university, he 
found the same to be much impugned by certain of the 
company of stationers there in London, having special 
privileges from her majesty. Who besides seemed to cast 
some doubts, as well of the prejudice that might grow to 
them, as to the party that should enterprise to erect a 
print with them, as also of misusing of the same there; in 
publishing things prohibited, or otherwise inconvenient ; 
like as there had been some like abuse by some evil-dis- 
posed persons of their company there. Though for reme- 
dy thereof he thought it good, and so were they very well 
contented therewith, that some conference might be had 
by some to be chosen, as well of themselves [of the uni- 
versity] as of the stationers there, or such others, to whom 
both should think good to commit it, for some provisions 
to be had ; and by way of articles to be accorded. That 
therefore they should do well to make choice of some meet 
persons to be instructed and authorized for that purpose. 
Whereupon the party licensed to be their printer might 
with the more security proceed to the erecting of his print. 


" And so he bade them heartily farewell. From his house cHAP 
" ill the Strand, the 11th of June, 1583 " 

This letter set the vice-chancellor and heads on work, to Anno i583. 
deliberate, and proceed according to their chancellor's di- 
rections. It was about eight months after all matters seemed 
to be accommodated, when the vice-chancellor and heads 
sent their letters again to their chancellor, and Thomas, 
their printer, the bearer ; of whom they gave a good cha- 
racter. And the chancellor soon replied in another letter ; 
shewing them diat he had consulted wath the master of the 
rolls of the validity of their charter. And therefore givmg 
his consent, that Thomas, with some conditions to be ob- 
served on his part, should be their printer. For thus his 
letter ran. 

" That he had received their letters, dated the 12th of Lord 
" March, by the bearer, Mr. Thomas, written in his favour, 1^"^^^' con*- 
" beino- one of the university, and desirous to put in use the senting to a 

O . ., Ill printing 

" art of printing there, under the privilege granted by char- press at 

" ter. Wherein, besides his own opinion, he thought good Cambridge. 

" also to use the advice of the master of the rolls ; who had 

" considered likewise of their charter; whereof he [the chan- 

" cellor] had sent him the copy : and that finding it in his 

" opinion concurring with his, [the chancellor's,] a grant of 

" good validity, he did assent to that which they should 

" think fit, for the appointing Mr. Thomas to print by vir- 

" tue thereof: having regard, that he be seen to be furnish- 

" ed with all things fit and requisite for that purpose : and 

" that his letters and paper were answerable with any the 

" foreign prints, and the prices likewise agreeable. 

" Of which things, or any others to be thought of and 
" considered in this matter, he added, that if they should 
" conceive some instrument by way of articles or decree, he 
" would be ready to give his assent and furtherance, as 
" should be requisite. And so he bade them heartily fare- 
" well. From his house in the Strand, the 18th of March, 
" 1583." 

And then by way of postscript this follows : "I think it 
" good, that the ])arties that shall be licensed, or authorized 


CHAP. " to print, may have their authority with condition, or 
^ " otherwise bound, to stand to the order of the chancellor. 

Anno 1583. " and the heads, in case of any cause of misliking of the use 

" of the said authority." 
One expel- Another privilege of this university was violated ; and 
led for vio- ^]^g^ ^jy j^ member of it ; for which he was expelled this 

latingapn- *' n • i -A i x • 

viiege of the year by Dr. Bell, vice-chancellor : namely, one Robert Li- 
university. j^^^^ fellow of King's college ; long time a contentious, trou- 
blesome party-man in that college, against Dr. Roger Goad, 
the provost. His crime Avas, for prosecuting an infamy 
against one Mounteford, unjustly and maliciously, coram 
extraneis judicihiis. Thereby violating the privileges of the 
The chaiac- This Liless, many years after, (viz. anno 1594-,) took the 
terof him, opportunity of getting a letter from the lord Burghley to 
haviour, the bishop of Lincoln, visitor of that college, for his restitu- 
ipVtion: complaining to that lord, that university ""s chancellor, 
how he was expelled the college by Dr. Goad, the provost, 
unjustly. The report of this coming to the said provost, he 
delayed not to address his letter to the said chancellor : cer- 
tifying him, that he was not expelled the college by any act 
of the college ; but by the sentence of his lordship"'s vice- 
chancellor, with the consent of the heads, about eleven years 
past, vipon his notorious violation of the university's privi- 
leges, banished the university ; and that not without his 
lordship's privity : and so could no longer be a member of 
their college. Then he signified somewhat of his knowledge 
of this man, and his troublesome course of life formerly in 
the college. " How he dealt, fi'om time to time since his 
" banishment, in troubling the quiet of the college, and con- 
" tinually soliciting the younger sort to discontentment and 
" faction. And that in a late distraction of that company, 
•' he entered into a plot concerning some one that should 
" succeed in his [the provost's] room." 

It seems there was a faction still in the college against the 
provost. Dr. Goad ; and a secret endeavour on foot, to turn 
him out, and get another in his place ; and Liless busy in 
this conspiracy. And this person that was to succeed was 


thought, by himself and his party, to have such authority CHAP, 
and strength by his friends, that he could not be withstood. 

But the provost still maintained his place. Anno 1583. 

With regard to leaj-ning, some account may be given of 
divers books that were this year set forth. As, 

An Exposition upon the second Epistle to the Thessaloni- Books set 
ans : by the reverend father, John Jewel, bishop of Sarum. J^/^^^'' *^"^ 
Printed and publislied this year by J. Garbrand. Which 
book was printed again among that bishop's works in folio. 
Also this year the same person set forth certain sermons, Sermons 
preached before the queen, and at PauFs Cross. Where-'*"'''''*", 

* -i _ courses ot 

unto was added a short treatise of the sacrament; gathered bishop Jew- 
out of other his sermons made upon that subject, in his ca-*^ " 
thedral church of Salisbury. And printed by Chr. Barker, 
the queen's printer, in octavo. Dedicated by Garbrand to 
the lord Burghley and the earl of Leicester, chancellors of 
the two universities. 

The first of those sermons was preached upon Joshua vi. 
Now Jericho was straitly shut up, &c. It was preached 
upon the 17th day of November. Wherein were these re- 
markable words, (and we of this kingdom have a concern 
herein to this day.) " Upon this day, upon this day, I say, 
' the 17th of this month, God sent his handmaid, and 
' delivered us. Let us be kind and thankful unto God for 
' so great blessing. I say not. Let us make it tiie first day 
' of the year; yet this I say. Let us have it in remembrance, 
' and let us sing with the prophet. When the Lord broi/ghtP^ri\.c}i\v\. 
' again the captivity of' S ion, zoe xoere like them that dream. 
' Then was our mouth Jilled zaith laughter, and our tongue 
' zvithjoy, &c. The Lord hath done great things for us. Let 
' no man be offended herewith. It is only a remembrance of 
' the mercy of God. It behoveth us to remember it. It is 
' good to bethink ourselves of it. For if we have eyes to 
* see, and neglect not our own salvation, we have now much I98 
' greater cause to rejoice than David had. Because the 
' things which are this day restored unto us by the good- 
' ness of our God, are far greater and worthy [namely, the 


BOOK " blessing of tlie gospel] than those which that people re- 
^- " ceived in their deliverance of Babylon."' 
Anno 1583. They are six sermons: and beside at the end that trea- 
tise of the sacrament, is another, being the protestant isay 
[in difference from the popish way] of visiting the sicl: 
Accoiuit of Garbrand tells us, in his epistle before those sermons, that 
^1''^ !''■ bishop Jewel did seldom or never deliver any exposition 

sliop s ser- i ' . . ■ 

nions. upon any piece of scripture, before any congregation in tlie 

meanest parish of the country, but upon diligent study, 
whereof he drew the notes first : '' And that in this his care, 
" God's providence wrought mercifully for his church. That 
" so the fruits of his good travails might be delivered in 

" common unto all ; That if any should be so curious 

" to ask why he [the publisher] chose these among so many 
" excellent sermons, let him, answered he, advisedly consi- 
" der the state of God's church among us in these days, 
" and bestow the pains to read these that were offered to 
" his Christian judgment, [being so seasonable for the 
" times,] and then make to himself a charitable answer. 
" That in these sermons he moved his petition sundry times, 
" before the conscience either of her highness, or of the 
" lords, or others under, in true zeal for the advancement of 
" God's glory ; and like a wise builder of the house of God, 
" &c. And in this rehearsal of these sermons together, they 
" would no doubt work wholesome effect. They were such 
" as shewed how desirous he was of the peace and prospe- 
" rity of Jerusalem, and that the kingdom of God might 
" never again be taken from us. And shewing what things 
" they were by which this ha})})iness might be brought to 
" pass; viz. that next to the high means of princely autho- 
" rity, the chiefest was, that all particular churches were 
" furnished with sufficiently learned and godly ministers. 
" And therefore that tender and due care were had to in- 
" crease the number of them." 

These sermons were afterwards printed in the said bi- 
shop Jewel's works in folio; where there are divers other of 
his sermons, besides these mentioned in the octavo. 


John Fox, the famous and laborious martyrologist, set CHAT' 
forth this year a book of Justification, writ in Latin, against ^^ 

Osorius, a Portugal bishop; entitled,!)^ Chrlsto gratis jus- ^nno i583. 
tificante ; contra Osoriancwi justitiam ccBterosquc ejusdem '^^^°^'^?'^' 

•J ' ^ 'J . ceniingjus- 

inhcBrentis justiticv patronos, &c. Contra timversam denique w^caxwn, 
turbam Tridentinam et Jesuiticam ; arnica et modesta de- p^^^ 
fensio Joan. Foccii, Londtni. The preface of the author is, 
Ad affiictas et perturhatas in Christo conscientias epistola. 
The foiulh and last book consisted of a sermon of Dr. 
Fulke's, entitled, Erudita concio exirnii doctoris D. Guil. 
Fidsii, de duobus Jb?-ahai Jlliis, ex D. Pauli ad Galat. IV. 
Which Avas translated out of English into Latin, by the said 
J. Fox, as suitable to his subject. 

Certain godly and very profitable sermons qfjhitli, hope, 
and cliarity, set forth in Latin, by Bernardine Ochine, a 
learned foreigner; and turned into English by Will. Whis- I99 
ton, this year was printed. The epistle dedicatory was made 
to Edm. Grindal, lord archbishop of Canterbury. 

About this year, Tho. Cartwright, the chief head of the An answer 
disciplinarian sect, being a man of learning, begun to turn Q°is\'xesta- 
his thoughts to a learned work, viz. to answer the New Tes- ment by 
tament, translated into English by the English seminary ' " 
college at Rhemes. Wherein they used much art in the 
translation, to cover popish errors, and to make reflections 
upon our English translation. 

It made one great part of the happiness of this nation, 
that the holy Bible was permitted the common people to 
read, and inform themselves thence in matters of religion, 
and to set themselves rioht in the knowledge of God and 
Jesus Christ, (whose profession they had solemnly taken 
upon them,) by consulting the holy gospel. And in order 
to that, it was permitted to be translated into the vulgar 
tongue, first in the reign of Henry VIII. which king made 
a good step towards the reformation. But those of the Ro- papists of- 
mish religion took great disgust at it : knowing well, how *^^"''^,'^ ''^'^_ 
the errors and superstitions practised in their church would translation. 
be hereby exposed, and brought more to light. They shew- 
ed how offended they were at the English translation some 


BOOK years before, when Dr. Standish and Dr. Heskins wrote trea- 
tises ; pretending to shew great inconveniences, of having 
Anno 1583. the holy scripture in the vulgar tongue. And about the 
year 1581 or 1582, Gregory Martin, a reader of divinity in 
the seminary at Rhenies, the more to undervalue our Eng- 
lish translation of the scripture, set forth a treatise to accuse 
all the English translation of the Bible, not only of small 
imperfections and oversights through ignorance and negli- 
gence, but no less than of foul dealing, in partial and false 
translation, w'ilful and heretical corruptions. 
Defence of Will. Fulk, D. D. master of Pembroke hall in Cambridge, 
Fnik ' answered this calumny this year, in a book in octavo, print- 
ed by Binniman, in the small character ; and dedicated it to 
the queen. Wherein he tells her, " That among the inesti- 
" mable benefits, wherewith God had blessed her honourable 
" and prosperous government, it was not to be numbered 
" among the least, that under her protection her people en- 
" joyed the comfortable reading of the holy scripture in their 
" mother tongue, and native language, to the everlasting be- 
" nefit of many thousand souls." He entitled his book, A 
defence of the sincei'e and true translation of the lioly scrip- 
ture into the English tongue ; against the manifest cavils^ 
J'rivolous quarrels, and i)npiidcnt Jidsehoods of Gregory 
Martin, one of the readers of popish divinity in the traitor- 
ous seminary ofRhemcs. 
Against The said INIartin makes his preface to contain an account 

Greg. Mar- ^^ ^^,g sundry abuses or corruptions of the holy scriptures, 
common to all heretics, and agreeing especially to these of 
our times. And they were, first, " Denying certain books, 
" or part of books. Secondly, Doubting of the authority of 
" certain books, and calling them in question. Thirdly, 
" Voluntary expositions, according to every one's fancy, or 
" heresy. Fourthly, Changing some words or sentences of 
" the very original text. Fifthly, False and heretical trans- 

200 " ^^^i""s-" 
Faults But Dr. Fulk, in his said epistle to the queen, retorteth 

ciiarged up- j,p(,„ Grefforv Martin's charge the faults of their llhcmists'' 

on the Rhe- Jt . ,,-.r. ^ ^ c \ 

mists' Tes- English Testament. " In which, first, tliey left the pure 


"fountain of the original verity, to follow the crooked CH\P. 

" stream of their barbarous vulgar Latin translation ; which ;_ 

" (beside other manifest corruptions) was found defective in Anno 1 583. 

" more than an hundred places. Secondly, their own trans- 

" lation was pestered with many annotations, both false and 

" undutiful. By which, under colour of authority of holy 

" scriptures, they sought to infect the minds of credulous 

" readers with heretical and superstitious opinions ; and to 

" alienate their hearts from yielding due obedience to the 

" queen and her laws concerning true religion established. 

" And that the text of their translation was obscured, with- 

" out any necessity, or just cause, with a multitude of 

" strange unusual terms : to the ignorant, no less difficult 

" to understand, than the Latin or Greek itself. And that 

" they had not truly nor precisely translated their own vul- 

" o-ar Latin." And in short, when Martin had noted how 

in our translation some words were turned, as, instead of 

church, congregation; instead oi traditions, ordiriances ; and 

for priests, ciders; and so we of this church were Calvinists; 

Dr.Fulk (among other matters replied) answered, " It should 

" suffice to protest once for all, that we acknowledged none 

" other name of our profession, but Christians and catho- 

« licsr 

But to return to Cartwright, who was now setting himself Cartwright 
to consider that Rhemish translation of the New Testament; j,, i.js ^yo^jj, 
the great end of which work was to make the errors of their 
church plausible, and to confute the doctrine and practices 
of this reformed church : it was shewed before, that these 
Rhemists translated from the Latin, and not the Greek ori- 
ginal ; upon pretence that that had been in many places al- 
tered, by reason of those many heresies and heretics that 
were anciently in those parts of Greece, where it was used. 
And with their translation they placed large annotations to 
the text all along for their purpose. So that both the trans- 
lation and the annotations was Cartwright's task to exa- 

But how he was moved to undertake this work by secre- 
tary Walsingham, and divers other learned men in the uni- 

VOL. ITI. u 


BOOK versity, and likewise in Suffolk and London, chiefly of the 
disciplinarian sort, may be read more at large in the Life of 
Anno 1583. Archbishop Whitgift. And why, after three or four years 
Book 111. pains in the composing, it was thought convenient to hinder 
the publishing thereof; as containing many things in it re- 
flecting upon the practice and usages of the church establish- 
ed. Yet after thirty years it came forth privately without 
licence, and not before : and seems to have been printed 
The Rhe- For as the Rhetnists took this occasion to serve them- 
mists' de- selves in favour of their own doctrine and principles, against 
what was objected to them by protestants ; so this learned 
man did also not only confute the Rhemists, but, as occa- 
sion served, insert what was agreeable to the principles of 
the puritans. But to see briefly the purpose of the Rhe- 
mists, and their reasons for this their English translation ; 
201 and withal to observe the sharp manner of the style of the 
author of the Confutation ; take it shortly in their own 
words : 
In the " Which translation they did not publish upon erroneous 

l.ress. « opinion of necessity, that the holy scriptures should al- 

" ways be in the mother tongue ; or that they ought, and 
" were ordained by God, to be read indifferently of all, or 
" could be easily understood of every one that read or lieard 
" them in a known language ; or that they were not often, 
" through men''s malice or infirmity, pernicious or much 
" hurtful to many ; or that they generally or absolutely 
" deemed it more conveniently in itself, and more agreeably 
" to God's word, and honour, or edification of the faithful, 
" to have them turned into vulgar tongues, than to be 
" kept and studied only in the ecclesiastical, learned lan- 
" guages : not for these, nor for any such like causes, did 
" they translate this sacred book : but upon special time, 
" state, and condition of our country. Unto which, divers 
" things were either necessary or profitable, and medicinable 
" now; which otherwise, in the peace of the church, were 
" neither mucli requisite, nor perchance wholly tolerable... . 
" In this matter to mark onlv the wisdom and moderation 


" of holy church, and the governors thereof on one side, CHAP, 
" and the indiscreet zeal of the popular, and their factious ^^^^- 

" leaders on the other, was an high point of prudence."" Anno issa. 

To which in answer thus Cartwright, in pretty smart cart- 
raanner, as he doth throughout the whole book. " The '^'"s'^t's 
'' true rehgion being like the heavens, which never change ; 
" the popish religion resembleth the earth ; which, as the 
" potter's clay, is ready to receive any form, according as 
" the wind and weather, times and seasons of the year, 
" winter or summer, spring or fall will set upon it. Hereof 
" it is that they which sometime did so deadly hate the in- 
" struction of their youth in the grounds and principles of 
*' religion, that they could not hear the word of catechism 
*' with patient ears ; now, in fear of a general falling from 
" them, through opinion either of their blockish ignorance 
*' or sluggish negligence, were constrained both to write 
** and teach their catechisms. That out of the same fear it 
" arose, that they which hitherto could not endure the holy 
" scriptures to be read of the people in their mother tongue ; 
" now, lest they should utterly fall from the hope of their 
" gain, through a vehement suspicion of juggling, and play- 
" ing under the board with the people ; and constrained to 
" confess a print of that which they sometime burned, and 
" pretend allowance of that which in times past they con- 
" demned. Howbeit the evidence of the truth having the 
" church-robbers upon the rack, see notwithstanding, how 
" hardly they were gotten to confess the truth ; and how 
" they lisp it, rather than speak it out," &c. I set down 
this to give some specimen of the books. 

The Practice of Prelates came forth also about this year. Practice of 
It was written by the schismatics, calling themselves therein, ^''^lates. 
the maintainers of' the discipline of God: therein highly 
charging the articles set forth by the bishops for the regula- 
tion of the clergy. It bore this title. The unlaxvful prac- 
tices of prelates against godly ministers, the maintainers of 202 
the discipline of God. It was writ about parliament time : 
hoping for favour thence : as appeareth by these words near 
the begimiing : "Now, even now it seenieth, the discipline 


BOOK "of Christ afresh seeketh and beseecheth the favours of 
^' " men. The time of the worthy assembly in parhament 

Anno 1583." craveth it. The place, the eye of the realm, ehallengeth 
Book iii. " it." See more of this book in the Life of Archbishop 
chap.. 3. whitgift. 

Jesus Psai- jn this year also came forth a book of another strain, 
called Jesus Psalter : being a Latin book of popish devo- 
tions, now translated into English. Wherein the devotion 
chiefly is the repetition of Jesus, Jesus, numberless times. 
In the preface we are given to understand that there be 
three kinds of psalters. The first is David's Psalter : which 
containeth thrice fifty psalms. The second our Lady's Psal- 
ter : which containeth thrice fifty Aves. And the third is 
Jesus Psalter : containing fifteen petitions : which being ten 
times repeated, do make in all thrice fifty. Where Jesus, 
Jesus, Jesus mercy, is ten times, word for word, to be re- 
peated in the beginnings of them, and if you fail in the 
Dr. Abbot's count, thy devotion is not perfect. Whereupon Dr. George 
386."'^'^^' ^ Abbot, (afterwards archbishop of Canterbury,) in his lec- 
tures at Oxford, made this observation ; " What is it to put 
" superstition in numbers, if this be not ? And where ai'e 
" the people kept in bondage, and blindness of darkness, 
" and gross error, if it be not in these toys .'*''"' 
A Defence This year also came abroad a book entitled, A defence 
a-ainst the ^gfiijigf fjig poisoii of supposcd propkecks. The author, 
I'ropiiecies. lord Henry Howard. Who was brother to the late duke 
By lord H. ^£ jsjo^foUc ; and in these times went in danger of his 

Howard. _ .... 

life: the queen having a jealousy of him, either for his reli- 
gion, or his favour towards the queen of Scots : for whom 
his brother lost his life. It was printed by John Charle- 
wood, servant to the right honourable Philip earl of Arun- 
del : who was eldest son to the said duke. It was a glo- 
rious show of that lord's readings ; and designed to reconcile 
a better opinion of the queen towards him, who was in- 
wardly a papist : as shewing throughout his book how vain 
prophecies of things to come were : which the zealous pa- 
pists at that time made great talk of, and gathered mighty 
hopes to themselves from. But take the whole title of the 


book, as it stood in the second edition, printed anno 1620. CHAP. 
" A defensative against the poison of supposed i^rophecies — . 

not hitherto confuted by the pen of any man. Which Anno 1 583. 
" being grounded either upon the warrant or avithority of 
" old painted books, exposition of dreams, oracles, revela- 
" tions, invocation of damned spirits, judicials of astrology, 
" or any other kind of pretended knowledge whatsoever de 
^'•J'uturis contingentibus, have been causes of great disorder 
" in the commonwealth, among the simple and unlearned 
" people. Very necessary to be published, considering the 
" great offence which grew by most palpable and gross 
" errors in astrology."" This lord Howard, the noble au- 
thor, was afterward earl of Northampton, and lord privy 
seal to king James I. 

In these studies, that lord, the author, said he had em- His reason 
ployed himself, by observing in all the books of the an-°j„j||g^^ 
cients and philosophers, as he was reading them, such pas- 203 
sages as related to these prophecies, and foretelling things to 
come; and the rather, because some of his ancestors, de- 
pending too much upon them, had drawn mischief upon 
themselves. And again, in another place of his book, he Chap. 26. 
hath these words concerning himself ; " That he had himself 
" collected these notes in a book, out of the full course of 
" all his readings, from the fifteenth year of his age until 
" that day ; upon a mortal malice [taken up by him] against 
" prophecies, in respect of some progenitors and ancestors 
" of his ; who smarted for presuming overmuch upon their 
" hopes [grounded thereon]. Adding, that his book should 
" never have been recommended to the print, if mere neces- 
*' sity, and care to satisfy the world herein, had not prc- 
" vailed at the length against his bashful and retyrate 
" humour. And for his own particular he always con- 
" ceived them to be the froth of folly, the scum of pride, 
" the shipwreck of honour, and the poison of nobility." 

And then having his mind upon one particular book of 
prophecy ; which, it seems, he was charged with having 
seen ; and privy to, that had perhaps some ill boding to the 
queen : " It was once my hap,"" added he, " to be examined 

u 3 



about a 

BOOK " upon the sight of a certain painted treatise of this kind ; 
' " garnished with sundry beasts and birds ; and fitter for a 
Anno 1583. '< childish game than sober judgment. It is certain that 
" I never was admitted to this Sybilhn oracle: but whether 
" it be probable, that either I did ever see the same, make 
" accovmt thereof, or would afford expense or waste of time, 
" to fancies of this kind, let them conceive, that either are 
" acquainted with myself, or will vouchsafe to read and 
" question the reasons of this book." 

I cannot but continue this lord*'s relation concerning 
these prophesying and foretelling picture books, secretly 
made and shewn in those times ; and the deceit of them. 
Thus then he went on. " That for so much as he could 
gather by report of some dear friends of his, who saw the 
gewgaw in the keeping of another, who esteemed it too 
much, it should appear either to have been over-flourished 
in a painter"'s shop, with matters correspondent to their 
humours which delighted in news ; or else to have been 
drawn upon the foresight of one Verdungus : who, during 
the reign of king Henry VIII. seeking to c(mtent and 
please the moods of certain princes, which were then in 
dark and deep unkindness with the king, gave out in 
writing, that the realm should be given up in prcedavi di~ 
versis animantibus, [that is, to divers creatures for a 
prey.] The certainty [as to time and manner] he durst 
not limit, nor set down, for fear of being taken with a 
gross and shameless lie : neither durst he publish or re- 
veal the points and reasons whereupon the judgment 
stood, because the man himself, being posted forward 
with a humour of revenge, sought rather by this means to 
make his voice a trumpet of encouragement [to the princes 
that king''s enemies, to invade or assault him] than a mes- 
senger of tribulation. For proof whereof the end was to 
be noted. And chiefly, that the king was laid to rest 
with his fathers in convenient time; when Verdungus, 
having made a shameful wreck, both of conscience and 
credit, was scorned and derided for his vain presumption 
without ground, and malice without moderation/' 



The lord Howard thought fit to dedicate his said book to C H A P. 
sir Francis Walsingham, principal secretary: who he ac- ;_ 

knowledged had been his great friend, and brought him Anno 1 683. 
out of his troubles he fell into on this account: and to ^^"^ '°J^.'^ 
whom he had shewn these his collections of prophecies, cated to 
In his dedication he used these words : " That he was w"isi^,J. 
" forced to confess the bond of his particular affection, nay i»^™' 
" zeal, unto himself to be so much increased by his steadfast 
" friendship in the days of proof. And that not his hand 
" only should be ever ready to subscribe, and set on his 
" seal, but his heart withal, while it had any spark of life, 
" to acknowledge the great merit of his [the secretary's] 
" undeserved favours : he that once vouchsafed, with a fa- 
" vourable hand, to waft him out of the surges of uncer- 

" tain chance who could judge better of his [the au- 

" thor's] conceit, than he that had been best acquainted 

'• with his intent That to him, as well as others of his 

" calling, he had engaged his assured promise, if God 
" spared hfe, to give testimony to the world, what his con- 
" ceit had ever been of prophecies : which wise men valued 
" as the scum of pride and dregs of ignorance." In short, 
this was his end in writing his book, " That his care and 
" study had been, only to do that which might be conso- 
" nant to the will and pleasure of Almighty God, agreeable 
" to the circumstances of the present time, and his own 
" discharge, and pleasing in her sight, [viz. the queen's,] 
" whose peerless virtues, planted in a royal stock, had 
" exempted from comparison." 

And in fine, I cannot omit the character he gives sir 
Francis Walsingham in his dedication : " That the sweet- 
" ness of his disposition, the frankness of his mind, the 
" credit of his place, the level of his long experience, and 
" the depth of his judgment, were means sufficient and 
" strong enough to draw the minds of persons well dis- 
" posed, both to love and honour him." , 

It was found needful now (to stop malicious false reports 
of persecution for religion) to declare the true cause of the 
punishment of several popish priests, and others, with 

u 4 

of Justice 


BOOK death, as traitors. A state-book therefore was now set 
______ forth, called, " The execution of Justice, Jbr viaintenance of' 

Anno \^^'-i.^'' piihlic and Christian peace : against certain stirrers of se- 
" dition, and adherents to the traitors and enemies of the 
" realm ; without any persecution of them, as is falsely re- 
" ported and published by the fautors and fosterers of their 
" treasons, 17th December 1583." The running title is. 
Execution Jbi' treason, and notjbr religion. 

Of these dangerous Romanists thus speaks the author in 
the entrance to his book, " That though natural born sub- 
" jects of the realm of England and Ireland, and who had 
" for some good time professed outwardly their obedience to 
" their sovereign lady queen Elizabeth, had nevertheless 
" afterwards been stirred up and seduced by wicked spi- 
" rits, first in England sundry years past, and secondly, of 
" latter times, in Ireland, to enter into open rebellion, taking 
205 " arms, and coming into the field, against her majesty and 
" her lieutenants, with their forces and banners displayed, 
" inducing, by notable untruths, many simple people to fol- 
" low and assist them in their traitorous actions. And 
" though it was very well known, that both their intentions 
" and manifest actions were bent to have deposed the 
" qHeen''s majesty from her crown, and to have traitorously 
" set in her place some other whom they liked ; whereby, if 
" they had not been speedily resisted, they would have com- 
" mitted great bloodsheds and slaughters of her majesty ""s 
" faithful sidijects, and ruined their native country. . . . But 

" these rebels that remained fled into foreign countries, 
" and there falsely informed many kings, jjrinces, and states, 
" that the cause of their fleeing from their country was for 
" religion, and maintenance of the pope''s authority." 
Declaration This book was backed with another of the same import, 
able* deal ^^'^^^^^ ^^^'^ ^^^^ title; A declaration of' the Javout'ahle dcal- 
ing with ing of her nuijestifs commissioners, " appointed for the 
" examination of certain traitors : and of tortures unjustly 
" reported to be done upon them for matters of religion." 
The purport of this tract will appear by what the writer 
tells his reader. " That though her majesty ""s most mild 

certain trai 


" and gracious government were sufficient to defend itself CHAP. 

" ao-ainst most slanderous reports of heathenish and unna- 

" tural tyranny, and cruel tortures, pretended to have been Anuo i583. 

" executed upon certain traitors, who lately suffered [viz. 

" Campion and Alex. Briant] for their treason, and others ; 

" as well spread abroad by runagates, Jesuits, and seminary 

" men, in their seditious books, letters, and libels in foreign 

" countries and princes' courts, as also insinuated into the 

" hearts of some of our own countrymen, and her majesty's 

" subjects. Yet for better satisfaction of all, he [the writer] 

" had conferred with a very honest gentleman, whom he 

" knew to have good and sufficient means to deliver the 

" truth against such forgers of lies and shameless slanders 

" in that behalf. Which he, and others that knew and 

" had affirmed the same, would at all times justify. And 

" for further assurance and satisfaction herein had set down 

" to the view of all men some special notes thereof." 

In this book it is asserted, and offered to be justified, 

" That never those seminaries, or any other pretended 

" catholics, which at any time in her majesty's reign had 

" been put to the rack, were, upon the rack, or in any other 

" torture, demanded any question of their supposed con- 

" science : as what they believed in any point of doctrine or 

" faith, as the mass, transubstantiation, or such like ; but 

" only with what persons at home or abroad, and touching 

" what plots, practices, and conferences they had dealt, 

" about attempts against her majesty's estate or person ; or 

« to alter the laws of the realm for matters of religion, by 

" treason or by force : and how they were persuaded them- 

" selves, and did persuade others, touching the pope's bull, 

" and pretence of authority to depose kings and princes ; 

"and namely, for the deprivation of her majesty, and to 

" discharge subjects from their allegiance: expressing the 

" kingly powers and estates, and the subject's allegiance 

" civilly, without mentioning or meaning therein any right 206 

" the queen, as in the right of the crown, hath over persons 

" ecclesiastical, being her subjects. In all which cases. 


BOOK " Campion and the rest never answered plainly, but so- 
. " phistically, deceitfully and traitorously restraining their 

Anno 1583. " confession of allegiance only to the permissive form of the 

" pope's toleration." 
Campion. Campion aforesaid was thus described. " That he was 
" sent and came from Rome, and continued here in svmdry 
" corners of the realm ; having secretly wandered in the 
" greatest part of the shires of England, in a disguised 
" sort ; to the intent to make special preparation of trea- 
** sons : and to that end, and for furtherance of those his 
" labours, sent over for more help and assistance ; and 
" cunningly and traitorously at Rome, before he came from 
" thence, procured toleration for such prepared rebels, to 
*' keep themselves covert, under pretence of temporary and 
" permissive obedience to her majesty, the state standing 
" as it did. But so soon as there were sufficient force, 
" whereby the bull of her majesty "'s deprivation might be 
" publicly executed, they should then join altogether with 
" that force, upon pain of curse and damnation." 

It was shewn further in this tract, to justify this course 
Who suf- of using the rack, " That none of them that had been put 
radf ^''^ " ^^ *^^ ^^^^ ^^ torture, no, not for the matter of treason, 
*' or partnership of treason, or such like, but where it was 
" first known, or evidently probable, by former detections, 
" confessions, and otherwise, that the party so racked or 
" tortured was guilty, and did know, and could deliver the 
" truth of the things wherewith he was charged. So as it 
" was first assured, that no innocent was at any time tor- 
** men ted. And that the rack was never used to wring out 
" confessions at adventure upon uncertainties. In which 
" doing it might be possible that an innocent in that case 
" might have unjustly suffered." 

These and many other reasons, for the severity now some- 
times used, were thought fit to be published, to check the 
clamours and slanderous hbels that were thrown about: 
and to justify this manner of inquisition of truth, in dis- 
covering crimes, extending so much to the public danger, 


which those ungracious persons had committed. Whose CHAP. 

conspiracies, and the particularities thereof, it did so much 1_ 

import to have disclosed. ■'^""" '^^^• 

Now also came forth a book of another subject, upon the Discovery 
first discovery of Newfoundland in the West Indies ; with f^^^ad Land, 
this title : " A true report of the late discoveries and posses- 
" sions^ talien in the right of the crown of England^ of the 
" Newfound lands: by that valiant and worthy gentleman 
" sir Humfrey Gilbert, knight : Wherein is also briefly set 
" down her highnesses lawful title thereunto, and the great 
" and manifold commodities, that is likely to grow diereby 
" to the whole realm in general, and to the adventurers in 
" particular. Together with the easiness and shortness of 
" the voyage. Seen and allowed."" An Oxford scholar, 
G. P. was employed in the writing of it ; and dedicated it to 
sir Francis Walsingham, principal secretary to the queen, 
and his patron. The author of this treatise had the honour 20/ 
to have divers copies of verses set before it, made by per- 
sons of quality and sea-officers : as of sir William Pelham, 
sir Francis Drake, capt. John Hawkins, captain Frobisher, 
captain Bing, captain Chester, Achellie, citizen and mer- 
chant of London, and some more. Only for a taste of this 
poetry, thus sir William Pelham began : 

Like as the fishes, breedhig in the deep, 

Through all the ocean are allow'd to raunge, 

Not forst in any certain bounds to keep. 

But as their motions carry them to chaunge : 
To men like liberty doth reason give, 
In choise of soil, through all the world to live, &c. 

The book begins with an historical account of this western The con- 
discovery. And proceeds to discourse of these particular j^^J^^° 
heads. 1. That it is lawful and necessary to trade and 
traffic with the savages: and to plant in their countries. 
2. The lawful title which the queen had unto those countries, 
which through the aid of Almighty God were meant to be 
inhabited. 3. That the trade, traffic, and planting of those 
countries were likely to prove very profitable to the whole 


BOOK realm. 4. That the trading and planting in those countries 
_; was likely to prove to the particular profit of all the adven- 

Anno ]583.turers. 5. That the traffic and planting in those countries 
should be unto the savages themselves very beneficial and 
gainful. 6. That the planting there was not such a matter 
of charge or difficulty as many would make it seem to be. 
Lastly, articles of assurance between the principal assignees 
of sir Humfrey Gilbert, knight, and the four sorts of adven- 
turers in the voyage for the western discoveries. And then 
towards the conclusion of the book, to encourage this voyage, 
it is urged, " That her majesty''s dominions should be en- 
" larged. All odious idleness from this our realm utterly 
" banished. Divers decayed towns repaired. Many poor 
" and needy persons relieved. The ignorant and barbarous 
" idolaters taught to know Christ. The innocent defended 
" from their bloody tyrannical neighbours. The diabolical 
" custom of sacrificing human creatures abolished." 

Now to proceed to a few matters more private and per- 
sonal, that may deserve a remembrance. 

Lord Laty- One, Calling himself lord Latymer, was not long come 

iQcr iicwiv • 

come from ^^to England ; who having been conversant in France 
France. ^yjj j^ Qj^g ^f ^]^g Nortons, (rebels that had risen in the north, 
anno 1569, and fled abroad,) was justly suspected, in these 
dangerous times, to have come over upon some ill design. 
Sir Walter INIildmay (who was chancellor of the exchequer) 
coming from court to his house in London, was informed of 
this lord Latymer, by a merchant that knew him in Koan, 
and had a letter to come to him. Who thought fit pre- 
sently to send knowledge hereof to the said sir Walter, to 
take him up to examination ; as many suspicious persons 
now were, that came from abroad. This proved the man 
named Nevyle, that was in the combination with Parry, 
208 that came over from France to kill the queen. The said 
Mildmay, without delay, acquaints the lord treasurer here- 
with by his letter, dated Feb. 1583 ; and being but short, 
was as followeth : 
Miidmay's " It may please your lordship. As I came homeward 
letter to « f^.^^^^^ Westminster this forenoon, one Wight, a merchant 

the lord ' o ' 


" of this town, shewed me a letter written to him from one CHAP. 
" that calletli himself lord Latymer, to speak with him this ^^^^- 

"day, as by this enclosed your lordship may perceive. Anno issa. 
" This young; man, having known this Latymer in Roan, ^^j^smer, 

•^ " . . *=" *' ' informing 

" and there knowmg him to have been lodged in old Nor- him of it. 

" ton's house, and greatly conversant with such as he is, 

" thought it his duty to declare this much, to be directed 

" what to do therein. Whereupon I am bold to send him 

" to your lordship, to understand what he shall further do ; 

" and how the party may be stayed, and examined, as may 

" be fit for her majesty's service : which this man is ready 

" to perform, as your lordship shall command." 

Mr. Thomas Wotton, a worthy, learned gentleman in 
Kent, (to whom Lambard dedicated his Perambulation of 
that county,) was nephew to Dr. Wotton, sometime dean of 
Canterbury, a man famous for many embassies hence to 
divers foreign princes. Whose legations^ with other writings Dean Wot- 
of matters of state relating thereto, on his death, came into ^°" * Y?*' 

^ , ings of Ins 

his nephew's hands and possession. Which papers, the legations, 
great statesman, the lord Burghley, desired the favour of 
the said Mr. Wotton, that he might see, or some of them. 
Which with all readiness he sent, and all the remainders of 
them, by his servant, and glad to oblige so excellent a per- 
son. And therewith his letter, dated Jan. 18, which was as 
followeth: (for we must preserve, as much as we can, the 
letters, and therewithal the memories of such eminent men.) 
" That if the rest of such books or notes, remaining yet 
" in his hands, as of any other of his late vmcle's late lega- 
" tions, passed under his pen, might any wise stand his good 
" lordship in any stead, he did by that bearer, his servant, 
" send them wholly unto him. For the present applying of 
" one part of them, he might find that part among them. 
" We might easily say," added he, " that happy was her ma- 
" jesty that had such a counsellor : happy was the realm 
" that had such a member, as unto the one, and in th' 
" other, he [that lord] was well known to be. In which 
" course, under her said majesty, he beseeched the Almighty 


BOOK " God to send a course of many joyful years." Written 
'• from Pykring house in London. Subscribed, 
Anno 1583. " Humbly at the commandment of your good lordship, 

" Thomas Wotton." 

The lord As the lord Thomas Wentworth buried his eldest son the 

Thomas j^gj. ygaj. gQ {[^[^ y^g^^ pj^jt an end to his own life ; who was 

Wentworth - J r ^ _ -i -r< j 

died this the last English governor of Calais. He lived at Mile-End, 
^^'^'^' and was lord of the great manor of Stebunheth, now com- 

monly called Stepney, in the suburbs of London, There 
having been a great friendship between that lord and the 
209 ^^^^ treasurer, the surviving lord Henry his son wrote to 
the said lord treasurer the sad news of his father''s death ; 
and begging the continuance of his favour to him ; and to 
assist him in the discharge of his trust and duty to his de- 
ceased father ; whose concerns were altogether uncertain to 
him. His letter was in these words : 

" Right honourable and my very good lord. It hath 
" pleased God to call unto his mercy this night, my lord, 
*' my father. And for that I am well acquainted with the 
" entire affection and honourable good-will which your 
" lordship did bear unto him while he yet lived, (for the 
" which I most humbly thank your lordship,) and being as 
" yet altogether uncertain in what state his lordship is de- 
" parted ; wherein, both in nature and duty, it most nearly 
*' toucheth me to see his credit and honour in all points 
" most carefully maintained : it may please your good lord- 
" ship, in respect as well of the premises, as also for the 
" good meaning I have to discharge my duty thereto apper- 
" taining, to stand my honourable good lord, for the better 
" accomplishing thereof: beseeching your honour, that as I 
' *' am wholly at your lordship's commandment during life, 

" so it may please your good lordship to accept of my good 
" affections, and to shew your lordship''s honourable favour 
" in all such matters as shall concern my poor estate. And 
" thus with my humble commendations I commit your good 
" lordship to the protection of the Almighty ; who grant 


*' you all your honourable desires. Stebunheth, the 14th cHAP 
"of January, 1583 ^^"• 

Your good lordship's most assured, always to command. Anno issa. 

" Henry Wentworth." 

By the way, an error in Camden's History of Queen Eliza- Camd. Eiiz. 
beth, by the date of this letter, may be corrected ; who P" ^'^ '' 
placed this lord Tho. Wentworth's death under the year 

A notable coiner was this year discovered and taken up A coiner of 
in Cheshire, at Warrington, whose name was Orrel; appre- j^j^^^^^^p"^^ 
hended first upon suspicion, living with his father-in-law, 
one Cartwright. Sir John Bix-on, and two justices more, 
searching his house, found divers secret rooms ; and in a 
dark corner, between two mud walls, whereinto there was 
neither light nor entry, but by breaking one of them, 
among divers other things, both of metals and wood, as 
censors, bells, crucifix, chrismatory, &c. and such like 
church stuff, they found, sewed up in a canvass cloth, cer- 
tain piercings, and droppings or dross of metal, and a pair 
of gold weights. We have mentioned some of these coiners 
before, and shall add another, discovered two or three years 
after, viz. anno 1586. 

One Christopher Amyce, formerly a merchant of Lon- Another 
don, coined rials, and other coins. He acknowledged he ^^|."^^^j '*■ 
had coined seven score pistolets, and many spur-rials of a 
foreign coin. And that he made his plates himself, and 
stamped them also. And his instrument or mill was made 
in France, and all other his instruments and engines ; and 210 
brought by him into England. . . . That he coined twenty 
pieces of Scotch coin ; brass within, and blanched over with 
silver : and his spur-rials were made of fine silver and gilt. 
And that one Nevil Reve had of him sixty double pistolets 
for six shillings apiece ; ten spur-rials at five shillings a- 
piece. And that he and another were present at the stamp- 
ing of them. And that he buried the stamps and other in- 
struments near to Croydon, five miles distant from Lon- 

Anno ir,84. 




Co7isiiltati(yii about annoying Spain. Captain Hawkins's 

advice therein ; viz. to assist the Icing of Porttigal. 
The queen''s transactions zcith the agents of Holland. 
She is concei-nedjhr the murder of the prince of Orange. 
Her careful letter to the duke of Monpensier about that 
prince's daughters. The lo?rl treasurer to the king of 
Navarr. Prince palatine comes into England. A scan- 
dal of the earl of Shreicsbury. Popish p)lots. An asso- 
ciation of the nobility and gentry. Mendoza, the Spanish 
ambassador, sent away. Stafford, the queeii's ambassa- 
dor at Paris. His intelligence of him, and English Jiigi- 
tives there. The faction of the Guises. A new parlia- 
ment : usage of parliament. Supplication Jbr learned 
and preaching ministers. Petitions Jhr that end: and 
Jbr regulation of divers things in the church. Answers 
of the archbishop and bishops. 

The queen -^ HE queeii and kingdom liad the greatest apprehensions 

apprehen- from abroad of the king of Spain : with whom she could 

king of obtain no good understanding : and of whom especially it 

Spain. concerned her to beware, considering his power ; which at 

that time was formidable ; and thus set forth by our his- 

Caiud. Eiiz. torian. " All the princes of Italy were at his beck ; the bi- 

p. 305. « shop of Rome was wholly addicted and engaged to him : 

" the cardinals were, as it were, his vassals : all the ablest 

" persons, for matters both of war and peace, were his pen- 

" sioners. In Germany, the house of Austria, an house ex- 

" tending and branching far and wide, and other houses al- 

" lied unto the same by marriages, did, as it were, attend 

" upon him and his service. His wealth also and strength 

211 " were so much increased, both by sea and land, since the 

" late addition of Portugal and East India, that he was far 

" more powerful and formidable than ever his father 

" Charles V. was. And if he should once reduce the Ne- 

" therlands under his power, there was nothing to hinder, 

" but that the rest of the princes of Christendom must of 

" necessity stoop to his greatness, unless it were prevented." 


This powerful prince then the queen had to deal with. CHAP. 
It was judged therefore the best course to favour the Ne- / 

therlanders, with whom he was now in war, and towards Anno 1 584. 
whom he had exercised great barbarities. It was now under The queen 
dehberation concerning the doing of this weighty matter. !j^||y^™gf^ 
The lord treasurer had consulted with Hawkins, a brave sisting the 
seaman, and treasurer of the admiralty, upon this affair : tries. 
and what means might be used in this undertaking : requir- 
ing to know his thoughts thereof. He soon after shewed 
that statesman, in writing, the means to offend that king, 
and the reasons to maintain that faction. Take them from 
his own pen ; beginning with his own letter to the said lord. 
After which followed another paper, entitled, The best 
means to annoy the hhig of Spain xcitliout charge to her 
majesty. And first take his letter. 

" After his bounden duty in right humble manner pre- Hawkins's 
" sented. That he had briefly considered upon a substantial ^|J'„'^yi^°'' 
" course, and the material reasons, that by his own experi-the king of 
" ence he knew, by God's assistance, would strongly annoy ''*'"' 
" and offend the king of Spain, the mortal enemy of our re- 
" hgion, and the present government of the realm of Eng- 
" land." And then proceeding in this serious manner. 

" And surely, my very good lord, if I should only con- His letter 
" sider and look for mine own life, my quietness and com- 
" modity, then truly mine own nature and disposition doth 
" prefer peace before all things. But when I consider where- 
" unto we are born ; not for ourselves, but for the defence of 
" the church of God, our prince, and our country ; I do then 
" think, how this most happy government might, with good 
" providence, prevent the conspiracies of our enemies. 

" That he nothing at all doubted of our ability in wealth. 
" For that he was persuaded, that the substance of this 
" realm was trebled: adding, God be glorified for it. Nei- 
" ther did he think there wanted provisions, carefully pro- 
" vided, of shipping, ordnance, powder, armour, and muni- 
" tion : so as the people were exercised by some means in 
" the course of war. For he read, that when Mahomet, the 
" Turk, took the famous city, Constantinople, digging up 


to the lord 


BOOK "in the foundations and bottoms of the houses, he found 
' " such infinite trcasin-e, as the said Mahomet, condemning 
Anno 1584." their wretcliedness, wondered how that city could have 
" been overcome, or taken, if they had in time provided 
" men of war and furniture for their defence, as they were 
" very well able. So, said he, there wanted no abihty in us, 
" if we were not taken unprovided, and upon a sudden. 

" And that this was the only cause that had moved liim 
" to say his mind frankly in this matter, and to set down 
212" those notes enclosed. Praying the Almighty God, who 
" directeth the hearts of all governors, either to the good 
" and benefit of the people, for their relief and deliverance; 
" or else doth alter and hinder their understanding, to the 
" punishment and ruin of the people, for their sins and of- 
" fences. Humbly beseeching his good lordship to bear 
" with his presumption, in dealing with matters so high; 
" and to judge of them by his great wisdom and experience, 
" liow they might, in his lordship's judgment, be worthy the 
" considei'ation. And so humbly taking his leave. From 
" Deptford, the 20th of July, 1584. Subscribing, 
" Your honourable lordsliip\s ever assuredly bounden, 

" John Hawkyns."" 

His other paper, sent with his letter, was thus endorsed ; 
Reasnus to maintain the J'action. The title was. The best 
means hozo to annoy the Icing of Spain, in my opinion, 
without charge to her majesty. Which also shall bring great 
'profit to her highness and subjects. And is as ensueth : 

" First, If it shall be thought meet, that the king of Por- 
" tugal may, in his right, make war with the king of Spain, 
" then he would be the best means to be the head of the 
" faction. There would be obtained from the said king of 
" Portugal an authority to some person, that should always 
" give leave to such, as, upon their own charge, would serve 
" to annoy the king of Spain, as they might, both by sea 
" and land : and of their booties to pay unto the king of 
" Portugal 5 or 10 of the hundred. 

" There would be also one person authorized by her ma- 


iesty to take notice of such as do serve the king of Porta- CHAP 
gal. And so that party, with her majesty s consent, to ______ 

srive them leave and allowance to retire, victual, and sell Anno i584. 

in some port of the west country. For which liberty they 

should pay unto her majesty 5 or 10 of the hundred. 

" None should have leave to serve the said king of Por- 
' tugal, but they should put in surety to offend no person, 
' but such as the said king had war with : and should be 
' bovmd to break no bulk but in the port allowed. Where 
' would be commissioners appointed, to restore such goods 
' as were belonging to friends in amity with the king of 
' Portugal ; and to allow the rest to the takers. 

" There would be martial law for such as committed pi- 
' racy. For now there can be no excuse, but all idle sea- 
' men may be employed. 

" If these conditions be allowed, and that men may en- 
' joy that which they lawfully take in this service, the best 
' owners and merchant adventurers in the river will put in 
' foot, and attempt great things. 

" The gentlemen and owners in the west party will enter 
' deeply into this party. 

" The Flushingers also will be a great party in this matter. 213 

" The protestants of France will be a great company to 
' help this attempt. 

" The Portugals in the islands in Brasyl and in Geney, 
' for the most part, will continually revolt. Fishings in 
' Spain and Portugal, which is their greatest relief, will 
' hereby be utterly impeached and destroyed. The islands 
' will be sacked ; their forts defaced ; and their brass ord- 
' nance brought away. 

" Our own people, as gunners, (whereof we have but few,) 
' would be made expert, and grow in number. Our idle 
' people would grow to be good men of war, both by land 
' and sea. 

" The coast of Spain and Portugal, in all places, would 
' be so annoyed, as to keep continual armies ; there would 
' be no possibility sometimes. That of my knowledge it is 

X 2 


BOOK " treble more tedious and chargeable to prepare shipping 

' " and men in those parts, than it is with iis. 

Anno 1584. «' The voyage offered by sir Francis Drake might best 

" be made lawful, to go under this licence also. Which 

" would be secret, until the time draw near of their readiness. 

" All this before rehearsed shall not be any means to 

" draw the king of Spain to offer a war. For that this party 

" will not only consist of English men, but rather of tlie 

" French, Flemins, Scots, and such like. So as king Philip 

" shall be forced by great entreaty to make her majesty a 

" means to withdraw the forces of her subjects, and the aid 

" of her highnesses ports. For otherwise there will be such 

" scarcity in Spain, and his coast so annoyed, as Spain never 

" endured so great smart. The reason is, for that the great- 

" est traffics of all king Philip's dominions must pass to and 

" fro by the seas, which will hardly escape intercepting." 

Matters The agents from Holland, monsieur de Gryse and Ortel, 

transacted y^Qre uow here. And to these points the affair betwixt the 

between the - , i- i • p i 

queen and quecu and them came digested in four papers : an abstract 
the iioi- ^vhereof was drawn by the pen of the lord treasurer. 

landers. . 

The first contained an answer of the states to her majes- 
ty's propositions. That count Maurice was the chief over 
their affairs. That her majesty would send them aid speed- 
ily. They offered her 330,000 florins monthly. What num- 
bers of the enemies forces were besides their garrisons, foot 
and horse, in Guelders, Antwerp, about Gaunt, &c. Then 
what their own forces were, and what they looked for out of 

The second paper was, that they required her majesty to 
receive in general all the provinces united, into her protec- 
tion : or particularly Holland, Zealand, and Utrecht. And 
that they would contribute, both by sea and land, two mil- 
lions yearly; or else to accept these countries to her alliance. 
That the French king laboured to be accepted as their lord 
in general. And that the queen would prevent it, by send- 
ing three or four thousand under a good conduct. 

A third paper was from Zealand, that the hearts of the 


people would be the more inclined to her majesty, if she CHAP, 
would presently assist them with four thousand foot. 

The fourth paper contained private instructions. Anno 1534. 

These notable papers may all be read at large (whereof 214 
this is but an imperfect account) in the Appendix. This Number 


message from these afflicted Netherlanders succeeded ; and ' ' ' 
after some years addresses from them, to take the protection 
of them upon her, they now at last obtained it. 

The queen shewed her esteem for these Netherlanders by The prince 
her great concern for William, prince of Orange, barba- "^^^ Jp "g^*; 
rously murdered in July this year; and gave a remarkable 'f lie q-ieen's 

* „ „ 1 1 ' 1 ^1 • 1 1 TT 1 concern for 

Sign thereof after she heard of his death. He was the great u. 
general for those states in their defence against the king of 
Spain. The murderer was one Balthazar Gerard, a Bur- 
goindian, by a pistol discharged at him in his own hall, at 
Delpht : encouraged thereto by that king ; who had given 
sentence of death against him, some two or three years be- 
fore, and given liberty to any to kill him, wheresoever they 
could meet with him, and withal encouraged them to do it 
with the reward of 25000 ducats. This bloody villain, me- 
ditating this murder, had been with a Jesuit at Treves : to 
whom he confessed himself, discovering to him his wretched 
design. Who kept him in their college, taking the Jesuit's 
counsel and direction, as this villain did confess boldly. The General 
prince of Orange was not unsensible of the daily danger he ^,g^^e^i"/,.. 
went in ; and being apprehensive of falling under some such lands, 
treachery, had before acquainted queen Elizabeth therewith: ^'" 
and prayed her, that upon any such sudden decease of his, she 
would take some care of his daughters; whereof one was god- 
daughter to her majesty. Not long after this sad news came 
to the queen, she remembered the prince''s request, and (as 
it is likely) her own promise to him ; which caused her to de- 
spatch a letter in French, dated in October, signed by herself 
at the bottom, to the duke Monpensier, to this purport. 

" That the prince of Orange, foreseeing the imminent j,,^'j*g|?"^^jjl* 
" danger that he was always subject to, by the secret me-ceniing his 

. . dau'^liters 

" thods and snares laid for him by his enemies, had instantly one^vhere'- 
" prayed her to have his daughters recommended to her ; "*^ *'"^ "^* 

' -^ <=■ . srodiiiotlier 

X 3 ro. 


BOOK " aixi to take them under her protection, if he should chance 
" to leave them fatherless. Reposing himself (as by good 

Anno 1584." right he might do) under her favour and affection; which 
" she had borne towards him at all times. And that she had 
" advice after this unfortunate accident concerning a pro- 
" mise of hers to that })urpose."''' And then the queen pro- 
posed and appointed the disposing of the young princesses, 
his daughters, to divers protestant princes, as follows. The 
eldest daughter, whose name is not inserted, to madam, the 
princess of Bierne, her kinswoman ; where she could not 
but be brought up virtuously. The second, who was [nos- 
trejilleule] the queen's god-daughter, the queen would take. 
Brabantim, tlie third, she commended to the duchess of 
Bouillon, sister to the duke of Monpensier, to be bred up 
with mademoiselle, her daughter. Amolyne, to the elector 
palatine. Katherine, to the countess of Swartzenburgh ; 
lein- marraine. Lastly, Flandrine : whom the queen re- 
commended long ago to la dame du Paracly. And so ex- 
horting the duke, to whom she wrote, to take particular 
care of these young princesses, to whom lie was so nearly 
215 related on the mother's side. But the whole letter, in French, 

Num. as it came from the queen, I refer to the Appendix ; where 
XXXVII. .,1 , , 1 

It deserves to have a place. 

Lord tiea- And as the queen wrote a letter this year to the duke of 
toTheTin- Monpensier, a French protestant prince, so the great lord 
of Navar. treasurer Burghley now wrote his to another, viz. the king 
of Navarr. Such was the good understanding and great 
friendship between this court and the protestant princes of 
France. That king had enough to do to preserve himself and 
his kingdom, and to defend the religion against the leaguer,^!, 
viz. the duke of Guise and his party, sworn enemies to the 
reformed. He had writ often to this privy-counsellor upon 
business; highly commending his zeal for religion, as well 
as service to his mistress, the queen. Which letters he did 
not think convenient to answer, as looking like a piece of 
presumption. But Weenies, a Scotch gentleman, and ser- 
vant of that king, departing hence to that court, and earn- 
estly desiring a letter from this lord to that king, he at 


leno-th yielded to do. The letter may not be amiss to insert, CHAP. 

to preserve as much as may be of the memory of that wor- '_ 

thy king, as of that wise statesman who writ it. Which I Anno i584. 
transcribe from the minutes writ with his own pen. 

" Sir, I have received sundry letters of your majesty di- His letter. 
" vers times : wherein I confess myself greatly beholden 
" unto your majesty for the good opinion expressed therein, 
" of me and my actions for the cause of the gospel, more 
" largely than my power can deserve, though my Nvill, ac- 
" cording to my bounden duty, is not less than your raa- 
" jesty is pleased to express. And though I have not used 
" to write to your majesty again in answer of your majes- 
" ty's letters, (which I have forborne, as judging it some 
" kind of presumption to trouble your majesty with my 
" writings, where my answer was not needful,) yet at this 
" time, the tender of a gentleman of Scotland, named Mr. 
" Wcemes, now belonging unto your majesty, hath very 
" earnestly required me for his discharge, to certify you, 
" that he brought to me your letters. Which in truth he 
" did ; and being a gentleman worthy of great commenda- 
" tion, I could not deny him so reasonable a request. Which 
" is the cause of my present writing. Praying your majesty 
" to accept the same, as from an humble devoted servitor of 
" your majesty. Not so much for your kingdom, which I 
" do honour greatly, but for your magnanimity and con- 
" stancy in the maintenance of the true religion of Christ. 
" AVherein I pray God to assist you with his graces, to the 
" confusion of Antichrist and of his members." 

The queen kept always a fair correspondence with the fo- 
reign princes of the protestant profession. And both she 
and her great counsellor, the lord treasurer, shewed all re- 
spect to them. And so she did particularly to prince pala- Prince pa- 
tine of the Rhine ; who, with his brother, duke Casimu-e, ^Is' brother 
came about this time into England. The humanity and visit the 
honour shewed them here, their agent Wierus (of whom 
mention was made before) acknowledged in a letter of high 
esteem and gratitude to the said lord treasurer, wrote in 
September, after the return of those princes: importing, 

X 4 




Anno 1584. 

The queen 
of Scots 
writes to 
the lord 


" That he had been chief instrument to them both, of tak- 
" ing their journey into England : where they had received 
" exceeding satisfaction for the treatment they found, both 
" from the queen and him.'"' Wherein the agent added, 
" That he was bound to him for ever ; and was ready to 
" serve him." He called that prince, George Gustavus, pa- 
latine of Rhine, duke of Bavaria, count Veldent, &c. and 
he took notice how that lord gave his brother, Avho was 
prcsfectus, chief officer, to the said prince palatine, the tes- 
timony of his hand and seal; which he had asked of him. 

The lord treasurer had the honour now to receive a letter 
from Mary, queen of Scots, dated from Sheffield, where she 
was in custody of the earl of Shrewsbury. For this year an 
earnest treaty was in hand betwixt her and queen Elizabeth, 
for her liberty : with whom she, the said queen Mary, pro- 
fessing to enter into a strict amity ; and queen Elizabeth 
beino- inclinable to release her. But the wise men about her 
knew there could be no security in such an act. In the 
mean time the French ambassador was much employed in 
this affair. And to move the queen towards her, she now 
wrote herself an earnest letter to him, the said lord treasurer, 
in French, desiring him to second Mauvesier, the said 
French ambassador, on her behalf: beginning. Monsieur^ 
Ic grand tMsanricr. Ayant ecrit ccs jours passes a la 
royne ma dame, ma bonne swur, &c. The import whereof 
was, " That she had lately written to my lady, the queen, 
" her good sister, to declare the sincerity of her intention 
" towards her, and the great necessity which she had of her 
" majesty's granting her requests, she thought fit by the 
" same messenger to pray him to be favourable in this af- 
" fair, &c. and that she had prayed Mauvesier, the ambas- 
" sador of the French king, her cousin, to conniiunicate all 
" to him ; and beseeching his aid and support towards her 
*' said sister ; and to have regard to her long captivity, and 
" to the truth of all that they would propound concerning 
" her," &c. But the whole letter, as I transcribed it from the 
original, 1 have thought worthy of a place in the Appendix. 
T nuist not omit, among the public occurrences this year. 


an information that was brought before the lords, of a vile CHAP, 
report raised of the earl of Shrewsbury, viz. that he had a ^^*"' 
child by the queen. The scandal was so great and enormous, Anno i584. 
that it was brought from thence to the quarter sessions; ^^^^^^"^ai^ 
that the party that related it might come to some due signal of shrews- 
punishment. One of the seat of the justices for London and ^"'"J' 
Westminster was sergeant Fleetwood, recorder of the city 
of London. The complaint beforesaid take from his own 
pen, written to the lord treasurer, according as his custom 
was, to give him in writing an account of such proceedings 
in their sessions. It was by way of diary, about Michael- 
mas, when the said Fleetwood and other justices sate upon 
the s-eneral sessions in Westminster-hall, for Middlesex; 
and the next day at Finsbury. " At this session, one Cople 
" and one Baldwyn, my lord of Shrewsbury's gentlemen, 
" required me [viz. Fleetwood] that they might be suffered 
" to indict one Walmesly, of Islyngton, an innholder, for 
" scandalization of my lord their master. They shewed me 
" two papers. The first was under the clerk of the counciFs 217 
" hand, of my lord's purgation : in the which your good 
" lordship's speeches are especially set down. The second 
" paper was the examinations of divers witnesses, taken by 
" Mr. Harris. The effect of all which was, that Walmesley 
' " should tell his guests openly at the table, that the earl of 
*' Shrewsbury had got the queen with child ; and that he 
" knew where the child was christened. And it was alleged, 
" that he should further add, that my lord should never go 
" home arain, with like words. An indictment was drawn 
" by the clerk of the peace. The which I thought not good 
" to have published, or that the evidence should be given 
" openly. And therefore I caused the jury to go to a cham- 
" ber ; where I was, and heard the evidence given. 

" Among whom, (added the recorder,) one Meredith Han- Dr. Mere- 
" mer, a doctor of divinity and vicar of Islyngton, was a |J|J^'^' """' 
" witness; who had dealt as lewdly towards my lord in 
" speeches, as did the other, viz. Walmesley. This doctor 
" regardeth not an oath. Surely he is a very bad man. But 
" in the end the indictment was endorsed, Billa vera.'''' 


BOOK The popish party was very busy here unto this year; and 

now more and more. Many Englishmen of that rehgion be- 

Anno i584.came bigots, and were employed in plots for the deliver- 

Manypa- j^jj^g Qf ^\^q Scots queen, thoup-h it were with the assassi- 

pists em- _ _ . 

ployed in nation of their natural queen Elizabeth : acted and encou- 
'' ° "■ raged also by foreign princes too. Such were Throgmorton, 

lord Paget, his brother Charles, under the name of Mope, 
lord Arundel, and, among the rest, the false Welshman, 
Parry : and besides, a great many priests and seminaries 
had been discovered, and taken up ; and remained now in 
divers prisons; as, the Marshalsea, the King"'s Bench, the 
Gatehouse, in London and Westminster : besides other pri- 
sons of the kingdom, as Manchester and Wisbich : whom 
yet the queen would not put to death, (as many had been 
already for examples,) but now chose rather to rid the land 
of them, "and banish them. 

De Mendoza, the Spanish ambassador here, was a great 
and busy instrument in these mischievous designs. So he 
was discharged and sent away : but remained in France, fol- 
lowing his practices there against England. The duke of 
Guise and his party were sworn in an inveterate league 
against the reformed religion in general ; and particularly 
The true against the queen. This dangerous condition wherein Eng- 
subjects en- j^^^j j^^^^ stood, especially, if the queen were taken away, 
association, caused an association ; which this year all the well affected 
in the kingdom voliuitarily entered into : the purport where- 
of was, by mutual vows and subscriptions to prosecute to 
death, as far as lay in their power, all those that should at- 
tempt any thing against the queen. These matters I leave 
to our historians to relate ; 1 shall only shew some more se- 
staft'ord, crct passages concerning them, from a letter of sir Edward 
fn France*" Stafford, now ambassador resident in France, to the lord 
his infor- Burghlcy and sir Francis Walsingham, importing, " That 

mat ions of i i i t» i' i i i i 

English Ro" the lord Paget iqion a great sudden was departed thence, 

manists a r^j^ Paris.l And that in so oreat a sudden, that his corn- 
there. '- . -■ . ° . 

" panlous that came over with him (all deep in the Scots'* 

218" (jueen's interest) were, or at least seemed, greatly off'end- 

" ed at it ; and all the rest that were there, saving only his 


" brother and Throgmorton, who seemed only to be ac- CHAP. 

* Will 
" quainted with it. The rest gave out that they knew not_ 

" of his departure, only the night before he went. Whereat^""" i^^'*. 

" they stomached at Charles Paget, and seemed to grow in Throgmor-* 

" a great mislike of him ; calling him a glorious fool ^ and ton. 

" standins: in his own conceit more than there was cause." But 

perhaps that lord Paget had secret orders from the French 

court to depart for a while, to prevent the French king's 

surrendering him upon the queen''s request ; and so after a 

time to return again. " But Charles Paget told them that 

" his brother, the lord Paget, went to Molain to avoid 

" charges : where he meant to live more privately.'"' 

But the ambassador (part of whose office was to trace as 
much as he could such dangerous persons) added this fur- 
ther intelligence in his said letter; " That that lord being His inteiii- 
" gone out of town, he assured them, that between the se- ^J^j'^p"^^^*' 
" cond and third post towards Lyons, he had a man met him 
" with three horses; one that he rid on, that brought the 
" other two for the lord Paget and his man. Which (as the 
" ambassador added) made him suspect that he had taken 
" some other course. For giving out, that he went post, he 
" went but two posts and an half. And from thence return- 
" ed back his post horses, and took those horses that stayed 
" there for him." And then subjoining his conjecture: "That 
" he might perhaps have some such disguised matter, that 
" his brother had under the name of Mope, when he came 
" secretly into England," [and in Sussex waited for the duke 
of Guise, who was to land there upon his intended inva- 
sion.] " This he thought good in time to advertise their ho- 
" nours of. And that ere long he should learn more of him ; 
" and with time advertise them what he knew." 

In the same letter he let his correspondents understand, A book 
" That there was, as he heard, a book new printed, and very {'i',e"J,bi^ity 
" secretly kept ; and delivered out by himself who was the iind havens 
" doer of it. Whom the party as yet either would not or " 
" could not name to him. But he guessed by the matter 
" and other causes, that it should be Throgmorton. Be- 
" cause that it contained at laro^e that which in substance 


BOOK " he [the ambassador] had heard was found in Throgmor- 
^' " ton's hands, that was executed. Which contained the 

Anno 1584." namcs of the noblemen, gentlemen, and men of any ac- 
" count in all shires in England ; with their abilities, affec- 
" tions, and dispositions : the measured depths of all the ha- 
" vens in England, at every kind of tide. He added, that 
" he thought he should come by it, as secret soever as it was 
" kept. They reported it was bigger than the answer to the 
" book, called, The execution of' justice, almost once again. 
" And that it was dedicated to the pope's son." 
Mendoza's The ambassador proceeded next to Mendoza, and his 
unwelcome coming; to Paris from England : " That the queen-mother 

coming to o o . . , -, 

France. " stomicd marvellously at Bernardines [vid. de Mendozas] 
" sending thither, [to France.] And that she had told the 
" king the dangerous disposition of the man. And that both 
2 1 9 " of them would fain be rid of him, if they could. But the 
" ambassador's thought was, that he should remain there ; 
" and that they would not sti'ive, when it came to the point, 
" to refuse him whom the king of Spain sent. And that he 
" was credibly informed, that yesternight, a courier came to 
" him with his full despatch from the king of Spain, to stay 
" there. And Tasis [who was the other ambassador] to pre- 
" pare to go either to Flanders or Spain, as by the next des- 
" patch he should have oi-der." 

Walsingham, the secretary, had acquainted the ambassa- 
dor with the abovesaid association of the gentlemen of Eng- 
land, for the queen's safety, and for revenging of any mis- 
hap befalhng her by the treachei'y of her enemies. Concern- 
The Eng- ing which this was the ambassador's opinion : " That hav- 
lish am- a • communicated it to some there, [in Paris,] they told 

bassador so ■- i i i • 

thoughts of" hivn, they would dare, what they could, to make the king 
tiic^associa- ^^ ^.j^^^.^ ^^ ^,^^^ ^ liking to have it followed in that realm. Into 
" the which they that were England's best friends in 'France, 
" if he [Walsingham] liked of it, would be content to give 
" the first example. Which he [the ambassador] thought, 
" if it might be brought to pass, would divert any conceits 
" that any evil-disposed people would conceive of the good 
" meaning of the EnffUsh nation." 


And then the ambassador, to shew his good zeal for his c HAP. 
royal mistress, the queen, humbly offered to come into the ^^'^l'- 

said association, if it might be accepted, with expressions of Anno i584. 
hiffh loyalty towards her. Using thesfe words: " I think, The ambas- 
" and whether it will be thought a presumption in so poor a ^-^^^^ ^^ 
" man, without means to help much in such a matter, as I come into 

' •■ • /-v 1 1 *''^ associa- 

" am, to offer to enter into so good a society. Or whetlier tion. 
" it be a thing that men of greatness and much ability only 
" do enter into. But I have a life and blood : which in 
" other places I will keep and defend as charily as any man; 
" but in this case nobody shall spend it with a better will, 
" nor more frankly than myself; nor any man that lives in 
" heaven shall be more irreconcileable with any that shall 
" have a thought to attempt it, than I. And therefore he 
" beseeched his honour to know, whether his good- will 
" might be accepted among the rest of so honourable a 
" company ; and what order others that were not present 
" should ratify their meaning among the rest : and he would 
" not fail presently to send that which he should command 
" him." 

And then concerning that French faction of the Guises, Fears of the 
(wherein England's danger also was concerned,) he wrote ^["g'fjuises. 
thus : " That the house of the Guises, their meetings and 
" great assemblies of the nobility with them, had raised a 
" suspicion in many men's minds of some trouble : which 
" would be better discovered ere long. And that word was 
" brought him even then, that the duke of Guise had agreed 
" to come to the court," [which was looked upon as strange 
news, in respect of that fatal discord between that king, 
Henry III. and that duke's party, which some years af- 
ter ended in tlie murder of them both,] " but none of the 
" rest : having determined never to come at all once." This 
was writ in November, 1584. 

Now began a new parliament in November; there having 220 
not been one in some years before. And that it might begin A pariia- 
with all the solemnity and ancient usages of parliament, the ^^^^ ^^^^_ 
lord treasurer, an ancient member of parliaments in former surer's di- 

• 1 • • 1 T ructions. 

reigns, as well as this, seems to have given this particular di- 


BOOK rection, about regular reading of bills, which I find under 
his own hand, entitled, Usage of pcnTimncnts : and withal 

Anno 1584. how conformable thereunto the said parliament began: which 

was as followeth. 
Usage of " The ancient custom of parliaments hath been, that the 

paiha. a causes of summons of parliament have been the first day 

mcnts. _ ^ *' 

" of parliament by the lord chancellor declared. And at the 
*' same time also notice given, that if any person had any 
" suits or petitions to the parliament, to be heard there ; 
" where were certain persons selected to receive the said pe- 
" titions within six days following. And certain lords of 
" parliament, both spiritual and temporal, were also select- 
" ed to be the triers of those petitions. And so allowing of 
" them, to be heard and treated of in parliament, the same 
" should be received in convenient time. 

" Nota, That the first day of parliament, on Monday the 
" 23d of Novemb. [1584], there were openly read the names 
" of five receivers of petitions, for England, Ireland, Wales, 
" and Scotland. And ten other lords of parliament, where- 
" of four bishops, three earls, three barons, to hear and try 
" the said petitions. And so to allow or disallow the same, 
" so as no private petition ought to be allowed to be treated 
" in parliament, but such as shall be in such manner tried. 

" Item, The custom also is, that in the common house 
" the speaker should first prefer to be read all bills that are 
" brought to him, either from the higher house of parlia- 
" ment, as bills there passed, or otherwise signed by the king's 
" own hand, or brought from the king, or his council, con- 
" taining matters offered to be treated on, for the king's be- 
" half, or for the state of the realm. And until these bills 
" should be read, treated, and debated, the speaker ought 
" not to spend the time in reading of any other bills. Wherc- 
" by neither the public causes, for the which the parliament 
" was called, nor such others as should be sent from the king 
" and his council, should be delayed." The reason of which 
instruction for this parliament, given by that wise statesman, 
seems to be, to put some stop to those divers petitions, bills, 
and complaints, which were tlien earnestly brought in chiefly 


by the puritan party against the clergy, their pluralities, CHAP, 
non-rpsiflpnres. and insufficiencv. Into which matters of ' 

non-residences, and insufficiency. 

controversy some considerable light is let in, by what is writ Anno i584. 

in the Life of Archbishop Whitgift, under this year. Book iii. 

To which I add, that in the parliament two years after, ^^' p^J^j^^^^j 
among the petitions of this sort, was one or more brought in to tiie par- 
for the redressing of the people's want of able ministers in ^|!j"'t"f °' 
the nation, (many defects in the clergy being mightily com-ai)ie minis- 
plained of;) and for more constant preaching of the gospel, 
and residence of the respective incumbents ; to be ready to 
perform spirit\ial offices among them, especially preaching. 
There was one petition also brought in for a learned minis- 221 
try, entitled, A lamentable complaint of the commonalty, by Aiamenta- 

„ ,. . ,1-1 r T .1-1 We Corn- 

way of supplication to the high court ot parliament ; which, pi^j^t. 

it seems, had been brought in once before ; and now review- 
ed and augmented. It began, " In most humble manner Vid. Part 

O o ' _ of a Rew'ist.. 

" that we may, most gracious sovereign, and right l;ionour-p ^q,/' 
" able assembly, we fall down at your feet, even in the dust, 
" presenting before you a most weighty petition. It is not 
" unlike that petition that Hester made to king Assuerus, 
" saying, If I have found favour in thy sight, and it seem 
" good unto the king, let my life be given me at my petition, 
" and my people at my request. For ive are sold, I and my 
" people, to be destroyed, to be slain, and to perish. And 
" when the king demanded, who had done that deed, the 
" queen answered. That wicked Haman. In likewise, so 
" many congregations of us to be in this land destitute of a 
" godly minister, to preach unto us the word of salvation, 
" (as there be exceeding many,) do entreat for our lives, 
" and the life of our neighbours. For we are sold to be 
" destroyed, to be slain, and perish eternally, if, by your 
" gracious help, speedy remedy be not had. If question be 
*« made, who hath done the deed, we answer, The blind 
" fifuides and unlearned curates that are set over us." This 
is enough to shew the strain of the composers of this Suppli- 

This petition was answered in a speech in the parliament, 
anno 1586, by a person unknown, pcrliaps sir Chr. Hatton. 



BOOK But before this, there was a notable suppHcatory book prc- 
• pared, styled, A supplication.^ to be exhibited to our sove- 

A Supplica 
tion to the 
and Parlia 

Anno \bM. reign lady^ qncen Elizabeth, to the honourable lords of her 
most honourable privy-council, and to the high court of par- 
liament. By what is written on the back-side of this Suppli- 
cation, by the pen of the lord treasurer, it appears to have 
been draA\ai up by Tho. Sampson, viz. Mr. SampsaiCs book 
to the parliament. See two letters of his to that lord on that 
Page 183. occasion in the Life of Archbishop Whitgift, under this 
year : the articles of the petition, by him framed in the said 
book, for a regulation in the church, are to the number of 
thirty-four: " And all professed to be for the help of the 
poor untaught people of this realm, and for the reforming 
of some other disorders. As, first, That there might be 
a review taken of all the market-towns, and other towns 
of most inhabitants, to see what able preaching pastor is 
now resident among them, and in every of them. And 
also to know what sufficiency of living there was then 
provided in them. Secondly, That there might be consi- 
deration had of other little towns and parishes ; that there 
might, by some union of two or three parishes together, 
be made sufficient congregations. Thirdly, That if in this 
view there were found a want of able persons, fit to sup- 
ply the office of preaching pastors in every congregation, 
this want might be helped by some certain ways, there set 
down. Fourthly, That every dean and chapter of every 
cathedral and collegiate church, that did pav yearly wages 
to singing men and choristers, and musicians in their 
churches, to pay the same in yearly pensions to such pas- 
tors as were resident on their benefices, which should be 
222 " found to want sufficient sustentation of living. That all 
archbisho])s and bishops should have assigned and ap- 
pointed to them, eight, ten, twelve, or more preaching 
pastor, doctors, and deacons, together with other grave 
and godly men of worship, or justices of the peace ; to be 
assistant to them in their government in causes ecclesiasti- 
cal : which at present those archbishops and bishops, with 
their chancellors and archdeacons, did Jiear and determine 


" alone. And that so likewise every pastor should have ap- CHAP. 
" pointed him four or six associates and seniors, inhabitants ^'^ •. 

" of the parish, to and with the said pastor ; to govern the Anuo io84. 

*' said parish with him. Since all parishes and pastors had 

" need of the help of a godly seignorie. A Jioly league with 

" the living God was also propounded to be entered into, 

" both by prince and people : that the religion of Christ Je- 

" sus might remain stable among us. And thereby to give 

" open defiance to Rome." The rest would be too long to 

insert here. But the whole thirty-four articles may be read 

in the Appendix. Out of which (it may be) the commons Number 

drew up their petitions, reducing them to the number of 

sixteen ; offered to the consideration of the lords ; as they 

are set down in D'Ewes"* Journal of Parliaments, but very page 357. 

imperfectly. Which were all considered and answered by 

the archbishop of Canterbury and other bishops. But they 

were thereby, and by the queen's conmiand, quickened to a 

reformation of some things amiss ; as may be seen in that 

arclibishop''s Life. 

But I will set down Sampson's prefatory supplication to 
the petitions aforesaid : entitled, A supplication made in the 
name of' certain true subjects; to he in most humble wise 
'presented to our sovereign lady, queen Elizabeth, to the 
lords of her most honourable privy-council, and to the high 
court of parliament. 

" In most humble wise complaining; we, which aresuppiica- 
" thousands of the poor untaught people of England, vour ^'°" *° ''^ 

^ . ^ ^ r ^ ^ presented to 

" true subjects, most gracious sovereign lady and queen, tiic pariia- 
" and daily orators to the majesty of God for your higli- learned '^ 
" ness, do shew to your clemency; and to your honours also, preaching 
" you, honourable lords of her most honourable privy-coun- 
" cil; and to you, ye honourable and worshipful, you lords, 
" bishops, knights, esquires, burgesses of the high court of 
*' parliament; 

" That where, in this blessed time of this most happy 
" government, there is and hath been now many years a 
" blessed liberty given to preach and hear the gospel of Je- 
" sus Christ, the word of our salvation, in peace and safety 



BOOK "among us; a thing which our forefathers might desire, 
" but did not enjoy in such sort as we do ; a thing also, to 

Anno 1584." which few of our neighbours in other dominions at this 
" day can attain ; and a thing, for which we acknowledge 
" ourselves all manner of ways most dutifully bounden 
*' to the goodness of God, and to our most gracious sove- 
" reign lady and queen. Yet so it is, that we, your said 
" suppliants, in this great plenty, are sore pinched with a 
" great scarcity. For so it is, most gracious sovereign, and 
" honourable lords, that in very many of our congregations 
" we have none who do break the bread of life unto us ; we 
223 " have none that do diligently teach us the holy word of 
" God; as by God's law we know, and as by your godly 
" laws we do think, we ought to have ; nor, as we do see, 
" some of our neighbours have under your gracious protec- 
" tion. We have not the comfortable preaching of the king- 
" dom of God, joined with the ministry of the sacraments of 
" Christ, in our congregations and parishes among our own, 
" where we do dwell. And therefore some of us are driven 
" to seek for the same from our own, in other congregations 
" and parishes, where we do not dwell. We have not vigi- 
" lant, able, and painful preaching pastors resident among 
" us, to teach us by preaching the word of God; and by 
" catechising, to instruct us and oiu' families in the way of 
" the Lord. We have some pastors which have a kind of 
" calling to the pastoral office: but many of them be not 
" resident on their benefices. Some of them are licensed to 
" be double, if not treble beneficed men. Some of them are 
" occupied in other affairs, which they do apply. So that 
" they neither can, nor do they the office required of a dili- 
" gent preaching pastor, resident on his flock. 

Bishops. « If our bishops heretofore had, or yet did provide a re- 

" medy fit for this grief, we would not have made this com- 
" plaint now : but our bishops are so far from giving a meet 
" remedy for these our griefs, that they do rather daily in- 
" crease them : for these be some of them which do daily 
" make ninnbers of ministers or priests (as they be called) 
" which are so dinnb, that thev neither can do nor will 


" speak any thing in the congregation, where they be resi- CHAP. 
" dent, more than they are couipelled to read out of a print- 

" ed book. With which reading, and some other conformity, Anno i584. 

" (as it is termed,) our bishops and their officers, contenting 

" themselves sufficiently, do give us simple readers, not skill- 

" ed, nor sufficiently preaching pastors. The Lord hath not 

" given to these men, of Avhom we do complain, the tongue 

" of which the prophet doth speak, when he speaketh of 

" profitable preachers, thus, The Lord hath given me a Isaiah J. 

" tongue of the learned., that I should hnow to mimster a 

" zoord in time to h'nn that is xveary. Though they be such 

" men as do want the gift, yet they do boldly seek to have 

" the place of a teacher, though they cannot teach. Seeing 

" pastors are commanded to feed the flock of the Lord, it 

" may be thought to be a very presumptuous and preposte- 

" rous thing, to ordain such men to be pastors as cannot 

" feed it dutifully : and yet our bishops dare boldly confer 

" that to them which they do blindly seek. 

" The pastors which the Loi-d doth like and allow to be 
" the pastors of his people, are such as do feed his people 
" with hnoxvledge and u7ider standing. Our Lord and Sa-Jerem.iii. 
" viour Jesus did send forth his apostles to preach the gospel. 
" The pastors which are to be allowed by the rule of the 
" holy apostle Paul must be able to persuade hy sound 
" doetrinc, and to convince the gainsayei's ; mtist he apt to 
" teach, and able rightly to divide the ivord of' God. Paul 
" commandeth Timothy to be instant in time and out of' 
" time. Which things they regard not, which do give their 
" people but bare readings, and appoint them to hear but 
" quarter sermons. To be thus able to teach, and to do it, 
" is more than to be a simple teacher : and is much more 
" than our reading ministers do, or can do. If men contend 224 
" to set up a reading ministry in place of preaching, they do Readers. 
" not regard how the Lord hath ordained a preaching rai- 
" nistry for the profitable edifying of his church. And so 
" they do dangerously depart from the ordinance of the 
" Lord Jesus Christ, and do draw very nigh to the abuse of 
" Antichrist ; who is content to feed liis own church with 

V 9 




Anno 1584.'' 

Nehem. viii." 

such a dumb and unprofitable ministry as serveth in read- 
ing or singing, and that in a strange tongue most unpro- 

" The persons among us, whicli are unable to teach, do 
both satisfy themselves and some such officers as have rule 
over them with a simple reading of that which is prescrib- 
ed to them ; though a number of them do read in no bet- 
ter sort, than some young scholars could do, which were 
newly taken out of some English school. Truly, this their 
reading is so rude in some places among us, that they 
seem themselves scarce to understand that which they do 
read. We know and confess that public and solemn read- 
ing of God's law is commanded. The best practice of 
which is set forth in the book of Nehemiah. Where it is 
said, The Levites did read in the hook of the laxo of God 
distinctly, and gave the sense, and caused them to under- 

stand the reading. 

If we heard this kind of reading at 


Rom. xiii 


the mouths of our ministers, we neither would nor could 
complain of their unprofitable reading, as now we do. 
" We might increase this our complaint with shewing this 
grief also ; that whereas, by God''s grace, there are in some 
places good teachers among us, (which are in number, 
and in comparison of them which do occupy the teaching 
place, and yet are no teachers at all, but very few,) these 
few do receive great discouragement and discredit : yea, 
and some of them are displaced, not because they do not 
teach us painfully and truly, but for an old continued 
quarrel of conjormity in such ceremonies as men have de- 
vised ; which have not in them any power to edify us. 
We do most humbly beseech your highness and honours, 
to call to your good remembrance, that they which do well 
slwuld receive praise and corrtfcrrt of the powers which do 
bear the swoy-d of God. And we do humbly beseech you 
likewise to understand, that this hard handling of our 
good pastors doth cast us into hard distresses. And alsp 
that it may please you to receive information of our own 
poor estate herein ; of us, who do feel the sore and smart 
hereof. For whenoiu" bishops do deprive our preaching 


" pastors of their livings, and do stop their mouths, so that C HA p, 
" they cannot teach us the will of the Lord God Almighty, 

they take upon them to do that for which they shall give ^""0 i584. 
" an account to the Lord God ; whose ministers they do "^ ^"''^" 
" foi'bid to serve his divine Majesty. And while they think 
" hereby to punish our good pastors, they do indeed stick 
" us with a dart of death. For they take from us the bread 
" of life, and leave us destitute of instruction and comfort 
" in God. And we do humbly beseech the Lord God to 
" judge this cause at his good pleasure. 

" Verily we have great need of such pastors as will, can, Ceremo- 
" and do painfully and truly teach us the way of the Lord. "'^*" 
" We have no need at all of such idle ceremonies as do not 
" edify us in true godliness. And it is very requisite that 
" the godly rulers take heed how they do burden the church 225 
" of Christ whh the things that are called indifferent. For 
" in continuance of time, they may grow to be intolerable 
" burdens to it. For things indifferent pressed upon the 
" church by the au.thority of man, do oftentimes breed much 
" hurt. We have by experience proved, that such cold cc- 
" remonies in the church do weaken the power of the doc- 
" tiine of the cross of Christ. Because in them is neither 
" life nor spirit. The observing of such dead and unprofita- 
" ble ceremonies is no piece of that sacrifice which is made 
" of man to God by the preaching of the gospel. Of which 
" the apostle speaketh in his epistle to the Romans. To Rom. w, 
" take preachings from us, and to give us, instead thereof, a 
" bare reading, furnished with a sort of idle and unprofita- 
" ble ceremonies, is to take from us the bread of life, which 
" God hath prepared for us; and to feed us after the device 
" of man, with an unprofitable hearing and looking. We 
" call it unprofitable; because our dulness is not thereby 
" quickened, our minds stirred up to attain unto the under- 
" standing of the mind of God, nor to embrace that which 
" is contained in his word. It is our great grief to have our 
" comfortable and profitable preaching pastors taken from 
" us for such unprofitable ceremonies. By this kind of dis- 
" couraging of the good labourers, we, which are simple peo- 



BOOK " pie, are greatly hindered, and cast back in the way of the 

^- « Lord. 

Anno 1581. " We might hkewise in complaining shew, how that some 

" of ourselves, in whom God, by his grace, hath wrought a 

" hunger to hear his word, and do offer ourselves to seek it 

" in such places where it is to be heard ; and do labour 

" quietly [to resort] to those congregations, where the 

*■' preaching of the word is comfortably joined with the mi- 

" nistry of the sacraments, to be partakers of the same ; 

Some mo- " we are for this our doing molested and troubled by our 

lested : and <« j^j^^j shepherds, and such officers as do favovir them : as 

" though it grieved them, that we sliould be taught at the 

" hand of any other man than at theirs, which neither can, 

" will, nor do teach us at all ; and as though they would 

" have our hungry souls contented with their dumb and 

" unprofitable ministry. By these, and the like to these, 

"■ occasion is given now to renew that old complaint of him 

" that said, Multi sacerdotes, pauci sacerdotes ; multi no- 

" mine, pauci opcre. To which kind of pastors, in title 

" only, and not in work, we think that the things which 

" God speaketh by his prophet may be applied ; where he 

Jer. X. '21. " saith, The pastors are become beasts, and have not soug-ht 

" the Loi'd : therefore have they none understanding ; and 

rasters lie- " all the JlocTxS of their pastures are scattered. We fear 

scribed. u {hat somc of our men, which are called to receive the 

" charge of a church, do think more, that they are called to 

" receive the commodity of a house, glebe lands, tithes, and 

" of their Easter book, than to take the care and charge of 

" souls. Such pastors we have. AVe do neither envy nor 

" deny to pay that which is due to them, but we desire that 

" they may be commanded to give to us our due; which 

" now in their idleness and world liness they do withhold 

" from us. And if the true Christian discipline ecclesiasti- 

" cal did bear such just and right dominion in this church of 

" England as it ought to do, and we humbly desire that it 

" may do, then pastors would do the duty of good pastors, 

226" and we, the people, should be by our pastors fed by the 

" word of God in understanding and godliness ; which now 


" we do want. But we mind not to trouble your noble ho- CHAP. 
" nours with so long an envimeration of our griefs, as we 

might make justly in this behalf. Anno 1584. 

" The truth of these our griefs touched, or others by us Visitors. 
" not touched, if it please you, be made fully known to you 
" by the relations of some such godly visitors, as may take 
" a view and trial of these causes : it shall suffice us at this 
" time to have declared thus much to your honours, that we 
" are as sheep scattered without a shepherd ; on whom the Matth. ix. 
" Lord Jesus did take pity. We are left without teaching 
" in these abundant days of teaching. They on whom we 
" do complain do feed themselves, but we do famish. They The pastors 
" will be in place of our pastors, but they do bereave us of *^ ^^^^ ' 
" the fruit of the pastoral office. This they do, and this 
" they suffiir, to the great dishonour of God, to our great 
" discomfort, and to the no small danger of the loss of our 
" souls. Remember, you noble and honourable, we do 
" humbly beseech you, that the loss but of one soul cannot 
" but be straitly required by the living God, in that dread- 
" ful day of account at their hands, to whose government 
" his divine Majesty hath committed us. 

" We do now complain of the danger of the loss of our 
" souls and of our salvation, through this want of teach- 
" incr which we now do suffer. There are whole thousands Thousands 

1 •i--nii>ii untaught. 

" of US left untaught ; yea, by trial, it will be tound, that 
" there are in England whole thousands of parishes desti- 
" tute of this necessary help to salvation ; that is, of dili- 
" gent preaching and teaching. Salvation is promised to 
" them only which do believe; but xoe cannot believe on Rom. x. 
" him of whom we do not hear ; xve cannot hear withoui a 
'■'•preacher; as the apostle doth say. It is preaching, and 
" not simply reading, that is required for having of faith. 
" The reader may himself read without understanding, aSActsviii. 
" the eunuch did : and likewise may the hearer hear the 
" thing read, and not understand it. That eunuch had not 
" full faith wrought in him, but by hearing Philip's preach- 
" ing to him, and opening to him the meaning of the scrip- 
" ture, which he had read before : for then the Holy Ghost 

Y 4 


BOOK " did work faith in his heart. So when in preaching, the 
• " holy scripture is so well handled, that it is both truly 
Anno 1584. «' opened, and also applied fitly to the minds and under- 
" standings of the hearers, then doth the Spirit of God 
*' teach the hearts of the hearers to understand ; and doth 
" work that faith in them by it : which is the understanding 
" of life and salvation. We must hear and understand, 
" before we receive and retain the seed of life, to bring 
" forth the fruits of it. Neither can we understand it, un- 
" less we be rightly taught, both what it is, and how it is to 
" be understood of us. 
Want of i( go of this want of preaching we do complain. This 

" penury of preaching breedeth in us a penury of faith ; 
" which doth both greatly pinch us, and put us in danger. 
" It doth also constrain us at this time to make this our 
'' humble complaint. 

"In tender consideratitm whereof, and for redress of 
" these griefs, and of some other things which do need re- 
" formation, we do most humbly beseech your highness, our 
227 " most gracious sovereign lady and queen, your lordships, 
" our most honourable good lords of her majesty's privy- 
" council, and your wisdoms, which are of the high court 
" of pai'liament, not only graciovisly to consider of the pre- 
*' mises, but also of these our humble petitions hereunto 
" annexed, and now following : which we do humbly pre- 
*' sent to your godly wisdoms ; not as prescribers of that 
" which is to be done by you, but as most humble suitors, 
" most humbly beseeching you to be moved by your oM^n 
" o-ood consideration of the things which we do desire in 
" them, yourselves to think on ; to devise and establish 
" some such remedy for our miseries, and the disorders 
" which do hinder godly order among us, as to your godly 
" wisdoms shall be thought good and necessary. And we 
*' shall pray God, our heavenly Father, even in the name 
" of Jesus Christ, both to pardon all former faults and 
" negligences, and to work in your hearts the right and full 
" understanding and care of true godliness, which is to be 
" li:ul. 


" We do confess, that when God did first call you to CHAF. 
"" take the affairs of the church in hand, you did find in it ^^^*^' 
" many ruins and great gaps. He hath directed you by Anno 1 684. 
" his grace to do much good, to the repairing of the same; 
" we do humbly praise him for it. And even so we pray 
" him still to lead you by his principal Spirit to do all that 
" which remaineth, and is yet to be done in the business of 
" his holy Majesty : that you may bestow yourselves, and 
" the power which he hath given to you, wholly in his ser- 
" vice. And that both you may govern us, and we obey Which re- 
" you, according to his blessed will, thoroughly.*'"' The pe-^j'jjg *" ^ 
titions that are said to follow are set in the Appendix. Numb. 

But as for the petition consisting of sixteen articles ^'^^'^' 
brought into the house of parliament, for reformation or 
alteration of the customs and practices of the church esta- 
blished, and sent up to the house of lords, they are set down Life of 
elsewliere at large ; with the answers to them by both the vvhi'teiy'' 
archbishops, and also by Cowper, bishop of Winton. But '^""k iii. 
besides, I meet with another answer, at good length, to those 
sixteen petitions, given in by the bishops in general ; and 
seem to have been done at their convocation : which having 
not as yet seen the light, I cannot omit to insert this manu- Answer of 
script, being. an important matter of the history of ourj^'\j,g^,^g''^ 
church at that time, when there was such a joint endeavour ^'■I'cies. 
of many, eager for another disciphne to be brought in, and 
the former, with the public prayers and offices, to be laid 
aside. First, the articles are set down, and then the an- 
swers of the bishops to each article distinctly follow. But 
this paper being somewhat large, I refer the reader to the 
Appendix, where I have exemplified it. N". XL. 

As the year before [viz. 1583] the bishop of London vi- 
sited Ms clergy at St. Paul's, Dr. Walker preaching before A call of 
them, and then all the ministers subscribed anew to the two ^j'^^'^ p^fiP^ 
books ; [that is, I suppose, the Book of Common Prayer, 
and the Thirty-nine Articles;] so now this year there was 
another call of the city clergy again, to elect clerks for the 
convocation. When also a general subscription was made 
to the queen's supremacy. And certain Scotch ministers, 


BOOK exiled out of Scotland, were forbidden to preach, except 
^- they had lawful licences thereunto. There was also then a 
Anno 1584. call to rehcvc a bishop's widow of Ireland, who was there 
228 killed ; and likewise to gather money, to redeem one Mr. 
Rogers, a captive in the duke of rarma''s hands. This, I 
suppose, was Daniel Rogers, that transacted the queen's bu- 
siness in Flanders. 


A convocation. Articuli pro clero. The archbishop's 
cares. Coniforted by sir Christojiher Hatton. James 
Diggs, ordinary servant to the archbishop. Dr. Drii- 
rie^s advices to him about a Melius inquirendum. Dr. 
Howland made bishop of Peterborough. The bishop of 
Lincoln''s Admonition. A book called The Abstract, 
for bringing in another discipline : ansxvered. The 
Cotinterpoison. Dr. Copcofs sermon at Paul's Cross. 
A brotherly and friendly counsel to the ministers f)r 
peace and concord. 

A convoca- A CONVOCATION now sat, November 24 : of which 
*'^"' synods and meetings of the bishops and clergy there was a 

great use under queen Elizabeth ; both for the maintaining 
of themselves and their privileges, and providing for reli- 
gion and I'egulating abuses, and oflering good bills to the 
parliament ; as they used to be full of business in various 
and sundry such like matters. 
Aiiicuii 1)10 In this convocation the articuli pro clero were framed by 
*'^™' the archbishop, bishops, and the rest of the clergy of the 

province of Canterbury, and established by tlie queen, and 
approved and confirmed by royal authority. These articles, 
in Latin, may be found in the Collection of articles, injunc- 
tions, canons, &c. collected by bishop Sparrow. Which ar- 
ticles were digested under these heads. I. That fit men be 
admitted to holy orders and ecclesiastical benefices. II. For 
the moderating the solemn commutation of penance. III. 
Concerning moderating certain indulgences for the celebra- 


tlon of matrimony, without thrice denouncing the banns. CHAP. 
IV. Concerning restraining or reforming some excesses 

about excommunication. V. Concerning the plurahtics of Anno i584. 
benefices. VI. Of fees due to ecclesiastical officers, and 
their servants. Lastly, Concerning inquiries to be made 
by bishops. The making of which articles were no doubt 
occasioned by the bills put up this parliament for the refor- 
mation of many ecclesiastical abuses complained of. 

The original of these articles I have seen among the lord 
treasurer Burghley's papers. Out of which I must note 
some lines, which are not in the printed articles, as we have 
them in bishop Sparrow's Collection; where, immediately Sparr, Coi- 
after line the 10th, this paragraph follows : Quod si jmtro- ^ '^^' 
nus quispiam clericum aliquem ad henejicium cdiquod prcc- ^ 
sentaverit, qui prcedictis qualitatibus non fucrit imhutus, 
licebit etiam episcopo ejusmodi prcEsentatum rejicere ; nee 
b7-evi illo de Quare impedit, 7iec ulla alia ratione eogehir 
eundem instituere^ aid eadem eausa idlum legis pericidum 
suhire. But this indeed had a x set against it. But I find 
also the same period in the same book of articles in English 
without any x there, 

Whitgift, archbishop of Canterbury, was aware of these The arch- 
bills and petitions that were preparing by the innovators, cares'and 
and their outcries against the state of the clerg-y, and against concerns 
non-residences, pluralities, &c. Nor was his diligence want- clergy, 
ing to provide answers, where complaints were ungrounded, 
and redress where need was. And in this weighty busi- 
ness he had the encouragement and cordial friendship of sir 
Christopher Hatton, vice-chamberlain to the queen, and one 
of her privy-council; who had' sent to the archbishop a 
paper of notes containing, as it seems, the sum of those 
petitions for reformation that were to be brought into the 
parliament house, now ere long to sit; that so the arch- 
bishop might the better understand the import of them, and 
get replies ready upon occasion. The archbishop made use 
of Mr. Bancroft, his faithful chaplain, as his messenger to 
sir Christopher, From whom he repaired back with his ad- 
vice and comfort ; which was seasonable to the archbishop 


BOOK in this troublesome interval. And that the said knight 

^- might be certified hereof, he forthwith gave some instruc- 

Anno i584.tions to the Said Bancroft to signify as much to him ; which 

he accordingly did by his letter, viz. 
Bancroft's " That he had been with his grace, as his [Mr. Vice- 
letter. „ chamberlain's] pleasure was, and had returned his notes 
" according to his commandment." And then proceeding 
in these words concerning the archbishop ; " Your most ho- 
" nourable friendship, (as 1 was willed to signify,) by me in 
" your name imparted, is and shall be his grace's continual 
" comfort : I am persuaded he never received message more 
" to his good liking. 

" My lord's grace commanded me to make thus bold 
" with your honour by a postscript. He certifieth you, 
" that he is very glad the notes do prove so frivolous. And 
" touching the other which were moved the last parliament, 
" your honour shall have the answers unto them, with their 
" inconveniences, before the beginning of the parhament 
" next. They had been sent now, but that they could not 
" be written out so speedily. And thus by my hearty 
" prayer unto the Lord for your honour, committing to his 
" most sacred protection, in all humility I take my leave. 
" From Lambeth, the 6th of November, 1584. 

" Your honour's most bounden and dutiful chaplain, 

" Richard Bancroft." 

This Bancroft was he who was afterwards bishop of Lon- 
don, and succeeded Whitgift in the archbishopric ; and re- 
commended this year by the archbishop for the deanery of 
230 Gloucester, now void. He wrote a book, called, A survey 
of the pretended holy disevpline^ and other books against 
the puritans. And how cordial a friend sir Christopher 
Hatton was to the archbishop, and the cause of the church 
in this parliamentarv controversy, may be seen in that arch- 
p. 224. bishop's Life, printed anno 1718. And there is a notable 
speech of his in ]iarliament concerning this affair, preserved 
in D'Ewes' Journal. 

These particulars, before set down in this and the former 


cliapter, concerning this earnest endeavour of reformation of CHAP 


supposed defects in the established church, will serve as a 

further addition to what hath already been related of it in Annoi.'>84. 

archbishop Whitgift's Life. Book iii. ch. 

A passage or two more concerning this archbishop, hap- ^ [^^^'^^^ 
pening this year, follows. Upon an occasion offered to one of the arch- 
of his servants, he vindicated an ancient privilege of such as commyted 
were advanced to the see of Canterbury. The occasion was to the 

. . Fleet. 

this : James Diggs, one of his gentlemen in ordinary, was, 
since the present parliament began to sit, committed to the 
Fleet upon a Reddit se in the exchequer. But upon the 
motion of the said archbishop, claiming the ancient privi- 
lege of this high court, the lords gave commandment to the 
gentleman usher, that the said James should be brought 
before them : and the lords openly hearing sir Roger Man- D'Ewes' 
wood, lord chief baron of the exchequer, in this cause, and 3 4, b.' 
the same James Diggs, ordered him, by virtue of the pri- 
vilege of the court, to be enlarged and set at liberty. And 
further ordered, that the appearance of the said J. D. by 
rendering himself into the exchequer, was and should be a 
sufficient discharge of his sureties and their bonds ; and that 
the bonds should be redelivered. 

The archbishop was also now concerned about another Dr. Drury's 
considerable danger the clergy were in, about their re- ti,e archhi- 
venues; which was laboured now to get them despoiled of, ^''op con- 

• • o Tir T • • cerning a 

or greatly diminished, by a commission of Melius inquzren- Melius in- 
dum, to be obtained from the queen. For the preventing '{"^"endum. 
whereof, how the archbishop used his endeavour, and what 
course he took, and the arguments devised to stop it, have 
been shewn in that archbishop''s Life. To which I add a Book iii. 
paper, since coming to my hand, containing some advices ^j 2. '^' 
given him by Dr. Drury, a learned civilian ; shewing the 
evil consequences of this to many of the laity, (as well as 
the clergy, that were chiefly hereby struck at :) those of 
the laity also enjoying impropriations and rectories, and 
other ecclesiastical rents and revenues : and what course was 
to be taken for the better knowledge of these things, that 


BOOK on occasion might be shewed and declared to the queen, or 
^* her council, or her parliament. This curious paper was en- 

Anno i584.dorsed, Dr. Drurie's notes for the church to the archbishop. 
They were as follow : 

" Particulars, for every bishop within his diocese, to be 
" collected, and certified unto your grace, viz. 

" I. The names and numbers of all and every impro- 
" priation in the possession of the prince, or any Jay man. 
" The usual fines, and the rent reserved ; and also the true 
" yearly value thereof. Whence may be gathered, whether 
231 " the fine received be greater than the first-fruits, and the 
" rent than the tenths and subsidies. And so whether it 
" be greater profit for her majesty to have them restored to 
" the clergy, or to rest where they be : which being de- 
" clared to her majesty will cause restitution ; or at the 
" least hinder the attempt of them that seek to impropriate 
" all, and put the clergy to single pensions. And upon 
" knowledge of the true value, order will be taken for a 
" better stipend for the curates. 

"II. The names and numbers of ecclesiastical livings of 
" every sort, now leased to laymen, and the value and rent 
" reserved. And what lands in every parish discharged or 
" freed from payment of all or any part of tithes by pri- 
" vilege, composition, custom, or prescription. So it will 
" appear, how far the laity is entered into the livings or- 
" dained for the relief of the ministers, and how many 
" places are, by means thereof, destitute of preachers. And 
" forasmuch as in 21 Hen. VIII. it was enacted, that no 
" spiritual person should take any farm, no, not a parson- 
" age, nor any thing, to sell again. And further, the leases 
" which they then had should be merely void, unless by a 
" certain day they did assign them into lay hands; it is a 
" most equal and reasonable course, if the like act in the 
" next parliament be procured against leases taken or to be 
" taken by laymen, of any thing belonging to the clergy. 

" III. A true copy of q\ cvy prohibition for seven years 
" last past. Whence may be gadiered the rough violence 


" and absurdities therein used, and good causes to obtain CHAP, 
"her majesty's consent for an act of parliament against ^^^- 
^'prohibitions. Anno i5b4. 

" IV. Out of all the premises may be gathered a suffi- 
" cient answer to the untrue objection, that the tenth part 
" of the fruits of the land is possessed by the clergy. And 
" if it can be justified, that her majesty should have more 
" profit out of the ecclesiastical livings in first-fruits, tenths, 
" and subsidies, if they were restored, than she hath now 
" from the laity in fines and rents, the Melius inquirendum, 
" and every other plot to pinch the clergy, (which may 
"justly be suspected to be in deliberation,) will be pre- 
" vented and met with." 

Then follow general propositions to be supplied with 
proofs by such as his grace should appoint, and other par- 
ticulars to be gathered; which may be read in the Appen-N". XLI. 
dix. By which we may gather, what apprehensions now 
were of the ruin of the church to be brought to pass this 
parliament ; and that the taking away the livings of church- The dan- 
men, and the dissolution of bishoprics and cathedral churches ^f'j'j,"^*^!* '' 
were drawing; on ; insomuch, that that civilian propounded ciesiasticai 

rev on UPS 

it to the archbishop, as advisable that the whole state of 
the clergy should be exhibited in a petition to the queen, or 
to the whole parliament, and their case represented : and 
that not faintly and fearfully pursued : and that then it 
could not be, but that restitution of the state and persons 
ecclesiastical to their former dignity and estimation would 
follow, or at least no further depression of them. And that 
it was further to be considered, whether long forbearing to 
complain of the rough dealings with them, and concealing 
what difference there was between the advancement and ser- 23 2 
vice of the laity and the clergy, were not far more danger- 
ous; and that it would bring all down, as hitherto it hath 
done by piecemeal full one half. 

This year was Richard Rowland, D. D. head of St.Howiand 
John's college in Cambridge, made bishop of Peterborough, ^hop of" 
It was but a year before, happened the death of Dr. Laty- Pe^t^jl*"- 
mer, dean of that church. Lord Burghley, lord treasurer, 


BOOK who was Howlancrs great friend, sought to get him to suc- 
ceed in that deanery ; and being absent from court, wrote 

Annoi584. to Beal, clerk of the council, to move the queen for him : 
who answered, that she thought him worthy of a better 
place ; and that in the mean time she would not bestow 
that deanery without consideration had of him. So that, 
as Beal sent word back again to that lord, he doubted not 
but that his lordship would obtain it for him. Dr. Fletcher, 
her chaplain, sued for it now : but she told him, that, upon 
a motion made by the lord treasurer, she had bestowed it 
upon Mr. Howland, But though he failed of it, (for 
Fletcher indeed had it,) the next year she preferred him to 
the bishopric. This bishop was sprung from a citizen of 
London, being the eldest son of John Howland, of London, 

gentleman, and Anne, the daughter of Greenway, of 

Clay, in Norfolk. This Richard was baptized the 26th of 
September, anno Dom. 1540. He had a younger brother 
named Giles; who was called Giles Howland, of Stretham, 
in the county of Surrey, knight. This Giles married Anna, 
daughter of John Hare, of London, knight. His second 
wife was Elizabeth, daughter of John Rivers, knight ; by 
whom lie had John Howland, of Stretham, knight, justice 
of peace in the same county, anno 1623, whose posterity 
continued. Meeting in the heralds'' books with the family 
of so memorable a person as this bishop, I thought it not 
amiss to insert it. 

Tiie learned men of this church of England made it now 
a part of their business and study to maintain and vindi- 
cate the chiu'ch as it was first reformed and established, in 
respect of its doctrine and government ; and both those of 
the clergy and those of the civil law bore their parts there- 
in : such endeavours being now made by a disaffected party. 
Bishop of (called piu-itans,) to overthrow this excellent constitution, 
A'diuonition ^"^ ^^ bring in a new. Cowper, the learned bishop of Lin- 
coucerning colu, (afterwards of Winchester,) took pains in this behalf, 
of Enfjiand. And in a book which he published, called. An admonition 
A Cate- to the people of England, particularly i-ecom mended a Ca- 
aii Apology, t^'cli'sni for the doctrine of this church, and an Apology for 


the reformation of it, as abundantly sufficient to establish all CHAP. 
Christians in a cheerful submission unto, and agreement in, ;_ 

the worship and service observed in it. For these are his"^""'^ i^s-^. 
words : 

*' I think it very superfluous and needless to make a new 
" catechism, or pen a new confession of the church of 
" England, [which, it seems, some now endeavoured to bring 
" to pass,] seeing they both are so sufficiently performed, 
" that, without envy be it spoken, there is none better in any 
^' reformed church in Europe. For a catechism I refer 
" them to that which was made by the learned and godly 
" man, Mr. Nowel, dean of Paul's; received and allowed 
" by the church of England, and very fully grounded and 
" established upon the word of God. There may you see 233 
" all the parts of true religion received, the difficulties ex- 
*' pounded, the truth declared, the corruptions of the church 
" of Rome rejected .... But this I like not (added the bi- 
" shop) in our church, that it is lawful for every man to set 
^' forth a new catechism at his pleasure, &c. whereby it is 
" made a principal instrument to maintain and increase dis- 
" cord and dissension in the church."''' 

And then for the Apology thus he proceeds: "For aTheApo- 
" sound and true confession, acknowledged by this our "^^' 
" church, I refer them to that notable Apology of the Eng- 
" lish church, written not many years since by the Jewel of 
" England, late bishop of Salisbury; wherein they shall find 
" all parts of Christian religion confessed, and proved both 
" by the testimony of the canonical scripture, and also by 
" the consent of all learned and godly antiquity, for the 
" space of certain hundred years after Christ. For the in- 
" tegrity and soundness of his learning and eloquence, shew- 
" ed in the same Apology, they that contemn that notable 
'• learned man, because he was a bishop, may have vei'y 
" good testimony in a little epistle written by Peter Martyr 
" unto the said bishop, and now printed, and in the latter 
" edition set before the same Apology : where they shall 
" find, that he speaketh not for himself only, but for many 

VOL. III. z 


BOOK " other learned men of the church of Tygure, [in Helvetia,] 
^ '' and other places." 

Anno 1584. As for the laws, customs, and government of this church, 
Rites and ^.j^^ ^^.^^^ ^ learnedly proved and maintained by some 

ceremonies J j .' i ^ •> 

of the civilian, (Dr. Cosin, perhaps, or Dr. Bancroft,) taking now 
vindicated. ^^ hand the examination of a noted book, written by some 
adversaries, called. An Abstract, (which was a collecti(m 
made out of the laws, acts of parliament, canons of the 
church,) in favour of the fZijci/jZi/mHa/t-v ; and endeavouring 
to prove the deviations of the present bishops in their exer- 
An Ab- cise and government. The book was called, A71 abstract 
stract. of certain acts of imrl'iament, and of certain of her ma- 
jesty's injunctions and canons, &c. The answer to this 
Answer to Abstract (coming forth this year) was entitled. An ansiccr 
stnict " ^^ ^^^^ tico first and principal treaties of a certain factious 
libel, put forth lately without 7iame of author or printer, 
and loithout approbation by authority, and with the title of 
An Abstract, &c. In the second page of this answer the 
writer hath these words : 

" That surely, looking into the present time and occa- 

" sion, he could not be otherwise led to think, but that this 

" proctor of perverseness, being nettled that his clients 

*' were then, by force of her majesty's godly laws set forth, 

" to be recalled back from their fantastical breaches of the 

" lawful unity and uniformity of this church, (too long by 

" them used, to the great animating of papists,) and that 

" none of his private hot apologies for them do give any 

" sufficient colour of law or equity to protect them, doth 

*' now think he shall be sufficiently revenged by beating 

" back one nail with another, and by objecting breach of 

- " law also to those grave fathers, whom her majesty hath 

" put in authority for reducing of others to conformity of 

" her laws ecclesiastical; whose faults and oversights, (if any 

234 " such be supposed,) as they are not by themselves defend- 

" ed, or by others to be excused ; so in Christian charity 

" ought they not in this manner to be laid open, as Cham 

" did his father's nakedness to the thrusting through 


of religion by the sides of [the bishops] the ancientest, CHAP, 
leaniedest, and most godly professors thereof. Neither, 

" doth it become every triobolar mate thus covertly to carp, Anno 1.584. 

" either at her majesty's singular wisdom, who with the ad- 

" vice and assistance of her renowned, wise council, hath 

" made choice of those fathers, as having more integrity 

" and sufficiency, than he is willing by any means to agnize ; 

" or at the laws of the land, by the parliament heretofore 

" established, &c. And so dangerous to enforce so great in- 

" novation, and yet so spitefully to sow seeds of dissension 

" among: the g-reat men of the land. 

" And as to the end of writing this Abstract, the author 
" pretended these pains of his chiefly to have been under- 
" taken, that, by the better execution of these laws, many 
" and notable points of such controversies as had been a 
*' long time among us might more easily and speedily, by 
" the same laws, be dispersed : by which controversies and 
" contentions about reformation of ecclesiastical discipline 
" and popish ceremonies, he said, the quiet and peaceable 
" state both of the church and commonwealth have been 
" shrewdly troubled and brought in hazard, &c. But, saith 
" the answerer, their drift was, the obtaining of sovereignty 
*' of seniors in every parish. The want whereof bred these 
" threats of hazard to the commonwealth ; and which was 
" the only thing they meant by reformation of ecclesiastical 
" discipline, and the Helena which they contended for ; nay, 
" the popedom which they gaped after." 

And aa-ain: " That the principal scope of the author of The scope 

,.,,!-.., -. 1 1 • 1 of this 

" this book [the Abstract] was covertly to bring the go- |,ook. 
" vernors and government ecclesiastical of this church of 
" England into contempt, hatred, and obloquy, especially 
" with their prejudicate and unwary readers of it: as 
" though the said governors were either grossly ignorant, 
*' or wilful breakers of laws, canons, &c. in force, touched 
" in that book ; yet in other points ready enough to put in 
" ure other canons, constitutions, synodals, provincials of 
" like nature, which served better for their purpose. If 
" this were not his drift and mark whereat he aimeth, he 


BOOK " would not have set his articles of A learned ministry hy 
' " law commanded^ in the vaward ; and therein have spent 

Anno 1584." almost half his book. Whereby, by like, he thought 
" simple and affectionate readers would easily be led to ima- 
" gine, that the chief governors in our church matters did 
" hold some opinion to the contrary thereof, tending to the 
" upholding of ignorant ministers. Wherein let the wise 
" consider what injury and indignity underhand he offered 
" to this church, to fain that to be holden and maintained, 
" which is not ; and by joining herein with the common 
" enemy, the papists, in strengthening their hands; who 
" also in seditious books do harp much upon the ignorance 
" and dissoluteness of our clergy." 

To which objection of an ignorant clergy, much insisted 
upon, it was answered, " That howsoever some bishops per- 
235 " adventure inconsiderately heretofore had laid their hands 
" upon some ignorant ministers, (which thing neither other 
" godly men nor they themselves did afterwards well like 
" of,) the objector\s own conscience, he dared to say, was 
" witness unto him, that this church, and the godly go- 
" vernors therein, did disallow an ignorant ministry, and 
" did with all their hearts wish it possible, that, rebus sic 
" stantibus^ every parish had a sufficient minister. And 
" that in these respects it had been more convenient for 
" him to have tendered another issue upon some points in 
" practice in our church, namely, to this or the like effect ; 
" whether it be simyjly vmlawful, that one should be ad- 
" mitted to minister the sacraments, which is not sufficiently 
" enabled to divide the word of God aright, opSoroixiiv, and 
" to correct sin, and to instruct in virtue and good life ; or 
" else whether it be expedient, that all the parishes in Eng- 
" land, either not able to sustain such a learned minister, or 
" for the scarcity of such, so well qualified, not able to pro- 
" ciu*e one such, be destitute of public prayers, and admi- 
" nistration of sacraments, till such a preacher be procured 
" unto them, or no ?" 
Ignorant For to give a taste of this Abstract. In a section thereof 

luuiistersiio-^ is handled, whether the sacraments administered by such 

ministers. ' -' 


ignorant ministers, and other parts of the execution of the cHAP. 
officers, incident to the function, should be accounted duly ^^^- 

and rightly done; in effect he answered, that the actions Anno 1 584. 

and public execution of their function by them done, should 

be of none effect. For he made them to be no ministers 

that were ignorant and defective in some respect or other, 

when they were ordained by the bishop. But the author, 

perceiving the great inconvenience of this assertion, thus 

warily solved the matter : " That since no controversy 

" had been moved touching the validity of their calling, 

" state, and condition, and for common utility and a general 

" error's sake, therefore the things heretofore done by them 

" were rightly and duly done." But to this the answerer 

very well saith : " That since the controversy is now moved, Answer to 

" with the actions done by such ministers, which after this* ®j^g^** 

" time shall not be available and of force, what confusion 

" and danger this doctrine might bring to this coramon- 

" wealth, about the marriages and baptizings of infinite 

" numbers by such ministers ; whereby, by the laws of this 

" land, the inheritances, dowers, and tenancies by courtesy, 

" do greatly depend, I leave to be weighed by deep states- 

" men and wise counsellors," &c. He addeth, " Where- 

" upon it resteth still firm and inviolable, that if we have 

" so many, (as he enforceth,) only pretended ministers in 

" this church of England, and being so in deed and truth, 

" then shall the actions and functions of the ministry exe- 

" cuted by them be of no other force, [notwithstanding 

" the common error which the writer of the Abstract would 

" excuse it by,] than if they had been done by mere laymen, 

" both in deed and common reputation. 

" Nay, by this man's platform the priests made in times 
" of popery, being not so much as capable of the ministry, 
" and the ministers ordered in the time of king Edward, 
" and of her majesty's reign that now is, being no ministers 
" indeed, because they were not chosen by the people, which 23o 
" the book and law required, [as that author asserted,] it 
" will follow, that we have no ministers, in deed and by 
" law, in this realm of England. For the answer shewed, 



BOOK " how it was a piece of new church model, (and quoteth 
^- " T. C.'s Reply for it,) to affirm; that not only the dignity, 

Anno 1584." but also the being of the sacrament of baptism depended 
r. 613. (I upon this, whether he were a minister, or no, that doth 
" minister it. And then siibjoineth the consequence, viz. 
" that the common law of the land maketh espousals void, 
" to the intent of legitimation, or inheritance of the chil- 
" dren, where the matrimony v/as not celebrated by a priest 
" or minister ; and none to be capable of any benefit of a 
" subject in this land which is not baptized. So that, as 
" he concludeth, we see, a more pestilent platform, than this 
" man hath laid against the particular interest of every sub- 
" ject in this church and commonwealth, cannot be devised 
" by the most seditious traitor in Rome or in Rhemes ; nor 
" by the most stirring and tumultuous devil, if all that 
" were true, which he and his comphces do deliver unto us, 
" as undoubted truths here, and elsewhere in their peremp- 
" tory and perilous assertions." 
Answer to In short, however this abstracter of our laws maketh use 
the Ab- ^^^' ^]^pj^^ jQ countenance and favour his assertions and repri- 

stiacter, _ * 

p. 238. mands of our bishops and churchmen, yet in truth he had 
little regard or esteem for either. For thus the answerer 
unveilcth his good-will and judgment of them, in one place 
of his book ; where he calleth her majesty's laws, and all 
the ecclesiastical laws, " popish, and to be abandoned, and, 
" as a froth and filth, to be spewed out of the common- 
*' weal. And that her majesty cannot gratify her capital 
" enemy so much, as by authorizing and practising his laM^s. 
" And it were not a dodkin matter, if all the books thereof 
" were laid on a heap in Smithfield, and sacrificed in the fire 
" to the Lord," &c. 

Besides this Abstract there came forth another book of 
the like strain about this time, called. The Counterjwisoti ; 
w hich consisted of reasons for the eldership. For the con- 
troversies raised by the puritans were now very hot, and 
divers tracts were written and dispersed by such ; ^accusing 
many things in the established church, in respect of the 
worship and discipline of it. And tlie churchmen took their 


opportunities to vindicate the practice and usages of it, and CHAP, 
answer the objections made against it. And so did Dr. Cop- ^ ' ' 

cote, master of Bene''t college in Cambridge, to his audi-^""" '^84. 
tory, in a sermon preached at St. Paul's Cross: therein ""-.^"P' 

•>/ i cot s ser- 

taking occasion to give some answer to the aforesaid book, i""" at the 
severely written by some of these disciplinarians. A part against the 
of this sermon they printed, and a Defence, by way of reply, Counter. 

i? 1 1 • 1 ^ . . . poison. 

or tlie reasons set down ni the Lonnterpotson, m mamte- 

nance of the eldership, against a sermon made by Copquot, 

as they either ignorantly or abusively named him : who 

had laid to their charge, that they said, as I transcribe it 

from the book, " That the chtirch of England was no Part of a 

" church, hit after a sort. And why '? Because it lacked ^*^sister. 

" discipline. As the papists said of it, (saith the preacher,) 

" that it is no church, but secundum quid. And that a city 

" cannot stand without walls, neither could a church with- 

" out discipline. The preacher confuted this from the holy 237 

" father, Mr. Gualter, [as he calleth that learned worthy 

" minister of Zuric,] upon the Ej)istle to the Corinthians : 

" who writ there ; That for lack of discipline, no man ought 

" to depart from the church. And upon the Galatians, I 

" do think, saith the same father, that if any man do ask of 

*' the form of discipline, that the same cannot be appointed 

" in all countries and nations through the world." 

The preacher also confuted their ruling eldership, or A Scots 
preshyteries ; taking occasion from a Catechism, printed assertin^"an 
at London not long before, being the Scots catechism, eldership. 
Wherein one of the questions asked was, What may the 
eldership do in the church ? The answer is, Admit unto the 
sacraments, and exclude from them, according to God his 
•word. And then the preacher shewed the two places in 
scripture about elders, by which the disciplinarians proved 
their eldership. The one was, where it was said. That the iT\m.v.\7. 
elders that rule well are worthy of double honour ; chiefly, 
they that labour in the word and doctrine. To which Dr. 
Copcote thus; We say, this is understood of the preachers 
of the word. And so, said he, Peter Viret, and Nicolas 
Ilerayngius, (learned foreign divines of the reformed reli- 

z 4 


BOOK gion,) affirmed it of such priests to be worthy of double ho- 
^- nour. And whereas that book of the Counterpoison had 
Aiuio 1584. said, that that understanding of the foresaid place of St. 
Paul, to be meant of priests and ministers, was taken from 
the interpretation of the Rhemist Testament; Copcote 
made this reply. That it was not so understood by the au- 
thority of the Rhemists, but the authority of the holy fa- 
thers. And then quoteth St. Augustin ; who asketh the 
question. Who are they that do and govern well, but they 
that do and labour well in their calling. And St. Cyprian; 
Boni et Jideles cUspensatores, i. e. Good and faitliful dis- 
pensers of the tvord, they are they that are worthy of double 
honovu-. And St. Ambrose; Presbi/teri, i. e. Priests or el- 
ders icho govern well in life and doctrine, deserve double 
honour f-om them over whom they are , set. And then he 
confuted another argument of theirs for presbyteries, from 
1 Cor. xii. God hath ordained some in the churches ; first 
apostles, S^-c. helps, governments. Therefore, say they, 
there must be presbyteries in the church. But said the 
preacher, I do not allow of this their argument, viz. That 
as they had such elders in the church then, so it must be 
now : for the learned Mr. Gualtcr saith, [upon the place I 
suppose,] " That where there were certain that would 
" erect a presbytery hence, they must prove they have the 
" same gifts that the presbytery had then ; viz. prophecy, 
" working of miracles, and other gifts, written there."" The 
said preacher concludes, " They that do these things are 
" thought to trouble the order of the church of God, and 
" to bring in contention. The civil magistrates went to get 
" unto themselves ecclesiastical authority ; but this turned 
" into the popish tyranny." 

I have been the larger in giving some account of this 
learned divine's sermon, preached in that solemn auditory, 
the rather, because the church was at this time so fiercely 
assaulted by this sort of adversaries : and it is likely he had 
238 some instructicms from the archbishop, or some other supe- 
riors, to take this opportunity to vindicate the present settled 
constitution of the church. 


Yet, that I may not be silent of what these friends of the CHAP. 

• • • "5CTY 

Coimterpoison answered to this preacher, in plea for their 

party, I add these words, taken from the Defence o/" ^/^^ Anno 1 584. 
reasons of the Counterpoison. " Where he TDr. Copcotel Defence of 

. Ill • • 1 1 1 1 1 o ^l^*^ Coun- 

" sJandereth us, m saynig we slander the church, &c. our terpoison. 
" words, our preachings, our writings, have always wit- 
*' nessed, that we hold the church for a true church of 
" Christ. From which no member may separate himself: 
" although he [the answerer] must disallow the wants in 

" her Have we not (yea, when we were unjustly de- 

" prived for not subscribing) adjoined ourselves to the 
" church, in all the actions of the ministry, of the word 
" preached, of prayer, and of the sacrament ? Have we not 
" by persuasion continued many in the bosom of the 
" church ? Yea, when through weakness, because of many 
" abuses, they would have departed." 

In the midst of these sharp contentions, which greatly a puper of 
broke the peace of the church, and that between both, pro- f^^^f '^°ea"e 
fessors of the same reformed religion, I meet with a paper, in these dif- 
written in Latin by some pious learned foreigner, as it 
seems, interposing his seasonable good counsel, (whether 
written this year, or near it,) being well worthy to be taken 
notice of, and preserved : tending so much to unity, peace, 
and concord ; and to the healing these divisions among the 
clergy, and for the begetting a better understanding and 
Christian forbearance. The title it bore was, Fraternum et 
amicum de 7'esartienda inter ecclesice AnglicancE doctores et 
ministros pace, consilium : that is, A brotherly and friendly int. Foxii 
counsel of restoring peace among the. teachers and ministers ^**" 
of the church of England. The writer of it seems to have 
been some person of great gravity, wisdom, and avithority 
too : warning both parties by the most holy name of God ; 
and shewing them how these differences were ready to cre- 
ate a plain and open schism in the English church. It be- 
ginneth with these seasonable words of the apostle; Si alios 
mordetis et devoratis, (ait Pazdus,) videte, ne vicissim alii 
ab aliis consumamini. It is endorsed, A project Jhr a re- 
conciliation in the church of England. 


BOOK He shewed, " How the Greek church first of all contend- 
*' ing concerning rites and ceremonies, and soon after quar- 

Aniio 1584." relling about the first article of our faith, on a sudden, 
" as it were, fell oppressed under the miserable slavery of 
" the Turks. Dear brethren,"" added he, " take heed, lest, 
" not sufficiently taught by the dangers of others, ye be at 
" last compelled to grow wise by your own misfortunes. 
" Nor let it deceive you, T beseech you, that ye agree 
*' among yourselves in the sum of the apostles' doctrine, 
" which to all g;cx)d men ouo-ht to be the strictest bond ; 
" and that ye seem to differ in matters of less moment," &c. 
But I recommend this grave and Christian counsel to the 

N". XLii. reader; who shall find it in the Appendix, preserved there 
at length. 

239 CHAP. XX. 

The bishop of Winchester goes cloxcn to his diocese : desires 
a commission Jbr recusants in Hampshire. Subscription 
required by the archbishop, of the clergy of Lincoln dio- 
cese^ void. Account thereof from the archdeacon. Their 
baclitvardness. Contest about settling a master of the 
Temple. Hooher appointed. Travers''s Supplication. 
A note of Christopher Goodman. The popish faction. 
Their great plot. The queen of Scots privy to it : her 
letter. Sir Francis Englefcld's letters to the pope and 

JL O gather up now some matters of remark concerning 

some of our bishops, and their care in the government of 

their dioceses about this time. 

The bishop Cowper, bishop of Winchester, lately translated from 

of Winton j^jfjpQijT ^yas now ffoing; down from London to his diocese. 

going down ' no 

to his dio- Where understanding what considerable numbers there 
were in those parts under his inspection, especially in 
Hampshire, that were recusants, chiefly popish, he thought 
it very necessai-y to take an ecclesiastical commission along 
with him : and that such men might be put into that com- 
mission as might be depended upon ; that is, such as were 



no secret favourers of them. And some such he mentioned cHAP. 
to the lord treasurer, to whom he wrote his desire in this ^^- 
affair, and the pressing occasion thereof. His first care wasAnuo i684. 
to inform himself of the state of the diocese. And for better 
knowledge of the same, as his letter to the said lord im- 
ported, " that he had ordered the archdeacon of Hampshire 
" to make inquiry particularly of such as were obstinate re- 
" cusants. And he was certified, that there were already 
** presented by the churchwardens to the number of four 
" hundred ; and in some one parish forty or fifty. And yet 
"it was thought that, by the slackness of the church- 
" wardens, a great number more were omitted. Whereupon 
" he thought fit to arm himself with a commission, either 
" ecclesiastical, or of oyer and terminer, or both : for that 
*' the country being in such a case, he was of opinion that 
" there would need extraordinary authority : and that to be 
" committed not to many : for he understood there were 
'• divers of great countenance would speak very well, but - 
" dealt very hollowly." And then recommending the lord 
de la Ware and some others, both of the laity and clergy, 
that he might be sure were sound and hearty. But the 
whole letter of this bishop in this weighty cause must be 
preserved. See it in the Appendix. N-.XLIII. 

Nor was this all the pains he took in this affair, so im- 
portant to church and state, against these underminers of 
both : for I find, that being now resident on his bishopric, 240 
he had a careful rearard of the said county : which he found I'etition of 

° ,. . . . that bishop 

greatly addicted to popery ; and that religion increasing ; against po- 
many being perverted by priests and seminaries creeping in ^^^'l/^*^"' 
among them. Insomuch that there was apprehended great 
danger from them, and of an invasion that way, lying upon 
the seacoast. This caused the bisJiop, either this year or 
soon after, to present the state of that place ; and withal to 
give his advice to tiie rulers, for the better security of re- 
ligion and the kingdom, in a petition to the privy-council. 
Which was thus entitled : The liumhle petition of the bi- 
shop of' Winchester, the better to siippress the boldness and 
tcayxcardness of the recusants in the county of' Southamp- 


BOOK ton. The petition follows, which I transcribe from the bi- 
shop^s own handwriting. 
Anno 15S4. « First, That it may please your honours to renew the 
" charge of diligently looking to the seaside, and creeks, 
" for the coming in or passing forth of ill disposed persons. 
" Secondly, That it may please you to give in charge to 
" the sheriff, and some other of the most forward gentle- 
" men, once in a month or three weeks, upon the sudden, 
" to have a privy search in sundry suspected places ; where 
" it is thought the Jesuits or seminary men have their re- 
" course and refuge, to seduce her majesty's subjects. 

" Thirdly, That an hundred or two of obstinate recu- 
" sants, lusty men, well able to labour, may by some conve- 
" nient commission be taken up and sent into Flanders, as 
" pyoners and labourers. Whereby the country shall be 
" disburdened of a company of dangerous people ; and the 
" residue that remain be put in some fear, diat they may 
" not so fast revolt as now they do. 

" Fourthly, If it shall please your honours to grant li- 
" berty to any of those gentlemen that shall compound 
" with her majesty, according to your lordship's late letters, 
" that the same may not be suiFered to remain in the same 
" shire, but to be assigned to some other place where 
" they may do less harm : for undoubtedly they that have 
" remained there have stolen away the people's hearts 
" mightily ; and daily do continue so to do : for even diis 
" last Easter, upon some secret fact purposely wrought, 
" five hundred persons have refused to communicate more 

" than before did in will fall out to further inconve- 

" nience," &c. The rest is defaced. 
The arch- Subscription to the articles for conformity were now 
seSnto pressed upon all persons that had curacies and benefices in 
the liiocese ^|-jp church, and cure of souls. But many that scrupled 

of Lincoln, ..■■•. « • i i ^i 

to n(iuire subscnptiou had great friends at court : and they were put 
?imi"'^" in hopes to be dispensed with, or at least the time of their 
sec^ucstration put off. Many such were in the diocese of 
Lincoln, now vacant of a bishop ; and had made their ad- 
dress to the lords of the coimcil for their favour. In this 


vacancy the archbishop took the care of it in that particular CHAP, 
respect of subscription. And for that purpose sent special ^^' 

order and direction to one Mr. Barfoot, archdeacon of Lin- Anno i584. 
coin, leavino; the care thereof to him : and to give him [the His order 

' & . . to the arch - 

archbishop] account what he had done therein. To which he deacon of 
accordingly did at large in a particular letter from Lincoln. tiJ"re°in! 
A short mention hereof was given in the Life of Archbishop 241 
Whitgift. But here I shall give the whole letter at length, Rook iii. 
which will open several particulars of the management of 
that affair, with those scrupulous ministers. And that re- 
lated so fully, that the said archbishop thought fit to send 
the letter to the lord treasurer for him to peruse : that the 
court might be the better acquainted with the state of the 
clergy in those parts, and how they stood affected : " That 
" according to his grace's direction sent unto him by Mr. 
" Randes, he had exhorted the ministers there, recusants, 
*' to subscribe. That they would leave off their fantasies, 
" conceived without any ground of learning, and listen unto 
" his grace, and other fathers, and learned coimsel : signi- 
" fying also unto them, that his grace''s pleasure was, that 
" they still should remain in the state of suspension ; but 
" that the sequestration of the fruits of their benefices 
" should be stayed for a season ; so that they would in 
" the mean time provide sufficient and conformable men 
" to serve in their several cures. That so many as were 
" with him with one consent answered, that they looked 
" for other news from his grace : some of them affirming, 
" that they had already informed some of the council, (lie 
" knew not, he said, upon what presumption,) that they 
" should be restored to their preaching and ministering, in 
" their own cures at the least. And indeed certain of them 
" affirmed that my lord [bishop] of Winton [lately their 
" bishop of Lincoln] had said in their hearing, that he 
*' could wish it were so for a season, till they might the bet- 
" ter bethink themselves of their conformity : always re- 
" ferring himself, as they themselves reported, unto his 
" grace of Canterbury''s good liking thereof." 

To this, he told them, " That they had very small cause 


BOOK " given them by tliesc speeches [of their late bishop] to de- 
______" hver any sucii information unto their honours [of tlie 

Anno 1584." council.] Notwithstanding they found very great fault 
" with Mr. Randes, that he, knowing his grace's mind fully, 
" would not resolve them thereof, before their coming to 
" London, but suffered them to return with such vain hope. 
" Barefoot answered tliem, that it was not meet that Mr. 
" Randes, having a message from his grace unto him, [the 
" archdeacoiv^] should publish the same unto any private 
" persons, before that he had delivered it unto him. 

" Finally, That he appointed them the last day of the 
" last month to conform themselves to subscribe ; still ad- 
" vertising them, that they stood suspended, as before ; and 
" signifying unto them, that if by that day they did not 
" conform themselves, he must presently send certificate 
" thereof unto his grace. They answered. They would to 
" London again, and renew their suit : and so departed. 
" But upon what heartening he knows not. And that, as he 
" was informed, they did presently, the next Sunday, be- 
" take themselves unto preaching and ministering in their 
" several charges, as before. In other places than their own 
" parishes he did not as yet hear that they meddled." 

And then he added these words as the effect of incom- 
pliance of these ministers : " But truly, my lord, the con- 
" formable ministry is very much grieved thereat. And 
242 " divers said plainly, that if they had thought this would 
" have been the end, they would have joined with the other 
" in their recusancy, rather than have offered themselves to 
" such reproachful speeches as were given out of them by 
" some of that faction. For they told him, that there was a 
Field the " letter there in the country sent from Mr. Field of Lon- 
I'eUer"'* " *^"" [''• gi'^"it puritan] to the ministers in those parts, re- 
" cusants, exhorting them to stand stoutly to the cause ; af- 
" firming the same not to be theirs, but the Lord's : boldly 
" assuring, that such as had subscribed had made a breach, 
" as he was informed Field termed it. And tiierefore 
" rashly judging of them, that they never would do good 
" hereafter, and slanderously terming them bv the name of 


" branded menne. He assured his grace, there was great CHAP. 
" grief conceived hereat: and that yet the matter was so ^^* 

" closely kept among the recusants, that albeit they had Anno 1 584. 

" many copies of that letter in their hands, and were con- 

" tented to shew the same unto divers, to the wounding of 

" their consciences, yet would they not part with any copy, 

" but unto such as were of that side. He proceeded further 

" about this letter, how he was informed, that if his grace 

" dealt roundly with one of those, whom now by virtue of 

" the high commission he [the archbishop] had before him, 

" namely, Mr. Huddleston, vicar of Saxelby, he might 

" happily attain the sight of the original : for that they 

" were of good credit that told him, that he [Huddleston] 

" had it ; and, as they supposed, had it still." 

He added, " That he was emboldened to import this 
" matter so largely unto his grace ; for that he perceived 
" there was very great muttering of these matters among 
" the laity, as well as among the clergy : and, as he heard, 
" such as were backward enough in religion, and more than 
" half papists, were great commenders of the conscience of 
" those men. So that the wiser, godlier sort were somewhat 
" in doubt whereunto this matter would come at the end." 
And then concluded with these words : 

" Thus humbly craving pardon for my rude boldness 
" with your grace, I beseech Almighty God to increase all 
" his good blessings in you more and more, to the honour 
" and glory of his holy name, and to the edifying of his 
" church. From Lincoln the first of June, 1584. 

" Your grace's most humble at commandment, 

" Jo. Barefoot." 

These intelligences from Lincoln concerning the clergy 
in that diocese were so material, that the archbishop thought 
fit to send this letter to be perused by the lord treasurer; 
who endorsed it with his own hand, as sent him by the 

This refractoriness of these recusants, and their persist- 
ance therein, seemed to hasten more severe dealinps with 


BOOK them; and some were deprived. Tliere were letters of the 
• council in this affair, and of the archbishop to them ; which 
Anno 1584. may be read in the Life and Acts of that Archbishop. 
V^*",?^ . It falleth in my way here to mention some occurrences of 

Archbishop _ ... 

Whitgift. certain of these puritan ministers. 

243 A great controversy happened this year about the settling 
.113011^561- ®^ ^ master of the Temple ; to preach and minister holy 
fling a mas- things to the society there. Great endeavours were made 
l^mpie. for Mr. Travers, that had been reader there before. And 
now upon the death of Mr. Alvey, the former master, much 
endeavour was made by some of the gentlemen of the Tem- 
Travers and pie for him to succeed. But objections were made against 
him by the archbishop of Canterbury, on accovmt of his 
taking orders from a presbytery at Antwerp, and Avant of 
conformity to the church of England. The letters that 
passed about it betwixt the archbishop and the lord trea- 
surer will shew the matter at large : to which I refer tlie 
Book iii. reader in that Archbishop's Life. The learned Mr. Richard 
Hooker, (who writ the Ecclesiastical Polity,) recommended 
by the bishop of London, obtained it. But Travers made 
great objections against him, and his doctrines, preached in 
the Temple: for the particular knowledge whereof, re- 
course may be had to the additions made to the Life of 
Ecciesiast. Mr. Hooker before his said book of the Ecclesiastical Po- 

Pohty, edit. i i • ^ i • • i 

1705. "ty : where his answers to those objections are also set 

down ])y me from an original paper. 
Travers's J add to what hath been related already, that Travers 

tion. wrote a Supplication to the council ; wherein he vindicated 

his ordination. To which Mr. Hooker also gave an answer : 
which remains among his works. Out of which Supplica- 
tion and Answer I shall only take up a few remarks. Now 
for his ordination at Antwerp, he took advantage of the 
canon ; which he allowed to be among the ancient and best 
canons, viz. that none be made ministers sine titulo. And he 
had none; and so could not, by the order of this church, 
have entered into the ministry. (Though in truth he went 
over to take orders there, because he would not take them 
according to the form of our ordination.) And that when 


he was at Antwerp, and was to take a place of ministry CHAP, 
among the English people of that nation ; he saw no cause ^^' 
why he should return again over the seas for orders; or-^""oi584. 
how he could have done it, without disallowing the ordeis 
provided in that country where he was to live ; namely, to 
minister to an English congregation there. 

In Hooker's Answer to his Supplication, it appears there Conference 
was a conference between them at his first coming to the?,*'^"'^'^" 
Temple; wherein Travers took the freedom to tell him 
some of his faults : as, his praying in the entrance of his ser- 
mon only ; and not in the end : hkewise, naming bishops in 
his prayer: also, kneehng when he prayed; and, kneeling 
when he received the communion, and such like. 

Whence we may observe the practice of the puritans 
then : for it was a custom in the Temple, in Mr. Alvey's 
time, to receive the sacrament sitting. Which Travers would 
have altered, and would have been done standing; and 
then walking away after the reception. For thus he tells 
us, " There was an order tendered, that communicants Travers en- 
" should neither kneel, as in most places in the realm, nor brul ""n '" 
" sit, as in this place [viz. the Temple] the custom was ; new cus- 
" but to walk to one side of the table; and there standing g^crament. 
" till they had received, passed afterwards away round 244 
" about by the other side. Which being on a sudden be- 
" gun to be practised in that church, some sate, wondering 
" what it should mean ; others, deliberating what to do." 
Till such time, as at length by name, one of them, being 
called openly thereunto, requested that they might do it, as 
they had been accustomed. Which was gi-anted : and as 
Mr. Travers had ministered his way, so a curate was sent 
to minister to them after their way. Whereupon this un- 
prosperous beginning did so disgrace the order, that it took 
no place. And Travers so much offended, who supposed it 
to be the best, that since that time he contented himself to 
receive it, as they did, at the hand of others, but thought it 
not meet they should ever receive it out of his. And in my 
time, added Hooker, he hath always been present, not to 
minister, but only to be ministered unto. 

VOL. III. A a 




Anno 1584 
would brint 
in another 
new order 
into the 
and side- 

Two mini- 
sters in the 
diocese of 
Life of Bi- 
shop ^1- 
mer, p. 104 
Minister of 

This new order Travers brought into the Temple, but it 
would not be received ; namely, that of standing and walk- 
ing away at the sacrament. Another order was devised ; 
viz. to bring collectors and sidemen in the Temple : which 
he attempted in Alvey's time : for which there was a re- 
quest made to her majesty's privy-council ; signifying, that 
this place did much want it, and that it would please their 
honours to motion such a thing to the ancients of the Tem- 
ple. They accordingly wrote their letters to that effect. 
Whereupon, although these houses [of both Temples] never 
had use of such collectors and sidemen as were appointed in 
other places ; yet they erected a box, to receive men's devo- 
tions for the poor ; appointing the treasurers of both houses 
to take care for bestowing it, where need was. And grant- 
ing further, [with respect to sidemen, as censors of men's be- 
haviours,] that if any could be entreated (as in the end some 
were) to undertake the labour, to observe the slackness of 
men, they should be allowed ; their complaints heard at all 
times, and the faults they complained of : if Mr. Alvey's pri- 
vate admonitions did not serve ; then by some other means 
ordered ; but according to the old received orders of both 
houses; whereby the substance of their honours' letters 
were fully satisfied. But Mr. Travers intended not this, 
but, as it seemed, another thing, more agreeable to the dis- 
cipline. Whereupon he complained, that good orders were 

Giffard, minister of Maulden, was suspended this year for 
refusal to subscribe, and so was one Hucklc, a busy dis- 
orderly man, and that kept night-conventicles, and a dis- 
puter against Athanasius's Creed. Of both, accounts are 
given in the Life of vElmer, then bishop of London. 

The minister of Boughton Mountchensey was another of 
those that Avere sequestered this year. However he was ac- 
ceptable to his parishioners: insomuch that they applied 
themselves by petition to the lord treasurer, to restore to 
them their minister ; with their names underwritten, to the 
number of fifty-seven ; but not writ with their own hands. 
AVhich petition ran to this tenor: " We the inhabitants of 


the parish of Boughtou Mountchensey in the county of CHAR 
Kent, wliose names are here underwritten, most humbly 

" desire your honour, of your accustomed clemency, to be a Anno io84. 

" mean for us, that we may have our minister restored unto ^I'l^^^j)"" 

" his pastoral charge ; from the which he was deprived the petition for 

" ^Oth of June last. Who sithence his coming; unto us hath „ .' 

. . 245 

" continued very diligent and faithful in preaching the 

" word of trutlx sincei'ely ; whose travail herein the Lord 

" hath greatly blessed. And so often as occasion serve, 

" (which was divers times,) he taught us all dutiful obedi- 

" ence unto her highness, and unto all her godly proceed- 

" ings. And at no time, unto our knowledges, hath he in 

" his sermons, or otherwise, inveighed, or spoken against 

" the Book of Common Prayer. And for his conversation, 

" it hath been very wise and good. 

" Wherefore we beseech your honour, in the bowels of 

" Jesus Christ, that we may have him again. Herein we 

" are enforced to be so much the more earnest, as we have 

" less hope to enjoy the like again, in regard of the very 

" small maintenance which law hath provided for such an 

" one among us. Thus hoping that your honour will pity 

" the desolate state of us, who have lost our natural and 

" loving pastor, and withal are utterly destitute of the mi- 

" nistry of the word ; we commit the same, with all your 

" actions, unto the protection of our good God : desiring 

" him so to govern it, and direct them, that whatsoever you 

" do, it may tend to the glory of his name, the good of his 

" church, and the prosperous estate of her majesty, &c. 

" Your lordship's most humble orators, 

" The poor parishioners of Boughton Montchensey." 

But what the faults and failings of this minister were, for Why de- 
which he was sequestered and deprived, will appear by a^ 
paper enclosed in this petition ; with these words : The 
breach of' the Book of Comvion Prayer in divers places. 
The marriage according to the book of Scotland. And his 
utter denial to accept the submission Jbr the same enjoined 
him. A contentious andjactious sermon., preached by him 

Aa 2 


BOOK atAsJifbrd, since Easter, as appeareih also by Ms own con- 

Anno 1584. Christopher Goodman, a man of note of this party, (who 
Christopher ^^^^ wrote a book in queen Mary'*s reign, of the lawfulness 
in Cheshire, of taking up aruis against her, on account of her false re- 
ligion,) was yet alive ; and we hear of him now dweUing in 
Cheshire ; and upon this occasion. When archbishop Whit- 
gift was pressing subscription to the three articles, which 
Writes (o a made great heats about this time, Goodman wrote to a cer- 
certain «" • j^^j^ lord, [the earl of Leicester, I suppose,] that the papists 
in Cheshire and elsewhere rejoiced at these proceedings of 
the archbishop. This the lord treasurer communicated to 
the archbishop. Whose answer was this : " Goodman was 
" a man for his perverseness sufficiently known, and some 
" other ill-disposed Christians ; who instilled these things 
" into his lordship's head.'' 

But, added the archbishop, " How can that please the 

" papists, when they subscribe that in our Book of Com- 

" mon Prayer there is nothing contrary to the word of 

246" God.'' This cannot please the papists, which wholly 

" condemn it. They likewise subscribed to the book of 

" Articles ; which the papists count for heresy. There is 

" therefore no likelihood that the papists can receive any 

" encouragement by this subscription. But if he be encou- 

*' raged at all, it is because this subscription is refused. 

" And thereby the opinion of our service and religion, by 

" some of ourselves, verified." 

Papists are The popish faction, the other enemy to the church, were 

cairyuig^on ^^^^ P^'^y^^S their game, for the dispossessing the queen of 

Scots queen hcr throne, and for the rescuing Mary queen of Scots, and 

' " to set hcr in queen Elizabeth's place, if they could. For 

the compassing of which purposes were combined together 

the po])e, the Guises in France, and Philip king of Spain ; 

(which was called the holy league ,) and the said queen of 

Scots privately holding a correspondence with them : which 

was discovered by letters seized. For letters passed between 

sir Francis Englefield, a pensioner in Spain, and her ; viz. 

of him to her, and of her to him. There was at this very 


time letters between that queen and the queen's majesty. CHAP. 
But what thoughts she had of any good success of it, with 1_ 

other matters, by her said letters to that fugitive gentle- -^""o '584. 
man, may appear. A copy of which was endorsed thus by 
tlie lord treasurer''s own hand ; (and so the more certain cre- 
dit to be given to it ;) viz. The queen of Scots to sir Frart- 
cis Englefield^ October 9, 1584. And seems to be copied 
from the cipher. It ran in this tenor : 

" Of the treaty between the queen of England and me, I Her letter 
" may neither hope nor look for good issue. Whatsoever ^g,j°fj^' 
" shall become of me, by whatsoever change of my state and Spain. 
" condition ; let the execution of the great plot go forward, 
" without any respect of peril or danger to me : for I will 
" account my life very happily bestowed, if I may, with the 
" same, help and relieve so great a number of the oppressed 
" children of the church. And this I give you as my last 
" and final resolution : for [I] doubt, I shall not have the 
" commodity to write it hereafter : to the end you should 
" impart the same to whomsoever you think convenient. 

" And further, I pray you, use all possible diligence and 
" endeavour to pursue, and promote, at the pope"'s and 
" other kings' hand, such a speedy execution of their for- 
" mer designments, that the same may be effectuated some 
'■' time this next spring : which is the longest time the same 
" can be expected. And failing then, it cannot be avoided 
" or prevented, but that we shall see forthwith an extreme 
" and general overthrow of our whole cause ; never again 
" to be repaired and set afoot in our days. 

" Of the 12,000 ducats, long since promised to myself, I 
" have yet received no penny ; nor my son : but 6000, of 
" 10,000 promised unto him. Wherewith he is not a little 
" grieved and discontent: and yet as well inclined to our 
" dcsignment as before ; and in the rest of his doings and 
" proceedings to direct his course, as I will advise him. He 
" is now despatching a gentleman of his, called Gray, to 
" the court of England ; chiefly to have occasion to visit 
" me ; and by mouth to impart unto me his resolution in 
" all our affairs. The gentleman is catholic. God grant he 

A a 3 


BOOK " may be permitted to come to me. Solicit with all dili- 
" gence, that the 12,000 ducats for myself be sent with all 

Anno 1584. " speed. October 9, 1584." 

247 Tliis letter will receive light by what our historian writes 
popish plot under this year, of sir Francis Throgmorton being taken 
against the ^p f^j, treason ; and the lord Paoet and others fleeing 

queen's "^ . . ^ .... 

life. thereupon into France : and that it was certain at this time 

a horrid jjiece of popish malice against the queen disco- 
vered itself by a book set forth, wherein the queen''s gentle- 
women were exhorted to lay violent hands upon the queen, 
Carad. Eiiz. after the example of Judith. Qiior, Whether the Scots 
^' ' queen was not privy to this treachery by what she called 
i\\e great plot and designrnent in her letter. 

She came now under a new keeper, from the earl of 
Shrewsbui-y to sir Amyas Paulet : wherein she suspected 
Knfjiefieid more sti'ait looking to. Whereupon her abovesaid agent, 
and king of Engleficld, thought it of moment to acquaint both the pope 
Spain. and king of Spain with it : which he in another letter let 
lier know : and withal sent a copy to her of what he writ 
to them both, dated January the 8th, 1585, mutatis mu- 
tandis, as followeth : " The queen of Scots jiressing, that 
" by the change of her keepers, and place of abode, the 
" great appearance that she shall not longer have liberty, 
" nor commodity of receiving nor sending letters, hath 
" therefore written as followeth, the 9th of Octob. 84. Of 
" the treat ij of the queen of England and vie for my li- 
" berti/,'" &c. The whole letter before set down. Wherc- 
unto sir Francis Englefield adjoined this which ensueth. 

" Besides this written by the queen of Scotland herself, 
" it is to be considered, that the (pieen of England and her 
" council, having first, by })rinted libels, published the 
" queen of Scotland to be a confederate practiser with don 
" Bernardino de Mendoza [the Spanish ambassador, now 
" commanded to depart from England] and Francis Throg- 
" morton against the queen and realm of England ; having 
" also contrived and set- forth a new form of association and 
" confederacy, whereby all men shall swear and subscribe 
" to resist and pursue all that shall pretend a right in sue- 


cession in the crown of England; and now lastly, hav- CHaP. 
ing changed the place of her abode and keepers, by re- ^^' 

moving her from the custody of the earl of Shrewsbury, Anno i584. 
and putting her into the hand of base and obscure here- 
tics ; whole affectionate, and at the devotion of her com- 
petitors ; it is by these doings very probable, and in effect 
manifest to such as have had experience of the English 
government, that the queen and council of England have 
made a secret resolution, not only to deprive and disin- 
herit the said queen of Scotland, but also to ruin her per- 
son, and take away her life, if the pope and the king of 
Spain shall not, within the time prescribed, find some 
means, either to deliver her, or at least so to occupy and 
molest the queen of England, that she shall conceive and 
find, as hitherto she hath done, till of late, that the life 
and safety of the queen of Scots is and hath been her own 
principal security and assurance. 

" And by this it is made evident, how vain and weakly 248 
founded those arguments and reasons were, which in the 
spring past did persuade, that the succours expected by 
the queen and catholics of the realm might without pre- 
judice be delayed and deferred, till either the Low Coun- 
tries could be recovered, the queen of England dead, or 
some notable mutation occurred in that realm. 
" And admitting that the said queen of Scots should 
escape this plunge and ruin intended ; yet since her pass- 
ing through the same cannot be without the favour and 
friendship of heretical authority, it were neither wisdom 
nor policy, but apparently prejudicial to the catholic 
church, to acknowledge the safety of her life, and enjoy- 
ing of her estate, to the favour of heretics. As also if she 
perish, (which is now most likely,) it cannot be but very 
scandalous and infamous to his catholic majesty. Because 
he being, after the queen of Scotland, the nearest catholic 
that is to be found of that blood royal, shall ever be sub- 
ject to the false suspicion and calumniation of leaving 
and abandoning that good queen to be devoured by her 
A a 4 


BOOK " competitors, for making the way more open to his claim 
" and interest." 


Anno 1584. Thcsc secret intercepted letters make it evident how privy 
The sum of |.|^jg quggn of Scots was to this conspiracy against the state, 
cepted let- and how fierce for overthrowing the whole government 
thereof by violent methods, to be used by the pope and 
Spain, whatsoever became, of her. And we learn the title 
that king pretended to this crown, as next heir catholic to 
that queen. And how earnest these English fugitives were, 
forthwith to set upon this enterprise : and that queen also 
of the same mind ; (guided, as it seems, by some prognosti- 
cators ;) confidently averring, that unless they made haste, 
and began their business against England the next spring, 
*' they should see an extreme and general overthrow of their 
'• whole cause, never again to be repaired and set on foot in 
" their days :" as in her letter. 

249 CHAP. XXI. 

Parry executed for treason. A cardinaVs letter to him. 
His speech at his execution. His accoinit of his condition 
and quality , by himself ^iven : false. Solicits to he mas- 
ter of St. Katharine'' s ; or for a deanery, S^c. Some ac- 
count of him for some years past. Lives abroad. His let- 
ters from Paris, Venice, and Lyons. His intelligences 
from abroad to the lord Burghley. Comes home. He fies 
, abroad again : and why. Prayers appointed upon Par- 

ry s treason, to he used in the queeii's chapel, and in par- 
liament : order of prayers for Winchester diocese. Par- 
ry'' s bold letter to the queen from the Tower. A nephew 
of Parry'' s executed. 

i^M-ry's J- HE notorious treason of William Parry, a doctor of the 
treason and ^^y\\ j^w, (of whoiii something before,) was now discovered, 

execution. . hi i- r->. ^ • • 

and execution deservedly done upon him. Our historians 
shew us what it was ; namely, to kill the queen, as she was 
riding abi'oad : and how he had encouragement for doing 


the fact from the pope ; one of the cardinals, named cardinal CHAP, 
di Como, assuring him of the pope's allowance and absolu- 

tion, as of a highly meritorious act, in his letter dated from Anno i584. 
Rome, January the 30th, 1584. The very original whereof, ^o'r!!o"I'let- 
in Italian, I have seen among the papers of the lord Burgh- ter to him, 
ley, then lord treasurer ; being the pope's plenary indul- ^ ^ 
gence and pardon of all his sins. And it being so remark- 
able a piece of history, I might set it down from thence : it 
was superscribed, Al stgnore Guglielmo Parri. Beginning, 
Mon sig'nore, la santita^ &c. The cardinal's whole letter 
ran thus in English, as I find it translated in one of our his- 
torians ; which I cannot but set down, being so instructive 
of what I have afterwards to add of this matter. 

" Sir, His holiness hath seen your letter of the first, with 
" the certificate included, and cannot but commend the good 
" disposition and resolution which you write to hold toward 
" the service and benefit public. Wherein his holiness doth 
" exhort you to persevere, and to bring to effect that which 
" you have promised. And to the end you may be so mvich 
" the more holpen by that good Spirit which hath moved 
" you thereunto, he granteth unto you his blessing, plenary 
*' indulgence, and remission of all your sins, according to 
" your request. Assuring you, that beside the merit that 
" you shall receive therefore in heaven, his holiness will fur- 
" ther make himself debtor, to acknowledge your deservings 250 
^' in the best manner that he can ; and so much the more, 
" in that you use the greater modesty, in not pretending 
" any thing. 

" Put therefore your most holy and honourable purposes 

" in execution, and attend your safety. And to conclude, I 

" off*er myself vrnto you heartily, and do desire all good and 

" happy success. From Rome, the 30th of January, 1584. 

" At the pleasure of your signorie, 

" N. Cardinal of Como." 

Holinshed, in his Chronicle, hath preserved divers par- 
ticulars concerning this wretch and his treasons ; taken from 
a book printed soon after his death. As, 1. A true and plain 


BOOK declaration of the horrid treason practised by him against 
^" the queen"'s majesty ; and of his conviction, and execution 

Anno 1584. for the same, the 2d of March, 1584. 2. Edmund Nevyl 
(his sworn fellow conspirator) his declaration, subscribed by 
his own hand. 3. The voluntary confession of Parry. 4. A 
letter of his to her majesty after his condemnation. 5. An- 
other to the lord treasurer, and the earl of Leicester. 6. A 
letter of Will. Creichton, a Jesuit, to sir Francis Walsing- 
ham, concerning Parry's application to him, witli this case 
of conscience. Whether it were lawful to Mil the queen. 
7. Cardinal Como''s letter to Parry ; certifying him of the 
pope"'s pardon and indulgence, and encovu*agement to do the 
fact. 8. The manner of his arraignment. But leaving the 
reader to the historian for these, I shall relate divers other 
remarkable passages out of this man''s letters, or otherwise. 

Notwithstanding his crime was so notorious and evident, 
this traitor had the confidence, at the place of his execution, 
to deny it, and to boast his loyalty. A report of whose 
speech at that time I have seen among the lord treasurer''s 
papers, endorsed by his own hand. And is as follows; 

Parry's '^ That he was brought hither, not to preach, but to die ; 

speech at « ^^^^ ^^ avow liis own innoceucv, which he had declared at 

his execu- _ ■' ^ 

tion. " the bar after his judgment, and would there seal it with 

" his blood. His offence, he confessed,was twofold. The one 
" in being reconciled to the church of Rome, (whereof he 
" was a member,) botli at Milain and Paris, contrary to a 
" positive law only. The other in entering conference with 
" his kinsman and friend, (as he took him,) INIr. Nevyl, and 
" in concealing what passed between them. Which he did 
" upon confidence of her majesty. To whom he had before 
" bewrayed what he had been solicited to do. Being charg- 
" ed with cardinal Como's letter by Mr. Topcliff,"" [one em- 
ployed in those days in discovering and prosecuting pa- 
pists ;] " and that therein he had promised to destroy her 
" majesty ; and was from him, as from the pope, animated 
" thereunto : O ! Mr. Topcliff, said he, you clean mistake 
" it. I deny any such matter to be in the letter: and I wisli 
" it might be truly examined and considered of. 


" The sheriff requiring him to cease to purge himself, CHAP. 


" since the law had passed against him ; O ! Mr, Sheriff, 

" said he, give me leave to speak; for this is my last fare- Anno i584. 

" well to you all. I die a true servant to queen Elizabeth : 25 1 

" for any evil thought that ever I had to harm her, it never 

" came into my mind ; she knoweth it, and her own con- 

" science can tell her so. God save queen Elizabeth ; for a 

" more gracious pi'incess and sovereign was never any. I 

" avow it before you all, and seal it here with my blood. I die 

" guiltless, and free in mind from ever thinking hurt to her 

" majesty. And I know her to be the anointed of God; 

" not lawful for any subject to touch her royal person. If I 

" might have my life, nay, if I might be made duke of 

" Lancaster, and have all the possessions belonging there- 

" unto, yet I could never consent to shed the least drop of 

" blood out of the top of any of her fingers. 

" Mr. Treasurer [sir Francis Knowles] demanding of 
" him, what he could say of the proceedings in law against 
" him ; he answered him, the same to be most just and ho- 
•' nourable, pleading still his own innocence of mind ; and 
" charged Mr. Treasurer to tell her majesty, as he was a 
" true counsellor, that he died her faithful servant ; and 
" prayed for her safety. I know her, said he, to be the 
" anointed of God ; and therefore not lawful for any man 
" to lay violent hands on her. She is a most gracious lady, 
" full of goodness, full of mercy. And therefore to you, 
" catholics, I speak it, serve her, obey her, honour her, and 
" reverence her. She will never harm you. She hath said 
" it, she hath vowed it : nay, she hath sworn it to myself, 
" that while you continue her dutiful subjects, she will 
" never trouble any of you for your conscience. It is true, 
" it is true, I tell you all for your comfort. 

" His guiltiness being urged by Mr. Treasurer, Oh ! said 
" he, I pray God, queen Elizabeth do not find, that in tak- 
" ing away my life, she hath killed one of the best keepers 
" in her park. 

" Being exhorted by a preacher, standing by, to be sorry 
" for his sins, to pray to God for his mercy: I will, said he 


BOOK " and so said the Lord's Prayer in Latin, with other pri- 

^' " vate prayers by himself. The people there cried, Away 

Aiuio 1584. " with him. Away with him. The preacher again called on 

" him to believe in the merits of Christ. Oh ! said he, I do 

" acknowledge there is no salvation but only in the free 

" mercy of Christ. 

" After this, a pause being made of his execution, he said, 
" he had written to the queen and council, who was lawful 
" successor to the crown of England. That place was not 
" fit to name the party. [Mary queen of Scots he meant, 
" no doubt.] It sufficeth her majesty, and the council know- 
" eth it ; and their title whom he had named to them was 
" just and lawful. 

" Some more time he spent in excuse of himself, to the 
" effect aforesaid ; and so was turned from the ladder ; and 
" after one swing was cut down : when his bowels were 
" taken out, he gave a great groan."" There is a letter ex- 
tant of Parry's to the queen ; but the letter he here spake of 
to the queen and council, concerning the lawful and right 
heir to the crown, I do not meet with it. 
252 The condition and quality of this unhappy man may be 
Parry's fa- better known by what account he gave of himself to the 
o!!iiitT'' ^^^^^ treasurer Burghley : who had asked some questions of 
given by one Lewis, his covmtryman, concerning him. Which Parry 
'"^'^ ' coming to the knowledge of, was ready enough to give an- 
swer thereto himself, in a letter to that lord, dated Aug. the 
2d ; which he writ for very truth, and upon his poor credit, 
as his words were. His letter was in this tenor : 
His letter " It may be, your lordship, desirous to know me through- 
tiareoi. ^j j^^ ^^^ willing to auswer for me upon some occasion, may 
" be contented to see this much. Howsoever it be, I will 
" not lose this advantage to trouble your lordship. Our 
" surname of Parry is but, as it were, yesterday. The fa- 
" mily known in Flintshire by the name of Bethels. We 
" bear for arms, ar. a chevron between three boars' heads, 
" sable, tusked, or. For antiquity there is no Flintish man 
" can say more. The Vths ancestor best remembered, and 
" next (above my father) was Ithel Vaughan, and was one 


" of those that did homage to the prince at Chester, 29 E. 1 . CHAP. 
" as appeareth in D. Powel's book, f. 383. And so of these ^^^ 

" trifles sufficient." Anno I584. 

In a paper enclosed was as followeth : " I was born at 
" North-hope, within the lordship of Inglefield, and county 
" of Flint. My father, without question, a poor gentleman, 
" was of no greater fortune than to be (as many gentlemen 
" of that country were) of king Henry's guard, and ap- 
" pointed to attend upon queen Mary, while she was prin- 
" cess. My mother was a Conway, descended of the house 
" of Bodrythan, in Flintshire. My father had thirty chil- 
" dren : whereof fourteen by his first wife, and sixteen by 
" my mother. He died about the 8th of the queen ; of the 
" age of 108 years. His land was very small ; his best living 
" was a lease of his parsonage of Northope. Wherewith he 
" commonly maintained seven or eight at that school. 

" My first fortune was to marry, in Carmarthenshire, one 
" Mrs. Powel, widow, daughter to sir William Thomas. 
" My second fortune was to marry the widow of Mr. Ri. 
*' Heywood, an officer in the king*'s bench, of good wealth. 
" My state at this time, by my ill husbandry and liberality, 
" is no better than these. I have 20Z. land in Flintshire, 
" of my own purchase. My wife hath 80/. yearly : whereof 
*' I have not handled penny for some years past. For un- 
" thriftiness I can truly say, that diceing, carding, hawking, 
" or hunting, did never cost me 20/. The greatest cause of 
" my charge hath been these, beside my trouble and travail: 
" I do maintain at Oxford two of my nephews ; whereof 
" one is, or within few days will be, of the ministry. I do 
" maintain one in France, one in London, and two at a 
" country school in Flintshire. I have also maintained 
" wholly, for these ten years at least, a poor brother, his 
" wife, and a fifth son. What I have given, and do give 
" weekly, to the relief of twelve poor folks in Northope, let 
" other men report.'' 

And hence he took his opportunity to solicit this lord in 
this manner: " All this, my best lord, is as true as the 
" Lord liveth. Help therefore, I beseech you, or else you 253 


BOOK " sliall shortly see me and all these to fall at once. For truly 
• " they shall not lack, while I have. God bless you, and 
Anno 1584. '< send us his grace." 

This is the character he gives of himself unto the lord 

Burghley. But there was another account given of him soon 

after his death, printed by C. Barker, the queen's printer ; 

which his vain boasts of himself and his pedigree gave occa- 

A true ac- sion to. For so that tract was prefaced. " That forasmuch 

forth oT " ^^ Parry, in the abundance of his proud and arrogant hu- 

what Parry " niours, had often, both in his confession and letters, pre- 

" tended some m'eat and g-rievous causes of discontentment 

" against her majesty and the present state ; it shall not be 

" impertinent, for better satisfaction of all persons, to set 

" forth, simply and truly, the condition and quality of the 

" man ; what he was by birth and education, and in what 

" course of life he had lived." 

And then the relation of him begins : That he was one of 
the yovmger sons of a poor man, called, Harry ap David, 
that dwelled in North Wales, in a little village called North- 
ope ; and kept a common alehouse : which was the best and 
greatest stay of his living. That his mother was the reputed 
daughter of one Conway, a priest, parson of a poor parish 
called Halkyn, &c. That in his childhood he was noted, by 
such as best knew him, to be of a most villainous and dan- 
gerous nature and disposition. That he often ran away 
from his master, one Fisher, in Chester, that had some small 
knowledge in the law ; who was often taken and brought 
to him affain. That his master caused him many times to be 
chained, locked, and clogged, to stay his running away. 
Yet all was in vain ; for at last he ran away ciuite from his 
poor master, and came to London to seek his fortune. That 
his good hap was, after his service in several places, to be 
entertained in a service above his deserts ; where he stayed 
not long, but shifted himself divers times from master to 
master. And then began to forget his old home, his birth, 
and education, and aspired to great matters, and challenged 
the name and title of a great gentleman, and vaunted him- 
self to be of kin and allied to noble and worshipful ; and 


left his old name, Ap Harry, and took upon him the name CHAP, 
of Parry, the surname of divers gentlemen of great worship. ^ 

And because his mother''s name by her father, a simple Auno 1 584. 
priest, was Conway, he pretended kindred to sir John Con- 
way : and so thereby made himself of kin to Edmund Ne- 
vyl. What he had with his wives he soon consumed with 
his dissolute and wasteful manner of life. And when he had 
possessed himself of his second wife's wealth, he omitted no- 
thing that might serve for a prodigal, dissolute, and most 
ungodly course of life. His riot and excess was unmcasura- 
ble. He did most wickedly deflom- his wife's own daugh- 
ter, and sundry ways pitifully abused the old mother. But 
this lasted not long; his proud heart and wasteful hand had 
soon poured out old Heywood's wealth. And then he fell 
again to his wonted shifts, &c. This, and much more, is re- 
lated there of him. 

And in these shifts that he made to help his necessities, 
one was his application to the queen and some friends at 
court. And St. Katharine's by the Tower being now void 254 
of a master, he put in strongly for it. And thus I find him Laboureth 
addressing to his supposed friend, the lord treasurer, (to mastership 
whom he had given such a good character of himself, in a"^^*^-^*^- 

•T. 1- 11 tharine's. 

letter written m May this year.) " Good my lord, pardon 
" my importunity, so much warranted by the hardness of 
" the time, and my secret contraries. The particulars en- 
" closed, [viz. the account of himself mentioned above,] fa- 
" vourably delivered by your lordship or master secretary 
" to the queen, would undoubtedly remove all doubtful con- 
" ceits of me in religion and duty. That were a small mat- 
" ter with the queen to avow my service with the credit of 
" an hospital. Your earnest request to Mr. Secretary to 
" further it, for your sake, to the queen's majesty at this in- 
" stant, will surely serve the turn." And whereas another 
stood candidate for this mastership at this time, thus he 
added, " That he could not think it possible for Mr. Rouk- 
" by, or any of his coat, to adventure more than he had 
" done in her service. I would to Christ her majesty would 
" command any further possible trial of me." He proceed- 


BOOK ed, " That Mr. Secretary told him, that he thought the 
" queen meant to give him a pension : that St. Katharine's 

Anno 1584. " was in truth no other upon the reckoning: and yet, God 
" knows, added he, there is a marvellous difference between 
" the one and the other, in opinion and credit."" 

Concluding, " Remember me, my dearest lord, and think 
" it not enough for a man of my fortune past, to live by 
" meat and drink. Justice itself willeth, it should be credit 
" and reward." [Such was his vainglorious value of him- 

" Your lordship's faithfuUest and most bounden, 

'^ W. Pa." 

But in short, he obtained neither pension nor St. Katha- 
rine's ; this being given to another. Which neglect he re- 

I find him yet at London in September, undiscovered ; 
soliciting business with the lord treasurer, for others as well 
as for himself. Particularly for sir Philip Hoby, governor 
of the Isle of Wight, vmder some trouble at court: whose 
loyal manner of proceeding, as he wrote, gave him good 
hope, that all should go well with him, by that lord's ho- 
nourable means and furtherance : that he was fully acquaint- 
ed with his state, and daily occupied in settling such matters 
for him as might most import him in profit and credit. 
And that he would attend his lordship's return from the 
court, to know his pleasure. And then concluded in a word 
for himself, " That in the mean time it should please his 
" lordship to commend him as a fit man for a deanery, pro- 
" vostship, or mastership of request ; it was all he craved. 
" And so he prayed God to preserve his good lordship." 
Dated from London, the 3d of September. For the rest of 
his story, and end, I refer the reader to our histonans. 
255 It may not be amiss to look back some years upon this 
false man, and his course of life, in his travels abroad t, in 
the correspondence he held with the lord treasurer. Which 
I shall do from divers of his letters, written by way of intel- 
ligence to the said lord, pretending great loyalty. 


After the queen had given Parry liis life, condemned for CHAP, 
an act of burglary, (committed on Mr. Hugh Hare, of the ^^^' 

Inner Temple, breaking into his chamber, with intent to Anno 1.584. 
rob him,) he went abroad out of England ; his great debts, ^"'"J ^^^^'^^ 
by his extravagancy, growing heavy upon him. He had 
obtained some favour of the lord treasurer. To whom he 
mightily addresses himself. And that lord, upon the pro- 
testation of his loyalty to the queen, and promises made of 
information from time to time, of what the queen's rebel- 
lious subjects abroad were doing; and who and where they 
were. So that the treasurer gave him some countenance, and, 
as it seems, some pension. But he was false all the while, 
notMf^^ith standing divers letters which he sent from foreign 
parts to that lord, and while he was beyond seas, at Venice, 
at Siena, and Rome, and Paris and Lyons: yet once or 
twice returning home for a time. And in those parts he 
played his tricks, in correspondence with Jesuits and Eng- 
lish fugitives : and consulting with them in behalf of catho- 
lics, and for restoring the Romish religion in England: and 
still keeping in with his lord here at court, by his frequent 
fraudulent letters of intelligence ; and always, as opportu- 
nity served, recommending the queen's popish subjects 
abroad to favour. 

He had been at Rome and Siena ; and was returned into Comes 
England anno 1577. And newly now come home, he gave abroa/"^*'"^ 
the lord treasurer notice that he was ready to give him in- anno 1 577. 
formation according to certain instructions given him by the the''iord ° 
said lord. And now being in London, writ him a short let- treasurer, 
ter, " That being wearied with his long journey, he defer- 
" red his attendance upon him until his coming to court : 
" and spake of his having in his letters, both from Rome 
" and Siena, advertised his lordship of some such matters as 
" he had heard and seen in those parts :" [that is, probably, 
the treacherous practices of the English fugitives, and 
others against the queen and state of England.] " And how 
" most desirous he was of his lordship's good favour; upon 
" hope to be able to do him some such service as he never 
" intended to do, or offered to anv before that time." 

VOL. III. B b 


BOOK In the year 1579, 1 find him again fled hence, into France. 
' And from Paris he writes to the lord treasurer, in excuse of 

Anno 1584. his suddeu departure; (to avoid, as it seems, his creditors.) 

ris! Thence" That as the manner of his departure out of England 

writes to « might in reason leave cause of offence behind him, so ne- 

" cessity, and his demcanoiu- on that side the sea, might, 

" and he trusted woukl, crave })ardon for him. The rather, 

" as it might please his lordship, for his dutiful mind, and 

" poor good-will, long favoiu*, and pi'otcction. And having, 

" since the death of his late good lord and master, the earl 

" of Pembroke, never served or followed any besides her 

" majesty, whose faithful servant and subject he would ever 

" be found to be ; he hoped his lordship would not resist 

256'" his humble suit, grounded upon no greater warrant, than 

" his desire to deserve well of him by such service as he 

" should be able to do his lordship hereafter.'" 

And then goeth on in these flattering, hollow words: 
^' Good my lord, pardon my plain nature, if I seem at 
" any time less ceremonious than your greatness or my duty 
" do require. And be assured to find in me all plainness 
" and truth.'" 
His letters And no less than six other letters he wrote to the above- 
iord"^anno Said lord in the next year from Paris, (where he was pri- 
1580. vately reconciled to the church of Rome,) still requesting 

that lord's favour, and offering his service for intelligence : 
writing thus, " That he was emboldened to lay before his 
" lordship the service of such an one [meanirig himself] as 
" studied daily, how and in what sort he might best and 
" most acceptably discover his readiness to honour and serve 
" him, &c. And that it added to his crosses, that it was told 
" him, that his departure, and demeanour there, [at Paris,] 
" had bred some offence at home."''' And in another letter 
thence, put into the queen's ambassador''s pocket, he signi- 
fied, how his long or short abode there depended upon his 
good or ill speed in the service intended and mentioned in 
his letter. 

And because there were suspicions and jealousies of his 
integritv and protestations of his loyalty ; therefore, in the 


month of May, the said year, 1580, he addresseth another cHAP. 
letter, to this tenor : " That the name and title of a true sub- ^^^" 

'■^ ject had always been so dear unto him, that he could not Anno i584. 
" but hold him and his religion for suspected, that practised '^''^ '^'^^^ °^ 

° ^ *■ 'a true sub- 

" any thing agamst her majesty. Whose government and ject always 
" fortune had been no less comfortable to all good men at''*^'*''^*''"™' 
" home, than strange and fearful to her enemies abroad. 
" And that backed with his prayer, God preserve her from 
" the one, and defend her from the other."'"' 

Adding, " That he had heretofore purposely written some 
" ordinary letters to his lordship, that thereby he might, 
" without suspicion, write to him still. And thus long de- 
" ferred to look carefully into any thing, until he might be 
" settled, and better acquainted with some men's proceed- 
" ings on that side : and chose this way of sending, as best 
" assured, and would continue it, if he might understand 
" his service to be acceptable to her majesty, and pleasing 
*' to his lordship. And that he found his credit and favour 
" to be such with the best of the English and Scottish na- 
" tions in Rome and Paris, (by the hope conceived of his 
" readiness and ability to serve them,) that he doubted not 
" in few months to be well able to discover their deepest 
" practices, if the same may be nourished with her majes- 
" ty's charge, to be bestowed, as occasion should serve, in 
" trifling gifts (rather of pleasure than price) and friendly 
" entertainment : the true manner whereof should always 
" appear to his lordship. That some in court had hereto- 
" fore sought to draw him into this course. Which as he 
" refused then, so making a show of his pretended purpose 
" to move that lord''s belief, would forswear to follow, if it 
" were not his pleasure to embrace of, and like it, in him. 
" And then solicits his favour again. Good my lord, begin 
" to look favourably upon me, and I will end in doing you 
" service.'''' 

He was frequently in his letters to that lord a solicitor 257 
for the English papists beyond sea, fugitives, and some of A solicitor 
them pensioners of the Spaniard : pretending for them their „itives. 
true loyalty to the queen : and therefore that they might 

ub 2 


BOOK have favour shewn them. Such were the Ropers, John and 
Thomas : whom he recommended to the treasurer, " for 
Anno 1584. " their readiness and abihty to serve his lordship : well wor- 
I he Ropers. 4; ^^^ ^^'is good opinion and countenance."" In another letter 
Lord Copiy. he writ very favourably of Thomas Copply, commonly called 
lord Copply : who had that title given him by the French 
king ; and was pensioner to the king of Spain. This man 
had promised great service to the queen in those parts. And 
a second letter, addressed to that lord in his behalf, import- 
ed, " That if his former letter, touching that lord Copply ,- 
" proved serviceable unto her majesty, and profitable with- 
" out offence to him, he should think himself very happy to 
" have adventured thus far for such an one, as was very- 
" likely to be found, by his deserts hereafter, worthy her 
" grace's and his honourable favour. The necessity of the 
" time ; his credit heretofore in England ; his long services 
" well entertained abroad ; joined to the earnest and con- 
" stant speeches of his dutiful desire to serve her majesty, if 
" the same were taken in time, did put him out of doubt, 
" that her majesty should have good cause to thank your 
" lordship for so seasonable recovery of so necessary a sub- 
" ject. And that he sued for no greater privilege than many 
" a true and faithful subject did daily enjoy. Land, liberty, 
" and reputation should undertake for his good demean- 
" our."* This Copply was a busy man abroad under the 
king of Spain, who had also given him an honourable title, 
viz. Grand master of the Maes, &c. and had sent him out 
Canid. Eiiz. a Commander at sea, to make prize both of tlie English and 
]). 208. Netherlands ships. And so very obnoxious to the queen. 
And this Avas the man Parry now recommended. 

In the month of July, 1580, I find another of his letters 

to the same lord in behalf of the rebel, the earl of Westmor- 

His letter land, to tliis purport : " That if the most humble submis- 

of tiie earl " ^ion of the iufortunatc earl of Westmorland might, by his 

of West- a lordship''s means, be made plausible to her majesty, (his 

" life and liberty once reserved,) he was ready, with great 

" repentance of his error and faiilt, committed in his youth, 

" to fall at her majesty"'? feet" And then adds his argument 


for the same favour to be shewed the earl: " I know not," CHAP, 
as he subjoined, " whether the reclaiming of desperate men ^^^' 
" doth agree with our state and policy. And yet it is daily Anno 1534. 
" seen, that the king, Christian and catholic, do it : > yea, 
" sometimes with advancement." 

I find him returned into England in the year 1580. And Brings 
having had the favour to be the queen's sworn servant, hef^JJirfrom 
writ another letter to his presumed patron, the said lord Cavaicanti. 
treasurer, in September. And therein brings commendations 
from Cavaicanti, (whom he calls sir Guido Cavaicanti,) an 
Italian merchant, trading in London in the reign of king 
Edward ; and who by his diligence and abilities was made 
use of in messages from that king to France ; and was so 
serviceable an instrument in good offices to the kingdom, 
that a pension was settled upon him for life, as our histo-258 
rians relate. Parry comes acquainted with him in Paris. 
Now concerning so memorable a man in our English history, 
we may have leave to insert what we find of him in Parry's 
letter; viz. " That he was desired by sir Guido Cavaicanti 
" to deliver his lordship his very humble commendations, 
" and to tell him, that, his gout and other griefs greatly in- 
" creasing, he was advised to remove to some warmer cli- 
" mate, for the recovery of his health. And therefore, de- 
" sirous to depart in the grace and good favour of his ma- 
" jesty, he -meant to come over into England for the winter: His merits 
" and so to depart in the spring for Venice: if he thought *"'^*"" 

*."'■*-' c> Vices. 

" It, m this busy time, might stand with his lordship's ad- 
" vice and liking. Of whom always and very often he had 
" a very thankful and honourable mention. That he did 
" mistrust that he had some hinderers of his credit with her 
" majesty, and did not stick to name whom he suspected. 
" That he thought his pension inferior to his deserts and 
" service to this crown: having spent so many years in jour- 
" neys to and fro, much more than might have bought such 
" a living. But that as he and his name had lived under 
" and served this state above eighty years ; so, howsoever 
" his fortune served him, he would die a faithful ser- 
" vant unto her majesty ; and, in the mean time, bring up 



BOOK " another Cavalcanti, to succeed him in devotion to this 

^' " country." 

Anno 1584. And then the writer proceeded to other matters. " That 
" discretion willed him not to be too busy with his pen, lest 
" at length it proved loathsome. But, as he hoped, it would 
" not dislike his lordship that he moved the same for so ho- 
" nourable a gentleman, so would he take heed how he trou- 
" bled his lordship with any trifles." And so, to shew his 
loyalty, he informed what he understood in Paris : viz. 
First, " That Julio Busini, an Italian, known to his lord- 
" ship, now living in Paris, and following Cavalier Giraldo, 
" late ambassador in England, for Portugal, was, as he had 
" great cause to suspect, a busy dealer in English practices. 
" That he writ very often to the Cursini's. And that com- 
" ing one day to his chamber, he found him deciphering of 
" a letter, which that morning he had received out of Eng- 
" land. That by chance he [Parry] fell upon a paper en- 
" closed, [by him in his letter,] which, he said, he knew to be 
" his hand ; and believed that it did serve to decipher the 
" other, being very close, well writ, and of that very kind." 
And then added, " It may be such a cipher might come to 
" his lordship's hands. And therefore he thought good to 
" send him this for trial." 

Further, " That he had divers speeches with the French 
" ambassador : who seemed to deal plainly with him in 
" whatsoever was greatest and most important. And com- 
" paring his discourse with some such as he [Parry] had 
" had with the archbishop of Glasco, the bishop of Rosse, 
" and Thomas Morgan, of late, he found them (for the 
" queen of Scots) very like, and in effect the same : and 
" that yet he knew the archbishop of Glasco to be made a 
" stranger to many things, whereunto some others were 
259 " privy. That he had rather, that his simple opinion of 
" these matters should grow to his lordship upon question 
" at his pleasure, than trouble the same with all he had 
" heard." 

And then he falls in with his flatteries of the lord to 
wlioin he writ all this. " That he did receive no small com- 


fort and contentation, that it was his good fortune to ho- CHAP. 
noLir and love his lordship, of whom both catholic and 

" protestant, on this side and that side, had in this latter Anno 1 584. 

" time (for the best and greatest part) spoken much honour 

" and good." And then addresseth in these words. " Truly, 

" my lord, it cannot be, that you do know in what estima- 

" tion you live, &c. I would be very glad that it might 

" please your lordship to give me leave to wait upon the 

" same at your next going to the court, that I may do my 

" duty to her majesty, sithence I am her poor servant 

" sworn. In the mean time, and ever, I will honour, love, 

" and serve your lordship, as my best friend, father, and 

" lord." 

But Parry's creditors, when he came home, were so sharp His debts 
upon him, and especially Hare, (the same that he had once ''' 
robbed by breaking into his chamber,) that he was glad to 
flee again out of England. But before he went, he tried his 
friends to be bound with him for that debt to Hare, which 
was 600/. But the former sureties thought fit to withdraw 
themselves out of danger. But he found other sureties for 
that debt : and likewise for the peace, to be bound with 
him in the king's bench for lOOOZ. Who were sir John 
Conwey and sir George Peckham, knights. In these straits, 
he again earnestly applifed to the lord treasurer. To whom 
he laid open his circumstances. 

In the year 1582 I find him in Venice, writing to the 
abovesaid lord informations and intelligences. Such as 
these. " That it had been told him in great secret, (though At Venice, 
" he might not avow it,) that the queen-motlier [of France] ^vntes. 
" lay in the wind, and watched to give our queen a mate, 
" [i. e. her son, the duke of Anjou,] and would undoubtedly 
" do it, if her majesty did not look well to her game. That 
" they heard of great and daily preparations for the sea, in 
" Naples, Spain, and Portugal. But not that don Antonio's 
" fortunes could serve him to offbnd the king catholic. That 
" it was judged but a very slender policy, that we, having 
" no ambassador in Spain, did still entertain the Spanish 
" ambassador [viz. Mendoza] in England. Where, he 

B b 4 


BOOK " feared, there was so much to be done for money. That 
" many were of opinion, that it were a matter of less diffi- 

Anno 1584." culty for US to Continue the ancient league with Burgun- 
" dy, than to continue our intelligence with France. With 
" whom, for five hundred years, he did not find that we had 
" any long peace. And out of doubt he was, that we had 
" very mighty enemies in France to our peace. That our 
" traffic to the Levant could not but be dangerous, and 
" full of adventure for our merchants, so long as we stood 
" upon doubtful terms with Spain, &c. That the prince of 

Prince of " Orauffc was thought now to lie in more danger than ever; 

Orange. ,, , , , , „ , . ,. • -i •.-. 

" and that he shall not long escape, it practice may prevail. 
[But it was not before two years after, that this bloody prac- 
tice took effect, that is, in the year 1584; so long and im- 
placable was the malice of this good prince's enemies.] 
260 In the same letter he mentioned a book printed at Rome, 
A book, and dedicated to the cardinal S. Sixti, entitled, De Persecu- 
ciit. An^<Mi- ^'o??e Anglicana. " That it had raised a barbarous opinion 
cuna. " of our cruelty." Adding, " That he could wish, that in 

" those cases it might please her majesty to pardon the dis- 
" membering and drawing." 
Sir Rich. And concerning sir Richard Shelly, formerly lord prior of 
^' St. John's, now a fugitive in Venice, he added, " That he 
"was desirous to return, and professed very great services; 
" if he were not disquieted for his conscience." This was 
written from Venice the 4th of May, 1582. No name sub- 

In the year 1583 we find him at Lions, and then at 
Paris. His letters writ thence we have given some account 
of before. In 1584 he returned again into England, when 
and where he ended his wretched life, after he had the ho- 
nour once to sit in the parliament house. 

Upon the discovery of this so horrid treason against the 

queen's life, and the present apprehension of danger from 

that implacable faction of papists at home as well as abroad, 

suitable prayers were composed, printed, and appointed to 

Prayers ap- be used. Whereof one was used in the queen's chapel, en- 

now^to be titled, " A prayer for all kings, princes, countries, and peo- 



pie, which do profess the gospel; and especially Jhr our CHAP. 
sovereign lady, queen Elizabeth. Used in her majesty ""s 

" chapel, and meet to be used of all persons within her ma- Anno i584. 
" jesty's dominions." Another prayer composed now, and 
used in the parliament house upon this occasion, had this 
title: " A prayer and thanksgiving Jhr the queen: used of' 
" all the Jcfiights and burgesses in the high court of parlia- 
" ment. And very requisite to be used and continued of all 
" her majesty"'s loving subjects." There was also a third 
prayer framed, and used in the parliament house only. 
Which prayers being scarce now to be met with, I think 
worthy to be preserved ; and therefore may be found in the 
Appendix. N-'.XLiv. 

There was an order likewise of prayer and thanksgiving 
to be used in the diocese of Winchester : which was called, 
An order of prayer and thanlcsgiving Jbr the preservation A form of 
of the queen'' s majesty'' s I'tfe and scjety : to be used o/* ^^^^ winton 
preachers and ministers of the diocese of Winchester, upon <i'ocese. 
the discovery of Dr. Parry'' s treason. Which, I suppose, 
was compiled and set forth by Cowper, the bishop. First is 
set down the direction, how the minister was to use the or- 
der: viz. The next Sunday after his receiving it, he was to 
make a sermon of the authority and majesty of princes. 
And in the end of the sermon he shall set forth, and de- 
clare, the brief notes of the confession and wicked purpose, 
conceived by Parry, to have murdered the queen : animated 
thereto by the pope and cardinals. And then the extract of 
Parry"'s treason follows, being his voluntary confession. And 
lastly, he was to say a prayer for that purpose. And then 
to be sung or said the twenty-first Psalm. 

And thus one of the good bishops thought fit to call his 
clergy and diocese to a due and public acknowledgment of 
God''s goodness in this great deliverance. The prayer hav- 
ing several historical remarks, as well as a devout spirit in it, 
I insert; and was as follows. 

" O eternal God and merciful Father, with humble 26' 1 
" hearts we confess, that we are not able either by The prayer. 
" tongue to utter, or in mind to conceive, the exceeding 


BOOK " measure of thy infinite goodness and mercy towards us, 
^' " wretched sinners, and towards tliis our noble reahii and 
Anno 1584." natural country, not many years since: when for our un- 
" thankful receiving of the heavenly light and truth of thy 
" gospel, we were justly cast into thraldom and misery, and 
" thrust again under the kingdom of darkness. So that 
" our consciences lay groaning under the heavy burden of 
" error, superstition, and idolatry : even then, even then, O 
" Lord, thou didst vouchsafe, of thy great goodness, not 
" only without our desert, but far beyond our hope and 
" expectation, to preserve for us thy faithful servant, our 
" gracious prince and sovereign queen Elizabeth ; and to 
*' save her from the jaws of the cruel tigress, that then 
" sought to suck her blood, and to work to us perpetual 
" tyranny and bondage of conscience. Thus thou didst, O 
" gracious Lord, undoubtedly, that she might be to this 
" thy church of England a sweet and tender nurse; and 
" that this realm, under her happy government, might 
" be a blessed sanctuary and place of refuge for thy poor 
" afflicted saints in these dangerous days, persecuted and 
" troubled in many covuitries for the profession of thy gos- 
*' pel. Yea, and that our benefit and their comfort might 
" be the more assured, thy divine providence, from time to 
" time, hath many ways mightily and miraculously pre- 
" served and kept her from the crafty, cruel, and traitor- 
" ous devices of her bloody adversaries, and the deadly 
" enemies of thy gospel : which with barbarous cruelty had 
" sought to extinguish the light thereof by shedding lier 
" majesty's most imiocent blood. 

" But this thy gracious goodness and mighty providence 
" never so apparently shewed itself at any one time, as even 
" within these few days ; when a traitorous subject, never 
" injured nor grieved by her, but sundry times holpen, re- 
" lieved, and countenanced, far above his state and worthi- 
" ness, had of a long time retained a wicked and devilish 
" purpose; and often sought occasion and opportunity to 
" lay violent hands upon her royal person, and to have 
" murdered her. But still the vigilant eye of this blessed 


" providence did either prevent him by some sudden inter- CHAP. 

" ruption of his endeavour, or by the majesty of her per- ;__ 

" son, and princely behaviour towards him, did strike him. Anno 1 584. 

*' so abashed, that he could not perform his concealed 

" bloody purpose. And at the last this wretched villain was 

" by thy means disclosed; and his own tongue opened to con- 

" fess his detestable and wicked intent. For this thine in- 

'* estimable goodness towards us, O heavenly Father, with 

" humble hearts and minds we thank thee, and bless thy 

" name for ever and ever. For assuredly, if thou hadst 

" not been now on our side, as the prophet saith, the whole 

*' floods and waves of wickedness had overwhelmed us, and 

" we had been sunk into the bottomless pit of infinite and 

" unspeakable misery. 

" We beseech thee therefore, O Lord, that thou wilt 
" bless us so with thy grace, that we may be rightly and 
*' truly thankful to thee, that is, not in word only, but in 262 
" deed also, daily studying to frame our lives according to 
" the direction of thy holy word, which thou hast sent 
" among us. And that her majesty, thus feeling the mighty 
" hand of thy providence fighting for her safety, may 
" more boldly and constantly with an heroical spirit stand 
*' in the protection and defence of thy blessed church, 
*' which by thy word thou hast planted amongst us. And 
" lastly, that the cruel spirits of Antichrist, that seek the 
" subversion of the gospel, may by the hand of thy justice 
" feel what it is to set to sale for money the infinite blood 
" of thine anointed princess ; which thou hast prepared 
" and set up to be the nurse and protector of thy truth. 
" Grant this, O heavenly Father, for Jesus Christ's sake, 
" thine only Son, our Saviour. To whom, with thee and 
" the Holy Ghost, be given all honour and glory, world 
" without end." 

There was also another prayer composed upon this occa- Another 
sion, to be used, as it seems, in the churches. The copy l"^''^'^'^' 
whereof in manuscript was sent to the lord treasurer for 
his review ; and having some insertions of his pen in some 
places : it is large ; and containing a grateful sense and 


BOOK acknowledgment to Almighty God for his wonderful fa- 

^' vours to the queen, and therein to the whole kingdom, I 

Anno 1584. have preserved in the Appendix. It bore this title: A 

N".XLV. prayer of thanksgiving foi- the deliverance of' her majesty 

from the murderous intention of Dr. Parry. 

What the thoughts of the court were upon the queen's 
escape of this intended assassination of her, may appear by 
what the great statesman lord Burghley writ to sir Nic. 
White, his correspondent in Ireland ; who had been inqui- 
sitive of that lord about it. 
A passage His words in his letter, dated in May, were these : _" The 
Burghk7's " matter whereof you writ, which, as it seemeth, hath stirred 
letter con- a ^pQ^ yQ^j, spirits, is, I doubt not but by public m-iting, 
Parry." " better known afore this time, than I think it was at the 
" time of your writing : I mean the attempt of that unfor- 
" tunate wretch, Parry. God therein (as in many more, 
" both known and unknown) hath shewed his singular fa- 
" vour and privilege to the person of our sovereign graci- 
" ous lady. For continuance whereof, wc all, that enjoy the 
" benefits which he denieth to the most part of all other 
" nations round about us, are most bound to obtain of his 
" mercy by prayer and pleasing of him." This was dated 
from the court at Greenwich. 

But before I have quite done with Parry, I cannot but 

make mention of his voluntary confession, writ to the queen 

herself from the Tower, a little before his execution. 

Parry's con- Which thougli it be sct down in a tract, called A t?-ue and 

fession to ,,./.r»i c i^ i 

the (lueen. plai7i declaration of Farry s treason^ cs,c. and irom thence 
entered in Holinshed's Chronicle; yet being much cur- 
tailed there, and shortened somewhere in sentences, and 
somewhere in whole periods, I think the whole letter may 

Number deserve to be preserved : which I have done in the Appen- 
dix ; as I transcribed it from Parry's own minutes. I will 
give here an instance of a sentence or two, omitted in the 
printed letter : " Give some case to your catholic subjects. 
263 " Remember the rest of my letter, and you shall find, that 
" God will bless you, foreign princes esteem you, and your 
" subjects obey you. The indignities passed between your 


" majesty and the king catholic are many: you have dis- chap 
" quieted his state, maintained his rebels, and do bear with ^^^' 
" such as have robbed him and his subjects. Many mer- Anno 1 584. 
" chants are undone. Some bad humours pleased, and 
" yourself dishonoured," &c. Many such sentences, and 
instructions therein given to the queen, containing his judg- 
ment in state-matters occurring at that time wherein she 
was concerned, and his advice and counsel, suggested to her 
with such authority, as though he had been her lawgiver, 
or at least one of her chief privy-counsellors; namely, in- 
structions and counsels concerning the kings of Spain and 
France, and the queen of Scots, and the Roman catholics 
her subjects : for whom he interceded in a kind of threat- 
ening way, if she favoured them not. For her glorious title 
of supreme governor^ he bade her forget it, as vain and 
false; which neither Luther nor Calvin, nor the catholic 
world allowed her ; and even the puritans smiled at. For 
all these and divers other his confident expressions used to 
her majesty, I refer the perusing thereof to his letter in the 
Appendix, as above directed. 

To all this that I have collected concerninp- this Parrv, I A kinsman 
subjoin the mention of another villain of that name, and his executed.* 
relation,^ who Avas a robber and murderer; and at length 
taken and executed at Oxford, about the latter part of 
queen Elizabeth's reign. Of whom Dr. George Abbot, 
(afterwards archbishop of Canterbury,) in his book against 
Dr. Hill, gives us this remarkable account : That he was 
taken and convicted with one Richardson for a murder. 
And besides many other villanies done in England, and 
beyond the seas, he once robbed upon the highway, and 
murdered a drover, carrying with him some good store of 
money. He with his said fellow were afterwards taken, and 
prisoners in Oxford ; where the said Dr. Abbot was with 
them, to visit and instruct them. When he observed, that 
it much grieved his fellow Richardson, then being in com- 
pany, that Parry had slain the man ; and his conscience, as 
he reported to Abbot and others, could in no sort be ap- 
peased about the fright and remorse thereof. But Parry 


BOOK bade him not to dismay himself; but prepare as soon as he 
*• could to fly after him into Ireland : for thither the principal 

Anno 1584. murderer was hastening. And from thence they would tra- 
vel to Rome ; where he had been with his uncle, Dr. Parry, 
before; and knowing the fashion of the place. And there 
h-e undertook to get a pardon of his holiness ; and all 
should be as well as if it had never been. This Parry told 
Abbot, that he had been a page to a cardinal in Rome, an 
attendant on the duke of Guise, who was slain by the com- 
mandment of Henry III. of France, and of guard to the 
duke of Parma. And therefore, as Abbot concluded, he 
might well be supposed to have known popish fashions. 
And for certain he lived a Romanist, and so professed him- 
self at the time of his execution. 

264 CHAP. XXII. 

Dangers Jj-om papists in Cheshire and Lancashire. Creiton, 
a Scotch Jesuit, from Rome ; taken : and examined. Po- 
pish booJcs ; xorit npoji the execution of Jesuits. Books 
in answer thereto. Proved that they tcere traitors by the 
statute of king Edward III. Dr. Whitaker''s application 
to the lord treasurer Jhr the 7nastership of St. Johri's col- 
lege, Cambridge : his letters. Letter of lord Buighlcy 
to Kijig's college, in behalf of Mr. Cozcel. Winchester 
college in danger, by means erf forged xcritings. Dr. 
Bilson the wardens good service. Remarks on several 
persons. Richard, suffragan of Dover. Manwood, lord 
chief baron. Daniel Rogers. John Fox''s request for his 
prebend. Hurleston of Cheshire. Sir Edxoard Strad- 
ling. John lord Russel. Sir Philip Sydney. Emamiel 

W HAT reason there was now to have a strict hand over 
papists at home, as well as a watchful eye on those abroad, 
that which hath been related above will shew ; and this 
hint will in part suggest ; taken from a letter of the earl of 
Leicester, being now in Chester, to the lord treasurer 


Burghley; relating the insolency of the papists in Cheshire CHAP, 
and Lancashire, (who had been favourably handled of ^^'* 

late,) in these words: " There is great need to hold the fa- Anno i584. 
" vourable hand toward the papists of this country, ras^^P'^^*'" 

11 11 11 ^'t- Lancashire 

some had unseasonably moved there might be.] You will andChe- 
" not believe what harm it hath done; and how bold they^'*"^*^' 
" be, I have written somewhat to Mr. Secretary ; but at 
" my coming [home] I will tell your lordship more."" And 
then mentioned one Barlow, whom some protestants of Lan- 
cashire had wrote their letters for, because of his age and 
infirmities, that he might be removed to some more liberty. 
And then adds; "My lord, he is the most arrogant that 
" lives, not only in his religion, but in his lewd and naughty 
" speeches openly, whensoever he is called, [i. e. before the 
" ecclesiastical commissioners.] I am sorry to write it, but 
" there is great cooling of protestants in those parts. And 
" it is most true, and no marvail," [meaning, while so many 
seminaries were harboured there.] 

The danger of the kingdom appeared further by Creiton, Creiton, 
a Scotchman, and Jesuit. Who had been at Rome, and ^g^g*"'*^,;^,, 
transacted for a great sum of money to be procured and letters. 
sent into England for the Scots queen; and had dealing 265 
with Morgan, the Scots queen''s agent, and the Guises in 
France. But he was taken, by the diligence of secretary 
Walsingham, with divers letters also, discovering what they 
were doing. From which, and the knowledge obtained 
thereby, and the informations therein, the secretary drew 
up divers questions to be put to the said Creiton. Whicli 
will serve to open his treason. 

The questions, as I transcribed them from Walsingham's 
own hand, shall follow. The title to the paper is this: ^r- Articles to 
tides to be ministered to Creyton the Jesuit, the 3d of Jan. ^l^^^"^^' 
1584. First, For what cause he repaired last to Rome : and '''"'• 
by whom lie was directed thither. Secondly, Whether he ytrthe ^^' 
was sent thither to procure a certain sum of money of^cots 
12,000 ducats: what success he had therein: and how the litter-^ 
same was intended to be employed : and to whose hand '^''- ^^• 
it was delivered. Thirdly, Whether the said sum was 


BOOK not delivered to one Cleudc, a Jesuit, born in Lorain. 
• Fourthly, Whether complaint was not made to the duke of 
Anno 1584. Guise by one Morgan, the Scots queen's agent, of the said 
examinant, for that the money was not delivered unto him. 
Fifthly, Whether he did not write into Scotland to certain 
of his associates, touching the employment of the said sum 
of money : as also to Dr. Bernard, being here in England. 
Sixthly, Whether he did not desire the brethren at Rome 
to make fervent prayers for his furtherance of an enterprise 
to be done ; as also the Jesuits at Lions. Seventhly, Whe- 
ther he had not commission from the duke of Guise and 
others, to impart unto certain in Scotland an enterprise in- 
tended against this realm in September last. All this the 
secretary was enabled to inquire into, by means of certain 
letters from Scotland, that were seized, or came some other 
way to his hand. 

By reason of these dangers, too evident, both to the queen 
and the quiet of the whole kingdom, divers persons were 
Books set executed. But great clamours arose against the govern- 
Xeexecu^ ment on this account; and popish books were written, 
tion of pa- shewing what direful executions and cruelties were done 
answers'to here in England. For the stopping of which calumnies, and 
them. fQj. satisfying of the world in the justice and necessity of the 
methods taken, some books also, as answers, were published. 
One was entitled, The execution of justice in England^ for 
maintenance ofpnhlic and Chj-istian peace, against certain 
stirrers of sedition, and adherence to the traitors and ene- 
mies of the realm ; without any persecution of them for 
questions of religion, as is falsely reported and published 
by the factors and fosterers of their treason. Beginning : 
" It hath been, in all ages and in all countries, a common 
" usage of all offenders, .... to make a defence of their lewd 
" and unlawful facts," &c. 
A deciaia- Another book came forth this year of the like import, 
vouiabie'" Called, A declaration of ihe favourable dealings of her ma- 
deaiings, jesty''s Commissioners, apjjointed for the examination of 
certain traitors, and of tortures unjustly reported to he 
done upon them for matters of religion. Beginning thus: 


" Good reader, although her majesty's most mild and gra- CHAP. 
" cious govermTient be sufficient to defend itself against ^^"• 

" those most slanderous reports," &c. [It came forth soon Anno i584. 
after the execution of some traitorous Jesuits.] " And 266 
" against slanderous reports spread abroad in seditious 
" books, letters, and libels; thereby to inflame the hearts 
" of our countrymen and her majesty's subjects," &c. This 
book is entered in Hohnshed's Chronicle, under the year Hoi. 
1584, where it may be read. 1*^^57 

There came out also this year, after the execution of Papists exe- 
some papists, who were adjudged to death for treason, a ^ "^^^""J,' ^^'j*^; 
treatise, to prove that those lately executed were traitors ; tute. 
and that such other papists as had of late been executed 
were, by a statute of Edward III. lawfully executed as trai- 
tors. It began with that statute : " That if any man shall 
" compass or imagine the king's death, or shall levy war 
" against him, or shall probably be attainted to have been 
" an adherent to the king's enemies; he shall be adjudged 
" a traitor," Then the author proceeded to consider the pa- 
pists' dealings. " That Pius V. the father in his time of 
" them all, called her majesty's interest in the crown prce- 
" tensumjus, and declared her deprived, by his authority, 
" of the kingdom. He absolved her subjects from their 
" oath of obedience. He cursed all that should yield her 
" any princely duty. And yet, not herewith content, he 
" sent of his ministers into this land, to signify, by his 
*' authority apostolic, to certain illustrious persons, what 
" was done at Rome; how Elizabeth was a heretic; how 
" she had lost her crown ; and that they owed her no kind 
" of obedience." And hereupon began the rebellion in the 
north by the earls of Northumberland and Westmorland. 
But the tract being somewhat long, and done by some able 
pen, I recommend the whole to the reader in the Appen- Nmuber 
dix, where it is preserved. It was occasioned by a popish ^^^"' 
book lately set forth, entitled, Historia martyrum in 

Under the next year we shall hear more of these Ro- 

VOL. III. c c 


BOOK mish zealots, and their practices: now we shall proceed to 

' matters more private and personal. 

Anno 1584. J begin With an university affair. Dr. Howland, master 

of St. John's college in Cambridge, was this year preferred 

to the bishopric of Peterburgh. On which occasion the 

place of master of that college was like ere long to become 

vacant. The election of a successor being in the fellows of 

the college, several persons made their interests with them 

wi.itiiker f^^. j^ jjg Watson, Stanton, and William Whitaker, who 

endeavours _ ' .... 

for the was public professor of divinity in that university, a learned 
of St ^John's ^''^^^'''' ^"^ particularly against Campion the Jesuit his 
college. Challenge. Who thinking his interest noc strong enough 
amongst the fellows, making some exceptions against him, 
thought fit to apply himself to the lord treasurer, the high 
chancellor of that university, (who was also himself once of 
that college,) in a letter or two composed in elegant Latin ; 
therein shewing his case and his plea ; which I choose to re- 
present in his own words translated. 
His letter The former letter, bearing date the last day of November, 
chaii«-iim.' was to this tenor : " That he could not then wait upon his 
" lordship, the business of his scholastical profession hin- 
" dering him ; and therefore prayed him to take in good 
" part his sending of that letter. That he understood, that 
" he had been recommended long since, certo nomine, to his 
267 " honour by others ; who thought better of him than he per- 
" Jiaps deserved, (as he modestly said.) For how small his 
" abilities were, and how unworthy lie was to succeed a 
" man so excellent and accomplished, he easily acknow- 
" ledged. But, added he, by the grace of God I am 
" what I am : and his grace in me, I hope, hath not been in 
" vain. That he had performed in his lordship"'s university 
" the office of the profession of tlwologij, in which then he 
" had been employed five years, and desired so to spend all 
" the other part of his life, if the Lord had so appointed. 
" Which that it might most conveniently be, there was no 
" need to admonish his excellent wisdom ; for he knew the 
" state of their university and the church. To which if his 


labours heretofore had not been, as he hoped, unprofit- CHAP, 
able, they might be more pi'ofi table hereafter by his lord- ' ' 

" ship's benefit. And that if any raised any suspicions of Anno i584. 

" him, (too disingenuously perhaps,) he besought him, his 

" most honourable lord, de me mild potius, quam aliis cre- 

" das ; that he would believe him concerning himself, ra- 

" ther than others. That he dared not longer to detain his 

" honour. Wherefore he commended him and all this 

" affair to the divine clemency."" 

It was but two months after I find this learned professor 
apologizing for himself to the same lord, against certain, 
who seemed to have accused him, as not to have deserved 
well of the church established ; and would have had the 
chancellor to decline his good opinion of him for that mas- 
tership. It was time now to give a truer representation of 
himself and his principles to his patron. Which he did thus 
at large ; and I the rather shew here, to give us, his poste- 
rity, a true light of one of the learned divines and writers 
in that affe : bemnning, Ohtestor Immanitatem tuam, &c. Dr. Whita- 
" Beseeching his courteous, obliging disposition, surpassing ,J^j B„rgi,. 
" even his honour, (and that very great too,) that he would 'ey, in vin- 

' \. . / *' , • , 1 • 1 dicatioD of 

" pardon hmi the disturbance he gave him by his letter, himself. 

" being urged by the necessity of thus writing. Which he 

" wished had not happened, that he neither might have 

" been troublesome to his honour, and that none had been 

" injurious to^him. That indeed he was grieved, that some 

" suspicion concerning him should be given to his honour : 

" which grief would have vexed him bitterly ; but that he 

" was persuaded of his benevolence towards him, that by a 

" true apology he might hope, that he should be able to 

" satisfy him, and to take all scruple out of his mind. And 

" that unless he resolved with himself to perform those 

" things which belonged to the office of that place, [the go- 

" vernment, as it seems, of that college,] he would refuse 

" it indeed, however offered. But he doubted not in this 

" matter abundantly to satisfy his honour, and all good 

" men." 

He proceeded then to give a character of himself. " That His pro- 

'^ ^ mise. 

c c 2 


BOOK " he was not ignorant of how great prudence and modera- 
' " tion there was need, in such various wits and manners. 

Anno 1584. « That he would endeavour to seem to be, though not the 
" best, yet far removed from the worst. Tliat he would 
" be the author of peace, of concord, of agreement. That 
" he would cut off the occasions of factions, as much as he 
268 " could. That he would not do any thing that might give 
" cause to any deservedly to judge him a favourer of 
" parties. That he would most diligently observe tlie laws. 
" Lastly, That if he should not be such as the place re- 
" quired, as the law prescribed, as authority should ap- 
" prove, he might be removed ; and he would not think it 
" much to be removed out of his place." He demanded 
therefore, " What is there that any one man requireth in 
" me, which he may suspect of me, to judge me unworthy 
" of that place .'* If I am not worthy of that place, I can- 
" not think myself worthy of that which I now hold, [re- 
" gius professor of divinity,] and have held some years ; 
" and which hereafter I shall gladly and willingly hold, 
" though I suffer the shame of this repulse." 

His cha- And then applying to his lordship, " That it was not un- 

" known to his honour what he had done; how he had 
*' lived ; Avhat labour he had taken for the sake of the 
" church. Tliat those that accused him not to deserve well 
" of our church might be refuted by deeds rather than 
" words. That indeed he had consecrated his whole self, 
" and all his life, to those academical studies ; for this pur- 
" pose, that he might do his endeavour in the behalf of our 
" church, in those necessary contests with the adversaries. 
" That if he received any blow in this cause, if he were 
" now compassed and oppressed with accusations, he knew 
" not, which ; if he there should lose all his lordship's fa- 
" vour besides, which alone he had always esteemed, and 
" whom he had always hopes would be his patron; he 
*' should lament his cause, and should comfort himself, as 
" he should be able, with the testimony of a good conscience. 
" That indeed nothing now happened to him beside his cx- 
" pcctation : for he did not doubt there would be such who 


"would desire to estrange his lordship's mind from him: CHAP. 
" not for that cause that they really thought those things 

" were true that were laid to his charge, but that they might Anno i584. 

" by some means or other snatch away his place from him. 

" Which if they could perform and obtain, to persuade his 

" lordship concerning him in that which they desired, he 

" truly would rest quiet ; and would better meditate of that 

" of the prophet: It is good to trust in God, rather than in 

" man ; it is good to hope in the Lord, rather than in 

" princes.'''' And then concluded with his prayer ; " The 

" Lord Jesus preserve and increase your honour. Cam- 

" bridge, cal. Febr. 1584." 

But notwithstanding this his fear of the loss of the lord 
treasurer's friendship, he continued his friend and patron. 
But he obtained not the mastership of St. John's till two 
years after, when the present master, Dr. Rowland, now bi- 
shop, surrendered it ; and had used his interest in the col- 
lege for him, as that lord had required of him. Whose let- 
ter to the said lord we shall take notice of, when we come 
to the year 1586 ; and shall see there in what state he left 
that college. 

There was another college, viz. King's, wherein a parti- Lord 
cular affair of one of the members obliged the said lord ^J^j^^jJ,^ 
Burghley to interpose, addressing his letter to the provost college, in 
and fellows in favour of Mr. Cowel, (another learned man of Mr. Cowei. 
that university,) to elect him their proctor. He was a very 269 
learned civilian, well known afterwards for his book called 
the Interpreter of the terms in the civil law : for which he 
came into trouble. In memory of him, as well as to re- 
trieve what memorials I can of the universities, and the 
transactions there, I shall here transcribe the chancellor's 
earnest letter to the said college, in Cowel's behalf, with the 
esteem he then had, from the original minutes thereof in 
his own hand. 

" After my hearty commendations. I hear there is now His letter 
*' for this next year the room of one of the proctors for that °^^^ 1^^^°' 
" university to be chosen out of your college ; and that one fellows. 
" Mr. Cowel, one of your company, a man of great commen- 

c c 3 


BOOK " dation for his learning, and no less for his wisdom and 
'■ " discretion, is thought to be a meet man for that room. 

Aimoi58i.'< Wherefore I do require you, that beside the considera- 
" tions, that I hope shall prove yourselves for the good 
" liking of the party, that upon this my request and com- 
" mendation, (a manner not much used by me to trouble 
" you with any request,) this Mr. Cowel may find you the 
" more ready to prefer him to this place. And that if any 
" other shall seek by any extraordinary means to procure 
" the voices to the contrary, I require you most earnestly, 
" that you will appear now, before any such attempts to 
" divert the same, by demonstration of your former disposi- 
" tions towards Mr. Cowel. And for the favours herein I 
'' shall think myself much beholden unto you. From the 
" court at Oatlands, the 25th of September, 1584." 
A forgery From these colleges in the university I am carried to an- 
which'ester otbcr College, viz. that of Winchester, where Dr. Bilson was 
college. now warden, (as he was afterward the wortliy bishop of 
that diocese,) well known for his learned writings. The re- 
venues of wliich college had been like to have been swal- 
lowed up by a notorious forgery ; that is yet hardly dis- 
coverable : namely, by an ancient pretended right and title 
to the lands thereof. The discovery whereof, and the res- 
cue of the college, was owing chiefly to the elaborate pains 
and diligence of the said warden. A relation whereof he 
giveth us himself, in an epistle to the reader before a book 
1 lie dif- of his, that came out near about this year ; viz. " That 
leience be- ^^ ^i^pi.^ hapiicned an iniurv to be offered to the inheritance 

twcen I ' . 

t'liristiau " of hls collcgc by a false title derived from before the 
, nd^ Anu" " foundation of the house ; and so strengthened on every 
iiristiaii a ^\^}^. ^yitli ancicut deeds and evidence, that the forgery 
" was hard to be discerned, and harder to be convinced ; 
" but by infinite searching into muniments of many churches 
" and bishoprics, as well as in their own, [of Winchester,] 
" and their examining sundry large antl laborious commis- 
" sions, which they had taken out before Dr. Bilson's time; 
" to testify the keeping, and justify the delivering of these 
" suspected deeds and ligiers :" to the detecting and im- 



pugning of which no person was (he saith) or would be CHAP, 
used (he spake it for the pains, and not for the skill) but 

himself. The cause was so huge, the comparing of the cir- Anno i684. 

cumstances, and contrarieties both of deeds and witnesses, 

so tedious, the proof so perplexed and intricate, and the 

danger so nearly touched the whole state of the house, that 

he tells us he was forced two years to lay all studies aside, 2/0 

and addicted himself wholly, first to the deeper handling, 

and then to the pursuing of this falsehood. 

I proceed now to some remarks of divers particular per- 
sons of note falling out within this year. 

And first, something occurred this year in Canterbury, A remark 
that bespake Richard, suffragan bishop of Dover, to have suffragan of 
been a pious, upright, and just man. There happened to Dover, 
be a foul murder committed in that city by a gentleman's 
son there; so barbarous, that when it came to Manwood, 
the lord chief baron's ears, that lived hard by. he was re- 
solved the murderer, as he deserved, should die for it. But 
notwithstanding afterwards it was put up ; and the malefac- 
tor walked confidently about the streets, to the indignation 
of the people. Which the said suffragan related to Tho. 
Diggs, esq. a gentleman of good quality in those parts, in a 
letter to this purport : " One notable matter hath the chief Lord chief 
" baron done of late in the knowledge of all men ; which ^^^"^^ 
" is this : The son of one Collard of Canterbury did lately, 
" in the open streets there, most wilfully kill a poorer man. 
" Whereat the chief baron was so moved at the first, that 
" he earnestly vowed the hanging of the murderer. But 
" after the father, being a rich man, had dealt with him in 
" behalf of his son, he brake his vow ; and, contrary to all 
" expectation, procured (as it must needs be, of some wrong 
" suggestion) a pai'don for the said murderer ; who then 
" walked up and down the streets in Canterbury, as it were 
" in despite of all his enemies, to the great grief of all the 
" honest inhabitants there. But such parts as these were, 
" were not, as he [the suffi-agan] thought, strange unto 
" him [unto whom he wrote] in this party, [meaning the 
" chief baron.] He added upon this, that he hoped a day 

c c 4 


BOOK " would come, when they should see him a better man ; or 

' " else he was persuaded his confusion would not tarry long. 

Anuo 1584." Por the Lord is a righteous judge, strong and jjatient ; 

Psalm VII. ^^ ^^^ q^j^ -^ provoJicd every day. If a man will not turn, 

" he will whet his sicord. He hath bent his bow ; and made 

" it ready. He hath prepared Jin- him the instruments ()f 

" death.'''' [By these words of the Psalm glancing at that 

chief baron, corrupt.] It was dated from Sutton, 27. Octob. 

1584. Subscribed, 

" Your most assured, 

" Ri. Dover." 

In a catalogue of articles drawn up afterwards against 

this aforesaid lord chief baron, (the paper endorsed, Abuses 

committed by him,) this was one: " Collard*'s son of Can- 

" terbury killed a poor man coming from his work, in the 

" open street at Canterbury : for which the chief baron 

" threatening at the first to hang him : but by means of 240Z. 

" paid by his father, the son had his pardon by the chief 

" baron's means. And ever after the offender wore the 

" chief baron"'s livery. His father was a brewer in Canter- 

" bury, who said and swore, that it cost him 240/. to ap- 

" pease the matter by soliciting the chief baron." 

271 Daniel Rogers (who had been employed in the Nether- 

])auiei Ro- Jands by the queen, and earnest in her causes) was treacher- 

queen's ously Seized by the Spaniard for some pretence of a debt, 

agent in tiie g^jjjj cast into the prison about four years ago ; and detained 

lands. till this year, when he got his liberty, after much danger of 

his life. He was sent to the prince of Orange in the year 

Camii.Eiiz. 1575, as our historian tells us, when the queen had declined 

to assist him and the Netherlands against the violences of 

Spain, and thereupon was consulting to apply to the French 

king. His business with that prince now was to dissuade him 

from that purpose. This Rogers had long lived and been 

a traveller in those parts, and an intelligencer of the lord 

treasurer ; between whom passed many letters. 

He was now at Buckholt, a town of the bishop of Mun- 
ster's jurisdiction. From whence in November he signified 


to the said lord his deliverance, with particulars of his case CHAP, 
and circumstances, and his protestations of his true con- ^^^^- 

cerns for the queen and her interest. And withal requireth Anno i584. 
that he may be supplied with a sum of money for his com- ^'^ '^*^^'" 
plete liberty of comino- away from thence. And considering treasurer 
the qualities and condition of this gentleman, for a remem- [""^'^'^'V ? ^ 
brance of him, I will relate the contents of this letter. He 
mentioned, " How his lordship had bore it in his mind, 
' that he had travailed to deserve well of her majesty and 
' the commonwealth. That he never travailed to pleasure 
' the multitude; but judged it would stand him in stead, 
' if his studies and services might be approved by his lord- 
' ship. That there were that had not travailed so long, 
' neither in the like dangers, as he had done; and yet had 
' been better considered : whom, as he said, he envied not." 
And then using these words of himself: " My conscience 
' giveth me testimony, that the travail I have followed, I 
' never undertook, as puffed up with vain-glory or ambi- 
' tion ; but stirred up by a singular desire which I always 
' had to seek the advancement of God's glory, her ma- 
' jesty''s assurance, and the establishment of the realm. 

" That if besides there were any skill or experience in 
' him, which would stand his lordship in stead, he would 
' think himself happy to be commanded by his lordship ; 
' who might be (as he trusted his lordship was already 
' well persuaded) assured of him. That he should be over 
' tedious, if he here discoursed to his lordship after what 
' sort he was taken ; by what detained so long time. That 
' it might suffice for this present to advertise his lordship, 
' that as he was, for his own respect, right glad that he was 
' at liberty, delivered out of such strange captivity ; so be- 
' cause it might have happened, if he had died in prison, 
that her majesty might have been interested according as 
Spanish humours were inclined. He thanked God, he 
was at liberty, not only to convince all fraud, which might 
have prejudiced her majesty, but ready, and peradventure 
' fitter to do greater service unto her highness, than ever 
' before he had or could have done." 


BOOK In short, the queen had granted him 1601. for his de- 
'• liverance. And he requested IGOI. more, to carry on a law- 
Anno 1584. suit against his adversaries, to convince their barbarous 
covetousness and practices: who had studied, for further 
272 gain, to prolong his captivity, as he signified to the lord 
treasurer. And then adding, " That he dared assure his 
" lordship, by the aid of Almighty God, that it should 
** never repent him ; meaning to employ himself in such a 
" manner for his lordship's advantage and honour, as that 
" his lordship should think his liberty well bestowed. And 
" that he would confer with the earl of Leicester and the 
" secretary, to both wliom he had written, for the relieving 
" of him." 
Some ac- This Daniel Rogers was the more remarkable, being the 
count of gQj^ Qf John Rogers, prebendary and reader of divinity in 
St. PauFs, London, and the proto-martyr in queen Mary's 
cruel reign. He studied at Wittenburgh, and was a scholar 
under Melancthon ; (as he mentioned in one of his letters ;) 
and understanding the German, Dutch, and other languages, 
as well as Latin, was secretary to an ambassador of queen 
Elizabeth's divers years past, and particularly in the year 
1569. And having that opportunity and advantage, gave 
intelligence to secretary Cecyl of the acts and occurrences 
(that year) of princes and kingdoms, with respect to queen 
Elizabeth, and the affair of religion especially ; by informa- 
tion and state letters, received from Rome, from Venice, 
Paris, Brussels, Antwerp, Strasburgh, Leipsich, Vienna, 
Lyons, Geneva, Augsburgh, Barcelona, Frankfort, Norin- 
berg: all containing matters of moment, transactions and 
reports of affairs, wars, leagues, and the pope's interposi- 
tions, in the several states and dominions in that year: 
transcribed by him out of letters from those several parts 
and places ; and digested by him into a book : which I 
once saw among the Burghleian papers ; entitled, A book of 
all such Icttcrfi and advertisements as zoere written to the 
most iKirt of the jyrinces in Germany^ and as come to my 
hand since my last departure from Hamburgh : which zvas 
the 2Hth day of' May last, unto this present August, 1569. 


Well worthy to be entered, to give light to the affairs of re- c H A P. 
ligion reformed, spitefully struck at by the princes of the ^^^^' 
earth at that time, and laboured to be utterly rooted out. Anuo i584. 
But it would take up too much room here : only for a taste, 
I will set down in the Appendix some of the intelligences Number 
from Rome and Venice, wherein England and queen Eli-^^^'^^' 
zabeth are touched. 

But all this shews what a considerable man he was in 
these times, and how he deserved the great character that 
the writer of the Athence Oocon'ienses gives him, " That he Page 1,99. 
" was the most accomplished gentleman of that time, and a 
" very good man, and excellently learned." See somewhat 
more of him in the Life of Archbishop Whitgift, when, in Book iii. 
the year 1585, court-interest was made for him to be made'^''"'^' 
treasurer of St. PauFs, London. 

John Fox, the great martyrologist, that had merited sojohnFox, 
well for his laborious writinfjs of the state of religion, and !"* Prebend 

c5 « ' in the 

the sufferers for it in this kingdom, from century to cen- chmch of 
tury, (but more largely in the reigns of king Henry VIII. ^'^"'°' 
king Edward VI. and queen Mary,) was in the times of 
queen Elizabeth much reverenced. Whom I find this year 
requesting the lord treasurer to obtain the queen's hand for 
his prebend of Sarum, (called Shipton Underwich Wood in 
Oxfordshire,) to be renewed and confirmed to him and his 
son after him; the bishop and chapter of that church hav-273 
ing granted the same. This request he made in a well- 
penned epistle, some part in Latin and some in Greek, to 
the said lord, his okl and known patron, especially his cir- 
cumstances being now but narrow : beginning, Ornatissimc, 
iUustrissimc, yswonoTUTs in Christo patrone. Therein shew- 
ing, that the bishop of Sarum and the whole society of the 
church had subscribed, and that nothing was now wanting 
but the ^r,(po; of her gracious majesty ; which he left to that 
lord's piety to obtain for him. He wrote, that he well knew 
how imseasonable it was for him to interpose in that lord's 
very weighty business. But could he not in such a neces- 
sity, or whom could he sue to, but him ? But the whole 


BOOK letter of so memorable a man, and that so elegantly com- 
posed, I have laid in the Appendix. 

Anno 1584. But it seems this matter was not so thoroughly fixed: by 
' ■ some defect in the lease, or whatever Avas the cause, Piers, 
the bishop in the year 1586, intended to bestow this prebend 
upon his chaplain, had not archbishop Whitgift wrote to 
that bishop in behalf of Samuel, John Foxe's son : upon 
whose letter it was readily obtained for him ; as was shewn 

dr.°iV."" ^" ^^^^ archbishop^s Life. 

Hurieston I meet with one Richard Hurlcston, an active gentleman 

ofCheshire,Qf Cheshire, and of lono- employment and trust, and an 

lus services. ... o i j «i- 

active justice of peace in that county ; and for his merits 
and Jbodarship in that county, a place under the trea- 
surer there, granted him. This gentleman was now cited 
into the star-chamber, as one that had not been faithful in 
that office. Into which trouble he seemed to have been 
brought out of some spite to him, for his zeal for religion 
and the queen's government. I have his letter this year to 
the lord treasurer in vindication of himself, written from 
Picton in Cheshire. Which I the rather enter here, as 
giving some light into the historv of religion in the times past 
of king Edward and queen Mary, and so onward in the next, 
through many past years of his life, and his quality and 

" That he was servant first to sir Thomas Seimour, (he 
" who afterwards was lord admiral of England,) serving 
" him in the place of a gentleman during his life ; and ac- 
" counted one of the best sort of his gentlemen. After 
" whose death he became servant to the earl of Pembroke, 
" then sir William Herbert, and master of the horse : with 
" whom, during kin<j Edward's time, he fjave often attend- 
" ance, and was often used in matters of importance ; and 
" associated with the best sort of his servants. In wliich 
" time he served the king as marshal in his country, in the 
" time of the lieutenantships. And was, without his desire 
*' or thinking of it, made a justice of peace in his country. 
" In which place he continued. And then bishop Scot [bi- 


" shop of Chester] calling him into question for religion, he CHAP. 

" was displaced. And in that time he was called by his ^^^^- 

" master [earl of Pembroke] out of the country: whei'e he Anno i584. 

" remained absent from the court, from the death of kino; 

" Edward till he went to St. Quintins, [where, anno 1557, 

" a battle was fought with the French, the earl of Pem- 

" broke being general.] And from thence was sent with the 

" charge and government of the lord Herbert [son and heir 

" of the said earl] to Doway. Where they remained, till 274 

" the lord, his father, came thither. And so they went 

" home. And then he [Hurlestone] went into his own coun- 

" try, where he remained till the death of queen Mary. 

" Upon whose death, (as he went on with the relation of 
" himself,) he repaired to the court, to rejoice with such of 
" his familiars, which had passed the dangerous gulph of 
" her reign ; which had swallowed very many of them. 
" That he might truly affirm, and would prove, that during 
" the government of king Edward and queen Mary, he 
" never had lewdness any way laid to his charge, but 
" by bishop Scot ; who nevertheless dismissed him without 
" any manner of reproach, and with silence, after he had 
" charged him, that he and two other of his friends had 
" marred the country in king Edward's time : meaning for 
" religion. 

" That at the beginning of queen Elizabeth's blessed 
" reign, perceiving that the authority of Rome had been set 
" up, maintained, and continued by power and force, he, 
" being appointed a justice of peace, without his seek- 
" ing, as he protested, endeavoured to bring p-eachers, 
" whereof the store was then small, to repair Abraham's 
" wells, that were digged in king Edward's time, and stop- 
" ped up in queen Mary's ; to the shortening of the said 
" Romish power. And that by his means, and his travail, 
" the gentlemen of the country were contented to contribute 
*' to their maintenance 2000 mark by yeai-. By reason 
" whereof there came into the country Dr. Piers, Mr. Dun, 
" Mr. Lane, and others : avIk) all were by his means enter- 


BOOK " tained. And tliereby, and by their diligent travail, the 
said power [Romish] in that place declined. And after- 

•• SE 

Anno 15S4." wards, for the better combining of the minds of the coun- 
" try in their duty to God and her majesty, I provoked, as 
" much as in me was, to bring the cliamhcrlainship of Ches- 
" ter into the hands of the earl of Leicester ; being the per- 
" son most bounden to her majesty, as I then thought, and 
" furthest from declining from his duty. 

" And not long after followed the rebellion, [in the 
" north,] the thing whereby the Romish authority might 
" be brought into England again, in which time of rebellion 
" he drew a manner of proclamation. Which was by the 
"justices of the peace, being met together at the North- 
" wich, sent to be published in all the churches in that 
" shire, [viz. Cheshire,] to the appalling of many ill-dispos- 
" ed, and to the comfort of all well-minded persons. And 
" that the copy of it was ready to be shewed. 

" He related also, how he was sent by the earl of Leices- 
" ter about matters concerning her majesty. For which 
" matters he received that earFs letters to come to the court. 
" That he also received his lordship's letters; whereby he 
" attended him at Buxton's [well]. And that he advertised 
" the earl of Pembroke then of the Lancashire conspiracy. 
" And afterward discovered some part of sir Thomas Stan- 
" ley's intention. And that in which he laboured upon his 
" own charge ; and got enemies, and had his life sought." 
275 All this concerning himself and his merits: and then he 
comes closer to what he was then accused for in the star- 
chamber. " That the lord Burghley gave him the office of 
" i\\c Jeodar ship by his good favour. And in such good 
" manner, as he acknowledged himself bounden unto him 
" for the same : an office under the treasurer. But he [the 
" said treasurer] had charged him to deceive the queen. 
" And so put him out of the same, being troubled with 
" him." For so the lord Burghley had written to Hurles- 
ton. But he thus in his own behalf: " That it was most 
" true, that the exercise thereof was a yearly charge unto 


" him, and never any way profitable. And that he was able CHAP. 
" to make appear, the queen was better served in the same, 


" than ever she was before or since. Anno i584. 

" And for deceiving the queen, he answered, that to his 
" knowledge he never, by colour of that office, did willingly 
" deceive her of the value of one penny. That it might ])e, 
" that ignorantly, and by negligence, he might commit 
" something which in duty he ought to have answered more 
" certainly : but that he was never thereof any Avay ac- 
" cused." Tliis gentleman, so much employed in pubhc ser- 
vices, and so just, may deserve a remembrance in history. 

Here follows a gentleman brought into another of these An heiress 
courts, viz. the court of wards and liveries, but hardly, and [f^'^^^f ^^ ""^ 
innocent. The case was this. Sir Edward Stradling, knight, 
had seized a young lady, heiress to one Gamage, esq. and 
detained her in his house ; being now come to age, and so 
no longer the queen's ward. Which he reckoned would se- 
cure him in what he did, or intended to do, in his taking 
possession also of her houses and lands. When the lord 
Burghley was informed of this, who was master of the 
queen's wards and liveries, he seasonably interposed ; and 
put a stop to Stradling's proceedings, who thought to swal- 
low up all, now he had gotten the heiress : but she had not 
sued out her livery from the queen. Without doing which 
the right of her estate still lay in the queen's hands. There- 
fore the said lord Burghley issued out his letters to Strad- 
ling, to forewarn him from meddling with the said heiress's 
lands, and the writings, and evidences thereof. For that 
by his office he was concerned in them in behalf of the 
queen, though she were no longer a ward. And withal he 
sent another to Karn, a knight in those parts : whom he or- 
dered to take possession of the said house and lands for the 
queen, and to keep tiie evidences of her estate for her good. 
But it is worth perusing the whole letter; wherein will ap- 
pear what power and check this great officer had in those 
times against the wronging of young heirs and heiresses. It 
ran in this tenor. 

" That although he had not to do by his office to inter- LorJ 



BOOK " meddle with the sta,te of the marriage of the daughter 

^- " and heir of Mr. John Gamage, late deceased, because he 

Anno 1584. " credibly was informed, that she was in full age, and at her 

master of a q^^,^ liberty to marrv, where she should best like, with the 

tlie wards •' " • 1 1 

and liveries, " advice of her near kinsfolks: yet because she was not to 
stradiin *"" ^^^^'^ the possession of her lands, but by composition with 
" her majesty for her livery, and that by his direction, as 
" master of the queen's liveries ; he took himself bound l)y 
276" his oath and office to have care, that she and all others, 
" before they sue their livery, may have their lands and 
" possessions preserved from waste, or from an intrusion by 
" any stranger; and especially from all entries of persons, 
" that may have any pretence or colour of title to any part 
" of the same lands. 

" And upon these considerations, and his hearing that he 
" [sir Edward Stradling] had seized upon her person, and 
" did keep her in his house, without any colour of reason, 
" as a prisoner. With which his doings he [the lord Burgh- 
" ley] meant not to meddle, but referred to her next kins- 
" folks : but especially to the lord chamberlain, and others 
" in the court. But hearing that he had presumed, without 
" any leful authority, to enter into her house, and to secure 
" into his hands all things there : where also the evidences 
" of her lands remained ; unfit for any to deal withal, until 
" the inquisition be made by his [that lord's] direction; and 
" an office found after the death of her father, who was the 
" queen's majesty's tenant in cap'ite : whereby she might, 
" according to the law of the realm, sue her livery." 

And then he came to a resolution in these words. " Find- 
" ing this manner your proceeding, (if I be truly informed,) 
" unjust, unleful, and unhonest, I do therefore in her nia- 
" iesty's name charge you, that you forbear to continue any 
" such unleful actions ; being dangerous to the gentlewo- 
" man's inheritance. And that you permit some other per- 
" sons, more indiffijrent, to take the charge of the house, 
" and to cause all places, where the evidences are, to be 
" sealed, until I shall cause the queen's majesty's writ to be 
" sent, to inquire after lier father's death. And because I 


'* think sir Kam (who was a neighbour to her prin- CHAP. 

" cipal house) to be a meet person to take this charge, as a " 

" person indifferent, to whom I have written to that effect ; ■'^^^ i-^»4. 

" and therefore I require you, that he mav have access to 

*' the gentlewoman ; and to inform her of this care for her 

•• benefit. And yet if he shall, for anv cause to me un- 

" known, mislike of him to take this charge, I require vou 

" that she mav, at her good liberty, (without constraint of 

*'" fear of you, or the ladv vour wife, or of anv other.) name 

" any other discreet person, to take the same charge, for 

" her after-weal. And that to be pronounced in the pre- 

"' sence of the said sir Kam. And he also mav assent 

" thereto ; as I doubt not but he will, if the person be a 
'' meet person for that purpose. And so to end this mv let- 
" ter, being somewhat at length, I require you to let me be 
•' answered otherwise, than, for ought I understand, vou 
" have answered my former next afore this. Which was 
" not unreasonable to have been well interpreted, and so an- 
" swered.'^ 

To which I will subjoin the said master of the wards and 
liveries his letter to Kam. being but short: wherein the con- 
scientious care of this officer towards the fatherless appeared. 
■' After my hearty commendations. Understanding, that 
•'• since the death of John Gamage, esq. sir Edward Strad- And to 
•'•'ling and his wife have seized upon the person of histj^^'j*^^ 
'• daughter and heir, who is the queen's tenant in chief, and 5»^ *^ 
" is to sue her livery ; and her doth keep, as a prisoner : estate. 
• • and doth also enter upon her houses and lands : which 
**' ought to be in the queenV majestv's hands until liverv be 2^*7 
" made from the queen's majesty bv me, the master of the 
'•' queen's wards and hveries : and in the same house the 
" evidences do remain, subject to danger of her inheritance, 
" bv the intermeddling thereof bv sir Edward Stradling : I 
•■ have for these considerations made choice of vou at this 
" time, as a person indifferent, to see to the guard of her 
" houses and evidences. And have for that end written mv 
•" letters to ^Ir. Stradling, (the copv whereof I send to vou 
• to be seen.) Which letters I pray you to deliver; and to 

VOL. III. p d 


BOOK " require, that you may luive tlie custody of her house, 
' " where the evidences are : and so to do, I authorize you, in 
Anno 1684. " her majesty ""s name, by virtue of my said office: most 
" heartily re({uiring you not to forbear to do this service, 
" being agreeable to justice ; a neighbouring part for you, 
" and a charitable deed, for the saving of the gentlewoman's 
" inheritance. And if she shall, for a cause unknown to us, 
" name any other, either to join with you, or otherwise to 
" do the same alone, I pray you take care that the same 
" may be done." 
John lorii This year died John lord Russel, son and heir of the 
Russei dies.^^^^j ^^ Bedford. Which lord married Elizabeth, one of the 
daughters of sir Anthony Cook, knight, an excellent, well 
accomplished, and learned lady. This lord was buried in 
Westminster-abbey. His lady shewed both love and learn- 
ing in several copies of verses, in English, Latin, and Greek, 
very elegantly composed by her upon his death : those in 
English were as follow. 

Right nohlc tioicc, hy virtue and hy hirth : 
Of heaven lov\U ^yid honour\l on the earth: 
His country'' s Jiope, his MndrecVs chief delig-ht. 
My husband dear, more dear than this ivorld''s light. 
Death hath me reft : hnt IJ'rom death zdll tale 
His memory. To zvhom this tomb I make. 
John rcas his name. Ah ! was ; zvretch, mvst I say. 
Lord Russei once, noxo my tears thirsty clay. 

To which I add these following Latin verses, by the same 
lady, to her daughters, survivors; which are set upon his 

Carmina ccrumnosa matris in stiperstitesfilias. 

Plangitc nunc natce, nunc jiebilc fundite carmen. 

Occidit, heu ! vcstrce gloiia sola domus. 
Mors rapit immitis florcntem stcmmate claro, 

ProBsignem Uteris, turn pietate,j)atrcm. 
Hceredi comitis quin vos succrescitc, tali 

Ortu qui nituit, scd bonitatc luagis. 


On which sad occasion also she compiled a copy of elc- CHAP, 
gant verses in Greek. xxii. 

I must enter here a memorial of the brave and good sir -^nno 1594. 
Philip Sidney, one of the finest gentlemen in this reign. 278 
To whom Dr. David Powel dedicated his book of history of ^''" Pi'ii'p 

• , Sydney, 

Cambria, or Wales, set forth this year. Wliere, instead of 
extolling his noble birth and virtuous qualities, (the ordi- 
nary practice of those that write epistles dedicatory before 
their books,) it is to be remarked, how this author chose to 
play the part of a grave divine, &c. to direct his style, " To 
" admonish him to employ and use his parts and accom- 
" plishments to those ends for which they were bestowed 
" upon him from above, rather than otherwise, vainly with 
" suspicion of flattery, to speak of them ; after this manner: 
" First, I would have you consider with yourself, that 
'* you have received all the good gifts you have at the hand 
" of Almighty God, who is the giver of all goodness : for 
" the Avhich your duty is to render most humble and hearty 
" thanks unto his divine Majesty. The end also for the 
" which they are given unto you is at no time to be for- 
" gotten ; that is, the setting forth the glory of God, and 
" for the benefit of your country. He exhorted him, that 
" he should also call to remembrance, that they were talents 
" delivered unto him of credit, to use for a time : for the 
" which he must render an account, Avhen it should please 
" the owner to call him to it. That the more he had, the 
" greater his account would be. And then added. Use them 
" therefore, and hide them not in a napkin. For they are 
" the better for the wearing. The more you use thein, the 
" more they will increase. The more you lay out, the richer 
" yovi shall be. Have always before your eyes the glory of 
" God: never forget- the same in any thing you do. Seek 
" the weal-public of your country : labour to do it good in 
" any thing you may, while you have time so to do. For 
" you have but a while to remain here^. Away you mustaThis was, 
" ffo after the common course of nature. Let the remem- ** '\^^'fr^' 

o _ _ proplieti- 

" brance of your account, when the stewardship is ended, caiiy spok- 
en ' ,- . , „ en : for sir 

never out of your mmd. Philip wk-, 

n d ^ 


BOOK He added : '' These be the chief points, leading the right 
" path to true nobihty. These things you shall find set out 

Anno 1584." at large in that book wherewithal you" [speaking to sir 
z'^'t'^hen Philip] " are most dehghted." [Meaning surely the holy 
not much scriptures.] 

yeaJafter. Further, for the backing his grave and godly counsel to 
this young gentleman, he excites him by illustrious patterns, 
after this manner. " For the putting these things in prac- 
" tice, I am to lay down two examples to you to imitate. 
" The which because they are domestic, ought to move you 
" to be the more willing to follow them. The one in yovir 
" own noble father, [sir Henry Sidney,] who always hath 
" been, and yet is, more inclined and bent to do good to his 
" country, than to benefit or enrich himself; as Wales and 
" Ireland, besides his own, can bear him witness. The other 
Secretary " is, your honourable father-in-law, sir Francis Walsing- 
h m*'°^" " ^^"1? h^^' majesty ''s chief secretary; a man, for his zeal of 
" God''s glory, and love towards them that fear God unfeign- 
" edly, well known to the world. Follow their steps, with the 
279" reniembrance of the noble house out of the which you 
" are descended by your honourable mother, [daugliter of 
" John duke of Northumberland;] and then you cannot do 
" amiss. 

" Labour, by the example of your father, to discover and 
*' bring to light the actions of the famous men of elder 
" times ; who, with conference of the state and government 
" of all ages, will bring you to the perfect experience of the 
" things which you have learned out of Aristotle, Plato, and 
" Cicero, by your travail in philosophy." 
Emanuel I must add the mention of one person more of note, viz. 

Denietnns. 3<^manuel Dcmctrius, or De Meteren, a Dutchman by na- 
tion, born at Antwerp, but lived in England, and was a 
member of the Dutch church, London : a worthy person, 
and excellent historian, who writ the history of the Nether- 
lands, called, Belg'ica Historia ; and whose name and fa- 
mily remained long afterwards here, merchants of good re- 
pule, even to these times. He was dear to our historian 
Camden. The custom in those times, and since too, was, 


that learned men commonly kept an alburn^ as they called it, CHAP. 
being a pocket paper-book: in which their friends wrote. 

their names, with the addition of some motto or other, or Anno 1 584. 
sentence, in token of friendship, and loving remembrance. 
This gentleman's album is still preserved (or lately was 
there) in the strangers' church in St. Austin Friars. And 
therein Camden writ, dated this year, 1584, (any thing of 
Camden being worth recording,) these verses, and what fol- 

Jussit amor ; scribam : sed amorem claudere versu 

Nescio : scribo tamen^ quod mihi dictat amor. 
Demetri, tuus est Camdemis amicus amico. 

Nee magis esse suus, quam Urns esse potest. 

TO ju,>j8sv, kyaV) kyoLv p.i TSfmsi. 

On the page facing the other page is a pair of scales, 
held by a hand out of the clouds, with this motto ; 

Pondere non numero. 

And these words by him written underneath : 

Amicitice sacrum, 
Dommo Emanueli Demetrio, viro cum virtute^ turn eru- 
ditione ornatissimo, amico optima et bene merentissimo, in 
perpetuum amiciticB inchoates monumentum, 

Guilielmus Camdenus Londinensis 

L. M. 



This I transcribed from the said MS. many years ago, 
shewn me by the Dutch minister, and an elder of that 

D d3 



Account of the qnartei- sessions at London. Books. A Dc- 

Anno 1 'S84 

fence of the EnsrUsh Catholics' Execution of Justice in the 

Ztt/jf7. ^ Declaration of Parrijs Treasons. BiilVmger''s 

Decads in English. An Anszcer to the Abstract. A De- 
claration of ecclesiastical Discipline. The ancient. History 
of Wales; by David Poxvel, D. D. Description of Lin- 
coln ; by Lambard. Guevarcis Epistles ; translated ont 
of Spanish. A Sermon of Wimbledon, anno 1388. 

Quarter jL HIS paper following was sent in to the lord treasurer by 
sessions at jyjj. Fleetwood, recorder of London, being a short accoinit 

London. . -»«•• i i titi • i (> 

Criminals, of their sessions about Michaelmas. Which may serve tor 
a specimen, what wickedness and crimes were committed 
even in those days ; and that there were criminals then of 
all sorts, as well as afterwards ; clergy as well as laity ; and 
of both sexes. A transcript of the paper follows. 

" At Bridewell, on Saturday, [the recorder sitting there,] 
" we had a minister's wife of Cardiganshire; who confessed, 
" that she was greatly sought unto by young women, (maid- 
" servants she meant,) when they were gotten with child. 
" She confessed, that she gave them saven^ &c. 

" One Higham, an old fellow, that is both an excommu- 
" nicate for putting away his wife ; and also for such other 
" like part : he hath this year gotten three of the laundry 
" maids with child in the Fleet, being there a prisoner. He 
" stowteth out the matter with us, and will not find the chil- 
" dren ; but writeth lewd letters unto us. 

" Sessions of goale xccre of livery the Monday cftcr : 

" Mr. Dockwray's son, of Chamber-house in Barkshire, 
" was arraigned for stealing of a portmanton, with 84/. in 
" the same; taken out of an inn in London. But he was 
" acquitted. 

" There was one Heton, a preacher, who contended to be 
" parson of St. Andrew's, Holbourn, (being maintained by 
" some of the parish,) did confront Mr. Vice-chamberlain 
*' [sir Christopher Ilatton] therein : was brought to us for 


" sodomy; a lewd vice; which he hath been often accused CHAP 
" of before this time. We bailed him. For my part, I was____ 

*' loath to have that vice openly spoken of, until further Anno 1 584. 
" consideration were had thereof. This Heton's father was 
" at Newgate arraigned and convicted for incest with his 
" own daughter : and stood upon the pillory for the same." 

Now lastly, for the books that came forth this year, these 
that follow are some of them. 

A defence of English catholics that suffer for their faith. 281 
Made by Dr. Allen, called cardinal Allen; in favour of Books set 
those papists, Jesuits, and seminary priests, that had been year. 
executed for treason. This book was answered by Dr. Bil- 
son ; as we shall hear the next year. , 

There came forth also A declaration of the favourable 
dealings of her majesty's commissioners, &c. This book was 
published against slanderous reports and libels, to defame 
her majesty and her subjects : this Declaration is extant in 
Holinshed''s Chronicle. In this tract it is said, that Cam- 
pion the Jesuit affirmed at the bench where he was tried, 
saying, " This place hath no power to inquire or judge of 
" the holy fathers' authority." And other answer he and 
other seminaries would not make. 

This was occasioned by a popish book, set forth the year 
before, viz. 1583, called, A treatise of schism. And was 
printed by Will. Carter, of the city of London ; being a se- 
ditious and traitorous book, in English. For which he was 
indicted, and condemned of high treason, and executed at 
Tyburn, January the 10th. This book was written by 
Gregoiy Martin, some time of St. John's college, Oxon, and 
contemporary with Campion. In that book the women at 
court were exhorted to act the same against the queen, as 
Judith had done, with commendation, against Holophernes. 

These aforesaid commissioners were appointed for the ex- commis- 
amination of certain traitors; and of tortures, uniustlv re- ^'''"^P '^°'' 

■^ •' _*'_ examina- 

ported to have been done upon them for matters of religion, tion of 
The reports were, that heathenish and imnatural tyranny, '^^' ^^^' 
and cruel tortures, were executed upon them that lately sif- 

D d 4 


BOOK Jeredjhr their treason ; wlio were Campion, Alex. Brian t, 

' and some more. 

Anno K>84. Another book came fortli about tliis time, wliich likewise 

called Exe- ^^ preserved in Stow's Annals; entitled, Execution ofpistice 

ciition of in the land, for maintenance of public and Christian peace ; 

Justice. . '"^ . . ^ i , „ / 

against certain stirrers of sedition, and adherents to the 
traitors and enemies of the realm ; without any persecution 
of them for questions of religion, as is falsely reported and 
published by their fautors, and fosterers of treason. Be- 
ginning, " It hath been in all ages and in all countries," &c. 
This whole tract is preserved also in Hohnshed's Chroni- 
cle. This discourse is the more to be regarded, because I 
esteem it to have been composed by the lord treasurer 
Burghley. The minutes whereof, being his own hand, I 
have seen among his papers. Wiierein, among other things, 
remarks were made of two of the queen"'s great rebels. One 
Nevii, earl was Charles Nevyl, earl of Westmei'land, the traitor who, 
nieiia^d" after the rebellion in tlie north, fled abroad. " That lie was 
" a person utterly wasted by looseness of life, and by God"'s 
" punishment, even in the time of his rebellion, bereaved of 
" his children, that should have succeeded him in the earl- 
" dom ; and his body now eaten with ulcers of lewd causes, 
Tho. " as his companions did say. The other was Tho. Stcuk- 

" ley; who ran out of Ireland: a defamed person almost 
" throughout all Christendom : a faithless beast, rather than 
" a man : fleeing first out of England for notable piracies, 
" and then out of Ireland for treachery not pardonable. 
282" Which two were the ringleaders of the rest of the re- 
" bels : the one for England, the other for Ireland." 
A dcclara- Another book was now ])ublished in vindication of Eng- 
ry'strea- ' ^isli justice, cxccuted against Parry; which bore this title: 
A true and plain declaration of the horrible treasons prac- 
tised by William Parry, the traitor, against the queens ma- 
jesty : the manner of his arraignment, conviction, and exe- 
cution. Together with the copies of sundry letters of his 
and others, tending to divers purposes, for the proofs of his 
treasons. Also an addition not i7npcrtinent thereunto ; can- 



tainm/r a short collection of his birth, education, and course CHAP. 
of life. Moreover, a Jexo observations, gathered out of his 

own zoords and writings, fhr the further mamfe station o/'Annoi584. 
his most disloyal, devilish, and desperate purpose. 

This year also, The Decads of Bullinger, chief minister Buiiinger's 
of Zuric, or Tigur, in Switzerland, being translated into the 
English tongue, was printed : for the use of ministers, to 
instruct them, and to read, as occasion served, in the church, 
for the better edifcation of the people. Being that reverend 
mans sermons, in five decads : a bulky large quarto : enti- 
tled, Ffty godly and learned sermons, divided into five de- 
cads : containing the chief and priiicipal points of Chris- 
tian religion. In which volume are contained explications 
of the Apostles' Creed, and Ten Commandments, and the 
Lord's Prayer, and the Sacraments. This was, as it seems, 
a second edition. The writer of the preface observed, 
" That many, dedicated to the service of God in the minis- 
" try, \vere far behind in those gifts which were necessary 
" for their function. And small likelihood there was, as yet, 
" that the church should be served with better, but rather 
" with worse. For it seemed not that patrons [of livings] 
" hereafter would bate one penny ; but rather more raise 
" the market : [and so ability, not in parts, but in purse, 
" procured the preferments.] The case standing thus, their 
" labour surely is not worst bestowed ; neither do they pro- 
" mote the glory of God or profit the church least, who to 
" that end employ their endeavours, that the ministry which 
" now is in place may come forward, and be better able to 
" do their duty. He meant either such as set godly and 
" learned treatises or expositions of the holy scriptures by 
" themselves in our mother tongue, or else such as trans- 
" lated the worthy works of the famous divines of our time. 
" That both these, no doubt, did much edify the godly, and 
" did greatly help forward all those ministers, which either 
" not at all, or very meanly, understood the Latin tongue." 
And whereas the works of many of the learnedest foreign 
divines were already translated into the English tongue, for 
the supply of the ignorance and inability of many in holy 


BOOK orders, and that had cures; this work had much the advan- 
^- tage, as the writer of tlie preface proceeded : " Inasmuch 
Anno 1584." as Bullinger, in those his Decads, amended much of Cal- 
The useful- « yii^'^ obscuritv, [in his Institutions,] by his singular per- 
these De- " spicuity, or clearness; and IVIusculus his scholastical subtil- 
cads. « ^jgg^ j-jj^ j^jg Common Places,] by his great plainness, and 
" even popular facility. All those points of Christian doc- 
" trine, which were not to be found in one, but handled in 
283 « all, Bullinger packed up all, and that in good order, in 
" this one book, but of small bulk. And whereas divers of 
" the ministers which lacked knowledge, and some also who 
" had knowledge, but lacked order, discretion, memory, or 
" audacity, could not, by reason of these wants, either ex- 
" pound, or exhort, or otherwise preach, but only read the 
" order of service, Mr. BuUinger's Decads might do more 
" good in this respect, than perhaps at the first could be 
" conceived. For in very deed this book is a book of ser- 
" mons ; sermons in number and in nature; fit to be read 
" out of a pulpit unto the simplest and rudest people of this 
" land. The doctrine of them very plain, without ostenta- 
" tion, curiosity, perplexity, vanity, or superfluity ; [the 
" qualities of some sermons;] very sound also. In number 
" fifty : every Decacl containing, as the word signifies, ten. 
" So that they easily may be divided; as there may be every 
" Sunday in the year one of them read : for that it would 
" not yet be, (as he added,) that every parish should have a 
" learned preacher resident and abiding in it. And in the 
" mean time it could not be denied, but that a homily or 
" sermon, penned by some excellent clerk, being read plain- 
" ly, orderly, and distinctly, did much move the hearers ; 
" teach, confirm, confute, comfort, &c. even as the same 
" pronounced without our bookT 
Otherbooks For these good ends, in this deficiency of able and learned 
fortirin '*"* ministers, care Avas taken that there were already (before this 
English, book) translated into English the Latin works of divers fo- 
rciffn divines, for the use of our unlearned or learned minis- 
ters: as, Calvins Institutions, Musculus his Connnon Places, 
the Comment of Marlorate upon St. John's Gospel ; Peter 


Martyr upon the Book of Judges; Gualter upon the Small CHAP. 
Prophets. " All which (as the abovesaid prefacer writes) ^^l'^- 

" handled most points of Christian doctrine excellently well. Anno i584. 
" But no writer yet, in the hands of men, could fit them 
" better than these Decads of Bullinger.^' 

In this book also knowledge is given of the four general 
councils ; and of the first creeds in the primitive ages of the 
church. Of this book notice is taken in vol. ii. 

An answer to a book called An Abstract now came forth, Answer to 
namely, to the two first and principal treatises (as the title 5^,.^^. 
ran) of a certain Jactiotis libel, put Jbrth without name of 
the autlior or printer ; and zcithout approbation of authori- 
ty : under the title of An Abstract of certain acts of parlia- 
ment, of certain her majesty's injunctions, of certain canons, 
&;c. And this sentence of St. Hieron in the title-page, Ep. 
ad Pammoclimm ; (to countenance the subject of the book;) 
Facile abjicitur quod hceret extrinsecus, intestinum bellum 
periculoslns est. Conjuncta disglutinamus : unita dissui- 
mus. Printed by Henry Denham, 1584, in quarto. An ac- chap. xix. 
count whereof, and the answer, is given before. It begins 
with the title of the book, viz. The Abstract: then takes 
into consideration the epistle: and then proceeds to the book 
itself. The main scope of this Abstract was to bring the go- 
vernors and o'ovcrnment ecclesiastical of this church into 
contempt and hatred. 

But the author's fair pretence (as the answerer shews) The pre- 
was, " to have advertised the governors of this church of ^||"j.°^^ "^ 
" some wholesome laws in force, to them, as he pretended, 204 
" imhnozon ; and therefore necessarily by them unpractised: 
" to the intent his admonition might have been profitable 
" hereafter yo?- the peaceable government of the church. But 
" that, whatsoever was pretended, it was not of good zeal 
" and conscience, (whereof in every page he gave evident 
*' proof to the contrary,) savouring so strongly of rancour 
" and contention." 

In this Abstract, the excellent Catechism of Noel, dean of Noel's Ca- 
St. PauFs, in Greek and Latin, printed 1573, is brought in, J^^^dicated. 
in one place, to prove their discipline : where it is said ; " In 


BOOK " well ordered churches a certain form of government was 
^- " instituted and observed. Certain elders, that is to say, 

Anno 1384. " ecclesiastical magistrates, were chosen; which should re- 
" tain and practise ecclesiastical discipline. But, saith the 
" answerer, doth our author think, that this man here doth 
" mean their lay-presbyteries^ never heard nor read of, from 
" the beginning of the world, till within these forty years, 
" or little more ; because he [Noel] nameth them ccclesias- 
" tical magistrates ? A fool thinks that bells do ring, and al- 
" most speak any thing, wherewith he is delighted. Or 
" could he gather that master Noel here condemneth our 
" church's discipline, as not agreeable to that which Christ 
" hath commanded ? If he had directly said, that in some 
" well ordered churches an order of discipline differing from 
" ours is observed, doth this follow : Some well ordered 
" churches differ in some points of external discipline from 
"our church; ergo., Ours is not the discipline of Christ .-' 
" Then by this reason should no reformed churches be said 
" to retain the discipline of Christ, or be well ordered : 
*' many of them, upon diversity of occasions, differing even 
" from themselves ; and every one, in some point or other, 
" differing among themselves," &c. And then concluding 
concerning that reverend dean ; " I do verily persuade my- 
" self, that he, being a man yet living, and well known to be 
" far from any unreverend opinion of the state and policy of 
" the church, whereof he is no inferior member himself, and 
*' being best able to interpret his own meaning, would, if he 
*' were demanded, quickly convince this man of factious and 
" slanderous wresting and wrecking of his words." 

And thus I have given a taste of this applauded Abstract, 

with answers to several positions of it. To which I add 

No form of only one more, that it was urged against them, that no 

discipline f^y^^is xcere ever prescribed, in these words: " It cannot be 

prescribed. ./ . r ' 

" proved that any set and exact particular form of disci- 
" pline is recommended to us from the word of God," &c. 
The contrary to which they asserted. The answer given 
was this: " Are all the churches of Denmark, Swedeland, 
" Poland, Germany, Rhetia, Vallis, Telina, the nine can- 


" tons of Switzerland reformed, with their confederates of CHAP. 
" Geneva, of France, of the Low Countries, and of Scot- ' 

" land, in all points, either of substance or circvimstance, Anno 1 584. 

" disciplined alike ? Nay, they neither are, can be, neither 

" yet need so to be, &c. Seeing he objecteth to us the pre- 

" cedent of the reformed churches in matter of discipline, 

*' let him first, by some proof out of scripture or ancient 

" writers, approve unto us, if he can, the debarring of the 

"civil magistrate from all government in ecclesiastical 285 

" causes; and a presbytery or seigniory, consisting most 

" of lay persons: yet both of them practised by some 

" churches, which he and his clients most admire." 

These collections I have made from these books, as they 
occur ; to let in some knowledge of the matters argued and 
debated in them ; and to give some light into the books of 
these times. 

Another book, that seemed to condemn the government a brief 
of the church, came out this year, 1584 ; called, A brief ^^^^^^^^^^^ 
and plain declaration of the ecclesiastical discipline. NowofDisci- 
to shew some account of this book ; because it was highly ^ ' 
esteemed by many, and printed first in the year 1574, in 
Latin, and now reprinted in English. And being one of 
the chief stays the disciplinarians built their doctrine of 
church government upon, I will give some short notes of it. 
It bore this title : A full and plain declaration of ecclesi- 
astical discipline out of the word of God, and of tT\e declin- 
ing of the church of England from the same. It seemed to 
be printed beyond sea, by the character. Travers, I think, 
was the author. The epistle to the reader will give some 
farther account of the book and author. 

The author is said to be one who executed some time the Account of 
public ministry; and afterwards was laid aside. That tlie and book'.'^ 
book was translated out of Latin : in which language it 
was first writ. The writer of the epistle gave the reason ; ' 
namely, " It being conceived the queen would be the readier 
" to read it, because it was writ in that language : who, ac- 
" cording to her excellent learning was delighted with things 


BOOK " that were written in Latin. And that they conceived great 
hopes, that this cause, which hitherto she had tasted here 

Anno 1584." and there, out of the false rumours of those that dealt 
" unjustly with them, [of the discipline], should be more 
" fully drawn out of their own books, as it were out of the 
" fountains." 

And concerning the author, the writer of the epistle 
" gives this comfortable hope, that the discipline would at 
" length take place, in that our merciful Father had pro- 
" vided a notable workman ; whose breast he had filled 
" with all kind of treasures, both of arts and tongues : and 
" that he had framed a Bezaleel for them ; to make the ves- 
" sels and the instruments of the tabernacle, &c. For dis- 
" ciplinc here shewed herself, and came forth openly in 
" sight of all men; not only with good words and excellent 
" sentences, as it were arrayed with costly garments, but 
" also the same as it were with method comely and seemly 


He added ; " That Discipline had been twice repulsed 
" before, and now came the third time, [now at a parlia- 
" ment,] the same that she was before ; but with greater 
" train and ornaments, as was meet for a most beautiful 
" dauohtcr of the noblest kinjj." 
Tiio.Cart- The writer of this commendatory epistle appears to be 
^ubli'sher*^ Thomas Cartwright, the head puritan ; who, as he said, 
had done his endeavour to brins to lio-ht so excellent a 
jewel, committed to his custody, being persuaded, that he 
could not, without the heinous sin of sacrilege, have buried 
in silence, as it were in the grave, so notable a treasure. 
286 The book began witli a table or short view of all eccle- 
siastical discipline ordained by the word of God. The first 
running title is, The neccssitij of discipline. 

I have set down all this, gathered from that book, shew- 
ing the high estimation the party had of it. But some years 
after, it received an answer by Dr. Bridges, dean of Sarum, 
(which provoked the party exceedingly ;) entitled, A defence 
of the government established in the clinrch of England . But 


this defence would not be endured without a reply, nay, and CH AP. 
abusive replies too ; as will be shewed under the year 1588. XXIII. 

There came out also this year a book concerning the an- Anno i584. 
cient history of Wales; collected out of some old Welsh 'r'^''^'*^o''y 

-nrr-.n, T1- iTiTi ii- of Cambria. 

Msb. translated mto the English tongue: the history 
reaching from Cadwallacler, anno 680, to Llewellyn ap 
Gruffith ; contemporary Avith king Edward I. of England. 
And accounts are given of the princes of Wales, of the 
blood royal of England ; and of the lords president of 
Wales, from Rowland Lee, bishop of Coventry and Litch- 
field, the first. There is also contained in this book a de- 
scription of Wales, drawn by sir John Price, knt. It is en- 
titled. The Jdstory of Cambria, now called Wales. It was 
writ in the British language about two hundred years past ; 
and translated into English by Humphrey Lloyd, gent. 
Corrected and augmented, and continued out of records 
and the best approved authors ; by David Powel, D. D. 
who dedicated his book to sir Philip Sydney, knt. The 
remarkable contents of which dedication are shewed before. 

William Lambard, of Lincoln's-inn, that learned antiqua- 
rian, (who set forth divers pieces savouring of ancient learn- 
ing, as, among the rest, the Perambulation of Kent, anno 
1576,) had also collected a description of the city of Lincoln 
and the town of Stamford : which the lord treasurer hear- 
ing of, desired to see, especially that being his native coun- 
try. I think however this description was never printed : Description 
but I find Lambard sent it to that lord with a letter ; which, ^^ lT™-'" 
coming from so eminent a person, deserves to be transcribed t'ard. 
and preserved. It ran to this tenor: 

" Where it pleased you, right honourable, this last term His letter 
" to demand of me. Whether I had written a description |i 
" of Lincoln, by occasion that you had found somewhat of 
" mine vouched by another touching that town; I an- 
" swered, that I had not much travailed therein ; but had, 
" as I thought, collected some few notes out of history con- 
" cerning it : which also I promised to search out, and to 
" send you. Upon my return therefore from London, I 
" found among my papers these few things of Lincoln, 



BOOK " which I had observed in history; so rudely tumbled to- 
^' " gether, as if my promise had not bound mc, and your 

Anno 1584." honourable acceptation (of things savouring of learning) 
" emboldened me, I durst not have directed them towards 
" you. Notwithstanding, such as they be, I send them to- 
Stanford. << gethcr ; with a few others concerning Stanford, your 
" lordship^s own town, forged in the same shop, as by the 
" workmanship it will appear : most humbly beseeching 
" your good lordship to receive them, and to pardon me. 
" And so with unfeigned prayer to God for the long and 
28/ « prosperous health of your good lordship, I take my leave. 
" From the bishop''s place at Hailing in Kent, the 2d of 
" December, 1584. 

" Your lordship"'s most humble, 

" W. Lam bard." 

Guevara's Familiar Epistles of sir Anthony de Guevara, preacher, 
^'* ^^" chronicler and counsellor to the emperor Charles V. trans- 
lated out of the Spanish tongue, by Edwai'd Hcllows, groom 
of the leash ; and now newly imprinted and corrected, 1584. 
Dedicated to sir Henry Lee, knt. master of the leash. 
A sermon A semiou preached by R. Wimbleton, at PauFs Cross, in 
ton anno tliG reign of king Henry IV. 1388, and found out hid in 
1388. g^ wall: which sermon was set forth by the old copy, with- 

out adding or diminishiufj ; save the old and rude Enjrlish 
here and there amended. Printed by J. Charlewood, 1584. 
The text, Luke xvi. Redde rationem villicationis tvcp. This 
sermon I once saw in a volume of sermons in the Lambeth 
library. This sermon, long before, John Fox had entered in 
his Book of Martyrs, vol. i. which he found in an old parch- 
ment book, with other writings, and transcribed : which was 
entitled, A godly and most Ji-uHful sermon^ preached by a 
certain learned cleric at St. PauTs Cross. Fox had also seen 
another old worn copy of it in the register and record of the 
archbishops of Canterbury : the sermon having afterwards 
been exhibited to an archbishop of that province ; of such 
fame in times it was. In which sermon, in pursuance 
of the text, {Give an account of thy stexcardship,) was a 


conjecture of the world's end drawing near, and an inter- CHAP, 
pretation to that purpose of Daniel and the Apocalypse. A ^^^^^' 

period of the preacher"'s sermon ran in this tenor : " If thou Anno i684. 

" see the sun so low, that darkness is upon the hills, thou 

" wilt say, doubtless, that it is night : right so, if thou see 

" first in the seculars, and the lewd Christen men, begin- 

" neth darkness of sins, and to have mystery, it is token 

" that the world endeth. But when thou seest in priests, 

" that be put on the highest top of spiritual dignities, which 

" shoulden be aboven the common people in perfect learn- 

" ing, that darkness of sin hath taken them, who doubteth 

" that the world is at the end ?'''' 

CHAP. XXIV. 288 

The queen moved to assist the Netherlaiiders. Saravia's 
letter'. The earl of Leicester goes over. Orders to the 
vice-admirals of the queens Jleet with respect to the liing 
of Spain seizing English ships : Jor reprisals. A par- 
liament. They enter into an association for the queen's 
safety. Laws made against seminaries and papists. The 
speaker'' s speech to the queen. A booTc of petitions from 
the papists. Shelly the presenter qfit: his examination. 
The parliament consult concerning the Scots queen : her 
case propounded. The queen''s concern at the yielding up 
of Antwerp. She takes the protection of the Netherlands 
hereupon. Her instructions to her ambassador. 

-L WO main political points were upon the wheel this year, Anno isss. 

1585. One was concerning assistance of the Low Countries, '^^"".•^'"^ 

& ' now in con- 

oppressed by the king of Spain, and his officers placed suitation. 

there. The other concerning Mary the Scots queen ; there 

being apprehensions and new fears arising of no safety for 

England while she lived ; and therefore to put her to 

death ; which howsoever queen Elizabeth could not be 

brought to. 

Concerning the former of these, there was a serious de- tion about 

liberation about assisting them ; as a people grievously per- assisting 

vol.. III. E e landers. 


BOOK secuted for their religion ; and also their privileges (being a 
free people) violated. Great application had been made to 
Anno 1585. the queen, to afford them aid on both accounts ; and for her 
own interest and safety of her kingdom likewise. This was 
urged by a notable letter from Adrian Saravia, writ from 
Leyden in Holland to the lord treasurer, brought by some 
ambassadors then coming to the queen : exhorting, from the 
danger of England, to stand by the Hollanders ; and using 
arguments to persuade the queen to take the government 
of that people. The letter was dated June the 9th, 1585. 
Saravm's " That he was now the more moved to write to him, 

the trea- " siuce he always had a compassion for the affliction of that 
surer. " people, which then suffered for the cause of religion. And 

" at that time was more need of his [that lord"'s] favour, 
" since the queen's safety and life, and the security of this 
" kingdom of England, seemed to be joined with their dan- 
" gcr. That their enemies were no friends to us. That the 
*' counsels of the connnon enemies were daily more and 
" more manifest; and that we might see whither they 
" tended : and from what they were about we ought to 
"judge what we were to expect; for the misfortune of 
289" those provinces would draw with it the ruin of England. 
" We must not expect and wait till they were lost. That if 
" we save them, we should confirm our own peace and 
" safety. And therefore that it was necessary to enter into 
" a society with all who professed the gospel of Christ, un- 
" less we would resolve certainly to perish. And as those pro- 
*' vinces were nearer to us, so to be the straiter joined with 
*' us : which might be done two ways ; either by receiving 
" them into a most strict league of society, or of rule and 
** dominion. The latter whereof would bj safest and most 
*' profitable to both. And then he went on to prove what 
** he had propoimded." All this, and the rest of this well- 
penned Latin epistle, is worth preserving; and (as I tran- 
N». L. scribed it from the original) may be read in the Appendix. 
A preat During this negociation, that it might take the desired 

sum offered ^ .,,,«?, ,.• , j 

the queen effect, lu behalf of these foreigners, there was great advan- 
it s'le would jj^gg q£ monies in prospect to the queen, as well as gratifica- 



tions to one, if not more, of her counsellors: and what it CHAP, 
was is more fully explained in a letter from an unknown ______ 

friend to the lord treasui'er, and in that lord's answer, dated Anno isso. 

June 24 : " That whereas it was moved, how the court 

" raiglit be tempted by allowing a device to gain her ma- 

" jesty 10,000/. monthly, and himself [viz. the lord treasurer] 

" one other thousand pound, so as her majesty would help 

" the States : that he knew the matter very well, having 

" heard thereof seven months past ; and had within a few 

*' days seen and read the project : but what thereof to 

" think, he could not but pronounce doubtfully, until he 

" should speak with the party that offered it." Adding 

these words, shewing how well affected he was to that cause, 

for the public good, in his judgment. " That in his opi-Tiie trea- 

" nion, if the matter might appear feasible, (which he ii^ust ?"^^*^^Jg^j. 

" doubt of,) and reasonable, as being feasible, he thought it for aiding 

'' [worthy accepting; and with] correction of some points, '^™' 

" he should be to blame, if he should not consent to her 

" majesty's profit thereby, to enter into the defence of the 

" Low Countries : since, as he subjoined, he was persuaded, 

" and did maintain it, that her majesty, for her own safety, 

" ought to charge herself with the defence of them against 

" the common enemy. Without which attempt her majesty 

" should not be able, with expense of thousands, to defend 

" herself, that now she might, with God's assistance, do with 

" hundreds. 

" But for any offer to himself, (shewing how he con- 
" temned any thing that looked like bribery,) he did utterly 
" refuse either such or any less sum : thinking it more 
" charity to yield his own to the common cause, than to re- 
" ceive a penny." 

When the queen, after a long and serious consideration. The queen's 
resolved to give aid to these provinces of the Netherlands, ^eciaration 

or ' tor assisting 

to justify her doings, she set forth A declaration of' the them, 
causes- moving- her to give aid to the defence erf the people 
oppressed in the Low Countries. It began ; " Although 
" kings and princes sovereign," &c. I shall not repeat it, 

E e 2 


BOOK but refer the reader to Holinshecrs Chronicle; where, un- 
der the year 1585, it is set down at length : and I believe it 
Anno 1585. drawn up by the head and pen of the lord treasurer. 

290 I find another paper relating to this important affair, 
tioifaboiit fj'amed, as by the writing it seems to be, by the war- 
the charge \\^q earl of Leicester; and who was soon after sent the 
to be sent. queen''s general lieutenant there. It is a deliberation, 
" What forces and charges it would cost to enter into this 
" business. As, what support was needful for those Low 
" Countries. What her majesty of herself, and by her 
'* people, was able to contribute towards them. What secu- 
" rity might be convenient for her majesty to ask of them. 
" What forces England might spare to help them, and leave 
" itself supplied. What forces on both sides must be kept, 
" by sea as well as by land. Whether it be probable that 
" her majesty might be able by herself and people, to give 
" sufficient assistance to those countries, or no. If not, then 
" with what princes it were most fit for her majesty to join 
" withal." 
The earl of When the queen was now engaged with the States, she 
goerove'^r. ^^^ ^^"^ ^" October Mr. Davison (who was clerk of her 
council) in quality of her ambassador to them. The earl of 
Leicester was now gone her general thither : by whose go- 
ing the queen's expenses were enhanced ; as the lord trea- 
surer wrote in his letter to the said Davison, how the 
The queen's queen began already to grudge at the charges. " That they 
his" ex" " " ^^^^ ^^^^ charges daily to increase beyond her majesty ""s 
penses. « good allowance ; specially by the coming of my lord of 
" Leicester, with a great company of gentlemen, but not 
*' yet experimented in the wars : although they were such 
" as, having good hearts and reputation, would prove men 
" quickly able to serve."" And then he acquainteth Davison 
with the gentlemen whom the queen had appointed to 
govern two towns granted her by the States ; viz. " That 
" she had determined sir PhiUp Sidney her governor of 
" Flushing, and his own son, Tho. Cecil, the Brill. And 
" praying him, if he should tarry until his son should come 



" over, to give him his advice how to use himself: and CHAP. 
*' also his [Davison] letters to the townsmen of Brill, to use •^'^^^- 
" him with the favour that he should reasonably require/"' Anno i585. 
But the earl of Leicester, as became a wise and careful ^■'*^^'* ^'"^ 

T . V 11 1 ordinances 

captam-general, for the better disciplme, good order, and for the 
regard of him and his commands, upon his entrance into his t[,^ea""o" 
government, set forth divers good laws and ordinances to Leicester, 
be observed by his army, under penalties of loss of wages, 
of imprisonment, nay, and life, according to the quality of 
the crimes. What they were is too large to be set down 
here. For them therefore I refer the reader to the Ap- 
pendix. [N°. L.] 
There is a remark made by Bedel, an Irish bishop, in his The Ne- 
answer to James Waddesworth, a Jesuit, concerning: this *'.''''!!^"''*j''* 

' ' o vindicated 

assistance of the queen given to the Netherlanders against in defend- 
the king of Spain : upon occasion of a great blame laid by seUes!^""' 
the said Jesuit against the protestants upon this account, 
concerning subjects defending themselves against the ty- 
ranny of their princes. "Do you think," said he, " subjects Bishop Be- 
" are bound to give their throats to be cut by their fellow- g^^,^^^ ""' 
" subjects, [set over them by their prince,] or by their Wadsworth. 
" princes, at their mere will, against their own laws and 1685. 
" edicts .'* You would know quo Jure the protestants"' wars, 
" and France and Holland, are justified. First, The law of 29I 
" nature ; which not only alloweth, but inclineth and en- 
" forceth every living thing to defend itself from violence. 
" Secondly, That of nations ; which permitteth those that 
" are in the protection of others, to whom they owe no 
" more but an honourable acknowledgment, in case they 
" go about to make themselves absolute sovereigns, and 
" usurp their liberty, to resist and stand for the same : 
" and if any lawful prince, (which is not yet lord of his sub- 
" jects' lives and goods,) in this attempt to spoil them of 
" the same, under colour of reducing them to his own reli- 
" gion, after all humble remonstrances, they may stand 
" upon their own guard ;