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ANNALS ,'■ Vt. . 1.0/' 




















J\ MOTION for peace witli Spain. Deliberation thereupon. Anno 1588. 
The lord treasurer delivers his judgment. A treaty begun 
with commissioners from the duke of Parma, The articles 
propounded to Parma : broke off". The Spaniards about to in- 
vade England. Consultations thereupon. Intelligence of the 
fleet from Spain. The queen's preparations. Public prayers 
appointed. The Spanish forces. La felicissime armada, so 
termed. Account of the Spanish forces in their books. The 
defeat of this fleet. Nevi's printed of the overthrow of the 
English. Friars aboard the Spanish fleet. Litanies used for 
their success. The English nation at first in a dreadful con- 
sternation. A pasquil concerning the Spanish fleet set up at 
Rome. Their defeat and miseries in Ireland. Sir Francis 
Drake's letter of the victory, from aboard. Killigrew, am- 
bassador, his letter to the States at this juncture. Rogers, 
ambassador in Denmark, his service there. King Philip's 
words when the bad news was first brought him. Public 
thanksgivings. The queen rides in triumph to St. Paul's. A 
thanksgiving prayer used. Exhortation to the people of Eng- 
land to be upon their guard. The true cause of the queen's 
taking op arms. P. 1. 


The Spaniards, after their overthrow, spread lying reports of 
their victory. Books thereof printed in Spanish. One en- 
titled. Advice from London. Sir Francis Drake's narrative 
of this engagement. Don Pedro de Valdes, Drake's prisoner. 
His examination : and ransom. His letter from Brussels 

a 2 


to the queen. His complaint to her concerning his ransom 
to be paid to sir Francis Drake : the lords answer in the 
queen's name. The queen's preparations against the next 
year. Requires a loan of her subjects. The council's letters 
to the lords lieiitenants of the counties for that purpose. Don 
Antonio offers articles to the queen. Reports at Rome of the 
queen's being taken, and to be sent to the pope. Triumphs 
there for this supposed victory. Intelligence from Rome, 
and other places abroad, of the king of Spain ; and his pur- 
poses for the catholic cause, against the kings of Scotland 
and Navarr. A sessions of parliament in this dangerous sea- 
son. Bills brought in. Speeches made upon those bills : for 
a subsidy: against the strangers : and against pluralities and 
nonresidences. The parliament's declaration and offer to the 
queen, at the dissolving thereof. P, 32. 


Contest between the church of Norwich and sir Thomas Shirley, 
knight, upon pretence of concealment : a book drawn up, in 
order to agreement. The dean and chapter disallow there- 
of: and why. The dean's application by letters to the lord 
treasurer. And his complaint of the said patentee. Articles 
of agreement between them ofiFered : but refused. The lord 
treasurer takes the case before him. The conclusion of it. 
Endeavours used to get the archbishop of York's house at 
London from him. His contest with the dean of Durham. 
This archbishop dies. His last will. His pedigree, and pos- 
terity. Some passages in his sermons before the queen, and 
at York ; concerning the reformation, schism, and spoiling 
the church of its revenues. Cooper, bishop of Winton, slan- 
dered by Marprelate. Vindicated. Endeavour of obtaining 
long leases from the dean and chapter of Ely. Dr. Pern the 
dean, his letter thereupon. Scambler, bishop of Norwich, 
condemns one for heresy. His letter to court for execution. 
Archbishop of Dublin, lord chancellor, commends sir Wil- 
liam Herbert for his promoting religion in Ireland. P, 56. 


Popish books. Pope Sixtus his bull brought in and dispersed : 
to encourage the invasion intended. Cardinal Allen's books. 


Bennet, a priest ; his penitent letter to the earl of Arundel 
for a false iuforuiation against him. Sir Thomas Tresham's 
protestation of allegiance. Francis Blount, a catholic at 
Paris, desirous to come home, writeth to the queen for the 
liberty of his conscience. A case of conscience propounded 
by some catholics, whether they might take up arms under 
the Spaniard against the queen ; resolved by a priest at large 
in the negative. Divers lists of priests, and other English 
catholics, at home and abroad. Englishmen, pensioners of 
the king of Spain. A proclamation against bringing in the 
pope's bull) and other popish books: such to bo punished 
by martial law. P. 75. 


Scoffing and railing books of puritans. Martin Marprelate. He 
is brought before the ecclesiastical commission. A false re- 
port he had spread of Cooper, the bishop of Winchester. 
His abusive book against Bridges, dean of Sarum. Dr. Ban- 
croft's sermon of the jus divinum of episcopacy. Penry's 
confutation. Dr. Raynold's judgment of that point j upon 
the motion of sir Francis Knowles. Examination of some 
concerned in Marprelate's printing press : their confessions. 
Secret conventicles : discovered. Their worship and opi- 
nions. Another sort of sectaries : allow dissimulation. The 
same practised by papists. Noted in a sermon of archbishop 
Sandys. P. 92. 


Digby, a senior fellow of St. John's college, Cambridge, expelled. 
Appeals to the visitors. Restored. Dr. Whitaker, master of 
that college, to the lord Burghley hereupon. Digby popishly 
aflected. The earl of Leicester's letter to the archbishop of 
Canterbury in this cause. Hickman of Bene't college ex- 
pelled : and why. Restored. The foundress of Sidney Sussex 
college. Her will. Bainbrigg and Johnson, of Christ's col- 
lege, cited before the vice-chancellor for their sermons in St. 
Mary's. Their protestations. The heads to their high chan- 
cellor concerning them. The judgment of the chief civilians 
given of the case. These two preachers give account of what 
they had preached, that had been excepted against. P. 108. 


The death of the earl of Leicester. Some remarks of him. The 


lord Biirghley's meditation upon the death of his lady : her 
large benefactions : her learning. An English gentleman, 
named sir Edward Kelly, in Germany, reported to have found 
the art of making gold ; invited by the queen into England. 
The lord treasurer's letter to Dyer, to persuade him to come 
over. His great learning and abilities, and deserts towards 
England. He is seized by the emperor's order. The cause 
thereof conjectured. The queen sends her agent with a letter 
to the emperor, in behalf of Kelly. P. 122. 


Books this year set forth : some relating to the Spanish invasion : 
some puritanical : against the government of the church by 
bishops. Answers to them. An Exhortation to the Queen's 
Subjects to defend their Country. An Answer to certain 
Spanish Lies. Certain Advertisements out of Ireland, con- 
cerning the Spanish Fleet scattered there. Elizabetha trium- 
phans. The Coronation of David. Penry's Supplication ; 
and Appellation to Parliament. His Epitome. A godly 
Treatise in vindication of Episcopal Government. An Admo- 
nition to the People of England. An Answer to ten frivolous 
Reasons set down by the Rhemists, translators of the New 
Testament from the vulgar Latin. Disputations concerning 
the sacred Scriptures against Bellarmine and Stapleton, by 
William Whitaker, D.D. P. 136. 

A Table of the Records, and other Original Pa- 
pers, reposited in the Appendix ; with the i/ears 
and cha2)ters of the An7ials, where every one of 
them are mentioned ; and may he found accord- 
ing to their numbers set in the margin. 


Auno 1581. NUMBER I. A letter of the lord treasurer, lord Burghley, to 
sir Henry Unton, the queen's ambassador in France, upon that 
king's requiring more forces from her. Page 163. 


[Number L] Mr. Rafe Lane to the lord treasurer; advice upon 
occasion of the expulsion of king don Antonio out of his king- 
dom of Portugal ; and what use the queen might make of him 
to annoy king Philip of Spain. Dated March 7, 1584. P. 165. 

Number II. Lord Burghley, his judgment, upon a consultation 
of the queen and council, concerning a fleet to be sent to the 
Azores islands, under sir Francis Drake, to assist don Antonio, 
expulsed his kingdom of Portugal by Philip king of Spain. 
Digested under certain questions, with answers to each. 

P. 168. 

Number III. A true answer to the articles exhibited by the lord 
bishop of Norwich, against sir Robert Jermin, sir John 
Higham, knights ; Robert Ashfield and Thomas Badley, 
esquires, justices of the peace for the county of Suffolk. P. 1 72. 

Number IV. John bishop of Excester to the lord treasurer, lord 
Burghley ; to favour his proceedings against one Randal, a 
minister in his diocese, of the family of love, holding dan- 
gerous principles. P. 180. 


Number V. Minutes of a warrant to Edward Staflford, esq. for 
parsonages impropriate, free chapels, guilds, chantries, &c. 
dissolved, that were concealed. With insertions of the lord 
treasurer's hand. P. 181. 

Number VI. Campion's letter to the privy-council j offering to 
avow and prove his catholic religion before all the doctors 
and masters of both universities; and requiring a disputation, 

P. 183. 

Number VII. A relation of the cruel burning of Richard Atkins, 
an Englishman, at Rome: put into the inquisition there, for 
disturbing the priest carrying the host. P. 187. 


Number VIII. Academiae Oxoniensis ad dom. Burghleium Epi- 

stola gratulatoria. P. 188. 

Number IX. Exemplum chartae an. 29. Edw. III. Projuramento 

vicecomitis. Touching a privilege of the university of Oxford. 

P. 190. 



Number X. Sales of Edward earl of Oxford. And names of the 
purchasers. And his debts to the queen. P. 191, 


Number XI. The. Sampson's account of the conversion, and 
divers other historical remarks of the holy life of J. Bradford, - 
martyr. p. 192. 

Number XII. A copy of verses, set before a book of Martial 
Discipline ; exciting the nation to exercise arms ; considering 
the present dangers from foreign enemies. By the author, T. 
Sty ward. p, 195, 

Number XIII. Theodore Beza to the lord Burghley : presenting 
him with an ancient Pentateuch in six languages, towards the 
furnishing of the new library at Cambridge. P. 197. 

Number XIV. The same to the same : moving him to procure 
the printing of that ancient hexaglot translation of the Pen- 
tateuch, likely to prove so highly useful to the Christian 
world. P. 198. 

.'inno 1582. Number XV. Beza to the lord treasurer Burghley : to favour 
the request of the council of Geneva for a loan of money in 
their present distress, by the means of the duke of Savoy. 

P. 199. 

Number XVI. The syndics and council of Geneva to the lord 
treasurer : to promote their suit to the queen for a loan of 
money. The letter sent by Maillet, their agent. P. 201 . 


Number XVII. The ansM^er of Dr. Beacon to the three reasons 
propounded by the bishop of Coventry and Litchfield, why he 
should not be chancellor of that diocese. P. 202. 

Number XVIII. The complaints of the bishop of Coventry and 
Litchfield, concerning the hard dealings with him ; the earl 
of Leicester his adversary : in a letter to the lord treasurer. 

P. 207. 

Number XIX. Overton, bishop of Coventry and Litchfield, to 
the lords of the privy-council ; with a certificate of convicted 
recusants ; and concerning the ill state of his diocese. P. 21 1 . 


Number XX. Interrogatories ministered to sir Robert Staple- 
ton, knt. in the star-chamber : concerning abuses done to the 
archbishop of York at Doncaster, by Scisson the host, (where 
the archbishop lodged,) himself, and others in the conspiracy. 

P. 218. 

Number XXI. The public confessions at the assizes in York, 

read by sir Robert Stapleton and others, of their slanders and 

abuse of the archbishop. And his answers to each of them, 

P. 220, 


Number XXII. The state of the bishopric of St, David's, and 

the revenues thereof: sent up to the lord treasurer, upon the 

decease of the bishop. P. 226. 


Number XXIII. Wright, a puritan, his answers to the matters 
urged against him, upon his own answers in the consistory : 
from notes taken thereof by the register, P. 228. 

Number XXIV. Wright's answers to the notes of matters 
proved against him by sworn witnesses. P, 232. 


Number XXV. Ockland's character of sir William Cecil, lord 
Burghley, lord treasurer. In heroic verse. P. 237. 

Number XXVI. A catechism; containing certain questions and 
answers touching the doctrine of predestination, and the use 
of God's word and sacraments. Formerly bound up with some 
English Bibles. P. 238. 


[Number XXVI.] Declaratio eorum quae circa Mendozse, ca- Anno 1583. 
tholici regis legati, commissionem acciderunt ; una cum 
responsione ad ejusdem objecta contra suam majestatem. 

P. 241. 

Number XXVII. The syndics and council of Geneva to the lord 
treasurer Burghley ; to move the queen to relieve them against 
the army of the duke of Savoy. In French. P. 250. 

[Number XXVII.] Epistola serenissimae Scotorum reginae ; ab 
episcopo Rossensi, (ut videtur,) missa. Consolatoria. P. 252. 

Number XXVIII. A proclamation against retainers. P. 255. 



Number XXIX. Aichiepiscopus Eboium Cestriensi cpiscopo. 

P. 257. 

Number XXX. The lords of the council to the earl of Darby 
and the bishop of Chester, concerning the weekly collections 
to be made in his diocese, for maintenance of popish re- 
cusants in prison. P. 260. 

[Niuiiber XXX.] The bishop of Winton to the lord treasurer : 
clearing himself against sir Richard Norton, his officer, that 
had accused him that he was covetous. ['. 261. 

Number XXXI. The bishop of Meath in Ireland to the lord 
treasurer, for the erecting of a free grammar school in a town 
in that kingdom. P, 263. 

Number XXXII. Tobie Matthew, D. D. dean of Durham, to 

the lord treasurer Burghley. Thanks for his counsel, upon 

his going down to Durham. The condition of the deanery, 

P. 266. 

Number XXXIII. George Withers, of Danbury in Essex, to 
the lord Burghley J concerning church controversies, and sub- 
scription to the Book of Common Prayer. P. 268. 

Number XXXIV. A private letter of one Touker to the lord 
treasurer Burghley : informing him of Englishmen in Ron\e ; 
and of some matters relating to them. P. 271. 

Number XXXV. The vice-chancellor and heads of the univer- 
sity of Cambridge to their high chancellor, lord Burghley : 
concerning their printing-press, hindered by the stationers' 
company of London. P. 273. 


Number XXXVI. An abstract taken by the lord treasurer out 
of the instructions given to monsieur de Grises and Ortel, 
agents from Holland to the queen : to take on her their pro- 
tection. In four papers. P. 274. 

Number XXXVII. The queen's letter to the duke of Montpen- 
sier : upon the nunder of the prince of Orange. For the 
bringing up of his daughters ; to one whereof the queen was 
godmother. p. 276, 



Number XXXVIII. An original letter of Mary (juecn of Scots' 
own writing, to the lord treasurer Burghley : to favour bar 
cause with the queen, and to assist monsieur Mauvesier, the 
French ambassador with the queen, in that affair. P. 277. 

Number XXXIX. Petitions, digested into 34 articles, to be 
humbly offered unto the queen, her council, and parliament : 
for a learned ministry to preach the gospel, and pastors, to be 
resident in every parish : and for further regulation of bishops, 
officers, and governors of the church. P. 278. 

Number XL. A writing, containing an answer of the bishops 
to the book of Articles, offered the last sessions of parliament, 
anno regin. 27. for ecclesiastical causes : concerning ministers, 
excommunications, dispensations, nonresidence, &c. P. 302. 


Number XLI. General propositions ; to be supplied with proofs. Anno issi. 
by such as his grace should appoint : and other particulars 
to be gathered. Drawn up by Dr. Drury, a learned civilian, 
and sent to the archbishop of Canterbury; in order to pre- 
vent a commission of Melius inquirendum ; endeavoured by a 
bill in parliament. P. 317 

Number XLII. Fraternum et amicum de rcsartienda inter 
Anglicanae ecclesiae doctores et ministros pace, consilium. 

P. 320. 

Number XLIII. Cowper, lately made bishop of Winchester, his 

letter to the lord treasurer Burghley : for a commission to 

carry down with him, to make inquiry after recusants. P. 329. 


Number XLIV. Three forms of prayer used at court and par- 
liament after Parry's- treason. I. A prayer for all kings, 
princes, countries, and people, which do profess the gospel ; 
and especially for our sovereign lady queen Elizabeth : used 
in her majesty's chapel, and may be used of all persons within 
her majesty's dominions. II. A prayer and thanksgiving for 
the queen ; used of all knights and burgesses in the high court 
of parliament. And very requisite to be used and continued 
of all her majesty's loving subjects. III. A prayer used in the 
parliament only. p_ 339. 


Number XLV. A prayer of thanksgiving for the deliverance of 
her majesty from many dangers, and particularly from the 
murtherous intention of Dr. Parry. A manuscript. P. 334. 

Number XLVI. Parry's confession in a letter to the queen, 
written from the Tower after his condemnation. Exemplified 
from his own paper. P. 337. 


Number XLVII, A treatise, that such papists as of late times 
have been executed were by a statute of Edward III. lawfully 
executed as traitors. P, 339. 

Number XLVIII. Intelligences sent to secretary Cecyll by 
Daniel Rogers ; taken and transcribed by him from letters 
written to several princes of Germany in the year J 569. 

P. 346. 

Number XLIX. John Fox to the lord treasurer : to obtain the 

queen's confirmation of his prebend in the church of Sarum. 

P. 350. 

Anno 1585. Number L. Adrianus Saravia to the lord treasurer Burghley j 
wrote from Leyden : moving him to counsel the queen, at 
this dangerous juncture, to assist the provinces, and to 
take the government of them upon her. His letter being 
accompanied with their ambassador's, coming into England. 

P. 35 1 . 
[Number L.] Laws and ordinances set down by Robert carl 
of Leicester, the queen's majesty's lieutenant and captain- 
general of all her army and forces in the Low Countries : meet 
and fit to be observed by all such as shall serve her majesty 
under him in the said countries ; and therefore to be pub- 
lished and notified to the whole army. P. 354. 
Number LI. The speech of John Puckering, sergeant at law, 
speaker of the house of commons, to the queen, at the con- 
clusion of the sessions of parliament, anno 27. regin. Elizub. 

P. 356. 
Number LII. Sir Amias Paulet to the lord treasurer, for an as- 
sistant in the custody of the Scots queen. Writ from Tutbury. 

P. 361. 

I Number LIII. Instructions given by the (jueen to Davison, her 

ambassador to the States of the United Provinces : taking 


upon her the protection of those countries, upon the Spaniards' 
taking of Antwerp. An original. P. 363. 


Number LIV. Expressions in Dr. Allen's book, taken notice of 

in the bill of indictment against Alfield, a Jesuit ; who had 

brought some hundreds of those books into England to be 

dispersed. P. 368. 


Number LV. Sandys, archbishop of York, his prayer after his 

sermon at St. Paul's Cross, at a public thanksgiving for 

the queen's deliverance from the conspiracy of Ballard and 

Babbington. P. 370. 

Number LVI. A survey taken of the value of the bishopric of 

Chichester, upon the death of Curtess, late bishop there. 

P. 372. 

Number LVII. Proof and evidences from ancient grants of the 

liberties of the bishop of Ely's manor of Holborn house. 

P. 373. 
[Number LVII.] The state of the cathedral church of Norwich : 
truly set down by William Downyng, in pursuit of his humble 
petition. P. 376. 

Number LVIII. Minutes of a letter wrote by the lord Burghley 
to a nameless friend 5 clearinghimself of sundry slanders raised 
of him. P. 379. 

Number LIX. Another letter of the lord treasurer Burghley to 
his nameless friend ; in vindication of himself from a slander 
upon him of hindering the negotiation between the queen 
and the king of Navarr. P. 384. 

Number LX. The earl of Leicester, In answer to the lord trea- 
surer Burghley's letter to him, upon some informations, as 
though the earl were not his friend. Justifying himself at 
large to the contrary. P. 386. 

Number LXI. Philip earl of Arundel, his debts, estates, and 
circumstances, anno 158.5. P. 391. 


Number LXH. An anthem in two parts, composed for the 


l/th (lay of November, and sung after a prayer of thanksgiv- 
ing used on that day. P. 393. 
Number LXIII. Laurentii Humfredi, in Specuhini Moralium 
Quaestionum Joan. Casaei, Prsemonitio. P. 395. 



Anno 1S86'. NUMBER I. Objections against bringing Mary queen of Scots 
to trial. With answers thereunto; being the censure of the 
civilians. P. 397. 

Number II. An analogy or resemblance between Joan queen of 
Naples and Mary queen of Scotland. Offered to queen Eliza- 
beth by the parliament. P. 400. 

Number III. Sentences written by the lord treasurer Burgh- 
ley ; occasioned upon the death of Mary queen of Scots ; 
and upon queen Elizabeth's displeasure towards him on that 
account. Endorsed with these words, 1586. After the Scots 
queen's death Wednesday, Febr. The warrant signed, To 

the lord chancellor, that night. P. 404. 

Number IV. The lord treasurer's second letter to the queen, ly- 
ing under her displeasure, upon the death of the Scots queen. 
Dated Febr. 17. but not received. P. 407. 

Number V. The lord treasurer's third letter to the queen, 
dated Febr. 23, remaining yet under her displeasure, on the 
same occasion ; delivered to bar by lord Buckhurst. P. 408. 

Number VI. A writing of the lord treasurer ; for his absence 

from council ; upon some angry words used to him by the 

queen. To be delivered to her by Mr. Vice-Chamberlain. 

March the 1 5th. P. 410. 


Number VII. The bishop of Meath in Ireland to the lord trea- 
svu'er, now come into England ; to solicit for favour upon ac- 
count of his first-fruits, not paid. His case referred to the 
lord deputy, his enemy. P. 411. 

Number VIII. Mr. Henton, archdeacon of Coventry, to the 
bishop of Litchfield. Account of the backwardness of some 


of the clergy of that archdeaconry in the payment of their 
taxations towards the queen's forces in the Low Coun- 
tries. .412. 

Number IX. June the 24tli, 1586. Freke's account for the 
monies received of the clergy for lances, in all the dioceses 
from the bishops 3 and of recusants for light horse. So en- 
dorsed by the hand of the lord treasurer. P. 414. 

Number X. An account of the names and preferments of the 
prebendaries of Westminster. Drawn up and given in by 
Goodman, the dean, April 1586. P. 415, 

Number XI. Beza to the lord treasurer. The state of Geneva ; 
obliged to him, next to the queen, for favour and assistance 
yielded to them. This letter brought over by William Ce- 
cil, the treasurer's grandson, returning home from travel. 

P. 416. 

Number XII. Parsons the Jesuit to cardinal Allen at Rome; 
concerning the success of his and other Jesuits, their late 
mission into England, by commission from him. P. 418. 

Number Xlll. The justices of the peace in Suffolk to the lords 
of the privy-council, concerning certain payments required of 
the popish recusants. P. 421. 

Number XIV. Examination of Martin Ara, alias Cotton, a se- 
minary priest, and Mr. Gervase Perpoint, a popish recusant ; 
taken before Mr, Young, a justice of peace in London, the 
16th day of June. P. 422. 


Number XV. Anthony Tyrrel, priest, his letter to the queen, 
giving his reasons for revoking what he had before confessed, 
and denying what he had before declared, concerning Jesuits ; 
and recanting his recantation. P. 425. 


Number XVI. Dr. Copcotts, vice-chancellor of Cambridge, to 
the lord Burghley, high chancellor of that imivcrsity ; con- 
cerning matters out of order in Christ's college : and his vi- 
sitation of it. P. 439. 

Number XVII. Injunctions for Christ's college, Cambridge. 
Given by the vice-chancellor, their visitor, dat. Decemb. 
1586. P. 440. 



Number XVIII. The archbishop of Canterbury to the vice- 
chancellor and heads of the university of Cambridge : to 
stay the printing of a book, called, The Harmony of Confes- 
sions, &c. P. 444. 

Number XIX. The archbishop of Canterbury to the vice-chan- 
cellor and heads : to require subscription to the three articles, 
of such as should be admitted university preachers. P. 445. 

Number XX. Petitions of the university of Cambridge ; for 
quietness to be had with the tow^nsmen. Delivered by Dr. 
Perne to the lord Burghley, their high chancellor. Feb. 25, 
1586. ibid. 

Number XXI. An inventory of the money and jewels of Anne 
duchess of Somerset : taken after her death, by the queen's 
order, by John Wolley, one of the queen's privy-council, and 
John Fortescue, master of her majesty's great wardrobe. 

P. 447. 


Anno 1587. Number XXII. Howland the bishop of Peterburgh's letter to 

the lord treasurer : requiring some account of the justices of 

peace in his diocese; with his certificate concerning some of 

them. P. 449. 

Number XXIII. Herbert, bishop of Hereford, to the lord trea- 
surer, certifying him of the justices of peace in his dio- 
cese. P. 453. 

Number XXIV, Freak, bishop of Wigorn, to the lord trea- 
surer : in answer to his, to inquire of the justices of peace in 
his diocese. With the bishop's certificate concerning them. 

P. 455. 

Number XXV. The bishop of Norwich to the lord treasurer, 
concerning the justices in his diocese, and their qualifica- 
tions. P. 459. 

Number XXVI, The bishop of Winchester to the lord trea- 
surer : his letter and report, concerning the justices of peace 
in his diocese 3 and chiefly in Hampshire. P. 461. 

Number XXVII. Godwin, bishop of Bath and Wells, to the 
lord treasurer. His letter and certificate concerning the jus- 
tices in his diocese. P. 462. 

Number XXVIII, Sandys, archbishop of York, to the lord 


treasurer. His judgment of the justices of peace in York- 
shire, &c. P. 463. 

Number XXIX. Toby Matthew, D. D. dean of Durham, to 
Mr. Francis Mills, attendant on sir Francis Walsingham, se- 
cretary of state 3 upon his being nominated to succeed in the 
see of Durham, now void. Dated from Durham, Nov. 23, 
1587. P. 466. 

Number XXX. Ten long leases of the bishopric of Durham, 
to the queen granted, most of them, by Barnes the bishop of 
that diocese : with a note of the particulars demised. Date 
of the leases, number of years, and yearly rent. P. 468. 

Number XXXI. Toby Matthew, D. D, dean of Durham ; to 
sir Francis Walsingham, secretary of state. Concerning his 
preferment to that bishopric. P. 470. 

Number XXXII. A discovery of the present estate of the bi- 
shopric of St. Asaph. Sent to the lord treasurer Burghley, 
Feb. 24, 1587. P. 471. 

Number XXXIII. The dean and prebendaries of Ely to the 
lord treasurer, upon occasion of the queen's letter to them, to 
grant a lease to one Ashby, her servant, of certain manors of 
that bishopric, now void. P. 475. 


Number XXXIV. Orders made at a synod of puritans, Sept. 3, 
1587. P. 477. 

Number XXXV. Durden, a minister, that called himself Elias j 
his prophecies concerning the times approaching, and the re- 
turn of the Jews, by his conduct. In a letter to one of his 
party, named Williamson, a tailor in Cambridge. With his 
interpretation of the prophecies of Daniel and the Apoca- 
lypse. P. 479. 

Number XXXVI, Anthony Tyrrel, priest, to the lord Burgh- 
ley, after his recantation at St. Paul's Cross j for his favour. 
With his protestation, and purpose for the future. P. 487. 

Number XXXVII. Fleetwood, rector of Wigan, to the lord 
treasurer; upon occasion of a new commission of justices of 
peace for the county of Lancaster j and the good effect there- 
of. P. 488. 

VOL. Ill, PART II. b 



Number XXXVIII. Persons executed under queen Elizabeth, 
(priests and others, of the popish religion,) in the years 1570. 
71. 73. n. 78. 1581. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. as they are set 
down in a book, entitled, Theatrum Crudelitatis Hiereticorum 
in Anglia: printed 1587. at Antwerp. P. 494. 

Number XXXIX. A decree of the vice-chancellor and heads of 
the university of Cambridge, for discommoning Edmunds, the 
mayor of the said town. P. 496. 

[Number XXXIX.] The master and fellows of Peter-house in 
Cambridge, to the lord Burghley ; occasioned by the queen's 
letters to them, to admit one unqualified to be fellow of their 
college, against their statutes. ibid. 


Number XL. The master and fellows of Christ's college, Cam- 
bridge, to the lord treasurer of England, thanking him for 
putting so seasonable an end to a long controversy between 
Dr, Copcot, late their visitor, and them. P. 499. 

Number XLI. The epistle of the university of Oxford to the 
lord treasurer, in thankful acknowledgment of favours shewed 
them. P. 500. 

Number XLII. Mr. William Lambard to the lord treasurer, 
upon notice of his being nominated for a judge, or some 
other eminent place in the law. P. 501. 

[Number XLII.] Certain general notes upon the actions of 
the lord Burghley : in answer to a libel. P. 503. 

Number XLIII. The earl of Leicester to the lord treasurer ; 
justifying himself for some angry speeches used to that lord 3 
who had thwarted him in somewhat discoursed between the 
queen and him in council. P. 506. 

Number XLIV. Mr. Rither, a gentleman of the north, his let- 
ter to the lord treasurer Burghley : consolatory ; upon the 
death of his mother, the lady Cecil, dying in those parts. 

P. 508. 

Number XLV. John Fox's epistle to Dr. Laurence Hum- 
phrey, president of Magdalen college, Oxon, and the scholars 


of the same ; written with his own hand, before his Book of 
Martyrs ; presented to the said college. P. 5 1 1 . 

Number XL VI. Inscription upon the monumental stone set 
up in the chancel of St. Giles Cripplegate church, against the 
south wall, in memory of the reverend John Fox, the martyr- 
ologist. P. 513. 

Number XLVII. Inscription upon the monument of Simeon 
Fox, doctor of physic, buried in St. Paul's. Composed and 
erected by Dr. Thomas Fox, physician, his nephew. P. 514. 

Number XLVIII. Samuel Fox his diary, concerning himself, his 
education, travels, gifts, purchases, and children. ibid. 

Number XLIX. An expostnlatory letter in Latin to the puri- 
tans, upon occasion of their contentions in the church ; and 
exhortatory to peace, and earnest application of themselves 
to preach the gospel. Written, as it seems, about the year 
1587, by John Fox, or Laurence Humfrey, D.D. P. 51 ?• 


Number L. The queen, upon apprehension of the Spanish in- Anno 1588. 
vasion ; her letter to all the lords lieutenants of all the coun- 
ties, to make large preparations for defence. Her letter to 
the lord marquis of Winchester, and to the earl of Sussex, 
for Hampshire. P. 533. 

Number LI. An account of the Spanish armada, that invaded 
England anno 1588; their numbers of galleons, ships, pin- 
naces, zabres, &c. together with their burdens, soldiers, ma- 
riners, munition, weapons, artillery, and other furniture of 
war, brought with them : taken from a Spanish book, by or- 
der published. Briefly here set down. P. 535. 

Number LII. Litaniae, et preces pro faelici successu classis re- 
gis nostri Philippi adversus Angliae haereticos, verae fidei im- 
pugnatores. De mandato serenissimi principis cardinalis ; 
excudebat Anthonius Riberius, anno 1588. P. 539. 

[Number LII.] The miserable condition of the Spanish fleet, 
fled to the north of Scotland ; and scattered for many weeks 
on the seacoasts of Ireland. P' 541. 

Number LIII. Ships and men sunk, drowned, killed, and taken 
upon the coast of Ireland, in the month of September, 1588. 

P. 543. 

Number LIV. Sir Francis Drake to the lord treasurer. Discovery 



of the Spanish armada. Preparation to receive them. The 
courage of the English. And particularly the lord admiral's 
forwardness. P. 544. 

[Number LIV.] A prayer used in the queen's chapel, and 
other places, for preservation, and success against the Spa- 
nish navy and forces. P. 546. 


Number LV. Spanish letters of the success of their armada. 

P. 547. 

I. The copy of a letter sent into Spain by Juan de Gamarra, 
a Spanish merchant. Dated the 31st of September, 1588. 

II. The copy of a letter which Pedro de Alva (a Spanish mer- 
chant) wrote from Roan unto Spain the 1st of September. 

III. The copy of a letter which Diego Perez, postmaster of 
Logronno, wrote, in confirmation of the victory against 
England in the ocean sea, dated the 2d of September, 

IV. By a letter from the postmaster of Bourdeaux, written to 
the ambassador in France, the 2d of December, 1588. 

Number LVI. Aug. 5, 1588. Articles for the examination of 
don Pedro de Valdezj taken prisoner in the defeat of the 
Spanish armada : in several questions ; with don Pedro's an- 
swers. P. 549. 

Number LVII. Intelligence from Rome, Liege, and Lisle, to 
the lord treasurer ; of divers matters concerning the Spanish 
armada and king Philip, And his purpose of sending the 
queen, being taken, to the pope. P. 551. 

[Number LVII.] An account of the proceedings between 
Spain and England, beginning at the access of queen Eliza- 
beth to the crown. In answer to a libel. P. 554. 

Number LVIII. A speech in parliament an. 31. regin. against 
a bill of subsidy to be granted for four years, in order to a 
preparation against any assaults from Spain. P. 561. 

Number LIX. A speech in parliament, anno 1588, upon a bill 
against strangers and aliens selling wares by retail. P. 568. 


Number LX. Articles of agreement between the dean and 
chapter of Norwich and the patentees of their lands. Drawn 


up by the attorney and solicitor j and offered to the dean. 
To which in these terms he accorded. P. 574. 

Number LXI. Dr. Gardiner, dean of Norwich, to the lord 
treasurer J referring the case of their church, against sir Tho- 
mas Shirley, and other patentees, to his lordship's orders. 

P. 575. 

Number LXII. A brief declaration how the case standeth be- 
tween sir Thomas Shirley, and other her majesty's patentees, 
on the one party, and the fermours of the possessions of the 
dean and chapter of Norwich on the other party. With 
the humble suit of sir Thomas Shirley to the lord treasurer, 
June the 10th, 1590. P. 577. 

Number LXIII. The last will and testament of the most reve- 
rend father in God Edwin Sandys, archbishop of York ; who 
died at Southwel the 10th of July, 1588 ; and was there bu- 
ried under a fair monument. P. 579. 


Number LXI V. Benet, a priest, to Philip earl of Arundel; be- 
wailing his false accusation of him. Dated January the 12th, 
1588. P. 582. 

Number LXV. An licitum sit catholicis in Anglia arma sumere, 
et aliis modis, reginam et regnum defendere contra Hispanos. 
Resolved by one Wryght, a priest as it seems, of the college 
of Doway. P. 583. 

Number LXVI. Certain lists of the names of all the recusants 
and priests in England, and beyond the seas, &c. P. 597. 


Number LXVII. A paper concerning the superiority of bi- 
shops : put into the hands of sir Francis Knolles by some 
unknown person : and by him delivered to the lord Burghley, 
Jan. 1588. P. 601. 

Number LXVIII. The examination of divers persons about 
the printing-press of Martin Marprelate : and of the books 
so printed. Feb. 15, 1588. apud Lambhith m com. Surrey. 

P. 602. 
Number LXIX. Causes considered in proceeding against Mr. 
Everard Digby, fellow of St. John's college, Cambridge, in 


order to his deprivation : and moving thereunto. Which were 
offered by Dr. Whitaker, the master, to the lord Burghley and 
the archbishop of Canterbury, visitors of that college. P. 606. 

Number LXX. Articles framed and propounded to Cutbert 
Bainbrige ; as collected out of a sermon by him preached at 
St. Mary's, Cambridge. Of which the vice-chancellor required 
him to declare under his oath what he spake publicly. With 
his answers. P. 608. 

Number LXXI. Francis Johnson's account of his sermon, 
preached at St. Mary's, Cambridge, Jan. the 6, 1588, upon 
1 Pet. v. 1 — 4. The elders which are among you I exhort, who 
am also an elder, and a witness, 8^c. Against which sermon 
were divers articles framed, and propounded to him. Of 
which Mr. Vice-chancellor and Dr. Perne, with other heads, 
required him to deliver under his oath what he spake pub- 
licly. P. 611. 

Number LXXII. A note of such things as do appear against 
Mr. Edward Crofts, upon examination of one Smith, a con- 
jurer, and others after named j concerning procuring the 
death of the earl of Leicester by conjuration, P. 615. 

Number LXXIII. The lord treasurer lord Burghley's letter to 
Mr, Dyer, the queen's agent in the parts of Germany, signi- 
fying the queen's invitation to sir Edward Kelly ; labouring 
his coming into England, to give his service 'to the queen. 

P. 617. 

Number LXXIV. A letter from an English merchant lately at 
Prague, to Mr. Edward Wotton, concerning the seizing of sir 
Edward Kelly, and committing him to the castle at Prague, 
by a special commission from the emperor j with the causes 
thereof. P. 621. 











CHAP. XV. 508 

A motion ^r peace with Spain. Deliberation thereupon. 
The lord treasurer delivers his judgment. A treaty be- 
gun with the duJce of Pat-ma's commissioners. The ar- 
ticles propounded to Parma: broke off. The Sjyanish 
invasion. Consultation titer eupon. Intelligence of the 
fleet from Spain. The queen's preparations. Public 
prayers appointed. The Spanish forces. La felicissime 
armada, so termed. Account of the Spanish forces in 
their books. The defeat of this feet. News printed of 
the overthrow of the English. Friars aboard the Spanish 
fleet. Litanies used for the success of their fleet. The 
English nation at first in a dreadful consternation. A 
pasquil concerning the Spanish fleet set tip at Rome. 
Their defeat and miseries in Ireland. Sir Francis 
DraMs letter from aboard of the Victory. Killigreza, 
ambassador, his letter to the States at this Juncture. Ro- 
gers, ambassador in Denmark, his service there. King 
Philip's words when the bad news was brought him. 



BOOK Public thanlsgivings. The qiieen conies in triumph to 


St. PauTs. A thanksgiving' prayer used. Exhortation 
to the people of England to he upon their guard. The 
cause of the queen'' s taking up arms. 

Anno 1588. We ROW proceed to the next year, viz. 1588, the won- 
Annus mi- (Jerful year, as it was commonly and deservedly called, with 

rabilis. . . . ■,, 

respect to this nation especially. 

Two weighty matters now lay upon the queen to be ma- 
naged. The one was a treaty propounded to the queen by 
the duke of Parma, governor of the Netherlands, for a truce, 
in order to a peace between her and the king of Spain. And 
the other, the preserving herself and kingdoms from the in- 
tended invasion of the Spaniard. 
Motion of a Concerning the former, when it came into mature deli- 
Spain '^' beration before the queen and council, in December the year 
before, and suspecting the motion was not sound at bottom, 
the greater care was taken how they proceeded, to go upon 
509 sure grounds ; and particularly, not to leave those of the 
Netherlands, whom she had taken into her protection, to 
the Spaniard's mercy. And in this weighty case the lord 
treasurer gave his judgment: which I find among his pa- 
pers, written by himself; therein shewing what he thought 
advisable and safe to be done in the managing of this bu- 
siness. This paper, writ by so wise and ancient a states- 
man, will deserve to be here transcribed, sent to the council 
(as it seems) in his absence by reason of his gout or some 
other cause. And was thus endorsed by his own pen : 

" To be considered what were meet to be done to procure 
'^'^ a good peace. December 14;. 

" First, That a peace is most necessary, no man can 
" deny. 

" Secondly, That the obtaining of it cannot be without 
" a treaty. 

" Thirdly, There are requisite to that treaty these cir- 
" cumstances : 

" First, A place convenient with surety. Secondly, a 


" cessation of arms during the treaty, as well in Spain as CHAP. 
" in the Low Countries. Thirdly, An assent for commis- '__ 

" sioners for the States, either to treat for themselves, or^°"o'588. 

" that the queen's majesty may treat for them. Fourthly, 

" That articles between the queen and the king of Spain to 

" be such as may make a clear and an assured peace ; 

'' without leaving such scruples and occasion of quarrels as 

*' hath been, for the queen''s subjects to be free from the 

*' inquisition. Fifthly, That the people of the Low Coun- 

" tries, whom her majesty hath defended, may not be im- 

" peached hereafter for any thing done ; but that they may 

*' enjoy their liberties and freedoms, and have the use of 

'* their religion, openly now professed in their churches : for 

" the enjoying whereof they have all this time stand to their 

" defence. Sixthly, That her majesty may be duly an- 

" swered of such sums of money as by contract with the 

*' States she ought to have. Seventhly, That this may be 

" contracted with the king of Spain, as hath been heretofore 

" for the Low Countries with the duke of Burgundy : that 

" is, to have the towns both of England and Low Coun- 

*' tries bound to keep the peace, as in former times hath 

" been. 

" Observations t(pon the points afore remembered. 

" First, If it might be treated on in England, it were 
" convenient and reasonable to be demanded for these 
" causes. 

" England is without men of war and hostility. And so 
" meeter to treat of peace. That reputation also requireth, 
" that considering the queen's commissioners to come from 
" her person, ut a latere principis. The other come not so 
" directly from the king; but are named by the duke of 
" Parma, who is but a subject to the king of Spain. The 
'' commissioners of the Low Countries may come as safe 
*' from Dunkirk to Sandwich, Dover, or Canterbury, as they 
" of England may to any place of the Low Countries. 

" Secondly, The cessation of arms cannot be so soon in 5 10 
" Spain as in the Low Countries ; yet if the duke will avow 

B 2 


HOOK " that he hath power to covenant for it, and will send to 
' " Spain by post for it, it may be hoped to follow. 
Anno 1588, " Thirdly, It is requisite to hasten the answer from the 
" States. And if they will obstinately refuse, yet her ma- 
" jesty may treat for herself. And in the mean time it may 
" be hoped the States will assent. Her majesty also may 
" by indirect means see how the States may be provided for, 
" for their rehgion : which, if it cannot be obtained with 
" surety, her majesty may protest to the world the just 
" cause of breach. And so in like manner provide how the 
" States may become more able to defend themselves. And 
" her majesty also may percase make herself stronger ; espe- 
" cially by procuring surety of Scotland ; and by procuring 
" further means to help her majesty to maintain her wars. 

" Fourthly, If such covenants may be made betwixt the 
" towns of both parts as hath been in former times, where- 
" by may more assurance be hoped for of continuance of 
" the liberties of the Low Countries, and conservation of 
" peace with England. 

" Fifthly, If the people whom the queen hath defended, 
" and who also themselves have always persisted to have 
" the use of their religion, for that purpose continued their 
" defensible wars, may not enjoy that liberty for wliich 
" they have continued their wars ; then may her majesty 
" justly refuse the peace ; and wanting that special matter 
" for which she hath attempted to defend them. And well 
" may it be avowed to the world, that if the king shall re- 
" fuse that, and so dispeople those countries of such sub- 
" jects, her majesty may certainly look for the like peril 
" from the king of Spain out of the Low Countries, that in 
" her protestation published she did notify to the world to 
" be the cause of her yielding to them her defence. 

" Sixthly, Her majesty's contract with the States may be 
" avowed lawful, as a contract for a debt, whereunto they 
" may lawfully bind themselves. 

" Seventhly, That examples are extant of like contracts 
" and bonds between the kings of England and the dukes 
" of Burgundy, and of the abilities and towns of both sides. 


" Which at this time is as necessary as ever was in any for- CHAP. 

" mer time." 

For the treaty, commissioners were afterwards sent by Anno isss. 
both parties, and met at a place near Ostend. Those on the ^ioiTeTon 
Enghsh side were divers honourable persons, as the earl of tiie English 

• /-^ p 11 r 1 ^''''^ ^"'" ^ 

Darby, lord Cobham, sn- James a Crofts, comptroller ot tlie t,.,ice with 

queen's household, Valentine Dale, a learned civilian, and Spain. 
master of requests, and some others. They began their Camd. Eiiz. 
treaty in April, and continued arguing all the summer ; in ''• 
show rather than in reality on Parma's side. 

And after loncj delays and little done, Crofts, one of the Crofts re- 

. . , , T • pairs to the 

queen's commissioners, (who was very desirous to compass ^„j.g ^f 
so good a purpose as peace, and to reduce all former quar- Parma, 
rels to an amicable conclusion,) went privately of his own 
accord to the duke himself at Brussels : and there shewed 
him the terms required on the queen's part, the sooner to 
have his answers. Which terms he drew up himself, and 511 
comprised in divers brief articles. And because these ar- 
ticles give light into the purport of this commission, and do 
not appear in our historian, this is the sum of them, as I 
transcribed them from a volume in the Cotton library. 

Articuli a Jacobo Crofto milite, Parmensi propositi, in 
pads tractatione. 
" I. That the king [of Spain] his commission [by whose shews him 
" authority the duke had set on foot this commission] JJ^^'"^"'^^' 
'• might be seen. treated on. 

?•, ^ . „ Julius, F. 6. 

" II. For a cessation ot arms. 

" III. Treaties and intercourses to be restored. 

" IV. Correspondency for mutual traffic, [in the king- 
" doms and dominions of both princes.] 

" V. How the English travelling in the king of Spain's 
" dominions should be used in case of religion. 

" VI. To make an a.avyjo-r/a of things done by the Eng- 
" lish. 

" VII. A concurrence to be put in action concerning 
" Holland and Zealand ; by what means to bring them to 
" the obedience of the king. 



BOOK " VIII. A particular and general pardon. 
^^' " IX. Toleration in religion as far as the king of Spain 

Anno 1588. " may grant with a safe conscience." 

The treaty But in fine, the treaty was broke off; intended in truth 
breaks off. ^^^^ ^^^ ^j^^^^^ ^^ Parma's and Spain's part, to hold the 

English in hand till the Spanish fleet was ready. So that 
in August, when both fleets were upon the seas, the queen's 
commissioners came home, being conducted safe by Parma's 
order to Callais : but Crofts was called into question for that 
journey of his to the duke of Parma, and his business there ; 
and not having sufficient order for so doing, by the earl of 
Leicester's accusation, (perhaps upon some private displea- 
sure,) he was cast into prison, though the articles were 
approved by the other commissioners, and agreeable to the 
tenor of the matters to be treated on. 
The Spa- Now next we come to see what great cause there was for 
sion. tlie queen and her council and parliament to be watchful 

against the malice of papists : who had stirred up the pope 
and the king of Spain against her in the invasion with their 
(supposed) hivincihlc armada, as they vainly called it. 
The vast preparations for this grand expedition, the num- 
ber of ships, seamen, soldiers, ammunition, the histories 
published in other countries, as well as our own, will tell us. 
Some further particulars whereof, with other matters of re- 
mark relating thereunto, I shall add, to illustrate this critical 
emergence of this queen's reign, as I have met with them, 
both in more public as well as more private papers of state, 
concerning this formidable armada, with the absolute de- 
feat of it : which I shall here communicate, the rather, to 
shew the signal providence of God to this kingdom in this 
notable juncture. 
512 But before this enterprise against England was actually 
^P^'"!*'^°"- undertaken, the fleet now ready, the kino; of Spain entered 

sultation . ' . . ^ , 11 I 1 • 

about this into a deep consultation with his counsellors, whether it 
enterprise, ^^^^.g jjjQj.g expedient to iuvade England or Holland. And 
the resolution was for England first. This notable align- 
ment, witli the reasons thereof, afterwards came abroad, and 
Printed was published in a book Politicariim Dissertationum. Be- 

anno 1613. 


ginning thus; Anno 1588, quando stupenda ilia classis re- CHAP. 
gis catJioUci in procinctu stahat, in qua disputatur, quo 

nam ejus convertend. sit impetus; i. e. That in the year 1588, Anno i588. 
when that amazing fleet of the king of Spain was in a readi- 
ness, it was concerted whither the force of it should be 

The discourse ; Tanta hodie est Hispaniarum regis po- 
tentia, &c. " Such at this day is the power of the king of 
" Spain, so strong his armies, so prepared for war, so fresh 
" his glory newly added to his empire by Portugal ; that 
" nothing but what is signal, and worthy the grandeur of 
" so great a majesty, seasonable to the present time and oc- 
" casion, is expected from him." 

The resolution was. That England was the country that The result 
should be invaded rather than Holland first. And for this JI,/ade°Eng''- 
divers political reasons were urged. The heads whereofiand. 
were these that follow. 1. That it was easier to conquer 
England than Belgium, that is, Holland. 2. The Dutch be- 
ing malecontents were not to be provoked. 3. England, how 
powerful heretofore, and how at this day. 4. The weakness 
of England in comparison of Spain. 5. England wanted ships 
and forts ; and also horses, and all other warlike prepara- 
tions. 6. The English desirous of novelty. 7. The Enghsh Political 
hate the queen. 8. The Enghsh want only to offend, [i. e. tj^'^'" ^' 
to rebel in other terms.] 9. England began to decline. Tom. iv. 

10. England destitute of captains for war : needy of money. 

11. The power of king Philip. The naval strength of the ca^ 
tholic king. 12. Assistance of French and Scots. 13. The 
honour and glory of this expedition. 14. In England many 
catholics favouring the king. 15. England, as inchnable to 
the catholic religion. All these reasons were discoursed 
upon at large. 

As to that head particularly, viz. The Jionour and glori/ The honour 
of the expedition, thus the argument was managed : " That ^J^j?^°^'y_ 
" which in this deliberation must be considered in the first pedition. 
" place, that respect is to be had in this matter, of honour 
" and just cause of it. Since it is first the part of the ca- 
" tholic king: to defend cathohc faith and religion. That he 


BOOK " be certainly persuaded in this confidence, that there will 
^^' " be no impediment that can retard this attempt of his, that 
Anno 1688. " is Divino prcBsidio suhnixum, i. e. underpropped with the 
" Divine safeguard : for weak and vain are human coun- 
" sels and aids which oppose themselves to the will of that 
" Supreme Arbiter, But besides these pretensions that the 
" catholic king hath to this kingdom, the account of his 
" duty and office, that he can undertake no worthier expe- 
" dition in his own or ancestors' name, who are called catlio- 
" lie ; for this reason he shall not only on most just causes 
" obtain the possession of the kingdom due to him, but 
513 "shall gain to himself the immortal glory of his name 
" above all other kings that ever were ; namely, so ancient 
" and famous a kingdom joined to Spain." 
Catholics in Another argument, in relation to the catholics in Eng- 
vo"fr^t'he ^''' land that favoured the catholic king; it was said, " There 
king of a were very many of that sort that were on his side. And 
''*'"' " who knows not of what concern it is to have friends and 
" favourers among very enemies ? The destruction of Cauna 
" sufficiently shewed this, whereby the Roman army was al- 
" most quite overthrown. Nor indeed is any place so forti- 
" fied which may not easily be subdued, if within by the 
" citizens, and without by the enemy, the fight must be 
" managed. But in England are many who are addicted to 
" king Philip ; and in his cause will do what they can. And 
" that was proved by three reasons. 1. King Philip's cle- 
" mency. 2. The English as yet inclinable to the catholic 
'' religion. 3. The mighty hopes of gain. For the confirma- 
" tion of this, it was said, that the catholic king doth not 
" only himself abound in wealth, but in all his empire hath 
" numberless gainful offices, as well secular as ecclesiastical. 
" And that he hath most ample opportunities to be grateful 
" to those that deserve well of him. And that it will be 
" easy for him to draw the minds of the English to him ; 
" and to catch others with the prospect of some rich re- 
" wards." 

And to prove the inclination of the English to the catholic 
religion, thus this politician proceeded : " We know that 


" England at this day is torn away from the bosom of the CHAP. 
" holy church, not by any inveterate or natural infection, 

but by the error rather, and blindness of Henry VIII. Anno i588. 
" who suffered himself to be carried away by his lusts ; so 
" that he made no account omnia 7niscere, i. e. to put all in 
" confusion. But if we look upon the nation of England 
" itself, it is indeed evident, that from the most ancient 
" times it hath been the most observant of the catholic reli- 
" gion. But if we consider the present state, we shall find it 
" driven into this precipice, not by their own will and de- 
" sire, but by the madness of the said king. Now if a view 
" of the time be truly taken, this plague of infidehty may 
" be looked upon as yet fresh, and the wound not yet skin- 
" ned over. Nor are there many years since Mary obtaining 
" the crown, the English were returned to the ancient ca- 
" tholic faith ; and so openly shewed, that their minds were 
" blinded with no other thing than by the di'owsy lethargy 
" that held the minds of kings bound and oppressed. And 
" how can it be possible that the English should not be catho- 
" lies for a great part, since either they or their fathers cer- 
" tainly were born and educated in this most holy faith ?"" 

Then for the argument, Angli novarum rerum cupidi, Tiie Eng- 
thus it was argued ; " That certain it was, that the study of ^''^'jjjjf * 
" novelties was inserted, as it were, by nature in the Eng- ances. 
" lish. For that if any read the history of that people, he 
" should find seditions, conspiracies, treasons, and the like, 
" had fixed, as it were, a dwelHng-place for themselves in 
" that island." And then examples were produced ; adding, 
" It would be infinite to relate all such matters. Whence 
"it appeared, how easy some confusions or disturbances 5 1 4 
" might arise in that kingdom ; especially, if men, of them- 
" selves desirous of novelty, and given to tumults, do see an 
" armed adversary before their doors. To whom they (if 
" for no other reason, at least out of fear of punishment for 
" rebellion) will undoubtedly join themselves of their own 
« accord.'' 

To that argument, Angli reginam oderunf, thus the That the 
same zealous statesman enlarged; " That since all, for the "y^' 


BOOK « i^iost part, of the English bore heavily the queen's rigorous 

" rule ; as who, not only ruling with small prudence and 

Anno 1588. a moderation, but also inhoneste vivendo, raised up against 
queen. " herself the hatred and indignation of her subjects daily 
*' more and more ; why is it, that we should not believe they 
" will willingly cast off such a yoke, occasion offering ? For 
" though the people shew a certain singular observance to- 
" wards that queen in their outward gesture and counte- 
** nance ; yet if any look inward, he shall find a bitter poison 
" of hatred towards her, in the inmost recesses of their 
" hearts. So that such Avords openly often, not only among 
" tile great ones, but among the common people, are tossed 
" about, that since the queen was born in unlawful wedlock, 
" she cannot hold the kingdom in prejudice of the true heirs, 
" and against the statutes of the kingdom. Wherefore there 
" is great hope, if the catholic king do arm against the 
" queen, that the subjects will attempt somewhat remark- 
" able for her destruction. Since so commonly it is seen to 
*' fall out, that the people, pricked forward by hatred, or 
" some other affection, will snatch at any occasion of de- 
" stroying whom they hate. So the Tarentines, weary of 
" the rule of Caius Liber, their prefect, received the Car- 
*' thaginians into their city in his very sight." 

These were the deliberations of tiie Spanish council, as 
full of falsehood as malice, to stir up the king, forward 
enough of himself, to determine this ambitious purpose. But 
now to see how it succeeded. 

In the beginning of July, news was sent to the court by 
a gentleman, who had it from a captain named Gilbert Lee, 
lately come from the coast of Spain, and arrived at Ports- 
mouth ; and gave this information. 
Intelligence " That upon the 25th of May, after their computation, 
of the fleet «c ^^^^,^.^, departed out of Lixbon for England an 160 sail of 

at Lisbon. ^ , _ n- 

MSS. Burg. " small and great ships, viz. 4 galleys, 4 galhasses, 30 hulks, 
" 30 small ships, the rest armadoes and gallions. In the 
" same fleet there are 30,000 footmen, beside mariners. 
" Which fleet arrived in the Groine, all, saving the 30 hulks. 
" Which hulks are yet missing. The vice-admiral of the 


whole fleet is dead. And the sickness increaseth in the CHAP. 
fleet. The general, being the duke of Medina, hath writ- '__ 

ten to the king, to know his pleasure for the proceeding Anno isss. 
in his voyage. The fleet lieth within the Groyne in three 
several roads, three leagues from one another. And he 
said, that if tliei'e had come but fifty sail of ships, by 
reason of the sickness, and being so dispersed, they might 
have burnt them all. There is a preparing for a second 
fleet in Lisbone ; which shall likewise come for England. 
" The king of Spain and the Turk have concluded a 
league for a certain time. This news he learned from 
three several ships, which he stayed ; and that upon the 515 
coast of Biskay. In one of them this news was confirmed 
by several Spanish letters, directed from Antwerp. One 
that is part merchant and passenger in a ship that is here 
now, saith, that he will affirm, upon the loss of his life, 
that all this is true. This ship came from Bayon about 
twenty days past, and saith, he left all this whole fleet in 
the Groyne, saving the 30 hulks that are missing, wherein 
all his horses be. Since which time, he saith, they have 
had no southcrnly wind, whereby the fleet could well 
come out of the Groyne, until these three or four days. 
And upon the receipt of the king^s answer, they were 
presently determined to come for England. He saith also, 
that his soldiers and gentlemen that come in this voyage 
are very richly appointed ; assuring themselves of good 
success. Insomuch as they might take up any wares, to 
repay it upon the booty they would take in England. 
" The duke of Parma did send a ship from Dunkirk to 
Lisbon, wherein there was an ambassador and fourscore 
gentlemen. Upon whose arrival the fleet departed pre- 
sently. There was a report there, that the duke of Parma 
was come with his forces out of Flanders, and entered the 
Thames, and had taken London without any resistance, 
whereupon they were about to make bonfires. 
" The Englishmen that be in Spain do report very foul 
" speeches of her majesty ; and they and the Spaniards de- 


BOOK " sire but to set foot on land, and all shall be theirs. He 
^^' " said, they made a just account to be received in Scotland. 
Anno 1588. " He saitli also, that he met with 25 sail of Frenchmen 
" upon the coast of Biskay, which came from Lisbon. And 
" after some conflict between them, and hurt done on both 
" parts, they departed ; and whither they went, he knoweth 
" not. 

" I asked captain Lee, whether he saw my lord admiral 
" at sea, or no, and he saith, he saw none of the fleet." To 
this paper the lord treasurer set the date, viz. 5 Julii, 1588. 
The queen's The State saw Avell the mighty preparations of arms and 
piepara- shipping that were ready to come down upon them. And 
the active queen made the best provision she could to re- 
ceive them. And in order thereunto, one of her first cares 
was to get the nation in arms; especially those countries 
that bordered upon the sea. I have seen the queen's letters 
to this purpose to the marquis of Winchester and the earl 
of Sussex, for Hampshire, writ in the month of June ; now 
when already the Spanish fleet appeared upon the seas. 
Her letter " She first took notice to them of their former diligence in 
*kuteVrnts " ^'^^"' lieutenancies, that her subjects in those parts might be 
of Hauip- " ready in arms to defend themselves and her kingdom 
^""^* " against any such attempts. And the directions she gave 

"' she found so well performed by them, that she could not 
" but receive great contentment thereby ; and likewise for 
" the great willingness of the people, generally shewing 
" thereby their great love and loyalty. That she accepted 
" it most thankfully ; and acknowledged herself most bound 
" to Almighty God, that it had pleased him to bless her 
" with such loving and dutiful subjects. 
5l6 " And that finding the same intention now of invading 
" and making a conquest of the realm, now more and more 
" detected and confirmed ; and an army being put to sea 
" for that purpose, which she doubted not nevertheless, 
" through God's goodness, should prove frustrate ; she 
" thought good therefore to require them forthwith, with 
" all the speed they conveniently could, to call together the 


" best sort of gentlemen under their lieutenancy, and to de- CHAP. 
" clare unto them these great preparations and arrogant _______ 

" threatenings, now burst forth in action upon the seas: Anno 1 588. 

" wherein every man's particular state in the highest degree 

" would be touched, in respect of country, liberty, wives, 

" children, lands, lives, and (which was especially to be re- 

" garded) the profession of the true and sincere religion of 

" Christ. And to lay before them the infinite and unspeak- 

" able miseries that would fall out upon any such accident 

" and change. Which miseries were evidently seen by the 

" fruits of that hard and cruel government holden, where 

" such change happened, &c. 

" That she expected therefore, on this extraordinary oc- 
" casion, a larger pi'oportion of furniture, both for horsemen 
" and footmen ; thereby to be in their best strength against 
" any attempt whatsoever : to be employed, whether about 
" her own person, or otherwise. And the number she re- 
" quired them to signify to her privy-council. Assuring 
'* herself that Almighty God would bless their loyal liearts 
" borne towards their sovereign." The whole letter, whereof 
these are but some short minutes, deserves to be preserved ; 
and so it may be found in the Appendix. N".L. 

Nor was this all the strength she expected from her sub- The nobi- 
iects in the several counties, but she required moreover the "*^ '^'^''V'f *^ 

•' _ ' T. to repair to 

highest rank of them, her nobility, to provide themselves, the queen 
and their servants and dependants in like manner, with ,^rms. " 
horses and armour, to be ready to repair, upon summons, to 
the queen, for defence of her person. And to this purpose 
letters were addressed to tliem from the lords of the council 
by her command. The minutes whereof, as I transcribed 
them from the lord treasurer''s own pen, were as follow. 

" Although we doubt not but your lordship heareth daily The coun- 
" the reports made from the parts beyond the seas, what to them.^"^^ 
" great preparations of forces are made, as well in Spain as 
" in the Low Countries ; and that in common judgment of 
" men the same may be intended against the estate of this 
" realm ; yet because in the directions given these late years 
" through the whole realm, for mustering, arming, and 


BOO K " training of all persons for to bear armour, there hath been 
*^* " no special directions given, to require any nobleman to 

Anno 1588." prepare himself with any furniture for the war for him- 
" self, his servants, and tenants ; but that her majesty did 
" certainly suppose that it was the natural disposition of the 
" nobility without direction, to be armed, both for them- 
" selves, and for furniture of horsemen and footmen, accord- 
" ing to their ability : 

" Therefore we, that have cause, by our calling in the 
" service of her majesty, to have a more certain knowledge, 
517" than by common reports, what preparations are already 
" made in the parts beyond the seas, very likely to the of- 
" fence of this realm ; for the defence whereof, considering 
" that her majesty hath very providently ordered that her 
" people in all parts of her realm should be in readiness 
" under captains and leaders ; and that it is the part of wis- 
" dom that her majesty ""s person should have, in such a time 
" of danger, a special army to resort to her person ; to be 
" directed by her majesty where cause shall require ; in 
*' which service none are more meet to be trusted than her 
" nobility: we have thought it not impertinent to this pur- 
" pose, to impart thus much to your lordship, as one whom 
" we know her majesty doth trust. And therewith do re- 
" quire your lordship to take it for an argument of special 
" love to your lordship in advertising you of the premises. 
" And in regard thereof we do not doubt, but that your 
" loi'dship, with all the speed you can possible, will be fur- 
" nished with armour and weapon meet for your calling, 
" and of your servants and able tenants, that are not already 
'•' enrolled in the general musters of the county, as special 
" trained persons, to make as many horsemen as you can, 
" both for lances and light horsemen. And for the more 
" increase of horsemen, for want of sufficient nvnnber of 
" great horse or geldings, we think your lordship may do 
" well to increase your number, if you shall provide able 
" men with petronels upon horse of smaller stature. 

** And your lordship being thus furnished, (as we hope 
" you will,) we think her majesty will make good account of 


you among other noblemen, to repair to her person, when CHAP, 
you shall be called. And your lordship shall singularly 

" content us, to let us know by your letter, as soon as you Anno loss. 
" may, what shall be the numbers which your lordship shall 
" account to have furnished ; and of what condition for this 
" service. Whereupon we may, according to the good-will 
" we bear you, impart the same unto her majesty." 

The queen also, to strengthen herself in this emergence, a loan to 
took up great sums of money of her city of London, which '^''^ queen 

' ^ "^ . . . from the 

they lent her readily ; each merchant and citizen according city of Lon- 
to his ability. And so did the strangers also, both merchants *^""' 
and tradesmen, that came to inhabit there for their business 
or liberty of the protestant religion. In all to the sum of 
49OOZ. Whereof, among the strangers, John Houblon was jou. Houb- 
one; (of whose pedigree, no question, is the present wor-'°"- 
shipful spreading family of that name;) who lent for his 
part 100^. 

And together with all other human means, orders were Prayers and 
issued throughout the nation for public prayers on Wednes-j^^^gj^* ^"" 
days and Fridays weekly, in all parish-churches, to be used, 
for deliverance and good success. And an office was com- 
posed for that purpose. And a citation went forth to sum- 
mon the clergy of the city of London to meet : when a strict 
charge was given them for the due observation thereof. For 
so I find in a diary of one of the city ministers, viz. " That mss. d. 
" being called too-ether, they were required to be zealous in"^"?'' ""P*^*" 

Y . . , episc.Elien. 

*' prayers and almsgivmg ; namely, on Wednesdays and _ 
" Fridays ; and to stir up the people thereunto. And pro- 
" per homilies to be read for fasting, praying, and almsgiv- 
" ing." Other particulars concerning prayers enjoined on 
this occasion may be read in the History of Archbishop 
Whitgift's Life. Book iii. 

c, 19 

One of these prayers deserve to be recorded, in eternal 
memory of this imminent national danger ; entitled, A 
prater, to be delivered ^rom our enemies; which I take 
out of the book then set forth, called, A form of prayer, 
necessary for the present time and state. It ran as follows : 

" O Lord God of hosts, most loving and merciful Fa- ^ P'^^y^'' °a 

" this occa- 


BOOK " ther, we thy humble servants prostrate ourselves before 
^^' " thy Divine Majesty, most heartily beseeching thee to 
Anno 1588." grant unto us true repentance for our sins past; namely, 
" for our unthankfulness, contempt of thy word, lack of 
" compassion toward the afflicted, envy, malice, strife, and 
" contention among ourselves, and for all other our iniqui- 
" ties. Lord, deal not with us as we have deserved ; but of 
" thy great goodness and mercy do away our offences ; and 
" give us grace to confess and acknowledge, O Lord, with 
" all humble and hearty thanks, thy wonderful and great be- 
" nefits, which thou hast bestowed upon this thy church and 
" people of England, in giving unto us, without all desert on 
" our part, not only peace and quietness, but also in pre- 
" serving our most gracious queen, thine handmaid, so mi- 
" raculously from so many conspiracies, perils, and dangers ; 
*' and in granting her good success against the attempts of 
" our enemies. For the which so wonderful and great be- 
" nefits, we humbly beseech thee to stir up our dull minds 
*• to such thankfulness, and acknowledging of thy mercies, 
" as becomes us, and as may be acceptable unto thee. 

" We do instantly beseech thee of thy gracious goodness, 
" to be merciful to thy church militant here upon earth, 
" many ways vexed and tormented by the malice of Satan 
" and his members ; and as at this time, as it were, com- 
" passed about with most strong and subtle adversaries. 
" And especially, O Lord, let thine enemies know, and 
" make them confess, that thou hast received England 
" (which they, most of all for thy gospePs sake, do malign) 
" into thine own protection. Set, we pray thee, O Lord, a 
" wall about it, and evermore mightily defend it. Let it be 
" a comfort to the afflicted, an help to the oppressed, a dc- 
" fence to thy church and people persecuted abroad. 

" And forasmuch as thy cause is now in hand, we beseech 
" thee to direct and go before our armies, both by sea and 
" land. Bless and prosper them ; and grant unto them, O 
" Lord, thy good and honourable success and victory ; as 
" thou didst to Abraham and his company against the four 
" mighty kings ; to Joshua against the five kings, and against 


" Amalek ; to David against the strong and mighty armed CHAP. 
" Goliah : and as thou usest to do to thy children, when 

" they please thee. We acknowledge all power, strength, Anno 1588. 

" and victory to come from thee. Some put their trust in 

" chariots, and some in horses; but we will remember thy 

" name, O Lord our God. Thou bringest the counsel of 

" the heathen to nought, and makest the devices of the peo- 

" pie to be of none effect. There is no king that can be 519 

" saved by the multitude of an host ; neither is any mighty 

" man delivered by much strength. An horse is but 

" a vain thing to save a man. Therefore we pray unto thee, 

" O Lord ; thou art our help and our shield. 

" O Lord, give good and prosperous success to all those 
" that fight thy battle against the enemies of thy gospel. 
" Shew some token continually for our good. That they 
" who hate us may see it, and be confounded. And that we, 
" thy little and despised flock, may say with good king Da- 
" vid, Blessed is the people zchose God is the Lord Jehovah, 
" and blessed are thejblk whom lie hath chosen to he his in- 
" hcritancc. These, and all graces necessary for us, grant, 
" O heavenly Father, for Jesus Christ's sake, our only Me- 
" diator and Redeemer." This we may call a prayer of 
faith, in regard of the strong hopes of success to be 
granted to this kingdom professing the gospel; which ac- 
cordingly happened. 

And the queen had good reason to make all the provision 
that possibly she could against this mighty force, both by 
land and sea, that was coming with so much fierceness 
against this land; and reckoning themselves sure of a con- 
quest by reason of their vast and (supposed) invincible 
strength. Which the Spaniard, the more to advance his A book of 
glory and terrify his enemies, had caused to be known j.^^ f^^t,, ;„ 
abroad in all languages, not only in Spanish, but in Latin, Spanish. 
Italian, French, and Dutch, excepting Enghsh. That writ- 
ten and printed in Spanish shewed distinctly ail the pre- 
parations of ships, their burdens, and men belonging to them : 
written, as it seemed, in a bravado, and confidence of victory. 
For they called it, The most happy armada ; bearing this 



BOOK title; La felicisshna armada^ que el rey Felipe nuestro se- 
' niar mandojuntar en el puerto de la Ciudad de Lishoa en el 

Anno \^^^.reyno de Po7-tugal; en anno de mil e quinientos y ocenta y 
ocha. Hecha por Pedro de Pas Salas. Which book never- 
theless soon came into the hands of the lord treasurer Burgh- 
ley. In which book, in divers places, I have seen notes 
added by the pen of that nobleman, soon after the defeat : 
as, what captains were taken or slain, or what ships were 
sunk, or taken, &c. Another copy of this Spanish book J. 
Stow, the historian, saw in the hands of the worshipful Mr. 
Anthony RadclifF, alderman of London, as he writ in his An- 
nals, under that year, upon occasion of sir Francis Drake's 
taking the great galleon, being of 1150 tons. Wherein was 
don Pedro de Valdes, one of their generals, as he found in 
that book. 
The Spa- But this book soon came out in English, translated from 
put into the French, and printed this year by J. Wolf, a noted Lon- 
Engiish. (Jon printer. Whence it may not be amiss to take some 
notes, that we may the better observe and wonder at a su- 
perior power interposing and overruling, on England's be- 
half, at that perilous time. 

The book translated bore this title ; A discourse of that 
armada which the king of Spain caused to be assembled in 
the haven of Lisbon^ in the kingdom of Porttigal, in the 
year 88, against England. The lohich began to go out of 
the haven the 9Qth and 30th of May. The translator was 
520 one Daniel Archdeacon. Where, in the preface, the trans- 
lator observed, " How that Spain had published his pre- 
*' parations, not to the queen, but to all besides ourselves, 
" in Italian, Spanish, Dutch, French ; and still by them 
" thereby to discourage us." For thus he tells the world : 
" He hath many huge ships, so many thousands of armed 
" men, such multitudes of munition, as no man could de- 
" liver us out of his hand. As if he cried out, (with Rab- 
" shakeh to the Jews,) Let not England deceive you : for 
" it cannot deliver you out of my hand. Nor let Elizabeth 
" persuade you to trust in the Lord ; saying. Doubtless the 
" Lord will deliver us, and not give us over into the hands 


" of the king of Spain :" as the writer aptly useth the words CHAP, 
of Rab-shakeh sent by Sennacherib to good king Hezekiah, 

and his people, in such a strait as England and queen Eliza- Anno isss. 
beth now was in. 

In this book thus translated is set down (according to The con- 
the Spanish copy) "the number of galleons, ships, pin-^f"* 
' naces, zabres, galliasses, galleys, and other vessels, which 
' were assembled in the river of Lisbon ; whereof was chief 
' and general the duke of Medina Sidonia ; together with 
' the burdens of them, the land soldiers, mariners, muni- 
' tions, weapons, artillery, powder, and other furnitures for 
' war which they brought, and for what time the said mu- 
' nitions shall serve." It would be too prolix to enter the 
particulars here, but too remarkable to be wholly omitted, 
as it is, I think, by our historians. And therefore I have 
comprised the sum of it shortly from the Spaniards them- 
selves in their said book : see the Appendix. Hence it ap- N<>. Li. 
pears that fleet consisted of 130 ships, of 57,868 tons, 
19,295 soldiers, 8450 mariners, and 2088 slaves; besides 
many other lesser vessels of attendance. 

And further, for their surer success, their ships were fur- Friars of 
nished with abundance of friars, and religious men of the orders Tn""* 
several orders of St. Francis, St. Dominic, &c. and of the so- the Heet. 
ciety of Jesus, to the number of 180. And there was a 
Latin litany, called Litani<£, composed and printed for the 
prosperous issue of this expedition, to be used for a week 
together; each day having its distinct office. And more- 
over, for further good fortune, and to speed the better, their 
ships had each their tutelary saints and guardians ; as St. 
Martin, (in which ship the captain general was,) St. Philip, 
St. James, St. Anne, St. Mary, St. Christopher, &c. By 
whose names all their ships were called. 

But concernino; the foresaid Litany, (which I found a Litany 

? • o ^ • \ w for their 

among some authentic papers of that tune, brought over^^gt 
hither, or found perhaps in some of their ships,) I cannot 
but take some particular notice. It bare this title ; Lita- 
nicB et preces proJeUci successu classis cathoUci regis nostri 
Philippi adversus Angli(B hcBreticos, vercB Jidei impugn ato- 

c 2 


BOOK res. I will give some brief account of it, and the prayers 
there framed against us, as heretics ; as being the pretended 

Anno 15 S8. grand cause of our threatened destruction. See the Ap- 
N-.LII. pendix. 

A conquest The mighty intent of this fleet (and so it was published 
Britain in- ^^ somc of their books, and that not improbable) was, not 
tended. [o make a conquest of England only, but of the whole isle 
of Great Britain. And that from the Spaniards printed 
521 description of that armada. Wherein were specially named 
Copy of a gy^.jj ^ number of noblemen, princes, marquises, condes, 
Mendoza. and doHS, that were called adventure?'s, without any office 
or pass. And that such another number of men also, 
named captains and alferc:^., without office, and called enter- 
tenedos. As all those being in no service in the armada 
might be well presumed to have come with intention to 
have possessed the roon)s of all the noblemen in England 
and Scotland ; and those preparations for invasion, as shewn 
in their said books printed, were so grand and extraordi- 
nary, containing the particular long description and cata- 
logue of their armada, together with a mass of all kind of 
provisions, beyond measure, as sufficient in estimation to 
be able to make a conquest of many kingdimis and coun- 
tries; as a catholic, unknown here, wrote to the Spanish 
ambassador at Paris. 

In what a dreadful consternation the whole nation was 
now, upon this hostile appearance on our seas, and our 
weak strength and opposition,' in comparison with them, is 
lively set forth in a book of one of our bishops soon after. 

Admoni- " Oh ! my good brethren and loving countrymen, the 

people of " view of that mighty navy of the Spaniards is scarce passed 
England, a Qut of our sio^ht ; the very terrible sound of their shot 

By bishop ^ . .*.,,.'' , , 

Cooper. rmgs as it were still in our ears: when the certain pur- 

" pose of most cruel and bloody conquest of this realm is 
" confessed by themselves, and blazed before our eyes, [in 
" their books printed and dispersed ;] when our sighs and 
" groans, with our fasting and prayers, in show of our re- 
" pentance, are fresh in our memory ; and the tears not 
" washed from the eyes of many good men." 


But upon that grand defeat, the bishop represents Eng- CHAP, 
land in another view : " When the mighty work of God, 

" and his marvellous mercies in delivering us, and in scat- Anno isss. 
*' tering and confounding our enemies, is bruited over all ^^"J^jj^J'.J^^^ 
" the world, and with humble thanks renounced by all that of that 
" love the gospel, our Christian duty requires, for joy and'^""^' 
" thanksgiving, that we should be seen yet hfting up our 
" hands to heaven, with thanking minds, setting forth the 
" glory of God, and, with Moses and the Israelites, singing 
" praises unto his name, and saying, The Lord hath triumph- 
" ed gloriously ; the horse and his rider, the ships and the 
" sailors, the soldiers and their captains, he hath over- 
" thrown in the sea. The Lord is our strength ; the Lord 
*' is become our salvation." 

For notwithstanding the prodigious strength of this Spa- 
nish army, consisting of such vast numbers of galleons and 
galleasses, and ships of great burden, replenished with such 
crowds of armed men, for landing and invading this coun- 
try ; all was but an arm of flesh : and in short, after divers 
engagements by sea, were utterly overthrown, and glad to 
fly away by the Orcades, on the north of Scotland, in their 
shattered ships that were left; till, after infinite 'hazards, 
shipwrecks, and losses in those seas, some of them landed 
on the north parts of Ireland. 

Our historians are very brief and defective in their rela- shipwreck 
tions of the said ill success and dreadful shipwrecks and °^ *'j^,^^Jj^ 
miseries of that fleet, that happened to them in those 
northern parts. Which may deserve to be supplied. Which 
therefore I shall do from the epilogue of a letter sent from 522 
one in England to De Mendoza, the Spanish ambassador in 
Paris; a copy whereof was printed in English soon after. 
It related, " How that famous fleet was driven out of our 
" seas to the further north parts of Scotland, and driven 
" by tempests beyond the isles of Orkney, a place above 
*' 60 degrees from the north pole ; an unacquainted place 
" for the young gallants of Spain, that never had felt storms 
" on the seas, or cold weather in August. And about those 
" north islands their mariners and soldiers died daily, by 



BOOK " multitudes, as by their bodies cast on land did appear." 
But I leave the whole relation of these their miseries to be 

Anno i588.|.gad in the Appendix. 

•■^ "■ '^ Upon the scattering and disappearance of this mighty 

fleet, this writing was fastened up to pasquiL in the city of 

Rome, to be read by all ; as though the pope were in great 

A pasquil concern (as no doubt he was) for the fleet's flight : Ponti/i- 

Rome. Ciitt. ce7n mille annorum indidgentias largiturum esse de pleni- 

hbr. Titus, ludine j)otestatis sucb, siquis certo sibi indicaverit, quid sit 

Return de classe Hispanica ; quo abierit ; in coelumne sub- 

lata ; an ad tartara detrusa ; vel in aera alicubi pendeat ; 

an in aliquo marijluctuet. 

They land 'pj-jg forces that got on shore in Ireland, after some brisk 

in Ireland. , if«iiii 

skirmishes, were defeated, and beat by a much less force of 
the queen's there. A particular account whereof I do not 
find in our historians ; and therefore I shall also give some 
relation of it, sent to the queen by the governor and her 
officers there, in the month of September, soon after the 
action : which was to this tenor : 
Many of u j^y o^i^er advertisements of the 14th of September, it 

them land ;. • o -x 

but are " IS certified to the lord deputy of Ireland, from the earl 
beaten. « ^^ ^Pyj-Q^^ being at his castle at Dungannon, that upon 
" intelligence brought to him of the landing of certain 
" Spaniards in the north of Ireland, he sent two English 
" captains, with their bands, towards them, to the number 
" of an hundred and fifty ; who found them at sir John 
" Odognerty's town, called Illagh ; and there, discovering 
" their number to be about six hundred, did that night 
" encamp within a musket-shot of them ; and about mid- 
" night did skirmish with them for the space of two hours. 
*' In which skirmish the Spanish lieutenant of the field 
" and twenty more of the Spaniards were slain, besides 
" many that were hurt. 

*' The next day following they did offer skirmish again 
*' to the Spaniards. Whereupon they all yielded. And so, 
" as prisoners, were carried to Dungannon to the earl : who 
" meant to send them to the lord deputy ; being judged to 
" be men of good value ; and one thought to be a man that 


" had some great charge and conduct of men for many CHAP. 
" years. Whereof the lord deputy will give knowledge, as 

" soon as they shall be brought to Dublin." Then follow Anno i588. 
a list of the ships and men sunk, drowned, and taken upon 
the coast of Ireland ; namely, 17 ships, and 5394 men. For 
the particulars I refer the reader to the Appendix. Ton». Liil. 
which I shall add from the same paper Spain's loss of ships 
and men in the coast of England ; namely, 15 ships, and 
above 10,000 men, in a particular list: that we may, as 
it were, in one view, see England's never to be forgotten 523 
deliverance, by the signal hand of God against that insult- 
ing, cruel prince, king Philip. 

Many of these Spaniards, thus distressed, and taken in Spanish 
Ireland, were brought over prisoners into England; andgrideweii. 
committed under custody to Bridewell in London: where 
we find them in September the next year. Concerning one 
of these I make a remark by the way. One Giles Corit, 
of Brittany in France by birth, belonging to the sea, putting 
in at Lisbon when the Spanish navy was there ready to 
sail for England, was compelled to leave his ship, and to 
go with them in that unhappy expedition ; (on this occa- 
sion getting up all the seamen they could possibly lay their 
hands on.) This man at this time endeavouring to obtain 
his liberty, got a testimonial from Cyprian de Valera, a 
great Spanish officer, (now, as it seems, in custody,) who 
testified concerning this man as is aforesaid: and withal, 
that he was a poor sailor, an old man, and had a wife and 
three children, and was sick : and that all this account 
he [the said Cyprian] had from the relation of all the 
Spaniards that were with him. And this he testified the 
13th of September, 1589, under his hand, Cyprianus de 

In this grand decisive action, some particular information Letter from 
two letters will communicate, written at that very juncture Drake^to*the 
by two men of eminence, the one sir Fra. Drake, from on lord trea- 
board his ship the Revenge, and the other sir Henry Killi- aboarJ-' "" 
grew, the queen's ambassador, then with the states of Hol- 
land. In Drake's letter, which was written to the lord 

c 4 


BOOK treasurer, dated June 6, he shewed how the qucen"'s fleet 
' then at Plymouth was in every moment''s expectation of the 

Anno 1588. Spaniard; and that when they were in sight, what courage 
and bravery appeared in the Enghsh, however prodigiously 
great the enemy's navy appeared : that a skipper of an hulk, 
that gave them the first notice of them, could not number 
them, but supposed them to amount to 150 or 200 sail : 
and that the lord admiral stood so well affected for all ho- 
nourable service, as assured his followers of good success, 
and hope of victory. And so ending with his prayers, not 
doubting of the enemy. But take the letter, as I offer it 

N". Liv. from the very original. See the Appendix. Concluding pi- 
ously, " That he daily prayed to God to bless her ma- 
" jesty, and to give them grace to fear him. For so should 
*' they not need to doubt the enemy, although they were 
" many."" 

When the fleets were in face of one another on our seas, 
and some engagements passed between them, (wherein one 

Letter of of the enemy''s great ships was destroyed near Calice,) Kil- 

sir H. Kii- Ijjprew, the queen"'s ambassador in Holland, thought it nc- 

Jigrew, am- " -if • i • i i 

bassador to ccssary to cxcitc the states now to assist, and particularly 
the States, j^ ^te ready, and to watch the duke of Parma, w^ho with his 
forces was going to carry aid from Dunkirk, and to join the 
Spanish fleet : and when he returned was like to attack 
some of their towns. For this purpose Killigrew, being 
now at Leyden, despatched a letter, dated Aug. 3, to Van- 
der-Myle, president of the States at the Hague, wherein 
(with the preface of Illustrissime Domine) he acquainted 
524 him, " that coming to Leyden, narratum est a quodam, 
" qui se intra biduum Caletis prqfectum, SfC. it was told 
" him by one [probably his spy,] who but two days past 
" came from Calice, that the Monday before, there was a 
*' terrible fight between her majesty's fleet and that of Spain ; 
" when, he said, he saw one great galliass taken, although he 
*' thought the ship itself perished, but all the goods carried 
" off:" [this was the vessel wherein don Hugo de Moncada 
was slain, and 686 men besides perished.] " And that it 
" was done \vithin a gun-shot of Calice : that the same per- 


" son further informed him, that on Wednesday following, CHAP. 
" her majesty's commissioners [who were the earl of Derby ' 

and others, that had been sent to treat with Parma about Anno issa. 

terms of peace in show] " came all safe to Calice, in order 

" to their coming home. On which account, that now all 

" treaty of peace being broke off, the ambassador be- 

" seeched Vander Myle, that the States would hasten with 

" all diligence the sending away the letters to her majesty 

" which were that morning- read in their council. And 

" added, that all those forces which went aboard at Dun- 

" kirk, in order to strengthen the Spanish army, were landed 

*' again by order of the duke, as reckoning it not safe to go 

" from shore, the English fleet being so near. And that 

" this was matter, the ambassador said, he doubted not, 

" sufficient to admonish him [the said president] how ne- 

" cessary it was, that Ostend and Berghen [two strong 

" places, being garrisons held by the English] should be 

" provided for. Wherefore he earnestly entreated his ex- 

" cellency, that he would persuade count Maurice to solicit 

" the states of Zealand, that there be sent in time to those 

" cities provisions, and other necessaries for their aid." 

Concluding in these words : " In which things, as I re- 
*' quire, most confident in your pains and industry ; so I 
" would you should be persuaded, that in the like case I 
" shall never be wanting to serve you. Farewell. Dated 
" from Leyden, Aug. 3, 1588." 

And this warning of the ambassador was not without 
ground : for the duke of Parma, soon after his departure 
from Dunkirk, made use of his forces, and set upon Bergen, 
and laid close siege to it ; but was several times beat by the 
English garrison there. Insomuch that he brake up the 
siege after the loss of 400 men, as our historian tells. 

The queen had another ambassador now at the court of Rogers, am- 
Denmark,viz. Daniel Rogers; who, by his prudence, stopped jj'g^'^^^j.'l^'" 
an hired fleet of ships going from that kingdom to advance 
the power of the Spanish navy with greatei* numbers ; for 
as it had joined with it ships from Naples, Sicily, Venice, 
so more strength was endeavoured to be procured from this 


BOOK country. But the said English ambassador, upon knowledge 
^^' thereof, seasonably applied to that court to forbid the de- 
Annoi588.parture of those ships for that purpose, as being a violation 
of the good friendship between the two kingdoms. This 
transaction I choose to give in the words of the said ambas- 
sador, in his letter writ in August to the lord treasurer. 
Hs letter " There were certain who had received commission from 
to the lord « the king of Spain to serve him with certain ships, mariners, 
thTnce"^.^ " and soldiers upon the seas : which being invited with great 
525 " stipends, thought they might so do. But being advertised 

" of this matter, as they were ready to depart, I complained 
" unto the governors [of the king, now a minor] , declaring, 
" how far the attempt of such men was against the leagues 
" which were between the crowns of England and Denmark, 
" and nothing conformable unto the sincere friendship which 
" had been between her majesty and the king their master. 
" Upon this complaint of mine, although the parties pleaded 
" their privileges, the governors took severe order, that nei- 
" ther they, nor any other of the subjects of the crown of 
" Denmark or Norway, or appertaining to the dominions 
" of the king, should, either at this present or hereafter, 
" serve against her majesty." 
News of It would be worth knowing how this haughty king Philip 

the defeat took the first news of the English conquest of his invincible 
kfngVhiiip. armada. Our historian, in the Life of Queen Elizabeth, 

Camd. Eiiz. yy^ites, that he bore it patiently, and thanked God it was no 
p. 418. ' . . , ' . -^ , , , , , . 

worse. But it is otherwise more probably told in a paper, 

written by a fugitive gentleman that lived in those times, 
namely, Anthony Coppley; being his Declaration of prac- 
tices against her majesty's person and government. " That 
" he saw it writ in a letter out of Spain to a Spaniard in 
" Flanders to this effect : that when news of the disgrace 
" of the king's late armada, or fleet, was brought unto him, 
" being at mass at that very time in his chapel, he sware 
" (after mass was done) a great oath, that he would waste 
" and consume his crown, even to the value of a candle- 
" stick, (which he pointed unto, standing upon the altar,) 
" but either he would utterly ruin her majesty and England, 


" or else himself and all Spain become tributary to her. CHAP. 
" Whereby, as he gathered, it was most evident, that his ^^' 
" desire of revenge was extreme and implacable towards Anno 1 583. 
" England.^' 

But his priests could have told him the reason why he The priests' 
was no more successful in that expedition against the here- [f^*?" ^j''^ 
tics in England. " That it was a visible judgment on the succeeded 
*' Spaniard, for not expelling the Moors out of his country. "° * 
" For God would never make use of the Spaniard to reduce 
" heretics to the bosom of the church, so long as they suf- 
" fered so many Mahometans apostates to live among them:'" 
as it is told us in the History of the Expulsion of the Mo- P. so. 
riscoes out of Spain. 

Upon the first news of this wonderful deliverance and 
victory, the kingdom was filled with joy, and a sense of 
gratitude to God ; and that expressed by special offices to be 
used in all the churches of the nation. The first notice 
given of it in public was, as I find, on the 20th of August, 
when Nowel, dean of St, Paul's, preached at the Cross aThanksgiv- 
sermon of thanksgiving, the lord mayor and aldermen J^^ 
present : moving them and all the auditory to give praise 
and thanks to God for the great mercy. Again, Sept. 8, 
being another and chief day of thanksgiving, the preacher 
at St. Paul's Cross moved the people to give God thanks for 
the late wonderful overthrow of their enemies, the Spaniards. 
There was then openly shewed eleven ensigns, being the 
banners taken in the Spanish navy; and particularly one 
streamer, wherein was an image of our Lady, with her son 526 
in her arms : which was held in a man's hand over the pulpit. 
The same banners the next day were hanged on London- 
bridge towards Southwark. Again, November 17, was an- 
other day of joy celebrated, as well for the queen's accession 
to the throne, as also for the said victory : when Cooper, a 
very learned and worthy bishop of Winchester, was appoint- 
ed then the preacher at the Cross. At which assembly her 
majesty was to have been present; but, upon some occasion, 
she came not : and so her coming was deferred till the Sun- 
day following. The 19th day, being Tuesday, was kept 



BOOK holyday throughout the reahn, with sermons, singing of 

psalms, bonfires, &c. for joy, and thanksgiving unto God 

Anno 1588. for the Overthrow of the Spaniards: and the citizens of 

London tlien appearing in their hveries, and had another 

sermon at St. Paul's Cross. 

The queen But November 24, being the Sunday following, the queen, 

triumph to (attended upon by her privy-council, the nobility, the 

St. Paul's. French ambassador, the judges, the heralds, with noise of 

trumpets,) sitting in a chariot like a throne, made with four 

pillars, drawn with four white horses, came to the cathedral 

church of St. FauFs ; and joined in the thanksgivings there 

made, and heard the sermon, made by Pierse, bishop of 

Sarum, her lord almoner : and then returned through the 

church to the bishop''s palace, and there dined. 

There was a prayer and psalm, appointed to be used 
duly in the parish-churches on this joyful occasion : and as 
there was a prayer to be said for God"'s assistance of the 
queen's forces, and their good success when they went out, 
and to be continued while they were abroad, which was 
set down before ; so the prayer and thanksgiving for the 
happy issue may deserve to be repeated and preserved 
here, as an eternal record of God's goodness and England's 
ffratitude. It was as follows : 
The thanks- a \\rg cannot but confess, O Lord God, that the late ter- 

civing used ., , . i i • • f i 

in the " rible intended invasion oi most cruel enemies was sent 
churches a fj.Qj^ thee, to the punishment of our sins, our pride, our 

after deh- '■ . i i • i 

verance " covetousncss, our cxccss in meat and drink, our security, 
from t le ^^ ^^^ ingratitude, and our unthankfulness towards thee 

armada. » ' 

*' for so long peace, and other thine infinite blessings con- 
" tinually poured upon us ; and to the punishment of other 
" our innumerable and most grievous offences, continually 
" committed against thy Divine Majesty : and indeed our 
" guilty consciences looked for, even at that time, the exe- 
" cution of that terrible justice upon us, so by us deserved. 
" But thou, O Lord God, who knowest all things, knowing 
" that our enemies came not of justice to punish us for our 
" sins committed against thy Divine Majesty, (whom they by 
" their excessive wickedness have offended, and continually 


" do offend, as much or more than we,) but that they came CHAP. 
" with most cruel intent and purpose to destroy us, our ci- ^ ' 

ties, towns, countries, and people; and utterly to root out Anno i588. 
" the memory of our nation from off the earth for ever. 
" And withal wholly to suppress thy holy word and blessed 
" gospel of thy dear Son our Saviour Jesus Christ. Which 
" they, being drowned in idolatry and superstition, do 
" hate most deadly ; and as likely only for the profession 527 
" of the same, and not for any offences against thy Divine 
*' Majesty, or injuries done to themselves. 

" Wherefore it hath pleased thee, O heavenly Father, in 
" thy justice to remember thy mercy towards us ; turning 
" our enemies from us, and that dreadful execution which 
" they intended towards us, into a fatherly and most mer- 
" ciful admonition of us, to the amendment of our lives, 
" and to execute justice upon our cruel enemies; turning 
" the destruction that they intended against us upon their 
*' own heads. For the which the same thy most gracious 
" protection, and all other thy graces, without our deserts, 
" continually and most plentifully poured upon our church, 
" our queen and realm, and people of the whole land, we 
" beseech thee, add and pour also the grace of gratitude 
" and thankfulness into our hearts ; that we never forget- 
" ting, but bearing in perpetual memory this thy merciful 
" protection and deliverance of us, from the malice, force, 
" fraud, and cruelty of our enemies," &c. 

Soon after this notable exploit of the English arms, and 
deliverance from their late danger, the kingdom was still 
upon their guard, for fear of their implacable enemy, the 
ensuing year. And for this purpose a well-disposed gen- 
tleman of the queen's household set forth. An earliest ^^- An earnest 
hortation to the queens majesty's subjects : to stir up ^^'^to the Peo- 
m'lnds of all faithful subjects, to defend their countrij in pie of 

, ^ 7 ■ • /> • AJ England. 

this dangerous time from the invasion of enemies. And 
as it is Siddedi, faitlifidly and zealously compiled by Anthony 
Marten, sewer of her majesty'' s most honourable chamber. 
I take notice of it here as a notable discourse, shewing and 
justifying the queen''s proceedings in her making war with 


BOOK Spain, soon after the defeat of their armada. " Wherein, 
• " as the author writ, they would not seem to war with a 
Anno 1588. " woman, but to prepare so invincible a force against her, 
" as might devour her and her whole kingdom in a day, 
" without any war at all. But He, as he proceeded, that 
" sitteth above casteth out the counsel of princes, and bring- 
" eth their devices to none effect : he hath destroyed 
" their forces, and sunk into the sea their huge and strong 
" vessels." 
The cause And then going on, he gave some particular and re- 
vasion,'"" "^^^rkable relation of this fortunate expedition. " When the 
" greatest princes in Christendom had with one consent 
" conspired with the see of Rome to make war upon all the 
" professors of the gospel, and to reduce them again to their 
" abominable idolatry, or else to destroy them, that their 
" name should be no more remembered upon earth ; but 
" especially perceiving the queen"'s majesty to be most zealous 
" of the truth, and the principal pillar on whom the church 
" of Christ did depend ; they devised many ways to deprive 
** her of her life and kingdom. Come, say they, this is the 
" Jieir ; let us slay her, and the inheritance shall he ours. 
" Then her majesty, knowing from whence the chief cause 
" of their malice proceeded, and that the matter most of 
" all claimed the glory of God, and next unto that the life 
" of her own self, and of infinite thousands of her subjects; 
528 " she hath since that time taken into her possession (though 
" not the hundredth part of that which she might, and hath 
** been offered her) [viz. by the oppressed in the Low Coun- 
" tries,] yet some part of her enemies' weapons, as was 
" lawful for her to do, for the better defence of her king- 
" dom, and more safety of the church of Christ : since vvith- 
" out those helps she had no safe way to defend herself. 
The queen's " [That IS, taking the government of those countries upon 
taking up " her.] Yet have these things been done of her majesty 
arms. « with sucli deliberation, advisement, and long protracting 

" of time, as it might be evident unto all the world, that she 
" sought nothing more, than to have her enemies, by some 
" means or other, reconciled unto her, before she would 


" enter into any new occasion for her own defence.. And un- CHAP. 

• XV 

" doubtedly, but that it so much concerned the cause of. 

" God, and the kingdom of her ancient aUies; all which Anno 1 588. 

" she was bound to defend, when she took upon her the 

" imperial crown ; and that she saw, that if she did take 

" whole kingdoms from her enemies by violence, they could 

*' never have been enraged more against her than before : 

" she would rather have lost a thousand lives in her own 

" person, than have touched any thing that should oifend 

" her neighbours, or might seem to belong to another. But 

" when she saw that no other means would prevail : when 

" her highness saw the Turks, Jews, and infidels were suf- 

" fered to live quietly among them, without compulsion of 

" conscience, but her poor subjects brought into sei'vitude, 

" unless they would submit their souls to the power of An- 

" tichrist : when for a most courteous entertainment of all 

" their subjects within her dominions, all hers among them 

" were either made galley-slaves, or else brought within the 

" compass of their cruel inquisition : when neither her own 

" friendly letters might be received as they should, nor her 

" messengers of account regarded as they ought : finally, 

" when they had decreed, that no faith was to be kept with 

" us, and made us worse than infidels, because we have fled 

" from their superstition, and followed the sincere faith of 

" Jesus Christ : 

" Then her majesty, with all princely courage and mag- 
" nanimity, began to stretch forth her power, to defend the 
" cause of God and her own right. And these be the 
" strong causes of their tragical dealings with us. Awake 
" now therefore, my countrymen ; pluck up your spirits, 
" &c.'^ 

This pious and well disposed writer, with his exhortation, h. prayer 
had composed a suitable prayer to be used on this occasion ; ygg^" 
which was read, during this dangerous season, at the queen's chapel. 
chapel, and elsewhere. Which 1 have thought not unwor- 
thy to be preserved among our records in the Appendix. [N". LI v.] 



The Spanim-ds. after their overthrow, spread h/inff reports 

Anno 1588. ^,. . „^ , ^. 7-o-7 

o/ thetr victory. Books thereof pritited m ISpamsii. 
^ One entitled, Advice Jrom London. Sir Francis Drake'' s 
narrative of' this engagement. Don Pedro de Valdes 
taken prisoner by Drake. His examination : and 
ra?isom. His letter from Brussels sent to the queen. 
His complaint to her concerning his ransom to be paid 
to sir Francis Drake : the lords answer in the queen's 
name. The queoi's preparations against the next year. 
Requires a loan of her subjects. The council's letters to 
the lords lieutenants of the counties for that purpose. 
Don Antonio offers articles to the queen. Reports at 
Rome, that the queen zvas taken, and to be sent to the 
pope. Triumphs there for this false victory. Intelli- 
gence from Rome, and other places abroad, of the king 
of Spain ; and his purposes against the kijigs of Scot- 
land and Navarr. A sessions of parliament. Bills 
brought in. Speeches made for and against them. De- 
claration of the house of lords to her majesty, to assist 

-t3UT now let us look on the other hand, and see how the 
enemy behaved himself after this mighty disappointment, 
and what course was thought fit to be taken, upon this their 
miserable overthrow and defeat. 
Spanish Their next care was to impose lies upon the world, to 

news print- gonceal their shame, and the disgrace of their proud king. 

ed of the _ ' " . 

overthrow For they studiously gave out nothing but glory and victory 
lish fleet""' ^^ their news. Such a relation was written and printed in 
Sj:)anish, of their great success against the English fleet, 
and against the lord Howard of Effingham, lord admiral, 
and sir Fra. Drake, rear-admiral. And this news was pre- 
tended to be sent from the chief city in England, viz. 
London, soon after the action, to the Spanish ambassador, 
resident at Paris. 

This pamphlet was brought from Flanders to England 
by a Spaniard, who had removed himself and family, about 


this time, hither: and being soon translated into Enghsh, CHAP, 
was as followeth, with this title ; L 

" Advices Jrom London^ which our ambassador, resident for Anno isss. 
" o^lr ling in Paris, received. ^"^^ 

" By news from London of the 26th of August, it is Pretended 

• n ^• ^ 1 •• intelligence 

" certamly known by persons oi credit, that the queen s f^om Lon- 

" admiral general was arrived in the river of London with ^^^- 

" 25 or 26 ships, without his admiral [ship] that he went 

" forth in : the which was taken by our admiral St. John. 

" And it is public in England, that to cover the loss of 

" his said ship, he gave out, that he had changed shipping 

" for one that was swifter of sail, the better to follow our 

" armada : being notwithstanding certainly proved, that he 

" saved himself in a boat, when he lost his ship ; and that 

" Drake was either taken or slain. The very same was con- 

" firmed by the way of Holland by a pinnace of theirs. 

" And from Amsterdam, that the queen had commanded, 

" upon pain of death, that there should be no speech of her 

" navy : and that there was great sorrow in her king- 

" dom. And that she had 30,000 men in field, between 

" Dover and Margate, very raw soldiers. And that the 

" catholics, perceiving her navy to be spoiled, had made 

" a mutiny. Which caused the queen to go in person into 

" the field. And they affirm for most true, that there is 

" no ship or boat of ours carried into England, more than 

" the ship of don Pedro de Valdes. And that our armada 

" was gone for Scotland ; where they had taken a port, 

" called Trepena Euxaten."" 

There were also other Spanish letters stuffed full of lying 
intelligence, writ in September and December : which were 
brought into England by the foresaid Spaniard, and put 
into English. Which may be found in the Appendix. N-.LV. 

The chief instrument of these vain and false reports, and Mendoza 
the studious spreader of them in print, was don Bernardine^f^jfig'^^^e^' 
de Mendoza, the Spanish ambassador in France ; and who tf nded 

. Spftnisii 

pg^rticularly was the publisher of the victory of Spain. Of victory, 
whom one of our writers at that very time thus charged 
him : " That he was so impudent, or at least so blindly 



BOOK " rash, as to disperse in print, both in French, Italian, and 

^^' " Spanish, most false reports of a victory had by the Span- 

Annoi588. " iards, even when the victory was notable on the part of 

" England, and the Spanish vanquished. AVarning him 

" henceforth to beware, not to be so hasty of himself, nor 

" yet to permit one Capella, who was his common sower of 

" reports, to write these false things for truths." 

Sir Francis But a truer and brief relation of this enoagement, and 

port of this tlie success on the English side, sir Francis Drake, who 

engage- himself was a o-reat captain in this fleet, gave soon after, 

ment. . . . . 

being penned by himself, upon the vainglorious, false re- 
Voyages of ports of the Spaniards. " That they were not ashamed to 

the Engl. , ,. i • i i • • ... 

p. 169. publish in sundry languages, in print, great victories m 

" words, which they pretended to have obtained against 
" this realm ; and spread the same in a most false sort over 
" all parts of France, Italy, and elsewhere, when shortly 
" after it was happily manifested, in very deed, to all na- 
531 " tions, how their navy, which they termed invincible^ con- 
" sisting of 140 sail of ships, not only of their own king- 
" dom, but strengthened with the greatest argosies, Portugal 
" caracks, Florentines, and huge hulks of other countries, 
" were by 30 of her majesty''s own ships of war, and a few 
" of our own merchants, by the wise, valiant, and advan- 
" tageous conduct of the lord Charles Howard, high ad- 
'* miralof England, beaten and shuffled together, even from 
" the Lizard in Cornwall, first to Portland ; where they 
" shamefully left don Pedro de Valdez, with liis mighty 
" ship, from Portland to Calice ; where they lost Hugo de 
" Moncado, with the galleass, of which he was captain : and 
" from Calice, driven with squibs from their anchors, were 
" chased out of the sight of England, round about Scotland 
" and Ireland ; where for the sympathy of their religion, 
" hoping to find succour and assistance, a great part of them 
" were crushed against the rocks; and those other thatland- 
" ed, being very many in number, were notwithstanding 
" broken, slain, and taken. And so sent from village to vii- 
" lage, coupled in halters, to be shipped into England, 
" where her majesty, of her princely and invincible dispo- 


" sltion, disdaining to put them to death, and scorning CHAP. 
" either to retain or entertain them, they were all sent back, 

" again to their countries, to witness and recount the worthy ^^""<* '^^^• 

" achievements of their invincihle and dreadful navy. Of 

" which the number of soldiers, the fearful burden of their 

" ships, the commanders'* names of every squadron, with all 

*' other their magazines of provisions, were put in print, as 

" an army and navy irresistible, and disdaining prevention. 

" With all which their great, terrible ostentation, they did 

" not in all their sailing round about England so much as 

" sink or take one ship, bark, pinnace, or cockboat of ours : 

" or ever burnt so much as one sheepcote of this land."""" 

Tiiat don Pedro de Valdez, spoken of before, was sir 
Francis Drake*'s prisoner ; and after some years' imprison- 
ment here in England, paid a round ransom to him, before 
he had deliverance, and liberty granted him by the queen 
to return into his own country. While he was detained Examina- 
here, he was often under examination concerning the Spanish p°dio, pri- 
fleet, and the king's purpose and design, &c. And in order son^r. 
thereunto a great number of articles were drawn up, (which 
I believe were done by the lord treasurer,) containing ques- 
tions, whereunto he was demanded his answers. As, who 
had the king's commission .'' How many were counsellors to 
the general by that commission ? If the general should mis- 
carry, who should succeed in his place H Who the admiral 
general was .^ Concerning the king's sending a commission to 
the duke of Parma, to treat and conclude a peace with 
England .'* What opinion was had of the king of Scots, or 
any of his realm, to join with this enterprise, or to favour it ? 
What opinion was had of landing in Ireland ? How many 
places they had information of to land in England; and 
what succours promised to be had here ? Whether any 
promise was made to have rebellion stirred in England, and 
in what places .? Several questions concerning the duke of 
Parma : as, what power was thought to come with him ; 
and upon what occasion the king writ a particular letter to 532 
him? But I had rather transfer this whole paper, both 
questions and don Pedro's answers, to the Appendix. N°. LVI. 



BOOK I shall only set down the last questions, (whence we may 
gather what was designed in this invasion.) 
Aiuioi588. "What determination was there for the proceeding 
" against the queen, and the nation of England ? To which 
" don Pedro only answered warily, That Jie zcould not touch 
" that strmg. 

" How would they have known the catholics from the 
" protestants ? 

" To whom in the land should favour have been shewed ? 
" Who should have had the title to this crown ? 
" Whether should the nation have been ruled by the 
" rulers of the English nation, or the government changed ?" 
wiiat would By which state questions, it may appear evidently what 
the Span- ^^^'^ to be looked for from Spain, had their fleet prospered, 
iiird sue- j^j^fi their army landed in this kingdom : as, that a fearful 
massacre would have followed of protestants every where ; 
only catholics secured by some particular distinction made, 
to know them. The queen must have been not only de- 
posed, but undergone some direful usage. New rulers, that 
were strangers, to be set over the nation. And the ancient 
government and constitution overturned. 
Don Pedro The foresaid Spanish commander remained here three or 
ransom re- ^^^^ years ; and now paying, or being bound to pay for his 
turns home, ransom, and of two captains luider him, and other charges, 
the sum of 3,500Z. to sir Francis Drake, (whose prisoner he 
was,) he took his leave of the queen and court, and so de- 
parted for Brussels : having been very courteously and re- 
spectfully entertained while he remained here; and so he 
confessed and reported to his friends, when he was gone; 
and professed himself ready to do all good offices between 
the queen and his king : writing thus to the lord treasurer 
soon after his coming to Brussels, according as his Spanish 
letter translated ran, viz. 
De Vaidiv.' " That comiug to that court [at Brussels] he found in it 
Brussels to " ^^^^ coudc Defeutcz, who was a great lord, and his very 
the lord " friend : for it was 30 years ago that they knew one an- 

treasurer. ^,1 i • • <> 1 ' 1 • • 1 1 1 

" Other : and sigmhed unto him witli what good entcrtam- 
" ment he departed out of that kingdom, and the great fa^ 


" vour he found with her majesty, and the great ones of CHAP. 
" her highness' council. He told him also, how his excel- 

" lency, [meaning the lord treasurer, to whom he was writ- Anno i588. 

" ing,] at his departure, offered him to receive his letters in 

" good part, if he wrote to him ; and recommended him to 

" procure with his king all the good offices he might when 

" occasion offered. To the end that this kingdom and the 

" kingdom of Spain might return to the ancient friendship 

" and league that it was wont to have : which, as he added, 

" he then offered unto his excellency, as he was agent, to 

" do his part the best he could, as he should spy steps 

" open, that he might treat thereof without losing the least 

" occasion. And promising, for the effecting of this, he 

" would be always ready to give his excellency account 

" thereof; so that he would shew him the favour to answer 

" his letters, which should be for his service. And that in 533 

" so doing, as he added, he had an intent to follow it earn- 

" estly, as he was bound." This was dated from Brussels, 

March 21, 1593. 

About a week before, he also addressed a letter to the His letter 
queen, in acknowledgment of his favourable dealing in her °^^ '^';J'J,^';'' 
kingdom, and by herself for his liberty ; beginning with these 
words, as they were translated from the Spanish : " I well 
" acknowledge the goodness that your majesty hath done 
" for me, in suffering me to have my hberty : for the which 
" I am so thankful, that all the days of my life I will have 
" it before my eyes to do your majesty service, so far forth 
" as my small power sufficeth," &c. 

But there was another reason why don Pedro made this Complains 
address to her majesty; which was a complaint against sir*"^J^\j^ 
Francis Drake for his very unjust dealing with him in tak-ransoui^ 
ing such a sum of money for his ransom, when there was ^jr Francis 
formerly an agreement (to which, he said, the queen herself Drake, 
condescended) for the exchange of one Mr. Winter (a pri- 
soner under the Spaniards) and him, as he related it in his 
letter to her ; viz. for the payment of 3,550/. of which sum 
Winter was to pay 2,500/. and De Valdez was bound for 
the other 1,500/. whereas the burden of the whole payment 

D 3 




Anno 1583, 
An ex- 
moved for 
him with 
prisoner in 

That tlie 
queen was 
not con- 
senting to 

The lords' 


The change 

now was laid upon him. It is too long to relate the matter 
as represented by him. It is certain, that soon after don 
Pedro^s being taken, an endeavour was used to get his li- 
berty, by an exchange for him with an English gentleman 
that had been taken going by sea into France, and was now 
a captive under the duke of Parma in Flanders. His name 
was Edward Winter, son or relation (as it seems) of sir 
William Winter, sometime the queen's agent, or JohnAVin- 
ter, the famous sea-captain. The matter was transacted 
between some of don Pedro's friends and Winter, who was 
held in some closer restraint by the Spaniard, that he might 
be the more willing to get his liberty, and obtain this fa- 
vour from the queen. Winter hereupon sent two of his ser- 
vants to the English coiu't ; especially, their terms with him 
being, not to grant him his liberty, unless by such exchange. 
And the report went, that the queen w^as inclined thereto. 
But in truth she would not yield to it. And why, the en- 
suing letter from the lords of the council to Mr. Winter 
will shew, (and is worthy inserting here,) by me transcribed 
from the lord treasurer's own minutes. 

" Where, by two of your servants, named Thomas Hall 
" and William Meredith, we understand, that you are 
" there retained prisoner ; and that in a very strait man- 
" rier, without yielding to you any reasonable composition 
" for your ransom, or rather none, unless that don Pedro 
" de Valdes, a principal captain in the king of Spain's 
" army, on that side, here prisoner in England, may be put 
" at liberty for you ; and that they which pretend interest 
" in you affirm, that there hath been an intention here for 
" the queen's majesty to yield thereto; whereof because we 
" never heard of any such disposition in her majesty, but 
" thought the information thereof to be untrue, we moved 
" her majesty to know her opinion therein ; who for an- 
" swer said, That she never meant to yield thereunto, nor 
"• (to avoid an evil example) to suffer such an unequal 
" change to be made, could in honour assent thereto : for 
" she said, as we know it also to be true, that don Pedro 
" was a principal captain, and a general of a squadron, of 


" the great squadron of the ships of war of Andalouzla, CHAP. 

" armed, brought to have invaded this realm. Of which at- 

" tempt he was also a principal ; yea, almost, as is reported, Anno i58f 

" the only persuader of the king of Spain to adventure that 

" enterprise. And besides, that he was a person, that before- 

" time had charge as a general on the seas : and therefore a 

" man far exceeding for action, value, and credit, you, Mr. 

" Winter ; whom we know never to have had charge at all 

" in any martial service, but to have lived as a private per- 

" son. And now, when you were taken, had no direction to 

" serve, but that resolutely of your honest desire intended 

f ' to pass into France to see the manner of service there ; 

" and by contrary winds and tempests was driven from 

" Depe, where you meant to have landed: and thereby 

" taken, and sold over to the Spaniards. In which case, , 

" reason and good usage of war required, that you might 

" have been, as a private man, being no captain, dehvered 

•' upon some reasonable recompense to your taker ; as many 

" hundreds of Spaniards, yea, many that have had good 

" charge in the late wars, and have been known to have 

" been of honourable families, have been put to liberty 

" upon small ransoms, and very many for no other charge 

" but for their diet. 

" And these things thus considered by her majesty in 
" conference with us, she commanded us to signify thus 
" much to be shewed to such as with whom you are to 
" compound for your liberty, which we know by no better 
" means to do than by this our writing to yourself: which 
" you shall do well to shew where you shall think meet : 
" for to that end we have written this our letter, by her 
" majesty's express command, in the French tongue ; not 
" doubting, but that when seignor Mount Dragon, in whose 
" custody you are, shall see the same, being a nobleman, of 
'< good wisdom, and of long experience in the wars, as any 
" now liveth in those parts, he will further your speedy 
« dehvery upon reasonable conditions; for your degree, 
" and for the quality of the manner of your taking, without 
" giving credit to any informations that have been given ; 

D 4 


BOOK " [viz.] that for your delivery don Pedro should be de- 
' " livered : wliich was never meant, nor with any reason 

Anno 1588. u ought to be accorded ; having respect to so great a dif- 
" ference of your persons, your actions, and estimation for 
" martial service; although her majesty indeed is very de- 
" sirous of your delivery, as of a gentleman to be favoured, 
" both for your own sake, and for your father, that served 
" her majesty very worthily of long time." 
Letter to We have seen how exceeding diligent the queen and her 

tenant^ for t^ouncil were in their preparations against Spain ; and how 
a loan to successful (by the blessing of God) it proved in the event. 
But she counted not herself secure after that signal con- 
quest late obtained ; but like a wise and provident prince 
judged it necessary to make provision still against any fu- 
535 ture attempts, which she was apprehensive of from that ma- 
licious and haughty king. And therefore, in order to get in 
a readiness arms and men against any danger of invasion, 
having pretty well exhausted her treasure, borrowed money 
of her subjects, as she had done before upon like occasion : 
and which she promised faithfully to repay again, as she 
had done always before in the like case. And accordingly 
circular letters, dated December the 4th, were sent to the 
lords lieutenants of the counties from the lords of the coun- 
cil, for this loan, with directions for the raising of it : which 
being a notable letter, and giving such light to the state of 
the nation, and containing expressions obliging to the sub- 
jects, I will transcribe it here from the very pen of the lord 
treasurer, who best knew in what condition the treasury 
now was. 

" After our very hearty commendations to your good 
" lordship, we doubt not, but both to your lordship, and 
" also to others that have had any charge this last year in 
*' any part of government witiiin this realm, it is manifest, 
" how necessary it was that this realm was defended both 
" by sea and land, in such sort as had been seen, against 
" the common potent enemy, attempting to have invaded 
" and made a conquest of the same. Wherein the queen's 
*' majesty, with the assistance of God's special favour, and 


" by expenses of great treasures, which she had most CHAP. 
" princely reserved for the maintenance of the state of this 

" her reahn, hath received great honour to herself, to her Anno isss. 
" people singular comfort and safety ; and hereby her ene- 
" mies repulsed with great losses, ignominy, and dishonour. 

" Yet nevertheless her majesty in her wisdom seeth it most 
" necessary to make new preparations, for the strengthening 
" of all her forces, both by sea and land, to serve to with- 
" stand the new attempts of the enemy this year following. 
" Whereof she hath great cause to doubt, that he and his 
" confederates, the enemies of the gospel, will spare no cost 
" and labour, to renew, or rather increase his former forces. 
" For which purpose her majesty is presently, not only of 
" her own treasure, but other extraordinary means, to dis- 
" burse great sums of money, about the repairing of her 
" navy, or enforcing thereof by building and furnishing of 
" divers ships of war, and with other great provisions of 
" armour, weapon, ordnance, powder, and sundry other 
" furnitures for the wars, and defence of the realm and all 
" her subjects. 

" And for the more speedy help to this, it is thought by 
" her majesty and us of her council, that presently means 
" be made to provide some convenient sum of money by 
" way of loan, or lending of her good and faithful subjects, 
" as heretofore hath been yielded unto her majesty in times 
" of less need and danger ; and yet always fully repaid. 
*' And to this end we have thought meet by her majesty's 
" direction to commend the care hereof to your lordship, 
" having charge by her majesty, as her lieutenant in the said 
" shire; praying your lordship, that without any delay 
"your lordship will consider, either by your own know- 
" ledge or with secret conference with some such in that 
" shire, as you think to be well affected to this service, and 
" are of knowledge to inform your lordship therein, how of 
" each particular person, being men of lands, or of wealth 536 
" in goods, such particular sums might be reasonably re- 
" quired by her majesty's letters under her privy seal, in 
" way of loan, in that whole county, her majesty might be 


BOOK "assured upon liei* demand by her said letters to every 
^^' " several person, to have the total sum within that shire of 

Antio 1588. " or rather more. 

" And to this purpose we require your lordship to con- 
*' sider of the number of all such as are known to be of suffi- 
" cient livelihood and wealth within that shire, of whom 
" you shall diink her majesty may readily have by way of 
" loan, only for the space of one whole year, such parti- 
" cular sums of 100^ of pounds, or of half 100^ of pounds, 
" or at the least not under the sum of 25Z. according as the 
" abilities of the persons shall seem meet to yield. 

" And in this matter we require you to forbear none 
" that hath any residence within that shire, being in your 
" opinion able to satisfy diis purpose. And yet if there be 
" any person of ability, that is an officer to her majesty in 
*• any of her courts of record, or of her revenue, that hath 
" any fee or yearly profit, by any such office, we require 
" you to make a special note of such, with your opinion of 
" the sums to be demanded. For that we are purposed, that 
" if the sums noted by you upon them shall not seem to us 
" sufficient for her majesty's service, the same shall be by us 
" assessed to such sums as we shall think reasonable. 

" And to conclude, we require your lordship, with all 
" speed that you can, to enter into consideration hereof; 
" and to send to us in writing the names and surnames, with 
" addition of their dwelling-places, of all such as shall 
" seem meet and able to make this manner of loan ; so as 
" the total sum above-mentioned, or a greater sum, may be 
" duly had." 

And upon the strength of these sums raised, and the va- 
lour of the English by sea and land, with the blessings of 
God favouring them, what damage happened to that quar- 
relsome inveterate king Philip, and the havoc made at Cales 
the next year, and other places of his dominions afterwards, 
our historians relate at large. 
Don An- And hcrc falls in another address of don Antonio, the 
ticieso^' expulsed king of Portugal; of whose application to the 
feredto the„yggj^ for her assistance, we gave some account the last 

queen. ^ 


year. Who, soon after the signal overthrow of king Philip's chap. 
armada, took this opportunity to renew his motion to the 

queen for her aid to recover his kingdom. His proposals Anno isss. 
and terms offered were very large : which he thought fit 
first to propound to the lord treasurer Burghley, in a letter 
writ in the Portuguese language, all by his own hand, and 
subscribed rey [the king]. Which being translated into 
English, I found among that statesman's papers, and shall 
here enter it as authentic : moving that lord to prevail with 
the queen (whom he styled his patroness) to accept them in 
his behalf as well as her own : declaring the particular ad- 
vantages he was willing to agree and consent to, for the 
making a firm friendship and league with her. And these I 
rather set down, there being no mention made of them in 53/ 
our historian, but in general terms, don Antonio made the 
English great promises. Camd. ya\z. 

"Most illustrious lord treasurer, considering the great p-'*^^- 
" love and zeal which your illustrious lordship hath towards j^'^ijet^ea- 
" your most serene queen, my patroness, and the common suiter. 
" good of her realms, I I'esolve to beseech you to do me 
" the favour to present to her most serene majesty the 
" humble attestation of the will which I have to serve her, 
" if God do me that favour to restore me to my kingdoms 
" of Portugal, with the help and assistance of her serene ma- 
" jesty, as I have hoped in her greatness. So that your illus- 
" trious lordship being my Maecenas with her most serene ma- 
" jesty, you may present my poor but thankful offer to her. 

*' I will never make peace, league, nor accord with king 
*' Philip, without her knowledge and her consent. When- 
" soever her most serene majesty shall make war, either of- 
" fensive or defensive, with the said king, I will assist her 
" with all the force and succour that shall be in my 
" power. 

" The fleet of her most serene majesty and her subjects, 
" which, with the leave and order of her majesty, shall 
" make war with the same king, shall have free access to all 
" the ports of my kingdom and dominions, both in Portu- 
" gal, and in Africa and Asia, and in Guinea ; and shall 


BOOK " be treated and entertained in the same as her own natural 
^^- " subjects and brethren. And from thence they shall exer- 
Anno 1588. " cise all that hostility which they shall please to make 
" against the same and the subjects. And they shall have 
" provision and ammunition, which can come from the said 
" parts, for her money, as to her own natural people. The 
" English, which, with her serene majesty ""s leave, shall go 
" into Portugal upon the occasion of their merchandise and 
" business, shall live there, and shall have a consul of her 
" own nation, which shall be judge among them of all oc- 
" currences, as well criminal as civil, without my nation's 
" meddling with any of their matters. 

" When they shall make a house of contraction of the 
" spicery of the East-Indies from Portugal, I will establish 
" it in this kingdom of England. And for the service of her 
" majesty they shall have a part of the sea for her best con- 
" venience through both these kingdoms. 

" To all strangers and merchants that shall assist in ships, 
" plate, or other things necessary for the voyage, I will ap- 
" point, and gratify them according to the contracts which 
" they shall make with me. 

" The English which shall accompany me, or upon some 
" occasion shall be willing to live in Portugal, and all other 
" my realms and dominions, shall have in their houses free- 
" dom to use the exercise of their religion particularly ; and 
" in no wise shall the inquisition have any superiority over 
" them. 

" This, and whatever else shall seem good for the service 
" of her majesty, I am ready to do upon this condition, 
" That her most serene majesty may be served ; and to grant 
" reciprocally a friendship and a correspondent fraternity in 
" the same articles. So as in my judgment I do esteem it 
538 " may concern her service, as I shall treat by word of mouth 
" with your illustrious lordship, or with her majesty here, 
" and when she shall be served. 

" And further, I beseech her most serene majesty, that 
" she will command all her subjects by an inviolable law, 
" that between them and my subjects there may be a per- 


" petual and reciprocal friendship and concurrence, that in c H a p. 
" nowise may be exposed or troubled by sea nor by land. 

Which thing will be the occasion of perpetual union. Anno i588. 

" Most illustrious lord, I beseech your lordship to excuse 
" the trouble which I may chance to give you with these ill 
'' composed lines, since the occasion of them was the most 
" sincere will which I have to her most serene majesty ; 
" and in the mean time commending me to the good favour 
" and grace of your lordship. 

" I beseech God to give you long and happy life. This I 
" caused to be sealed, that your lordship may be more se- 
" cure of my promise. From London, the 23d of October, 
" 1588. 

« REY." 

These articles, and the queen's access to them, produced 
that noble expedition the next year, viz. 1589, under sir 
John Norris and sir Francis Drake, together with other pri- 
vate gentlemen, at their own charges, the queen lending 
them some of her ships, don Antonio being with them : 
when they assaulted Groyn, and took Penicha ; the castle 
whereof surrendered to don Antonio. And afterwards sailed 
thence, and assailed Lisbon. All which I leave to our his- 
torian to relate. 

And let me here insert an information brought into Eng- 
land, taken from an English gentleman in the Spanish ser- 
vice, that will shew what great reason the queen still had to 
stand upon her guard against Spain ; shewing the resolution 
her implacable enemy had to set upon her the next year, or 
years, with greater strength and violence. I shall but tran- 
scribe the paper as I found it among the lord treasurer's 

" A declaration of one PHts, the 9Qth ofJnly^ 1589. 
" The 14th day of July, 1589, there arrived in St. Ma- Intelligence 

Z^.-,, _, ,. , 11 n of the kins' 

" loes one Giles Billet, an Englishman, who then came trom ^f Spain's 
" the court of Spain, as he said, bringing with him great P'^epara- 

i ' o o tj tions, 

'' Store of money (as it was told me by a man of Vittore, mss. T5mg. 


BOOK " called Henry de Geanes, a protestant) to buy victuals 
' " and munition for the Spanish king^s fleet, which he said 
Anno 1588. " cooics for England this next year. 

" The said Billet further reported, that there are mak- 
" ing ready twenty great ships at St. Androes for the said 
" fleet. That sir William Stanley" [a notable traitor that 
had betrayed a strong town in Flanders to the Spaniard] 
" is sent for out of Flanders to go in the said fleet. That 
*' the country of Spain hath given to their king 14 millions 
" of money towards the setting forth of the said fleet. That 
539 " the king of Spain hath sworn, not to leave himself worth 
" a candlestick that stood on the table, till he had been re- 
" venged of England. 

" He told further in my hearing, (saith the informer,) that 
" if he might procure his further good-will in England, and 
" have some matters of his ended, thereupon he would 
*' come for England, and would certify the council of such 
" matters touching the Spanish king, as he would deserve 
*' well at their hands thereby. 

" That also the said Giles Billet doth speak very much 
** of Mr. Richard Burley ; and is in great credit in the court 
** of Spain. And the said Mr. Burley was in the Spanish 
" fleet the last year. And at his return home again, as be- 
" fore he had 20 crowns a month, he hath now 40 crowns a 
-" month." 

This informer Pitts added, " That the said Billet had 
*' been at the court of Spain three years, and seemed to have 
" been a merchant. And that at his arrival at St. Maloes he 
" came ashore in mariner's apparel ; and the next day he 
" went in his silk and satin very brave. And said, that be- 
" fore his return to Spain he was to go to Newhaven," [to 
gather undoubtedly more ships and forces thence, or to as- 
sist in the holy league.'] 
Discourse Let me add the following memorial of this Spanish vic- 
about'the ^^O'' Vainly blazed over the world : that when it was known 
Spanish in- to be but a false report, and the truth came to be known as 
far as Rome, some discourse happened there about it be- 
tween two persons, one an Englishman, whether a traveller. 



or a spy, rather; and the other, whose name was Joh. CHAP. 
Dutche, and formerly had been of the queen's guard, but ^^^' 

now advanced to the honour of macebearer to cardinal Anno 1588. 
Allen at Rome. 

Of which place under the queen he would, glory, that his Cardinal 
dame of England (for so he always termed her majesty) did ^!jc"bearer 
often say, that Dutch, her ancient servant, was the only 
pilgrim she had beyond the seas. 

The occasion of their acquaintance was, that this traveller 
had a chamber in the house where this officer of the cardi- 
nal inhabited. What the particulars of some of their dis- 
courses were, this person gave intelligence afterwards to the 
lord treasurer, as I find them among that counsellor's pa- 
pers. Some of these I shall briefly rehearse. 

The gentlemaft and this Dutche being together in com- 
pany on St. Peter's eve at Peter Montauro, (where, they 
say, that apostle was martyred,) to behold the fireworks 
that night discharged from the castle St. Angelo, they fell 
into talk of the overthrow of the Spanish armada, and of 
the king's losses sustained in that attempt. When Dutch told 
him, that he had heard the cardinal say, that the king gave 
great charge to the duke of Medina, admiral of his armada, 
and the rest of his captains, that they should by no means 
harm the queen, when taken, [as if they had been sure of 
her and victory beforehand :] and that after they had taken 
her, to look well to the custody of her ; and that the duke. King Philip 
as soon as might be, should convey her to Rome, [to be •°**'"^'* ^° 
brought as it were in triumph there,] that the pope might queen to 
dispose of her as it should please him. And what the pope^^'^ ^"^'^' 
should have done to her, besides the putting her into the 
inquisition, we are left to guess. 

At another time, being together at a certain place be- 540 
tween the castle of St. Angelo and St. Peter's, where there 
was a great number of fine pictures hanging up, (belonging 
to some great painter,) of emperors, kings, queens, and 
other noblemen, and women, (all done by some great Italian 
painter.) Among the rest was the present king of Spain, Sir Francis 
and next him happened to be placed sir Francis Drake ; picture* at 



BOOK who had made himself famous throuirh the world for his 



valour and notable successes against the king, especially his 
Anno 1 588, late armada. At the sight of this, the cardinaPs mace- 
bearer was enraged with many passionate Italian words, as 
an insufferable indignity offered to that great catholic king. 
And this was not all, but notice was immediately given by 
him to the cardinal at the palace; and a messenger des- 
patched back to put Drake's picture down ; though the 
painter himself out of fear presently did it ; and notwith- 
standing came to trovible about it. It is well if Drake were 
not now burnt in effigy. 

This intelligencer also observed, how the picture of queen 
Elizabeth was not extant among all this show of kings and 
princes, being not permitted at Rome that honour, to have 
so much as her picture there publicly seen. 
A great tri- He related also from the said Dutchc, that at the first 
Rome. news of the invincible armada brought to Rome, there had 
been a great triumph there, for the taking of hei* majesty 
and subduing this realm. And that the said English cardi- 
nal then made a great feast, and invited to it all the Eng- 
lish, Scots, and Irish then at Rome. 
The pur- Other informations this gentleman gave of discourses he 
kin^o^f '^ ^^^^ heard at Liege and Lisle in his travels ; namely, con- 
Spain. cerning the king of Spain, and his counsels and counsellors ; 
what his purposes now were, and what designs were now in 
hand concerning Scotland. That meeting with Dr. Mar- 
shal, a Scotch Jesuit, at Liege, he told him, that king in- 
tended to invade Scotland, in order to oblige the king of 
Scots to bring in the catholic religion in that land. And of 
his going against the king of Navarr, a protestant king, for 
the settlinn; a catholic king in France. And that for these 
purposes Spain depended upon great sums of money from 
pope Sixtus ; but that his death prevented. What talk like- 
wise he met with abroad concerning the wisdom and policy 
of the queen's lord treasurer and other of her council ; and 
of their advantage over the king of Spain and his counsel- 
lors, in regard of their quickness and expedition of their bu- 
siness, and secret carrying on of their designs and purposes. 


Whereas the council of Spain gave out now what they CHAP, 
would do a year hence, &c. 

All these are but brief hints of this notable paper, which Anno i588. 
must not be deprived of a room in the Appendix. TheN". LVII. 
whole whereof there I have transcribed from the original. 

And having told so much of the enmity between Spain 
and England, the queen being still on the defence, before I 
go off from this bright part of her history, it will be worth 
shewing the justice of her proceedings against that injurious 
king. And that I shall take from a paper found among the 
MSS. in the Cotton library. Which paper I verily believe Cotton libr. 
was of the lord Burghley's own composing;' one very well '^"''"*' ^' ^' 
acquainted with the case from the very beginning. It was 
occasioned from a railing libel against the queen with respect 
to her dealing with king Philip, and her assistance given to 
the Low Countries. The particular transactions all along 
between both princes will receive much light hence. And it 
bare this title, Proceedings between Spain and England. 
This paper being somewhat long, I choose to dispose of in 
the Appendix. [N°. LVii.] 

In this dangerous time the parliament (that had been A pariia- 
prorogued) was thought necessary to be called together "pg^^J^g^ 
again ; chiefly about the Spanish quarrel ; the queen watch- '"^ide there, 
ful, and her council prudently standing on their guard, in 
the prospect of so implacable an enemy as that king. And 
however successful she had hitherto been against him, a 
large subsidy was therefore thought necessary to be raised 
of her subjects for this pvu'pose, to serve against him, not 
only the next year, but some years after : that they might 
not be surprised if unprovided. The subsidy required was 
for 4 fifteens and lOths, payable for four years, the 20th of 
November yearly. Two subsidies likewise in four years, the 
12th of February yearly, for the better provision ready 
against the Spaniard. This bill was brought in the 17th of 
March ; disgusted by many ; and what was spoken against 
it by some of the members, I collect from an authentic pa- 
per among the lord treasurer's MSS. One of them had 
these expressions : 





Anno 1588. 
A speech 
against the 


" As all honour and reverence is to be given to the first 
founders and furtherers of any laudable or profitable art, 
science, or custom ; so are the first forgers of any new, 
unnecessary, or snaring law or custom, most justly to be 
reproved of all their posterity. 

" If a benevolence should be demanded hereafter, it 
would be much less by reason of this subsidy," [so large 
respect of so many years payable.] 

" I find only two cases which may necessarily impel us 
thereto. The one, our sovereign''s commandment. The 
other, a desperate, or at least dangerous estate of our 
commonwealth. Which cannot by any other means be re- 

" It was well said of Seneca, Bis dat, qui cito dat. So it 
was well said of another in the inflicting of punishment, 
that dilatio poence is duplicatio poence. And of another, 
that the irrevocable sentence of death being, pronounced, 
it is misericordice g-enus, cito occidere. 
" Anno 39 Hen. III. a parliament was called, to let the 
commons understand the king''s need of money for dis- 
charge of his debts, and to require their aid towards the 
said debt. But denied of the commons. For that that de- 
mand was greater than had been accustomed. 
" Anno 15 [25] of Hen. VIIL the spirituality granted 
half their revenues, payable in five years. Of the com- 
mons was this demanded by the cardinal Wolsey, and 
furthered by the speaker, sir Thomas More, 4 shillings 
in the pound for goods and lands; or in a gross sum, 
800,000/. Conmiittees were sent to the cardinal, to entreat 
him to persuade the king that he woidd accept a less 
sum. He answered, That he would rather liave his 
tongue plucked out, &c. The parliament notwithstand- 
ing agreed to a subsidy of 12rf. in the pound, for all 
under 20/. 2s. from 20 to 50. and Ss. above 50Z. The 
commons threatened them, not to grant 4,9. lest they could 
not go home in peace. 

*' Fnaffc,Jumag-e, or chimnage denied to king Edward 
III. Seeing it is tributum, and not impositum. Seeing it 


" cannot be subsidium, because it is not opportuniim CHAP. 

" Maloricm sensus accrescit die leve est 7mseriam ' 

"J^erre; 'perferre grave. Anno 1 538. 

" Samuel tributum pro poena Israelis proponit." [By 
that word meaning a continued yearly tax.] 

" Poena apud inferos ideo miserrima^ quia perpetua. If 
" the invasion hold not, yet the money to be paid. Idjus- 
" tissimum est, quod necessariuni. 

" Pia sunt, qucB civihus imperantur tributa, sine quibus 
" civitas ipsaj'unditus sit interitura. 

" Mutuumjam a subditis acceptum .'''' [Meaning the loan 
that the queen had already taken of her subjects, to enable 
her against any sudden attempt of the enemy.] 

" Cum Hannibal Italtam bellis vexaret, senatus nova 
" t?'ibuta subditis imperari noluit. Nihil enim hostibus nos 

" prementibtis jam pericnlosum mutiium quam tri- 

" butum, melius, &c." The many more grave sentences and 
allegations, from ancient writers, produced by this learned 
member of the house, I omit, only setting down the words 
with which he concluded : 

" Principis divitias in subditorum opibus consistere de- 
'• bere singidorum opes diviticE sunt civitatis. Cic. 

" Diuturnitas tempuris efficere potest, ut quod pernicioso 
" more et exemplo inveteravit, potentius ipsa lege domi- 
" netur:" 

These are but some short, imperfect collections of this 
member"'s speech, taken, as it seems, by some then present in 
the house. But I have met with the whole speech against this 
double subsidy. The argument whereof was. Whether it 
were necessary or convenient at this time to tender unto her 
majesty such a subsidy to be paid in four years, in respect 
of any necessity thereof: but this spoken with all the de- 
ference and obedience imaginable towards her, in these 
words : " That if it were a charge imposed upon them by A speecii in 
" her commandment, or a demand, proceeding from her by a!!a",nst the 
*' way of request, he thought there was none among them ^"^'s'ciy bill. 
" all, either so disobedient a subject, or so unthankful a 
" man, in respect of the inestimable benefits which bv her 

]• 2 


BOOK " and from her they had received, which would not Avith 
__J___" frank consent, both of voice and heart, most wilhngly 

AtiiK) 1588. « submit himself thereunto, without any irreverend in- 
" quiries into the causes thereof: for that it was conti- 
" nually in the mouths of them all, that their lands, goods, 
" and lives were at their prince's disposal." I have tran- 
scribed the whole speech from the original copy of him that 
spake it, as appeared by interlinings and corrections in some 
places of it : it is somewhat long, but wise and learned, and 
seemingly loyal, and gives some account of the present state 
of England, as of Spain. And therefore I give it a place in 

N". LVIII. the Appendix. 

543 I shall also mention another bill, that more nearly con- 

A bill cerned religion, which caused much arguing; namely, 

against . ' . , ' 

strangers, brought in against strangers and aliens, that came'from 
abroad, from Flanders, France, and other countries ; gene- 
rally such as were exiles for their religion, and came into 
these parts to avoid the cruel persecution inflicted upon 
them on the account of their adhering to the protestant re- 
ligion. And here they lived very thriftily, and followed 
their trades, their occupations, and traffic, for their liveli- 
hood. But this disgusted many English traders, complain- 
ing thereof as prejudicial to their calling and business; 
especially the retailers. One who had spoke for the passing 
of this bill against the strangers, in behalf of our own coun- 
try, concluded with these words, (having rehearsed all the 
degrees of conjunction and society :) Omnes omnium chari- 
tates una patrki compleoca est; i. e. All the instances of 
charity that can be shewn to others, charity to one's country 
comprehends them all. 
A speech Upou whicli words another member, who spake next, 

h'aif''^"^ ^^' ^^"^ descanted : " That the very name of his native country 
" and nation was so pleasant to his ears, and so delightful 
" to his heart, that he was compelled to sid)scribe to that 
" which had been spoken, &c. But that on the other side, 
" when in the person of that stranger, he considered the 
" miserable and afflicted state of those poor exiles, who, to- 
" gether M'ith their countries, had lost all, or the greatest 


" comforts of this life; and so lay subject and exposed to CHAP 
" the wrongs and injuries of the mahcious and evil affected _ 

" That the condition of strangers was, that they had Anno i588 

" multa hospttia, but paucos amicos ; i. e. many harbours, 
" but few friends : that he was moved with a hearty com- 
" miseration of them, and felt in himself a sympathy and 
" fellow- suffering with them, &c. That as he had laid be- 
" fore them his aff*ection to the party, so now he prayed he 
" might with brevity lay before them his judgment. That 
" the bill required that it should be enacted, That no alien 
" born, and not being denizen, nor having served as ap- 
" prentice seven years, should sell any wares by retail. 
" Whereupon he considered how it might stand with the 
" grounds and foundations of all laws : which laws are the 
" laws of nature and the laws of God. And secondly, with 
" the profit and commodities of the commonwealth."'"' For 
the management of these arguments I refer the reader to 
the speech, which he shall find in the Appendix, as I tran- N°. LIX. 
scribed it from an original paper ; wherein will appear the 
hearty love and hospitable spirit the nation had for these 
afflicted people of the same religion with ourselves : for this 
bill against them did not pass. At the end of the said 
speech are added several wise and weighty sentences in La- 
tin, in favour of the strangers ; spoken then, as it seems, in 
the house : which will be read there. 

To which former bill against strangers was added another 
bill against their children ; that they should pay strangers"" 
customs. But that also was dashed at the second reading. 

There was another bill brought in, and laboured hard to A bill 
be passed : which was agamst jjluralities and non-residences : pfu^amies 
which was brought into the upper house March the tenth, and non- 
And what the sum and contents of it was, I have from some ^^ . 
minutes thereof taken by the lord treasurer under his own 
handwriting, whereupon we may depend. Thus endorsed • 

" A sum of the act against plurality of benefices with cure ryMSS. 
" souls, and non-residence. 
" The considerations. Maintenance of divine service. 


BOOK " Preaching of the sacred word. The discharge of the duty 
" of pastors. Increase of hospitality for the poor. Thebene- 

Anno 1588." fJces and Uvings ecclesiastical may be employed to a 
" greater number. 

" The act. If any person, having no benefice with cure 
" of souls, shall hereafter take any benefice with cure, and 
" after that shall take another with cure ; or if any having, 
" at the end of this session, one or more benefices with 
" cure, shall accept another such benefice, then immediately 
" after jx>ssession there his first shall be void ; a dispensa- 
" tion to the contrary notwithstanding. And it shall be 
" lawful for the patron to present. 

" 2. All persons having any one benefice with cure of 
" souls shall be resident upon the same. And if he have 
" mo than one, he shall be resident upon one of them. If 
" any person, not being in the queen"'s service, keep not re- 
" sidence, but shall be voluntarily absent by the space of 
" three months, at one or several times in the year, shall 
" forfeit for every month over and above the three months, 
« 10/. 

" 3. If any person have at the end of this session mo bene- 
" fices than one, he shall maintain, where he shall not be 
" resident, one sufficient and able person, authorized to 
" preach God's word, and to instruct the people in the 
" same, upon pain of 51. for every month''s defect. 

" 4. All dispensation against any provision of this act to 
" be void. 

" 5. Proviso for any person to take any two small bene- 
" fices, with cure of souls, being of value 16/. within three 
" miles." 

On the back-side of this paper the beforesaid lord tran- 
scribed, in favour of the said bill, certain passages out of 
some former synod, not mentioned ; viz. 

" Sexta sessione cap. primo, monet, ut attendentes sibi, 
" et imiverso gregi, in quo Spiritus San. posuit eos, re- 
^^ gere ecclcsiam Dei, quam acquisivit sanguine suo, vi- 
" gilent : sicut apostolus prceccpit, in omnibus laborem et 
" ndnisterium suum impleant. Implere antem ilhcd tie- 


" queunt, si g^reges sibi commissos, mercenariorum more, CHAP 
" dese7-ant ; et ovium suarum cusfodice minime incumbant. ^^^' 

" Certissimum sit^ non admitfi pastor'is excusationem, ^jAnnoisss. 
" lupus oves comedit, et pastor nescit. 

" Vic. quart, sessio. cap. 17. Ecclesiasticus ordo perver- 
" titur, quando unus duas ecclesias occupat. 

" Omne beneficium quamlibet [quantumlibet^ tenue. Jure 
" communi requirit resideritiam.'''' 

At the dissolution of this parhament, (which was nearDeciara- 
the beginning of next year, March the 29th, 1589,) there [.^""^"^^J'"" 
was a very loyal declaration prepared by the house of lords, lords. 
to assist her majesty with their lives, lands, and goods in 545 
her quarrel with the king of Spain; which I shall the ra- 
ther add here, being omitted in D'Ewes' Journal, and of 
such remark. It was drawn up by the lord treasurer 
Burghley, and thus endorsed : The heads of the declara- 
tion and offer to be made by the lords spiritual and tem- 
poral to her majesty, of their readiness to serve her ma- 
jesty in this sort. To be delivered by speech of the lord 

" Although upon great considerations appearing to them. To assist 
" of the mighty and resolute determination of the king of ^'^^J"^^" 
" Spain, in making of open war against her majesty and Spain. 
" the realm for God's cause, and to extirpate the Christian 
" religion in this realm ; and especially upon the sight of 
*' the last year's open invasion attempted against this realm, 
" with intent to have conquered the same ; the lords and 
" the commons of the realm have willingly yielded to a kind 
" of subsidy, though in their opinion not so sufficient to 
" answer her majesty's charge to be sustained as were re- 
" quisite. Yet for a further manifestation and declaration of 
" their most bounden duties, both towards the defence of 
" her majesty and the realm against so mighty attempts, 
" and also to offend her said enemy ; they do offer, with all 
*' manner of duty and willingness to her majesty, that 
*' whensoever she shall find it meet and profitable for her 
" realm to denounce an open war against the said king and 
" his adherents, they shall be ready with all their power^ 

E 4 


B()()K " their bodies, their lives, lands, and goods, to serve her 
." majesty therewith, as well by offensive wars abroad, as 

Anno 1588. «4 defensive at home, against the said king; and all his ad- 
" herents.'' 

^46 CHAP. XVII. 

Contest betzceen the church of Norwich and sir Thomas 
Shirley, upon pretence of concealment : a hook drawn up, 
in order to og^reement. The dean and chapter disallow 
thereof: and "why. The deaii^s application by letters to 
the lord treasurer. His complaint of the said patentee. 
Articles of a gr cement between them offered: but refused. 
The lord treasurer takes the case before him. The con- 
clusion of it. Endeavours to get the archbishop ofVorlc's 
house at London. His contest with the dean of Durham. 
This archbishop dies. His last will. His pedigree, and 
posterity. Some passages in his sermons before the 
queen, concerning' the rejbrmation, schism, spoiling the 
church of its revenues. Cooper, bishop of Winton, slan- 
dered by Marprelate. Vindicated. Endeavour of ob- 
taining long leases from the dean and chapter of Ely. 
Dr. Pern the dean, his letter thereupon. Scambler, bi- 
shop of Norwich, condemns one for heresy. His letter to 
court for executio7i. The archbisJiop of Dublin, lord 
chancellor, commends sir W. Herbert for his promoting 
of religion in Ireland. 

x\ND now we turn to the church of England, and the re- 
ligion professed therein, the main ground of all the fore- 
mentioned malice towards the queen and kingdom, 

I shall begin with the church of Norwich. Between the 

dean and chapter of which cathedral church, and sir Tho. 

Shirley, and other patentees for concealments, there had 

A plat tor been long contest : whereof divers things were related be- 

J,iish,ne„t f'^^'c under the year 1586, but it still depended. Yet it 

of the ca- came so far, that Popham, the queen's attorney-eeneral, had 

U.edralof , - ■ .. i ,• , • , , , • i 

Noiwicli. drawn u]) a plat tor establishmg that church anew, witli 


respect also to the benefit of the said patentees: which CHAP, 
writino- he sent to the lord treasurer, enclosed in a letter to 


him, importing, " that according to his lordship's direction, Anno isss. 
" he had sent a plat concerning the reestablishing of the 
" church of Norwich : and that his lordship might please 
" to reform it, and amend, as should seem best to him. 
" Dated from the Middle Temple, Jan. 24, 1586." 

■ But a new controversy arose from this book then drawn 54/ 
up, and that by warrant from the queen, for putting an end 
to that contest, under terms of agreement by both parties. 
But it seems it was not drawn after the manner accorded 
between them, chiefly on the church''s side. So that when Tiie dean of 
the lord treasurer had sent a copy of the said book to Dr. jigtjj'jo^s'^ ' 
Gardiner, the dean, who, having been a long time affected thereof. 
with the gout, and so not able to mind business, could not 
till now acquaint the said lord with his thoughts thereof. 
Which he did by his letter dated the 1st of October, from 
Norwich : shewing therein, how different it was drawn in 
many respects to what had been accorded between them. 
The tenor of the dean's letter I will give, as communicating 
more light and knowledo-e into this matter. 

" That his gout holding him with so great extremity, His letter 
" almost an whole year together, (though with some little *°^*'^® *'"^*' 
" ease at sundry times,) he could, not attend upon his ho- 
" nour, for the finishing of their long-continued troubles 
" for the lands of their cathedral church, &c. That in the 
" mean time sir Thomas Sherlow [Shirley] had procured 
" a warrant from her majesty to his honour and sir Walter 
" Mildmay, to finish the same; pretending an agreement 
" between them both, viz. sir Thomas and the dean. That 
" in the meeting they had before his lordship at Tybalds, 
" in August was twelvemonth, [viz. 1587,] in truth, my 
" lord, (said the dean,) after divers meetings of our learned 
" counsel, to obtain our quietness, we did agree upon these 
" conditions ; that the patentees, and all the interessed un- 
" der them, should surrender up into her majesty's hands 
" their several -pretended titles. And then her majesty 




Anno 1588. 


possessed of the whole, her highness might he moved to 
pass a lease in trust to Mr. Fanshaw and Mr. Osborn, 
[that had places in the exchequer or treasury,] in trust 
of 600/. by year, of lands within the counties of Suffolk 
and Norfolk for 99 years. And the fermours in posses- 
sion to have these assured over unto them, upon such of 
the patentees as to your honour should seem convenient. 
And her majesty likewise might be moved, newly to erect 
and to endow our said church with all our lands and li- 
berties, which the prior and monks had in possession the 
30th year of king Henry VIII. 

" But that contrary to this agreement, a book was drawn 
and engrossed without their privity, and sent down under 
Mr. Attorney his hand : and they [of the church] com- 
manded by sir Tho. Shirley''s letters, either to surrender, 
or to send him an answer that they would not, that he 
might take another course." He added, " that he had 
answered his two several letters ; and he wished to God 
it would please his honour to call for the sight of them 
both : and he should perceive by them, what great cause 
they, poor men, [the dean and chapter,] had to complain 
for their church. Yet fearing that sir Thomas would not 
shew them, and would take some course secretly, that 
might tend to their prejudice, if not to their utter un- 
doing, he was bold to move his honour by the bearer, 
Mr. Edmund Suckling, one of their prebendaries, to stand 
so much their good lord and honoured patron, as that 
nothing might pass to the hurt of their church, to the 
next term, or to such time as it should please his honour 
to command some of their company to attend upon his 
^ good leisure, &c. 

" And in the mean time he was bold to present to his 
' lordship the copy of one of his said letters to sir Thomas, 
* whereby he might understand the reason, wherefore they 
' could not allow of Mr. Attorney's book. Subscribing, 
" Your honour's for ever, as duty bindcth me, 

" George Gardiner." 


The sum of which letter to sir Thomas Shirley, now sent CHAP, 
by the diligent dean to the lord treasurer to peruse, I sub- 

join ; wherein he told sir Thomas, "That the book en-Annoisss. 

" grossed, which he had sent to him, in no point agreed ^^ith ^'^'^''^^''^^"^'^^ 

" the book drawn at his [the dean's] last being in London ; Th. Shirley. 

" and that as it varied much from their agreement, so it 

" answered not her majesty ""s gracious meaning in the war- 

" rant under the broad seal. And that if the same should 

" pass in that manner, it would not only be much prejudi- 

" cial to himself, [sir Thomas,] but be a spoil, and undo- 

" ing of their church and posterity. And therefore, that 

" he should persuade himself, that the same would never 

" be received of him, the present dean and chapter of Nor- 

" wich, nor no act would be done by them by surrender, or 

" other means for the strengthening and allowing of the 

" same book. 

" Then he proceeded to let sir Thomas understand the 
" gross faults escaped in that book, by following a charter 
" of king Edward's, too hastily hatched, and clouted toge- 
" ther at the first, to the spoil of that church too. And 
" lastly, adding, that where her majesty had referred the 
" ordering of the whole matter to the right honourable the 
" lord treasurer of England and sir Walter Mildmay, as 
" two honourable personages most indifferent, they saw no- 
" thing done by them or either of their hands to the book. 
" And then begged sir Thomas's pardon, that they stayed 
" in a matter of so great weight :" concluding with these 
words to him ; " Assure yourself of me, that I am and al- 
" ways will be a faithful friend to sir Thomas Shirley, and 
" stand to my agreement without wavering. Even so all 
" the world shall not move me to violate one jot of duty 
" that I owe to the church, to which I am bound by oath." 
It was dated from Norwich, the last of September, 1588. 

And as Dr. Gardiner had found Shirley a strange man 
before against the interest of that church for his own ends, 
so this stop of that book so drawn up gave great disgust to 
him, pretending that they were but so many trifles that 




Anno 1588, 


The dean's 
to the book, 

The dean's 





were objected to the book. Therefore to give more perfect 
knowledge to the lord treasurer what his objections were, he 
hastened up one of the prebendaries to him with another let- 
ter, whereby he might understand how the matter proceeded 
upon this book sent to them to Norwich. This letter will 
more particularly open the complaint on the church"'s side. 

The import thereof was : " That he had appointed Mr. 
" Castelton, one of their prebendaries, to attend his honour's 
" good pleasure with all convenient speed ; and that, if he 
" had been able any way to have travailed, he would (most 
" willingly his own lame body) in this service ; and wovdd 
" so soon as God should enable him : for that he could not 
" see how the cause could receive any good end, unless some- 
" body were present that could perfectly inform his honour 
" of every circumstance, and how far the matter had pro- 
" ceeded hitherto : which none of their c(mipany could do 
" beside himself, who had travailed so long as his body was 
" able to undergo that travail : and that he had always 
" found sir Thomas a very strange man to deal withal ; pro- 
" niising much, but of a contrary mind to perform nothing; 
" but seeking the perpetual overthrow of their church and 
" posterity. 

" That the book he had sent down by his servant, one 
" Gartwick, [drawn up for the settlement of their church,] 
" razed and interlined, was by them of that church perused, 
't And then the servant departed to his master with this an- 
" swer, that they could not like of that book for those rea- 
" sons which were contained in the letter sent him. 

" That hereupon he, the dean, received an angry letter 
" from liim ; and withal Shirley returned him back his let- 
" ter, wherein he had made those objections with truth and 
" credit. Then (as the dean proceeded) let him say, [as it 
" seems he did,] that they were but cavillations ; and that 
" his book could not be excepted against."" But the dean, 
uttering his different judgment of the book, writes thus: 
" In the mean time it must remain a very vile book, penned 
" for the utter undoing of our church, and most contrary 


to her majesty's warrant and most gracious meaning: as CHAP. 
I sliall, [added the earnest dean,] by God's help, most 

" plainly prove before his face. And I know, that all he Anno 1 588. 
" can object against our church are indeed mere cavilla- 
" t'lons, and matters of no moment. 

" That yet to procure their peace, they were content to 
" yield some things, and a large benefit unto him. Conclud- 
" ing, that he and all his company most humbly prostrated 
" themselves at his honour's feet ; beseeching the same, as 
" the only patron of their church, now miserably distressed, 
" to dehver them from the extremity that sir Thomas ima- 
" gined against them. And so with the remembrance of 
" their humble duties," &c. This letter was dated Octob. 4. 
This, and what follows, may be worthy recording for the 
church of Norwich's grateful remembrance of that dean, and 
his good service to it. Now what the terms of agreement 
between the church and the patentees were, which was men- 
tioned above, and which the dean so much insisted upon, 
and the present book now offered them to subscribe, and so 
varying from, I have entered in the Appendix; being aw". LX. 
paper signed by the dean himself, thus endorsed; Articles 550 
of agreement between the dean and chapter and the i^"^^^^- aJ^Jeement 
tees, drawn up hy the attorney and solicitor, and offered to between the 
the dean ; and shewing on what terms he accorded. patentees. 

Upon the abovesaid complaint of the dean to the lord They refer 
treasurer, of this book, so injurious to their church, and his^o the lord 
earnest appeal to him, to judge between both parties, that treasurer. 
lord took it upon him according to their desire. And there- 
upon gave order, that the dean, not being by reason of 
sickness able himself to come up, should send some of their 
body to transact their business before him. Whereupon in 
the month of November, two of them, viz. Castleton and 
Suckling, had commission from the rest so to do. With 
whom the careful dean sent another letter to that lord, with 
warrant under their chapter's seal to prosecute the cause of 
their church : and by the advice of his lordship, and some 
other learned in the law, to finish the matter; having found 
hard measure (as he signified) from the patentees ; divers of 



B O O K 

Anno J 588 

N°. LXI. 

The con 

elusion of 
this suit. 

ls?«. LXII. 

to get tiie 
of York's 
l»OHse from 

their church-lands sold away for ever ; and one parcel sold 
to five several persons ; some violently entered upon with- 
out payment of rent or ferme: one had paid none since the 
controversy began : the houses within the cathedral church 
offered to sale ; or money taken beforehand, &c. And after 
a relation of all this, they did most humbly beseech his ho- 
nour, that they might seek for succour under his wing. The 
whole letter I have thought worth preserving among the 
other papers of note in the Appendix. 

And having brought matters thus far, the good dean de- 
ceased the next year, viz. 1589. And soon after, this long 
suit seemed to come to an issue and conclusion : nothing 
Avanting to be done but the decision of the lord treasurer, 
the differences between both parties being compromised ; 
sir Tho. Shirley petitioning the said loi'd for the same, both 
parties agreeing upon the points. I refer the reader to the 
state of the case now drawn up briefly, and the patentees"' 
petition at the end. See the Appendix. And so he seems to 
have a lease granted him for the foresaid dean"'s and chap- 
ter's lands for 99 years. 

As I have related several historical remarks of Sandys, 
that eminent confessor, bishop, and archbishop of this 
church, so I shall join to the rest one or two more, which 
fell out this year, which put a period to his holy life. A 
hard demand or request was made to this archbishop of 
York ; which was not the first time such uneasy applica- 
tions were made to him, for the impairing of his bishopric. 
It was required, that by lease, or some other way, he 
should part with his episcopal house, situate in London : 
which, I suppose, stood there where now are York Build- 
ings. This request (for so he called it) had been made to 
him by the queen herself, in behalf, as it seems, of some of 
her courtiers or noblemen : but he then declared unto her 
his unwillingness to do such a wrong to his church, and 
which would be also such a lasting reflection upon liim and 
his memory. And being now in his diocese, the request was 
again renewed : but he was resolute not to yield : yet writ 
his mind to his friend, the lord treasurer, thinking, that 


some words of his to the queen, in representing his resolu- CHAP, 
tion tenderly, she might pass it over without mucli displea- ^^^^' 

sure towards him. His letter, wrote in the month of June, Anno isss. 
(which seemed to be one of his last letters, for he died the ^^^ 
next month,) was in these words: 

" As for my house at London, a thing most unreason- His resoiu- 
" able is requested of me. I cannot well desire your lord- u"",,*^^"^*' 
" ship's help herein ; yet one word of your lordship to her 
" majesty would do me much good. I cannot in conscience 
" yield that request. I remain resolute. I am only to en- 
" treat your lordship to be a means, that I may so do with- 
" out offence unto her majesty. Yet her highness' speech 
" unto me touching the selfsame matter hath been such, 
" that I am fully persuaded her majesty will not deal 
" against me in it." And then making a sad reflection here- 
upon, used these words : " These be marvellous times. 
" The patrimony of the church is laid open, as a prey, unto 
" all the world. The ministers of the word, the messengers 
" of Christ, are become contemptihiles omni populo, and are 
" esteemed tanquam excrementa mundi. This was fore- 
" shewed, and in our time performed. It may be feared 
" God hath some great work in hand : for this ignominy 
" is done unto himself, &c. Dated from Southwell, the 
"1st of June 1588. 

" Your lordship's most bound, 

" E. Ebor." 

More is said of this matter in the Life of Archbishop 

Yet another trouble vexed this good archbishop now at Dissension 
the latter end of his life ; namely, a contest between Toby archbi^hop"^ 
Matthew, the dean of Durham, and him. What the cause ^md dean of 

T 1 11- . , . . . Durham. 

was 1 know not, whether it were concernmg the visitation 
of that church, or somewhat else, uncertain to me. But the 
archbishop seemed to have the right of the cause ; and the 
dean put to shifts in maintaining his. But in this discord 
he addressed himself tq the said lord in these words : " My 
" honourable good lord, sundry great wrongs are offered 


BOOK " nie, &c. What manifest wrongs the dean of Durham of- 
" fereth me, and by what indirect dealings he proceedeth 

Anno 1588.U against me, with a big mind to maintain a bad cause, and 
" what shifts and delays he useth, that his evil cause come 
" not to trial, this bringer, your servant, can declare unto 
" you." And the archbishop might the rather betake him- 
self to this lord in this difference between the dean and him, 
the deanery having been chiefly obtained by his interest 
with the queen on his behalf. And so he gratefully pro- 
fessed to the treasurer soon after he became dean, to be al- 
ways sensible of his favours. And so in a letter to him, he 
Dean of promised, " That if any defect should happen at any time in 
theVo^r^ " " ^^^^^^ ^^ t'^^ discharge of that duty, and coming to his 
treasurer. " lordship^s car, he beseeched him to make him know it ; 
" and promised to be reformed by his authority, and di- 
" rected by his wisdom." 
The arch- This archbisliop died the 10th of July this year, and was 
York°'s " interred in the choir of the collegiate church of Southwell, in 
death. Nottino-hamsliire, under a fair monument, with the effigies 
''^^ of his children kneeling round the sides of it. The pictvu-e 

Entitled „ , . 1 ^ , , ■ 1 TT 

Darby and ot wluch monument remams m a visitation book in tlie He- 
isotting- j-aUg"' Office. The epitaphical inscription thereon may be 

ham shires. _ . . . 

C. 34. found transcribed at length in the Life of Archbishop 

Book iii. Wliitgift : whicli will explain his extraordinary character. 

^''' ^'' But his last will and testament will further discover, from 
himself, the holy and divine, the pious and humble spirit of 
this excellent prelate: which inclines me to let the Chris- 
tian reader (that desires to look on the good bishops of that 
age) to be acquainted with it. It will shew us what his 
thoughts were of the reformed religion and church csta- 
blished among us, and of some rites and usages therein, and 
of the differences among the professors of the gospel on that 
account. But being somewhat long, I leave it to be read in 

N». LXIII. the Appendix ; being an authentic copy of it, taken by the 

Rev. T. B. pen of an exact person. 

The arch- Tlic archbishop's stock and family (which was from St. 

MS 101) s .1- |^(.(^.g ill Cumberland) was ancient and wor.shipful ; and the 

iHily anil / i ' 

jiosterity. collateral branches spread into the counties of Darby, I^an- 


caster, Bucks, Worcestei', and Kent. He was second son of CHAP. 
George Sandys, and Margaret, daughter of Dixon, of Lon- 

don; married Cecilia, daughter of Thomas Wilford, of the Anno i588. 
county of Kent, knight. His children were, Henry, the Her. Office. 

» Ctrtificivtc 

eldest; William, his second son, knight. His third son was „£ funerals. 
sir Samuel Sandes, of Ombersley in the county of Wigorn, c^md. 
knight, who married Mary, daughter of Colpeper, of the 
county of Kent, who had Edwin Sandes, knight, and a 
numerous issiie. Other sons of his were, George, and Miles 
of Wilberton in the county of Cambridge, in the Isle of Ely, 
knight and baronet. Besides daughters, Hester and Bridget. 
A young brother of our archbishop was Miles, of Latymers 
in the county of Bucks, esq. clerk of the crown to queen 
Elizabeth, and died 1601 ; and left sir Edwin Sandes, his 
son and heir; dubbed in Ireland for his good service there. 

Of this family of Sandes sprang William Sandes, knight, 
first lord Sandes of the Vine, in the reign of Henry VIII. 
anno 1523, who was camerarius hospitii regis, i. e. cham- 
berlain of the king's household. Besides, of the same family 
were collaterals numerous. 

The archbishop's education was in St. John's college. His educa- 
Cambridge, where he proceeded master of arts ; and was 
afterwards proctor of that university, and vice-chancellor ; 
and was preferred to be master of Katharine-hall there ; as 
appears by a catalogue (still remaining) of learned men, be- 
nefactors, &c. of the several colleges, given in to the queen 
by that university, when she honoured them with her pre- Rev. T. Ba- 
sence ; which was in the year 1564 ; and of the fellows of g"' 
that house. 

And now for a farewell of this venerable archbishop, I will 'r.''f ^^f"' 

bishop s 

leave, for a memorial of him, some periods of a sermon or description 
two, preached upon some special occasions. And the rather °J^J^^^[^^ 
because they will tend to enlighten the history of the Eng- 
lish church in those times. In one of them, preached before 
the queen, he thus described the reformation, with the 
queen's influence therein. 

"Our gracious governor laboured most earnestly to 553 
" cleanse this ground, [i. e. the vineyard of the church 



BOOK " of England,] and to purge it had caused the stones 
" to be picked out, brambles and briers to be pulled 

Anno 1 588. « yp^ ^11 rubbish, and whatsoever was hurtful, to be re- 
" moved ; the den of thieves to be dispersed ; buyers and 
" sellers of popish trash, monks, friars, mass-mongers, with 
" like miscreants, to be hurled and whipt out ; the stum- 
" bling stones of superstition, the baggage of men''s tradi- 
" tions, with all monuments of idolatry, to vanish, and 
" popery to be cast out of the house of God and vine- 
" yard of the Lord : so that the field of God is cleared, the 
" vineyard cleansed, the church purged ; ready for the seed 
" to be sown, and the vine to be planted. And all this with- 
" out resistance or tumult. It was the kingdom of God, and 
" it was marvellous to as many as considered it."" 

And then concerning the queen*'s hand in this reforma- 
tion, thus he went on : " Our skilful householder, our wise 
" governor, hath planted in this our vineyard neither 
" thorns nor thistles, but the true vine, Christ, growing in 
" the hearts of the elect. This vine hath been diligently 
" watered with the dew of God"'s truth sincerely preached ; 
" it hath been cherished with the sacraments reverently ad- 
" ministered according to his will. It hath been under- 
" propped with the countenance of authority, and defence 
*' of zealous C-hristian magistrates, pruned with the two- 
*' edged sword of God's Spirit, working by the ministry of 
*' his servants ; who with the sweet promises of the gospel 
" have reared up the drooping branches overburdened with 
" sin, and the sharp threatenings of the law; have cut off 
" those lascivious wild boughs of wickedness. No flock bet- 
" ter fed, no people more instructed, and vineyard in the 
" world more beautiful or goodly to behold," &c. 

For a further account of this church, and the discipline 
and government of it, take it in these his words : " This 
" vineyard so prepared, this vine so planted, watered, and 
"■ underset, hath also been strongly hedged and fenced with 
*' godly laws, of good discipline ; to put back all enemies, 
" to punish all transgressors, to bridle the unruly, and to 
*' keep men in order, that the church of God may live in all 


tranquillity, with all piety and honesty. No church under CHAP, 
heaven more enriched with treasures and gifts of God." ^ 

The blessings and benefits accompanying this church are Anno isss. 
thus further described : " The ground where this vineyard 
" is planted hath brought forth many goodl}'^ and pleasant 
" grapes. The gospel hath chased away walking spirits. It 
" hath cast out devils, banished much ignorance and blind- 
" ness ; put horrible blasphemy in manner to flight ; ut- 
" terly cleansed that sink, the Stews;" [a place near Lon- 
don, of open wickedness and uncleanness;] "made vain 
" and filthy songs less current than they have been in for- 
" mer times, and caused sin to be more shunned. But one 
" pleasant grape, especially the gospel, the word of reconci- 
" liation, hath brought forth ; and that is, the sw^et fruit 
"of peace; peace towards God, and peace among our- 

" selves The God of peace hath done this for us, to 

" our singular commodity and benefit ; that he hath given 554 
" peace in our days. England never had so long tasted the 
« like." 

His dissuasive from schism, for some rites used in this His dissua- 
reformed church, ran in these words in another sermon schism, 
preached before the queen : " And here we have to praise 
" God, that in public doctrine touching the substance of 
" religion, we all agree in one truth ; we all build upon 
" one foundation, Christ Jesus, slain and offered up for our 
" full redemption, according to the doctrine of the scrip- 
" tures. So much the greater pity is it, that there should 
" be such dissent in matters of small importance, rites and 
" circumstances. That by contentions in such things the 
" course of the gospel should be hindered, Christ's adver- 
" saries strengthened, and his church offended. The mi- 
" nistry cannot be well executed without her rites : which 
" rites are left indifferent to every policy. So that they be 
" not disagreeing to the word ; so that they tend to edifica- 
" tion ; so that they be seemly, and according to decent 
" order. 

" Be it granted, that some rites upon some considerations Rites of the 
" might be bettered or omitted ; yet can I not say, neither „,i,at. ' 

F 2 


BOOK " any man, I suppose, can prove, that any thing is set 
" down to be observed in the churcli, wicked, or contrary 

Anno 1588. " to the word. It were scarce wisdom, when as in many 
" years a beautiful and a costly house is builded, if a win- 
" dow be set a little awry, or some small eyesore do ap- 
" pear, in respect thereof to disturb the whole house, to 
" pull it down, and lay it flat with the ground : for every 
" change being so full of peril, surely these great altera- 
" tions, upon light advice, these new commonwealths, how- 

The plat- <« soever they be shadowed with the pleasible name of refor- 

torniers' re- . "^ . '■ . . "^ 

formation. " matioii, yet HI seekuig (for undoubtedly this is sought, 
" and that by many) to have the patrimony of the church 
" divided, mangled, and impaired, they threaten the utter 
" overthrow of learning and religion. For take any livings, 
" at which this axe especially striketh, and vc take away 
" learning, and ye overthrow teaching. Take away teach- 
" ing, and what shall become of the church of Christ. 

Prov. xxix. " Where there is no vision, tiiere the people cannot choose 
" but come to decay. 

Tlie right " There is no state (no, not the state of a prince ex- 

sters' main- " ceptcd) to whom fear, honour, obedience, and tribute is 

tenancc. «' ^^q^ (^l^rjj y^^^y j^qyq rightly challenge a competent and 
" sufficient living than the ministers of the word of God. 
" They seem to have put out the very light of nature in 
" themselves, who repine at the reasonable maintenance of 
" them that minister before tlie Lord in these sanctified la- 
" hours : for who doth plant a vineyard, and doth not eat 
" of the fruit thereof? or who feedeth a flock, and cateth 
" not of the milk of the flock ? Mark how the scriptures, 
" both in the law and in the gospel, do beat upon this point. 

1 Cor. ix. " In the law it is said. Thou shalt not muzzle the mouth oj' 
" the ox. Doth God take care for oxen ? No, his care is for 

1 Tim. V. '' us. For our cause it is, that he hath said, The labourer is 

" worthy qfhi.s hire. For our cause he hath ordained, that 

'' they which preach the gospel should live of the gospel. 

555 " He had a care of his church. And therefore gave charge, 

Gal. vi. " Let him that is taught in the xcord, maKx him that taught 
, " Mm partaker of all his goods. This is large, yet but rea- 


" sonable. For if' ice have sown unto you spiritual things, CHAP. 
" is it a great matter, if we reap your carnal things .^ Is it . 

much to make vis partakers of all- your goods "^ &c. It was ^^n"" i^ss. 
"foreseen, no doubt, by the Spirit, how God's portion ^^"'^■"'■'^' 
" should be pinched ; how the ministers of the word should 
" be contemned; how injuriously men, in these last un- 
" charitable days, would seek for the havoc and spoil of the 
" church." 

This moved this most reverend man, now he was preach- 
ing before the queen, (who wanted not for solicitation for 
such injuries,) in so large and ample sort to speak of main- 
tenance and honour due to the ministers. Adding, " That 
" if any were slow and wretchless in doing his office; if 
" there be any idol shepherd, that feedeth himself only, 
" and not his flock, let him be reformed or removed. But 
" for the fault of a few, that the whole state should be sub- 
" verted, and the patrimony of the chm^ch of Christ spoiled 
" and devoured, it were verv hard. No prince nor people, 
" Christian or heathen, would ever consent to such a thing 
" without sacrilege." 

And returning to the differences then among those of the 
same reformed church, he concluded thus: "Well, as we 
" are at unity in substance of religion, so God grant, that at 
" length in these things also we may agree, and be as one, 
" even as becomes the congregation of Christ : which is a 
" society, linked and knit together, not sundered by division, 
" nor rent in pieces by variety of opinions and judgments." 

Thus this good archbishop spake his mind concerning 
such as endeavoured to impoverish the church and the mi- 
nisters of it, as it liad been before in the times of popery by 
impropriations ; as he fell in another sermon upon the 
need of preachers in those northern parts of the kingdom, 
using these words: " The mother city of the realm [Lon-Wantof 
" don] is reasonably furnished with faithful preachers : cer- [", g''|^jj|^[^ '" 
" tain other cities, not many in number, are blessed too, 
" though not in like sort. But the silly people of the land 
" otherwhere, especially in the north parts, pine away and 
" perish for want of this saving food ; they are much de- 

F 3 


BOOK " cayed for want oi prophecy. Many there are that hear 
' " not a sermon in seven years, I might say safely seven- 

Aniio 1588. «' tcen. Their blood will be required at somebody"'s hand. 

" And why doth the country want preachers ? The people 

^' pay tithes of that they have. Therefore there must needs 

" be sufficient to maintain them. If things were well or- 

ati'oris''tirst '' ^^red, this sequel were good. But the chiefest benefices 

made by f' were by the pope long since impropriated unto monks ; 

" which devoured the fruits, and gave a silly stipend unto a 

" poor sir John to .say mass. And as they left it, so we find 

Pairoiis. " it still. Where livings were not impropriated by the pope, 

" there they are for the most part so handled, that patrons 

" maintain themselves with those tithes which the people 

" give ; and ministers have that which the patrons leave. 

" To take from them that live idly and supersti- 

556 " tiously in the church, they plead it to be lawful, because 
" those unprofitable members were unworthy to enjoy 
" the fat of the earth. But when abbeys were taken up, 
" and other profits gone, now, as greedy cormorants, they 
" seize also vipon the church of Christ. It is not fit, for- 
" sooth, [say they,] that men sanctified unto heavenly things 
" should be over-encumbered with these earthly commo- 
" dities. And therefore, even of great devotion, and as they 
" will ease the church of these her burdens, &c. Thus, by 
" men that cannot stand without the fall of the church of 
" God, all means are invented to beggar the ministry. A 
" device, no doubt, of Satan, and a practice of his imps, to 
" cause a famine of the bread of life, by starving the ox that 
" should tread out the corn, and to withdraw God's people 
" from seeking the Lord, by weakening and discouraging 
" such as shoidd guide them in the way of life." Thus did 
the zealous archbishop represent publicly these wrongs to 
the discouragement of the ministry ; and which he himself 
had felt and struggled with. 
The bisiioi) To proceed to what I have to add concerning some others 
Chester "f tlis episcopal ordcr falling out this year. One of these 
slandered, ^^^g Cooper, formerly bishop of Lincoln, now of Winchester. 
Somewhat of whose character we here take notice of, by oc- 


casion of a base unworthy slander of him by Penry, the au- CHAP, 
tlior of Martin Marprelate, a book levelled against the bi- ' 

shops; who in one of his scurrilous libels had much un- Anno 1 588. 
dervalued this bishop''s learning and good abilities ; and, 
" that he was a very dunce, and not able to defend an ar- 
" gument ; but till he came to the pinch, he would cog and 
" face it out," &c. The good bishop being thus openly in Admoni- 
print abused, thought fit, in a seasonable book by him setp^" jg^f*^ 
forth about this time, thus modestly to give some account England, 
of himself in these words : 

" That as for that reproach, he would not much strive His true 
" with them. That he had not used, he thanked God, to*^ ' 
*' vaunt himself of great learning, neither did he disdain 
"^ to be accounted unlearned of these men ; who many years 
" since contemned bishop Jewel as a man of no deep learn- 
" ing; and even of late days could say, that Erasmus was 
" no divine. But (the said bishop subjoined) that his 
" prayer was, that the small measure of knowledge that 
" it pleased God to give him in the continuance of fifty 
" years' study, might be employed to the glory of God 
" and the benefit of his country. That it was known forty- 
" five years since, that he was master of arts, and student 
" of divinity, and disputed in that faculty. That since 
" which time he had never been drawn from the exercise of 
" good learning. And that this was his greatest comfort, 
" that since he was a young man in Magdalen college in 
" Oxford, he had been brought up in the love of the gos- 
" pel ; and was reasonably able to confirm his conscience, 
'' and repress his adversary, not only by the holy scripture, 
" but also by the writings of the ancient fathers, and the 
" best authors of this age, since the renewing of the gospel ; 
" as, he said, he had many honest and learned men wit- 
" nesses, then alive." 

During the vacancy of the rich bishopric of Ely, there 55/ 
wanted not applications to the queen, and some of her L"-'=^f<^* ""f" 

^^ 1 . lands ot 

court, for some of the revenues of it upon long leases. As the ciuucii 
there was one letter the last year obtained from the queen jeavoure" 
to the dean and chapter for Ashley, esq. a servant of her to be got. 

F 4 


BOOK majesty, for the manors of Dunnington, Thriplow, and the 
parsonage of Hinckston ; which letter of the queen''s was 

Anno 1588. accompanied with another from secretary Walsingham : so 
again this year the lord treasurer sent his letter to the said 
dean and chapter of Ely for the lease of Wentworth> be- 
longing to them, upon lives, for one INIcdley, a famous 
chymist, and retainer to that lord ; which they could not 
grant by their statute ; and being their patron, and high 
steward of their church, thev hoped lie would not require it 
of them. And what the occasion was, Dr. Perne the dean 
and chapter's letter ensuing will shew ; importing. 
The dean of « T|-,at they had received a letter from him in behalf of 
lord trea- " William Medley, his lordship's servant, for the renewing 
surer about « ^f j^-^ ^^^^^ ^f ^^^^ manor of Wentworth, for three lives, 

granting a _ ' _ 

lease. " whereof he had already two in being. They prayed him 

" to understand, that about four or five years past this Med- 
" ley, with two or three others of their tenants, having leases 
" belonging to their church for many years to come, and 
" they finding the imperfection and insufficiency of their 
" said leases, for want of words of their incorporation, they 
" made suit to take the same for the term of three lives : 
" which thing they [the dean and chapter] willingly con- 
" sented luito, in respect of their many years to come ; but 
" which lease for three lives they never granted to any 
" other tenants before. That manv other of their tenants, 
" by this example, sued for three lives. The inconvenience 
" whereof they found so great, and so prejudicial to their 
" successors, as inmiediately after those new grants they 
" made a decree, with the whole consent of the chapter, not 
" to make any grant above the term of one and twenty 
" years, which thing was so orderetl at the first erection of 
" the dean and chapter by the prince's commissioners." 

And this being their case, they addressed to that lord in 
these words : " That herein, if it might please his lordship 
'• to stand their honourable good patron, for the firm main- 
" tenance of that necessary order and decree, for the good 
*' preservation of their church, they and all their successors 
" should acknowledge themselves no less bounden unto his 


" honour, than they and their successors were, for the ob- CHAP. 
" taining of her gracious grant and confirmation of all such ^^^^' 

" their lands as were intended to be given by her majesty ""s Anno i588. 
" noble father, their gracious and honourable founder. And 
" so praying his honour to have due regard therein." This 
was signed by Andrew Pern, the dean, and seven of the 

Scambler, bishop of Norwich, was employed this year in Ket, a he- 
a very irksome business, required by his episcopal office : Inocied'be- 
which was the summoning of an heretic in his diocese to hisfo^^e the bi- 
court; whose opinions were found so vile and horrible con- Norwich, 
cerning Christ, that the bishop was forced to condemn him 
for a stubborn heretic. His name was Francis Ket, master 558 
of arts, and seems to have been a minister. The bishop ac- 
quainted the lord treasurer with what he had done, in a let- 
ter dated from Norwich, October?; viz, " That he had 
" lately condemned for heresy Francis Ket, M. A. whose 
" blasphemous opinions he had thought good to acquaint his 
" honour with ; and referring to his wisdom the speedy exe- 
" cution of, he being so dangerous a person." And accord- 
ingly (as it seems by order from court) he was burnt at a 
place near Norwich, as our historian Stow writes, for " divers 
" detestable opinions against Christ our Saviour." But what 
those particular opinions were are not set down : nor do I 
find the former letter of the bishop wherein they were spe- 
cified : perhaps so vile and wicked, that it was thought best 
to stifle and burn the paper. It is likely he was some Arian, 
or of xhejdmily of love. 

And as I do not use to omit Irish church matters, when A remark 
in my collections I meet with them, so iiere may fall in a" 
remark of an aixhbishop of Dublin, lord chancellor of Ire- 
land. There was a letter of his wrote this year to the Eng- 
lish court. The occasion this : The queen had disposed of 
the forfeited estates of her great Irish traitor, the earl of 
Desmond and his complices, which were vastly great, con- 
sisting of an infinite number of acres of land in manv or 
most of the counties of that kingdom. Those to whom the 
queen had granted these lands were persons of honour and 


BOOK quality of the English nation, and that had done good ser- 

'_ vices in that rebelhous kingdom. But these estates, together 

Anno 1588. with many privileges, were granted them upon certain con- 
ditions. The queen's great purpose at this time was the 
peopling of the county of Munster, and furnishing it with 
inhabitants from England that were protestants ; that po- 
pery and rebellion might at length cease, or be diminished 
in those parts. And the gentlemen on whom the queen had 
bestowed these estates undertook the doing of it. But what 
success they had in this undertaking is out of my way here 
to relate ; though there wanted not informations and com- 
plaints to the court of these undertal:ers, (as they were 
called,) and those concerned in the lands and the bounds 
Cox's H'M. But one of these undertakers was sir William Herbert, 
393. ' knight, (which gives the cause of my mention of this Irish 
affair.) The queen had granted him in tlie county of Kerry, 
13,276 acres of land, to the yearly rent of 221/. and up- 
wards. He was a gentleman of good desert in this charge, 
and had been at pains and cost to promote the queen's good 
ends there ; and being now ready to go for England, he 
took with him (and perhaj:>s to clear himself of some misin- 
formations against him) his character to the lord treasurer 
from tlie said lord archbishop of Dublin. Which ran to this 
tenor : 

" That this gentleman, sir Will. Herbert, having pur- 
" posed to return into England, he thought it fit to ac- 
" quaint his lordship with his good endeavours there [in 
" Ireland]. That he had in all his proceedings held a very 
" orderly and commendable course ; regarding especially 
559" the planting of religion as the chiefest means to prepare 
" that place to the consideration of their duty to her ma- 
" jesty, and obedience to her laws. Herein (God bless- 
*' ing his great care and industry) he had so much pre- 
*' vailed, as in few places in that kingdom there was the 
" like reformation. That his being there had been both 
" chargeable and troublesome to him : which lie regarded 
" not so much, as that he was given to understand, that 


some things, contrary to his good meaning, were aggra- CHAP, 
vated against him there ; especially that which concerned 

the lady Denny; [the wife or widow of sir Edward Anno i588. 
Denny, who partook of some of the queen's grants afore- 
said.] Which he had dealt in no other\vise than a dis- 
creet and wise gentleman. For, perceiving that some 
things, either by evil advice or open stomach, were done, 
not only in disgrace of his authority, and the rest of the 
justices, bin very hurtful to the common good, they sent 
an ordinary process, yet advisedly qualified, with a pri- 
vate letter to her ladyship ; whereby they declared, that 
there was no necessity of her appearance ; but that she 
might send her agent instructed." 

And then, in favovu- of that gentleman, adding ; " Surely, 
my lord, both in this and in all other his proceedings, he 
hath great temperancy and steadiness. And now, if he 
might receive deserved countenance, he would do her 
majesty great good service in those parts : and so, wish- 
ing with his heart that his faithful and honest dealings 
might be free from all crosses there, he humbly recom- 
mended him to his lordship's honourable favour : where- 
by, as he perceived by himself, he greatly depended. 
Dated from Dublin, the 17th of March, 1588. Sub- 

" Your honour's humbly at commandment, 

" Ad. Dublin, cane." 

CHAP. XVIII. . 560 

Popish books. The pope's bull brought in and dispersed : 
to encourage the invasion intended. Cai-dinal Aliens 
books. Bennet, a priest ; his penitent letter to the earl 
of Arundel Jbr a false information against him. Sir 
Tho. TreshanCs protestation of allegiance. Francis 
Blount, a catholic at Paris, desirous to come home, 
writes to the queen for the liberty of his religion. A 
case of conscience propounded by some catholics, whether 


H O o K they might take up arms under the Spaniard against the 
' queen ; j-esolved hy a priest at large. Divers lists of 

Anno 1588. priesfs, and other English catholics, at home and abroad. 
Englishmen , pensioners of the Mng of' Spain. A procla- 
mation against the bringing in the pope''s bull; and 
other popish books : such to be punished by martial law. 

INOW to take some view of the enemies or disaffected to 
the estabhshed church, both papists and protestant schis- 
The pope's Popish books flew abroad this year, in ox'der to the great 
catii'oiic design now on foot. The chief writers as w^ell as trans- 
king to in- actors on that side were, Allen, made a cardinal by the pope 
land. for his descrts that way, and Parsons, a Jesuit. One of 

this cardinal's books set forth this year, or hereabouts, was 
a large explanation of the present pope"'s bull, published at 
Rome ; which I will briefly mention, and then shew how 
the cardinal backed it with his own comment and explana- 
tion. This bull had more severity than that of his prede- 
cessor"'s, Pius Quintus, that came forth near twenty years 
before, that excommunicated the queen ; as I have from 
the copy of a letter sent hence to Mendoza at Paris, by one 
of that sort here, " whereby the queen was accursed, and 
" pronounced to be deprived of her crown ; and the inva- 
" sion and con(]uest of her realm conmiitted by the pope 
" to the king catholic, to execute the same with his armies 
" both by sea and land ; and to take the crown to himself, 
" or to limit it to such a })otentate as the pope and he 
" should name.'" 
The expia- This bull was followed by a great niunber of copies of 
TnTbook'*^" English book, printed at Antwerj), sent into England 
by cardinal eveu when the navy of Spain was daily looked for. The 
original of which books was composed and writ by the 
561 abovesaid cardinal in April, called by himself the cardinal 
of England, to add the greater authority to his book : 
which was so violently, sharply, and bitterly written, " yea, 
" (said the writer of the letter to Mendoza,) so arrogantly, 
" (charged by the adversaries,) falsely, and slanderously. 


against the person of the queen, against her father king CHAP. 
Henry VIII. against her nobility and council, as in very ^^'l'- 

book of Al- 

" truth he was heartily sorry to perceive ; that so many good Anno isbs. 
" men of his religion were offended therewith : that there 
" should be found in one, accounted a father of the church, 
" who was also a born subject of the crown, such foul, vile, 
" irreverent, and violent speeches, such ireful and bloody 
" threatenings, of a queen, of a nobility, yea, and of the 
" whole people of his own nation." This was the account 
of the cardinaPs book by one of themselves. And, to sub- 
join what many of them thought of the cardinal himself, 
" That he was very sorry to report the general evil conceit Copy of a 
" of those unordinate and unadvised proceedings of this ;^endoza 
" cardinal ; of whose rash choice to such a place the world 
" spake strangely." 

13ut liesidcs Allen"'s former book, he had also prepared Anotiier 
another, ready to be published, intended for the service of 
the Spanish invasion. It was printed in English, and 
should have been presently divulged, if the Spaniaixis could 
have set footing in England this year. Meteran, in his his- 
tory, hath preserved it; and there it may be seen and read Beii,Mc. His- 
word for word : I will mve some account of it from Dr. \'T^' ' "' 
Geo. Abbot, in his book writ against Dr. Hill. " Among Dr. Abbot 
" other matters are these. The queen is called the P^'^-^f^'u^i 
" tended queen, and the present usurper. She must be 
" deprived of the administration of the kingdom. She is 
" an heretic, a schismatic : usurping the kingdom against 
" all right ; as for other causes, so because she had not the 
" consent of the great bishop of Rome. That she moved 
" the Turk to invade Christendom. She had set at sale, 
" and made a market of laws and rights. Some of her 
" facts make her uncapable of the kingdom. Some others 
" make her unworthy of life. That therefore pope Sixtus V. 
" had renewed the excommunication against her, and de- 
" prived her of her title and pretences to the kingdom of 
" England and Ireland, and declaring her illegitimate, and 
" an usurper, and absolving all her subjects from the oath 
" of fidelity to her. And then he charged all persons to 


BOOK ^'withdraw their aid from her; that worthy punishment 
" might be taken of her. And that they join themselves 
Anno 1588." with the dulce of Parma. Also, it was proclaimed lawful 
" to lay hands upon the queen ; and a very great reward 
" was promised to tliem that did so. And a safe conduct 
" was then given to as many as would bring a warlike pro- 
" vision to the Spanish camp ; and to all who would assist 
" that enterprise, the pope doth by indulgence give full 
" pardon, and plenary remission of all their sins,''*' &c. 

On all these words, and the cardinaPs approbation and 
assertions of this bull, Abbot deservedly made this reflec- 
Abbot's re- tion ; " That this shewed the mind of the lewd cardinal 
" against the prince, that his disenglished, wolfish desire 
562 " was, that the natural place of his education should have 
" been in the everlasting bondage of the Spaniard.*'"' 
other books Nor Were these all the books that this malicious, unna- 
b" cardinal ^^^^^^ Englishman wrote against his queen and country, but 
Allen. others were set forth by him before : which I shall here 
take leave to add, as we have them reckoned up by Parsons 
the Jesuit ; and from him mentioned by the abovesaid Dr. 
Abbot. 1 . An Answer to the English Justice. 2. The De- 
fence of the Txvelve Martyrs in one year. 3. The epistle al- 
lowing sir Will. Stanley''s delivering up of Deventer to the 
Spaniard. Of which place he was governor for the queen. 
4. A Declaration against her Majesty and the States, in the 
year 1 588. Which was the same taken notice of afore. 
Some ac- Some brief account of each of these books I shall give 

count of f,.Qj^^ our forementioned author, Abbot, in his controversy 

them, p. _ ' ' 

213. with Hill. In the first of these books there is a protesta- 

tion of James Layborn delivered, who was executed at Lan- 
caster ; viz. that he took two exceptions why the lady Eli- 
zabeth was no queen. One, by reason of her birth : the 
other, for that she was deprived by the pope. That this 
was first related by Sanders, De schismate Anglicano, lib. 3. 
and repeated again by Allen : that, as occasion should serve, 
it might be imitated by other papists. And the whole trea- 
tise, however it seem to be more closely conveyed than or- 
dinary, is forged with pestilent calumniations. Of the same 


nature is the whole subject of the second book; penned on CHAP, 
purpose to direct men's affections from the state. XVlli. 

The third was a httle pamphlet, short; but not short; Anno i ass. 
" maintaining the treasonful act of sir William Stanley, ^"""'^t".' 

S> _ , •' ' swer, 1584. 

*' by many an unchristian censure and most slanderous im- 
" putation. As for example, that our country is fallen into 
" atheism. That the queen's confederacies were only and 
" always with Christ's enemies. That the wars of the Eng- 
" lish in the Low Countries were sacrilegious wars, and of 
" an heretical prince. And that all the acts in this realm, 
" since the queen was excommunicate, and deposed from 
" royal dignity, were void. Therefore she could denounce 
" no war ; neither might her subjects there serve her, when 
*' a prince was become an open rebel to the see apostolic. 
" And he wished, that the rest of the English would do as 
" they with sir William Stanley did. And that the English 
" took no quarrels in hand, but for the dishonourable defence 
" of rebels, pirates, and infidels." LTpon all these gross im- 
putations thus Dr. Abbot descanted : " That wicked man 
" [the author] made no conscience to stain his whole coun- 
" try with horrible defamations. I would hear any secular 
" [priest] in the world, that could excuse this cursed fellow, 
" [of the Jesuitical order.]"" 

To what hath been said of Allen, I shall subjoin a re- 
membrance of one Bennet, another busy priest, (as well as 
some others of that religion,) that occurs within this year. 
The said priest, with some others, (as sir Tho. Gerrard and 
William Shelly,) had given information against Philip earl 
of Arundel, (privy to a popish plot carrying on in favour 
of the Scots queen.) As that upon that earl's motion to 563 
him, he had said a mass of the Holy Ghost for the good 
success of the Spanish fleet. But not long after, Benet, Bennet, a 
hoping to pacify the earl, accused himself for what he hadfJ^'^'^^^^'^J'* 
said, in a most penitent and sorrowful letter to him, as a^iieeaiiof 
false accusation of him, and most earnestly bewailed his 
frailty in so doing : and with very passionate words ex- 
pressing his sorrow, and begging the earl's pardon, revok- 
ing all what he had declared before. The earl had endea- Camd. Eiiz. 

^ p. 498. 


BOOK voured to take off all the evidences that had been brought 
_ against him by the former witnesses ; and particularly Ben- 

Anno 1588. nefs. To Weaken whose evidence, he described him as a 
man of doubtful and slippery credit, and liad confessed 
things contradictory. But the suggesting of Bennefs letter 
to the earl might have proved more serviceable to him. 
Which letter our historian saith nothing of. But I con- 
jecture this letter of remorse, whether real or pretended, 
was either intercepted, or rather sent to the lord treasurer 
to take off Bennet's evidence. For I find it among the said 
lord treasurer*'s papers. 

" Therein he bewailed to the earl what he had done. 
" That upon his knees, before God and all his angels, and 
" before all the woi'ld, with a most penitent, rent, and af- 
" flicted conscience, craved mercy and forgiveness for the 
" great offence he had committed against his honoiu', in his 

" [Bennet's] late troubles and confessions —That with 

" many fair speeches and allurements, together with great 
" weakness of body and mind, he was stricken with such 
" astonishment and maze, that he confessed every thing 
" that seemed to content their humour; (which he per- 
" ceived not at first;) altogether tending to the earfs ruin."" 
N". LXIV. But I leave the whole letter to be read in the Appendix : 
which may be depended on as the original, being endorsed 
by the treasurSr^'s own hand. 
Twocatho- Yet among the catholic genti'y there were some better 
men'^'i'oyai. affected towards the queen. Here follow notice of two such 
persons: the one a knight, and the other a gentleman of 
worth. The one, by a protestation, professing all allegiance 
and loyalty to her majesty ; and the other, who had been 
abroad in travel, now, by another well-penned letter to the 
queen, desiring to return safe home to his country, and to 
enjoy the liberty of his conscience in the exercise of his 

The former was sir Tho. Tresham. Who was now under 
confinement in the Isle of Ely. Where he had ccmference 
with the dean. Dr. Perne, and Dr. Legg, another learned 
man of Cambridge ; from whom he seemed to have been 


satisfied, and confirmed in liis allegiance and duty to the CHAP, 
queen. And to give assurance of his fidelity and sincere, 

obedience to her, he wrote a protestation, and signed it Anno 1 586 
with his hand ; with this sentence prefaced : Appendat me 
in statera justa, et sciat Deus simplicitatevi meam. The 
endorsement of the protestation was : 

" The liumble protestation of my allegiance to her majesty, 564 
" exhibited hy me unto Mr. Dr. Pearne, dean of Ely, 
" and Mr. Dr. Legg, vice-chancellor of Cambridge: an- 
'' thorized by the lords of her majesty'' s most honourable 
^^privy-council to receive the same of me, sir Thomas 
" Tresame, hnight, prisoner in the palace of Ely e. 

" In the simplicity of my heart, I do unfeignedly pro- Sir Tho. 
" test before the majesty of Almighty God, that queen Eli- "j^^yj^!". " 
" zabeth is my undoubted sovereign lady and queen, detion. 
'•'^ jure et de facto. That her highness also is supreme go- 
" vernor of this realm of England, and all other the do- 
" minions belonging to the crown of England, as of all her 
" subjects within the same. Among which, I acknowledge 
" myself her highness' native loyal subject. Whereby I am 
" religiously bounden in Christian duty, either readily to 
" do or humbly to endure her sacred highness' will : and 
" for no cause whatsoever to be stirred to lift up my hand 
" against her majesty, God's anointed ; but in all readiness 
" defending her royal person from violence, and preserving 
" this realm and all other her highness' dominions from in- 
" vasion, against all persons without exception ; be it prince, 
" pope, or potentate whosoever, or under what colour or 
" pretext soever the same shall be attempted : I offer and 
" avow myself to serve therein in person, and to spend my 
" lands and life in so just and honourable a quarrel. 

" Finally, if any shall attempt to murder, wound, or 
" hurt her majesty, my righteous and reverenced gracious 
^' lady and queen, that I in true subject-wise will, to my 
" uttermost might and ability, prosecute such wicked wretch 
" to death. In faithful testimony of all and every the pre- 
" mises I have written this with my own hand ; and thereto 

VOT.. 111. PART II. G 


BOOK "subscribed my name: most humbly beseeching the Al- 
" mighty to preserve tliis realm, and all other her majesty's 

Anno 1588." dominions, and particularly her excellency, in all felicity, 
" long time to reign over us, to his good will and pleasure, 
" and to the unspeakable content of us all, her faithful sub- 
" jects. Who wisheth otherwise, God turn their hearts, or 
" else shortly send them shame and confusion. Elye, Octo- 
" ber the 22d, 1588. 

" Whose hand and heart herein agreeth, 

" Thomas Tresame." 

Francis The Other gentleman I spake of before, who seemed to 

letter to ^6 of loyal principles, though a Roman catholic, was one 
the queen Fraucis Blouut, a j^entleman of quality ; who had eone 

from Paris, , . ■ , i- , , i , 

desires li- abroad Without leave m order to travel, and perhaps to 
berty of his g^^.^jj dangers incident to those of the relimon at home. 

conscience, <=^ _ o _ 

being a ca- And some informations were brought to the court, while he 
was abroad, that created some jealousies of him. But being 
now at Paris, and minded to return into England, the Spa- 
nish fleet being in motion, he addressed a letter to the queen 
6d5 for her leave to return, and to enjoy the liberty of his reli- 
gion ; especially since she protested to oppress none merely 
for their conscience ; and that he was not of the principles 
of some that had lately been justly executed ; and was ready 
to do her all service to his utmost. 

But take his letter, which ran in this tenor ; dated July 
24, " To the queen's most excellent majesty. Although, 
" most renowned sovereign, wlien I consider what just occa- 
" sion your highness hath to be offended with some catho- 
" lies of your own country, in respect of their misdemean- 
" ours towards your majesty's person and fame, I may be 
" therefore afraid, being a catholic, to approach now your 
*' dominions, much less yoiu' grace; yet when I do search 
" the secret corners of my conscience, and find that none, 
" whom the law justly executed, or now have in prison, 
** have, can, or may charge me, either to be privy or to 
" consent to any such fault ; I may therefore, your accus- 
" tomed clemency considered, and a number surmounting 


" me in fault, (although in vocation my inferiors,) be in- CHAP. 
" duced to hope for the like mercy ; the rather, seeing your ^^^^^' 

"merciful majesty hath protested to hurt none for their Anno 1 588 

" conscience. Which protestation of so just and merciful a 

" prince may be a sufficient warrant to any loyal subject. 

" But >vhen I consider the watchful care of your grave 

" council, together with the severe, sharp laws made against 

*' catholics, and impossibility for any to avoid the danger 

" of them, travelling through those countries where I have 

" been, I can no less do, than humbly to beseech your ma- 

" jesty''s merciful pardon only for rude faults, as of myself 

" I shall voluntarily confess. By the granting of the which, 

*' as it shall be a manifest testimony that your magnificence 

" desireth not the punishment of poor catholics for their 

" zeal and profession, but for their sins and vices, so shall 

" your highness bind me to extend all my powers and senses 

" to the utmost to do you all honour and service, according 

" as duty bindeth me, whensoever I shall be employed. 

" Thus most humbly prostrating myself before your ma- 
" jesty"'s merciful feet, to hear of some answer agreeable to 
" so royal and merciful a queen, which I nothing despair 
" of, seeing my confession shall manifestly declare my most 
" humble heart and contrition. Which with the mightiest 
" was always accepted." 

This leads me to a notable tract writ in Latin, by one a case of 
Wright, a priest of the Romish religion ; occasioned bv a de- conscience, 

„ ,. . . concerning 

sire of some English abroad of the same religion to resolve taking up 
them in a case of conscience, viz. Whether it were lawful ^'^"J^^"^^ 
for catholics to take up arms for the king of Spain against gainst the 
the queen, and England, their native coimtry ? the said *""""• 
question being propounded some years after the defeat of 
the Spaniard in 1588, when another attempt against Eng- 
land was resolved upon. The answer was in the negative : 
and the reasons for English subjects to take up arms under 
the Spaniard learnedly disproved. Tiie writer (whose name 
is endorsed on the back-side by the lord treasurer) seems to 
be the same with Wright, alias Dobson, an English priest 
of the college of Doway; as I find in a list of English 

G 2 


BOOK priests beyond the seas. Which makes this loyal discourse 
the more worthy to be taken notice of; and to shew that 
Anno 1588. some of the English catholics abroad could not come into 
^"" those Spanish measures. 

It is a MS. which I have seen among the lord treasurer 

Burghley's papers, (and I believe was never printed,) with 

his own hand on the back-side thus writ ; Argumenta cujus- 

dam papistce, nomine Wri/ght. It began with these Avords : 

A priest's Peturunt a me, &c. " That certain English catholics asked 

solution _ ' O 

thereof, to " of him, wheu they saw war hung over England and Spain, 

English ca- " ^^ which part especially they were bound in conscience to 

tiioiics. "adhere; since it was concerning the queen and the king- 

" dom ; whether they might defend the part of England, 

" and by any manner and way, as they were wont, to set 

" upon the Spaniard, to offend and overcome him.''' For 

the resolving of this question, he first laid down the reasons 

that moved this doubt ; and inclined the catholics on the 

part of Spain, and some propositions on which depended 

the knot and the resolution thereof. The discourse is large, 

and intermixed with many matters historical between the 

two kingdoms and the queen and king Philip. Which 

N". LXV. therefore I leave translated into English in the Appendix. 

When so much danger happened by papists about these 

times to the queen's safety, and quiet and peaceable state 

of her kingdom, a careful eye was had over her popish 

Lists of subjects, and how they stood affected : and several lists 

catholics in^<^^^ taken all over the nation of the names of such persons 

England vmdcr thcsc ranks; namely, of such as were recusants in 

England or abroad : whether gentlemen, ladies, seminary 

priests : whether at liberty, or in prison, or in what foreign 

parts, as at Rome, Rheims, Doway, Paris, &c. such as by 

their own confessions were guilty of treason or felony : such 

as were reconciled : again, the names of such as were re- 

^ conciled to the pope before the statute, and refused to take 

the queen's part: also, such as refused the oath of the 

leet, and said, that they would not take the queen's part 

against the pope's army. Another list was of persons only . 

recusants. Such a catalogue was brought in anno 1579. 


whereof account was eiven in one of the volumes of my CHAP. 

Annals. The persons under these various characters, con- '__ 

tained in divers lists of them, taken in the years 1587 and ^""o i588. 
1588, may be found in the Appendix. No. lxvi. 

These certificates of English subjects of the Romish re- English 
ligion brings on the mention of such English, who, for pre- of °he king 
tence of the liberty of their religion, took shelter under the ^^ Spain. 
king of Spain ; and were entertained in Flanders, and other 
places, as his soldiers : and had pensions yearly allowed by 
him for their subsistence and service. These 1 find, Aug. 1, 
88, (now the great invasion of England was entered upon, 
and in action,) had granted them a general liberanca: 
which was a bill of assignation to receive their pension 
monies: which was three months' pay apiece. But their 
paymasters used such crafty delays in the matter of pay- 
ment, that if they had not special favour, (as was writ by 
one that had been a fugitive himself, and knew the state of 
the English fugitives under that king,) it would be six State of the 
months after the grant thereof (do what they could) before gjfve? ^"' 
it would be further signed, and in condition for them to de- 56/ 
mand their money. And till October, in the year 1590, 
this author saith, he was sure they had not received a 
penny. And how long they stayed afterward without it, 
he knew not. Their necessity was great. They followed 
the duke of Parma (the governor of Flanders under the 
king of Spain) from town to town, importunately requiring 
payment. But especially they never left Cosmo, the duke's 
secretary, in quiet. Who, to rid himself of their trouble- 
some importunacy, addressed them to Baptista Spinola, a 
banker dweUing in Antwerp, giving them his letter, and 
sending the same by one Henry Haslewood, requesting him 
to relieve these distressed English gentlemen, and to buy 
their liberanca. Which he doubted not they would sell 
good cheap to his profit. The whole sum was 10,000 
crowns, which Cosmo promised him should be allowed him, 
and passed in the reckoning which he had with the king. 
Haslewood, in the name of the rest, offered him the said 
sum for 6000 crowns. But Spinola utterly refused the 



BOOK same, saying, he would not take it for 2000. And withal, 
he desired he might not meddle with the king: wishing 
Anno 1688. that he had not meddled with him so much. So that they 
were fain to return poor and penniless. And did in that 
instant live in so poor and pitiless a sort, that truly it was 
a grief to see it, said the writer of this passage. And he 
added, that he knew a gentleman that sold his part there, 
amounting to 24Z. for 3/. I leave others to make observa- 
tion hence of the generosity of this rich king towards these 
fugitives ; and of their miserable condition who had changed 
their loyalty to their natural prince, and had yielded it to 
an implacable enemy to her and their country. 
Speeches of And what sort of evil and maliciously disposed persons 
these pen- some of these pensioners were, will appear by the speeches 
swners. ^f ^^q of them, famous for their treachery in betraying cer- 
tain places in Flanders to the Spaniard, viz. Stanley and 
York : as I take it from an account given of them by one 
State of in those times, and a fugitive, and what checks they re- 
gitives. ceived from Spaniards with whom they conversed. That 
Verdugo, hearing sir Will. Stanley with passion transported 
into violent speeches against his country, wished him to use 
moderation : and that though he had oifended his country, 
his country had never offended him. And the other, viz. 
Rowland York, at dinner one day with count Charles of 
Mansfelt, at his house in Brussels, beginning to use unbe- 
coming speeches of the queen, was commanded of the count 
to hold his peace : praying him thenceforward to be better 
acquainted with the customs of that table, which did not 
give any man privilege to speak unreverently of princes. 
Seditious And besides open wars and secret conspiracies, there was 

brought in another method the Romanists made much use of, for tlie 
from Rome. pj.Q]^Qting their purposes, to infect the people of this land ; 
and that was by books dispersed in the nation, from Rome, 
and other places abroad : serving to instruct and persuade 
their party ; and more and more to disaffect them, and to 
excite them to make disturbances, and to confirm them in 
568 their dangerous practices. Insomuch that it was thought 
necessary to set forth a severe proclamation this year against 


bringing books from the see of Rome ; that so coming thence CHAP, 
they might have the stamp of his hoHness's authority and •^^"^• 

infallibility: which was enough to make them believe and ^"no '588. 
undertake any thing. These that were thus prohibited were 
as well traitorous as threatening books and seditious libels, 
as pope Sixtus his bull particularly ; (whereof notice was 
taken before :) and likewise against dispersing, uttering, or 
keeping of them, and that under penalty of martial law. 

In this notable proclamation, the queen first declared the A procia- 
wicked enterprises of the papists against her life and kino--™''^-'°" 
dom. " That considering with herself how mercifully Al-them. 
" mighty God had by the space of many years preserved 
" her highness' most royal person, and this her realm and 
" other her dominions, against divers and manifold most 
" dangerous practices, as well of the pope and other fo- 
" reign enemies, as of sundry disloyal, rebellious, and trai- 
" torous pei-sons, being natural-born subjects of this realm ; 
" who had not ceased, by all possible means they could de- 
" vise, to compass the destruction of her, and the utter ruin 
" and overthrow of this state and commonwealth : for the Popish coa- 
" effecting whereof, they had contrived and laid sundry ^'■'^*""«- 
" complots, not only for the invasion of the realms by fo- 
" reign enemies, but also to move and stir up rebelhon at 
" home, by withdrawing her subjects from their loyal and 
" due obedience, and by preparing them to betray their 
" own natural country; and most unnaturally to join with 
" foreign enemies in the spoil and destruction of the same. 
" For which ungodly and wicked purpose (as it had evi- Jesuits. 
" dently appeared, and been fully proved) so many Jesuits ^•^'"'"^"^^ 
" and seminary priests, and other persons of hke quality, 
" had, by direction of the pope, been of late years sent 
" into the realm. By whom and their adherents sundry Rumours. 
" false, slanderous, and seditious rumours and reports 
" (tendmg wholly to move the people's hearts to discon- 
" tentment and offence) had been commonly bruited and 
" given out ; and divers seditious and traitorous libels, Libels. 
" books, and writings had also by them been published 
" and scattered abroad : 

G 4 


BOOK " Whereupon her majesty, perceiving, in her princely 
' " wisdom, the dangerous consequences of such malicious 
Anno 1588. « and traitorous purposes, had heretofore by several pro- 
file meiuis ii clamations noted the same to her loving subjects ; for- 

iised a- o i» ' 

gainst " bidding thereby the publishing, having, or keeping of 
" any such seditious libels, books, or writings within her 
*' realms or dominions. And her majesty now finding that 
" the malice, as well of the pope and other foreign enemies, 
" as of her rebellious and traitorous subjects, living in the 
" parts beyond seas, was more and more increased ; and 
" that they had been of long time secretly levying and pre- 

Armies and " paring great forces and armies to invade this realm and 

invade. " Other her majesty's dominions, with purpose to put the 
" same in speedy execution by all possible means ; thereby 
" utterly to overthrow her most happy state and this flou- 
" rishing commonweal, and to subject it to the proud, ser- 
" vile, and slavish government of foreigners and strangers : 
" and having also certain intelligence that Sixtus the Fifth, 
569 " now pope of Rome, had of late published and set forth a 

bull"* ^ * " 'iios^ malicious and detestable bull or libel against her 
" majesty, and her most gracious and peaceable govern- 
" ment, and against all loving, dutiful, and faithful sub- 
" jects ; and that sundry other most false, slanderous, and 
" traitorous libels, books, and pamphlets were also lately 
" contrived, written, and printed by divers seditious and 
" traitorous persons, with purpose to be in cover and secret 
" manner dispersed through this realm : wherein they did 
" not only go about, with most false and abominable lies, 
" to slander and dishonoLU* her majesty, and the present 
" most happy and quiet state and government, but also, by 
" subtile and pestilent persuasions, to withdraw lier highness' 
" subjects from their due obedience ; and to excite and stir 
" up the people to take arms against God and their so- 
" vereign, and to join with the foreign enemies ; and so to 
" betray and yield themselves, their parents, kindred, and 
" children, and their religion and covmtry and connnon- 
" weal, to be subjects and slaves to aliens and strangers. 

IimonUio"n! " ^^^^ therefore her highness thought good to admonish 


"her loving, good, and faithful subjects, to continue in CHAP. 
" humble fear and service to Almighty God, in their loyal 

" and dutiful obedience to her majesty, and in their faith- Anno i588. 

" ful readiness to defend themselves and country against 

" all foreign enemies and rebellious traitors whatsoever; 

" and she doubted not, but God's merciful goodness, (upon 

*' which she had always and did only depend,) with the 

" strength which God had given her, to withstand their 

" malice, and to preserve her good subjects and her realms 

" and dominions from all dangers. 

" Nevertheless, lest any of her people should be seduced, 
" or their simplicity abused, by the false persuasions or 
" malicious surmises contained in the said infamous and 
" slanderous bulls, libels, books, and pamphlets, she did, 
" by this her majesty's proclamation, straitly charge and 
" command, that no person whatsoever should convey, carry, 
" or bring into any of her majesty's realms and dominions 
" any of the said bulls, or any transcript or copy thereof, 
" or any the said libels, books, pamphlets, or writings; nor 
" should in any wise disperse or utter any of the same : 
" and that all such persons, to whose hands such bulls, or What to be 
" any transcript or copy thereof, or any of the said hbels, ^,°"^^^, "J^,,^ 
" books, pamphlets, or writings, either had come, or should 
" hereafter at any tiine come, presently with all convenient 
" speed, without shewing the same to any person, send or 
" deliver it to some one of her highness' privy-council, if 
" any such were within twenty miles ; or if it were above 
" that distance of twenty miles from the court, then to the 
" lieutenant, or to his deputy, of the same shire, for the 
" time being, where the party shall be that liad or should 
" have any such bull, or any such transcript or copy there- 
" of; or any such libel, book, pamphlet, or writing. And 
" that the same lieutenant, or his deputy, to whose hand 
" any such bull, or any such transcript or copy, should 
" come, should without delay, and with all convenient 
" speed, safely send the same to the lords of her majesty's 
" privy-council. And that every person, to whom any 5/0 
" such bull, or any transcript or copy thereof, or any such 


BOOK " libel, book, pamplilet, or writing, should be hereafter 
" delivered, offered, or shewed, should immediately appre- 

Anno 1588. " hend and put in safe keeping the party so delivering, of- 
*' faring, or shewing the same, if he were in power or able 
" so to do. To the end that every such offender might be 
" forthcoming, to be speedily proceeded upon, and punished 
" for the same offence, according to the tenor of this her 
" majesty's proclamation. Or, for lack of such ability, should 
" with all convenient speed disclose the name, or dwelling- 
" place, or place of resort, of the party so offending, to 
" some justice of peace of the shire, where any such offence 
*' should be committed. Who should thereupon immedi- 
*' ately cause the party so offending to be apprehended, and 
" put in safe keeping, as aforesaid. 
Law mar- " And her majesty's further pleasure and express com- 
nbhment"' " niandment was, that if any such person should wittingly 
" and willingly offend in, or touching the bringing in, dis- 
*' persing, uttering, or malicious having or keeping of any 
*' such bull, or of a transcript or copy thereof, or of any 
" the said libels, books, or pamphlets, contrary to this her 
" majesty's proclamation ; that every such offender should 
*' with all severity be proceeded against and punished, ac- 
" cording to the martial law, by her majesty's lieutenants, 
" or their deputies, by direction from the same lieutenant 
" in that behalf, within the several limits and precincts of 
" their commissions of lieutenancy; and should suffer such 
*' pains and penalties in that behalf, as by the said lieute- 
" nants, or their deputies, by such direction as is aforesaid, 
" or any of them within their said hmits and precincts, 
" should be inflicted upon them. And that thereupon also 
" the goods and chattels of every such offender should be 
" confiscate and forfeited to her majesty. 

" And for the better execution of this present proclama- 

*' tion, her majesty did not only grant and commit full 

" power and authority to all and every her lieutenants and 

" their deputies, having such direction as was aforesaid. 

To proceed " but also hereby straitly charged and commanded them, 

rity. ^* '^" " ^^^^ every of them, to proceed against the offenders afore- 


" said with all diligence and severity, according to the said CHAP. 

" martial law. And further granted by these presents, that . 

"none of her said lieutenants, or their deputies, be any Anno isss. 

" wise impeached, in body, lands, or goods, at any time 

" hereafter, for any thing to be done or executed in the 

" punishment of any such offender, according to the said 

" martial law, and the tenor of this her highness' proclama- 

" tion, any law or statute to the contrary in any wise not- 

" withstanding. 

" And for the better discovery of the said offences, and Discovery. 
" the speedv appi'ehension of such traitorous, seditious, and 
" wicked persons, as after admonition given by this her 
" highness' proclamation should presume maliciously and 
" wilfully to offend against the same, her majesty straitly 
'^ charged and commanded, as well all her said lieutenants 
" and deputies, and every of them, as all and every her 
"judges, sheriffs, justices of peace, mayors, bailiffs, and 
" all other her officers and ministers, and good and loving 
"subjects; that they should with all care and diligence, 5 7 1 
" in all places, (as well exempt as not exempt,) inquire and 
" search for all such bulls, transcripts, copies, libels, books, 
« and pamphlets ; and for all such persons whatsoever, as 
" should bring, publish, disperse, or utter any of the said 
" bulls, transcripts, &c. and them to apprehend, and put in 
" safe keeping, that they might be speedily proceeded 
" against for the said offences, according to the martial 
" law, as is aforesaid. 

" And her majesty was pleased, that all such persons as Reward. 
" should apprehend or detect any such offender against this 
" proclamation, whereby the said offender might be forth- 
" coming to be proceeded upon, and to receive punishment 
" according to the quality of the offence, shall have the 
" moiety of all the goods and chattels of the said offender, 
" which should be so apprehended or detected by them. 
" And in case any sheriff, mayor, justice of peace, or other 
" pubhc and inferior officer, or any other to whom it should 
« or might appertain, should be found remiss or negligent 
" in the due execution of this proclamation, then the said 


BOOK " party so offending was to be brought before the lords 
" and others of her highness"' privy-council, to receive pu- 

Anno 1588." nishment for the remissness and contempt, as should ap- 
" pertain to the nature and quality of the same offence. 

Mercy. " And finally, her majesty, of her most gracious, merci- 

" ful disposition, hereby signified to all her loving subjects^ 
" that her will and pleasure was, that neither they nor any 
" of them should be molested, troubled, or impeached for 
" any offence heretofore past in the receiving or having of 
" any of the said bulls, transcripts, copies, libels, books, or 
" pamphlets : so as they do deliver the same, according to 
" the effect and true meaning of this proclamation ; and so 
" as it appeared that they were no authors, bringers in, 
" setters forth, dispersers, or maintainers of the same bulls, 
" transcripts, &c. And her majesty willed and granted, 
" that this her proclamation should be a sufficient warrant 
" to all her said lieutenants, and all their deputies, and all 
" and every her judges, sheriffs, justices of peace, mini- 
" sters, and officers, and all other her loving subjects what- 
" soever, to proceed in the due execution of the premises, 
" according to the tenor of the same proclamation. 

" And that therefore her majesty's will and pleasure was, 
" that the same should be made and published under the 
" great seal of England. Given at her highness"" manor of 
" Greenwich, the first day of July, 1588, and in the 30th 
" year of her reign." 

572 CHAP. XIX. 

Scojfing and railing books of puritans. Martin Marpre- 
late. He is brought before the ecclesiastical commission. 
A false report he had spread of the bishop of Winton, 
His abusive book against Dr. Bridges. Dr. Bancrofts 
sermon of the jus divinum of episcopacy. Penry's con- 
futation. Dr. RaynokYs Judgment of that point; upon 
the motion of sir Fra. Knowles. Examination of some 
concerned in Marprelate's press : their confessions. Sc- 


cret conventicles: discovered. Their worship and opi- CHAP. 

. . . XIX 
nions. Another sort of sectaries : allow dissimulation. '_ 

The same practised hy papists. Anno i588. 

OUCH of the queen's protestant subjects that laboured for 
a new reformation of this church, both of the government 
of it by bishops, and of the divine service by the Book of 
Common Prayer, did at this time mightily bestir them- 
selves, by pulilishing divers books and libels full of scur- 
rilous language and slanders, chiefly against the hierarchy : 
but those of Martin Marprelate made the greatest noise. 

Some account of these malicious printed tracts and pam- Slanderous 
phlets I shall give in the words of an eminent bishop then lished by 
living : " That at that very time, (when, the nation was P""tans. 
" thanking God for their deliverance from the Spanish ar-^^ ^^^ peo. 
" mada,) that even then they saw in men's hands and bo-pi^of Eng- 
" soms commonly slanderous pamphlets, fresh from the 
" press, against the best of the church of England; and 
" that they heard at every taljle, and in sermons and lec- 
" tures at private conventicles, the voices of many, not giv- 
" ing thanks to God, but scoffing, mocking, railing, and 
" depraving the lives and doings of bishops and others of 
" the ministry ; and contemptuously defacing the state and 
" government of the church, begun in the time of that 
" godly and blessed prince, king Edward VI. and con- 
" firmed and established by our most gracious sovereign 

" That there were of late time, even within a few 

" weeks, three or four odious libels, against the bishops and 
" others of the clergy, printed, and spread abroad almost 
" in all countries of this realm, so fraught with untruths, 
" slanders, reproaches, raihngs, revilings, scoffings, and 
" other intemperate speeches, as, he thought, the hke was 
" never committed to press or paper ; no, not against the 
" vilest sort of men that have lived upon the earth. And 
" such a prejudice this was to the honour of this state and 5/3 
" government, as never was offered in any age. The author 
" of which called himself Martin Marprelate." 

These books were so full of sedition, and tending so Jjro-,,^^^ ^^^^ 


BOOK fessedly to the overthrow of the estabhshed government of 
' the church, that a letter was writ from the lord chancellor 

Anno 1588. and lord treasurer to the archbishop of Canterbury, with 
cies]as"icar ^^^ assistance of some others of the privy-council, to search 
to search for the authors and abettors of them ; as aivinff great pro- 

forMar- . , ^ k^ , • ,^ , t 

prelate's vocation to the queen and state. Oi this Marprelate 1 
books. have given a large account in the Life of Archbishop Whit- 
cii. 2i" S^^^' And thither I refer the reader. 

Only of John Penry, the chief that bore the name of the 
author of those slanderous books, being so infamous, I shall 
Penry be- add one or two more notices, as I met with them. When 
eeciesiasti- P^nry was brought before the ecclesiastical commission, 
cai commis- where sate the archbishop of Canterbury, Cooper, bishop 
of Winchester, and other bishops, they objected to him 
one of his assertions in his book, that readers were no 
ministers ; meaning such of the clergy as did not or could 
not preach, but only read the holy Scriptures, the Homilies, 
and other good books, appointed to be publicly read to the 
people when there were no sermons. This, Penry asserted 
in his book, was not preaching the word : and so the ordi- 
nary means of salvation was wanting, which was the word 
preached. And that upon this saying of his, it was re- 
ported, that the abovesaid bishop should say, that this was 
next door to an heresy. This matter thus did Penry abu- 
sively relate in a book that he afterwards published : 

" That where he said, that the preaching of the word 

" was the only ordinary way of salvation, the archbishop 

" counted it a heresy, and that every mortal condemned it ; 

A false re- " Penry wrote, that this case stood thus : That he was 

by Peni-y " brought in the year 87 before the commission ecclesiasti- 

against the " cal, where sate the archbishop, the bishops of London, 

Winton. " Winton, and others; and by them was examined about 

" his book. That soon after it was reported by him, and 

" the report spread, that the archbishop and the bishop of 

" Winton had said, that something that Penry had said, 

" viz. that preaching the word was the only means of sal- 

" vation, amounted to heresy, or came very near it." Which 

was falsely reported and carried abroad. But Penry, to 


vindicate himself and his report, gave some account of that CHAP, 
conference after this his customary, scurrilous manner. The 

discourse was about non-7'esidencc ; which Penry had se- Anno 1 588. 

verely inveighed against in his Marprelate. " When the Epist. to 

" bishop of London then had asked him what he could say in*ti,e"con- 

" against such, he said, they were odious in the sight ofvocat. 

" God and man ; because, as much as in them lay, they 

" bereaved the people (over whom they thrust themselves) 

" of the ordinary means of salvation ; which was the word 

" preached. That the bishop of London demanded of him, 

" whether preaching was the only means of salvation. Penry 

" answered, it was the only ordinary means. And con- 

" firmed it by three texts. Rom. x. 14. Hoza shall tliey 

" hear without a preacher P 1 Cor. i. 21, It pleased God 

" by the Jholishness of preachings to save them that believe. 

" The third place was Ephes. i. 13. In whom also ye trust- 

" ed^ after ye heard the word of truth. That the point 5/4 

" being long canvassed, the bishop of Winton (whom he 

" called his xvorship of Winton') rose up, and mildly, after 

" his manner, brast forth in these words; I assure you, my 

" lords, it is an execrable heresy. An heresy "^ said Penry ; 

" [as he relates his story;] I thank God that I ever knew 

" that heresy. It is such a heresy, as I will, by the grace 

" of God, sooner leave my life than I will leave it. Then 

" the bishop said, I tell thee it is an heresy ; and thou shalt 

" recant it as an heresy. Then said the other, never so 

" long as I live, God willing. And adding, that he was 

" weary to hear his grace so absurd." 

It is pity it was not related what the archbishop and bi- 
shop had said more at large in this matter, to explain their 
words ; since all this account given by Penry and his bre- 
thren was tossed about in speeches and common talk against 
them. But the bishop of Winton thought fit, in a book 
writ by him about this lime, thus to vindicate him.self from 
this slander, by relating the truth. " That he should say, Admonition 
" that preaching of the word to be the only ordinary way °g ^^ ^^' 
" to salvation, was heresy ; this he never thought nor •»"''• 
*^ spake, either then or at any other time of his life. And 


BOOK " that in that controversy Penry had spoken things so 
- " strange and so obscure, that he seemed to attribute that 
Anno 1588." effect to the preaching of the word only, and not other- 
^' wise used, by reading it." [For indeed one of this man"'s 
doctrines was, that readers were no ministers.] " And that 
" being urged by the question, by occasion of reading the 
" scripture in churches, liis answer was such, as he evi- 
" dently shewed himself not to mean, that that effect of 
" salvation could not be wrought by hearing of the word 
" of God read ; with some other words, giving suspicion of 
" worse. And then indeed he [the bishop] rose, not out 
" of his place, (as this honest man did carp,) nor spake in 
" such choleric manner as was pretended. But that he 
" quietly said. My lord,"" [speaking, as it seems, to the 
archbishop, then in the commission,] " this is not J'ar from 
" hei'esyP Thus the bishop more truly represented him- 
self and the case. I have not yet done with Marprelate : 
which gave such high offence to the clergy especially, that 
it received answers by some of them ; but to their cost, if 
Answer to railing and foul language could move them. One of these 
book*"'^^*^*' ^^^ ^'*' I^'^'Jt^g'^s, dean of Sarum. Who soon, by Mai-joi-e- 
gainst Mar- late and his club, had a whipping reply given him, which 
P*"^ * ^' will appear by the title-page : which I will here set down, 
for the peculiar style of these men. 

" O.' read over Dr. John Bridges : for it is a icorthy 
" worlc. 

" Or, an epitome of the first book of the right worsliip- 
*' ful volume, written against the pm-itans, and the defence 
" of the noble clergy, by as worshipful a priest, J. Bridges, 
" presbyter, priest, or elder, Dr. of divilitie, and dean of 
" Sarum. Wherein the argvnnents of the puritans arc 
*' wisely prevented ; that when they come to answer Mr. 
" Doctor, they must needs say something that hath been 
" spoken. 

" Compiled for the behoof and overthrow of the parsons, 

" fickars, and currats ; which have learnt their catechisms, 

573 " ^"*^^ ^^'^ P^'^t grace. By the reverend and wortliy Martin 

" Marprelate, gentleman. And dedicated to the confoca- 


" tion-house, &c. Printed over sea in Europe, within two CHAP 

• • XIX 

" furlongs of a bouncing priest. 

' It is dedicated to the right puissant and terrible priests, Anno i588. 
" my clergy-masters of the confocation-house, whether 
" fickers-general, paltripolitans, or any other of the holy 
" league of subscription. The date he gives his epistle is, 
" anno pont'ificatus vestri quinto f [meaning the archbi- 
shop Whitgift, who had now, an. 1588, been five years re- 
moved to the see of Canterbury ;] " and I hope ultimo 
" of all the English popes : by your learned and worthy 
" brother, Martin Marprelate." 

This book of Dr. Bridges is of the more account and This book 

DGruscd uv 

just esteem, having been perused by the archbishop himself the arch- 
before it was sent to the press. Who himself gave this com- "^'shop. 
mendation of it ; viz. " That he knew the sufficiency thereof Admonit. 
" caused these men thus to storm ; as not being able other- ''' " ' 
" wise to answer it. Which made them so bitterly to in- 
-" veigh against his person. And therefore, Si insectari 
" personam deploratcs caiiscc signum est, (as it is indeed,) 
" istorum causa est deploratissima.'''' 

In this book tkus Martin threatened the bishops : " That Martin's 
" he would make open war against them, unless they would ^^^^ ^f the 
" asree to let the puritans alone. That he intended to^is'^op^' 

o 1 ■ p. 4» 

" work their woe two manner of ways ; first, to watch them 
" at every half turn ; and whatsoever they did amiss, he 
" would presently publish it. That they should not call 
" one honest man before them, but he would get their ex- 
" amination, and publish it. That he would place for this 
" purpose a young Martin in every diocese, to take notice 
" of their practices. And rather than he would be disap- 
" pointed of his purpose, he would place a Martin in every 
" parish. And in part of SuffiDlk and Essex, he thought it 
" were best to have two in a parish. Secondly, that all the 
" books he had in store already of their doing should be 
" Dubhshed.'' His books he pretended were many. And Life of Abp. 

r -111 VVliitgift, 

what they were are mentioned elsewhere. P .^gg. 

These books of Marprelate, so severe upon the bishops, 
and their very order and superiority in the church of Eng- 



BOOK land so maliciously inveighed against, gave occasion to a 

sermon in the chief auditory of London, namely, at St. 

Anno 1588. Paul's Cross, preached by a very learned divine. Dr. Rich. 

Bancroft's Bancroft, chaplain to the archbishop; and so (likely) by 

the supe- some order from him. The purpose of this sermon was to 

hishops'* prove the jus divinum of episcopacy, with a refutation of 

those scurrilous libels against them of that dignity ; and 

withal disproving the new discipline. But those of the 

puritan party could not away with it ; who were of another 

opinion, holding that bishop and priest were equal, and of 

one and the same order. 

His sermon was grounded upon this text ; Beloved, be- 
lieve not every spirit., hut try the spirits whether they he 
of God; because manyjhlse prophets are gone out into the 
Penry's xvorld. 1 Jolin iv. 1. The forwardest that set himself to 
of'BarN.*'^^ confute this sermon was our busy Penry. Who first began 
croft's ser- to auswer it more briefly, to be answered more fully and 
>,p largely by others afterwards. His book was to be, A brief 
discovery of the untruths and slanders against the true 
government of the church of Christ, contained in a sermon 
preached, &c. The sum of this sermon, under divers heads, 
I will repeat from this writer's own pen, as I find it. 
Whereby we may in part know what this learned sermon 
was, that had not a few angry opponents. 

" There be many nowadays who do affirm, that when 
" Christ used these words, Die ecclesice, he m^ant thereby 
" to establish in the church for ever the same plot of cccle- 
" siastical government, to be erected in every parish, which 
" Moses, by Jethro's counsel, appointed in Mount Sinai, 
" and which after the Jews did imitate in their particular 
" synagogues." And again, shewing how they affected a 
Jewish church-government : *' They had, say these men, 
" in their synagogues their priests: we must have in every 
" parish our pastors. They their Levites : we our doc- 
" tors. They their rulers of their synagogue : we our cl- 
" ders. They their Levitical treasurers : we our deacons. 
' Again ; this form of government they call the tabernacle 
" which God hath appointed ; the glory of God, and of his 


' Son Jesus Christ; the presence of Grod, that place which CHAP. 

' he hath chosen to put his name there ; the court of the 

' Lord, and the shewing forth of God's glory. A""" isss. 

" Again ; where this ecclesiastical synod is not erected, 
' they say, God's oi-dinance is not performed ; the office of 
' Christ, as he is a king, is not acknowledged in effect ; 
' that without this government we can never attain to a 
' right and true feehng of Christian religion, but are to be 
' reckoned among those who say of Christ, We will not 
' have this man to reign over us.'''' Again, in the same 
sermon : " There was never ancient father, I think, since 
' the apostles' time, that did thus expound that place, 
' Matth. xviii. Besides, there hath been a diverse govern- 
' ment from this used in the church ever since the apostles' 
' time. And these nien do confess, that this government 
' of God, before the council of Nice, began greatly to de- 
' cay : and that since the said council it was never heard 
' of in the world, until these their times. [And for this 
< he alleged Cartwright.] A very strange matter, if it were 
' true, that Christ should erect a form of government until 
' his coming, and that the same should never be once put 
' in practice for the space of 1500 years ; or at the least, 
' to take them at their best, that the government and king- 
' dom of Christ should then be overthrown, when the di- 
' vinity of his person, the honour of his kingly authority, 
' &c. was established at the council of Nice." All these 
paragraphs were taken by Penry out of that sermon, in 
order to confute it. 

I shall say nothing more of this Penry, surnamed Mar- 
prelate, but only mention a clause or two in his epistle to 
his reader; shewing what his and his party's opinion was 
of the bishops that then were. " They seem at this day The bishops 
" to have greater liberty to wound the church than any they J^';!' p^f^^J^*^ 
" had since the beginnings of her majesty's reign. They 
" make use of the time and the opportunity which they 
" have gotten, to keep the truth and the church in their 
" bondage. He spake of murdering tables set up against 
" them by these tyrants; [meaning, I suppose, the eccle-577 

H 2 


BOOK " siastical commission.] The Devil indeed hath within these 
" twelve months shewed himself to be gi'ievously wounded 

Anno 1588." J^ their [the bishops'] persons: because he hath raged so 
" mightily, as this 32 years [since the queen came to the 
" crown] his fury was never seen so great against the truth 

Lifeof Abp." as at this present."" More of this answer to Dr. Ban- 

\\ iiitgift, ci'oft's sermon is related elsewhere. 

I). IV. fh. .4. 

Among others that took displeasure at this sermon was 
sir Francis Knowles, a courtier, and treasurer of the queen"'s 
household : who, upon this sermon of the superiority of 
bishops, thought fit to send his letter to Dr. John Ray- 
nolds, a learned professor in divinity, and head sometime 
of Corpus Christ! college, Oxon, putting the said question 
to him, and to take Bancroft*'s assertion into his examina- 
tion, and commvmicate what his judgment was therein; and 
in short to confute it. 

This letter Avill be found in the Life of Archbishop 

Unokiii. Whitgift; and therefore I here omit it. But the judgment 

of Dr. Raynolds, in his answer to sir Francis, may deserve 

to be here added : the original whereof I have seen thus 

endorsed by the known hand of the said knight : The 19th 

of Septemh. 1589- Mr. D. Raynolds' ansxcer to txco points 

Dr. Ray- of Dr. Baiikwufs sermoi2. It was as followeth : "Albeit, 

iioitis letter 44 j-jo-j^j. honourable, I take g-reater comfort in labourino- to 

to sir r ran. o ' o O 

Knoiks, " discover and overthrow the errors of Jesuits and papists, 

u'lat'sor-' ^ " t'liemies of religion, than (^f ministers of the gospel, and 

nion. " brethren, professing the true faith of Christ ; yet seeing 

" it hath pleased your honour to require me to shew mine 

" opinion of some things, which certain of these maintain 

" and stand in, I thought it my duty, by the example of 

Dent, vxxiii." Levi, who said of his father and mother, / remtrd him 

" not^ nor acknowledged he his brethren, to declare the 

" truth without respect of persons. That of the two 

Two points. " points of Dr. Bancroft''s sermon, that your honour men- 

" tioneth ; one, that he seemeth to avouch the superiority 

" which bishops have among us of the clergy to be of 

" God''s own ordinance, though not by express words, yet 

" by necessary consequence. In that he affirmeth their opi- 


" nion, who impugn that superiority, to be heresy. Where- CHAP. 
" in I must confess, that he liath committed an oversight, ^'^' 

" in my judgment," &c. And then at last, modestly con- Anno loss 

eluding this point, he used these words: " That he had 

" signified his opinion of the point which his honour had 

" specified in Dr. Bancroft's sermon. Which yet if he or 

" any did prove that he had erred in, or took him other- 

" wise than he ought, he should be very willing (by God's 

" grace) to correct ; remembering the apostle's lesson, that 

" the spirits of the prophets are subject unto prophets. i Cor. xiv. 

" The latter point is, concerning that, as he affirmeth, " 
" that St. Jerom saith, and that Mr. Calvin seemed, on his 
" report, to confess, that bishops have the said superiority 
" ever since the times of St. Mark the evangelist : of which 
" point I think as of the former: sith neither Jerom saith 
" it ; neither doth Calvin seem to confess it on his report," 
&c. The discourse is very large and learned, with the 
sense of many of the fathers, and particularly concerning 578 
the heresy of Aerius, with allegations of canons and coun- 
cils ; too long for the room I have. And at last the Dr. 
concluded in these words : " So for this present I recom- 
" mend your honour to the grace and mercy of Almighty 
" God ; who always bless, preserve, and prosper you and 
" yours. At Queen's college in Oxford, Sept. 19. 

" Your honour's in Christ at commandment, 

" John Rainoldes." 

This letter, with some other tracts of that learned man, 
was printed in the year 1641. 

Among the papers of the said sir Era. Knolles, I must Knoiics de- 
add another of the same subject, viz. against the superiority per^^con-*'^ 
of bishops Jwr(? divino, both in the ancient and modern "™'"s t''^ 
church of Christ. Which paper he delivered himself this the lord " 
year to the lord treasurer Burghley ; out of that courtier's *'"^^*"''^'- 
zeal, as it seems, to the queen's supremacy, lest it might be 
lessened by that superiority. This paper being not long, 
and so much now a controverted point by the puritans, I 
leave to be read in the Appendix. It begins with someN^-LXVii. 



BOOK alleo:ations of St. Hierom ; and then of some more modern 

II • 

' writers, as Calvin, Musculus, Beza, &c. 

Anno 1588. jjut I have not yet done with Marprelate; whose books 
gave occasion to this controversy about bishops. Upon the 
letters from the court abovesaid, and the diligent search 
thereupon made, many persons were taken up, and after- 
wards so effectual an examination made, both of the secret 
printing-press, and of the printers, and likewise of the per- 
sons at whose houses both were harboured and concealed, 
that at length all was discovered and came to light : as also 
were certain private conventicles, where these Martinists 
and the like sort of sectaries met together for religion ; and 
what their way of worship and doctrines were. Of all which 
I shall give some particular relation from certain curious 
MSS. sometime belonging to sir John Puckring, the queen's 
sergeant at law, concerned in these inquiries, and one of 
^^ T/^'^^'^'^'the commissioners appointed for that purpose: being the 
best and most authentic account of these matters, and a 
great part thereof originals: kindly connnunicated to me 
by a known worthy person some years ago. 
Examina- I proceed therefore to relate the examination taken of the 
Jj^j^^-jj*^*^' printing-press and the books there printed, and also of sir 
ing-jiress, Rich. Knightley, knt. John Hales, Roger Weekson, or 
'printed. Wigson, at wliose houses that press was brought ; as like- 
wise of John Penry, the chief author, Rob. Walgrave, the 
printer, Humfrey Newman, alias Brownbread, cobbler, the 
disperser, and others. For these examinations, as they 
were found in the said sergeant Puckring's papers, and 
taken at Lambhith in the month of February, 1588, being 
Number somcwhat long, I refer the reader to the Appendix. 

Amonff these papers was another set concerning; the se- 

Secret con- . . • i i 

venticies, cret conventicles of these sectaries, now discovered: and 
doctrioM^ what was found upon examination concerning them and 
5 ^Q their doctrines at those meetings: which I shall insert; 
having this ejidorsemcnt : Certain zcicked sects and opi- 
nions, an. Eliz. 31. 1588, 1589, taken from the cotifessions 
of some of them; the manner (f the asscmhlyofthc secret 
conventicles : together icith some collections (f their opinions. 


" In the summer-time they meet together in the fields, a CHAP. 
" mile or more. There they sit down upon a bank. And di- 

" vers of them expound out of the Bible so long as they are ^""° i^^^- 
" there assembled. ^^^^- P"<='^- 

ring. Con- 

" In the winter-time they assemble themselves by five of fessed by 
" the clock in the morning to the house where they make bei. ^ ™ 
" their conventicle for the sabbath-day, men and women to- confessed 
" gether. There they continue in their kind of prayers, and ^y ^'- *^^™- 
" exposition of scriptures, all the day. They dine together- 
" After dinner, make collections to pay for their diet. And 
" what money is left some one of them carrieth to the pri- 
" sons, where any of their sort be committed. 

" In their prayers one speaketh, and the rest do groan Confessed 
" and sob, and sithe, as if they would wring out tears. But|^Jj ' ^"'' 
" say not after him that prayeth. Their prayer is extem- 
" pored. 

" In their conventicles they use not the Lord's Prayer, Confessed 
" nor any form of set prayer. For the Lord's Prayer, one, Dove. " 
" who iiath been a daily resorter to their conventicles this 
" year and an half on the sabbath-days, confesseth, that he 
" never heard it said among them. And this is the doc- 
" trine of the use of it in their pamphlets : To that which is 
" alleged, that we ought to say the Lord'^s Prayer, because 
" our Saviour Christ saith. When you pray, do you say 
" thus, &c. we answer, he did not say. Read thus, or 
" Pray these zoords. For that place is otherwise to be un- 
" derstood ; namely, all our petitions must be directed by 
" this general doctrine. Neither can we gather, that there 
" is set down all Christ's words, but rather a brief sum of 
" doctrine. Taught in one of their writings ; taken from 
" Smith of Blackfriers. 

" For the use of set or stinted prayers, as they term it, Confessed 
" this they teach, that all stinted prayers, or said service, is {^'^j^'" ^^"^" 
" but babbling in the Lord's sight, and hath neither pro- 
" mise of blessing nor edification : for that they are but 
" cushions for such idle priests and atheists as have not the 
" Spirit of God. And therefore to offer up prayers by read- 
" ing or by writ unto God is plain idolatry. 

H 4 


BOOK "In all their meetings they teach, that there is no head 
' " or supreme governor of the cliurch of God but Christ ; 

Anno 1588. " and that the queen hath no authority to appoint ministers 
thTsa'me" " "^ ^^^ church, nor to set down any government for the 
pamphlet. « church, which is not directly commanded in God's word. 
Confessed " To Confirm their private conventicles, and expounding 
Ijei ' " there, they teach, that a private man, being a brother, 

" may preach, to beget faith ; and now that the office of the 

" apostles is ceased, there needeth not public ministers ; but 
580" every man in his own calling was to preach the gospel. 

" Taught in another of their writings, taken from the fore- 

" said Smith. 
Confessed « To come to our churches in England, to any public 

by John , . „ , , T • 

Dove. " prayer or preaching of whomsoever, they condemn it as 
" utterly unlawful : for that they say, as the church of 
" England standeth, they lie all false teachers and false 
" prophets that be in it. Their reason is, for that our 
" preachers, as they say, do teach us, that the state of the 
" realm of England is the true church, (which they deny.) 
" And therefore they say, that all preachers of England be 
" false preachers, sent in the Lord's anger to deceive his 
" people with lies ; and not true preachers, to bring the 
" glad tidings of the gospel. And all that come to our 
" churches to public prayers or sermons, they account dam- 
" nable souls. Taught in one of their fond pamphlets. 
Confessed a Concerning the authority of magistracy, they say, that 
Dove and " our preachers teach, we must not cast our pollutions out 
Ci.Cambei.c4 of the church, until the magistrate hafh disannulled the 
" same : which, they say, is contrary to the doctrine of the 
" apostles, who did not tarry for the authority of the ma- 
" gistrate : they say, our preachers teach that we must not 
" put the discipline of the church in practice till the ma- 
" gistrates begin. And therefore our preachers be false 
" prophets : for that we ought to reform without the ma- 
" gistrate, if he be slow : for that they say, the primitive 
" church (whose example ought to be our warrant) sued 
" not to the courts and parliaments, nor waited upon princes 
" for their reformation. When the stones were ready, thcv 


went presently forward with their building. Whereon CHAP, 
they conclude against all our preachers thus : That you ^^^' 
might enjoy this world's peace, you care not to make Anno 1 583. 
Christ attend upon princes, and to be subject to their 
laws and govei'nment. Taught by one of their pamph- 
lets in another writing taken from Roger Jackson. 
" Touching the Book of Common Prayer, this is their 
doctrine : Let the great pregnant idol, that Book of your 
Common Prayer, which is so full of errors and abomina- 
tions, be examined. At every part thereof, when they 
have railed, calhng the collects therein heretical, thus 
they conclude of it : Neither can the cunningest of you 
make the best part of it other than a piece of swine's 
flesh, an abomination to the Lord. Neither can the per- 
suasion of your conscience either justify your worship or 
clear or satisfy others. Taught in the pamphlet taken 
from Roger Jackson : confessed in Mr. John Dove's ex- 
amination, a master of arts, who was at one of their con- 

'■ Those that have been of their secret brotherhood, and, Some fail 
seeing their errors, do fall from them, and submit them- t^J^^'^f 
selves to be partakers of public prayers and hearing ti'ese con- 
of God's word with us, they condemn as apostates. And^*" "^^*" 
they say it is a greater sin to go to our churches to public 
prayers, than for a man to lie with his father's wife. 
" And when as one of late forsook their conventicles, 
they sent for him ; and when he gave them many reasons 
why he could not hold their opinions for good, as namely, 
that they rejected the Lord's Prayer. That they were 581 
dissemblers ; in that two of them had a deed of aift of all 
their lands, to deceive the queen : and a number of other 
reasons which he alleged to them. When they saw they 
could not win him, they gave him over to the hand of 
Satan, till he should submit himself to the church affain. 
And they all kneeling, he that gave that sentence made a 
prayer, to desire God to ratify that censure against him. 
Confessed by Love, who is the party whom they so used, 
and by Mr. Dove, who was present at this action, &c. 


BOOK ii They hold it unlawful to baptize children among us, 

" but rather choose to let them go unbaptized. As in sum- 

■ " mer 1588, a child of theirs, being twelve years of age, was 
" known not to have been baptized. And when the poor 
" infant desired often that it might be baptized, she said it 
" was born of faithful parents, which was enough for it. 
" Which child was by the chamber of London caused to 
" be publicly baptized at a sermon made for that purpose 
" the last summer. And the mother ran away for fear of 
" punishment. It was the widow Unyon, one of their chief 
" conventiclers. This child was baptized in the church of 
" St. Andrew Wardrobe. 

Confessed " It cannot be learned where they receive the sacrament 

^ ' ' "of the Lord's Supper. And one, who never missed their 

" meeting-place a year and an half, confesseth, that he 

" never saw any ministration of the sacrament, nor knoweth 

" where it is done. 

Confessed " For marriage, if any of their church marry together, 
^ ' ■ " some of their own brotherhood must marry them. As of 
" late a couple were married in the Fleet." 

Another Another sort of dissenters from the church there was in 

sect. Their , . , , , ■, -, ■, 

compliance, thcsc tmics : and they w ere such as could agree and come 
1 Cor. VI. jjj outwardly with this or any other denomination of Chris- 
tians, keeping their opinions privately to themselves. These 
were some of the Jcimily of love. These I mention here, 
meeting with a sermon of archbishop Sandys, preached be- 
fore the queen this year, or near it ; wherein he thus de- 
scribed them : " That they were men, who for commodity 
*' could transform themselves into all colours and condi- 
" tions, and in open show profess any religion, inwardly 
" keeping their false hearts to themselves: which practice 
" t\ie Jhmily of love had lately drawn into a precept, and 
" had newly broached it, as saleable doctrine, that men 
" need not openly to be of any religion whereby they might 
" endanger themselves. That it was good Christenclome to 
" lie, swear, and forswear, to say and unsay to any, saving 
" such as were of the saxnejaraily : with whom they must 
" only use all plainness, and keep their mysteries secret 


" from all others to themselves."" Of these men thus the CHAP, 
archbishop gave a further account, proceeding thus in his ^^^' 

sermon: " That they might do any thing to avoid afflic- Anno 1 588. 
" tion ; and they had scripture for that purpose. Your ' ^°'^- ^'• 
" bodies are the temples of the Holy Ghost. You may not 
" suffer God's temples to be touched. As fitly alleged, 
" added the preacher, as scriptum est by the Devil." 

This dissimulation occasioned the archbishop to mention 582 
another sort of men, though of a different religion, yet were jP'*^'"!"''*' 
allowed upon occasion to dissemble too. And that war- pensed with 
ranted by his holiness of Rome; which matter I cannot '^^ epope. 
omit. " In a paper, (they are the archbishop's words,) which 
" of late came from the pope, as a token to his dear chil- 
" dren, there were printed the five wounds of Christ, with 
" this poesy, Fili., da mihi cor tuum, et sufficit ; that is, 
" Son^ ff'ive me thy heart, and it siifficeth. Whether his 
" holiness did mean thereby to allow dissimulation or no, I 
" will not define. His practices are mystical, and his brood 
" is so throughly framed in this way, that they seem to 
" take the pope's emblem in no other meaning. That they 
" halted on both sides. They served all times, and turned 
" with all winds ; and by professing such a religion, they 
*' shewed themselves plainly to be of none. That they had 
" double hearts ; one for the prince, another for the pope ; 
" one for Christ, and another for Baal ; one for a commu- 
" nion, another for a mass. These dissembling wolves put 
" upon themselves sheepskins to deceive withal. Now they 
" are mild and gentle; flattering, and promising all loyalty 
" to the prince, conformity to government, and consent to 
" rehgion. But if the times should turn, they would turn 
" off the sheep's coat, and play the wolf in his right kind, 
" They would shew their ravenous nature by their cruel 
" deeds. Then would they fill their bellies after which they 
" now thirst. They would find swift feet to shed the blood 
" of innocents." (And then concludes with a suitable prayer 
against dissemblers.) " From the mouth of the lion, O 
" Lord, deliver us." 



T j"^^ Digby, a senior fclloxo of St. Johns college, Camhndge., 
583 expelled. Appeals to the visitors. Restored. Dr. Whita- 
Tier, master of' that college, to the lord Burghley here- 
upon. Digbfj p)opis]dy affected. The earl of Leicester''s 
letter to the archbishop of Canterbury in this cause. 
Hichman of Bene'' t college expelled: and zchy. Restored. 
The foundress of Sidney Sussex college. Her will. 
Bainbrig and Johnson, of Chrisfs college, cited before 
the vice-chancellor for their sermons. Their protestations. 
The heads to their chancellor. 

JNI OW to gather up what I find of remark transacted this 
year in our universities. 
Digby, lei- There was one Everard Digby, a senior fellow of St. John's 
'lohn's'^^ college in Cambridge, who was observed to be popishly af- 
CaniiirulgL', fee ted, and to have taken opportunity, both in his sermons 
appeals,' and conversation with several of the house, to speak favour- 
ably of the Romish religion ; and some of the scholars had 
left the college and gone over to that church, and particu- 
larly one Smith, moved thereunto by his means, and was 
guilty of divers other misbehaviours in the college. Dr. 
Whitaker, the master and fellows, took occasion upon his 
breach of college statute, (which was nonpayment of com- 
mons,) the penalty whereof was expulsion, to discharge the 
college of him ; which accordingly was done by the presi- 
dent and seniors, and afterwards declared by the master. 
But how the said Digby had appealed to the lord Burgh- 
ley, high chancellor of that university, and the archbishop 
of Canterbury, both visitors, (before whom he had so fairly 
represented his case, and they willing favourably to inter- 
pret the said statute,) and by an order from them was re- 
quired to be readmitted, hath been at large related else- 
Life of where. But Dr. Whitaker notwithstanding declined, or at 
whi't'iit"'' ^^^^^ delayed this order ; yet with all due respects and sub- 
i)ook iii. mission. And for what reasons he had so proceeded, and in 
vindication of himself in the course he took, there are cer- 
tain letters of his extant to the said lord, which will give 


much lio^ht in this matter. Which letters from so learned CHAP, 
an head of the university, and the queen^s public professor ' 

of divinity, deserve the more regard. I shall therefore give ^""0 i588, 
the contents thereof from the originals. 

Upon the chancellor's order for the restoring of Digby, 
the proceeding against him as not regular, (as the said lord 
had judged, according to the report made to him,) the 584 
master addressed to him in this tenor : " That he professed 
" to be ready to shew all obedience to him : but beseeching 
" his honour not to think, that in this proceeding he had 
" dealt upon any malice, which assuredly he had not done ; 
" but understanding at his return to the college, how Mr. 
" Digby, for his contumacy against a statute, had received 
" three admonitions, and taking counsel with his good 
" friend Dr. Byng, (a learned civilian, and one of the 
" heads of that university,) whether they were lawfully 
" given ; and that being advised by him, both in this and 
"other points that then were in question; and certified, 
" that Digby had incurred the danger of the statute : and 
" that further he being urged by his oath to ratify an act 
" lawfully done, he had condescended to his deprivation, 
" thinking that he had no just reason to stay him from so 
" doing, especially being so assured that he might lawfully 
" do it. And furthermore, considering how unprofitable a 
" member he M'as in the college; having also a benefice 
" abroad, and never almost coming at it."" 

The lord treasurer had communicated to the archbishop 
of Canterbury these proceedings of the college with Digby's 
objections, and desired his grace's judgment therein; who 
did not appi'ove of that they had done ; and so in a letter 
he had signified with his reasons to the said lord ; who 
thought it convenient to despatch the said letter to Dr. 
Whitaker. That so understandinsr what answer he could 
make, he might be the better enabled to make a final deci- 
sion of this controversy. Accordingly Whitaker sent that 
lord his answer to those reasons in vindication of what they 
had done. And then went on, using these words to his 
lordship : " Beseeching his honour for God's sake to exa- 


BOOK " niine his answers, which liad truly and sufficiently satis- 
^^- " fied all the said objections, not in his opinion only, but 
Anno 1588. " also Dr. Bynge''s, who perused the same, and (to confess 
" the truth to his honour) penned them himself; he trusted 
" upon sight thereof his honour would find, that Digby was 
" lawfully deprived, and that he would not consent to his 
" restitution : which, as the master suggested, would be a 
*' great wounding of his government in a man that was so 
" untowardly disposed : who had also but that morning 
" both privately and publicly charged him, [the master of 
" the college,] in his honour''s name, (as he said,) to accept 
" him as fellow. That his answer to him, both privately 
" and before the seniors, was this, that in all dutiful obe- 
'' dience he submitted himself to their honours, [the visi- 
" tors,] and to the authority of their visitation : but that 
" he had sent their honours an answer to all those reasons 
" alleged in the letter, and had desired to hear further 
" upon the perusing thereof. And that whereas he [Mr. 
" Digby] had appealed to the visitors of their college, he 
*' would accept him willingly, if, after they had considered 
" his answers, they should consent to his restoring.*''' He 
added, that if any thing in his said answer were not 
proved sufficiently, " he desired but only that some might 
" be appointed for the further hearing of it. And that if he 
585 " justified not both the admonitions and all other requisite 
" points, he would give over quietly the whole cause. 

*' In the mean time (as he concluded) I beseech your 

" honour, stand my honourable lord in this case, upon 

" whom alone in this earth I most rely, and suffer me not 

" to be overborne by Mr. Digby and his manners, to my 

" discredit and confusion greatly. And thus he humbly 

" took his leave. From St. John's, the 13th of April, 

« 1588." 

Tnforma- In another letter to the said lord, Whitaker thus in- 

h'v's be- '^' formed him against Digby's return to the college. " That 

iiaviour. << the peaceable government of the college should be utterly 

" overthrown, if Digby ''s suit might prevail. Yea, the state 

" of the whole university was such at that present, that his 


"cause beinof heard, if he were reUeved and restored bv CHAP. 
"■ superior authority, it would not be an easy matter to re- 

" strain the insolency of a number with whom he had to-^"""'^^^ 

" deal in that college, and other colleges too much reple- 

" nished, [meaning with popish affected persons.] Papistry 

" at this time had secretly increased in Cambridge; and 

" particularly in that college, as appeared since his [Whita- 

" ker's] coming into it. And among others Digby, a man no- 

" toriously suspected ; and one that by confession of some 

" had given encouragement to papists in their opinions in 

" that house. Besides, a man continually scandalous, as he 

" said he would declare to his honour. 

" That for these respects he was willing to have the very 
" extremity of the statute to pass against him ; which yet 
" was not without advice of Dr. Byng, one of their visitors. 
" And such commissioners were appointed to hear Digby's 
" cause as he most desired : which made Digby boast at 
" his return, [from London, where the cause had been 
" heard,] that he was restored in statu quo: and that he 
'•' had presumed to come into the hall, and to sit down at 
" dinner, not only as fellow, but took the place of the pre- 
" sident; and this, added Whitaker, was such an affront 
" unto him, that he had declared to be non soclus should 
" sit down in the president's place ; that if this were allowed, 
" it were good for him to depart, and leave both college and 
" university."" 

But notwithstanding the master's letters and endeavours Tiie 
to the contrary, after some months, Digby was actually re- 
stored. But how the said master resented it, he expressed 
in another letter to the said lord : " Malice to Digby he 
" bore none, as God knew, who only was xa^Sioyvwo-rryf. 
" Neither did he seek any revenge of himself at his hands, 
" having, he trusted, learned Christ better than so. But 
" only propounded in this act the glory of God and the 
" good of that society ; and that, as he was persuaded at 
" the first, not only of his own mind, but of others, that he 
" might justly declare the sentence of deprivation against 
" him. And so, notwithstanding any thing that had been 

ter's resent- 


BOOK " objected, he was persuaded still, and would not otherwise 
" once have opened his mouth in the cause. Wherefore he 

Anno 1588." humbly beseeched his honour to look into this cavise, that 

" did so narrowly concern, not only the good government of 

*' that M'orthy college, but the good estate of the whole uni- 

" versity. That he must and willingly did refer it to his 

586" honourable consideration. He asked nothing in respect of 

" himself, and desired only to retain his favour That 

" it was a common cause that made him to deal as he had 
" done. Wherein, if he should be assisted by his honour, he 
" should humbly praise God, and doubted not the whole 
" university should have cause, for his honour. If otherwise, 
" he should submit himself to God's providence and his ho- 
" nour\s determination."" This was dated Jvmel. 

Earl of Lei- Let me here insert a letter from a great man at court in 

ccstcr to 

the arch. D^- Whitaker''s favour. After this business between Dr. 
bishop of Whitaker and Digby had been sufficiently heard, examined, 
in this and determined, the earl of Leicester thought fit to inter- 
cause, p^gg ,^ letter to the archbishop of Canterbury against Dig- 
by''s abiding in the college. That though by his and the 
lord treasurer's decree he was restored to his fellowship, 
yet that it might be provided that so dangerous and trou- 
blesome a fellow might be soon discharged the college, or 
lose his seniority. The letter ran in this tenor : 

" My very good lord, whereas there are very strong and 
" credible informations, that this Digby is a very unsound 
" and factious fellow, I am to make a new and earnest re- 
" quest unto your grace, that seeing matter hath been so 
" deliberately and thoroughly heard, that you may not 
" undo it, you will limit this Digby some short time of stay 
" in that college. So that he be gone Avithin a quarter of a 
" year. Whereby neither this your grace's action shall be 
" undone, and tlie college shall be disburdened of a lewd 
" fellow, which disturbeth the government, and hath em- 
" poisoned their youth. Your grace may very well know, 
" that this matter should not so far be urged but for re- 
" ligion's sake : which must needs receive a blow, if such a 
" fellow remain among them. Or if you shall deny me this 


" request to appoint him this time to go away, and to de- CHAP. 
" part; yet I will trust, that you will grant me thus much. 

" so to receive him, that he be at last removed out of the^^"no isss. 

" seniority, that he may have the less strength to do harm. 

" I assure your grace he is a very naughty fellow, from di- 

" vers instructions which I have received of honest men : 

" which may not here be commenced against him without 

" prejudice of their places which do commence them. Thus 

" trusting that he shall lose, for his demerit, either his fel- 

" lowship or seniority, I bid your grace right heartily fare- 

" well. From Wansted, the 6th of May, 1588. 

" Your very loving friend, 

" R. Leycester." 

This Everard Digby is supposed to be the father of sir Causes of- 
Everard Digby concerned in the gunpowder plot. But the ^vhitaker 
unsoundness of this Digby's religion, and his insolent car- f"^ the dc- 
riage in the college, with other informations concerning Di-^by. 
him, are at large declared in a paper sent by Dr. Whita- 
ker to the lord Burghlcy ; shewing that lord the causes in 
vindication of his proceedings, and moving him thereunto : 
as, that he was vehemently suspected, upon great presump- 
tions, to be of corrupt religion : that he preached a sermon 
at St. Mary's, wherein he so commended voluntar}'^ poverty, 
that Dr. Fulk, preaching in the same place, confuted him 
shortly after. But see this paper transcribed from the ori- 
ginal in the Appendix. N". LXix. 

Such another case happened this year in Bene't college 587 
in the same university, when a fellow, named Hickman, ^"''^'"^",''' 

'' ' • ' Bene t col- 

was expelled that house by the master, Dr. Copcote, and lege ex- 
five of eight fellows, being the majority of the fellows then P*! ,^ 
resident. His fault was, that he was proud, idle, conten- 
tious, that studied not, and contemned such as did, con- 
trary to some statute of the college. This prosecution seems 
to have been made by the master and his party of the fel- 
lows; who bore an ill-will indeed to him, occasioned by 
his opposing the election of the said master this year. But 
Hickman making his complaint first to sir Francis Walsing- 



BOOK ham, the queen's secretary, on whom he had some depend- 
' ence, the matter at last came to the chancellor of the unf- 
Anno i588.versity ; who referred the consideration thereof (depending 
upon the meaning of a college statute) to the archbishop. 
Book iii. In the Life of whom some account was given of this busi- 
ness. To which I add, that when the college, upon this 
appeal, was required to give the reason of their thus deal- 
ing with Hickman, the master and the five fellows gave it 
in a letter to their chancellor in these general words : 

Quern approhatorem domicilii nostri Uterarii olim habui- 
mus te nunc ejusdem conser'vatoremjbre speramv^ et defen- 
sorem. Itaque cognosce, qucesumus, vir nobilissime, nan 
nos AntJionium HicJcmanum, sed leges nosti'as, qucBjastum 
vtbique et otio erudito immicos detestantur, ejecisse. Qui tit 
semper cum nobis dum. vixit, tutum eorum qui Uteris 
operam dant recessum, concordiam, contemptui habuit. 
The sum of which words was, That not they, but their laws 
had expelled him ; who, while he was among them, made 
but a matter of contempt of the retirement and concord of 
those that followed their studies. 

But this was too general a charge against Hickman to 
enable the chancellor to judge of the justice of his expul- 
sion; who should have had the very words of the statute 
laid before him, which they seemed not to care to do. But 
Hickman transcribed the said statute at length, for the pre- 
tended breach whereof they had so proceeded against him ; 
The college and sent it up to that lord, with these words : " The statute 
whereon " "^ ^^^ College, whereby the master and five of the fellows 
they pro- « claim authority to proceed to mv deprivation. And hav- 

ceeded. . ^ i j i 

" ing de facto deprived me, refuse to yield a reason thereof 
" to any other superior judge." 

Quod si publica turpitudims nota eorundcm sociorum 
sive scholaiium aliquem involverit, aut in ipsa domo prce- 
dictorum aliquem, grave scandnlum Jiierit snscitatum, vel 
adeo impacificus, et dyscolus erga privatum magistrtim et 
socios, seujurgiorum aut litium creber suscitator extiterit, 
sen de hceresi, pcrjurio, sacrilegio,J'urto, rnpina, homicidio, 
adidterio, vel incontinentia svperlapsu ca,rnis, noto?ie def'a- 


niatus fuerit — ita quod per socios dicta domus, statuto sibi chap. 
termhw per magistrum^ se purgare non possit, dicta sus- ^^' 

tentatio omnino siibtrahatur, et ipsa sicut ovis morbida^^nno \5S8. 
qucB totum gregem inflcit, a dicta donio jua'ta discretionem 
magistri^ et majoris partis societatis prcedictce, penitus cx- 
cludatur ; nee alicui e domo prcpdicta sic ejecto actio com- 
petat contra magistrum.^ i^c. agendo, appellando, conque- 
?-endo, Sj-c. 

In short, Hickman^s case, notwithstanding any thing in 588 
the abovesaid statute to the contrary, proved so fair, that ^'^'^'"'J" 
he had the judgment of two learned doctors of the law, 
Hammond and Forth, in his favour. But it was not before 
three years after, viz, the year 1591, that he was restored to 
his fellowship ; when Dr. Some, vice-chancellor, and some of 
the heads, viz. Goad and Whitaker, gave a letter to their 
chancellor in that behalf. And he was restored, Dr. Jegon 
being now master of that college. 

Frances, countess of Sussex, relict of Thomas Ratcliff, 'fhewiii of 
earl of Sussex, died March the 9th this year ; who was the jress of " 
foundress of Sidney Sussex college in Cambridge. And^'^"^?'*'"*- 

1 • /» 1 1 .,,,.. sex college. 

meetmg with an authentic copy oi her last will, wherein is 

related this her noble and Christian benefaction, shewing 

her pious desire for promoting religion and good learning, 

I shall here transcribe it, in memory of her, beside the mo-MSS. Burg. 

numental memorial of her in Westminster-abbey. Which 

college accordingly was begun to be built anno 1595. 

" Also where sithence the decease of my said lord, the 
" earl of Sussex, I have, in devotion and charity, purposed 
" to make and erect some good and godly monument for the 
" maintenance of good learning; and to that intent liave 
" yearly gathered and deducted out of my revenue so much 
" as conveniently I could ; I do therefore now, in accomplish- 
" ing and performing of the same my charitable pretence, 
" what with the ready money which I have so yearly re- 
" served, and with a certain portion of plate, and other things 
" which I have purposely left, will and ordain, that my exe- 
" cutor shall bestow and employ tbe sum of 5000/. over and 
*' besides all such my goods, as in my present will remain 



BOOK a unbequeathed, for the erection of a new college in the 
university of Cambridge, to be called, The Lady Frances 

Anno 1588.44 Sidney Sussex college; and purchasing some competent 
" lands thereunto, to be annexed for the maintenance of 
" the master and of ten fellows, and twenty scholars, stu- 
" dents there, according to the laudable customs of the said 
" university ; if the 5000Z. and remainder of my said goods 
" unbequeathed will thereunto extend. And if the said por- 
" tion of money and goods shall not be thought' by the 
"judgment of my executors to be sufficient for that pur- 
" pose as to erect and found a new college in my name, for 
" the maintenance thereof^ as I before intended, then my 
" will and mind is, that my said executors, by their best 
" advisement and good discretion, shall bestow and employ 
" the said sum of 5000Z. for the enlarging the college or hall 
" called Clare-hall in the said imiversity of Cambridge ; and 
" for the purchasing of some such lands, clear of incum- 
" brance, as the residue of the said money will or may pur- 
" chase by their best endeavours, to be annexed to the said 
*' college or hall for ever, for the maintenance of so many 
" fellows and scholars, to be kept and maintained there, as 
" is now used ; as the same livings and lands so purchased 
" will conveniently maintain and keep, according to the or- 
" dinary rate and allowances now used and appointed in the 
" said university ; which college or hall from thenceforth 
*' perpetually shall be named, Clare and lady Frances Sid- 
589 " ^^.y Sussex college or hall; and the scholars and fellows, 
" which shall be placed there in my name, to have and en- 
" joy such and like liberties, customs, and privileges in the 
" same hall, as others the fellows and scholars there in every 
" respect. And whatsoever my insufficiency of knowledge 
*' hath omitted for the orderly and strict directions of the 
" proceedings herein, I refer and commit to the further 
" discretion, knowledge, and advisement of my said execu- 
" tors; by whose care, and Avith the assistance of others 
" my well and godly disposed friends, my special will herein 
" may be sjx^edily and truly performed, established, and 
" done. 


*' Requiring the ear] of Kent principally, and the rest of CHAP. 
" my said executors, with the assistance of my said supervi- 

" sors and assistants before named, for God^s cause, and in Anno 1688. 

" discharge of their consciences, to execute and accomplish 

" this my present last wi'll and testament in all things, and 

" with all convenient expedition, according to my intent 

" and meaning, even as they will answer it at the dreadful 

" and last day of judgment before the throne of God's di- 

" vine majesty, where the secrets of all hearts shall be 

" opened and revealed." 

There were two fellows of Christ's college in the said uni- Bambridg 

versity, viz. Cutbert Bambridg and Francis Johnson, dis- g"^ ^°^^^' 

ciplinarians, that this year came into trouble and restraint t>efore the 
« • 11 • 11 1 iTii* vice-clian— 

for certam tenets and doctrmes preached and pubnshed m ceiior for 

their sermons at St. Mary's, reflecting upon the church *'^^"^ *"" 
established, and containing some dangerous positions: for 
which they were both cited by the vice-chancellor and 
heads; and divers articles framed out of their sermons 
against them. To which they were required to answer upon 
oath. But they refused so to do : and were both thereupon 
committed to custody, Jan. 23. Some account whereof was Life of Abp. 
given elsewhere, to which I refer the reader; but I shall bookui.' 
further enlarge this university concern, with the conse-ch-2i. 
quences and proceedings, which stuck a great while before 
the heads, and afterward removed to a superior cognizance. 
Upon the demand of the heads, why they refused to give 
their answers to those articles before mentioned, they made 
these three protestations. I. That we do from our hearts Their pro- 
reverence your authority set over us by God. II. We re- 
fuse not an oath, as thinking it simply unlawful upon all 
occasions. III. That we are not afraid nor unwilling to 
acknowledge and defend that which we openly taught, if 
any man shall impugn it, or charge it to be unlawful, or 
imlawfuUy done. 

The next time they were called before the heads, (which Another 
was March the 13th,) they made another protestation, be- f'o°*"*^' 
sides those they made before ; namely, That their only stay 
was, that in this their case, having preached publicly, they 



BOOK might not be constrained under their own oaths to give 
matter of accusation and proof against themselves, if any 

Anno 1588. crime were committed, it being contrary to the word of 
God and law. But to continue a further relation of this re- 
markable university occurrence : 

The next day of their appearance (which was April the 
18th, 1589) they made this protestation, that if the oath 
offered in this their cause could be shewed to be warrant- 
able by the word of God and law, they were always ready 
to receive it. 
590 By this time the cause between these preachers and the 

The cause jjgjj^jg ^^j^g ggj^j. ^p j^ ^]-,g j^^.j Burffhlev, their chancellor. 

IS brought r & J ' 

before their And soon after, at another appearance, they, hoping for some 
advantage to themselves by this superior judge, made these 
two protestations more. First, that they were ready, if they 
might be suffered, to come before the lord treasurer, their 
honoured chancellor, (which they thought they might do in 
this case, not infringing their privileges,) to clear themselves 
of the matter informed to his honour concerning their ser- 
mons, and the whole carrying of themselves in this case : 
or else, if they could not do it, they refused not to suffer 
any condign punishment. And further, secondly, if any 
there would charge them with the same things wherewithal 
his honour had been informed, or with any thing in their 
sermons, they did there offer sufficiently to answer it by 
themselves, or by witnesses, or else to suffer any punish- 
ment due unto them. And that this they were ready to 
answer, according to their honourable chancellor''s letter, 
which required their answer simply, not mentioning an 
oath. All these protestations were registered. 
Their case And then this was their case, as they stated it : " After a 
thl;mseives. " sermon required by duty, and made at the wonted time 
" in the public and ordinary place, and in the hearing of the 
" known and usual auditory of the university and town, con- 
" sisting of many hundreds, who arc able to satisfy of the 
" matter delivei'ed at that time: for the judge in searching 
" of what was spoken in the sermon ex mero officio to these, 
'* by extorting the preachers by oath, so as only out of his 


" own confession under oath to matter of accusation and CHAP. 
" proof of his own crime, (if there be any by him com- 

mitted should be drawn,) we take to be against the word Anno i ass. 
" of God and the law established in this realm." 

To which I might subjoin the resolution of Dr. ByngeDi.Bynge's 
(a learned civilian, and one of the heads) to three questions 
started upon this case. I. Whether the judge might pro- 
ceed ex officio, or no.^ II. Whether the judge may begin 
with the answer of the party principal before he proceed to 
convince him by witnesses.? III. Whether the judge may 
compel the party to answer on the oath .'* The affirmative to 
which questions he learnedly proved. 

The case being now before their high chancellor, the Letters 
heads stood firmly in requiring the oath to be taken ; and ^°^^ ^^^^^^ 
the two fellows as stoutly refusing to do it. And both the chancellor. 
heads and those fellows had addressed their letters to him. gate. 
Who gave his letters again to the heads by way of advice, 
and what his thoughts were concerning their dealing with 
and proceeding against them, and that they, the fellows, 
should not be dealt rigorously withal. To which they an- 
swered, " that they dealt with them in civil and courteous 
" wise, with offer of conference, as of intent to persuade, 
" not to force them." But when they had kindly commvmi- 
cated to Bambrig and Johnson the tenor of that lord's let- 
ter, they took advantage thereat, and made their construc- 
tion of it, that his lordship would not have them sworn at 
all; because there was no express mention of receiving 
their answer upon oath. The heads, upon this interpretation 
made by these men of that lord's advice, sent up certain 59 1 
messengers to wait upon him with their letter to acquaint 
him herewith. And because these fellows stood so much 
upon it, they took it to be their duty not to conceal this s 
from him, and attended his lordship's further pleasure 
therein. This was the sum of their letter, that they might 
more perfectly know his mind concerning administering the 
oath. Signed by Nevyl, vice-chancellor, Perne, Still, Tyn- 
dal, Copcot, Bynge, Preston, heads. In answer, the chan- 
cellor wrote plainly concerning their proceedings, that it 

I 4 



Anno 1588. 

li o o K seemed to be a very hard course taken by them ; meaning, 
'. by detaining them so long in prison. 

Whereupon in their next to him, " they acknowledged 
it so to have been, if they (the vice-chancellor and heads) 
had not first assayed by all good and gentle means 
to prevail with them. But that when they saw they 
were wilfully bent to withstand their government, and 
that others, who in like case had been before produced 
for accusers, were afterwards, not only by private speech, 
but also public reproaches, very injuriously dealt withal ; 
and knowing that whatsoever they pretended to the con- 
trary, that in this case they should do nothing but ac- 
cording to law, both established by her majesty, and like- 
wise to be justified by the word of God: that they 
thought they were bound, as in convenience and equity, 
so in discretion and duty, thus to proceed. And the ra- 
ther they had been induced thereunto by reason of some 
speeches, uttered by themselves, and other their adherents, 
(of whom they said there was no small number,) that it 
might be, that God had herein revealed that unto them 
which he had not done before unto any others ; and that 
that which had been long before in darkness should now 
by them be brought unto light ; and that there was hope 
that this action of theirs should reform the abuse, not 
only of this, but of other places, where had been and 
was the like proceeding. The whicli, as they added, if 
it were an abuse, as they would be glad, with all their 
hearts, of due reformation ; so when the same belonged 
not unto them, but was to be done by more special au- 
thority, they thought it their parts not to suffer any 
example (there in that place especially) so prejudicial. 
And found by experience of this one dealing, that the 
same had done no little good in their university. For 
that since that time some stirring tongues had been very 
quiet; who before spared neither state, nor persons of 
the greatest honour and merit, living nor dead. 
" We had much rather, our very good lord, (as they 
proceeded,) have concealed these matters, than thus to 


" have discovered them, but that we be verily persuaded, CHAP. 

" that they, together with their complotters, do practise ^^' 

" hereby, not only the alteration, but subversion of our go- Anno i588. 

" vernment ; thereby to procure unto themselves liberty 

" without controlment; (when they know how hard and 

" odious a matter it will be upon every such occasion to 

" enforce accusers ;) to speak what they list, and against 

" whom they list. And therefore, as your honour hath 

" been ever heretofore very careful for the suppressing of 

" such contentious persons, and maintenance of peace and 

" all good order amongst us, so at this time, and in this 592 

" particular, which doth so highly concern us, both in the 

" public cause and our own private credit, we do nothing 

" doubt, but that your lordship will allow of our proceed- 

" ings. And that not only, but also assist us by further 

" avithority, as shall seem good unto your honour's wis- 

" dom. 

" In the mean season they acknowledged themselves most 
" bound unto his honour for the concealine; of his mind in 
" this matter from them ; because they found them to be 
" persons of that disposition, who took encouragement by 
" any countenance that could be given them. And thus 
" sorry they had this occasion to trouble his honour ; rest- 
" ing herein vipon the knowledge of his further pleasure ; 
" and humbly took their leaves. Dated from Cambridge, 
" the 4th of May, 1589. Subscribed by Nevyle, vice- 
" chancellor, Tyndal, Legg, Preston, Bell." I give the 
whole letter, that the knowledge of this university contro- 
versy, carried on by the disciplinarian faction there, might 
the better appear. But two heads. Dr. Goad and Chader- 
ton, openly, and one, viz. Whitaker, privately, protested 
against these proceedings. 

The cause at length was laid before divers civilians ofThejudg- 
the greatest note, for the use and information, as it seems, ™^"*"^*'"^ 

" _ ' _ _ ' case given 

of the chancellor; and what the judgment and decision of by the chief 
so many learned men was, take in their own words, and '^'^' '^"' 
signed with their hands, as I have it from an original ; and 
therefore may deserve a place here. Upon their due weigh- 


BOOK ing of the case drawn up by Dr. Bynge, and his opinion 
• thereupon, and the fellows' answer thereunto, together 

Anno 1588. with the resolution of divers doctors of the Arches, all laid 
before them, they writ thus : 

" Having advisedly perused all the premises here set 

" down, notwithstanding any matter we have here seen, we 

" are of opinion, that the parties here are bound by law to 

" answer upon their oaths. And we find it harder, in our 

" learning, to give a good reason of doubt, than to yield 

" any other resolution, though there preceded in such a 

" case neither special accusation nor denunciation." Signed 

by Bar. Clerk, dean of the Arches, Aubrey, Drury, Jones, 

Lloyd, Stanhope, Forth. 

Bambrig In sliort, these two fellows, however refractory they had 

son <^ive been to the heads, were afterwards brought to give account 

account of of their sermons, that made all this stir ; and to answer to 

their ser- . , . • i • i i p 

inons. certani doctrmes or expressions therem that gave the oi- 
fence, and which were comprised in certain articles that 
had been offered them by the heads. These their answers 
were probably sent by them to the chancellor upon his de- 

N". LXX. sire. And they may be found transcribed in the Appendix. 
The perusal of which will serve to let in more knowledge 
of these men's troubles. 

Bambrigg was at last restored to his college : for I find 
him fellow there an. 1590. But Johnson's fortune was se- 
vere ; as his temper and principles were more dangerous : 
holding our archbishops and bishops antichristian : a Brown- 
ist. I find him a prisoner in the Clink an. 1593. 

593 CHAP. XXI. 

The death of the earl of Leicester. Some remarks of him. 
The lord Burghleifs meditation upon the death of his 
lady: her henef actions : her learning. An English 
gentleman^ viz. sir Edward Kelly, in Germany, reported 
to have Jbimd the art of making gold ; invited by the 
queen into England. The lord treasurer''s letter to Dyer, 


to persuade him. His learninfl\ and deserts towards chap. 
England. Made a baron hy the emperor. By his order 

IS seized. Anno 16S8. 

Among matters personal and domestic that occur this 
year, these following may be inserted. 

The beeinnina: of September put an end to the life of Death of 
the great earl of Leicester, master oi the queen s horse, and Leicester. 
lord high steward of her household ; and had enjoyed many 
other high places and honours, being the queen's favourite : 
of whom much is told in our histories of the times of queen 
Elizabeth, and concerning him several relations have been 
made before in these Annals. His disease was occasioned 
by cold rheums, which troubled him about the beginning 
of this year. For remedy whereof he seems to have re- 
paired to Buxton well in Darbyshire, then in great request. 
And so he writ in a postscript to a letter of his, in April, 
to the earl of Sussex, whose seat was in those parts : " My 
" lord, I doubt I shall be driven to come this year to your 
" bath at Buxton. I have this year been troubled with 
" colds and rheums, that was never troubled with them be- 
" fore. I had rather try this remedy than other physic." 
Our historian writes that he died of a continual fever. And Camd. Eiiz. 
his notable character (none of the best) he gives at large. ,588. 

I shall insert a note or two more of him here. He often Sometime 
had the misfortune to lie under the queen's displeasure, queen's dis- 
though he were so great a favourite. But he had these pleasure. 
humble, self-debasing appearances, that he soon recovered 
her favour again. And thus he once told the lord Burgh- 
ley, in a letter, what he found by his own experience; 
" God be thanked, her blasts be not the storms of other 
" princes, though they be very sharp sometimes to those 
" she loveth best." This he wrote anno 1572. 

He was a great receiver of suits ; thinking thereby to A receiver 
render himself gracious unto the people. And herein he 
made great use of the said lord treasurer, in forwarding 
such requests of suitors to the queen in his absence. His 
last letter written to that lord was dated from Mayden- 


BOOK head, August the 27th, (not much above a week before his 
• death,) being gone then from his house in Wanstead in Es- 

Anno 1588. sex, towards his seat, Kenelworth, but dying in an inn be- 
^94 fore he came thither. The business of which letter con- 
sisted of a request to him, in behalf of sir Robert Jermin, 
to be moved to the queen. As almost all his former letters 
to that lord commonly imported; namely, for preferring 
one or other of his friends, or allies, or dependents. Where- 
by he strengthened his own interest by getting so many of 
his own creatures preferred. 
His end When he wrote this letter he little thought he was so 

near his end : for he was then very well ; and his death 
was sudden ; and supposed by some to be brought about 
by some unlawful arts. He went away into the country in 
haste. And made an apology in his said letter, that he 
took not his leave of his lordship at his departure : hoping, 
as he added, to see his lordship ere long again. And this 
openeth another remark concerning his end. 
A conjura- There was a strange passage of a conjuration used about 
the death ^lie death of the said earl ; whether to procure it, or some 
of the earl, foreboding of it, I leave to the judgment of the reader. 
But the matter (however secretly done) came at last before 
the privy-council. The occasion of it was the imprisonment 
of sir James Crofts, knt. comptroller of the queen's house, 
and one who had been employed in her service abroad, and 
one of her commissioners the last year, sent over to treat 
of a peace with the duke of Parma"'s commissioners : when 
ciiap. XV. going somewhat beyond his commission, (as was told be- 
fore,) was committed to custody when he came home, chiefly 
by means of Leicester, who was his enemy ; and so Crofts 
remained. But his son, (Edward Crofts,) grieving for these 
sufferings of his father, applied himself to one John Smith, 
a famous conjurer, expecting some deliverance for his fa- 
ther by his art, by bringing death upon the earl. For 
which he was brought upon examination before the lords ; 
and what that was, take his own confession, as I transcribed 
from the original. 

" Being examined concerning the earl of Leicester's 


" death, he saith, that after his father, sir James Crofts, CHAP. 
" was committed, this examinate came home to his own ' ' ' 

" house at Charing-cross ; and lamenting, said unto Smith, Anno isss. 
" and Pines'" wife, that he and all his were undone, except C'""'^*'^.^''- 

^ _ ' i- animation. 

" he had lielp. And Smith said, he would do what he Mss. Burg. 

" could. And willed this examinate to give him the names 

" of all the council ; which he did. And Smith promised 

*' to tell him who were his father's enemies. And did after 

" tell him, that the earl of Leicester was his great enemy. 

" Within two or three days after. Smith, walking up and 

" down hy this examinate, made a flirt with his thumb, 

" and bade him be of good comfort ; for the bear is tied 

*' to the stake, or muzzled ; whether, he doth not remem- 

" ber. And in what manner or sort the earl was dealt 

" withal, he doth not know. 

" That Smith told him, that his father should not re- 
" main in prison a full month. And that this examinate . 
" should be the man that should obtain the warrant for his 
" delivery ; and so he did." Then follows Smith's exami- 
nation taken, and of some others, upon the same conjura-5g5 
tion; which I leave among the records in the Appendix. N". LXXii. 

Of the death of Mildred, a very pious and learned lady, 
Avife of the lord Burghley, notice must be now taken. And 
meeting with a meditation of tliat lord, (retired from court,) 
writ by him propria manu, occasioned by her death, in me- 
mory of so singularly excellent a woman, I shall here leave 
it to posterity, transcribed from the original. 

" There is no cogitation to be used with an intent to re- Lord 
" cover that which never can be had again ; that is, to have ^"'■?]'^7'* 

o ' ' meditation 

" my dear wife to live again in her mortal body; which is upon the 

" separated from the soul, and resteth in the earth dead ; j^j ^ *' 

" and the soul taken up to heaven ; and there to remain in 

" the fruition of blessedness unspeakable, until the general 

" surrection of all flesh : when, by the almighty power of 

" God, (who made all things of nothing,) her body shall 

" be raised up, and joined with her soul, in an everlasting, 

*' unspeakable joy, such as no tongue can express nor heart 

" can conceive. 


BOOK " Therefore my cogitation ought to be occupied in these 
" things following. I. To thank Almighty God for his fa- 

Anno 1588. a vour, in permitting her to have lived so many years toge- 
" ther with me ; and to have given her grace to have had 
" the true knowledge of her salvation by the death of his 
" Son Jesus, opened to her by the knowledge of the gospel ; 
" whereof she was a professor from her youth. I ought to 
" comfort myself with the remembrance of her many vir- 
" tuous and godly actions; wherein she continued all her 
" life : and specially, in that she did of late years sundry 
" charitable deeds ; whereof she determined to have no out- 
" ward knowledge while she lived. Insomuch, as when I had 
*' some little understanding thereof, and asked her wherein 
" she had disposed any charitable gifts, (according to her 
" often wishing that she were able to do some special act 
" for maintenance of learning, and relief of the poor,) she 
" would always only shew herself rather desirous so to do, 
" than ever confess any such act. As since her death is 
" manifestly known now to me ; and confessed by sundry 
" good men, (whose names and ministries she secretly used,) 
" that she did charge them most strictly, that while she 
" lived they should never declare the same to me nor to 
*' any other. 

" And so now have I seen her earnest writings to that pur- 
" pose of her own hand. The particulars of many of these 
" hereafter do follow. Which I do with mine own hand- 
" writing recite for my comfort in the memory thereof: with 
*' assurance, that God hath accepted the same in such favour- 
*' able sort, as she findeth now the fruits thereof in heaven. 

" I. About years since she caused exhibitions to be 

" secretly given, by the hands of the master of St. John's 
" in Cambridge, for the maintenance of two scholars. For 
*' a perpetuity whereof to continue, she did cause some 
" lands to be purchased in the name of the dean of West- 
" minster. Who also in his own name did assure the same 
596 " to the college, for a perpetual maintenance of the two 

Her btme- n g^j^j scholars. All wlilch was done without any slenifica- 

faction. _ -^ <^ 

" tlon of her act or charge to any manner of person, but 


" only of the dean, and of William Walter of Wymbleton : CHAP. 
" whose advice was used for the writing of the purchase ;_ 

" and insurance. Anno isss. 

" II. She also did, with the privity of masters deans of 
" PauPs and Westminster, and of Mr. Aldersey, being free 
" of the Haberdashers in London, give to the company of 
" the said Haberdashers a good sum of money : whereby is 
" provided, that every two years there is lent to six poor 
" men of certain special occupations, as smiths, carpenters, 
" weavers, and such like, in Romford in Essex, 20/. apiece ; 
" in the whole an 120Z. And in Chesthunt and Waltham, 
" to other six like persons, twenty mark apiece ; in the 
" whole 80/. : which relief, by way of loan, is to continue. 

" III. By the same mean is provided for twenty poor 
" people in Chesthunt, the first Sunday of every month, a 
" mess of meat, in flesh, bread, and money for drink. 

" IV. And likewise is provided four mark yearly, for 
" four sermons, to be preached quarterly by one of the 
" preachers of St. John's college. And these distributions 
" have been made a long time (while she lived) by some 
" of my servants, without giving me knowledge thereof. 
" Thouffh indeed I had cause to think that she did some- 
" time bestow such kind of alms ; but not that I knew of 
" any such order taken for continuance thereof. For she 
" would rather commonly use speeches with me, how she 
" was disposed to give all she could to some such uses, if 
'< she could devise to have the same faithfully performed 
" after her life. Whereof she always pretended many 
" doubts. 

" And for that she used the advice of MM. deans of 
" PauFs and of Westminster, and would have her action 
" kept secret, she forced upon them some fine pieces of 
" plate, to be used in their chambers, as remembrances of 
" her good-will for their pains. 

" She also did four times in the year secretly send to all 
" the pi-isons in London money to buy bread, cheese, and 
" drink commonly, for four hundred persons, and many times 
" more, without knowledge from whom the same came. 


BOOK " She did likewise sundry times in the year send shirts 
' " and smocks to the poor people, both in London and at 

Anno 1588. « Chesthunt. 

" She gave also a sum of money to the master of St. 
" John's college, to procure to have fires in the hall of that 
*' college, upon all Sundays and holydays, between the feasts 
" of All-Saints and Candlemas, when there were no ordi- 
" nary fires of the charge of the college. 

" She gave also a sum of money secretly towards a build- 
" ing, for a new way at Cambridge to the common schools. 

" She also provided a great number of books. Whereof 
*' she gave some to the university of Cambridge ; namely, 
" the great Bible in Hebrew, and four other tongues. And 
" to the college of St. John very many books in Greek, of 
^97 " divinity and physic, and of other sciences. The like she 
" did to Christ''s Church and St. John's college in Oxford. 
" The like she did to the college of Westminster. 

" She did also yeai'ly provide wool and flax, and did 
" distribute it to poor women in Chesthunt parish ; willing 
" them to work the same into yarn ; and to bring it to her 
" to see their manner of working. And for the most part 
" she gave to them the stuff freely, by way of alms. For 
" she caused the same to be wrought into cloth, and gave 
" it to the poor, paying first for the spinning more than it 
" was worth. 

" Not long afore her death, she caused secretly to be 
" bought a quantity of wheat and rye, to be disposed 
" among the poor in time of dearth : which remained un- 
*' spent at her death. But the same confessed by such as 
*' provided it secretly. And therefore in conscience so to 
" be distributed according to her mind. 

" April the 9th, 1588. Written ut Collings lodge hy me 
" in sorrow, W, ^." 
His advice Another paper of the said lord's writing contained his 
funeral ser- advice to the dean of St. Paul's before his sermon to be 
nion. preached at her funeral. Which was as follows : 

" April 21, 1589. I am desirous to have it declared, 
" for the satisfaction of the godly, that I do not celebrate 


this funeral in this sort with any intention thereby, as the CHAP, 
corrupt abuse hath been in the church, to procure of. 

God the rehef or the amender of the state of her soul; Anno i58£ 
who is dead in body only. For that I am fully per- 
suaded, by many certain arguments of God's grace be- 
stowed upon her in this life, and of her continual vir- 
tuous life, and godly death, that God, of his infinite good- 
ness, hath received her soul into a place of blessedness ; 
where it shall remain with the souls of the faithful, until 
the general day of judgment, when it shall be joined with 
her body. And with that persuasion I do humbly thank 
Almighty God, by his Son Christ, for his unspeakable 
goodness towards the salvation of her soul : so as I know 
no action on earth can amend the same, 
*' But yet I do otherwise most willingly celebrate this 
funeral, as a testimony of my hearty love which I did 
bear her, with whom I lived in the state of matrimony 
forty and two years also, without any unkindness, to 
move separation, or any violation of matrimony at any 

" Further, this that is here done for the assembly of our 
friends is to testify to the world what estimation, love, 
and reverence God bears to the stock whereof she did 
come, both by her father and mother : as manifestly may 
be seen about her hearse, by the sundry coats of noble 
houses joined by blood with her. Which is not done for 
any vain pomp of the world, but for civil duty towards 
her body; that is to be with honour regarded, for the 
assured hope of the resurrection thereof at the last 

The learning as well as piety of this lady appeared Her leam- 
hence ; that with the great Bible in Hebrew and other Ian- '°^" 
guages which she presented to the university library, she 598 
sent an episde written in Greek with her own hand ; which 
I have seen. She used for her prayers and meditations a 
small pocketbook in Latin, richly bound, entitled, Psalmi 
aeu precationes Johanms episcopi Roffensis. To which 





Anno 1588 
in print of 
this lady, 

An heroic 
poem dedi- 
cated to 

book of devotions she set her own name thus, Mildreda 
Cicillia, 1565. 

I cannot but add what account was had of this lady in 
the times wherein she hved, by the character that was given 
of her not long after her death by the translator of the his- 
tory of France, in his epistle dedicatory to two such great 
learned court ladies, the one the lady Anne countess of 
Warwick, and the other the lady Katharine baroness How- 
ard of Effingham. Where, speaking of the accomplished 
ladies then about the queen, for piety and learning, he sub- 
joined ; " That no ways he might here pretermit in this list 
" the famous religious and learned lady, flower of her fa- 
" mily, [a daughter of sir Anthony Cook of Guidy-hall,] 
" provident mother, blessed in her posterity, Mildred ba- 
" roness of Burghley ; who, besides her knowledge in the 
" Latin letters, (wherein of a subject she excelled,) such 
" were her studies, exercises, and continual meditation in 
" the Greek doctors of the church, (especially Basil, Cyril, 
** Chrysostome, and Naziansen,) as a chief reader in that 
*' tongue (Laurence by name) had confessed unto him, that, 
" in his judgment, she equalled, if not overmatched, any, in 
" whose profession most was to be required. Neither were 
" these excellent parts of hers only theorical, but still put 
" in practice, like another Dorcas, full of piety and good 
*' works, as without any ostentation or xsvodo^la ; besides 
*' her readiness in soliciting for poor and distressed suitors 
" unto her dear lord, (the auntientest counsellor of Europe, 
" pater pair icB, pillar of the state, &c.) in her lifetime set- 
*' ting, on her own charge, so many poor on work ; her ex- 
" hibition to scholars, liberality to universities, bountiful to 
** exiled strangers, and most abounding charity every quar- 
" ter to all the prisons about London, had manifestly de- 
" clared.'^ 

And such w^as her fame, particularly for learning, that 
Chr. Ockland, an eminent grammarian, made choice of her 
to dedicate a Latin heroic poem, called Elizabetha, to 
her 3 printed first an. 1582; in these words: Ad prcenobi- 


lem et in primis eruditam Jwminam, utriusque UteraturcB, CHAP. 
et Grcecoi et Lafmce, peritissimam dnam. Mildredam, dy- 

nast(B BvRGHLMi^ magni Anglice thesaurarii, coTyM^^??^^""" '^s^- 
ZaM^a^mmawz. Beginning, 

Grcecia virginihus doctis inclaruit olim, 
Quar'um scripta manent hodie, SfC. 
O nymphcB^ vos illustres dico sorores 
Quatuor, ante alias tibi sed Mildreda colenda 
Attribuo primus^ &c. 

There was an English gentleman, called sir Edward Kelly, Sir Ed- 

,-. ^ 1 o r^ 1 ward Kelly, 

now or late at rrague, in the parts oi (jerniany, that was famed for 
confidently reported to have, as Ave say, the philosopher^'s ™'*j'""S 
stone; and by a certain powder, by his hidden art pre- for. 
pared, by transmutation of baser metal, to make gold and599 
silver. The fame of this person made the queen, and others 
of the court, earnestly endeavour his return into England ; 
especially since Mr. Dyer, an agent, as it seems, of the 
queen in that country, that knew him well, had assured 
the lord treasurer of his skill obtained thereof by his great 
study, and of his desire to come and pay his service to the 
queen. Letters had passed between them for this purpose. 
And the queen had appointed that lord to write to the 
agent to prevail with Kelly to come over, with assurance of 
all respects, and an honourable reception from her. For 
when he had been moved by Dyer, upon the queen's invi- 
tation, to go into England, some there were (that had no 
mind he should) had thrown doubts into his head of the 
danger he might incur of ti'ouble, if he went. To take off 
this scruple from Kelly, that lord, in a letter to the said 
Dyer, gave him all assurance to the contrary, and that 
from the queen herself; whose word might be taken, being 
so virtuous, so noble, and so honourable a princess. And 
so he was desired to acquaint that knight ; to remove any 
such jealousies out of his mind. He proceeded ; " That 
" there were indeed some in England that spake against 
" him, as pretending to do a thing impossible ; and others 
" had said, that some such there had been, that pretended 



BOOK " to that skill, that proved but cheats. But that they at 
, " the court had a more honourable opinion of him. That 

Anno 1588. « his coming would now especially be seasonable to her 
" majesty, being now ready to encounter the king of Spain, 
" that was advancing towards England with his mighty 
" preparations. And so Kelly might be very instrumental, 
" by his admirable art, in rescuing his native country from 
" that imminent danger." 

At the conclusion of his letter, he desired Dyer, for the 
fuller satisfaction of the queen, " to obtain from Kelly, to 
" be sent over to the queen, a very small portion of that 
*' powder, which he used in his art, to make a demonstra- 
" tion to the queen : on sight of the perfection of his know- 
" ledge. Or, that if he [the lord treasurer] might have his 
" wish, to send, for a token to her majesty, such a portion 
*' of it, in a secret box, as might serve, for a reasonable 
" sum, to defray her charges that summer for her navy." 
All this and a great deal more did that letter of the lord 
treasurer contain ; which in respect of the curiosity of the 
subject, and eminency of the person, I could not but give 
Lxxiii. ^^ ^ place in the Appendix. 

Kelly's What belief the queen and court indeed had of this 

great abiii- orentleman"'s extraordinary skill is uncertain ; but the im- 

ties to serve o j ^ 

his country, portant reasons that moved them to draw him into Eng- 
land were, his singular parts and abilities in learning, ex- 
perience in foreign courts and dominions, and his good de- 
serts to his native country. This I gather from a secret 
letter writ the next year to secretary Walsingham, by D. 
Dee, (probably the famous astrologer of that name,) who 
was now abroad in some place in the Low Countries, and 
gave the secretary intelligence of affairs. Wherein, among 
other things, he spake of sir Edward Kelly with much ho- 
nour and deference, for his informations sent from abroad, 
600 out of his favour to the English nation in these critical 
times. And that as he [D. Dee] had understood divers 
things of dangerous consequence against the good state of 
his native country from divers, so particularly from Mr. 
Edward Kelly : " One who, of all the strangers and in- 


« habitants of that city, [whence D. Dee now wrote, per- CHAP. 
" haps Antwerp,] was the sharpest witted, the greatest un- . 

"derstander of all occurrents general, yea, of very secret Anno 1 588. 
" purposes of divers great ones ; the best languaged ^ ; one ^ As in He- 

I'liJ brew, 

" heretofore employed m consultations between the orders G^eek, La- 

'^of both parties; [Spain, and those of the Low Coun- Ji'^jFrench, 

" tries;] one who had been tried courageous in their first 

" bickerings against the Spaniard at Antwerp ; and one 

" who seemed to have observed [of those innovations in the 

*' Low Countries] the beginnings, proceedings, and errors, 

" political and military, committed on divers parts. Add- 

" ing, that this man's counsel he had required upon his 

" own grave declaration of such matters before specified, 

" by way of familiar discourse, as they now and then vi- 

" sited one another." And that Kelly had shewed him, 

" How, in his judgment, with her majesty's royal honour 

" and indemnity, the unquiet and alienated minds of this 

" common and inferior sort of people might receive conso- 

" lation assured, and be recovered to due love and fidelity 

" to her majesty ; and also the heads (called the states, or 

" orders) might be reformed : so as finally these provinces 

*' first might find and account themselves happy under her 

" majesty's government royal."" 

This period of a private letter to secretary Walsingham 
will let in some light to the character of this man, and of 
the desire that was had of his return into England. I add 
the honour this Enghsh gentleman had abroad. Living at The empe- 

, , 1 1 ror makes 

Prague in Germany, he was known to the emperor, who ^.^ny ^ 
made him a baron. For thus did D. Dee signify in his baron, 
aforesaid letter : " Mr. Edward Kelly, now in most fa^ 
" vourable manner created a baron of the kingdom of Bo- 
" hemia ; with the grant of a coat of arms ; as I have seen 
« in a large seal, being a lion rampant with [the hon of 
" England,] in a bordure, with the year on the seal, viz. 
" 1573, and a motto round it." 

I do not find, notwithstanding the aforesaid honourable 
and earnest invitation given him by the Enghsh court, that 
Kelly came into England. And indeed it appears, that he 



BOOK was not long after put under custody by the emperor. And 
^^' that, as it is Hkely, to hinder his journey. But this will de- 

Anno 1588. serve a more particular relation; which I am able to give 
from a letter of an English merchant, as it seems, at Frank- 
ford, to Mr. Edward Wotton, an eminent gentleman and 
Kelly seized courtier in England; wrote in the year 1591; viz. That 
peror*! Tl'- ^^ ^^^ scized by a private order from the emperor (the 
ciai order, cause concealed) in April the said year, several great offi- 
cers coming to his house in Prague for that purpose ; and 
where Mr. Dier was with him: but he, without acquaint- 
ing any one person in his houscj on a sudden conveyed 
himself away with all secrecy ; and so escaped for two or 
three days : till being searched for and pursued, was after- 
wards taken, going, as he pretended, only to visit his pa- 
goi tron, the earl of Rosembergh: and so he was committed pri- 
soner to the castle. This was surprising news in those parts ; 
especially towards a personage that had been so highly va- 
lued, and ennobled by the emperor himself. And various 
conjectures were made of the reasons that moved him to 
proceed in this manner. It was at first generally thought, 
that the invitation (whereof some pretended to have seen 
The cause the letter) of his return into England occasioned it. Other 
thereof. causes thereof were talked of. As though it were some crime 
intended to be committed against the emperor''s own person. 
Some, that it was upon account of a great debt of 32,000 
dollars, which he owed to two merchants in Colen, with 
whom he traded for jewels. But that could be no cause ; 
for that he was known to be well able to discharge that 
debt, being rich in money and lands. And to the emperor 
he owed nothing, nor ever put him to any charge ; except 
for coals and houseroom, [for his employment in his chy- 
mistry.] Another reason given out for this his surprising 
apprehension, and that one of the chief, was, that the em- 
peror having been troubled a great while with a throbbing 
in his heart, which caused him soon to fall into a swoon, 
and seemed to be a distemper hereditary, sir Edward Kelly 
had distilled an oil for his use in that case. But some of 
Kelly''s enemies being by, persuaded the emperor that he 


had intended to poison him with it. These, with other rea- CHAP. 
sons of this deahng with this man, were reported about. All ^^^' 

which, with the several circumstances of his beino; taken. Anno 1 588. 

and further remarks of him and his misfortune, I leave to 

be read at larffe in the aforesaid letter. Number 

• . LXXIV 

But to bring together something more of this famous 
English chymist, and the high esteem the queen had of this 
her subject; she despatched an agent, one Webb, in the The queen's 
year 1591, on purpose, with her letters to the emperor ine^p^or.* ^ 
Kelly's behalf. And he had also letters of credence, and 
instructions for his demeanour in this affair. And that he 
should get all the information he could from Mr. Dyer; 
who still (and, as it seemed, under restraint) remained 
there: for whom also was part of his message. The in- 
structions were as follow ; which I transcribe from the lord 
treasurer's own hand : 

" You shall have her majesty's letter to the emperor's instruc- 
" majesty, to the duke of Saxe, the elector, and to the jj'""^^ ^^^gj^ 
" landsgrave van Hesse, and a general salve conduct for*''*''^^" 

,, n • 1 • PI perorabc 

" you to all pnnces and states, to permit you to pass safely Keiiy aai^ 

*' through their dominions. When you shall arrive on the^y*""' 

*' other side the seas, you shall endeavour yourself to un- 

'' derstand the truth of the country report made of Mr. Ed- 

" ward Dyer's stay or arrest ; and accordingly thereto you 

^' shall direct your journey towards him. And if he shall be 

" stayed in Prague, or in any other place in Bohemia, or 

*' elsewhere, by the emperor's commandment, you shall do 

" the best you can to give him knowledge, that you are 

** sent to him by her majesty, to procure his liberty and 

" return. And for that purpose to let him know, that you 

*' have her majesty's special letter to the emperor's majesty ; 

** which you shall, if he so will, carry to his majesty, and602 

" solicit his delivery. And therein you shall use such rea- 

" son to the emperor in defence of Mr. Dyer's cause, as he 

*' shall inform you to be meet. 

'* But if Mr. Dyer be not arrested by the emperor, but 
'f shall be stayed in any other place in the territories of 
** any other prince of the empire, as the duke of Saxe, or 

K 4 


BOOK " the lantgrave; then you shall do as the letters to them 
_____" directed. Or if he be out of their jurisdiction, yet you 
Anno 1588. <« shall consider, either in your own judgment, or from 
'' knowledge had from Mr. Dyar, whether you shall seek 
'^ a mandate from the emperor from her majesty ""s letters, 
" or from the favour of the duke of Saxe, or the lantgrave. 
*' Both which, her majesty is well assured, will further her 
'* majesty"'s request. 

" You shall also inquire diligently where sir Edward 
'* Kelly is arrested, or for what cause ; whereof there are 
*' divers reports. Some, that he is arrested at the suit of 
*' some to whom he is indebted in a sum of xxv thousand 
" crowns. Some, that the emperor hath made him a pri- 
" soner for abusing of his majesty, with profession that he 
^* could multiply gold, and found therein to have deceived 
" many. By some, that his intention was secretly to have 
*' come into England, and here to have served her majesty 
" with his science : and that by malice of the pope's nuncio, 
" or the Spanish ambassador, or otherwise by the emperor ; 
" as unwilling to have her majesty benefited by him with 
" his science. And so in doubtful sort the reports are 
*' made : whereof you seek to inquire the truth. Whereof 
'* none shall better inform you than Mr. Edward Dyar. 
*' If there be any other Englishman stayed with Mr. Dyar, 
*' you shall do your best to recover their liberty. And as 
** soon after your arrival in Germany you shall understand 
" the truth of Mr. Dyar's state, you shall advertise hither." 

603 CHAP. XXII. 

Books this year setjbrth : some relating' to the Spanish in- 
vasion : some puritanical : with answers to them. An Ex- 
hortation to the Queen's Subjects to defend their Count?-!/. 
Answer to certain Spanish Lies. Certain Advertisements 
out of Ireland. Elizabetha triumphans. The Coronation 
of David. Penry's Supplication : and his Appellation to 
Parliament. His Epitome. A godly Treatise against tlie 


Puritans. An Admonition to the People of England. An CHAP. 
Anstoer to tenfrivolous Reasons set down by the Rhemists, ^^^^' 
translatois of the New Testament from the vulgar Latin. Anno isss. 
Disputatio de sacra Scriptura, contra hujus temporis Pa- 
pistas; imprimis Robertum Bellarminum, Jesiiitam, &c. 
hy Dr. W. Whitaker, regius professor of divinity in 

JL HE Spaniards'' invasion of England, and tlie new re- 
formers'' endeavours to promote their discipline, gave occa- 
sion to the writing and publishing many books this year. Books set 
Whereof these that follow were some of the chief. ""^^ ' 

An exhortation to stir up the minds of all her majesty's An Exhor- 
faitlful subjects, to defend their country in this dangerous the'^ueen's 
time, from the invasion of enemies. Faithfully and zealously faithful 
compiled by Anthony Marten, sewer of her majesty"'s most " ^^*^ *' 
honourable chamber. Meliora spero. This book 1 have 
mentioned before ; and therefore I shall only add a period 
taken thence, to shew the strain of the writer. 

" They [the Spaniards] for the greediness of a kingdom ; 
** for despite they bear to oiu* religion ; for vainglory, 
" pride, and presumption ; for maintenance of the pope''s 
" kingdom ; against God, against his word and troth, 
" against our blessed queen ; against all reason, conscience, 
*^ and humanity ; do offer all this violence unto us. And 
'^ we, on the other side, in defence of ourselves, our native 
" country, our anointed prince, our holy religion, our own 
*' Jesus Christ, his holy word and sacraments; against 
*' very Antichrist, and all the pillars of his church, and 
*' against those that have cursed and indighted the king- 
" dom ; do withstand the injury done unto us. 

*' We that have done so valiantly at other times, when 
" the quarrel was but for money, or other small matters, is 
*' it possible but we should be much more forward now in 604 
'' so great and weighty causes ? When had ever England 
*' so just a cause to fight as now ? When did we ever more 
" infinitely feel the mercies of God than now ? When had 
" we ever a more loving prince to her subjects than now ? 


BOOK '' When were ever any subjects more obedient to their 
^^- " prince than now ? When were there ever so many lusty 

Aiino 1588. " and ffallant sentlemen to defend the reahn as now? 
^' When were we at any time better acquainted vnth the 
'^ sleiffhts and cunning of our enemies than now ? When 
** had we more skill in martial actions and trainings than 
*' now ? Finally, when had ever our enemies more unjust 
" cause to deal against us than now ? and we more lawful 
" cause to defend ourselves than now ? And therefore, 
" when should we ever have greater hope of victory than 
" now ? 

*' If ever therefore ye bear any affection to your country ; 
" if ever any love to religion ; if ever any obedience unto 
" a good and natural prince ; if ever you would venture 
" your lives for your fathers and mothers, your wives and 
" children, or best deserving friends, &c. ; if ye have any 
'' comfort in the promises of Christ Jesus ; if you have 
" hope to receive salvation by his merit; and as ye will 
" answer before God at the coming of his Son : now shew 
'^ yourselves like men, courageous and forward, prompt 

" and willing to do all the parts of Christian soldiers. 

" Let neither the greedy desire of money, nor the lewd 

" consuming of riches, nor the wanton excess of apparel, 

•' nor the superfluity of meats and drinks, nor the costly 

" buildings, and curious trimming of houses, be any hin- 

*' derance to so honourable actions." 

An Answer Another book bare this title; ^' An answer to the un- 

*Hntec["u'*" truths published and prwted in Spain, in glory of their 

Spain. f' supposed victorij, achieved against our English navy, 

*' and the right honourable Charles lord Howard, lord high 

" admiral of England, &c. sir Francis Drake, and the rest 

" of the nobles and gentlemen, captains and soldiers, of 

" our said navy. 

*' First written and published in Spanish, by a Spanish 
" gentleman, who came hither out of the Low Countries 
" from the service of the prince of Parma, with his wife 
" and family, since the overthrow of the Spanish armada : 
" forsaking both his country and Romish rehgion. As by 


" this treatise against the barbarous impiety of the Spa- CHAP. 
" niards (and dedicated to the queen's most excellent ma- ^^"' 
" jesty) may appear. Faithfully translated by J. L." Anno 1688. 

As the author had dedicated this his book to the queen, 
so the translator (whose name was James Lea) made his 
dedication of it to the right honourable Charles lord 
Howard, baron of Effingham, knight of the most noble 
order of the garter, and lord high admiral of England, &c. 
In his epistle he acquainted that lord with the occasion of 
his said translation ; namely, " That lighting upon a Spa- 
" nish book dedicated to the queen, containing an answer 
" against certain untruths, published and printed in Spain, 
" he noted, that virtue could not but be praised even by 
*' a late enemy, (though now reconciled,) a stranger, nay, 605 
" a Spaniard ; forced by truth itself to defend the worthi- 
" ness of our English nobility against his own countrymen. 
'* And that he could not, but for the benefit and farther 
" encouragement of his country, publish his work in Eng- 

« llsh. That as the Spaniard, setting out such hyperbo- 

" lical trophies of their conquests, sought by such praise 
" to encourage their nobility, it behoved us not to be 
" stained with ingratitude ; but to publish the prowess of 
" such worthy men, as still with their blood painted out 
" the worthiness of their resolutions. Among whom his 
" honour had the chiefest place, as high admiral of so vic- 
" torious a fleet ; and performed in his own person such 
" honourable service." 

The running title of this book was, An answer to certain An answer 

^, ,,. r»iii ^ —to certain 

Spanish lies. For the design of the book was to expose ^^^„;^j, u^^ 
the palpable falsehood of divers intelligences sent to Spain, 
and to the Spanish ambassador in France, of the mighty 
victory the Spaniard had gotten over the English fleet. 
Which news and advices were writ several times in the 
months of August and September. Accounts of which 
have been given before. And because Mendoza, the Spa^ Ch. xvi. 
nish ambassador in Paris, was the promoter and divulger 
of these false reports, the author thus addressed himself to 
him in the beginning. 


BOOK "I marvail, good sir, to see a man of so noble a lineage, 

"• " and no less endued with gifts of nature than others, 

Anno 1588. «' sliould have your ears so opened, to hear the rumours 

Mendoza's « ^ y\ which the scoffinff and gibing; flatterers do write 

credulity & » » 

reproached. « vou. And I wonder not so much in that you credit 
" them, as at the speed wherewith your honour doth write 

" them Your honour writeth to Spain, that it is a 

" matter most true, that the lord high admiral was come, 

" running away with 25 or 26 ships, unto London ; and 

" that he had lost his ship that was admiral; and that 

" Drake was prisoner : and that this was written for a 

" matter most certain by persons of credit from London," 

&c. Another book of this subject was, 

A copy of The copy of a letter sent out of England to don Ber- 

Mendoza" navdine de Mendoza, ambassador in France for the king 

from Eng- of Spain : " Declaring the state of England ; contrary to 

" the opinion of don Bernardine, and of all his partisans, 

" Spaniards and others. 

" This letter, although it was sent to don Bernardine, 
" yet, by good hap, the copies thereof, as well in English 
" as in French, were found in the chamber of one Richard 
*' Leigh, a seminary priest; who was lately executed for 
" high treason, committed in the time that the Spanish 
" armada was on the seas.*" 

Thus the writer, beginning his address to Mcndoza; 
" My lord ambassador, though at the time of my last large 
" writing to you of the state of this country, and of our 
" long desired expectation of succours promised, I did not 
" think to have had so sorrowful an occasion of any second 
" writing, as now I have of a lamentable change of matters 
" of estate here : yet (as he proceeded) he could not forbear 
*' (though it were with as many sighs as lines) to advertise 
6o6 " him of the truth of their miserable condition, as now to him, 
" and others of their party, the same appeai'ed to be. That 
" by comparing of all things past in hope, with the present 
** now in despair, his lordship, who had the principal ma- 
" naging to that time of all their causes, both here [in 
" England] and there in France, between the king catholic. 


" assisted with the potentates of the holy league, and all C H A P. 

" his countrymen [the English] that had professed obedi- '_ 

" ence to the church of Rome, might now fall into some Anno issf 

" new and better consideration, how their state, both for 

" themselves at home and their brethren abroad, now at 

" this present fallen, as it were, into utter despair, might 

" be revived, and restored to some new hope, with better 

" assurance of success than had happened hitherto. 

" For which purpose he had thought it necessary to ad- 
" vertise him in what manner this country [of England] 
" then stood; far otherwise than of late both they at home 
*< and others abroad made account of. That he [Mendoza] 
" knew how long they had depended in firm hope of a 
" change of the state of this country, by the means of the 
" devout and earnest incitations of the pope's holiness, of 
" the king catholic, and of the potentates of the holy 
*' league, to take upon them the invasion and conquest of 
*' this realm ; and by his [Mendoza's] assurances and firm 
" promises they were, now of a long season past, per- 
" suaded, that the king catholic had taken upon him the 
" same glorious act ; and thereof from year to year they 
*' looked for the execution ; being continually fed and nou- 
" rished from him to continue their hope ; and sundry 
" times sohcited by his earnest request and persuasion, to 
' " encourage their party at home, not to waver, but to be 
" ready to join with the outward forces that should come 

" for this invasion That until this last spring they were 

" in despair : at which time he advertised them with great 
" assurance, that all the king's preparations, which had 
" been making ready three or four years together, were 
" then in full perfection, and, without fail, would that 
" summer come into our seas, with such mighty strength, 
" as no navy of England or of Christendom could resist 
" or abide their force. And that to make the intended 
" conquest sure, the same should have joined to it the 
" mighty army which the duke of Parma had made ready, 
" and kept in readiness in the Low Countries, to land : 
" and so both by sea and land this realm should be in- 


BOOK *' vaded, and a speedy conquest made thereof. And 

" that there would be a strong party in this reahn to join 

Anno 1588." with the foreign force." After this manner did that 
Spanish ambassador in Paris raise the expectation of the 
papists in England. 

" But, alas ! (as it follows,) and with a deadly sorrow, 
*' we must all, at home and abroad, lament our sudden 
" fall, from an immeasurable high joy to an immeasurable 
" deep despair : and that so hastily fallen out, as, I may 
" say, we have seen in the space of eight or nine days in 
" this last month of July, which was from the appearance 

607 " of the catholic great navy upon the coast of England 

" all our hopes, all our buildings, as it now appeareth, but 
" upon an imaginary conquest, utterly overthrown, as it were 
" with an earthquake : all our castles of comfort brought 
" to the ground ; which now, as it seemeth, were builded 
" but in the air." Then he proceeded to tell Mendoza 
how the catholics began to doubt of their cause; and to 
attribute this ill success to the hand of God. " That he 
" was astonished what he might best think of such a work, 
" so long time in framing, to be suddenly overthrown, as 
" by no reason could proceed of man, or of any earthly 
" power, but only of God. And thereupon many English 
" catholics misliked of the pope''s way of reformation by 
" force. That the untimely publishing of the intended 
" conquest, before the Spanish navy was ready, did great 
" hurt ; that the hearts of all sorts of people were inflamed 
" against the Spaniards'' vaunting to conquer England. 

The pope's The writer of this letter took notice, with dislike, " of a 
" new bull, (which he had seen,) lately published at Rome, 
" by the pope's holiness, with more severity than others of 
" his predecessors. Whereby the queen here was accursed, 
" and pronounced to be deprived of her crovvn, and the 
*' invasion and conquest of the realm committed by the 
" pope to the king catholic, to execute the same with his 
" armies both by sea and land ; and to take the crown to 
" himself, or to limit it to such a potentate as the pope and 
*' he should name. And secondly, there followed a large 



explanation of this bull; by sending hither a number of CHAP. 
English books printed in Antwerp, even when the navy 

" of Spain was daily looked for; the original whereof was Anno 1688. 

" written by cardinal Allen : [who styled himself the Eng- 

" lish cardinal.] , Which book was so violently, sharply, 

" and bitterly written — against the person of the queen, 

" against her father king Henry VIII. against all her no- 

" bility and council, as in very truth (as he added) I was 

" sorry to perceive so many good men of our own religion 

" offended therewith : in that there should be found in one 

" accounted a father of the church, who was also a born 

" subject of the crown, such foul, vile, irreverent, and vio- 

" lent speeches, such ireful and bloody threatenings of a 

" queen, of a nobility, yea, of the whole people of his own 

" nation." 

The letter is continued with account of the preparations 
made by the queen against the Spaniard, and her mighty 
success. To this pass came all Mendoza's zeal against 
England. Which divers of these English catholics, upon 
the ill conclusion of these threatening projects, reproached 
him with. 

Another book of this subject now came forth, bearing Advertise- 
this title : " Certain advertisements out of Ireland^ con- '„7i" g'j^""]_ 
" cerning the losses and distresses that happened to the 
" Spanish navy, upon the west coasts of Ireland, in their 
" voyage intended from the northern isles beyond Scot. 
" land towards Spain." 

This book relates from day to day, beginning at the 7th 
of September, and so on for some days, the losses of ships 
and men, the wrecks and miseries, and the persons of qua- 
lity and others taken on that coast. And then follow exa- 
minations of several eminent persons in that fleet, that were 6O8 
taken and saved, according to the reports sent from Ire- 
land. Whereof one of the examined was John Anthonio The exami- 

. 1 -n/T "1 nation of 

de Monona, an Itahan, son to Francisco de Monona, pilot j_ ^nth^. 
of the ship called Sancta Maria de la Rose, of a thousand nio^> taken 
tons, cast away in the sound of Bleskey. " Who, examined sunk. 
" the 11th of September, said, that he and the rest parted 


BOOK " from the English fleet, as he thought, about the coast of 
______" Scotland. And that at that time they wanted of their 

Anno 1588. " whole fleet four galleys and seven ships, and one galleass, 
" which was the captain galleass. And there were then 
" dead, by flight and by sickness, eight thousand men at 
" the least. Where he left the duke [admiral], he knew not, 
^' but it was in the north seas, about 18 days sitlience. 
" That he saw then no land ; and therefore could name no 
" place. But they severed by tempest. That the duke 
" kept his course by the sea. They drew toward land, to 
" find Cape Clere. So did divers other ships; which he 
" thought to amovuit to forty ships. And with the duke 
" there went five and twenty." 

He informed further, " That two ships were sunk upon 
*' the coast of Scotland, by reason of shots received from 
" the English ships: the one called St. Matthew, of 500 
" tons ; wherein were drowned 450 men : the other ship a 
*' biskey of St. Sebastian, of 400 ton ; wherein were drown- 
" ed 350. And the ship wherein he was, called S. Maria 
*' Rose, of one thousand tons ; wherein of 500 there 
** escaped but himself. In which, of principal men, there 
.'' were drowned these principal men following : the prince 
*' of Ascule, base son to the king of Spain ; captain Ma- 
" tuta, captain Convalle, a Portugal, and the captain of 
" the said ship ; there were more of note of Castile : the 
" general of all the fleet of Guipusque, called don Michael 
" d'Oquendo ; and twenty other knights and adventurers 
" upon their own charges." 

And being examined, what ordnance, wines, or other mat- 
ters of moment was in tiie ship here cast away, said, "There 
" were fifty great brass pieces, all canons for the field, twenty- 
" five pieces of brass and cast iron, belonging to the ship. 
" Also there was in her fifty tons of secke ; in silver 15,000 
" ducats ; in gold as much more ; much rich apparel, and 
" plate, and cups of gold." There were seven other exa- 
minations taken of several persons of note in that fleet, 
(which I omit, being too large to set down here,) which 
give a particular account of those losses and disasters. At 


the end of this tract is added a list of the ships and men CHAP, 
sunk, drowned, killed, gftid taken upon the coast of Ireland 

in the month of September. The number of men amounted Anno isss. 
to 5394; ships 17. Which may be found before in the 

Another book of this subject now also appeared, entitled, Eiizabetha 
" Eiizabetha triumjjhans. Containing the damned prac- pi',ans. 
" tices that the devilish popes of Rome have tised ever 
" sithence her first coming to the crozan : by moving her 
" wicked and traitorous subjects to rebellion and conspira- 
" cies : thereby to bereave her majesty both of her lawful 0O9 
" seat and happy life. With a declaration of the manner 
" how her excellency was entertained by her soldiers in her 
" camp royal at Tilbury in Essex : and of the overthrow 
*' had against the Spanish fleet. Set forth, declared, and 
" handled by J. A. Post victoriam gloria. The author 
" dedicated this his work, To the right zoorshipful, endued 
" with all singularity, Julius Casar, Dr. of the civil law, 
" chief Judge of her highness'' honourable court of admi- 
" ralty, and one of the masters of the requests to the queen'' s 
" most excellent majesty : shewing his patron, that the in- 
" telligence of the commonness of ballads, with books to 
" this purpose, caused him to publish this his work; truly 
" and effectually declaring the wicked attempts of the de- 
" vilish pope, with his damned adherents practised, rather 
" than to let such broken tales, told in plain ballads, ex- 
" press the unspeakable acts and wondrous overthrows had 
" against the pope, by this our royal queen, and her (by 
" this made famous) island." Subscribed Ja. Aske. It 
is all in blank verse, and begins thus : 

1 write not of the labours (passing strange) 

Which Jove's base son with wondrous fame achiev'd ; 

Ne of the acts, the never dying acts, 

That EngUsh kings have done long time ago ; 

But all my drift is to declare the deeds. 

The famous deeds that this our sacred queen 

Performed hath, since Sol hath past the signs 

Just thirty times with those his shining lights, &c. 



BOOK This heroic poem contains a most particular description 
' of the expedition against Spain both by sea and land ; and 
Anno 1588, chiefly of the camp at Tilbury, of the queen's coming thi- 
ther, and of her acting, speeches, and behaviour there, more 
than any other history of that subject, I think, extant. 
The Coro- There came forth likewise this year a book, called, " The 

nation of /% -r^ • i -mri • r> i (• 1 

David. " coronation of David. Whercm, out or that part oi the 
" history of David that sheweth how he came to the king- 
" dom, we have set forth unto us what is like to be the 
" end of these troubles that daily arise for the gospel's 
" sake. By Edm. Bunny.*" Who was an eminent divine 
and writer in Yorkshire. The book is dedicated to the 
right honourable Henry earl of Huntingdon, knight of the 
most noble order of the garter, and president of her ma- 
jesty's council, in the north parts established, and lieute- 
nant-general of her majesty's people and forces there. In 
his epistle the writer made a remark, " of the dangerous, 
" strange, and unnatural practices against the queen, tend- 
*' ing to the overthrow of them all ; and of late, that God 
" had threatened them with hostility and foreign invasion, 
" and with the worst that a proud and idolatrous and an 
" insolent people was able to do. Wherein he had not 
" clean forgotten them, [the English nation,] but in the 
*' midst of those threatenings had hitherto used great mercy 
" towards them." 
()10 These assaults upon this protestant kingdom, professing 
the gospel, and queen Elizabeth, the great defender of this 
faith, and the continual troubles raised to overthroAv it, 
gave occasion to the writing this book ; the author observ- 
ing " the great broils at that day raised in these parts of 
" Christendom against the gospel of Jesus Christ ; and like 
" to continue; because new and fresh troubles did conti- 
*' nually follow hard upon such as had gone before:" com- 
paring their present condition to the storms in the lake of 
Gennesareth ; " when the wind and the sea did both toge- 
" ther seem to conspire against that bark wherein Christ 
" was with his disciples, for to have drenched and drowned 
" them ; the wind [i. e. the pope] stirring and raising the 


sea; [i. e. the Spaniard;] the sea getting up and grow- CHAP, 
ing rageous, and both together furiously beating with all 

" their mio-ht on the seelv vessel. Even so now also, ever Anno 1 588. 
" since it had pleased the Lord to vouchsafe them the gos- 
" pel again in so plentiful manner, all the people and states 
" of the world had bent themselves against it." 

So that the purpose of this book of the Co7'onation ofTUe pur- 
David was to shew the state of the reformation of religion, b"ok*^of "* 
or the gospel, under the history of David, and his ti'oubles, the Coro- 
and the happy issue of them. " That for the comfort and David. 
" instruction of those that were so possessed with fear, when 
" tyrants so threatened, and made such preparations, he 
" had made choice of that part of the story of David. For 
" seeing David was a figure of Christ, and such as was the 
" state of Christ here on earth, such also must be the state 
" of the gospel, whensoever it is sent to us; how great re- 
" sistance for a time it findeth ; and how, notwithstanding, 
" it is most sure to prevail in the end." So that the con- 
tents of the author's discourse were, That as David was 
grievously persecuted before he could attain to the king- 
dom, so it hath been, and yet is, with the gospel of Christ. 
And that as David was afterwards bi'ought first to one 
part of it, and then to the whole : so the gospel, being in 
such manner advanced as it is already, is therein also as 
likely to be further advanced. But yet that we are to await 
the goodness of God in such a course as David did. Divers 
examples brought of the like works of God, and applied to 
our comfort. And lastly, there is a prayer to that end, 
going upon the whole story, all taken out of David''s 

Puritans writ divers books this year against the arch- Schismati- 
bishops and bishops with much bitterness ; as condemning ^^^ ^°^^ 
the present government of the church by such. The titles 
of some of these tracts are mentioned by Camden in the 
Life of Queen Elizabeth: \\z. Martin Marprelate ; J/m^-Pag. 420. 
rals ; Diotrephes ; A demonstration of discipline^ &c. Con- 
cerning which thus the said Camden writes; "That in 
" these libels they belched forth most virulent calumnies 

L 2 


ROOK " and opprobrious taunts and reproaches in a scurrilous 
__|^___" manner; tlie authors thereof Penry and Udal, ministers 

Anno 1588." of the word, and Job Throgmorton, a learned man, and 

" of a facetious and gibing tongue." 

^11 This Penry, the chief of them, framed a book, called, 

A Supjjlication to the parliament now sitting ; and another, 

being his Appellation to them, in regard of himself, falling 

into trouble for the former book. 

Penry's From his Supplication I collect these passages. " That 

tion!" ' " God would, it was to be feared, enter into judgment with 

" the whole land, and make his sword driuik with blood, 

" &c. for establishing such institutions [meaning, episcopal 

" government] as were directly against his majesty"'s re- 

" vealed will." Penry sets forth his undertaking in these 

words : " I do, for the discharge of my duty and conscience 

" toward the Lord, his church, my country, [Wales,] and 

" tlie whole estate of the kingdom, taking my life in my 

" hand, testify unto you [the parliament] before the ma- 

" jesty of God, &c. that our dumb ministers, that the call- 

" ing of our lord bishops, archdeacons, commissaries, and 

" all other remnants of that sacrilege, brought into the 

" church by that Romish strumpet, and now remaining in 

" Wales, are intolerable before the Lord. The truth 

" whereof I do briefly make known by reasons following; 

" and offer to prove them more at large, even upon the 

" peril of my life, against our four lord bishops, [i. e. of 

" Wales,] all their chaplains, favourers, and wellwishcrs; 

" whether in either of the two universities of this land, or 

" in any place elsewhere soever." Take his threatening 

too ; speaking to the parliament : " Truly for mine own 

*' part, God aiding me, I will never leave the suit, though 

" there should be a thousand parliaments in my days, until 

" I either obtain it at your hands, or bring the Lord in 

" vengeance and blood to plead against you for repelling 

" his cause." 

His words Once more ; these were his tlioughts of convocations. 
of convoca- ^^ tx- • i i i • i i • i 

tions. A* nideed the convocation-house were such as it ought to 

" be, viz. a synod of sincere and godly learned ministers. 


" wherein matters of rclio-ion were determined of accordino- CHAP. 

■ • XXII 

" to the word and cause of God heard without partiahty ; 

then indeed were it their parts to set down, for the di-^""o ''""^s- 
" rection of the parliament, such things as were behooveful 
" for the glory of God and the good of the church. And 
" the parliament, by their direction, according to the word, 
" ought to enjoin all the ministers and people whatsoever 
" should be thus enacted by the civil state. And if the 
" convocation-house were such an assembly, then were it 
" not lawful for the parliament to establish any thing in 
" the matter appertaining unto the pure worship of God 
" among their people, but that wherein they should be 

" directed by the advice of the church governors. But 

" you should not permit them to enact what they would 
" by their own authority ; especially, their decrees being 
" now as they are, to the ratifying of corruptions, and to 
" the continuance of ungodly callings within these domi- 

" nions. Small hope there was to be conceived of re- 

" forming the abuses of the church, if the redress be com- 
" mitted unto that meeting. And that they of the honour- 
" able court of parliament were to understand, that the 
" convocation-house condemned this cause of Christ, then 
" in hand, before it was heard ; and that their own endea- 6 1 2 
" vours, who were there met, was, how to prevent him 
" [Christ] from bearing rule in the church by his own 
" laws. For that it was well known, that all of them had 
" banded and linked themselves together, to maintain the 
" corruptions of our church." 

And then, for bringing the cause of rehgion before the The paiiia- 
parliament, he addressed himself to the parliament after Jj^^edto 
this manner : " When you say that you may not deal in for religion 
"matters of religion, because the determinations of that ^(,^.^^^1 ' 
" cause is referred unto the bishops assembled in the con- 
" vocation-house ; which in their canons are to provide and 
" see that the church be not in any decayed state ; do you 
" not thereby think you rob yourselves of your own prero- 
" gative and liberty, and take order, that the church with- 
" out controversy may be starved and spoiled ?" 



BOOK This Supplication, containing all these expressions, and 
*^' many more, so reflecting upon the present government of 

Anno 1588. the church estabHshed, awakened the bishops, and the com- 
missioners ecclesiastical, and particularly the archbishop ; so 
that diligent search was ordered to be made for the author 

Penry taken and his said books. And at length he was taken, and the 

"''" books too. And then, being in hold for some time, soon 

after took the confidence to write his own vindication, thus 
entitled : 

His Appei- The appellation of John Penry unto the high court of 
parliament, from the bad and injurious dealing of the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, and others of the high commission. 
" Wherein the complainant, humbly submitting himself and 
" his cause unto the determination of this honourable as- 
" sembly, craveth nothing else, but either release from 
" trouble and persecution, or just trial." This he writ 
when he absconded, being searched for by the said eccle- 
siastical commission, the ensuing year, 1589. In this Ap- 
pellation he thus declared himself, and what he had done. 

" That in the 29th year of her majesty ""s reign, the Lord 
" vouchsafed to use him as an instrument to motion the 
" parliament, holden by prorogation, in the cause of God's 
" truth ; not known unto the archbishop, or any others of 
" the ecclesiastical commission before. That his suit then that 
" he made to the parliament was, that the gospel of Christ 
" might in a saving manner be made known and published 
" among the inhabitants of Wales, his dear and native 
" countrymen. That the equity of this petition he mani- 
" fested in a public treatise, allowed to be printed by public 
" authority. And the Supplication, together with the 
" printed treatise, was preferred by a worshipful gentle- 

" man, himself a member of the house : That the par- 

" liament shewed no disliking tliereof, though they sinned 
" in the careless respect they had thereto. 

" But (as he went on in his Ap)pcllation) the archbishop 
" and his associates [the commission] thought the enterprise 
" to be intolerable. Their dislike of the petition they did 
" not conceal, but presently despatched their warrants, to 


" call in the printed books; and to make inquiry for the CHAP. 
" author. And that the books, in number about 500, to- '_ 

" gether with himself, were fastened upon by the wardens Anno isss. 
" of the stationers, accompanied with the pursuivant. And"^*^ 
" that thereupon, being carried before the high commis- 
" sioners, he was (as he said) for enterprising the former 
" action, charged by the archbishop''s own mouth, not only 
" to be a factious slanderer of her majesty's government, 
" but also to have published flat treason and heresy in his 
" said treatise. That he was threatened very bloodily, and 
" reviled in a most unchristian sort, with earnest protesta- 
" tion, that they wondered how he durst solicit the parlia- 
" ment in that petition." And then he makes this reflec- 
tion : " See the cursed and outrageous profanation of these, 
" whom the Lord in his just judgment had given over to 
" withstand the mighty power of the word." 

He went on to relate what further happened to him : 
" That he was kept twelve days at his keeper's utmost 
" peril." And after a month's imprisonment he was deli- 
vered without examination : and so was released. But he 
soon drew more troubles upon himself. " Because" (as he 
gave the reason) " he saw himself bound in conscience not 
" to give over his purpose ; and as it pleased the Lord to 
" increase his care in seeking the good of his countrymen, 
" so his adversaries augmented their fury and rage towards 
" him," (as he styled the care of the commissioners ecclesi- 
astical,) " in sending an officer to search for him as far as 
" Northampton, where his abode then was with his printing- 
" press. Where his writings were seized, but him they found 
« not." 

And then, after some further narration of this business, 
he (thinking by this means to escape the danger of the 
ecclesiastical commission) appealed to the parUament ni 
these words : " That he did in most dutiful sort make this 
" his just appellation from the archbishop of Canterbury, 
" and the rest of his colleagues in commission, unto the 
" honourable and high court of parliament." 

The Epitome was one of the books set forth by Martin J^Jje^^pi- 



BOOK Marprelate, writ against Dr. Bridges, who had printed 
something against him and his party. To which Epitome 

Anno 1588. lie set this fantastical title, in scorn and derision of his ad- 
versary; Oh! read over Dr. John Bridges : Jbr it is a 
worthy work : or. An epitome of the first hook of that right 
worshijyful volume writ against the puritans, &c. Of this 
book I have taken notice before. 

Some books also on the other side in justification of the 

church government; as this for one, writ by Some, a 

learned doctor of divinity, of Cambridge : which bore this 

A godly title ; A godly treatise, containing certain questions, moved 

touching of late lu Loudon and other places, touching the ministry, 

the Mini- sacramcuts, and church. Written by Robert Some, D. D. 

stry, &c. _ ' _ •' ' _ 

His preface to the .reader will inform us what adversaries 
he is to deal with ; and the contents, what subject he is to 
treat of against them. He tells the reader, " There were 
" two sorts of recusants in this land ; the one popish, the 
" other anabaptistical. They gave out, that we have no 
" ministry, no sacraments, no visible church. These, that 
" other sort of men, laboured of two diseases. The one 
1 4 " was great pride, the other gross ignorance. Their pride 
" appeared in their behaviour, which was void of humility. 
" Their ignorance in their arguments : which hung toge- 
" ther as a sick man's dream.'"' 

The table of such points as were contained in this trea- 
tise followed. " 1. A godly prince may and ought to com- 
" pel his subjects (if any refused) to the external service of 
" God. 2. A godly prince may not suffer any religion, 
" but the true religion, either publicly or privately, in his 
" dominions. 3. Able teachers ought to be provided (so 
" much as can be) for the churches. 4. The teachers of 
" religion must have maintenance. 5. Almighty God bless- 
" cth those kingdoms with peace, which promote and em- 
" brace his religion. 6. The child of God is not polluted, 
" though he be present at and partaker of the public 
" prayers, sacraments, &c. at such time as wicked men are 
" present at and partakers of them. 7. They which were 
" baptized in the popish church, by popish priests, received 


" true baptism, touching the substance of baptism. 8. They CHAP. 
" are the sacraments of baptism and the holy supper, which ^^"' 
" are deUvered in the church of England by unpreaching Anno 1 588. 
" ministers. 9. The godly are not polluted which receive 
" the sacrament at the hands of an unpreaching minister. 
" 10. The church of England is the visible church of Christ." 
Under these heads Dr. Some, the author, contended with 
those of Penry's puritan sect, that held against those points. 

The same author (upon some answer of Penry) published A Defence 
the same year " A defence of such points in Dr. Some''s last someS 
" treatise as M. Penry hath dealt against. And refutation t'"''^^'*'^- 
" of many anabaptistical, blasphemous, and popish absur- 
" dities, touching magistracy, ministry, church, scripture, 
*' and baptism, &c. contained in M. Penry\s last treatise." 
The occasion of this defence the author tells the reader: 
" That having published a short treatise. May last, it 
" pleased one M. Penry to examine one part of it, and (as 
" another Aristarchus) to censure it. That his book was 
" sent him, and he viewed it, and found strange things in 
" it. That advice was given him not to vouchsafe an an- 
" swer ; because Penry was very ignorant, and his treatise 
" very silly and corrupt stuff. But that certain reasons 
" induced him to take some pains about it. As St. Paul 
" vouchsafed in God's cause to deal with Demetrius and 
" Alexander. And because many had been misled by his 
" absurd fancies. And that he was personally both charged 
" and challenged by him. That Penry's book was a fardle 
" of gross errors : that none accounted of it, but such as 

" were of the fantastical crew. That Calvin, Beza, &c. 

" men of excellent learning, were cast off by him, even in 
" those weighty causes wherein they shook hands with all 

« the churches of God. That the question between them 

" was not whether ignorant men might either enter into 
" or continue in the holy ministry ; (for his resolution was 
" negative, that they ought not:) but the question was, 
" whether such as were and are baptized by popish priests 
" and ia-norant ministers had and did receive a sacrament ; 
"and whether the godly communicant is polluted by re- 6X5 


BOOK " ceiving the sacrament at the hands of unpreaching mi- 
" nisters. That the most famous men and churches were 

Anno 1588." peremptory for him, and against Penry, &c. 

" And that his reader might see clearly and feel sensibly 
" Penry's gross errors and anabaptistical fancies, he had 
" set down in a table divers strange particulars. Which if 
"they seemed hard and rough hewn, blame M. Penry: 
" for they came out of his forge." And then concluded 
with his prayer, " That the Lord would give us grace to 
*' see and know our ignorance, to be truly humble, to grow 
" in godly knowledge, and not in anabaptistical and blas- 
" phemous fancies." Dated from London, Sept. 19- 

To this I add another book in vindication of the hie- 
rarchy of the church against Martin Marprelate and the 
Admonition rest of the slaudcrous libellers. And that was. An adnioni- 
iile of Eng- ^^071 to the peopU of England. " Wherein are answered, not 
land. ii only the slanderous untruths reproachfully uttered by 

" Martin the libeller, but also many other crimes by some 
" of his brood objected generally against all bishops and 
" the chief of the clergy ; purposely to deface and discredit 
" the present state of the church. Seen and allowed by 
" authority." The author of it was the learned and right 
reverend Cooper, bishop of Winchester ; who himself had 
been unworthily misrepresented and wronged by them. Let 
me give an extract or two out of his epistle. 

He tells his reader, " That he was not ignorant what 
" danger he drew upon himself by this attempt to answer 
" the quarrels and slanders of late time published in certain 
*' libels against the bishops and other chief of the clergy of 
" the church of England. Men saw the eagerness and 
" boldness of their spirit that were the authors of them. 
" They [the bishops and clergy] tasted already the bitter- 
" ness of their tongues and pens. The raging fury of their 
" revenge upon all whom they mislike, themselves dis- 
" semble not, but lay it down in words of great threaten- 
'* ings. And therefore he expected all the hurt that ve- 
" nomous, scoffing tongues could work against him. And 
" how could he hope to escape it, when the saints of God 


" in heaven did feel it. For in the course of their whole CHAP. 
libel, when they spake of Peter, Paul, and the blessed 

" Virgin, &c. whom others justly call saints, their phrase Anno issf 
" in derision was, sir Peter, sir Paul, sir Marie. " 

He asked, " What the cause was, why they [the bishops] 
" were with such spite and malice discredited ? Surely, be- 
" cause, as the duty of faithful subjects bound them, (living 
" in the state of a church reformed,) they endeavoured to 
" preserve those laws which her majesty ""s authority and 
" the whole state of the realm had allowed, and did not 
" admit a new platform of government, none could tell by 
" whom. That the reasons that moved them so to do were 
" these two. First, that they saw no proof brought out of 
" the word of God, that of necessity such form of govern- 
" ment ought to be. Secondly, that by placing of the 
" same it would bring so many alterations and inconve- 
" niencies, as, in their opinion, would be dangerous to the 
" prince and to the realm. Some of which inconveniencies6lb 
" he had in this treatise laid down." Some of the contents 
of this seasonable treatise are these : 

" 1. An admonition to beware of the contempt of the 
" bishops and other preachers. 2. The ends which the 
" enemy of the church of God respecteth, in working their 
" discredit. 3. Answers to the untruths and slanders ut- 
" tered in Martin's late libel against the archbishop of Can- 
" terbury, the bishops of London, Rochester, Lincoln, and 
" Winchester. 4. The causes why the bishops desired to 
" maintain the present state of the government of the 
" church : and what inconveniencies they feared, upon the 
" alteration thereof, would come to the state of the realm. 
" 5. Answer to certain general crimes objected to all the 
" bishops without exception." 

I cannot omit one period more of this excellent book, as 
it respects the fresh deliverance of the kingdom at this very 
time ; and how unseasonably such libels were now uttered, 
under the feigned and fond name of Martin Marprelate. 

" Oh ! my good brethren and loving countrymen, what 
" a lamentable thing is this, that even now, when the view 


BOOK " of the navy of the Spaniard is scant passed out of sight; 
_____" when the terrible sound of their shot ringeth yet, as it 

Anno 1588. " were, in our ears ; when the certain purpose of most cruel 
" and most bloody conquest of this realm is confessed by 
" themselves, and blazed before our eyes ; when our sighs 
" and groans, with our fasting and prayers, in show of our 
" repentance, are fresh in memory ; and the tears not 
" washed from the eyes of many good men ; when the 
" mighty works of God, and his marvellous mercies in de- 
" livering us, and in scattering and confounding our ene- 
" mies, is bruited over all the world, and with humble 
" thanks renowned by all them that love the gospel ; when 
" our Christian duty requireth, for joy and thanksgiving, 
" that we should be seen yet still lifting up our hands and 
" hearts to heaven, and with thankful minds setting forth 
" the glory of God ; and, with Moses and the Israelites, 
" singing praises unto his name, and saying. The Lord 
" hatli triumphed gloriously ; the horse and the rider, the 
" ships and the sailors, the soldiers and their captains, he 
" hath overthrown in the sea : the Lord is our strength ; 
" the Lord is become our salvation, &c. that even now, I 
" say, at this present time, we should see in men's hands 
" and bosoms, commonly, slanderous pamphlets, fresh from 
" the press, against the best of the church of England, &c. 
" What unthankfulness is this ! What a forgetting of our 
" duty towards God and towards our brethren ! What a 

" reproach to our profession of the gospel !" 

But notwithstanding this Admonition, and all that the 
author had writ in vindication of the pious bishops and 
their government, it stopped not the pens of these abusive 
malecontents ; but soon fell foul upon bishop Cooper, and this 
his book, with the like scurrilous titles to their libels against 
him, as they used to do. As, Work for a Cooper. More 
•work for a Cooper, &c. 
617 This year also came forth. An answer to ten frivolous 

An Answer u ^^^^ fooUsli reasous, sct dowu bu the Rhemish Jesuits and 

to tlie Ri'.i- c/ ' t/ 

sonsoftiR- ^^ papists, in their preface before the New Testament, by 
Translators " ^^^^"^ lately translated into English. Which have moved 


"them to forsake the original fountain of the Greek; CHAF. 
" wherein the Spirit of God did endite the gospel, and the ^^"' 
"holy apostles did write it; to follow the stream of the Anno isss. 
" Latin translation : translated we know not when, nor by 
" whom. With a discovery of many great corruptions and 
" faults in the said English translation ; set out at Rhemes." 
The author was Edward Bulkely : who dedicated this book 
to the right honourable sir Francis Walsingham, knt. chief 
secretary to her majesty. To him he declared the chief 
reason of publishing his book ; " For that it was thought d. . iiey- 
" the said translation and the annotations had seduced ^jjison. m,, 
" some, and confirmed others in error ; and many did not i'"'"*^- 
" a little glory of them. And that as some had already in 
" part discovered the absurdity of the annotations, so this, 
" he trusted, might sufficiently shew the weakness of those 
" reasons, and corruption of that translation."" 

The reasons urged by the Rhemists why they translated 
the old Latin text, and not the Greek, were, " First, be- 
" cause it was so ancient, and used in the church of God 
" above 1300 years ago. And that it was the common re- 
" ccived opinion, that it was that which St. Hierom after- 
" ward corrected according to the Greek, by the appoint- 
" ment of pope Damasus : and consequently, that it was 
" that which St. Augustin commended and allowed of, in 
" an epistle to St. Hierom. And that it was that which 
" for the most part had been used in the church's service, 
" expounded in sermons, alleged and interpreted in com- 
" mentaries, &c. And the council of Trent had declared 
" and defined this only, of all other translations, to be au- 
" thentic," &c. All these learnedly confuted by this au- 

Another part of this book contains, J discovery of cor- 
ruptions in this Rhemish New Testament. And this di- 
vided into three parts. 1. Such places as be diverse and 
contrary to the Greek. 2. Places wherein words and sen- 
tences be omitted; expressed in the Greek. 3. Places 
wherein be superfluities; viz. words and sentences, which 


BOOK do abound, and be not in the Greek: and the Greek text 
approved and justified by the testimonies of ancient transla- 
Anno i588.tions in the Spanish tongue and Arabian. Then he gave 
" A catalogue of abundance of strange words and affected 
" phrases, which the Jesuits in this their Enghsh transla- 
" lion had used ; first, to shew their fine eloquence, to 
" move their readers to admire them. Secondly, to make 
" the scripture dark, and hard to be understood of the un- 
" learned people. And lastly, for that they would as much 
" dissent, and as little agree with us, as they might."" 

As for example, such words as these : super siibstantial, 
loaves of jiroposition^ pasche, day of azymes, parascheue, 
syndon^ victimes, holocaicsts, refertory^ exprohrated^ impiidi- 
cities, make obsecration, S7ipererof^ate, Paraclete, indurated 
their heart, contaminated : and abundance more such like 
obscure words. 
Ol8 The last business of the author of this o-ood book was 
to lay before the reader many places of scripture, and like- 
wise out of the ancient fathers ; shewing, " How requisite 
" and profitable it is for all men diligently and reverently 
" to read the word of God." And this, to oppose what the 
Rhemists had asserted in their preface, viz. " That it was 
" neither necessary nor profitable to have the holy scripture 
"in vulgar language, to be read and heard of all people. 
" And that the godly and faithful might be stirred up to 
" the daily, diligent, and reverent reading of them. That 
" they might thereby daily more and more increase in the 
'' knowledge and fear of God." 

To which books I add the disputations concerning the 
sacred scriptures, against Bellarmine and Stapleton, Jesuits, 
by Dr. Whitaker, public professor of divinity in Cambridge, 
and master of St. John''s college there. Printed at Cam- 
bridge this year. The title whereof was, 
iiispntatio Disputatio dc sacra scriptura, contra hums temporis 

de sacra . , ••n? r% n • r • 

Scriptura, paptstas ; imprimis Koocrtum BeUarmtnwn,Jesmtam,pon- 
tificium in colleg^io Romano, et Thomam Stapletonum, re- 
giumin schola Duacena controveisiarum professor em. Se.v 


questionibus proposita, et traciata, a Gulielmo Whitakcro, chap 
theologicB doctore, ac professore regio, et collegii D.Joanms ^XIl. ' 
in Cantabrigiensi academia magistro. The questions were : Anno 1588. 

1. De numero cafionicorum librorum scripturcB. 

2. De editione authentka scripturarum, et versionibus, 
sacrisqiie veryiaculis. 

3. De authoritate scriptures. 

4. De perspicuitate scripturce. 

5. De hiterpretatione scripturcE. 

6. De perfectione scripturcB : contra non scriptas tradi- 

The epistle dedicatory is writ to Cecil, lord treasurer 
Burghley, and chancellor of that university. 










Number I. 

A letter of the lord treasurer Burghly to sir Henry Union, 
the queens ambassador in France, upon that king's re- 
quiring more forces of the queen. 

[The beginning of this letter is imperfect.] 

IVlY lord ambassador, I make account at this time thecott. lib. 
carl of Essex, my 1. general, is arrived at the camp for the '^'*"*' ^' '^' 
Diep upon Friday last, and so did also our com- 
panies And I wish that I have heard at this present 

by a report thither from Diep, that the French king 

had won mount Katharine 

Your last letters reporting the conference had with you 
there in that court by the French king, and sir Roger Wil- 
liams being present, hath been somewhat unpleasant unto 
her majesty, though she findeth no fault therein in you. 
For the whole contents of the negotiations have been ex- 
pressed at very large length by the king''s letters unto her 
majesty, and also to her ambassador here; who hath de- 
livered the same to her majesty. And after the same well 
weighed by her, she hath made answer by writing in a let- 
ter of some length, (the copy whereof I do send you,) and 
therefore mean to make no recital. But am by her majesty 
commanded to require you to deliver it to the king. And 
though you shall not use any speech to him in her majesty's 
name, as it were to participate the contents of the letter, yet 
you may briefly, after the delivery in thereof, and the king's 
perusal, say. That you are very sorry, that the time, both 2 
on his part and the queen's, be so unseasonable, as neither 

M 2 


BOOK her majesty can yield to his demands, nor he obtain that 
^' whereof he hath need. 

And yet to deal plainly with you, her majesty hath great 
cause to suspect, that the report of the king's weakness of 
his forces there made with good advantage for him. For sir 
Roger Williams coming from the king with letters of credit 
at his last being here, made another manner of report of the 
king''s forces, by particular denomination of all sorts, both 
French and strangers, treble to the number of the king's 
allegation for very footmen. 

And as to the point, that tlie king maketh doubt of the 
leaving of the siege to fight with the duke of Parma, we 
here have good intelligence, that the duke of Parma is not 
yet in person come from Bruxelles ; neither are his forces 
with the duke de Main Lorrain ; and the Italians not so great 
by a third part as the king''s comptroller's report was. And 
it may be the duke of Parma will not be able to bring his 
army so far as Roan for lack of victuals, considering he is to 
come through a country already spoiled and hurried by the 
Reisters. And besides, if S. Catharines should be won be- 
fore the duke can come near with his army, the town of Roan 
may be with a small number blocked up, and the king have 
sufficient forces to withstand the duke of Parma's assailing, 
when he shall have comen so many miles in march to en- 
counter with the French king. 

These, and such like suppositions, not altogether impro- 
bable, have moved her majesty to think the peril of the 
king not so great as he hath pretended. Which also I wish 
may prove to be true. But however it is, in truth, the time 
is not proper to levy new numbers in England at this time 
of the year, [the depth of winter,] especially to be trans- 
ported by sea; and imj)ossible to be sent thither in time. 
For that if the king recover not Roan before two months, 
there is no hope to gain it for many respects. 

Her majesty sendeth sir Thomas Leighton thither of 
especial trust to advise the earl in the actions. And liath 
commanded the earl by her own letters. And if the king 
should depart from Roan to go to Ught with the duke of 


Parma, the carl should not go with hnn by any persua- BOOK 
sion. *• 

I wish you could come to understand of the truth of all 
the king"'s forces ; whereunto I cannot prescribe you how to 
obtain. But by their quartering and encamping, I think it 
most easy to be known, by some men of judgment that 
might there use the same. And thus having no other thing 
at present, I wish and hope shortly to hear some good news 
of the fort of S. Katharines ; whereof I make such account 
as the old proverb is, Dimidium plus toto. From the court 
at Whitehall, this 12th of December, 1581. 

Your assured loving friend, 

W. Burghley. 

[Number I.] 
Mr. Rqf'e Lane to the lord treasurer ; advice tcpon occasion 
of' the exjndsion ofVing don Antonio out of the kingdom 
of Portugal; and what use the queen might make of him 
to annoy king Philip. Dated March 7, 1580. 

MOVED of zele to her majesty's safety and service, and MSS. Burg, 
of dutiful affection to your lordship, I humbly offer unto 
your lordship the consideration of a plot, touching the re- 
ported state of king Antonio to her majesty for aid. The 
due execution whereof can in no sort prejudice her majesty 
either in honour, peril, or charge ; and may, with her ma- 
jesties restraining of the same, many ways get advantage, 
and most singularly guard her majesty in this doubtful 3 
time, from many inconveniences, with the favour of the Al- 
mighty. My firm persuasion wherein, and the importance 
of the same, being used in time, make me bold to break it, 
and willing only to your lordship to impart it, humbly crav- 
ing favourable acceptance of my poor good meaning there- 
in. And thus it may please your lordship to understand it. 

1. That the said king, don Antonio, crave of her majesty 
leave underhand, at his own charge, and of ready pay to 
her, 5000 soldiers of her majesty's subjects, and a fleet an- 
swerable, as well for fight, as for portage of all kind of mu- 

M 3 


BOOK nition and victuals. But that this levy be made altogether 
______ by her majesty, and altogether in her majesty ""s name, in 

shew for the reformation of Ireland. And therefore that no 
shew in the world be made for any intention touching the 
said king. 

2. That the king do in like secret manner covenant with 
her majesty, that if during this his preparation in England, 
and before the fleet here be ready to leave this coast, the 
Spanish king, or the pope''s powers, do fortune to arrive 
upon any of her majesty ""s dominions, that then the said 
prepared power, at the charge of the said king, shall be em- 
ployed indeed and mostly in her majesty's service, against 
the invading Spanish, or popish forces wheresoever. And 
her majesty for the use of that his levy in her own particu- 
lar service, to bear only the one half of the charge of the 
same. So that her majesty will, in consideration thereof, be 
pleased to covenant with the said king, don Antonio, that 
her highness will declare herself absolute for him ao;ainst the 
Spanish king, if it shall appear that the said Spanish king 
be in a confederacy against her majesty with the pope. 

3. But if the said English fleet shall be ready to depart 
hence before the coming abroad of the pope's fleet from the 
coast of Spain, then the said English fleet to go directly to 
the coast of Spain ; where, with the grace of God, they 
may so employ themselves, that the Spanish king shall have 
little need to spare any of his own forces from his own de- 
fence nearer home, and within his own pretended realms. 

4. Thus by diverting the Spanish king's forces from the 
shew of itself, in the eye of her majesty's subjects at lier 
own doors, her highness shall daunt the courage of any re- 
bellious mind, that otherwise, at the appearing of an enemy 
in sight, will easily be stirred to mischief. Beside the avoid- 
ing of many other dangers, that an invasion, though never 
so weak, doth draw with it of ordinary. All which shall be 
at a stranger's charge. Which otherwise her majesty may 
have good cause to do at her own charge, if she will be safe 
at home; and if in the mean while her enemy assail lier 
majesty, as is aforesaid, she shall be the more in readiness 


either to defend her self, or offend those that would offend BOOK 
her herein. ' 

5. But all the difficulty of this action, next the king An- 
tonio's provisions of ready pays, (without the which nothing 
can be done,) resteth chiefly and only in the close keeping 
so much of the intention of this said levy as shall concern 
the said king, don Antonio. 

6. And therefore, as her majesty, with the only advice 
and administration of one counsellor above, may, if it please 
her, within two months, make up this supply without fur- 
ther trouble to any one of the rest of the honourable board : 
so if her majesty shall be pleased to lay that charge upon 
your lordship, and that without the privity of any other, it 
will without all doubt, with the blessing of God, every way 
serve for notable turns for her majesty ; what plots or packs 
soever, either abroad or at home, are made or meant against 
her majesty. And the meaner men in shew, though not in 
skill, shall be used in this preparation; who need not to 
know any other pretence. Then, sir, I think, the better and 
the more close will the service be carried and covered. 

I protest unto your lordship before the Almighty, that 4 
as yet no other creature living, but only your lordship, 
knoweth any part of this plat. Neither have I so much as 
once conferred with any about the same, more than yester- 
day with Mr. John S. John ; who coming to visit me at my 
lodging, by chance told me of the earnest suit of king don 
Antonio his ambassador to her majesty for an English aid ; 
and his earnest entreaty, that her majesty would declare 
herself against the Spanish king in that action. Which I 
imagining that her majesty would hardly be brought unto, 
notwithstanding the said Spanish king has hostile intention 
to her majesty, made apparent to all the world ; I thought 
in this my simple, humain conceipt, my most dutiful mean- 
ing to her majesty, most humbly to present to your lord- 
ship only. 

And if your lordship shall find, that her majesty may 
hereby in a sort be served, I will upon word from your lord- 
ship by Mr. S. John's means find a mean, that the said king 

M 4 


BOOK don Antonio's ambassador shall be himself a mover of this 
^' matter, if he like of it, both to her majesty, by his only 
mediation, and privity of that council, whose only service 
therein her majesty will be pleased to use : which can be 
none other but your lordship only and alone. The 7th of 
March, 1580. 
Your lordships most humble and ready at commandment, 

Rafe Lane. 

Number II. 
Lord Burghley^ lord treasurer, Ms judgment, upon a con- 
sultation of the queen and council, concerning ajleet to 
he sent to the Azores islands, under sir Francis Drake, 
to assist don Antonio, expidsed his hingdom of Portu- 
gal by Philip king of Spain. Digested under certain 
questions, with ansxvers to each. 

Articles to he considered of for the voyage of sir Francis 

Drake to the sea, with the ships to serve dan Antonio, 

king of Portugal. 

MSS. in I. FIRST it seems convenient, that seeing the 6th of 

house. August the Tercera was in the possession of the said king, 

it is no offence to any treaty or league with the king of 

Spain, to permit any her majesty's subjects to serve the said 

king Antonio, to maintain him in possession thereof: for 

that her majesty is not bound to take knowledge of any 

other right that kings have, but as their possession yieldeth 


II. There is no treaty or league between the crown of 
England and the crown of Spain for the kingdom of Portu- 
gal, nor for any isles or countries possessed by Portugal. 
So as it is no offence to any league in any subject of her 
majesties, to do any service in or upon any of the territories, 
isles, or Indies, possest heretofore by Portugals. 

Hereupon for a matter of league, her majesty may per- 
mit sir Francis Drake to serve the king Antonio to main- 
tain that he possesscth, or to recover any thing taken from 
him, whereof he was, as a king, possessed. 


The second question is, What is convenient or expedient BOOK 
for her majesty to do in the case, and what may be contra- ^' 
riwise inconvenient ? 

For the first, it is profitable and convenient that the 
islands of Azores, and other territories of Portugal, were 
rather in possession of don Antonio than in the king of 
Spain, for many over-apparent causes. 

For the second, these difficulties are to be remembred. 5 
First, if the French king will not judiciously deal for don 
Antonio, as her majesty should do, the peril might be too 
great for her alone to provoke the king of Spain. And also, 
without the help of the French king, her majesty's aid, 
without it be very great and royal, cannot suffice to procure 
restitution to king Antonio, to the kingdom of Portugal; 
which must be the end of his action ; or else to invade the 
isles, or to keep the possession of some part, and not of all, 
will be but a perpetual war and charge : which ought to be 
considered of in the beginning. 

Whereupon the French king with good assurance is to be 
plainly understood, before any great action be enterprized 
by her majesty's subjects, to offend the king of Spain, by 
seeking to invade any portion of the Portugal territories, 
being in the king of Spain's possession. But to maintain 
the possession of king Antonio in any thing held for him 
seems reasonable, and may in justice be maintained. But 
how the king of Spain will interpret the action against her 
majesty will rest in him. 

For the second difficulty it may be said, that this voyage 
may give cause to the king of Spain to arrest all the queen's 
subjects, their goods and ships, within his power. 

Whether it be better to stay the merchants fleet thither 
this year ; wherein by conference with the merchants may 
be understood what damage shall ensue to her majesty for 
her customs, and to her realms and subjects. Or whether, in 
respect of the money in the queen's majesties hands, it may 
be thought that the king of Spain will not attempt the ar- 
rest. Or whether our merchants cannot by little and little 
recover that they have need of, without conveying into the 


BOOK king'^s dominions a great number of ships, mariners, or 
' goods, to the powei- of the king's arrests. 

Questions presently arising ujjon these preparations. 

" I. Whether the voyage shall procede before the queen 
" be assured that the French king will join with her ma- 
" jesty for defence of the action, in case the king of Spain 
" shall offer any violence for the same to the queen's sub- 
" jects ; as by arrest, or by invasion of any her countries, 
" or by giving support to Scotland, to offend her? 

" It was from the beginning concluded. No. 

"II. What manner of assurance shall the queen require, 
" or shall admit to be sufficient to warrant the voyage to be 
" attempted ? 

" It is reason to have either the French king's letters, or 
" the writing of such as he appointeth to confer with Mr. 
" Walsingham to accord thereto : and Mr. Walsingham to 
" deliver the like. 

" III. What shall be done with this great preparation .'' 

"Either they must continue as they do; which is at 
" about 20/. the day or more, by the uncertainty of Mr. 
^' Outred's unknown charge at Hempton [Southampton]. 
" Or secondly, There must be some diminution of men. Or 
" thirdly, Three ships and a bark might be sent to the isles 
" to do service there, where Drake and Hawkins assent, 
" and think thereby great service may ensue. And in this 
" case the rest of the ships may be reduced to a smaller 
" charge ; and yet remain in readiness upon knowledge 
" from France. Or else tiie whole preparation to be sold. 
" The victuals to merchants trading voyage : the munition, 
" &c. reserved for her majesty. 
King Anto- a q^ lastly, The whole to procede as they are in readi- 

nio will not -' \ '^ •' 

assent here- " ness : SO as it may be accorded how the charge shall be 

bear*auy " '^^om at their coming thither. For which purpose Mr. 

charges " Drake and Hawkins say, that it is meant afore Mr. Se- 

" cretary went, that supposing the charge to be in this sort : 

" 5000Z. by the queen's majesty to Mr. Secretary, to be ac- 

" counted the money of king Antonio; 2000/. to be Mr. 


" Secretaries; the rest accordincr to 6 or 7000Z. to belong; BOOK 

. . I. 
" to Dr. Hawk and other adventurers. Upon this supposi- ' 

" tion they would have that one half that should be won 6 

" from the king of Spain, of his fleet, or of his isles, should 

" be answered to the king. Another half to be divided : 

" One quarter to tunnage of the ships, after 5s. the tun. 

" One quarter to the whole company. 
" And then half allowed to the king to be divided : 

" One part to the king himself. 

" One part to Mr. Secretary, and to Mr. Dr. and the 
" other adventurers. 

" But here my opinion, the queen's majesty for her 5000/. 
" should be forgotten : for it were no reason that her ma- 
" jesty should have either payment of her 5000/. of the 
" merchandize of the isles that should come hither ; or else 
" to have a portion, as Mr. Secretary, and Mr. Dr. and 
" others should have. 

" Ite7n, It is convenient that the 5000/. should be ac- 
" counted for in the name of Mr. Secretary : for that her 
" majesty at the lending thereof would not have it other- 
" wise accounted ; and yet Mr, Secretary to render to her 
" majesty that should be allowed to him for it. 

" IV. What sir Francis Drake shall do, if the French 
" kins; come into the action ? 

" He may by commission from king Antonio justly do 
" any service against any that will impeach king Antonio's 
" possession in the Tercera, or in any other isles. 2. He 
" may attempt upon the Madera, or upon any other island 
" that did belong to don Antonio, as king of Portugal. 
" These services he may do without breach of league with 
" the king of Spain." 

Objection. But by these only actions, neither shall the 
king Antonio be so profited, as shall tend to bring him to 
possession of Portugal, or the East Indies: neither is it 
likely that by these his actions the charges shall be dis- 
charged of the preparation. 

Answer. It is true. Therefore of necessity it followeth, 
that he must attempt to take any thing he can from the 


BOOK king of Spain, as his title to the islands of Canaries, or any 
island on Nova Spain, or in Peru. 

Whereof followeth, that though he [sir Francis Drake] 
shall do this by king Antonio's commission, who hath a just 
war against the king of Spain ; yet if the king of Spain 
shall take this action, as maintained by her majesty, then 
shall it be at his will, as he shall find himself able to avenge 
it upon her majesty, by arresting and taking all her people, 
ships, and mariners, being in his country, and coming within 
his power. Item^ He may give new support to Ireland, 
and relief to the king of Scots, to be an ill neighbour. 

If the voyage procede not, the king Antonio ought to 
have the jewel in good reason. For he shall have nothing 
for his jewel. The preparations would be viewed and sold, 
and distributed. The loss to be borne. The king might have 
the jewel ; or, upon some less jewel upon his own bond, have 
sold to him the four ships which he dcsireth, and the mu- 
nition also, as shall be thought meet to be spared. 

7 Number III. 

A true anszoer to the articles exhibited hy the bishop o/' 
Norwich, against sir Robert Jermin, sir John Hiffham, 
knights ; Robert Ashjield aiid Thomas Badly ^ esquires, 
justices of the jjeace. 
Epist. epi- I. TO tile first we say, That we countenance none but 
nes^me.^'' such as are lovers of God's true religion, and dutiful sub- 
jects to her majesty. If he [the bishop of Norwich] shall 
press us in particular, we will particularly answer. 

II. To the second we answer, That Coppin and Tyler, 
[who were dispersers of Brown's seditious books ; and after- 
wards the former executed for the same, anno 1583,] be- 
ing committed to prison five or six years past, and often 
convented before the judges of our assizes, so long as there 
was hope to do any good unto them by Christian persua- 
sion and counsel, we were means unto the judges for their 
freedom. But when by experience we found, that neither 
our entreating, nor the often godly references and labours 


of divers learned and godly pastors (which we only pro- BOOK 
cured) could any thing prevail, we gave them up to their *' 
froward wills ; and became earnest suitors both to the bi- 
shop and judges, that they might be removed out of our 
prison for fear of infecting others. Which we could never 
obtain at the bishop's hand. But he hath kept them here 
without offering them any means for their conversion ; ra- 
ther, as we presume, for stales to catch and endanger men 
with, than for any good intended to themselves or any 

For remedy whereof we do humbly pray your lordship, 
tliat the bishop, according to his office, may be ordered to 
take them to his prison at Norwich. And for the truth of 
this our answer, we appeal to my lord chief justice of Eng- 
land, [sir Christopher Wray,] and the master of the Rolls 
that now is : then judges of our assizes. 

Baker, mentioned in that article, we knew not. [M. Paine, 
a baker, was mentioned by Day, in his letter to the bishop, 
to have been bound over by these justices.] 

III. To the third w^e say, That he and they who set down 
this article for the bishop (the articles indeed being compact 
at Bury, the bishop being at Ludham, which we pray your 
good lordship to observe) was much to blame to make the 
bishop a patron of unlearned ministers. For it was their 
pleasures only to be true in this, and in nothing else. For 
the bishop indeed hath not only favoured and countenanced 
those ignorant ministers which he found when he came, but 
added unto those of his own creation and ordination twice 
so many as any other bishop of this londe hath liad in this, 
as we verily think. Yet to the point of the article we an- 
swer, that we never heard any other, neither do ourselves 
hold that an ignorant minister may not be tolei'ated. For 
daily experience sheweth, that we are present at the reading 
of the service appointed by authority. But we do heartily 
pray, that none might be now ordained, but such as are both 
able and apt to teach. 

IV. To the fourth we say, That we cannot but mervail at 
the hutt of these articles, that they durst offer unto your 


BOOK lordship a butt at Geneva psalms and sermons. [This nr- 
^' tide ran, that these justices were for nothing else hut the 
Geneva psalms and sermons.] The Psalms were David's 
and other holy fathers inspired by the Holy Ghost. The 
necessity of sermons your lordship knoweth. Surely we can- 
not but lament, that any, pretending religion and obedience 
to her majesty, should be so far carried as to utter such un- 
christian speeches, to the disgracing of so Christian and re- 
ligious exercises so universally frequented in all her ma- 
8 jesty''s dominions, being speeches proper to scoffers and pro- 
fessed enemies ; and therefore in these articles the more in- 

But to the article. This Wodde was a very simple young- 
man, Avhom divers religious persons of the town seeking to 
establish, thinking, by retaining of him, either that their old 
preachers should be troubled, or made less able to live ; and 
so by that means to beat the ministry of the word quite out 
of the town, (as their purpose is even still.) We calling to- 
gether all the inhabitants of that parish, remembring the 
usage or custom that the people of Burie, ever sithence the 
suppression of the abby, used to chuse their ministers; by 
which order the said Wodde was elected to that place. And 
so agreement was made for tryal of him until the Lady-day 
following : during which time, finding him utterly unable 
to discharge the place, about a fortnight before our Lady- 
day, warning was given him by like order of the parish to 
avoid at the day. Which because he refused, Mr. Badby, 
being a parishoner and justice of the peace in the town, 
advised him not to intrude himself into that charge, with- 
out the goodliking and approbation of the people, being- 
then another prepared to serve : for the which the said 
Wodde, by the bishop's and Mr. Andrew's instinction, pro- 
cured very unjustly the said Mr. Badby to be indicted as a 
disturber. And where he saith, that all the justices op- 
posed themselves against him in the action ; the truth is, 
that sir Robert Jermyn was then at London, and none of 
us which were present further meddled in this action, than 
that we thought we had both interest and authority. But 


when the bishop, both by his letters and his word, had de- book 
dared himself to have interest to collate, neither we nor '• 
any other did stir further in that cause, either to the mak- 
ing of division in that parish or trouble to his lordship. 

V. To the fifth we say, That the Angel is an ordinary 
place, where we meet for her majesty's service, directed 
unto us by letters in commission or otherwise. And never 
have proceeded to the determination of any cause ecclesias- 
tical ; no, scarce to the hearing of any, the bishop only be- 
ing of the quorum in the ecclesiastical commission. But if 
we did ever deal in any, it was by his assignment; as in the 
case of Gibbons justified adultery, who hath married a wife, 
the first husband yet living. Which yet remaineth unre- 
formed, to the no little grief of many good men. 

VI. To the sixth we confess. That the commonry was 
sometime there before us, for conference to join our au- 
thorities together in helping the good and punishing the 
wicked. Other troubles and complaints made against him 
by others for divers his abuses. But we say, that to our re- 
membrances we never threatned to send him to the jayle if 
lie came not presently unto us. 

VII. To the seventh, Mr. Blage and the commissary 
have often used hard and unkind speeches one towards the 
other. But the matters heard before the high connnissioners 
at London were compounded with the seeking and desire of 
the commissary. Mr. William Jermin, after the first falling- 
out between them, (being five years sithence,) being earn- 
estly reqmred by sir Robert, never offered him violence or 
violent speech sithence. And as for further course of jus- 
tice, he never denied it unto him, nor to any other to his 
knowledge. Neither did the commissary ever seek for fur- 
ther security at any other justices hand in the county. 
Which proved that he remained in no fear. 

VIII. To the eighth we say. That we do not remember 
that we used any speech against him, unless it were in 
a case mentioned in the tenth article. Upon the answer 
whereof we will refer to your lordship's judgment, what 


BOOK cause we had by his false and unjust proceeding sharply to 
reprove him. 
Q IX. To the ninth sir Robert Jermyn answereth, That to 
his remembrance he never delivered any such speeches, but 
professeth rather, that he hath often laboured the commis- 
sary to join authorities together, to the repressing of sin 
and wickedness. And sir John Higham thinketh, that 
both he hath said, that the commissary is no magistrate, 
(though he greatly vavmteth thereof,) and also that he may 
justify the same. For proof whereof he saith, that none, 
except the queen''s majesty, and such as hath jura regalia^ 
can depute another to be a magistrate. Which he verily 
thinketh the bishop hath not, if the commissary were pro- 
per officer under him, as he thinketh he is officer imder the 
archdeacon of Sudbury. 

X. To the tenth we say. That we bound Dr. Day to his 
good behaviour. And the cause we humbly beseech your 
lordship to note : for that it was pertinent to the eighth ar- 
ticle. We understanding that he hath purposed to elect and 
swear certain questmen in Bury, which were suspect not to 
favour religion, devised by himself and his consort, on pur- 
pose to gall and annoy the preachers, ministers, and ho- 
nestest sort of the town, with their continual presentments ; 
we understanding thereof conferred with the commissary, 
and shewed him the inconvenience likely to ensue of this 
his election. Besides, we told him that the law, in our opi- 
nions, should not bear a commissary to elect questmen, but 
that properly the choice rested in the minister and people of 
every parish. With which reasons of ours he seemed satis- 
fied, and promised faithfully not to procede to election of 
them or any other without our privity ; protesting, that of 
himself he knew not ten of the parish. Notwithstanding, in 
short time after, forgetting all duty and promise, as he was 
going to his court, to perform this action, we received intel- 
ligence, and sent for him ; who promised to come presently. 
But before his coming he swore those men in that office, 
contrary to his promise before made unto us, and contrary 


to the cause for the which he knew we sent for him. And BOOK 
then he came unto us. And we not knowing what he had ' 
done, began again in good and loving manner to entreat him 
to forbear that election. He answered scoffingly, that he 
had done, and could not undoe. Whereupon, for his untrue 
and unlawful proceding, not contented to break promise 
with us, but to scoff and scorn at it when he had done, one 
of us called him Jack, and bound him to his good beha- 
viour. But we remember not the other hard speeches men- 
tioned in the eighth article. And suspecting the election to 
be unlawful, and knowing divers of the said questmen to be 
backward men in religion, we charged them to be careful 
how they proceeded in that office. The one of them giving 
us such lusty answers at that time, we were enforced to bind 
him to further appearance. 

XI. To the eleventh we say, That the same Mr. Philips, 
being brother to the commissary, made a sermon at Bury, 
wherein, for the most part, he was occupied in depraving 
the godly preachers of the tow^n and country ; comparing 
them to unbridled colts rushing through the whole hedge ; 
and yet not so contented, called them vipers, serpents, 
stingers, and unsatiable beasts. Which sermon ended, and 
Mr. Badby aforesaid all the time being present thereat, 
finding thereby that he sought by all the terms he could 
devise to sever the hearts of the people from their faithful 
ministers, he sent his man to the said Mr. Philips, request- 
ing him to come unto him for conference with him touch- 
ing that sermon. Whereunto Mr. Philips asked the messen- 
ger. What token his master had sent to him, that he might 
know that he had sent for him .'* The messenger answered, 
By the token which he did wear was his master's livery. 
And then Mr. Philips answered, He would speak with him 
another time : and so departed and went to dinner with 
Mr. Andrews at his house. Whereupon Mr. Badby sent the 
constable for Mr. Philips ; who, together with Mr. Andrews 
and the commissary, repaired unto Mr. Badby. And then 
Mr. Andrews demanded of Mr. Badby, Wherefore he had 10 
sent for Mr. Philips ? Who answered, That he thought he 



BOOK had not made a charitable sermon, but an undiscrete. And 
^- therefore he would gladly have talked with him. And Mr. 
Philips very deridingly said to Mr. Badby, I thought you 
had sent for me to dinner, and my dinner was provided. 
Mr. Andrews promising of himself, offering, that if he would 
send him to prison, he and the commissary would be bound 
for him. Mr. Badby answered, He would take none of their 
bonds, but Mr. Philips"'s own bond for his appearance the 
next morning before the rest of the justices. Which he did 
for preventing division, which he feared would ensue thereof, 
as in truth there did. 

Thereupon the commissary (which sheweth the sermon 
to be a matter of set purpose) commanded Mr. Badby, that 
the same morning by the hour aforesaid, in which he had 
commanded Mr. Philips"'s appearance, that he should be at 
the court. For which his non-appearance he was excommu- 
nicate. And after, on the Monday aforesaid, upon Mr. Phi- 
lips's appearance, we and divers others in commission, upon 
hearing the matter, both for the misliking of his sermon, 
for his very railing terms before mentioned, and for otlier 
his contemptuous demeanour, thereupon thought good, in 
discretion, to bind him for his appearance for further con- 
sideration in that cause, (the words aforesaid being set 
down under his own hand.) And as touching the term 
in the article set down, sir Robert Jermyn saith, He re- 
membreth he called him crafty merchant, because lie 
craftily went about by certain questions to bring the an- 
swerers within danger of law. Mr. Ash field, he saith, that 
upon the hearing of the whole matter, and understanding 
that he was and is beneficed at Bradly in Suffolk, and non- 
resident there, and had left his own charge, and had of- 
fered the unfitting terms before mentioned, he used these 
speeches : viz. " We are more troubled with these unresi- 
*' dented knaves than with all the country beside." 

And as for Mr. Blage, he alluded to plague, whereof 
Mr. Philips is most abiding. And yet at that time he 
said to Mr. Philips, I mean you, not a papistical Jesuit. 
And for that cause was called before the high commis- 


sioners: where the cause, as we are informed, took a full BOOK 
end. '• 

And touching his further binding at tlie sessions for his 
behaviour, we say, That at the said sessions was present the 
lord North, and sundry other justices ; where all matters 
being heard at full, and Mr. Philips answering very con- 
temptuously and disdainfully, it was thought good, by the 
consent of the whole bench, to bind him to his good helia- 
viour. Which cause hath been at large heard by the jus- 
tices of assize. 

XII. To the twelfth article, sir John Higham denieth, 
that he used the speech mentioned in the article, or any to 
that effect. But he well remembreth, that upon the dis- 
liking the parishioners of St. James's in Bury had taken 
against Gyles Wodde their minister, he, the said sir John, 
for the ending of the cause with most quiet and peace that 
might be for that towne, persuaded with the said Wodde to 
give place to some other more fit for the parish, and to be- 
take him to some more fit place for his weak gifts : Wodde 
justifying himself to be sufficient for the place, because he 
could read the service established in the Book of Common 
Prayer. Then the said sir John answered. That if he had 
no better proof of his sufficiency than the reading of the 
service in the book appointed, that then a man might have 
a boy of twelve years old to do as much as he. 

Thus we have truly delivered unto your lordship our an- 
swer to the bishops untrue accusations. The several mat- 
ters whereof be some six, some five, some four, and the least 
of very near two years continuance. Which being both so 
old and so weak, do shew, that rather to discredit us with 
her majesty than to reform any amisses in us, his lordship 
hath put down these matters against us. But being so old, 
so weak, and so untrue, do decipher his too great malice 
rather to our persons than actions. We are therefore very 
humble suitors unto your good lordship, that not for our 1 1 
sake alone, but for the state of our country, which we serve 
under her majesty, we may enjoy that honourable favour 
which you have always shewed unto all men; that your 

N 2 


BOOK lordship would become our petitioner unto her majesty, 
" that now we have been called out of our country, and every 
street doth sound our disgrace, wrought by the bishop, that 
either we may receive the just deserts of our doings by due 
punishment, or, being cleared both in her majesty's royal 
judgment and your lordship''s opinion, the bishop, for his 
bold and untrue suggestions, may be so censured, as we 
may, with the restitution of our poor reputation, attend 
with some good comfort upon our places. In the which we 
do desire no longer to live than we should be found very 
loyal and dutiful to our so gracious sovereign. 

Number IV. 
John bishop of Excester to the lord treasure?- Burghley ; 
to favour his proceedings against one Randal, a mini- 
ster in his diocese, qfthejamily of love, liolding danger- 
ous opinions. 
Lit. episco MY duty to your lordship remembred. For that I am ad- 
pa^es penes ygj-^^ggj]^ t]^,^^ ^}jg lords of couucil had, and yet have earnest 
complaint made unto them against me, for my proceedings 
against one Anthony Randal, late parson of Lydford in my 
diocese; whom I justly deprived for his dampnable opi- 
nions and heresies. And after his appeal from me to the 
Arches, and from thence to her majesty's delegates, I had 
my proceedings approved and ratified; yet for that your 
lordship may haply not be acquainted therewith, and also 
for your better resokition of my doings, and the saving of 
my credit with you, I thought it appertaining to my duty 
to send your lordship herewith a copy of his strange opi- 
nions truly exemplified. Which opinions he maintaineth 
obstinately at this present ; and within these few days sub- 
scribed unto them again, in the presence of divers public 
notaries, as it may appear unto your lordship by this en- 
closed, the original remaining in my registry, as a perpetual 
testimonial against Randal. 

And for that Randal hath many complices, and that 
hurtful sect, the famil/j of love, beginncth to creep in this 


country, of the which company twenty are brought to open BOOK 
recantation in this cathedral church, and my proceedings 
against the rest would be much weakened if the untrue re- 
ports of Randal or his friends should be heard : in consi- 
deration of the premisses, I do beseech your lordship, that 
ray sentence given against the said Randal, and ratified, as 
aforesaid, may have good countenance and liking at your 
hands. Which I request, not so much for mine own credit, 
as for the peace and quietness of God's church ; which, by 
means of Randal and his adherents, is very much disturbed. 
Thus fearing to be tedious to your lordship, I commend 
you to the protection of the Almighty. Excestre, the 6th 
of June, 1581. 

Your lordships to command, 

John Exon. 

Number V. 12 

Minutes of a warrant to Edward Stafford, esq. for par- 
sonages, chapels, guilds, ^c. dissolved, concealed. 
[The insertions within crotchets are of the lord treasurer's 

ELIZABETH, by the grace of God, &c. To our trusty MSS. Burg, 
counsellor, lord treasurer of England, and to our chancel- 
lor of our exchequer and dutchy of Lancaster, &c. We let 
ye wete, that of our special grace and mere motion, we are 
pleased and contented, to give and grant to our well be- 
loved subject and servant, Edward Stafford, esq. one of our 
gentlemen pensioners, a lease or leases for years, of 

all such parsonages impropriate, free chapels, guilds, chaun- 
tries, lay-prebends, colleges, and hospitals, relinquished, dis- 
solved or escheated : [to which hospitals there have not 
been any poor belonging within these two and twenty years : 
for that we wish such rather to be restored than ^he lands 
to be converted to other uses :] and of all parsonages and 
vicarages whatsoever, which [have not incumbents, and] 
are without cure, by reason that the parishes are depopu- 
lated, a,nd the churches thereof profaned, decayed, wasted, 



BOOK or defaced, with all their members, commodities, append- 

___Jj___ ances whatsoever, which now been, continue, and remain 

wrongfully detained, wlthholden, or kept from us: and 

which of right to me do or may belong or appertain, [by 

any title grown to our crown since the twenty seventh year 

"This of our noble father king Henry VIII. ^] which hereafter 

crotchet shall or may be found or revealed, or [justly] challenged 

added, and ijy j|^g g^id Edward Stafford, his deputies or assigns, or any 

crossed out *, i o 

again. OI them. 

Yielding or paying therefore yearly unto us, our heirs 
and successors, during the said lease or leases, so much 
yearly rent, and after such rate as the same, or any part 
thereof, are, or have been valued at in our books of first 
^ It may be fruits and tenths, or in any other of our records b. And fur- 
no records ther, of our special grace, we also are pleased and con- 
where tented, to grant unto the said Edward Stafford, as well the 

towns and <^ . . . i i • i. ii 

records were advowsons, presentations, nommations, and donations, or all 
wasted in ^^^ singular parsonages and vicarages being without cure, 
wars, and profaned, depopulated, decayed, wasted, or defaced, [in as 
barons wars ^'^P^^ sort to US as the Same doth or may justly belong.] 
soo years As also the advowsons, presentations, nominations, dona^ 
treasurer's tions of all other parsouages and vicarages with cure, pre- 
hand. bends, presentative and donative : which are concealed, 
wrongfully detained, withholden, or kept from us, by any 
manner of means whatsoever, of right do belong or apper- 
tain to our presentation, donation, nomination, or collation : 
to give, dispose, and present unto the same, so often as any 
of them shall fall, be, or become void, during the term of 
years, according to the true intent and meaning hereof. [In 
all which grants of the premisses, for avoiding of ancient 
titles that are doubtful, we do not mean, that the said Ed- 
ward Stafford, or his assigns, shall have or inherit in any 
kind of the premisses, by any other right or title due to us, 
but that, which hath grown due to our crown from the 
twenty sixth year of the king our noble father.] 

Whereunto we will and command you, that you do from 
time to time from henceforth, [upon due information given 
unto you by the said Edward Stafford, or his assigns, of 


any said titles to any of the premisses, and where- BOOK 

unto you shall perceive that we ought to be entitled, cause ' 

to be made such and] so many books and writings as shall 
be requisite and necessary, to be past by us of the premisses 
or any part thereof, unto the said Edward Stafford, his 
deputies or assigns, for the aforesaid term of years: 

and for the new rent abovementioned, according to the true 
intent and meaning hereof; with a proviso to be contained 
in [all and every] our said grants, or letters patents, that if 
any variance, suite, debate, or controversy [by the claim or 13 
complaint of any person] shall happen to rise or grow in or 
about any of the premises, or concerning any manner of 
presentation, removing, or displacing of any preacher, mi- 
nister, [or scholar,] parson, or vicar; that then the same 
[grants shall be suspended until such controversy, claim, or 
complaint] shall be heard and determined [by order of our 
laws, or otherwise in equity] in our court of exchequer, by 
you, the lord treasurer of England and chancellor of our 
exchequer for the time being, [for any matter belonging to 
the revenues of our crown : and by you, our chancellor of 
the dutchy, and our atturney there, for any cause, &c.] if 
the parties grieved shall require. And these our letters shall 
be your sufficient discharge for the doing thereof. 

Number VI. 
Campion's letter to the privy-council ; offering to avow and 
prove his catholic religion before all the doctors and 
masters of both universities; and requiring a disputa- 

In nomine Jesu, Amen. 
RIGHT honourable, whereas I came out of Germany, Foxii MSS. 
and Boemland, being sent by my superior, and adventured 
my self into this noble realm, my dear country, for the glory 
of God, and the benefit of souls ; I thought it like enough, 
that in this busy, watchful, suspicious world, I should, ei- 
ther sooner or later, be interrupted, and stopped of my 

N 4 


BOOK course: wherefore providing for all events, and uncertain 
' what shall or may become of me, when God shall happily 
deliver my body into durance ; I suppose it needful to put 
this writing in a readiness, desiring your good lordships to 
give it the reading, and to know my case. This doing shall 
ease you of some labour ; for that which otherwise you 
must have sought for by practice of wit, I do now lay into 
your hands by plain confession. And to the intent this 
whole matter may be conceived in order; and so the better 
understood and remembered, I make therefore all my points 
and articles directly, truly, and resolutely, opening my full 
enterprize and purpose. 

I confess that I am (tho"* unworthy) a priest of the ca-- 
tholick church, and, through the great mercy of God, vowed 
now these eight years to the society of Jesus: and thereby 
have taken upon me a special kind of warfare under the 
banner of obedience, and have resigned all my interest and 
possibility of worldly wealth, honour, and pleasure, and 
other worldly felicity. 

At the voice of our general provost, which is to me a war- 
rant from heaven, and an oracle from Christ, I took my 
voyage from Prague to Rome, where our said father gene- 
ral is always resiant, and from Rome into England ; as I 
must and would have done joyously into any part of Christ- 
endom or heatheness, had I been thereto assigned. 

My charge is, of free cost to preach the gospel, to mi- 
nister the sacraments, to instruct the simple, to reform sin- 
ners, to confute errors ; in brief, to cry alarme spiritually 
against foul vice and proud ignorance, wherewith many my 
poor countrymen be abused. 

I never had mind, and am straitly forbidden by our fa- 
ther that sent me, to deal in any respect with any matter 
of estate or policy of this realm, as those things that ap- 
pertain not to my vocation, and from which I gladly estrange 
and sequester my thoughts. 

I do ascribe to the glory of God, with all humility and 

your correction, three sorts of indifferent and quiet audience. 

1 4 The first before your honours ; wherein I will discourse of 


religion so far forth as it toucheth the commonwealth and BOOK 
your nobilities. The second, whereof I make most account, 
before the doctors and masters of the chosen men of both 
universities; wherein 1 undertake to avow the faith of our 
catholick church by proofs invincible, scriptures, covmcils, 
fathers, histories, natural and moral reason. The third, be- 
fore the lawyers spiritual and temporal; wherein I will jus- 
tify the same faith by common wisdom of law, standing yet 
in force and practice. 

I would be loth to speak any thing that might sound of 
an insolent brag or challenge, especially being now as a dead 
man to the world, and willing to cast my head under every 
man's foot, and kiss the ground they tread upon : yet have 
I such a courage in advancing the majesty of Jesus my 
king, and such affiance in his gracious favour, and such as- 
surance in my quarrel, and my evidence so impregnable ; 
that because I know perfectly, that none of those protest- 
ants, nor all the protestants living, nor any sect of our ad- 
versaries, howsoever they face men down in their pulpits, 
and over-rule us in their kind of grammarians, and un- 
learned sort, can maintain their doctrine in disputation. I 
am most humbly and instantly for the combat with them 
all, or every of them, or the principal that may be found : 
protesting, that in this trial the better furnished they come, 
the better welcome they shall come to me. 

And because it hath pleased God to enrich the queen my 
sovereign lady with notable gifts of nature, learning, and 
princely education, I do verily trust, that if her highness 
would vouchsafe her royal person and good attention to 
such conference as in the second part of my first article I 
have mentioned and requested, or to a few sermons which 
in her and your hearing I am to utter, such a manifest fair 
light, by good method and plain dealing, may be cast upon 
those controversies, that possibly her zeal of truth, and love 
of her people, shall encline her most noble grace to dis- 
favour some proceedings hurtful to the realm, and procure 
towards us opprest more ease. 

Moreover, I doubt not but her noble counsellors, being 


BOOK of such wisdom [and religion, added in another copt/] in 
causes most important, when you shall have heard these 
questions in religion opened faithfully, which many times 
by our adversaries are huddled up and confounded, will see 
upon what substantial grounds our catholick faith is builded, 
and how feeble that side is Avhich by sway of the times pre- 
vaileth against us. 

So at last, for your souls health, and for many thousand 
souls that depend upon your government, will discountenance 
error when it is betrayed, and hearken to those that will 
spend their best blood in their bodies for your salvation. 
Many innocent hands are lift up to heaven for you daily 
and hourly by those English students, whose posterity shall 
not die, which, beyond sea gathering virtue and sufficient 
knowledge for the purpose, are determined never to give 
over, but either to win you to heaven, or die upon your 

As touching our society, be it known unto you, that we 
have made a league, all the Jesuites in the world, whose 
succession and multitude must over-reach all the practices 
of England, chearfully to carry the cross that you shall lay 
upon us, and never to despair your recovery, while we have 
a man left to enjoy your Tyburn, or to be racked with your 
torments, or to be consumed with your poysons. Ex- 
pences are reckoned; the enterprize is begun : it is of God; 
it cannot be withstood. So the faith was planted ; so it 
must be restored. 

If these my offers be refused, and my endeavours can 
take no place, and I having run thousands of miles to do 
you good shall be rewarded with rigor, I have no more to 
say, but to recommend your case and mine to Almighty 
God, the searcher of hearts : who send us of his grace, and 
set us at accord, before the day of payment ; to the end at 
last we may be friends in heaven, where all injuries shall be 


Number VII. BOOK 

A relation of the cruel hurning of Richard Atkins^ an 

Englishman, in Rome : intt into the inquisition for dis- 1 ^ 
turbing the priest carrying the sacrament. 

HE was set upon an ass witliout any saddle, being from Engi. Ro- 
the middle upward naked, having some English priests "J^^" j|;^' 
with him; who talked to him, but he regarded them not, pr. 1590. 
but spake to the people in so good language as he could, 
and told them they were in a wrong way ; and therefore 
willed them, for Clirisfs cause, to have regard to the saving 
of their souls. 

All the way as he went, there were four who did nothing- 
else but thrust at his naked body with burning torches : 
whereat he neither moved nor shrunk one jot, but with a 
cheerful countenance laboured still to persuade the people: 
after, bending his body to meet the torches as they were 
thrust at him, and would take them in his own hand, and 
hold them burning still upon his own body; whereat the 
people not a little wondered. Thus he continued almost the 
space of half a mile, till he came before St. Peters, where 
the place of execution was. 

When he was come to the place of execution, there they 
had made a device not to make the fire about him, but to 
burn his leggs first, which they did, he not dismaying any 
whit, but suffered all marvellous cheerfully; which moved the 
people to such a quandary, as was not in Rome many a 
day. Then they offered to him a cross, and willed him to 
embrace it, in token that he dyed a Christian : but he put 
it away with his hand ; telling them, that they were evil 
men to trouble him with such paltry, when he was preparing 
himself to God, whom he beheld in majesty and mercy, 
ready to receive him into the eternal rest. 

They seeing him still in that mind, departed ; saying. 
Let us go, and leave him to the devil whom lie served. 
Thus ended this faithful soldier and martyr of Christ, who 
is no doubt in glory with his Master. 

This was faithfully avouched by John Young, who was 


BOOK at that time, and a good while after, in Rome, in service 
' with master Dr. Moorton ; who seeing the martyrdom of 
this man, when he came home to his house, in presence of 
Mr. Smithson, Mr. Creed, and the said John Young, his 
servant, spake as followeth : " Surely this fellow was mar- 
" vellous obstinate. He nothing regarded the good counsel 
" was used to him, nor never shrunk all the way, when the 
*' torches were thrust at his naked body. Beside, at the 
" place of execution he did not faint, or cry one jot in the 
" fire, albeit they tormented him very cruelly, and burned 
" him by degrees, as his legs first, to put him to the greater 
" pain ; yet all this he did but smile at. Doubtless, but 
" that the word of God cannot but be true, else we might 
" judge this fellow to be of God : for who could have suf- 
" fered so much pain as he did .'' But truly I believe the 
" devil was in him." 

On which words the writer makes this reflection: Behold, 
good reader, how they doubt among themselves. And be- 
cause they will not speak against their master the pope, 
they inferr the mighty power of God upon the devil. 

iQ Number VIII. 

AcademicB Ox(miensis ad D. Burghleum Epistola gratu- 


MSS. Burg. QUAM sit beata et faslix respub. literaria (lllustriss. do- 
mine) quod te virum prudentia ornatum singulari, et summa 
pra?ditum authoritate, nacta sit patronum et defensorem ; 
testis est, non ilia modo Cantabrigiensis academia, quae in 
tuo patrocinio ct tutela faeliciter acquiescit ; sed et Oxoni- 
ensis nostra, quae nuper e turbulenta tempestate, prospero 
bonitatis tuae flatu cvirsum accclerante, in tranquillitatis por- 
tum devecta est. Nam cum academia nostra nihil habeat 
ad suam dignitatem tuendam, nihil ad pacem earn qua 
Musa3 delcctantur stabihendam utilius, privilcgiis illis au- 
gustissimis ct antiquissimis, quibus eam nobilissimi principcs 
ad religionis, virtutis, bonarumque litcrarum propagatio- 


nem donarunt, anxerunt, exornarunt: quodnam potuit ab BOOK 
honore tuo beneficium in earn majus, aut praestantius con- ' 

ferri, quam ut ope tua, solum ipsa privilegia graviter op- 
pugnata, ab injuria honorificentissime vindicarentur : sed 
etiam ut vicecomes comitatus Oxoniensis, pro eo ac debebat 
et solebat, in eorundem non solum observationem, sed de- 
fenslonem etiam et tutelam, sit semper in posterum juratu- 
rus? Quo sane singulari perpetuoque beneficio, cum satis 
exploratum habeamus, honorem tuum non minus esse de 
academia nostra tuenda studiosum, quam de tua Canta- 
brigiensi ornanda sollicitum, (sic enim non solum reipsa 
:;ognovimus, sed perhonorifico procancellarii nostri sermone 
accepimus) sequum est, ut nos te majori fide, ardentiore 
studio, fideliore observantia, colamus et revereamur; quibus 
naturae tuae bonitate invitatis, tarn benigne consulas ; quam 
illis, quos suscepti muneris ratione adductus, amplecteris. 
Quare gratias habemus honori tuo et humillimas, et pluri- 
mas, et maximas, quod nobis studiisque nostris tarn honori- 
fice prospexeris ; sanctissimeque pollicemur, nunquam nos 
ne Cantabrigiensibus quidem tuis, in te colendo, honorando, 
suspiciendo, et omni officii genere tibi satisfacicndo ulla re, 
ullo tempore concessuros. Deus Opt. Max. qui te ad am- 
plissimvmi honoris gradum evexit, et in excelso loco collo- 
cavit, ut gravissimorum negotiorum pondus et onus susti- 
neres, ab omni periculo incolumem te conservet, novisque 
indies honoribus cumulet, ut tuo consilio et auxilio non 
solum academiae magis magisque floreant ; sed politia etiam 
hujus regni, et ecclesia Dei, novis quotidie faelicitatis acces- 
sionibus augeantur. Oxon. 5° cal. Julii, 1581. 
lUustriss. viro D. Guil. Amplitudini tu.-e deditissima, 

Burghleio summo An- Academia Oxomensis. 

gliae thesaurario, et aca- 

deinise Cantabrigiensis 

I'ancellario dignissimo. 


^«j^K Number IX. 

— Exemplum chartce an. 29. Edxcardi Tertli. Pro jiiramento 
vicecomitis. Touching the university of Oxon. 

Ex rotulo cartarum de anno vicessimo nono regni regis 
Edwardi Tertii. Pro cancellar. et scholaribus, Oxon. 
ITEM, ad majorem securitatem et quietem studentium 
in universitate predicta pro perpetuo ordinamus et concedi- 
mus, pro nobis et heredibus nostris, quod quihbet vicccomcs 
Oxon. qui pro tempore erit in receptione commissionis sue, 
juramentum prestet corporale, quod magistros et scholares 
universitatis Oxon. et eorum servientes, pro viribus ab in- 
Ijrjuriis et violenciis proteget et defendet, et pacem in univer- 
sitate predicta quantum in ipso est, faciet conservari, pras- 
fatisque cancellario et scholaribus, ad puniend. perturbato- 
res pacis ibm. juxta privilegia et statuta universitatis pre- 
dicta, semper cum opvis fuerit, prestabit consilium et juva- 
men, et ad privilegia, libertates, et consuetudines diet, uni- 
versitatis defendend. pro viribus opem feret. Et quod a 
vicecomite suo, et aliis ministris suis in com. predicto statim 
cum post susceptum officium ad castrum vel villam Oxon. 
declinaverit in presentia alicujus ex parte universitatis ad 
hoe deputandi consimiliter recipiet juramentvnn, ad quod 
ipsos ministros per eundem vicecomitem compelli volumus 
et arctari. 

Hanc etiam fonnam jurandi volumus exnunc addi formaD 
juramenti vie. dicti loci in receptione commissionis suae pre- 
stari consueti. Ceterum quia super penis pro securiori con- 
servatione pacis ipsius universitatis statuend. ac super aliis 
quae juxta submissiones predictas ad perpetuam praemisso- 
rum memoriam pie per Dei gratiam facere proponimus jam 
ordinare non possumus, variis et arduis negotiis prepediti, 
ordinationem hujusmodi nobis specialiter reservamvis. His 
testibus venerabilibus patribus, Johanne archiepiscopo Ebor. 
Angliae primate, cancellario nostro Willielmo Winton. epi- 
scopo, thesaurario nostro, magistro Miche de Northburgh 
electo London confirmato, Henrico duce Lancastr. Williel- 
mo de Bohun Northampton. Richardo Arundel, Thma de 



Bello campo Warr. Rogero Marsh, Willielmo Sarum, Jo- 
hanne de Vere, Oxon. comitibus, Galfrido de Saye, et Jo- 
hanne de Greye, de Rotherfeild, senescallo hospitii nostri, et 
aliis, dat. per manum nostram apud Turrim London, vices- 
simo septimo die Junii, anno regni nostri Angliae vicessimo 
none, regni vero nostri Franciae decimo sexto. 

Per ipsum regem. 


Number X. 
Sales of Edward earl of Oxford. And names of the pur- 

chasers. And his debts to the queen. 




Mr. Skinner. 

Mr. Glas- 

Irael Amys. 

Mr. Hub- 

Lands. Purchase?-. 

Bumsted, alias \ Will. Stib- 
Bunsted Helion J bing. 
Over Geld am 
Nether Geldam 
Little Geldam, 

alias Y eld am 
Yeldam hall 
Brownes barn 
Pool farm 
Bovelay farm, 

and Bennets 











New-years farm 




Stansted Mont 

Bury Lodge 
Benfield Bury 

All these lands and manours the lord treasurer gave war- 
rant for the extending them, July the 23, 1590. 

Where the park and manour of Lanham was let for 100 
marks per annum. 

The manour of Fulmer, forty pounds per annum. 

The manour of Camps, an hundred pounds per annum. 18 
Whereof Mr. Skinner was rated at four hundred pounds for 
his share. 

Debts to the queen. Forfeitures, 

In the court of wards 11000/. that is, 


BOOK Forfeiture of covenants upon tlie livery, 4000Z. 


Upon his wardship, 3000/. 
And other obhgations, 4000/. odd hundred 
shillings more. 
All this appeared on record. 
More, sold to Roger Herlakendon, 

Coin Park, and a parcel of meddow, for 2000/. 
The manour of Earls Coin, for 500/. 
Coin Priory also. 

Number XI. 

Thomas Sampsoiis account of the convcj-sion, and divers 

historical remarks of the holy life of J. Bradfjrd, martyr. 

I, WHICH did know him familiarly, must needs give to 

God this praise for him ; that among men I have scarce 

Preface to known one like unto him. I did know when, and partly 

Sermon of how, it pleased God, by effectual calling, to turn his heart 

Repent- uuto the true knowledffe and obedience of the most holy 


gospel. Of which God did give him such a heavenly hold 
and lively feeling, that as he did then know that many sins 
were forgiven him, so surely he declared by deeds that he 
loved much. For where he had both gifts and callings to 
have employed himself in civil and worldly affairs profitably, 
such was his love of Christ, and zele to the promoting his 
glorious gospel, that he changed not only the course of his 
former life, as even his former study. 

Touching the first : After that God touched his heart 
with that holy and effectual calling, he sold his rings, 
chains, brockets, and jewels of gold, which before he used 
to wear, and did bestow the price of this his former vanity 
in the necessary relief of Christ's poor members which lie 
could hear of, or find lying sick, or pining in poverty. 

Touching the second : He so declared his great zele and 
love to promote the glory of the Lord Jesus, whose goodness 
and saving health he had tasted, that to do the same more 
pithily, he changed his study of the common laws: he went 


to Cambridge to study divinity, where he heard Dr. Martin BOOK 
Bucer diligently, and was right familiar and dear unto him. ^' 
In this godly course he did by God's blessing so profit, that 
the blessed martyr Dr. Ridley, then bishop of London, did 
as it were invite him and his godly companion, Mr. Thomas 
Horton, to become fellows of Pembroke hall in Cambridge. 
And after, the said Dr. Ridley called our Bradford to Lon- 
don, to give him a prebend in Paul's church, lodged him in 
his own house there, and set him on work preaching. And 
besides, after preaching in London, and Paul's Cross, and 
sundry places in the country, and especially in Lancashire, 
[being a native of Manchester in that county,] he preached 
before king Edward VI. in the Lent, in the last year of his 
reign, upon the second Psalm. And there in one sermon 
shewing the tokens of God's judgment at hand, for the con- 
tempt of the gospel : as that certain gentlemen upon the 
sabbath day going in a wherry to Paris-garden, to a bear 
baiting, were drowned : and a dog was met at Ludgate, 
carrying a piece of a dead child in his mouth : he with a 
mighty and prophetical spirit said, / summon you all^ even 
every mother's child of you, to the judgment of God^Jhr it\^ 
is at hand. So it followed shortly after, in the death of 
king Edward. In which state and labour of preaching he 
continued, till the cruelty of the papists cut him off: as thou 
mayst read in the history of his life and death, by that 
faithful servant of the Lord Jesus, Mr. John Fox. 

Indeed he had many pullbacks; but God still helped for- 
ward his chosen servant in that trade of life to which he had 
called him. In which he ran forward so happily, that he 
outrun me and others his companions. For it pleased God 
with great speed to make him ready and ripe to martyr- 
dom. But in all stops and. stays he was mightily helped 

forward by a continual meditation and pi'actice of repent- 
ance and faith in Christ, in which he was kept, by God's 
grace, notably exercised all the days of his life. 

Even in this mean time he heard a sermon, which the 
notable preacher, Mr. Latymer, made before king Edward 



BOOK VI. in which he did earnestly speak of restitution to be 
' made of tilings falsely gotten : which did so strike Bradford 
to the heart, for one dash with a pen which he had made, 
without the knowledge of his master, (as full often I have 
heard him confess, with plenty of tears,) being clerk to the 
treasurer of the king''s camp beyond the seas, and was to 
the deceiving of the king, that he could never be quiet, till, 
by the advice of the same Mr. Latymer, a restitution was 
made. Which thing to bring to pass, he did willingly for- 
bear and forgo all that private and sorry patrimony which 
he had on earth. Let all bribers and poling officers, which 
get to themselves great revenues in earth by such slippery 
shifts, follow this example; least in taking a contrary course, 
they take a contrary way, and never come where Bradford 
now is. 

But besides this, Bradford had his daily exercises and 
practices of repentance. His manner was, to make to him- 
self a catalogue of all the grossest and most enorme sins 
which in his life of ignorance he had committed, and to lay 
the same before his eyes when he went to private prayer ; 
that, by the sight and remembrance of them, he might be 
stirred up to offer to God the sacrifice of a contrite heart, 
seek assurance of salvation in and by faith, thank God for 
his calling from the ways of wickedness, and pray for en- 
crease of grace to be conducted in holy life, acceptable and 
pleasing to God. Such a continual exercise of conscience he 
had in private prayer, that he did not count liimself to have 
prayed to his contentation, unless in it he had felt inwardly 
some smiting of heart for sin, and some healing of that 
wound by faith ; feeling the saving health of Christ, with 
some change of mind into the detestation of sin, and love of 

obeying the good will of God as appeared by this : he 

vised in the morning to go to the common prayer of the col- 
lege where he was ; and after that, he used to make some 
prayers with his pupils in his chamber : but not content 
with this, he then repaired to his own secret prayers, and 
exercised in prayer by himself, as one that had not yet 


prayed to his own mind: for he was wont to say to his fa- BOOK 
mihars, / have prayed with my pupils, but I have not yet ^' 
prayed with myself. 

Another of his exercises was this : he used to make unto 
himself an ephemeris, or a journal, in which he used to 
write all such notable things as either he did see or hear 
each day that past. But whatsoever he did hear or see, he 
did so pen it, that a man might see in that book the signs 
of his smitten heart. For if he did see or hear any good in 
any man, by that sight he found, and noted the want thereof 
in himself; and added a short prayer, craving mercy, and 
grace to amend. If he did hear or see any plague or mi- 
sery, he noted it as a thing procured by his own sins ; and 
still added, Domine, miserere met. He used in the same 
book to note such evil thoughts as did arise in him, as of 
envying the good of other men ; thoughts of unthankful- 
ness ; of not considering God in his works ; of hardness and 
unsensibleness of heart, when he did see other men moved 
and affected. And thus he made to himself, and of himself, 
a book of daily practices of repentance. 

Besides this, they that were familiar with him might see 20 
how he, being in their company, used to fall often into a 
sudden and deep meditation ; in which he would sit with 
fixed countenance, and spirit moved, yet speaking nothing 
for a good space. And sometime, in this silent sitting, 
plenty of tears would trickle down his cheeks. Sometime 
he would sit in it, and come out of it with a smiUno- coun- 
tenance. Oftentimes I have sitten at dinner and supper 
with him in the house of that good harbourer of many 
preachers and servants of the Lord Jesus, Mr. Elsing; 
when either by occasion of talk had, or some view of bene- 
fits present, or some inward cogitations, and those of his 
own, he had fallen into these deep cogitations. And he 
would tell me in the end such discourses of them, that I 
did perceive, that sometimes his tears trickled out of his 
eyes, as well for joy as for sorrow. 

In all companies where he did come, he would freely re- 
buke any sin and misbehaviour which appeared in any per- 

o 2 


BOOK son; especially swearers, filthy talkers, and popish praters. 
^' Such never departed out of his company unreproved. And 
this he did with such a divine grace and Christian majesty, 
that ever he stopt the mouths of the gainsayers. For he 
spake with power: and yet so sweetly, that they might see 
their evil to be evil and hurtful unto them ; and under- 
stand that it was good indeed, to that which he laboured to 
draw them in to God. 

Number XII. 
A copy of verses, set before a hook of Martial Discipline; 
exciting the nation to exercise armes ; considering the 
present dangers from Joreign enemies. By the author, 
T. Styward, generos. 

AS wisdonie wills us to regard what plagues in time do huj) 

On such as seek for to be rockt always in pleasures lap : 

And neighbours harms bid us take heed, all perils to prevent; 

Lest careless sleep do dangers bring, and then too late repent. 

So, England, take thou heed in time, lest thou too soon do rue 

The wicked harms devis'd by foes ; which shortlie may ensue : 

If that regard of martial laws be had no more in price. 

And souldiers lore despised thus amongst the grave and wise. 

Behold! how foreigns are abus'd, that scorn'd this martial law; 

And are by warlike wights opprest, and brought to live in awe. 

Their goods, their wives, their virgins fair, arc spoil'd and brought 

to thrall : 

Misus'd before their parents face : such is their grievious fill. 

('ast ofl' therefore your sluggish life ; call home your hearts agen : 

Let Venus pass; despise her laws: live now like valiant men, 

As iieretofore your fathers did : whose acts each where did flow : 

From east to west, from north to south, as stories plainly show. 

Two books I have therefore set forth, to shew thee how to traine. 

To march, encampe, and battles jnake, with tables very plaine ; 

Which the' they be not as I wish, accept them as they are : 

» Viz. The ^,^ J |.j,Qj, shall profit reap thereby, of policies of war, 

whose say- Whereby to shun the slights of foes ; who hope but for a day', 

iiig that por i(j pervert this quiet state, if possible they may. 


Regard therefore your countrie soil, your parents and your wives, BOOK 
Your children and your lands and rents; seek to defend your lives. ' 

And leave off pride and lustiness, your great and much excess, 
Your deintie fare, your costlie raie, your carpet wantonness. 
Prepare you horse and lance to field ; for now the time is come : 
Take pike and sword in hand again: list now to sound of dnun. 
Hark, how the trumpet warning gives, to haste us to the wars, 21 
That we our British soyle may keep from death and bloody jarrs. 
In haste prepare, ye English hearts, to tread this path aright; 
Which doth instruct a ready way to put our foes to flight. 
Thus shall we do our country good, and please the mighty God, 
Who hath, and will preserve us still from scourge of mighty rod. 
The zeal I owe to native soile, hath forct my simple hand. 
To publish this my slender skill, our enemies to withstand. 
Not seeking praise for any thing, nor yet aspecting gaines ; 
I crave in lieu of my good will, thy favour for my pains. 
Virtus vulnere vivit. 

T. S. 

Number XIII. 
Theodore Beza to the lord Burghley: presenting him with 
an ancient Pentateuch in six languages^ towards the fur- 
nishing of the new library in Cambridge. 

Illustri domino, domino Gulielmo Ccecilio baroni a Bur- 
ley, summo Anglice thesau/rario, domino mihi summe 

SIQUID pecco, illustris mi domine, amplitudinem tuani 
interpellans, teipsum pa^ne accuses oportet, cui pietas ct do- 
ctrina caeteraeque virtutes tantum in me salutandi tui desi- 
derium jampridem accenderunt, ut accedente praesertim le- 
etissimi juvenis, et vera lyyjvouf re h«» s^o^oo affinis tui do- 
mini Antonii Baconi, cohortatione continere id amplius non 
potuerim. Accedo vero ad tc, occasione fretus, quam tibi 
injucundam non fore confido. Nactus nimirum quinque 
Mosis librorum exemplar, si ve Constantina^ in Africa, sive 
Constantinopoli, a multis jam annis excusum. Quod mihi 
liceat e^ayKai(r<rov, Arabica lingua nimirum, Persica, Graeca 



BOOK barbara, et Hispanica vetere, in usum Judaicarum syna- 
' gogarum, supra Haebraicam etChaldaicam editum, appellare. 
. Quod propter raritatem, et vetustam, ut ita loqaar, novitatem, 
quam dignum mihi consecratione quadam videretur, tuae 
potissimum amplitudini mittendam existimavi. Quod pras- 
sertim intelligam dignissimum sapientia praestantiaque tua 
monumentum, id est, instructissimam bibliothecam abs te in 
inclyta Cantabrigiensi academia, cui summa tibi procuratio 
commissa est, apparari. 

Peto igitur abs te, illustris mi domine, ut et audaciam 
banc meam aequi bonique consulas, et istud qualecunque 
summae in te observantiae testimonium ac pignus non in- 
vitus accipias. Quod si abs te impetraro, singulari beneficio 
me abs te affectum existimabo : bene vale. Dominus Jesus 
magis ac magis tibi sanctisque consiliis tuis benedicat, teque 
quam diutissime suis ecclesiis incolumem servet. Genevae, 
viii. idus Decembris anno Dom. cioijlxxxi. 

Illustri amplitudini tuae addictissimus, 
Theodorus Beza, 

22 Number XIV. 

Beza to the lord treasurer Burghley : moving him to pro- 
cure the j^rinting- of that ancient hexaglot translation of 
the Pentateuch, likely to prove so highly useful to the 
Christian world. 

Gratiam et paccm a Domino. 

Epist. doc- SPERO ad te pervenisse, illustris mi domine, Mosis illud 

tor Pere- q^gd vocant 7revTa/3i/3Xov maxime peregrinis linguis aliquot 

nie. expressum. Quod munusculum utinam tuae amplitudini 

tam gratum fuisse intelligam, quam est a me tibi prompta 

obnixaque voluntate missum ; ut hoc quoque sacrae bibli- 

othecae illi tuae, quasi augustissimo templo, consecraretur. 

Quod si tibi quoque in mentem veniret, mi domine, ut ilia 

saltem Persica ct Arabica, et Gra^ca vulgaris, versibus ad- 

jcctis Hebraeis, incuteretur (quod non ita magno sumptu 

Plantinus Antvcrpius confecerit) tibi persuasimi esse velim, 

earn editioncm et rcipub. Christianse utilitatem maximam, 


et tibi prlvatim, immortalem celebritatem nomini conciliatu- BOOK 
ram. Qua de re, ut cogites-ne graveris, etiam atque etiam 
te rogo, &c. Genevse, 10. Octob. 1582. 


Number XV. 

Beza to the lord treasurer Burghley : tojavour the request 

of the council of Geneva for a loan of money in their ijre- 

sent distress, by the means of the duke of Savoy. 
Gratiam et pacem a Domino. 

ILLUSTRIS mi domine Quiddam mihi, ilia MSS. Burg. 

tua quae ab omnibus etiam externis certatim prsedicatur, 
benignitate freto, amplitudinis nunc interpellandae tuag oc- 
casionem praebuit: quod etsi minus verecunde factum videri 
potest, tamen partim aequitas ilia tua, partim ipsa, ut spe- 
rem, necessitas facile excusabit. 

Quibus insidiis teutata, quibus viribus impetita, quam ad- 
mirabiliter a Deo liberata haec civitas Genevensis hoc anno 
fuerit, istuc renuntiatum fuisse non dubito. Quae sit autem 
istius urbis situs opportunitas ab evangelii hostibus avidis- 
sime expetita (haec enim certe, quicquid in contrarium prae- 
texatur, alios habet hostes, quam qui evangelio bellum 
atmovlov indixerunt :) quantum denique in hujus urbis sit 
positum, satis etiam tibi perspectum esse puto. In hoc qui- 
dem certe rerum statu, quamdiu istud Helveticarum eccle- 
siarum propugnaculum et Gallicarum opportunissimum per- 
fugium stabit, pontificii de concilii Tridentini, sive in Gal- 
lia, sive in his regionibus, executione, (qui verus est omnium 
istarum molitionum scopus) desperabunt. Nee, ut spero, 
nobis a tergo relictis, quicquam aperte, nisi forte Belgia 
(quod Dominus avertat) ab ipsis perdomita, trans mare ag- 

Amabo igitur, illustris mi domine, civitatis et ecclesiae, 
non male de caeteris meritae, et vestrae quoque aliquando 
gentis hospitae, causam in te agendam recipe : i. e. hoc illi 
praesta, ut in summa rei nummariae difficultate versanti, et 
maximam hostium impressionem expectanti, sese, qua pol- 
les, apud serenissimam regiam majestatem authoritate adju- 
tam fuisse, sentiat. 


BOOK Meniini quidefti ego aliquando audire istuc renuntiatum, 
' Genevan! esse quorundam improborum receptaculum. Qxias 
quum impudens sit calumnia, (quam sit sub ca^lo civitas in 
23 qua accuratiore cum examine peregrini recipiantur, vel jus 
severius dicatur) vestrates omnium ordinum homines, qui 
banc rempublicam et scholam praesentia sua cobonestarunt, 
testes appello. Memini quoque infebcibus iUie Marianis 
temporibus editum bic bbellum a peregrino quodam ve- 
stratc, qui postea serenissimam pientissimas reginae maje- 
statem offenderit. Sed cum Hbellum simul atque innotuit, 
et bujus ecclesiae judicio, et nostri magistratus autboritate, 
damnatum et suppressum fuisse constat. Ilia denique non- 
nuUa rituum aiiatpogcav diversitas, atque adeo nostrarum in 
ecclesiastica constituenda gubernationc sententiarum repu- 
gnantia, absit, ut animos in ipsius doctrina? consensu plane 
consentientes, scindat ; neque obscurum esse amplitudini 
tuae potest, quam de rebus istis moderate semper et locuti 
simus et scripserimus rogati. 

Quaeso rursum igitur, illustris mi domine, ut siquid for- 
tassis istorum animo tuo insidebit, illud totum seponas, et 
non indignam esse patrocinio tuo cam rempublicam existi- 
mes : in qua conservata merito non unum oppidulum, sed 
Christianas omnes, et Gallicas et Sabaudicas, ecclesias tibi 
maximo beneficio devinxeris. Quod quum te, perspcctis 
istis, ultro facturum mihi pollicear, non committam, ut ac- 
curatiore utens commendatione, videar de optima voluntate 
tua dubitasse. Bene vale, illustris mi domine, Dominus 
Jesus, Deus ille et Servator noster, exauditis suorum gemiti- 
bus, rabiem Sathanae compescat; ecclesias suas adversus 
exteros ac domesticos omnes hostes, quam potentissime tuc- 
atur; amplitudinem tuam magis ac magis donis omnibus cu- 
mulatam, quam diutissime conservet. Genevae, 10. Octobr. 

Illustri amplitudini tuae addictissimus, 

Quod alterius nunc manu ad te Theodorus Beza. 

scribam, rogo te, mi domine, 
ut tremzdcE nunc mecE et va- 
cdlanti adscribas. 


Number XVI. B^^^f^K 

The syndics and council of Geneva to the lord treasuret 

Burghlcif : to promote their suit to the queen for a loan 
of money. Sent by Maillet, their messenger. 

A monsieur^ monsieur le baron Bourgley, grand trezorier 

CEST une chose ordinaire, que ceux, qui sont en neces-MSs. Bmg. 
sit^ cherchent quelque soulaigement et assistance vers ceux, 
aus quelz Dieu a donn^ plus de moyens et comniodites. Ce 
que nous disons, monsieur, dautant que vous aurez entendu 
les grandz maux et calamites, ovi nous avons este reduitz 
depuys huiet moys en ca : ayans est^ primierement assailis 
par entreprises couvertes par monsieur le due de Savoye, 
incite par les enemis de nostre religion. Puys apres ou- 
vertement ayant son armee campe au tour de nous lespace 
d"'environ cinque moys. Et jacois, que Dieu nous ayt pre- 
serves de ce mau, de nos enemis. Nous avons toute fois 
souffert de grandes incommoditez en nos biens, le plat pays 
estant gaste et destruict oultre la despense excessive, et sur- 
montant nos moyens, que nous avons este contrains sup- 
porter pour nostre conservation. 

Deux choses neantmoigns nous consolent. En primier 
lieu, que nous scavons; que nous sommes assaillis et per- 
secutes a tort, et plus tost en haine de la religion, dont nous 
faisons profession, que non pas, qu'on nous puisse alleguer, 
que nous detenions les autres. Et dWtre part Dieu nous 
a tellement favorises, que plusieurs amys se sont presentes ; 
et mesme employes pour nostre seccours ; cognoissans bien 
Tequite de nostre cause. 

Nous avons toute fois est6 reduicts en grande necessity a 24 
cause de nos petis moyens; tellement que nous pourrions 
difficilement resister a un second effort (dont toutefois nous 
sommes encore-menaces) sans Taide et secours des plus puis- 
sans. Ce qui nous fait passer par dessus la consideration, 
qui nous pourroit autrement arrester cognoissant nostre pc- 
titesse pour nous addresser a la majeste de la royne, la sup- 


BOOK pliant de nous vouloir soulager en nostre necessity et nous 
eslargir de grandz moyens, que Dieu luy a donnee en abon- 
dances, en accommodant nostre publique de quelque prest 
denlers, permettant aussi sil se trouve de particuliers, qui 
veuillent user de liberalite enver nous, il leur soit permis 
soubs sa bonne volonte. 

Et daut-ant, monsieur, que Tacces, que vous av^s a sa 
majeste nous pent grandement servir, en cette affaire, ayans 
aussi est^ assures de Taffection que vous portez generalli- 
ment a ceux qui souffrent a tort, et en particulier que vous 
estes desplaisant de nos afflictions ; nous nous addressons a 
vous pour vous prier dVnnployer vostre credit envers sa ma- 
jeste, a ce que nous puissions obtenir ce dont nous la requi- 
rons tres humblement. En quoy faisant, monsieur, vous 
vous obligeres de plus en plus une ville de Geneve, laquelle 
taschera de conserver la raeraoire d'un tel bienfaict, et la 
perpetuer a ceux qui viendront apres nous. 

Aurest, le seigneur Maillet, nostre citoyen et conseillier 
€n nostre grand conseil, qui nous envoyens express par de 
la, vous fera entendre au long Testat de nos affaires, si vous 
plaist en estre inform*^ par le menu. 

Monsieur, apres vous avoir presente nos affectuenses re- 
commendations, nous prions Dieu, quil vous accroisse de 
plus en plus ses dons et graces, et vous face jouir de longue 
et hevu-euse vie soubs sa saincte garde et protection. Ce 
septiesme Octobre, 1582. 

Number XVII. 
The answer of Dr. Beacon to the three reasons propounded 
by the bishop of Coventry and Litchjield, why he should 
not be chancellor of that diocese. 

See the bishop'^s reasons in the book, chap. ix. The answer 
MSS.epi- TO the first, B. [Dr. Beacon] doth still hold the right 
^^^^f'''^'''^' of the patent [for the chancellorship] good, even as the bi- 
shop himself sets down the case; although touching B's 


procurement of the condition is not truth. 2. As for the late BOOK 
pretended forfeiture of Non user, besides that it standeth ' 

not with the gravity, conscience, and profession of a bishop, 
it was directly contrary to his lordship''s faithful promise 
made to the master of the Rolls ; at whose earnest request, 
upon the first riot committed. Dr. B. yielded to forbear: 
the rather, for that as well his lordship as the master of the 
rolls did assure Dr. B''s security of Non user, until further 
order taken. 3. To take so nice advantage, when the pa- 
tentees, by order of that most hono\irable table, were neces- 
sarily to attend, wanteth judgment to consider with whom 
his lordship doth dally, and argueth small consideration of 
their most honourable care to supply his lordship's former 
oversight and defect, for the publick good and peace of his 
church ; even amidst their great and weightier affairs, to 
the bishop's comfort and credit : if God's judgments do not 
still blind his lordship's eyes. 4. The bishop hath in all 
these devices rather encumbred and entangled himself, and 
bewrayed his unconcionable desire to supplant the patent, 
than obtained his purpose. Whereupon Dr. B. will stand 
under indifferent hearing and judgment of law. What those 
publick instruments are, and how authentical, upon the 
sight and scanning, will plainly appear. Whereunto Dr. B. 
referreth himself. 

To the second ; The patent remaining good and sound 25 
for his sufficiency in skill oflaxc, it is either more than the 
bishop's hard opinion and judgment can disgrace, with the 
testimony of the university, and the best learned of that 
profession, and his former services in other places do afford 
him : or else, but his own avouching it cannot receive fur- 
ther credit. Would to God, both the bishop and every man 
else were groundly furnished according to the profession of 
their calling. But thus much Dr. B. may truly say with- 
out offence ; he dispatched one hundred sentences, without 
reversing, before his lordship was towards his bishoprick. 
And thus not altogether so rude a chancellor. 

Touching B's corruption, and hunting cvfter bribes, 
whereby justice may be perverted ; if his lordship mean 


BOOK since 1 was his officer, I answer, I never yet was suffered 
' to intermeddle with his jurisdiction. And therefore need 
no further tryal. If his lordship mean in Norfolk and Sus- 
sex ; to his lordship"'s general plea, I can shew so sufficient 
a discharge for both, as that he could do me no greater 
pleasure, than bring me into question. And to any parti- 
culars his son in law, or others, have lately hunted out, I 
am most ready and desirous to answer. 

The favouring of such as are enemies to the queen's pro- 
ceedings, when other slanders will take no hold, is com- 
monly informed against the best subjects, and lovers of the 
gospel, by the professed enemy, and fained friend. Dr. B. 
thus answereth for himself to this point ; That he did al- 
ways, according to his duty, execute her majesty's laws : 
making yet, in discretion, much difference between the ene- 
my and friend to her majesty's estate, so far as it pleased 
God to give him grace. As for Marberie, B. never knew 
the man, before the very day he was convented before his 
lordship at Litchfield, nor saw him since. And although 
his lordship, upon long and publick conference before many, 
grew into so great liking of Marberie's answers to all points 
then moved, that he not only offered him his license to 
preach within his diocese, but also wished him S. Michaels 
in Coventry : promising him to certify the lords of the 
council of his well satisfying his lordship in those points 
whereof he was unjustly charged. Yet B. in love and de- 
sire the man's gifts might be profitable to the church of 
God, so prest him in reasoning, that his dearest friends, 
there present, and hearing, thought well of his lordship, 
were greatly in dislike of Dr. B. And therefore in publick 
assembly at home to seem so plausible, and so bitterly se- 
vere here, is scarce answerable to the soimd, constant reso- 
lution of a bishop : and to charge a man so heinously now 
of so dangerous matters, whom his lordship in publick au- 
dience did so greatly comfort then, (the time being one and 
the same,) savoureth not of that Christianity whereof bishops 
should be fathers and nurses; especially when it tendeth 
to the unjust accusation and prejudice of another. 


To the third; B. is the bishop's deadlij enemy. And BOOK 
therefore, though he had right, and were fit, yet not to be ^' 
trusted. For B. defaceth the bishop in every place. Where 
manifest wants and blemishes in private dealings and pub- 
lick government do proclaim open discredit, there a man 
may lament, cannot deface. B. calleth the hishop beast. 
What beast (but that the judgments of God are above rea- 
son, in besotting mens understanding and senses sometimes) 
would call an honest gentlewomans good name in question, 
who throughout her whole life was never noted with any 
suspicion of lightness ; bewraying thereby a bitter desire of 
revenge, and a foul corruption and usage of a sensual man ? 
And although his lordship"'s letters, written unto her with 
his own hand, April 15, 1580, to Lewys, [a town in Sus- 
sex,] doth apparently justify the oath so solemnly, with 
such execrations before the lords denied, yet what is scelus 
sceleri addere, if this be not, to recompence so great an un- 
truth with so heinous a slander? Otherwise, perjured men, 
knaves, horeson knaves, are not to be justified. 

If his lordship hath simoiiiacally laid hands upon mini- 26 
sters ; or by excessive encroaching, where law directeth 
service, (gratis,) be culpable ; it is his lordship's guilt, not 
mine accusation. If his lordship's own folly and conscience 
burst not forth to his further condemnation, I charge him 
not. It is happy the pretended conspiracy was the very 
next day, with all their circumstances, committed to writ- 
ing : when his lordship, by the humble and dutiful letters 
of the dean and chapter, was jointly beseeched to conference 
touching such untrue suggestions, informed his lordship for 
that timely satisfaction. Which was by hard and sharp 
letters uncliristianly refused. At which I said thus much 
only, by occasion of his manifold vexations and deprivations 
of my self, and a great many more intended ; " If her ma- 
" jesty's hand were as readily to be obtained, as the hand 
" and seal of ordinary patrons, it might, by the bishop's 
" title, fall out as doubtful as his lordship made many poor 
" men's." The very next morning the bishop himself pub- 
lishing to Dr. Bickley and others a surmised effect [defect] 


BOOK in his election, whereby he might be avoided from his bi- 
■shoprick. When liis lordship please to set down the parti- 
cular devices to intrap him within danger of law, I will an- 
swer a truth. 

B. in his own defence at the council table justified the 
great disorders committed, in making such a rabble of most 
disorderly ministers, contrary to all God's [word] forbid ; 
and his lordship's publick advertisements, with such exac- 
tions as were strange and slanderous throughout the whole 
diocese. For reformation whereof, he divers times before, 
by letters and otherwise, had humbly beseeched his lord- 
ship in vain. When his lordship first provoked the dean 
of Litchfield by foul accusations at the council table, what 
time I discontinued one whole year out of the country, wise 
men may easily consider what moved Mr. Dean to take the 
course he did. If his lordship term the dean and chapter 
his enemies, and reckoneth my poor advice to avoid the 
first encounter with them for a money-niatter, both by 
words and letters joyning with them, I hope his lordship, 
now finding the truth by experience, will alter his opinion. 

13. thinketh, as Tully saith, Chari amid^ chari propin- 
qui ; sed omncs omnium chaj-itate, una patria, et ecclesia 
Christi, complexa est. A bishop, in watching and prayer, 
in preaching and zele, in comforting the good, and discou- 
raging the enemy, going before in a painful streight course ; 
I account him a treacherous and perfidious varlet, that will 
not with all faithful heart and service attend him. If his 
case be contrary, in ambition, vanity, covetousness, &c. 
whereby he becometh a step-father to the church of God ; 
I hold it ever a most perfidious treachery, both to God and 
the party, to sooth and follow his hinnour. God must 
judge every mans heart. I thank God for that portion of 
his favour and blessing, that my services have not been al- 
together unprofitable to his church : and the better sort 
have received some comfort and liking of them. Now how 
B. is to be trusted with publick government, his lordship is 
scarce an indifferent judge. 

Men commonlv lie rebuked in (lie cradle of security. 



when they may do what they Hst without espial or controul- BOOK 
ment. An enemy maketh more upright, watchful, and cir- 
cumspect dealing. The trust that is required in a publick 
person is, so to dispose his government, tit nulla alia po~ 
testas ab Us quihus prceest, desideretur. 

To understand more particidars of this controversy be- 
tween the bishop and Beacon, who sided with the dean and 
chapter against the bishop, see the Life qf Archbishop Whit- 
gift , book ii. chap. 3. 

Number XVIII. 27 

The complaints qf the bishop qf Coventry and Litchfield, 
concerning the hard dealings zoith him; the earl qf 
Leicester his adversary : in a letter to the lord trea- 

I HUMBLY beseech your honour to give me leave a little Literae 
to lay forth unto you the manifold griefs and oppressions that pene" a, 
are sought and brought upon me by my adversaries, and 
to crave help at your honour's hands for an end to be had 
therein, if by any good means you may work it. My lord 
of Leicester, for what cause I know not, except for apo- 
stacie, (wherewith both by his letters and speeches he hath 
divers times charged me very sore,) hath given, and doth 
still give, great countenance to those that work me all my 
sorrow ; a nobleman, as your lordship knoweth, far above 
my power and ability to withstand. And therefore like 
sure to undoe me, if he will ; if I should hold out, and 
have no stay. How his lordship made himself a party 
against me, in Mr. Boughton''s case, openly before you all 
at the council table, when I first complained of him, your 
lordship, and the rest of that honourable table, cannot but 
remember. Since which time Mr. Boughton hath been so 
emboldened, that he careth not what suits he attempteth 
against me, nor what trouble and charge he putteth me to, 
to consume me. It is not enough for him to toss and tum- 


BOOK hie me at quarter sessions and assizes in the country, and 
' prefer bills against me in the star chamber, to my great 
vexation and discredit ; but also he doth persecute me with 
actions of the cause in the court of common pleas, taking 
the ground of all out of my letters to my lord of Leicester : 
and that grieves me most of all, mine own counsil, for fear 
of displeasure, scarce dare encounter him in my causes ; so 
that almost, I may say, I am denied that which every com- 
mon subject may claim, the course of justice, and benefit 
of her majesty ''s laws. I speak it with grief ; I receive in- 
juries, and yet dare not complain, for fear of the exaspera- 
tion of mens minds, and mine own further trouble. 

Besides Mr. Boughton, Mr. Beacon also, who before 
feared me, doth now triumph over me ; and upon the jol- 
lity that he hath conceived by the countenance of such as 
have set him on, maketh bold to sue and trouble me every 
where at his pleasure : in the star chamber, in the chan- 
cery, at the council table, before the archbishop of Canter- 
bury, in the common place, at assizes and sessions in the 
country, yea, and in my own consistory, in my own house ; 
and is not afraid to bring action upon action against me 
almost for every thing that I do, and for every word that I 
speak: such a glory he is in by the disgraces which he seeth 
are offered unto me by his friends ; and yet his friends but 
for this time, only to displease me by him. 

The lord Paget also, and his confederates, are not idle, 
but attempt most unjust suits and indictments against me 
and mine. Every clergyman almost that I deal withal in 
the way of justice is ready to quarrel with me, and to vex 
me with suits ; so that there is, as it were, a conspiracy of 
my adversaries to load me with troubles all at once, and so 
to bear me, or rather beat me down. In the mean time, I 
say nothing of the dean and his suits, which by your ho- 
nourable order are at a point now to be ended ; nor of the 
city of Litchfield, which by your honourable letters is like- 
wise grown to agreement with me. 

But the suits that were, and the suits that are still, have 
and will so consume me, that I shall hardlv be able to re- 


cover it of long time, without some good way and means to BOOK 
be made by your honourable lordship for the endino- there- ^' 
of: and therefore I am most humbly to beseech your lord- 28 
ship, as you are of your self, and have been always, ready 
to do me good, so, by your honourable motions and persua- 
sions, to draw others, that are not of like minds, not to 
hurt me. For mine own part, though I never before the 
time I was bishop received any benefit by my lord of Lei- 
cester, either for the advancement of my living or credit, 
as I have done by your lordship and others ; yet for that I 
devowed my self unto him at the first, and have professed 
his name, I bear him that dutiful heart that becometh me, 
and will not touch his honour any way, nor wish him in 
honour to be touched. But yet, I must needs say, his lord- 
ship hath cast me off without cause, and I will win him 
again by your honour's means if I can ; only I must crave 
pardon of his lordship, if I bear a dutiful heart unto others 
that have deserved of me as much, and more than he hath 
done ; and beseech him to think of no apostasie, if I depend 
upon those that have been my antient honourable friends, 
and stick to me; still when my later friends, of whom I 
have deserved better, shall shake me off without any cause 
in my most need. 

I received in king Edward's time, by your lordship's 
means, when I was scholar in Oxenford, one of his high- 
nesses exhibitions, given out of the abbey of Glassenbury, 
to my great relief and comfort. I obtained, in the begin- 
ning of the queen's majesty's reign that now is, by your 
lordship's means, one of the best prebends in Winchester. 
I had given me of her majesty, not long after, by your 
lordship's means, the parsonage of Rotherfield in Sussex ; 
a thing better worth than 200Z. by the year. Let my lord 
of Leicester shew any one thing worth two pence that ever 
I had by his means, either of the queen, or of any body 
else, and I will confess my self his debtor for all. And as 
for the bishoprick I now have, if it be any benefit unto me, 
your lordship knoweth, and I know, and must confess, I 



BOOK had it as much by your lordship's means as by his; altho\ 
' I must needs say, first intended unto me by him. 

And because I report this to those that object his singu- 
lar deserts unto me, and withal do seek comfort and de- 
fence where I have most found it, I am called an apostata ; 
but how unjustly, your lordship and others may judge. 

Now because I am bound both to your lordship for your 
many benefits, and to his lordship also; because by first 
professions I have vowed my service and good will unto 
him, and may not loose him, if I may keep him ; in all 
humble sort I beseech your lordship to recover and retain 
him my honourable good lord and friend as he hath been. 
And both to your lordship and him I shall shew my self 
every way in duty ready to perform that in duty I owe 
unto either. 

And for the debt which I am cast into by these suits and 
troubles unto her majesty, I likewise humbly beseech your 
lordship I may have the favour, by your honourable means, 
that may be had in this court: and that mine arrearages, 
when I shall have made mine account, may be answered 
and satisfied upon the extent of my lands by 3 or 400/. by 
the year, till the whole shall be discharged, if so much shall 
remain behind, and unpaid. 

Thus bold to lay out my griefs before your lordship, 
and withal to crave your honourable help, I cease any fur^ 
ther to trouble your lordship at this time, most assuredly 
continuing a poor orator unto God for you during my life. 
From my poor lodging in London, this 20th of February, 

Your honour's always most bounden, 

W. Coven, and Litch. 

I would not willingly have named, in these my letters, 
my lord of Leicester, but that he hath gone about, as your 
29 lordship knoweth, to draw you from me by hard informa- 
tion; which forceth me to write, to say more than other- 
Avise I would gladly do. 


I would humbly beseech your lordship to put your hand, BOOK 
if it might be your pleasure, to the letters here enclosed ; '" 
or to write else to the judge in my behalf what shall stand 
with your honourable liking. 

Number XIX. 
Overton, bishop of Coventry/ and LitcJifield, to the lords of' 
the privy-council ; with a cerfificate of convicted recu- 
sants ; and concerning the ill state of his diocese. 
MY most humble duty premised, tho"" long first, yet at Epist. epi. 
last I have accomplished your honour's letters, for the cer-"""''''''"^' 
tifying of such convicted recusants as were to be found 
within my diocess : a matter, surely both for the shortness 
of the time, and for the untowardness of the people, so 
hard to be compassed, that almost I was in despair to have 
done any thing at all. As also now, when I have done all 
I can, it is nothing in comparison of that I might have 
done, if I had not been hindred in the service. The pecu- 
liar jurisdictions within my diocess are very many ; and the 
recusants, either the most part or the chief of them, so hid 
and harboured therein, that I cannot, without further au- 
thority and assistance, search them out, much less certify 
them in such due sort and order as I should. 

The dean of Litchfield hath a peculiar Jurisdiction by 
himself; every prebendary of that church (being well nigh 
forty in number) have ^ccw/i«r jurisdictions by themselves; 
the dean of Windsor hath a great peculiar Jurisdiction ; a 
number of gentlemen, which have purchased the lands of 
the late dissolved abbeys and collegiate churches, have di- 
vers peci^Ziar jurisdictions. To be short; there are so many 
exemptes within my diocess, that I cannot do as I would ; 
and though I did, they would not obey. And yet were 
not this so much, if only they did withstand mine ordinary 
and episcopal jurisdiction; but they will not yield, nor 
stoop to your lordship's letters, nor to such special commis- 
sions as you send unto me from time to time, for the execu- 
tion of these services. 




BOOK And therefore I most humbly pray your honours to par- 
______ don me, if either not so soon, or not so exactly as I ought, 

I have performed my duty herein ; nor to blame me here- 
after, if you see not such fruits to rise of my labours and 
travails as peradventure you will look for ; sith my power 
in mine own diocess is so short and slender as it is. I have 
been and will be always ready to do the uttermost I can : 
and when I can do no more, I must stay there. Only 
it may grieve me to see things so far out of order as I 
do. But when I would remedy them, and cannot, I trust 
I have discharged a good conscience in the sight of God, 
and shall rest blameless in the judgment of all the godly. 
I am the bolder to run out thus far in mine own excuse, 
because I know my predecessor was touched with too 
much idleness, or at least with too much softness in this 
place. But I perceive he and I had both one lett : and 
therefore I must needs deliver both him and my self of 
this undeserved blame. 

And as in causes ecclesiastical, so also in civil govern- 
ment, the charters and liberties granted unto us by her ma- 
jesty's most noble progenitors are so usurped on, but im- 
peached by others, that not only in the country, whereto- 
fore we might have done much good, but even in the city 
of Litchfield also, where most need is, both I and my pre- 
decessors have of late been utterly barred from the execu- 
tion of our charge : whereby hath grown much decay both 
30 of life and religion in either place. And because I have 
occasion now to speak of Litchfield, I trust you will pardon 
me, if I report unto you that I have heard, and partly also 
do know my self, and therefore dare avow to be true. 
Litchfield. The city of Litchfield, since the temporal government 
hath been divided from the see, and translated from the 
bishop to the citizens, (which nevertheless hath not been 
long,) is in so far worse case than it was, as there is odds 
almost between somewhat and nothing ; or at least wise be- 
tween beggary and welfare, or between happy and unhappy 
estate. I speak, I say, upon the report of others that 
Jcnew it then, and upon mine own knowledge, which see it 


now; it is not the city it hath been. If your lordships ask BOOK 
me the reasons why, I might particularly set down divers 
causes of this decay ; but, to avoid tediousness, I will ge- 
nerally answer in one. Their government is too, too bad. 
To use extortion, oppression, cruel dealing with the com- 
mons, regrating, forestalling the markets, liberty in the 
syze of bread and drink, with such other like, to favour 
themselves in searsements, [sessements,] to lay the heaviest 
burdens on poor men's backs, to impannel themselves upon 
juries in their own causes, to be inquisitors, presenters, 
judges, and lords in one court, to restrain the commodities 
into few men's hands, to breed beggary in the city, and 
set none aworke, every man to seek his own private gain, 
and no man to regard the publick state; if this be not 
bad government, what is bad .'' And yet this is their doing, 
and no man may controul them for it. To be short, they 
live as they list, both in the city and in the church. And 
therefore little reformation to be looked for, if it go on as 
it doth. 

But you will say, these matters are impertinent. Most 
honourable, I will now draw them to the purpose ye know. 
Ye look for at my hands in all commissions a principal care, 
oversight, and furtherance of her majesty's service in causes, 
as Avell spiritual as temporal. Ye know also, I must begin 
first at the head and spring it self; which is the church 
and city of Litchfield : and then afterwards deal with the 
rest of the shire and diocess, where I am, as I may. Now 
if the church and city, with whom I should first begin, and 
from Avhence the rest are to fetch their light, shall be so 
exempted from my jurisdiction that I may have no power 
and authority to look into their matters, nor once to meddle 
with them ; no, nor your commissions, which you send 
forth, may aucthorize me so to do, my labour is soon at an 
end, and my service sooner done than begun. 

And therefore if now, for the better performance of my 
duty, I resume into my hands again my auncient liberties, 
which of late days have been but slenderly conveyed from 



BOOK me, or rather not at all conveyed, but encroached upon by 
evil neighbours; I say, if I resume them again into my 
hands, and use the benefit of mine own charters for the 
better service of her majesty, and more profitable govern- 
ment of her people, as now I have begun to do ; I trust 
your lordships will likewise hold me excused, and pardon 
me in so doing. Yea, that you will give me your lawful 
countenance and assistance therein, so far as my right and 
just title shall reach. It may be they have prevented me 
in complaint, because I have already attempted suit against 
them for redress of their government and recovery of mine 
own right. But I hope your lordships will suspend your 
honourable opinions till you hear further of the matter; 
and I desire no better judges than your selves, if it would 
please you to be troubled with it. 

Surely the whole diocess is to be looked imto in time, 
(for we have many things amongst us far amiss,) but yet 
Staftbrd- Staffordshire more than any part else ; and most of all the 
Litchfield, tiity and church of Litchfield, with their peculiar jurisdic- 
tions : out of which, as out of a full fountain, floweth all 
corruption, both of life and religion, in my diocess. We 
had here in Staffordshire, even the last day amongst us, 
such a notable bold attempt made, and so daungerous for 
the example of others, as I may not pass it over with si- 
lence. The matter is this : Sir Walter Aston and I, with 
divers other justices, being met together at Sondon church, 
3 1 on Wednesday last past, for the publick service of the 
country, and having a great part of the county before us, 
Hugh Ear- one Hugh Eardeswick, lord of that mannor, and the sorest 
papist.' ^"^ dangerousest papist, one of them in all England; who 
otherwise cometh neither to the church nor churchyard, 
but keepeth himself and his family close at home from the 
divine service, in contempt of her majesty''s laws; yet at 
this time, in the church yard, and before us that were jus- 
tices, and openly in the sight of the whole country, was not 
afraid to strike a justice of peace upon the pate with his 
crabtree staff". Whereupon immediately began a number 


of swords and daggers to be drawn : and had we not with BOOK 
diligence applied our selves forthwith to appease the out- ^' 
rage, or rather, had not God blessed our business at that 
time, and stayed the hands and hearts of the people from 
further mischief, I think there had been such a bloody day 
as hath not been seen this great while in Staffordshire. A 
matter, doubtless, worthy sharp punishment and animad- 
version. A papist to strike a justice of peace, sitting in 
the queen's service, and the affairs of his country, and in 
the churchyard, and before the whole multitude ; it was a 
very bold and malicious part. And what further reach 
they had in their heads that begun it, God knoweth, and I 
leave to your wise considerations : only we have bound him 
in two hundred pounds, to make his personal appearance 
at the next general assizes, before the justices that then 
shall sit. If in the mean time your lordships think good to 
have him further called and dealt withal, we would be glad 
to know your pleasures therein. 

And upon Easter day last, being not long before this 
broyl, there was such disturbance likewise in a certain 
church of this shire at the time of divine service, and at the 
very communion time, when some had already received, 
and some were to receive, that (if such boldness of men be 
not repressed and punished with speed) the example will 
grow very far, and be very daungerous. Certain of the 
lord Pagett's servants or officers, (by whose commaundment Lord Paget. 
and appointment I cannot tell,) under the pretence of serv- 
ing of writs, came into Colewich church that day, and ar- 
rested divers persons, some that had received, and were 
newly risen from the Lord's table ; some that were coming 
to the table, and ready to receive. And besides this, made 
such a coursing of the people that were in the church at 
the time of the epistle and gospel reading, that it is won- 
derful to see the bouldness and spitefulness of the papists, 
if they may have any colour at all to bear them in their 
violent and contemptuous behaviours against the service of 
God and his holy sacraments. I am credibly informed, 
and by examination also have tryed it out, that the parties 

p 4 


BOOK arrested were every day passing to and fro by the said offi- 
cers which did arrest tliem : and yet having the writs in 
their hands a month or two, or more, would find none other 
time to work their feate but on Easter day in the morning, 
and at or about the communion time. 

Much hke part also was played by others of the lord 
Paget's officers within this shire at Burton upon Trent, 
about the same time of Easter : at Avhich time thei'e was 
great disturbance of the communicants. For that the lord 
Paget being bound to find the parishioners communion 
bread, his officers would have forced them to use little 
siiiging cakes, after the old popish fashion, varying nothing 
at all in form from the massing bread, save only somewhat 
in the print. A patterne whereof I my self do keep, to 
shew to your lordships if need be, being brought me by the 
lord Paget's officer his own self, whom I called before me 
for the same matter. 

Surely this argueth great courage in the adversaries, if 
they may be suffered : and for mine own part I dare not 
meddle with them, as ordinary, because they pretend pecu- 
liar jurisdiction within themselves ; but am feign to use 
the secular power committed unto me, and to deal with 
them as justice of peace : by which authority nevertheless I 
cannot do much good in such matters. And some indeed 
diink I am busier than I need to be ; and so I get great 
displeasure for my doings ; but I weigh not men's displea- 
32sures. I seek to please God, and the queen's majesty that 
is appointed vmder God, and your honours, that are ap- 
pointed luider her, to govern the people of God, to his 
glory, and the comfort of his chiux-h. As for me, I seek 
not to please them : and if I did, I could not, but be evil 
as they are. And therefore, howsoever they report me 
from hence, (as I am sure they will say the worst they 
can,) I beseech your lordships, judge of me as you find me. 
And I desire nothing more, than to have your selves the 
only judges of all mine actions. For so my troubles should 
be the less, and my credit the greater : where now I spend 
and toyl, and do all I can to little effect ; and yet am ill 


spoken of when I have done. For if I correct for their evil BOOK 
life, (as no country, I think, is more out of frame that 
way,) the worst I can do them is excommunications; and 
then they appeal, to mine infinite trouble and charges, if I 
follow it. 

If I correct them for religion, (wherein they are more Excommu- 
out of frame,) they sit out the excommunications willingly, "g^l',^'"^!!^" 

' and ai'e glad they have so good occasion to be cut oiF from 
the church ; thinking to avoid the penalty of the statute, 
because we forbid them ingressum ecclesicE, when indeed 
they meant not to come there at all, tho' they had been 
bidden never so much. For if by the ecclesiastical censures 
they be excommunicated out of the church, they think it 
no reason to punish them for not coming, when by our 
selves, and by our own laws, they are forbidden to come. 
And so they make our excommunications to serve their 
turn. And yet, as I say, in the mean time they cry out 
upon me, as an hard and cruel man, and do laugh ae my 
doings to scorn. 

I eftsoons most humbly desire your lordships to devise the 
means I may be better strengthned and comforted in these 
my toyles; or else I shall never be able to Iwld out, the 
troubles and charges are so great. I trust you are not ig- 
norant of this diocese, that it is large and wide ; of the 
people, that they are stubborn and quarrellous ; of my liv- 
ing, that it is very small for so great a charge, scantly four 
hundred pounds by the year, for these first years. I trust 
likewise that you consider, that my diocess is the den of 

fugitives, the very receptacle of all the refuse that is thrown Fugitives. 
out of other diocesses round about me. They fly hither out 
of Cheshire, out of Lancashire, out of Yorkshire, out of 
Lincolnshire, out of Huntingtonshire, yea, and from London 
side, and from all places. And such as other bishops drive 
away from them, I must harbour here with me, whether I 
will or no, except I should write up to yoiu' honours for 
every particular person that I hear of: which would be 
infinite trouble and charge unto me; neither were I able 
to undergo the burthen of it. 


BOOK And therefore, if I shall not have the helps that other 

!___ bishops have, (all the premisses considered,) I must give 

over my former travails and charges, which are intolerable, 
and only wish all were well ; and so rest there, as my pre- 
decessor did before me. Thus much I am bold to write 
unto your honours, to shew you the state of my country, 
and mine own hard case ; and would be glad to amend it, 
if I knew how ; or will hereafter, if I shall be better en- 

Much more I had to write unto your honours at this 
time, but I am afraid to be over tedious : only it may please 
you to consider of the certificate, which I have here sent 
you, touching the convicted recusants ; and to pardon me, 
(for the causes premised,) if not so soon, or not so perfectly 
as you look for, my duty to be performed in that behalf. 
And so I humbly commend your honours to the gracious 
protection of the Almighty, and most blessed government 
of his holy Spirit. From Eccleshal castel, the 20th of May, 

Your honours most dutiful to command, 

W. Coven, and Lichf. 

33 Number XX. 

Interrogatoj-'ies ministered to sir Robert Stapleton, knt. in 

the star-chamber: concerning- abuses done to the aich- 

bishop of Yo7-k at Doncaster, by Scisson the host, himself, 

and others. 
Mss. Burj;. IMPRIMIS, Did not you in Lent last make means to 
the bishop by his chancellor, [Dr. Lougther,] that he would 
account of you as one that greatly honoured him, and es- 
teemed greatly his good nature; and thei-efore was very 
ready to shew him any pleasure or service you could ; 
which you desired might be signified unto the bishop ? 

2. Item. Did not you in May last know, believe, or hear 
say, that Scisson's wife of Doncaster, by the allowance and 
consent of her husband, and m the night time, came to the 


bishop's bed, her husband immediately following, his dag- BOOK 
ger naked in his hand, which he laid unto the bishop''s 
breast, his man Alexander being in the company [with 
him ?] 

3. Item. Did not Scisson send for you immediately by 
his man ; and you forthwith came in your apparel as in the 
day before ? 

4. Item. Did you, being then sheriff of the shire, and 
one of the high commissioners for matters ecclesiastical, de- 
nounce this fact to the president there, or to any magis- 
trate elsewhere ? 

5. Item. Did Scisson that night beat his wife, as yo\i be- 
lieve ; or rather went not to bed to her, as at other times ? 

6. Item. Did you after this time dislike the bishop ; or 
rather, knowing his innocence, did not you offer your self 
and your service to the archbishop, and signify that you 
were careful to get his good opinion ? 

7. Item. After your return from London, did not you 
often and friendly frequent the bishop"'s house ? And as 
though you had travelled with Scisson for the bishop, at 
length brought Scisson to the bishop"'s house : when Scisson 
seemed inexorable, called him aside ; and having him under 
you on the ground, drew your dagger, held it to his throat, 
as though you would kill him ? 

8. Item. Did not you shortly after come to the bishop, 
and said, that you had ended all matters with Scisson ; and 
that whereas he asked 600Z. you had brought him to 400/. 
having received before at Doncaster of the bishop 501. and 
in that lodge, after breakfast, brought the bishop to a cham- 
bre, where only Scisson and his man were ; and after their 
denial to receive 500Z. you said, that you would pay the 
odd 50Z. of your own purse rather than they should break ; 
and the day following did not you send your man Con- 
stable to the bishop to his house to receive the 501. ? 

9. Item. Did not you then and there give an oath to 
Scisson and his man upon a Bible, that they should not by- 
word, writing, or any other means utter this matter during 
their lives ; and if they did so, by what authority ? 


BOOK 10. Item. Did you not then take a bond of Scisson, made 
to your self in 600Z. leaving out the condition, which was 
by word recited, that he should forfeit that bond to the use 
of the bishop, if he performed not his oath ? And did not 
34 you then and there swear upon the Bible, that you in your 
conscience believed that the bishop was most clear in that 
cause ; and no cause why he should pay one penny ? 

11. Itcvi. Did not you after this a good while break with 
the bishop to have a M. £. [a thousand pounds] on a lord- 
ship ? which being denied you, did not you will the bishop 
to see to himself; you would keep your own promise for 
concealing, but you would take no charge of any others ; 
and so departed .'' 

12. Item. After this, when Scisson had received 200Z. of 
the bishop at Bishopsthorp, did not Barnard Maude bor- 
row to your use of the bishop 200Z. ? 

Number XXI. 
The public coiifessions at the assizes at I'orA:, made hy sir 
Robert Stapleton and others, of their slander and abuses 
of the archbishop. And his answers to each oftJiem. 

Sir Robert Stapleton''s stcbmissioti and conjession. 
MSS. liurg. WHEREAS, by special order of the queen's most excel- 
lent majesty, I appeared lately in Easter term last before 
the lord chancellor and honourable lords counsellors of the 
state, in the star chamber ; and there was, by her majesty's 
attorney general, charged with sundry conspiracies by me 
and other evil disposed persons, associates with me, most 
maliciously and unjustly practised against your grace, my 
lord archbishop of York ; tending to the great discredit of 
your good name and estimation ; your self being innocent, 
and o-uiltless of any unhonest attempt or meaning in that 
fault and crime, that I and my associates, for gain to some of 
our selves, and spoil to your grace, and for the revenge of 
some, of our cruel malice conceived against your grace, 
sought most unjustly to lay upon you, to your utter confu- 


sion in this world, if God of his goodness, through her ma- BOOK 
jesty''s great care in searching out the truth, had not other- ^' 
wise provided. Which things being proved most evidently 
against me, I have been justly found guilty of the said ma- 
licious and injurious dealings in the judgment of the said 
most honourable court. 

I do therefore upon my knees most humbly confess, that 
forgetting of my duty to God, and the due respect and re- 
gard of your grace, I was thereby lead to the said malicious 
and wrongful dealings, purposed and put in practice by me 
and my associates against your grace, without any desert 
thereof offered on your grace's behalf; whom I acknow- 
ledge to be most innocent and guiltless of that wicked and 
vile matter at Doncaster ; whereof the purpose of our un- 
godly, unjust, and unadvised dealings tended to have bur- 
thened your grace. For which my ungodly and unadvised 
dealings, as I have been most justly punished, so am I most 
heartily sorry for them ; and before you all here present 
do ask forgiveness; first, at the hands of Almighty God, 
whom I beseech his mercy to pardon these mine offences : 
then to her majesty, whom I have greatly offended herein : 
and lastly, of your grace, whom I have very wrongfully 
and unjustly sought to slander and abuse. And having 
none other way to make amends for the great slander, 
which by me and others might have most wrongfully 
touched yoiir good fame and credit, I do earnestly, and 
from the bottom of my heart, desire your grace, that it 
would please you to accept this mine humble submission, 
and forgive me these my bad attempts and dealings against 
yolir grace. 

The archbishop of YorJc's answer' to sir Robert Stapletoii's 3 5 
Sir Robert Stapleton, 
YOU have greatly wronged, and given a great wound 
by your late ungodly practice to yovu'self, to me, and espe- 
cially to the church of God. I am right sorry for all. For yon., 
in respect you were a gentleman of a good house and coun- 


BOOK tenance, towardly in the actions of the commonwealth: one 
^' that professed the gospel, and pretended to be my friend. 

To my self: That having hved all my life hitherto with- 
out spot or touch that way, after my long travail in the 
word of God, having preached the gospel these xxxv years, 
and suffered for the same as great persecutions as any Eng- 
lishman now living hath done; as loss of my livings and 
goods, long and hard imprisonment, exile, with other af- 
flictions of like quality ; that now , when I am in body so 
feeble, and by number of years so aged, that I am daily 
hereby put in remembrance of my grave, I should by your 
means, or rather by the means of Satan, the original author 
thereof, be set upon the stage of the whole world to be 
wondred at, as a vile, wicked man ; and yet (God witness- 
eth with me) without desert of mine ; nay, not only to be 
called into question, and arraigned in all consistories of 
Christendom, in all assemblies, in all taverns and alehouses ; 
but to have been condemned and judged as guilty, and 
faulty of that wicked crime, by you and others devised, 
and laid upon me : if the good God, the God of my right- 
eousness, (who yet never failed me,) had not, chiefly by the 
means of her majesty, my most gracious sovereign, and by 
the careful diligence and great wisdom of the lords and 
others of her majesty's most honourable privy council, de- 
ciphered this wicked counsil, so ungodlily devised, and un- 
chi'istianly practised against me. 

For the church of Christ : a thing that hath most greatly 
grieved me, both in respect of the enemies of the truth, 
who, building chiefly upon the credit of you, sir Robert, 
mine accuser, the rest being men of no credit, took occasion 
not only to condemn me, but to insult against the gospel of 
God, of long time by me professed and preached : and also 
in respect that the weaklings, and ungrounded scholars in 
the truth, began to hold the doctrine suspected, when one 
of the chiefest and auncientest teachers was set forth to be 
vile and wicked. 

This offence and injury to me was great; the greatest 
that ever I felt ; yea, a greater than death itself could have 


been unto me. But as the testimony of mine innocent con- BOOK 
science, to my great comfort, ever kept safe that perfect 
peace which is between God and my soul ; so praised be 
that Lord for ever, which of his great goodness hath so 
brought it to pass, that this day, even in this place, even 
by your own mouths that stounge me, I am cleared before 
the world, as I was at all times before my God ; and may 
now think and say, the church hath taken no hurt. For 
God, by disclosing this malicious and unchristian attempt, 
hath delivered the innocent, comforted and satisfied the 
church, and gotten to himself the glory. 

To conclude ; Sir Robert, touching mine own person, 
though, as flesh and blood, it is hard for me to bear this 
injury, far surmounting all injuries that can be imagined ; 
yet, as a Christian, as a child of God, I did at the first, for 
his cause that commanded me to forgive, as I will be for- 
given, banish from me all rancour of mind, and set aside 
all malice and desire of revenge. And therefore this which 
you do is seemly in you, yet it is needless in respect of my 
self; for I have forgiven it, as it is personal to me, long 
since. But that which is done, or hereafter further to be 
done, touching the better satisfying of the church, in fur- 
ther clearing of me by occasion of the vile slander you have 36' 
laid upon me ; or the order set down by the honourable 
court of star chamber, either touching her majesty or me ; 
I may not, nor do not, presume to meddle with it, but leave 
it in the form of their honourable order. Only this I say 
now, I do not nor will not malice you. I will pray for 
you ; and I do pray to God even now, that in his mercy, 
and for his Christ*'s sake, he will forgive you, and never 
lay this fault to your charge. And for my part, so far 
as God requireth of a charitable and Christian conscience, 
I do heartily forgive you. 

The archbisliop's answer to John Malory. 
THERE hath been great cause why you should favour 
me : never any cause given by me why you should malice me, 
or deal ill with me. But evil company, wicked persuasion, 


BOOK and your own frail youthful nature, hath brought you to 
' so great inconvenience ; and in such vile sort to practise 
against me. A plain declaration, that you were too care- 
less in serving God, and too ready to cast his fear from 
you. The prodigal child ran far, and followed his youthful 
and unbridled lusts, yet God called him back, let him see 
himself, repented, and was received unto mercy. God still 
continueth mercifvd. Turn home unto him ; forsake your 
lewd life ; flee unto him for mercy, and no doubt you shall 
find mercy. 

And as touching your offence committed against me, so 
much as appertaineth unto me privately, as a Christian, 
not presuming by remitting to alter or cliange the order of 
the superior magistrates, I freely forgive you ; God make 
you his servant. 

The archbishop's answer to Barnard Mawde. 

IT is true, that you confess, you have greatly, and in the 
highest degree, offended God, the church, the queen"'s ma- 
jesty, and me. At request I took thee into my sei'vice, 
when thou wast in base state: I put great trust in thee; 
and thou untrustily servedst me, by indiscrete getting, en- 
riching thy self. And livedst in great countenance and jol- 
lity, far passing the measure of thy calling. At length thou 
rannest from me, and robbcst me of my revenue. Which, 
with other by-helps, maintainedst thy great prodigality. 
Thou felledst into further fault ; thou hatedst me without 
cause ; thou slanderedst me every where ; thrcatning, that 
thou couldst and wouldst deprive me ; practising with other 
thy companions to that end. At length thou grewest into 
such perfect hatred against me, that thou devisedst, by 
what means thou couldest, to work my confusion. And 
that which thou hadst long before devilishly devised, by aid 
of others at Doncaster thou puttedst in practice; traiter- 
ously conspiring against me ; yet not so much for revenge, 
as to rob and spoil me. 

But God hath in his good time revealed this monstrous 


treachery, and forced thee to confess thy great fauh, to BOOK 
clear nie from crime, and to acknowledge mine innocency. 
And if this confession proceeded from a penitent heart, no 
doubt but God, according to his promise, would shew 
mercy : Christ died for great sins, and his mercy passeth 
all his works ; ever ready to forgive all such as shall truly 
repent. But, alas ! there appeareth no such mind in thee, 
which thou dost evidently declare. And I perceive, and I 
doubt not but my lords are of the same judgment, I fear 
me, God hath stricked thee with his grievousest judgment, 
and given thee cor poe7iitere nescium, a heart unpenitent- 

Divers of my good friends, and of great honour, abused 
by thy feigned shew of great repentance, have written to 
me in thy behalf, upon thy most humble and unfeigned 3/ 
submission, to spare thee the pilloi*y. I never sought nor 
wished thy punishment for my private revenge, (far hath 
that been from me,) but for the publick satisfying of 
Chrises church. And now, tho^ thou give cause of the con- 
trary, yet will I not requite thy evil with extremity. I 
have long ago learned another lesson. Non quid alii meru- 
erint, sed quid nos decet, spcctandum est. I will respect 
that which is fit for me to do, following my master"'s ex- 
ample, not what thou deservest to suffer. Therefore for 
this private practice by you wrought against me for my 
utter discredit, so much as appertaineth to me as a Chris- 
tian, (not presuming, by remitting to alter or qualify any 
thing pertaining unto me, laid on you by the honourable 
and grave judgment of the lords of the star-chamber, spe- 
cified in the orders, or competent unto me hei'eafter upon 
your ill behaviour by the benefit of the law,) I do freely 
forgive you ; and request you, my lords, to spare him the 
pillory ; which he hath well deserved. 

The archbishop's answer to Alexander Farby, the Scot. 
YOUR villany hath been great ; but God''s mercy is greater. 
God, for his Christ's sake, forgive you and your offence 



BOOK against me, so much and so far as appertaineth to me in 
______ charity and Christianity. 

This was the only man that shewed himself penitent. 

Number XXII. 
The state of' the bishopric of St. David's^ and revenues 

thereof: sent up to the lord treasurer., ujjon the decease 

of the bishop. 

THE bishoprick of St. David's was by commission, ann. 
27. r. reg. Henrici Octavi, valued de claro cccclviiZ. 22d. 

According to which rate and value, the first fruits, tenths, 
and subsidies have ever since been paid. 
MSS. Burg. At^(j yet hath it been since that time so decayed, fleeced, 
and impoverished, that at this day, besides tenths, subsi- 
dies, and fees going out of it, it is not de claro ccliiiZ. 

For first, whei-eas in the same 27th year of king Henry 
VIII. the bishop \\Q,d jura regalia, and pterqidsitiones ses- 
sion. &c. those royalties and prerogatives liave been taken 
away by act of parliament. 

Item., by the suit of Mr. Edward Carey, one of the 
grooms of her majesty's privy chamber, and Mr. Doding- 
ton, his sollicitor, not only the gift and patronage of Llan- 
dewy Braby, and twelve other churches, have been taken 
away from the said bishoprick • but also the [parsonage of 
Llanarth, and chapel of Llanyna, being of the yearly value 
of 32/. and for the sjiace of divers hundred years appro- 
priate ad inensnm cpisrop'i, and united to the bishoprick, 
and for which tlie bishop for the time being paid always 
first fruits, tenths, and subsidies, hath also been, by the 
said suit of the said Mr. Cary and Mr. Oodington, evicted 
from the said bishoprick, in this manner following. 

First, the said Mr. Cary informing that the parsonage 
of Llandewy Brevie, of the bishop of St. David's diocess 
and parsonage, was a college, and concealed from her ma- 


jesty, he obtained a lease thereof, cum periinentiis, an. 8°. BOOK 
of her majesty's reign, for 40/. paying 40/. rent per ann. ' 

being the value of her highness records of that church 

Whereupon he brought a v.rit of intrusion against Mr. 
Lewis Gwin, the parson and incumbent of the said church. 
And after long pleading, and issue joyned, a jury of sub- 3 8 
stantial gentlemen out of Hereford .shire gave verdict with the 
incumbent: and found it to be no college, nor concealed. 

But the verdict notwithstanding, the said Mr. Carie be- 
gan again ; and vipon the same matter and like evidence 
obtained another jury to pass against the former, and to 
find it concealed. 

Afterwards he took a new lease of the premisses with 
larger words, and for the term of fourty years, and imder 
the rent of 40/. by colour and vertue whereof he obtained 
twelve prebends and churches more; supposing them to be 
appertinent and belonging to the said church of Llandewy 
Brevie. And not thus contented, he brought a writ of in- 
trusion against the bishops farmers of the said rectory of 
Llanarth and chapel of Llanyna : supposing that also to be 
parcel and member of Llandewy Brevie. 

But after long suit, a verdict passed at the exchequer for 
the bishop and farmers. Whereby it was found no parcel, 
nor concealed. Yet Mr. Cary, by his said solicitor Mr. 
Dodington, revived a new suit, and continuing the same 
many years against the said bishop and the farmers, at last 
in Trinity term, anno r. rncE EUzabcthcp, &c. 23°. reco- 
vered the said parsonage of Llanarth also. And now sueth 
the poor widow and executrix of the said bishop, for the 
ari'earages of the said 32/. rent for many years. 

For these fourteen churches being valued in her high- 
nesses records to 181/. 15*. there is 40/. rent answered to 
the queen's majesty ; her highness loseth much more, rom- 
munihus annis, in first fruits, tenths, and subsidies. 

How these churches are let, and for what rent, to parti- 
cular tenants and farmers, I cannot presently advertise your 
lordship in certainty : but I am sure they are worth by 

0. 2 


BOOK year about the sum of one thousand marks. For that one 
"• church and rectory of Llandewy Brcvie it self is worth be- 
tween two or three hundred pounds by year. And for the 
parsonage of Llanarth, now last recovered from the bishop- 
rick, Mr. Gary refuseth an 100/. fine, and lOOZ. rent per 

And now, as it is reported, he hath all the said cluux-hes 
in fee-farm for the rent of 401. So that the bishoprick at 
this day is in value about - - - .£'383 — 23(/. 

hide, pro x"" [decima] cpiscopatus per an?i. 46 7 4 
Pro siihskl. qiiando conccd'itur - - - 41 14 7 
For fees, about, to divers - - - - 32 

Remains 263 

H. Rhylyfnwyd. 

Number XXIII. 
Wright, a puritan, his answers to the matters urged 
against him, itpon his oxen answers in the eonsistory : hrj 
notes thereof taken hij the register. 
MSS. Burg. FIRST, he most humbly desired, that it might be con- 
'' sidercd, whether any man by our laws be bound to accuse 
himself upon his oath for any deed or word, much less to 
declare his thoughts. Item, Forasmuch as he was driven 
to answer at the first by word, and not suffered leisurely 
to peruse the answers which the register set down ; and for 
3Qthat these notes did much respect those answers; he there- 
fore with like duty desired, that both his answers before 
might be poised with the weight of the former circum- 
stances; and also that if his memory failed him now m any 
point which then was answered, lie might be charitably 
judged of, as he protested before Almighty God, that he 
meant well to speak the truth. Thirdly, he desired that it 
miglit be noted, that the collector of those notes deah par- 

Then follow the contents of his answers. 


To speak in general of the Book of Common Prayer, he BOOK 
thought it good and godly. 

His practice of resorting to churches where ceremonies 
have been used, did sufficiently clear him in that point. 
[When being before demanded, what he thought of cere- 
monies, he was silent.] 

About \he Jbrm of ordination, he answered, he remem- 
bi-ed not that he had read and perused any such form. He 
sent for it to the stationers, and could not get it : but he 
judgeth so reverently of those rites, that he acknowledgeth 
there is the substance of the ministry. 

He did that private duty, [of preaching and catechizing 
in my lord Rich's family,] being thereunto requested by the 
householders, for their own and their families profit; and 
other means of instruction failing them. For where they 
had means to be instructed, they were reverently used : as 
Mr. Berriman, minister of Rochford, must needs testify, 
that both the prayers and preaching were resorted unto. 
And Wright conferring with him at first, meant no other- 
wise to deal in my lord's house, being there, but with the 
minister's leave, and for his assistance, in discharging the 

He prayed as preachers use to do in all places, and alto- 
gether in prescript words, but as the occasion fell out in 
some points. Yet he ever prayed for the queen's majesty, 
and for the lords of the council, and for all ministers of 
God's word ; and so for archbishops and bishops, seeing 
they be ministers. [This was in answer to that article, that 
he used prayer of his own devising: and never used to 
pray as in the Book of Common Prayer : nor for arch- 
bishops and bishops.] 

To the article that he had no licence to preach ; he knew 
no law that requireth licence for those private duties, which 
had been used in king Edward's days, and all the time of 
our queen in many places. And without which, he doubted 
not but it may well be proved, that there had been many 
more papists in this land than are. If it be said, that it is 
inconvenient, tho' not unlawful ; he desired first, that it 

Q 3 


BOOK might bo considered, how he had preached seven years be- 
fore, by order of her majesty's Injunctions, with approba- 
tion in the university. Which considered, with his full pur- 
pose of serving in the ministry, when God should call him 
thereto, he was not altogether in tlie conunon degree of 
laymen, as they call them. Secondly, that he used to re- 
pair both to sermons and sacraments, ready to shew the 
soundness of his belief, &c. that the want of others teach- 
ing might, as he lioped, procure a dispensation in some 
greater inconvenience. That when order hath set order 
herein, he will most reverently obey it ; [tiuit is, when this 
private teaching, catechizing, and preaching should be for- 

To the article. That he said, the election o/" mhnstera 
ought to be hy the flock ; he only said, that he supposed it 
not to be an error, that the ministers should be chosen with 
consent of their flock ; so that their flock were first well 

To the article. That he was chosen in this sort [by the 
fa\nily] in the house of the loid Rich ; he confesseth that 
the late lord, calling his household together, (in the absence 
of the said Wright, and not moving him thereto,) to the 
end, it seems, that they might more wilhngly barken to 
good instruction, having one to teach them, whom them- 
selves had before approved, asked, whether any of them 
iO could shew any reason, for life or otherwise, why he 
might not be their teacher. Whereupon no man objecting 
any thing, my lord sent for him, and ])erhaj)s esteemed him 
as his pastor. lUit that he took not himself to be any other 
than a private man to do them some good, till they might 
have a sufticient pastor. For at Rochford the minister was 
distracted between his two benefices. And at Leez his pro- 
vision was worse. 

It is true, that of the house of this lord Rich, he said, 
he t(M)k them for iiis flock ; not by vertue of the former 
choice, but having been called since the death of the old 
lord unto the ministrv. And this [present] lord being de- 
sirous to use his ministry, with promise that he would la- 


bour to have it public : and my lord of London not utterly BOOK 
denying licence ; but saying, he would first see some testi- ' 
mony, that the said minister was ordained minister. But 
he only did the duty of a private man ; neither preached 
he publickly, nor ministred any sacrament. 

To the article, That he preached on a holy day, Jan. the 
24th regincE, in the hall at Rochford, and divers people 
thereabouts resorted to his preaching ; he answered. We did 
then as at other times ; neither drawing nor shutting out 
any man, nor omitting any publick duties in the church. 

Concerning his ordination at Antwerp, he said, not that 
he went over for that end ; but being at Antwerp, whither 
he went to see the churches from whence idolatry had been 
lately driven, and Enghsh merchants desiring him to assist 
in the ministry, he was religiously ordained thereunto ; and 
there did execute it. As also at Vilfort, where was a gar- 
rison of 600 Scots, by the earnest suit of their band, and 
a colonel, one Mr. Bombridge, governor of the town ; and 
with consent of the ministers of the three several languages 
in Antwerp. The manner also of his admitting he de- 
clared, so long as they would hear him. And he is ready 
to declare it at all times, when it shall be demanded of 

Touching that he said, Every minister is a bishop ; it is 
true that he said he is sTrla-xo'iros, which we call bishop, ac- 
cording to the word of God. But he said not, every one is 
a lord bishop. My lord of London himself said as much 
in effect, when I was last before him in the consistory. For 
rebuking Mr. White for smiting one of his parishioners, he First Mon- 

/ -irr'*-"ol A" day in Lent, 

alledged that scripture, ixij ttA^jxttjv, 1 iim, m. 6. that a o«-i5g,_ 
shoj) must be no striker. There had been no reason in the 
speech, if Mr. White, only being a minister, had not been a 

To the last article, that Mr. Greenwood served the lord 
Rich, and did that which he did for him only : that he used 
the Book of Common Prayer ; saving, that for brevity sake 
he read not all : he hath answered himself, that he con- 

0. 4 


HOOK tinucd not a curate, for want of audacity and utterance 
^' he being otherwise both godly and well learned. 

Number XXIV. 

WrigMs answers to the notes of matters proved against 
him by sworn witnesses. 
HE humbly craved, that the manner used in proceeding 
against him might be considered of. That the commission 
was sent down whilst he was in prison, [in the Gatehouse.] 
The commissioners were men appointed by special choice, 
that they might serve such a turn. Dr. Walker, archdea- 
con, who was never injured by him, had before notoriously 
slandered him. Others whom he knew not : but the one 
was a commissary, allied to the bishop ; the other a gentle- 
man, of whom he had heard indeed, that he went to the 
church. That the examinants which were godly disposed 
were sharply rebuked, when they would not speak that 
4 1 which they knew not against him. That they which were 
brought in for witnesses were the only men that bare him 
displeasure. And his humble suit was, that the cause 
might be weighed. That he never abused any of them in 
word or deed : but they being all ministers, partly sto- 
mached him, because he shewed a mislikc of those which 
had two benefices ; partly for that he lovingly admonished 
one Mr. Bar wick, his first accuser, who laboured to prove 
that God delighted in mediocrity., by these reasons: viz. 
rreached in Man was put in vicdio paradisi. A rib was taken out of 
srv^eraV'""' the midst of man. The Israelites went through the midst 
parishes, of Jordan ; and {he viidst of the Red sea. Sampson put 
firebrands in the between the foxes tails. Davids 
men had their garments cut off by the middcst. Christ was 
hanired in the middcst between two thieves. 

Another great cause of their ill will seemed to be this; 
that my lord, that was then with God, used him with great 
favour ; as he did also all preachers whom he saw to be di- 


ligent in their function. But contrary wise he shewed small BOOK 
countenance to these men. Yet lovingly (yea, perhaps also 
vehemently) told them of such things as he thought to be 
faults and negligencies in their ministry. And this they 
falsely attributed, as coming from him [Wright.] Now the 
chief cause of shewing this envy was the great person who 
desired to have Mr. Rich and him out of my lords house : 
as Mr. Barwicks letter did shew. 

That touching the collections, [specified in those notes of 
what was sworn against him,] altho the witnesses indeed 
were as abovesaid, yet he could not think so ill of them, as 
that they would affirm the things which were there set 
down. Some being such as he never thought in his life, to 
his remembrance ; as that there zoere no lanofal ministers in 
England. That he was likewise charged, as it had been 
deposed against him, that he should say, To have a sermon 
on the queens day^ and to give God thanks for her majesty^ 
was to make her a god. He thought at the first, that per- 
haps corrupt men had testified so much : but when by Gods 
grace he got a sight of the commission returned, there was 
no such matter. 

That here was a witness oft named, one Mr. Wardal ; 
with whom he never talked but once only. And he had 
no other talk with him, but only where he had preached 
against my lord, and the exercises in his house. He say- 
ing, he did it upon my lords words : who told him and the 
other ministers, that he shewed in preaching, that they were 
all dumb dogs, &c. He told Wardel, that first he should 
have talked with him privately, before he had preached 
against him openly. Secondly, that he never spake any thing 
of him, or his neighbour ministers, but only spake generally 
against the faults of ministers, as his text led him, John x. 
A thief Cometh not but to kill, &c. shewing, that indeed of 
such as sought only their own commodities and not Gods 
glory, nor the profit of their flock ; of them he said, as the 
text saith, They were thieves and murtherers. At which 
time Mr. Wardel shewed no mishking of him, of his speech ; 
but spake very gently unto him. Neither yet Mr. Harris, 


BOOK a justice of peace, who, as he thought, talked with them all 
' the while. 

And therefore he most humbly sued, that first the col- 
lectors faith [who hatl gathered these notes of the deposi- 
tions] might be tryed. 

And then Wright proceeded to give his answer to each 
article set down in the notes, of matters deposed against 
him. Which follow. 

Ad. 1. The phrase of dumb dogs (tho^ used in the scrip- 
ture) is, and always hath been, very seldom in my mouth 
in any sort. But I suppose it cannot be proved that ever 
I called any man so, much less a preacher, and that (as the 
collector setteth it down) as if it were only for following the 
Book of Common Prayer. Not preaching at all, when a 
man is a pastor, or so preaching for fashion, that the wolf 
is not known, much less barked at, I think this, in the pro- 
phet's speech, may deserve the term of a dumb dog. But I 
have always I'everenced every godly and watchful minister 
that followeth the Book of Common Prayer : as also Mr. 
4'2 Dent and Mr. Barker, named in the last note, (I persuade 
my self altogether contrary to their testimony,) can well 
witness: and all other, both in Essex and elsewhere, that 
shew forth the fear of God in their ministry. 

Ad. 2. This doubtful speech argueth some evil affection. 
The collector or the witness would have an indefinite to be 
generally taken; for to say some ministers are thieves and 
nuu'therers; I would to God all fed their flock so well as 
it miu'ht be false. But that he would not have it under- 
stood of all, it may well a})pear. The master and fellows 
of Christ's college in Cambridge, being all, as I think, mi- 
nisters, that time when I had lived there about fourteen 
years amongst ministers, with one consent sealed the testi- 
mony of my good behaviour. \\\ Essex, I doubt not to 
biing twenty godly ministers, all preachers, which shall tes- 
tify that they love me, and have cause to think that I love 
and reverence them. I know not how my speech may be 
taken, l)ut I crave your lordships pardon, if, being thus 
pressed, I speak that which otherwise might seem arrogant : 


for if a quest of godly and preaching ministers be required BOOK 
to quiet me in these and such hke notes, I would be con- . 

tent to be condemned, if I bring not two hundred 
Ad. 3. for my discharge. I trust this may well declare, 

that I take them not for thieves and murtherers ; 
and yet I think not there are no lawful ministers in Eng- 
land. For I (do as certainly believe there are lawful mi- 
nisters in England, as I beheve there is a sun in the sky. 

Ad. 4. I desire that this note rnav be answered by that Dent. 

, _ . ^ "^1 - /^ * -i. Backer. 

which goeth next before. As for this common Javic, it 
must be taken from these persons, vicars or curates, that 
have set their hands to these notes : and yet I am sure two 
of them at the least will fail them. Touching those that 
are defamed in the judgment of those deponents, they are 
such ministers, as being idle altogether, and unmindful of 
their duty, are spoken of according to their deserts. As if 
a man should say, the prophet Zachary was a defamer of 
priests, when he cryed, saying, Woe he to the idol sheep- Ch.xi.\6. 
hard, that forsaketh his foci- : or St. Paul a defamer of 
preachers, because he writ of some such, that they were 
enemies of the cross of Christ; zohose God was their bellt/tP\u\.Vn. i9. 
their glory their shame ; which minded earthly things. 

Ad. 5. That which is said here to have been in January 
last, was done January was twelvemonth : the matter was 
thus. My lord thinking on Sunday at night to have one 
Mr. Dent preach on the Monday morning, warned the dark 
over night to toll the bell : Mr. Dent either was weary, or 
otherwise unwillingly : my lord also was not well. There- 
upon my lord would have his ordinary exercise in the 
house: and such as were in the church, and would hear, 
came and heard it. Otherwise we knew of none that was 
to preach in the church ; neither was it a day of any church 


Ad. 6. No magistrate examined me by what authority I 
preached, unto whom I might give any such answer. Nei- 
ther is it set down where or when . I spake the words. If 
I said any such thing in private speech within this year 


BOOK (whicli I remember not) I might justly say it; tho' I took 
' not upon me thereby to do any publick duty. But I hope 
tliis church will no more disallow the ministers of other re- 
formed churches, (if in life and doctrine sufficient,) than 
they disallow ours. 

Ad. 7. The thing being good and godly which we did, 
(tho"" I remember not when I should use these words,) yet 
I trust in some sort, tho"" not in general, I might speak 
them in truth, and with their honours good leave. But it 
is strange they should put up this as heinous to my lord of 
London, seeing he himself knew well of my being with my 
lord Rich : and was laboured to, both by my lord Rich that 
dead is, and by very honourable and worshipful knights, 
to have given me his license to preach })ublickly. Which, 
when he understood I was no minister, he would not grant. 
Yet spake he nothing that 1 heard of, to forbid me to do 
that which I did in my lord's house. But I continued 
without his check from Christmas was two years till INIi- 
chaelmas last. 
43 Ad. 8. I hope no indifferent man can charge me with 
unmodest speech: but if when they gave occasion, which 
were mentioned in the fourth note, (for no other hath ever 
yet complained,) some fault of theirs happened to be touch- 
ed, tho*" lovingly, it seems they took it as a taunt. 

Ad. 9. I trust, seeing no fipcc'ial is here mentioned, the 
things already said may meet sufficiently with this ge- 

Ad. 10. When these preachers oft spoken of, left the 
profitable expounding of the scriptures, and gave them- 
selves chieflv to inveigh against my lord, and the good 
exercises of his house, as if we had been anabaptists, or 
other hereticks, I desired my lord, that he would neigh- 
bourly confer with them, to know, whether they could 
charge us with any erroneous doctrine, tiiat we might 
amend it. If not, that they might bend their wits to speak 
more for the edifying of the people, and not to the dis- 
couraging of anv, nor to the tlefaming of my lord's house^ 


Which scope if my lord chanced in any word to pass, I BOOK 
trust they will pardon him, being dead especially. ' 

Robert Wright. 
Who most humbly craveth pardon, 
if in the writing there have been 
any want of duty. 

Number XXV. 

Ocliland's character of sir William Cecil, lord Burghley, 
lord treasurer. In heroic verse. 

ANTE alios, istosque omnes, instante sinistra 
Fortuna, cujus princeps, instante periclo, 
Est experta fidem, sincere corde profectam; 
Primus adest, ducens fidos Cecilius heros, 
Complures secum; ac in sacrum voce senatum 
Principis eligitur primus. Nunc grandior aevo, 
Confectus senio, studiis maceratus, et aeger 
Sfepe sviis pedibus, graviora negotia canos 
Ante diem accersunt crines, curvamque senectam. 
Qui quater est decimus vix tunc expleverat annum. 
Somni perparcus, parce vinique cibique 
In mensa sumens, semper gravis atque modestus, 
Nulliusque joci ; semper sermone retractat 
Seria ; sive silet, meditatur seria semper. 
Religionis amans verae, studiosior aequi ; 
Ad magnas natus res nostra aetate gerendas. 
In patriam cujus studium propensa voluntas, 
In cives amor, atque fides in sceptra tenentem. 
In magnis regni solers sapientia rebus. 
Ultra Europam illi peperit memorabile nomen. 
Nee jam consiliis pollens florescere primo 
Csepit, in Edvardi defuncti claruit aula 
Regis, consultor prudens juvenilibus annis. 
Inter primores regionis quando procellis 
Exortis, cautus studuit sedare tumultus. 
Dumque alii sulco subsidunt gurgitis imo, 


BOOK Et piippini feriunt stridcnti flaniine venti, 

Prona ruit ccleri lapsii ])ars una clcorsuni, 
Ipse decus, sedemque suani, nomenquc tuetur. 
Quo ]iacto INIaria prudcns se gcsserit Anolis 
Iniperitantc, focos velo obducente, quod alto 
Pendebat nialo, (magnis quia cedere praestat 
Fluminibus, contra niti aut obstare furori 
Currcnti, certum ct parit uxitiale pericluni) 
49 Denotat indiciis hominem apparentibus ilium 

Vere prudentem, mediis quod in hostibus annos 
Sex totos Caypha" nudtum cxosusquc coliorti 
Degeret illaesus, per vices, conipita ot urbeni 
Se ostendens populo, cimi pars bona longius exul 
Tenijiora contereret, Deus hunc servavit in ainiae 
Principis obsequium, nostrique in commoda regni. 
Reguni legates orantes audiit aure 
Attenta; responsa quibus dedit ore diserto. 
Nestor consiliis, qui nunc Burghleius heros, 
Sylvis, praediolis laetis, et ab arce vocatur, 
Et fisci custos a^raria publica curat : 
Cognoscens causas sunimo (res digna relatu est) 
Et studio et cura lites secat ocyus, ut non 
Pra?stolans spatium bidui triduique nioretur : 
Omnes exuperans liac laudis parte priores : 
Ni poscat plures niagni res ponderis horas, 
Nee queat exculpi longo sine tem|iore verum, 
Jure sit ha^c niagni laus prima et vera dynasta:. 

Nu^uber XXVI. 
J catechism ; containing certain questions and anszcos 

touching the doctrine of predestinatio'n., the use of God's 

K'ord and sacraments. Formerlij hound up xcith some 


Q- WHY do men so much vary in matters of religion? 

J. Because all bave not the like measure of knowledge. 
Neither do all believe the gospel of Christ. 


Q. What is tJie reason thereof ? BOOK 

A. Because they only beheve the gospel and doctrine of '_ 

Christ which are ordained unto eternal life. 

Q. Are not all ordained unto eternal life ? 

A. Some are vessels of wrath, ordained unto destruction ; 
as others are vessels of mercy, prepared to glory. 

Q. How standeth it with God's justice that some are ap- 
pointed unto damnation ? 

A. Very well : because all men have in themselves sin, 
which deserveth no less. And therefore the mercy of God 
is wonderful, in that he vouchsafeth to save some of that 
sinful race, and to bring them to the knowledge of the 

Q. If God's ordinance and determination must of neces- 
sity take effect, then what need any man care.^* For he that 
liveth well must needs be damned, if he be thereunto or- 
dained : and he that liveth ill must needs be saved, if he be 
thereunto appointed. 

A. Not so : for it is not possible that either the elect 
should always be without care to do well, or that the repro- 
bate should have any will therunto. For to have either 
good will or good work is a testimony of the Spirit of God, 
which is given to the elect only; whereby faith is so wrought 
in them, that being grafte in Christ, they grow in holiness 
to that glory whereunto they are appointed. Neither are 
they so vain, as once to think that they may do as they list 
themselves, because they are predestinate unto salvation : 
but rather they endeavour to walk in such good works as 
God in Christ Jesus hath ordained them unto, and prepared 
for them to be occupied in, to their own comfort, stay, and 
assurance, and to his glory. 

Q. But how shall I know my self to be one of those whom 50 
God hath ordained to life eternal ? 

A. By the motions of spiritual hfe: which belongeth only 
to the children of God. By the which that life is perceived: 
even as the life of this body is discerned by the sense and 
motions thereof. 

Q. What mean you by the mot/nn.s' of spiritual life.^ 


BOOK A. 1 mean remorse of conscience, joyning with the loath- 
ing of sin, and love of righteousnes ; the hand of faith 
reaching unto hfe eternal in Christ; the conscience com- 
forted in distress, and raised up to confidence in God by 
the work of his Spirit ; a thankful remembrance of God's 
benefits received, and the using of all adversities as occasion 
of amendment sent from God. 

Q. Cannot sucii perish as at some time or other feel these 
motions within themselves? 

A. It is not possible that they should. For as God's pur- 
pose is not changeable, so he repenteth not the gifts and 
graces of his adoption. Neither doth he cast off those whom 
he hath once received. 

Q. ^Vhy then should we pray by the example of David, 
that he cast us not from his face, and that he take not his 
holy Spirit from us.'' 

A. In so jjraying, we make protestation of the weakness 
of flesh, which moveth us to doubt. Yet should not we 
have courage to ask, if we were not assured that God will 
give according to his purpose and promise that which we 

Q. Do the children of God feel the motions aforesaid al- 
ways alike ? 

A. No, truly. For God sometime, to prove his, seemeth 
to leave them in such sort, that the flesh over matchetli the 
spirit: whereof ariscth trouble of conscience for the time. 
Yet the spirit of adoption is never taken from them that 
have once received it ; else might they perish. But as in 
many diseases of the body tlie powers of bodily life are 
letted, so in some assaults these motions of spiritual life are 
not perceived : because they Iv hidden in our manifold in- 
firmities, as the fire covered with ashes. Yet as after sick- 
ness Cometh health, and after clouds the sun shineth clear, 
so the powers of spiritual life will more or less be felt and 
perceived in the children of God. 

Q. What if I never feel these motions in my self, shall I 
despair, and think my self a cast-away .f* 

A. God forbid. For God calleth his at what time he 


seeth good. And the instruments whereby he usually call- book 
eth have not the like effect at all times. Yet it is not good ' 
to neglect the means wherby God hath determined to work 
the salvation of his. For as wax is not melted without heat, 
nor clay hardned but by means thereof, so God useth means 
both to draw those unto himself whom he hath appointed 
unto salvation, and also to bewray the wickedness of them 
whom he justly condemneth. 

Q. By what means useth God to draw men to himself, 
that they may be saved ? 

A. By the preaching of his word, and the ministring of 
the sacraments therunto annexed, &c. 

[Number XXVI.] 

Declaratio eorum qucs circa Mendozce, catholici regis le- 
gati, missionem acciderwit ; una cum responso ad ejiis- 
dem ohjecta contra snam mcijestatem . 

CUM ita inciderunt, &c. In English thus : When the Chart, 
times so fell out, that her majesty of England saw that she ""^^^ '^"* 
must necessarily resolve with her self concerning sending 
home Bernardine de Mendoza, now for some years tarrying 
with her in quality of the catholick kings ambassador ; and 
that the sentence of that decree might seem to his master 
too sudden, and besides expectation, by reason of past let- 
ters on the behalf of her majesty, significatory of so un- 
thought on a chance, as letters revocatory by the same 
catholick kins: to his ambassador : whence it might be 
feared, lest that friendship might with neighbour nations 
and monarchs be rendred suspected, which from antient 
times was between the kings of England and the kings of 
Spain ; 

It seemed worth the pains to her majesty, as well pub- 
lickly to testify a fuller belief of her purposes, as on that 
part to explain to the catholick king the causes of that suf- 
ficiently sudden decree, and to inform the king what the 
thing is; that she, overlooking all those acts that were com- 



liooK niittcd by Mendoza, and commending them to perpetual 
' oblivion, was ready to cultivate that antient and long ])ast 

amity, which both their majesties drew by an antient he- 
reditary right from their most excellent ancestors, to the 
good and profit of both nations : to cultivate, I say, by all 
the best offices, as always hitherto, so for the future ; if the 
catholick king will not be wanting in performing like good 
deserts with her majesty, as well in her own cause as in that 
of her subjects. 

It is confest, that it can lie hid from none to whom the 
report of things done here in England hath come, how that, 
besides all duty due to the queens majesty, certain wicked 
plotters, as well domestick as those that lie abroad, have 
stirred naughty and more than wicked cnterprizes .igainst 
the queens majesty, and against the crown, to disturb the 
44 peace of the most happy English empire, so odious and 
damnable in themselves, that no laws (the revengers of 
wickednesses and abominations) may bear many of them ; 
and from which her royal majesty escaped safe and unhurt, 
only by the singular goodness of God. 
Miiidoza. Which things while they were openly discovered and 
brought to the light, Mendoza was found : who, besides the 
office of an ambassador, to which he was given by the king, 
and accordingly the affiiirs of his lord, concerning which 
now for many months he had no discourses with her ma- 
jesty, (but followed those studies by which he might lessen 
the amity and peace constituted between these crownes,) 
he is found a most diligent head and ringleader, by wit- 
ness clearer than noon light, and by arguments beyond all 
exception, to disturb the quiet state of the common wealth. 

Which tieed, as being barbarous in its self, and against 
the law of natitms, and contrary to his office, and quite 
estranged from it, her majesty doubted not liow rejected 
and liated it was of his catholic majesty. 

But according to that study of justice and honour that is 
in her majesty, she would not resolve to send back the man 
before that she had made it to be demonstrated to liini, and 
that from the confessions of those whom he hath assoeiali'd 


in this conspiracy, the counsels which he had attempted and BOOK 
acted, having given for that purpose certain commands by ' 

the counsil of his secretary to the chief men, which lay the 
crimes to Mendoza that are in the next place recited. 

To wit: That for some months he had communicated 
more secret counsils, as well by letters as by messengers, 
with the queen of Scots and her ministers. That he con- Queen of 
ferred frequent discourses with some of her majesties sub- ' 
jects; and so was author to them concerning means whereby 
the foresaid queen might be conveyed out of custody, in 
which she is detained by her majestys order, and recover 
her liberty. That, as well by himself as by his messengers, 
he hath not desisted to sollicite the minds of those to revolt 
whom he thought to be favourers of the Roman and popes 
religion, and that they should joyne hands together in so- 
ciety, to the exercising foreign soldiers, if any were sent by 
those princes, whom he named catholic, to make an irrup- 
tion into this kingdom ; giving his faith, that the catholic 
king his master would send auxiliary forces, and would 
bear half the charge of the soldiers. That he was conscious, 
and knew of his secretary, the return into England of 
Charles Paget, a runnagate out of this kingdom. Which 
said Charles being of the more secret service of the queen 
of Scots, being sent into these parts, came to Mendoza, 
(Francis Throgmorton relating the matter,) as well to so- 
licite the minds of the papists, as aforesaid to make a rebel- 
lion ; and to describe the ports which seemed most conve- 
nient for landing foreign soldiers; as also to note their 
names who were favourers and aiders of the designed inva- 
sion. This the foresaid Throgmorton, altho'' a strong and 
weighty testimony against himself, and that would touch 
his life, most freely confessed : which may be for an argu- 
ment, that it was not maliciously made by the man, nor 
sought ovit by himself for some bad purpose. Lastly, that 
he had received a little chest or box from the said Throg- 
morton, being in fear of taking ; which contained his fore- 
said descriptions and other writings : in which were noted 
the single heads of their conspiracies and practices ; to wit, 

R 2 


nook lor that end, that the said cabinet or box should be pre- 
^______ served with him, as the head and chief of this cons])iracy. 

For so Throgmorton related the thing. 

These things, when they were repeated to his face from 
the confession of the conspirators themselves, he was so far 
from lessening them by some honest ansAver, that so immo- 
destly, and beside the duty of an ambassador, boldly bawl- 
ing out, i);Tam5 rt«d trifles; and nothing- else; the point 
of his speech being turned against her majesty ; loaded her 
by false accusations with some injuries, which he feigned to 
himself, proceeding from her majesty towards the catliolick 
kinff. The heads of the calumnies are these. That beside 
the faith of friendship and the laws of nations, her majesty 
45 put under arrest the kings treasure, put in at certain ports 
of this kingdom : that she helped the states of Holland 
M'ith soldiers and mony, at the intercession of the marquess 
Hautrecht and others: that she affected prince Anthony 
with very many honorary gifts and benefits : that she had 
sent some thousands to the duke of Anjou in his ex})cdition 
at Cambray : that she had sent some noblemen of her king- 
dome in the said dukes march to Belgium, that for honours 
sake they might be present at the auguration of the duke 
for duke of Brabant : that a certain counsillor of her ma- 
Kari of jesty, with the brothe?- of a certain earl, entred into hidden 
Sussex. counsils, with the brother of a certain earl, concerning kill- 
ing of John of Austria : lastly, that one Drake, a subject of 
her majesty, in May, plundred the catholic king and his 
sid)jects to the sum of 200,000 crownes. 

But now, ahho'' the hasty and rash conveyance of false 
crimes against her majesty signifieth nothing at all to wash 
off so wicked a practice, where he is held bound in the court 
of all judgments, and moreover to be past over as unworthy 
of answer: yet it hath seemed gocxl to her majesty to testify 
to all men the honest conscience of her doings, and to draw 
down those objections with the faith of honour and sin- 
cerity, that it may appear to the catholic king and others, 
wliosoever are not averse to truth, how, besides all her de- 
serts, Mendo/a hath endeavoured to draw lier majesty into 


hatred with good princes. Which that it may be, let it BOOK 
first be allowed to run over more sparingly, and less largely ' 
than is fit for the truth of the matter, the ingrateful deserts 
(as she persuades her self) which the catholic king and his 
ministers, provoked with no injuries before given, have laid 
down to her majesty. 

Let first occurr that well known peace by the catholick 
king made with the French king, not much after the death 
of his wife, and the queen's majesty's sister, queen Mary. 
Which peace was very gainful to him, for the restoring of 
many things; but very dammageable to her majesty and 
the crown of England, by reason of the restoration of Ca- 
lais, despised by him. Which yet he ought not to have 
neglected ; because of the very fresh memory of the benefit 
of the auxiliary forces which he had received from her ma- 
jesty's sister. And that at his prayer and entreaty also, the 
crown of England had joyned it self in his war with France. 
Whence followed the taking of that town out of the hands Calais. 
of the English, after the kings of England had possessed 
that town with much honour for the space of years. 

Add, because that when the crown of England lived in 
the fullest peace with its neibour nations, and so with all 
the princes of Europe, yet for the sake of the catholic king- 
alone, before that siege which was at St. Quintins, it cast it 
self into enmity with the king of France ; whence that war 
broke out, which presently followed with the French and 
Scots, at one and the same time the realm of England 
bearine; the assault of both : to which nevertheless, afflicted 
for his sake alone, the catholic king was so far from being 
an help; 

That he favoured the Scots : permitted them free traffic Scots. 
in the Low Countries ; passing by the most equal demands 
of the crowne of England, of not following the Scots with 
so great deserts ; who had been enemies to her majesty by 
reason of the auxiliary bands, joyned with the catholic king 
ao-ainst the French king. Strange things might be related, 
that the kingdom of England, so very wel deserving of the 
catholic king, that it cast it self into the hatred of the 

K 3 


BOOK French and Scots, might be objected cagainst their argu- 
' nients, to be forsaken in their straits and afHictions, unless 
the open desertion, and the kings decree concerning the 
Scots mens friendship, testified it. 

D'Assonville, who now lyeth in the Low Countries, and 
look by the kings command count Feria his colleague of 
this office .... was come into England, [something here 
wanting:] hereafter after this maner, being compelled by 
very unequal conditions to make peace with the French and 
Scots. In the mean time, the catholic king and the duke 

of Savoy [imperfect.] 

46 Behold in one moment the crown of England placed in 
a double misfortune : Calais lost, an antient possession ; and 
two neibouring nations, not to be despised, of friends made 
enemies ; and, in short, a third, from the memory of man 
not easily to be wiped out, without a compensation of be- 

Her majesty, born and made to all humanity of nature, 
who is wont to forget nothing but injuries, according to 
that study wherby she maintaineth amities with neibour 
princes; but so chiefly with the catholic king, for that 
friendship which from antient times was betwixt this crown 
and the house of Burgundy, the foregoing unkind deserts 
neolected, first by the lord Cobham mediating, who was 
queen Maries ambassador w ith the king ; after that by two 
ambassadors of the queen with the same king, each in their 
time resident, Tho. Chaloner and Tho. Chamberlain, knts. 
she tryed the king's mind, and of some of the chief men 
that were ])resent with him in his councils, of renewing the 
antient leagues made between the kings of England and the 
liouse of Burgundy, but in vain ; neither the king nor the 
counsillors having regard to that matter. Not much after, 
her majesty reneweth her purpose ; vicount IVIountagu, and 
Tho. Chamberlain, kt. being sent away into Flanders, re in- 

If those things do not openly enough shew the king's 
mind not well affected towards her majesty, Mr. Man suc- 
eeded the former. Who how friendly he was received, and 


with what wonderful expressions of humanity, in his first BOOK 
entrance upon his ambassy in Spain, witnes the opening of ______ 

his chests and coffers ; his access to the king put off to the 
third week from his coming into the king"'s court ; his ser- 
vants compelled to hear mass; his son and steward were 
compelled, with wax candles in their hands, to be present 
at their service ; from his first coming into Spain to his re- 
turn out of Spain, loaded with no better rewards. These 
things proceded from the king himself to Ijer majesty, de- 
serving and expecting better offices: and was any thing- 
better or more courteous from the king's ministers ? 

In the year 1568, which followed the former, the duke 
d'Alva, in the Low Countries, put in arrest not only the 
goods and merchandizes of whatsoever subjects of England, 
but also the merchants themselves; pretending certain ships 
here, [stopt,] and of some merchandizes of Genoa, to be- 
long to the catholic king. There came forth into light, now 
a good while ago, a most equal and ful defence of this ar- 
rest don by her majesty ; Avhich so far commendeth the 
faith and integrity of her majesty, that there is no body of 
all men who can want therefore restitution from her ma- 
jesty in whole. For the letters of the Genoans (which are 
stil kept) are witnesses, that nothing in that case was don 
by her majesty but by the request of the catholic ambassa- 
dor, and at the prayer of the catholic ambassador, and at 
their prayer who thought it as a thing very profitable to 
escape the hands of the French pyrate, who at that time, 
roving in the seas, laid wait for them. Of the arrest don by 
the catholick king [towards the English merchants goods] 
it seemed not so clear. 

In the year 69 the civil fire brake out here into flames 
within the kingdom of England : whose torches and foreign 
fiabella by certain were discovered. Duke d'Alva, and that 
Guenes Despensis, ambassador of the catholick king, (both 
whom are dead,) but both conscious witnesses of their own 
wickedness, to be condemned by their own free confessions : 
altho"* they have left very many alive in the Low Countries, 
yet the head and chief among the rest, monsieur de la 

R 4 


BOOK Moth, governour of Graveling at that time, being sent out 
'• ])y duke d'Alva into England to further those businesses. 
It is certain, indeed, that the catholic king for that time m 
word disproved the deed, as don without his knowledg : al- 
tho' he make it believed on the contrary, that he did as yet 
maintain at his own cost the chief incendiaries and rebels in 
his dominions with him; where they fearing, withdrew 
themselves from the danger of their lives. And, but a little 
while ago, used, for that matter, the pains of some who are 
4 7 with him in the chief magistracy. He that persuaded some 
of the former incendiaries to pass over into Scotland, to stir 
up innovation in those northern parts: where they were 
thought to be provided with the patronage and tuition of 
friends. The later wounds of violated friendship are those 
in confirming the minds of the rebells in Ireland, and by 
affording help to them. 

And now the things being recited more discourteously 
don against her majesty by the catholic king, which it is 
enough shortly to have touched, let him weigh them with 
himself; and what may seem to have given the cause; antl 
of those things, in the next place, which are said to have 
proceded from her majesty towards the catholick king, he 
will judge most rightly and easily: the kings conscience 
being witnes, that no prince ever, or any where, prepared 
and furnished so well to revenge injuries brought upon her, 
would or could so temper her self in so singular a number 
of the greatest wrongs, as her majesty hath tempered her- 
self. But of these enough. 

Now let us see concerning the calumnies of Mendoza. 
He objecteth first, That the States, at the request of Hau- 
tretcht, were aided with men and mony. Concerning tiiis 
head enough hath been answered already of tiie queen's 
majesty by Tho. Wilks, one of her secretaries, being sent, 
at the same time and for the same purpose, ambassador to 
Spain. To which answer if any now should be addeil, what 
hindred (by how much the less he liath taken all Belgium) 
her taking the Low Countries into her power, on their own 
accord offered to her by the consent of the greatest part of 


the nobles, common people, and cities, if she had carried in bo(3K 
her mind the severe revenge of severer revenge. Add, that ______ 

there were not wanting abetters, and such as persuaded to 
that thing, which at this day are in some place, and obtain 
countenance with the king. 

But as her majesty is more desirous of good deeds, con- 
science, and honour, than of profit, she could be persuaded 
by none : neither persuasion, nor the tears of those that 
were opprest with his tyranny by the kings chief officers, 
nor by the surrender of all the Low Covmtries, throwing 
themselves down at her feet to usurp to her self the antient 
and hardest possessions of the catholic king, or suffer it to 
be usurped by others that were ambitious of it. Wherefore, 
that she might as well preserve intire to the catholic king- 
that which was his, as she might not be wanting, more than 
too much, to the afflicted Belgic people, and might restrain 
them from casting off their obedience and allegiance due to 
the catholic king, and might keep them in their duty, mi- 
nistred some mony to maintain an army, and helped them 
by some other not dishonorable means. In the mean time, 
by frequent embassies moving their minds to yield obe- 
dience to the catholic king, to come into favour with him ; 
and on the other side, by entreating the king to suffer him- 
self to be bent by the prayers of his friends, to forgive his 
people their error, to receive them into favour, to protect 
them in the good fortune of their laws and privileges. That 
he should give g-overnours in the Low Countries who should 
be disposed to peace, not to civil broils ; by such offices on 
the one side, and on the other, that the Low Countries might 
be preserved safe; which otherwise enclined to a change 
of their lords. Which was indeed afterwards don by sub- 
mitting themselves to the rule of the duke of Anjou, when 
they saw their prayers, and the prayers of their friends, 
despised by the catholic king, and the queens majesty with- 
drawing her auxiliary forces from their afflicted conccrnes. 

But as to the sending over of 3000 soldiers into the Low 
Countries, whom her majesty is said to send for the use of 
the States to rule his subjects, (whence he, [Mendoza] by a 


BOOK certain study of evil-speaking, would cast a blot upon her 
L majesty,) who is there so averse to truth, so mad, so igno- 
rant of things done in England, who doth not understand, 
or might, if he would, that the transporting of soldiers out 
of this kingdom into the Low Countries had been pro- 
hibited from the first time of the civil tumults in Holland 
to this very day ? That it is so far from it, that any at any 
48 time should be furnished with royal authority sent for the 
States, that they waited for the expedition privately, and 
without the queens knowledg : liaving gotten for that pur- 
pose means very secret, not out of the public ports, but out 
of obscurer creeks. 

'Tis true, the most fortunate times of happy peace, which 
her majesty obtaineth by the singular goodness of God, now 
1583. five and twenty years and more, have begot a very nume- 
rous people. It is true, and that ease and great minds do 

not especially where things flowing according to 

peoples wills are wanting, or where there be but narrow cir- 
cumstances at home. Hence it hath come to pass, that some 
few, the barrs of obedience broken, being not made for idle- 
ness, have withdrawn themselves from England to amies, 
and served in the Low Countries : some on the States, and 
some on the kings side. Not, as he [Mendoza] rashly, in- 
considerately, and without thought hath dared to affirme. 

53 Number XXVII. 

The syndics and council of Geneva to the lord treasurer 

Burghleij ; to move the queen to relieve them against the 

army of the duke of Savoy. 
MSs. Burg. MONSIEUR, nous avons entendu par le raport de seig- 
neur Maillet, nostre bien aymc conseillier, raff'ection, qu''il 
vous a pleu employer pour donner succes a ce que nous avons 
poursuivy vers sa raajeste. Et comme nous vous recognois- 
sons des principaux instruments de bien faict et liberalite 
dc sa majeste cnvers nous ; aussi n'avons nous voulu obmet- 
trc de vous tcsmoigner Tobligation, que nous sentons avoir 
a vous, nous tascherons dc conserver et perpetuer la me- 


moire aux nostres, qui auront aveq nous tousjours une trcs- BOOK 
juste occasion de louer Dieu de ce qu'il luy a pleu susciter ' 
tel seigneur de nierite, que vous, monsieur, pour favoriser 
cest estat en une telle occasion. Dc cecy nous concevons 
esperance, que Dieu nous continuera son assistance selon 
les commencemens, qu'il nous en faict veoir, et ne permettra 
point, que ceux qui nous persecutant a cause de la religion, 
dont nous faisons profession, triomphent de nous. Ains 
prendra la cause des siens en main, et fera paroir sa vertu 
et puissance en nostre petitesse. 

Ccpendant il luy plaist, que nous soions de present exer- 
cez par diverges menaces de nos enemis, lesquels taschent 
d'amener a chef la mauvaise volonte, qu'ils ont des long- 
temps conceve contre nous. On meet de garnisons pres de 
nostre ville, et faict on passer de gens de guerre, qu'on en- 
tretient asses pres de nous. lis cmpeschent aussi de nous 
apporter des granies : et en oultre sommes advertis du pas- 
sage prochain de douze mil Espaniolz par la Savoye et 
Bourgogne. Ou ils doivent faire quelque sejour, pour dela 
(commc on diet) se rendre au Pays bas. 

Toutes Icsquelles choses concurrentes ensemble ne nous 
permettent aulcunq repos du coste des nos ennemis; mais 
opposans a toutes ces considerations humaines la puissance 
de Dieu, par laquelle nous subsistons, nous esperons, que 
nous garentira et conservera par sa gloire, comme nous Ten 

Et quant a moyens humains, dont il plaist a Dieu se ser- 
vir pour la deliverance des siens, nous nous assurons, mon- 
sieur, que vous et autres seigneurs, qui vous estes monstres 
affectiones envers nous, continuerez de plus en plus a nous 
favoriser selon les occasions, qui se presenteront, et aurez 
nostre estat en recommendation, comme luy qui sera tous- 
jours dcdie a vous faire service ; priant sur ce Dieu, 

Monsieur, qu'en vous accroissant ses graces, il vous con- 
serve longue et heureuse vie. De Geneva ce xxve de De- 
cembre, 1583. 

Les syndiques et conseil de Geneve, vos hien volun- 
taires et ajfectionez amis, a vous faire service. 


BOOK [Number XXVII.] 

Epistola serenissimcE Scotontm reg-inoi Marlce ; ah episc&po 

^1 Rosscns'i^ {id videtu);) m'lfifia. 

Rob. Turn. CUM pcrmulti (serenissima regina) me narrante, cogno- 

professor, . ., ....... -i p ti 

injfoistad. vissent, quibus miseriis impiicita, quibus rraudibus petita, 
Epist. quam variis undiquc calamitatibus obscpta fucris, iiitimis 

sane sensibus angebantur. xVt cum id intcllexissont te in 
istas molestias eo maxinie nomine incidisse, quod in catho- 
lica religionc tencnda constans, dcfcndcnda magnanima 
semper fueris, tantum aberat, ut tuam vieem dolerent, ut 
absterso penitus dolore, pietati, constantise, magnanimitati 
tua' gratularcntur. Siquidem vere statuebant in calamitati- 
bus istis posse te esse {vrunniosam, cum homo nata sis, sed 
nullo modo miseram, cum pie Christiana sis. Quis enim a 
Christi mente tam abhorret, ut quam Christus beatam ap- 
pellet, banc ipsam miseram putet .'' Nam si illi, qui propter 
religionem carceris poenam, propter Christum capitis peri- 
cuhmi, propter justitiam persecutionum procellas adierint, 
bcati dicendi sint, qua rationc tu misera (hci aut cogitari 
queas.'* Quse ista omnia tanta mentis alacritate subiisti, ut 
nee carceris, nee exihi, nee alias fortuna^ difficultates, aspcras 
putaris, ct duras; sed incredibili potius dulcedine delini- 
tas; quasi assent non poenae ab hominibus, sed pra?mia a 
Deo meritis tuis, proposita et constituta. 

Undc vencrat mihi in mentem cogitarc banc tantam men- 
tis tufE aequabilitatem non aliunde fluere, quam quod virtus 
qua?dam in animum tuum ccrlitus illapsa, ita omnes tuas 
cogitationes occupant, ut rem non humano sensu, sed divina 
mente metireris. Nam supra hinnanam naturam, aut sal- 
tem supra hujus a^tatis virtutem videtur esse ; mulicrem in 
flore a^tatis, et regire dignitatis s])lendore constitutam, ha- 
bere aninumi patientia ita vallatum, ut in acerrimis angori- 
bus la'ta, in arctissimis custodiis libera, in simimis miseriis 
feHx i]isa sibi vidcretur : itaque tanta constantia' significa- 
tionc, ut hoc modo viderctiu* velle semper esse fclix ; id est. 
j)ropter Christum misera. Qua* res facit, ut crcdam, fu- 
turum brevi, ut ne spcranti, ncc cogitnnti ista^ tibi miseria> 


condiantur suavitate, et carceres peviculaque compensentur BOOK 
summa felicitate. Deus enim suos, cum omni plane spe ex- 

cidere judicantur, e periculis vindicat; ut et arctiori eos 
sibi beneficio deviiiciat, ut clarius ejus in ipsos emineat bo- 

Quare etsi non videmus, cur nobis, si rerum humanarum 
lance omnia ponderemus, sit sperandum; tamen cum ad 
Deum animum cogitationemque meam refero, inducor, ut 
nullam causam putem esse, cur aut nos, qui Dei et tua 
causa libentissinie omnia ferimus, de summis reip. bonis 
desperemus; aut tu (serenissima regina) in extremis istis 
malis extabescas plane. Idem namque Deus qui Davidem 
gravissimis Saulis vexationibus oppressum, Manassem car- 
ceris squallore pene confectum, et apostolum Paulum imma- 
nissimo Neronis, tanquam leonis, furori objectum, liberarat, 
te quoque potest reip. et rempub. tibi, et utrique ecclesiam, 
et in ecclesia summam libertatem, et in summa libertate 
summam jucunditatem, restituere. 

Quid enim frangaris, aut animo concidas.'' Nonne idem 
Deus, Malcolmum, Robertum et Davidem Brusios, Jaco- 
bum tritavum tuum, aliosque majores tuos arctissima apud 
Anglos custodia compreliensos, in libertatem asseruit; ac 
amplioribus quam antea honoribus cumulavit.? At quam, 
quaeso, ob causam istorum fortunam, pene prostratam erexit 
Deus ? Ut tibi et omnibus suis ostendcret, se illis nunquam 
defuturura, quam diu manent sui. Macte igitur animo, 
(piissima regina) horum exemplo spera meliora, pacatiora, 
ampliora. Non te frangant, sed, ut antea semper, sic nunc 
maxime excitent, curse, labores, pericula. Omnipotens enim 
Deus, multorum precibus in humilitate cordis, toties ro- 
gatus te ex istis periculis ereptam, honoribus longe majori- 
bus, ornabit ; ac horum laborum curarumque, quibus alio- 
rinn mentes frangi solent tua ne angi quidem potest, pra?- 
mium longe amplissimum proponet, libertatis suavitatem52 
augebit, regni fines proferet : nunquam denique desinet tibi 
esse pater, si tu iUi pergas esse filia. 

Quare ut id, quod summa quadam cum laude nunc facis, 
serio et constanter semper facias, et literis absens, et verbis 


BOOK pracscns, saepissime tecum egi. Ad quani rem, cum pluii- 
'• nuuii momenti allaturam historian lectionem putarcm, res 
gestas postcrionun rcgum, quas nuUus antca tctigerat, An- 
glice scriptas, cum legationis munus apud Anglos obirem, 
ad te miseram. Vcrum cum tcmporis nostri calamitas me 
publicis reip. muncribus cxcluscrat, nolui in hoc meo otio 
ita langucre, ut nulla plane ex meis laboribus utilitas ad 
rempublicam nostram manare videretur. Quare ne hoc 
meum otium sine ullo fructu reip. pcriisse existimetur, 
non solum qua? lingua Anglica festinans effuderam, Latino 
sermonc explicavi ; vcrum etiam anteacta? aetatis integram 
historian! in unum volumen ad nostrorum utilitatem, arc- 
tius compressi. Quae eo nomine ad tc jam mitto, ut inde 
seligas exempla, quibus te ad pietatis et religionis stadia 
magis et magis inflammes; ct virtutes, quibus tu flores 
maximc, in aliis tuis majoribus admireris, in te autem ames: 
ca quoque ex hoc nostro laborc effluet utilitas; quod ille 
optimae spei ac indolis princcps, filius tuus (quern reip. 
nostra? salvum, et ecclesia? Christi salutarcm fore, quotidi- 
anis a Deo precibus suppliciter contendo) hinc promat, et 
vitiorum, quae fugiat, et virtutum, quas sequatur, praeclaris- 
sima exempla. 

Is namque finis exemplis proponi et solet et debet, ut 
bonos bonorum praemiis ad virtutum studia, et malos malo- 
rum })a>nis ad vitiorum fugam, incendant. Qujt domi apud 
nos polius nascantur, cpiam foris ab exteris pctantur; acu- 
leos in animo tenelli tui filii relinquent, altius defixos. Ve- 
rissimum enim est, quod trivit communis doctorum sermo, 
majorem habere vim ad movendum, domestica (juam ex- 
terna exempla. Quare cum omnes jam ubique te suspiciant, 
ut piam, ut constantem, ut religiosam, id si tua diligentia 
effeceris, ut religionis et pietatis exempla in filii tui men- 
tem instilles, non minorem profecto laudem consequeris, 
([uam si ipsius imperium alio regno ampllficandiun curares. 
At cum id pietatis oflicium pra^sens pra^senti non possis 
pra?stare, in earn curam incumbe scdulo, ut ilium ad paren- 
tum suorimi vestigia in religionis et virtutum studiis pcrse- 
<|uenda Uteris et scripti;^, si languet, excites; si currat, in- 


cites. Neque sane satis fuerit, te ilium in tuis visceribus HOOK 
delitescentem, ab hostium insidiis ac furore immunem con- ^" 
servasse, nisi editum jam, et praeclara suae indoiis indicia 
prse se ferentem, pietate et virtute inbuendum opportune, im- 
portune, scriptis, nuntiis, omnibus denique modis, elabores. 
Id quod si feceris, (facturum te spero) futurum est, ut 
qui, anticipato regii honoris tempore, omnium in se oculos 
converterit, omnium item judicium et expectationem de sua 
virtute conceptam, non solum praeclare sustineat, sed etiam 
crescente aetate, multis quoque partibus vincat et superet. 
Verum si hoc pietatis officium nullo modo ex te, omni op- 
portunitate exclusa, proficisci poterit, nos, quicunque utri- 
que vestrum, ac in vobis reip. toti prospectum esse cupi- 
mus, banc illi operam scriptis ac libris, qui ad virtutem in- 
citent, fortasse navabimus. Vale feliciter, et hoc nostros la- 
bores boni consule. 

Number XXVIII. 54 

A proclamation against retainers. 
The queen, weighing the great inconveniences and enor- 
mities that have universally grown within her realm by un- 
lawful retaining of multitudes of unorderly servants by li- 
veries, and otherwise, contrary to the good and antient sta- 
tutes of this realm, hath therefore by her proclamation no- 
tified the same, and the dangers and penalties of the said 
laws unto her loving subjects ; giving them express admo- 
nition, that if they should not therupon forbear any further 
to offend therin, her will and pleasure was, that the said 
laws and statutes should be straitly put in execution, and 
the penalties and forfeitures growing thereby to her high- 
ness for the offences committed against the same to be duely 
levyed. Whereof notwithstanding their neither hath fol- 
lowed such reformation in that behalf as was expected, 
but the said mischiefs and enormities have rather more and 
more encreased. Neither have the said laws hitherto been 
duely put in execution, according to the former proclama- 
tion. Wherein had appeared most wilful contempt in the 


BOOK offenders, and great negligence and lack of dutiful care in 
^' those to whom the execution of the said laws was commit- 
ted ; which might justly move her highness to use lierein 
hereafter all severity and extremity. Yet neverthelcs her 
majesty having an earnest and most godly intention to pro- 
cure speedy reformation of so pernicious a sore in this com- 
monwealth, and of her gracious and merciful disposition, 
tendring more the quiet reformation of the faults, than to 
enrich her treasures by the great forfeitures, which l)y jus- 
tice are due unto her, meaneth to make some further tryal 
before she precede to severe execution of the same. 

And therefore to the end that such as have offended in 
this behalf, (either by unlawful retaining, or by being un- 
lawfully retained by livery, badges, promise, or otherwise,) 
being eftsones admonished of the dangers and penalties of 
the said laws and statutes, and of her majesty's will and 
pleasure for the strait execution of the same hereafter, may 
have convenient time and respit to reform themselves, and 
to eschew the peril and dangers of the said laws, she doth 
by her proclamation notify to all her loving subjects, of 
what state or degree soever they be, that whosoever, after 
the last day of May next coming, shall unlawfully retain, 
or be retained, &c. shall not have any manner of favour or 
grace of her majesty for any such offence committed or to 
be committed against the laws and statutes ; but that the 
whole penalties, forfeitures, and punishments, limited and 
appointed by the same laws, shall with al severity be ex- 
tended against them, as well for their offences committed 
before the said last day of May, as after, &c. And she 
charged all her justices and officers, to whom the execution 
of the same appartained, to cause incjuisition and examina- 
tion, accoriling to the same laws, to be made in all j)laces of 
the realm assoon as conveniently they might after the same 
last day of May, &c. And in every sessions inquisition to 
be made by a sufficient jiu*y of all points and articles of the 
statutes in force against unlawful retainers; especially of 
the statute 8 E. IV. and the 3d of her majesty's most no])le 
grandfather, king Henry VII. &:c. Given at her manour 


of Greenwich, the 19- of April, the 25. year of her reign, hook 
1583. ^' 

Number XXIX. 55 

Archiepiscopus Eborurn Cestriensi episcopo. 
Gratia, pax et salus a Deo Patre et Domino nostro 
Jesu Christo. 

INTUENTI mihi, (frater venerande) cursum et condi- Bibiioth. 
tionem hujus impietate perditi seculi; quantos agat trium- g^°(^^ ""' ■ 
phos Satan, quam longe lateque dominetur scelus, quam 
innumeri sunt ac frequentes improborum hominum flagiti- 
osi greges, quam exilis, quam arida, vel potius quam nulla, 
sit in terris fides, nulla pietas, videmus, in ultima et impia 
mundi hujus, jam interitui vicina tempora, devenisse : 

Cum porro mihi in mentem venit, zizaniam, horum pec- 
catorum semen, nulla re magis in agro Domini vel spargi, 
vel succrescere, quam agricolarum somnolentia, colonorum 
desidia, nee alivmde tantam cladem invectam esse Hieroso- 
lymae nostrae saneta? civitati (qua et muri sui evertuntur, et 
ipsa pcene capta cedit inimicorum violentiae) quam quod ex- 
cubiae, quae deberent vigilare somno sopitae, suis muneribus 
desunt : 

Adhaec, cum recolo, nos etiam ipsos, quibus curam suae 
vineae commisit Dominus, officio nostro parum satisfecisse, 
vitas nimium secure, tanquam in alta pace transegisse, ne- 
que hostibus Christi satis fortiter resistendo, neque Domini 
fundum arando satis diligenter, neque pascendo gregem 
satis fideUter, neque satis vigilanter in specula consistendo, 
munus noslrum prout decuit, adimplevisse ; uti meipsum 
negligentiae coarguo, testeque conscientiae cogor succumbere 
veniamque petere, (quanquam dissolutum, et pcnitus desi- 
dem me nunquam fuisse, novit Dominus ;) ita charitate pia 
fraternaque benevolentia commotus, meum esse duco te 
cohortari : uti quemadmodum idem nobis incumbit onus, 
eadem est administrandae provinciae reddenda ratio, sic con- 
junctis animis, quales nos esse decet ponderemus, securita- 
tem et somnolentiam discutiamus, redimamus tempus, accin- 



HOOK ganiiis nos ad praeliuni, gladios et anna Spiritus capiainus, 
" liostem communein profllgamus, et Christi fideni, vel ad 
saiiguinem et ca?deni, defendamus. 

Praefecit nos Deus geiitibus et populis, ut extirpemus et 
eradicemus, ut pcrdamus et dejicianius, ut a^dificemus et 
plantemus. Ideoque nostrum est, fibras superstitionis et ido- 
lolatriae radices falce divini verbi rcsecare, bonas etiam fru- 
ges evangelii propagatione per animos liominum conserere, 
arces et turres Jerlcuntis tuba coelestls Spiritus evertere; 
muros autem Jerosolyma? sacrumquc templum, quantum in 
nobis est, erigere ; saevitiam et tyrannidem Anticbristi sum- 
ma contentione convellere, regnum autem et imperium filii 
Dei sedula praedicatione stabilire. 

Neque vero solum hunc in pascendo suo grege laborem, 
videtur Dominus a nobis postulare, verum etiam flagitat; 
ne solutis legum sacratarum vinculis, impune peccatum vo- 
litet. Vult enim Dominus libidinem comprimi, scelus con- 
stringi, dissolutos mores contineri, quaeque dilapsa jam de- 
fluxerunt severis legibus, et dignis suppliciis, coerceri. Ita 
et saluti praecipitantis patriae melius consulemus, et eorum 
furorem, qui afflictam earn cupiunt, opprimere, felicius con- 
cutiemus. Hie igitur fidelcs et justos nos esse convenit, 
{equa lance quod suum est cuique tribuentes. Non debemus 
nos qucnquam, vel ob opes divitem, vel ob authoritatem po- 
tentem, vel ob amicitiam charum, vel ob commoditatem uti- 
lem, sic rcspiccre, quo minus opus Domini strenue com- 

Qui ergo sunt contumaccs et praefracti hostes, virga sunt 
ferrea comminuendi ; saltern, ne lepra sua sanos inflciant, 
constringvndi. Capienda^ sunt vulpcculae, quae demoliun- 
tur vineam, et pandenda venabida, quibus errones Papani, 
seditionum faces, et ecclesia^ pestes, irretiti cadant. Hoc 
enim genus hominum pessimuni est, et nostri fundi calami- 
tas ; qui nimia licentia fiunt deteriores, et impunitate jam 
56feroces, audacter cum sunnno discrimine bonorum omnium 
insolescunt. Est misericordia crudelis : et cur non cogeret 
ecclesia perditos filios ut redirent, si perditi filii cogerunt 
alios, ut perirent ? Ut autem hac omnia facilius eveniant, 


ac partitis operibus facilius optatos exitus sortiantur, non BOOK 
alienum arbitror, si pro authoritate nobis concessa, quisque 
nostrum quos apud se noverit pietate praestantes et fide 
sanos, convocet, eorumque strenuam et diligentem operam 
in his ecclesiae reique publicae, tarn incertis et dubiis rebus, 
exposcat. Lumbis enim succinctis (frater) oportet nos se- 
dulo negotium Domini conficere. Multi sunt hostes ; multa 
nobis quasrenda sunt consilia. Nee in hisce difficultatibus 
omittendum quicquam, quod ullo modo saluti communi 
possit conducere. Neque debemus extimescere quenquam, 
cujus est in ipsius Spiritus. Dominus omnipotens no- 
bis aderit et dux et vindex ; simus modo pro domo Dei ze- 
lo ferventes, flagrantes studio neque aliqua necessitudine 
coniplectamur, quos aliena in Dominum nostrum et suam 
ecclesiam esse mente. Nam qui perfidi sunt in Deum, in 
principem fideles esse non possunt. Quas nacti sumus pro- 
vincias ornemus eas, nobisque ipsis, et universo gregi dili- 
genter caveamus. Aderit enim proculdubio brevi Dominus ; 
qui nos praefecit ecclesia? sufe, proprioque sanguine re- 
demptam earn e gehenna? faucibus eripuit. Ante cujus tribu- 
nal stare nos oportet, nostraeque dispensationis districtam 
rationcm reddere. Qua tempestate felix ille, qui intrepide 
coram Filio Dei mortuorum et viventium judice, poterit con- 

Haec mihi in mentem venerunt, de quibus tuam domina- 
tionem admonere, mei esse officii putavi. Sperans humani- 
tatem tuam fidele hoc meum consilium et amicam animam, 
bonam in partem esse accepturam. Deus Opt. Max. eccle- 
siam suam protegat, hostes veritatis conterat, nostrisque 
piis studiis felices et prosperos exitus concedat. Amen. 

Bushopthorpiae, 13. Febr. 1583. 

Tuus in Christo frater, 

E. Ebor. 
To the right reverend in Christy my very 
good lord., the bishop of Chester. 


I5(M)K Number XXX. 
The lords of the eoime'il to the earl of Darby and bishop of 

Chester, coneern'uig the tceckly colleetions to be made 

in his diocese, Jbr maintenance of popish recusants in 


After our hearty commendation to your good lordships. 

WHEREAS, by direction from us heretofore by sun- 
(hy letters written luito you, you have preceded to the le- 
\'ying of a certain eontribution by 8f/. by the week upon 
every parish within the diocess of Chester, levyable by the 
statute of the xiv'^ year of her majesty''s reign, for the 
feeding and maintenance of prisoners committed to the 
common goals of the counties within that diocess; which 
contribution not having been, sithence the stablishing of 
that statute, collected, and (as we have been informed) we 
did conceive, that the same might liave been gathered, and 
employed in the maintenance of such prisoners, as being- 
persons dangerous to the state, and connnitted to safe cus- 
tody, to the end they should not pervert her majesty's sub- 
5j^jects ^\\\\ popery and disobedience; but that certain of the 
justices of the peace of the counties of Lancaster and Ches- 
ter have been here with us, and declared unto us, that the 
inhabitants of either county do murmur and find them- 
selves grieved with the payment of that contribution, as 
well for tliat the same is conceived not to be ajrreeable with 
the meaning of the statute, as that it is not indifferentlv 
laid among them in respect of the parislies, being of un- 
equal numbers of householders; some containing manv, 
and some but few ; and yet the tax equal, both to the great 
and to the less. 

Upon consideration wheret)f, we think it not convenient to 
lay any charges upon her majesty's subjects inore than the 
law may warrant, or the necessity of lier majesty's service, 
witli regard to her ])rerogative, may be allowed. So in case 
of such necessity as this is, the same tending to the benefit 
of lier majesty and her estate, we did little expect any such 
dislikinrr of the inhabitants of the said counties, as by some 


of the justices hath been declared unto us. And so much BOOK 
the less, because we never understood thereof from your ' 

lordships, and the greatest number of the best affected of 
the justices of those counties. Who, as we are informed, 
did joyne with your lordships in the acessing of the said 
collections. Of whom many have lately written unto us for 
the continuance thereof, shewing the benefit already grown 
thereby. Considering also, that by yielding thereunto, the 
whole diocese was to have been eased of the number of 
rogues, vagabonds, and masterless persons wandring and 
pestring the same. Who, by the erecting certain houses of 
correction, were to have been set on work, and employed in 
honest and commendable arts and exercises. 

And albeit upon this information upon the pretended 
grievance of her majesty's subjects, wee do think it con- 
venient to have the said collection of 8d. by the week to be 
stayed ; yet before we would give any direction therunto, 
not knowing what your lordships and the rest, by whom 
the same hath chiefly been dealt in by our directions, can 
say to the information in that behalf delivered unto us, we 
have thought good first to acquaint you therewith, that we 
might receive your answer, knowledg, and opinion therof: 
which we pray you to certify with as convenient speed as 
you may. And so we bid your good lordships right hartily 
farewel. From the court at Greenwich, the 6. of July, 

Signed, Tho. Bromeley, cane. W. Burghley, A. War- 
wike, Rob. Leycester, and divers more. 

[Number XXX.] 
The bishop of Winton to the lord treasurer : clearing him- 
self against sir Richard Norton^ his officer, that had ac- 
cused him that he was covetous. 

MY credit, right honourable, hath ever been more dear 
unto me, than either living, or other worldly benefit, espe- 
cially with them that I know to be honourable and wise. 
Wherefore I desire your lordships favourable interpretation, 



BOOK if at this time I shew my self somewhat more jealous than 
needeth in this respect. 

Sir Richard Norton, my officer, hath threatned, that he 
would complain of me unto your honour ; and it is given 
forth in the coimtry that he hath so don. I know your 
honour always keepeth one ear for the defendant. My 
onely desire is, if any such information be made, that it 
may please you to be so good to let me understand the par- 
58 ticulars, and I doubt not but I shall answer them with 
good credit. Because I will not suffer sir Richard to over- 
rule me in mine own, and to make a benefit with my great 
charges, he spreadeth in all places of the country, that I 
am hard and covetous, and maketh many to conceive that 
opinion of me, to my great discredit. If I were as far from 
all other faults, as, I thank God, I am from that, I should 
be far a better man than I am. 

I never yet was whorder of money or purchaser of lands, 
c ante et nor cvcT mean to be. My only desire is, moderately, with- 
pni cii 11. ^^^^ ^vastc, so to maintain the countenance of my place as I 
may not run in debt in mine old age. I thank God I am 
out of debt, and so I mean to keep me. But that I have 
some causes extraordinarily to make somewhat of that whicli 
is mine own, your honour may in part gather from the sce- 
dule here enclosed. Where it is evident how small a portion 
of the revenue of the bishoprick remaineth to me toward all 

If any sinister information hath been made, this bearer is 
so well acquainted with my state, as I doubt not but he will 
reasonably satisfy your honour. Sir Richard Norton is 
nigh [a near man] himself, and of a great stomac, and 
useth broad speech, thinking belike to make me afraid, as 
he doth some others. But I cannot be feared of him, so 
long as my conscience doth not accuse me of any offensive 
matter don, either against law, honesty, or conscience. But 
I cease to trouble your honour, desiring Almighty God to 
preserve the same to his glory. This 3d of July, 1587. 
Voin- honour in Christ to command, 

Thomas Winton. 


The schedule zvas asjblloxvs : 

The whole charge and value of the bi- 
shoprick of Winchester 

Ordinary reprizes and allowances de- 
ducted - - _ _ - 

Remain of rent of assize of the same bi- 
shoprick _ . _ . _ 

Paid to her majesty for Taunton 

My lord of Leicesters fee 

The principal officers of the said bi- 

shoprick yearly - - - - 99 7 6 

Paid yearly in annuities granted by bi- 
shop Gardiner and bishop White; 
wherin sir Fr. Walsinghams fee is 
contained _ _ _ _ 

The first fruits after three years 

The tenths ----- 

The subsidies - _ _ _ 

A yearly almes to the poor of Magda- 
lens by Winchestre _ _ - 

The expence of the audit 

For ingrossing the great pipe, and some 
other things at the same time 

The benevolence lately granted 

Sum total - 
Sic remanet dare of rent of assize 








11 ob.q. 






























Number XXXI. 5,9 

Tfie bishop ofMeath in Ireland to the lord treasurer, Jbr 
the erecting" of a free grammar school. 
MAY it please your honour to give me leave to reniem- mss. Burg. 
ber your lordship, that at my last being in London, in two 
several sermons at court, I moved her majesty to begin the 
foundation of an university in this barbarous and unhappy 
land. With what joy and general liking of the matter that 

s 4 ■ 


BOOK cause was heard, both of her highness and you, the lords of 
*• the council and court, and in what good and great forward- 
ness it was to be performed, your lordship, I know, can best 
remember, being chief patron and best furtherer thereof. 
Insomuch as your lordship (upon some speeches had with 
me) did make choice of Mr. Elmer (now bishop of London) 
to be the fittest man for to be, as it were, provost or chief 
overseer of the whole work and cause. 

But, alas ! my lord, who w^ould have thought that a mat- 
ter so grateful to her majesty and you all, so requisite and 
necessary to Gods glory, and comfortable to his church, and 
so highly advancing her and your everlasting fame and 
praise, should so suddenly be dashed ; and not only dashed 
for a time, but also, as it were, buried in everlasting oblivi- 
ons. But such is the malice of that common enemy of man 
against this miserable and woeful country, and so great is 
the heavy and just displeasure of God against us, as that 
which is best meant for us commonly taketh least effect ; 
what good would have come to this ruinous state by per- 
formance of that motion, your honour, as chief patron and 
favourer of learning, can best judge. And what tumult 
and rebellion, what calamity and misery hath happened 
here since, and with how much bloud of iier subjects, and 
charge of her treasure, things have been pacified, your ho- 
nour, a chief pillar of both states, needs not to be informed 
by one that have had more leisure to bewail it than any 
wise foresight to prevent it. This I hope I may, with your 
lordships leave and liking, safely and truly advouch, that if 
that good work had gon forward, the living therunto ap- 
pointed had been better bestowed then since it hatli been : 
less tumult had happened to the state, and many a young 
gentleman had there been taught to know his duty to God, 
j>rince, and country, that now, for lack of good bringing up, 
reniaineth void and barbarous. 

And therfore again, my good lord, I have undertaken a 
suit to that end : and \\\o the success of my first motion 
tliscourageth me to sue again for the beginning and founda- 
tion of an luiiversity, vet I have presumed to beconu- hum- 


ble petitioner to her grace for a private grammar school. BOOK 
Wee have had an act of parliament passed for erection of _____ 
grammar schools ; but so small hath it prevailed, as at this 
day, within the whole English pale, there is not so much as 
one Jree school where a child may learn the principles of 
grammar. Yet have the deputy and council here from time 
to time, both by exhortation and commandment, don their 
best for execution of that statute. Yet such is the misery of 
our state, that no good can be don ; and tJierefore if now, 
after so many and long troubles, it would please her high- 
ness to grant me authority and some help, to build a school 
in her own name and foundation, in the poor town where I 
was born, lying in the very midst of the greatest part of our 
best and most civil gentlemen of the pale, I do not doubt, 
but ere long her majesty and you, the lords of her honour- 
able council, shall perceive it to be worthy to be accounted 
among the best and most gracious grants that ever her 
grace gave to this woeful people, both for the good of the 
church and commodity of the country : for I doubt not, but 
her majesty beginning so graciously, the nobility and gen- 
tlemen of our country will to their power go forward for 6'0 
maintenance and encrease of learning. 

And in this suite, my good lord, which, God is my wit- 
ness, I undertake rather for my countries relief than my 
own private gain, I am enforced of very need to crave help 
and ability of her majesty. For, I hope, all those which 
have served her highness, both in highest and meaner call- 
ing, will bear me witness, that that portion of living her 
grace bestowed upon me hath been wholly spent both in 
entertainment of the state, and in the relief of my poor 
neighbours. And am therefore most humbly to crave your 
honours good help and furtherance to her majesty for some- 
what wherewith to enable me to perform this good and 
godly work. For of my self, God he knoweth, I am not 
able. What it is I seek for, and in what sort, the bearer 
hereof shall give your lordship to understand. 

It is the first suit that ever I had to her grace since my 


BOOK coming hither; and I hope not the worst that came to her 
'• out of our country. I liumbly beseecli your honour, even 
in the behalf of oin- jioor church and common wealth, to 
grant your helping hand. I am not able any way to de- 
serve to be so bold with your lordship. Only my prayer 
shall be continually to God for encrease of honour and ha}> 
piness to you and yours. And I hope the goodness of my 
cause, and the unfeigned care you cary to learning, and 
msuntenance thereof, shall easily procure pardon for me. 
And so, with consideration of my duty, I take leave. Dub- 
lyn, the xv. of October, 1583. 

Yoiu" lordships ever in his prayer to God, 

H. Miden. 

61 Number XXXII. 

Dr. Tobie Matthezv, dean of Durham, to the lord treasurer 
Bunrhleij. Tha)xks for his counsel, upon his going' to 
Durham. The condition of the deanery. 
Epist.cpi- RIGHT honourable, and my singular good lord. As I 
cannot but acknowledge my self most bounden to your lord- 
ship for my placing here, and for that sundry letters your 
honour wrote thither in my behalf, so do I take your late 
honorable letter I received by Mr. Tonstal for one of the 
greatest arguments of your special favour towards me, agre- 
able to that grave and godly counsil it pleased your lordship 
to give me at my de})arture from the court. Al which, I 
trust, the grace of God will as well enable me to follow to 
the di.scharge of my calling, as it hath persuaded me to like 
therof, to the contcntation of my mind. Wherin if any de- 
fect shall at any time aj)pear, specially coming to your lord- 
ships ears, I shall most liunibly beseech your lordship to 
make me know it ; and do promise and desire to be reformed 
by your authority, and directed by your wisdom therin, 
and in all things else, even as by the Socrates or Solomon 
of our aire. 



Concerning Pittington, mentioned in your lordships said BOOK 
letter, I did, according to your lordships appointment, con- ' 

ferr with Mr. Tonstal, as by our letter, joyntly written by 
him and me unto your lordship, it may appear more parti- 
cularly. I was most glad at the first, that any occasion was 
offered me to shew the readiness of my service to your ho- 
nour ; which I would have made as willingly, as ever I did 
otherwise in my life. And so I presume of my brethren of 
the chapitre, who are all, tho' not so deeply as I, much 
bounden to your lordship. But when I perceived, both by 
view of the register, and by speech with Mr. Anderson of 
Newcastle, that there is a lease or two of the said Pitting- 
ton for many years enduring, I thought it not meet to make 
your lordships motion a chapitre matter, until Mr. Tonstal 
and I had certified the state therof, and received some fur- 
ther notice of your lordships plesure. 

For mine own part, bethinking my self very seriously of o2 
the cause, I mervail they would give your lordship the note 
of that mannour; which, altho"' it be simply the best thing 
belonging to this church, and lying within two miles ther- 
of, yet they could not but know it is in lease, single or 
double : and at what time they made in dean Whittington 
his days a lottery, as they termed it, of threescore leases at 
the least. And again, in dean Wilson's time, demised three- 
score and twelve leases, or thereabouts, within the space of 
one month, or not much more : some presently to com- 
mence, and some in reversion. It is nothing probable, 
under your lordships reformation, they should so careles- 
ly have over past Pittington, but that they believed the 
estate therof in possession to be good enough : especially 
being by the nowe surveyor so diversely conveyed over by 
sundry assignments, as I hear it is. Howbeit I have pur- 
posed, for the better insight into the case, before your lord- 
ship shall be seen therin, to hold a court of survey there, 
before my return to the next term, that I may the more 
likely declare how it stands, and take your lordships best 
directions how to procede. 


BOOK And thus, till then and ever, I humbly betake your ho- 
^- nour to tlie grace of Almighty God. From Uuresm, the 
28 Sept. 1583. 

Your lordships most humble, 

Tobie Matthew. 

Number XXXIII. 

George Withers, of Danhiiry in Essex, to the lord Burgh- 
ley ; concerning church controversies, and subscription 
to the Booh of Common Prayer. 
MSS. cede- ]y/[Y duty unto your honour in most humble maner pre- 
mised, with most earnest prayer to God for your health, 
with encrease of lieavenly wisdom, and all other Gods most 
excellent gifts, wherewith he hath most plentifully endued 
your lordship, for the benefit of his church and his common 
wealth. You may justly mervail what toy hath taken me in 
the head to trouble you, that are so greatly prest with weight 
and multitude of tlie common affairs, with these also our 
ecclesiastical contentions. But the general care of the church, 
which you have evidently declared unto the whole world, 
together with your special good will towards my self, wliich 
by good experience I have found, have partly encouraged 
me, and chiefly the importunity of some of my friends, suf- 
fering no repulse, nor taking any nay, hath enforced me 
thus to pass my bounds, and to be too bold with your lord- 
ship, in writing these few lines, concerning our church con- 

The Devil, whensoever God bridlcth his open rage in 
o-ivino" some peace and rest unto his church, always hath 
politickly devised to set debate, strife, and dissensions in 
the bosome and bowels of it. Which thing, as it cannot 
be unknown to the learned, so I much mervail that so few 
take heed of it ; and that generally, instead of seeking the 
peace of the church, (pjAoys«x«'« is planted and rooted al- 
most in every breast. I have long time wished the church 
rid of some things, in the having whereof I see no profit. 


But seing God hath not granted that desire, I have with BOOK 
all my heart wished, that in these outward things (conten- ' 
tion layd apart) men would conform themselves to her ma- g3 
jesty's law and pleasure. And herein there have been faults 
on all sides. For as in the one there hath been an over- 
earnest standing in trifles ; so in the other too severe and 
sharp punishment of the same. For wheras they that 
omitted the chief duties of good ministers laid upon them, 
both by law of God and man, escaped freely unpunished, 
the only sticking at trifles is severely punished ; as tho' that 
only and alone were disobedience. Secondly, the manner 
of the punishment is such, as that the innocent people not 
offending, are rather punished, than the person faulty. For 
he, retaining his charge, is suspended from executing his 
office. Which is all one, as if a man being angry with his 
shepheard, forbids him to deal with his sheep, and appoints 
none other : and so they sterve in the fold, afore they be let 
forth to pasture. 

The care of your honour to have insufficient ministers 
removed is commendable and godly. And herein I wish 
that respect in your articles had been as particularly had 
to the book of co7isecration of ministers, as to the statute of 
13 regincE. For by that book it will appear, that all un- 
preaching ministers are insufficient ministers ; and that this 
fault hath been in the makers of them, and not in the law. 
But how shall your honours be certified of them .'* Sure, it 
is hard for them that made them to accuse themselves. 

But now to the chief occasion of this my letter ; which is 
the present subscription to the Book of Common Prayer, 
now urged. I do think reverendly of the book, and of the 
authors therof: and yet notwithstanding, I think with 
Augustine, that it is a reverence due only and alone to the 
canonical books of scripture, to think, that the authors of 
them, in writing of them, erred in nothing; and to none 
other books "of men, of what learning or holiness soever. 
The things in that book which I wish to be amended be of 
two sorts. The first such as cannot be defended. The 
second be such as tho^ with favourable exposition they may 


BOOK Stand and remain, yet they give the adversary shrewd ad- 
^' vantage, as well to confirm in popery them whom they have 
already won, as also to allure and intice others tlierunto. 
Besides, some other inconveniences of the first sort are pri- 
vate baptism ; and the last part of the rules for the commu- 
nion of the sick. For where there are none present but 
women, it is all one to say, a woman shall baptize, as one 
of them that are present shall baptize. And the imagina- 
tion that a minister may be sent for, cannot stand with the 
words of the book. For what time can they have to send 
for any, which have not leisure to say the Lord's Prayer 
before they baptize ? Besides, that minister which (if any 
be) is most likely to be sent for, must by the book be igno- 
rant of the whole action, til the child be brought to church. 
Further, how the necessity to baptize at home can stand 
with the doctrin of our church, publickly by law establish- 
ed, 1 see not. 

The other, that the minister may with the sick man re- 
ceive alone, is contrary to the nature of the conuuunion ; 
contrary to the doctrin established ; and is cosin german to 
the private mass. And therefore is by the defence therof, 
as an old corruption, alledged by Mr. Harding and his fel- 
lows, as well generally against our doctrin, as especially 
against Mr. Jucls Chalenge. The which things, with some 
others, in the beginning of her majesty's reign, some of the 
bishops then being, were charged with by the learned of 
foreign churches. Who in this wise excused themselves, as 
I my self saw in their letters of answer, which l)v ]Mr. Bul- 
linger, and Gualter, were shewed me at Zuric, anno 1567; 
namelv, that they nor none of them were of the parliament 
house at the passing of the book ; and that therefore they 
had no voice in making of the law : but after it was past, 
they being chosen to be bishops, must either content them- 
selves to take their places as things were, or else leave them 
to papists, or to them which are not much better, that is, to 
Lutherans. But in the mean space they both promised not 
to urge their brethren to those doctrines; and also, when 
opportunity should serve, to seek reformation of them. 


The second sort of things, being taken out of the Por- BOOK 
tuise, and translated into the Book of Common Prayer, the ' 

papists urge in that sense in the which they were used by 6*4 
themselves, from whom they were taken. And these expo- 
sitions which we now give, they say, they are violent, and 
wrested from the true, native, natural, and ordinary sense. 
Wherby they make the ignorant beheve that the book fa- 
voureth divers of their errors. Which weapon I wish were 
pulled out of their hands. 

Further, it is an inconvenience that the translation of the 
scripture, in the first Great Bible, is by the bishops correct- 
ed, and yet remaineth in the Book [of Common Prayer] 
uncorrected. Likewise, that the interrogatories in baptism, 
in the primitive church directed to men, are now directed 
to infants. Lastly, where unity is to be sought, the urging 
of this subscription, I fear, will make our division greater. 
For I think that many, who both in their ministry obedi- 
ently use the book, and in other things shew their confor- 
mity to the laws present, vnW hardly yield to subscribe in 
that form which is set down. 

Thus beseeching your lordship to pardon my rude bokl- 
ness, I commit you to the protection of Almighty God. 

At Danbury, the 19 of Febiuary, anno 1583. 

Your lordship always in Christ to command, 

George AVither. 

Number XXXIV. 

A private letter of one Touker to the lord treasurer, lord 
Biirghleij : hifbrming him of Englishmen in Rome ; and 
of some matters relating to them. 

RIGHT honourable, since my last being with your ho-MSS. Burg. 
nour, I have been three times at the Marshalsai's : where I 
find one Tither, who was acquainted with me in Rome. 
This Tither, at my request, profered Christophur Taters 
wife to write unto the rector of the English seminary in 
Rome, for the delivery of her husband out of the gallics ; 


BOOK who was condemned with Peter Backer. He said also, with 
^ some travail she might have the queen of Scots letter to the 
pope, or Fecknams to the cardinal. He j)rofered me to 
convey my letters at any time to Nicholas Fitz Harbord, in 
Rome. I think the conveyer of these letters would be 
known with some diligence. Tither hath written two times 
since his imprisonment ; but not answered. He warned me 
to beware of one Robert Woodward, who served sometime 
D. Wenden in Rome. They have great intelligence, and 
fear him much. 

In April last, there came from Rome to Naples an Irish 
man, whom the pope created bishop of Ross in Ireland ; 
and gave him authority to make priests. By which au- 
thority he gave orders to as many as came ; and got mich 
money. The archbishop of Naples forbad him ; but the 
nuntio maintained his doings. This bishop stayed in Naples 
only for passage into Spain ; and so directly for Ireland. 
He caried with him great store of pardons, and Agnos Deis 
to the popes friends in Ireland. He hath to his servant 
one Thomas Galtrope, a merchants son of Dewlin. This 
Galtrope pretendeth to leave the bishops service, and return 
to his father at their coming home. 
65 Also there dyed one John Davies, in Rome ; who served 
the lord William Howard, as he said. This Davies said 
in Rome, that happy shall they be one day tliat have lan- 
guages. For when God taketh our prince from us, there 
will be mich trouble in England, and great revenging of 
old quarels. But he said, if the earl could get Norwich on 
his head, they did not care: with many like words. 

Upon Sunday next I go towards Exeter, and return by 
the end of August. If it be your honours pleasure that I 
shall come to you before I depart, Mr. Cope may let me 
know of it. 

Francis Touker. 


Number XXXV. KOOK 

The vice-chancellor and heads of the ^iniversity of Cambridge 

to their high chancellor; concerning their printing-press, 
hindered by the stationers of London. 

Our most humble duties to your honour remembred. 

WHERAS we understand by your honours letters, mss. Burg, 
that certain of the company of the stationers in London 
have sought to hinder the erecting of a print within this 
university of Cambridg, and to impugne that antient privi- 
lege, granted and confirmed by divers princes for that pur- 
pose, to the great benefit of the university and augmenta- 
tion of learning : these are in most humble manner to de- 
sire your honour, not so much in respect of Mr. Thomas, 
[their printer,] who hath already received great injury and 
dammage at their hands, as in behalf of the university ; 
which findeth it self very much aggrieved with the wrong- 
ful detaining of those goods, wherewithal, as wc are per- 
suaded, in right and equity they ought not to meddle, to 
continue our honorable patron, and to direct your favour- 
able warrants to the warden of the stationers, that he may 
have his press delivered with speed ; lest that by their means, 
as he hath been disappointed of Mr. Whitakers book, so 
by their delays he be prevented of other books made within 
the vmiversity, and now ready for the press. 

As for the doubts which they caused, rather in respect of 
their private gain and commodity, and to bring the univer- 
sities more antient privileges in this behalf than theirs under 
their jurisdiction at London, than for any other good con- 
sideration, the deciding or peril wherof also pertaineth not 
to them ; we dare undertake, in the behalf of Mr. Thomas, 
whom we know to be a very godly and honest man, [it was 
in respect of schismatical books, in danger to be here print- 
ed,] that the press shall not be abused, either in publish- 
ing things prohibited, or otherwise inconvenient for the 
church and state of this realm. And this we promise the 
rather, for that his grace [viz. his grant to print] (wherof 



HOOK we have sent a copy to your honour by himself) was grant- 
' cd unto him upon condition that he should stand bound 
from time to time to such articles as your honour and the 
greatest part of the heads of colleges should ty him unto. 

And for the conference, wherunto your honour moveth 
us, if it shall be your honours pleasure, wee, as desirous of 
peace and concord, (the premisses considered,) shall be 
ready to shew our willingness therunto, if it shall please 
the company of stationers in London to send hither some 
certain men from them with sufficient authority for that 
66 purpose. Thus most humbly desiring that the press may 
no longer be stayed, and hoping that your honour will fur- 
ther our desire herein, we do in our daily prayer commend 
your lordship to the blessed tuition of the Almighty. 
From Cambridge, this 14th of June. 

Your lordships most bound, 

John Bell, \'icechancellor. 
Robert Norgate, Andrew Perne, Thomas Legg, 
Edmund Hownds, William Fulke, Edmund Barwel. 
Thomas Nevyle, John Still, 

Number XXXVI. 

A7i abstract taken by the lord treasurer Burghhij out of' 

the instructions given to monsictir de Gryces and Ortel, 

agents from Holland to the queen : to take on her their 

protection. In four papers. 

MSS. Burg. THE first paper contained these heads; viz. The answer 

of the States to her majesty's propositions. That count 

Maurice is chief of the affairs, with a council adjoined. 

That her majesty would send aid speedily. The States 

mind to yield 330,000 florens monthly. 

f Brabant - - - 60,000^ 

Holland, Zealand,Utretcht 200,000 

Whereof ^ p^.^^ _ _ _ 36,000 h^""*'^'>" 

. Gueldres, Ovenssel - 30,000 J 


The enemy' s forces, BOOK 

Besides the garrison, are in three bands. 

In Gueldres and Zutphen, 3000 footmen, 23 com. of 

About Antwerp, 5000 foot and horse. 

About Gaunt, 3000. 

At the siege of Dermont, 5000. 

The States Jbrces, 

In the field about Zutphen, 3000 foot, 25 com. of horse. 
They look for forces out of Almain, 3000 foot, 300 horse. 
Their power by sea certified by Mr. Edward Dyer. 

The second paper. 

Answer of the Hollanders; a part to Ortelius. They 
require her majesty to receive in general all the Provinces 
United into her protection ; or particularly Holland, Zea- 
land, Freezland, and Utrecht: and that in general. That 
the French king laboured to be accepted as their lord in 
general. Therefore to prevent this, that the queen's ma- 
jesty will send 3 or 4000 under a good conduct. 

The third paper. 6/ 

For Zealand. The hearts of the people will be the more 
inclinable to her majesty, if her majesty will presently assist 
them with 4000 footmen, and munitions of war. 

The fourth paper. 

Out of private instructions by Ortel. To set the elector 
Truwis in his seat of Colen. To send forces speedily : for 
the country will yield to them that will send forces first. 
To joyn with the French king with like conditions, as 
monsieur [the king's brother] had by the treaty of Bour- 
deaulx : or else to yield 20 or 30,000/. monthly to the con- 
tribution of Holland, Zealand, &c. without intermeddling 
with the French. 

The demand of three townes by her majesty shall not be 
hard to grant hereafter. But without the consent of the 

T 2 


HOOK common, the same cannot be don; for that mistrust is had 
of tlie Eno'lish, that rendred Alost* to the enemy. But 

"Vid.tanid.her majesty may have assurance, in taking the oaths of tlie 
1383. magistrates and garrisons. AVliich may be don in bestow- 

ing upon the collonells 2 or 3000 — at the first pay, besides 
their ordinary. 

To have consideration of the house of the late prince of 

To grant licence for 3 or 4000 tun of munition of iron. 

Number XXXVII. 

Queen Elizabeth to the duke of Monpensier : upon the mur- 
der of the prince of Orange. For the bringing- up of 
his daughters. 
MSS. prin- MONSIEUR, mon cousin. Comme le feu prince d'O- 

cip. penes , , , . . , ., . 

n)e. range, prevoyant le danger nnmment, auquel il estoit tous- 

jours subject par Ic seci'etes mcnees et enibusches que luy 
tendoyent ses enemys, nous eust de son vivant bien instan- 
ment prie d''avoir ses fiUes poiu' rccommendces, et de les 
prendre en mon protection, s'il luy advenoit de les laisser 
sans pere : se reposant (comme a bon droit il pouvoit faire) 
sur la faveur et affection, que luy avons du tout temps 
portee. Nous avons advise apres cest infortune accident 

de la mort dudit prince de And then folloxcs the 

queens appointment of the prince''s daughters to divers la- 
dies of great protestant families. 

Dont vous avons bien voulu particulierement advertic 
pour rinterest (ju\ivez en elles par le droit de nature. Es- 
perant que ne trouverez mauvaise la disposition qu'en avons 
faicte ; ains plustost quaures pour agreable le soing qifax ons 
d''elles. En (juoy vous de nous seconder, et y a porter aussi 
de vostre pait tout Tadvancement que pourrez, comme Icur 
plus proche parent du cost(? maternel : prenant et acceptant 
la tutele de vos dites niepces; et vous rendant protecteur et 
conservateur de ce qu'elles ont de bien en France: afin 
quVUes en puissent estre subvenues pour leur entrenement. 
Et que a ceste fin il vous plaise requerir le roy de son com- 


raandement et autorite pour leur faire save, s'il en sera de BOOK 
besoing, &c. Escript a nostre maison de Hampton Court, ' 

le 16 Oct. 1584. Vostre tres afFectionee bonne cousine, et 
tres assuree amye a jamais. 


Number XXXVIII. 

Art original letter of Mary queen of Scots own tvriting^ to 
the treasurer Burghley : to favour her cause with the 
queen^ and to assist Mauvesier, the French ambassador 
xoith the queen, in that affair, 

MONSIEUR, le grand thesaurier. Ayant ecrit ces jours Mss. Burg, 
passees a la royne, ma dame, ma bonne soeur, pour luy ra- 
mantenoir la sincerite de mon intention vers elle, et la grand 
necessite que j'ay de son octroy en mes requestes passees ; 
je pan^ois par mesme moyen vous faire ce mot pour vous 
prier me y ettre favourable en son endroit, en tant que se- 
lon son service, et ma commodite, elle pouroit me favoriser, 
et d'avantasge obliger a elle. Mays me trouvant un peu 
mal, et laschee de ma depesche je fus contreinte de la re- 
mettre jusques a present, ayant prie cependant le sieur de 
Mauvesiere, ambassadeur du roy tres Chrestien, monsieur 
mon bon frere, de vous communiquer le tout, et impetrer 
votre ayde et support vers la ditte dame, ma bonne soeur. 
En quoy m''assurant qu'il n'aura manquer, ne vous trouble- 
ray de plus long discours, si non vous prier d'avoir esguard 
a ma longue captivity, et a la verity de tout ce que Ton a 
voulu me mettre a subs. Et si je ne suis privee de tout 
sense ce que je puis pretendre pour mon meilleur, et de ce 
que jVi le plus cher voiant Testast ou je suis, et a Theure je 
m''assure tant de vottre sagesse, que vous jugeray ayseraent, 
que je ne tands a meriter destre tant soupsonnee, et en cet 
endroit je finiray, par mes recommendations a vottre bonne 
grace, et de celle de ma dame de Burley votre famme : 
priant Dieu vous donner a tout deux le contentement que 
desirez. De Shefeld ce xx de Nouvembre. 

Vottre entierement bonne amye. 

Marie R. 



Number XXXIX. 


gg Petitions digested into 34- articles, to be humbly offered unto 
the queen and parliament: Jar a learned viinistrij to 
preach the gospel, and to he residents in every parish : 
and for further regidation of the bishops, officers, and 
governors of the church. 

Mss. eccic- CERTAIN humble petitions, which are in most humble 
sias . penes j^^j^j^g^, ^^ \^^ presented to the godly consideration of our 
sovereign lady queen Elizabeth, &c. for the help of the 
poor untaugiit people of this realm ; and for the reforming 
of some other disorders which are in it. 

I. That there may a view be taken of all the market 
townes, and other townes of most inhabitants within the 
realm of England, to see what hable preaching pastor is 
now resident among them, and in every of them. And 
also to know what sufficiency of living there is now pro- 
vided in them, and in every of them, for the maintenance 
of such a learned, godly, preaching pastor, to be resident 
among tliem. And what want there is in every of them, 
as well of such a pastor, as also of a sufficient sustentation 
or living of a meet pastor. Thus shall the truth of our for- 
mer complaint appear concerning the want of teaching. 
Which we English subjects of this land do not endure. 

II. That there be also a consideration had of other little 
townes and parishes, that they may, by some union of twi) 
or three parishes together, be made sufficient congregations, 
and have a competent living appointed in them for a preach- 
ing pastor to be resident on them, being so iniited. 

III. That if in this view there be foimd a want of hable 
persons fit for to supply the office of preaching pastors in 
every congregation, this want be helped by some of these 
ways. First, it is known there are at this time in this 
church of England some godly, approved, and allowed 
preachers, which arc not tyed to any special charge of any 
particular congregation: if to every one of these preachers 
a several parish, which is now unprovided of a pastor, were 
assigned, and cacli one of them tyed unto a special congre- 


gation, some churches would be well provided of meet and BOOK 
sufficient persons, which are now unprovided. Then, if 
both the universities may be diligently searched, and such 
men be taken out of them as are to be found in the colleges, 
or studying in the said universities oGt of the colleges; 
such men as are endued with gifts meet for a preaching 
pastor, and be orderly called, and placed each of them in 
a several charge, they will yield some help to fulfil this 

There are also other men to be found, both in the court 
and in the services of some noblemen, or in the innes of the 
court, or some godly gentlemen dwelling in country or else- 
where, men which are godly, learned, and apt to serve the 
church of Christ : which if they were sought out, and had 
every one of them a lawful calling to the ministry, and a 
charge committed to them, in which they may exercise their 
gifts, there will be found greater store of meet men to serve 
the church of Christ in England, than is now thought on. 
To that, if that be liked of, which is hereafter set down. Article 31. 
concerning the families of bishops ; and also, if all the free 
grammar schooles, which have been decayed sithence the Granmia. 

-.TTT-r iii-iii schools. 

first year of kmg Henry VIII. may be by his daughter, 
our queen, repaired and restored into their old state : fur- 
thermore, if there were good order taken for the maintain- 
ing and promoting of such scholars in godly learning, as 
after this time shall be left remaining, or shall come to the 
universities ; (which may be well done by some exhibition 
to be ministred unto them, not only out of the cathedral 
churches, but also by the bishops and other churchmen, 6.9 
which do enjoy hvings ecclesiastical of great yeai'ly revenues, 
if they be bound for every one 100/. they may dispend by 
the year, to give yearly lOZ. towards the finding of some 
poor and towardly scholar in the university, there to be 
maintained in the study of divinity ;) there shall, God will- 
ing, hereafter be found no want of godly ministers for to 
exercise the pastoralty of the congregations of this church 
of England. Thus meet pastors being had to execute the 
pastoral office, the want that shall be found of sufficient liv- 

T 4 


1?0()K \n'^ for their maintenance may in this wise (if it be so 
" thought good to them which are in authority) be supplied. 

IV. That it be ordained, that every dean and chapter of 
every cathedral and collegiate church of England, which do 
now pay yearly wages to singing men, choristers, and mu- 
sicians in their church, do cease to pay the same in such 
sort any longer. And that they be appointed from hence- 
forth to pay the same wages in yearly pensions to such pas- 
tors, being resident on their benefices, which shall be found 
to want sufficient sustcntation of living, in such portion of 
money yearly as the queen, by her commissioners a])pointed 
to take order herein, shall limit and assign to them. We 
do humbly desire, that this little help to maintain necessary 
preaching among us may by authority be drawn out of all 
cathedral churches which are in England. And also we 
pray, that they that are in authority will, by a godly visita- 
tion, take knowledge of the whole state of the said cathe- 
dral churches. And then we believe there will be found 
some other helps, which they may minister yearly to main- 
tain godly preaching among us; if the quotidians, divi- 
dents, and such like commodities, which they now receive 
among themselves to maintain their residence, may be em- 
jiloyed to maintain true and diligent preaching, in such 
places as shall be found to want the same. All this is by 
authority to be ordered and commanded to be done, any 
ordinance heretofore made in the said cathedral and colle- 
giate churches to the contrary notwithstanding. 

V. If this will not suffice for the provision of all the re- 
sident preaching pastors Avhich shall be found to want a 
sufficient living, then let the prebends of all the cathedral 
and collegiate churches, by the bishoj^s of the dioces, or by 
liim or them, in whom the gift of such prebends are, be an- 
nexed to the said offices of the preaching pastors, which do 
remain unprovided of sufficient livings. That by this an- 
nexion a further provision for a sufficient living may be 
made for the said preaching pastors. And in this behalf it 
wDiild he provided, tli;'t those prebendaries which have not 
any henrliccs ini])ropriate belonging to their prebends, either 


should be compelled to be resident upon the same benefice, BOOK 
to teach and guide the people in understanding there by the '" 
word of God, or severing the benefice from the corps of the 
prebend, llie same parsonage impropriate should be imited 
with and joined unto the vicarage of the same benefice. So 
that he, the said vicar, having the whole charge of his flock, 
may have also the whole living apj)ointed to the teaching 

VI. And if all this will not serve for a suflficiency for all 
the resident preaching pastors, then let the bishops be ap- 
pointed to pay yearly some such stipends out of their own 
lands and revenues, as shall suffice to make a full and suffi- 
cient living to such resident preaching pastors as shall want 
the same within their diocesses. 

VII. And if by all these means a full sufficiency cannot 
be provided for every resident preaching pastor, to be main- 
tained sufficiently upon his charge, then we desire the rulers, 
which are godly wise, to take order, that of the impropria- 
tions a full supply of living may be made for all such resi- 
dent preaching pastors as shall want. If none of all these 
ways be sufficient, nor the restitution of impropriations to 70 
the pastors or vicars which have the charge of the parishes 
will suffice to make a sufficiency for the necessary sustenta- 
tion of all preaching resident pastors ; then we do pray the 
godly rulers, by their authority, to tax the people of the 
parishes, among whom the said pastors do labour, in such 
sort as to make up that which wanteth for them. 

VIII. And for the avoiding of the great danger which 
the people of Christ do sustain in this church of England, 
by the nonresidence of them which are their ordinary pas- 
tors, we do humbly beseech, that it may by strait law be or- 
dained, that none of these preaching pastors, which are to 
be furnished with a sufficient provision of living in any of 
the maners or formes aforesaid, do absent themselves from 
the benefices and flocks, whereof the charge is committed 
to them, nor to make any abode, either at the cathedral 
churches, out of which they do receive the augmentations 


HOOK of their livings, cither with any of the bishops by whom 
' they do receive the encrease of their livings, as is afore- 

said. Nor that any of them, nor any other pastor of a con- 
gregation, do absent himself from his flock and charge of 
his parish, to make his abode in any college of either of the 
universities, Cambridge or Oxford, in any respect ; or in 
any other places in respect of service, in the coiu't, or in 
the house of any nobleman. But that all and every pastor 
do remain upon his own charge ; doing diligently his office, 
in feeding the people committed to his custody, according 
to the word of God. 

IX. That every archbishop and bishop of this church of 
England and Ireland, if it be found by the examination, 
Article 29. (of which mention is made hereafter,) that the office of the 
archbishop or bishop, as it is now, is both necessary and 
profitable for the church of Christ in England and Ireland; 
then that every one of the said archbishops and bishops 
shall, within the space of six weeks next after his or their 
co7is(r ration, (as it is called,) have assigned, nominated, 
and appointed unto him (by the same authority by which 
he is chosen archbishop or bishop) eight, ten, twelve, or 
moiv preaching pastors, doctors and deacons, such as are 
resident on their own parishes and charges, within his and 
their dioces, together with some other grave and godly men 
of worship, or justices of peace within that shire, in such a 
certain nombre, as shall be thought good to tlie queen and 
her council, which may be assistant to him, the said arch- 
bishop and bishop, in the government of all those causes 
ecclesiastical, which now the archbishop or bishop, with his 
chancellor or archdeacon, do use to hear and order alone. 
And that the said archbishop and bishop shall, with them, 
and by their counsil, advise and consent, hear and deter- 
mine every cause ecclesiastical, which is now used to be 
heard before any archbishop and bishop or ordinary. To 
the end that he, tiie said archbishop and bishop, and they 
with him, as his senate ecclesiastical, may call before them 
all controversies touching religion, which shall be found to 


arise in tlie dioces of the said archbishop and bishop, and to B O (.) K 
decide the same by their common consent, according to the 
word of God. 

X. And that it may be lawful for every pastor, resident on 
his charge, and that all and every such resident pastor, with- 
in six weeks next after that he be inducted into his benefice, 
shall, by the advice and direction of the bishop of the dio- 
ces, and of his associates, present to the said bishop and his 
associates, 4, 6, or 8 inhabitants of his parish, such as shall 
be thought by their age, wisdom, godliness, and knowledge, 
to be meet to be the associates and seniors to and with the 
said pastor, to govern his said parish with him ; to hear and 
order with him such quarels, offences, and disorders in life 
and maners, as should be among the same parishioners. 
And if the causes and quarels arising in his parish be such 
that the same pastor and his associates or seniors cannot 
determine the same among themselves in the parish, then 7 1 
shall the said pastor, and his associates and seniors, bring 
the said cause before the bishop of the dioces and the elders, 
which are to him associate, as is before said, that he and 
they may hear and determine the same. 

XI. And wheras now there are in this realm of England 
some cities which have many parishes in them ; boroughs, 
townes, and towns corporate, which also have many parishes 
in them ; and also many great townes in the country, which 
have divers hamlets and little villages belonging to them, 
and depending upon the charge of the pastor of the chief 
church which is in the townes ; we do humbly beseech them 
which are in authority to devise how each of these parishes, 
having in them a resident preaching pastor to instruct them 
by doctrin, may al have a sufficient seignorie, to joyn with 
the pastor, not in teaching, but to have a care with him 
that the doctrin may have the course which it ought to 
have. To take care also with him how to I'emove such 
offences as do rise among the people against the doctrin. 
For surely each parish and pastor have need of such help 
as is to be had by a godly seignorie. 

XII. That all and every of the said pastors be bound to 


BOOK he resident upon his own charge; to teach and to govern 
'' the people committed to him, according to the word of God. 
That not only he, but al other pastors, do ])oth foithfuUy 
preach the word of God in his and their congregations or 
j)arishes, and also catechize the youth, and all the peo})le 
committed to his and their charge, diligently. That by the 
diligent travail of the pastors, the Lord blessing their la- 
bours, we, which are the people of God, and your subjects, 
may be brought to some good understanding of the truth 
of the religion of God ; both to believe it in heart, to con- 
fess with mouth, and to practice it in doing, in our lives 
reformed. That by this means blasphemy and al abomi- 
nable loosness of life, with al kinds of bribery and lewd 
doing, may be utterly banished from us which are subjects, 
as out of the court, and out of the houses and families of 

That also no popish idolatry be suffered to be exercised 
in them, nor by any of those persons wJiich do serve our 
sovereign or them, in any office. And to this end we do 
humbly beseech her highness and every one of them, with 
godly judgment deeply to consider that which the kingly 
prophet David doth write in that Psalm which is in numbre 
CI. that we all thus being godly and diligently taught and 
exercised in the word of the Lord, may the better see, hate, 
and with sorrowful hearts lament our former ignorance and 
blindness, in which we Avere carried away in popery to adore 
that shameful idol of the popish altar, with that blasphe- 
mous mass, and to admit the intolerable tyranny of the pri- 
macy of the bishop of Rome, with the whole abhominations 
of popery, as we did of late. That we now, seeing our 
former fall herein, may both penitently confess our said for- 
Asoionm mer fiiults, and also publickly protest to stand hereafter 
tio"n"*" against all popery : promising with all oin- hearts al dutiful 
obedience to the Lord our God, according to the truth of 
his most holy word. That by this means we, who are the 
people of this land, may be brought at length to have a 
stayed, grounded, and settled conscience in the religion of 
God ; and not be left wavering and inclinable to all such 


chaunses in reJimon as men shall make. There are at this BOOK 
time some to be found in this land, which do fully content ' 
themselves to be so religious as the politique laws do pre- 
scribe : but they procede no farther. Their loyalty to good 
laws is not to be discommended ; but they must in religion 
procede further, with desire to attain to that faith which is 
firm, sure, stable, and constant in God and in Christ our 
Saviour. Otherwise these loyal and politique subjects are 
not unlike to chaunge their faith and rehgion so oft as poli- 
tique laws are chaunged. Which is indeed to have but a 
temporary faith : it is not to be fast in the religion of God. 

A fearful example of this chaunge was given in this land, 72 
when queen Mary did succede her brother king Edward. 
Now, if there be no more sure hold taken of the religion of 
God by us, nor that his religion doth take more sure hold 
in us, than politique laws can procure, we may fear, that if 
another Mary should succede our queen Elizabeth, the like 
chaunge would follow. Therefore we humbly desire our 
rulers, which are godly, to devise how by al godly means 
we al and every one of us may be bound to the true reli- 
gion of God, now received and professed among us. So 
that as God himself is one, and not to be chaunged ; and 
his religion is one, and not to be chaunged ; even so we, 
by Gods grace and good means, may be fast tyed to God 
and his true religion ; that we do never depart from it, nor 
chaunge it for any other. It hath been the dutiful and 
necessary care of them which do bear rule over us, under 
the queens highness, to prevent al such daungerous prac- 
tices as have been attempted against her royal person, state, 
this church, and common wealth. And it hath pleased God 
to bless their labours so, that all these do stand safe and 
firm this day. Now Ave humbly beseech our queen and the 
rulers, that she and they will together consult and devise 
how the kingdom of Christ Jesus may remain fully esta- 
blished among us and our posterity ever, to the end of the 
world. That as we are taught to pray, Thy king-dome 
come, so al humain policy and power may serve to maintain 
and advance the kingdom of Christ Jesus among us, and to 


BOOK withstand all the tyranny of that popish Antichrist of Rome, 
and al that is contrary to the kin"doni of Christ our Lord. 

2 Piiraiij). In this necessary duty we do humbly desire, that both 
2Reg. xxiii.P""^^' ^"^ people may openly and religiously enter into an 
3- holy league with the living God, after the godly examples 

xxxiv. of king Asa, of king Josiah, and other godly rulers. It 
J '*'^^' is well known what solemn and just oaths were required, 
and in policy taken of us in the days of that famous king 
Henry the Eight, and of his son king Edward the Sixth, 
a king of most blessed memory. It is also well knovin how 
the whole state of this realm openly, and that in parliament, 
in the days of queen Mary, did unjustly depart from their 
said most lawful oaths. Our unfeigned repentance for this 
foul fall is to be put in practice before God and his whole 
church. In which, whiles we do not shew our selves hearty, 
bold, forward, zelous, and ready, nor do give that open and 
full defyance to Rome which we ought to give, but do shew 
our selves faint, cold, and not fervent herein ; we seem not 
to seek how to please the majesty of God as we ought to do. 
And we do give courage to that Romish Antichrist, our an- 
tient and capital enemy, to feed himself with an hope to 
recover us once again, to be his prey ; at least when the 
chaunge of the prince doth come, if not before. And ther- 
fore he is buisy even now in this blessed time, not only to 
send forth his curses, but to use also cursed means by his 
espials to steal the hearts of the subjects of this land to him; 
and so to make the way open and easy for his more ful re- 
turn to his old place. 

And experience hath taught, and daily teachetli, what 
mischief is wrought in some unstable minds, whilst that An- 
tichrist of Rome doth sow by his seminaries the promises 
of his popish absolution among them, which do not know 
the poison of it ; and doth promise his favour to them which 
wil be reconciled to him. A thing Avhich none can accept 
i)ut they that wil fal from God, from their prince, and na- 
tural country ; and so become apostates from God, rcbells 
to their prince, and common destructions to their country. 
It is time, therforc, and it is our bounden duty, solemnely 


in the sieht of God to confess and lament our former fall: BOOK 

. . I. 
and therewith both to give an open and ful defyance to the ' 

Antichrist of Rome for ever, and also to bind our selves 
again, both by oath and promise, to the Lord our God most 
gracious; seing that his mercy is such towards us, that he 
doth stil (and hath done now many years) call us by the 
voice of the gospel to be reconciled to him ,• This day there- Psaim 95. 
Jbre ifyee hear Ms voice, harden not your hearts, &c. We 
do with dutiful thanks acknowledg, that by publique laws 
made in parlament, holden in this blessed time of our 
queens government, the old laws, made sometime for popish 
idolatry and tyranny, are wel revoked ; and that new laws, ^3 
made for the freedom and sincerity of Gods most holy re- 
ligion, are by just authority made and established : which 
is some fruit of open repentance. But our repentance hath 
not yet proceded so far as it ought; seing that notwith- 
standing those laws, the people once offending in popery 
are not yet brought to the practice of a ful, publique, and 
perfect repentance. 

For a nombre of us do not only hange doubtful between 
popery banished and the gospel now by Gods grace re- 
stored, but are inclinable to popery. Because we do not 
yet tast the power of the truth of God. We do not em- 
brace it heartily and only. We want that hearty calling 
upon us al to come closely to the Lord, and to joyn our 
hearts to him only ; and that by his word. This requireth 
a practice of our selves inwardly and publicly in the open 
congregation of God. It is not wrought by publique laws 
only, but by the power of the word of God, taught and 
preached with power, believed heartily, and confessed freely. 
To bring this to pass is a service verily which we al do owe 
to the Lord. It hath been of us al too long neglected. It 
hath not been called upon earnestly. It hath not yet been 
don so fully as it ought. The Lord forgive this and al 
other our sinns, for Christs sake. 

Now therefore it is high time that the godly rulers do 
themselves yield thir obedience herein to the Lord God Al- 
mighty; and also do both require and exact the same of 


BOOK US, who are tlie people of God tonimitted to their govern- 
• ment and direction. And likewise, that they do by their 
authority command al the pastors of this church of Eng- 
land to do their office accordingly ; and to give them full 
authority by godly law to execute the same: so that we 
may attain, by Gods grace working with this profitable 
ministry, to a conscience bound to the religion of God, 
taught us in his holy word. And that by this mean we 
may in true understanding be hable to discerne the diffe- 
rence which is between the holy religion of our Lord God 
and the filthy su})erstltion and strong abhomination of po- 
pery. That we may cleave fast to God by his word, and 
depart wholly from all popery, with ful detestation of it. 
So shall our rulers and ministers do their bounden and du- 
tiful service to the Lord God Almighty, and draw us, by 
their good example and order, to do the like. So shall the 
wretchless, careless, and wilful people be brought into the 
dutifid obedience of the Lord God Almighty, according to 
his holy word : and so that Antichrist of Rome and his sup- 
ports may be put out of al hope to recover the place, for 
which he practiseth in England, so long as there is left any 
one English man alive to withstand his popish attempts. 

XIIL That no one bishop do hereafter procede in ad- 
mitting or depriving of any pastor by his sole authority ; 
nor in exconmiunicating any faulty person ; nor in absolv- 
ing any person that is excommunicated ; nor in the decid- 
ing and determining of any cause ecclesiastical, without the 
advice and consent of the aforesaid seniors and associates 
joyned with him. And that their consent may be testified 
by their own names in writing, set to every act and actes, 
which shall be determined and ordeined by their common 

XIV. Moreover, that it be established, that it shall not 
be lawful for any man to appeal from the sentence and judg- 
ment of the bishop, given with the advice aforesaid, to any 
maner of person or persons, but only to the next provincial 
synod, which shal be kept in this church of England. 

XV. And that it may be law ful for the provincial synod, 


being called by the queen, her heirs or successors, to admit BOOK 
every appeal so made; to hear, decide, and determine the 
causes ; and to give sentence upon it by the word of God. 
From the which sentence of the provincial synod it shall 
not be lawful for any man to appeal in any respect, but only 
to a national and general council of the v, hole nation. 

XVI. That such a provincial synod be called every year J^4 
once, both in the province of Canterbury and also of York. 
And that the said synod may have ful authority to cal be- 
fore them any disorder or controversy, which ariseth in any 
cause or matter ecclesiastical within that province ; and to 
hear and determine the same according to the word of God 
and the laws of this realm. And that a national or general 
council, for the whole English and Irish nations, be called 
ever hereafter once in seaven years, by the queen, her heirs 
and successors, in such place as she or they shall appoint. 
And that from henceforth the yearly synods, visitations, 
and courts, kept ordinarily for mony by the sole authority 
of archbishops, bishops, archdeacons, chancellors, officials, 
and other like officers, do cease. 

XVII. That it be commanded to the archbishops and 
bishops of England and Ireland, that neither the said arch- 
bishops within their provinces, nor the bishops within their 
diocesses, do hereafter, by their sole and private authority, 
make and publish any injunctions touching religion or church 
government; nor by their authority cal and command the 
pastors, preachers, and clergy, subject to them, to subscribe 
to the same their devices, with such interpretations or qua- 
lifications as they shall think good to make, or to allow of 
the same : nor to compel men to yield to their devices by 
threats of suspension or deprivation. Neither that they, 
nor any of them, do set forth any other injunctions than 
such as have been befoi-ehand consulted upon and con- 
cluded, according to the word of God, by common consent 
in a Christian and free synod, holden and approved by royal 
authority in this church of England. 

XVIII. That it be utterly forbidden to any bishop here- 
after with his associates, and that upon some great penalty, 



BOOK to give the holy orders of the church to any unlearned pcr- 
' sons, or to persons unmeet for the same, or to any that is 
not by just examination found sufficient in knowledg to do 
that appertaineth to the duty of a pastor ; and that hath 
not sufficient testimony, by the judgment of the bishop and 
his associates or seniors, of his honest and godly conversa- 
tion of life. And also that no bishop, with the consent of 
his associates or without it, do hereafter give the title of any 
of the offices of the ministi-y of the church to any person, 
before there be some place provided within the diocese for 
the person ordained ; in which lie may exercise the same 
order of ministry to which the bishop doth cal him. 

This order being observed, a nomber of unmeet and va- 
garing ministers in calling (as they are called) shall be cut 
off, with which the church of England is now pestered. 

■XIX. That it be by some sharp law provided, that pa- 
trons of benefices do give their presentations to such men 
only as shall be found meet by the bishop and his asso- 
ciates to take upon them that pastoral charge to which the 
patrons do present them. And that the said bishop and 
bishops, with his and their associates, be charged that they 
shall to the uttermost of their power examine and try whe- 
ther the patron doth give his presentation freely, simply 
and only regarding the edifying of the flock in the know- 
ledge of Almighty God. That so it may be well and plain- 
ly known, that neither he, the said patron himself, nor any 
other person for him, or by his means, do reap any worldly 
commodity for the same presentation : nor that he nor they 
do thrust upon the people of the parish any such person 
for his or their own private gain, affection, or pleasure; 
against whom either any of the parish to the which the 
patron doth present his clerk, or any of the seignor'ie of 
that parish, can take any just exception before the bishop 
of the dioces and associates or seniors. That the bishop 
of the dioces, with his associates, assisted by the seigniory 
of every parish to which any person is presented by any 
patron, or by colour of any advocation, be commaunded 
both diligentlv and publiclv to try and examine every per- 


son so presented to any benefice : and also that they may have BOO K 
authority by their mutual consent and assent, testified by 
writing, subscribed with their own hands, to admit al and 7" 5 
every person so presented, if they do find in him the suf- 
ficiency and fitness which is meet for the office, or to reject 
him for the insufficiency and want of fitness which they 
shall find in him. And that neither the said bishop and his 
associates, nor any of them, be molested, sued, or vexed 
with suit in law, by the patron or any other that claimeth 
by advocation or otherwise, for their just and lawful doing 
in this behalf. 

XX. That it be forbidden, that any man, having one 
benefice with charge of souls, do either take any other such 
benefice to it, or be absent from it, unless it be for a time. 
And that by the advice of the bishop of the dioces and his 
seniors ; and with the consent also of his own congregation, 
and his own associates there. 

XXI. That al and every parson and vicar, that is now 
resident upon his cure, being for his ability approved by the 
bishop of the dioces and his associates to preach the word 
of God, do himself in his own person preach to his people, 
and catechize them and their youth diligently and truly, ac- 
cording to their duty. Or if he be not, either thorow age, 
impotency, or want of skil, liable not to do his duty himself 
in his own person, then we pray, that it may be commanded 
by authority, that the same impotent and unable person 
may and shall, by the said bishop of the dioces and his as- 
sociates, be constrained to seek and find out some other 
learned man, who is not otherwise tyed to any other charge: 
which said person shal be by the advice and approbation 
of the said bishop and his associates authorized to joyn 
with the said impotent parson or vicar in his charge, to be 
his coadjutor in the discharge of his duty and execution of 
his office, during all the time of his impotency. And that 
the same his coadjutor may have allotted unto his sufficient 
maintenance out of the living of the said parson or vicar 
that is found unhable to do his duty himself And that this 
coadjutor may enjoy the same portion of living so long 

u 2 


BOOK as he doth help the same parson or vicar in his office, as is 
' aforesaid. 

And if any parson or vicar, resident on his cure as is 
aforesaid, refuse to do any of these former things, then we 
pray that the l)ishop and his assistants may be authorized 
and commaunded by law to expel the said parson or vicar 
out of his said benefice for ever. And also to provide and 
put in the said office some other meet man to occupy and 
discharge the same office ; notwithstanding the right or 
claime that any patron can make to present his own clerk 
to that benefice, or that may be made by any former advo- 
cation to the said benefice. 

XXII. That it be not lawful from henceforth for the 
archbishop of Canterbury, nor for any bishop of this church 
of England and Ireland, nor for any judge of the court of 
Faculties, Audience, Prerogative, or other court whatso- 
ever, now established in the said realms, to grant any licence 
of plurality of benefices, nor any dispensation to any bene- 
ficed man of non -residence, nor to any man that doth en- 
joy any living ecclesiastical, a licence to keep that living, 
and not to take the orders of the church, if he be found 
meet to serve in the ministry of the church. Nor by inhi- 
bition to let or hinder the proceeding of any cause which 
doth hang in controversy before any bishop and his seniors 
or associates in his diocess, any act, law, constitution, or 
provision in this behalf heretofore made to the contrary 

XXIII. That such as either are unwiUing or unmeet to 
serve the chvu-ch of God in the ministry of the word and 

76 sacraments be not suffered to enjoy any living ecclesiastical, 
whether it be prebend, benefice, deanery, parsonage, vi- 
carage, or any such like : and again, that from henceforth 
no such living ecclesiastical be given to any other person, 
but to such as have already taken some degree of the or- 
ders of the church ; and hath also given some open shew 
and token by public preaching (being therunto lawfully 
called) of their forwardness and meetness to serve the cluuch 
of God in the holv ministry. 


XXIV. That at and in every synod hereafter to be BOOK 
called by the authority of the queen, her heirs and sue- 
cessors, the bishops, deans, archdeacons, clerks, and such 
as shall be called by order to the synod, do all sit together 
brotherly in one house : and that they do chuse one of 
themselves to be the moderator or prolocutor of the synod. 
That the said moderators or prolocutors may have power 
to se comely order kept amongst them in sitting, each one 
according to his degree in learning and godly gravity. 
And that they of the synod may and do orderly and freely 
give each one of them his advice and sentence in any 
matter that shall be brought before them, or that is to be 
handled among them. That there may be also, by the ap- 
pointment of the queen and her council, joyned to them, to 
sit with them in the synod or convocation, some other godly 
learned men which are not in the order of tlie ministry, to 
hear the causes in controversy, to reason with them, and 
to give their consent to the conclusions which shall be made 
in the said synod, as the rest of the ministers there do. 

XXV. That it may also be lawful for the said synod 
(after that all former restraints of the liberty of synods or 
convocations be by some new repelled, and the synod now 
to be restored to that Christian liberty which a Christian 
synod ought to hav*) to cal any cause or controversy eccle- 
siastical which now is or hereafter shall be in this church 
of England and Ireland, to their examination, which do 
touch any part of doctrine or ceremonies of the church, 
and namely, the Book of Common Prayer, which is now t;ommoii 
established to be the Book of Common Prayer of the ^''^^*''^' 
church of England. That they of the synod may be 
commaunded to try and examine the same book, and every 
part of it, by the holy word of God ; and both to cut off 
that which is doubtful or supei-fluous in it, and to add to 
it that which is necessary and wanting to it. So that the 
blockes that are in it, at which some godly men do now 
stumble, may be removed ; and such a book of divine ser- 
vice be framed, commended and commaunded to the church 
of England, and to all the members of it, as is wholly found- 

u 3 


BOOK ed upon true divinity, taught in the word of God; and so 
be commaunded to us subjects, by royal authority, as a 
thing commaunded first of God, and then of the prince. 

That we the people may both understand what it is that 
the majesty of God doth commaund, and what it is that the 
queen by royal authority doth connnaund ; and so to be 
taught in true understanding, to give Caesar the things 
which are Ca?sars, and to give to God those things which 
are Gods. That we may religiously do that which God 
commaundeth, and also dutifully that which in this behalf 
the queen commaundeth. 

The book AVe do also humbly desire, that the other book, in which 

liishousj'&c. tbe order of making of bishops and other ecclesiastical 
ministers in this church of England is set down, may also 
by a Chi'istian and free synod be examined and rectified, 
where it departeth from the right way of the Lord. And 
that the said synod may have full authority to call before 

Rites and them all sucli other controversies which do touch the cere- 
' monies and rites of the church of England, and the con- 
formity or difference in the same; and all doubts which do 
touch the state of marriage, and divorcement or contract of 
marriage. And that the synod may without restraint of 
libertv, or prescribing what the pleasures of men are, freely 
debate, order, and determine the same according to the 
word of God. That they may also present the same their 
'J'J determination to the queen, lier licirs and successors, to be 
bv her and their royal authority ratHied and confirmed. 
And that every thing and cause so concluded by them, and 
ratified l)v roval authoritv, mav be of sufficient force to 
bind al the subjects, ihe members of the church of Eng- 
land and Ireland, to obey the same; any act or acts, sta- 
tute, privilege, or restraint whatsoever heretofore made to 
the contrary notwithstanding. 

XXVI. That in everv congregation and parish there 
mav be such godly order taken for the provision of the 
true and very poor people of God, by the connnon almes 
and offerings of the rich, and by the godly ministry of the 

Deacons, deacons, as is ordeincd in the word of God. And that bi- 


shops and cathedral churches may be charged by such com- BOOK 
missioners as the queen shall appoint for the ordering of ' 
this affair ; to pay yearly pensions towards the supply of the 
want which shall be foiuid in those common almosses, in 
such a proportion as shall be thought meet by the said 
commissioners. To satisfy that old order taken and con- 
cluded of the fourth part of the yearly revenues of the c. 12. Q. 2. 
churches, which were wont to be paid by them to the poor ' °^' 

XXVII. That by law severe punishment be appointed 
to be laid upon them which do usually in swearing take 

the name of God in vain ; and upon blasphemers, common Swearers, 

I • 1 1 t)laspliem- 

swearers, and perjured persons: as also upon common e,s, &c. 

XXVIII. That it be not suffered, that any maried man 
do hereafter put away his lawful wife from him : nor that 
any maried wife do depart from her husband upon their 
own private wil, and so live separate the one from the 
other, as many now do. But that such persons living one 
from another be by law compelled to bring their cause to 
be heard before some competent judge, as the provincial 
synod, or the bishop and his associates of the dioces where 
the parties so separated do dwel : who may have authority to 
compel them to live together, as man and wife ought to do ; 
or else by order of law, vipon just cause all edged and prov- 
ed, to separate and divoi'se them the one from the other. 

And that known adultery, and sufficiently proved by two Adultery, 
or three witnesses, may for ever hereafter be punished by " ' ' 
death ; and the faultless party have free liberty to raary 
again in the Lord. That also al incests, and al unnatural 
and beastly copulations against nature, be likewise punished 
by death without redemption. And that some more sharp 
law be made for the punishment of fornicators, than is only 
to stand in a white sheet, as the maner is now\ 

XXIX. That there may be some godly, learned, and 
zealous men appointed by the queens highness, with the 
advice of her honorable council, to visit the present state of '^''^e state 
all archbishops and bishops of England and Ireland. And shops and 

u 4 


BOOK first, to consider of such doings and actions as have passed 
by the authority of the said archbishops and bishops, and 

i/ishops to tln-ouffh the hands of their officers, under the name of the 

Lic visited. 

said archbishops and bishops, sithence the beginning of her 
blessed and peaceful government : that so the queens high- 
ness may perfectly understand how the said archbishops 
and bishops have, sithence the beginning of her majesties 
happy reign, behaved themselves in their offices. And whe- 
ther they have in all actions faithfully discharged their 
duty according to the trust which was rejjosed in them, 
served the church of God faithfully, or have don unfaith- 
fully, and neglected their duty to God, to his chui-ch, to 
her highness, or not. 

Again, that the said commissioners or visitors may have 
authority, and that it be given in streight charge to them, 
to look godly into the very state it self of the said archbi- 
^8 shops and bishops, as it is now : and to consider, whether 
it be such as the state of those old true bishops was, of 
whom God himself doth speak by St. Paul in his holy 
word, and of such other pastors as were called bishops in 
tlie first and sincere age of the primitive church. And if 
by just examination they do find that it was the device of 
the Devil in popery to transform the holy office of the first 
Christian bishops into a profane office ; and to draw that 
order into such disorder, that it should be most unlike to 
that order of godly bishops which the Holy Ghost hath or- 
dained, as we are taught in the word of the living God ; 
and that they do find in the said archbishops and bisliops, 
and in their offices, more stately and worldly pomp than 
becometh a Christian bishop, les pastoral care and diligence 
than ouiiht to be ; then let the said commissioners and vi- 
sitors make true report therof to her highness, according 
to their godly wisdome, learning, and good conscience. 

Upon which their faithful and sincere report, considering 
that by Gods great grace, under the happy government of 
our sovereign lady queen Elizabeth, Christs gospel is now 
})reached, and by it both bishops, ministers of the word, 
and al other Christians, ai'e taudit their duties, christianly 


and truly ; we do humbly pray and desire that, as the Lord BOOK 

God Almighty hath by the service of his chosen servant, ' 

our sovereign lady queen Elizabeth, banished the head, the 
heart, and other great parts of popery, so she may do the 
Lord God this princely service yet remaining to be don ; 
that all such officers and offices, as in the abuse of popery 
crept into the church, and are yet after a sort retained in it, 
under a pretence to serve God in his holy gospel, may have 
their discharge ; for it is meet that the Lord be served with 
his own officers. And then is his holy Majesty best served 
of men, when his own officers, by himself ordained to be 
his officers, do execute their offices faithfully, according to 
his holy wil, written in his most holy word. 

Therefore may it please the queens highness, with the 
advice of her honorable council and authority of parliament, 
to take order for the removing of all that which shall be 
found but abuse in the offices of the said archbishops and 
bishops of this church of England and Ireland ; and pro- 
vide that hereafter bishops may be pastors in humbleness, 
diligence, and sincerity, to feed the flock of Christ : and not 
be stately bishops^ bearing lordship among politic lords ; stately bi- 
overlooking die flock of Christ more like stout prelates *'^°P*- 
than fatherly pastors. And to the end that the said bishops 
may hereafter do that office which shall be committed to 
them the more sincerely, we desire that all they, and every 
one of them, may be delivered from the burthen of all 
worldly pomp, honour, and charge ; and not to be puft up 
any longer with the swelling titles and dignities of worldly 
honour and lordship : and that they also be set so free from 
the administration of all civil causes and offices, that they 
may wisely apply themselves to the labour of the gospel and 
ecclesiastical function, in diligence and sincerity. 

That bishops, by doing the duty of bishops evangelical, 
may get themselves the honour meet for a bishop, by doing 
themselves the business of the gospel, and by helping others 
to do the same ; as did the old godly bishops in the pri- 
mitive church. That so the Lord God Almighty may be 
served in his church with his own officers. So shall Christs 


1500K church in England and Ireland be better served; and the 
desire of the queens hiohness to have her people wel taught 

be better satisfied. And to be sliort, so shall our bishops 
depart clean from al that perversity of Antichrist which 
doth yet remain, and submit themselves to do their duties 
according to the rule of the Lord Jesus Christ, whose gos- 
pel they do now profess. 

The sab- XXX. That the Lords day, even the sabbath day, which 

we do barbarously cal Sunday, may hereafter be kept so 
holilv, that it be not abused, nor mispent, neither in open 
feasting, nor in making or using any public shews, plays, or 
pastimes. Nor that there be any fairs or markets kept 
70 upon any sabbath day hereafter. But that if any fair or 
market hath been heretofore ordained to be kept upon a 
sabbath day, either it may be put oflP to be kept within the 
next two days after the said sabbath day ; or if, by the 
long accustomed continuance of the time of any fair, a sab- 
bath day do fal in the time of the wonted continuing of the 
fair, the rulers of it be connnaunded and authorized to stop 
the course of all buying and selling publickly during the time 
of the sabbath day. And that al games and pastimes of 
shooting, bowling, cocking, bearbaiting, dancing, prices of 
defence, wakes, INIaygames, and id other such rude disports, 
be utterly forbidden to be used upon any sabbath day : and 
that upon great punishment to be laid upon the offenders. 
So that the I^ords day may be kept holy, as it is com- 
niaunded. That then the people may learn, as the prophet 

isay ivi. s^ith in the name of God, to choose the thing that plea.scth 
God, and to take hold of his most holy covenant. 

Bishops' XXXI. That bishops, being enriched with such lands 

families. j^,^(] lyings as now they do possess and do enjoy, be not 
compelled, either by law or custom hereafter to keep in 
their family so great a nombre of idle gentlemen and serv- 
ing men as now they use to do : but that they be com- 
maunded to take into their families a sufficient nombre of 
such young men as are the sons of poor fathers, and such 
as have good capacity, and are apt to receive learning. That 
they, the said bishops, may be commaunded to traine up 


these youths in learning, and in the most profitable exer- BOOK 
cises of all kind of good learning in their houses and fami- ' 

lies. That so by serving the said bishops for their living, 
and by learning in tlieir families, they may be framed to be 
in time meet ministers, to serve the church of Christ in the 
ministry of the holy word and sacraments. 

And so shal our bishops houses become more like to 
Christian schools than to princes courts, as now they are. 
So shall the bishops also have a store of wel framed and 
tryed youth, to be preferred to the ministry of the church, 
when it shall have need. And so shall the goods of the 
church, which are in the bishops hands, be hereafter profit- 
ably bestowed ; which are now for the most part unprofit- 
ably and prodigally spent, spoiled, and wasted. 

XXXII. That the chancellors of the universities may beuniversi- 
appointed to take such order with the heads and the fellows *'^*' 
of the colleges, which are in the said universities, that nei- 
ther they, nor any of them, nor any other person for them, 
do hereafter admit or receive any scholar or fellow into any 
of the said colleges for mony or reward. And that no fel- 
low nor scholar of any of the said colleges do resign or sel 
the place which he hath in any of the said colleges to any 
other person for mony. For it is meet, that all elections of 
fellows and scholars into the said colleges be made freely : 
and that the electors have a respect to the aptness simply, 
and to the poverty of them which are to be elected and 
chosen ; according to the good meaning of the first founders 
of the said colleges. And that like order may be taken 
with the provosts of the colleges of Eaton and Winchester ; 
and with the posers yearly appointed for the election of 
scholars in the same. 

XXXIII. The church of Christ is to be governed by 
such Christian laws as are meet for the government of the 
chin-ch of Christ. Therefore seeing that the church of 
Christ in England is once again by God's grace crept out 
of the payles of Antichrist, and hath need of such Christian 
laws as are meet for the government of it ; may it please 
the queens highness, and the parliament, to assign some 


BOOK learned preachers, and such otlier men of godly wisdome 
'• and learning as shall be thought to their godly wisdomes 
to be most fit for this purpose, in such a competent nombre 
also as shall bee deemed to suffice. And to give to these 
80 chosen connnissioners power and authority to consider first 
and ])rincipally of the laws of Almighty God, which are 
set down in the word of God, for the government of the 
church of Christ ; tlien, of such laws as our neighbours and 
brethren in Germany, Zuitzerland, Savoy, France, Scot- 
land, and other churches reformed by the gospel have set 
down for the government of the church of Christ, which is 
with them. Last of all, to consider as well of such laws as 
are already established for the government of this church 
of England, by public authority, as also of that book inti- 
tled, De Regno Christi : which that worthy servant of God, 
D. Martin Bucer, did once make for the church of England, 
to have been presented to king Edward the Sixth of blessed 
memory. And also of other such books as have been writ- 
ten sithcnce that time, as well by some of our countrymen 
as by other learned men born out of this land, touching 
Discipline the ciiurch, the disciplin and government therof. And 
of the xhaX. the said commissioners may be commanded to gatlier 
*^ "'^'^'' out of all the same books, one book of such canons and 
rules as they shall think to be most meet for the govern- 
ment of this church of England. Which their collection, 
by them signed, they may be connnaunded to present to 
the first synod which shall be kept in England, next after 
the compiling of the said book, that the same their book 
and collection may there be examined, tryed, corrected, or 

After which examination, correction or approbation, we 

desire that the same book of collection may, by tiie same 

synod, be presented to the queens highness and the high 

BooU of court of parliament ; that the same book of canons may be 

canons. \^y ^i^^.;,. authority ratified and authorized, to be the law 

ecclesiastical. Whereby this church of Christ in England 

and Ireland may be ihorowly governed and ruled, toucliing 

Pccuiiais. all persons, al causes, and all places, none exempted. So 


that all peculiars (as they are called) and places priviledged, BOOK 
and the persons dwelling in them, may be brought under ' 

the 2:overnment of the said law. And that all other consti- 
tutions, customs, ordinances ecclesiastical, heretofore esta- 
blished or used, may be utterly void and of none effect. 
That so the church of Christ in England and Ireland may 
be fully freed from the canon laiv of the popes making. 
By which now the bishops and their officers do order causes 
ecclesiastical, tlio not in the popes name ; yet, as officers, 
they put his laws in execution. 

For it doth not agree with the nature and majesty of 
Christs kingdom, that the laws of Antichrist should be the 
laws of his holy church, which is his kingdom. Let us at 
length shake off all the tokens of the tyranny of Antichrist, 
and yield that whole glory to Jesus Christ, which is due 
unto him, according to our duty : and in humble obedience 
let vis hiss the Sofine, as we ought to do. P**^'"" "• 

XXXIV. Last of all, we English subjects most humbly 
beseech the most high and excellent majesty of the Lord 
our God, by whom all kings do reign, and common wealths 
do stand, to move the hearts of our noble queen Elizabeth, 
and her nobility, and of the high court of parliament, with 
due care to provide in time for the sure establishing of the 
gospel among us and our posterity : and also for the con- 
tinuance of civil peace in this land among the inhabitants 
thereof, by setting the succession of the crown of England 
safely, surely, and in quiet; where it may rest after the 
death of our sovereign lady queen Elizabeth. And that 
they may both foresee carefully, and prevent speedily, all 
such daungers as do now draw nigh to us ; threatning to 
bereave us of all the benefits which we do enjoy, by the 
singular goodness of God, under the happy government of 
our dear sovereign queen Elizabeth ; and do menace to 
bring upon us the plague of popish idolatry, foreign govern- 
ment and tyranny, with such other calamities, as we by our 
manifold sins do justly deserve. 

O ! Lord God Ahmghty, xvee do humbly beseech thee in 8 1 
the name of thy beloved Son our Saviour Jesus^ to save 


BOOK our queen Elizabeth, and to he merciful to our count?}/, 
England. Amen. 

Number XL. 

A •writino- of the bishops, in ansxvcr to the book of Articles, 
offered the last sessio7is of parliament, anno rogin. 27. 
ybr ecclesiastical causes: concerning ministers, eaxom- 
munication, dispensations, <Sfc. 

I. Concerning ministers. 

Thejirst article. , 
Mss.epi- THAT it may be enacted, that none be admitted to be 
*'^°*'* minister of the word and sacraments, but in a benefice hav- 

ina- cure of souls, then vacant in the dioces of such a bishop 
as is to admit him. 

Answer to thejirst article. 
This cannot possibly be performed without altering the 
whole state of the church of England. First, because there 
must be curates, and that of necessity. Secondly, because 
there are other ecclesiastical livings which require ministers 
of the word and sacraments, as well as benefices with cure : 
as deanries, prebends, masterships, and fellowships in the 
universities ; and petty canons in cathedral churches. 

The article is grounded upon a false principle of T. C. 
[Tho. Cartwright] against ministers having no pastoral 
cm-e ; which neither he nor any man else is able to main- 
tain, either by the word of God or antient authority. For by 
ministcrium. vagum, the old cf>uncils and canons did always 
understand such as were ordained sine pcdrimonio ant ti~ 
tula : that is, not having any stay of living. As 'tis mani- 
fest in the council of Chalcedon. 

Such as have great cures shall be overburthened with say- 
ing of service, preaching, ministring of sacraments, al them- 
selves : for they shall be destitute of a curate to help them 
to say service, to visit the sick, to administer the sacra- 
ments, to catechize, &c. By this means fellowiihips m 


colleges, which by theii' statutes must be in orders, are BOOK 


The second article. 

That before the admission of such minister, the bishop 
give public notice by writing under his seal, to be fixed on 
the church door, that is destitute of a pastor, upon some 
Sunday or holy day, in the time of divine service, signify- 
ing the name of the person presented to that church, or 
there to be admitted : with intimation, that such as within 
26 days after wil object against the admission, shal appear 
at a place certain before him, and allcdg such matter as 
shal only concern his conversation of life ; and therby his 
insufficiency for that place. 

The third article. 

That the bishop shal not procede to the admission of any 
to be minister of the word and sacraments, before due cer- 
tificate made in authentic form and pubhc place, by him to 82 
be assigned, that the process of notice and intimation was 
executed in form aforesaid ; nor before the expiration of 
the said 26 days: nor without calling for and hearing of 
such, as upon return of the said process shal and will ob- 
ject, as aforesaid. 

The ansxoer to the 2d and 3d articles. 

This is unnecessary and in vain, unless he that is to be 
admitted had been dwelling in that parish before ; which 
wil happen very seldom. The writing and sending to the 
benefice void, and the return therof in authentic form, wil 
be very chargeable to the minister; especially where the 
place is far from the bishops mansion house. It also pro- 
tracteth time, and will administer occasion of quarelling. 

The charges also and delay will be also encreased, if the 
party to be admitted do stand upon the purgation of the 
objections layd against him. 

This testimony required of the parishoners, lacking their 

pastors, is an introduction to bring the patronage to the 

people, and to set a fire among them, for testifying or not 

testifying ; and that many times of a person they know not. 

The objecting of the people wil fal out many times to be 


BOOK mere malice; whereby immortal hatred wil rise among 
^- them. 

The person Indeed had need be a very ill man, that a 
number of the parish wil come a long journey to the ordi- 
nary, on their own cost, to object against him that is to be 

AVhat if the parish wil be negligent, and wil not return ? 
Shal they lack a pastor stil .'' The patron, if he be mighty, 
may enter, let the return, or procure such as he shal like 
of. And who and how many of the parish shal return ? 
Thejburth article. 

It is here to be provided, that where in certain colleges 
and cathedral and collegiate churches, the foundation or 
statute require such as are tliere placed to be ministers ; it 
shal be lawful for such as are known to profess the study 
of divinity, or otherwise be lawfully dispensed withal, to 
retain, as before this act they might, any fellowship or 
prebend within tlie said colleges, notwithstanding they be 
no ministers. 

The answer to thejburth article. 

1. This utterly overthroweth the foundation and statutes 
of almost all the colleges in Cambridge and Oxford, being 
founded principally for the study of divinity, and encrease 
of the number of learned preachers and ministers. And 
therfore not only the master, provost, warden, president, 
&c. by the said foundations and statutes are bounden to be 
ministers, but divers others also of such societies are like- 
wise bounden to enter into the ministry by a certain time, 
or else to yield their places to others. 

2. It wil deprive the church of England of the worthi- 
est, best learned, and wisest ministers and preachers. For 
there is no comparison between such ministers and preachers 
as the universities continually yield in respect of such foun- 
dations and statutes, and others, being no university men, 
or not entring into the ministry while they remained there ; 
as at this day it is notorious. For altho' there are divers 
that can preach, &c. yet they have no substance of learning 
in them, neither are they able to stand with the adversarv, 


either in pulpit or disputation : a thing as wel required in BOOK 
a minister as exhortation is. . 

3. If this device take place, where the universities yield 
now great number of preachers and ministers, they would 
not then yield one for twenty. And so the number of 
preachers, which now are thought to be very few, would 83 
then be much less, and at length the utter decay of the 
study of divinity, and the very next way to bring in popery 
and ignorance again. 

4. It overthrows the degrees of the university which are 
taken in divinity, as the bachelourship and doctorship. For 
even sithence the first foundation of them both, it hath been 
perpetually used, and it is by statute required, that none 
should take any of these degrees, but such as are in the 
ministry. And indeed it is both inconvenient and absurd 
that it should be otherwise. 

5. At this day there are in the luiiversity of Cambridg 
an hundred preachers at the least, very worthy men, and 
not many less in the university of Oxford : and the num- 
ber daily encreaseth, both to the great benefit of the church. 
But if this might take place, within this seven years there 
would not be five ministers in either of them. 

6. It would cause men all their life time to remain in ^ 
the universities. So that there should be no succession. 

7. It also overthroweth the foundation and statutes of all 
cathedral and collegiate churciies, and taketh away the 
chief and principal reward for learned preachers : for the 
best livings for worthy men are in such churches. 

8. It taketh away the wisest, best learned, and gravest 
divines ; such as do, and are most able to withstand, not only 
papists, but other sectaries also. 

9. Every one, to keep these places, would openly profess 
the study of divinity, and secretly study the one law or the 
other, or physic, or some trifling study, al his life long. 

10. There will be no care of profiting, when there is no 
tryal therof. Which is most special by open preaching: 
which were absurd to be don by no ministers. 

11. Any which hath been a student may, under pretence 



HOOK of studying divinity, without any tryal obtain deanries, 
" })rovostsliips, prebends, &c. And being a layman may live 
idly on the spoil of the church al his life, except he taught 
a benefice. 

12. There shal want sufficient tryal of the abilities of 
preaching of such as are to be bishops, except they be 
chosen from some benefice : which brccdcth smal experience 
for governance. 

13. It would greatly diminish the number of preachers 
and sermons, which the imiversities, colleges, and cathedral 
churches do yield, both at home and abroad, ii> every coini- 
try ; in the respect that those which now have the livings 
are bound to be ministers. 

14. It taketh away daily service used in these churches 
(which were impiety) unles it might be said or songe by 
such as are now ministers : which is absurd. 

15. To conclude, it wil breed a bcggcrly, unlearned, and 
contemptible clergy and ministry. . It is the very way to 
overthrow al colleges, cathedral churches, and ])laces of 
learning : it will extinguish the study of divinity, diminish 
the number of preachers, and breed a great confusion and 
alteration in the church and common wealth : and it is a piece 
of T. C. his platform. 

16. By this the reward of divinity will be taken away, 
and the divine thrust to a benefice of 40/. This is covertly 
to shove at the gospel, to place the lawyers and others as 
they please. 

17. Note, that hereby they would have dispensations to 
take place against the statute of colleges and cathedral 

The fifth article. 
That none be made minister, but upon some Sunday 
publicly, in the cathedral church of the dioccs where the 
minister is admitted. 
84 Avstocr. That he be made public, it is not amiss; but 
to observe the precise place of the cathedral church, it wil 
be inconvenient ; because divers bishoj)s dwel far from their 
cathedral churches. 


The sixth article. BOOK 

That the bishop make no mmister but such as be of his ' 
own dioces, and have there continued by the space of one 
whole year ; except such only as come from the universities, 
and bring testimonials of their meetnes under the univer- 
sity seal. 

The seventh article. 

That such as be of the bishops own dioces shal bring 
with them such a testimonial as is hmited in the statute of 
anno 13. Ehzab. 

The answer. 1. These are very expedient and necessary, 
and even so provided for by the law. 2. It were more meet 
also that these things were observed, when patrons present 
to a benefice : and that as the testimonials do witness their 
conversation, so the bishop should without any impeach- 
,ment of Quare impedit, &c. be judge of their ability in re- 
spect of the cure which they desire. 

TJie eighth article. 

That after the receit of the said testimonial, the bishop 
shal not procede to the making of his person minister which 
bringeth that testimonial, before he shal declare before the 
dean and chapter of the cathedral church, that he wel 
knoweth the persons, by whom the testimonial is made, to 
be such as is by the said statute exprest. 

The answer. This is unnecessary, and altogether need- 
less, neither can it be performed. 

The ninth article. 

That he shall not make any minister, but such as shall 
by the dean and chapter, or the more part of them, or 
six learned preachers of the dioces, then present, be allowed 
for a man meet and sufficient, by subscription of their hands - 
to some writing, declaring their assent, in allowing of him. 

The ansiver. 1. It wil breed great trouble, and not work 
that effect which is looked for ; neither can it by al in place 
be performed. 2. It would also be very chargeable, upon 
the absence of the most of the chapter, if the party should 
procure the hands of six preachers, dwelling in dispersed 




n<)<) K The tenth article. 

' That none shal have a benefice with cure, being of the 

value of 20/. yearly in the queens books, except he be a 
master of arts, or a preacher allowed, notwithstanding that 
he be made a minister before of some mean cure. 

Answer. It is to be liked of, so that diligent heed be 
taken, that none be admitted, preachers, but such as be 

^^ II. Concerning excommunication. 

The first article. 

Excommunication is at this time the pain of contumacy ; 
and hath place where a man appeareth not upon process, or 
sati^fieth not some order prescribed by the judge : as, not 
taking some oath, or not paying legacies, tiths, &c. 
The second article. 

The offences that grow by the practice hereof in this 
manner are great : one, that being the highest censure left 
by the church of God, it is profaned by applying it to tem- 
poral and civil causes : another, that it is executed by men 
that have no calling in the church, as chancellors, offi- 
cials, &c. 

Again ; forasmuch as the church may not be left without 
this censure of excommunication, it is to be provided, that 
for enormous crimes, as adultery, and svich other, the same 
be executed either by the bishops themselves, with the as- 
sistance of grave persons, or else by other persons of calling 
in the church with the like assistance ; "and not by chancel- 
lors and officials, as hath been used. 

Ansiccr. Excommunication hath been used by the eccle- 
siastical judge ever sithence there hath been either disci- 
|)line in the church, or jurisdiction in the ecclesiastical ma- 
gistrate, and is the only punishment therof. For the antient 
law-makers, thinking that blood and bodily pains ought to 
be far from ecclesiastical magistrates, have given them this 
mild spiritual sword, to divide that person from the ecclesi- 
astical body, that refuseth to do his ecclesiastical duties, 
and to obey the ecclesiastical judge. Not excommunicating 
every man for txvopcny causes, as is surmised ; (tho' indeed 


there be as much in M as in 200/.) but in excommunicat- BOOK 

ing them for not obeying the order, decree, and sentence of [ 

the judge, according to her majesty s ecclesiastical laws. 
Even as in a temporal cause of 2d. the party is out- 
lawed : and consequently his fruits and goods of his lands 
are at the princes plesure, if he appear not, or obey not. 
And yet it is not to be said, that a man is out-lawed for 2c?. 
but for not obeying the law, process, and judge in a two- 
peny matter. For the smaller the matter is, the greater is 
the fault of contumacy and disobedience, saith the law. 

Excommunication for process, order not obeyed, taking 
some oath, Sec. is not for civil causes. But these causes are 
ecclesiastical: and what can be more against the church, 
than when men will not be ordered by it, nor obey it ? In 
Gods law, such as would not be ordered by their judg, or 
high priest, were stoned. 

There is no law nor function in the world void of excep- 
tion and imperfection. And to have it void therof est op- 
tandum magis qunm sperandum : as in Plato's Common- 

If excommunication be either taken away or changed, 
the whole course of the common law of the realm concern- 
ing that matter, and touching the writ oi Excommun. capien- 
do, must be changed. Wherin many things not yet thought 
on may happen, and insted therof some convenient temporal 
penalty must be devised. Which how unliking and unpleas- 
able it wil be, and how ful of difficulties, the wise can con- 

And if excommunication be tliought fittest to continue, 
(for that there wil be as many inconveniences, or more, in 
time found in other things, as in that,) and that for the 
better credit of the proceding therin the bishop be arched 
to sit in consistory, his whole life will be spent in his juris- 
diction, and in study of law ; that he might be able to dis- 
cern, whether the process be according to law, before he 86 
inflict the censure : which will be as great decay of preach- 
ing as it hath been in fore time. For the jurisdiction alone 
requireth totum et integrum hominem. 



BOOK Touching the execution by men of no calling in the 

" country. 

The jurisdiction in the beginning was joyntly in the 
bishop, dean and chapter. Which bred so many opinions, 
such impeachments and confusions in proceding, that, by 
the general custome of the world, generally the jurisdiction 
was thought convenient to be exercised by the bishop alone : 
which growing great, as the church and ecclesiastical causes 
encreast, and consequently calling the bishop from his func- 
tion, the law and constitutions ordered, that the official, or 
vicar general of a bishop or archbishop, should have the 
same consistory or jurisdiction that the archbishop or bi- 
shop had, and the same authority to excommunicate. Which 
by the statutes of this realm is also allowed to doctors of 
the law. For that in later times divines have wholly em- 
jiloyed themselves to divinity, and not to the procedings 
and study of the law : wherunto in fore times the clergy 
were more addicted than to divinity ; in respect of the 
gain, and offices exercised under bishops, archdeacons, and 
other ecclesiastical callings, which drew them wholly from 

This excommunication by law was never used, nor could 
be used, as a punishment of any crime, saving of notorious 
heresy, usury, symony, piracy, conspiracy against the per- 
son of the prince, of his state, dignity, and crown, perturb- 
ers of the common peace and quietness of the church or 
realm, wilful murtherers, sacrilegers, perjurers, and incorri- 
gible and notorious committers of incest and adultery, false 
witness, and suborners therof, violent layers of hands upon 
ecclesiastical persons, and such other great and honible 
crimes: which were called sententia canonum. Wherin, 
besides the particular penances that the bishops and their 
officers did impose, it was for more terror provided by an- 
tient canons, that there should be a general open denuntia- 
tion of this excommunication in every cathedral chinxh and 
])arish church twice in the year. 

For other light faults there was no excommunication per- 
mitted or used as a punishment, other than for manifest 


and wilful contumacy or disobedience, in not appearing, BOOK 
when persons were called and summoned for a cause eccle- ' 
siastical, or when any sentence or decree of the bishop or 
his officer, being deliberately made, was wilfully disobeyed 
or not performed. 

Such wilful contumacy and disobedience to authority is 
in the law accounted so great, that it is called a contempt 
of that quod est in jure eoctremum. That is to say, if the 
judge cannot have appearance of the parties, or execution 
of his judgments, here he is at the wal, and can go no 

Of very antient time this was the maner of proceding in 
this realm, and the only mean of reducing obstinate per- 
sons to the obedience of the law. 

It may appear by the antienter statute or act of parla- 
ment in the 9th year of Edward II. that it was the old 
custom and usage of the realm long before that time. The 
words are these : Si aliqui propter suam contumaciam ma- 
nifestam excommunicentur ; ac post 40 dies, dies pro eo- 
rum captione scribatur ; et prcetendunt se privilegiatos ; et 
sic denegatur hreve regium, pro captione corponim ; re- 
sponsio regis, nunquamjuit negatum, nee negabitur injii- 

It is to be considered, whether this manifest contumacy 
and wilful disobedience to the magistrate and authority, be 
not as well punishable, when the original cause or matter is 
as weighty. The difference wherof doth nothing alter the 
nature of the disobedience. 

In this our realm of very antient time it hath been ob- 
served from time to time, that there was never altei-ation 
made of any law ecclesiastical, altho'' it had appearance to 
benefit the state of the clergy ; but that it turned ever to 
some notable prejudice. 

III. Concerning commutation of penance. 87 

That there be no commutation of penance for sin, but by 
the order and appointment of the bishop, with the assent 
of the dean and chapter, or the most part of them, or with 
the assent of six preachers of that dioces. 

X 4 


HOOK The ansiver. 1. The bishop is sufficient for this matter. 

_____2. It were good to inhibit justices of peace to commute; 
but to permit them only to punish corporally. And yet 
notwithstanding, the parties offending, not to be received 
into tlie church, til they have don such penance, wherby 
the congregation may be satisfied. 

IV. Concerning dispensations. 
The first article. 

The faculties which did the greatest hurt in the church 
of God were three; viz. dispensation De non promovend. 
dispensation for pluralities of benefices, and dispensation for 

The second article. 

These two last named faculties have bred the disorders 
of making vage ministers. Whereof have ensued two great 
incommodities : one, and the chiefest of al, that the people 
is not taught : the other, that the ministers placed in bene- 
fices, where the pastor is absent, and having for the most 
part smal allowance, do post from place to place, for their 
better preferment; and resting no where, respect neither 
their life, nor encrease in knowledg. For men be careful 
for their conversation, where they are to have continuance. 
And smal account can be taken how he profiteth that 
abideth no where long. 

Answer. The faculty De non residendo is so rare, as by 
the present archbishop there was never any granted. And 
by the last archbishop never any yielded unto, but by spe- 
cial requests and warrant from my lords of her majestys 
council : and that to men qualified in her majestys service, 
or otherwise greatly employed in the common wealth. And 
therforc it necdeth no such provision by law. 

The faculty of non-residence is also so rare, and granted 
in such respects, as sithence the time of this archbishop 
there hath not been above one granted ; and that to a man 
of 80 years old ; with whom the law it self dispenseth. 

Beside, that the statute of the realm provideth so sharp 
a penahy for non-residtnce by the forfeiture of 10/. a 


month, to be recovered in the exchequer, as no man careth BOOK 
to sue for the facuky : and if they do, it profiteth nothing. *' 
For that the statute inflicteth the punishment, al faculties 
and dispensation notwithstanding. And a more severe pu- 
nishment cannot welbe devised. 

Touching the faculty of pluralities, the ground therof is 
this. Men of excellent gifts and extraordinary vertue often- 
times have no livings, or very smal living ; and when they 
cannot attain so great as their quality deserveth, the policy 
of the church hath thought fit to grant to such an one two 
livings, as an extraordinary reward for extraordinary vertue. 
For if al men could be made fit for all livings, or al livings 
for al maner of men, there should have needed no dispensa- 
tion of pluralities; but forasmuch as that cannot be, it is 
lawful in such case of necessity, and for such extraordinary 
causes, to recede from the strait and common course of the 
law. And so hath it been used in al ages. Neither can it 
bee better policed nor more restrained than of late it hath 88 
been, in respect both of distance of places, and the value of 
their parsonage, with great caution both for their hospitality 
and preachings. ^Besides that the laws being positive that 
forbid plurality, the difference in reason is very smal be- 
tween the little benefices not far distant and one great bene- 
fice. And therfore no strange thing, if by like positive law 
there be admitted by mitigation a dispensation of the rigor 
of law. 

Moreover, the number of benefices in England being 
about 18000, and the vmiversities not able to furnish the 
third part of them with sufficient men, it is better that one 
worthy man have two benefices, than to be unfurnished of 
living, or be obscurely placed in a smal parish or poor liv- 
ing, or the same benefices committed to two unlearned 

The third ai^ticle. 

That no chaplain have two cures if both amount above 
40Z. in the queens books, or be 20 miles distant. 
The fourth article. 

That none enabled to have two cures shall enjoy the 


BOOK same, unless they be under the value aforesaid, and within 
• 20 miles distant, and be resident upon one of them. 
The a7iszver to the third and fourth articles. 

1. The distance of miles is not to be mishked ; but the 
limiting of the value is unreasonable, and tendeth only to 
the impoverishing of the ministry : being a state as worthy 
of living in man}^ respects as others of other calling whatso- 
ever, in respect of their calling. 

2. The best gifts deserve the best rewards; and there- 
fore it were better to make a limitation, what degrees of 
schools shall only be enabled for the best livings. 

3. Dignities, prebends, and places in colleges (as before) 
are required by dispensation for lay-men. Here the divine 
is set at 40/. If a man would deal covertly to pul away 
religion, how could he do it better ? 

Thejifth article. 
That no dean of cathedral church, prebendary, or other 
having dignity, shal have more than one benefice with cure, 
besides his dignity. 

The sixth article. 
That no one have mo dignities or prebends than two. 
The answer to thejifth and sixth articles. 

1. It is very unreasonable, and tendeth to the same end 
with the third and fourth article, and wil discourage men 
from the ministry, and make a beggerly clergy : far unapt 
to give hospitality, or to do many other things required of 
them, and lookt for at their hands. 

2. It is also very inconvenient : for most of digni- 
ties are decayed within these last fifty years very much. 
Greater impositions for the service of the realm are layd 
uj)on them. Every thing to be required at double or treble 
prices in respect of that it was then at ; and yet as great or 
greater hospitality looked for. 

89 The seventh article. 

That they which may have chaplains shall advance no 
more than their number, til the advanced dyeth, or other- 
wise one of two benefices become void. 


The ansicer. book 

1. This is not to be misliked, unless the party be other- 
wise qualified than by the chaplainship. 

2. And yet inconvenience may arise of it. For if a 
chaplain doth not behave himself as appertaineth, no reason 
he should be retained in service ; and it were hard not to 
allow another in such a case. 

The eighth article. 

That none shal be chaplain, enabled to two benefices, 
except he be master of arts, or allowed by the ordinary as 

The ansxoer. It is very convenient. 
The ninth article. 

That none shall be non-resident but such as be con- 
tinually attendant in the houses of such as they are chap- 
lains unto. 

The anszver. 1. To be attendant the greater part of the 
year were sufficient. For the other part of the year they 
may be at their cure. And besides, some have chaplains 
which attend by course. Which is very convenient. 

2. This is very prejudicial for grave men, required for 
government in the universities. Which may very wel dis- 
charge both duties. 

3. This overthroweth residence in cathedral churches, 
colleges, deanries : so that they cannot be attendant there, 
except they wil leave their benefice, tho*" it be but one. 

The tenth article. 

That they shall preach in person yearly two sermons, 
and four sermons beside, per se vel per alium. 

The answer. It is too easy. It is requisite that they 
should preach mo sermons, even in their own persons. 
The eleveiith article. 

Lastly, To consider whether it were not meet to abate 
the numbers of the chaplains of the archbishops, and others 
under that degree, that may by the statute keep more than 
one chaplain. 

Answer. It is not meet. For those of the clergy that 
have chaplains allowed^, the statute sets down a good con- 


BOOK sideration. And there are not many sucli. Besides, it is 
• lookt for, that they should have preachers about them, to 
furnish the want that is in most diocesses. 
The hcelfth article. 

That in cases of plurahties and non-residences, the bi- 
shops shall have the allowing of the minister that shal serve 
90 the cure in the absence of the incumbent: and the stipend 
of the said minister to be appointed by the bishop, accord- 
ing- to the sufficiency of the minister : so that the same sti- 
pend do not excede the third part of the clear yearly value 
of the benefice. 

Answer. This is very reasonable, and according to law. 
The thirteenth article. 

There is one faculty of great inconvenience, granted not 
only by the court of faculties, but by the chancellor of every 
dioces, viz. the dispensation of mariage without banns ask- 
ing. By occasion wherof children make disordered matches 
without the assent of their parents ; and orphans are left to 
the spoil of unthrift persons. 

The answer. 1. It may be so qualified, that no incon- 
venience shal ensue therof. 2. There be divers reasonable 
occasions that daily happen which may hinder the thrice 
asking of banns : which causes are meet to be considered of, 
and allowed by the ordinary, or his deputy. 3. The incon- 
venience that is proposed is in most dioceses already met 
withal, by putting these conditions in the faculty, viz. That 
they have their governours consent ; that there is no suit 
for matrimony depending ; no precontract, nor no other 
impediment: which the party is by a bond with sureties 
bound unto. So that by this means this inconvenience is 
better met withal than by asking the banns thrice; which 
may be don, and yet these im})ediments remain. 4. And 
since the bonds have been qualified as is above said, being 
about one twelvemonth past, experience doth teach that 
none of the pretended inconveniences have happened. 
A general answer to al the articles of excommunication, 
commutation, and dispensation. 

Generally, this alteration, confusion, and abridgment of 


exercise of that jurisdiction wil shortly decay the profes- BOOK 
sion of the canon law and civil law together. Whereby di- ' 
vers now are bred up in learning, in languages, in studies : 
so that they are enabled to serve the realm in any foreign 
service, as wel as any one sort of learned men in the realm 

Number XLI. 
General propositions ; to be supplied zvith proofs, hy such 
as his grace should appoint : and other particulars to be 
gathered. Drawn up by Dr. Drury, a civilian, and sent 
to the archbishop of Canterbury ; in order to prevent a 
cotmnission of Melius inquirendum ; endeavoured by a 
bill in parliament. 

THAT the greateness of the revenues of noblemen, chart, ar- 
knights, and gentlemen, may more justly and with greater S^'.T**^* 
reason (if there were either justice or reason in the one or 
the other) be carped at, than the bishops and clergy, for the 
portion by the conqueror, and before and since, committed 
to their dispensation; if right dispenseth to an heir, some- 
times of mean qualities, and unable to perform those parts 
that first moved the prince to that allotment. And it often 
falls out, that the infinite charges to erect a lay man (whose 
wisdome and learning oftentimes descends not with his 
lands) into honour and government, serveth but for one 
generation: whereas the bishopric is transferred by perpe-91 
tual succession to the fittest in wisdom, learning, and ver- 
tue, for government of the church and conunonwealth ; to 
be nominated at the princes free wil and pleasure, without 
any charge to the prince at al. And for this cause the col- 
leges, bishopricks, and other ecclesiastical dignities, were 
endowed with so great revenues. Hence may be inferred, 
how necessary and profitable a thing it is, for her majesty 
and the commonwealth to have the bishopricks, dignities, 
promotions, and persons ecclesiastical, to be raised to the 
former state and dignity, and to serve in those honorable 
places, as heretofore they have don. 


BOOK And here must be collected, by Stow or any other, what 
" bishops and clergymen were counsillors or officers in court, 
and at AVestminster and elsewhere, and ambassadors, ever 
since the conquest. 

That the taking away of the livings of the church, the 
dissolutions of archbishopricks and bishopricks, and cathe- 
dral churches, wil bring religion into contempt, withdraw 
the subjects, wanting instruction, from their obedience, and 
hazzard the kingdom. And that necessity hath enforced 
the princes, where such dissolution hath been, with infinite 
charges to erect the same again. Here especially proof 
would be made out of the scriptures, and out of the stories 
of this and all other countries, as wel Christian or others ; 
where in all ages a clergy hath been and now is so neces- 
sary, that without it the common wealth could not stand. 
And therfore were ever, and still are, in great honour and 
reverend estimation. 

The premisses being true, her majesty, the great men, 
and favourers of the church and state, have just cause to 
direct or prociu'e special choise of knights and burgesses for 
the next parliament. And if by choise of burgesses the 
ruine of the churcli cannot be prevented, then whether it 
be convenient that the enforcement, proof, and publication 
of some of the premisses be set forth by story and scripture, 
at the court and cross, by special preachers, and otherwise 
bv printed books, I leave to your graces wisdom and better 

And because that it may be suspected, that in every dio- 
ces observation is taken of the least breach of any law eccle- 
siastical, and with single intent, by procuring the offenders 
punishment, in the natural place, and with the express 
pain, to work reformation and amendment, (which tliey 
would be loth to see,) but of malicious pui'pose, by excla- 
mation, to overthi'ow both law, persons, and jurisdiction, in 
the great assembly of parliament ; where no particular cause, 
unles remediless in ordinary courts, was (as I have heard) 
wont to be produced, or come in debate : therfore, to meet 
with such malice and exclamation, a collection into briefs of 


al the abuses, fees, exactions, and oppressions in the courts BOOK 
and officers temporal, and of al disorders whatsoever in this 
common wealth, and in the government, uses, customs, laws, 
and procedings, and touching the counsillers, or any matter 
of state, is most necessary ; to the intent, that some of both 
the houses may thence, for one proposition in parliament, 
against one petty disorder in the clergy, be ready with 
twenty in the same kind, as neer as may be, against some 
abuses in the temporally, of more pernition to the common 
wealth, and of greater weight and consequence. That so 
good acts may be provided for reformation of both ; or 
both rest under the coertion of the law, sufficiently already 

For there is no abuse in the clergy or church not punish- 
able, either by statute, canon or ecclesiastical law, or by 
both. And therfore it is a very malicious and perverse 
course, to make complaint and exclamation to the law- 
makers against abuses in general, and not to procure the 
offender in particular to be punished. 

If her majesty were truly informed in these, and the 
notes by me delivered to your grace the last parliament, 
upon petition, or otherwise, to be by the whole state of the 
clergy exhibited, and not faintly or fearfully pursued ; it 
cannot be but restitution of the state and persons ecclesias- 
tical to former dignity and estimation would follow ; or at 
least no further depression. 

If in this course suspition of danger or displeasure be 92 
conceived, it must be with sound judgment considered, 
whether long forbearing complaints, and prayer for the re- 
dress of rough dealing, and concelement of the difference 
between the advancement and service of the one and the 
other, be not far more and down righter danger. That it 
wil bring al down, as hitherto it hath don by piece-meal 
one half. 

Tho'' the specification of these generalities, and the proofs 
and confirmations to be drawn from so large a scope, seem 
tedious, yet being divided among many, the burthen wil 
be very light, and the thing don of great use and profit. 


^^^\'_'^' Number XLII. 

pen. jiie 

Fratermim et amkum de resart'wnda inter Anglican(B eccle- 
" sice doctores et ministros pace, consilium. 

MSS. ec- SI alii alios mordetis et devoratis, (ait Paulus,) vidcte, ne 
vicissim alii ab aliis consumamini. Ego vcro, si Gallos a 
Gallis dissidentes (inquam) mvituis vulneribus confcctos ex- 
tremam pene ruinam minitari ; si Graecas ecdesias cum 
Gra?cis ecclesiis de ritibus et cercmoniis primum, tuni vero 
de primis nostrae fidei articulis rixantes, quasi ex opinato 
misera Turcae servitute oppressos, occubuisse, videtis ; ca- 
vete, viri fratres, ne alienis periculis minus edocti, vestro 
tandem malo sapere cogamini. Nee vos, obsecro, decipiat, 
quod de summa apostolicae doctrinae inter vos convenientes, 
quod arctissimum pacis vinculum bonis omnibus esse debet, 
de rebus minoris momenti discrepare videamini. Ea est 
enim in controversiis omnibus multis periculis comperta hu- 
manac naturae imbecillitas, ut ex tenuissima simultatis scin- 
tilla discordiac flagrantissimum incendium nascatur. Idque 
praesertim in religionis causis, ubi Dei [gloria] salus propria 
cujusque et proximi charitas praetexitur, quorum seu studio, 
seu zelo, ut quisque inconsiderantius ardet, eo vehementius 
semel conceptam opinionem urget. Quam ut ponat non fla- 
gris, non flannnis, sed recta tantum ratione, errorisque pa- 
tefactione, obtinebimus. Immo, c^uod veteri proverbio di- 
citur, Jgnem gladio ncfodUo, in hoc negotio, vos id experiri 
non sine maerore video; nempe lites ex litibus seri, et ex 
logomachiis seria tandem dissidia creari. 

Quid ? non videtis quo res vestrae sint progressa? ; ex 
quo vis illis disceptandis, vel potius excitandis caepit adhi- 
beri ? Jam factionum nomina, seditionis verae faces, utrique 
parti imposita sunt. Jam non tantum famosis libellis, utra- 
que ex parte acerbissime scriptis, intestina vestra discordia 
plebecula^ innotescit, sed scctatorcs novis nominibus compa- 
rantur, suggestus sanctissimo Cliristi evangelio publicando 
dicati, vocibus debacchantium in fratres, rabularum instar, 
perstrepunt. Deni(jue, ut a ceremoniis, ita sacranicntis alii 
aliorum abhorrent altera pars antagonistarum (quos putat) 


irustraneos labores et temerarios ausus ridet. Altera risum BOOK 
istum, tanquam Epicureum, et Christo, de cujus sincere _______ 

cultu agitur, contumeliosum odit ; et non sine multorum 
applausu, apud vulgus traducit. Altera regia authoritate, 
carceribus, proscription ibus. Altera querelis, contumeliis, 
et quibuscunque modis potest, suas partes tuetur atque de- 

Itaque fit, ut sensim malum serpat, et in apertum schisma 
viam sibi clanculariam sternat, quam nisi jam nactum sit, 
vobis fore prope diem, ut nanciscatur, prasdico, (utinam 
arioler,) et ut illi mature occurratis per sanctissimum Dei 
nomen, per Angliae gentis salutem ; denique per omnia sa- 
cra atque humana, quae omnia hie periclitari videntur, obse- 
cro, obtestorque. Controversia ecclesiastica est, ecclesiastice, 
non hostiliter disceptetur, non clamosis ex suggestu debac- 
chationibus, non carceribus, non ferro, sed arnica, sed Chris- 
tiana, sed prophetica studiorum, consiliorum, et rationum 
collatione, negotium agatur et terminetur. Spiritus pro- '^Corhitu. 
phetarum prophetis suhjictantm\ Non enim est seditionis ' ' 
author Detis, sed pacis ; ut in omnibus ecclesiis sanctorum. 

Est quidem (ut ingenue agnosco) accusantium et accusa^ 
torum alia atque alia conditio ; sed ut omnia non omnibus 
licent, sic sunt res in ecclesia quaedam, quarum corruptelam 
vel minimus in regno Christi minister se quodam suo jure 
et officii conscientia arguere et reprendere putat. 

Quae autem desiderantur in vestris ecclesiis ab his qui ac- 
cusantium partes sustinent, ad duo genera refero. 

Prius eorum est, quas ipsi ministerio ecclesiastic© tarn 
proxime cohaerent, ut ilia essentialia merito dici queant. 

Posterius ea tantum continet, quas per sc adiupopcc, et94 
media cum sint, non nisi asdificationis et pacis ecclesiae com- 
modo aestimari debent. 

Prioris generis sunt, ut cum de fidei summis capitibus 
conveniat (ut per Dei gratiam inter vos bene convenit) hie 
apostolicus ordo statuatur ; nempe, ut sint pastores, qui 
verbo Dei explicando et applicando, publicis precibus fun- 
dendis, et sacramentorum administrationi vacent. 

Presbyteri, qui una cum pastoribus, discipline et ordinis 



BOOK conscrvationi praesint. Diaconi, qui mensis, id est pau})cTum 
ministerio inserviant. 

Act. ii. 42. Hierosolymitana ecclcsia ipsis apostolis, pro pastoribus, 
usa est in quorum doctrina, et orationc et fractionc panis, 

Act. XV. 6. perdurabat. Presbyleros hal)uit, qui disciplin.-e et judicio 
ecclesiastico prasfuerunt cum apostolis in concilio Hierosol. 
Habuit et diaconos, Stcphanum, Pbilippum, et alios quin- 
que, qui rebus paupcrum operam navarunt. Servavit cccle- 
sia Romana heroico illo apostolorum tempore eundem ordi- 

Roni. xii. 8. nem in pastoribus, presbyteris et diaconis, quibus singulis, 
sui et proprii cuj usque muneris memoriam refrieat Paulus, 
pastoribus, ut exhortentur, presbyteris, ut pra'sint cum dili- 
gcntia, diaconis, ut distribuant cum simplicitatc, et misere- 
antur cum hilaritate. Nee apostolorum tantum oetate in 
ecclesia hunc ordinem viguisse certum est, sed aliis omnibus 
deinceps saeculis, quibus illi sua quaedam constitit integritas. 
Quod in ecclcsia Lugdunensi facile animadvcrtas, qua.' altc- 
ro, post Christum passum, saeculo, suoruni martyrum no- 
mine ad fratres Asianos scribens, episcoporinn, presbytero- 
rum, et diaconorum meminit. Tertio etiam sax-ulo Roma- 
idem obtinuit, ubi Xistus pastoris officio functus est, Uioni- 
sius presbyterium exercuit. Laurentius distribuit, et miser- 
tus est. 

Hanc politiam secutae sunt etiam Africanac ecclesiae. Quod 
S. Cypriani concilii prafationem legcntibus apertc constare 
potest. Sic enim iiabet. Cum in unum Carthagini conve- 
nissent cal. Septemb. cpiscopi plurimi ex provincia Africa, 
Numidia, Mauritania, cum presbyteris et diaconis prasente 
etiam plebis maxima parte, &c. Sed cjuid tam proxima 
saculis apostolicis tempora refero.^ Angli ipsi vel septimo 
ab apostolis saculo hanc sinu^luv coluerimt. Legantur acta 
Anno 6«4. synodi in cccnobio Pharensi rcgc Osuio coacta. Illic nomi- 
natini audies cum episcopis permultis Agathonem presbyte- 
rum, et Jacobum diaconum isti synodo interfuisse. Hie vero 
ordo, cum tota antiquitate summo ecclesia commodo re- 
tentus et observatus, vidctur ab accusatoribus merito rc- 

Accusati vero partim sc ilium iiabere, partim qua desunt 


sine periculosa florentissimi status mutatione in ecclesiam BOOK 
vestram invehi non posse respondent. " 

Instant accusantes, et libellis et concionibus accusatos, 
pastores, presbyteros et diaconos habere constanter perne- 
gant, rem esse tanti momenti vociferantur, ut nulli alii post- 
habenda sit, etiamsi fractus dilabatur orbis. 

Accusati aras et focos propugnant libellis, concionibus, 
authoritate regia, carceribus, proscriptionibus. 

At meo quidem judicio, utrisque longe aequior et sanctior, 
regnique tranquillitati conservandae convenientior via in 
prornptu est. Nempe, ut et Christi spirituale regnum (id 
est, ecclesiae administratio) spiritualiter, legibus Christi, et 
apostolicis institutis funditur, et mutatio nulla insignis regni 
statim inferatur, quod non adeo difficile accusatis fore con- 
fido, siquid juste debeant confiderent, nee accusantibus 
grave, siquid possint, non obliviscantur. Quid quaeritur .'' 
Nonne, ut ecclesiae Anglicanae pascantur verbo, regantur 
presbytero, ornentur diaconatu ? Age, fiat. Non habent 
pastores, fateor; sed habent, qui verbum praedicent, episco- 
pos, decanos, archidiaconos, doctores, evangelistas ; habent 
qui preces fundant, et sacramenta distribuant, curiones, vi- 
carios et lectores. At unum eundcmque hominem, id est, 
pastorem tribus istis vacare oportet : fateor quoque, et id ut 
fiat, enitendum esse judicio : quod commode mea sententia 
fiet, si primvim consideremus ista officiorvmi nomina esse 
partim primaria, partim secundaria. Primaria voco quae 
primo et necessario ministro conveniunt, ut evangelista, ut 
doctor. Secundaria, quae secundo et ultra primam vocatio- 
nem ministro conveniunt, ut decanus, et hodie episcopus: 
quae non ratione primi ministerii hominibus conveniunt : 9^ 
qualia sunt omnia superintendentium nomina. Nihil vero 
impedit, quo minus unus idemque minister duobus nomini- 
bus insigniatur pro diversa functione, quam exercet in ec- 

Ergo si episcopus habeat proprium gregem quern doceat, 
quem precibus Deo commendet, quern sacramentis alat, erit 
pastor, qucmadmodum episcopus est, seu dioecesios super- 
intendens, ratione secundarii ministerii, ordinis causa illi 

Y 2 


I500K commissi. Jacobus praefuit (ut multis videtur) omnibus 

^' apostolis in consilio Hierosol. Fuit igitur hoc nomine prae- 

ses, et (ut loquuntur quidam patrcs) episcopus apostolorum : 

et tamen non destitit ab apostolatu, qucm sibi commissum 

a Christo ipse norat. 

Ergo episcopi, decani, archidiaconi, nomina sunt secun- 

Primaria sint ista, pastor, evangelista, id est, pastoris 
vicarius. Ubi enim pastor adest, evangclistae nullus locus 
relinquitur. Retineatur pastoratus, tanquam solus neces- 
sarius, et unius dioecesios paroechifc omnes in decanatiis, sen 
archidiaconatus distribuantur. Decanatus, seu archidiaco- 
natus in pastoratus. Pastoratus tribus aut quatuor ad sum- 
mum paroechiis constent : quae communeni habcant pasto- 
rem, qui singulis dominiis diebus harum, in prima primo, 
in secunda secundo, tertia tertio, quarta quarto concionctur. 
Catechesin exponat, baptizet, et caenam Dominicam, tempore 
huic regno solemni administret. Plebs sequatur pastorem : 
soli invalidi, servi et gravioribus detcnti negotiis excusentur. 
In quorum gratiam ordinariae preces matutino et serotino 
temporibus fiant in tribus paroechiis, unde pastor in quarto 
ccmcionaturus, abcst. 

Sic distributis dioecesios paroechiis in pastoratus, ex illis 
' exibilentur vicariorum et curionum nomina, cum caeteris id 
genus papisticam rcrum sacrarum nundinationem rcdolen- 
tibus, soli episcopi, decani, archidiaconi, doctores et evan- 
gelista? habcant, quisque proprium pastoratum, cui specia- 
liter invigilent ; idque hoc modo, primus hujus vel illius 
dioecesis pastoratus commendctur episcopo, ad cujus instruc- 
tioncm adjungatin* illi collega propter episcopatus, id est, 
superintendcntiac, distrahentia negotia. 

Decani et archidiaconi habcant et proprios pastoratus, 
ubi habitent, et cxcquantur omnia, qua* a fido pastore su- 
perius exacta sunt, non obstantibus decanatus et archidia- 
conatus sccundariis functionibus, quibus tantum secundas 
vigilias debent. 

Reliquis veto pastoratibus ex doctoribus et evangelistis 
prapficiantur past ores, habita prius rationc doctrinal morum, 


et dexteritate in docendo. Vocentur a plebe, mittantur ab B(JOK 
episcopo hoc modo. Plebs, cui deest pastor, roget episco- " 
pum, ut sibi idoneum praeficiat, episcopus roget proximam 
academiam, ut ad se mittat doctum et probum ; (nisi forte 
proponat plebs aliquem de suo coetu dotibus animi commen- 
dabilem.) Ubi ad episcopum, sive ab academia accercitus, 
sive a plebe commendatus accesserit, adniissis ad cognitio- 
nem electionis, ejus decanatus unde plebs censetur, pastori- 
bus examen fiet. Quod si idoneus compertus fuerit, dedu- 
cetur ab episcopo, vel ab episcopi deputato decano, archi- 
diacono, aut alio aliquo pastore, et post concionem propo- 
netur populo, concesso quindecim dierum spatio, intra quod 
licebit plebi oppositionis causas (siquas forte habuerit) dis- 
ceptandas episcopo et ejusdem decanatus pastoribus propo- 
nere. Ubi autem approbatus fuerit, episcopus, vel ab eo 
delegatus pastor, publice et coram tota ecclesia pastorem 
novitium nianus impositione, et solenni ritu, consecrabit ex 
formula huic regno usitata. 

Hie ordo, ut cum apostolico congruit, ita aut parum, aut 
nihil a vestro variat; nisi quod in judiciis ecclesiasticis pas- 
tores episcoporum assessores constituuntur ; quod Niceni 
consilii decretis sancitum erat. Hactenus de pastoribus, 
eorum electione, approbatione et ordinatione. 

Sequitur ut de presbyteris loquamur. Eorum autem duo 
sunt genera. Quod Paulus significat his verbis ; Presbyteri 
qui (1 Tim. v.) bene -prcEsunt duplici lionore digni stint; 
maxime hi qni doctrince vacent. De his dictum est : nihil 
enim aliud sunt quam pastores. Restat ergo ut de secundo 
genere dicamus. 

Habet Anglicana poUtia, et maxime Londinensis, civi-90 
lem ordinem, longe eximium, quem convellere, nedum ever- 
tere, nee velim, nee ausim. Immo, omnibus civitatibus ta- 
lem exemplo esse omnibus votis exoptem. Sed de politia 
ecclesiastica hie ago, quae presbyteros adesse pastoribus exi- 
git, ut majori aldermannos (quos vocant) adesse videmus. 
Major magistratus, pastor Christi minister est. Eundem 
finem habet uterque nempe pacis et ecclesise tranquillitatis, 
bonorumque conservationis studium. Sed diversis raodis 



BOOK mediisque eo contendunt. Ille minis, metu, poenis ct sup- 
'• pliciis malos coercet. Hie dulci blandaque Christi suadela ; 
id est, ex verbo Dei gratuitis vita? a^terna? pollicitationibus, 
fraterna correetionc, admonitione, et eorreptionc ; et (si du- 
rities delinquentis ita exigat) excommunicatione, in officio 
retinet bonos, et malos a grege segregat. Hoc quando, et 
erga quos sit praestandum, per presbyteros quasi suos ocel- 
los, videt, et cum eis de co prsestando deliberat, et statuit 

Ergo ut pastor Anglicus presbyteros habeat, necesse est ; 
quod facile etiam fiet, nee magna praesentis formae muta- 
. lione. Cum de pastoribus loquuti sumus, reliquimus cpisco- 
pos, decanos, et archidiaconos superintendentes : exegimus 
tantum, ut cum evangelistis proprios pastoratus guberna- 
rent. Presbyteros volo etiam sumi de media politia, qua^ 
nunc locum habet, qui huic provinciae serviant, nempe 
churcJioiiorneros (quos vocant) nempe hoc ordine atquc 

Paroechia; uniuscuj usque pastoratus proponant singula? 
proprio pastori lectum aliquem seniorem integritate vita?, 
judicio et experientia celebrem : ita ut quatuor parocchiae 
quatuor proponant seniores. Eorum nomina referantur 
cpiscopo ; et nisi intercedat qua?dam oppositio, ut pastores 
ordinentur. Hi singulis parcechiis invigilent, certis singu- 
lorum mensium diebus familias omnes invisant, de dilcctione 
mutua maritos, et reliquis in familiam officiis connnonefa- 
ciant, siquid sit discordiae aut simultatis, resarciant, per se, 
aut adhibitis in consistorio pastore, et tribus aliis collegis, 
ex verbo Dei, et fraterna charitatis regula, componant. Si- 
quid est gravi censura dignum, aut excoramunicandus ali- 
(juis videatur, res ad episcopum referatur, qui cum his ct 
ali(juis decanatus pastoribus et presbyteris cam dijudicel. 
Hujus ecclesiasticae correctionis defectu multi creantur infru- 
<>iferi mamstratibus labores, vitia domcstica aluntur ; et do- 
nee in aperta facinora crumpant, foventur, qua? onmia seni- 
oruni opera cxtingui possent. Multa? simultates maritorum, 
levibus suspicionibus nixa-, subito sedarentur private. Pre- 
ces in familiis frequcntarcntur ; blanda? ex verbo Dei admo- 


nitiones in officio multos potius retinerent, et a vitiis rcvo- BOOK 
carent, quam publica supplicia in hoc regno plus satis ordi- ' 

naria; comessationes, alea, vestimentorum a paucis annis 
immodice luxurians curiositas, cohiberentur. Denique coe- 
tus ecclesiastici crescerent, et celebriores et augustiores fie- 

Quod attinet ad causas matrimoniales, haeresium et schis- 
matum disceptationem, ordo hactenus usurpatus in hoc regno 
retineri potest; niodo banna (qua? vocant) inordinati ho- 
mines, magno ecclesise detrimento, matrimonii dedecore, et 
famiharum injuria, redimere post hac non permittantur. 

Sequuntur diaconi, quibus caretis magno dispendio pau- 
perum et divitum. Patuit superius hunc ordinem habere 
Deum authorem per apostolos eum instituentem, non est 
mirum si non possit contemni citra muha incommoda, quae 
passim male ordinate ecclesiae experiuntur. 

In pauperibus sublevandis duo potissimum spectantur ; 
prius, ne fame et nuditate pereat, qui eodem nobiscum 
Christi sanguine redemptus est. Secundum, ne aut pauper- 
tatis taedio, frater Deum blasphemet, et ut ditescat, malis 
artibus se applicet ; aut ne Christi eleemosynis saginati ces- 
satores, otio ad vitia impellantur : ut prius efficias non se- - 
dulo solum et fideli, sed bono, et locorum consolationis non 
ignaro, oeconomo tibi opus est : ut secundum, prudenti et 
experto indiges. 

Horum oeconomorum defectu, pereunt bona multa, collata 
in indignos. Qui indigent ut plurimum non juvantur ; aut 
ea parsimonia juvantur, ut obmurmurent, despondeant ani- 
mum, non solentur eos distributores, sed potius irritent 
minis. Hinc fit, ut mendicent et furentur, et tandem mi- 97 
sere pereant. Itaque non solum vobis lictoribus opus est, 
qui mendicos et errones coerceant, sed multo magis diaconis, 
qui solentur, et paupertatem exhortationibus leniant. Quod 
si ea fide et diligentia praestent, qua Stephanus Hierosoly- 
mis, Laurentius Roma? praestitit, non dubito quin multo 
minoribus dispendiis, quam sunt ea, quae quotidie sustine- 
tis. Infinitos adolescentes alatis, quos aut penuria crudeli- 
ter enecat, aut ad crimina, et inde ad patibula, adigit. 

Y 4 


BOOK Velini itaque totidem creari, et eodem ordine in singulis 
' pastoratibus diaconos, quot et presbyteros exegimus. 

Hi colligant pecunias, collectas dispensent fideliter, et 
dati et accepti rationes conficiant, rationem reddant, singu- 
lis in mensibus semel, coram proprio pastorc et tota eccle- 
sia. Singulis hebdoniatibus visant suos pauperes. conso- 
lentur et exhortentur. Tutores se gerant, et proeuratores 
viduarum et orphanorum. A caena paroechiam circumam- 
bulent, et palantes orphanos, et peregrinos liospitio excipi 
curent : ne tanta severitate, et citra antegressam admoni- 
tionem et instructionem pauperes pro mendicis, et deserti 
pro erronibus in latumias et pistrinuni dedantur. Hoc si 
fiat, multi, qui prius facta pudoris et famge jactura, vel in 
cippis, vel in Brigdovelli, laqueo vitam finiunt, servabuntur 
regni defensioni, et niagnis reipublicse usibus. Deus inte- 
rim sui ordinis, et Christi sui vicariorum pauperum obser- 
vatoribus benedicet. 

Quia vero magna paroechiarum differentia est, turn in 
numero, turn in facultatibus parcrchianorum ; si quando 
necessitas exigat (ut exigere perpetuo fere potest) archidia- 
coni judicio (ut aliquid quod nomini suo, et antiquis cano- 
nibus respondeat faxint) ditiores paroechiae tenuioribus de 
suis facultatibus impertiri excitabuntur. 

Ha?c trium in ecclesia ministeriorum ad apostolicam rc- 
gulam delineata reformatio, ideo, vobis facilior est, quod 
vobis vestros episcopos, decanos, archidiaconos, et evange- 
listas, qui erunt vobis pastores, conservet. Chtirchovocue- 
ros, qui erunt presbyteri et diaconi, in veram et legitimam 
ccclesiae tutelam collocat. 

Esset vero optandum, ut ex canonum pra^scripto, et om- 
nium etiam ecclesiarum papisticm-um exemplo, bis in anno 
suorum pastorum et presbyterorimi synodum cogerct episco- 
pus, aut saltem semel in anno, ut statuit in Anglia synodus 

Quia vero qui pastores in singulis ecclesiis debent indies 
studia thcolog. ita excolere, ut magis ac magis suo muneris 
obcundo idonei rcddantur; esset etiam optandum, ut in 
singulis dccanatibus doctores theologici instituerentur, qui 


locis opportunis et diebus, in hebdomade bis aut ter, theo- BOOK 
logiam e sacris oraculis illis exponerent. ^' 

Atque ut his suppeditet fundus ecclesiasticus, curanduni 
est authoritate regia, et regni majorum ordinum communi 
decreto, ut ecdesise quae superesse debent bona, sarta tecta 
maneant, non in alios usus ab aulicis, nobilibus et mercato- 
ribus transferantur. 

Haec sunt quae pertinent ad sedandum vestrarum con- 
troversiarum priorem partem ; secunda, ut jam dixi, talis 
est, ut quod aedificationi et paci ecclesige maxime servit, id 
optimum censeatur. Superintendentiae episcopi, decan. et 
archidiacon. non obsunt ; immo, plurimum prodesse pos- 
sunt, retineantur. De ritibus et ceremoniis, siquid sit tale, 
ut facile eo careat ecclesia, non contendant superintendentes, 
siquid sit non omnino superstitiosum, non turbent ob id ec- 
clesiam Christi accusantes. 

Number XLIII. 98 

Cozvper, lately/ made bishop of' Winchester, to the lord trea- 
surer lord Burghley : for a commission to carry donon 
with him, to make inquiry after recusants. 

My duty considered, right honorable, 

HAVING some care of that charge, wherunto it hath Literae epi- 
pleased her majesty to assign me, I am bold at this time to pg^ffg* ^^g. 
be suitor to your honour, that you would vouchsafe to be 
a means that I may go into the country with such authority 
and direction of assistance there, that mine endeavour may 
take effeet among them. 

I being desirous somewhat to know the state of the coun- 
try, willed the archdeacon of Hampshire to make enquiry of 
such as be obstinate recusants. And I am certified, that 
there be already presented by the churchwardens to the 
number of 400 ; and in some one parish 40 or 50. And 
yet it is thought certainly that by the slackness of the 
churchwardens a great number more are omitted. Where- 
fore the country being in such case, I am of opinion, under 


BOOK correction, thai there will need extraordinary authority; 
' and that to be connuitted not to many. For I understand 
there be divers of great countenance will speak very well, 
and deal very hollowly. If it might be lawful for me to 
wish, I could desire either commission ecclesiastical, or com- 
mission of oyer and terminer, or both. The persons that I 
can be informed of, to he the soundest, and most willing, are 
the lord de la Ware, living often about the city, sir Richard 
Norton, sir William Kingsmill, Mr. Kingsmil, that is attur- 
ney of the court of wards, Mr. Flenmiing, recorder of the 
city of Winchester, and usually living there. And if it shall 
please you to have any ecclesiastical men, I think these very 
iit ; Dr. Bilson, doctor of divinity, Di*. Ebden, or Dr. lleni- 

But I must leave the whole matter to the consideration 
of your honours; only I humbly desire you to have some 
special order therunto. For I fear, if I bring not some ex- 
traordinary direction from your honours, they will conceive, 
that there is not so great care taken to have disorderly per- 
sons represt as all good subjects know that there is. The 
Loid preserve yoiu- lionour in health to his glory. This 2. 
of May, 1584. ' 

Your honours in Christ to command, 

Thomas Winton. 

99 Number XLIV. 

Three Prayers used at court and parliament after Parry's 

A prayer for al king-s, jyrinces, countries., and people., zchich 
do profess the gospel; and especially Jbr oicr sovereign 
lady q^ieen Elizabeth : used in her majestys chapel, and 
viay be used of all persons icithin her majestys dominions. 
O LORD God of hosts, most loving and merciful fa- 
ther, whose power no creature is able to resist, who of thy 
great goodness hast promised to grant the petitions of sucli 
as ask in thy Sons name, we most humbly beseech thee to 
save and defend all princes, magistrates, kingdoms, coun- 


tries, and people which have i-eceived and do profess thy BOOK 
holy word and gospel ; and namely, this realm of England, 
and thy servant Elizabeth our queen, whom thou hast hi- 
therto wonderfully preserved from manifold perils and sun- 
dry dangers, and of late reveled and frustrated the traiter- 
ous practices and conspiracies of divers against her : for the 
which, and all other thy great goodness towards us, we give 
thee most humble and hearty thanks ; beseeching thee in the 
name of thy dci r Son Jesus Christ, and for his sake, still to 
preserve and continue her unto us, and to give her long life 
and many years to rule over this land. 

O heavenly Father, the practices of our enemies, and the 
enemies of thy word and truth, against her and us, are ma- 
nifest and known unto thee. Turn them, O Lord, if it be 
thy blessed will, or overthrow and confound them. For 
thy names sake, suffer them not to prevail. Take them, O 
Lord, in their crafty wiliness that they have invented ; and 
let them fall into the pit which they have digged for others. 
Permit them not ungodly to triumph over us. Discomfort 
them, discomfort them, O Lord, which trust in their own 
multitude, and please themselves in their subtil devices and 
wicked conspiracies. 

O loving Father, we have not deserved the least of these 
thy mercies which we crave : for we have sinned and griev- 
ously offended thee. We are not worthy to be called thy 
sons. We have not been so thankful unto thee as we should 
for thy unspeakable benefits powred upon us : we have 
abused this long time of peace and prosperity. We have not 
obeyed thy word. We have had it in our mouths, but not 
in heart ; in outward appearance, but not in deed. We have 
lived carelessly, we have not known the time of our visita- 
tion. We have deserved utter destruction. But thou, O 
Lord, art merciful, and ready to forgive. Therefore wee 
come to thy throne of grace, confessing and acknowledging 
thee to be our onely refuge in all times of peril and daun- 
ger ; and by the means of thy Son we most heartily pray 
thee to forgive us our unthankfulness, disobedience, hypo- 
crisy, and all other our sinns; to turn from us thy heavy 


HOOK wrath and displeasure, which we have justly deserved, and 
" to turn our hearts truly unto thee. That daily we may en- 
crease in all goodness, and continually more and more fear 
thy holy name. 

So shall we glorify thy name, and sing unto thee in 
psalmes and hynmes and spiritual songs. And thy enemies 
and ours shall know themselves to be but men, and not 
able by any means to withstand thee, nor to hurt those 
whom thou hast received into thy protection and defence. 
Grant these things, O Lord of power and Father of mercy, 
for thy Christs sake. To whom, with thee and thy holy 
Spirit, be all honour and glory for ever and ever. Amen. 

100-^ prayer and thanksgiving Jbr the queen; used of all 

knights and burgesses in the high court of parliament. 

And very requisite to he used and continued of all her 

majesties loving subjects. 

O almighty and most merciful God, who dost pitch 
thy tents round about thy people, to deliver them from 
tlie bands of their enemies ; wee thy humble servants, which 
have ever of old seen thy salvation, do fall down, and 
prostrate our selves with praise and thanksgiving to thy 
glorious name. Who hast in thy tender mercy, from time 
to time, saved and defended thy servant Elizabeth, our 
most gracious queen, not only from the hands of strange 
children, but also of late reveled and made frustrate his 
bloudy and most barbarous treason, who being her natural 
subject, most unnaturally violating thy divine ordinance, 
hath secretly sought to shed her bloud, to the great dis- 
quiet of thy church and utter discomfort of our souls. The 
snare is hewn in pieces; but upon thy sen'ant doth the 
crown flourish. The wicked and bloud-thirsty men think to 
devour Jacob, and to lay wast his dwelling place. But 
thou, O God, who rulest in Jacob, and unto the ends of the 
world, dost dally teach us still to trust in thee for all thy 
great mercies; and not to forget thy mercifull kindness 
shewed to her that feareth thy name. 

() Lord, we confess, to thy glory and praise, that thou 


only hast saved us from destruction, because thou hast not BOOK 
given her over for a prey to the wicked. Her soul is de- ______ 

livered, and we are escaped. Hear us now, we pray thee, 
O thou merciful Father, and continue forth thy loving 
kindness toward thy servant, and evermore, to thy glory and 
our comfort, keep her in health with long life and pros- 
perity. Whose rest and only refuge is in thee, O God of 
her salvation. Preserve her, as thou art wont, preserve her 
from the snare of the enemy, from the gathering together 
of the frowai'd, from the insurrection of wicked doers, and 
from all the traiterous conspiracies of those which privily 
lay wait for her life. Grant this, O heavenly Father, for Je- 
sus Christs sake, our only mediator and advocate. Amen. 

A prayer used in the parlament onely. 

O most merciful God and Father, forasmuch as no coun- 
sil can stand, nor any can prosper, but only such as are 
hmnbly gathered in thy name, to feel the sweet tast of thy 
holy Spirit, wee gladly acknowledge, that by thy favour 
standeth the peaceable protection of our queen and realm, 
and likewise this favourable liberty granted unto us at this 
time to make our meeting together. Which thy bountiful 
goodness we most thankfully acknowledging, do withall earn- 
estly pray thy Divine Majesty so to encline our hearts, as 
our counsils may be subject in true obedience to thy holy 
word and will. And sith it hath pleased thee to govern this 
realm by ordinary assembling the three estates of the same, 
our humble prayer is, that thou wilt graft in us good minds 
to conceive, free liberty to speak, and on all sides a ready 
and quiet consent to such wholsome laws and statutes, as 
may declai-e us to be thy people, and thy realm to be pros- 
perously ruled by thy good guiding and defence. 

So that we and our posterity may with chearful hearts 
wait for thy appearance in judgment, that art only able to 
present us faultless before God, our heavenly Father. To 
whom, with thee our Saviour Christ, and the Holy Spirit, be 
all glory both now and ever. Amen. 



Number XLV. 

A prayer of thanksgiving J'or the deliverance of her ma- 
101 je .sty from many dangers^ and particidaily J'rom the 
mvrthei'ous intention of Dr. Parry. A manuscript. 

O. ETERNAL God and merciful Father, wee thy un- 
worthy creatures most humbly do confess, that we are not 
able with our tongues to utter, nor in our hearts to con- 
ceive the exceeding mesure of thine infinite goodness, 
graces, and favours in this latter age, shewed to this noble 
realm. In that thou, O Lord, hast in most dangerous 
times, a few years past, by this goodness and providence, 
beyond expectation of man, directed and preserved the ten- 
der and noble person of our now sovereign lady Elizabeth 
by thy grace, according to her right, to come to this king- 
dome and royal seat of her noble father ; and by her being 
therein established, as thy beloved, chosen servant, to de- 
liver us, thy people, that were as captives to Babylon, out 
of bondage and thraldome of the enemies of thy true 
chui'ch, and to restore us ajjain to the free fruition of the 
gospel of thy Son our Saviour Jesus Christ. For the en- 
joying wherof now these many years, we do confess and 
acknowledg, that beyond all our deserts, yea truly, O Lord, 
when we by our daily unthankfulness.for the benefit of thy 
gospel, and by our sinful lives, contrary to our holy pro- 
fession, have most justly provoked thee to withdraw thy fa- 
vour from us. 

Thou, O Lord, with thy merciful favour and mighty 
power didst strengthen thy good, blessed servant, our most 
gracious queen constantly, against the roaring and threat- 
nings of the mighty of the world, to persist in maintenance 
of us, her subjects, and thy unworthy servants, to draw out 
our day in all maner of prosperity, peace, and wealth ; but 
most singularly in a peaceable freedom to enjoy the blessed 
benefits of thy holy word against the mighty roaring of 
bulls and tygers, the enemies of thy church, daily conspir- 
ing round about us, and partly among ourselves against 
this realm ; and especially against the rovnl person of our 


blessed queen, thy humble servant and true handmaid. BOOK 
Whose estate being the expectation of a number of wicked ^- 
persons, manitimes in great and secret dangers ; yet thou, 
O Lord, who art the Lord of lords and King of kings, of 
thy heavenly goodness hast always preserved and defended 
her by many miraculous means, and as we have good cause 
to think, by many other means, and at many other times, 
than to us are yet known. 

But yet of late time we have fully felt thy mervailous 
goodness by the discovery of some attempts most apparently 
taken in hand against her person by certain wicked, unna- 
tural subjects ; the stay wherof onely hath proceded, good 
Lord, by thy most continual tender and fatherly care over 
her, thy dear beloved daughter and servant ; and not by 
the wit, providence, or strength of any worldly creature. 
As was most notably to be seen the last year to have been 
attempted by one malicious and furious person, resolutely 
purposed by the persuasion of other wicked traitors, to have 
committed a bloudy fact upon her person ; but mervail- 
ously by thy ordinance, O Lord God, discovered by the 
troubled desperate conscience of the very malefactor, and Somcrviic, 
so most happily stayed. For the which thy blessed favour 
then shewed, if we were not so thankful to thee, O Lord, as 
we ought to have been, yet now, Lord God, we are most 
urgently stirred up to acknowledg our boundcn duty of 
praise and thanksgiving, by a very late manifestation of thy 
singular favour, so largely above that former, as, all won- 
derful circumstances considered, we may compare it with 
an example of thy most wonderful kindness shewed to any 
kings or nations of old time, testifyed to us in thy holy 
scriptures. So, Lord God, what can be added to this thy 
secret favour, now lastly shewed to her.'' when neither she, 102 
being the queen of the whole realm, nor we, being in num- 
ber an exceeding multitude of her subjects, could imagine 
or once think of the same, much less have withstanded it. 
In that a miserable, wretched, natural born subject, a man Pany. 
in truth of no religion, (as now appeareth,) under colour 
seekina: to be a diligent and most careful servant to our 


BOOK gracious queen, and pretending to discover to lier by his 
'• own privity liow her own person was in danger of nuir- 
tliering, and how tlie same might be withstood, hee liimself 
did of long time, even while he had gotten credit with her 
majesty and with her court, determined very often most 
desperately and resolutely to have with his own cursed 
hand destroyed her majestys sacred person. And if, Lord, 
thy mighty and unsearchable power had not at many times 
diverted his desperate heart and his bloudy hand, by reve- 
rence of the majesty of her person, as by his own voluntary 
confession is declared ; we do now perceive, with trembling 
of our hearts, that she could not at sundry times, by the 
space of one whole year and more, have escaped the danger 
of violence, wickedly and resolutely by him intended. 

Whereupon we now, thy humble creatures, acknowledg- 
ing our unworthiness of these great graces, beseech thee, O 
Lord, that thou wilt, without regard of our former un- 
thankfulness, shew thy mercy upon us, and continue thy 
blessings over us. That we may for these thy unspeakable 
benefits be more thankful than we have been, not only in 
word, but in deed also, according to the directions of thy 
holy word ; whei'eof we, under the protection of our gra- 
cious queen by thy ordinance have, by the ministry of 
many thy good servants, had plenteous instruction. And 
we do firmly hope in thy great goodness, that our sovereign 
lady the queen, thy humble servant, having so notable 
proofs of thy special providence in her whole life, besides 
thy unknown works of favour toward her, far above that 
which thou shewest to many other princes, that by her con- 
tinual thankfulness, and by constancy in serving of thee, 
and maintaining of thy holy word, may procure to her self 
and us the continuance of these thy favourable graces, stil 
to preserve her from all manner of open or secret perils 
which the enemies of thy word are known to intend against 
her. Wherby her years may be prolonged, as far as it may 
please thee to grant by the course of nature to any other 
prince in this world, for the maintenance of the glory of 
thy Son Jesus Christ and of his gospel, and for continuance 


of us thy people, her natural subjects, in the due fear and BOOK 
service of thee, and in our natural obedience to her. Wherby ' 

we and our posterity may enjoy such peace as we have had 
these many years under her majestys government, far above 
any like examples in any age by -past, either in this our natural 
country, or any other within the limits of Christendome. 
Grant this, grant this, O heavenly Father, for Jesus Christs 
sake, thy onely Son our Saviour. To whom, with thee and 
the Holy Ghost, be given all honour and glory world with- 
out end. Amen. 

Number XLVI. 

Parry's confession in a letter to the queen., written from the 
Tower after his condemnation. Exemplified from his 
ozvn paper. 

YOUR majesty may see, by my voluntary confession, MSS. Par- 
the dangei'ous fruits of a discontented mind, and how con- ' ^" 
stantly I pursued my first conceived purpose in Venice for 
the relief of the afflicted catholics, continued it in Lyons, 103 
and resolvedly in Paris, to put it'"* [in caecution in Eng-- '^ ii\otted 
land] in adventure, for the restitution of England to the"" ^^ 
antient obedience to the see apostolic. And you may see 
withal how it is commended, allowed, and wari'antcd in 
conscience, divinity, and policy, by the popes and some 
great divines ; tho"" it be true or likely, that most of our 
English divines (less practised in matters of this weight) do 
utterly mislike and condemne it. That enterprize is pre- 
vented, and conspiracy discovered by an honorable gentle- 
man b of great descent, my kinsman and late familiar friend, ^ Blotted 
Mr. Edmund Nevyl, privy and by solemne oath (taken 
upon the Bible) party to the matter ; wherof I am heartily 
glad. But now sorry (in my very soul) that ever I con- 
ceived it, however comfortable or meritorious soever I 
thought it. God thank him, and forgive me ; who would 
not now (before God) attempt it, (if I had opportunity and 
liberty to perform it,) to gain your kingdome. I beseech 



BOOK Clirist, that my death and example may satisfy your ma- 
jesty and the world, as it shal glad and content me. 

This that follows is not in the printed letter. " Your 
" majesty may see that there is never a man more of our 
" nation abroad, or at home, privy to this cause, but Tho- 
" mas Morgan, a catholic gentleman, so beloved, trusted, 
" and protected in France, as you shall hardly be able to 
" touch him by any ordinary course ; that proof depending 
" upon his yea and my 7iay ; and having no letter or cipher 
" of his wherewith to charge him. Leave him therefore to 
" God and his amendment. 

" Give some ease to your catholic subjects. Remember 
" the rest of my letter ; and you shall find, that God wil 
" bless you, foreign princes esteem you, and your subjects 
" obey you. 

" The indignities past between your majesty and the king 
" catholic are many. You have disquieted his state, main- 
*' tained his rebels, and do bear with such as have robbed 
" him and his subjects. Many merchants are undon : some 
" few are enriched. Some bad humours pleased, and your 
" self dishonoured. It may cost you dear ; look to it in 
" time. There is possibility to repair all.^' 

Then the letter printed goes on : The queen of Scots is 
your prisoner. Let her be honourably entreated, but yet 
surely guarded. 

This which Jbllows is in the MS. letter only: " Shee 
*' may do you good, shee will do you no harm, if the fault 
" be not English. Satisfy her reasonably in her keeper ;" 
[whom the queen was now going to change.] " It may else 
" prove dangerous. It was wel once, it cannot be bettered 
" now. A new governour and a new guard may breed new 
" doubts. Impulsion may do harm. Please your self in this 
" cause. It importeth you much : so long as it is wel with 
" her, it is safe with you. When she is in fear, you are 
" not without peril. Cherish and love her. She is of your 
" bloud, and your undoubted heir in succession. It is so 
" taken abroad, and will be found so at home. The prince, 


her son, hath been illy handled by his subjects, troubled BOOK 
with inlet heretic practices, and often endangered in per- ' 

" son. Now you have him, protect him. He is your kinsman 
" and second saulty." 

And then the printed letter proceeds, viz. The French 
king is French ; you know that well enough. You will find 
him occupied when he should do you good. He will not 
loose a pilgrimage to save your crown. 

This that Jblloweth hath a line struclc through it, and is 
part of the letter omitted in the print. " Last of all, forget 
" the glorious title of supreme governour. Trouble none 
" that refuseth to swear it ; for that cannot agree with your 
" sex. Luther and Calvin did not allow it. The puritans 
" smile at it, and the catholic world doth condemne it." 

I have no more to say at this time, but that with my 
heart and soul I do now honour and love you ; am inwardly 
sorry for mine offence ; am ready to make you amends by 
my death and patience. Discharge me a culpa, I beseech 
you, good lady, but 7ion a poena. And so farewel, most 
gracious, and the best natured and qualified queen that 104 
ever lived in England. And so the printed letter endeth. 
But the autograph goes on in these words : viz. 

" Remember your infortunate servant [this last word 
" servant blotted out] Parry, chiefly overthrown by your 
*' hard hand. Amend it in the rest of your servants: for it 
" is past with me, if your grace be not greater than I look 
*' for. And lastly and ever, good madam, be good to your 
" obedient catholic subjects. For the bad I speak not. 

" From the Tower, the 14. of February, 1584. 

" AV. Pa." 

Number XL VI I. 

That such papists as of' late times have been executed ivere 
by a statute of Edward III. lawfidly executed as traitors. 
A treatice. 
THE statute of Edward the Third saith, that if any man Lambeth 

shal compass or imagine the kings death, or shall levy war ^ ly'g, 

z 2 


BOOK against him, or shall probably be attainted to have been an 
^' adherent to the kings enemies, he shall be adjudged a 

Now let us consider the papists dealings. Pius V. (the 
father in his time of them all) calleth her majesty's interest 
in the crown prc^tcnsumjus. He declareth her deprived, 
by his authority, of the kingdome ; he absolveth her natural 
subjects from their oath of obedience ; he curseth all that 
shall yield her any princely duty. And yet not herewith 
content, before the bull was generally published, he sent of 
his ministers into this land, to signify, apostolica auctoritate 
certis viris illustribus^ what was don at Rome ; how Eli- 
zabeth was an heretic; that she had lost her crown; and 
that they did owe her no kind of obedience. 

Wherupon the earls of Northumberland and Westmer- 
land, with sundry other gentlemen, persuaded by Morton, 
the popes principal agent, catholicos omnes summis viribus 
illis affuturos esse ; [i. e. that all catholics \vould assist 
them with their chiefest strength ;] they took up amies, 
and sought by force to have subdued her majesty. And 
Saunders yieldeth this reason of their ill success therin : 
Quia cathoUcl omncs iionchim j)^'ohe cognovenint EUzabe- 
tham hcBreticam esse declarandam; [i. e. Because all the ca- 
tholics did not yet well know that Elizabeth was to be de- 
clared an heretic] But for the attempt, saith he, howsoever 
it fel out, tameu laudanda illorum nobilmm consilia erant ; 
[i. e. nevertheless the counsils of those noblemen were to be 

Now as Morton and his companion, by the popes aposto- 
lical authority, wrought in England, so did Saunders by the 
same authority with his holiness soldiers, as you all know, 
work in Ireland, &c. Wherby, I trust, that the matter is 
evident, that the pope is the queens enemy ; and that by 
the statute of Edward III. Morton, Saunders, and all their 
fellows were rebellious traitors. 

But to procede and come neerer my purpose, these rebel- 
lions represt, and greater regard being had of the popes se- 
ditious firebrand, another course was taken, no less mis- 


chievous and dangerous than the first. Where they could BOOK 

not devour like lions, now for a time they must play the '. 

foxes. Saunders, Morton, and their adherents professed 
themselves, as you have heard, her majesties enemies ; and 
hoping of a sufficient number to have vanquished her, 
moved subjects to open rebellion. But now the Jesuits and 
seminary priests, which of late years came over, had learned 105 
a new lesson. 

They all confessed indeed, and that stoutly, that their 
coming over was to encrease the number of catholics, (as 
they term them,) the popes retinue and subjects ; and that 
they had employed their endeavour by masses, confessions, 
reconciliations, and relicks for that purpose. Mary, for her 
majesty, they said, they honoured her, and she was their 
sovereign, their lady, and they her subjects. You hear now 
here a sudden alteration. 

Fistula dnlce cmiH vohicrem diim decipit auceps. 

[They are good words, but know you their meaning .?] 

The pope that now is, to animate his workmen, and free 
them from danger, hath agreed, like a fox, to wink at the 
bull of Pius V. A qualification is made therof in that which 
might touch his brokers. The bull shal not so bind them ; 
but if they be taken seducing her majesties subjects, and 
examined for their allegiance, by dispensation they may 
profess it frankly. But will you know how long.? Donee 
piibUcc ejusdem buIlcB exeaitio Jieri potest ; [i. e. Until the 
execution of the said bull may be done publicly.] Will you 
know how long .? Until the catholics by competent forces 
shall be able to resist. And therefore in the midst of their 
best protestations toward her majesty,' being asked, if the 
pope, or any other assigned by him, should invade the realm, 
which part they would take, or what part a faithful subject 
of her majesties ought to take, they cry out against the de- 
mand. In his matter they are mute, they answer indirectly. 
And the reason is this. They had all sworn their obedience 
unto the pope. And then both they and all other current 
papists living (acknowledging the popes authority over both 
swords) are bound by oath and profession, when opportu- 

z 3 


BOOK nity serveth that the pope have his assignes, shall assault 
^' her majesty with the temporal or material sword, to joyn 
with him, to their utmost ability, according to their place 
and callings. 

To collect therefore all I have said into one summary. 
The Jesuites and seminary priests executed, before then* 
coming into England did know what Pius V. had done 
against her majesty, neither would they by any means im- 
prove [i. e. disprove] the fact. They were not ignorant of 
the two rebellions stirred and procured by the popes factors 
in England and Ireland, wherof being urged they would 
shew no mislike. They knew that the want of a sufficient 
number that would rise against her majesty was the cause 
why the bull was not executed. They did confess, that 
they themselves were sent over to encrease that number ; 
and that therin they had laboured greatly. They were not 
ignorant, that the pope now living had given them no 
longer licence to acknowledg her majesty than 7ebus sic 
stantibus, than by reason of power and nvunber publica 
executio hidlce fieri 2)oterat ; [i. e. the public execution of the 
bull might be done.] And then, according to their oaths, 
both they and their scholars were to joyn against her high- 
ness, their native country and kingdom. 

I omit here conspiracies and treacheries wrought beyond 
sea, proved against them by sufficient witnesses at their ar- 
rainment. And thus I draw to an end in this point. 

For the Jesuites and seminary priests executed, to give 
their faith unto the queens enemy, who sought her over- 
throw, her death, her crown, to persuade her subjects unto 
a reconcilement with the said her enemy, and so to encrease 
his strength and diminish her majestys, &c. is to compass, 
or at least imagine her highness destruction, is in a sort a 
levying or preparation of war and rebellion. And to be 
convicted of the premisses I am sure is probably to attaint 
them for adherents unto her majesties enemies. And there- 
fore the Jesuites and seminary priests, executed by the sta- 
tute of Edward III. were traitors, and so most lawfully exe- 


Wheras then their abetters and upholders do give it BOOK 
forth, they were no traitors, but that they suffered death 

and martyrdom for saying of masses, for hearing confes- 106 
sions, for absolving of sinners, for Agnus Deis, for persuad- 
ing men to the Roman religion, for matters of conscience, 
for Christian religion, and not for treason, I answer. 

First, that if indeed they still hold as the cause standeth, 
between her majesty and the pope, that the pope hath in 
himself the right of both swords, as well by the material 
sword through force to subdue her, as by the spiritual to 
excommunicate her ; then there cannot be any case or cause 
of treason which may any way touch them ; but being con- 
victed of any murther or mischief, either executed or in- 
tended, or any sedition, rebellion, or solicitation to every 
such extremity, if they followed therin the popes pleasure, 
all such stratagems are grounds for religion. 

But by their leaves they must first prove unto us out of 
the word of God, that, as they write, their pope is rex re- 
gum, et dominus dominantium, [i. e. king of kings and 
lord of lords,] that kings and emperors, as feudatory vas- 
sals, do owe him homage ; that he may place and displace, 
give kingdomes and the empire to whom he list ; that he 
doth ohtinere principatum totius mundi, [i. e. obtain the 
principality of the whole world ;] and that Christ hath com- 
mitted unto him terreni simid et ccdestis imperii jura, [i. e. 
the rights of the earthly together with the heavenly em- 
pire.] Let them, I say, prove this : and then for my part I 
shall think that our Jesuites and seminaries were no trai- 
tors, in that they did by their god's the popes command- 
ment. Mary, if it shall fall out by the authority of the 
scriptures, in taking upon him to have regnum super reges 
terra, he prove himself to be Antichrist : if it appears di- 
rectly, that kings in the Old Testament were lords of the 
temporal sword ; that Christ himself in that respect payd 
tribute unto Csesar ; that his apostles did the like ; obeyed 
the civil magistrates ; prayed for them, and commanded all 
men to be subject unto them : if it prove true, that the an- 
tient fathers (agreeing, and generally with Tertullian) do 

z 4 


ROOK confess, that every king and emperor within his own donii- 
nion I'&homo a Deo secundus ; omnibus major, fantum Deo 
minor: if it be evident, that the old bishops of Rome 
acknowledged with their fellow bishops, Gregory and Leo, 
that the emperor was their lord, and themselves at com- 
mandment his servants, his subjects; then most assuredly 
for any subject, priest, or Jesuite, to joyn either with pope 
or any other clergy faction against his natural prince, espe- 
cially touching the temporal sword, or any use therunto be- 
longing, for the overthrow of the same, is and hath been 
accounted a matter of treason, not only in king Edward 
III. his time, but even, as I take it, from the beginning 
among all princes; and cannot now by any pretence be 
made a matter of religion, except they have the privilege 
that certain heretics (as I have heard) did chalenge, qnod 
vohimns sanctum est ; that what they list shall be a matter 
of religion. 

Again, where they say their fellows were execirted for 
saying of masses, for confessions, &c. they reason as the 
witches, inchanters, and conjurers, being convicted of the 
wicked practice of those abominations, should alledge for 
themselves, (as oftentimes they do,) that they were con- 
denuied, and must dy, only for saying their Pater nostcr, 
and some other godly prayers. Or as tho"" the agents of 
some mighty rebell, being attainted for labouring by letters, 
gifts, and promises of great rewards, to alienate from their 
kings, ancr joyn with their masters the strength of the 
people, should cry out and publish abroad, that they dyed 
for writing of letters, for relieving the poor, for promising 
good turnes unto their friends and acquaintance. 

Indeed to pray, to write letters, give gifts, and to pro- 
mise good beneiits, is not evil ; but to use prayers as in- 
chanters do is wicked. To solicite either by letter, gift, or 
promise, any princes subjects to any purpose that tendeth 
to their overthrow, is treason, and so to be pimished. 
107 And even so our Jesuites knowing there was a time lookt 
for when the bull should be executed, and that nothing was 
wanting but number of stout converts, (as they term them,) 


to endeavour by masses, &c. to encrease that number, by ^ BOOK 
any such practice, tho' their masses were good of them- 
selves, (as they are not,) yet are their labours wicked, treach- 
erous, and fill of great treasons. 

But to pass over those that be dead, and to come to those 
that be alive, what prince in the world liveth that doth to- 
lerate such subjects ? For to omit, that all that are in Eng- 
land as yet alive are in the like condition of treason with 
those who are executed, this surely must whet me on very 
much against them and that brood, to se how shamefully, 
untruly, and impudently they slander her majesty, her go- 
vernment, her ministers, their queen, their rulers, their coun- 
try. There is nothing so villanously attempted against the 
state but it is excused, nay, approved and commended; 
nor any thing upon never so good grounds either don or 
said against them, but it is perverted, slandered, and con- 

The bishops, who, upon suspicion only that their pomp 
would be exiled, refused to crowne her majesty in the be- 
ginning of her reign, are greatly praised. The rebells in 
the north are highly extolled. The popes practices against 
her majesty are by all that are abroad very greatly liked of. 
If any be justly executed, they write they are martyred. If 
any be impi'isoned, they say they are smothered and pined. 
Nay, their most horrible traitors, even such as sought to 
suck her majesties bloud, are excused. Thus one writeth of 
Somervile, (who hanged himself;) The common opinion is, 
saith he, the poor gentleman was dispatched of purpose, 
and by appointment, for the prevention of the discovery of 
certain shameful practices. And of Ardern, that he was a Vid. Camd. 
worshipful, a valiant, and innocent gentleman, and through ^^'^' P" -^^' 
practice and envy was overthrown. And of another rebell 
the same author. We need not to defend the actions of that 
noble earl of Westmerland against maUcions envy and de- 
traction of malice. 

Briefly, we see by daily experience, that the more horri- 
ble their treasons are, the more they are accounted of. The 
earl of Northumberland is become a martyr and saint. So is 


BOOK Felton, the trumpet of all English treacheries. And so I 
' think shall all the rest. And is not this a most dangerous 
device against the safty of all estates, who set themselves 
against the man of sin and Romish traitors? I am per- 
suaded the two attempts against the prince of Orange would 
never have been made, but that the parties were persuaded 
they should be saints. And the like I might say of Somer- 

So that if ever prince in Christendome had cause given 
of severity and care of guard, it is her majesty. 

Number XLVIII. 
Intelligences sent to secretary Cecyll by Daniel Rogers; 
taken and transcribed by him from letters written to 
several princes of' Germany in the year 1569. 
From Rome, June 18. 
MSS. Burg. Tiie French men do hope, that the queen of England 
will send no power out of England, nor the princes of 
Dutchland out of Germany, to succour the Hugonots. And 
108 so by that means the king may easily overcome Deuxponts, 
[who came out of Germany to assist the Hugonots for the 

[It must be marked, that the Hugonots and the admi- 
ral of France were successful in this year 1569 against the 
Fivnch king. And several English forces were arrived soon 
after to the assistance of the protestants.] 
A hat and TJie pope (loth yearly consecrate on Christmas eve a hat 
secrated by ^^^^ sword ; tlic wliicli lic scndcth'to some such prince as in 
the pope, iiis opinion hath done best service to the see of Rome. 
This year he hath sent these presents to the duke of Alva. 
For that he hath so manfully withstood and chased away 
the prince of Orange. It is a certain mean to honour 
princes withal, and to encourage them earnestly and va- 
liantly to defend the popes estate, &c. 
Monks I luivo hearil nothing of the Pronothorie monks and Spa- 

theEn^iisi). "ish inquisitor that should be taken by the English ships. 
For I can easilv believe, that this kind of people do at this 


time fly as fast into the Low Countries as crows to a car- BOOK 
rion. Because they are there rather preferred, than the na- ' 
tural people of the same country. 

It is needful in my opinon that no supplies be sent, nei- Protestants 
ther out of England nor Dutchland, to the succour of the 
protestants in France, if peace be not concluded. The 
French men here [at Rome] do affirm, that the king re- 
fuseth the conditions of peace. But the pope feareth that 
he will pacify. And therefore by public supplications to God 
he commandeth that victory be required against all Hu- 

Advices 22. of June. 

By the commandment of the holiness of our lord Pius V. '^''^ pope's 

1 -1 p t-\ 1 -K • \ j»T-» 1 -ii luandiite at 

by the providence of God bishop of Rome, the right ho-Bononia. 
norable and most reverend cardinal Paleotto, bishop of Bo- 
lonia, doth notify, exhort, and command all persons and cu- 
rats of what church soever they be, as well secular as regu- 
lar, and all monks and friars within the said city and dio- 
ces, that they fail not to say every day the litany for the 
health and preservation of the commonwealth of Christen- 
dom. And especially, to pray to God for help of the king- 
dom of France, and for the rooting out of heresy there. 
And that all priests in their masses do pray against the 
persecutors of the church. And that other private religious 
men do say certain godly prayers privatly, as God shall in- 
spire them. That all curats on the holy days do advise the 
householder of every parish to say daily in their houses 
some special prayer ; and that all children which do begin 
to l)e instructed in the Christian religion do say the litany, 
or some other prayer, as shall seem good to the curats, 
every holyday in the church ; and that the said curates, 
every one in his parish, do exhort the people to often 
prayer, alms deeds, and other good works. And that all 
the clergy be diligent to do the like. To the end, that Al- 
mighty God may respect his holy catholic church of Rome ; 
and give help to the kingdom of France in these perillous 
times. Subscribed by 

Lodovicus riuntkis secretarms de mandatis. 


BOOK From Venice^ tilt. Jiinii. 

'• The queen of England hath confirmed to her anibassa- 

The queen dor ledger to the French king, that she will not meddle 
"S an • ^^.j|.}^ j^jg p,.^.nch affairs, nor help his Hugonotes with any 
thing. But to drive out of her kingdom such as Hve quietly 
and peaceably there; that she neither can nor will do. The 
French king dodi credit her, as much as she by her actions 
doth shew to be believed. But he mervaileth, that she be- 
ing so ready and furnished with all things, doth enterprize 
no more matter in France. He judgeth it to be the great 
work of God, and a singular mercy and favour shewed unto 
109 him; that he should not despair, but that in the end he 
shall utterly root out all that generation of Hugonots, not 
only in France, but in all other places. 
Catholics of The popish catholics of Germany are not ashamed with 
Germany. ^^^^^^ abominable lyes to slander the doctrin of the count 
palatine elector, and say, that his preachers do affirm, that 
Christ dyed only for the salvation of men ; and that there 
is a woman come, which shall redeem the women. Which 
was the dream once of Postellus. This ly hath been re- 
proved to some of the reporters faces here. 
F7-om Venice, Jnly 19- 
The cardinal Commendonus, a notable })illar of the popish 
church, told monsieur de Foy, the French kings ambassa- 
The pro- dor at Venice, that he was sure that all the Hugonots were 
testants in- j^ ^.^,,^,3 \^ ^11 places, with intent to root out the catholic 

tent in all x -^ 

places. religion. Whereof he said he had advertised tlie pope. To 
whom also he did write, that France and Germany were 
known well enough unto him : and unless the pope would 
stir up the rest, and make all the friends and means he 
could, to extinguish the protestants there, and that with all 
possible speed, that there was great danger of the utter 
subversion and ruine of the state of Home. 

Cornelius Fresco, of Genoa, a notable seaman, is gon to 
the sea, with eight gallies, very well appointed : wherin are 
800 men, and three canons, besides other small pieces. 
These gallies are thought to joyn with other Spanish and 
Sicilian gallies, and with certain great ships of Britany and 


Normandy, and passing by Rochel, shall enterprize some- BOOK 
thing in England. 

Venice, July 14. England 

The pope useth vehement persecution against the Lu-y^ded. 
therans in Italy. For no stranger can travail in Italy, but Lutherans 
he shall be examined of his belief, and what mind he hath '" ^ ^' 
toward the see of Rome. 

There is care, study, and endeavour taken by the papists 
in all places to destroy the Hugonots throughout all the 

The queen of England hath lent 50000/. sterl. to the 
queen of Navarr, 

They of the religion have in all, with the Dutchmen, 
12500 horsemen, 34000 footmen. The kings forces are as 

From Vienna, July 15. 
The Venetians have lent the pope 200,000 crownes : con- The Vene- 
ditionally, that the said sum be not repayd to them within *'^"''' 
five years, the city of Ravenna (which is already mortgaged 
to them) to be theirs for ever. 

About two months past, at Vienna in x\ustna, a Jesuite A Jesuit's 
practised with a poor man and his wife, by a feigned mi- ""^"^ ^^^' 
racle to enrich them, and win credit to his superstitious re- 
ligion. The device was, that the poor man should be caried, 
as dead, on a biere, to the church; and, in the way, the Je- 
suite, as it were by chance, meeting with the corps, and 
moved with the poor womans case, (who feigned piteously 
to lament her husbands death,) should stay the corps, and 
say these words, Surge et ambula : the deceased dead man 
should arise, to the great admiration of all the people. But 
the practice turned to the Jesuits shame. For the poor 
man, who was kept long within the biere without air, was 
smothered, and found dead indeed : whereupon the poor 
woman, turning her dissembled lamentation to unfeigned 
tears, exclaimed on the Jesuite, and uttered his practice 
unto all the people in such sort, that the Jesuite hardly 
escaped with life, and is fled no man can tell whither. 

The like practice of another Jesuit happened about the 110 


BOOK same time at Augusta in Germany, in tlie house of one 
' George Fowlker, a mercliant : wlio albeit himself is a great 

papist, yet he had in his house a man servant and a maid 
that were of the religion, and would not, by any means 
that their master eould use, be brought to come to the 
A Jesuit mass. Wherof a Jesuit hearing, cloathed himself like a 
self a (itvii. f^cvil, and hiding himself in certain dark places of the 
house, where the maid was wont to pass about her business, 
did in such sort terrify her, as she was at length almost be- 
side her self. Which the young man, her fellow servant, 
perceiving, watched on a time the said Jesuitish devil, who 
began to play the like part witli him as he had don with 
the maid, and, closing with the young man, did scratch him 
by the face : wherupon the young man, feeling some smart, 
drew out his dagger, and thrust the devil through the 
body, and killed him. After which deed, being greatly 
astonied, he went to his master, and told him that he had 
killed the devil. The truth being known, the young man 
was commended, and the devilish Jesuit burned in his devils 

Number XLIX. 

John Fox to the lord trcasiirer : to obtain the queens con- 

Jirmation of his prebe7id in the church q/'Sarum. 

MSS. Foxii. ORNATISSIME, illustrissime, yswatorcxTs in Christo 
patrone, sal. Mitto eximiaj tuae pra^stantiae per nuntimn 
quod jusseras. Utinam vicissim tua dignetur pietas prat'- 
stare indigno clientulo tuo, quod receperas. Subscripsere 
nobis promptissima voluntate reverend. D. episcopus Saruni, 
ej usque ecclesia; sodalitas universa. Deest nunc una, siquo 
modo impctrari possit, clementiss. regina? ^ v^>i?o?» benigna- 
que subscriptio. Qua in re, si non gravabitur tua pietas 
praesidiariam operam tuam adjungere, vix scias quantum 
me meosque omnes hoc nomine tibi devincies, licet alioqui 
jamdiu tibi deviuctissimos. 

Invitus hue adigor, ut occupatissimis tuis temporibus ob- 
strepcm tani importune. Sed quid agam in tanta rcrum ne- 


cessitate; aut quern petam alium? T/f yxp tuiitx ituTrgoi^a- BOOK 

aQcit Trig (rr^g (rvvsascag ^uvoiTwTsgog. Scio, quam nihil sit in 

rebus meis, quod rependam rursus excellentiae tuae tanto 
dignum beneficio: quod unum protero adnitar sedulo, ne 
unquam in me claudicet accinctissimae voluntatis studium, 
Ceciliano nomini et splendori addictissimum. Aimsp si ti ri 
U-^alg [/,(iu Suvi^creTat TTupx croi, el Tig "JTocpcmXYjcng Iv ^picrTcu, sj tjj 
xoivwv/a TtvevfLUTog, s'lTiva (n:Xa.yxyoL, xa« oixTJpjw-oi, TrXrjgcucrov »)/x,a;v 
T^v s^x^'^i 7ra^aftu9>]craj ^jw-wv t^v Ta.Xama)pla.v xctToc^iuxrov. D. 
Jesus incolumitatem t^j [xsyako<puiixg a-ot sartam tectam sta- 
biliat, ad gloriam ipsius, et reip. nostra; multam utilitatem. 
Amen. Lond. April 15. 

Tuus in Christo, 

Joan. Foxius. 

Number L. Ill 

Adrianus Saravia to the lord treasurer, lord Burgldey ; 
from Leyden : moving him to counsel the queen, at this 
dangerous juncture, to assist the Provinces, and to take 
the government of them upon her. His letter accom- 
panied xvith their ambassador'' s. 

Nobilissimo ac clarissimo dno. magno thesaurario regni MSS. Burg. 
Angliae, dno. meo S. 
CUM non ingratas olim meae litterae fuerint, quas Guerzia 
ad T. A. scribere ausus fui, de rebus parvi momenti, si con- 
ferantur cum harum provinciarum negotiis, incomitatos no- 
stros legatos meis litteris hinc abire nolui ; sperans fore, ut 
consueta humanitate tua accipiantur. Quod officio meo 
hactenus defuisse merito videri possum, culpam deprecari 
malo, quam pluribus excusare. Tantum tuam amplitud. 
scire cupio pudore id factum esse; et quod meis litteris 
T. A. interpellandam minime judicaverim. Nunc autem 
cum justa scribendi mihi data videatur occasio, continere 
me diutius non debui, ut me fide mea, cum erga regiam 
majestatem et Angliae regnum, tum imprimis Dei ecclesiani, 
liberem. Itaque audaciam scribendi, humanitate tua fretus, 
qua rebus afflictis religionis nostri populi semper favisti, nee 


BOOK favcre desieris, sumpsi: (juandoquidem hoc tempore inipri- 
niis tuo favore opus est: eoque magis, quod salus et vita 
sereniss. D. nostra? reginae, et regni Angliaj incoluniitas 
cum periculo nostro conjuncta videatur. 

Qui nobis inimici sunt, non sunt vobis amici. Consilia com- 
muniinn liostium quotidie magis et magis patefiunt ; et quo 
spcctent vidcre potestis ; et ex iis qujc moliuntur, quid vos 
expectare debeatis, judicare: expectandura non est, donee 
pericrimus. Nam casus hanuii provinciarum trahet secum 
ruinam Anglia; : si eas servabitis, pacem et salutem vestram 
firmabitis. Quare necessario cum omnibus, qui evangelium 
Christi profitentur, est ineundi societas, nisi certe perire 
constitutum sit. Et quo ha' provincia? vobis magis sunt vi- 
cinae, eo arctius vobis sunt conjungcndie. Quod duobus 
raodis fieri potest ; nempe, aut arctissimo fcedere socie- 
tatis, aut imperii et dominii earum receptione. Quorum 
posterum turn tutissimum, tum utilissimum utrique est fu- 

Nam etsi non sit futura utiUs societas ipsa in hoc pertin*- 
bato rerum statu, habebit multas chlHcuhates, quas T. D. a 
Davidsono malo mtelhgere, quam hie recensere. Tantum 
videnda? erunt commoda? rationes, et minimc odiosa?, quibus 
in fide contineri poterunt. Duas potissimum examinandas 
tuae prudentiae proponam. Primus est usus promiscuus mi- 
litum Anglorum et indigcnarum in praesidiis : quo suspicio 
diffidentia> tollatur, ut nuUus miles aut jwaeferri se, aut 
contemni pne alio arbitrctur : altera obsidum exhibitio ad 
plures annos, donee obfirmandum hie erit imperium. Opti- 
matum filii humaniter accepti in Anglia, et sa?pe permutati, 
reddent tandem parentes et reliquos omnes vobis addictis- 
simi. ITa'c ratio nulli invidiaj est obnoxia. Facilis est, et 
niimis sumptuosa, quam sunt futura Anglorum praesidia, 
aut aliorum militum, in locis qui carere milite possunt. Omnis 
miles eivibus gravis est et molestus. UndeJulii Ctvsaris lau- 
danda prudentia est : qui acceptis obsidibus urbes et pro- 
vincias, non impositis militibus, in fide retinebat. 

Nota est T. D. Historia Xcnophontis Trsp) Tr,g Kupov 'ttui- 
Sci'aj, et quibus rationibus inductus crediderit, ut ejus verbis 


Utar, TravTWV Twv aAAcov ^cuoav slvai (5aov, -Ij av9|5W7ra)V, ap^siv. BOOK 
At ubi ei in mentem venit, Cyri tot homines, tot urbes, tot ' 
gentes, non invitas paruisse imperio, sententiam mutare co- 
actus est: utpote quod hominibus imperare, neque impos- 
sibile sit, neque factu difficile, siquis prudenter id agat. 

Et certe ita est. Nam siquis omnia attentus expendere 112 
velit, defectiones populorum, et rerum publicarum muta- 
tiones, inveniet, non tam vitio plebis accidisse, quam eorum 
qui reip. praesunt: quando potius suarum libidinum aut cu- 
piditatum liabuerunt rationem, quam salutis publicae. Nulla 
est mortalium societas, quae se regi non postulet, sibique 
non praeficiat rectorem. Unde cuivis apparet, multitudinem 
imperium facile pati posse ; et illud ultro expetere ; et im- 
peritia et culpa rectorum accidere, siqua imperii dissolutio 
accidat : violentiam, quae ab hoste externo fit, excipio. 

Quod banc gentem attinet, facile se patietur regi, modo 
ei nulla fiat injuria, et earn suis legibus vivere, rectores pa- 
tiantur. Quemadmodum enim ad injuriam inferendam ha?c 
gens tarda est, ita est injuriae maxime impatiens. Quisquis 
rector harum provinciarum futurus est, leni animo sit opor- 
tet: qui clementer hujus gentis ferre mores rusticos et agre- 
stes possit, facile sic flectet et inducet quolibet. Isthaec fa- 
miliariter scribo, ac si jam omnia facta et transacta essent. 
Spero enim divinitus banc vobis oblatam, et servandi nos 
et confirmandi vos, non praeterituros esse occasionem. Quod 
si facitis, sera, vereor, ne sequatur poenitentia. Nam post- 
quam nos perierimus, vos incolumes permanere non po- 

Quare ego Deum Op. Max. precabor, ut menti regiae ma- 
jestatis, et consiliariorum ejus, inspiret, quod utile novit fu- 
turum : et ut incolumem amplitudinem tuam servet. Vale, 
ct me in numero clientum tuoruni habe. Lugduno Batavo- 
rum, nono die mens. Junii, 1585. 

Tuae celsitudinis observantissimus, 

Adrianus Saravia. 




[Number L.] 

Laws and ordinances set down hy Robert earl of Leicester, 
the qiieen''s majesty's lieutenant and captain-general of 
all her army and forces in the Low Countries : meet and 
Jit to be observed by all such as shall serve her majesty 
wider him in the said countries; and therefore to be pub- 
lished and notified to the whole army. 

MSS. poll- FORASMUCH as there is not any governed estate 
tic. pen. me, ^]^^g]^ \^ peace or war can be accounted sure, or preserved 
from dishonour and ruinc, unless it be supported and born 
up by justice duely administred, and discipUne orderly ob- 
served : and for that no man can be so ignorant as not to 
know, that honour, fame, and prosperity do duely follow 
that commonwealth or nation wherin good laws are esta- 
blished, the magistrate ministring justice is duely regarded, 
and the people, fearing to offend, are drawn under the rules 
of justice and obedience: and seeing that martial discipline 
above all things (proper to men of war) is by us at this 
time most to be followed, as well for the advancement of 
Gods glory, as honorable, to govern this army in good 
order : and lest that the evil enclined (pleading simplicity) 
should cover any wicked fact by ignorance : 

Therefore these martial ordinances and laws following are 
established and published. Whereby all good minds, en- 
deavouring to attain honour, may stand armed, and receive 
encouragement to persevere in well doing ; and such as are 
enclined to lewdness be warned from connnitting offences 
punishable. Which being embraced with careful respect, 
113 and followed with obedience, do promise good order and 
agreement amongst our selves, and victory and good event 
against our enemies. 

1. First, every chief magistrate, captain, inferiour officer, 
souldicr, pioncr, or what person else, receiving her majesty's 
pay in field or garrison, shall solenniely swear, and by cor- 
poral oath be bound, to perform the underwi'itten articles, 
so far as to each in their several qualities shall appertain. 
The violating or breaking wherof is to be punished by 


the generalls direction, according to the quality of the BOOK 

2. Forasmuch as the holy name of our most mighty and 
invincible God withal reverence ought to be regarded, and 
that destruction is pronounced to such as blaspheme or 
abuse the same : it is therefore ordeined and commanded, 
that no person whatsoever, either in common conference or 
communication, or for any cause whatsoever, shall blas- 
pheme, being thus admonished, or take his name in vain ; 
upon the loss of five shilling, to the relief of the poor, for 
the first offence ; for the second, five days imprisonment ; 
for the third, loss of his place and wages. 

3. And because the continual and unspeakable favours 
of our Almighty God by our unthankfulness may be taken 
from us, and that no good event of any action can be ex- 
pected wherin God is not first and principally honoured 
and served: it is therefore especially ordered and com- 
manded, that all persons whatsoever shall, upon general 
warning given either by sound of trumpet or drum, repair 
to the place appointed, where the divine service is to be 
used, there to hear the same read and preached, unless for 
the present by sickness or other service he be impeached ; 
upon pain to loose his days wages for the first, two days 
wages for the second, and so to be encreased by the discre- 
tion of the judge. And for every such default in the soul- 
dier, as well the captain as his inferior officer, to be punished 
with the like penalty. 

4. And seeing it well beseemeth all Christians, especially 
such as profess the military service, to pass away the time 
in matters requisite to their profession; and because no 
time can be more vainly spent than that which is consumed 
in unlawful games, besides the breeding of much contention 
and quarel ; and for that there be many allowable and com- 
mendable exercises for all sorts of men to use : therefore it 
is streightly commanded, that no private soldier or inferior 
officer shall frequent the playing at dice and cards, nor any 
other unlawful games, upon pain of two days imprisonment 

A a 2 


BOOK for the first time, and for after committing the like, to be 
further punished by the judges discretion. 

5. And for that it often happeneth, that by permitting of 
many vagrant or idle women in an army sundry disorders 
and horrible abuses are committed : therefore it is ordered, 
that no man shall cary into the field, or detain with him in 
the place of his garrison, any woman whatsoever, other than 
such as shall be known to be his lawful wife ; or such other 
women, to tend the sick and to serve for launders, as shall 
be thought meet by the marshall ; upon pain of whipping 
and banishment. 

6. And insomuch as clemency amongst men of war, in 
some respects, is a singular vertiie, it is ordered, that no 
man, in any part of this service that he shall do, shall lay 
violent hands upon any woman with child, or lying in 
childbed, old persons, widows, young virgins, or babes, 
without especial order from the magistrate, upon pain of 

7. What person soever that shall be commonly given to 
drunkenness, or riotously behave himself, shall be banished 
the army, &c. 

114 With more such like good laws and orders, requisite in 
such an expedition as this was, to the number of fiftv five. 

Number lA. 

The speech of John Puelering^ .sergennf at I<(7c\ spcalrr of 
the house of eoininon.s, to the queen, at the eonelus'ion of 
the sessions of parliament, an. 27. regain. EUzah. 1585. 

MSS. Burc. MOST excellent prince and gracious queen. The last 
time of my being in this place before your most excellent 
majesty and this honourable assembly of vour three estates, 
I did make my most humble submission and request, upon 
the knowledg of my disability and imworlhiness, that I 
might have been forborn to have occupied in this place. 
But such was yoiir majestys gracious opinion, as it seemed, 


conceived of me upon the election of your faithful and obe- BOOK 
dient subjects, the whole commonalty of your realm, that I ' 

was thereto directed. And as then I, best knowing mine 
own insufficiencies, did for my excuse desire your majestys 
gracious acceptation of that which was only in my power, 
which was of my good will, diligence, and endeavour, to be 
bestowed in this service ; so now, if I should not acknow- 
ledge in this place (having here in my company so many 
witnesses against me) the multitude of imperfections that I 
have found in my self during the time of this my service, I 
should shew my self to be over-partial to mine own cause, 
and in some sort to be void of modesty. But knowing your 
majestys accustomed goodness, to accept the good wills and 
endeavours of all men in your services, without any strait 
regard or account of the events or successes of their actions; 
and therewith having also had at this time of session of par- 
lament daily proofs of the favourable toleration of my 
lacks, by the grave, wise, and experimented persons and 
good will generally of the whole body of your commons to- 
Avards me, in their quiet allowance of my service ; I am the 
bolder, throwing behind my back these my lacks and wants, 
as things not now to be imputed to me, and am to present 
my self in your majestys sight according to my office, as a 
person allowed by youv majestys goodness only, and not by 
my deserts; and so to procede to present to your majesty, 
in the name of all your commons, first, our most humble 
thanks for the benefits that we have received by your ma- 
jestys permission to have this assembly so long continued : 
secondly, our like humble requests for pardon of any thing 
which through ignorance, without any intention of offence, 
in our consultations might be, by your majestys great wis- 
dome, imputed to us : and, lastly, I am also in their names 
to exhibit our most humble and earnest petitions to your 
majesty, to give life to the works, not of our hands, but of 
our minds, cogitations, and hearts; which otherwise than 
being lightened by the beams of your favour shall be but 
vain, dumb, and dead. 

For the first I do confess, and that in the name of all 


BOOK your commons here assembled, and so I may presume to 
^' add the like for the lords here assembled in your majestys 
presence, that we cannot imagine how your majesty can be- 
stow a greater benefit, that can deserve more thanks of your 
subjects universally, than that your majesty, as you have 
heretofore at many times, so now especially in this time, 
when our necessity for many respects required the same, 
summoned your whole realm, by calling your estates to- 
gether to this parlament, to consult freely, and at great lei- 
sure, what were first meet for the furtherance and advance- 
ment of Gods service, by which we only have our being: 
115 and what were also necessary for the preservation of your 
majestys person, by whose long life and continuance we 
are kept free from the tyranny and subjection of foreign 
oppression : and, lastly, to devise among our selves, and 
provide not only as should be, both in general and particu- 
lar, good and profitable for our own estates, but also to 
foresee how to avoid things hurtful to the same. To which 
good end we do acknowledg that, by your majestys good- 
ness and permission, our assembly now hath tended. And 
for that good which we are to receive therby, we do yield 
to your majesty our most humble thanks ; beseeching God 
to grant to your majesty many happy years above the term 
of our lives : that as we have already, so after us our pos- 
terity may receive the like benefits of your goodness, from 
time to time, as cause shall require ; to procure to them- 
selves by good laws under your government like means to 
live in such peace, happiness, and wealth as we have don 
from the beginning of your reign, and as our forefathers 
never did the like with such continuance. 

Secondly, after these our thanks, most humbly presented 
upon our knees, we do, both in general and particular, 
humbly beseech your majesty to give your accustomed gra- 
cious interpretations to all our procedings. Wherein if any 
speeches, motions, or petitions have past from us that might 
have miscontented your majesty in your great wisdom above 
i)ur capacities, I can assure your majesty, that in this as- 
sembly, wherin I was always present, there was never found 


in any speech, private or public, any argument or token of BOOK 
the mind of any person that shewed any intention to be of- 
fensive to your majesty. And for proof hereof, when it 
pleased your majesty to direct me to declare your pleasure 
to the common house, in what sort you would they should 
stay any further preceding in the debating of the maner of 
reformation of such things as they thought might be re- 
formed in the church, I found them all, generally and par- 
ticularly, ready to obey your majesties pleasure therin : 
which, as it seemed to me, and so I have cause to persuade 
with my self, they did. For that it was well understood, 
that your majesty, as having by Gods ordinance a supreme 
authority for that purpose, had straitly charged the arch- 
bishops, bishops, and your whole clergy now assembled in 
their convocation, to have due regard to se to the reforma- 
tion of divers abuses in the government and disciplin of the 
church. And so our firm hope is, that your majesty will, 
by your strait commandment to your clergy, continue your 
care to se, and command, that such abuses as are crept into 
the church by the negligence of the ministers may be 
speedily refoi-med, to the honour of Almighty God, and to 
your own immortal praise, and comfort of your subjects. 

The next matter wherof I have to speak is most humbly 
to offer to your majesty our most humble request. Wherin 
I must joyn to us, your commons, the state of the lords 
here of that higher house of parlament : that is, that it may 
please your majesty to yield your royal assent to such pe- 
titions ^, both general and particular, as have been upon » See them 
long deliberation determined and conceived in writing, with jou,.„;j 
uniform consent of the lords spiritual and temporal, and us p- 367. 
your commons, in this your parlament assembled. Wherin 
your majesty shall do no less than pertaineth to the au- 
thority which you have, like to God Almighty : who, as he 
giveth life and being to all his creatures great and small, 
so your majesty shall give life and continuance to the fruits 
of our consultations, as well to the small as to the great ; 
without which your royal assent with your own breath, the 
same shall become without life and sense, and all our la- 

A a 4 


BOOK hours tlierin lost, and our expectations therin made frus- 
trate. And tho'' in your niajestys princely sight many of 
those our j)ctitions may seem to he of mean value, either 
because they be, some of them, particular, or because the 
matters of some of them may seem to be of low and base 
degree : yet considering to them to whom they belong the 
same are of as great importance and benefit, as to greater 
estates greater matters are; and the lack of the benefits, 
which to them may grow thereby, shall be as grievous as 
1 16 the lack of greater in greater bodies; and that in every na- 
tural body the meanest parts and members are by the head 
regarded as beneficial, for one means or other, to the rest of 
the whole body : so wee, with al humbleness, in the name 
of the whole body, do beseech your majesty, as our only 
head and fountain of our life, to accept the meanest peti- 
tions for the comforts of tiie parts of the body, to whom the 
same may belong ; as we know your majesty of your cle- 
mency is accustomed, with your most gracious eyes and 
countenance, to comfort daily your basist and poorest sub- 
jects, seekijig relief at your feet. 

Next to this we do offer to your majesty, with our whole 
hearts, our bodies and lives, to be serviceable to the safty 
of your majestys noble person. For defence wherof, and 
for revenge of any act imaginate against your majesty, we 
have by a form of law, if it shall like your majesty to assent 
therto, given a testimony to the whole world how dear the 
safty of your life is to us. And this I do assure your ma- 
jesty, that we, your most loving subjects, were most willing 
to have extended this ordinance to a far straiter course, as 
we thought the same meet for your safty, and for terrifying 
of all persons not well willing to you, if otherwise we had 
not understood, that your majestys pleasure was, that it 
should not be extended to any straiter points than it is. 

And as your majesty hath a manifest demonstration 
hereby of our hearts and minds, so also we have, added for 
a further outward declaration therof by our deeds, offered to 
your majesty, of our voluntary minds, a small portion out 
of those worldly goods which God hath given us, and by the 


long peace under your blessed government we have en- BOOK 
creast, by way of a subsidy, and two fifths, to be used by ' 

your majesty, as in former times you have always don, for 
the defence of this your realm, and us your humble sub- 
jects: which tho"" we know shall not amount to the value 
that percase shall be needful for the defence of your realms, 
dominions, and subjects against all attempts that may be 
ministred by the enemyes of God and of your majesty, yet 
your majesty may make an assured account, that besides 
this our offer, you cannot lack a further supply of the rest 
that wee have, to be spent, or committed to your direction, 
as cause shall require. 

Lastly, Upon our knees we do most humbly yield our 
hearty thanks for your most gracious and free general par- 
don, whereby a great multitude of your subjects are to be 
relieved of divers pains and penalties, which by the order 
of your laws your majesty might most justly have inflicted 
upon them. By which your clemency we all shall take oc- 
casion, besides our thankfulness for so great a benefit, to 
endeavour our selves more carefully to observe your laws, 
both to the honour of God, and to the comfort of your ma- 
jesty, and, finally, to the maintenance of peace, tranquility,. 
and concord among our selves. 

Number LII. , |w 

Sir Amlas Paulct to the lord treasurer, Jbr cm assistant 
in the custody of the Scots queen. From Tutbury. 

My very good lord, 
ALTHO'' I have encrease in health daily sithence the mss. Burg, 
first day of my arrival here, I thank God for it, and do 
now find my self able to go as strongly and as speedily as at 
any time these two or three years last past ; yet being sub- 
ject to the gout, and, considering the nature of the disease, 
I must look for a fresh assault in the accustomed season ; 
at which time the importance of this service will require 


BOOK tlie assistance of some honest and faithful gentleman : who 
' no doubt may be easily found both in the court and in the 
country. But because your resolutions at the court are not 
always speedy, and that my assistant may be found wanting 
before he can come, presuming upon your lordships favour 
towards me, I will be so bold to name a gentleman, who I 
know will be content to come hither unto me, and to spend 
some Ions time here with me : and rabatinsj some men of 
my number, as he and his servants will amount unto, which 
may be in all five or six, cannot be any way chargeable 
unto her majesty. The gentleman is Mr. John CoUes, a 
man not unknown, I think, to your lordship for his good 
discretion ; and so well known to me, as I will answer for 
his fidelity at my uttermost peril. And I am deceived, if he 
be not sufficient to take the charge of this service during 
my sickness, when God shall send it : especially, by living 
here with me, he may be trusted therin some little time be- 
fore I shall be visited with sickness. I will stand alwaye 
answerable for the charge : my supply shall be in house 
witli me ready u})on every occasion. Her majestys charge 
shall not be encreast on one peny ; and I shall have the 
comfort of an honest, discrete friend. 

If your lordship shall find this motion reasonable, and 
likely to have passage, it may please you to further it, and 
to procede therin as your lordship shall think good. If 
your lordship shall not allow of it, then I shall most humbly 
pray you that it may rest with you in secret. It may be 
that your lordship will not mislike it, but would not be a 
dealer therin : wherfore being advertised, I will not fail to 
seek it in such order and by such means as your lordship 
shall direct. It may please your lordship to give me leave 
to say plainly unto you, as unto my special good lord, that 
I fear there will be some cunning in the choise of my sup- 
ply, if he come from the court. This one thing I may af- 
firm, that Mr. John Colles honoureth and respecteth your 
lordshij) before all the noblemen in this land. 

1 fear I have presumed too far: wherin I crave your 


lordships pardon. And thus, resting at your commandment, BOOK 
I commit your good lordship to the protection of the Al- ' 

mighty. From Tutburye, the 26. of July, 1585. 

Your lordships to command, 

A. Powlet. 

Number LIII. Ug 

Instructions given by the queen to Davison^ her ambassador 
to the States of the United Provinces : taking upon her 
the protection of those countries, upon the Spaniard's 
talcing of Antzoerj). An original. 

I. BEING greatly in doubt, that the loss of Antwerp Cott. lib. 
may breed some dangerous alteration in the rest of the ^'^"** ^' ^' 
United Provinces, especially in Zeland, considering the 

credit and great acquaintance that S. Aldegonde (who hath 
been the principal instrument and practicer in the giving 
over of the said town) hath had with men of best credit in 
the said province, and also that he hath a house of resi- 
dence in Walcheren ; we have thought meet, for that we 
understand that he seeketh, by all persuasions he may, to 
withdraw them' from depending upon our favour and as- 
sistance in a kind of malicious and envious sort, to send 
you thither, as well to comfort such as happily may have 
received discouragement by the loss of the said town, as 
also to use some countenance against such persuasions as 
the said S. Aldegonde and his associates may use to draw 
this people to subject themselves under the king of Spains 
obedience, without sufficient caution for the preservation of 
religion in perpetual, and their liberties to be free of go- 
vernment of strangers. 

II. Secondly, You shall therfore at the time of your ac- 
cess unto the States General of the United Provinces (unto 
whom our pleasure is you shall address your self) let them 
vuiderstand, how sorry we are for the loss of the said town ; 
and that the care we had for the preservation therof was 
not accompanied with those good effects we desired, through 


BOOK the cunning, or rather eorrupt deahng, of certain evil in- 
^' struments in tlie said town: who drew the inhabitants therof 
to yield a dangerous accord with the prince of Parma, in 
respect to the yielding to the reception of a garrison, with- 
out being forced therto through any necessity or lack of 
victuals, or any other defects or want ; and also without 
provision to have the free exercise of the religion reformed. 
Which, altho' it be in some part tolerate, yet shall be easy, 
by colour of the popes authority, (which is accounted above 
the kings and the princes,) both to retrench the time, and 
to repress it wholly ; therby judging the principal mischief 
unremedied : which is, that the countries are, and still may 
be, governed by strangers. All which considered, it is evi- 
dent, how full of dangers this treasonable composition shall 

III. And for that it is to be doubted, that like practices 
may be set a foot in the principal townes of the rest of the 
provinces, if good foresight be not used for prevention 
therof; it shall be therfore necessary for all good patriots, 
that desire the maintenance of religion in perpetuity, and 
preservation of their liberties without violation of them, (as 
heretofore hath been,) to cary a watchful eye over such 
dangerous persons, who, having made shipwrack of their 
credit and reputation, cannot but prove most perillous in- 
struments to work the ruine and destruction of the whole 
country : a matter that may the easier by them be accom- 
plished ; for that some of the said parties liave had hereto- 
fore the reputation to have been the principal pihars and 
maintainers of religion in those coimtries, and therfore, 
under the colour and shaddow of their liypocrisy, may do 
the more harm. 
119 IV. You shall therfore further let them know, that as we 
are careful by our advice to forewarn them of any mischief 
we se likely to grow towards them, so shall they find us 
also as ready to assist them from time to time with such 
means as God hath given us, and shall be found necessary 
for their defence against these dangers. And therefore 
doubling, that now the enemy is possest of that town of 


Antwerp, he shall be enabled so much the more to bend BOOK 
greater forces against them divers ways, as well by water as ^' 
by land ; we are therefore now pleased to condescend to 
the number of 5000 footmen, 1000 horsemen, by them 
heretofore required, when we yielded to the aid of 4000 
footmen, and 400 horse. So as there may be delivered pre- 
sently into our hands for our surety the town of Vlisshing 
and Briel ; as also some other principal town in each pro- 
vince at our choise, at any time when we shall hereafter 
demand the same. 

V. And because we are also given to understand, that 
for lack of some good head or director their government 
there groweth to contempt, and all things run to confusion ; 
we therfore, tendring nothing more than their conserva- 
tions, are pleased to send over a nobleman of quahty to 
assist them with advice and authority, for the better direc- 
tion of both civil and martial causes. So as before his re- 
pair thither (according to their promise and offer) the said 
two towns above mentioned shall be delivered into the 
hands of such well chosen and well qualified persons, as 
shall be by us out of hand sent over, to take the charge 
and government of the same townes. And therefore you 
shall advise them to use some expedition therin ; by giving 
ful authority unto their deputies here, to conclude with us 
in this behalf. 

VI. We think it convenient in your way to the Hague 
(where we are informed you shall find the States General) 
that you pass by Vlissing ; where we think meet you should 
impart in general termes unto count Maurice, and the 
council of state there, the cause of our sending of you unto 
the States General of the Provinces United ; and shall lay 
before them such reasons as by you shall be thought fit ; 
as well to lead them to accept in al thankful sort the offer 
by us now made, as also to beware of those that shall think 
to cary them headlong into that dangerous course the town 
of Antwerp hath taken. 

VII. And wheras we did give direction unto our ser- 


BOOK vant Norris, [sir John Norris,] our collonel general there, 
by letters written unto him fVom our secretary, to advise 

the States of Holland and Zeeland to take a speciall regard, 
that such as should retyre from Antwerp into the pro\ances 
under colour of religion, or any other respect, might not 
be suffered to repair thither, nor to become instruments of 
practice to disjoyne and separate the principal townes of 
the said provinces from the general union, especially the 
town of Vlissing : as also to will them to look to the town 
of Sluce. For that wee have been given to understand that 
the enemy hath some intelligence in the said town. We 
have therfore thought meet you should inform your self 
by him how he hath preceded therin ; and accordingly to 
direct our speeches both to the States General and the 
council of the States, as you think may be best for the 
furtherance of our service. And for prevention of the 
danger that may come to Sluce, we could like well that 
some of our bands serving there were placed in that town ; 
with care always, that the numbers may be such as may be 
able to master such bands as either are or shall be placed 
by the States in the same town. 
120 VIII. You shall also advise them to have a special re- 
gard to impeach, that no victuals be caried to the town of 
Antwerp ; as also to inhibit under some great penalty, that 
none of Holland or Zeeland do cary any victuals to Calais 
or BuUoyn, or any other of the French posts between Ca- 
lais and Newhaven : letting them understand that we arc 
presently in hand to take some order with our subjects in 
that behalf. For that wee are persuaded, that, the present 
state and condition of the enemy duely considered, nothing 
may more annoy him than the restraint of victuals : which 
if it had been carefully looked unto by them, and also had 
not been fraudulently used by some of our evil subjects, 
by colourably going to Bulloyn and Calais, (which we hope 
to remedy,) the enemy could not have continued the siege 
of Antwerp so long as he did. 

IX. Lastly, you shall, for the encouragement of the in- 


habitants of Vlissliing and Briel, to make them more wiUing BOOK 
to receive our garrison, deal underhand with some such as ' 
you shall learn by conference with our servant Norris to be 
well affected, and to have credit with the people there; 
letting them understand that wee can be content, that such 
merchants inhabiting in the said towns, and have resided 
there by the space of a few years past, shall, during the 
time that the said townes shall remain in our possession, 
enjoy here like libertyes and franchices in matters of cus- 
tome for their trades hither, both inward and outward, in 
our ports of London, and some other which we shall ap- 
point within this our realm, as our now natural subjects do, 
providing, that therby no other strangers shall be coloured 
by them to our detriment. 

You shall advertise us from Vlissing how you find the 
state of those countries there, and what alterations the loss 
of Antwerp hath or is like to work : what order they have 
given for the furnishing of such townes as they think may 
be attempted by the enemy, and how they mean to pre- 
serve Lyllo and all other places for commandment of the 
river there => : and of other necessary circumstances fit for 
our knowledge. 

You shall also, during the time of your continuance in 
Zeeland, deliver our letters directed to the States there, in 
recommendation of Terlon ; letting them understand, that 
we hope that our credit shall so prevail with them, as our 
mediation for him shall not prove fruitless : and that, until 
time may remove the suspicion had of him, we could like 
that he should be sent over into this our realm ; where we 
will undertake, that during the time of his abode here no- 
thing shall be don by him to the prejudice of the common 
cause. You may confer with his friends before the deli- 
very of our letters, and take their advice for your maner of 
proceding, as may most further his delivery. 

And when you shall have delivered this your charge in 
maner aforesaid, our pleasure is, you shall with all conve- 

=> The river Scheld : which by Parma in bis siege had been barred up with 
such admirable works, that no relief could be brought into the city. 


BOOK nient speed make your repair home ap;iun ; unless you shall 
' find some special cause for the continuance of your service 

Fra. Walsingham. 

121 Number LIV. 

Expressions in Dr. Aliens book, taken notice of in the bill 
of indictment against Alfield, a Jesuit ; -ivJw had brought 
some hundred of those books into England to be dispeised. 
MSS. Burg. THEY, [meaning Campion, Ralph Shirwyn, and other 
false traitors, lately attainted of high treason,] if they might 
liave spoken their minds boldly, now at their passage and 
departure from this world, (as sithence that time we under- 
stand a worshipful lay gentleman [one James Leyborn, at- 
tainted of high treason] did, who protested both at his ar- 
rainment and at his death, that her majesty was not his 
lawful queen, for two respects : one for her birth, the other 
for her excommunication. Her highness have sought nei- 
ther dispensation for the first, nor absolution for the second. 
And in another place : By the fall of the king from the 
faith the danger is so evident and inevitable, that God had 
not sufficiently provided for oiu' salvation, and the pre- 
servation of his church and holy laws ; if there were no 
ways to deprive or restrain apostate princes : [falsely hint- 
ing the said queen to be an apostate prince.] AVee see how 
the whole world did run from Christ after Julian to plain 
paganism ; after Valens to Arianism ; after Edward VI. 
with us into Zuinglianism ; and would do into Turcism, if 
any powerable prince will lead his subjects that way. If 
our faith or perdition should on this sort pass by the plea- 
sure of every secular prince, and no remedy for it in the 
state of the New Testament, but men must hold and obey 
him, to what infidelity soever he fall, then we were in worse 
case [intimating the whole people of this realm] than hea- 
then and all other humane common wealths; which both 
before Christ and after have had means to deliver them- 
selves from such tyrants as were intolerable, and evidently 


pernitious to humane society. [Falsely pretending by that, book 
the said queen to be an intolerable and pernicious tyrant ^- 
to the society of her subjects.] 

The bond and obligation we have entred into for the 
service of Christ and the church far exceedeth all other 
duty which wee owe to any humane creature. And ther- 
fore where the obedience to the inferior hindreth the ser- 
vice of the other which is superior, we must by law and 
order discharge our selves of the inferior. The wife, if she 
cannot live with her own husband, being an infidel or any 
heretic, without injury or dishonour to God, she may de- 
part from him, or contrariwise he from her for the like 
cause, neither oweth the innocent party, nor the other can 
lawfully claim, any conjugal duty or debt in this case. 

The bond slave, which is in another kind no less bound 
to his lord and master than the subject to his sovereign, 
may also by the antient imperial laws depart, and refuse to 
obey or serve him, if he become a heretic: yea, ipso facto 
he is made free. Finally, the parents that become heretics 
loose the superiority and dominion they have by law of 
nature over their own children : therfore let no man mar- . 
vel, that in case of heresy the sovereign looseth the supe- 
riority over his people and kingdom. [Intimating thereby 
that the said queen should loose her superiority above her 

And in another place : And as for his holinesses action in 
Ireland, [intimating the invasion by the means of the bishop 
of Rome made in Ireland,] we, that are neither so wise as 
to be worthy, nor so malapert as to chaleng to know his 
intentions, counsils, and dispositions of those matters, can 
nor will neither defend nor condemne. Onely this is evi- 
dent, that these small succours which were given by him 
[intimating the bishop of Rome] to the Irish, or rather suf- 
fered at their own adventure to go into those warrs, came 
upon the importunity and suit of the sore afflicted catho-122 
lies, and some of the chiefest nobility of that country. Of 
whose continual complaint, known calamity, and intolerable 
distresses of consciences ; and otherwise, it may be, was 



BOOK moved with compassion, and did that in case of religion 
' against one [hinting the said queen] whom he took in his 
own judgment rightly by his predecessors sentence to be de- 
. posed ; and in a quarcl in his sight most just and godly. 
And perhaps he [the same Roman bishop] was the rather 
ready to do this for Ireland, for that the see apostolic hath 
an old claim to the sovereignty of that country. 

And in another place : And this our countries scourge 
[meaning the realm of England] proceding wholly of our 
forsaking tlie catholic church and see apostolic, began first 
in K. Henry VIII. being radix peccati in our days. 

And then the indictment runs on in Latin, as it began, 
Ubi re vera^ &c. that is. Whereas indeed the present queen 
was not nor is an heretic, nor slidden from the true Chris- 
tian faith, nor was nor is an apostate prince, nor fallen 
into heresy, nor hath lost superiority and right over all 
her people and realms. And in which kingdoms indeed 
no bishop of Rome hath power to deprive or depose any 
prince; yet one Tho. Allfield, late of London, clerk, not at 
all weighing the said statute, feloniously, as a felon to the 
said queen, the 10th of September, the xxvi. of the queen, 
at London, viz. in the parish of All Saints, in Bread-street, 
in Bread-street ward, advisedly, and with malicious intent 
toward the said queen, did cause to be published and set 
forth to divers subjects of the queen the said book of the 
said Will. Allen, containing the foresaid false, seditious, and 
scandalous matters in English words before recited, to the 
defaming of the said queen, and raising insurrection and 
rebellion within this kingdom. 

Number LV. 
Sandys archbishop of ForA:, his prayer after his sermon 
at St. PanPs Cross, upon a public thanksgiving for the 
cpteens deliverance from the coJispiracy o/' Ballard and 


THOU knowest, O Lord, (who hast delivered our sove- 
reign lady out of all distress, from the rebellion of Absalom, 


from the counsil of Achitophel, and from the rage and fury BOOK 
of all that conspire to doe her harm,) that she hath not de- 

served this treachery at their hands, being most mild and 
merciful ; doing good unto all, hurting none. Therefore, 
O Lord, according to thy merciful wont, as thou hast done 
hitherto, so deliver, protect, and defend her still : finish that 
which thou hast most graciously begun. Bridle, O Lord, 
her enemies and ours ; let them know their madness. Open 
their eyes, and cause them plainly to se that they cannot 
prevail against thy chosen servant ; that they cannot cast 
down or bring into ignominy her whom thou hast set up, 
and placed in honour. Give them grace, O Lord, if it be 
thy good pleasure, that they may enter into themselves, 
examine their own hearts ; se their sins ; repent of their 
wickedness; abstain from further proceding; that thou in 
thy mercy mayst shew them grace and favour in the end. 

And grant, O Lord, that we who profess thy holy name 
may stil offer unto thee the sacrifice which thou requlrest, 
even the sacrifice of righteousness. That the ministers of 1 23 
thy word may sincerely and diligently preach thy gospel. 
That being a good example to the flock, and leading a 
godly and upright life, may bring thee the offerings of 
many souls, unto the stretching out of thy glorious king- 
dome among men. Grant that princes and magistrates, 
whom thou hast set in authority, may without fear or fa- 
vour offer also this sacrifice, in upright deciding of contro- 
verted causes, and severe punishing of malefactors. Finally, 
give this grace, O Lord, we beseech thee, to thy whole flock, 
(for we are thy flock, the sheep of thy pasture,) that we all 
may offer unto thee our goods, our bodies and our souls, 
for they are thine. Grant that we may liberally bestow 
our goods to the needful relief of thy poor saints: that we 
may mortify our bodies, and chearfully offer them, if need so 
i-equire, to any kind of torment for thy sake. That in soul 
we may offer thee the sacrifice of true repentance for our 
sins, of hearty thanks for thy great grace, and of earnest 
suit for continuance of thy mercy and favour towards us. 

We humbly beseech thee, O Father, for the merits of 
B b 2 


no OK thy dear Son, (upon whom, as upon our altar, we offer up 
^' all our sacrifice,) bow down thy merciful ear to our peti- 
tions. Extend thy mercies to thy little flock. Preserve 
our gracious queen, and so direct the hearts of all which 
bear authority under her, that by their good government 
we may lead a peaceable and a quiet life in all godliness 
and honesty. To thee, O merciful Father, with thy Son 
Jesus Christ our only Redeemer, and the blessed Spirit, our 
sweet Comforter, three Persons and one God, be all honour 
and praise, both now and ever. 

Number LVI. 

j4 survey taken of' the value of the bishopric of' Chichester, 

upon the death qfCurtess, late bishop there. 

VALOR omnium et singulorum mannerior. terrarum, et 
possessionum^pertinen. episcopatui Cice&tren. dxvi/. xiiii'' q. 

In feod. - - - LXiiZ. vi*. \u\d. * 
Item, in subsid. reg. - lxZ. ** 
Item, in diversis reprisis. xxZ. *** 

Sum. - - cxLiiZ. VI*. viiid 
Sic clare iii^LXXiiiZ. xiiii*. \d. q. 

To which are subjoyned these notes. 
* 101. hereof, and more, void in law. 
** This is not ordinary. 
*** His newyears gift is but 10/. whorof he hath ahnost 

half again. 
Item, more in barly. . . _ - xxiiii qrs. 

Item, in wheat. _ . _ - - xx qrs. 

Item, in perquisites of court. - - xxviZ.xiii5.iiiu/. 
Item parcus, [i. e. the park,] with some meddow ground. 
Epi.scopatus Cicestren. valuat. in libris dne. 

regin. .__--- mi lie marcas. 
Decimis dne. regin. dcduclis, viz. solvend. - c marks. 
Pro primitiis. - - - - - - cZ. 

Sum of the charges. - - - vin vi /. 


Number LVII. ^^^^ 


Proofs and evidences from ancient grants of the liberties 
of the bishop of Ely's manor ofHolborn house. 

SEVERAL grants therof made. 

I. King Edgars grant of the said liberties, made to theMSS. epi- 
church of Ely, is -very large; and also with further words, ^''"P" 
viz. Qiiod nullus princeps se intromittat, &c. 

II. Item^ All the said grant is likewise confirmed by 
Edward the Confessor before the Conquest, together with 
that that the said king Edward then further more granted 
to the said church the same liberty, viz. In omnib. terr. Sf 
tenement, eidem ecclesicB tunc dat. sive in posterum dandis. 
Et ulterius, quod nullus minister dni. regis se intromittat 
ad, &c. itifra insidam Elien. et villis eid. ecclesice pertinen. 

III. Item, All these grants were as well confirmed, as 
also enlarged by king William the Conqueror, king Henry 
the First his youngest son. In whose time the said church 
was translated from an abby to a bishopric, in the time of 
one Harvey, the first bishop therof: and also confirmed by 
king Stephen and Richard I. As also that the said king 
Richard, over and beside all the same, then granted further 
to the said bishoprick and church the liberties, viz. Insulam 
Elien. et onmes libertates suas, quictam ab omni regali 
exactione, una cum omnimodois [omnimodis] Jbrisfactur. et 
mendabiles, &c. 

Item, Furthermore, all the said grants were likewise 

confirmed, and also enlarged, with other mo great liberties, 

by king John, king Henry III. and king Edward I. In 

whose time 


Came first into the bishopric of Ely by one Kirkeby, 
then bishop therof. And so always the liberty ever since 
downward from age to age and time to time successively, 
were as wel confirmed and allowed of, as also enlarged with 
further words and hberties by king Edward II. in whose 
time likewise all the same were confirmed by act of parla- 
ment. And also allowed by king Edward III. which en- 



BOOK laiged the said liberties by general words, viz. //* umnib. 
' terris etjeod'is diet. eccles'nB pertinent, eum omnivwd.Jbris- 

facturis, &c. And so by the kings Richard II. Henry IV. 
Henry V. Edward IV. Henry VII. Henry VIII. Edward 
VI. queen Mary, and lastly by the queen's majesty that 
now is, under the great seal of England. 

And so therupon accordingly unto the said grants and 
confirmations all the same have been always allowed of 
before justices in ay/^/Y, justices of assize, and all other her 
niajesty"'s justices in every lier highness courts of records, 
where and whatsoever, until now of late within these 16 
years last past, by the city of London here disturbed with- 
in Holborne. 

The proof'a of Holborn house, with the uppurtoiancen, to 
he a manor, and also a libertij exempt from the eity (f 
London, besides the general grants aforesaid. 

First, the same may well appear to be a manour bv sun- 
dry records therof made in king Edward the Third his 
time: and also after him in king Richard the Second liis 
125 Item, For further proof of the same manour and house, 
with its appurtinances, to be a liberty exempt from the 
city, it will evidently appear by records in king Henry the 
Fourth his lime, that the bishops officers there had the 
collection of green wax, and paying therof over again by 
order of the exchequer unto the sheriffs of London ; hav- 
ing the fee farm granted unto tliem (among other things) 
of all the same, by reason of the county of Middlesex. 

Item, It may also well appear by divers and sundry other 
records, dated as well in the time of king Henry VII. and 
other times beside, as also by usage ever since, and wit-, that the bishops of Ely, and others their officers 
there, within the said rents and liberties, have had and en, 
joyed to the only uses of the said bisliops, by express word, 
viz. Omnia bona et catallaJ'clonum,J'ugitivorum et deodand, 
&c. without comptrolment of any, until now of late dis- 
turbed l)v the citv of London ; which before this time 


never withstood any of the said hberties : as might well BO^OK 

appear by themselves at the first, when they only pretend- [ — 

ed interest there about the keeping the assize for weighing 
of bread, and no other thing. And yet since encroached 

Item, For further proof of the said liberties, it may well 
appear, that ever, time out of mind, all the said manour house, 
rents, and liberties belonging to Holborn, have been always 
railed and barred up, as a thing exempt from the said city. 
^ Ite7n, Also for further proof, that the said manour and 
house in Holborn, with their appurtinances, be out of the 
liberty of the city, it may well appear upon search for the 
grants of the liberties of London made unto the city from 
the kings and queens of this realm, that no mention is made 
by any words in any of their grants, of Holborn being 
within the county of Middlesex ; but of Fleetstreet there is. 
Item, For further proof of the likeliehood of Holborn to 
be out of the liberty of the city, it is to be seen that 
Smithfield, neerer to the city than Holborn is, in the time 
of king Henry I. was a void place where prisoners were 
executed, and also a laystall, altogether without the liberties 
of the city : the same not tending and reaching then so far 
that ways ; but only rather from Ludgate, and so through 
Fleetstreet to Westminster. 

Item, Furthermore touching the antiquity of the church 
and bishopric of Ely, they do appear now to be more antient 
than the cities are. And also, that there was a bishop of 
Ely before any maior of London ; being but portgreves 
there in the beginning of king John his time. And also 
for that the liberties of the city of London have been as 
well before as after the Conquest, as also since the time of 
king Edward, (when Holborn house and manour was pur- 
chased to the see of Ely,) forfeited and seized, viz. in the 
time of king Richard II. king Henry VI. and other mo. 
And afterwards newly granted to them again ; wherby their 
priority, if they had any, is clear gon and lost by them. 
Item, Lastly, for further proof of the said liberties, 
B b 4 


H(MJK tliere were always bailiffs and other officers appointed 

' \\ itliin the said nianour and liberty, from time to time, for 

the due execution therof : as may appear by records from 

the 46 Edw. III. until that late disturbance made by the 

said city. 


126 [Number LVII.] 

The state of the cathedral church qf Nurivich : truly set 
doxcn by William Doicnyng^ in ptirsuit of his humble 

c hart, epi- FIRST, it was a priory founded by one Herbert, bi- 
'"^'^'** shoppe of Norwich, by the licence of William Rufus, the 

right of foundershippc then being and remaynyng in and to 
the bishoppe and his successors, bishopps of Norwich. 
That priory being above 200 Z. per ann. was never sup- 
pressed, nor surrendered, nor relinquished, but a translation 
from prior and monks to dean and chapter was pretended 
to be done by letters patents in anno 30 H. 8. and by those 
letters patents the prior was named dean, and the monks 
were named, some prebendaries and some cannons, and 
called deane and chapter; but those letters patente were 
meerly void in law, because the king cold not translate 
without the consent of tlie founder, neither cold the king 
erect them deane and chapter of himself, except thold cor- 
poration of prior and convent had been surrendered, or 
otherwise dissolved, which it was now ; neither cold the king- 
do it by reason of supremacy; for where the pope usurped, 
the king and the pope cold not do it without the founder. 
So the old corporation of prior and convent still remayned, 
and the prior and monks contynewed still in tlicir house, 
and church, and all their possessions, and changed only 
their prayers and service, wherunto they had collour of 
despenciation l)y the letters patents, but they contynewed 
prior and monks still, till all the monks were dead, the last 
wherof (save one) died in anno 28. of her majestic, and 
that one became an apostata in Henry the Eighths tyme ; 


so then that priory came to the crowne in anno 28 of her BOOK 
majesty, when the priorie was dissolved by the death of the 
monkes, and not before. 

Notwithstanding that the said pretended dean and chap- 
ter did in king Edward 6. his tyme see the weakness of 
their translation, and sought a newe foundation of king 
Edward, who passed to them newe letters patent, which 
relied upon a surrender made by themselves, by the name 
of deane and chapter onely, and not by the name of prior 
and covent, and so their surrender and newe foundation 
were also void, because the old corporation still remayned 
in lawe, and the possessions therewith also. 

It semed that their councell in lawe was verie weake, 
for there be divers such imperfections in their books as 
might overthrow them, though the said king had been suf- 
ficiently inabled to have passed their letters patent accord- 
ing to their pretences. 

A judgment is had in the exchequer upon the whole 
matter, by true and full pleading on both sides, and argued 
and greatly deliberated before judgment. But the old 
lessees have alledged, that the defendant did plead of him- 
self without consent of thother lesses, and so do pretend 
collusions between that lessee and sir Thomas Sherley ; 
which is not true: but, though it were, yett the pleading is 
as it ought to be, according to the truth of the case, and 
not otherwise. 

But it semeth, that God is displeased at the cruell deal- 
ings of the deane and chapter, and -dotli send troubles to 
them, which liave caused multitude of troubles to many 
other men. For they have made many several lesses of 
every several farme that they had, to several persons to 
take begynnyng and have being all of them, before the 
tearmes of the first lesses in possession should end, without 
any distinction or relation as had been meete : and therby 
their sondrie lesses entered one upon another, and have 
caused bloodshed and many notorious outrages, and divers 
suits in the Star Chamber, and multitude of suits otherwise; 


HOOK and some of their leases are made for 99 years in possession, 
'• and 99 years in reversion. 

127 Item, They greatly abused her majesty, in making a 
lease to her highness for an 100 years, having made many 
before of the same things, and so have also made divers 
leases sithence of the same things. 

And where her majesty hath taken a gratious course, by 
her majestyes warrant under the greate seale of England, 
for the well setling of the church, and the possessions to 
the same, and of the possessions of the immediate tenant, 
and competent rccompence to the patentees, and thavoiding 
of the multitude of fraudulent leases, and the trouble and 
inconvenyence waiting upon them, the corrupt sort of the 
prebendaries, which were partakers with doctor Gardyner 
the late dean, are afraid to agree to surrender, for the good 
ending of all things, according to her majesty's warrant: 
as well because they have taken mens moneys, and passed 
corporation covenants and bonds, which they think may 
better be avoided, if the lawe agrecde to overthrow their 
pretended corporation, then would be if they should sur- 
render; as also for that they think still to gett more money 
by leases, as indeed they have done very lately for Crawby 
parsonage in Yorkshire, notwithstanding greate mischiefes 
growne there already by their many former leases made of 
the same. 

Item, For the better coloryng of their doing, they have 
used strange practices and subornations of jurors and other 
odious things, which seemc endless, if a gracious remedie 
be not extended, and by packing of a j uric got a verie fowle 
verdict, as the lord chief justice of England knoweth well, 
being clean contrarie to his directions : but the court wolde 
not give judgment therupon. 

The effect of her viajestys •warrant is asfolloweth. 

The lord treasurer is authorised to give warrant to Mr. 
Attorney, or Mr. Soliciter, to drawe and ingrosse the lease : 
or the lord treasurer to signe the lease, to Mr. Fanshaw and 


Mr. Osborne, as men in trust for making out new leasses, BOOK 
to the immediate tenent in posession, and to rate fines in- '' 
differently for those leases, to the benefite of the pattentees 
and the lord chancellor is auctorised to seale the lease, and 
Mr. Fanshawe and Mr. Osborne inabled also to th'efFect 
aforesaid, and likewise authoritie is geven therby for a newe 
boke, for the well setling of the church of her majestys 
foundation, and graunting to them the rents, to be reserved 
upon the lease, and the reversion of the lands, and their 
former liberties. 

Her majesty having passed awaie the lands lieng in 
Norfolk and Suffolk, to the lord Wentworths assignes, the 
patentees and their assignes have effectually made all their 
surrenders in redyness agreeable to the course of her ma- 
jesties warrant : and therefore do humblie sue that the lease 
maie be finished, or else they allowed with favours to take 
the benefite of the lawe ; for the long delais have undone 
divers of them. 

Number LVIII. 

Minutes of' a letter wrote by the lord Burghley to a name- 
less friend ; clearing himself of sundry slanders I'aised 
of him. 

BY your letter of the 11th, I perceive that you hear theMSS. Burg, 
vile, false, devilish exclamations and execrations, made by 
such as I know not. And therefore I can less judge what 
to think of them in their degrees of their malice, and the 
causes therof : but as it seemeth to me, I may say truly, 
Acuerunt linguas suas, sicut serpentes. Venenum aspidum 
sub labiis eorum. And, as it follows in the same Psalm, 
Cognovi, quiajacit Dominus judicium inopis. Surely if 128 
my conscience did not ascertain me of Gods favour and 
protection against these satanical and fanatical spirits, I 
should think my self in a most wretched state. For I know 
and have proved Gods goodness so many years to defend 
mine innocency, that I may boldly say with David, Factiis 
est mihi Dominus refngium, ef Deus mens in ad^utorium 


15 00K spei mecE. Et reddet illis iniquitatem ipsorum, et in rna- 
• litia eorum deperdet eos. 

I am therefore determined to adhere to God, my onely 
patron, and shall be ready to answer all spirits, whersoever 
I may find them blazing ; and doubt not, but if they would 
to my self but breath any of these speeches in presence of 
any honest company, I would with apparent truth con- 
found their blasphemies. And therfore as you shew your 
self friendly in reporting these villainies to me, so you 
might shew your friendship in effect to my good, if you 
would advise them to charge me therewith. And if they 
do think me guilty therof, they need not fear to accuse me. 
For I am not worthy to continue in this place ; but I will 
yield my self worthy, not only to be removed, but to be pu- 
nished for an example to others that should not abuse her 
majesty, and the office I hold. If they cannot prove all 
the lyes they remember, let them make use of any one 
proof wherewith to prove me guilty of falshood, injustice, 
bribery, of dissimulation, of double dealing in advice, in 
counsil, either with her majesty or with the counsillors. 
Let them charge me in any point, that I have not dealt as 
earnestly for the queen''s majesty to aid the afflicted in the 
Low Countries, to withstand the encreasing power of the 
king of Spain, the assurance of the king of Scots to be tyed 
to her majesty with reward, yea, with the greatest pension 
that any other hath. If in any of these I may be proved 
to have been behind, or slower than any, in a discrete 
maner, as becometh a servant and a counsillor ; I will yield 
my self worthy of perpetual reproch, as tho' I were guilty 
of all that they use to bluster against me. They that say 
in a rash and malicious mockry, that England is become 
regnum Cedliumim may please their own cankered humour 
with such a device ; but if my actions be considered, if there 
be any cause given by me of such a nickname, there may 
be found out in many other juster causes to attribute other 
names than mine. 

If my buildings mislikc them, I confess my folly in the 
ex])ences, because some of my houses are to come, if God 


so please, to them that shall not have land to make them, rook 
I mean by my house at Theobalds : which was begun by ^• 
me with a mean mesure, but encreast by occasion of her 
majestys often coming : whom to please I never would omit 
to strain my self to more charges than building is. And 
yet not without some special direction of her majesty upon 
fault found with the smal mesure of her chamber, which 
was in good mesure for me, I was forced to enlarge a room 
for a larger chamber : whiph need not be envied of any for 
riches in it, more than the shew of old oaks, and such trees 
with painted leaves and fruit : [And coats of arms. For 
so he had painted this new room for the queen. Set forth 
with several trees of several sorts, with the arms of the 
nobility, officers of state, the bishops, &c.] 

I thank God, I owe nothing to these backbiters, tho' 
indeed much to many honest persons : whom I mind to pay 
without bribery or villany. 

For my house in Westminster, I think it so old as it 
should not stir any ; many having of later times built larger 
by far, both in city, and country. And yet the building 
therof cost me the sale of lands worth an lOOZ. by year, in 
Staffordshire, that I had of good king Edward. 

My house of Burghley is of my mothers inheritance; 
who liveth and is the owner therof: and I but a farmour. 
And for the building there, I have set my walls upon the 
old foundation. Indeed I have made the rough stone walls 
to be of square : and yet one side remaineth, as my father 
left it me. I trust my son shall be able to maintain it, con- 
sidering there are in that shire a dozen larger, of men under 
my degree. 

Now shortly, for my sons adhering to Northumberland, 1 29 
I mervail why he should not bear favour to him that was 
his brother in law, as long as he knew no faults. My son 
maried his wifes sister, when no body saw liklihood that sir 
Henry Percie should be an earl : for his purchases, I know 
that he hath ventured upon more bargains than I allowed. 
But I wish he had not sold his wifes land of antient title in 
Westmerland, in Cornwal, in Northamptonshire, and Wor- 


BOOK cestershire, of more value than that lie liath boiiolit. Thev 
1 ... . . 

' that envy him herein, if they l)e for thriving, would not 

commit such a folly, to buy new racked lands for antient. 
And at this day I know he doth repent himself. But I will 
end with my paper ; wishing you could procure some per- 
son to utter these things to our selves, and not cowardly to 
backbite us. Aug. 14, 1525. 

Your loving friend, 

W. B. 

After that I had ended, though my letter doth and will 
serve me, yet I could not omit to answer a notable, absurd, 
manifest ly ; which is, that counsillors are forced to seek at 
my hands means for their suits. If it were considered how 
and upon whom, for these late years, all manner of offices, 
good and bad, spiritual and temporal, have been bestowed, 
to whom the persons beneficed do belong, and whom they 
do follow, it will easily be judged how rare I do or have 
dealt therin. If great numbers be bestowed, and not one 
upon any kinsman, servant, or follower of mine, then how 
probable is it, that I had ability to do that wherewith I am 
thus slandered. In very truth, I know my credit in such 
cases so mean, and otliers I find so earnest, and able to ob- 
tain any thing, that I do utterly forbear to move for any. 
Wherupon many my good friends do justly chalenge me as 
unwise, that I seek to place neither men and women in the 
chamber, nor without, to serve her majesty ; whereby I 
might do my friends good. And tlierfore indeed I have 
few special friends; and so I find the want therof. But 
yet I cannot remedy it, knowing my power not answerable 

True it is, that lier majesty throweth upon me a burthen, 
to deal in all ungrateful actions ; to give answers impleasant 
to suitors that miss ; where others are used to signify plea- 
sant answers affirmatively. Mv burthen also is this, that in 
all suits for lands, leases, or such things, her majesty com- 
mands me to certify the state therof from her under-offi- 
cers ; and so I do (as it becomes) trulv. And if the p;ntv 


obtain, I am not thanked ; if not, the fault (the" falsely) is BOOK 
imputed to me. ' 

If these reasons may not clear this slander, I would this 
only reason were weighed, that is true. For my self I had 
not made nor obtained any suit from her majesty these ten 
years. In my whole time I have not for these xxvi years 
been beneficed from her majesty so much as I was within 
four years of king Edward. I have sold as much land in 
value as ever I had of gift of her majesty. I am at charges 
by attendance in court; and by keeping of my household, 
especially in term times ; by resort of suitors at more than 
any counsillor in England. My fee for the treasiu'eship is 
no more than it hath been these xxx years. Wheras the 
chancellor and others have been doubbly augmented within 
these few years. And this I do affirm, that my fees of my 
treasureship do not answer to my charge of my stable. I 
mean not my table. And in my household I do seldome 
feed less than an hundred persons. And for that purpose I 
buy in London my bread, my drink, my achates, my fewel. 
And in the country I buy my grain, my beef, my mutton, 
and all achates : and for my stable, I buy my hay for the 
greatest part ; my oats, my straw totally. For my servants, 
I keep none to whom I pay not wages and give liveries, 
which I know many do not. 

These things considered, I might not thus be slandered 130 
or envied. What my pains in service are, and how many 
[hours of] leisure or pleasure I take, is too manifest ; and 
indeed I condemne my self therin. But I cannot remedy it, 
otherwise then I might leave my offices : which in the pre- 
sence of God I could be contented to do, so as therby I 
might not be touched with note of dishonesty or displesure 
of her majesty. You se how I am caried by these provo- 
cations to write more than I intended. And yet I write no- 
thing but what I will affirm in presence of any company, 
Pood or bad. 


^""["^ Number LIX. 

Another letter of the lord treasurer Burghley to his name- 
less Jriend ; in vindieation of himself Jrom a slander 
upon him of hindering the negotiation between the queen 
and the king ofNavarr. 
Ubi supra. I COMMEND me heartily unto you, and do thank you 
for your friendly advertisement of such common speeches 
as you have heard of me falsely uttered, and so maliciously 
devised, and I hope, in the judgment of honest men, not 
absurdly and improbably to be believed. I have been long 
time acquainted and afflicted with such kind of viperous 
breathing ; and I have long born the same patiently, in re- 
spect I had no mind to make quarells with some such as I 
had cause to suspect to be the authors thei'of. But yet I 
have shewed my self in many places to have misliked and 
condemned these injurious actions. Where also some per- 
sons, of whom I had some doubt of good friendship, have 
seemed to condemn the authors or reporters, and have 
wished the reporters to be known. And so have I hereto- 
fore ceased to pursue the matters, remitting always the re- 
venge to Almighty God. To whose defence I wholly remit 
my self. 

Now in a few words to this matter. I know that Segar, 
the king of Navarrs ambassador, was informed by some 
counsillor, (as he told my friend,) that I was a hindcrer of 
his negotiation, even then when I did my best to further 
the same, being in conscience moved thereto ; not only for 
my zele to the cause of the king of Navarr, but also in ne- 
cessary consequence of the surety of the queens majesty 
my sovereign, and my native country. And since that time, 
Segar hath confessed to my self, that he certainly knoweth 
how earnestly and friendly I have dealt with her majesty 
for him. But yet the scar of that false report may remain, 
and the untruth first uttered continue, and the truth to him 
revealed notwithstanding, remaining only with hmiself for 
the satisfaction. 

And the like hath been uttered to the Hollanders licre 


now of my hindrance of their causes. And so I think falsely BOO K 
conceived of them. And yet lately confessed by some of 
them, that they certainly knew the report to be false and 

Of my doings I have many testimonies. First God ; that 
otherwise I wish to be confounded, if he, that only knoweth 
all things, knoweth not that I am falsely slandered. Next, 
mine own conscience, which otherwise should be a perpetual 
sting to me. Thirdly, the queens majesty, who might 
greatly condemn me of unloyalty, if I did not concurr in 
all actions for her safty against all her known enemies, po- 
pish and Spanish. My fourth proof of my actions ought to 
be such counsillors with whom I do joyn. But in all these 131 
causes I do more esteem of the favour of God, whom I call 
to witness, than in all fleshly helps or defences. 

To end, I pray you advise the parties that make these 
reports, either to speak with my self or Mr. S. [Segar], who 
is best acquainted with the truth of my actions in this time. 

And for the actions concerning the States, both he and 
Mr. 2 can tell in what termes and sort I have dealt with 
her majesty often, to the offending of her majesty with my 
earnestness. And I dare appeal to the report of any coun- 
sillor, so as I may be present at the report: for I know 
none can be so void of grace, that dare say any thing of me 
herein that becomes not an honest, faithful, and careful 
counsillor. But you may se how I travail herein ; not to 
persuade you to think of me otherwise than I think in ho- 
nesty you do : for I know that you have manytimes known 
me heretofore in this sort falsely slandered. And I must 
content ray self to follow my only master, Christ, that suf- 
fered also many such, and so commonly do his best mem- 

God send them grace, and me some rest: for I never 
more toylcd, nor less able for to do any good by reason of 
malicious, bitter biters. Whom God amend. The 12. July, 

Your assured loving friend, 

W. B. 



BOOK To which letters there was a third of the same injured noble 
' person's writing- not many days after the former : upon 

another information sent him concerning those his slan- 
derers. As follows. 

I thank you for your letter sent by this bearer, and per- 
ceive therby the continuance of lewd humours of riotous 
tongues, that are seasoned with nothing but with gauls. I 
content my self to bear their malice ; knowing that God, 
whom I serve with truth and sincerity, will abate their 
cankred furies when it shall please him ; and will comfort 
me in the mean time to continue my self rather in fear to 
offend him, than in any fear of harm they shall be able to 
do me. 

It is very strange, that a ly once a foot cannot be stayed 
with testimonies of truth, wherof I have many. And yet it 
seems malice is so settled, as I think no body else must be 
believed but the authors of their untruths. And yet such 
is my case, as it may be that some that were in sort tlie 
authors or abetters shall scantly be believed in reporting 
their untruths. But of this an end. 

Number LX. 

The earl of Leicester. In answer to the lord treasurer 
Burghleys letter to him, npo7i some h formations, as 
though the earl were not his friend. Justifying himself at 
large to the contrary. 
Mss. Burg. MY lord, I perceive by yom- letter you were doubtful 
to write; but that you would avoid misconstruction, it 
pleaseth you rather to write than be silent. I do thank 
your lordship that you will take that way, wherby those 
you deal and live withall may rather know what you hoar 
than to concclc what you mislike. 
132 Your lordshij) doth say, that you have been many times 
informed, that I have had misliking of you ; but the in- 
formers would never bring forth their false pioofs, but ra- 
ther deal doubtfully. I trust, for such informers, I shall 


need little to stand in answering them. Your own wisdom BOOK 

will easily discharge me, being so well acquainted with the 
devices and practices of these days, when men go about ra- 
ther to sow all discord betwixt such as we are, than to do 
good offices ; a matter not strange neither to your lordship 
nor me, since our first acquaintance in service together. 
And as your lordship protesteth first your own innocency, 
so I hope you never yet brought in proof, or so much as in 
question, any yll dealing on my part against you ; but ra- 
ther your self affirmeth, you have always found me friendly 
and well disposed towards you. And so must I say truly 
of my self, your lordship hath not found a more ready 
friend for you and yours than I have ever been, if you ex- 
amine all the matters wherin you have at any time era- 
ployed me, whan my credit was somewhat more there than 
since it was, whether I dealt not very friendly with you 
or no. 

If now I may refer my self thus to tryal of your own 
knowledg, then is it as much as I desire for mine own and 
your lordships satisfaction. Yet do you remember me of 
one token more of my good meaning towards you ; which 
is the honest report, I perceive, in your letter, that your 
own children do make of me ; a token, my lord, where in 
good reason should serve for such a man against whom no 
proof is yet had, and that never did depend upon any but 
merely her majesty ; that of like I did it not to flatter them 
or you. I have little any mans favour, but to be a friend 
for a friend. I have always had a mind rather to count ray 
self with worse than I am, than to crave benefit by any man. 
And thus much may I well say, that I know none able at 
this day, nor any heretofore, that have don me any plesure, 
that I have not deserved someways a good turn at his hand. 
But I shall leave for this matter every man to his own 
thankfulness, and content my self with such friends and 
fortunes as shall please the Lord to send me. 

These reasons, my lord, that are alledged by your self, 
and such likewise as are affirmed by me, mythinks, should 

( c 2 





Causes of 



be sufficient to hold your lordship from setting any new 
strange opinion of me, what doubtful informers soever you 
have iiad : for I having, as you say, dealt well with your 
self and your children, confessing I deal well with them, 
what sinister way is there, then to draw another construc- 
tion of me ? 

Your lordship must give me leave (tho' I seem tedious) 
thus to purge my self, having so just and honest cause to 
warrant me : for I mean not to seek any excuse by un- 
truth, albeit it were for matter of greater weight than these 

The first, as seems to me, which hath bred some mislike 
in your lordship is, by the information also, that I should 
mislike with you for matters of the Low Countries, in find- 
ing fault of like with coldness, or else want [of diligence] 
in your dealing that way. I must, my lord, say to this, as 
I did in the general before, if there be any person that will 
justify any such matter of my speeches to charge you in 
that sort, then you shal se what cause you shall have here- 
after to trust informers ; otherwise you shall do both yovu* 
self and me wrong. I have dealt, as your lordship hath 
heard, perhaps more earnestly in those cases than a wiser 
man would, but I trust without just cause given, or preju- 
dice either of you or any other counsillor. And for that 
manytimes you your self would tel, not only among us, but 
to her majesty, how you were misreported abroad for that 
matter ; I did deal plainly with your lordship, even in par- 
ticular what I thought, and whom I heard, and most doubt 
of, to hinder those causes, which in my opinion had been 
reasonable cause, sufficient to have stayed your conceipt 
therin, without some better proof. But that is not my 
fault, seeing I was not charged ; and that without offence 
and in good friendship you might very well have don it to 
me, when it was first informed you. I must needs have 
taken it in very good friendly part. 
133 Th£ second thing being more fresh, and delivered to 
your lordship by a party of some good credit with you, and 


yet but a report, will not suffer you to smother up the mat- BOOK 
ter, (for so you term it,) but to touch it to me, and to refer ' 

the answer to me for your better satisfaction. I must needs 
take this maner of dealing of yours to be very honorable 
and good : for you tell me both the matter and the party 
that informed you. To which I will make you a true and 
just answer. 

The very same day I came to London, my lady Russel 
came to my house, and spake with me touching her daugh- 
ters causes. And upon further talk of friends and of your 
lordship, I said to her, (leaving the circumstances of our 
speech,) that I had cause, all things considered, to make as 
good reckoning of your friendship as any other might do. 
And proceding further upon this point, (my lady then 
taking no exception in the world to it, nor to take it in evil 
part,) I did use these words : " That albeit there were some 
" houses did make shew to think you were more their 
" friend than me, (and named my lord of Somersets house,) 
" yet my lord of Somerset never shewed more friendship to 
" your lordship than my father did." For I did not doubt 
but you did think so your self. And, my lord, I must 
think, if you do not forget it, that you do conceive so yet. 
For you do know I lived in that time, and do well remem- 
ber the course of most doings. I was in no obscure place 
from the displacing of the duke of Somerset till the death 
of our master king Edward. And if any man had greater 
authority at that time to place counsillors about the king 
than my father had, I will yield to my error. But, sure I 
am, when he had most authority, you were placed secretary 
and counsillor. Then, (I refer it to your better remem- 
brance, if your lordship do not remember, as you winte any 
more,) then he was your good friend, that hardly could, 
either you or any other counsillor, have been then placed, 
without his special means and allowance. And more wor- 
thy of good remembrance is it ; for that this was don for 
you after some trouble which you had been in for the D. 
[duke of Somerset.] So I do approve the speeches used. I 



BOOK thought I had to make as good reckoning of your friend- 
' ship as any other, if former deserts of my friend [my fa- 
ther] might require it. 

For the other speeches your lordship doth set down of 
her report also, that I said, you were not my friend. I as- 
sure you upon my word and truth I spoke them not at all. 
The former [words] for sundry causes I did, which I mean 
not here to fall into disputation. You know my case, and 
can well consider how all things stand with me. I do not 
complain of envy, but I may complain justly of disgraces 
and want of such friends as I have been my self to others. 

Your lordship doth say, you are weary of your places, 
and wisheth another to have them, your credit saved. 
Truly I know none that either seeketh them, or that envieth 
you for them. For mine own part I will answer faithfully 
and truly for my self, I more desire my liberty with her ma- 
jesties favour than any office in England. Besides your 
lordship doth know, to my poor power, there was no man 
more forwarded you vmto them than I did. Thus much 
have I thought good to answer to those parts of your letter. 

And now, my lord, if I would ground the like conceits 
upon tales and presumptions, I might, I think, alledge moe 
just causes of unkindness than any I yet heard of from 
vou. As for these of my lady Russels only, that she said, I 
should name you not to be my friend. Which is altogether 
untrue. The other part you have no cause to mislike of, for 
ought I conceive. But to enter into any particular causes I 
Avill forbear here to reply til some other time. And your 
lordship shall surely do well, having taken this occasion 
both to review what former tales have been told you ; and 
tliat this last report of my lady Russel doth draw you to a 
confirmation of the rest. Albeit in your letter in sundry 
places your own self doth detect them as doubtful in- 
formers ; that yet you will, for a further tryal of the troth, 
134 bring some of these tales to question. Which may breed 
you a far better satisfaction than otherwise I see I can do. 
And for the mean time I must, as your lordship doth say 


you will do, content my self with this and more wrong: BOOK 
not being ignorant that you can and are able to do both ' 
much good and great hurt : but the more good you shall 
do, the more acceptable must it be both to God and good 

And thus have I troubled your lordship with a tedious 
letter, and will pray to God, that he will give us grace to 
have minds to do that good we ought, to the glory of his 
name, and the service of our sovereign and country. And 
so committing your lordship to his holy protection. From 
Cornbury Park this 15th of Aug. 1585. 

By him that hath given you no other 
cause but to be his friend, 

R. Leycester. 

Number LXI. 

Philip earl of' Arundel^ his debts, estate, and circumstances , 
anno 1585. 
His debts. £. s. d. 

To the queens majesty - . . 5351 6 9 

To divers creditors, as mony borrowed by 

specialty _ - - _ - 7641 15 8 

To the lady Margaret Sackvyie, for her 
mariage mony. She was the earls sister. 
By the duke his fathers gift 2000^. and 
by the earls lOOOZ. - - - 3000 

To divers other creditors, as mercers, arti- 
ficers, &c. 1023 7 ob. 

To divers victuallers, and other provision 

of household - . _ . 781 17 6 

J*. 17977 11 4o6. 
It is to be remembred, that the said earl payeth yearly 
interest for the sum of 4666Z. 13.y. 4c?. 

Parcel of the sum of 8641/. 15*. M. due as above by spe- 
cialty, the sum of 466Z. 12*. 

c c 4 


BOOK Breffqfthe estate of the earl of Arundels living, the 21. of 
'- Jan. 1585. 

Clear yearly value. 

In Norfolk - - - 2086 5 1 " 
In Suffolk - - - 516 3 6 
In Essex - - - 138 3 8 The sum of 

Likewise in the counties of Cambridge, ^ the whole, 
Sussex, Surrey, Salop, Lincoln, Mid- 4249 12 ^q. 
dlesex, and the possessions in Arun- 
del - - - - 841 13 8o6.^ 

Revenues of the Dacres possessions ; l Total of the earl 
there is answered for the countess of /of Arundel pos- 
Arundel, part of his said posses- ( sessions, 
sions - - - - 737 9 J 4987 21c/. q. 

135 Payments out. 

There is yearly paid out, as followeth : 

£. s. d. 
To the queen for tenths and rents - - 197 6 1 
In rent and pensions to other persons - 6 6 4 

In annuities granted for term of life - - 1088 1 
Fees to officers and keepers of houses - 176 15 

The manour of Hayling in the county of 
Southampton, withholden by the lord 
Lumley .-.--- 112 

^.1580 8 5 
And so remaineth yearly towards the charges 
of himself, his wife and children, and house- 
hold ------- 3406 13 4q. 

Wherof allowed by the earl to the countess 
his wife, towards' the apparel of her self, 
her women, and the charges of the chil- 
dren, with other necessaries - - 500 


Number LXII. book 


An anthem in two parts, composed for the Vtth day of' 

November, and sung after a prayer of' thanksgiving 
used on that day. 

BE light and glad, in God rejoyce, 
Which is our strength and stay ; 
Be joyful, and lift up your voice, 
For this most happy day. 

Sing, sing, O sing unto the Lord, 

With melody most sweet ; 
Let heart and tongue in one accord. 

As it is just and meet, &c. 



To thee, O God, we yield all prayse, 

Thou art our help alone ; 
To thee it is we sing always, 

To thee, and else to none. 

Then bow to us, good Lord, thine ear. 

And hear us when we cry ; 
Preserve thy church now planted here, 

And watch it with thine ey. 

Lord, keep Elizabeth our queen ; 

Defend her in thy right ; 
Shew forth thy self, as thou hast been, 

Her fortress and her might. 

Preserve her grace, confound her foes, 

And bring them down full low ; 
Lord, turn thy hand against all those 

That would her overthrow. 



Maintain her scepter as thine own ; 

For thou hast plac''d her here ; 
And let this mighty work be known 

To nations far and neer. 

A noble antient nurse, O Lord, 
In England let her reign ; 

Her grace among us do afford 
For ever to remain. 

Endue her. Lord, with vertues store. 

Rule thou her royal rod ; 
Into her mind thy Spirit pour, 

And shew thy self her God. 

In truth upright, Lord, guide her stil. 

Thy gospel to defend ; 
To say and do what thou dost wil. 

And stay where thou dost end. 

136 5. 

Her council. Lord, vouchsafe to guide, 
With wisdom let them shine ; 

In godliness for to abide, 
As it becometh thine. 

To seek the glory of thy name, 
Their countries wealth procure ; 

And that they may perform the same, 
Lord, grant thy Spirit pure. 


So will we sing unto the Lord, 
Betime ere day be hght ; 

And eke declare thy truth abroad, 
When it doth draw to night. 


To thee, O Father, with the Son BOOK 

And Spirit, be therefore. 
All glory now, as hatli been don. 

From henceforth evermore. 

After this is an anthem, or prayer for the preservation of 
the church and the realm, to be sung after evening prayer 
at all times. 

Save, Lord, and bless with good encrease 
Thy church, our queen, and realm in peace. 

Which is four times more repeated, as the chorus. 


As for thy gifts we render praise. 
So, Lord, we crave still blessed days. 
Let thy sweet word, and gospel pure, 
With us, dear God, for ay endure. 
With prosperous reign encrease it still, 
That sound thereof the world may fill. 

Save, Lord, and bless, &c. 
That vine thy right hand planted hath, 
Preserve, O Lord, from envies wrath. 
And those that practise Zions spoil. 
With mighty arme. Lord, give them foil. 
Thy church and kingdom, Christ, we pray, 
Encrease and build from day to day, &c. 

Save, Lord, and bless with good encrease, &c. 

There follow two stanzas more. 

Number LXIII. 

Laurentii Huinfredi, in Speculum Moralium Qucestionum 
Joan. CascBi, PrcBmonitio. 

RURSUS Casaeus variato prodit amictu 
In scenam : rursus perpolit ille scholas. 

Gaudeo, quod tali membro schola nostra fruatur, 
Quo totum corpus pulchrius esse queat. 









1. Felicitas 
Joan. 7. 

2. Liljeium 

3. Operuni 

4. Opera et 
pro defunc- 

Londini caepit logicos excudere libros. 

Talibus ex scatebris nobilis unda fluit. 
Coticula est acuens animos Dialectica : nodos 

Solvit et emuncti est regula judicii. 
Jam vero Speculum nostris proponit ocellis, 

Quod verbis nitidum est, ordine perspicuum. 
Hoc speculum vobis nunc Oxoniensis alumnus 

Porrigit en ! praeli dat quoque primitias. 
Ex speculo poteris formam speciemque tueri, 

Et turpes maculas tergere Socraticum est. 
Est speculum Morum, vitae praelustris imago. 

O ! quantum distant base duo, vita, logos. 
Disserimus logice : sic disceptamus acute. 

Est hominum proprium cum ratione loqui. 
Sed nunc Casaeus verbalis desinit esse. 

Haec docuisse sat est ; haec didicisse satis. 
Nunc opus est majus, nostros cupit esse reales : 

Laus est, virtutem moribus exprimere. 
Sic moralis eris, si non quaesitor, at actor. 

Quaeres, sed ut cesses quasrere ; vive magis. 
En ! schola Xenocratis, quid virtus, saepe requirit 

Quando inquit sapiens, illius usus erit.f^ 
En ! schola nostra sonet virtutem, ac vivere discat. 

Attica gens dicit, turba Lacaena facit. 
Sed quatuor recolas, quicunque haec Ethica volvis, 

Ut spinas vites, percipiasque rosam. 
Finis Aristoteli fixus, non ultima meta est 

Proo-redere ulterius, ni miser esse velis. 
Nosce Deum Patrem, Christumque, haec vita beata est 

Hoc solum summum, salvificumque bonum. 
Naturae palpo ne sis, sed deprime cristas. 

Servum est, ni Christus liberet, arbitriuiTi. 
Fac, operare: operum meritis ne ascribe salutem. 

Sola fides, et non ethica justificant. 
Hie tua facta seras ; post imminet hora metendi. 

Defunctos manes nil relevare potest. 
His ubi Aristoteles vester contraria scripsit, 

Consule Casaeum ; gratia sitque Deo. 



Number I. 

Objections against hringing Mary queen of Scots to trial. 
With answers thereunto ; being the censure of the ci- 

i. Objection, she is anointed. Par in parent ?ian Anno issfi. 

, , , . • _, MSS. lo. 

habet imperium. ^^^^^^^^ 

Resp. It may be doubted whether she be a queen. Be-armig;. 
cause she standeth deposed by the three estates Scotia?. 
2. She wilUngly left her right to her son. 

A king deposed is not afterwards to be taken for a king. 
Thomas Gramat. Dec. 65. Therefore Frederic, king of 
Naples, deprived by the king of Spain, was afterward 
judged for no king by sentence. 

If she were queen of Scots in possession, it may be 
doubted that she were inferior to the queen of England, as 
her feudatory. The principal maintainers of her title to the 
succession affirm, that she was born under the sovereignty 
of England. 

The sovereignty hath a necessary relation to her own 
subjects, and such actions as are committed witliin her own 

Each prince without his territories is no more than a 
private person. Ff. De hcereclib. instituencl. L. 3. 

Again, rat'ione delicti., each person is subject to the juris- 
diction of the place wherin he offendeth. Ibi causa aga- 
tur^ nbi crimen committitur. 

The preeminency of the person altereth not the cause. 
Reatus omncm honorem excludit, ubi de crimine agi oportef. 


BOOK An archbishop nicay be punished by a bishop ; and one 
• emperor by another prince, ratione delicti ; uhiciinque quis 

Jurisdictionem non hahet, ibi delinquens pimiri nequit. 

An archbishop is subject to the law of the place where he 
resideth. Ergo a prince. 

Legatus sustinet personam principis. So his ambassage 
is presumed indifferent to both princes, ob publicam Jidem . 

The prince cometh only for his own benefit and protec- 

Also, Frustra quis privilegium, quod violavit, apud cum 
prqfert in quern privilegio est abusus. 

Also, if the Scotch queen were not subject to the queen, 
the condition of a prince were most miserable in her own 

Eodemjure defendimur^ cui subjicimur. 

II. Object. Deletum non est consummatum. Eigo. Se- 
condly, She subjecteth her self Jwri geritium soli. 

Resp. In respect of her allegiance to the crown of Eng- 
land, her actions are rather to be mesured by the positive 
laws of the land than^'wre gentium. But by these it is trea- 
son [what] she doth. Ergo. 

Aliens are not exempt from such laws as are of force 
where they remain. As Pomponius Atticus lived under the 
laws of Athens, where he abode. 
139 'S'i adven(E quidjaciunt in loco, ubi versantiir, quod ipsis 
Uberum sit, videnfur quasi consentire in staiuto. 

Patere, quam ipse tuleris legem. This is agreeable to 
the law of the country. 

In the matter of treason, and in the maner of proceding 
therin, there is no difference or privilege of a person sus- 
pected. Ad Leg. Jul. IcescB Majcstat. lib. 4. 

She hath divers times conspired. A. Delictum frequens 
aget poenam. Ff, De poenis, lib. 28. §. Solent. 

The nature of treason is such, as that tiie punishment 
thereof is not tyed to any law. C cetera Jxicta liabent suas 
leges. In iis utilitas, metus, occasio, lex est. Mark also 
publica necessitas. 

The law of nations is nothing but Sana rem. Omnes pa- 


tiantur, quod in alios J'acticm voluerunt. Good reason, BOOK 
ergo, account voluntatem -pro facto. For, post factum no__J^__ 
law. Ergo, stay not to take conspiratorevi. Ergo, Mi- 
thridates put to death Attilius ratione propositi tantum. 
So did Albinus to the messenger of Severus. 

A confederate, being in the country of his confederate, 
for a crime committed, is there to be punished, De capite. 
Et postil. Et si sunt apud nos rei ex civitatibus corfcede- 
rat\s, in eos damnatos animadvertimus. 

Ergo, tho' she were a confederate [only], she is punish- 

There is no person but is to be tryed there, without ex- 
ception of degree, where the crime is committed. Ubi de 
crim. verba. Qua in provincia quis deliquit, aut in qua 
jyectmiarum aut criminum reus sit, ibi vindicari debet, et 
liocjtis perpetuum sit. But she, &c. Ergo. 

3. Thirdly, Every person equally is to be judged. In 
crim. l(£S(R majest. cequa est omnium conditio. Lex ait. C. 

. ad leg. Jul. 1. 4, Ergo. 

4. Fourthly, A king in another kings territories may com- 
mit treason, as another private man. Coretus, De potestate 

QucEro (inquit) utrum rex, non liabens justum titulum 
regni, incidat in crimen Ices, mqjestatis. Ergo. 

5. A king, passing through another kings realm, or there 
resiant, is but a private person. Allegations follow for that. 

6. The benefit or privilege of safe conduct is lost, when 
any crime is committed after the grant of the safe conduct. 
Then follow allegations. 

7. It may be said, Non subditus potest [wow] committere 
crimen Iccscb majestat. Yet that saying is to be taken where 
the crime is to be committed without the jurisdiction ; but 
yet within, that may be punished. P. P. Clementine : de 
sententia, et 7-e judicata. 

And tho' the P. P. reversed his sentence ; yet he saith, 
if the party have been within the jurisdiction at the time 
of the crime committed, piste damnaretur. Verba. Si 
rex infra districtum imperialem fuisset inventus, po- 


BOOK tuisset contra eum sententia dici. Ergo, by the popes 
' rule, &c. 

8. Henry VII. emperor gave a solemne judgment of 
death at Pysca, anno 1311, against Robert king of SiciUa 
Deiotar, condemned by Jul. Csesar. Joan queen of Naples 
for murthering her husband. §. De poenis. Punishments 
ought to be equal to their offences. Then follow allega- 

It standeth with the law of nature. Which is impossible, 
id quisque consulat sues saluti, et suorum. Poena unius, 
solus multorum. An offence in the highest degree, contra 
principem ; being an head of a politic body ; as an offence 
to each member of the same. 

Arctiora sunt vincula virtutis, quam sanguinis. 

140 Number II. 

An analogy or resemblance betzceen Joan queen of Naples 
and Mary queen of Scotland. Offered to queen Elizabeth 
by the parliament. 

I. JOAN queen of Naples, being in love with the duke 
of Tarent, hanged her husband Andreas (or as some write 
Andrasias) king of Naples, in the year of our Lord God 

Mary queen of Scotland, being, as appeareth by the 
Chronicles, and her own letters, [in love] with the earl 
Bothwell, strangled her husband, the lord Darly, king of 
Scotland, in the year of our Lord God 1567. 

II. Joan queen of Naples did presently after the foul 
slaughter of her husband mary with the said duke of Ta- 
rent, notwithstanding they were joyned and knit in kindred 
neer together. 

Mary queen of Scotland, within twelve days after the 

death of her said husband, was maried by the bishop of 

^ Orkney to the said earl Bothwel, notwithstanding he had 

two wives alive ; and was divorsed from them upon a likely 

adultery, by himself committed. 

III. Joan queen of Naples had no long fruition of her 


inordinate lust, and infamous manage of the said duke of BOOK 

Tarent : for he being therefore detested of all the country, 1 

pined away shortly after with immoderate venerie and 

Mary queen of Scots, after the adulterous manage had 
with Bothwell, did but a small time enjoy him : for the no- 
bility and commons rising in armes against them, put them 
both to their several shifts. Her to fly into England ; 
Bothwel into Denmark ; where he living, or rather languish- 
ing, like a banished and consumed man, had nothing so 
comfortable to his guilty conscience as present death ; 
which shortly after ensued. 

IV. Joan queen of Naples raised a miserable schism in 
Italy and France, by reason of two popes at one time, Ur- 
ban, pope of Rome, and Clement, pope of Avignion. 

Mary the Scotish queen did sow the seeds of schism and 
sedition both in the church of England and Scotland, by 
means of two popes, Gregory XIII. and Sextus V. 

V. Joan queen of Naples was besieged in Castello, now 
called New Castle, one of the three strongest forts within 
the kingdom of Naples. 

IMary queen of Scots was besieged in the castle of Dum- 
bar, [Dunbar,] one of the three forts of the greatest force in 
all her dominions and kingdom of Scotland. 

VI. Joan queen of Naples sent to the pope of Avinion, 
called by many historographers antipope Clement, a pope 
of her own facture and faction, to uphold and defend her 
quarel against Charles his forces : who, by reason he was 
nephew to Lewis king of Hungary's son according to some 
right, or, as some say, next of kin to Andreas, her first hus- 
band, king of Naples, by her murthered, was competiter 
with her in the said kingdom ; and that by the title of Ro- 
bert king of Naples her grandfathers testament. 

Mary queen of Scots (which is far worse) sent many 
times to popes of Rome, both to the said Gregory XIII. • 
while he lived, and afterwards to the said Sextus V. now 141 
pope, not for the defence of her self, or her son, in the 
kingdome of Scotland, but to disturbe and terrify the quiet 

VOr.. TTl. I'AUT II. D d 


BOOK state of England with the thunderbolts of excommunication, 
"• and other seditious dissensions; tending to the bereaving of 
her majesty of her rightful crowne and dignity royal. 

VII. Joan queen of Naples sent also at that time, and to 
the same end and purpose, to Charles the French king, 
and Aniens [Anjou] the French kings uncle, requesting 
them to bring all the forces they could, to the subduing of 
Charles nephew to Lewis king of Hungary. 

Mary queen of Scots sent many times to king Philip, 
and her uncle the duke of Guise, to bring their foreign 
forces, and to preserve her in her possession of the kingdom 
of Scotland; which she had resigned long before to her 
son : but [also] to the invasion of this realm of England, 
and subduing of her majesty, the most lawful and un- 
doubted queen of the same. 

VIII. Joan the Neapolitan queen, for that she had no 
child, offered to make the said Lewis, duke of Anjou in 
France, her heir by adoption, and successor in the kingdom 
of Naples. 

Mary the Scotch queen, altho' she had a son, promised 
England and Scotland to the king of Spain, if her son 
would not be called from heresy ; as by her letter lately 
written to the Spanish ambassador, Mendoza, evidently ap- 

IX. Joan queen of Naples had great and mighty princes 
to take her part, both out of France and from the pro- 
vince. But both she and all that held on her side had so 
strange and disaster fortune, as it is wonderful. For the 
pope, by her means exalted, was deposed. The said duke 
of Anjou, general of the field, that came into Italy, as Pan- 
dulphus Cornatius writeth, with 50000 men, and as Peter 
Meria affirmeth, 30000 of them horsemen, dyed by the 
way ; and 16 barons, and most of the gallant company with 
him. And the remnant that survived returned home with 
more shame than with pride they came forth ; begging all 
the way they went, by two or three in a company, as Plan- 
tina witnesseth. And the queen her self was taken prisoner 
by him whom she firmely hoped to have taken and slain. 


Mary the Scotch queen, which had in Rome at several BOOK 
times two popes; in Spain king Philip; in France the_____ 

French king and the duke of Guise; and in England and 
Scotland, dukes, earls, lords, gentlemen, and others, too, 
too many, bent to accomplish her unquiet humour and sedi- 
tious dissension ; yet neither had she nor any other that 
took her part any prosperous success : for the best friend 
of the two popes dyed. King Philip and the French king 
have never been without civil warrs, and their lands full of 
uproars and dangerous tumults. The duke of Guise so 
maugre, and so crossed in all his dcsignments, that he could 
not at any time help her, nor will relieve himself. The 
dukes, earles, and lords, for the most part, have lost their 
goods, lands, liberties, and countreys ; or have been slain, 
or slain themselves : many gentlemen hanged for her sake, 
to the perpetual infamy of themselves and their names, and 
the utter undoing of their posterity. 

And as touching her self, neither her own land could 
abide her, nor the ocean sea, to whose mercy in extreme 
refuge she committed her self, could brook her : nor the 
land of England, where she hath remained above 16 years 
in our sovereign lady queen Elizabeth her protection, could 
for the more part like her, or be liked of her. And she be- 
came all that while prisoner unto her; whose royal person 
she continually hoped, and often practised to have mur- 

X. Joan queen of Naples being taken last of all by 142 
Charles, nephew to Lewis king of Hungary, was, by the 
said Charles, upon advice taken and had of the said king, 
secretly strangled in prison. And so by Gods providence 
payd the debt, as the history witnesseth, that she gave to 
her first husband Andreas, king of Naples. 

Mary queen of Scots, altho by flying out of her own 
realm of Scotland into England, and by coming under the 
queen of Englands protection, she escaped hitherto to have 
due revengment for her husbands death (when and where 
her chiefest nobility pursued her end) by justice; yet, be- 
cause she liad sundry times since that time conspired the 

D d 2 


BOOK destruction of the sacred person of her majesty, and being 
' once or twice pardoned, hath fallen into a relapse, or recide- 
vation ; there hath been, upon her due hearing and exami- 
nation of the whole matter, together with her personal an- 
swers, taken by the chiefest lords of the realm, assisted with 
the principal judges of the same, sentence of death pro- 
nounced against her, according to the statute of Association 
by her self subscribed and sworn. 

There remaineth nothing to make the history perfect, 
but that Mary of Scotland may have Gods judgment in her 
accomplished and performed ; that did not only kil her first 
husband, king of Scots, but practised oftentimes the end 
of her majesty, the queen of England ; and likewise was 
like to bring the whole realm in danger of a general mas- 
sacre and present destruction, had not the eternal and 
mighty Lord, of his unspeakable and accustomable good- 
ness, by a miraculous discovery, preserved the same. 

Number III. 
Sentences written hy the lord treasurer Burghley ; occa- 
sioned upon the death of Mary queen of Scots ; and upon 
queen Elizabeth''s displeasure towards him on that ac- 
count. Endorsed 1586. After the Scots queen death 
Wednesday, Febr. 
The warratit signed. To the Lord Chancellor, that night. 

MSS. Biirg. PECCATUM ignorantia commissum. 

Anima si peccaverit per ignorantiam, ofFeret arietem, et 
dimittetur ei, quia per ignorantiam. 

Melius est, ut benefacientes (si voluntas Dei velit) pati, 
quam malefacientes. 

Quern dihgit Dcus, corripit. 

Quern diligit Deus, castigat. 

Tribulatio patientiam operatur. 

Si benefacientes patienter sustinetis, haec est gratia apud 


Si bona suscepimus de manu Dei, mala quare non susci- BOOK 
piamus ? ' 

Deus meus, tu opem mihi tulisti a juventute mea: et us- 
que ad senectam et canos, non derelinques me. 

Non est sanitas in came mea a facie irae tuae. 

Job. Ipse vulnerat, et medetur. 

Domine Deus meus, clamavi ad te, et sanasti me. 

Quoniani in me speravit, liberabo eum. 

Secundum multitudinem dolorum meorum in corde meo, 
consolationes tuae latificarunt animam meam. 

Laus sit Jehovae, quod audiverit voccm deprecationum 

Quaesivi Jehovam, et respondit mihi, et ex omnibus an- 
gustiis hiis eripuit me. 

Earl of Shrewsbury. To tarry. 

Earl of Leicester, lord treasure. 

Lord admiral. 

Mr. Davison. The bill signed. 

Mr. Davison. [His] affirmation. 

Earl of Leicester. Knowledg from the queen. 

Always not to be acquainted with the circumstances. 1 43 

The queen meant it not. 

Esto. This not known. 

The matter alway present. 

The matter for surety. 

"Tepag Iotjv el ns evTu^og 8<a /Sioy. 

Seneca. Decet timeri regem, at plus diligi. 

Potentior rex, quando irascitur viro inferiori. 

Lucan. Exeat aula, qui vult esse pius. 

Sit piger ad pjenas princeps, ad prasmia velox. 

Quique dolet quoties cogitur esse ferox. 

Proverb, xx. Thronus Dei corroboratur dementia. 

Morieris nee primus, nee ultimus. 

Ne sis miser ante tempus. 

dementia. Leones prostratis parcunt. 

Nullum magis decet dementia, quam principem. 

Est omnibus dementia secunda sed maxime decora 




BOOK Correctio. Pro mensura peccati erit plagarum modus. 
' Q. Phreneticum ligat, et lethargicum excitat, ambobus 

molestus, sed ambos amat. 

Consilium. Sapiens non mutat consilium, omnibus illis 
manentibus quae erant. 

Confessio. Quum homo agnoscit, Deus ignoscit. 
Bona quaerentibus vix obtingunt mala, non quaesita. 
Dolor. Aristoteles. Cor non comedendum. 
Nemo potest valde dolere, et diu. 
Error. Errare est falsum pro vero putare. 
Lauda parce, vitupera parcius. 

Inopinatum malum valde metuendum, si sine exemplo 

In summo imperatore haec quatuor esse oportet : scientia 
rei militaris ; virtus ; authoritas ; faelicitas. 
Colant te servi tui, potius quam timeant. 
Amare debemus Deum tanquam filii, timere tanquam 

Non est bonum pluralitas principantium : unus ergo prin- 

Beatus qui beatis servit. 

Justius est injustum juste evadere, quam justum injuste 

Anima dum vivificat corpus, anima est. Dum vult ani- 
mus est. Dum scit, mens est. Dum recolit, memoria est. 
Dum rectum judicat, ratio est. Dum spirat, spiritus. Dum 
• aliquid sentit, sensus est. 

Job. xvi. In mundo pressuram sustinebitis. 
Act. xiv. Oportet nos per multas tribulationes ingredi 
regnum Dei. 

Heb. xii. Flagellat omnem filium, quem recipit. 
Job. vii. Vita hominis militia super terram. 
1 Cor. xi. Castigamur a Deo, ut non condemnemur in 
hoc mundo. 

Ecc. xxviii. Afflictio dat intellectum, 
1 Naum. Bonus Dominus est, confortans in tribulationi- 

Afflixi te, et non affligam te ultra. 


Qui contra praepositam potestatem murmurat, ilium re- BOOK 
darguit, qui dedit potestatem. ^^' 

Maximum solatium est, vacare culpa. 

Ante senectutem curandum est, ut bene vivat. 

Mors. Non facit malam mortem, quod sequitur. 

Vita amara. Vocantur ante tempus boni, ne diutius vex- 
entur, morte. Mali, nc diutius persequantur. 

Latet ultimus dies, ut observetur omnis dies. 

Mors calamitatis terminus. 

Number IV. 144 

The lord treasurer''s second letter to the queen, lijing under 
her displeasure, njjon the death of the Scots queen. Dated 
Fehr. 17. but not received. 

MOST gracious sovereign ; altho"' to my great grief I mss. Bmg. 
cannot understand that your majestys offence against me is 
diminished, notwithstanding my humble submission to en- 
dure any thing that might pacify the same ; yet finding my 
mind continually opprest with griefs for your displesure, 
and mine old body and lame limbs by day and night vexed 
with pains, and that therof I can imagine no remedy, but 
by continuance of my humble intercession to your majesty, 
either to receive my submission, or rather first to hear me 
answer any thing wherewith your majesty sliall charge me. 
Whereunto I will most plainly and truly answer for thought 
and deed, as if God himself should call me to judgment, 
from whom nothing can be hid. My case alone is most 
miserable. For tho' for this late fact, for which your ma- 
jesty is so deeply offended, I am no more to be charged 
than others ; yet I find and hear by report, that your ma- 
jesty doth, with more bitter termes of displesure, condemne 
me than others. And this, I suppose, encreaseth, by reason 
your majesty hath not heard me as you have others, whom 
your majesty hath admitted to your presence : which through 
my lameness and infirmity, being not hable of my self to 
come unto your presence, is my principal let and stay. And 

D d 4 


BOOK yet such is my earnest desire to appear before your gra- 
^*' cious presence, as I am most willing to endure any pain, to 
be caried to some place, if to be laid on the floor, neer your 
I majesties feet, there to receive your gracious censure : hop- 

ing, by Gods special goodness, (in whose hand your heart 
is, and who knoweth best my thoughts past and present, to 
be so reverend to your majesty, and so careful of your fa- 
vour,) that I shall find some drops of your mercy, to quench 
the panting sorrows of my heart. 

Number V. 

The lord treasurer's third letter to the queen, dated Fehr. 23, 
remaining yet tinder her displeasure, on the same occa- 
sion ; delivered hy lord BucMiurst. 
Most gracious and mighty queen, 

MSS. Burg, ALTHO' I am come to no understanding what special 
means to use to pacify your majestys heavy displeasure, so 
often and grievously exprest both to my friends and many 
others ; wherby I am so overborn in my weak spirit, as no 
part of my mind is sound to perform that I ought to do ; 
a torment such as I never felt ; that I may say as is in the 
Psalme, Non est sanitas in me ajacie ircc tuce : yet such 
is the miserable condition of my state at this present, difl^er- 
ing from others of my company, that tho' I find my humble 
submissions to your majesty, and most lowly requests to be 
heard, to be still denyed, yet comparing in my knowledg 
your majestjs natural, princely clemency and compassion 
145 with this late accidental quality of your mind, by onely one 
act miscontented, I do turn my face with my fact passed, to 
behold rather those princely graces which your maj.esty hath 
of God and nature, than to abide the censure of your mind, 
now miscontented ; seeking by my defence [not] to have 
your majesty in any sort touched, by maintaining any thing 
against your honour; but to submit my self to your accus- 
tomed clemency : and so to be heard, as if your majesty 


shall not allow of my answer, yet I may hope to have your BOOK 
concept of my fact in some part alleviated. ' 

I know surely by many experiences your majestys sin- 
cerity and Christian conscience such, as except your ma- 
jesty [esteemed me] faulty indeed, your majesty would not 
thus extremely use me. And therfore I do not therein 
think any thing but honorably of your majesty; as you are 
persuaded, and as long as your majesty shall, for lack of 
my answer, so conceive of me, I can hope of no good end, 
but only by your mercy. But if your majesty might be 
pleased to hear me, tho' in your conceit as an offender, to 
answer to such things as move you to think me faulty ; in- 
deed I hope in my good God, to whose judgment without 
mercy I dare yield my self, (for any evil meaning in this 
cause,) either to move your majesty to temper the severity 
of your judgment against me, as not being a wilful of- 
fender, or to inollify your displesure with some drops of 
your princely pity towards me : whom I think your majesty 
afore this time, in no action whatsoever towards your person 
or honour, found me wilful, over seen, or void of care. 

1 perceive by my son, Thomas Cecil, that in deferring 
the time till my access, I might write to your majesty that 
which I had to say. For which favour I know that writing 
is but a composition of words, that may be otherwise doubt- 
fully taken, for want of explanation or reply [And there- 
fore I desire] to deliver the sense of my heart by mine own 
tongue. I dare not aventure to write as the cause requires, 
lest, in seeking favovn*, clemency, and pity, I might encrease 
the countrary, &c. 

Trihulationes cordis mei multiplicatcB sunt: dc necessi- 
tatibus meis erue me. 



II. Number VI. 

A writing of the lord treasurer ; Jbr his absence from 
council; upon some angry words used to him by the 
queen. To be delivered to her by Mr. Vice-Chamberlain. 
March the xvth. 
MSS. Burg. J ^YM so wounded in the heart with the late sharp and 
piercing speeches of her majesty to my self, in the hearing 
of my lord of Leicester and Mr. Secretary Walsingham, ex- 
pressing therewith her indignation, at such time as I was 
called to her presence for matters of the Low Countries, my 
self giving no occasion by any speech of the matter of the 
queen of Scots, until her majesty did charge me therewith ; 
as since regarding, in great anguish of heart, the weight of 
her majesty s displesure, so settled and encreased, as I then 
deeply conceived ; and mine own humility not liable to abide 
the continuance of such her displesure ; I am therefore most 
careful, how by any means possible I may shun all en- 
crease of the weight hereof: knowing it very true that was 
said by the most wisest king, Indignatio principis mors est. 
And tho'' my conscience doth certainly witness with me in 
the sight of God, that I never had thought, nor did ever 
any act with mind to offend her majesty ; but now finding 
this heavy burthen of her majestys displesure in mine old 
years, so long faithfully, painfully, and dangerously spent, 
only for her service, to be lately rather encreased, since her 
majestys princely compassion permitted me to her presence 
146 a few days past, I have great cause to fear, that this en- 
crease groweth more by means of some secret enemies to 
my self, than of any influence of her own princely nature. 

And therefore, tho' I cannot imagine that any person is 
my enemy for any private offence of my own, but only in 
respect of my services for her majesty ; wherin I have cer- 
tainly felt of long time many sharp effects for doing my 
duty; yet now being so publicly, in town, in court and 
field, known, as I daily find it, her ma_jesty is so grievously 
offended with me ; whereby my enemies may presume that 
her cars arc open to any sinister calumniations to be dc- 


vised against me, for any thing I shall do in this time of BOOK 
her disfavour ; I am therefore urgently moved to live wa- ^^' 
rily ; in token of the reverend fear I bear to her majesty, 
to forbear from all voluntary public actions of state, wher- 
unto I am not by her majesty expresly commanded, until 
I may be releived to have her presence, as others of my 
condition have. And which I do to avoid the calumnia- 
tions of the evil disposed, that may untruly incense her ma- 
jesty, that I make no difference of times between the clear- 
ness of her former favour, and the darkness of her disple- 

And this having a special desire to notify to her majesty, 
being not the hundredth part of my heavy, bitter cogita- 
tions, I do notwithstanding remain free and ready to do, 
to serve and to suffer, without respect of pain or peril, as I 
may understand shall best content her majesty. For there- 
in do I think my happiness to consist, as the Greek verse 

Maxapjof otTTtg [jiy.x.agioig 'jTTYjpsTsl. 

Bcatiis qui heatis servit. 

Number VII. 
The bishop of Meath in Ireland to the lord treasurer lord 
Burgldey^ now come into Engkmd ; to solicit for favour 
upon account of his first fruits^ 7iot paid. His case re- 
ferred to the lord deputy^ his enemy. 
It may please your good lordship, 
YOUR resolution for the referment of my cause back MSS. Burg. 
again to my lord deputy doth much grieve and discomfort 
me. Your lordship knoweth that his hard dealing hath 
forced me to come hither : where, according to your good 
advice, I have suffered both him and his agents to play 
upon me, bearing all things patiently. Now if I shall be 
referred unto him, who hath confessed that he never meant 
to have relieved me, until it were too late, I must needs 
say my hap is most hard. 


BOOK Good my lord, let me not be made the first precedent to 
' pay that which before was never exacted of any of my call- 
ing;' but, in my reasonable suit for my relief, vouchsafe me 
your good favour. If either my service or course of life 
were known to your lordship, I doubt not you would more 
favourably consider of me. I have -these three months fol- 
lowed only your lordship, and wholly depended upon you, 
and none other. Your lordship knoweth I am in Ireland 
a person hated for my religion, greatly maliced by the de- 
puty ; unles I may have her majestys and your good lord- 
ships countenance, what comfort can I have to return thi- 
ther : mine estate is so poor, that 1 profess unto your lord- 
ship I was enforced to employ the mony which I owe unto 
her majesty upon my charges hither, to seek relief. 
147 I am bold in the paper enclosed to discover to your lord- 
ship the yearly value of all the livings I have in Ireland. 
According to which note I am contented that any man shall 
be my farmer. Upon which livings I do keep always in a 
readiness xx able men in my house to serve her majesty : 
the one half of them well furnished on horseback ; and I 
my self daily employed in her majestys service without any 

I humbly recommend my self to yoiu* lordships good fa- 
vour and devotion, having none other to depend upon. So 
himibly craving pardon for this boldness, I take leave, this 
5th of March. 

Your lordships humbly to command, 

Tho. Midensis. 

Number VIII. 
Mr. Hcnton^ mxhdeacon of Coventry^ to the bishop ofLHcJi- 
field. Account qf'the hacTizoardness of' some of the clergy 
erf that archdeaconry in the payment of theii: taxations 
for the queens forces in the Low Countries. 
Rt. reverend father in God, &c. 
Epist. epi- THESE may be to sionify unto your [lordship], how that 

scopal.pcn. „ ,1,- . , 1 Ji- 

mc. accordmg to your lordships commandment, by your lordships 


commission to us directed, and according to our duties in BOOK 
that behalf, we have performed such service about the tax- ^^' 
ing of the abler sort of your clergy within the archdeaconry 
of Coventry, towards the provision of the sum of 3 score 
and 15 pounds for lances, for the service in the Low Coun- 
tries, as by that commission was enjoyned us ; and as to the 
uttermost of our discretion we thought convenient for the 
full performance of the same. It may please your good 
lordship, we required and commanded the parties so by us 
taxed, in her majestys name, to make speedy payments of 
their several sums wherunto they were by us taxed, at Co- 
ventry, the 19. day of April, 1586, without any delay. At 
which time and place we also attended, to have received the 
same sums, if they had been brought thither unto us. But 
it may please your good lordship, among them all there 
was not above one man ready or willing to satisfy his tax- 
ation. This said party is ready to make pay, and will be 
at your lordships plesure ; namely, the parson of Harbo- 
rough Magna, neer to Rockby, Frauncis Kemberly. All 
the residue utterly failing their duties in this behalf, and 
shewing themselves most unwilling hereunto, alledging their 
disability. Whose names and several sums, by us so taxed, 
we have sent unto your good lordship, in a scedule or 
writing here enclosed ; that your lordship may take order 
with the said parties, as to your lordships good discretion 
shall seem most convenient. 

We have most willingly performed our service to your 
good lordship herein ; and don that which hath seemed to 
us in our conscience most best. And so we hope your 
lordship will conceive of us and our service. 

It may please your good lordship, we have dealt further 
with all the residue of your clergy of the said archdeaconry, 
to se what every other minister would do of his own volun- 
tary will ; but the sums by all such others of the ministry 
offered voluntarily did not surmount in the whole above 6 
or 7 pounds, scarce the 4th part of one horse. For the 
willingness wherof we gave them thanks in your lordships 
name. But we left that course, because we saw it would 
serve neither to the performance of oiu' commission, or yoiu' 




lordships expectation. And therefore continue the first 

course, above specified, according to the scedule herein 

148 enclosed. And thus with our humble duties unto your 

good lordship, &c. At Coventry, the 20 of April, 1586. 

Tlien followed the names of the abler sort of the clergy 
within the several deaneries of the archdeaconry, cessed for 
the service of the lances, together with their respective sums 
to be paid. 

Willy- - . 

Redworth - . 

Harbrough - • 

Meryden - ■ 

Barkeswel - - 
Stonely deanry 

Warmington - 



d. ! 
















Whitnash - - 


Allscleye - - 


Arden deanry - 






Marton deanry 



Lodbroke - - 



Staecton - - - 



Southan - - - 




Hardwick - - 


Number IX. 
June the 24^A, 1586. Frel:c''s account Jhr the monies re- 
ceived of the clergy for lances^ in all the dioceses from 
the bishops; and of recusants for light horse. So en- 
dorsed by the hand of the lord treasurer. 

This paper is defaced by rain and zvet where the blanks are. 
MSS. Burg. MAY the 4. 1586. Cantuar. Received of my £. s. d. 

lord archbishop there - - - - — — — 
Suff. Received of lord bishop there - - — — — 
London. Received of my lord bishop there — — — 
Coventry and Litchfield. Received of my 

lord bishop there - - - - - 
College de Windsor. Received of Master 

Dean there ------ 

College de Westmin. Received of Master 

Dean there ------ 

Ebor. Received of my lord archbishop there 
Sussex. Received of my lord bishop there 








Wigorn. Received of my lord bishop there 

Exon. Received, &c. - . _ . 

Norwich. Received of, &c. _ _ . 

Hereford. Received of, &c. 

Lincoln. Received of, &c. 

Winton. Received of, &c. 

Burgum. Sti Petri. Received of, &c. - 

Chester. Received of, &c. 

Carliol. Received of, &c. - - . 

Gloucester. Received, &c. - - 

Dunolm. Received, &c. _ _ _ 

Bath and Wells. Received, &c. 

200 BOOK 

549 3 4 ^'- 










Sum 6650 3 

Number X. 
An account of the names and preje7-nients of the prebenda- 
ries of Westminster. Draivn up and given in by Good- 
man, the dean, Ajiril 1586. 



Maricd, or not. 

Preferments and benefices. 

1. Mr. Mounford. 


Two benefices. 


2. Mr. Read. 

Not marled. 

Fellow of S. Johns, Oxon. 

3. Mr. Wyborne. 


Prebendary of Rochester. 

4. Mr. Wagstaff. 


Parson of Henley. 

5. D. Bond. 


Chaplain of the Savoy. 

6. D. Lewes. 


One benefice prebendary 
of Worcest. and Here- 


7. D. Still. 


Two benefices ; master of 
Trinity coll. Canibr. 
parson of Hadley, and 

8. D. Buckley. 


Prebendary In West Ches- 
ter. A benefice in Bed- 

9. Mr. Read. 


Prebendary of Windsor. 


10. The Bp. of 





Two benefices ; the one 
In Sussex, the other in 

12. Mr. Grant. 


Two benefices in Norfolk. 


MSS. Burg. 


BOOK Then followes in the same paper, 

^^' The order by the statutes^ depised by Dr. Bill, and so in 

use ever since the late erection, hath been, that every four 
in course, after this order for their months, shoxdd be resi- 
dentiaries ; and so contribute to the commons,for the month ; 
and either preach themselves orjind some other. 

The allowance of every prebendary towards the commons 
for the month is 40 shil, 

Howbeit few keep their order and course of residence. 
And so others that be presents have the benefit of the diet. 

In term time other of the prebendaries be sometimes pre- 
sent, beside the resldentiaries. Wlio for that time have al- 
lowance of diet for themselves and their men : giving no 
allowance for the same. 

Most commonly present, Mr. Grant, Mr. Wagstaff, Mr. 
Wickham, D. Bond, Mr. Read, in midsummer quarter. 

Such as preach and come to divine service in their ha- 
bits being present : Dr. Bond, Mr. Read, Mr. Wagstaff, 
Mr. Grant, Mr. Mounford, Mr. Wickham, D. Lewes, D. 

Mr. Wyburn and D. Buckley come not to divine service 
in their habits, nor do preach in this church ; because they 
have not subscribed unto the articles sent unto us by my 
lord of Canterbury in her majestys name. Howbeit they 
have here whole hving, as others have. 

150 Number XI. 

Beza to the lord treasurer. The state of Geneva ; obliged 

to him, next to the queen, for favour and assistance 

shemed them. This letter brought over by Wil. Cecil, the 

treasurer s grandson, returning home from travel. 

MSS. Burg. QUAM aegre tuli, spectatissime mi domine, periculosam 

charissimi tui nepotis in Italiam profectionem, tam mihi, 

imo nobis hie omnibus jucundus fuit illius ad nos adventus, 

jucundissimus futurus, si diutius ipsius praesentia frui, et 

aliquibus officiis nostram in te et iikmi observantiam testari, 


licuisset. Verum magna fuit nobis religio tua quidem gau- BOOK 
dia, ipsis vero desiderium renovari, nunquam alioqui passu- '^- 
ris, ut ingrati tuorumque plurimorum ac maximorum apud 
nos meritorum immemores fuisse videamur. Cui enim ho- 
minum plura, secundum serenissimam regiam majestatem, 
quam tibi, tota hasc civitas debet? Plura quidem certe, 
quam animo coraplecti queamus, nedum ut Hesiodi pra?- 
clarum illud de referendo beneficio prgeceptum possimus 

Quod unum igitur nobis ad animi ingrati vitandam notam 
supersit, id sedulo agimus, assidue, baud secus ac pro nostra 
ipsorum salute, precantes, imprimis, ut serenissimam regiam 
majestatem tot priorum non hominum modo, sed etiam po- 
pulorum, insignissime oppressorum, vindicem ; sed adeo, 
suaque omnia rarissimo vere Christiani zeli exemplo, evan- 
gelii propagation! postponentem firmissimo suo praesidio 
tutari, et omnibus sancti sui spiritus eximiis donis ornare 
et amplificare pergat. Deinde, ut divinitus attributes ipsius 
majestatis regiae consiliarios, et te quidem praesertim, cujus 
ilia non immerito consiliis plurimum tribuit, ea perpetuo 
sapientia, prudentiaque semper instruat, quam tot ingen- 
tium negotiorum administratio requirit. 

Caeterum, quis nunc sit non hujus tantum civitatis, sed 
etiam Helvetiae status, et quid in his quoque regionibus, 
conjurati moliantur, et nisi conatibus ipsorum obsistatur, 
perficere se posse confidant, si tibi videbitur, et turn uni- 
versae reip. Christians, turn privatim, id vestra interesse ar- 
bitraberis, ex ipso nepote tuo certissime et plenissime cogno- 
sces. Bene vale, nobilissime, et modis omnibus ornatissime 
Domine. D. Jesus, Servator ille noster, venerandam et sa- 
pientissimam canitiem tuam feUcissime conservet. Genevae, 
xvii. Maii, anno ultimi temporis. cidiolxxxvi. 

Amplitudini tuae addictissimus, 
A monsieur, Theodorus Beza. 

Monsieur le baron de Burghley, con- 
seiller et grand thesorier D'Angle- 
terre, chevalier du treshonorable or- 
dre de la Jaatiere. 



1500 K Number XII. 
II. _ 
Parsons the Jesuit to Cardinal Allen at Rome ; concerning- 

1^1 the success of his and other Jesuits, their late mission 

into England, hy commissicynfrom him. 

Admodum rde in chro\ pr. pax Chri. 
MSS. ec FtELICISSIMO plane itinere in Angliam pei'venimus : 

clesiast. . ... . . i v • 

penes me. uDi magnum in veritatis hostibus furorem, m catholicis vero 
fervorem non imparem, sumus experti. Percrebuit jam fama 
adventus nostri, et ex eorum, qui reginae a consiliis sunt, 
ore, meum quibusdam nomen innotuit. Terret res adver- 
sarium, et magnum nescio quid, a nobis timet. Adeo nunc 
evasit meticulosus. Cum Londinum pervenissem, primum 
inter gladios, tum vero in carcere quodam catholicos con- 
veni. Quae (si ominari fas est) quiddam mihi non ingi-atum 

Post unum aut alterum diem, hominem, cui nos com- 
misisti, incolumem, et de nostro adventu laetissimum, eon- 
venimus, et quibusdam leviuscule tractatis, longiores ser- 
mones in tempus magis opportunum rejeeimus. Quod non 
ita multo post nacti, praemissis de more confessionibus, vota 
nostra, non magno quidem apparatu, scd maxima sane 
consolationc, renovavimus. Et si commode res cecidisset sa- 
crum habuissemus, eodem die, qui Stae. Mariae Magdalenae 
sacer, solenni ritu, et insigni, variorum instrumentorum et 
vocum symphonia dccantatum. Verum in sequentem diem 
rejecta res est : quem ego illic alio vocatus agere non potui. 
Ea tamen quae ad facultates nostras, et praecipua quseque 
negotia pertinent, simul expendimus. Mirum in modum 
noster in insvdam appulsus catholicos animavit, recreavitque 
qui se quodammodo a societate derelictos prius conquere- 
bantur, dubitabantque, ne difficultatibus territi pastores 
gregem, operis nunquam magis indigentem, deserercnt. 

Capti sunt hisce mensibus sacerdotes non pauci, quamvis 
neque tam arete asserventur. Nonnulli etiam e carceribus 
pretio redempti, et liberi dimissi, nulla plane apposita con- 
ditione. Verum lictores illi, quos penes est illos compre- 
hendere, lynceis oculis urbem obambulant, domos evertunt ; 


et quos capiunt, numniis, equis, omnibus deniqiie spoliant. BOOK 
Mortui sunt Nugati, carceris paedore confecti catholici ali- ' 

quot, et eo in loco situ et squallore misere cruciantur. Newgate. 

In aula regia fertur quoddam jam prae manibus esse ne- 
gotium, quod si faeliciter succedat, extrema quaeque in nobis 
impendent ; serena autem omnia, si secus accident. Verum 
haec catholicis puerorum temculamenta visa sunt : quippe 
quos eo redegerunt, ut ad novam crudelitatem, fere reli- 
quum sit nihil. Et quamvis post primam decreti illius, 
quod in parlamento, seu comitiis, condiderunt promulga- 
tionem, magnum etiam optimi quique concepere timorem ; 
postmodum tamen, collectis animis, ad pristinum redire fer- 
vorem ; licet operariorum defectu, nonnulli qui tunc lan- 
guerent, nondum ad ingenium sunt reducti. At certe do- 
lendum maxime est, multos hie esse comitatus non paucis 
orthodoxis refertos, in quibus nee unus quidem degit sacer- 
dos, quamvis a plerisque eorum maxime expetitus. Et nisi 
mature suppetias mittant aliqui, res catholica vehementer 
laborabit. Quanquam et illud ad malum accedit, quod qui 
jam sunt in messe sacerdotes, dum ad unum aut alterum 
comitatum frequentiores confluunt, alios orbos plane pasto- 
ribus relinquant. 

Comiti Arundelliae propositum fuit a primoribus, et, ut 
arbitror, a regina, quod si vellet tantum honoris causa, gla- 
dium de more, ante reginam ad templum ferre, et illi ad 
finem usque conciliabuli et vesparum adesse, liber dimitte- 
retvu'. Verum ille fraudem veritus, aut detrectabit penitus, 
aut certe nihil faciet, quod, consultis doctioribus, non cogno- 
verit licere. Neque enim in animo habet, vel latum quidem 
unguem ab officio catholici discedere. 

Contigit hisce diebus sacerdotem quendam, qui, ut suspi- 152 
cionem efFugeret, nautico sese habitu induerat, in portu 
comprehendi. Is ad curiam ductus, et hinc inde per ludi- 
brium circumactus, tandem in reginae conspectum venit. 
Quae ut sacerdotem esse rescivit, lepide percontata est, an 
illam vellet convertere. Cui sacerdos, Certe, inquit, modo et 
locus et attentio pra^beatur, ego libentissime omnem movebo 

Ee 2 


BOOK lapidem. Ilia vcro, has pvius. ait, ancillas meas convertas 
' oportet, quam ad me deveniatur. Post multa tandem scom- 
mata et irrisiones sacerdos carceribus committitur. 

Mira quaedam, ut audio ab oculatis testibus, circa ener- 
gumenos hie facta sunt. Quaequc et multos converterunt ad 
fidem, et alios vacillantes magnopere confirmarunt. Unde 
nonnullos sacerdotes, quorum et in his officiis pietas et sub- 
limis plane potestas ita insigniter apparuit, haeretici magos 
et veneficos appellant. Ut quod factum negare non possunt, 
saltem non potestate sacerdotali, sed daemonis pra^stigiis 
calumnientur : immemores illius, quod Christus ait, Omne 
regnum in se divisum dcsolahiUir. 

Ego concionibus, confessionibus, aliisque societatis mu- 
neribus vaco ; quotidianis quidem circumseptus periculis; 
nee ullo unquam vel brevissimo tempore securus. Sed ipsis 
animor difficultatibus, et succedentium sibi timorum multi- 
tiido, dum nullum sinet esse diuturnum, adimit fere omnem. 
Id ego unum contendo, ne imparatum hostis adoriatur. 
Quod reliquum est, Dei negotium esto. 

Tu vero, reverende pater, pro co quo filios hujuscemodi 
casibus objectos amore complecteris, conatus nostros, et 
suavissimos certe labores tuis aliorumque patrum sacrifici- 
isque precibusque prosequere ; ut qui ingressmn praliuit, 
progressum secundet, et faelicem tandem tribuat dolorum 

Mirum hie desiderium est, et magna neccssitas eorun) 
quae ultimo petivimus privilegiorum ac facultatum ; qu.-v 
certe si concedatur plurimum erunt e re catholica. U. P. 
precibus nos omnes hue usque Dei gratia incoliunes, humil- 
lime c(mmiendamus. X Xplirz ^ 25 Julii. 1586. 

R. V. filius indignus et servus in Christo, 
Adrnodmn i-do.jrri. nro. Robertus. 

' A cipher jierlmps of tlio placi' from wlifiice lie wrote this U'tter. 


Number XIII. BOOK 

The justices of the peace in Siiffolk to the lords of the ■ 

privy-council, concerning certain payments required of 

the popish recusants there. 

Our humble duties to your lordships remembred. 
IT may please you to be advertised, that according to the ^^^s. poii- 
commandment exprest in your lordships letters, we have 
called before us all the recusants ; whose names in a scedule 
we received enclosed in your lordships said letters : to 
whom we imparted the contents therof ; advising them to 
consider of her majestys gi'acious favour extended towards 
them ; and mesuring the benefit which hereby they are to 
receive, to make offer by writing severally under their hands, 
what reasonable portion they can be contented yearly, of 
their own disposition, to pay unto her receipt, to be eased 
of the common danger of law for their recusancy. Whose 
several ofiers under their own hands, which herewith we 
send unto your lordships, may particularly appear. Their 
several rates and valuations, by your lordships former let- 
ters upon the disarming of them, we before certified to your 
lordships. So very humbly we take our leaves, &c. From 
Ipswich, the 23. of April, 1586. 

Signed, 153 

Rob. Wyngfield. Nic. Bacon. 

Ph. Parker. Will. Synger. 

William Walgrave. Joh. Heigham. 

Mr. Fr. Mannock, esq. mentioned in the scedule received 
from your lordships, hath of long time, and doth, ordinarily 
and dutifully repair to his parish church ; and there doth 
continue the time of the reading of divine service, and 
preaching of the word of God. 

" I Ro. Rokewood, of Stanfield in the county of Suffolk, 
" am content yearly during my recusancy, to contribute and 
" pay to her majestys receipt of her highness exchequer, 
" the sum of 20/. thereby to receive and enjoy the benefit 

E e3 


BOOK " of her majestys gracious favour, to be exempt from all 
" " forfeitures, vexations, perils, and penalties, that may here- 
" after happen unto me, my heirs or executors, by reason 
" of any offence or forfeiture heretofore by me committed, 
" or that hereafter by me shall be committed against the 
" law established touching recusancy, for not resorting unto 
" the church, or other place assigned by the said laws in 
" that case made and provided. March the 28. 1586. 

*' Rob. Rokewood." 

Will. Yaxley offered 40 Z. per ann. His estate, he assert- 
ed, was but 220Z. per ann. He writ, he had been levied for 
liis lands for recusancy, 280/. 

Wal. Norton, 9,01. per ann. John Bedingfield, 20Z. 

Henry Drury, 20/. Rob. Jetter, 6 13 4. 

H. Everard, 10/. Job. Daniel, 20/. 

Ri. Martin, 61. Mich. Hare, 50/. 

Edward Sulliard, 40/. Edw. Rookwood of Euston, 

Tho. Sulliard, 20 nobles. 30/. 

Anibr. Germin, 20 mark. Roger Martin, 40 mark. 

Marg. Daniel, 20/. 

Number XIV. 

The examinations of Martin Ara, alias Cotton, a seminary 
priest, and Mr. Gervase Perpoint, a pojnsh recusant ; 
taken before Mr. Young', a justice of peace in London, 
the 16th da^j of June, 1586. 

The exaininatton of Martin Ara, alias Cotton. 
Mss, Uurg. THE said examinate saith, that he hath been chiefly 
known by the name of Martin, without any other name. 
That he is a seminary priest : so made at Doway in Arthois 
by the bishop of Cambray, about eight years past: and was 
brought up twelve years in the university of Lovain ; where 
ho proceded master of arts. And after that he was made 
})riest he went to Rome, and stayed there 18 months in the 


hospital; and came into England about six years past. BOOK 
During which time he hath made his most abode about the ' 

city of London: and hath sometimes layne in Southvvark, 154 
sometimes at Lambeth, and at common inns, and other 
places, and not elsewhere. 

He went to Hampshire, to a market town five miles on 
this side Winchester, and came back again to Guilford. 
The cause of his going there was to se if he could live 
quietly there; for that he lived with great danger and 
trouble in London. And as he journeyed, he enquired how 
the bishop behaved himself towards recusants ; and hearing 
that he was very troublesome, he thought there was no 
staying for him, and therefore returned, as is aforesaid. 

Four years before, he was in Hampshire ; two years ago, 
in Sussex. He heard no bruits or reports in his journey, 
save that the poorer sort were ready to break down barnes 
to get corn. And denyeth, that he heard any thing of the 
firing of the beacons, or of any ships coming on the seas. 

Saith that he hath known Mr. Gervais Perpoint this half 
year, and had been with him sundry times in the Old 
Change at his lodgings : and one night this examinate 
would have lain with him ; but he said he durst not, the 
laws were so rigorous. 

That at his coming to London he went to Mr. Perpoints 
lodgings ; and that he invited this examinate to dine with 
him : wherunto he granted : and that he followed him 
aloof, because he would not be seen in his company, for 
fear of danger ; and dined with him at a carpenters house 
neer S. Bartholomews the less, where this examinate was 
apprehended by the pursevants. 

He denyeth to declare in what place he lay on that day, 
the 7th of June, or at any time before. Neither will he 
signify where the apparel, linnin, and books are, [used at 
the celebration of the mass ; at which it seems he had been 
discovered.] And denyeth to take his oath, to answer to 
any matters concerning the state of this realm : [which 
was, it is likely by agreement among themselves, to avoid 
discovering any thing of Babington's plot, now hatching.] 

E e 4 


BOOK The examination of' Gervais Pe7-poinf, gent. 

' hnprimis, he denyeth to take his oath, to make answer 

to any matter concerning the state of this realm. 

He saith, that he hath lain at Earsleys house in the Old 
Change ever since his coming out of the Tower, which was 
shortly after Christmas was twelvemonth ; and useth not to 
ly out of his own lodging, unless it be with some gentleman 
or friend of his, coming to town. 

That he was acquainted with no Hampshire gentlemen, 
but Mr. Gawen of Islington. 

Denyeth that he knoweth Martin Ara, alias Cotton, or 
Bhtiie, a Marten, or one Hevwood, alias Blithe. And saith, that 

priest, went i i i 

with him to toward the 9th of June he went to Mr. Edward Gage his 
and ItayeT ^^^&^"S in Southampton house, where he found Gages 
there with wife, and Mrs. Banister his sister, and no body else. And 
Blithe con- denyeth that any man went w ith him thither and returned 
fesseth. from thence in his company. 

That on Sunday the 13 of June, he this examinate, 
Henry Earsley his host, James Taylor of Fleet-street, grocer, 
and Christopher Askwith of S. Martins, jerkin-maker, went 
together to Sr. Tho. Fitz Herbert his house, abovit 8 of the 
clock in the morning, and returned about 4 of the clock in 
the evening : and denyeth that he heard any service there. 

That on Monday last he dined at Mr. Walgraves lodg- 
ings, neer little S. Bartholomews. And that one Mr. Charles 
Tilney [one of that name was concerned in Babington''s plot,] 
155 living in Westminster, w^ent thither with him. And that 
during the time of dinner two pursevants came in, and 
He invited w'ould needs have this examinate and another froni away 
Martin Ara, ^yj^j^ j^jj^^ . r^^^ ^^ ^|^py went, the Other ran away. And they 

a seminary _ *' _ _ •' _ ■' 

priest, to both Went after him. So that this examinate, being left 
him ■ wh!> ^'""^? repaired to his own lodging. And so he denyeth, 
is the man that he did know the other man. 

that was 
ed with liiin. 


Number XV. ^^]^^ 

Anthony Tyrrel, a priest^ Ms letter to the queen, ffiv'mg' 
his 7-easons for revoh'mg- what he had before confessed, 
and denying lohat he had before declared, concerning 
Jesuits ; and recanting his recantation. 

IF ever your majestys pity inclined unto the complaint mss. eccie- 
of a sorrowful and distressed subject, vouchsafe, O gracious ^^g* ' ''^"^* 
queen, as to encline to mine, which craveth no more at 
your highness hands, than that you peruse these letters, 
which are longer than willing I would ; but that they con- 
tain matter that concerneth your princely justice, by de- 
fending your innocent subjects, and protecting them from 

I am the same, altho' now far different in condition, that 
presumed heretofore to write letters unto your majesty, and 
as it hath been told me, you vouchsafed to receive and read 
them : and if the report that hath been told me be true, 
you took great joy and comfort of them. Alas! my right 
dear lady and sovereign, I am right sorry, that the effect of 
your comfort, whatsoever it were, proceded from so ill a 
cause : the ground wherof, when once it shall be known, 
will yield you more discomfort than fully may be shewed. 
For as for the comfort your majesty received, it is onely 
that you were informed now, that I being a seminary priest 
had recanted my religion, and submitted my self to your 
majestys mercy, should shew my self more loyal in disco- 
vering of traitors, detecting their treasons, and doing many 
other actions unto your majestys good liking : all which if 
they had been truly and sincerely don, your comfort had 
not been in vain. But now, when your highness shall hear 
that I have revoked all that back again, I fear me it will 
amaze your majesty, and make you to think, at the first 
blush, that a catholic hath no faith, no fidelity, no fear of 
God, no religion, no duty, no subjection. And so indeed 
it may seem to appear, if abruptly you mesure the dispo- 
sition of all others according unto' one. 

But when your majesty by your great wisdom shall 


BOOK justly ])()ndcr tlie weight of the cause witli the truth of the 
' thing, how grievously soever the news shall appear at the 

first view ; yet if you will not let to shew your princely 
temperance, until you come to the full knowledge of the 
thing ; which thing when you have vouchsafed, next unto 
Almiglity God, I require no other judge to determine of 
my punishment. The which, if you think me by your 
justice worthy to sustain in rigor, I patiently do accept it ; 
or if by mercy you shall vouchsafe any way to qualify it, 
I do humbly acknowledg the benefit, whatsoever shall be 
allotted unto- me. 

Let your innocent subjects be defended, truth preserved, 
falsehood contemned. And care not I, tho' I be made the 
one and only example of all offenders that ever so trans- 
gressed : onely craving this, that by his favour and pity, 
from God his eternal fury I may be exempted. I shall 
hope there is none so cruelly enclined, that notwithstanding 
whatsoever offence I have committed, would wish my pu- 
nishment, for to be tormented eternally. 
156 To come to the effect of my purpose. I am now able, 
most gracious sovereign, to let you understand the weight 
of the cause and greatness of my faults : that rejecting of 
my religion, lately received, the returning unto my former 
faith again, unless I unfold truly unto your highness with 
what mind and intent, I being made priest in Rome, came 
first unto your majestys land; how I have conversed since 
the time of my being there ; the cause that made me forsake 
my old religion, and the cause that hath now brought me 
back again : for without the knowledge of these particulars 
your highness cannot discern the offences that I have don. 
In the perusal wherof, altho' it may seem somewhat tedious 
unto your majesty, yet doubt I not, but that it shall breed 
some contentment by that time you have don. Wherby you 
may the better be warned of the nature of a true loyal 
subject, from him that playeth the coimterfeit and hypocrite. 

I. As touching therfore my first coming to your ma- 
jestys realm, since the time of my piiesthood, from Rome, 
even as if I were to dy this present hour, and as I shall 


answer it at the dreadful day of judgment, I never was of book 
other mind than this, as if I protest unto my knowledge all 
other priest to be of the same, only to help in my vocation 
to save your subjects souls, and to keep them from damna- 
tion. My meaning was never to persuade any to disloyalty, 
but to fear God above all things ; and so far forth as they 
did not hazzard the loss of their souls, to obey your majesty. 
This was the only mind I had, when I first came into your 
majesty s realm, welpleasing unto God; and so directed by 
my superiors. But since in this point our profession is dif- 
ferent from your highness mind ; and that by the learned 
in your own realm you are persuaded that religion to be 
false which we profess most true ; it is not my meaning, 
being so vile a vassal, to dispute the same with my liege and 
sovereign, but only to say this, that for the truth of our 
religion 1 was of this mind when first I came unto this king- 
dom, that if I had a thousand lives, I would have lost them 
all for the defence of the same. And so long as the fear of 
God was before mine eyes, I so continued. And so purpose 
I now again to continue, vmtil the day I dy. And thus much 
briefly, as touching the mind wherewith I came unto this 

II. Now as touching my conversion, this is most sure 
and certain, that if my life had been agreeable to my pro- 
fession, this mind in me had never changed ; neither fear of 
death, nor hope of preferment, would have made or altered 
my opinion ; but rather than I would have been brought for 
to relent, or to have forsaken my faith, as I have don, I 
would have yielded my body most willingly unto death, as 
divers of my most vertuous brethren most gloriously have 
don, and every good priest hereafter will do, in despight of 
all the devils in hell, or torments of any men. But alas ! 
here, oh ! most gracious sovereign, to my temporal shame 
and confusion, so as my soul may find mercy at the dread- 
ful day, I must openly confess, that I fell into a great cor- 
ruption of life, and dissolute maners ; suffering my self to 
be drowned in all sensuality and pleasure, that the grace of 
the Holy Ghost could no longer abide in a temple so defiled 


BOOK and polluted with sin. Insomuch that my own conscience cry- 
ing out against my own impiety, I not amending yet my evil 

maners, the Devil seized, and so expunged my faith. Wher- 
upon my religion began to be ii'ksome imto me ; not for that 
I knew my religion to be evil, but because I knew my self 
to be passing naught, as that God nor any goodness could 
not any longer abide in mee. I was therefore oftentimes, 
before that ever I did fall into the danger of your majestys 
laws, minded to have renounced my religion, and to have 
yiehjed my self unto your majestys council : and so either 
to have played the dissembling spy, or else to have coun- 
157 terfeited a recantation, for no other end, but to have served 
the world, and to live for the time in plesure ; altho"' in the 
end I was sure thereby to purchase eternal damnation. 

Yet Gods mercy expecting my repentance, preserved me 
still from that horrible crime. And altho*" all the branches 
of the tree of my soul were withered dry by sin, and ready 
to be cut off, and cast into the fire ; yet so long as there was 
any life left in the root, that is, that my faith was not yet 
forsaken, there was some hope of my return to God again. 
And so being by Gods providence taken and brought into 
the danger of your majestys laws, whereby I thought I 
was to lose my life for the same ; those thoughts then came 
into my mind, that to dy for Gods cause, or the catholic 
religion, I was not worthy, by reason I had so contaminated 
my life by sin. Yet sucli was the mercy of Almighty God, 
as he letted not to offer me the grace, if I most wickedly 
had not forsaken him for the Devil, having gotten so great 
an advantage of me through sin, envied now my happy state, 
for to be called unto my tryal for my profession : fear- 
ing, lest that hereby he should have lost me altogether, as- 
sailed me more fiercely in another kind. Procuring me 
under the colour of plesure to save my life, by recanting 
my catholic religion. AJtho'' therby I was sure in the end I 
should Icose that altogether. 

III. And now 1 am come, most gracious sovereign, unto 
the true cause of my last conversion, or rather meer per- 
version, (as truly I may term it;) by the which means what 


lamentable stratagems have been committed may now easily BOOK 
be seen. For after that the Devil had prevailed with me, ^^' 
that I was content, for my temporal life and worldly prefer- 
ment, to yield unto all maner of sin, oh ! sweet Lord, (for I 
tremble now to recount unto your majesty what a number 
of monsters I did presently let in,) think you, that I had 
either care or conscience of my doings ; when I had aban- 
doned all grace, all goodness, all truth and honesty, and 
cast my self wholly unto sin ? No verify ; for from that time 
I became more malicious than ever was Judas, that betrayed 
Christ : for I converted my malice wholly against him. And 
for one chop I forsook my faith, which I knew for certain 
to be pure and good, and accused the pope, and slandered 
the Jesuits, belyed D. Allen and Lewis, and D. Gifford ; 
reporting of them and divers others of our nation, unto my 
lord treasurer, such horrible matters, as against the Turk or 
the Devil I could not devise the like. What Ballard his 
practices were against your majesty, or any of the rest that 
suffered with him, I protest I know not, nor ever yet could 
learn. And if they were guilty of any crime, I do not 
nor will not here excuse them ; but rather will rejoice at 
their deservings. Only this, O gracious queen, I cannot 
but confess a truth, (what peril or danger of my life soever 
I sustain,) that I accused Ballard most falsely, in conspiring 
your majesty*'s death, that he should have begun to break 
the matter Avith D. Lewis at Milain ; continued the same 
with the rector of the English seminaries, and the general 
of the Jesuits at Rome : by whose helps his speeches should 
have been commended unto pope Gregory XIII. and by 
him the action of your majesty's death should have been 
allowed and confirmed. The same he should have imparted 
unto D. Alen at Rheimes, who should like well enough of 
the thing ; and after should have been practised by Ballard, 
or some of his complices here in England, when they should 
se their time. 

Wherin I accused Cha. Tilney and Edward Windsor, 
the one dead, the other living, to have been two of the 
chiefest attempters of that fact : all which (as I hope to be 


BOOK saved at the latter day) was as false as God is true; for 
' never in my life did I hear so much as a thought conceived 

awry of your royal person. When I had deeply waded 
into the ford of lying, I spared no maner of person upon 
whom I might colour any cause of mischief to be don : in- 
158 somuch as I accused the French ambassador in many things 
most wrongfully : as also his secretary. I accused the earl 
of Arundel, and his countess, of many a hainous matter : 
divers other noblemen and women of your land, of matters 
He accnsed most false and untrue. Among the rest I falsely accused 
quern lliise- ^^^^ Scotish quccn unto your majesty of matters I knew no 
'y more than the child newborn. What otherwise she deserved 

I know not, nor mind not to defend her, if she have offended 
your majesty in any thing. But whatsoever I did inform 
your highness, it was only to bring your majesty into a 
greater hatred, where I suppose you did not greatly love : 
and that made me to enlarge lyes against all catholics : 
and namely, against my lord Windsor, the lord Storton and 
his wife, my lord Compton, sir John Arundel, and others. 
And I remember, that being settled in this malicious hu- 
mour, that I did write unto your majesty, wherin I warned 
you of three things. The first, to extirpate and root out 
all seminary priests, as members most pernicious unto your 
realm : for that they went about, wheresoever they came, 
to bring your majesty in hatred and contempt with your 
subjects, persuading them, that to seek the destruction of 
your person was a very laudable thing. The second, that 
you should have great regard unto the Scottish queen, by 
whom your majestys life stood most in danger ; who sought 
by all the means she could, not only by foreign power, but 
by domestical attempt at home, to shorten and end your 
(lavs, that she her self might be advanced unto the crown. 
The third was, that your majesty now having censured the 
heads of the conspirators, and had all your enemies now at 
such an advantage, that it were not good that you should 
let to prosecute the same: and to enact such laws against all 
recusants, as whosoever should refuse to swear against the 
pope and all his procedings against your majesty and this 


realm, he should be accounted no better than a rank traitor BOOK 
unto your majesty. ^*" 

All which invectives, most gracious prince, if you con- 
sider with what a mind I did write them, you have no 
maner of cause to believe them. For I uttered these mat- 
ters as one replete with all mahce, and intended not to say 
truth in any thing. 

For as for pope Gregory, I protest, as I hope to be saved. Pope Gre- 
I never heard him speak any thing unto your majestys pre-^**"^^" 
judice or harm ; but I have heard him with mine own 
ears, and seen with mine own eyes to shed tears for your 
majesty ; wishing that all the bloud in his body were spilt 
to do you any good. And so far he hath been from per- 
suading us to any treachery towards your person, as he hath 
by his own mouth commanded us to pray for you, and not 
to intermeddle in any thing but that directly concerned our 
profession : and this is the worst that ever I did know pope 
Gregory to wish you, whom I have most falsely accused in 
many things. 

And as for seminary priests, I protest, as I hope to be Seuiinaiy 
saved, that never since I came into England, (which is now^^"'"'^^" 
more than six years past,) I never heard of any one but 
wisht unto your majesty, as to his own soul, and would will- 
ingly bestow his own life unto the uttermost drop of his 
bloud, for the preservation and safty of your majesty, as 
well in soul as in body. And that in all their sermons, ex- 
hortations, informations, as well private as public, they per- 
suade your subjects to all obedience ; to pi'ay for your ma- 
jesty, and to suffer the affliction of your penal laws withal 
patience, and not resist, or move sedition for any cause. 
And this is the worst that ever I did know by any priest, 
Ballard only excepted ; from whom neither I heard ever Ballard. 
any hurt intended (as I most falsely reported) against your 
anointed person. 

And as for the queen of Scots, who being dead, and God Queen of 
knows now whether she hath don well or ill, I can neither ' "^^ *" 
accuse her, nor will defend her but from the wrong which 


BOOK I have don her, which hath been in objecting such matters 
aeainst her, as in truth to me were never known. 

Catholics. And lastly, for all catholics, as I accused them unto your 
majesty for most notorious traitors, I would to God your 
highness did but sec their inward minds and intentions : 
and then I doubt not but you would not then so much won- 
der at them, their treasons and conspiracies; or at least for a 
159 few wicked and evil disposed members to condemn all the 
rest. For since my coming into England, God be my wit- 
ness, I never heard of one or other that sought or wished 
hurt or harm to the least hair of your majestys head. And 
therfore that I should advise you to prosecute them now 
upon the advantage, as so to beat them down, it was spoken 
only of a devilish mind on my part, and for no trespas that 
they had committed of their own. 

For who seeth not, during the time of your majestys 
reign, with what patience and obedience they have lived 
under the sovereignty of your majestys laws ? which, when 
it shall please God, you may ease and mollify again. And 
if some few disordered persons have strayed aside, (as in no 
government or commonwealth of any continuance, but there 
have been always some,) yet how their doings have been 
hated and contemned of the rest, your majesty may judge, 
if you please, by your own experience that you have seen. 
Therefore there is none that can justly accuse them of dis- 
loyaltv, or worthily procure them your majesty's disfavour ; 
but only such as either in respect of a contrary religion 
cannot abide them, or such as be desperate persons, and seek 
to curry for his own particular credit and advantage, that 
cares not which end goe forward, so they may stand upright ; 
or pass not who be the loosers, so they may win. Men 
without all pity and compassion of others, that care not 
who lament and weep, so they may laugh. Of which kind 
I must confess my self unto your majesty to have been 
one, and therefore wt)rthy of all punishment ; not knowing 
what way to make satisfaction, but by penance, death, or 
true repentance. 


Thus have I in part recounted unto your majesty the BOOK 
causes that induced me to forsake my religion, to write such ^^' 
letters unto your highness, to give out such sore and griev- 
ous informations against many of your majesty's most loyal 
and loving subjects. Now, and if it may please you to give 
me leave but to say a word or two of my turning back 
again; then will I make an end. And truly to speak, as I 
shall answer before God, and not ly, the Devil was the 

cause that made me so to counterfeit unto your majesty a 
conversion; and the grace of God, undeserved on my part, His con- 
hath brought me back again. For I could never have been ''"''°"' 
induced to have made so many notorious and monstrous 
slanders against so many worthy princes, against so many 
noble and worshipful, against my dearest friends and ac- 
quaintance, whom I know to be most clear of all the mat- 
ters wherof I had charged them, had not sin only and the 
Devil procured me unto it. Justice Young, with all his cun- 
ning, could never have catched such hold of it, nor never 
could have brought me to that offence, as to forsake my 
faith, to abuse your majesty and my lord treasurer with so 
many writings and false informations, had not sin and the 
Devil procured me to it. 

Therefore think not, good madam, that I could write or Account of 
speak unto your majesty with a pure and sincere heart, be- *^''"^'''^- 
ing so foully stained with filth and corruption. Think, that 
I imagined nothing but lyes ; practised nothing but lyes ; 
sought the effusion of innocent bloud, by betraying of 
priests, betraying of catholics, and by doing all the injuries 
I could against them which never imagined hurt or harm. 
I was not so forward unto these mishapps my self, as I was 
also persuaded unto them by justice Young. Of whom Justice 
I cannot but say, altho' I abide all the torments that he can^*'""^' 
procure me, if ever I come again under his hands, that he 
is a most cruel bloudsucker, a destroyer of your people, 
and a great abuser of your majesty ; for his cruelty in shed- 
ding of bloud, it is too well known. For such as he cannot 
destroy both in body and soul, (as he hath don me,) he will 
be sure to preferr unto the gallows : otherwise, under the 



BOOK colour of persuading them unto Gods truth and religion, 
' he will not let to bring them strait headlong unto damna- 

tion. For so some as he hath made, either priests or catho- 
lics, to relent, all religion is set apart. For his first ground 
160 of his new faith must be to play the spy: and under the 
colour of godliness to practice all the knavery that he can, 
before we come to enjoy the perfection of our new faith. 

We must learn the rudiments how to betray Christ and 
his anointed, and to impeach the innocent, be they never so 
good, never so vertuous, never so far from offending your 
highness or your laws : some means we must seek to find a 
hole in their coats, to no other end but to cut their throats. 
And when we have learned perfectly this lesson, then we 
Dissiinuia- must procede unto greater evils. For we must yield unto 
quired. ^^1 kind of dissimulation ; for that was the chiefest point of 
justice Young his persuasion, never talking with me of any 
matter of religion, albeit I craved it my self very often. I 
desired him that I might have books, that I might have 
conference; nay, that which is more, that I might come 
unto his house, if I might not in the church, and receive 
the communion : but no such matter could be obtained, so 
long as there was any means for me to persecute the catho- 
lics. In which mischief I must play the seminary priest, 
which, notwithstanding yoiu' majesty's laws, which have 
made us traitors, and all such felons as shall receive us, 
yet must we now boldly practise oiu- treasons, and make as 
manv felons as wc can. Laws were wont to be made to 
prohibit evil, and to save the innocent ; but now, by the 
justices and ministers of the law, we nuist do contrary to 
the law, to make others traitors and felons, which otherwise 
perhaps would not. 

Before I made any semblance of my countcrfeU and 

feigned conversion, it was a danniable thing with justice 

Discourse Young to be a papist, much more to practise papistry; as 

between "^ •■ ^ ■, iti 

justice t" ^''^y niass, or to reconcile, or to do other such like actions. 
Yount; and That there could be no means of salvation, but ])resently to 


return unto the Lord : and when I was desirous so for to 
do, the Lord was not then at leisure for to receive me. It 


is no matter, altho' I continue a papist still. It is no sin to BOOK 
say mass ; no treason to reconcile ; no offence to commit ' 

idolatry by way of dissimulation, with intent to do mischief; 
to seek innocent bloud ; to betray such silly souls as never 
thought hurt or harm ; to destroy your majesty's subjects, 
and to make you guilty of their bloud. Oh ! heaven. Oh ! 
earth, what heart would not bleed for pity, to hear of these 
things.^ O! gracious queen, whom God hath made governess 
over us, to protect and defend us, to whom, next unto God, 
but unto your self, may we complain ? How are your sub- 
jects betrayed! how are they spoiled! how are they brought 
like sheep unto the slaughter ! 

Is it your plesure that innocents should be thus cast 
away ? that treasons should be thus practised .'' Was this 
the end of your laws, to bring men, whether they would or 
no, unto their deaths .'' If I wist it were so, whether I have 
no more to say, but Moriamur in simplicitate nostra : Let 
us d^ in our simplicity. Better were it to dy, than so to 
live : like birds that be brought to the pitfal unawares, by 
the procurement of such as be ministers of your majestys 
justice. Is this the way to bring your subjects unto re- 
formation.'* Is this the sum of their religion; dissimulation, 
spiry, [viz. to be spies^l knavery, and all abominations ? I 
cannot contain, most gracious prince, altho' I should dy 
10,000 deaths, as I look for no life, nor desire no life, if 
ever I be taken. Yet if I would still have continued in 
this damnable course, I might have lived, until God of his 
justice had cut me oiF; and should have been accounted no 
traitor, but a good subject, and have had I know not what 

I have my lord treasurers letters for my safty. He per- Lord trea- 
suades me to continue in dissimulation still : and so long he ^ers to him. 
will continue his good will. But that I now leave to play 
the dissembler, I fear me I shall again be reputed for a 
traitor. Oh ! dear sovereign, what a world is this, that flat- 
tery and all impiety breeds friendship, but truth and ho- 
nesty gets hatred ! 

I have also Mr. Justice Youngs letters, wherin I am l6l 
Ff 2 


BOOK commanded by your majesty to continue my dissimulation, 
and against poor catholics to do all the mischief that I can. 

And justice Por my own part, I cannot be persuaded that ever your 

letters. majesty would wish me, or any of your subjects^ so to deal. 

For albeit you affect not our religion, you pity our misery, 

you acknowledg vis your poor subjects. We love your 

scepter ; we obey your laws ; and so far forth as we incurr 
not damnation unto our souls : and more, I trust, you will 
not reqviire at our hands. At the least, if we that be papists 
may not scape with our lyves, (altho"* wee do nothing but 
our duties,) yet grant vis of yovir princely favour and pity, 
that we may go unto our deaths with safty of conscience. 
Let vis not be molested as we are, to be allured to play the 
spyes, as many have don besides my self, and I fear may 
remain as yet in that perverse and wicked mind ; which I 
know they cannot do without a continvial [curse] vmto their 
Popish And therefore I wish yovir majesty not to trust them; for 

they will never be true vmto you that arc false to God. 
Therefore whatsoever they do, whatsoever they promise, it 
is but for the saving of a temporal life, and the gaining of a 
little worldly preferment. And whensoever God shall touch 
them with remorse, they cannot do but as I have don. 

Think not therefore, my right dear lady and sovereign, 
that because I am returned back again unto the catholic re- 
ligion, that now I am become unto your majesty a traitor; 
Flatters the God forbid : I wish rather presently that my flesh were 
queen. ^^^^ ^^ picccs witli liot irous, than I would become any 
ways treacherous unto your royal person. Think not that 
I love your majesty less now then I did then ; but much 
more : for now I love you truly, where before I loved you 
dissemblingly. Now would I willingly loose my life to do 
you good, where before I would scarce loose a jjoint to do 
you a plesure. Your majesty may well think some im- 
portant cause hath moved me thus to alter my condition, or 
else of all men living in the world I were the most desperate 
and unwise. 
His present For first, I have so grievously offended all catholics, as I 



shall be ashamed for ever, during my life, to look any of BOOK 
them in the face. And now had I gained the good will of ^^' 
your majesty, the favour of my lord treasurer and other no- 
blemen, as I might have lived temporally in great credit 
and grace, for me now voluntarily without compulsion to 
return back again where I had deserved most to have been 
contemned, and to forsake the state or condition wherein at 
this present I was best to be friended, what is the cause ? 
Vei'ily, no hope of any reward : for all the days of my life 
I must look for no other than penury, poverty, penance, 
and affliction ; and very likely a temporal, violent death for 
my sins that I have don. And yet all this I am most will- 
ing and desirous to embrace, rather than for ever I would 
be cast out of Gods favour, and dy the child of repro- 

And think not, most gracious queen, that now I have re- 
ceived your majestys reward, that I have given you the 
slip. I never received of justice Young, but 30/. and that 
by piecemeals. I lost in my chamber, that the pursevant 
robbed me, when I was taken, better than 40/. that never 
yet, for all my favour, I could recover. Besides, by the 
searches I procured justice Young, he had gotten better 
than an 100/.: so that in truth I am nothing in his debt. 
My rewards have not been comparable to my losses, altho*" 
they have been greater than in truth I could deserve for 
any such service. And I would to God your majesty from 
henceforth would reward all dissembling spies as Parry was 
rewarded. Then should your realm in short time be purged; 
your majesty quieted from a number of devices wherewithal 
now daily you be terrified. That your life is more grievous 
vmto you than the state of a private man. How many false 
reports and lyes doth justice Young bring your majesty in 
a year, partly by his own devising, and partly by such as I 
have been ! How oft think you he hath been tampering 
with me, for to accuse some ladies of your privy chamber 
for poisoning of your majesty! And of truth I know of l62 
none. Yet for the satisfying of the mans humour I accused 
the lady Drury, that she should say, when your majesty 



BOOK had given licr a blow, that slic would remember it. How 
fain would he have had me to appcach the earl of Cumber- 
land, the lord Scroop, the lord Moimtagu, and others. And 
I did what I could, especially against the earl of Arundel : 
of whom I made so many lyes, as, if they may be credited, 
were able to dispatch him. I am in conscience bound to 
certify your majesty of this, that you may understand how 
your subjects are bought and sold, and your highness tor- 
mented with continual fears. For as I hope to be saved, I 
say nothing now of any malice, but that which I know by 
mine own experience ; and much more, if I should not be 
too tedious unto your highness to repeat it. 

I have, for my own discharge, truly set down in a book 
the truth of every thing : if it may please God it may come 
to your majestys perusal, you shall find therin that it may 
pity your majesty for to know, and yet very necessary that 
you should understand. 

To conclude, now that I have informed your majesty, as 
briefly as I could, what mind and affection I had when I 
came first priest into yoiu' realm, as sure as God lives, I 
never was nor never will be any traitor, to intend any kind 
of treason. If my continual conversation had been agree- 
able unto my profession, I had never so grievously trans- 
gressed the laws, abused your majesty, and don so much 
hurt unto my neighbours ; I had never feigned a recanta- 
tion, to discredit your majesty and my lords of your honor- 
able council, nor played such pageants as I have don. And 
sure I know mine own doings to be naught, and to have 
proceded from a corrupt ground. And since I have been 
taught no other thing, since the time of my feigned recanta- 
tion, but how to dissemble, and how to throw my self down 
headlong to the Devil ; grant me this favour, most gracious 
(jucen, that I now dismist, blame me not for seeking true 
amendment, howsoever you blame or punish my offences 
committed. And let noe innocence be cast away upon my 
false complaints, as your majesty will answer it at the latter 
day. For now, altho' too late, I tel you truly, I accused 
tlicm all falsely, and betrayed them wrongfully. And for 



my self I crave no further favour or mercy than it shall BOOK 
please God to put into your majestys mind, enclining al - . 
ways unto pity. If I be taken, I think no death too grievous 
for me. Onely, not presuming in mine own strength, I have 
sought means to save my self. If I escape untaken, I think 
no penance too sharp to suffer all the days of my life. If 
I hap to be taken here, I protest I have not presumed 
this act upon any contempt, but in all humility, fear, and 
trembling : knowing, that howsoever I might have abused 
the world, I could not have escaped the judgment of God. 
And therfore, whatsoever death I suffer, what torment so- 
ever I endure, God give me grace to embrace them, as 
wholsome medicines for my soul : praying notwithstanding 
unto the last moment of my life most humbly, that God 
may long preserve your majesty, and grant you a prosperous 
reign ; and finally to reign with him in glory everlasting. 
Thus craving on my knees your majestys pardon, I most 
humbly take my leave. From my chamber in London, the 
20th of Febr. an. 1586. 

Your highness most lamentable and repentant subject, 

Anth. Tyrell, priest, 
most imworthy of that vocation. 

Number XVI. l63 

Dr. Copcotts, vice-chancellor of Cambridge^ to the lord 
Btirghleijyhigh chancellor of that university ; concerning 
matters out of order ifi Chrisfs college : and his visita- 
tion of it. 

My duty unto your lordship in the humblest maner 
remembred, &c. 
YOUR lordship, as chancellor of this university, or your mss. Burg, 
vicechancellor, is yearly visitor of Christs college. A thing 
omitted of long time heretofore ; yet of such necessity at 
this present, that I was bold, at the time appointed by the 
statutes of their foundress, to put it in practice. And therby 
do find almost every statute given unto them transgressed. 

F f 4 


BOOK And this abuse following, not provided for by any statute 
' or order among them. Dr. Hawford left at his death in the 
treasure almost 700Z. Wherof they have laid out 400Z. for 
a purchase. Which maketh the commons of the fellows ^sh. 
a week, that by statute is but 12 pence. They use no 
means to restore in time this mony to the common treasury, 
or to encrease that which there is left ; but take all commo- 
dities of fines for leases and woodsales to themselves ; and 
have a dividend at the bakers hand, who alloweth 15 to the 
dozen. The commodity wherof goes to the fellows. The 
size in that respect is the less, and the scholars and others 
of the house therby are pinched. 

If I give any injunctions unto them in these matters, the 
master, within a month, is to se them executed. Else he 
is to be admonished the second time. And if then he se not 
those things performed which I require, it is loss of his 
place. So that for the time I continue in office here, that 
which I give in charge shall be accomplished. But if it 
might please your lordship to amend and ratify the injunc- 
tions here enclosed, (in that there is not one clause but 
meets with some breach of statute, or some disorder com- 
plained of among them,) they would be observed to the 
gi-eat benefit of that society during your lordsliips life. 
Which I beseech the Almighty long to preserve. From 
Trinity college, Cambridge, the 12 of Decemb. 1586. 
Your lordships most bounden, 

John Copcot. 

Number XVII. 

Injunctions for Chrisfs college, Cambridge. Given by the 
vice-chancellor, their visitor, Decemb. 1586. 

1. MAGISTER, socii, scholares, pensionarii, omnes de- 
nique in collegio vestro litcrarum studiosi, intererunt pub- 
licis supplicationibus in choro, temporibus et habitu a sta- 
tutis academiae et collegii vestri designatis. 

2. Sacrosancta communio celebrabitur temporibus et mo- 


do a leffibus huiusce regni et statutis istius academiae re- BOOK 

• • • *^ II. 

3. Communes loci ita tractabuntur, ut nullus cujuscun-i54 
que tandem loci aut conditionis homo notetur, aut perstrin- 
gatur in iis, et statim post auditam horam sextam finientur, 

ita ut habendis in aula prselectionibus posthac amplius non 
sint impedimento. 

4. Magister curabit sedulo, ut in eos qui in re divina ce- 
lebranda, aut scholasticis muneribus obeundis negligentes 
sese praebuerint, animadvertatur, ut quicunque in collegio 
literis operam dant Latino tantum sermone, in area et aula 
utantur, ut nemo extra aulam, nisi magna aliqua de causa 
per magistrum aut locum ejus tenentem approbanda pran- 
deat, vel coenet : ut ibi singuli juxta gradum et conditionem 
suam pileis scholasticis utantur ut in oppidum nemo nisi in 
eo habitu quem permittunt leges academise, sese conferat: 
et hisce in rebus ipse aliis exemplo erit : ut quisquis in qua- 
cunque tandem facultate obibit disputationes, vel ad clerum 
concionabitur, eum illi qui ejusdem sunt collegii concomi- 
tentur ad scholas publicas et ad templum Mariae pro anti- 
quo more academiae. 

5. Magister cubicula distribuet scholaribus secundum 
tempora admissionis, eum ad locum, quem in collegio ob- 
tinent, nee pensionarium quempiam aut sisatorem, cujus- 
cunque tandem loci sit, iis praeferet, nee senioritatem in col- 
legio, ex ea, quam in oppido habent bacchalaurei artium 
facti, metietur. 

6. Cubicula ad magistri domicilium sive cameram perti- 
nentia generosis elocabuntur in commodum collegii, nee pa- 
tietur aliquid pecvmiae erogari pro cubiculo aut musaeo ali- 
quo, quo quispiam ex eo, quem in collegio possidet, loco 
fruitur gratis. 

7. Magister rationem sive computum reddet secundum 
statuta praesente majori parte sociorum, in quorum con- 
spectu et praesentia pecuniam omnem numerari curabit, ac 
vasa aurea et argentea, seu jocalia ut vocant, ostendi, pe- 
tetque ut ratio a se reddita a majori parte sociorum com- 
probetur, quam nisi approbaverint pro nulla habebitur. 


BOOK 8. Magister nullos sumptus de collegii pecuniis faciet, 
' pro condiiccndis cquis, nisi cum negotia collegii per nia- 

jorem partem sociorum approbata procuraverit, nee cum pe- 
regrinos invitaverit in nundinis Sturbrigiensibus. 

9. Magister initio anni dies absentiae nemini sociorum 
concedet nee alio quovis tempore sub praetextu negotiorum 
collegii procurandorum, nisi majori parti sociorum idem in- 
notescat, et ab iis approbetur, nee sine consensu corum ul- 
lis discipulis permittet absentiae dies, praeter numerum il- 
ium dierum a statuto constitutum, nee statuet quenquam 
promum, vel custodem sacelli sine approbatione eorun- 

10. Non sinet quenquam in collegio manere, qui ibidem, 
quamdiu in academia versetur non pernoctaverit, nee iis 
omnibus per se fungatur exercitiis quibus et per statutum 
et per ordinem astringitur, nuUosque in collegio pueros nisi 
togatos feret. 

11. Non patietur mulierem quampiam lectos sternerc in 
collegio, nisi quis graviter aegrotaverit : nee quenquam ibi- 
dem commorari qui aliquando fuerit expulsus, nee puerum 
quempiam a debita castigatione detineri, nee quenquam sese 
insolenter gerere in superiores dicto aut facto, praelectionum 
tempore aut alibi. 

12. Curabit ut decani officia sua sedulo praestent secun- 
dum statuta collegii, et ad eos delatas schedulas legant 
publice in aula unoquoque die Veneris, non autem in prom- 
ptuario aut cubiculis correctiones, quas vocant, habeant, 
et ut nullus officiariorum bis mulctet aliquem pro uno cx- 
ercitio negligendo, tanietsi in absentium nomina sa^pius in- 

165 13. Curabit ut senescallus menstruus sit sociorum aliquis, 
alius autem communis cista* custos annuus quisque suo or- 
dine: et ut id quod statuta exigunt, debite exequantur, et 
ut commeatus computetur unaquaque hebdomada, itemque 
ut termini tempore tantum undecima liora, exceptis feriis, 
die Dominica, et Sabbatis, nisi dies sint jejunio destinati, 

14. Curabit ut lector ipse philosophic partem aliquam 


singulis hebdomadis quater praelegat, et ut ex consensu BOOK 
maoistri et majoris partis sociorum alios magistros artium ' 

vel bacchalaureos socios praeficiat aliis lectionibus per sta- 
tuta requisitis, earn laboris compensationem illis tribuens 
quam magister et major pars sociorum aequum judicabit: 
praelectio humaniorum artium sedulo fiet in magna vaca- 
tione, nee discipulorum quispiam disputationibus modera- 

15. Vasa argentea quorum non sit quotidianus in aula 
usus, in thesaurario reponentur, nee inde expromentur nisi 
illis admodum opus esse liquido apparebit. Quod si quando 
accidat, quamprimum rursus recondantur. Pecunia coUegii 
ne sit in custodia magistri, sed in thesaurario, prout statuta 
requirunt, indeque duntaxat desumatur cum prtesens neces- 
sitas postulaverit. 

16. Tam socii quam pensionarii gradus in se suscipere 
cogentur quamprimum illis per statuta academife licuerit, 
et omnes ejusdem societatis intererunt problemati theolo- 
gico, diebus Veneris, quando non licebit respondent! sta- 
tam coenam aliquam de industria contra legem et laudabi- 
lem consuetudinem apparare. Nee patietur prsefectus quen- 
quam disputandi munus subterfugere ullo modo, nisi gra- 
vissima de causa per magistrum et majorem partem socio- 
rum approbanda. 

- 17. Socii intra sex dierum spatium post singulos menses 
expletos quod debitum fuerit solvent coUegii officiario ad id 
munus constituto, et officiarius eodem tempore debitam pi- 
storibus, ^otificibus, vel cuipiam alteri pccuniam solvet, nee 
quisquam in collegio commorabitur, qui socium non habeat 
qui pro illius debito collegio satisfaciat. 

18. Condones in fundatricis vestrae et benef actor um me- 
moriam unaquaque anni quarta debitc celebrabuntur secun- 
dum statutum academiae. 

19. Pensionarii in collegium vestrum non admittentur 
nisi secundum formam in statutis vcstris descriptam, nee 
quispiam tenebitur Graeca? lectioni audiendae nisi constet 
eum aliquid inde emolumenti caperc posse. 

20. Commoditas venditarum sylvarum et prasdiorum ad 


BOOK lirmam cUmissorum et quicquid commodi percipi possit a 
^^- pistoribus et potificibus non amplius dividetur inter magi- 
strum et socios, sed in collegii usum cedet, quoad honoratis- 
simi hujus academiae cancellarii authoritate secus constitu- 
tum fuerit. 

21. Magister curabit ut omnes hae injunctioncs fideliter 
observentur sub poena expressa in statute fundatricis dc 
modo visitandi. 

cad. Can 

166 Number XVIII. 

The archbishop of Canterbury to the vice-chancellor and 
heads of the university of Camhridge : to stay the print- 
ing of a bool-, called, The Harmony of Confessions, Sfc. 
An original. 

To my very loving friend the vicechancellor, &c. 
Regist. a- SAL UTEM hi Christo. I understand that there is now 
in printing by the printer of that university, a certain book, 
called Hormonia Confessionum Fidei, in English, translated 
out of Latin ; wliich book, for some special causes, was here 
rejected, and not allowed to be printed. These are there- 
fore to require you, that presently upon receipt hereof you 
cause the said book to be stayed from printing any further; 
and that nothing be don more therein, until you shall re- 
ceive further direction from me. And wheras there is order 
taken of late by the lords of the council, that from hence- 
forth no book shall be imprinted, either in London or in 
either of the universities, unless the same shall be allowed 
and authorized by the bishop of Lond(m or my self, I do 
likewise require you to take special care, that hereafter no- 
thing be imprinted in that university of Cambridge but what 
shall be autliorised accordingly. 

And so not doubting of your diligent circumspection 
herein, 1 conunit you to the tuition of Almighty God. From 
my house at Croyden, the 8th of August, 1586. 

Your loving friend in Christ, 
Jo. Cantuar. 


Number XIX. BOOK 


Tlie arclih'ishop of Canterbury to the vice-cJiancellor and 

heads: to require subscription to the three articles, of 
such as slwuld be admitted university jpreachers. An ori- 

SALUTEM in Christo. Forasmuch as a general order 
hath been taken, that whosoever should be admitted to 
preach should first subscribe to the three articles lately 
agreed upon and confirmed by her majestys authority, 
these are to require you to take care, that you do not here- 
after admit, either to be your universities preacher, or any 
other preacher whatsoever in that university, unless he 
shall first subscribe unto the said articles. Otherwise you 
shall give me occasion, not only to make further complaint, 
but also to call in question your authority to admit so many 
preachers : which how slender it is I do well know. And so 
requiring you to have such a special regard hereof as apper- 
taineth, I commit you to the tuition of Almighty God. 
From my house in Lambehith, the second of May, 1586. 

Your assured loving friend, 

Jo. Cantuar. 

Number XX. \{^'7 

Petitions of the university of Ca7nbridge ; for quietness to 
be had with the townsmen. Delivered by Dr. Perne to 
the lord Burghley, their high chancellor. Feb. 25, 1586. 

FOR that the maior of Cambridge, with other of the Mss. aca- 
freemen of that corporation, have made certain order, that \^_^^^' '"^"' 
no scholar nor scholars servant shall have any booths in 
Sturbridge fair, nor receive any commodity springing to 
the town : and also hath shewed otherwise lately great in- 
gratitude to the university ; bending themselves more con- 
temptuously, and, as it appeareth, contentiously against the 
same, than they have don heretofore : 

May it please your lordship to address your letters to 
Mr. Vicechancellor and to the heads, to give your lordships 


BOOK advice and consent, that they do take order, that no college, 
" scholar, or scholars servant, shall sell or let any lands or te- 
nements to any freeman of the town of Cambridge, but 
onely to scholars, scholars servants, or foreigners, without 
your honours express consent, and with the whole consent 
of the body of the university, regents and non-regents ; nor 
shall buy any cloth, apparel, victuals, or any other such 
usual and necessary things, of any freeman, without the like 
consent : as your honour hath written heretofore. 

2. Item, That if any scholar, or scholars servant or ser- 
vants, or foreigner, taking to farm any such house, land, or 
tenement, do at any time afterward become a freeman of the 
same town ; or shall bargain, let, or set over the same, or 
any part or parcel therof, to any freeman of the town ; that 
then the same lease to cease, and be utterly void, and frus- 
trate: any covenant, clause, article, or agreement in any 
such lease or grant to the contrary notwithstanding. 

3. Wheras there is a privilege to the university of long 
time, for the provision of corn and victuals within the com- 
pass of five miles, which hath been little profitable unto the 
university, but unto the inhabitants within five miles, for 
that the university hath no justices of the peace within the 
said five miles out of the university ; besides divers other 
incommodities that the said university doth receive, by rea- 
son that for the most part all the justices within the said 
compass of five miles be sworn to the town of Cambridg 
and freemen of the same: may it therefore please your lord- 
ship to move my lord chancellor, that the vicechancellor for 
the time being, with certain others of the heads of the col- 
leges, which have any livings within the said compass of 
five miles, as Dr. Perne, Dr. Bell, Dr. Bynge, and Mr. Ellis, 
may be in commission of the peace for the shire and county 
of Cambridge. 

4. Whereas the town of Cambridge hath drawn their 
book for Sturbridge fair, not only to the prejudice of the 
university and other corporations, for their own private 
gains, but also to the great abusing of her majestys great 
goodness shewed to them in this said grant of Sturbridge 


fair; the forfeiture wherof they do not acknowledge, nor BOOK 
the great benefit therof, to procede from her maiesty, but 
by right of certain surmised free grants ; the which they 
neither do nor can shew the same, as Mr. Sohcitor did 
plainly declare unto them : it may please your honour, 
therefore, that the said book of the said town of Cambridge 
for Sturbridge fair may not pass without the allowance of 
the queens solicitor; for that Mr. Atturney is of the fee 
and counsil of the said town of Cambridge, as he saith 

5. The university humbly desireth your honour to be a 1 68 
means to her majesty, that there be a proviso put into their 
said book, that it shall not be lawful for them nor their 
heirs, by vertue of her majestys said grant of Sturbridge 
fair, to make any law, constitution, or ordinance concerning 
the booths in Sturbridge fair, contrary to the common laws 
of this realm ; but that any scholar or scholars servant may 
lawfully buy for their mony, or receive by gift, or other 
lawful means, any of the said booths, as any other of her 
majestys subjects may do, according to the said laws. 

Number XXI. 

An inventory of the money and jewels of Anne duchess of 
Somerset : taken cvfter her death, by the queens order, by 
John Wolley, one of the privy-council, and John For- 
tescue, master of her majesty s great xcardrdbe. 

1. A GREAT chain of pearle and gold enamelled, with mss. Burg 
knotts. 2. A carkenet of gold and pearles with knotts, with 
a pendent sapphire, with a fair pearle annexed. 3. A car- 
kenet of pearl, and padlocks of gold. 4. A chain of fair 
pearls, furnished with pipes of gold, enamelled with black. 
5. A plain chain of gold with small links. 6. A pomander 
chain with small beads of pomander, and true-loves of pearl, 
and many small pearl to furnish the same, with pendants of 
mother of pearl, and a little acorn appendant. 7. A salt of 
gold like a bell. 8. A faucon of mother of pearl, furnished 


BOOK with diamonds and rubies, standing upon a ragged staff of 
fair diamonds and rubies. 9- A great jacinct, garnished 

with flowers of gold and pearl, with a less jacinct on the 
backside, with a rough pearl appendant. 10. A tablet of 
gold of a story, furnished with diamonds and rubies, with a 
pearl appendant. 11. A tablet of gold made like an arti- 
choke, black and blew enamelled. 12. An agate, set in 
gold, garnished with small pearls, with a pearl appendant. 
13. A book of gold with artichokes of day-work upon black 
velvet. 14. A pair of flaggon braslets of gold plain : in 
each braslet a jacinct. 15. A pair of braslets of gold, 
wrought with escalop shells with hollow work. 16. A dou- 
ble rope of pearl, of one ell long. 17. A fair pendent of 
mother of pearl, flourished with gold like an S. 18. Twenty 
eight small rubies, unset. 19. Three pearls, wherof two 
pendent. 20. A double rope of pearl, of one yard 3 quar- 
ters long. 21. A chain of pearl of a bigger sort of four 
double. 22. A lilly pot of gold, with a sea- water stone in 
the midst, with two pearls pendant. 23. Four fair emeralds 
set in collets of lead. 24. A little tablet of gold enamelled 
with gold, with a pearl appendant. 25. A pillar of gold, 
garnished with eight diamonds. 25. 19 amethists, wherof 
one great one. 26. A fair jewel of gold, set with diamonds 
on both sides, bordered with small pearl. 27. A great 
tablet of gold, enamelled black and white, garnished the one 
side with an agate and six rubies, and on the other side 
with twelve diamonds. 28. A tablet of gold curiously 
wrought, set with six fair diamonds and three fair pearls ; 
whereof one pendent. 29. A tablet of gold, garnished 
round with small pearl, with a great ballast in the midst, 
and a pearl pendant. 30. A fair square tablet of gold like 
an H, with four diamonds, and a rock ruby or ballast in the 
midst, garnished with pearl, and a pearl pendant. 31. A 
sopertakle case of gold. 32. A chain of gold enamelled 
black. 33. A book of gold, enamelled black. 34. A spoon 
of gold, enamelled black. 35. A bodkin of gold with a clawes 
in the end, enamelled black. 36. Two pieces of an inii- 
l69corncs horn, in a red taffata purse. 37. A folding spoon of 


gold. 38. A little signet of gold with her graces own BOOK 
crest. ' 

Besides this in gold, in several single purses, either of 
leatlier, or sattin, or silk, in one coffer, 2200Z. in gold, in 
single baggs ; in another, 1500Z. in gold ; and in another, 
1500/. in gold : in all, 5200Z. 

Jewells more. 

1. A confect box of gold, like scallop shells. 2. A pair of 
bracelets, laced with beugle. 3. The pearls, in number 
four score and eight. 4, A pair of bracelets of coral, cut 
like acorns, laced with small pearl. 5. In a little black box, 
six rings set with diamonds, some less and some bigger. 6. 
In another little black box, two rings of gold ; one set with 
a fair emerald, and the other with a ruby. 7. In another 
box, two rings ; the one a topis, the other a small ruby. 8. 
In another little box, one little ring with a diamond. 9. In 
a little white box, divers sorts of coarse pearl. 

Number XXII. 

Howland the bishop of PeterhxirgKs letter to the lord trea- 
surer : requiring some account of the justices of peace in 
his diocese ; with his certificate concerning some of them. 

YOUR letter, right honorable, of the 4th of September, Epist. epi- 
I received the 8th of the same month. For your great care ^^^f" P®"' 
wherin, for the due administration of justice, as I thank 
God, desiring him to bless your good purpose, Avith all 
other your honorable studies for the peace of his church 
and this realm ; so I am heartily sorry that I am not able 
to perform that duty herein which you have so lovingly 
laid upon me, and I would most willingly discharge : but 
by reason of shortness of time, and want of the knowledge, 
as yet, of my country, with the great diversity in reports of 
men (even by good men whom I have herein used) in nou- 
rishing their own humours and partial conceits ; by means 
whereof I know not what to write. For as I would be loth, 
in this matter of so great import, to commend any man that 



BOOK shall not be found fit for the place, so to disable any whom 
I do not know, upon any mans report, it were a great rash- 
ness in me, and a greater injury unto them. For 

Turpius ejicitin\ quam non admittitur hospes. 
So that I would be an hvmible suitor unto your lordship, 
not for my self alone, but for the rest of my brethren, (unto 
whom you have committed the like charge,) that some more 
time might be granted ; whereby we may with better assur- 
ance (than by the information of one or two) deliver that 
which may be for our credit, and discharge of our duties 
herein. Lest that w^e be deceived, as some of the justices of 
assize are said to have been. So shall the things being well 
don, be but once don. The want wherof hitherto, (pardon, 
my good lord, if in the dutiful love unto your lordship I 
lay open my own folly, in telling you what I think and 
hear,) and the often putting in and out of the commission, 
gives occasion of more speeches than are convenient ; the 
more earnest I am herein, and humbly desire, for that I 
understand your lordship hath taken the cause in hand, 
tliat as in all other things you have don, so in this also, 
upon sound information, you may lay a firm and honorable 
foundation. Wherin also I beseech your lordship to go 
forward ; assuring your lordship, that altho'' you have don 
170 many things of very great import to the benefit of the 
realm, which all men do acknowlcdg, yet, for the sound 
settling of the whole realm in firm obedience to their sove- 
reign, and for the preservation of love between every mem- 
ber, you could never take (I speak like a fool, but yet as 1 
think) a more honourable cause in hand, and more accept- 
able to the people ; who think it their greatest good or 
hurt, to be under good or evil justices. But the putting in 
execution of this, 1 take to be the greatest labour, and to 
require a longer time, both for the choice of the persons to 
be, as Jethro counsillcd, men of coura^^e, Jearhig' God; 
men dealing' truly^ hating covetoiisncs. And therefore not 
to sail in a needy vessel. As also for their seat and abode, 
whcrby every part of the shire may have their needful use 
of them, to their best convenience and least charges. Wheras 


being a great number in some part of the shire on a plumpe, BOOK 
and in some other needful place few or none, it is rather ' 

accounted (and so used) as a countenance to the parties 
than a benefit to the country. Which if your lordship can 
redress, in placing a good physician neer that patient, you 
shall do a comfortable act, and bring the commission to its 
right use. 

But lest I should be thought to have used these speeches 
to cover my negligence, and for that I could not do all that 
I would to have don, therfore nothing, I have sent here- 
with unto your lordship the names of such as are in the 
commission in Northamptonshire, (for Rutland and the 
Soke stand as they did,) and of such as are lately left out, 
as I received from the dark of the peace; with a short 
note, what opinion some in the country have of them : 
wherby your lordship will find, as no great cause to restore 
them which are out, so as small to retain those that are still 
in commission. 

For my own self, this only 1 have to say, referring my 
cause to your honorable and favourable consideration ; that 
tho^ I acknowledg my self unworthy of that place, yet see- 
ing it hath pleased God and her majesty, by your onely 
means, to place me in this bishopric, it was thought strange 
unto many, that I should be left onely, of all other bishops, 
out of the commission in my dioces. What the cause is, I 
know not, that, twice or thrice before, I was wrong named 
Edmund, and now altogether left out. Wherof as I would 
gladly know the cause, if there be any, so I humbly be- 
seech your lordship to vouchsafe me that countenance^ to 
the better strengthning of my necessary duties, which now 
I am often, through want therof, compelled to let pass, to 
my grief and discredit : for that my ordinary jurisdiction is 
over-short, and not able to reach to the execution of them. 
And recommending your lordship to the protection of the 
Almighty, I rest 

Your lordships at commandment. 

Rich. Petriburg. 
Castor, the 17. Octob. 1587. 



BOOK 7'//^, name.s of the justices of the peace in Northampton- 
shire: -ioith the bishop\s notes at each of them. 

Edward Griffin, armig. A man of no great capacity or 
religion. And wliose wife is a great recusant. 

Edward Watson, armig. A man suspected in religion. 

Edward Cope, armig. An honest gentleman : but that 
he doth over-greatly countenance such preachers as do im- 
pugne all orders established. Which some others also in 
this commission do. 

George Lynne, armig. An ancient justice, but yet 
thought through age to be easily overruled. 
1/1 Tobias Chauncy, armig. A man of small hability in 
learning ; but yet, as I hear, favoured greatly by the earl 
of Warwick. By whose means he is thought to be put in 
again : wheras he was with others put out of commission. 

The justices of peace out of commission. 

Robert Lane, miles. A man not liable, througli infir- 
mity of his body. 

Elmer, armig. A man likewise not liable bv reason 

of infirmities. 

\ al. Knighths armig. His father in connnission. 

,p„ TT 1 • r These two I cannot know, but 

Tho. liarbie, armig. I 

™, „ . ■< tliat men sav, thev are not oreatlv 

rh„. Page., arnng. |__^_,^^^|| ■ ■ 

Jacobus Ellis, LL.D. chancellor to the late bishoj). \\\\\ 
now he hath no abode in the shire. 

Clark de Crowtor, armig. This man is well le- 

ported for his sufficiency : but that his wife is a recusant. 

In comit. Rutland. 

Kenelmus Digbie. A man, whose liouse, as your lord- 
ship knoweth, hath been notably touched ; and is thought 
to be not sound himself in relimon. 

Henry Herenden, armig. A man suspected in n-ligion, 
and thought to be a nourisher of suits, by reason of his pro- 
fession, being a lawyer. 


Number XXIII. B<^J^K 

Herbert, bishop of Hereford, to the lord treasurer, certify- 
ing him of the justices of peace in his diocese. 
Right honorable and my very good lord, 

ALL those points set down in your lordships letter, con-Lit.episcop, 
cerning justices of the peace within this dioces, either lately 
left out of the commission, or meet to be left out hereafter, 
or to be put into the same again, I have, according to my 
duty, enquired after, with such circumspection and dili- 
gence, as my small acquaintance yet in the country, the 
little knowledge of mens discretions and secresie, some ur- 
gent and necessary occasions, and the shortness of time, 
would suffer me : for your lordships letter, dated the 2. of 
Septem. came not until the 17th of the same month. Since 
which time I have had two commissions sit upon ; the one 
between me and Silvan Score, [son or relation to bishop 
Scory, this bishop's immediate predecessor,] the other be- 
tween me and Richard Abington ; both of good weight. 

But if by reason of these hindrances, any want of this ser- 
vice shall be found, I will by Gods leave, as I shall come 
by more knowledge, supply the same with all convenient 
speed. For I certainly persuade myself, that this your lord- 
ship's care and course (if it shall be answerable accordingly) 
will in a short space work a very sensible and great effect, 
beneficial both to the state and true religion. Which I must, 
with the rest of my brethren, acknowledg my self most 
bound to seek for, and to the uttermost of my power to pro- 

I. In the mean time therefore it may please your lordship 
to be certified of those that were left out of commission in 
the county of Hereford, I am informed, that, 

1. Rich. Tomkins, esq. were meet to be again put into 1^2 
the same : being a man very well affected in religion ; a good 
justitiar, of sufficient livelihood, and convenient place for 

2. Robert Vaughan, esq. also for like respects. 

II. Of those that are remaining in commission; and for 



BOOK the causes, mentioned in your lordships letter, meet to be 
left out thereof; I am informed, that these might be spared. 

1. Roger Bodenham, esq. For his wife is said to be a 

2. Rich. Minors. Thought to favour recusants. 

3. Walter Baskervile. For his wife is a recusant. And 
he is now departed this life. 

4. Humfrey Baskervile. For he is not thought well af- 
fected in religion, and gi-eatly noted, and touched for incon- 
tinency : being also aged, and not meet to travail. 

III. Of fathers, which have their sons in commission; I 
hear not of any: saving, that Mr. Comptroller hath his 
son, Mr. Everard Crofte, and his son in law, Mr. Wigmore, 
in commission. And Mr. Edward Crofte his sons in law, 
Mr. Scudamore and Mr. Rudhal. 

IV. Of such as answer not her majesty after the rate of 
201. land, or like value in goods, there are none, as far as I 
can learn, but oncly Dr. Bevans, my chancellor, whom I 
think, in respect of the better executing of his office, meet 
to be continued. 

Touching the justices of any other county within this dio- 
ces I have not to certify your lordship any thing, because I 
understand not any of them to be other than according to 
the meaning of the articles set down by your lordship. 
Only I wish that Williatii Hopton, esq. (meet in all re- 
spects, before noted in others to be put into commission for 
the county of Salop) might be named in the same, as one 
that the place and circuit where he dwelleth hath need of. 
And might it please your lordship also to name Mr. John 
Watkins, dean of Hereford, among the justices of the county 
of Hereford. I doubt not but as I take him to be every 
way fit for the room, so the naming of him would be found 
both an ease and benefit ; especially to such of the county 
as be inhabiting necr to the city, where in mine opinion some 
want is of such an one. 

And thus have I simply and faithfully (as the matter rc- 
tpiireth in answer to your lordships letter) uttered mine 
opinion in all the points mentioned in the same, according 


to such credible report as hath been made unto me: not BOOK 
doubting but your lordship will so use the same, as it may ' 

best further that good which your lordship sheweth your 
self only to respect ; and by occasion of any effect, as espe- 
cially in this country, where I am yet a stranger, and must 
live, I have need to beware of. And so I humbly commend 
your good lordship to Almighty God. From Whitburn, 
this vii'h of Octob. 1587. 

Your honour to command, 

Harb. Hereford. 

Number XXIV. 173 

Freakc, bishoj) qfWigorn, to the lord treasurer: in answer 

to Ms, to inquire of the justices of peace in his dioces. 

With the bishops certificate concerning them. 

My duty unto your good lordship humbly remembred, 

WHERE upon an intended reformation of the late re- ubi supra, 
newed commission for the peace within this realm, upon 
more deliberate advertisements given in that behalf, it hath 
pleased your lordship to inform your self privately by my 
reports of the conditions and livings of the justices of peace 
within my dioces, as well such as be continued in commis- 
sion of the peace, as those which be left out of the same, I 
have with all diligence and secresie made inquisition ac- 
cordingly, to give your lordship the best light I can 

First, Therefore in generality to signify mine opinion 
and knowledg of the justices of peace in this county of Wi- 
gorn, continued in commission, I do observe some weakness 
in that number ; divers of them being but superficial, either 
for advice or for execution of any weighty affaires of the 
country. And for matter of religion, albeit they are con- 
formable enough, and forward in outward obedience and 
services ; yet do I not perceive any such fervent zele indeed 
in some of them as I could wish, or that may give me cause 
to assure my self of their constant affection upon all events 

G g 4 


I50 0K and mutations. And truly, my lord, they do cary them- 
^^' selves modestly in the administration of justice, and are the 
principallest gentlemen for living and countenance that be 
in the shire ; being at hand for all services, by reason of 
their residence in the same. Against whom I have not 
heard nor do know any material objection, either for hin- 
dring the state of religion, or nourishing any suits by colour 
of law. 

Secondly, For some of those that be left out of the com-