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Full text of "Annals of the reformation and establishment of religion, and other various occurrences in the Church of England, during Queen Elizabeth's happy reign : together with an appendix of original papers of state, records, and letters"

FROM THE LIBRARY OF 



REV. LOUIS FITZGERALD BENSON. D. D. 



BEQUEATHED BY HIM TO 



THE LIBRARY OF 



PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 



PMakm 

faction 



V-A 



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ANNALS 



V 



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OF 



THE REFORMATION 

AND 

ESTABLISHMENT OF RELIGION, 

AND OTHER VARIOUS OCCURRENCES 

IN THE 

CHURCH OF ENGLAND, 

DURING 

QUEEN ELIZABETH'S HAPPY REIGN: 

TOGETHER WITH 

AN APPENDIX 

OF ORIGINAL PAPERS OF STATE, RECORDS, AND LETTERS. 



j& 

BY JOHN STRYPE, M. A. 



A NEW EDITION. 



VOL. IV. 



OXFORD, 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS. 

MDCCCXXIV. 



THE 



PREFACE. 



JV-LY store of authentic papers, transcribed by me from 
the originals, are sufficient to furnish me with matter to 
carry on my Annals to the end of queen Elizabeth's reign 
in the same method with the former volumes, and to be di- 
gested into a just and methodical history ; a thing which 
many of my learned friends and readers have desired to see. 
But my great age, and infirmities accompanying it, require 
me to forbear. And yet, that those papers might not be 
quite lost, or remain in obscurity and of no use, I have at 
last, in intervals of better health, prepared a great number 
of the most important and useful of them, as I took them 
by my own pen at first from the originals, and have now 
digested them into a course of historical matters, succeed- 
ing year by year, as they fell out. By which means a 
knowledge of the affairs both of the church and state may 
be attained, until the access of king James to the king- 
dom, and some years after. Wherein will be discovered 
divers remarkable occurrences during the latter part of her 
reign. Which consisted chiefly of the king of Spain's 
formidable attempts against this realm, plots of popish 
seminaries and Jesuits, and the endeavours of the disaf- 
fected to the establishment of this church, and the episcopal 
government of it ; and the judicial proceedings taken with 
them. All which these collections will give a great light 
into; none of them as yet having been published to the 
world. 

So that this following large number of records will want 
nothing to render it a complete history of those times of 

a 2 



iv THE PREFACE. 

the queen, (all very communicative of the chief matters 
transacted,) though not compiled into a formal history. 

And let me add, (which will give a sufficient credit and 
estimation to these papers,) that they were for the most 
part found by me among the manuscripts and state-papers 
of that great and wise counsellor of the queen, lord Burgh- 
ley, lord treasurer, the Nestor of his age, as he was styled. 
Under the year of whose death some peculiar and curious 
remarks in this work are given of him. 

Since the publishing of the former volumes of the Annals, 
I have met with many material papers, which mav improve 
and illustrate the said history; and therefore have added 
them by way of Supplement at the end of this book, as 
they fell out yearly. 

J. STRYPE. 



THE CONTENTS. 



NUMBER I. Reports sent from sir Edward Kelly in Bohemia, Anno 1589. 
June an. 1589, of one Parkins a Jesuit : brought by Robert 
Tatton and George Leycester. Thus endorsed on the paper 
by the hand of the lord treasurer Burghley, as followeth, viz. 

Certain articles of the discovery of high treason, made by sir 
Edw. Kelly, baron of Bohemia, unto certain English gentle- 
men, which came to visit him at Tribona in the said king- 
dom, the latter end of June, 1589, whose names are here 
subscribed. Page 1. 

To which may be here subjoined two letters wrote to the said 
Kelly by the lord treasurer Burghley, as a remaining me- 
morial of the same famous man, sometime of this nation a 
native ; viz. P. 2. 

Number II. The lord Burghley, lord treasurer, to sir Edward 
Kelly, written aim. 1591, declaring the value he and others 
had of him, upon the account of his great knowledge and 
virtue ; and inviting him to return to his own country : and 
begging a medicine from him for his old enemy the gout. 

P. 3. 

Number III. Another letter from the lord Burghley to sir Edw. 
Kelly, in answer to a letter from him, brought by Mr. Dyar. 
Exhorting him earnestly, and that by command from the 
queen, to come over into his own country ; that they might 
receive the honour and service that his great wisdom and 
knowledge deserved. Written by that lord's own hand. P. 4. 

Number IV. Sir Francis Knowles, knt. treasurer of the queen's 
chamber ; to the lord Burghley, lord high treasurer. A letter 
of some sharpness against the superiority of bishops. P. 6. 

Number V. Sir Francis Knowles to the queen, upon some dis- 
pleasure she had taken against him. Occasioned by his con- 
troversy about the superiority of bishops. P. 9. 

a3 



viii THE CONTENTS. 

from the assizes to his prison in the White Lion, November 
11, 1590. In which letter may he observed his lofty and un- 
relenting behaviour: his justifying his innocency: calling 
for execution, or deliverance from his imprisonment. Resent- 
eth the disgrace that was done him ; &c. P. 38. 

Number XXV. November 18 following, Udal writ both to the 
baron and the sergeant : who had told him that upon his 
submission they were willing to become means to her majesty 
for his pardon. He sent this letter. P. 40. 

And Nov. 25 he wrote to them again another letter : upon their 
sending him a messenger, that his former submission did not 
content them. ibid. 

Number XXVI. Udal's belief. Drawn up to pacify the queen, 
who conceived an high displeasure against him, for asserting, 
that the prince had nothing to do in spiritual matters, and 
that she was subject to their censures. P. 41. 

Number XXVII. Thomas Cartwright to the lord treasurer 
Burgh ley, June 23, 1590, concerning the bad estate of his 
hospital at Warwick, upon the death of the earl of Leicester, 
their founder. ibid. 

Number XXVIII. The lord treasurer lord Burghley to the 
chancellor of Scotland, lord Maitland; to persuade the king 
his master to suppress the professed enemies of the gospel 
in his kingdom, and the adversaries of the common amity. 

P. 44. 

Number XXIX. The lord treasurer Burghley to count Figle- 
azzi, with the duke of Florence; that he would acquaint the 
duke with the queen's kind acceptance of his good-will 
towards her, and in his offer to mediate a peace between her 
and Spain : and the causes of contention between her and the 
king of Spain stated at large. P. 46. 

Number XXX. A certificate under the hands of several of the 
lords of their allowance of one Edge, an espial, employed into 
the camp of the duke of Parma, for intelligence. Drawn up 
by the pen of the lord Burghley. October 9, 1590. P. 52. 

Number XXXI. Richard Topclyff, a discoverer and taker up of 
popish seminaries, and other papists, his discourse of them in 
a letter sent to the lord treasurer; about the year 1590, in 
this time of danger. P. 53. 

Number XXXII. A prayer composed for the good success 



THE CONTENTS. ix 

of the French king ; printed anno 1590, with this title: A 
Prayer used in the queen's majesty's house and chapel, for 
the prosperity of the French king and his nobility ; assailed 
by a multitude of notorious rebels, that are supported and 
waged by great forces of foreigners, August 21, 1590. P. 57. 

Number XXXIII. Spanish advertisements, delivered by Tho- 
mas Willys, a Leicestershire man. Thus endorsed : The de- 
claration of Tho. Willys ; taken 21 Feb. 1590. P. 59. 

Number XXXIV. An office to be deputed. In a suit to be a 
general register of all christenings, marriages, and burials, 
within her majesty's realm of England and Wales : with 
reasons for the same. To the lord treasurer Burghley. P. 62. 

Number XXXV. Inconveniences of parish clerkships. P. 63. 

Number XXXVI. Sir John Smyth's letter to the lord treasurer, 
May 1590, upon the suppression of his book of directions 
concerning military discipline. P. 64. 

Number XXXVII. Tho. Cartwright to the lord treasurer. Li- Anno 1591 
berty granted by the lord archbishop of Canterbury to him 
and other puritan ministers in prison. That he is falsely 
charged about a purpose to excommunicate the queen. P. 66. 

Number XXXVIII. Mr. Cartwright to the lady Russel. Mov- 
ing her to intercede with her relation, the lord treasurer, for 
his liberty, and for other ministers in prison. Writ in Aug. 
1591. P. 68. 

Number XXXIX. Cartwright to the lord treasurer, dated Oc- 
tober 4. Cited before the commissioners, and apprehensive 
of great troubles to follow upon the queen's displeasure with 
him. P. 72. 

Number XL. The bishop of Bristol, and Dr. Aubrey, to 
the lord treasurer : in answer to his order to them to take 
into their examination certain crimes, laid to the charge of 
one Matthew Heton, minister. And found by them to be 
scandals. > P. 74. 

Number XLI. Overton, bishop of Coventry and Litchfield, to 
the lords and others of the privy-council : complaining of a 
practice of abuse in the loan and subsidy, by subsidy-men. 
And his advice how to reform it. P. 75. 

Number XLII. A declaration of great troubles pretended 
against the realm by a number of seminary priests and Je- 



x THE CONTENTS. 

suits, sent, and very secretly dispersed into the same, to work 
great treasons under a false pretence of religion. With a pro- 
vision very necessary for the remedy thereof. Published by 
her majesty's proclamation. With certain notes set in the 
margin. This is very briefly and imperfectly mentioned in 
Stow's Annals and Camden's Eliz. P- 78. 

Number XLIII. Articles annexed to the commission, for a far- 
ther instruction to the commissioners how to proceed in the 
execution thereof. *• 86. 

Number XLIV. Anthony Fitzherbert, a popish gentleman in 
the gaol at Darby, to the earl of Shrewsbury ; relents, and 
prays favour from his imprisonment. P. 89. 

Number XLV. The earl of Darby, from the court at Green- 
wich, to the earl of Shrewsbury : concerning preparations 
for war ; and the execution of two seminaries. P. 90. 

Number XL VI. The confession of Boord before the lord trea- 
surer, anno 1591, being in the Gate-house, Westminster; 
who was a spy, as it seems, for seminaries. P. 91. 

Number XLVII. Colleges of Englishmen in Flanders. Boord 
and Tusser, whither they went. P. 94. 

Number XLVIII. Designs and attempts of Hacket, Coppinger, 
and Arthington, anno 1591, to dethrone the queen, and over- 
throw the government, upon pretence of revelation. Being 
collections from a book entitled, Conspiracy for pretended 
Reformation. Printed 1592. P. 95. 

Number XLIX. Some remarks of Hacket, and his two pro- 
phets, Coppinger and Arthington, whose great pretence was 
the Spirit. P. 97. 

Number L. A petition of divers prisoners, puritans, in the 
Fleet and other prisons, to the lord treasurer, for the further- 
ance of their humble petition to the lords of the council for 
their enlargement. Dated December 4, 1591. P. 101. 

Number LI. The heads of the colleges in Cambridge to the 
lord Burghley, their high chancellor : concerning Legate 
their printer, who was hindered the printing of the Bible and 
Psalms in metre by the stationers in London ; whose part 
the heads took as their printer. P. 103. 

Number LII. Hugh Broughton, the learned Hebrician, to the 
lord Burghley ; occasioned by Bishop and Newburgh, sta- 



THE CONTENTS. xi 

tioners, who had seized his books newly printed, and taken 
them out of his chamber. Desiring his lordship's order to 
have them restored. P. 105. 

Number LIII. Anno 1591, Nov. 16. A note of the Indian 
fleet of king Philip, dispersed and cast away. Sent to the 
lord treasurer. On this paper is written, by the lord trea- 
surer's own hand, Sir Tho. Gage, as from whom this informa- 
tion came. P. 107. 

Number LIV. The queen's charter of Quietus est, with her 
broad seal appendant, to the lord treasurer, lord Burghley, 
discharging him from attendance on her, to enjoy his beloved 
Theobalds, anno 1591. Drawn up by the queen herself in a 
facetious style, to cheer the said lord, who was, it seems, me- 
lancholy, and desirous to retire to a private life at his be- 
loved seat at Theobalds. It is dated at Theobalds thus : 
Teste meipsa apucl Tybolles. P. 1 08. 

Number LV. Advertisements from Spain to the lord high trea- 
surer of England, so endorsed : A brief of such news as I, 
Henry Carminck, of Droushed, a merchant, could learn in 
Spain ; arriving there the 1st of March 1590, and departing 
thence home the 21st of April 1591." P. 110. 

Number LVI. The cardinals to the city of Paris, from Rome ; 
giving the news of pope Gregory's death, anno 1591. P. 1 12. 

Number LVII. Londino-Gallica ecclesia. John Castel, mini- 
ster there, in the name of the members of that church, upon 
occasion of a supply to be sent to the French protestants in 
France. Writ to the archbishop of Canterbury and the lord 
treasurer, sending to this church to make their contribution 
for them under persecution. Castel gives account of the 
members of this congregation, and their poor condition, in a 
Latin letter to this import. P. 114. 

Number LVIII. Robert Beal, clerk of the council many years, 
now in some employment in York : his letter to the lord 
treasurer, upon the queen's sending for him to wait again, 
after some long absence, about the year 1591. P. 1 15. 

Number LIX. Mr. Real's voyages and embassies : which he 
writ and sent to the lord treasurer, to manifest his public ser- 
vices and good deserts. P. 1 17. 

Number LX. A letter of the Puritan ministers in prison, to her Anno 1092. 



xii THE CONTENTS. 

majesty, in vindication of their innocency. Dated April 15, 
1592. P. 120. 

Number LXI. A petition to the lord treasurer from another 
rank of puritans, that were separatists: presented near this 
time : endorsed thus : This humble petition was put up of 
many poor Christians, imprisoned by the bishops in sundry 
several prisons in and about London. P. 127. 

Number LXII. The humble supplication of the faithful ser- 
vants of the church of Christ, in the behalf of their ministers 
and preachers imprisoned, to the lords of the council : the 
separatists shewing at large their case and reason in breaking 
off communion with the church established. P. 131. 

Number LXIII. James Yong, a Jesuit, taken 1592. His con- 
fession Aug. 27. the same year, before the lord keeper Puck- 
ring, lord Buckhurst, and Mr. Fortescue, chancellor of the 
exchequer : being his letter under his own hand. P. 137. 

Number LXIV. The lord treasurer to sir John Puckring, lord 
keeper, to the lord Buckhurst, and Mr. Fortescue, chancellor 
of the exchequer : upon Yonge's declaration sent by them 
to the treasurer, to be read to the queen, now in her pro- 
gress. P. 147. 

Number LXV. Thomas Christopher, alias George Dingley, 
that came from Rome : committed to the counter about mid 
April 1592. His confession. MSS. lord keeper Puckring. P. 148. 

Number LXVI. The lord treasurer Burghley's speech in the 
house of lords, anno 1592. Containing the causes of the 
queen's entry into a defensive war with Spain. With an ac- 
count of the queen's extraordinary charges by the said war. 
All writ with his own hand ; and transcribed thence. It 
beareth this title on the top of the page : The causes of the 
queen's entry into these defensive actions. P. 149. 

Number LXVII. The queen's extraordinary charges by means 
of the war, moved by the king of Spain. Set down by the 
lord treasurer in the same paper. P. 156. 

Number LXVIII. Thomas Markham to the lord treasurer : 
concerning his affliction for his son Robert Markham, going 
beyond sea for his conscience. ibid. 

Number LXIX. Robert Markham to his father, upon his de- 
parture beyond seas. P 157. 



THE CONTENTS. xiii 

Number LXX. The queen in her progress, now at Sudley. 
From thence sir Tho. Heneage, her vice-chamberlain, writes 
to the lord keeper Puckring ; relating the queen's kind ex- 
pressions towards him. P. 160. 

Number LXXI. Sir Thomas Heneage, vice-chamberlain, to the 
lord keeper Puckring ; signifying from her majesty, how well 
she took his assistance at the celebration of the 17th of No- 
vember, the day of her access to the crown. ibid. 

Number LXXII. March the 5th, 1592. Notes for the inspec- 
tion into charitable gifts. Set down by the lord treasurer. 
This being a time of great dearth. P. 161. 

Number LXXIII. A fleet of Spaniards ready to invade Eng- 
land. Signified in a letter from the lord Howard, lord admi- 
ral, to the lord treasurer. Endorsed by the said treasurer's 
own hand, Aug. 29, 1592. Thus superscribed: To the right 
honourable, my very good lord, the lord treasurer. For her 
majesty's service. C.Howard. Haste, haste, posthaste. P. 162. 

Number LXXIV. Another letter writ by the lord admiral to 
the lord treasurer : shewing his advice, judgment, and dili- 
gence upon this dangerous juncture. Thus endorsed by the 
lord treasurer, Ships to be put to the seas ; with his marginal 
notes in some places of the letter. September 1,1592. P. 163. 

Number LXXV. Sir Roger Manwood, lord chief baron, to the 
lord treasurer : his submission upon several abuses : com- 
mitted, and under restraint. P. 167. 

Number LXXVI. The lord chief baron's submission to the 
lords : by whom he had refused to have his causes tried. 

P. 168. 

Number LXXVII. Another letter of the lord chief baron to 
the lord treasurer: upon divers complaints and lawsuits 
against him. P. 170. 

Number LXXVI1I. A case of Thomas Diggs, esq. against 
Manwood, steward of the chancery and admiralty court at 
Dover, in the ports 5 afterwards lord chief baron. Found 
among the lord treasurer's papers. ibid. 

Number LXXIX. The bishop of Lincoln to the lord high trea- 
surer of England ; shewing the true state of the vicarage of 
Hocknorton 5 endeavoured to be alienated from the church, 
upon pretence of concealment ; John Williams, B. D. then 
vicar. About the year 1591 or 1592. P. 172. 



xiv THE CONTENTS. 

Number LXXX. Instructions for the speaker's speech ; drawn 
up, in several articles, by the lord treasurer Burghley. P. 174. 

Number LXXXI. Some remarkable letters of sir Walter Ra- 
leigh, admiral of the fleet, concerning the great Spanish 
carack, richly laden from the East Indies, taken by some of 
his ships. This huge carack was called, The Mother of God ; 
seven decks high. P. 177. 

Number LXXXII. Sir Walter Raleigh to the lord treasurer ; 
to send down a commission for examination and inquiry con- 
cerning the robbing of the carack, Sept. 17, 1592. P. 178. 

Number LXXXIII. Sir Walter Raleigh's cause for the carack. 
Drawn up by himself. P. 179. 

Number LXXX1V. Sir Walter Raleigh to the lord treasurer ; 
concerning the carack, worth 200,000£. How much thereof 
came to the queen's share. Now under restraint. Dated 
Sept. — 1592. P. 180- 

Number LXXXV. Sir Walter Raleigh to the lord treasurer. 
His advice for the division of the treasury of the carack. 
Sept. 16, 1592. P. 182. 

Number LXXXV1. Henry earl of Derby to the lords of the 
privy-council j concerning the papists in Lancashire ; and di- 
rection for dealing with them. Bell a seminary, his informa- 
tions, ibid. 

Number LXXXVII. The earl of Derby to sir Tho. Heneage, 
vice-chamberlain, and chancellor of the duchy. With a copy 
of the former letter to the council enclosed. The bearer, 
Mr. Fleetwood, parson of Wigan. Papists, temporizers many. 

P. 184. 

Number LXXXVIII. The earl of Derby to the lord treasurer} 
that upon the directions of the lords he was in prosecution 
of the recusants. ibid. 

Number LXXXIX. Friar Robert Southwel, a dangerous con- 
spirator, taken. Richard Topcliflf writ to the queen a letter 
in June concerning him, and his taking and keeping; and 
concerning Anthony Coppley, another refugee of note. P. 185. 

Number XC. An inscription upon the coffin of Roger Rippon, 
a Barrowist, who died in Newgate this year, 1592. P. 186. 
Anno 1593. Number XCI. Francis Johnson, a Brownist, in prison, his let- 
ter to the lord treasurer, Jan. 18, 1593. upon his being to be 
indicted for a Brownist. P. 187. 



THE CONTENTS. xv 

Number XCII. Francis Johnson's paper, enclosed in the letter 
above to the lord treasurer, had this title : " That F. J. for 
" his writings is not under the danger of the statute of 35 
" Eliz. ca. I. made to retain the queen's subjects in their due 
" obedience." P. 192. 

Number XCIII. Some books printed and set forth this year, 
1593, against the new disciplinarian model of the church go- 
vernment. P. 194. 

Number XC1V. Two kinds of schismatics, and the danger of 
their opinions, either directly or by necessary consequence 
gathered to be holden by those who urge a new church go- 
vernment, commonly called puritans. These be of two sorts. 
First, some that will communicate with us in prayers, ser- 
mons, and sacraments. Secondly, others that will not. The 
first sort hold opinions dangerous ; first, to her majesty and 
the crown ; or, secondly, to the state, and to the policy of the 
realm. This paper seems to have been drawn up by the lord 
keeper Puckring, to be produced against them in the Star- 
chamber, after their examination before him. P. 197* 

Number XCV. Cardinal Allen, from Rome, to Richard Hop- 
kins, fugitive, August 14, 1593. So endorsed by the lord trea- 
surer's own hand. 

This letter of the cardinal was in answer to one from Hop- 
kins, at Antwerp ; upon report of a treaty between England 
and Spain ; to endeavour a liberty of religion for the catho- 
lics. P. 203. 

Number XCVI. Holt, a Jesuit, to cardinal Allen : writ from 
Brussels, January the 6th, 1593. Resolution to follow his 
grace's opinion. Found among the lord treasurer's papers. 

P. 206. 

Number XCVII. Thomas Bell, a convert, to Mr. Young, a jus- 
tice of peace in London : concerning printing his motives to 
renounce the Romish faith. Writ from Jesus college, Cam- 
bridge. P. 208. 

Number XCVIII. Bell to the lord treasurer, from the north ; 
where he preached at the desire of the earl of Huntington, 
lord president : who was desirous of his abiding there, for 
the instruction of ignorant people. He is ready so to do, or 
to return to Cambridge, according to the lord treasurer's di- 
rections. P. 210. 



xvi THE CONTENTS. 

Number XC1X. Pierse, archbishop of York, and Henry, earl of 
Huntington, of the council of the north, to the lord treasurer ; 
concerning an hospital and school, founded by Oglethorp, 
sometime bishop of Carlisle. P. 211. 

Number C. Queen Elizabeth's letter to the emperor of Ger- 
many ; answering slanderous reports of her ; especially, that 
she should stir up the Turk to have war with Christian 
princes. Sent by Dr. Parkins. P. 213. 

Number CI. The letter of the great Turk to the queen, (who 
had interceded by her agent to him in behalf of the king of 
Poland,) mentioned in the foregoing letter. Writ in Latin. 

P. 220. 

Number CJI. A commission to Mr. Chery, a merchant, from 
the lord treasurer, and others of her majesty's principal coun- 
sellors, with her letter to the great duke of Muscovy : vindi- 
cating the queen against false and scandalous reports and 
libels spread abroad, of assisting the great Turk ; and in be- 
half of her merchants trading in those parts. Being minutes 
drawn up by the lord treasurer. P. 221. 

Number CIII. A memorial of sundry necessary things to be put 
in execution for the service of the realm, now toward the 
spring of the year : upon the formidable preparations of the 
Spaniard. Dated Jan. 8, 1593. Drawn up by the lord trea- 
surer Burghley. P. 224. 
A memorial for the border of Scotland. P. 225. 
A memorial for the navy of the realm. P. 226". 
Concerning recusants of the realm. P. 227. 

Number CIV. The vice-chancellor and heads of the university 
of Cambridge, to their chancellor, the lord Burghley : touch- 
ing restraint of plays and shows ; especially at that infectious 
season. P. 228. 

Number CV. A certificate of certain principal traitors, given in 
by Diaper, [now a prisoner,] the 25th of September, 1593. 
So endorsed by the lord treasurer. P. 229. 

Number CVI. Anthony Hall, a messenger and officer of the 
queen : his services and deserts, shewed in a letter to the lord 
treasurer. And moving for a favour on that account to be 
obtained for his son. And his abilities in heraldry for that 
end. Feb. 12, 1593. P. 232. 

Number CVII. Strangers, Flemings and French, in the city of 



THE CONTENTS. xvii 

London : and complaint made of them by many, and libels 
scattered against them, ann. 1593. P. 234. 

Number CVIII. A rhyme set up upon the wall of the Dutch 
churchyard on Thursday May the 5th, between eleven and 
twelve at night : and there found by some of the inhabitants 
of that place, and brought to the constable and the rest of 
the watch. Beginning, 

You, strangers, that inhabit in this land, &c. P. 235. 

Number CIX. A notable Jesuit taken up, namely Ogylby, alias 
Bourn, but his true name Ingram. Certified in a letter from 
the earl of Huntington at York to the lord keeper Puckring. 
Feb. 12, 1593. P. 236. 

Number CX. Another letter from the earl of Huntington to the 
lord keeper : concerning his examination of Ogylby, and 
Walpole, and Lingen, seminaries, concerning Ogylby's true 
name. March the 8th. And Ingram sent up. P. 237. 

Number CXI. Concerning Walpole the Jesuit, Walpole his 
brother, and Lingen, thus the earl of Huntington to the lord 
keeper in a former letter, dated Jan. 10. P. 238. 

Number CXI1. Henry Barrow, a separatist, now in prison for 
sedition, (and soon after executed,) requireth a conference ; 
in a letter to Egerton, attorney-general. P. 239. 

Number CXIII. This petition of conference was considered of 
by the bishops and others ; and not thought convenient upon 
certain reasons against public disputations with Barrow. 
MSS. Whitg. archiep. Cantuar. P. 240. 

Number CXIV. Another address of Barrow for a conference 
(as it seems) to the council, entitled, A Motion tending to 
Unity. P. 241. 

Number CXV. A meeting of Barrowists at Islington : where 
many of them were taken and committed ; and afterwards 
examined before some of the queen's justices. MSS. lord 
keeper Puckring. P. 243. 

Number CXVI. Penry, [or Martin Marprelate,] his indictment. 
Being expressions taken out of the printed books : reflecting 
upon England, and the general state ; the archbishops, bi- 
shops, judges, and council. From the lord keeper Puckring's 
papers. P. 246. 

Number CXVII. Observations upon Penry's tracts and writings ; 
vol. iv. b 



xviii THE CONTENTS. 

as, his Protestation of his Loyalty; his Confession ; his Trea- 
tise unto the Queen's Majesty. Ubi supra. P. 248. 
Number CXVIII. Advertisements out of Portugal, by one 
Graye, (a merchant, as it seems,) lately come from thence, 
of some Irish, and other English there ; with other intelli- 
gence. P« 251. 
Number CXIX. A note of evidence of all the prisoners for 
popery in the several counties ; as the lord keeper Puckring 
collected, and writ it down for and against the persons here- 
after named, ann. 1593. So endorsed by his own hand. 

P. 254. 
Number CXX. One Whitfield's information concerning one 
Francis Dacres going to the king of Spain. Whose two 
brothers were papists, and in the rebellion in the north. Dis- 
covered by John Whitfield (who went in his company) to Mr. 
Henry Dethick, a justice of peace, October 1593. The con- 
fession whereof was brought to the bishop of Durham ; and 
by him delivered to the lord president of the north. Found 
among the lord keeper Puckring's papers. P. 264. 

Number CXXI. Whitfield's declaration voluntary, of his own 
handwriting, concerning Dacres, Nov. 8, 1593. So endorsed 
by the lord keeper Puckring. P. 265. 

Number CXXI I. Mr. Francis Dacre indicted. The particulars 
of his indictment : anno 1593. MSS. of lord keeper Puck- 
ring. P. 267. 
Number CXXIII. Whitfield, a spy ; his letter to the lord keeper, 
offering service, Nov. 16, 1593. P. 268. 
Number CXXI V. Whitfield's intelligence, Dec. 2, 1593, of 
English Jesuits and pensioners in Spain. P. 269. 
Number CXXV. An examination of John W'hitfield, Nov. 6, 
1593, before sir John Puckring, lord keeper. P. 271. 
Number CXXVI. Another examination of John Whitfield, 
Nov. 8, 1593. P. 272. 
Number CXXVII. Names of prisoners now in the Tower. Some 
that intended to kill the queen. Others for other treasons. 
Lord keeper's MSS. ibid. 
Anno 1594. Number CXXVIII. Cardinal Allen's letter to Mr. Mush, a priest, 
to pacify the disagreements between the priests in England. 
Writ anno 1594. In which year the cardinal died. P. 273. 



THE CONTENTS. xix 

Number CXX1X. Advertisements of the ill estate and order of 
the Jesuits and seminary priests, in the prison of Wisbich 
castle, [and their manner of living there.] Lord keeper Puck- 
ring's MSS. P. 273. 

Number CXXX. Then follow the names of the priests remain- 
ing in the castle of Wisbich ; and of such boys as are attending 
on them. Jan. 1595. With their countries. P. 275. 

Number CXXXI. Three gentlemen condemned in Middlesex 
for treason, when the Spanish fleet was on the sea, and pass- 
ed Calais. And had their trial at the Old Bailey. Sir George 
Bond, mayor. Ubi supra. ibid. 

Number CXXXI I. Names of recusants, with their several sums 
of money paid into the receipt, from Michaelmas last, to 
March the 10th, 1594. P. 276. 

Number CXXXIII. Matthew Hutton, bishop of Durham, to 
the lord treasurer, Dec. 1594 ; upon the queen's purpose, on 
the death of Pierse, archbishop of York, to prefer him to that 
see. P. 277. 

Number CXXXIV. Another letter of bishop Hutton, upon his 
being nominated by the queen to the see of York. Written 
to the lord treasurer, Feb. 14, 1594. ibid. 

Number CXXXV. Part of two letters of the bishop of Durham 
to the lord treasurer : in behalf of the lady Margaret Nevyl, 
daughter to the unfortunate earl of Westmerland, for her 
pardon from the queen. P. 278. 

Number CXXXVI. Part of the said bishop's second letter. 
Writ in February following, when he was removing to York. 

ibid. 

Number CXXXV1I. The humble submission of Margaret Ne- 
vyl to the queen's most excellent majesty, enclosed in the for- 
mer letter. P. 280. 

Number CXXXVIII. Tobie Matthew, D. D. dean of Durham, 
to the lord treasurer. His information of Scotch matters, 
and of the Scots king. P. 281. 

Number CXXXIX. The death of Pierse, archbishop of York, 
and the queen's almoner ; who died Sept. 28, 1594, at his 
seat of Bishopthorp. Some account of him in the sermon 
preached by Dr. King, his chaplain, at his funeral. P. 282. 

Number CXL. Cooper, bishop of Winchester, (who died also 
this year, 1594,) his monument and epitaph. P. 286. 

b 2 



xx THE CONTENTS. 

Number CXLI. William Wickham, upon his nomination from 
Lincoln to the bishopric of Winchester, his letter to the lord 
treasurer ; in gratitude, and concerning long leases designed 
of the revenues of that bishopric. P- 286. 

Number CXLII. Fletcher, bishop of Worcester, his letter to 
the lord treasurer. Desires a remove to the see of London : 
and why. P« 287. 

Number CXLIII. Adam Loftus, archbishop of Dublin, and 
lord chancellor of Ireland, to the lord treasurer. His troubles ; 
his integrity 5 displayed to that lord: and his application to 
him. Wrote from Dublin, May the 27th, 1594. P. 289. 

Number CXLIV. John bishop of Limrick, from York, who was, 
it seems, of the council there, to the lord treasurer: concern- 
ing some dangerous papists taken in those parts, and sent up : 
and now going to his bishopric in Ireland, he desires to be 
one of the council there, and his service promised. P. 292. 
Number CXLV. The said bishop to the lord treasurer: for 
leave to transport things from York into Ireland : where he 
was going to live, being required residence. P. 293. 

Number CXLVI. The plague, dreadful storms and unseasonable 
weather in this and the former year, gave occasion to Dr. 
J. King, in one of his lectures at York, to use very affecting- 
words, ibid. 
Number CXLVII. Francis Bacon, (afterwards the learned lord 
Verulam,) son to sir Nicolas Bacon, keeper of the great seal, 
deceased, to the lord treasurer : concerning the solicitor's 
place, which he had endeavoured by friends to obtain from 
the queen. P- 295. 
Number CXLVIII. Anno 1594. Sir Tho. Mildmay moved to 
keep a register of all strangers coming into the realm. (Hi- 
therto refused out of a compassion, as it seems, of the poor 
people, that came over hither for the sake of their religion 
and their lives.) P. 296. 
Number CXLIX. The lord treasurer to the queen's secretary : 
concerning certain rents and revenues to be assured to the 
queen, upon the vacancies of the bishoprics of Winchester 
and Durham, by the two bishops that should succeed the for- 
mer. MSS. D. Job. episc. Elien. (Now in the royal library 
at Cambridge.) P. 301. 
Number CL. A prayer of queen Elizabeth, upon the going forth 



THE CONTENTS. xxi 

of her majesty's array against the enemy. Found among the 
lord Burghley's papers. P. 302. 

Number CLI. The archbishop of York, and council in the Anno 1595. 
north, to the lord treasurer : signifying their receipt of the 
queen's commission ; with certain instructions for authorizing 
the government of that council. P- 303. 

Number CLII. Matthew Hutton, archbishop of York, to the 
lord treasurer : concerning recusants in those parts. A great 
revolt there. P- 304. 

Number CLIII. The aforesaid archbishop to the lord treasurer : 
concerning one Wright, a dangerous man ; dismissed, and sent 
down to York. P. 305. 

Number CL1V. Newal, a messenger of the queen's chamber, 
sent by the privy-council into Derbyshire, to apprehend cer- 
tain seminary priests there : with directions under their ho- 
nours' hands, unto which houses they should go 3 and the 
names of the justices that accompanied him. P. 307. 

Number CLV. Prisoners for religion : their prisons, and num- 
bers, sent up from the ecclesiastical commission. P. 308. 

Number CLVI. October 30, 1595. A memorial for defence of 
dangerous places of the land in several counties : wrote by 
the lord treasurer ; upon apprehension of an invasion from 
Spain. P. 309. 

Number CLVII. Young, bishop of Rochester, to the lord trea- 
surer : upon a malicious report, that he was covetous, and 
kept a miserable house : together with an account of his in- 
comes mentioned. P. 315. 

Number CLVI.II. Tho. Bilson, warden of Winchester college, 
to the lord treasurer, soliciting his interest for the bishopric 
of Worcester. P. 318. 

Number CLIX. Mr. Henry Savile to the lady Russel ; praying 
her interest with the lord treasurer for the provostship of 
Eaton. P. 319. 

Number CLX. The vice-chancellor and heads of the university 
of Cambridge to the lord Burghley, their chancellor : com- 
plaining of doctrine preached by P. Baro, D. D. Lady Mar- 
garet professor, in his clerum at St. Mary's. University 
Regist. ibid. 

Number CLXI. Dr. Goad, vice-chancellor of the university of 
Cambridge, to their chancellor, the lord Burghley. Complaint 

b3 



xxii THE CONTENTS. 

of Mr. Covel's sermon. Charging a crime upon some noble- 
men and bishops. P. 323. 

Number CLXII. The lord Burghley, high chancellor of the 
university of Cambridge, to the president and fellows of St. 
John's college, being divided among themselves ; strictly for- 
bidding them from the queen to proceed to the election of 
a master of the college ; Dr. Whitaker, last master, being 
lately dead. P. 324. 

Number CLXIII. The chancellor of the said university to the 
vice-chancellor and heads of the said university, to enjoin the 
fellows of St. John's, divided among themselves, in the queen's 
name, to proceed to the election of either Dr. Claiton or 
Mr. Stanton for their master. Dated Dec. li), 1595. ibid. 

Number CLX1V. A speech of the lord treasurer Burghley to 
the queen and privy-council : for commissioners to be ap- 
pointed by her majesty for reforming abuses. The year when 
spoken by him not inserted, but probably near this year, or 
not long before. The queen had required a copy of it from 
him, and it was as followeth. P. 326. 

Number CLXV. Queen Elizabeth falls sick, being in her cli- 
macteric. The great apprehensions and fears arising here- 
upon ; but recovereth. Related in a letter of Mr. Camden to 
sir Robert Cotton. Camden's Letters. P. 331. 

Number CLXVI. Edmund Nevyl, [calling himself lord Laty- 
mer,] a prisoner in the Tower : his letter to N. Ramberd, 
steward of the Tower, containing information against the 
lieutenant of the Tower. Nov. 9, 1595. MSS. Burghlian. 

P. 332. 

Number CLXVII. Another letter of Latymer to Mr. Ramberd ; 
setting down the articles of information against the lieutenant 
of the Tower. P. 333. 

Number CLXVIII. Another letter of Nevyl to Ramberd, Nov. 
13. P. 334. 

Number CLXIX. A fourth letter of Nevyl: containing the 
words spoken by the lieutenant of the Tower. ibid. 

Number CLXX. Lord Cobham and lord Buckhurst, of the 
privy-council, to Mr. Wade, clerk of the council : to examine 
Nevyl, whether he gave not occasion to the lieutenant to 
speak those words as above. To this question Nevyl wrote 
to Wade. P. 335. 



THE CONTENTS. xxiii 

Number CLXXI. N. Ramberd, steward of the Tower, to the 
lord chamberlain. His confirmation of the articles, Nov. 19. 

P. 336. 

Number CLXXII. Dr. James, Dean of Christ's Church, Oxon, 
to the lord keeper Puckring ; concerning a stint of bread to 
be used in that college. ibid. 

Number CLXXIII. The dean and prebendaries of Christ 
Church, Oxon, to the lord keeper Puckring ; sending the co- 
pies of letters written in times past by the lord chancellor to 
that college, for reducing a stint of bread. P. 337. 

Number CLXXIV. Then follows an original paper, endorsed, 
Christ's Church endowments and expositions : declaring the 
state of that college. Sent to the lord keeper Puckring. P. 339. 

Number CLXXV. Robert earl of Essex to the lord keeper 
Puckring, July 1595 ; for his retainers, put away because he 
would not offend the law. And that for the cause of retainers 
they may not be put out of the commission of the peace. 

P. 340. 

Number CLXXVI. The earl of Essex to the lord keeper : in 
behalf of Buckridge his chaplain. Jan. 12, 1595. P. 341. 

Number CLXXVII. The earl to the lord keeper for Dr. Mey- 
rick his chaplain. Feb. 1595. ibid. 

Number CLXXVIII. In the behalf of both the above-men- 
tioned clergymen, his chaplains, the said earl of Essex writ 
to the lord keeper the year before, viz. Jan. 29, 1594, with 
mention of their deserts. His letter for Dr. Meyrick. P. 342. 

Number CLXXIX. His letter for Mr. Buckridge. Feb. 17, 
1594. P. 343. 

Number CLXXX. Sir John Puckring, lord keeper, his petition 
to the queen, for a lease of part of the possessions of the 
bishopric of Ely : a motion to fill that vacant see. MSS. D. 
Puckring. About the year 1595. ibid. 

Number CLXXXI. Another discourse of the said lord on the 
same subject 5 viz. that the placing of a bishop in the see of 
Ely will be as profitable to her majesty as now the vacancy 
thereof is : besides divers reasons for the which, also it ap- 
peareth to be very expedient. P. 345 

Number CLXXXII. Another paper of the said lord keeper : 
soliciting the queen for a lease of some part of the revenues 

b4 



xxiv THE CONTENTS. 

of tbc abovcsaid bishopric : that he sought only to be the 
bishop's fermour. P. 346. 

Number CLXXXIII. Sir Edward Wotton to the lord trea- 
surer ; suing to be treasurer of the queen's chamber, upon the 
death of sir Francis Knowles. ibid. 

Number CLXXXIV. Sir Robert Cecil, knt. made secretary of 
state : son to the lord treasurer, lord Burghley. A familiar 
letter to Mr. Michael Hicks, his friend, secretary to the 
same lord : avowing his principle, chiefly to serve the queen. 

P. 347. 
Number CLXXXV. A book came forth this year, 1595, called, 
The State of the English Fugitives under the King of Spain and 
his Ministers : containing besides, a discourse of the said 
king's manner of government, and the injustice of many late 
dishonourable practices by them committed. P. 348. 

Number CLXXXVI. The visitation of Fletcher, bishop of 
London, Octob. 2, ann. regin. 37. In some articles of in- 
quiry, chiefly respecting the clergy. MSS. D. Johan. episc. 
Ely. P. 350. 

Number CLXXXVII. The archbishop of Canterbury to Cha- 
derton, bishop of Lincoln ; removed thither from West- 
chester, anno 1595. Touching relief of the poor in that time 
of dearth. P. 351. 

Number CLXXXVIII. Matthew Hutton, archbishop of York, 
to the lord treasurer, in behalf of the lady Margaret Nevyl, 
reclaimed from popery. P. 352. 

Number CLXXXIX. The archbishop of York to the lord 
treasurer. Against certain concealers, to deprive him of cer- 
tain church lands in Rippon, upon pretence of concealment. 

P. 353. 
Number CXC. The council in the north to the lords of the 
privy-council : giving notice of the death of Henry earl of 
Huntington, president of their council. P. 354. 

Number CXCI. The archbishop of York to the lord treasurer : 
desiring a pardon for Nelson, a priest, a prisoner : now re- 
claimed, ibid. 
Anno is»6. Number CXCII. A memorial : containing the lord treasurer's 
advice concerning the Spanish preparations. Nov. 4, 1596. 

P. 355. 



THE CONTENTS. xxv 

Number CXCIII. A publication of the queen's majesty's com- 
mandment to the generals of her navy, to offend no manner 
of person of any nation, but the subjects of the king of 
Spain, her majesty's enemy ; or such as shall manifestly aid 
the said king, for the intended invasion of the queen's ma- 
jesty's dominions. Thus endorsed by the lord treasurer's own 
hand : the whole being of his drawing up. 

On the other side by another band, thus written : 

A declaration of the causes moving the queen's majesty to pre- 
pare and send a navy to the seas, for defence of her realms 
against the king of Spain's forces. To be published by the 
generals of the said navy, to the intent that it shall appear 
to the world, that her majesty armeth her navy only to de- 
fend herself, and to offend her enemies ; and not to offend 
any other that shall forbear to strengthen her enemy ; but to 
use them with all lawful favour. May — 1596. P. 361. 

Number CXCIV. A prayer of thanksgiving for the queen's 
success against Spain, in the year 1596: composed by the 
lord treasurer Burghley, July 3 ; and printed in a sheet of 
paper. This transcribed from his own MSS. P. 364. 

Number CXCV. Hutton, archbishop of York, to the lord trea- 
surer : advising what is necessary to be done in this time of 
great danger : and for an ecclesiastical commission for those 
parts. P. 366. 

Number CXCVI. Part of a letter from a person unknown of 
the clergy, to a person of quality ; shewing the rigour of 
judge Anderson towards the clergy and preachers of Lincoln- 
shire, when he went the assizes there, in charging them with 
Brownism. Writ from Alford. P. 367. 

Number CXCVII. Day, bishop of Winton, deceased this year : 
whose last will bare date Sept. 11, 1596; and was acknow- 
ledged by the testator as his last will, September 15 : and was 
proved by the executors Oct. 2. Which Avill the pious bi- 
shop in his preface thus began. His children and relations, 
and legacies to them, are added. P. 372. 

Number CXCVIII. This year put an end also to the life of 
Fletcher bishop of London, who seems to have died under the 
queen's displeasure : the occasion whereof was his marrying 
a lady not long before his death. See some account of it in 
Archbishop Whitgift's Life, book iv. ch. 13. His letter to 



xxvi THE CONTENTS. 

the lord treasurer in behalf of his brother Dr. Fletcher, to be 
made an extraordinary master in chancery, as Dr. Caesar 
was. P. 373. 

Number CXCIX. Hugh Broughton, a very learned man for 
all Jewish learning in those times : his high commendation 
and character of Henry earl of Huntington, president of the 
council in the north, his patron, now deceased. And Ock- 
land, a poet in these times, his verses of him. P. 375. 

Number CC. Dr. Jegon, vice-chancellor of the university of 
Cambridge, to their high chancellor, concerning the lectures 
to be read at Gresham college in London. Jealous of those 
lectures, and the injuries they might occasion to the univer- 
sity. P. 376. 

Number CCI. William Lam bard, a justice of peace in Kent, a 
learned antiquarian, that wrote the Perambulation of Kent, 
and Eirenarchia, his letter to the lord treasurer Burghley, 
concerning the last will of the lord Cobham, (who died this 
year,) and some of his legacies. He was constable of Dover 
castle, and lord chamberlain to the queen. ibid. 

Number CCII. The copy of a letter, written by Ribadineyra, 
the Jesuit, to D. Juan de Idiaque. Bearing date the 10th of 
March, 1596. Translated out of Spanish. Upon the defeat 
of the Spaniard at Cales. It seems to be a letter intercepted. 

P. 378. 

Number CCIII. Anthony Coppley, a popish gentleman, now a 
prisoner ; some time in service abroad : his informations 
after his return, concerning affairs in Flanders, Spain, &c. 
To Mr. William Wade, 1596. Addressed to the lords. P. 379. 

Number CC1V. Another letter of Mr. Coppley to the lords of 
the council, concerning English gentlemen abroad. P. 385. 

Number CCV. The archbishop of York to the lord treasurer, 
to appoint speedily a president and lieutenant for the north 
parts. P. 393. 

Number CCVI. The archbishop of York and the council there 
to the lord treasurer : their reason why they stopped all suits 
commenced in chancery by those within their jurisdiction. 

P. 394. 

Number CCVII. A proclamation against such as (ook upon 
them to be messengers, entitled, A proclamation against sun- 
dry abuses practised by divers lewd and audacious persons 



THE CONTENTS. xxvii 

falsely naming themselves messengers of her majesty's cham- 
ber ; travelling from place to place, with writings counter- 
feited in form of warrants : as also, against another sort of 
vagabond persons, that carry counterfeit passports, where- 
with to beg and gather alms. P. 396. 
Number CCVIII. To the lord treasurer. Capt. Price's account 
of the expedition of Cales, anno 1596 : concerning the taking 
of it, and damages done to the Spaniards. Writ in June. 

P. 398. 
Number CCIX. This letter was enclosed in another from An- 
thony Ashley to the said lord. And his was to this tenor. 

P. 400. 
Number CCX. Sir Anthony Ashley, secretary to this expedi- 
tion, and commissioner ; his letter to the lord treasurer 
Burghley : concerning the action at Cales, in a relation drawn 
up by him, by his lordship's order. ibid. 

Number CCX1. Dr. Pye's information of popery in Sussex, 
annol596. P. 401. 

Number CCXII. Vagabonds and rogues in Somersetshire in- 
crease : and why; signified in a letter to the lord treasurer, 
from Edward Hext, some eminent justice of peace in that 
county. The calendar of the assizes there, anno 1596. P. 404. 
Number CCXIII. With the calendar as above, Mr. Hext sent 
this letter to the lord treasurer at the same time. P. 405. 

Number CCXIV. The false certificate before mentioned. P.412. 
Number CCXV. Sir John Smith, (the queen's ambassador to 
Spain,) committed to the Tower, for words spoken by him to 
the militia that were training near Colchester under sir Tho. 
Lucas : which Smyth was cousin-german to king Edward 
VI. by the lady Jane Seimour's sister ; a man of Spanish 
comportment, and well known to the king of Spain. And be- 
fore that a volunteer in the wars of Hungary against the 
Turk. P. 413. 

Number CCX VI. Part of a letter from sir John Smyth to the 
lord treasurer, in excuse for his disordered words spoken at 
Colchester; and to be a means to her majesty in his favour: 
and offering his submission in the star-chamber. P. 414. 

Number CCXVII. A letter of sir John Smyth to the lord trea- 
surer, touching his submission in the star-chamber ; the at- 



xxviii THE CONTENTS. 

torney-general, and Mr. Solicitor, and Mr. Francis Bacon 
being sent unto him, Feb. 6, 1597. P. 415. 

Number CCXVIII. His letter of gratitude to the lord trea- 
sure^ beingnow at liberty from the Tower. Dated at his house 
at Badow, under confinement there. Dated July 1598. P. 417. 
Number CCXIX. Edward lord Crumwel, to the lord treasurer : 
a protestation of his unfeigned love and service, by his fa- 
ther's commandment, late deceased : who was Henry lord 
Crumwel. Dated September 6, 1596. P. 418. 

Number CCXX. Articles annexed to the commission for recu- 
sants. This was a second commission for their examination, 
that was issued out some years before to the justices of every 
shire : occasioned (as it seems) upon the holy league of the 
pope and king of Spain to invade the realm. These articles 
seem to be drawn up by the lord treasurer, lord Burghley. 
They were printed, and thus entitled : Articles annexed to 
the commission, for a further instruction to the commission- 
ers how to proceed in the examination thereof. MSS. of the 
lord keeper Puckring. P. 419. 

Number CCXXI. Notes taken out of the new commission for 
spies, recusants, missionaries, and such like, about London 
or ten miles of it. P. 423. 

Anno 15.97. Number CCXXII. Hutton, archbishop of York, to the lord 
treasurer : for a pardon to be obtained for Dawson, a priest, 
converted by the said archbishop. His converting also of 
Richard Stapleton, constable, &c. Recusants in those north- 
ern parts. P. 424. 
Number CCXXIII. The archbishop of York, and the rest of 
the council in the north, to the lord treasurer ; informing of 
the execution of certain papists. The plague in the north. 

P. 426. 
Number CCXXIV. Sir Edward Coke, the queen's attorney- 
general, to the lord treasurer : concerning his examination of 
Gerard, a Jesuit. P. 427. 

Number CCXXV. The examination of John Gerard, a Jesuit, 
before Coke, attorney-general, and others, May the 13th, 
1597 : concerning an oath. So enclosed in the letter above. 

P. 428. 
Number CCXXVI. Adam Loftus, archbishop of Dublin, in 



THE CONTENTS. xxix 

Ireland, to the lord treasurer : concerning Mr. Rider's case : 
who had a mandamus for the deanery of that cathedral 
church of St. Patrick, being no member thereof. 429. 

Number CCXXVII. William, bishop of Coventry and Litch- 
field, to the lord treasurer : to suspend his opinion of him, 
upon a false information of him, as if he were a maker and 
maintainer of incestuous marriages. P. 430. 

Number CCXXVIII. Rogers, suffragan bishop of Dover, and 
dean of Christ's-churcb, Canterbury, died in the month of 
May this year, 1597. A letter of his (the year uncertain) was 
written to Mr. Bois, a learned civilian : concerning the vali- 
dity of his leases. P. 431. 

Number CCXXIX. Dr. Jegon, vice-chancellor of the univer- 
sity of Cambridge, and the rest of the heads, to the lord 
Burghley, their high chancellor : complaining of their pri- 
vileges infringed by the town ; that they shall be forced to 
seek relief extraordinary. P. 434. 

Number CCXXX. Dr. Jegon, the vice-chancellor of Cam- 
bridge ; in answer to the said lord their chancellor : who had 
advised him to carry himself temperately to the mayor of the 
town and his company. P. 435. 

Number CCXXXI. Questions disputed at a commencement in 
Cambridge in the year 1597 : of law, divinity, and philo- 
sophy. P. 437. 

Number CCXXXII, Charisma, sive Donum Sanationis : A book 
in quarto, written in Latin, by William Tooker, the queen's 
chaplain, and dedicated to her; dated prid. id. Jan. 1597: 
treating concerning her cures in the king's evil, by this mira- 
culous gift of healing, imparted to her. Some account of this 
book and the queen's cures. P. 438. 

Number CCXXXIII. A book of prayers printed this year 1597; 
being certain prayers, set forth by authority, to be used 
for the prosperous success of her majesty's forces and navy. 
They were eight in number. The first whereof was of the 
queen's composing. P. 440. 

Number CCXXXIV. The captain-general of the king of 

Spain's armies : his commission Englished ; this year, May 

1597. P. 441. 

Number CCXXXV. Dr. George Abbot, afterwards archbishop 

of Canterbury, this year, read theses upon six questions in the 



xxx THE CONTENTS. 

divinity schools of Oxford : pro forma discussce, et discutiendte. 

P. 443. 

Number CCXXXVI. A relation of the stirs in Wisbich castle 
among the secular priests and Jesuits. A book set forth 1597. 

ibid. 

Number CCXXXVH. Dr. Elie's notes. Some things set forth 
in the end of those notes by Dr. Bagshaw. Both seculars. 
Which notes related to the controversy in the business of 
Wisbich. P. 444. 

Number CCXXXVIII. The former of these, John Collington, 
one of the contending parties, afterwards wrote a book of 
this matter, entitled, An Appeal to Rome. P. 445. 

Number CCXXXIX. Dr. Mey, bishop of Carlisle, deceased at 
Dalston Feb. 15, 1597 : and interred in the cathedral the 
same day in the evening. From the register of the parish of 
Dalston in Cumberland. P. 446. 

Number CCXL. The archbishop of York to the lord treasurer : 
touching the loan ; which some of the wealthier clergy were 
assessed to lend. ibid. 

Number CCXLI. The archbishop of York to the lord treasurer : 
upon directions for keeping sir Robert Car, lord Sesford, an 
hostage from Scotland. P. 447. 

Number CCXLII. The archbishop to the lord treasurer's an- 
swer. P. 448. 

Number CCXLIII. Otto duke of Brunswick and Lunenburgh 
to the lord Burghley. Salutation. Wishing success to the 
queen's fleet, preparing against her enemies, in Latin. ibid. 

Number CCXLIV. The said duke of Brunswick to the said 
lord Burghley, upon the queen's declaration of sending forth 
her fleet against Spain, anno 1597. P. 449. 

Anno 1598. Number CCXLV. The said duke of Brunswick's letter to the 
lord Burghley, writ the following year, 1598, upon the re- 
turn of the queen's agent, Lesieur, sent to the electors and 
princes of Germany. P. 450. 

Number CCXLVI. Considerations of a motion for a treaty of 
peace with the king of Spain : upon a motion of the em- 
peror : drawn up by the lord treasurer Burghley, at a good 
length, by his own hand : and seems to be some of his last 
writings. P. 451. 

Number CCXLVII. The lord treasurer, lord Burghley, slan- 



THE CONTENTS. xxxi 

dered by one Johnson, the queen's farmour of Claxby ; 
whereof one Savyl was the bailiff, and Dobby and Goodwin 
two of the tenants, June 1598, that is, about a month or two 
before that lord's death. The examination of this slander. 

P. 464. 

Number CCXLVIII. The lord Burghley, lord high treasurer 
of England, was born the 13th of Sept. 1521, and died the 
4th of Aug. 1598 : and was interred at Stamford, under a fair 
monument. The pious preface to his will, bearing date Oc- 
tober 20, 1579, and revised afterwards, April 7, 1580, and 
June 1, 1580, and Feb. 22, 1582, was as followeth. From his 
Life, MS. at Burleigh house. P. 466. 

Number CCXLIX. August the 3d, 1598. Oratio expirantis 
Domini. So is the title of the prayer, made by Mr. Thomp- 
son, that lord's chaplain, the night before he died. P. 468. 

Number CCL. The character that Mr. Lambard gave of this 
great and good statesman, to his son sir Robert Cecil, in his 
epistle dedicatory to his learned book Archion. P. 470. 

Number CCLI. Another writer, that translated the history of 
France out of French, about the latter end of queen Eliza- 
beth's reign, in his dedication thus styled the lord Burghley. 

ibid. 

Number CCLII. A large inscription in Latin upon a fair mo- 
nument of this nobleman : composed by himself soon after 
the deaths of the countess of Oxford, his daughter Anne, 
and his own lady Mildred. P. 471. 

Number CCLIII. The lord Burghley's instructions to his son 
Robert Cecil, when young. P. 475. 

Number CCLIV. Lord Burghley to his son, sir Robert Cecil, 
being the last letter that ever he wrote. P. 479. 

Number CCLV. Toby Matthew bishop of Durham to the lord 
treasurer Burghley : concerning his apprehending the lady 
Katharine Gray, widow, one of the daughters of the earl of 
Westmerland ; and other harbourers of popish priests in 
those northern parts. P. 480. 

Number CCLVI. Regin. Elizab. anno 35. A warrant to the 
lord keeper Puckring, [a rough draught, corrected with some 
additions, by the lord treasurer's hand,] to grant commis- 
sions for visiting hospitals, almshouses, colleges, &c. ; the re- 
venues having been abused and swallowed up by evil men, 



xxxii THE CONTENTS. 

The effect, as it seems, of that statesman's former speech 
made to the queen, in the year 1594. P. 483. 

Number CCLVII. A remark upon this statesman, who was 
principal secretary of state in king Edward's reign ; upon a 
consultation at that king's decease of altering the succession 
to the crown, and advancing the lady Jane Gray thereunto. 
Being a private letter to the lord Burghley by Roger Alford, 
one of his ancient servants in the office of secretary in that 
king's reign. Written at the said lord's desire. Which letter 
is thus endorsed by that lord's own hand: Octob. 4, 1573: 
Roger Alford, concerning his knowledge of the times, 1553. 
Cotton Library. Titus, B. 2. P. 485. 

Number CCLVIII. Anno Eliz. 40. 1598. regia authoritate fuit 
convocatio. Notes taken by one of the ministers of London, 
then present. MSS. D. Johan. D. episc. Elien. In which con- 
vocation these canons were made and printed. P. 490. 
Anno 1599. Number CCLIX. Martin Heton, D. D. was preferred to the 
bishopric of Ely this year 1599. vacant from the year 1581. 
when Cox the last bishop deceased, being about nineteen 
years. Heton Mas consecrated bishop Feb. 3. Of whose fa- 
mily, studies, and preferment, and death, some account fol- 
lows from a reverend person his relation. ibid. 

Number CCLX. Sir Robert Cotton's writings in Emanuel De- 
metrius the historian his album, remaining in the registers of 
the Dutch church in S. Augustin Fryars, London. P. 492. 

Number CCLXI. The queen's council to the lord mayor of 
London. In behalf of the strangers, Dutch and French, for- 
bidden to exercise their trades in the city. Upon their peti- 
tion to the queen. ibid. 

Number CCLXII. To which letter is subjoined another, being 
of the same subject, though writ a year or two after. Lord 
Buckhurst, lord high treasurer, to Mr. Attorney-general ; in 
behalf of the strangers. P. 493. 

Anno i6oo. Number CCLXIII. Anno 1600. This was the year of the earl 
of Essex his plot. Which gave occasion to the setting forth 
a book, by public authority, called, A Declaration of the 
Practices and Treasons attempted and committed by Robert 
late Earl of Essex, and his Complices, against her Mnjesty and 
her Kingdoms ; and of the Proceedings as well at the Arraign- 
ment and Conviction of the said Earl and his Adherents, as 



THE CONTENTS. xxxiii 

after. Together with their confessions. Printed 1601. The 
cause of this declaration. P. 494. 

Number CCLX1V. After the rebellion under the earl of Essex 
were certain prayers, fit for the time, set forth by authority, 
to be used thrice a week on the prayer days in the churches. 
Five in number. Occasioned by a great deliverance of the 
queen and kingdom from a dangerous rebellion. Composed 
upon her entrance into a new century, viz. the year 1600. 
The first prayer followeth. P. 495. 

Number CCLXV. The second prayer on the same deliverance. 

P. 496. 

Number CCLXVI. A private letter of Francis Bacon (after- 
wards sir Francis Bacon, lord Verulam) to Robert earl of 
Essex : upon that earl's motion to come into his party, as 
the means for him to rise. P. 497. 

Number CCLXVII. James king of Scotland to lord Harableton, 
one of his servants now in England ; to assure the English 
people of his steadiness in religion. The writing of which 
letter was occasioned, as it seems, from two breves sent from 
the pope that year to the popish priests and people, to admit 
none to succeed to the crown of England, but such as were 
Roman Catholics. This from the Harleian library. P. 498. 

Number CCLXVIII. Ann. regin. 43. The preamble of a grant of Anno 1601. 
the clergy of the province of Canterbury, in a convocation, 
to the queen. Which was four subsidies of 4s. in the pound. 

P. 499. 

Number CCLXIX. The conclusion of the year 1 602 concluded Anno 1602. 
the last year of queen Elizabeth's life. Some short account 
of her life and reign from a few words of Dr. George Abbot, 
(afterwards archbishop of Canterbury,) in his book against 
Hill, a Jesuit. P. 50 i. 

Number CCLXX. The mighty esteem and value had of this 
queen and prosperous government, will appear further, from 
part of the sermon preached at St. Paul's Cross by Jos. Hall, 
D.D. dean of Worcester, (afterwards bishop of Norwich,) 
March 24, 1613, being the anniversary solemnity of king 
James's access to the crown. P. 502. 

Number CCLXXI. Richard Master, M. D. physician in ordi- 
nary to the queen : concerning the causes of diseases : upon oc- 
casion of her majesty's question to him on that subject. P. 506, 
vol. iv. c 



xxxiv THE CONTENTS. 

Number CCLXXII. Charnock, a great philosopher, presented 
her majesty with a book, richly gilt, of the philosopher's stone, 
and of the true way and art to obtain it. All written (as it 
seems) with his own hand. 

The title it bore was : A Book dedicated unto the Queen's Ma- 
jesty by Master Thomas Charnocke, Student in the most 
worthy Sciences of Astronomy, Physic, and Philosophy : con- 
cerning the work of natural philosophy. 

Nihil est opertum, quod non reveletur, et occultum, quod non sciatur. 
Matth. x. 

Anno a Virgineo partu 1565. 
Then follows the epistle. P. 508. 

Number CCLXXIII. To which may be added a third book in 
manuscript of the subject of divinity, (as the two former were 
of physic and philosophy ,) viz. concerning the doctrine of justi- 
fication, by Richard Beard, some learned divine ; writ, perhaps, 
for the queen's satisfaction in that great disputed point in those 
times. The title whereof and the writer's dedication follow. 

De vera justificatione Christiani hominis coram Deo, prcecipucc 
doctorum et patrum sententice; 
Et etiam 
Harmonics evangelicce P. 512. 

Number CCLXXIV. A proclamation by the nobles of England, 
upon the death of queen Elizabeth, of the succession of king 
James. March 24, 1602. P. 516. 

Number CCLXXV. The valuable apprehension had of king 
James of Scotland, upon his first coming into this kingdom ; 
in an address to him by William Covel, D. D. in his answer 
to a book that now came forth, called, A Plea for the In- 
nocent ; written in behalf of the puritans. P. 519. 

Number CCLXXVI. Anonymus (the queen's physician, as it 
seems) to Edmund Lambard ; a letter writ the day after the 
queen's death, concerning her sickness and departure. Writ 
in Latin. P. 521. 

Anno 1603. Number CCLXXVII. The university of Cambridge to the vice- 
chancellor and others of the university of Oxford, concerning 
that university's answer to the petition of the thousand mi- 
nisters. October, 1603. P. 522. 

Number CCLXXVIII. A proclamation for the king's coming 
from Barwick. April 10, 1603. P. 523. 



THE CONTENTS. xxxv 

Number CCLXXIX. A proclamation for all magistrates and 

officers under the late queen, to keep their places. April 5, 

1603. P. 524. 

Number CCLXXX. A proclamation for uniting both kingdoms. 

May 19, 1603. P. 527. 

Number CCLXXXI. A proclamation against monopolies and 

protections. P. 528. 

Number CCLXXXII. A proclamation commanding all Jesuits 

and seminary priests to avoid the realm before the 19th day 

of March following. Dated Feb. 22. P. 532. 

Number CCLXXXI1I. A proclamation declaring at what va- 
lues the certain monies of Scotland shall be current within 
England. April 8. P. 535. 

Number CCLXXXIV. A proclamation touching a meeting for 
the hearing and determining of things pretended to be amiss 
in the church. Given under our hand at Wilton, the 24th of 
October, 1603. This may be read in the Life of Archbishop 
Whitgift, book iv. chap. 31. Which proclamation produced 
the famous conference at Hampton-court. P. 536. 

Number CCLXXXV. Proclamation for calling a parliament. 
Jan. II, 1603. ibid. 

Number CCLXXXVI. King James his answer in French to the 
members of the Dutch church in London ; upon their address 
to him at his first coming to the crown. Ex minore MSto 
archivorum eccles. Belgic. Ann. 1603. P. 538. 

Number CCLXXXVII. A proclamation, authorizing commis- Anno ieo4. 
sioners concerning the union of both kingdoms. P. 540. 

Number CCLXXXVIII. A proclamation for coins of gold and 
silver, with their mottos and figures. And with this pro- 
clamation was printed a table, expressing the true value and 
weights of the coins, according to the accounts of the mintmen 
of both nations. P. 41. 

Number CCLXXXIX. Upon the remove of bishop Bancroft 
from London to Canterbury, anno 1604, the Dutch and 
French congregations made, to Dr. Vaughan, his successor, 
the address following. E MSS. eccles. Belgic. London. P. 543. 

Number CCXC. Cecil lord Cranborn, secretary of state, to 
Hutton, archbishop of York, concerning orders from the 
privy-council, for putting in execution the laws against pu- 
ritans, &c. P. 545. 
vol. iv. c 2 



xxxvi THE CONTENTS. 

Number CCXCI. The address of the Dutch church in London 
to Bancroft, bishop of London, upon his remove to Canter- 
bury, when monsieur de la Fontaine, preacher of the French 
church, made this speech to him in Latin. P. 549. 

Number CCXCII. The speech of monsieur de la Fontaine to 
Dr. Vaughan, now the succeeding bishop of London, anno 
1604. P. 550. 

Number CCXCI1I. The bishop of London's answer. P. 551. 
Number CCXCIV. De la Fontaine's present reply to the bishop's 
speech. ibid. 

Number CCXCV. A convocation, ann. primo Jacobi regis, 1603, 
collected and taken from the registers of the upper house. 

P. 552. 
Anno 1606. Number CCXCVI. A proclamation for Jesuits, &c. to depart 
the realm : upon a second warning given, after the gunpow- 
der plot. P. 557. 
Anno 1607. Number CCXCVII. King James's letter to the lords ; desiring 
their advice, in order to the better improving his revenue. 

P. 560. 

Number CCXCVIII. An address to king James from certain of 

his subjects. In answer to a letter from him. P. 562. 

Anno 1612. Number CCXCIX. Abbot, lord archbishop of Canterbury, to 

king James ; informing him of secret treasonable practices of 

Sunega, the Spanish ambassador. Writ in the year 1612. 

P. 564. 



THE 

CONTENTS OF THE SUPPLEMENT. 



Anno 1568. NUMBER I. Strangers in London, anno 1568. Appointed 
by the lords of the council to Thomas Row, mayor, to be 
searched out in each ward j and a certificate thereof sent in 
to them : which accordingly was taken by him at large, and 
entered in a warrant book : with his letter to them. P. 569. 

Anno 1571. Number II. A proclamation against retainers : for restraint of 



THE CONTENTS. xxxvii 

multitudes of needless servants, by wearing gentlemen's livery 
badges, and otber ensigns and tokens. P. 577. 

Number III. Minutes of a letter from tbe privy-council to the 
queen's officers at Chester, to stop all ships immediately, dated 
May 1571, upon apprehension of some treacherous and sedi- 
tious persons passing that way. P. 579. 

Number IV. Upon the massacre at Paris in France, the pro- Anno 1572. 
testants fly into England : whereof a brief account was sent 
up, of those that escaped to Rye in Sussex from Roan and 
Diep, to the number of 641 persons. P. 580. 

Number V. The chaplains and fellows of the Savoy to the lord Anno 1573. 
Burghley, lord treasurer of England, to help them in the mi- 
serable condition of their hospital 3 and that Mr. James of 
Oxford might be appointed by the queen to be their master. 
Ann. 1573. P. 581. 

Number VI. To which address of the fellows of the Savoy may Anno 1575. 
be added a more particular relation of the state of that hos- 
pital, as represented Nov. 29, 1575, bearing this title: A brief 
declaration of the state of the hospital of the Savoy, as it was 
found by her majesty's visitors, anno 1570. P. 582. 

Number VII. Thurland admitted again to be master of the 
Savoy, anno 1574 : his subscription to certain rules and orders 
for the government of the said hospital : and his oath for 
performance. P. 584. 

Number VIII. Mr. Whitgift of Trinity college in Cambridge, 
and the senior fellows of that college, to the lord treasurer ; 
in behalf of one of their society : he and the lord Bacon be- 
ing their only patrons. P. 585. 

Number IX. Dr. Gabriel Goodman, dean of Westminster, to Anno 1577. 
the lord treasurer, anno 1577. for Westminster college; 
there being then thoughts of reforming some things therein. 

P. 586. 

Number X. Mr. Robert Bertie to the lord Burghley, anno Anno 1 580. 
1580 : concerning his son Peregrine's title of lord Wil- 
loughby, and right thereto by his mother, the duchess of 
Suffolk. P. 588. 

Number XI. To which may be added a letter to the same lord 
by Peregrine Bertie, son and heir to the said Robert : claim- 
ing the title of lord Willoughby, a man well known in the 
queen's reign for his courage, and valour, and wit : who was 



xxxviii THE CONTENTS. 

now going iuto Lincolnshire, to his estate there. Writ 
March 1575. P. 589. 

Anno 1583. Number XII. A letter of sir Walter Raleigh to the lord trea- 
surer, ann. 1583. concerning the earl of Oxford, under a 
cloud at court ; for whom he had spoken favourably to the 
queen ; being desired so to do by the said lord, whose be- 
loved daughter Anne that earl had married. Occasioned by 
some quarrel between the earl and some other noblemen. 

P. 590. 

Anno 1580. Number XIII. Francis Bacon, son to sir Nicolas Bacon, lord 
keeper, his letter, written in the year 1580, to the lord trea- 
surer Burghley, who had recommended him to the queen's 
favour for some place under her ; and her majesty's gracious 
answer in his behalf. 
This F. B. was sir Francis Bacon, afterwards lord Verulam, 
viscount St. Alban's, and lord chancellor of England. P. 591. 

Anno 1583. Number XIV. The bishop of Ross his letter to Mary queen of 
Scots, abbreviated in the Annals, vol. iii. p. 104. thus went on 
at large, being the continuation of it. P. 593. 

Anno 1586\ Number XV. A letter of Edwin Sandys, archbishop of York, 
May the 22d, 1586, to the lord treasurer, lord Burghley : jus- 
tifying himself against certain accusations laid against him, 
and complained of to the queen by the dean of York, for 
leasing out the church lands by reversion ; which had brought 
him up to court to vindicate himself. P. 595. 



Manuscript Notes of the Rev. Thomas Baker. P. 599- 



BRIEF 

ANNALS 

OF 

CHURCH AND STATE, 

UNDER 

QUEEN ELIZABETH. 



Number I. 



Report from sir Edward Kelly in Bohemia, June 1589, 
against Parkyns a Jesuit: brought by Robert Tatton 
and Geo. Leycester. Thus writ upon the backside of the 
paper following, by the lord treasurer Burghley, viz. 

Certain articles of the discovery of high treason, made by 
sir Edward Kelly, baron qf Bohemia, unto certain Eng- 
lish gentlemen, which came to visit him at Tribona in 
the said kingdom, the latter end of June, 1589, whose 
names are here subscribed. 

I. A HAT fourteen days before the feast of Pentecost last ANNO 
past, one Parky ns, born in England, and now a Jesuit, ° 
came from Rome to the city of Prague in Bohemia. And 
there coming into an inn, where the said sir E. K. was, and 
uttering divers novelties, among others he plainly (but as 
it were in great secresy) opened to the said sir E. K. this 
horrible conspiracy against her majesty : 

I. That there were now seven such ways or means, con- 
cluded and agreed upon by the pope and his confederates, 
for the murthering of the queen, that if the first, second, 
third, fourth, and fifth failed, yet were the [plots] &c. in 

VOL. IV. ^ , Tt 



2 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO such sort to be executed, that the sixth or seventh should 
1589 ' take effect : yes, if all the devils in hell thereunto say nay. 
2 II. And further Parkyns declared, that those ways and 
means were by him and his coherents to be executed against 
her majesty's own person : for the performance whereof he 
declared also, that he would forthwith go into England by 
the way of Danzige. And so from thence, in the habit of a 
merchant, into England. 

III. That when the said sir E. K. declared the same 
strange news to the lord Rosenburgh, viceroy of Bohemia, 
the said Rosenburgh told sir Edward, that the said Parkyns 
was the right hand, or chief man to the king of Spain and the 
pope, in all their treacherous enterprises against England. 

IV. At the same time and instant the said L. Rosen- 
burgh shewed unto sir E. K. a letter, written by one of the 
chief of the states of the Low Countries with the emperor, 
requesting the emperor to be a means to take up the matter 
between them and the king of Spain. And also requesting 
this emperor to send them some aid, to help them away 
with the English that were in those provinces. 

V. That the said sir Edward, at his faithful disclosing 
those things (thus by divine Providence come to his know- 
ledge) to these subscribed gentlemen, did furthermore much 
marvel and wonder, how it was possible that the strangers 
of the Low Countries, dwelling in England, would or could 
lend and send unto the emperor or king of Spain a million 
of gold at any time or times, to his or their helps : which he 
of his certain knowledge assured to be done. But he well 
hoped, tll&t the treason therein by this time was come to 
the knowledge of some of her majesty's most honourable 
privy-council. 

" We Robert Tatton, and George Leycester, gentlemen, 
" do witness these articles, and the effect of every part of 
" them, to have been declared unto us, and Edmund Hil- 
" ton, servant to the rt. worshipful John Dee, esq. by the 
" within named sir E. K. at our being with him at Trebona 
" in Boeme in the end of June last, 1589 " 

To which may be added two tetters to the said Kelly, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 3 

wrote by the lord treasurer Burghlcy, as a remaining me- ANNO 
mortal of the same famous man, some time of this nation a ______ 

native. 



Number II. 

The lord Burghlcy, lord treasurer, to sir Edward Kelly, 
written ann. 1591, declaring the value he and others had, 
of him, upon the account of his great knowledge and 
virtue; and inviting him to return to his own count))) : 
and begging a medicine from him Jbr his old enemy the 
gout. 

MY most hearty commendations premised. I have cause 
to thank you, and so I do very heartily, for your good, kind 
letter sent to me by our countryman, Mr. Royden : who 
maketh such good report of you, (as doth every other man 
that hath had a conversation with you,) as that I am com- 3 
foiled to hear their reports. Yet I have the same mingled 
with some grief, that none of them can give me any good 
assurance of your return hither ; the thing most earnestly 
desired of all well disposed persons to the queen's majesty, 
and to their countrymen : and what may be the stays there- 
of, I may rather guess, than judge them of moment, to re- 
tain a person of such a value in knowledge and virtue, (as 
I take you to be,) from the consummation of your felicity 
in your own native country: and so having writ to Mr. 
Dyar more largely, I refer myself to his dealing with you : 
wishing such success without further delay, as may be to 
the satisfaction of us all here, that love and honour virtue 
and knowledge in whomsoever we may find it. And I hope 
to hear from you to have something of your approbation, to 
strengthen me afore the next winter against my old enemy 
the gout: which is rather by a cold humour than a hot, 
and principally by a rheumatic head. Which I also think 
receiveth the imperfection from a stomach, not fully digest- 
ing the food received. But to affirm what I take is the 
most direct cause is, oppression of affairs, and lack of li- 
berty : against the which no medicinal receipt can serve. 

b 2 



4 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO And yet I will be glad to make much of any receipt you 

'__ shall send me, with your assurance that it shall do me no 

harm. 

And so I pray God to direct you to bestow your gifts 
that God hath given you, rather upon your own prince and 
country, than upon strangers. From the court now at my 
house of Theobalds, the of May, 1591. 



■jgUi 



Number III. 

The lord treasurer Burghley to sir Edzvard Kelly, in an- 
swer to a letter from him, brought by Mr. Dyar. Exhort- 
ing him earnestly, and that by command from the queen, 
to come over into his own native country ; that they might 
receive the honour and service that his great wisdom 
and knowledge deserved. Written by that lord^s oxvn 
hand. 

Good sir Edward Kelly, 
I HAVE received your letter, brought by my very 
friend, Mr. Edward Dyar : with the style whereof, and 
wisdom well mixed, and with a natural dutiful regard to 
your country and sovereign, I have been both much de- 
lighted and fully satisfied. And for any particular answer 
to the parts of your letter, I need not otherwise to write 
thereof, but in this general sort, that I like of all that you 
have written ; although I should have best of all liked of 
your own access. I will not enter into argument of the 
misliking I have in that you cannot. For without more par- 
ticular knowledge of the impediments, I may not give any 
4 such censures, as some inconsiderately, yea, uncharitably 
may do. 1 conceive by your writing, that you confess a de- 
sire to return to your native country; which is very com- 
mendable in you. I perceive also by your own words ex- 
pressly, that your mind draweth you toward your gracious 
sovereign ; Avhom above all worldly majesties you desire to 
serve and please : which intent you also desire me to fur- 
ther. And what can be required of any Christian subject 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 5 

beyond this offer? No Momuscan reprehend this sincerity. ANNO 

And yet, nevertheless, I would not have you ignorant, that '_ 

sundry men, being not acquainted with these your faithful 
offers and purposes, let not in some sort (since it is seen 
that you came not with Mr. Dyar) to divine variously of 
your stay. Some saying, that you do forbear to come, be- 
cause you cannot perform that indeed which hath been re- 
ported of you. Some, that you are inticed by such as bear 
not the queen nor this realm any good will, (not to come to 
benefit her majesty.) Some allege, that your own pro- 
fession of religion doth not agree with ours here. Yea, 
some, that are maliciously disposed, say, that you are an 
impostor with your sophistications, as many heretofore, both 
here and in other countries, have been proved ; and that you 
would fear to be proved such an one here, because of 
usurers severe punishment. 

Now, good knight, though I write thus plainly to you, 
yet such is my credit in Mr. Dyar; such is my allowance 
of your loyal profession; such opinion I do firmly conceive 
of your wisdom and learning, expressed in your letters; such 
also is my persuasion of your ability to perform that which 
Mr. Dyar hath reported, by reason of the estimation, ho- 
nour, and credit I see that you have by your behaviour; as 
I rest only unsatisfied in your delay of coming : and again 
expressly commanded of her majesty to require you to have 
regard to her honour, and accordingly to the tenor of her 
former letters to assure yourself to be singularly favoured ; 
yea, in respect of the benefits that you may, by the gifts 
that God hath given you, bring to her majesty, to be ho- 
noured, to the comfort of yourself and all yours. And here 
I need not to use any further arguments to persuade you 
to this effect, considering natural reason may draw you to 
be assured of any worldly reward convenient for you, that 
is in a prince's power, whom you shall make so happy for 
her surety, as no subject that she hath can do the like. 

Good knight, therefore let me end my letter with God's 
holy name: by which I do conjure you, not to keep God's 
gifts from your natural country; but rather to help to make 

b3 



6 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO her majesty a glorious and victorious prince against the 
lj8£K malice of her and God's enemies. Let honest glory move 
your natural heart to become honourable rather in your 
own country than a strange ; and to leave a monument of 
your name at home to all posterity. Let no other country 
bereave us of this felicity, that only, yea, only by you, I 
say, is to be expected. And now let no time be more driven 
off and lost; considering we are all mortal; you that should 
be author hereof, and this noble queen that should be the 
receiver thereof. 

All this letter is by me written, as an answer to your let- 
ter sent by Mr. Dyar. And now I may not omit to thank 
5 you for the mountain or rock that you sent, and was safely 
brought to me from Stoden : which I will place in my 
house, where I do bestow other rare things of workman- 
ship ; and shall be a memorial of your kindness. Wishing 
I might enjoy some small receipt from you, that might 
comfort my spirits in mine age, rather than my coffers with 
any wealth : for I esteem health above wealth. 



Number IV. 

Sir Francis Knolles, lent, treasurer of the chamber to queen 
Elizabeth ; to the lord Burghley, lord high treasurer. 
A letter of some sharpness against the superiority of 
bishops. 

I HAVE received your lordship's letter of the first of 
August : wherein I have received very small comfort, and 
small hope of the good maintenance of her majesty's safety, 
consisting in the sincere maintenance of her majesty's su- 
preme government, against the covetous ambition of clergy 
rulers. For your lordship saith, the question is very dis- 
putable, whereof I wrote unto your lordship. And I must 
needs confess, that Campion's disputation against the hu- 
mility of Christ's doctrine, and for the advancement of Anti- 
christ's doctrine, was not only allowed to be disputable, but 
also it was very plausible in the minds of all those that fa- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 7 

voured the worldly, pompous rule of Christ's government. ANNO 
For the nature of covetous ambition in church governors _____ 
hath always despised the humble and base style of Christ's 
doctrine and government. For the high priests and go- 
vernors of the church of the Jews, when Christ came unto 
them, they made it disputable, whether Christ were worthy 
to die, or not. But their disputation lasted not long : for 
the proud ambitious rulers of the church resolved quickly 
that Christ was worthy to die. And Christ himself bewail- 
ing the proud ambitious government of the Scribes and 
Pharisees, burst out and said, O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, 
he. Whereby appeareth, that the church governors in all 
times, that are once stuffed with the ambitious pride of 
worldly rule in the church, could never away with the hu- 
mility of Christ's heavenly doctrine and spiritual rule in 
the church. 

And as touching the sujjcriority of bishops to be dis- 
allowed, as a false claim, it seems to me, that Christ himself 
hath plainly decided the matter, at what times as the apo- 
stles at two sundry times did seem to murmur and strive, 
who should be the greatest after Christ's departure from 
them. Where it seems to me, that Christ condemned plainly 
all claiming superiority among his apostles : the which rule 
if our bishops would follow, as no doubt they would, if 
her majesty's supreme government were stoutly stand unto, 
then they would be contented to forbear their claimed su- 
periority of government in the church, which Christ con- 
demned in the apostles ; and they would be satisfied with 6 
that equality which Christ left to the church among the 
apostles. 

But here you must not take me, that I do deny that bi- 
shops may have any lordly authority or dignity that they 
have enjoyed, so that they claim it not from a higher au- 
thority than directly from her majesty's grant. But I do 
not mean hereby to contend with your lordship, through 
whose assistance I have always hoped that her majesty's 
safety (consisting in that thorough maintenance of her ma- 
jesty's supreme government) should be jealously preserved; 

b 4 



1 f.89. 



8 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO but yet your lordship must pardon me, although I do not 
think that her majesty's safety is any thing the better pre- 
served, because our bishops dare not oppose themselves and 
their credit against her majesty's supreme government. For 
it is the Jesuits, and not our bishops, that must bring her 
majesty's safety into peril, if this maxim may be allowed 
unto the same Jesuits, that our bishops of England are not 
under-governors to her majesty of the clergy, but that they 
are superior governors over the said inferior clergy by God's 
own ordinance, [i. e. jure divino.] Whereupon it must 
needs follow, that her majesty is not supreme governor over 
the clergy, if so be that our said bishops be not under-go- 
vernors to her majesty, but superior governors by a higher 
claim than directly from her majesty. 

But my trust is, that the cause of your lordship's writing 
unto me, that the question is very disputable, is not for 
that your lordship is of that opinion, but rather for that 
your lordship would bridle and stay me from running too 
fast before your lordship in the matter of her majesty's 
safety. But although I have always been and must be plain 
with your lordship, in the matter of her majesty's safety, 
yet if it shall please your lordship to set all the bishops 
and all their favourers against me, to prove me a disturber 
of their government in their suppressing of preachers, or 
otherwise, your lordship shall find, that none of them shall 
be able to prove any substantial matter against me, since 
the time that long since her majesty at Windsor did com- 
mand me, that I should not deal with the puritans, as then 
her majesty called them, because her majesty did commit 
the government of religion to her bishops only. Since which 
time I have dealt no more with matters of religion than 
doth appertain to her majesty's safety, consisting in the true 
preservation of her majesty's supreme government. The 
which may best be called matter of her majesty's policy, 
and not matter of religion ; although the Jesuits do call all 
their treasons matter of religion. 

Thus fearing that I have been too bold with your lord- 
ship, although I do know your lordship doth love to hear all 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 9 

men's opinions, that your wisdom may the better judge ANNO 
thereof, I do most humbly take my leave. 1589, 

At Ewelline Lodge, the Your ]o ^ s W^ to command, 
4 th of August, 1589. F. Knollys. 



Number V. •j 

Sir Francis Knollys to the queen, upon some displeasure 
she had taken against him. Occasioned by his contro- 
versy about the superiority of' bishops. 

My most gracious sovereign, 
ALTHOUGH I be unworthy to be trusted, yet I am 
not unworthy to be tried, or false in matters concerning the 
safety of your majesty's crown and dignity. I found my 
old error, that is to say, that I have not heretofore (in 
weighty matters) used such temperancy of speech as wiser 
men have done to your majesty. Neither have I suppressed 
mine abundance of affections, (in so weighty causes,) as wiser 
men have done or should do. Now to avoid these my old 
errors, I do most humbly crave at your majesty's hands at 
this present, that it will please you, that my lord treasurer 
may be pleased to be a faithful reporter and true dealer be- 
tween your majesty and me, and also between me and such 
as I shall accuse for injuring your majesty's safety, and 
your majesty's supreme government, so sore presently as- 
saulted by the pope and the king of Spain, and their Je- 
suitical adherents. 

This writ by another hand, being a copy sent to the lord 
treasurer Burghley, and found among his papers. 



Number VI. 

One Mrs. Dier had practised conjuration against the queen, 
to work some mischief to her majesty ; for which she was 
brought into question for it. And accordingly her words 
and doings were sent to Popham, the queens attorney, 



10 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO and Egerton, her solicitor, by Walsingham the secretary, 
l589- and sir Tho. Heneage, her vice-chamberlain, for their 



judgment of her case; whose opinion was, that Mrs. Diet- 
was not within the compass of the estatute touching 
witchcraft; for that she did no act, and spake certain 
lewd speeches, tending to that purpose : but neither set 
figure, nor made pictures. The attorney's and solicitor s 
letter in answer follows. 

OUR humblest duty done unto your honours. It may 
please you to be advertised, that we have perused the several 
examinations which your honours sent us concerning Mrs. 
Dyar. Where we find very lewd and undutiful speeches 
8 by her concerning her majesty, and of very bad practices 
intended towards her highness. Which matters would re- 
Wbether quire, in our opinion, farther examination. Whether any 
attempted, thing concurring with her purpose; and the times thereof 
The times would be directly set down. Which we may guess at by 
rectiytet Hamelton's letter. But it would be plainly set down, where 
down. every thing was done or spoken. And for other matters of 
her witchery intended, it appeareth not by any the ex- 
No action animations, that any action of Avitchcraft was put in use ; 
°rift tC iut in out a s P eecn use d of such a purpose : which doth not bring 
execution, them in danger of the law in that behalf made. Therefore 
it would be well looked into whether any thing were done, 
as picture, figure set, and such like. And the times would 
be set down plainly, when and where every thing was done. 
We have also here returned unto your honours the several 
examinations sent us concerning that cause. And so do 
humbly take our leaves. The 7th of Jan. 1589. 

Your honours humbly, 

Jo. Popham. 
Tho. Egerton. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 11 

Number VII. ANNO 

1589. 

Sir Francis Drake to the lord treasurer, concerning the- 

fleet landing in Caskays with don Antonio, for recovery 
of his kingdom of Portugal. 

Right honourable, my very good lord, 
SINCE my last letter sent to your lordship from the 
Groine, we have landed our army twelve leagues from 
Lisborn, and passed with a navy to Caskays, which is 
within five leagues of Lisborn, where we landed such forces 
as we might conveniently spare. The long contrary wind 
at the Groine, and the continuance of the same in all our 
passage from thence hitherwards, hath been the cause of 
their intelligence so long before, of our coming with don 
Antonio. By which means the enemy had gathered their 
whole strength out of Portugal and Gallicia into three 
several places. The first and greatest they continued at 
Lisborn. The second in a fort of very great strength, in 
the very entrance and mouth of the haven of Lisborn. And 
the third in twelve galleys. 

Our first army remained three days in the suburbs of 
Lisborn, and our other troops at Caskays remained there 
six days. 

All this time there never repaired unto us of Portugal 
soldiers above two hundred, or thereabouts. They have 
taken of the second sort of Portuguezs, their wives and 
children for their pledges and assurance, that they should 
be loyal to king Philip : and sent the gentlemen, and men 
of best account in Portugal, either into Spain, or kept them 
in prison. 

We are all of opinion, that if we had comen first for Lis- 9 
bon, the city had been ours : and that being once won, the 
whole country might well, and would have comen in unto 
don Antonio. The numbers of our soldiers and mariners 
are greatly decayed by extreme sickness happened in the 
army, to the great discomfort of the rest. We have not yet 
altogether concluded of our resolution for any farther ser- 
vice, although we have often sat to determine it : because we 



12 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO hear not of our supply, which is to come out of England. 
1589 ' But mind, God willing, to determine it very shortly ; and 
then to advise your lordship of the particulars thereof. 

Thus I humbly take my leave of your lordship. From 
aboard her majesty's good ship the Revenge, in the road of 
Caskaiz. This 2d of June, 1589. 

Your lordship's always ready to be commanded, 

Fra. Drake. 

Within these three days we have taken threescore sail of 
hulks and bottoms; all, or the most part of them, laden 
with rye, wheat, and all manner of provisions, and bound to 
discharge at Lisbon. 

By which means we have letted him of his purpose to 
come with an army this year. 

The country, in all places where we came, is in great 
want of corn, yet the king's store-houses full of all manner 
of provision. Which they caused to be burnt in every place 
where we came. 



Number VIII. 
A discourse of Anthony Coppley, the 6th of January, 1590, 
(o/* his abode and maintenance beyond the seas,) to Mr. 
William Wade. [ Who was lieutenant of the Tozver.~\ He 
seems to be the son of Thomas Coppley, a prime popish 
fugitive in Q. Elizabeths reign, and zoas made great 
master of the Maes by the king of Spain; and qfter- 
xoards knighted by the French King, and the title of 
baron given him; as Camden, under the years 1575 and 
1577, zoriteth. 

THAT being fifteen years of age, and a young student 
of Furnivars Inn, under the charge of a kinsman, Mr. 
T. Southwel, (now himself beyond seas,) he stole away, 
(him unwitting,) and got over to Rome, to his father and 
mother; whb were dwelling there at that time, viz. 1582. 
And continued there two years, or thereabouts. Brought 
up by them and instructed in the knowledge and certainty 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. IS 

of the faith I profess. Afterwards it was obtained by a ANNO 
lady of the prince of Parma's court, that I might, if I 1589 ' 
would, be his page. But my father, supposing that a place 10 
not convenient for my younger years, albeit it were a place 
of honour, and a ready way, in time, to further preferment, 
either in court or camp, (as it is daily seen,) yet my father, 
perceiving in those my younger years a desire rather to 
travel, than any good liking I had of that condition, con- 
descended to my own choice of the two. To be short, I 
rather chose to journey to Rome : whereunto my father 
the rather willingly condescended, by reason that at that 
very time a kin of my own, Mr. Rob. Southwel, a Jesuit 
in Rome, brother to the president Tho. Southwel, hearing 
of my being beyond sea, had of his own accord and love to- 
wards me procured ten crowns pension of pope Gregory 
for my better maintenance there, in case my friends would 
allow of that course. And herewithal by his letter to my 
father, then fled, advertised him of the whole. 

Whereupon I was sent to Rome, where I remained the 
space of two years, having my chamber and table in the 
English college, as Mr. Gilbert and Mr. Cha. Basset, and 
others in like manner had before me : living upon my pen- 
sion of the pope at that while. And at last the pope died ; 
and his nephew, the cardinal Sixto, likewise ; (of whom I 
had confirmed my said pension unto me, while he lived.) 
These being dead, and so my pension lost, I returned again 
into Flanders; where I found my father was likewise dead, 
and my mother and elder brother returned into England. 
Only my brother Stanihurst I found there ; who by Hugh 
Owen's means got me forth twenty crowns pension of the 
prince of Parma. 

So that since that time, till now that I am returned into 
England, I have served the king of Spain in his wars in 
Flanders. For which I humbly crave pardon of her majesty 
and my country; hoping now hei-eafter, and (protesting it) 
always to deserve better, in reparation of this my offence. 

As for my religion, I protest unto you, sir, I will so be- 
have myself therein, as no scandal shall be given. Neither 
will I refuse conference with any learned man, minister or 



14 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO other; to the end to be resolved in another faith, in case 
I589, they can of certainty prove it unto me, that I believe amiss. 
And, good sir, I beseech you, let my honourable good 
lords of her majesty's council, namely my lord treasurer, be 
satisfied in my faith and truth to my prince and country ; 
and to make proof thereof in whatsoever they shall please 
to employ me. Surely, sir, I am not returned to enjoy 
lands nor livings in any country : for fortune hath not so 
assigned me : only to the duties of a true and sincere sub- 
ject I am returned : to stand with my prince and country 
to my life's end. It grieveth me to hear abroad of Spanish 
preparations yet once again against England ; namely, un- 
der pretence of title to the same. Which doubtless im- 
porteth in the enemy a mind resolved in a conquest of the 
realm, if ever they get on shore; which God defend. Name- 
ly, I beseech you also, good sir, to move Mr. Vice-chamber- 
lain in my behalf. His honour is long since privy to my 
return. I hope, therefore, that upon information of my 
present state, I shall, by your good means, find him my 
1 1 honourable good lord : which I humbly crave. Perchance 
my father's and my brother's demerits may make against 
me, but I refer myself to the favour of my good lords. 

Anthony Coppley. 

This seems to have been wrote by him in the Tower. 

In the year 1603, Anthony Coppley was proclaimed to 
be apprehended, as likewise sir Griffin Markham, Watson, 
Clark, priests. StozcPs Annals. 



Number IX. 

Whitgift, archbishop of Carder bury, to the justices qf peace 
in Kent: for release of the clergy from composition-corn. 
An original. 
Epist. To my very loving and assured good friends the justices 

Wliitg. f p eace i n the county of Kent, assembled at the ses- 

sions of Canterbury. 
AFTER my right hearty commendations. I am given 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 15 

to understand by sundry ministers of East Kent, that for ANNO 
some years last past (by what means I know not certainly) 158!) ' 
they have been assessed among others to the provision of 
corn, &c. for her majesty's most honourable household. It 
is conceived that this hath first grown, when as heretofore 
most part of the benefices there were in the occupation of 
laymen, as fermours, or otherwise ; whereby they were con- 
tributaries. But seeing that it is not unknown unto you, 
that by the most ancient laws all ecclesiastical persons are 
freed from this and like charges, that the ministers there- 
abouts are both of very mean ability, and also deeply 
charged to other public services and contributions ; and 
that there is no reason, that they more than the ministers of 
other parts of this shire (perhaps upon some former negli- 
gence or mistaking) should endure this burden, which you 
of the commission of peace that have the yearly assessment 
thereof may easily remedy. I do therefore very heartily, 
upon these considerations, pray you and every one of you, 
to whom this may appertain, to have a friendly and pitiful 
regard for their release herein : and that the rather by your 
good means and furtherance they may without discourage- 
ment go forward in their vocation; enjoying but the benefit 
of law and of other subjects of their sort. Which exception, 
when all things shall be well weighed, will not be (as I per- 
suade myself) any whit prejudicial to her majesty's due 
provision, being a matter which, according to my bounden 
duty, I do otherwise greatly tender, and am most willing 
to prefer and set forward in all good and lawful manner 
I may. 

And so I commit you all to God's holy protection. 

^ , * -n i Your very assured friend, 

Jbrom my house at lord, J 

the 2 1st of July, 1589. Jo. Cantuar . 



16 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 



anno Number X. 

15.90. 

. The bishop of Winton to the lord treasurer. A contest be- 



1 2 tween the president and fellows of Corpus Christi college, 
Oxon: deferred to their visitor the said bishop, with his 
sense of it, shexved to the said lord treasurer ; who had 
sent to him to put an end to it. 

MY duty considered, right honourable. Upon the sixth 
of February, I received from your lordship a letter in be- 
half of the seniors of Corpus Christi college in Oxford. It 
may please you to understand that the controversy, which 
they move for the election of their officers, and for any 
other griefs, was never brought unto me until the 8th of 
January last. And yet had they before Christmas, con- 
trary to their statute, sought remedy at other places; never 
making me privy of any thing. At which time, and ever 
since, I have had business of great importance, very nighly 
touching myself, my office, and charge. And yet did 1 not 
delay their cause, but presently bestowed an whole day and 
more in conference of their allegations : which were so diffi- 
cult as I could not presently make my resolution, except I 
should have done it without just ground of conscience. 
Therefore I presently wrote to the president and them, [the 
seniors,] that for this time only they would quietly con- 
descend to some indifferent election, until I could so peruse 
both their statute and the statutes of other colleges, that I 
might with safe conscience make my resolute interpretation. 
This counsel would not be accepted ; but five of them with- 
out the president confirmed their former election. Yet did 
I plainly signify unto them, that as I stood then persuaded, 
I thought, that neither the president alone, nor five without 
the president, could make a just election. 

Whereupon I wrote again unto them, to the end the 
business of the college might proceed, that they would suf- 
fer those persons, that were officers chosen by them the last 
year, to continue; and to execute their office, until they re- 
ceived my full resolution, which I would send them with as 
much speed as I could. Which direction, I understand, at 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 17 

Candlemas-day last, was accepted of: and therefore my ANNO 
hope is, I shall in reasonable time so end their controversy, 1590 ' 
that I shall in good part take away the factions that have 
been among them these six years. 

I heartily desire your honour to have this persuasion of 
me, that I do more tender the good state of a college in 
Oxford, than I do mine own particular house and com- 
modity. And it grieves me to see these places, which were 
ordained to be schools of good learning, modesty, and obe- 
dience, to be turned to be nurseries of discord, dissension, 
and stubbornness towards superiors, as that house hath been 
almost this seven years; seldom without questions, but never 
without factions and parties, one striving against another; 
and commonly raised and maintained by Leonard Taylor, 13 
the principal follower of these matters. For he hath wrought 
himself to be chosen bursar by these five : and therefore 
will willingly admit no moderation for the mean time. He 
hath of late years more studied to maintain wrangling inter- 
pretations of their statutes, than to increase his learning. I 
do not defer my resolution without great cause and sincere 
meaning. For I am prescribed by their statute to make no 
other interpretation, but secundum literalem et grammati- 
calem sensum. Which, by the interpretation of both parts, 
is made very intricate for me to declare what the founders 
meaning was, unless I did throughly peruse their statutes, 
and the statutes also of other houses. Which I cannot do in 
such haste as they would have me; unless my resolution 
should go before the judgment of my conscience. 

Moreover, if 1 should resolve that five young men of 
small experience should choose all the officers in the house, 
and thereby overrule, and, as some of them have spoken, 
curb or bridle the president, I should plainly, against ho- 
nest conscience, establish and allow (to a very hard example) 
a pack or conspiracy against the head, and also hazard the 
good estate of the house. For, as I see, that inconvenience 
may follow, if the president, being but one man, should 
have all in his own hands, (which I do not like in any 
wise;) so I do foresee great inconveniences may come, if 

VOL. iv. c 



18 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO four or five young persons, without or against their head, 
should do what they list, without some bridle to restrain 
them. I have been too well acquainted with the factious 
dealing of young scholars. And I know what is the root 
and first beginning of this faction against the president, and 
to what end it will come, if they be not stayed. I have 
known him head there these 23 years. And this 1 dare say 
upon my credit, that for scholastical government and order 
in that house, he hath so ruled it, as few in Oxford have 
done the like. But whatsoever he be, I will neither for 
him nor for any other man, God willing, determine any 
thing that shall be against the good state of that house, if 
the clamorousness of these men do not overbear me. 

But I trouble your honour too long. 1 pray God pre- 
serve the same in health to his glory. This 8th of Feb. 
1590. 

Your honour's in Christ assured to his power, 

Thomas Winton. 



14 Number XL 

MericJc, bishop of the Isle of Man, to the lord Binghley, 
lord treasurer. Complaining- of his being charged above 
his ability. Shewing his needy condition. Writ April, 
1590. 

Right honourable, 
PARDON me. I am forced to be troublesome. I came 
the last summer to Wales; having been the vear afore in 
Man : as I am commonly between both : not of my own 
choice or will; but things are so, and causes 1 might allege 
to satisfy the wise, but too long for your honour's affairs. 
Neither hath any bishop, my predecessor, been otherwise 
this [hundred] years. My living is but lxxxxZ. in money; 
wherewith I travail by sea and by land. Landing here seven 
years since, and finding my friends in prison, I lent them m\ r 
stock for that year, and borrowed them as much more : I 
have lacked it ever since, and would give the one half to be 
paid the other; and am in debt to others at that while: and 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 19 

did afore the last parliament assign the same money to ANNO 
others for my discharge. ' 

Yet in respect of this the cessers for the temporalties in 
Anglesey, envying my friends that benefit, have rated me 
in goods worth more than all this isle is besides. And of 
truth, as I shall prove, I have neither house nor home here. 
No other debts, goods, but such as I carry about for my 
necessary expenses, and to bring me over again ; no kind of 
benefit ecclesiastical or temporal, but three travelling nags, 
to carry me to and from the water-side. Where lying sick 
and waiting for passage, being loath to continue subject to 
process, or to be thought fraudulently conveyed, or of not 
loyned my goods, I am well willing to be tried. And am 
constrained thus to signify to your honour; humbly be- 
seeching your lordship, that I may not be wrongfully 
vexed ; as I shall pray the Almighty God to give your ho- 
nour abundantly tie rore cadi et pinguedine terra; in- 
crease your spiritual and temporal gifts ; to prosper your 
public doings, and bless you and your posterity. 

Anglesey, the 4th of April. 

Your honour's most humble, 

Jo. Meryck, of the Isle of Man. 



Number XII. 15 

Hutton, bishop of Durham, to the lord treasurer, that his 
lordship woidd be a means to satisfy the queen concern- 
ing the bestowing of Sherborn hospital. Writ in March, 
1590. 

My most humble duty remembered, &c. 
I AM now to crave your lordship's favour more than 
ever in my life. For I understand by Mr. Secretary, that 
her majesty is much offended with me for the bestowing of 
Sherborn house. The matter is this. Immediately after the 
decease of Dr. Dale, I bestowed the hospital of Sherborn 
house upon a kinsman of mine, one Mr. Hutton, a bache- 
lor of divinity, and one of the senior fellows of Trinity 



20 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO college in Cambridge, and this year head-lecturer in that 
_ house. But because the living chiefly consisteth upon hus- 
bandry, and he a mere scholar, I was content, at his suit, to 
bestow that hospital upon Dr. Bellamy, an honest man, a 
preacher and a physician, to have charge both of the souls 
and bodies of the poor, impotent, sick persons of that hos- 
pital, and Dr. Bellamy to give over one of his benefices, and 
his prebend in Durham, to Mr. Hutton. This was done in 
November and the beginning of December last. For after 
I did receive a letter from Mr. Secretary, that her ma- 
jesty's intention was to qualify sir Henry Lee with a dis- 
pensation, and to bestow upon him the said house, I did 
answer, that I being patron by statute, (whereunto her ma- 
jesty had given her royal assent,) with best advice, had al- 
ready given it as fully and effectually as I could. 

So the matter slept from that time until the beginning of 
March, when I did receive, to my great grief, another letter 
from Mr. Secretary, that her highness was greatly offended 
with me for the bestowing of it ; because I, knowing her 
majesty's determination, had presumed to bestow it without 
her leave. I answer that which was most true, as I shall 
answer before the living God, that I had given it before 
Mr. Secretary's letter, signifying her majesty's pleasure, 
did come unto my hands; and that I did it with the testi- 
mony of a good conscience, to bring into this ignorant 
country two godly preachers by two benefices which Dr. 
Bellamy did resign. 

But this week I did receive a third letter from Mr. Se- 
cretary, signifying, that he had acquainted her majesty 
with my answer. Wherewith her highness was nothing sa- 
tisfied ; but that her majesty's resolution was, that I should 
restore Dr. Bellamy to all his former livings, and he to give 
over the hospital ; and that I should send up forthwith to 
the court Mr. Hutton, to compound with sir Henry Lee 
for the hospital; and then he to have the same. Which 
thing, if it please your good lordship, lieth not in me to do. 
For I am not patron of all Dr. Bellamy's livings, and he 
refuseth to give over the hospital which he doth lawfully 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 21 

possess. And Mr. Hutton was instituted and inducted into ANNO 

the benefice and prebend in the beginning of December '__ 

last ; and, as I hear, hath already compounded for first- 1 6 
fruits. Yet have I sent my servant to Mr. Hutton at Cam- 
bridge, where he is preparing for his removing to his bene- 
fice, now at Easter, and willed him to make his present re- 
pair thither, and to answer for himself. 

Thus standeth the matter. Now my humble suit is unto 
your honour for your accustomed favour. First, That Dr. 
Bellamy and Mr. Hutton be not compelled to give over 
their livings, which, as I take it, they do lawfully possess. 
Secondly, That the hospital appointed by her majesty and 
the whole parliament to a preacher, and the relief of the 
poor, may not be converted to worse uses ; which is like to 
be, if sir Henry Lee be compounded withal. Thirdly, That 
her majesty be not offended with me for doing that which I 
thought I might do lawfully, and did with the testimony of 
a good conscience. I beseech your honour, that as you and 
my lord's grace of Canterbury were the means, without my 
suit, for my placing in this country, so at my earnest hum- 
ble suit you will be a means to defend me in my well and 
lawful doings. Thus with humble thanks to God for re- 
storing you to health again, and to your honour for your 
great favour towards me at all times, I humbly take my 
leave. Aukland, the 30th of March, 1590. 

Your lordship's most bounden, 

Matth. Dunelm. 



Number XIII. 
Harberd, bishop of Hereford, to the lord treasurer; in- 
forming him of one brought before him for seditious 
words. 

Right honourable and my very good lord, 
WHEREAS William Wier of Middleton Scriven, in 
the county of Salop, yeoman, coming before me for a cause 
ecclesiastical, was accused ; for that he, in the hearing of 

c3 



22 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO three others, (who have also certified the same,) had said, 
°' " that priests 1 wives were whores, and their children bastards. 
" And that it was pity they were unburned. And that he 
" did hope the true law should shortly be restored. And 
" then they should be either hanged or burnt. And that it 
" was pity the queen did reign, to suffer them unhanged or 
" unburni." And I thereupon have sent him to her ma- 
jesty's council in these parts, notwithstanding the said party 
in very vehement sort denied the speaking of any such 
words, and said, that because of controversy with them, 
they did bear him malice ; I thought it my duty in this 
wise to certify your honour thereof, that such further order 
might be taken with him as to your wisdom shall seem con- 
venient. And so I humbly commend your good lordship to 
the protection of Almighty God. From Whitburne, the 
4th of October, 1590. 

Your honour's to command, 

Harb. Hereford. 



Number XIV. 

1 7 Mbnoire a monseigneur le grand tresoricr, pour Geneve. 
A paper Jblloxoing so endorsed was drawn up by Le Lcct, 
agent here for Geneva ; shexoing their present miserable 
condition, and craving his interest with the queen on 
their behalf. 

Monsegneur, 

JE lVinsisteray point a vous representor le pauvrc estat 
de la ville de Geneve, ni les dangers et nccessitez qui i'en- 
vironnent : lesquelles vous avez peu voir par les lettres de 
mes supcricurs ; et qui est assez notoire a un chacun, &c. 
To this tenor in English ; 

That he would not insist to represent to him the poor 
estate of the town of Geneva, nor the dangers and neces- 
sities that compassed them about ; the which he had seen a 
little by the letters of his superiors, and which was suffi- 
ciently notorious to every one. But he should beg him 
only in all humility and reverence, and pursuing the new 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 23 

charge which he had from them, as he [the lord treasurer] ANNO 

had seen by the same letters, that he would please to make 

them finally perceive and experiment the effects of his zeal 
and compassion, favouring them (against their malice) to- 
ward her majesty. So that it might be her good pleasure to 
succour them with some portion of her good means. He 
proceeded ; 

My lord, you see us before your eyes, a church none of 
the least signalized, and of importance, and which hath al- 
ways been very affectionate towards this realm, to sustain 
for fourteen months intire God's two most terrible scourges, 
war and famine ; having to do with the most powerful and 
obstinate enemies of the religion, the king of Spain and the 
duke of Savoy ; except that they might not yet any ways 
perceive the issue of such assaults ; which yet now began 
again more than ever. 

In the midst of which, the hope which comforts and re- 
lieves my superiors and all our people, is the assistance of 
her majesty and this realm ; which they wait for from day 
to day, not seeing to shine any appearance of comfort, nei- 
ther from France, nor from Swisse, nor elsewhere. 

In the mean time, vny lord, I am in this realm seven 
months with so little fruit of my solicitation, and daily pains 
of body and mind, [a collection was granted for them Fe- 
bruary last ; and the governors of Geneva, in a letter dated 
that month to the treasurer, did thank him for the same, as 
Le Lect had signified to them. But it seems the collection 
was not yet finished,] that I know no more to whom I may 
turn ; being in truth such delays did not proceed (as he 
proceeded) from a disfavour or want of good affection of 
her majesty, or of the good will of her council towards their 
poor town ; not knowing nevertheless to whom to attribute 
the causes of it. That his lordship saw, that poor Geneva 
had not been preserved, and subsisted to that present, but 
by an extraordinary, miraculous assistance of God, and 1 8 
against all human appearance. Yet his superiors, through 
extreme want of money, whereof they were exhausted, were 
constrained to keep together their soldiers, and to keep 

c 4 



24 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO themselves close within their walls. And that the same al- 
''' mighty power and mercy of God could save them imme- 
diately without man. But his [the lord treasurer's] pru- 
dence might easily judge how long it would be easy in hu- 
man appearance for the enemy to oppress them ; having 
also yet more forts and garrisons in one or two places near 
them. By means whereof it fell out (alas!) that they at- 
tacked them at their gates. 

It remained, that in all appearance her majesty would 
more easily send them succour than they could ask it, since 
the war was made and conducted principally by the king of 
Spain and by his expenses ; that is, by the capital enemy 
of this realm [of England.] Who being employed and de- 
tained thereabouts, [at Geneva,] and not being able to pre- 
vail over their weakness, without doubt he should not be 
able so easily to disquiet her said majesty in the Low Coun- 
tries, nor in other places. That they knew the charges of 
her majesty, [mere nonrrice,] the mother nurse of the 
church, both near and far off. They knew also the ancient 
obligation which they owed her. But extreme necessity 
compelled them to implore again once more her aid, and 
not such or so large as might bring any prejudice or dis- 
commodity to the rest of her affairs upon all this happy 
peace which it had pleased God to give her. In sum, it 
lay in the power and good- will of her majesty to save, by a 
moderate beneficence, a city and church, by the loss and 
ruin whereof she would receive great displeasure, and 
France and other churches no little damage like to come. 
And, in a word, they alleged the most strait and sacred 
tie of religion and Christian charity, which could not be 
frustrate of blessing in respect of God, and perpetual praise 
in respect of men. 

He added, [addressing to his lordship,] that every one 
knew how much of weight her majesty attributed to his 
good advice ; and he hoped also so much of her kindness 
and clemency accustomed, and of that good affection which 
it pleased her to declare to him some months ago from her 
own mouth, towards their town, that she would not be in- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 25 

cxorable to the most humble and most instant request to- ANNO 
wards their poor estate, so much afflicted, and as it were re- 159 °' 
duced to beggary. Nevertheless, if his lordship pleased 
also to give him [the agent] access to her said majesty, to 
represent to her matters further, as from his superiors, it 
would be a singular happiness and contentment; praying 
him, in the name of God, (of whom his lordship was an 
excellent servant in this realm,) not to hinder him in a cause 
so urgent, so pious, and so favourable; and if you would 
oblige more and more his superiors, and a whole Christian 
people, to acknowledge him for their father and benefactor ; 
and to pray to God for his preservation, and to render 
themselves wholly at his service. From London, the 7th of 
June, 90. Subscribing, 

Your most humble and most affectionate servant, Ja- 
cobus Lect, in the name of the senate and town of 
Geneva. 
This Lect was a man of great learning and esteem at Ge- 1 g 
neva ; a lawyer, an orator, and a poet ; and died about 
1612. Spondan. 



Number XV. 
The magistrates of Geneva to queen Elizabeth, thanking 
her for a collection sent to them, and craving further aid 
in their distress. 

A la serenissime royne d'Angleterre, de France, et cTIr- 

lande. 
Madame, 
NOUS avons entendu par les lettres du sieur Lect, 
nostre bien ayme* frere, conseiller et depute, tant le gra- 
cieux accueil, quil a pleu a votre majeste luy faire, qu'aussi 
Tottroy d'une cuillette en vos pais. Et combien que nous 
aions eu desja paravant concu certaine esperance de n'estre 
point esconduits d'une si pitoyable et Chrestienne princesse, 
toute-fois, madame, nous nous sentons tellement chargez et 



26 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

anno des obligations anciencs et de la presente, que nous aymons 
159 °" mieux lcs avouer et recognoistrc meurement en nos esprit s, 
que d'cntrer en line ennuyeuse prolixite pour les representer 
en papier. Or puis qifainsi est, que comme nous scavons 
tresbien notre petitesse nous rend du tout incapablcs de 
faire jamais service a vostre majeste qui respondc en 
quelque sorte a tant des bienfaicts, nos successeurs toute- 
fois qui paraventure jouiront d'une meilleure condition, et 
ausquels nous en lairrons la memoire, se reputeront ties 
heureux, si Dieu leur faict la grace de pouvoir aumoins 
paier leur arerages des dettes crees par leurs devancieurs. 
Et nous aurestes avec tant d'autrcs qui pres et loing seront 
temoins de vostre charite, ferons devoir de prier ce bon 
Dieu tout puissant d'accomplir et ratifier en vostre per- 
sonne les promesses excellentes qu'il a faictes aux princes et 
princesses nourricieurs et nourrisses de son Eglise, comme 
aussi des longucs annees tout le monde voit clairement les 
rares et admirables benedictions qui accompagnent vostre 
couronne. Quant a nostre estat present, et a ce qui s'est 
passe depuis nos derniers, nous ne pourrions brievement le 
discourir; mais en escrivons plus amplcment a nostre de- 
pute avec charge d'en faire S9avoir les particularity a 
vostre majeste, s'il luy plaist s'en soucier. Bien dirons nous 
que si villc subsiste oncques par une misericorde de Dieu 
extraordinaire et totalcment miraculeuse, e'est une povre 
Geneve. Ce qui comme ccrtaines arrcs nous faict esperer, 
que non obstant Tobstination et orgueil de nos ennemis, et 
tant de playes en apparence incurables que nous sentons 
par cette longue et miserable guerre, nous pourrons en- 
cores cestefois eschapper Fextreme mine que le Pape et si>s 
adherens nous ont machine depuis si long temps. Supplians 
vostre majeste comme tant la guerre cjue la disettc de de- 
alers, la famine et plusieurs autres povrctes continuent, voire 
nous menacent de plus fort, vouloir aussi nous continuer de 
plus en plus vostre faveur et bonte, afin qifau plustost, et le 
plus amplement que faire se pourra, nous puissions perce- 
voir les fruicts de vostre beneficence tant attendus, et du 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 27 

long sejour de nostre depute par dela. Et en cest endroict ANNO 
nous prierons Dieu de tout nostre cceur qu'il luy plaise, 



Madame, veiller toujours a vostre conservation, et affer- 20 
mir vos sceptres et couronnes de plus en plus. De Ge- 
neve ce viii. Feburier, 1590. 

Par messeigneurs syndiques et conseil. 
Les tres humbles et tres affectionnds serviteurs de 
vostre majeste. 

Les syndiques et conseil de Geneve. 



Number XVI. 

Thomas Cartwright, the puritan, to the right worshipful 
Mr. Puckring, one of her majesty* s sergeants at law ; 
being sent for by a pursuivant, now deprived of his hos- 
pital at Warwick. 

THAT having received Mrs. Puckring's letter upon 
Wednesday, I came no sooner with it, the cause hath been 
in part a strain in one of my legs, and in part the impor- 
tunity of my friends, by the way, lying upon me to stay, 
until I had gotten some stability of my leg to travel with 
more commodity. And now I am come to town, that I 
bring not my letter myself, the cause is, for that being sent 
for by a pursuivant, I was loath to be attached before I had 
made my appearance without attachment, and that I might 
be mine own pursuivant, as it were ; and partly also, because 
I was loath that your favour towards me should any way 
appear to any manner of hurt of yours, and no good of 
mine. And now, good sir, confessing myself greatly be- 
holden unto you in my behalf, and in the behalf of my wife, 
my humble desire is, that I may yet further be beholden 
unto you in the behalf of the poor church of Warwick, 
that likely enough may be deprived of all manner of tolera- 
ble ministry, both for the good of your own family, which 
is great, and in regard of other poor souls there. That if 
the times will not bear us that are there present now, yet 
there may be such provided, as differing in judgment from 



28 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO us, may notwithstanding, both in some good skill and care, 
) 5.90. p rocee( } m the edification of the church without bitterness 
of spirit against other poor men, which are otherwise minded. 
Which I am the bolder to crave at your worship's hands, 
as I understand, (and was glad of,) that the town hath 
chosen you to the recordership, which may be singular 
means of doing much good unto the town. And among 
other, that good that it pleased you to talk with me of. 

This I was bold to write, in fear of being severed from 
doing any more service there ; and yet not aknown to myself 
of any breach of law, whereby I may be touched, saving- 
only that I fear to be committed for refusing the oath ex 
officio mero. And thus I humbly commend you to the gra- 
cious keeping and blessing of God in Jesus Christ. May 
the 20th, anno 90. 

Yours to command in the Lord, 

T. Cartwright. 



21 Number XVII. 

Some account of the trial and condemnation of John Udal, 
a minister, concerned with Martin Marprelate in pub- 
lishing several schismatical books. Taken from the 
MSS. of sergeant Puckring ; before whom and baron 
Clark the said Udal was brought to his trial, at the as- 
sizes held at Surrey. 
The indictment against John Udal, late of London, clerk. 
DEUM pro, ocidis suis non habens, sed instigatione 
diabolica seductus, et seditiose intendens et machinans ad 
rebellionem movend. et suscitand. itfra hoc regnum, fyc. 
ult. die Octobris, anno regni diet, dnce regin. 30, at East- 
Mouldsey ; then and there set forth, in English, a certain 
wicked, scandalous, and seditious book, entitled, A demon- 
stration of the truth of that discipline which Christ hath 
prescribed in his word for the government of the church, 
&c. in all tymes and places, until the end of the world. 
The passages alleged against him in this indictment, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 29 

found in it, were these: "Who can, without blushing, ANNO 

" deny you [speaking to the bishops] to be the cause of all 

" ungodliness? seeing that government is that which giveth 

" leave unto a man to be any thing save a sound Christian, 

" in retaining that popish hierarchy first reigning in the 

" midst of the mystery of iniquity, and that filthy sink of 

" the canon law, which was invented and patched together 

" for the confirming and increasing of the kingdom of 

" Antichrist ; ad magnum scandalum diet. dnce. regince, et 

" subversionem legum hujus regni, et incitationem rebcl- 

" lionis infra hoc regnum Angl. contra pacem et in con- 

" temptum ejusd. dnce, regince nunc, coron. et dignita- 

" tern suas, et contra for mam statuti, in hujusmodi casu 

* ' ordinal, et provis? 



Number XVIII. 
Articles delivered to the judges by Mr. Udal, shewing rea- 
sons why they shoidd not proceed in judgment against 
him, notwithstanding the verdict given against him. 
This paper consisteth of nine articles. 

I. IT seemeth my cause is not esteemed felony by the 
judges of the land, seeing they do usually sit in the high 
commission court, where the printing and dispersing of the 
same, or such like books, are usually inquired after, as 
transgressions of another nature. 

II. No judgment by law ought to be given in case of fe- 22 
lony, but upon a party first found guilty thereof by verdict 

of twelve men. But I am not so. For proof whereof I pray 
you it may be remembered, that your lordships gave the 
jury in issue only in trial of the fact, whether I were au- 
thor of such a book, and freed them of inquiring of the in- 
tent ; without which there is no felony. 

III. I humbly pray you to call to mind by what means 
the jury was drawn to give that verdict they did. Whether 
they were left wholly to their own consciences, or were 
wrought unto it, partly by promise ; assuring, that it should 



M ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO be no further danger to me, but tend to my good; and 
_ partly by fear, as it appeareth in that it hath been occasion 
of grief unto some of them ever since. And then I pray 
you to consider, whether upon such verdict drawn from 
twelve simple men, Christian judges, in a good conscience, 
may proceed to the sentence of death. 

IV. In case the verdict were never so free, yet your lord- 
ships (being men of knowledge and wisdom) are to con- 
sider whether the statute whereupon I am indicted do agree 
to my case in the true meaning of it, there being nothing in 
the book spoken of her majesty's person but in duty and 
honour; and whether that drawing of it from her royal 
person to the BB. [bishops,] as being a part of her body 
politic, be not a violent depraving and wresting of the 
statute. Which if it be, you, being Christian judges, cannot 
in any good conscience, upon such a ground, proceed to 
sentence, contrary to your own knowledge. 

V. But if the statute be to be taken so as it is urged, it 
ought to be considered, that without malicious intent 
against her majesty's person the statute itself maketh no 
act forbidden by it to be felony. Wherein I appeal first to 
God, and then to all men who have seen the whole course 
of my life ; and to your lordships 1 own consciences. Where- 
in I pray you to examine youi\selves in the sight of God, 
whether, either by yourselves or by the just report of any 
others, you can, find me guilty of any act in all my life that 
savoured of any malice or malicious intent against her ma- 
jesty, or of any other behaviour, than standeth with the al- 
legiance and duty of a most dutiful and Christian subject. 
Of which malice, if your consciences clear me before God, 
the act wherewith I am charged not being felony without 
such an intent, I hope you consider that you cannot with 
a good conscience proceed to judgment. 

VI. Yet in case the statute and intent thereof were such 
as it is said, in case of life the evidence ought to be preg- 
nant; and all living witnesses, I am sure by the word of 
God, (and I trust also by the laws of the land,) were to be 
produced face to face, to charge me. But I have no such 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 31 

against me, neither any other things, saving only the papers AN No 
and reports of depositions taken by ecclesiastical commis- 159 
sioners and others. The which kind of proofs the judges 
cast away in case of lands, and by no means allow to be 
sufficient. And therefore are much less to be allowed in a 
case of life. The which being so, your lordships ought to 
have a consideration, that upon so weak evidence sentence 
of death be not pronounced. 

VII. But if the same that hath been given in for evi-23 
dence by writing had been testified by men living, standing 
out in the presence of the court, and of me accused, I trust 
your lordships will consider, that none of the evidences do 
directly prove me to be the author of the book in question. 
Which, as it was, hath little force in it. As appeareth by 
this, that the author of the chief testimony is so grieved, 
that he is ashamed to come where he is known. Wherefore 
howsoever the jury hath not discerned thereof, yet you, be- 
ing men of skill and understanding, are to have regard of 

it ; and not upon so weak and impertinent proofs to pro- 
ceed to judgment of death. 

VIII. If all these things were such as in this case they 
might be, yet your lordships arc to consider, (supposing me 
to be the [author] of the book in question,) that the said 
book, for the substance of it, containeth nothing but that 
which is taught and believed to be a part of the gospel of 
Christ by all the best reformed churches in Europe. Where- 
in nothing beino- diverse from them, I cannot be condemned 
for it without condemning in me all such nations and 
churches as hold the same doctrine. In which if there be 
no error in them, the offence can only be in some circum- 
stance and manner of writing : the which some may think 
worthy an admonition ; some, more severe, worthy correc- 
tion or amercement. The sharpest cannot judge it to de- 
serve more than some short time of imprisonment. But 
death for an error of such a kind, in terms and words not 
altogether dutiful, of certain BB. [bishops,] cannot but be 
extreme cruelty. The which seeing it ought to be far from 
any Christian man that hath the bowels of Christ in him, 



32 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO surely Christian judges professing the gospel, for a service 
1590, of the gospel, ought not to proceed against one that hath 
endeavoured to shew himself a dutiful subject and faithful 
minister of the gospel, to give sentence of death. 

IX. My offence not being aggravated, but remaining as 
it was the last assizes, when my submission was accepted, 
and judgment thereupon stayed, I trust your favour will be 
the same towards me now also, seeing I am ready to do the 
like. 

If all this prevail not, yet my Redeemer liveth, to whom 
I commend myself, and say as sometime Jeremiah said in 
a case not much unlike ; Behold I am in your hands to do 
with me whatsoever seemeth good unto you. But know you 
this, that if you put me to death, you shall bring innocent 
blood upon your own heads, and upon the land. As the 
blood of Abel, so the blood of Udal will cry to God with 
a loud voice ; and the righteous Judge of the land will re- 
quire it at the hands of all that shall be guilty of it. 



24 Number XIX. 

Udal was cast, but not condemned in the summer assizes, 
anno 1590; but in the Lent assizes after, he was; his 
submiss'um not being sufficient. The sentence was for- 
borne after he xoas found guilty in the summer assizes 
by favour, because he promised to make a submission. 
And a form of submission was sent November 18, 1590, 
to Mr. Baron Clark and Sergeant Puckring. And this 
in these words. 

UdaFs submission. 
Most gracious sovereign, 
THE present lamentable estate wherein I stand, having 
against me the verdict of twelve men, that have found me 
guilty in their conscience of such matters, as the law having 
its course, I am to die for it ; I most humbly prostrate my- 
self at your majesty's feet, submitting myself in most hum- 
ble manner, as becometh a dutiful subject, to such order as 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 33 

it shall please your highness to appoint; to whom God ANNO 
hath given so high and sovereign a power as is able both to 159 °' 
kill and to quicken, to bring to the gates of death, and to 
cause to return from thence to the comfort of life again. 
Before whom standing thus convict, I am not now to plead 
mine innocency, although I most humbly desire it may not 
offend your excellent majesty that I protest of the truth. 
Whereof I call God to witness, who knoweth the secrets of 
all hearts, and will judge both the quick and dead, that I 
have been always, not only far from any malice to your ma- 
jesty's royal state and person, but so dutifully affected to- 
wards both, in conscience of the ordinance of God, and in 
regard of many benefits, especially of the true knowledge 
of God, which I have attained unto under your gracious 
and happy government; that I was always ready by all 
means, and with the loss of my life, if it had been needful, 
to defend and maintain the same ; and from my heart have 
instructed all those to whom my ministry appertained in like 
dutiful love and obedience. 

But this defence being taken from me by course of law, 
and such proceedings as have passed against me, I do now 
only fly to your majesty's gracious mercy ; most humbly 
desiring your highness, of your merciful compassion, to 
grant me your gracious pardon, for remitting both the of- 
fence and the punishment which is now laid upon me. 
Other hope than this I have none, but the trust I have in 
God according to his promises, that your majesty, by a 
special gift of God, is gracious and merciful, and hath 
vouchsafed to shew mercy even to such as were not only 
by imputation of law, but indeed malicious and mortal ene- 
mies unto your highness; and therefore I hope that the 
same goodness of so princely a nature may be moved, and 
will shew forth itself in like gracious compassion on my be- 25 
half. Which gracious pardon, upon my knees, I most hum- 
bly crave of your excellent majesty to grant unto me. By 
which special favour being raised as from the dead, I pro- 
mise and vow to lead the rest of my life in all humble and 
dutiful obedience unto your majesty ; praying continually 

VOL. IV. D 



34 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO for the preservation of your highnesses precious life and 
1 ' ,90 ' happy government ; to the honour of Almighty God, and 
the comfort of all obedient and dutiful subjects. 

In another form of submission there was this material 
clause added ; (otherwise agreeing in substance with this ;) 
being found guilty by verdict to be the autlwr of a book 
entitled. The demonstration of discipline, &c. and being, 
without your gracious pardon, to die for the same. 



Number XX. 

Sentence was given upon Udal, February , 1590, being 
in the Lent-assizes. After which sergeant Pnchring wrote 
this letter to the lord chancellor Hatton about their pro- 
ceedings with him at the Lent-assizes. 

Right honourable, 
IT was late on Saturday before it came to the time we 
Avere to give judgment on the prisoners. So as I could not 
before this make certificate of our proceedings. According 
as we were directed, we sent upon Thursday in the after- 
noon by sir William More, Mr. Dr. Forth, and Mr. Par- 
ker, unto Mr. Udal the submission prescribed, for him to 
consider of, and caused those sent in private to deal with 
him in the same. We also caused the same submission to 
be left with him all night, further for him to consider of. 
And on Friday forenoon we sent sir Will. More and Mr. 
Boyes, justices of peace, (Mr. Forth and Mr. Parker being 
absent,) further to persuade with him, and to bring his an- 
swer. But none of these prevailing with him, ourselves, on 
that Friday in the afternoon sent for him, and conferred 
with him privately by the space of an hour, (sir Will. More 
being only present ;) and not prevailing with him to the 
form of submission prescribed, nor to the like effect, we 
willed him to write what manner of submission himself best 
liked to make. Whereupon he hath wrote to us a manner 
of submission, such as we not allowing of, (the copy whereof 
here enclosed I send to your lordship,) we after, on the Sa- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 35 

turday in the afternoon, when we came to call the prisoners ANNO 

to judgment, called him among the rest, asking him what _/ 

he could say why judgment should not be given: he spent 
an hour with us, debating to and fro ; but no matter yielded 
unto for any submission, such as we could like of, (albeit in 
that public place we moved him thereunto.) We therefore 
proceeded, and gave sentence against him ; and command- 
ing openly of execution of all that were adjudged, (he be- 
ing one.) But in private this morning we commanded the 26 
respite of his execution, (as by Mr. Dr. Bankrofs [Ban- 
croft's] letter I understand your honour's pleasure was we 
should,) till her majesty might understand of these our pro- 
ceedings, and her highness further pleasure known. 

And to end, we have, as was appointed, written all this 
to my lord chamberlain, and sent our required submis- 
sion, and also his last offered submission, enclosed in that 
letter, that her majesty may be informed of the same ; and 
have sent the same to the under-sheriff of Surrey, ourselves 
being presently going towards Sussex : otherwise we should 
ourselves have waited on your honour with the same, and 
to have made relation at large of all the manner of our and 
his dealings and speeches together, which were too large to 
write. 

At the last, when we charged him, that he had written in 
his petition to her majesty, that he did submit himself to 
such order as it should please her highness to appoint, and 
now by us her highness 1 s justices of assize that manner of 
submission which we prescribed him was thought meet to 
be required of "him for her highness; he answered, that 
those words in his said petition he meant only as to abide 
her order for life or death, as her majesty should appoint, 
and not otherwise to yield to any thing that might concern 
him in conscience in that doctrine which he had taught, as 
by the words before and after the sentence, he said, it might 
be so understood. But offered in his last speech that that 
submission which he had made to her majesty, and any 
other submission that he had made, he would perform. 

d 2 



36 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
ANNO Marry, he and we did differ what was the manner of the 

1590. . 

'. submission lie had made by words at Croyden assize. 

So as, my very good lord, we arc not able to get of him 
such a submission as was prescribed for him to make, nor 
to like effect, we have proceeded as aforesaid; leaving 
him now at her majesty's pleasure. This Sunday morning, 
the 21st of Feb. 1590. 



Number XXI. 

The copy of the submission required by the judges, Feb. , 
to be made by Udal. 
I JOH. UDAL have been heretofore by due course of 
law convicted of felony for penning or setting forth a cer- 
tain book, called, The demonstration of discipline. Where- 
in false, slanderous, and seditious matters are contained 
against her majesty's prerogative royal, her crown and dig- 
nity, and against the laws and government ecclesiastical 
and temporal by law under her highness, and tending to 
the erecting of a new form of government, contrary to her 
said laws. All which points I do now, by the grace of God, 
perceive to be very dangerous to the peace of this realm 
and church, seditious in the commonwealth, and infinitely 
offensive to the queen's most excellent majesty. So as 
27 thereby I now seeing the grievousness of mine offence, do 
most humbly, on my knees, before and in this presence, 
submit myself to the mercy of her highness ; being most 
sorry, that so deeply and worthily I have incurred her ma- 
jesty's indignation against me. Promising, if it shall please 
God to move her royal heart to have compassion on me, a 
most sorrowful, convicted person, that I will for ever here- 
after forsake all such undutiful and dangerous courses, and 
demean myself dutifully and peaceably. For I do acknow- 
ledge them to be both lawful and godly, and to be obeyed 
by every faithful subject. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 37 

Number XXII. 

The last offered submission qfUdal, Febr. 19, 1590. 

CONCERNING the book, whereof I was by due course 
of law convicted, by referring myself to the trial of the law, 
and for that by the verdict of twelve men I am found to be 
author of it ; for which cause an humble submission is wor- 
thily required and offered of me : although I cannot disavow 
the cause and substance of the doctrine debated in it, which 
I must needs acknowledge to be holy, and (so far as I con- 
ceive of it) agreeable to the word of God, yet I confess the 
manner of writing of it is such in some part as may wor- 
thily be blamed, and might provoke her majesty's just in- 
dignation therein. Wherefore the trial of the law imputing 
unto me all such defaults as are in that book, and laying 
the punishment of the same in most grievous manner upon 
me, as my most humble suit to her most excellent majesty 
is, that her mercy and gracious pardon may free me from 
the guilt and offence, which the said trial of the law hath 
cast upon me ; and further of her great clemency to restore 
me to the comfort of my life and liberty ; so do I promise, 
in all humble submission to God and her majesty, to carry 
myself in the whole course of my life in such humble and 
dutiful obedience as shall befit a minister of the gospel and 
dutiful subject, fervently and continually praying for the 
good preservation of her highness's precious life and happy 
government, to the honour of God, and comfort of her loyal 
and dutiful subjects. 



Number XXIII. 
Dr. Bancroft, chaplain to the lord chancellor, to Mr. Ser- 
geant Puckring, to stay execution of Udal. 

To the rt. worshipful Mr. Sergeant Puckring, justice of 
assize in the county of Surrey. 
Sir, 
MY lord's [lord chancellor Hatton] advice is, that, if Mr. 
d3 



ANNO 

1590. 



38 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO Udal's submission do not satisfy you, that you should pro- 

1590, ceed to judgment. But that you should stay his execution: 

28 and forthwith this day to write to Mr. Vice-chamberlain [sir 

Tho. Heneage] of his obstinacy, desiring him to inform her 

majesty of it, and to know her pleasure for the execution, 

whether it shall be further stayed, &c. And so in haste I 

take my leave. At Ely-house, this 20th of February, 1590. 

[This following enclosed, in the same hand.] 

You must then command execution. And after defer 

the same, until her majesty's pleasure be known. 



Number XXIV. 

Udal to sergeant Puckring, after his return from the 
assizes to his prison in the White Lion, November 11, 
1590. In which letter may be observed his lofty and 
unrelenting behaviour : his justifying of his innoccncy : 
his calling for execution, or deliverance from his impri- 
sonment. Chargeth sin upon his judge : rescntcth the 
disgrace that was done him ; and such like. 

AFTER that it pleased God (as I trust, for my good) 
to return me from the assizes unto the prison, loaden with 
such a burden as never was, (so far as I can learn,) in the 
time of the gospel, by Christian magistrates, for such a cause, 
laid upon any minister of the word ; I settled myself unto 
my former condition of imprisonment, waiting for that issue 
(as I do yet, and I trust to do ever) which it shall please the 
Lord to give thereunto : hoping that your lordship and 
your associate, [baron Clark,] by whom so deep disgrace was 
inflicted upon me, would have been the means to have 
wrought my release. But when I heard of those speeches 
which each of you uttered in several places of public 
judgment, tending further to my disgrace than I (through 
God's mercy towards me) gave any cause of ; and more to 
the delighting of yourselves in the court holden against me, 
than (if you rightly esteem of it) you had just occasion, I 
persuaded myself rather to look for perpetual imprison- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 39 

ment, or other further severity, than any sense of relief by anno 

1590. 

your means. _____ 

Yet at length I have resolved with myself (seeing your 
lordships do profess the same religion whereof I have been 
a teacher) to call to your remembrance my hard estate, the 
discourse whereof I pray you to accept, as proceeding from 
him that wisheth so well unto you as to his own soul. I 
need not offer unto your lordship's consideration into what 
miserable estate I am brought, not only by being deprived 
of that living, whereby myself, my wife, and children, should 
have been maintained, and spending of that little substance 
which God had given me, in this tedious state of imprison- 
ment ; but also in the exposing of me and them unto utter 
beggary in the time to come. Only I pray you to call to 
mind in your private meditations, (and that in the presence 
of God,) by what course this misery was enforced upon me. 29 
And if you find by due consideration, that I am worthy to 
receive (from the sentence of upright justice) the penalty 
which I do at present undergo, I pray you to hasten the 
execution of the same. For it were better for me to die 
than to live in this case ; being irksome to myself, grievous 
to my friends, chargeable unto many, and profitable unto 
none. But if it appear, (as I hope your conscience will 
testify,) that no malice against her majesty can possibly be 
in me, being of the same religion that her highness profess- 
eth and maintaineth, and praying daily for the increase of 
her grace's prosperity and happiness, both of soul and body, 
then do I humbly and heartily desire you to be a means 
that I may be released. So shall you give me just occasion, 
(which I hope to do, howsoever it fall out,) not only to for- 
get that hard opinion conceived of your courses against me, 
but also to pray heartily unto God to bury the same, with 
the rest of your sins, in the grave of his Son Christ Jesus. 
Thus trusting to receive the comfortable effect hereof, 
which I, minister of the gospel, have just cause to look for 
from the hands of a Christian magistrate, I humbly take 
my leave. From the White Lion, Nov. 11. 

Yours to command, in the Lord Jesus Christ, 

Jo. Udal, prisoner. 
d 4 



40 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
ANNO Number XXV. 

1 590. 

November 18 following, Udal writ both to the baron and 

the sergeant : who liad told him that upon his submission 
they were willing to become a means to her majesty for 
his pardon. Hereupon he sent his letter ; 

IN as humble and dutiful a manner (he said) as he was 
able to express it : praying their honours'' favourable media- 
tion unto her, that he might be discharged of the miseries 
and dangers wherein he was. 

Nov. 25, he writ to them both again, upon their sending 
to him a messenger, that his former submission did not con- 
tent them : whereupon he had drawn another. Which 
albeit, he said, it did not in so many words satisfy their 
lordships, as peradvcnture they desired, yet he humbly 
prayed them to be contented therewith, seeing it was both 
as much as he could yield, and as he trusted her right ex- 
cellent majesty would lay upon him. He trusted that they 
would favourably accept of that his last and furthest re- 
lenting, and to esteem of him, as one that had a care (what- 
soever became of his outward state) to keep a good con- 
science even unto his death. 

Jan. 1, 1590, Udal writ yet another letter to the ser- 
geant, one of the justices of the assize of Surrey ; to vouch- 
safe him his lawful favour in a matter that might be very 
comfortable unto him. That since God had pleased so to 
dispose of him, that he had been almost a year in prison, 
30 and was like, for any thing that he could discern, still so to 
continue ; that he found such a sickness of body approach- 
ing upon him by reason of corrupt air, and want of exer- 
cise, as must needs endanger, if not take away his life; 
unless it would please God to move his lordship with com- 
passion towards him. 

And besides, that he had been so long deprived of the 
holy exercises of religion, as he found himself much vexed 
and grieved, and his soul to hunger after the same, as the 
hunted hart desired the water-brooks: wishing that some 
corner of the church were in his prison ; and esteeming, 
with the prophet David, the bird happy that built in the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 41 

roof of that place, where they might hear the voice of God ANNO 
sounding in the ears, and his praises coming with so holy 159 ' _ 
a harmony from their mouths. In regard whereof he craved 
of his lordship to grant him thus much favour, that he 
might go with his keeper to the sermons within the bo- 
rough, for the comfort of his soul, and into the fields to 
take the air, for the relief of his body. 



Number XXVI. 
Mr. UdaFs belief. Drawn up to pacify the queen, who 
conceived an high displeasure against him, and such 
as he ; in asserting that the prince had nothing to do in 
spiritual matters, and that she was subject to their cen- 
sures. Therefore in this paper he represents himself as 
favourably as he could with respect to his subjection to 
her, or the temporal magistrate. 

" I DO believe, and have often preached, that the church 
" of England is a part of the true visible church of Christ." 
— This published in the Life of Archbishop Whitgift, un- 
der the year 1591, page 375. 



Number XXVII. 

Tho. Cartwright to the lord treasurer Burghley, June 23, 
1590, concerning the bad estate of his hospital at War- 
wick, upon the death of the earl of Leicester, the founder. 
Writ from London. 

Rt. honourable, and my singular good lord ; 
I MAKE conscience of troubling your lordship with par- 
ticular causes, whose strength of body and mind (for longer 
continuance among us) I could desire were consecrated to 
the general and state causes of the whole realm ; yet the 
case I bring before you pressing so greatly, and your ho- 
nour being, as I am informed, the only person by whose 
means relief may be obtained, I am even as it were con- 



42 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO strainedly drawn, in most humble suit to appear before your 
honour at this time, first and principally in behalf of the 



poor hospital at Warwick ; and after, in the second place, 
in mine own behalf. 
3 1 The cause, if it please your lordship, is as followeth : The 
rt. honourable the earl of Leicester endued the hospital in 
Warwick with 200Z. by year, whereof 150/. are to the use 
of the twelve poor men, and the other fifty for the stipend 
of the master, which he requireth to be a preacher. For 
performing whereof he giveth certain lands in Warwick 
and Lancaster shires a , whose rents, raised unto the highest, 
amount unto that sum, and no more. These lands, about a 
three years before his death, he conveyed by deed to his 
hospital ; which, because it was not enrolled within the 
year, according to trust, he put in one Mr. Sutton, from 
Lincoln ; which was esteemed, in strict construction of law, 
insufficient. Whereupon the house was compelled to take 
a second grant of the like honourable earl of Warwick, or 
of his heir. 

Further, the earl of Leicester, over and above the other 
stipend of the master, gave me, by letters patent, other 501 
during my life; not charged indeed out of any certain 

By the earl \ an( \ Sj but payable by him and his heirs, receivers general. 

heirs. Which, notwithstanding, is agreed by the learned in the 

laws of the land to be good as long as the heir hath assets, 
or otherwise wheresoever the land should become, if I had 
brought a writ of annuity at any time before the lands had 
come into the hand of a stranger : which I might indeed 
have done, (the rent being one whole year behind,) but that 
it was not meet for me, a man of so low degree, to call such 
honourable persons into question of law, especially such as 
I was so greatly bound unto. 

Now it is said constantly, that her majesty's extent shall 
go forth upon all the lands that the earl of Leicester was 
seized of, either at the time of his death, or in the 24th year 
of her majesty's reign. Whereupon not my stipend only 

a Warwic. Shuton. Napton parsonage. Hampton parsonage. Lane. Woleston, 
Puleston, tithes. Wrotcby. Lord Treasurer. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 43 

will fall, but, which is more lamentable, the whole college ANNO 
of his twelve poor, old, impotent men, for the present, 159 °' 
shall be constrained to beg ; and for the time to come shall 
be in danger to be utterly scattered and overthrown. 

Besides this, considering that the hospital cannot obtain 
of the countess of Leicester any whit of the legacy of 200J. 
which the earl of Leicester devised by will in the name of 
a stock unto it, the master is constrained to lay forth the 
charges of one half year, before he receive one penny of 
the rent appointed unto his hospital's maintenance. All 
which he should liese, if the extent should lie upon all the 
earl's lands without exception, before the half year's rent 
be due. 

Hitherto also belongeth, (the rather to move commisera- 
tion towards the hospital,) that of the 200Z. of yearly rent, 
9,01. have been demanded from the death of the earl of 
Leicester by the unjust dealing of one Mr. Ugnol, a rich 
citizen of London, and one, who comparing his great wealth 
with the extreme poverty of the hospital, thinketh to de- 
fraud the hospital of that 20Z. for ever. 

I speak not here of my continual labours and suits in 
the behalf of the hospital, ever sithence the death of the 
earl of Leicester ; whereby, contrary to my disposition and 
bringing up, I have been driven to give attendance here at 
London in the term-time, and contrary to that my poor 3 2 
state doth afford, I have been constrained to be at great 
charges for the hospital. And for to make me satisfaction 
again, having no manner of stock. Which truly, but for 
the continuance of so good a work to posterity, and duty 
toward the deceased lord, that the good work he honourably 
and faithfully proposed might not be dispurposed, I would 
never have endured until this time. I pass by also, that 
the living my lord of Leicester took me from, to bring me 
to this, was for profit much better, in regard of the charges 
that this place casteth upon me, which the other did not. 

Having thus nakedly laid down the cause before the eyes 
of your honourable compassion, besides my most humble 
suit only in behalf of the poor, and of myself, I mean not 



44 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
ANNO to labour your lordship's affections with such reasons, as the 



155)0 



. pitifulness of the cause will yield ; as that which might be 
offensive to your honour, because of other your most weighty 
affairs ; and hinder us also, while the reasons by us alleged 
would be short of that which your lordship of your own 
accord will conceive for us, better than we can lay down for 
ourselves, &c. London, the 23d of June, ann. Dom. 1590. 
Your honour's humbly to command, 

Tho. Cartwright. 



Number XXVIII. 

The lord treasurer Burghley to the lord chancellor qf Scot- 
land, lord Maitland ; to persuade the king his master 
to suppress the professed enemies of the gospel in his 
kingdom, and the adversaries of the common amity. 
This letter was occasioned by commendations brought to 
him by the carl of Worcester, sent in the year 1590 am- 
bassador to that king, to congratulate his marriage; 
and withal to put him in mind betimes to supjyress the 
popish faction, which grero strong in Scotland. 

My very good lord, 
THERE are too manifest causes to move me to write to 
you in all kind manner, as every one of them alone is suf- 
ficient to me to write, and your lordship to receive the same 
in friendly sort. The old familiar acquaintance, in a very 
strict amity with your elder brother, the young laird Leth- 
ington, he a secretary to that crown, and I then to this 
crown, was so beneficial to both these crowns, by restoring 
them by our ministry into such a brotherly peace as never 
had been in many hundred years before ; as the memory of 
the same is very agreeable to survive towards you his bro- 
33 ther and a secretary by office, as he was, though now also 
placed in an office, being chancellor, which I account the 
principal secretary of that realm. 

Next to this, the amity professed and accorded by treaty 
between the princes of both these realms, require conjunc- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 45 

tion of good-will in such ministers as are known to have ANNO 
credit with their superiors. Wherein, as I know you are _ 

with the king almost the only counsellor for managing of 
those affairs, so, without presumption, I may affirm, that I 
find myself, with some others interested, to be acquainted 
with the affairs of this realm : and in that respect I am the 
more willing to have intelligence with you for the further- 
ance and continuance of our sovereign's amity. 

And to add some more cause of my present writing, by 
receiving of your kind letter at the hand of sir John Car- 
michel, and by report of the earl of Worcester of your kind 
acceptance of my commendations sent to you by his lord- 
ship, I am to render your lordship thanks for the same. 
And to end our letter with that which might be the 
ground-plat of a long letter, I do in God's name, and for 
the surety of your good king, require your lordship to ad- 
vance the good intention of the king, testified by his ma- 
jesty to the earl of Worcester, for the suppressing of the 
professed enemies of the gospel, by name Jesuits and se- 
minaries, and the civil adversaries to the common amity, 
by name Spanish conspirators. And these being thoroughly 
suppressed, the king shall prosper in the sight of Almighty 
God, and shall be beloved and honoured of all honest men 
in the whole island. And joining in this manner of accord 
with the Christian princes that profess the gospel, he shall 
be feared as a potent prince of the adversaries, I mean 
papists: who truly, my lord, I know, being straitly pur- 
sued, are but cowards, like their father the pild priest at 
Rome. And in this act fades hominis will do in your 
young lusty king fades leonis. And so I leave all the 
rest that I might write of this argument to the bearer, sir 
John Carmichel, one very ready to serve with your lordship 
in this action, and one that honoureth and esteemeth your 
lordship worthy the place which you hold. 



40 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
ANNO Number XXIX. 

1590. t , 

77^ ford treasurer Burghley to count Figlcazzi, with the 

34 duke of Florence; that he would acquaint the duke with 
the qnccris kind acceptance of his good-will towards her, 
and in his offer to mediate a peace between her and Spain: 
and the cause of contention between her and the king of 
Spain stated at Urge. Occasioned by a letter sent to se- 
cretary Walsinghani) since deceased. 

Sir, 

I CANNOT otherwise think, but you have afore this 
time heard, or else I am sure you shall hear before this let- 
ter can come to your hands, of the death of Mr. Secretary 
Walsingham ; who left this world the 6th of April, as we 
account by ancient custom. Whereby, though he hath gain- 
ed a better state, as I am fully persuaded, for his soul in 
heaven, yet the queen's majesty and her realms, and I and 
others, his particular friends, have had a great loss for the 
public use of his good, painful, and long services, and for 
the private comfort I had by his mutual friendship. But 
since it hath so pleased God, we now that are left in this 
vale of earthly troubles are to employ ourselves to remedy 
the loss, by applying ourselves to supply such defects as the 
loss of him hath brought ; and for grief of the want of 
him that is dead, not to neglect actions meet for us, whom 
God permitteth still to live. 

Wherefore, upon this action, the queen's majesty hath 
recommended to me the consideration of such things as have 
passed between you and him divers months past. And for 
that purpose I have gathered together such letters as of 
late time have been sent from you to the said master secre- 
tary, and of such minutes as have been sent from him to 
you. And perusing of such as were found extant, and 
making her majesty acquainted therewith, (for in truth, Mr. 
Secretary had before his death always from time to time 
imparted all that passed between you) but yet since his death 
some of your letters directed to him were brought to me, 
by means of Philip Corsini, an honest merchant, and a du- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 47 

tiful subject to the great duke. Whereof I have also made ANNO 

. r . ■ & 1590. 

her majesty privy. 

And upon consideration of all things contained in these 
letters that passed between you and him, her majesty hath 
thought it very meet, yea, necessary, for the first, that the 
great duke should understand how thankfully her majesty 
accepteth his sincere and friendly disposition towards her 
and her state ; and also that the intelligences begun be- 
tween you and Mr. Secretary should not be let fall or 
broken off by his death, but continued by the interposition 
of me, being of her council, of her affairs, and matters of 
state of longest continuance here, and also of inward ac- 
quaintance with the said Mr. Secretary in all his public 
actions, since he came first to public service. And there- 
fore by commandment of her majesty, I do require you to 3 5 
give the grand duke knowledge, that her majesty hath con- 
ceived of long time very good opinion first of the grand 
duke his father, of noble memory, as one that always by 
his friendly demonstrations deserved her majesty's reciproke 
good-will to him and his noble family. Which mutual 
good-will now the present duke hath also not only conti- 
nued, but, as it appeareth manifestly by sundry your letters, 
hath sought to increase. And therefore her majesty re- 
quests his excellency, that he would make such account of 
her majesty's good-will and honourable opinion of him as 
she meaneth to deserve upon any first occasion that may be 
offered to be shewed by her towards him. 

And where it appeareth that he hath had an earnest dis- 
position to be a mediator, to compound the differences be- 
tween her majesty and the king of Spain, she doth allow 
the same in him, as an office very Christian and honourable : 
and of her own part she never hath shewed any repug- 
nancy to incline thereto ; as well for the quietness of Chris- 
tian peace, as for the avoiding of much Christian blood, 
and the ruin of the subjects of both their dominions. But 
yet her majesty wisheth that the grand duke might under- 
stand (which cannot be expressed in one letter) how long 
her majesty hath been urged to her long continuance of 



48 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO defensible forces for the safety, not only of her own life, 
15,90 ' (which she esteemeth not so much as the state of her king- 
dom and faithful subjects,) but for preservation of her noble 
crown, and the lives and liberties of her people. Against 
the which the king of Spain hath ever almost, since God 
called her to this crown, (being now almost thirty-two years,) 
moved matters, partly by practice of his ministers within 
this realm, and sustentation of secret rebellious actions 
within her realm against her person ; partly by open hosti- 
lities with pretence to conquer her dominions. For with- 
standing whereof, when her often ambassadors, by persons 
of great honour sent into Spain divers years, could not pre- 
vail to move him to renew the form of the ancient amity 
that had been aforetime between their two fathers, the 
emperor Charles V. and king Henry VIII. both of most 
noble memory, with offer on her part to live to perfect 
amity with him, and in peace with all his subjects ; her 
majesty was moved by the law of nature, and according to 
the power that God had given her, to defend her kingdom 
iand subjects, finding no other remedy, to make all prepara- 
tions requisite to be able to defend herself and countries. 
As hitherto God hath blessed her actions in the sight of the 
world, rather in a sort miraculous, as by his divine favour, 
than natural by the work of men's hand, if the forces, 
riches, greatness of countries, and multitudes of subjects at 
his commandment, out of very many his kingdoms and 
dominions, be compared with her majesty's small portions of 
her kingdoms of England and Ireland, two small isles. 

And howsoever her majesty's actions, by having some of 
her forces in the Low Countries, are calumniated on the 
king of Spain's part, yet her majesty doubteth not, but all 
such as are wise in matters political, and arc not blinded 
with partial affection, will judge her majesty's actions in 
36 that behalf most necessary, and therefore not unjust. In 
one action both to keep her enemy out of her own country, 
and to succour her neighbours, being by tyranny oppressed ; 
as by ancient alliances and compacts, not only with her 
majesty, as the supreme prince of this crown, but with her 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 49 

subjects, and most of her particular cities, who are especially ANNO 

bound to the city and every town of the Low Countries, 

by mutual solemn bonds remaining in force, to maintain 
them in their freedoms and liberties. As also the like may 
be truly said for defence of her actions in suffering her sub- 
jects, having been spoiled of their ships and goods in Spain, 
in times of all outward appearance of free traffick, to be 
revenged upon the seas against the subjects of the king of 
Spain, as well in the continent countries as in the islands. 

But for a full satisfaction in defence of her majesty's in- 
tention to prove her Christian disposition to desire peace, 
what can be of more force than this, which is most true, and 
publicly known, that she refused not in the year 1588, now 
past, to send sundry noblemen of great birth, and of her 
council, to Flanders, to offer and to treat of peace with 
certain of the king's part. Where long time was first spent 
on the king of Spain's part, by delay of a sufficient com- 
mission, and of commissioners well authorized ; and after- 
wards by other dilatory cavillations, during many months ; 
until even when the king's commissioners were directed 
from Spain ; and coming to some likelihood to conclude an 
accord, wherewith her majesty was very glad, the king of 
Spain's monstrous navy and great mighty army was come 
to the sea, and was come to the sea-coast in sight of the 
queen's commissioners, (that expected a conclusion of peace,) 
near Calais ; ready thei'e to have come and landed in Eng- 
land, if a navy, which her majesty had, far inferior to the 
Spanish, had not valiantly attempted to stay them from 
landing. And so, partly by the force thereof, and partly 
stricken with fear, the said mighty navy gave place ; and 
was, partly by fire, and partly by the courage of the English 
navy, forced to flee away in all haste from the coast to the 
north of Scotland. And so they were led by God's mighty 
hand to their ruin, the west coast of Ireland ; and by the 
savage people of that land spoiled, and very cruelly han- 
dled ; whereof it is too well known in Spain what losses the 
said navy and army sustained, and what great number of 
prisoners came to the commandment of her majesty, both 

VOL. IV. E 



50 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO in England and Ireland ; and the same sent home into Spain 
' upon small ransoms, without loss of their lives, although their 
set purpose was to have spared no man's life ; no, not the 
life of old or young, nor of any sex, as they have confessed. 
But of this matter I mind not to treat any longer in the 
body of a letter ; neither meant I in the beginning of my 
letters to have treated hereof ; but entering into some con- 
sideration how her majesty's actions are depraved by her 
rebels and her adversaries, and knowing how false the re- 
ports are made thereof, even by printing of public false 
libels, I could not stay my pen, being in the hand of one 
that in my heart and conscience do know how false the 
same are. But now to make an end hereof, leaving the 
consideration hereof to your judgment, either to keep the 
same to yourself, or to impart the same to the grand duke, 
3^ or to any other prince or person of public vocation, I 
do affirm unto you, on my honour, and in the faith of a 
Christian, that all that I have written hereof is true, and 
to be proved many ways for just and true. 

Now followeth that which I am commanded to report 
to yourself, which is, that her majesty finding your private 
disposition to follow the natural affection of the grand duke, 
your lord, her majesty commandeth me to give you her 
hearty thanks, and assureth you, that following and fur- 
thering the grand duke's disposition, of his love and good- 
will towards her majesty, you shall never find cause to re- 
pent yourself. And as for the matter of mine, to reduce 
her majesty and the king of Spain to accord and to live in 
peace, her majesty knowing how inculpable she is, either 
for any beginning or for continuing these troubles, she can- 
not devise how to reform her course ; but as the kino- of 
Spain hath and shall shew himself either contented to live 
in peace, or to make proof of his great power by using that 
hostility against her majesty, her people, and countries, so 
she must and will be answerable to the one course or other; 
that is, most willingly to live in peace with the king, if he 
so will yield thereto; and if not, then she findcth the favour 
of God to be ready for maintenance of her rights, with such 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 51 

powers as God hath given her: as she will never yield to ANNO 
his threatenings, nor, by God's grace, will be unready to de- 15,q( ' 
fend herself and her dominions against the king of Spain, 
how mighty or strong soever he shall be by sea or land. 
And though this be her majesty's princely resolution, yet she 
will not refuse any friendly advice of so noble a prince as 
the grand duke is. But if he shall attempt by any means 
to become a mediator for peace between her majesty and 
the king of Spain, she will always incline to follow his ad- 
vice, as of a person of state and dignity, knowing what be- 
longeth to the honour and reputation of monarchs : among 
whom, although she is a woman, yet she esteemeth her honour 
as worthy to be regarded as the honour of any man, being 
an emperor or king. 

When I had written thus far, and looked back to the 
quantity of the lines written, I began to mislike the length 
thereof, as not convenient for a letter ; but considering how 
the matter led me to that length, being of that nature as I 
could have continued much longer therein, in respect of the 
multitude of writings published in sundry countries by 
men, partly malicious, partly ignorant of truth, to deprave 
and condemn her majesty's actions, necessarily and justly 
taken in hand, for defence both of her own person and 
country. — But this being my first letter to you, I do now 
rather choose to break off, and retain in silence a great deal 
of matter that might be revealed, than to breed loathsome- 
ness or mislike, either in yourself by reading, or in the 
grand duke by your report ; and do conclude as I began, 
to require you, that the grand duke may be most assured 
of her majesty's kind acceptation of his good-will, and that 
she can be well content to remit to his wisdom to deal be- 
tween her and the king of Spain, to have all controversies 
cease, and to resort to love : but with condition of peace 
for themselves and their subjects, as their fathers of most 
noble memory did during their whole lives. Whereunto 
the queen's majesty will be found most ready to yield to 38 
any reasonable conditions, so as the same may be treated 
upon with more respect of her honour than was used by 

e 2 



52 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO the treaty in Flanders, in summer 1588, when the king's 
l5!)0, navy came violently, and broke up the treaty in such sort 
as her majesty found herself thereby dishonourably used, 
although the goodness of God turned the same, by the de- 
struction of the king's navy, to her good and honour. 



Number XXX. 

A certificate under the hands of several of the lords of their 
allowance of one Edg, an espial, employed into the camp 
of the duke of Parma, for intelligence. Drawn up by the 
pen of the lord Bnrghley. October 9, 1590. 

WHEREAS John Edg, gentleman, in the county of 
Lancaster, serving the queen's majesty in Berghen op Zome, 
as a gentleman in the horse band of sir John Pooly, knt. 
bath offered, by such familiarity as he hath with some gen- 
tlemen, his countrymen, that do serve in some bands under 
the duke of Parma, to discover some things in the said 
duke's army profitable for her service, and there to perform 
some special service, allowable, and worthy of commendation 
and reward : and lest he might incur some danger or re- 
proof for his familiar conversation with any of his said 
countrymen, he hath i-equired us to allow of his offer, and 
to preserve his credit against such as might maliciously, or 
ignorantly, and for lack of knowledge of his good intent to 
do such good service to her majesty, condemn or reprove 
him : 

We, to whom the said John Edg hath declared this his 
o-ood intent and offer of service, do allow thereof. And if 
he shall, by his conversation with any his countrymen in 
the said duke's army or retinue, discover any thing worthy 
of knowledge, and shall perform any action laudable, and 
profitable for her majesty at any time, within the space of 
here after the date hereof, we will acquit him against 
any that shall accuse or reprove him for his absence from 
Ins place of service at Berghen, and for his familiarity and 
conversation with any of his countrymen, serving under 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 53 

the duke of Parma. In witness whereof we have signed ANNO 

this writing with our hands, and are content that it shall 

remain secretly in the custody of sir Robert Sydney, go- 
vernor of Flushing. 



Number XXXI. 39 

Richard Topclyff, a discoverer and taker up of popish se- 
minaries, and other papists, his discourse of them in a 
letter sent to the lord treasurer ; about the year 1590, in 
this time qf danger. 

SEEING it hath pleased you to use me heretofore as a 
watchman, and thereby am of some experience of the na- 
tures, properties, and subtle conditions of those unnatural 
subjects the papists, &c. He therefore sent a discourse to 
the said lord, entitled, A simple opinion of a diligent scout or 
watchman in my country, suddenly done, as the time gives 
occasion, touching the most perilous and dangerous recu- 
sants and dissembling papists throughout England. 

First, he treats of the persons to be shut up, and of 
what sorts and degrees^ in this time of danger now ex- 
pected. 

Secondly, where and how they are to be shut up and 
guarded. 

For the first, I do perceive your lordship is very resolved 
to shut up under safeguard and keeping all the principal 
recusants within this realm, lest that (as traitorous priests 
have confessed) they should join with the catholic enemy ; 
for so the enemy expecteth, or else he would never presume 
to come, especially, to invade. And the plain and bold 
papists do, both in their open confessions and in their se- 
cret speeches, avow so to do, whensoever they find fittest 
time. 

But I know that there is a great danger in many others, 
who sometimes do come to the church, and yet be papists, 
both in their inward hearts and in their outward actions 
and conversations, refusing to receive the communion ; and 

e3 



54 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO in every thing else as ill as the worst. Of which there be 
1590 ' also two sorts. The one goeth to the church for saving of 
the penalties of thirteen score pounds a year, yet his wife 
and whole family, or most of them, continue resolute recu- 
sants, and harbour traitors. The other sort go to the 
church because they may avoid suspicion of the magis- 
trates the better; and is dispensed withal by some secret 
dispensation of a delegate, or such a great priest as hath 
episcopal authority, to the end they may the better, and 
with the less suspicion, serve the turn of their cause catho- 
lic, in receiving and harbouring the most notable priests 
and intelligencers, in consulting with them and others, in 
conveying to and from letters and advertisements; or, if 
they be either great of power, wit, knowledge, courage, or 
desperation, (termed resolution by father Parsons,) to serve 
the turn, any way, when their day of Jhesus cometh, as the 
traitors Jesuits call it, &c. Dr. Parry is my witness, taking 
the oath in the parliament-house. The traitorous dissimu- 
lation of that vile person is not forgotten, nor the memory 
of the friars ; one being the death of the prince of Orange, 
and the other of the late French king. 

There be also ladies, gentlewomen, as well married as 
widows, needful to be shut up, in effect, as much as men. 
40 — And, though they cannot go to the field, and lie in camps, 
(for the sex and shame,) yet they want no desire nor ma- 
lice, every one being furnished with a lusty priest harboured 
in her closet, who shall serve as her lieutenant, when that 
holy day of Jesus cometh. Or else she is prepared of a 
lusty catholic champion, servant, tenant, or neighbour, or 
son, for her purpose : command her purse, horse, armour, 
and tenant. And whether she be wife, widow, maid, or 
whatsoever, harbours, receives, and relieves priests and trai- 
tors fugitives, or else ready to assist foreign invasion. 

And seeing far greater is the fury of a woman once re- 
solved to evil, than the rage of a man, I humbly beseech 
your lordship, that that sex of women be not overlooked : 
the rather, seeing Gregory Marty n, the translator of the 
Testament, in his English book, entitled, The treatise of 



1590. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 55 

schism, wisheth, "among all the constant catholic gentle- ANNO 

" women of England, one constant Judith, to cut off Holo- _ 

" femes head, to amaze all the heretics, that they might 

" never defile their religion again, by communicating with 

" heretics in any sort. And severely one constant Judith 

" would make many like servants. A thing much to be 

" wished for the catholic bringing up of young gentle- 

" women, who otherwise be in danger of Holofernes, and 

" his ungracious enemies. 1 '' And so goeth on, teaching how 

a Judith may dissemble, until she strike off Holofernes 

head. 

. Of these patronesses of priests, it is incredible how great 
a number there lurketh in and about London. 

There is also a third sort, of mean gentlemen in degree, 
franklings, head yeomen, artificers, husbandmen, &c. whose 
malice be hot and barbarous. And how great or small so- 
ever their wealth and power be, their credits be grown big 
among country people and papists ; and some of their 
powers and knowledges, to kindle a rebellion, as much as 
captain Cobler in Lincolnshire, or captain Ket in Norfolk, 
were. 

These mean papists, now, in the absence of the grand 
papists and landlords, from their strength and countries, 
shall have authority, or else without authority, by the love 
and credit among common people, papists and malecon- 
tents, to will and command the servants, tenants, freehold- 
ers, and people of all sorts, as much, and many of them 
more, than the grand papists, lords, masters, might do, if 
they were at home, and had liberty. 

My wish is, not to have all papists to be shut up ; for 
the prisons of all England cannot retain them. But if the 
worse spirits be regarded, it will not be amiss. 

For the place where, and how, all sorts should be shut 
up. — Where the persons may be kept most surely, and 
their counsel and power to do least harm. 

Then it is sure the prisoner, being committed far off, in 
distance from his own country, friends, and power, shall be 

e 4 



56 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

A N N <) most sure, and do least hurt. As for example, the papists 
l590, in Yorkshire to be committed in some strong house in Kent 
or Surrey, from the sea- side; and, for exchange, the pa- 
pists in Kent and Surrey to be committed in Yorkshire : 
and so the papists in Cornwall and Devonshire, of the west 
parts, to Norfolk, Kent, or in the east parts; and, con- 

4 1 trary, they in Norfolk, Suffolk, to go westward. The 

papists not to be near their own habitations, living, strength, 
or power: for who doubteth that a resolute papist, espe- 
cially the son, the next heir, a loving servant, or kind te- 
nant, or near neighbour, tied by natural or kind bonds, 
but chiefly bound by bondage he hath avowed to the ca- 
tholic church of Rome, when he was received into it, as a 
true child and member thereof, and whereof he received his 
God, to his damnation, if he continued not obedient, will 
not adventure, if he hear news of the catholic power, or of 
a civil rebellion, to ride in a secret or stormy night, or two 
night journeys, with 40 or 50, or more, desperate and re- 
solute catholics, kinsmen, servants, friends, or tenants, to 
redeem and set at liberty his father, master, landlord, or 
friend, by some stratagem, murder, or policy, out and 
from the place where a plain bishop or gentleman hath as 
many gentlemen in hold as prisoners, wanting nothing to 
set themselves at liberty but sharp weapons, as the number 
of these persons amounteth unto who guard those prisoners. 
And I well remember, that when the Spanish fleet was 
upon the seas in summer in 88, at what time the papists 
were restrained, and a number of them sent to Ely, I know 
some three or four of them, who in that place were within 
two nights and two days journey of their habitations, ser- 
vants, tenants, kinsmen, and friends, who among them hail 
been able to have raised near an hundred able men ; and 
most of their own affection. 

Then it is dangerous and disputable, whether it be con- 
venient or not, to have any multitude of papists in one 
place together; especially in such a place as the Isle of Ely, 
where the tenants, servants, and friends of all those papists 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 57 

so restrained, once gathered together by one and by two, ANNO 
(as going to some fair,) they might have troubled all lo9 
England. Such is the trouble of the place. 



Number XXXII. 
A prayer composed for the good success of the French king; 
printed 1590, xvith this title: A Prayer used in the 
queen's majesty's house and chapel, for the prosperity of 
the French king and his nobility; assailed by a multi- 
tude of notorious rebels, that are supported and waged 
by great forces of foreigners, August 21, 1590. 

O MOST mighty God, the only protector of all kings 
and kingdoms, we, thy humble servants, do here with one 
heart and one voice call upon thy heavenly grace for the 
prosperous state of all faithful Christian princes ; and name- 
ly, at this time, that it would please thee of thy merciful 
goodness to protect by thy favour, and arm with thine own 
strength, the most Christian king, the French king, against 
the rebellious conspirations of his rebellious subjects, and 4 '2 
against the mighty violence of such foreign forces as do 
join themselves with these rebels, with intention to deprive 
him most unjustly of his kingdom ; but finally, to exercise 
their tyranny against our sovereign lady, and her kingdom 
and people ; and against all others that do profess the gos- 
pel of thy only Son our Lord Jesus Christ. 

Now, O Lord, is the time when thou mayest shew forth 
thy goodness, and make known thy power. For now are 
these rebels risen up against him, and have fortified them- 
selves with strange forces, that are known to be mortal ene- 
mies both to him and us. Now do they all conspire and 
combine themselves against thee, O Lord, and against thy 
anointed. Wherefore now, O Lord, aid and maintain thy 
just cause; save and deliver him, and his army of faithful 
subjects, from the malicious, cruel, bloody men ; send him 
help from thy holy sanctuary, and strengthen him out of 
Sion. 



58 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO O Lord, convert the hearts of his disloyal subjects. Bring 
1590, them to the truth and due obedience of Jesus Christ. Com- 
mand thy enemies not to touch him, being thy anointed, 
professing thy holy gospel, and putting his trust only in 
thee. Break asunder their bands that conspire thus wick- 
edly against him : for his hope is in thee. Let his help be 
by thee. Be unto him as thou wast to king David, whom 
thy right hand had exalted, the God of his salvation, a 
strong castle, a sure bulwark, a shield of defence, and place 
of refuge. Be unto him council and courage, policy and 
power, strength and victory. Defend his head in the day 
of battle. Comfort his army, his true, faithful noblemen, 
the princes of his blood, and all other his faithful subjects. 
Strengthen them to join their hearts and hands with him : 
associate unto him such as may aid him to maintain his 
right, and be zealous of thy glory. Let thy holy angels 
walk in circuit about his realm, about his loyal people ; 
that the enemies thereof, though they be multiplied in num- 
ber, though they exalt themselves with horses and horsemen, 
though they trust to their numbers, to their shields, and glory 
in strength, yet they may see with Elizeus the unresistible 
army of angels which thou canst send for the defence of 
thy inheritance ; and that thy enemies may know and con- 
fess that thy power standeth not in multitude, nor thy 
might in strong men : but thou, O Lord, art the help of 
the humble, the defender of the weak, the protector of them 
that are forsaken, and the saviour of all those who put their 
trust in thee. 

O merciful Father, we acknowledge thy gracious good- 
ness in our own former deliverance from the like kind of 
enemies and rebels against thy anointed, our sovereign lady 
and queen, professing thy gospel. So will we do in this, 
and be as joyful of it, and no less thankful for it; and 
make the same to be for ever an occasion unto us of our 
more faithful subjection to our own dread sovereign. Whom, 
Lord, we beseech now and evermore most mercifully bless 
with health of body, peace of country, purity of religion, 
prosperity of estate, and all inward and outward earthly 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 59 

happiness and heavenly felicity. This grant, merciful Fa- ANNO 

ther, for the glory of thine own name, and for Christ Jesus' ' 

sake, our Mediator and only Saviour. Amen. 



Number XXXIII. 43 

Spanish advertisements, delivered by Thomas Willys, a 
Leicestershire man, Feb. 2, 1590. so endorsed. 

The declaration of Tho. Willys; taken the 21. of Feb r. 

1590. 

HE saith, that he set sail from Cales in Spain the 2d of 
February, and arrived at Portsmouth on Tuesday, at night, 
the 17th of the same. 

The news at Spain, at his being at Port St. Maria, is 
this : He saith, that at Gibraltar the admiral of the galleys, 
called don Martin de Padila, had two galleons now building. 
The king gives him the wood and the nails. The report 
of some is, that they shall go of merchandise to the Indies ; 
and some say, they are made to keep the Straits, that the 
English may not pass into Barbary. 

There is lying in the bay of Cales a great galleon of Flo- 
rence, of the burden of 1500 ton. To what purpose he 
knoweth not : but, as they say, she is dismissed from the king's 
armada. There is a report that the king of Spain is fallen 
out with the duke of Florence. The reason is this; the 
duke having lent the king one million of treasure, the king 
required to borrow another of him: which he refused to 
do, and desired to send him back his galleon, and that 
which he already ought him : and then he would lend him 
another million. 

He saith, that a Fleming coming into Cales, being a great 
hulk, was seized for the king's service, as he thinketh, for 
carriage of masts and provisions to the king's armada. 

He saith, that there are six men of war, furnished by 
the king, and appointed to keep at the Cape of St. Vin- 
cent. 



60 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO He saith, that there be twelve new ships building in Bis- 

' kay after the English fashion, as the report is, and do lack 

nothing but masts. These ships are accounted to be the 

best and most principal that the king hath. The report 

is at Cales, that there are at the Groin and at Ferrol about 
50 or 60 great ships, which went to the sea in August to 
meet their fleet coming from the India, and fearing they 

were to stay that and not come away, they returned 

back to Ferrol, with the loss of two ships, and the dispens- 
ing of one 

That day on which he came from Cales there were six 
captains of galleys to be beheaded at the Port St. Mary 
by the king's express commandment. For that in August 
last they met two English ships between Lishbone and the 
Port St. Mary, and durst not set upon them, being in the 
whole fourteen galleys. 

He heard that the Indian fleet is in the Havana, and 
did determine to set sail for Spain about the first of Fe- 
bruary ; accounting to be at home about the end of March 
next. 

At his coming from Cales there was a certain report thai 
the earl of Cumberland had besieged the Havana with 150 
sail of ships, and had driven the Spaniards to that extre- 
44 mity, that they must deliver up all their ships, and whatso- 
ever they had, unto him and his fleet. This was so gene- 
rally bruited at Cales, that the people did cry out against 
the king, saying, that he had robbed them, and both they 
and were undone. And that they gave him their 

money, but could not have any remedy. 

He saith that in the Indies there are six or seven new 
builded, and do come along with the fleet; and there are 
fifty ships more which do coast them home ; and sixty 
laded with treasure. And he saith this is the whole num- 
ber of the fleet, as he heareth. 

There is a report that at the Groin there are a great 
number of soldiers: some say 14,000; some say 10,000; 
and he never heard under 8000. And those are very good 
and old soldiers, which arc belonging to the ships that are 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 61 

there. Some say that there are 30,000 soldiers; whereof anno 
1 0,000 horsemen enpressed to go for France. ' 5, ° 0, 

He saith that the impost which the king doth levy of 
the people is so great, as that they cannot sustain them. 
And he understood, a little before his coming away, by one 
Hugh Leton, an Englishman, and a merchant of Sevil, 
who told it him in secret talk, that the president of Sevil 
had told him, that their king could not hold out one year 
longer, as he did begin, except there were some great re- 
medy. 

He saith that the king hath taken this order, that what 
Spaniard soever shall put himself forth for a gentleman, 
and is none, shall find him a man and an horse, to the 
maintenance of the war. And because they are of a proud 
nature, i-ather than this shall be a question of their gen- 
tility, they have offered a great sum of money, (which he 
heard and named.) But at this time they are compound- 
ing with him for it. Moreover, the king hath the tenth of 
all things that are sold. So as if it be sold ten times, he 
hath the price of the thing itself. 

He saith also that there is one that goeth up and down 
all Spain, requiring a gathering of free gift (without en- 
forcing) of all dukes, condies, and the nobility, and also of 
all the chief cities and towns, for the king's wars. 

He saith, that there is an Englishman come to St. Man 
Port, and so is gone to the king; and hath 50 crowns a 
month of him, as a pensioner : he calleth himself Wil- 
liams, alias Morgan ; a little short man, with long black 
hair. There are five or six Englishmen which serve in 
the galleys under Martin de Padilia ; and have pay of the 
king : whereof there is one called captain Crippes ; who 
hath fifty crowns a month ; and the rest, some 10, some 8, 
some 4 crowns a month. And those who have four ci'owns 
a month have their meat and drink. 

He saith that the Scots which brought him home had a 
Scotchman with them, a pilot, who had once served the 
king in his armada, and by some means got away; had 
come now with them into Andaluzia, thinking he should 



62 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO not be known. But notice was presently given to the ad- 
I59Q. mira \ f t] le galleys of his being there. Whereupon he was 
sent for, and put into the galleys. 

He hath also brought a note of the names of all the Eng- 
lish which are now slaves in the galleys. 



45 Number XXXIV. 

An office to be deputed. In a suit to be a general register 
of all the christenings, marriages, and burials, within 
her majesty's realm of England and Wales : with the 
reasons Jbr the same. To the lord treasurer Burgh- 
ley. 

THE benefit that will grow to her majesty and her suc- 
cessors thereby : 1. An annual rent of an 1007. by year to 
her majesty and her successors for ever. 2. That it will be 
much profit to her majesty, for the explaining of the ages 
of her wards, being now greatly abused by excheaters and 
feodaries, in the benefits and commodities which may there- 
by grow to her subjects. 3. That it shall tend to the great 
good of many, which shall have occasion to have certifi- 
cates, either for lawful copplement in matrimony, or in case 
of bastardy. 4. That it shall clearly avoid all cosenages 
made by those under age, either in levying of fines, suffer- 
ing recoveries, acknowledging statutes or recognisances, or 
doing any other matter of record. 5. That the entrance of 
the baptisms, as it shall be provided for, will be a clear de- 
ciphering of all half bloods, or controversies daily happen- 
ing: under colour of half or whole blood. 6. That it will be 
a curb for those who pretend to be sundry times married. 
7. That it shall much tend to the deciding of many contro- 
versies, which daily grow by reason of the life or death of 
persons. 8. There shall l>e also yearly delivered unto your 
honour, and unto every lord treasurer, from the time being, 
a summary of the whole. Whereby it shall appear unto 
you and them, how many christenings, weddings, and bu- 
rials be every year within England and Wales, and every 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 63. 

county particularly by itself, and how many men children ANNO 
and women children in either of them severally set down by 1590, 
themselves. 

A patent for this was sent from the lord treasurer to the 
archbishop of Canterbury, for his judgment. 



Number XXXV. 
Inconveniences of parish clerkships. 

WHEREAS about the year 1590, somebody had en- 
deavoured to obtain such an office to appoint all parish 
clerks, whether in the city of London only, or of greater 
compass, appeareth not ; but there was a paper shewing the 
inconveniences thereof, drawn up by archbishop Whitgift, as 
it seems ; for it is his secretary's hand ; and found among the 
lord treasurer's papers : who had desired the archbishop's 
thoughts of such an office, which some had made suit for. 

Inconveniences in the petition moved for a grant of the ^ 
parish clerkships, or for surveying them. 

1. Law and custom hath in all parishes established the 
appointing of the parish clerk and sexton in the minister 
and in the parishioners. 2. Their service is to the minister 
in church matters, for the use of all the parishioners ; there- 
fore fittest to be chosen by them ; as it is observed every 
where. 3. They receive their fees and accustomed wages 
of the parishioners ; therefore a stranger cannot be obtruded 
well upon them : for if any of another's appointment be 
their clerk, they will think it hard measure that they should 
be forced to maintain him. 4. He that is no way beholden, 
either to the minister or parishioners, nor in any awe of 
them for his office, will neither perform duty nor diligence. 
5. If the grantee shall do the office in his own person, then 
can he have but the employment of one parish : for he 
must be attendant thereon upon all occasions, early and 
late. If by a deputy, such one will hardly leave his wages, 



64 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO when their common servant is appointed by another: be- 
_______ sides, the grantee will for his own commodity reserve some 

part for himself. And so the service will be either per- 
formed by an insufficient man, or at least be very greatly 
neglected. 6. The office of surveying all parish clerks is 
but a shift to pick out money from the poor men, and in 
no respect requisite or needful : for the reformation of 
them, being negligent or faulty, is by law already settled in 
the ordinaries. 7. These and such like grants, as they are 
very extraordinary, so arc they burdensome to the queen's 
subjects, and unprofitable for the commonwealth, and serve 
only for the private gain of private persons : which never- 
theless prosper not when they have them. [A secret check 
to these suitors, whereof there were many in these times.] 
13y the copy of the patent, which your lordship sent unto 
me, there is granted the buying of books, clappers of bells, 
and other necessaries for the use of the church, at the pa- 
rishioners'' cost and charges : a matter most unreasonable. 
For so lie may still poll them, and make what accounts he 
list, and they have no remedy. 9. Besides, the laws and 
her majesty's Injunctions lay this trust upon the church- 
wardens of the parish, being of the substantialest men, 
whom the rest think good to trust ; and therefore do make 
choice of, to disburse their money in that behalf. 



Number XXXVI. 
Sir John Smyth? s letter to the lord treasurer, May , 
1590, upon the suppression of his book of directions con- 
cerning military discipline. 

Right honourable, &c. 
WHEREAS I certainly understood, that the book I 
composed, and was lately printed, is now forbidden to be 
sold, greatly to the hinderance of the poor printer; certain- 
47 ly, if the said suppression do still continue, it will (although 
unjustly) greatly redound to my reproach and shame. That 
the world shall imagine that I have been of so small fore- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 65 

sight and consideration, as to compose and set forth a book ANNO 
containing so disordered matters, that it should be extin- 159 °' 
guished almost at the first coming out of the same. 

Besides, that it will hereafter not only be a great encou- 
ragement upon employments military unto our such men 
of war again to follow such detestable courses as are con- 
tained in my proem, to the great evil of the realm. 

How good an intention soever I have had, to the ut- 
termost of my power, done beforetime, to the honour 
and service of her majesty and my country, it hath been 
very little or nothing regarded ; and therefore labour lost. 
— Neither employed at home nor abroad ; but only in the 
mustering and training of the regiments of this shire of 
Essex in the year 1588. Which by the malicious and false 
reports of Leycester, that I did was all turned to my dis- 
grace. And now since his death, I mean the last summer, 
I was here in the shire, I was to my disgrace put out of the 
commission of subsidy. And in the ever since I 

came to keep house here, I have been made inferior in all 
affairs of the shire to divers that are but of the same call- 
ing which I am, and that were but boys, and went to 
school, when I had spent some time in the service of some 
princes, &c. 

I have at this present above 100/. land by the year less 
than I had when her majesty called me from beyond the 
seas. Besides that, I am at this present seeking, by all the 
means that I can, to sell a great deal more of my patrimony, 
partly to pay her majesty, and other my debts, 

All men may see, that sir Roger Williams, [a great cap- 
tain in the Netherlands,] in a little book that he composed 
of late, doth in the beginning thereof in terrible sort touch 
some chieftains of ours, such men of war, as I call them, that 
had served in the Low Countries. And the same he hath 
so plainly set down, and with such signs and tokens, that, 
in the opinion of divers gentlemen that have served in 
these parts, he doth, as it were, evidently shew whom he 
meaneth. And besides, in the latter end of his discourse, 
he doth in some sort touch and disable the opinions of the 

VOL. IV. F 



66 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO old men of war, or silently, yet living of our nation. All 
159 * which notwithstanding, his book hath been very well al- 
lowed of, and never called in question for any suppression. 
Because I have been no ways employed in so many years, 
and that I have no skill nor desire to follow hunting and 
hawking, but do live almost continually retired in my 
house, (except when I go further, to the court;) I, for 
lack of other things to do, have given myself to compose 
four or five little books, all treating more or less of matters 
of arms. And that I have done with intent, that in time 
to come the same might some ways profit the crown and 
realm. 

See something more of this gentleman's quality, and of 
his troubles, being committed to the Tower, under the year 
1590. Entered in the star-chamber. 



48 Number XXXVII. 

Thomas Cartwright to the lo?xl treasurer Burghlcy. Li- 
berty now granted by the archbishop of Canterbury to 
him and other puritans in prison. He is falsely charged 
about a purpose to excommunicate the queen. 
Ann.. i59i. WHEREAS I have been and continue an humble suitor 
to your good lordship, that by your honour's mediation I 
may obtain some relief of my long and tedious imprison- 
ment, it may please your lordship (for better furtherance 
of it) to understand, that my fellow-prisoners in the Clink 
and White-lion have all from his grace this degree of li- 
berty granted, upon their own bond of 40Z. only, upon this 
condition alone, to return to their prison at night ; that 
they may go to church upon the sabbath day ; and to such 
as allege special cause of business for it, any other day in 
the week ; namely, to Mr. Fenne, Mr. King. 

Further also it may please your lordship to be informed 
concerning the rest of the def. [defendants,] myself, and 
the deponents in our cause, according to the note which I 
have here enclosed. [This note wanting.] 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 67 

Moreover, what I hear, that some misinform against me, ANNO 
that I should both write something undutifully, touching 15,9K 
the excommunicating of her majesty, and also be in a plot 
for the execution of the same, I beseech your lordship to 
hear my true answer to as unjust an accusation as ever was 
devised against any. For I unfeignedly protest to your 
lordship, in the presence of Almighty God, the searcher of 
all hearts, that I am so far from being any party, or privy 
to any such execution, as that such a thing never entered so 
much as once into my thoughts. 

As for the rest, how meanly soever they that have so in- 
formed esteem of my discretion, yet I assure myself it shall 
never be proved by true note of my writing or speech, that 
I have undutifully and in unseemly manner treated at any 
time of excommunication ; or ever applied it to the person 
of a prince, much less precisely to her majesty's royal per- 
son. Wherefore I assure myself, that when this private 
surmise shall be examined, (which I most humbly desire it 
may be to the uttermost,) it will fall out to have no more 
truth than the public accusation, that I had given over 
my ministry, and taken a new and truer ministry in my 
hands, was in Martin's libel, where I of the clean contrary 
part both maintained my ministry against some excepting 
unto it, as no ministry, and was ever an enemy to Martin's 
disordered course. 

Such doctrine also as I taught of excommunication, either 
by writing many years ago, or sithen by preaching, is no 
singular opinion, but the same which the universal church 
of God, and particularly this our own church of England 
both now alloweth, and always heretofore ; as in our most 
humble supplication presented unto her majesty in all our 
behalfs is more fully declared : except it be in the excom- 49 
munication of the emperor Theodosius. Where I maintain 
that it was neither done, nor to be done by any one man, 
Ambrose or other, but by synod or council. And his grace 
affirmeth it to have been done by Ambrose only ; yea, and 
setteth forth the commendation of the same ; as may ap- 
pear in our books. Other difference, I know none. Which 

f 2 



68 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO being so, I humbly beseech your lordship, as to your wis- 
1591, dom shall seem convenient, to use your honourable means 
for my liberty or bail, as it may be obtained, for ease of 
this heavy affliction, and for dealing in such business as I 
have to do ; which greatly importeth both mine own estate 
and some of my friends ; especially the hospital, whereof I 
have charge, and which is diversly defrauded by men that 
pull from it, &c. Fleet, the 15th of January, 1591. 
Your lordship's humbly to command, 

Thorn. Cartwright. 



Number XXXVIII. 
Tho. Cartwright to the lady Russel. Moving her to inter- 
cede with her relation, the lord treasurer, for his liberty, 
and other puritan ministers in prison. Writ in August 
1591. 

I AM glad, right honourable, that that which I might 
truly do, I did also agreeable unto your honour's liking, 
touching the mention of your worthy father, [sir Anthony 
Cook,] in my letters I wrote unto you. Howbeit, to com- 
mend you by your father is unl tyjs <tkio.s iiruivelv tyjv «v§f7- 
avTa, % u-no tcov ovu^c/ov tov Xsovra : which is a slender praise, 
when there are better notes than these are. For beside the 
mark of learning in yourself, rare in your sex, that is also 
worthy commendation, that you favour those which are 
learned, or rather (meaning myself) which desire to be 
learned; yet this is not that wherein your praise doth or 
ought to consist, as that which already of all other parts of 
the flower of the grass tarrieth longest, yet fadeth it away, 
and is no better than a summer flower, not able to resist 
the scythe of death, if by the winter storm of sickness or 
of old age it be not before prevented. So that the fame 
and report that riseth from thence hath no more steadiness, 
than the voice which is committed to the air, or writing en- 
graven in the water. Godliness only is that which endur- 
eth, and maketh to endure such as have gotten possession 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 69 

of it. For which, although I might persuadedly commend ANNO 

your honour, as having heard somewhat of others, and some !_ 

experiences myself; yet I had rather exhort you to a fur- 
ther increase therein, than enter into the praise of that 
which the Lord hath already begun. For that beside it 
wanteth not peril in slacking our course toward the goal of 
the crown of glory, when we are established into opinion 50 
of some good advancement that way, the praise of that 
which is good in us is seldom safe, unless it be mingled 
with the reproof of that which remaineth still amiss, and 
shall remain as long as we be compassed with this body of 
sin. Which latter, when it belongeth not unto me, that 
know not your honour's wants, as I have been made ac- 
quainted with the good things which the Lord God hath 
planted in you, I easily see a law of silence laid upon me 
in that thing which my suitors especially do willingly pur- 
sue. 

Albeit here I cannot pass by your singular and very rare 
favour towards me, whom it pleased to become after a sort 
a suitor unto me, that your honour might do me good, by 
preventing, through your honourable offer, that which part- 
ly my poor estate, and partly the small means of access, by 
any duty of mine sent before, did shut me from. Yet for- 
gat I not your honourable and kind usage of me, when I 
was with you some five years past : so far as it pleased you 
to call in two noble plants, your daughters, and in my hear- 
ing to tell them, that I was a man whom for good reports 
you favoured, and willed them for the same, in respect as 
any occasion might serve to righteousness. But, alas ! good 
madam, what encouragement could I take thei-eby, when 
looking into myself I see so little that might bear out that 
opinion you had conceived of me. Howbeit, seeing it pleas- 
eth you in your honourable disposition thus to break upon 
me, and after a sort to enforce your honourable assistance 
towards me, it were too foolish and rustical a shamefastness 
to refuse so honourable a hand reached forth unto me. 

Wherefore, with very humble and thankful acknowledg- 
ment, I lay hold of your honourable favour ; which, although 

f3 



70 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO it should come alone, and unaccompanied, yet is it that for 
______ which I will take myself greatly beholden unto your ho- 
nour. Then I lay hold of the fruits of your favour, so far 
forth as the same may be convenient for your estate in your 
honourable mediation towards such as you shall think good ; 
especially towards my singular good lord, the lord trea- 
surer. Of whom, what to desire, I know not. His honour 
knoweth the pitiful case wherein we stand. I trust also he 
knoweth how innocent we are of the things we stand charged 
with, if for his great and weighty affairs it had pleased him 
to inform himself of the proceeding with us. We thought 
the suit of ministers, upon reasonable bail, to return to 
their houses, (among whom some of us have preached the 
gospel xxx years of her majesty's reign,) would not have 
been refused : being that which oftentimes is yielded unto 
felons; but hath been often to recusants, papists. We 
beine; therefore refused herein, I know not what we should 
make suit for. 

Again, it astonisheth me, that we are not easily suffered 
to come to her majesty by our most humble supplication. 
In the empire of Rome there was not the vilest servant to 
whom the emperor's image, standing in the midst of the 
market-place, was not a good sanctuary, if he once laid hold 
of it. And with us it hath always been far better ; that by 
supplication the poorest subject might come, not to the 
5 1 image of our most gracious prince, but unto the prince her- 
self. These things make me, that, as I said, I know not 
what to desire. But if I might understand what were likely 
to be granted, although it were never so little, and whereof 
it would please his honour to be an honourable means, there 
is no ease so small, but we would gladly and thankfully 
embrace. 

Now, besides the common calamity of us all, mine hath 
something by itself. For all the other prisoners for this 
cause having access to them from all their friends, the war- 
rant of the high commission restraineth me from all, saving 
my wife, and such as have necessary business with me. 
Which thins I would be well contented with, if it were 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 71 

afforded me accordingly. For if I might, 1 would not, for ANNO 
divers causes, have many come unto me. But the warden ' 

[of the Fleet,] whether esteeming thereby to gratify the 
bishops, and others whom he thinketh this will be pleasing 
to, or of his own hard disposition towards me, construeth it 
more strictly against me than the meaning of the high 
commission was. For I take that upon experience of the 
multitudes that visited me the last time I was in prison, 
(as much to my misliking as theirs,) they sent the warrant 
of this restraint. Yet dare I not complain of the hard 
usage of me more than other keepers to their prisoners, lest 
he might use that for a mean to cause the BB. [bishops] to 
restrain them also of the access of their friends. But it is 
a thing which I can, I thank God, well bear. And there- 
fore will not trouble your honour with the suit of so small 
a matter. 

Again, if I should make suit in regard of my infirmities, the 
gout especially, which gaineth on me, it is like that the coun- 
cil is informed that I complained of them without a cause. 
For the bishop of London speaking openly, that I had there- 
in abused her majesty's privy-council, they would not, al- 
though I humbly beseeched him to suffer me to answer one 
word unto it. For if he would, I could have alleged the 
testimony of the physician, who had witnessed it under his 
hand : which the archbishop taking from my wife, would 
not restore again. I could also have brought good testi- 
mony, how having but small comfort from the physician 
that physic would do me good in prison, (as that which the 
air itself would give the check unto,) yet was I fain to take 
divers strong purgations, one within three or four days of 
another, to such a pulling down of my body, as I was 
scarce able to bear mine own clothes. Now to do all this 
without cause of disease, I think, might be rather judged 
phrensy than hypocrisy. And surely I was far from being 
ambitious in laying down my infirmities before the board of 
her majesty's most honourable privy-council, that I did not 
once make mention of the sciatica, wherewith I have been 
exercised many years. 

f 4 



1591. 



72 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO But I perceive I have too much given the reins to the 
grief of my mind ; out of the which my pen hath been very 
liberal to utter my complaint unto your honour. Where- 
fore I will make an end, leaving all to your honourable 
consideration, what to keep to yourself, and what to com- 
municate to his lordship, what to ask, or what to leave un- 
asked : that is to say, what you think his lordship can con- 
veniently and with his good liking effect, making no doubt 
but that his honour standeth favourably inclined toward 
52 me. If I obtain nothing else, yet I most humbly pray his 
lordship that I may remain still in his good opinion that 
he hath conceived of me ; at least so far as to be free from 
those misdemeanours which the L. BB. do surmise. And 
thus with my humble thanks for all your honourable favour 
and care of me, I commend your honour and your whole 
household, and children especially, unto the gracious keep- 
ing and blessing of God in Jesus Christ. Fleet, the 13th 
of August, an. 91. 

Your honour's humbly to command, 

T. Cartwright. 

This letter was sent to the lady Russel, who had offered 
to Cartioright to intercede {Jbr any request he had to make 
to the lord treasurer) Jbr him. And she sent the wliole let- 
ter to him, with these ivords of her writing set in the super- 
scription ; " Good my lord, rede this thorow ; and do what 
" good you can to the poor man.' 1 



Number XXXIX. 
Cartwright to the lord treasurer, dated October the Mh. 
Cited before the commissioners, and apprehensive qf great 
troubles to follow upon the queen's displeasure with him. 
SO it is, if it please your good lordship, that with much 
grief of mind I have understood of her majesty's heavy dis- 
pleasure against me, in whose gracious favour, next under 
God, the comfort of my life and of all those that depend 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 73 

upon me doth consist. Wherefore it may be, that at this ANNO 

time I stand under the arrest of her high commission, in '__ 

causes ecclesiastical, for appearance upon Thursday next : 
when what matters may be objected I know not. But this 
I well know, that from the writing of my last book, which 
was thirteen years ago, I never wrote, nor procured any 
thing to be printed, which might be in any sort offensive to 
her majesty or the estate; much less had any hand, or so 
much as a finger, in the books under Martin's name. 

And although there have been divers books of Antimar- 
tin printed, and read by all ; wherein I have not only been 
contemptuously derided, as unlearned, but my good name 
most slanderously rent and torn in pieces ; as, to be a dicer, 
to have thrust one through the leg with a knife ; also, that 
I love a cup of sack and sugar, and other such like ; (where- 
of, I thank God, there is not the least suspicion ;) yet am 
I able to make good proof, that from the first beginning of 
Martin unto this day I have continually, upon any occa- 
sion, testified both my dislike and sorrow for such kind of 
disorderly proceeding. 

For my ministry also, which I have exercised now almost 
five years sithence my return out of the Low Countries. 
[When he was at Antwerp.] Notwithstanding, there have 53 
been directed to the place of my abode, twice or thrice, men 
that have made whole arguments and invectives against me, 
yet have I as sparingly spoken of any matter in contro- 
versy between us and our brethren as any whatsoever in the 
country having the same judgment which I have. 

Wherefore my most humble suit unto your lordship is, that 
it would please you either by counsel, favour, or both, which 
the Lord hath so plentifully bestowed upon you, to relieve 
me against the troubles that are coming upon me ; especially 
against her majesty's heavy displeasure, &c. This Sunday 
morning, October the 4th. 



74 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 



A JJ2f Number XL. 



The bishop of Bristol, and Dr. Aubrey, LL. D. to the lord 
treasurer : in ansxoer to his order to them to take into 
their examination certain gross crimes, laid to the charge 
of one Matthew Heton, a minister. And found to be 
scandals. 

OUR duties to your good lordship most humbly remem- 
bered. Where it pleased your lordship to refer the exami- 
nation of certain articles preferred by one William Marsham, 
gent, against Matthew Heton, minister ; we took the same 
to be as here folio weth. 

I. That the said Heton being charged that his father 
was punished for incest, he answereth, that he is not to be 
charged in reason with his father's faults : adding thereunto, 
that though his father were accused and punished for the 
same, yet by the order of law he cleared himself of the 
same crime by the sworn testimonies of seven ministers, 
graduates, of London ; whereof Mr. Crowley was the fore- 
man. 

II. That where he was charged with an untruth sug- 
gested unto her majesty, touching the benefice of Lang- 
ham in the diocese of Norwich, to have two benefices be- 
sides ; it doth not appear unto us, that he had any full 
title unto the same of Langham ; but had only a bare pre- 
sentation, without any institution or induction. 

III. That he was indicted of buggary in Sussex. It doth 
appear, that the matter was maliciously procured by his fa- 
ther-in-law three years after his departure thence. 

IV. Likewise, where he is charged with the same indict- 
ment in Sussex, returned into Devonshire, three years again 
after that indictment ; we find, that the same could come to 
no trial, because there was a general pardon followed after, 
wherein the same crime was remitted, so that he could not 
clear himself that way. But it appeareth, that he was so 
careful of the preservation of his credit, that he brought 
the said matter before the commissioners ecclesiastical : who, 
upon deliberate examination, found him clear, and freed 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 75 

him from the said offence, and all the circumstances thereof, ANNO 

and decreed unto him letters testimonial under their hands '__ 

and seals of office in that behalf, as we have seen. 54 

V. That he was accused of the like heinous crime at St. 
Andrew's in Holbourn. We have seen testimonials from 
the bishop and mayor of London for his clearing, upon 
examination of the boy and his mother. 

VI. To that, that he is charged with a letter of the bi- 
shop of Exon, written to the bishop of London, that he 
was vehemently suspected and defamed for the selfsame 
crime in that county of Devon, his answer is, (which we 
find to be true,) that the said bishop of Exeter, upon a later 
examination of that matter, by authentic testimony under 
his seal of office, did certify, that he took him for clear, 
notwithstanding his former letter. 

This is the sum of the chiefest points which appeared 
unto us of the matter so objected by Marsham against 
Heton. And so we humbly take our leaves, the 20th of 
March, 1591. 

Your good lordship's most humbly at commandment, 

Rich. Bristol. Ant. Aubrey. 



Number XLI. 

Overtoil, bishop of Coventry and Litchfield, to the lords 
and others of the privy-council : complaining of a prac- 
tice of abuse in the loan and subsidy, by subsidy-men. 
And his advice how to reform it. 

Right honourable, 
I AM bound, as well in regard of my duty to the queen's 
majesty, as also of my dutiful and faithful service to the 
realm, to open unto your lordships (if it be not already 
opened unto you by some others) a certain strange kind of 
practice long time used, as it should seem, among the peo- 
ple of these parts, and now of late come to light, by send 
ing abroad of the privy seals. Such a practice, indeed, as 



76 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO I cannot but think to be the very chief original cause, that 
15,91, the said privy seals take no better place than they do. 

So it is, niv honourable good lords, that the subsidy-men, 
which is one of the chief grounds that you work upon in 
these loans, are for the most part poor and needy persons, 
suborned by the richer sort to bear the name in the subsidy- 
books, and to take the matter upon them, that the others 
might escape : and yet in the mean time are borne out 
and supported of the others by privy contribution with 
some advantage. And which is more, not only one for one, 
but one oftentimes for many, is suborned to take the mat- 
ter in hand : whereby the subsidies are greatly impaired, 
and the queen's majesty very much defrauded. Surely an 
evil practice, and a very unnatural part in the rich to sub- 
orn the poor, to blind the commissioners 1 eyes, and to de- 
55 fraud the queen of her right. For by this means both we 
are notably deluded which are in commission for the subsi- 
dies, and the queen's majesty is wonderfully defrauded, to 
whom the benefit of that service doth appertain : especially 
when many rich contributors shall join together to suborn 
one poor man to serve all their turns. And yet this prac- 
tice, as it now appeareth, hath not been only to serve their 
turn that ways to deceive the queen, and to ease themselves 
in the subsidies, but also to keep their names out of the 
subsidy books: whereby they might prevent all other after- 
claps that might follow, as now in these privy seals they 
hope will come to pass. 

But if it please your lordships to give me leave to inter- 
pose my simple opinion and advice, I doubt not but that 
this practice of theirs, the light of their covert dealing being 
now come abroad as it is, will not only not at all hinder the 
good purpose of those privy seals, but also further them 
very much, when two or tln*ee or four abler men shall be 
found out, to make double or treble supply of every unable 
man's defect ; which, by your commissioners [sent] down 
into the country for that purpose, ye may easily work, if it 
so please you. Or if this practice shall not fall out so ge- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 77 

nerally true as is supposed, (for in some places peradven- ANNO 

ture it may happen to be otherwise,) yet if it please you '* 

to direct your commissions down to every shire unto such 
careful and skilful men, as by your authority may allot, ac- 
cording to their own knowledge and good discretion, some 
contributors to those that are overcharged in these privy 
seals; or, if need be, to discharge them clean, and to take 
others in their places that are better able to bear the bur- 
len ; ye shall see, that the whole proportion of money that 
was first meant in these loans will rise well enough, and be 
performed without any great ado. 

For mine own part, I seek no discharge, although how weak 
my state is some of yourselves do well enough know. But 
yet, because by mine example I will give no man occasion 
of drawing back, I am content, and have taken order that 
my privy seal shall be satisfied ; as also I will have a care 
that the rest of my clergy, that are of the abler sort, shall 
do the like. Of whom I understand, that some, though most 
able of all, have by false suggestion gotten themselves un- 
conscionably released and discharged. But in this, or any 
service else, as it shall please you to impose the charge upon 
me, and not otherwise. 

Thus much I thought good to disclose unto your lord- 
ships of the practices here in these parts, upon the occasion 
of many that have been with me, and have detected the 
same; being the parties themselves that have been suborned, 
and now seek relief in this new burden that they have 
drawn upon themselves by their own folly. And so, leaving 
the further consideration thereof to your own honourable 
gravity and wisdom, I humbly take my leave. From Ec- 
cleshal, the 4th of May, 1591. 

Your honour's humble to command, 

W. Coven, and Lich. 



78 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
ANNO Number XLII. 

1591. 

A declaration of great troubles pretended against the 

5° realm by a number of seminary 'priests and Jesuits, sent, 
briefly InZ an ^ ver y secretly dispersed into the same, to work great 
imperfectly treasons under afalse pretence qf religion. With a pro- 
in stow's vision very necessary Jbr the remedy thereof. Published 
Annals, and j wr ma j es fy> s proclamation. With Notes set in the 

Camden's u .J u r 

Elizabeth, margin. 

ALTHOUGH we have had probable cause to have 
thoughts, that now towards the end of 33 years, being the 
time wherein Almighty God hath continually preserved us in 
a peaceable possession of our kingdoms, the former violence 
and rigor of the malice of our enemies (especially of the 
king of Spain) would, after his continuance in seeking to 
trouble our estate, without any cause, so many years, have 
waxed faint, and decayed in him ; and also others depend- 
ing on him, and been altered into some peaceable humour, 
meet to have disposed him to live in concord with us, and 
other Christian princes, his neighbours ; and by such good 
means to establish an universal peace in Christendom, now 
by his wars only, and no otherwise disturbed : yet to the 
The kin- contrary we find it by his present mighty actions, (great as 
of Spain's | ie never before attempted the like,) whereby it so pleased 
the Almighty God of hosts, as we are persuaded, to suffer 
the ruin or correction of such as will not be content to live 
in peace with their own : and to that end, to permit the 
said king, now in his declining years, (meetest for peace,) 
and when he ought to be satisfied without seeking of more 
Possessed kingdoms by violence and arms, (seeing he possesseth at 
moro this day more crowns and kingdoms and countries, and 

kingdoms more earthly wealth than any of his progenitors, or any 
christian otner prince Christian ever had,) now to begin a most un- 
pr'mce ever just and a dangerous war for all Christendom against the 
satisfied. 00 * French king ; as in like manner he meant two years past to 
The French } iave t | one tne like against us, by invading of our kingdoms 
in the very time of a treaty of peace with us ; whereof God 
gave him and his whole army a just cause of repentance. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 79 

And therefore seeing we do now manifestly understand, ANNO 
that he hath of late (to fortify these his strange violent at- 159K 



tempts with some new colour) procured a Millanois, a vassal a vassal of 
of his own, to be exalted into the papacy of Rome, and 'J^" 
hath seduced him, without the consent of the college of car- 
dinals, to exhaust the treasures of the church, and therewith 
to levy forces in Italy (which had no sound of war in it 
these many years) and in many other places, to be guided 
by his nephew, and sent to invade France, a kingdom that invades 
hath been always a maintainer of that church in all their 
oppressions. And for that this war, so generally and 
mightily against France, concerneth our state very greatly, 
and cannot but be directly very dangerous to our domi- 
nions ; and that it is also known to us by sundry means, 
besides the preparation of other great forces for his seas, 57 
against our crown and dominions, the same be greater for 
this year to come than ever he had before : and for further- Vast prepa- 
ance thereof hath also lately, by colour of this his peculiar s^™™ '" 
pope's authority, which he hath now hanging at his girdle, 
practised with certain principal seditious heads, (being un- 
natural subjects of our kingdom, but yet very base of birth,) 
to gather together with great labour upon his charges a 
multitude of dissolute young men, who have, partly for 
lack of living, partly for crimes committed, become fugitive 
rebels and traitors ; and for whom there were in Rome and English 
Spain, and other places, certain receptacles made to live in, h^d'h^the 
and there to be instructed in school-points of sedition ; and pope. 
from thence to be secretly and by stealth conveyed into oar ce ptMks" 
dominions, with ample authority from Rome to move, stir 
up, and persuade as many of our subjects as they dare deal 
withal, to renounce their natural allegiance due to us and 
our crown, and upon hope, by a Spanish invasion, to be en- 
riched and endued with the possessions and dignities of our 
other good subjects. For which purpose they do bind our 
subjects upon whom they practise, (by oaths, yea, by sa- 
craments,) to forswear their natural allegiance to us, and 
yield their obedience, with all their power, to this king of 
Spain, and to assist his forces. 



80 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO And for the more forcible attraction of these unnatural 
' j91 ' people (being weak of understanding) to this their bend, 



Bl|]ls these seedmen of treason bring certain bulls from the pope : 

some of indulgences, pretending to promise heaven to such 
as will yield ; and some of cursings, threatening damnation 
and hell to such as shall not yield to their persuasions. And 
though this manner of popish attempts have been of long time 
used, yet in some sort also they have been impeached by 
direct execution of laws against such traitors, for mere trea- 

Not for re- SO n, and not for any points of religion, as their fautors 
would colour falsely their actions, which are most manifestly 
seen and heard at their arraignment, where they are neither 
executed, condemned, or indicted, but for high treason : 
affirming, among other things, that they will take part with 
any army sent by the pope against us and our realm. And 
of this, that none do suffer death for matter of religion, 
there is manifest proof, in that a number of men of wealth 
in our realm, confessing contrary religion, are known not to 
be impeached for the same, either in their lives, lands, or 
goods, or in their liberties, but only by payment of a pecu- 
niary sum, as a penalty for the time that they do refuse to 
come to church. Which is a most manifest course to falsify 
the slanderous speeches and libels of the fugitives abroad. 

Fugitives That it is now certainly understood, that these heads of 

* xc '. te these dens and receptacles, which are by the traitors called 

Spain. . i 

seminaries, or colleges of Jesuits, had very lately assured 

the king of Spain, that though heretofore he had no good 
success with his great forces against our realm, yet if he will 
now once again renew his war this next year, there shall be 
found ready, secretly, within the queen's dominions, many 
thousands (as they make their account for their purpose) of 
58 able people, that will be ready to assist such power as he 
shall set on land: and by their vain vaunting they do 
tempt the king hereto; who otherwise ought in wisdom, 
and by his late experience, to conceive no hope of a safe 
landing here; shewing to him in Spain, by the special ID- 
Parsons, formation of a schoolman, named Parsons, arrogating to 
himself the name of the king catholic's confessor, and to the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 81 

pope at Rome, by another scholar, called Allen, now for ANNO 
the treason honoured with the cardinal's hat, certain scrolls, 



or bedrolls of names of men dwelling in sundry parts of our Allen - 
countries, as they have imagined them, but especially in the 
maritimes, with assurance that these their seedmen, named 
seminaries, priests, and Jesuits, are in the sundry parts of 
the realm secretly harboured ; having a great part of them 
been sent within these 10 or 12 months; and shall be 
ready to continue their reconciled people in their lewd con- 
stancy to serve their purpose, both with their forces and 
with other traitorous enterprises which the Spanish powers 
shall be ready to lend. 

Upon which impudent assertions to the pope and to the 
king of Spain, (though they know a great part thereof to be 
false,) they have now very lately advertised into divers 
parts by their secret messengers, (whereof some are also 
very lately taken, and have confessed the same,) that the History of 
king, upon their information and request, hath promised to ti ^ eSj Ug '~ 
employ all his forces that he could by sea this next year, to 
attempt once again the invasion of this realm ; wherewith, be- 
cause some of his wisest counsellors doubt that he shall not 
prevail, therefore he is otherwise persuaded, that if that his 
purpose shall not take place here, yet the same may be well 
employed against France or the Low Countries, or against 
some part of Scotland, into which realm there hath some 
number of the like brood been sent. 

Wherefore considering that these the intentions of the The queen's 
king of Spain are to us in this sort made very manifest ; t^ereupOT 
and although we doubt not but Almighty God, the defender 
of all just causes, will (as always hitherto he hath) make 
the same void, yet it is our duty, as being the supreme go- 
vernor under the Almighty hand, to use all such just and 
reasonable means as are given to us, and therewith to con- 
cur, or rather attend upon his most gracious favour, by the 
help of our faithful subjects, both to increase our forces to 
the utmost of our power, and by execution of laws, and our 
other public ordinances, to impeach the foresaid practices 
of these seditions and treasons. 

VOL. IV. G 



82 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO And, before all other things, we do first require of the 
_ ecclesiastical state, that the like diligence be used by the 



Ecciesiasti- godly ministers of the church, by their diligent teaching 
cai state. an j exam pj e f n f e? to re tain our people steadfastly in the 
profession of the gospel, and in their duties to Almighty 
God and us ; as it is seen a few capital heads of treason are 
continually occupied with their seminaries, in withdrawing 
of a multitude of ignorants to their enchantments. 
Forces by Andj secondly, for having sufficient forces in readiness by 
sea ' sea, we hope, by God's goodness, and with the help of our 

good subjects, to have as great or greater strength on the 
59 seas than at any time we have had, to withstand these 
And by puffed vaunts from Spain. And for our forces by land, our 
trust is, that seeing we have distributed our whole realm 
into several charges of lieutenancies, that they by them- 
selves, when they may be personally present, and otherwise 
by their deputies and assistants of other our ministers, will 
now, after the general musters which have been by our 
special order lately taken, consider of all things requisite to 
perform and make perfect all defects that shall appear ne- 
cessary, to make the bands both of horsemen and footmen 
fully furnished with armour, weapons, and munition, and 
with all other things requisite for their conduction to the 
place of service ; and there also to continue, as time shall 
require, to defend their country. And so we do most ear- 
nestly require and charge all manner of our subjects, with 
their hands, purses, and advices, yea, all and every person 
of every estate, with their prayers to God, to move him to 
assist this so natural, honourable, and profitable a service; 
being only for defence of their natural country, their wives, 
families, children, lands, goods, liberties, and their posteri- 
ties, against ravening strangers, wilful destroyers of their 
native country, and monstrous traitors. 
To with- And, lastly, to withstand and provide speedy remedy 

stand the afi;amst tne ot ] ier fraudulent attempts of the seminaries, Je- 
suits, and traitors ; without the which, as it appeareth, his 
forces should not now be used, the same being wrought 
only by falsehood, by hypocrisy, and by undermining of our 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 83 

good subjects under a false colour and face of holiness, to ANNO 
make breaches in men's and women's consciences, and to 1591 ' 
train them to their treasons ; and that with such a secrecy, 
by the harbouring of the said treacherous messengers in 
obscure places, as without very diligent and continual search 
to be made, and severe orders executed, the same will re- 
main and spread itself as a secret infection of treasons in 
the bowels of our realm ; most dangerous, yea, most re- 
proachful to be suffered in a well ordered commonweal. 

Therefore we have determined, by advice of our council, Commis- 
to have speedily certain commissioners, men of honesty, i nqu i re f or 
fidelity, and good reputation, to be appointed in every seminaries, 
shire, city, and port-town within our realms, to inquire, by 
all good means, what persons, by their behaviour or other- 
wise worthy to be suspected to be any such persons, or have 
been sent, or that are employed in any such persuading of 
our people, or of any residing within our realm, to treason, 
or to move any to relinquish their allegiance to us, or to 
acknowledge any kind of obedience to the pope or to the 
king of Spain ; and also of all other persons that have been 
thereto induced, and that have thereto yielded : and further 
to proceed in the execution of such their commission, as they 
shall be more particularly directed by instructions annexed 
to their commission. 

And furthermore, because it is certainly known and 
proved by common experience, upon the apprehension of 
sundry of the said traitorous persons sent into the realm, 
that they do come into the same by secret creeks and land- Creeks, 
ing-places, disguised both in names and persons ; some in Disguised. 
apparel as soldiers, mariners, or merchants; pretending that ^ 
they have heretofore been taken prisoners, and put into 
galleys, and delivered. Some come in as gentlemen, with 
contrary names, in comely apparel, as though they had tra- 
velled into foreign countries for knowledge. And generally 
all, for the most part, as soon as they are crept in, are 
clothed like gentlemen in apparel, and many as gallants; 
yea, in all colours, and with feathers, and such like, dis- 
guising themselves ; and many of them in their behaviour 

g2 



84 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
ANNO as ruffians, far off to be thought or suspected to be friars, 



1591. 



priests, Jesuits, or popish scholars. 

And of these many do attempt to resort to the universi- 
ties and houses of law ; from whence, in former time, they 
departed many into services of noblemen, ladies, and gen- 
tlemen, with such like fraudulent devices, to cover them- 
selves from all apprehension or suspicion. And yet, in pro- 
cess of time, they do at length so insinuate themselves, to 
get themselves credit, with hypocrisies, as they infect both 
the masters and families ; and consequently adventure also, 
yet secretly, to use their offices of priesthood and reconcile- 
ment : whereby all such as do retain them are worthy to 
be suspected, and may be charged by law, to their great 
danger. 
Discovery For avoiding whereof, and either to discover these ve- 
em * nomous vipers, or to chase them away out of the realm 
from the infecting of many more, we order, and strictly 
charge and command our temporal noblemen, gentlemen, 
lord, lady, master or mistress, or owner whatsoever of any 
house, family, lodging, yea, the very officers of our own 
household, and governors of any societies, to make a present, 
due, and particular inquisition of all manner of persons that 
have been admitted or suffered to have usual resort, diet, 
lodging, residence, in their houses, or in any place by their 
appointment, at any time within the space of one whole 
year now past and ended at March last ; or that from 
thenceforth have or shall be admitted or suffered so to re- 
sort, enter, lodge, reside, or attend. And by such inquisi- 
tion and examination to be duly and particularly informed 
of what condition and country any such person is, and by 
what kind of means he hath heretofore lived, and where he 
hath spent his time for the space of one whole year before. 
And likewise to know whether he hath used or doth use 
to repair to the church at usual times to divine service, ac- 
cording to the laws of the realm. And to cause those in- 
quisitions, with their answers, to be put into writing parti- 
cularly, and the same to be kept in the manner of a register 
or calendar, to be shewed when they shall be demanded. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 85 

That upon case of suspicion of any such person, the same ANNO 

may be further tried by the commissioners above-mentioned *_ 

of those places, whether the same persons so examined be 
loyal subjects or no. And if any such shall be found un- 
willing to answer to such inquisitions, or shall be found by 
his doubtful answer not likely to be an obedient subject, 
the same person shall be stayed by the householder, or him 
that ought to have examined him, and shall be sent to any 
of the commissioners above-mentioned next adjoining. And 
if any person having government or command over such 6 1 
servant or resiant, shall be found not to have performed the 
points of the foresaid inquisition, as is above limited, the 
same shall be called to appear before the said commis- 
sioners, or before our privy-council, if the quality of the 
person shall so require ; and shall be further used and or- 
dered for such default, as the said commissioners or our 
council shall have just cause to deal with such a person. 

And, finally, we admonish, and strictly charge and com- Command 
mand all persons that have any intelligence with any such 
so sent, or come from beyond the seas to such purpose, to 
detect them to the commissioners, in that behalf to be 
assigned as aforesaid, within twenty days after the publica- 
tion hereof, in the shire-town, or city, or port, within the 
precincts of the said commission, upon pain that the of- 
fenders herein shall be punished as abettors and main- 
tainers of traitors. Wherein we are resolutely determined 
to suffer no favour to be used for any respect of any per- 
sons, qualities, or degrees ; nor shall allow, nor suffer to be 
allowed, any excuse of negligence for not detection, or for 
not due examination of the qualities of such dangerous per- 
sons, according to the order hereafter prescribed, being no- 
wise contrary, but agreeable to the most ancient laws and 
good usages of our realm ; devised for the good order of 
all manner of subjects in every precinct of any leet, to be 
forthcoming, to answer for their behaviour towards the 
dignity of our crown and the common peace of our realm. 
Given at our manor of Richmond, the 18th of October, 
1591, in the 33d year of our reign. 

g3 



ANNO 

1591. 



86 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 



Number XLIII. 



Articles annexed to the commission, Jbr a further instruc- 
tion to the commissioners how to proceed in the execution 
thereof'. 

Certain FIRST, you, to whom the commission shall be brought, 

be^ad minis- shall, without delay, notify to the rest of the commissioners 
tered to tHat shall be in the country, or that may shortly repair 
to be sus- thither, the receipt of the said commission, with some signi- 
pected will fi ca ti on of the contents thereof; and shall require them to 

adhere to m l . 

the pope, or meet at some convenient time and place, to consider of the 
Spain' n ff he contents thereof; and thereupon to accord upon sundry 
should in- days and places in every quarter of the shire, ordinarily to 
realm. meet about the same. So as now at the beginning, the 
oftener they shall meet, the same shall be the better. And 
after your first meeting, you shall, according to the quan- 
tity of the shire, make some partitions among yourselves 
to execute the commission with more ease : and yet you 
shall every forty days, for this present year, assemble all 
together, to confer upon your several proceedings : so as 
you may once every quarter give knowledge to her majes- 
ty's council of your actions. 
6*2 Item, You shall send to the bishop or ordinary of the 
diocese, and to the chancellor or official, and to the arch- 
deacon of the same, to certify you of all persons, with their 
dwelling-places, whom they shall know to have been pre- 
sented to them as recusants, and that do so continue in 
their recusancy. And the like certificate you shall require 
from the custos rotulorum, or the clerk of the peace, and 
from the clerk of the assize of the county, to know such as 
have been presented and indicted as recusants, as well wo- 
men as men ; and what process hath been sent forth against 
them. And likewise you shall by any other means inform 
yourselves of all such as within your county are commonly 
noted to be receivers or comforters of persons that are sus- 
pected to have come from beyond seas, as seminaries, priests, 
Jesuits, or fugitives. And after that you shall be duly in- 
formed, by these or any other means, of such persons so to be 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 87 

suspected, as principal offenders or accessaries, you shall re- ANNO 
tain to yourselves secretly the names of the same, without 1 
any publication thereof, until you shall afterwards find pro- 
bable and good cause to warn any of them to come before 
you, or otherwise to apprehend and examine them accord- 
ing to the contents of your commission. 

Item, In your examination of any persons by virtue of 
this commission, you shall not press any one to answer to 
any questions of their conscience for matter of religion, 
otherwise than to cause them answer whether they do usu- 
ally come to church, and why they do not. And if you 
shall perceive that they are wilful recusants, then you shall 
examine them upon any matters concerning their allegiance 
to her majesty, and of their devotion to the pope or to the 
king of Spain ; or upon their maintenance of any Jesuits, 
seminaries, priests, or other persons, sent from Rome, or 
from any parts beyond seas, to dissuade any subjects from 
their obedience to the queen's majesty. 

And to give you some particular instructions in what 
sort you may conceive convenient questions, whereupon to 
examine persons that are to be suspected to adhere to the 
pope or to the king of Spain, contrary to their duty of al- 
legiance, you may observe the form of these questions here- 
after following. 

The questions ensuing to be answered by oath, by such 
as shall be verily suspected to have been moved to give 
assistance to the forces of the pope, or King of Spam, 
when they shall happen to invade this realm ; whereby 
such wicked seducers may be discovered. 
Whether have you been moved by any, and by whom, 
and when, and by what persuasion, to give aid or relief, or 
to adhere to the forces of the pope or king of Spain, when 
they should happen to invade this land for any cause what- 
soever ? 

The questions following to be ministred without oath; 
to discover such as shall be suspected to be priests, se- 
minaries, or fugitives, dangerous to the state. 
Whether have you been at Rome, Rheimes, or in Spain, 
g 4 



1591. 



88 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO at any time within these five years? When returned you 
_last into this realm ? And to what purpose ? And where have 
go you been ever since your coming from thence ? 

Be you a Jesuit or priest made after the Romish order ? 
Where and when were you so made? And by whom? Have 
you been at the seminaries or colleges for the English, 
Welsh, or Irish nation at Rome, Rheimes, in Spain, or else- 
where ? How long were you in any of them ? And where 
were you last sent from any of them into England or 
Wales? And to what end? 

Item, Where, by her majesty's late proclamation, whereof 
you shall take knowledge, it is ordered, That all manner of 
persons, of what degree soever they be, without any excep- 
tion, spiritual or temporal, and so forth, shall make parti- 
cular inquisition of all manner of persons that have been 
admitted, or suffered to have resort, diet, lodging, &c. 
within the space of one year past, &c. if you shall be in- 
formed of any such person so lodged, or comforted, &c. as 
in the proclamation is at large expressed ; in such case you 
shall require the party that is appointed to make such in- 
quisition, to deliver the same his inquisition to you in writing. 
And thereupon you shall do your best to try out, if there 
have been any suspected person so lodged or comforted; 
and further used according to his deserts. 

Item, Because the like commission is sent into all other 
shires of the realm, and like instructions annexed thereto, 
as these are, and that you may percase be informed of some 
persons meet to be apprehended or examined, which are 
gone out of that shire in some other parts, or do remain in 
places out of the jurisdiction of your commission; in such 
cases, we require you to send secret knowledge thereof to 
the commissioners of the counties where you shall think 
such suspected persons do remain ; requiring them, in her 
majesty's name, to use all diligence for the apprehension of 
such, and by such information as you shall give them to 
examine the parties, and to proceed against them according 
to their commission. 



1591. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 89 

Item, You shall do well to make choice of some persons, ANNO 
of honest behaviour, and loyal in religion, in every quarter . 
of the shire, and especially in every port-town, market- 
town, or great large parish; and where the parsons or 
vicars are faithful and careful of their cures, to join them 
together, with charge to observe all such as refuse obsti- 
nately to resort to church. And such persons you shall call 
before you, and, without dealing with them for their recu- 
sancy, (for which they shall be otherwise by law punished,) 
you shall, as in your direction think meet, (respecting the 
quality of their persons,) require them to answer to the two 
former questions, or to either of them : for that by their re- 
cusancy they do give cause to suspect to be disloyal in their 
duties to the queen's majesty and the state, or to favour 
the common enemies. 



Number XLIV. 6*4 

Anthony Fitzherbcrt, a popish gentleman in the gaol at 
Darby , to the earl of Shrewsbury; relents, and prays 
favour from his imprisonment. 

Right honourable, and my very good lord, 
I MOST humbly beseech your honour to commiserate 
my poor and distressed estate, remaining here a prisoner 
within the gaol of Darby, by your lordship's commitment 
and direction from the lords of her majesty's most honour- 
able privy-council. Forasmuch as I have been examined 
before your lordship of divers articles, and have answered 
thereto ; so as, I trust, your honour doth well perceive me 
no meddler in matter of state, but only misled in points of 
religion ; wherein I have been nursed up from my infancy, 
never tasting any other grapes. But now more and more 
weighing with myself, and daily considering your most ho- 
nourable admonitions and sage counsels, wherewith your lord- 
ship did persuade me; which have taken deeper root in me, 
and moved me more than any durance of imprisonment or 
terror of law could ever have done. So that now, my good 



90 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO lord, I well perceive mine own blindness, and acknowledge 
ix9i. m y se lf to have too too long wandered in the darksome night 
of ignorance, never escrying a daylight before. 

Wherefore, 1 most humbly beseech your lordship, for 
charity sake, to be a means to the most honourable lords of 
her majesty's privy-council for my enlargement. For my 
trust is, their honours will be as merciful to me as they have 
been to others, in like case as great offenders as I am. And 
if your honour will this once be compassionable, you shall 
be an eyewitness that I will conform myself, and come to 
the church, as I promised your honour, and avoid the com- 
pany of all such dangerous persons as your lordship gave 
me warning of, and bear myself hereafter like a most loyal, 
obedient subject. Pardon me, my honourable good lord, I 
humbly beseech you, my importunate boldness, in the 
straitness of this place, and most odious for many causes, 
with the loathsome and unsavoury smells, and the cumber- 
some companions which be here committed for all vices, 
(wherewith I am pestered,) do so daily increase the many 
infirmities of my weak body, with some other more special 
and particular causes, which I made known to your honour 
at my being with you, as, unless I find your honour to 
stand my good lord, I shall rather wish a short and speedy 
death, than so wearisome and consuming a life. My real 
confidence is, your honour will not be unmindful of me : 
and I shall pray to God for your honour's happy felicity 
and daily increase of all honour. From the gaol of Darby, 
the 21st of May, 1591. 

Your lordship's most bounden in all duty, 

Anthony Fitzherbert. 



55 Number XLV. 

The earl of Darby, from the court at Greenwich, to the earl 
of Shrexcsbury : concerning 'preparations for war; and 
the execution of two seminaries. 

My very good lord, 
THIS place of late hath afforded little worthy letters 



1591. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 91 

for your lordship's view; which hath been the reason I have ANNO 
forborne to write unto you : yet now some discourses being _ 
come hither of exploits and services in Britain, not long ago 
performed, I thought good to send them to your lordship 
here enclosed. My lord of Essex is furnishing and pre- 
paring himself towards the king of France, attended with 
sundry of account; namely, the earl of Lincoln and his 
son, and these captains contained in the enclosed ; as also 
4000 soldiers. 

This morning two seminaries, Beisely and Scot, were 
executed in Fleet-street : who, among other their bad opi- 
nions, traitorously affirmed, that if her majesty had an army 
against the pope here, they would fight with the pope 
against her majesty ; or if the pope should command them 
to lay violent hands upon, or kill her majesty, (whom the 
Lord of heaven long preserve to reign over us,) they would 
willingly do it. 

And so for this time, till further occasion of writing be 
proffered, with my most hearty commendations to your 
good lordship, I wish the same as to myself. From the 
court at Greenwich, this 1st of July, 1591. 

Your lordship's assured loving cousin, 
and faithful friend to use, 

H. Derby. 

Postscript. 
My good lord, 

ONE of these seminaries was at the high race at Croy- 
den, all in green and velvet, well mounted upon a good 
gelding, having also a pistol at his side; insomuch as it was 
conceived he meant ill toward her majesty, if she had been 
there. 

Number XLVI. 

The coifession of Boord before the lord treasurer, anno 
1591, being in the Gate-house, Westminster ; who was 
a spy, as it seems, for seminaries. 
EDWARD BOORD, a soldier in France, goeth thence 



92 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO to the prince of Parma with one Tusser; there offereth his 
1591 ' service to the king of Spain. And at Brussels, Hugh Owen 
ggand Mr. Dennis, desirous to know what service they could 
do for the king; to whom Dyer made answer, That he 
came to do the king service, and that he would be willing to 
hazard his life, and any thing whatsoever. Whereupon they 
asked him, Whether he would undertake to burn the queen's 
ships? Which sudden motion made my heart ache, saith 
Boord. But remembering my pretence, and the cause of my 
coming, [which he had said before was to endeavour to dis- 
cover what they could, and so to come over into England 
and declare it,] he told them, That so they would give him 
[i.e. Boord] reason for the performance thereof, he would 
do his best. [Thus Boord said.] 

Their means were these. They would have built two 
vessels to row with oars ; and in them they would have had 
room for seven or eight small boats ; every boat should have 
had fifteen or sixteen men apiece in them ; and with a de- 
vice made to break the chain, they would have rowed into 
the harbour ; and the first small boat should pass so many 
ships as there were boats before she began to give fire ; and 
by that time the last boat would be with the first ship in 
the river, and set them afire at one instant; and to row to 
their ships as well as they could, though it were with the 
loss of some of their men and boats. This will be adven- 
tured when the prince is gone. 

Upon this motion I went to Mr. Paget, because I would 
be sure to have his love, and told him what matters there 
were in hand, and how they would use me as an instrument 
in the cause ; and withal entreated him to give me the best 
counsel he could : so that he took this so kindly at my hand, 
that he told me, that if he could do me any good, or give 
me advice, I should be as bold to use him as any man what- 
soever. This counsel I took to enter into him, and to make 
myself familiar with him, who afterwards used me very 
kindly ; for I knew that Owin and he did not affect either 
one another, &c. 

Now having the knowledge of these men coming over, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 93 

we devised with ourselves [Tusser and himself] how we ANNO 
should give your lordship [lord treasurer Burghley] intel- 159 '' 
ligence hereof, [by our getting into England.] We went 
to Owin, and told him, that if he would procure us a pass- 
port, we would go into England, and make all the money 
we could, and bring a ship with us; which made him have 
a very good opinion of us, and told us, that if we did the 
same, we should do the king very good service. But when 
we heard him say so, we told him we feared that when we 
returned that should be taken from us. And then he did 
give us his word, that he would procure us a commission to 
serve the king by sea ; and because he could not do it pre- 
sently, he procured a letter from the counsellor in the 
causes of the admiralty to the governor of Dunkirk, that if 
we should come in, to use us very well. By this means I 
brought over this gentleman : for I told him, if that he 
would go, he might procure him money to live in good 
surety. This was our persuasion unto him ; for we knew 
he could bring us to divers masses; by which means we 
might cause many seminaries to be apprehended. For if I 
had not been brought to your lordship, my meaning was to 
have come unto you, and to have made your lordship ac- Q*J 
quainted with our proceedings, as by Mr. Tusser's course 
and mine we had proceeded ; who, if your lordship please 
to speak with, I will send for him. For he stays to be di- 
rected by your lordship, whom I humbly entreat to have a 
care and regard that he perish not in the hands of those 
vile and wicked persons, who seek the blood of our people 
and ruin of our country. 

By the means of a ship, I will tell your lordship how you 
may either take Dunkirk or burn all their ships with very 
little charge, and no loss of men ; to which end Tusser is 
gone thither. 

I have a direction to find out a priest, whose name is 
Southwel, and the chief dealer in the affairs of our state of 
England for the papists. 

Mr. Paget's persuasions to Mr. Tusser and myself was, 



94 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

anno that whether we brought a ship or nay, or whether we 
1 60 ' • brought money or not, that we sbould not fail to return 
again : for, saith he, you shall know of the effecting of 
greater matters than you know of or can imagine. Where- 
upon he wished your lordship's head upon London-bridge : 
for, saith he, there is no prince in Christendom hath the 
like statesman. 

And thus I beseech your lordship to have so much pity 
of me, and not to let me lie in prison, unless it be the better 
to effect the causes above-mentioned : for if they think I am 
a papist, my friends will do nothing for me. This gentle- 
man knoweth of none of our proceedings ; for we brought 
him only to discover seminaries and Jesuits : for he told us 
he would bring us every day to mass. 

Subscribed, Edward Boord. 



Number XL VII. 
Colleges of English in Flanders. 

BOORD and Tusser, whither they went. Boord, in his 
foresaid relation, sheweth, how they went from France to 
Erre, [Arras,] where they were directed by Harrison, prin- 
cipal of the college, to Apavile, [Abbevile,] to one Anthony 
Denham, friar, and born in Exeter. 

At Abbevile we found Michael Richardson, a northern 
man, and dealer for the transporting of money for the scho- 
lars of Erre, [Arras,] who told us, that within six weeks he 
would go into England. There is one Richard Owin, an 
Irishman, that serveth mons. Rambares. 

We went to Arras, where we found Clement Hanmer, 
servant to the abbot. 

At Doway, Somerfield, Dr. Web, Dr. White, Chambers, 
Tayler, Edwards, and Baily, who is dead. 

At Valensine, [Valensienne,] Pilkington. 
68 At Mounts, Dr. Sanderson. Then we came to Brussels; 
when Hugh Owin and Mr. Dennis came to them, to know 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 95 

what service they could do for the king of Spain [as before ANNO 

mentioned.] '__ 

Upon the backside of this paper is writ, by the lord 
Burghley's own hand, XL N°. 1591. Boord in the Gate- 
house. 



Number XLVIII. 

Designs and attempts of Hacket, Coppinger, and Arthing- 
ton, anno 1591, to dethrone the queen, and overthrow the 
government on pretence of revelation. Being collections 
from a book entitled, Conspiracy for pretended Reforma- 
tion. Printed 1592, in divers articles. 

1. THEY intended to appeach two great and honourable 
counsellors, [the lord treasurer and lord chancellor,] whom 
they thought would stop the course they had taken, and 
hinder their purposes, as if they intended some wicked prac- 
tice against the queen's person. 

2. A conspiracy of the death of certain lords of the coun- 
cil, when they should be at the Star-chamber, in case they 
should give a judgment against certain that were sometime 
preachers, and then prisoners for misdemeanours, [viz. seve- 
ral puritans,] perilous to the peaceable state of the realm. 
So Coppinger wrote in a letter to Lancaster, " That if the 
" lords should give a hard censure against those parties, 
" the next day, if God shewed not such a fearful judgment 
" against some of those lords, as that some of them should 
" not go alive out of that place, then never trust him." 

3. They prepared the minds of the people, to stir them 
up to be in a readiness, and this done by certain seditious 
letters that were purposely scattered five or six nights be- 
fore in many streets of London : and a book was printed by 
Wiggington, who was a turbulent preacher, and in prison, 
that set on Hacket and the rest. It was entitled, The fools 
bolt; and on the other side of the sheet, A father's ex- 
hortation to a young* courtier. It was in a halting rhyme, 
roaring lewdly, not only at the governors ecclesiastical, and 



96 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO at other ministers, but at sundry having civil authority and 
159K high places ; beginning thus : 

" My son, if thou a courtier sue to be, 

" In flower of youth, this lesson learn of me : 

" A Christian true, although he be a clown, 

" May teach a king to wear sceptre and crown." 

These papers were dispersed by one Browne, and parti- 
cularly to several women. He was examined about them 
by the privy-council and others. Wiggington, in his cham- 
69 ber, was heard to say, That if the magistrates do not govern 
well, the people might draw themselves together, and to see 
a reformation. 

4. The purpose of theirs was, not only to make an altera- 
tion in the state of the church-government, and to plant in 
every congregation their eldership or consistory of doctor, 
pastor, and certain lay-elders, with the appurtenances; but 
also to change the civil policy of this realm. For which 
consideration they meant to displace all the lords and 
others of the privy-council, calling them therefore by their 
bare names, or with this addition, late lord-chancellor, late 
lord-treasurer ; and in their stead they had nominated and 
set down certain others, in truth very honourable and wor- 
shipful persons, that should be counsellors. 

5. And last and most damnable designment was, the de- 
privation of her sacred majesty of her crown and dignity, 
and the destruction of her royal person. Arthington, who 
confessed afterward, did say, How that these things were 
to be effected, they opened not unto him ; and pretended 
that he himself was always unwilling to hear any of them. 
But whether it was meant to do it by some open violence, 
or secret practice ; but sure it is, that popular tumult was 
not the least means they trusted on; which tumult they 
hoped to stir up by their pretence of so great holiness, and 
by calling the realm to repentance in the open streets of 
London, by offering joys and mercy to the penitent, and 
by a proclamation also which they made in Cheapside. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 97 

Number XLIX. ANNO 

1591. 

Some remarks of Hack et, and his two prophets, Coppinget 

and Arthington. 

1. THEIR great pretence was the Spirit, and to be 
moved by the Spirit. 2. They would not pull off their hats 
before the magistrates. When two were sent by the queen, 
lords of the privy-council, and these two prophets brought 
before them at the lord mayor's house to be examined, they 
shewed them no reverence or duty, nor would put off their 
hats till they were plucked off by others. And when some 
asked them, if they knew before whom they stood, they 
answered, They knew them right well, but would yield 
them no duties or reverence, saying, They were greater 
persons than those before whom they stood. 3. These two 
prophets used horrible imprecations, confounding and 
damning themselves, if it were not true as they said. 

At one Kay's house in Knightrider's-street, where Hacket 
lodged, he defaced the queen's arms there ; and being ex- 
amined about it, he said, He was moved thereunto in- 
wardly by the Spirit, to take away her whole power of her 
authority ; and that he would have done worse, had it not 
been for disquieting his hostess where he lay ; because 
when she found it, she was very angry ; and that he was not ^o 
sorry, nor is sorry, for doing that act, because he was com- 
manded by God to do it, and durst not do otherwise. 

He put out also the lions and dragons eyes in the arms ; 
and being asked, Why ? he answered, That he did know 
that lion and dragon did let God's people. He rased out 
also the cross pictured on the top of the crown. Kay and 
his wife also deposed, That they found the queen's picture 
picked with some bodkin, or iron instrument, in the very 
place representing her royal heart : and this they did with 
great anger charge Hacket with. He answered, That he 
had done it, and must and would answer it ; adding, That 
he had greater matters to answer than that ; and therefore 
they need not make such ado for it. But at his examina- 
tion he denied this point, or said, He did not remember it. 

VOL. IV. H 



98 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO Hackct said, That the queen had forfeited her crown, in 



1591 



that her ministers used extraordinary means to set up re- 
Denies the Hgion ; and said, There was a man at Walker's house that 
i[ueen of laid claim to the crown of England, meaning himself: and 
England, acknowledged, That he had published in Hampshire, three 
or four years past, and afterwards in Hertfordshire and in 
Northamptonshire, that her majesty was not queen ; and 
that she had forfeited her title to the crown. All this he 
confessed without any torture. 
Hackct tor- When he was put upon the torture, he confessed her 
majesty to be his lawful queen, and affirmed that he ho- 
noured her, and was sorry for his offences: and added, 
That if Coppinger, Wiggington, and one other, (whom he 
named,) were well sifted and straitly examined, they would 
utter and declare sundry matters of treason. 
indicted. He was brought to his trial from Bridewell, July 26, 

[that is, a week after his and his companions doings in 
Cheapsidc, which was July the 19th,] at the sessions house 
near Newgate, before the lord mayor, lord Wentworth, sir 
Gilbert Gerrard, master of the rolls, sir Wolstan Dixy, sir 
Richard Martin, aldermen, sergeant Fleetwood, recorder of 
London, and others in the commission. After two several 
indictments against him, he was bid to hold up his hand, 
which he did. Then the first indictment was read ; which 
was for his saying several times, That the queen was not 
queen of England ; and that queen Elizabeth did repre- 
sent all hypocrisy ; and had forfeited her crown ; and was 
worthy to be deprived. And that he defaced her arms in 
Kay's house : and that he said, He was moved thereto by 
the Spirit. He pleaded guilty, saying, All must be as you 
will. 

The second indictment was for defacing the queen's 
arms, and rasing a certain picture of the queen's majesty in 
the said Kay's house, and thrusting an iron instrument into 
that part of the picture that represented the queen's breast 
and heart : and for treating with Coppinger and Arthing- 
ton at Walker's house concerning his traitorous purposes 
and imaginations. And being asked, Whether he were 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 99 

guilty or not guilty to this indictment? he began to an- ANNO 
swer more perversely, saying to the bench, You have wit _ ! , , 

enough to judge for me and yourselves. Being asked again, 
he said, Few words are best : it is good to know much and 
say little. Being asked again, Whether he were guilty or 
not? He said, Ambo; [that is, Both;~\ and afterwards he7l 
pleaded, Not guilty. Then being asked, By whom he 
would be tried ? he said, By the country. And after- 
wards he said again, By the jury. And then burst out into 
blasphemous and hellish words against the majesty of God, 
in truth, not to be heard by Christian ears, and therefore 
not to be uttered. 

Then the queen's attorney desired, in behalf of the queen, 
That seeing he could not be brought to any other plea, that 
judgment might be entered; and that he had pleaded 
guilty to the one indictment, and stood mute to the se- 
cond : whereupon he was to be convicted of both indict- 
ments. The attorney and the solicitor, for the better satis- 
faction of the world, thought fit somewhat to shew how 
heinous and how evident his treasons were. The recorder 
then gave judgment upon Hacket. 

Preachers travailed with him before the day of his exe- 
cution. At first he gave froward and lewd answers ; but at 
last they brought him to a serious consideration, as it seems, 
of his own state, and of the grievousness of his treasons. 
On the 27th of July, the day before his execution, Mr. Ri- 
chard Young, an active justice of peace of London, wished 
him to submit himself, and confess his fault before Al- 
mighty God. Hacket did accordingly. Then he wished 
him to take patiently what God had laid upon him. Hacket 
said, He would unfeignedly so do; and withal asked the 
queen forgiveness, saying, He was sorry for the words he 
had spoken : and said, It was a gracious and happy turn 
that their treasons were in time revealed, for otherwise it 
would have cost a number of innocent men their bloods, 
and himself he thought should nevertheless also have been 
slain among; them : but now he trusted in God that others 
also would confess their treason ; and that her majesty was 

h 2 



100 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO a gracious princess, and would forgive them if they asked 
59 ' mercy. Upon his desire Mr. Yong gave him some money ; 
Hacket thanked him, and desired Mr. Yong to pray for 
him. In this good temper he continued that night and the 
next morning, until looking out at one of the windows to 
the street toward Cheapside, he saw all the streets filled 
with people expecting his execution ; thereupon he began 
very desperately and blasphemously to answer such as ex- 
horted him. Coming down the stairs, one of the sheriffs 
wished him to be mindful of Christ's death, who suffered 
for him ; he uttered execrable blasphemy against Christ's 
blessed passion. The rest of his behaviour and hideous ex- 
pressions may be found in our historians. 

The next day after, Coppinger, wilfully having abstained 
from meat seven or eight days together, died in Bridewell, 
and Arthington lived still in the Counter in Wood-street, 
reserved, as was hoped, unto sincere repentance; for imme- 
diately after Hackefs execution, he wrote a letter unto two 
great counsellors (whom, among others, he had lewdly slan- 
dered) of submission, and afterwards more at large to the 
body of the council, the whole course, as he pretended, of 
this action, so far as he was made acquainted with it ; hum- 
72 bly craving their lordships 1 mediation unto the queen's most 
excellent majesty for his pardon ; and acknowledging his 
dangerous error and devilish seduction. 

To all the rest this may be added. When Arthington 
was with Hacket at Walker's house in Broken-wharf, on 
the same day when he and Coppinger had proclaimed 
Hacket in Cheapside to be the prophet sent from God, Hay- 
nen, parson of St. Mary Somerset, (an honest and learned 
preacher,) was present, and looked upon some of Hacket's 
papers that were then seized ; but Hacket reproved him for 
it, and said, It appertained not unto him, but unto the ma- 
gistrates, to read those papers. Arthington then told that 
preacher, That the judgments that were over the city were 
very great, and that the time was come that God would re- 
form his church, and root out all idolatrous priests ; and the 
ministers of the city were no better. This preacher de- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 101 

manded of Hacket, Why he seduced Arthington to bring ANNO 
him into such blasphemy ? (for he, at the end of all his ex- 159K 
pressions, used horrible imprecations, and said, If it were 
not so, God confound me.) Hacket answered, That abun- 
dance of zeal caused him to exceed in that sort. Further, 
he asked Hacket, How he liked that Arthington ascribed 
unto him an office peculiar to Christ ? Hacket answered, 
That God had a great work to bring to pass by himself in 
this land ; affirming also that he was a prophet. 

And to conclude. What understanding there was be- 
tween these wretches and Marprelate and his company 
may be gathered from part of a letter from Coppinger to 
Udal, who was then a prisoner in Southwark : telling him, 
That the cause why he repaired not unto him (and the rest 
who were in prison) so oft as he was wont to do, was for 
doubt of more trouble and danger that might grow to them 
thereby ; and that in respect of an action which he had 
to do. 



Number L. 
A petition of divers prisoners, puritans, in the Fleet and 
other prisons, to the lord treasurer, Jbr the furtherance 
of their humble petition to the lords of the council for 
their enlargement. Dated December 4, 1591. 

HAVING a purpose, right honourable, by most hum- 
ble petition, to come unto the lords of her majesty's most 
honourable privy-council for bail, agreeable unto law, (as we 
are informed,) until their lordships shall please to call us to 
further trial of our innocence in that we are charged with : 
we thought good, besides our petition to the lords, to ad- 
dress our most humble suit particularly unto your lordship, 
not only as defendants to a principal judge of the court 
where our cause dependeth, but also as children of the land 
to a chief father of the same ; which taketh no pleasure in 
this our afflicted state, but will, as we are persuaded, ten- 
derly weigh it, so far as any equal course of justice may re- 73 
lieve it. For we nothing doubt but your lordship, in dis- 

h3 



102 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO course of reason, and in experience of the state of students, 
159 '• can easily discern that a year's imprisonment (which we all, 
with a surcrease, have suffered) will strike deeper into our 
healths, having regard to our bringing up, than some num- 
ber of years of others, whose bringing up hath been other, 
and which have followed their trades of life. 

It is well known, that divers papists, not only denying 
her majesty's lawful authority, but giving the same to a 
stranger, yea, to the sworn enemy of ours, and of all Chris- 
tian princes, have yet received favour of freedom from their 
imprisonment. There is never an one of us but hath been 
sworn to her majesty's supremacy, and some of us, upon 
occasion, divers times. And if v/e be doubted how we stand 
affected this time, notwithstanding we have given no cause 
(as we are persuaded) of that suspicion, yet, to satisfy the 
authority under which we live, we will be ready to take the 
oath again. 

And notwithstanding some (not so well affected towards 
us as we are towards them) do suggest that we carry some 
other interpretation with us than the meaning of the law is, 
yet have we verily no other than all the reformed churches 
have in the dutiful acknowledgment of the authority of 
their several magistrates; none other than her majesty's 
own admonition in the end of her injunctions, and the 37th 
article of the convocation ; and especially the most authen- 
tic and classical writers of this church, both bishops, deans, 
and other men of note, with privilege, with allowance, with 
oversight of the bishops themselves ; and finally, with great 
commendation of all, have written of that point. Finally, 
we may affirm, with truth to be justified, that we hold no 
other than that some of the chiefest of them, whose hand is 
against us in this cause of further reformation, have set 
down, when they either quietly have written of this point, 
or have buckled with the papists, &c. However, writing 
ayiovjo-T*jiaJ$ against us, and put on by mislike of the per- 
sons against whom they write, crossed and contradicted 
their own judgment. 

And thus craving pardon of our boldness in detaining 



15.91. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 103 

you from so weighty affairs of watching continually for the ANNO 
good of this commonwealth, and expecting that favour from 
your lordship which either equity or a regardful consi- 
deration of our afflicted state may require, &c. 

Your lordship's most humble to command, 

Prisoners in and about the city, 
Thorn. Cartwright, Edward Lord, 

Humfrey Fen, Edmund Snape, 

Andrew King, William Proudlove, 

Daniel Wyght, Melancthon Jewell. 

John Payne, 



Number LI. 

The heads of the colleges in Cambridge to the lord Burgh- 
ley, their high chancellor: concerning Legate their 
printer, wlw was hindered the printing of' the Bible and 
Psalms in metre by the stationers in London ; whose part 
the heads took as their printer. 

Right honourable, and our singular good lord, 
SUCH is the importunity of our adversaries, in devising 
against us new complaints, as we are forced eftsoons to re- 
new our just defence, ever while they charge us as doing- 
wrong to Mr. Barker, [the queen's printer,] in printing a 
Bible of the lesser volume. Now they accuse us as offering- 
like injury to Mr. Day, in publishing therewith the Psalms 
in metre. They seek, in dividing the persons, to make us 
seem guilty of many crimes. Whereas, in very truth, our 
printer having for his copy one only volume, wherein both 
those books are joined together, could not conveniently set 
forth the one without the other, seeing both do jointly and 
usually serve for the public celebration of divine service. 
The suit which they have made unto your lordship for the 
stay of our printer until the next term is so prejudicial to 
the poor man, as if they should prevail therein, it could not 
but tend to his utter undoing; especially Sturbridge-fair 

h 4 



74 



104 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO now drawing near; being the chiefest time wherein he 
l5 ' 91- hopeth to reap greatest fruit of this his travail. 

We are the rather therefore right humbly to crave of 
your good lordship, that if they cannot be pacified other- 
wise, your lordship would be pleased to require the opi- 
nions of the master of the rolls, the lord chief justice of the 
common-pleas, and justice Peryam; who all, or some of 
them, as we hear, either already are, or shortly will be there 
in London. Ourselves have conferred with divers of good 
skill of the laws of the land, who, not drawn to favour us 
in respect of our fee, but uttering freely their resolute judg- 
ment, find no just reason whereon the adverse party may 
safely rely. For the chief ground they seem to lay, viz. 
that the prince, by virtue only of prerogative, may, by a 
later grant, either take away or abridge a former, being no 
ways hurtful to the state, is not only against the rule of na- 
tural equity, but also dangerous to all degrees, opening a 
way to the overthrow of all patents and privileges, as 
well of inferior trades, as of offices, lands, and livings what- 
soever. 

We have not sought to call in question the validity of 
their monopolies and engrossments, whereby such effects 
do daily ensue, as poor scholars are either driven to be des- 
titute of most needful books, or to buy them, to their singu- 
lar hinderance, at excessive prices. We shall account our- 
75 selves well appaid, if our poor printer may, with their good 
patience, now and then deal with some few of the most 
saleable copies for his necessary maintenance in honest art ; 
if your honourable persuasion (whereunto it might well be- 
seem him, in a case of such equity, to give better ear to) 
cannot induce them to yield to this, rather than our duti- 
ful regard should seem to be wanting in the necessary 
defence of this our charter, so equitable in itself, so com- 
modious to the students of the university, so beneficial 
to many other subjects of the realm, granted by her ma- 
jesty's most noble father, ratified by the gracious bounty of 
herself, established by act of parliament so many years past, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 105 

mav not be thought sufficient against their grant so late ob- ANNO 

. i • - • -i U & 1591. 

tamed, we know not upon privilege we may nereaiter re- 

pose our trust. 

Wherefore once again most humbly beseeching your 
good lordship to continue your honourable favour toward 
the university, in preserving the ancient and lawful charters 
of the same. From Cambridge, the 16th of July, 1591- 
Signed by, 

Robert Some, vice-chan- Tho. Preston, 

cellor, Lawrence Chaderton, 

William Whitaker, Roger Goad, 

Tho. Byng, Umphrey Tyndal, 

Tho. Legg, Jo. Du-port. 

Before this, Legate [their printer] had printed Terence 
a year or two ago, in a small volume for the use of the 
scholars; and the impression the stationers had seized, or as 
many as they could get. 

And before that, Thomas Thomas [the printer before 
Legate] had made a dictionary of his own, and printed it ; 
and the stationers printed it at London upon him, to his 
great hinderance. These matters the university complained 
of to their chancellor. 



Number LII. 
Hugh Broughton, the learned Hebrician, his letter to the 
lord Burghley ; occasioned by Bislwp and Newburgh, 
stationers, who had seized his books newly printed, and 
taken out of his chamber. Desiring his lordship^s order 
to have them restored. 

MELCHIZEDEK. 
CONSIDERING your lordship's great business, I would 
not trouble you but in a matter proceeding from yourself, 
and again waiting upon your determination. The sum is 
concerning books taken from me by Bishop and Newbury, 
wardens of the Stationers, which were printed by allowance, 



106 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO paid for by myself, and carried to my chamber; having no 
one word against religion or policy, nor bitter against any 
^g man. Of which the archbishop of Canterbury required to 
judge, of his honour and learning, said to one Mr. Hobkin- 
son, That if they had been brought to him, he would have 
allowed them ; and sent him to Bishop the stationer, with 
word, that he should bring them home : which yet the sta- 
tioners refuse to do without a warrant, which will not be 
granted without your lordship's word. I think I may in 
justice require so much of your lordship ; for the book was 
written upon urgent provocation of two D. D. [doctors of 
divinity,] extremely against themselves and her majesty ''s 
ground of religion ; viz. The stay of scripture, in defence 
of my book dedicated to her majesty : wherein, I am sure, 
that posterity may see chief points in few hours which cost 
me many years. Wherein also I settled a consent of Jew 
and Gentile, of Moses and Evangelists, ever as all ages un- 
derstood them ; and one of the two still, where we strive. 

I chose two points to dash at their stuff, to spare their 
fame, to close up the matter, that the learned might see a 
victory, and the simple might think that there was not 
great variance, thought a lapse in a treatise of Melchize- 
dek ; dealing against Dr. Croke, and where sorest he might 
be disgraced. But where learned men being of his mind, his 
fame should less be annoyed, though he were deceived. And 
Dr. Reynolds, who strives, that si angelus dixissct post 
octies 70 annos excidetur Christus, hie prazcise et propria 
locutus esset angelus, be not known to be so culpable, but 
convicted in one word, that Daniel expressly telleth, That 
the angel made him understand by his own grant should 
yield ; who granted, That if Daniel knew his own meaning, 
and rightly knew what the angel meant, the words were to 
be taken properly. 

Thus I thought of a quiet apology, sparing learned men. 
The suppressing of my book wrought them harm ; for I 
was forced to call them both to account, and to object an 
hundred theses of great importance against each of them ; 
whereby all learned condemn them both. Your lordship 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 107 

feared harm by the book, &c. I pray your lordship that ANNO 
you would send them word by some of your men, to deliver 15t 
me that which by law they could not take away, and to let 
them pass under your protection, to mitigate the rumour 
against two learned men. 

Your lordship's to command, 

H. Broughton. 



Number LIII. 
Anno 1591, Nov. 16. A note of the Indian Jleet of king 
Philip, dispersed and cast away. Sent to the lord trea- 
surer. 
On this paper is written, by the lord treasurer's hand, Sir 
Tho. Gage, as from whom this information came. 

OF 102 ships, lost 54 ; men lost, 1000. The treasure 
landed at Havana. 

By examination of divers Spaniards and Portugals, upon 
their oaths, we find the loss sustained by the king and his 
subjects to be as followeth. Nova Spania fleet outward 77 
bound, was of 52 sail, whereof returned to Havana but 33; 
so lost 19 sail, and therein 2600 men; by account whereof 
many soldiers and passengers. 

Terra Firma fleet outward bound was 50 sail ; whereof 
some stole away for Spain by one or two at a time ; and 
some were taken, and some sunk ; so that only 23 ships 
came to the Havana ; missing 27 sail with about 3000 men, 
by estimation. 

At Havana met and joined together, 33 sail from Nova 
Spania; 23 sail from Terra Firma; 12 sails of S. Do- 
mingo; and 9 sail from Funduras; 77 sail in the whole; 
and set sail about the 17th of July. The admiral and vice- 
admiral being of 600 ton apiece, carrying 30 pieces of 
brass, and 500 men apiece ; which kept company together 
until the 10th of August. At which time, and within twenty 
days after, all the great ships were cast away ; so that by 
the end of August they were all perished, saving 48 sail ; 



108 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO whereof about 16 sail recovered to Tarseries only; all the 
159K rest forced by a storm to keep the sea, and not like to 
escape, but either to be taken or cast away : and in those 
ships cast away is thought to be about 5000 men. But the 
kinsfs treasure is all landed at Havana, to come home in six 
frigates in January next. 
Caiab.Eiiz. This Spanish plate fleet, ann. 1591, was waited for by the 
English, by several of the queen's ships, Thomas Howard, 
second son of the duke of Norfolk, in the admiral, unsuc- 
cessful. 



Number LIV. 
The queen's charter of Quietus est, with her broad seal ap- 
pendant, to the lord treasurer Burghley, discharging 
him from attendance on her, and to enjoy his beloved 
Theobalds, anno 1591. Drawn up by the queen herself 
in a facetious style, to cheer the said treasurer, who was, 
it seems, melancholy, and desirous to retire to a private 
life at his seat at Theobalds. 
Transcribed by some writer in old text hand ; but the 
spelling is kept according to the queen's own writing. It 
is dated at Theobalds thus : Teste meipsa apud Tybolles. 
ELIZABETHA Anglorum id est, a nitore angelo- 
rum, regina formosissima et felicissima : [the rest is in 
English.] To the disconsolate and retyred spryte, the 
heremite of Tyboll, and to al oother disaffected sowles, 
claiming by, from, or under the said heremit, sendeth gret- 
ing. Where, in our high coourt of chancerie it is given us 
to understand, that yoou, sir Heremite, the abandonate of 
natures fair workes, and servaunt to heavens woonders, have 
(for the space of two years and two moonthes) possessed 
yoor self of fair Tybollt, with her sweet rosary the same 
78 tyme, the recreation of our right trusty and right wel be- 
loved, sir William Sitsilt, knt. leaving to him the old rude 
repozc, wherein twice five years (at his cost) yoor contem- 
plate life was relieved, which place and fate inevitable hath 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 109 

brought greefs innumerable, (for looer greef biddeth no ANNO 
compare,) suffering yoor solitary ey to bring into hir house ' 
desolation and moorning, joyes destroyers and annoy e 
frendes; whereby paradice is grown wilderness, and for 
green grass are comen gray hearz, with cruel banishment 
from the frute of long laboure, the possession whereof he 
hath holden many yeerz, the want of the mean profit there- 
of (health and gladness) having been greatly to hiz hin- 
drance ; which tooucheth us much in the interest we have in 
hiz faithful servicez ; besides the law of hiz looving nei- 
bours and frends, infinite, as by the record of their counte- 
nance most plainly may appear. 

Wee upon advised consideration have commanded you 
heremit, to yoor old cave, too good for the forsaken, too bad 
for oour worthily belooved coouncillour. And becauz we 
greatly tender yoor comfort, we have given poour to oour 
chauncillour, to make oout such and so many writs, as to 
him shal be thought good, to abjure desolations and mourn- 
ing (the consumer of sweetness) to the frozen seas and de- 
serts of Arabia Petrosa, upon pain of 500 despights to their 
terror, and contempt of their torments, if they attempt any 
part of yoour hoous again ; enjoyning you to the enjoy- 
ment of yoour own hoous, and delight without memory of 
any mortal accident or wretched adversary. 

And for that you have been so good a servaunt to com- 
mon tranquillity, we command solace to give the ful and 
pacifick possession of al and every part thereof: not de- 
parting until oour favour (that ever hath inclined to yoor 
meek nature) have assured you peace in the possession 
thereof. Wherein we command al causez within the pre- 
rogative of oour high favour to give you no interrup- 
tion. And this under the paine aforesaid they shal not 
omitt. Teste tneipsa apud Tybolls, 10 mo die Mali, regni 
nostri 33°. 

On the back-side of this charter is, Per Cancellar. Angl. 

Chr. Hatton. 



110 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
ANNO Number LV. 

1591. 

Advertisements from Spain to the lord high treasurer of 

England, so endorsed. 

A brief of such news as /, Henry Carminck, qfDroushcd, a 

merchant, coidd learn in Spain ; arriving there the \st 

of March 1590, and departing thence Iwme the 91st of 

April 1591. 

THERE departed from Ferrol, about the 20th of Fe- 
bruary last, to the number of 25 sail for Britain, with 6000 
soldiers ; and being at sea were dispersed, some to the coast 
79 of France, and four of them back again to the port Vivers 
in Gallicia, where they remained fourteen days in very foul 
weather. After which time there came commandment, that 
they should set forward again toward the port where they 
were bound. 

Also I heard, that the duke of Savoy hath entered into 
Mersellia, and holdeth the same by the right of his wife. 

It is reported, that the king of Spain hath promised to 
help the leaguers with 12,000 men by the last of May 
next. 

There was lost 11 of the best ships that were bound 
forth for treasure to the Indies, and not any saved in them. 
After which loss the king sent forth sixteen other ships for 
a new supply. There is by report come home three small 
ships with four millions of treasure. Nevertheless some 
think it not so, but only a speech given out; thinking that 
if Drake hear that the treasure be come home, that then he 
will not set forth ; and also that by this report the soldiers 
will the rather enter into pay. For as they were accus- 
tomed to be paid monthly, they have been of late five 
months behind. 

Sir William Stanley [that betrayed Deventer to the Spa- 
niard] is at Madrid, and hath by report 200 ducats by the 
month. He hath six men attending upon him, and yet is 
scarce able to maintain the port of a mean gentleman. And 
also the Irish gentlemen that be there, and have the king's 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. Ill 

pay, are scarce able to pay for their victuals, their apparel ANNO 
being very bare and simple. _ 

There grew in Madrid a mutiny by the commons of the 
town against the king, for that he pressed them and all the 
country with new impositions. So that they wish that 
Drake were their king, then should they live as freemen, 
whereas they are now but captives. Upon which tumult, 
there were to the number of 60 hanged, and about 200 
whipped and carted. 

There came post from Madrid to Ferrol, by sir William 
Stanley^ footman, commanding every general captain and 
officer whatsoever, to be in a readiness presently to with- 
stand sir Francis Drake ; for there came letters to the court 
at Madrid, that Drake had promised that he would keep 
his Easter in Ferrol. Whereupon they commanded muster 
to be taken from 16 to 60 ; and for so many as I saw, (to 
the number of 4000,) they were but simply weaponed, and 
poor naked people, and such as, in my judgment, would 
never stand to fight. And to prevent the English fleet 
from coming into the river of Ferrol, the Spanish have 
moored five great armathos, and two galliasses, as bulwarks 
to keep the enter of the harbour. 

Moreover, I heard that there was (since the 1st of Novem- 
ber) three popes seated in Rome ; whereof two are killed or 
poisoned For that they held with the right of the king of 
Navarre, now king of France. Moreover, it is further re- 
ported, that there is a strong fleet builded at Blevet, and to 
straiten the same here lieth in the harbour five armathos 
and two galliasses. 

By me, Henry Carminck. 



112 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
ANNO Number LVI. 

1591. 

The cardinals to the city of Paris, from Rome ; giving the 

°Q news of pope Gregorys death, a/mo 1591. 

Miseratione div'ma episcopi, presbyteri et diaconi sanctcB 
Romajice ccclesice cardinales, dilectissimis nobis in 
Christo, salutem et synceram in Domino charitatem. 

MAGNO cum dolore et plane inviti has ad vos literas 
damus, quas cor vestrum scimus quasi peracuto doloris gla- 
dio pariter transfixuras. Nam quo major vestra est cum 
hac sancta apostolica sede conjunctio, quo illustrior pietas 
et erga Christi vicarium beati Petri successorem devotio et 
obedientia, eo acerbiori maeroris sensu vos commoveri cer- 
tum est, cum aliquid nobis luctuosum accidit, qui vos pa- 
terne diligimus, aut ecclesiae Romanae matri vestrae charis- 
simae lachrymarum materiam praebet, quae vos in visceribus 
Christi complectitur. 

Sed jam tandem illud enunciandum quod et mens et lin- 
gua effari effugit ; pater noster sanctissimus, pater amantis- 
simus, in quo maxime conquiescebamus, Gregorius XIIII. 
summus pontifex nocte hesterna, sicut Domino placuit, ca- 
ducae hujus vitas brevem cursum absolvit, et ad sempiternal 
vitas gaudia migravit; sic enim pie nobis persuademus. 
Vitae enim integerrimae actae mors consentanea fuit. Nam 
ut omittamus quod sacris omnibus sacramentis Christiano 
ritu communitus seipsum et innocentem animum Creatori 
suo cum omni humilitate libentissime tradidit, illud certe 
pra?terii*e non possumus, quod paulo antequam e vita dis- 
cederet, sacrum nostrum collegium ad se vocavit, et magna 
constantia et pietate, ut talem pontificem decebat, gravissi- 
mis verbis testatus est unam esse catholicam fidem, quam 
ChristusDominus noster docuit, sancti apostoli ct eoruni suc- 
cessores pracdicarunt, quam sancta Romana ecclesia omnium 
ecclesiarum mater et magistra docuit semper et docet ; in 
qua se per Dei gratiam vixisse, in ea se velle mori. Turn 
praeterea magno quodam afFectu, ut plane ex Ultimo corde 
promanare perspiceremus, commendavit nostro sacro col- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 113 



legio causam nobilissimi et Christianissimi regni Franciae, ANNO 

hoc est causam Christi, causam catholicae religionis, causam '__ 

totius reipublicae Christianas; cujus tam insignis et tarn no- 
bilis portio regnum illud est. Nosque magnopere admonuit, 
ut quae tanta spe inchoata sunt non deseramus. 

Nos autem sanctissimo patri, etsi multis cum lachrymis, 
ea respondimus, quae tam justa et tam salutaria momento 
respondere debebamus, idem omnium nostrum ardor et de- 
siderium erat : quare illius saluberrimas cohortationes cordi 
nostra infixas fore diximus, et reipsa jam efficimus. Scri- 
bimus enim ad dilectissimum nobis in Christo Herculem 
montis Mastiani ducem, et militum exercitus sedis apostolicae 
praefectum generalem, ut provinciam sibi a sanctissimo patre 
impositam strenue sustineat, in opere tam praeclare inchoato 
insistat, mandata illius sanctae memoriae quam accuratissime 8 1 
exequi pergat, eadem nos cupere, eadem mandare, eandem 
nostram voluntatem esse. 

In eandem sententiam scripsimus et ad apostolicos nun- 
tios in regno isto ne latum unguem a praescripto itinere 
discedant. 

Quare etsi negare non possumus multum in optimo pon- 
tifice amissum esse, qui de istius regni salute dies noctesque 
cogitabat, tamen aequum est ut D. D. W. [dominationes 
vestrae] seipsas consolentur, et bono ac forti animo sint, et 
in Dei providentia confidant. Vivit enim per Dei gratiam 
apostolica sedes, eadem apud vos materna charitas, oblivisci 
illos non potest quos in Christo genuit. Sacrum hoc no- 
strum collegium quantum in Domino poterit vos semper 
arctissime complectetur. Novimus virtutem vestram, novi- 
mus animi magnitudinem, novimus invictam fortitudinem 
istius regiae et nobilissimae civitatis pro fide catholica tuen- 
da adversus omnes Satanae machinationes et omnes infero- 
rum portas. Vestx-a constantia bonis aliis exemplo fuit ; et 
nunc quoque caeteros catholicos corroborat et sustentat. 

Quare, dilectissimi nobis in Christo, constantes estote, 
viriliter agite, et confortetur cor vestrum in eo qui potens, et 
eo qui facit mirabilia magna solus. 

Nos paulo post in apostolicum conclave ingrediemur, et 

VOL. IV. I 



114 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO ab infinita Dei dementia eito pontificem summum impe- 
1 59 ' ' traturos confidimus; nee dubitamus eodem animo, eodem 
spiritu, eadem erga nos charitate ilium fore qua sanctae rec. 
[recordationis] Gregorius fuit. Itaque vos magnopere hor- 
tamur, ut tot perpessos labores, tot merita vestra perfectae 
patientiae opere cumuletis, et caeteris, quod hactenus fecistis, 
vestrae gloriae splendore praeluceatis. Rogamus autem vos 
in Domino, ut sollicitudinem nostram vestris orationibus 
adjuvetis: ut ecclesiae catholicae sponsus et caput visibile, 
pastor universalis Domini gregis nobis a Patre misericordi- 
arum, brevi concedatur, qui nostrum et vestrum et bonorum 
omnium desiderium in istius praesenti regni causa salutariter 
auxiliante Domino perficiat. Dat 1 Romae in palatio apo- 
stolico, et congregatione nostra generali, sub sigillis trium 
nostrum in ordine priorum, die xvi Octobris 1591. Aposto- 

lica sede vacante. 

~ . . Subscriptum 

Suprascriptio. _., . * 

r.., ± . . . \. . „, . . Silvius Antonianus. 

Ddectissimis nobis m Chnsto sena- 

tui, clero, prceposito rnercatoriim ct 
scabhiis pojjidi civitatis Parisiensis. 



Number LVII. 
Londino-Gallica ecclesia. 

John Castely minister there, in the name of the members of 
that church, upon occasion of a supply to be sent to the 
French protestants in France. His letter writ to the 
82 archbishop of Canterbury and the lord treasurer, sending 
to this church to make their contribution for them under 
persecution. Castcl gives account of the members of this 
congregation, and their poor condition, in a Latin letter 
to this tenor. 

THAT their church consisted of strangers, that were 
deprived of their goods and estates out of their own coun- 
tries. That one part, and that the least, were Frenchmen : 
and they denied not, but that heretofore more were most 
kindly received by this nation into this port. Rut such as 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 115 

were of better condition long since returned, to defend their ANNO 

own seats against the rage of the enemies : but the men _ 

of meaner condition, and of military age, being helped by 
the liberalities of good men, (their wives and children be- 
ing left to this church's care,) followed the king's camp : 
that those that remained there being exhausted with per- 
petual calamities, and had often suffered shipwreck, by rea- 
son of the continual tempest of war, did very hardly live. 

That the other part [of this church,] and that the great- 
est, were Hannonii, Artesii, Flandri, Gallicani, that is, 
sprung out of the countries which obey the Spaniard ; and 
in less need and want (some few excepted) than the rest. 
That from the good God it is granted to them, that in some 
certain manufactures [opifcia] they excelled : but never- 
theless since those works almost lie buried, all provision by 
the injury of times taken away, and commerce with other 
nations extinguished. That it is a wonder, and scarce to 
be believed, what great miseries the too deep silence of the 
merchants draws along with it. That they had about ten 
or twelve months since borrowed a great sum of money to 
relieve their poor, that they might not beg from door to 
door, to the disgrace of the church : out of which debt they 
could not tell how to get free, unless by some miracle from 
God. 



Number LVIII. 

Robert Seal, clerk of the council many years, now in some 

employment in York : his letter to the lord treasurer •, 

upon the queen's sending for him to wait again, after 

some long absence, about the year 1591. 

WHEREAS not long sith your honourable lordship 

signified unto me, that her majesty's pleasure was, that I 

should be sent for to wait again, I having considered of the 

matter, shall most humbly desire your lordship to inform 

her majesty as folio weth, on my behalf, or else to procure 

me so much favour, as that I may deliver as much unto 

her majesty myself. 

i2 



116 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO First, I never refused to wait, nor ever refuse to wait so 
1591 ' long as I shall be able. Upon the granting of my office at 
83 York, Mr. Secretary told me, That her majesty's pleasure 
was, that I should continue in these parts ; for that I might 
be employed about foreign causes. As also I then was of 
the states of Denmark, &c. refusing nothing, although it were 
to my great ti'ouble and charge. I did then willingly yield 
unto my companions, that were not otherwise provided, (as 
I was,) not to intermeddle in any thing whereby any profit 
might be gotten : and yet promised to be always ready to 
assist any of them upon any important service of her ma- 
jesty ; as I did the whole summer when the Spanish fleet 
passed by. And another summer I was with the earl of 
Leicester in the Low Countries. 

The principal cause why I have not attended is the weak- 
ness and unability of my body to stand long, and to go up 
and down as I have done. My eyes wax dim. It is well 
known I am many times troubled with the gout and the 
stone, twice sith the beginning of this month. By much 
standing my feet will commonly swell. And if I do not 
prevent at the first the falling down of the humour, I am 
forced to use fomentation, poultices, plasters, and other 
physic a good while after. I have almost attained the de- 
clining year of fifty of mine age. In my youth I took 
great pains, and travailing in divers countries on foot for 
lack of other abilities. Besides, I have served nineteen 
years complete in this place, which is a longer time than 
ever any did serve sith the office was erected, one only 
excepted : and therein have spent much labour to attain to 
some ability of service, without any regard of my private 
estate or commodity. 

I cannot deny but that it hath grieved me, that having 
served so long without being convicted or charged with any 
disloyalty or dishonesty, I have had so little favour; which 
hath discouraged me so much, that whereas I sometime 
had some account with princes, and divers others abroad, 
as their letters unto me, if need be, could testify : yet for 
that I have not had that favour, they both have less account 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 117 

of me; and myself have withdrawn myself from any letters ANNO 
or action, either with them or any other. 1591, 

The chiefest mean of my living consisteth only upon the 
moiety of the casualties of the office at York : so as if I 
should be called to any service, I should not be able to do 
it, but under some other, without leaving my family un- 
provided. And whensoever I shall die, it will be found 
that I shall leave the poorest wife and children that ever 
any of my place did. 

Nevertheless I do content myself with my mean estate, 
and shall be still contented to serve, as far as I shall be able. 
But my desire is, that it may be so, as my body may be able 
to perform it : and therefore most humbly beseech her ma- 
jesty to yield me the favour, that seeing there be many 
others, that have like and greater fees, without either serving 
as I have done, or daily attendance, which is required of me, 
I may enjoy my place and fee of clerk of the council still, 
and attend as the state of my body will give me leave. 



Number LIX. 84 

Mr. BeaVs voyages and embassies : which he writ and sent 
to the lord treasurer, to manifest his public services and 
good deserts. 

A VOYAGE to the prince of Orange ; carried with him 
seven persons [attendants] with him, and had allowance of 
her majesty 40*. per diem. Then he solicited the mer-Ann. 1576. 
chants' causes [against the pirates.] One of his businesses a ^j 4 ' IZ " 
was to prosecute the injury done to my lord of Oxford ; 
whereof three were found, and one imprisoned, and some 
of his stuff recovered. He was then in danger of drown- 
ing, and taken by the Spaniards, who lay at Brewers- 
haven, by which he ventured to pass. 

He went a second voyage to Holland, being abroad six 
months, and had with him eight men ; and his allowance 
was 40s. per diem. Passing the seas, he and his company 

i3 



118 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO were spoiled of 250/. ready money, besides all their apparel 
and other furniture. 

He made a long and winter journey, making a circuit to 
and fro of 1 400 English miles at the least ; repairing per- 
sonally to nine princes, and sending her majesty's letters to 
three others. 

Although I never desired to be employed, yet being put 
into it, my endeavour hath been to discharge the credit com- 
mitted to me, as might be for her majesty 's honour. And 
as for her highness's sake great honour was in sundry 
places shewed me, so could I not but by some remem- 
brance requite the same. And I protest upon my allegiance, 
that the gifts that I gave at the duke of Brunswick's and 
the landgrave's in ready money, and money's worth, for her 
majesty's honour, being her gossips, and having had nothing 
to my knowledge sent unto them, (and in other places,) came 
to better than 100/. And whoso knoweth the fashions and 
cravings of those princes' courts may well see, that, having 
been at so many places, I could not escape with less. My 
charges came in this voyage to 932/. one ways or other. 

Before my going over I sold a chain, which I had of the 

queen of Scots, for 651. The duke and duchess of Bruns- 

wic gave me a present of 1500 dollars, which is at the least 
in current money 340/. 

These journeys into Holland and Germany were about 
the years 1577 and 1578. 

Another letter to the lord treasurer, April 1578. 

The queen at sundry times uttered hard speeches of 
Beal's expensiveness, and the charges he put her to in these 
two voyages ; which occasioned him to write to the lord trea- 
surer, and to give particular account of his expenses. 

He complained he was in such poverty, that he could not 
longer hold out, but must give over, and go to some corner, 

85 without the queen assisted him 1 thank God, I have the 

testimony of a clear conscience, that I have served her ma- 
jesty truly and uprightly Touching my ordinary places, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 119 

if I have been a briber or encroacher, or have covetously be- ANNO 
haved myself, upon just proof, I desire no other favour 1591 ' 
than to be hanged at the court gates. If I have gotten any 
thing by serving any man's turn, either foreign or within 
the realm ; (as I hear that some of my predecessors did ;) and 
if I would have been dishonest, (perhaps needed not to be so 
importune for relief at her majesty's hands,) I crave the 
same reward. 

Besides the losses of money and other things I sustained 
upon the seas, I would not be in like danger to be assaulted, 
and so violently taken hurt, kept under hatches, menaced 
Avith killing and drowning, in so terrible a sort, as it amaz- 
eth me to think of it : and after left without bread, drink, 
money, or other furniture, to the mercy of the seas, for ten 
times the charge her majesty hath been at being appoint- 
ed to take the charge in hand, [that of an ambassador from 
the queen,] although I bear low sail in court; yet was I 
not in that service forgetful of her majesty's honour and 
my duty, but so far forth as my allowance and ability could 
stretch, I omitted not to do that became me. 

Besides my six years continual attendance and service, 
I will not report the good-will I had to serve her majesty's 
ambassador in France, since the year 1564, and in Ger- 
many ; as Mr. Henry Knowles and Mr. Killigrew can wit- 
ness, without any charge to her highness. 

If it be suspected, that because in my ordinary service I 
make no great show, because I behaved not myself as it be- 
came me abroad ; I thank God I know how to use myself 
in both. And as the countenance of the one was, I trust, 
for the time sufficiently maintained, so am I not now for- 
getful of my poor state, whereto I was to return, deposito 
officio. I can frame myself to live after the old manner, as 
long as it shall please her majesty, in a bare cloak in this 
pistrina, or out of it, rather than to be employed any more 
in so dangerous and costly voyages. 



i 4 



VM) ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 



ANN0 Number LX. 

150*. 



A letter of the Puritan ministers imprisoned, to her majesty, 
in vindication qf their innocency. Dated April 1592. 

May it please your excellent majesty, 
THERE is nothing, right gracious sovereign, next to 
the saving mercy of Almighty God, that can be more com- 
fortable than your highness's favour, as to all other your 
faithful and dutiful subjects ; so to us, your majesty's most 
humble suppliants, who are by our calling ministers of 
God's holy word, and by our present condition now and 
8 6 of long time prisoners in divers prisons in and about the 
city of London. For which cause our most humble suit is, 
that it may please your most excellent majesty, graciously 
to understand our necessary answer to such grievous charges 
as we hear to be informed against us. Which, if they were 
true, might be just cause of withdrawing for ever from us 
your highness's gracious protection and favour; which 
above all other earthly things we most desire to enjoy. 
The reason of our trouble is a suspicion that we should be 
guilty of many heinous crimes : but these supposed crimes 
we have not been charged with in any due and ordinary 
course of proceeding, by open accusation and witnesses. 
But being called up to London by authority of some of your 
majesty's commissioners in causes ecclesiastical, we have 
been required by them to take an oath of inquisition, or 
office, as it is called. For not taking whereof we were first 
committed to prison, and since have continued there a long 
time, notwithstanding that all of us, save one, have been 
deprived of our livings, and degraded of our ministry. 

Whereof, for that the oath is the next and immediate 
cause of our trouble, we have made our answer first to 
that; and then after also to the crimes that are suggested 
and secretly informed against us. And then they go on to 
vindicate themselves under these several heads, viz. the 
oath, schism, rebellion, supremacy, excommunication, con- 
ferences, and singularity. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 121 

The oath. anno 

As for the oath, the reason why we took it not is, because '__ 

it is without limitation of any certain matter, infinite and 
general, to answer whatsoever shall be demanded of us. 
And of this kind of oath we find neither rule nor example 
in the word of God. But contrariwise, both precepts and 
precedents of all lawful oaths reported in the same, lead to 
this, that an oath ought to be taken with judgment, and so 
as he that sweareth may see the bounds of his oath, and to 
what certain condition it doth bind him, &c. This oath is 
to inquire of our private speeches and conference with our 
dearest and nearest friends ; yea, of the very secret thoughts 
and intents of our hearts, that so we may furnish both mat- 
ter of accusation, and evidence of proof against ourselves, 
which was not used to be done in causes of heresy nor of 
hiffh treason. For these are the words of the statute of Ann. 25 

o H.8.cll. 14. 

your most noble father king Henry VIII. For that the 
most expert and best learned cannot escape the danger of 
such captious interrogatories, (as the law calleth them,) 
which are accustomed to be administered by the ordinaries 
of this realm. As also that it standeth not with the right 
order of justice or good equity, that any person should 
be convicted, or put to the loss of life, good name, or goods, 
unless it be by due accusation and witness, or by present- 
ment, verdict, confession, or process of outlawry. And Ann. 35. 
further, for the avoiding untrue accusation and present- cb " ^ ess ' 
ments, which might be maliciously conspired and kept se- 
cret, unrevealed, until time might be espied, to have men 
thereof by malice convicted; it was ordained, that none 87 
should be put to answer, but upon accusations and pre- 
sentments taken in open and manifest courts by the oath 
of twelve men. 

Schism, 
As to the charge of schism : and that they so far con- 
demned the present state of our church, that they held it 
not for any true, visible church of God, as it is established 
by public authority within the land ; and therefore refused 
to have any part or communion with it in public prayers, 



122 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO or in the ministry of the word and sacraments ; which, if it 
' were true, we were of all men living the most unthankful, 
first to Almighty God, and next to your excellent majesty, 
by whose blessed means we are partakers of that happy li- 
berty of the profession of the gospel, and of the true ser- 
vice of God, that by your highness's gracious government, 

Sec we do enjoy We acknowledge unfeignedly, as in the 

sight of God, that this our church, as it is by your high- 
ness's laws and authority established among us, having that 
faith professed and taught publicly in it, that was agreed 
of in the convocation holden in the year 1562, and such 
form of public prayers and administration of the sacra- 
ments, as in the first year of your most gracious reign was 
established, (notwithstanding any thing that may need to 
be revised and further reformed,) to be a true, visible church 
of Christ ; from the holy communion whereof, by way of 
schism, it is not lawful to depart. 

Our whole life may shew the evident proof hereof: for 
always before the time of our trouble, we have lived in the 
daily communion of it, not only as private men, but at the 
time of our restraint (as many years before) preached and 
exercised our ministry in the same, and at this present most 
earnestly beseech all in authority that is set over us, espe- 
cially your excellent majesty, that we may so proceed to 
serve God and your highness all the days of our life. 
Rebellion. 

Another crime suggested against us is, that we should 
practise or purpose rebelliously to procure such further re- 
formation of our church as we desire, by violent and undu- 
tiful means. Whereunto our answer is, That as we think 
it not lawful to make a schism in the church for any thing 
that we esteem needful to be reformed in it ; so do we in 
all simplicity and sincerity of heart, in the presence of Al- 
mighty God, (to whom all secrets are known,) and of your 
excellent majesty, (to whom the sword is given of God for 
just vengeance and punishment of transgressors,) that for 
procuring of reformation of any thing that we desire to be 
redressed in the state of our church, we judge it most un- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 123 

lawful and damnable by the word of God to rebel, and by ANNO 
force of arms, or any violent means, to seek redress thereof. 1592 ' 
And moreover, that we never intended to use, or procure 
any other means for the furtherance of such reformation, than 88 
only prayer to Almighty God, and most humble suit to 
your excellent majesty, and others in authority, with such 
like dutiful and peaceable means as might give information 
of this our suit, and of the reasons moving us thereunto. 
Supremacy. 

The third crime misinformed against us is, that we im- 
peach your majesty's supremacy. For answer whereunto 
we unfeignedly protest, (God being witness that we speak 
the truth herein from our hearts,) that we acknowledge 
your highness's sovereignty and supreme power, next and 
immediately under God, over all persons, and in all causes, 
as well ecclesiastical as civil, in as large and ample manner 
as it is agnized by the high court of parliament, in the 
statute of recognition, and is set down in the oath of su- 
premacy enacted by the same ; and as it is further declared 
in your majesty's injunctions, and also in the articles of re- 
ligion, agreed in the convocation, and in sundry books of 
learned men of our nation, published and allowed by pub- 
lic authority. We add yet hereunto, that we acknowledge 
the same as fully as ever it was in old time acknowledged 
by the prophets to belong to the virtuous kings of Judah ; 
and as all the reformed churches in Christendom acknow- 
ledge the same to their sovereign princes in their confes- 
sions of their faith, exhibited unto them, as they are set 
down in a book named the Harmony of Confessions, and 
the observations annexed thereunto. 

And besides this protestation, we appeal to the former 
whole course of our lives, wherein it cannot be shewed that 
we ever made question of it ; and more particularly by our 
public doctrine declaring the same, and by our taking the 
oath of supremacy, as occasion hath required. 
Excommunication . 

It hath been odiously devised against us, concerning the 
person subject to excommunication, and the power thereof, 



124 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO how far it extendeth. Touching the former, we judge 

'__ not otherwise herein, than all the reformed churches that 

are this day in the Christian world, nor than our own English 
church, both always heretofore hath judged, and doth still 
at this present, as may appear by the Articles of Religion 
agreed by the convocation, and by a Book of Homilies al- 
lowed by the same; and also by sundry other books of 
greatest credit and authority in our church. Which is, 
that the word of God, the sacraments, and the power of 
binding and loosing, are all the ordinances of Almighty 
God, graciously ordained for the comfort and salvation of 
the whole church. And that therefore no part or member 
of it is to be denied the comfortable wholesome aid and be- 
nefit thereof, for the furtherance of their faith, and (as need 
may require) of their repentance, &c. 
89 For the other part, how far this censure extendeth, we 
profess that it depriveth a man only of spiritual comforts ; 
as of being partaker of the Lord's table, and being pre- 
sent at the public prayers of the church, or such like, 
without taking away either liberty, goods, lands, govern- 
ment, private or public whatsoever, or any other civil or 
earthly commodity of this life. Wherefore from our hearts 
we detest and abhor that intolerable presumption of the 
bishop of Rome, taking upon him in such cases to depose 
sovereign princes from their highest seats of supreme go- 
vernment, and discharging their subjects from that dutiful 
obedience that by the laws of God they ought to perform. 
Conferences. 
Concerning our conferences : we have been charged to 
have given orders, and made ministers, and to have admi- 
nistered the censures of the church ; and, finally, to have 
exercised all ecclesiastical jurisdiction. To which sugges- 
tion we answer, That indeed of long time we have used, as 
other ministers have done, (as we think in most parts of 
the land,) to meet sometimes, and to confer together. Which 
being granted to all good and dutiful subjects, upon occa- 
sion to resort and meet together, we esteem it is lawful for 
us so to do. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 125 

For besides the common affairs of all men, which may ANNO 
give them just cause to meet with their acquaintance and 
friends, mutually to communicate, for their comfort and 
help, one with another ; men professing learning have more 
necessary and special use of such conferences, for their fur- 
therance in such knowledge as they profess But such as 

are professed ministers of the word have sundry great and 
necessary causes so to do more than others. Because of 
the manifold knowledge both of divinity and also of divers 
tongues and sciences, that are of great use for the better 
enabling them for their ministry : in which respect the 
conferences of the ministers were allowed by many bishops 
within their dioceses : and to our knowledge never disal- 
lowed or forbidden by any. Some late years also have 
given us more special cause of conferring together, where 
Jesuits, seminaries, and other heretics sought to seduce 
many. And wherein also some schismatics condemned the 
whole state of our church, as no part of the true visible 
church of Christ, and therefore refused to have any part or 
communion with it. Upon which occasion it is needful for 
us to advise of the best way and means we could, to keep 
the people that we had charge to instruct, from such damna- 
ble errors. 

Further also particularly, because some reckoned us to 
have part with that schism, and reported us to agree in 
nothing, but to differ one from another in the reformation 
that we desire ; we have special cause to confer together, 
that we might set down some things touching such matters, 
which at all times, whensoever we should be demanded, 
might be our true and just defence; both to clear us from go 
partaking with the schism, and to witness for us that we 
agreed in the reformation that we desire. 

But as touching the thing surmised of our meetings, that 
we exercise in them all ecclesiastical jurisdiction in making 
ministers, in censuring and excommunicating, in ordaining 
constitutions and orders upon such censures to bind any ; 
we protest before God and the holy angels, that we never 
exercised any part of such jurisdiction, nor had any pur- 



126 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO pose agreed among us to exercise the same, before we should 
" ' by public law be authorized thereunto. 

Further also, touching such our meetings, we affirm that 
they were only of ministers, (saving in some parts where a 
schoolmaster, two or three, desirous to train themselves to 
the ministry, joined with us,) and the same, but of six or 
seven, or like small number in a conference; without all 
deed or appearance that might be offensive to any. 
Singularity. 

Which, though it be not subject to any punishment of 
law, yet is suggested against us by such as favour not our 
most humble desire of a further reformation; to disgrace 
us, and to make us odious, both with others, and chiefly 
with your excellent majesty. Wherein our answer is, That 
the discipline of the primitive church is ancient, and so ac- 
knowledged by the Book of Common Prayer in these 

words : " That there was a godly discipline in the primitive 
" church. Instead whereof, until the said discipline may 
" be restored again, (which thing is much to be wished,) it 
" is thought convenient to use such a form of commination 
" as is prescribed. 11 

Further also, if it please your majesty with favour to 
understand it from us, we are ready to shew, that in such 
points of ecclesiastical discipline of our church, which we 
desire most humbly may be reformed, we hold no singular 
or private opinion, but the truth of the word of God, ac- 
knowledged to be such by all the best churches and writers 
of ancient time and of this present age. 

Thus have we declared, right gracious sovereign, truly and 
sincerely, as we will answer it to God and to your majesty, 
upon our allegiance, what judgment we are of, concerning 
the matters informed against us. And further testify, that 
no minister within this land, desiring a further reformation, 
with whom we have had any private acquaintance or con- 
ference of these matters, (whatsoever may be otherwise in- 
formed,) is of any other mind or opinion in these cases that 
have been named. By which declaration, if (according to 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 127 

our earnest prayer to Almighty God) your majesty shall ANNO 
clearly discern us to stand free from all such matters as we 1592- 
are charged with, our most humble suit is, that your ma- 
jesty's gracious favour (which is more dear and precious to 
us than our lives) may be extended to us; and that by 
means thereof we may enjoy the comfortable liberty of ourO,l 
persons and ministry, as we did before our trouble. Which 
if by your highness's special mercy and goodness we may 
obtain, we promise and vow to Almighty God, and your 
excellent majesty, to behave ourselves in so peaceable and 
dutiful sort in every respect, as may give no just cause of 
your highness's offence : but according to our callings, both 
in doctrine and example, as heretofore, so always hereafter, 
to teach due obedience to your majesty, among other parts 
of holy doctrine, and to pray for your majesty's long and 
blessed reign over us, &c. 

The ministers that made this petition to the queen, were, 
as it seems, the same that addressed their letter to the lord 
treasurer, December 4, 1591. 



Number LXI. 

A petition to the lord treasurer from another rank of pu- 
ritans, that were separatists ; presented near this time : 
thus endorsed : 
This humble petition ivas put up of many poor Christians, 

imprisoned by the bishops in sundry several prisons in 

and about London. 

THEY humbly beseech your honour either to grant 
them speedy trial together or some free Christian confer- 
ence, or else in the mean while that they may be bailed 
according to law : or else to put them in Bridewell, or 
some other convenient place, where they may be together 
for mutual help and comfort. Or if your honour will not 
yourself alone grant this their request, that then it may 
please you to be a mean for their speedy relief unto the 
rest of her majesty's most honourable privy-council. 



128 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO The Almighty God, that hath preserved your lordship 
15!)2, unto these honourable years in so high service to our sove- 
reign prince, and to the unspeakable comfort of this whole 
land, give your honourable heart so tender compassion, and 
careful consideration in equity of the poor afflicted servants 
of Christ ; and that before the Lord plead against this land 
for Abel's innocent blood, that is shed in the several pri- 
sons, your honour may open your mouth for the dumb, in 
the cause of the children of destruction. You may open 
your mouth and judge righteously, and judge the cause of 
the afflicted. As the people of Israel, when they went to 
war, first made peace with God, and removed all occasion 
whereby his wrath might be incensed, lest he should fight 
against them in battle. For if this suppression of the 
truth, and oppression of Christ in his members, contrary to 
all law and justice, be without restraint prosecuted by the 
92 enemy in the land, then not only the persecuted shall daily 
cry from under the altar for redress, but God's wrath be so 
kindled for the shedding the innocent blood of men, even the 
blood of his own servants, (of whom he hath said, Touch 
not mine anointed,) that though Noah, Daniel, and Job 
should pray for this people, yet should they not deliver 
them. 

Pleaseth it then your lordship to understand, that we her 
majesty's loyal, dutiful, and true-hearted subjects, to the 
number of threescore persons and upwards, have, contrary 
to all law and equity, been imprisoned, separate from our 
trades, wives, and children, and families ; yea, shut up close 
prisoners from all comfort ; many of us the space of two 
years and an half, upon the bishop's sole commandment, in 
great penury and noisomeness of the prisons ; many ending 
their lives, never called to trial ; some haled forth to the 
sessions ; some cast in irons and dungeons; some in hunger 
and famine: all of them debarred from any lawful audi- 
ence before our honourable governors and magistrates, and 
from all benefit and help of the laws : daily defamed, and 
falsely accused by published pamphlets, private suggestions, 
open preaching, slanders, and accusations of heresy, sedi- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 129 

tion, schism, and what not. And above all, (which most ANNO 
utterly toucheth our salvation,) they keep us from all spi- 1,= '- 92 ' 
ritual comfort and edifying, by doctrine, prayer, or mutual 
conference, &c. 

And seeing for our conscience only we are deprived of 
all comfort, we most humbly beseech your good lordship, 
that some more mitigate and peaceable course might be 
taken herein : that some free and Christian conference, 
publicly or privately before your honour, or before whom 
it would please you, where our adversaries may not be our 
judges; but our case, with the reason and proof on both 
sides, might be recorded by indifferent notaries and faithful 
witnesses. And if any thing be found in us worthy of 
death or bands, let us be made an example to all posterity. 
If not, we entreat for some compassion to be shewn in equity, 
according to law, for our relief. That in the mean time we 
may be bailed, to do her majesty service ; walk in our call- 
ings, to provide things needful for ourselves, our poor 
wives, disconsolate children and families relying upon us, 
&c. or else, that we might be prisoners together in Bride- 
well, or any other convenient place at your honour's ap- 
pointment ; where we might provide such relief by our di- 
ligence and labours, as might preserve life, to the comfort 
both of our souls and bodies. And if your honour will not 
of yourself grant us this suit, yet we most humbly entreat 
your honour will make the rest of her majesty's most ho- 
nourable privy-council acquainted with our distressed estate, 
and together grant us some present redress. 

The names of your poor suppliants, prisoners. 93 

In the Gate-house. Father Debnam, 

John Gualter, Edmund Thomson, 

John Nicolas, Thomas Freeman. 
John Barnes, In the Fleet. 

John Crawford, Henry Barrowe, 

Thorns Conadyne, John Greenwood, 

ThomasReeve, Daniel Studley, 

William Dodshoe, Robert Badkyne, 

VOL. IV. K 



130 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 



ANNO Walter Lane. 
1592 ' In Newgate. 

William Dentford, 
Widow Borrough, 
Roger Waterer. 

In Bridewell. 
William Broomal, 
James Forrester, 
Anthony Claxton, 
Nicholas Lee, 
John Francis, 
William Forester, 
John Clark, 
John Fisher, 
John Bucer, 
Roger Rippon, 
Robert Andrews, 
Richard Skarlet, 
Luke Hayes, 
Richard Maltusse, 
Richard Umberfield, 
William Fowler, 
William Burt, 
William Hutton. 

In the Clink. 
George Collier, 
John Sparrow, 
Edmund Nicolson, 
Christopher Browne, 
Thomas Mitchel, 
Andrew Smith, 
William Blacborrow, 
Thomas le Marc, 
Christopher Raper, 
Quintin Smith. 



In the White-lion. 
Thomas Legat, 
Edmund Marsh, 
Anthony Johnes, 

Cook, 

Auger. 

In Wood-street Counter. 
George Snells, 
Christoph. Bowman, 

Robert Jackson. 

In the Poultry Counter. 

Rowlet Skipwith, 

George Kinsstone, 

Thomas Eyneworth, 

Richard Hay ward, 

John Lancaster. 

Prisoners deceased. 
John Chaundler, out of the 

Foultry Counter, 
George Dinghtic, out of 
Wood-street Counter. 
Out of Newgate. 
Richard Jackson, 
Widow Mainard, 
Widow Row, 
Nicholas Crane, 
Thomas Stephens. 

Out of the Clink. 
Henry Thomson, 
Jerom Studley. 

Out of Bridewell. 
John Pardy. 

In all jirisoners - - 59 
In all dead in prison - 10 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 131 

Number LXII. anno 

1592. 

The humble supplication of the faithful servants of the church 

qf Christ, in the behalf of their ministers and preachers 
imprisoned, to the lords qf the council: the separatists 
shewing at large their case and reason in breaking qff(\£ 
communion with the church established. 

To the right honourable the lords and others of her ma- 
jesty's most honourable privy- council. 

YOUR honours venerable authority, gravity, and wis- 
dom, assembled in this high place of council, for the re- 
dress of abuses, and for the godly and peaceable government 
of this land, under her most excellent majesty, giveth us, 
her poor oppressed subjects, boldness, yet in all humility, 
to express before your honours our most lamentable usage 
and distressed estate ; whose entire faith unto God, loyalty 
to our sovereign, obedience to our governors, reverence to 
our superiors, innocency in all good conversation towards 
all men, cannot avail us for the safety of our lives, liberty, 
or goods, not even by her highness 1 s royal laws, and the 
public charter of this land, from the violence and invasion 
of our adversaries, her majesty's subjects, whose dealing 
with us your honours shall further understand, when we 
have briefly declared the true cause thereof unto you ; 
which is this : 

Her highness publishing the holy scriptures, and exhort- 
ing all her subjects to the diligent reading and sincere 
obedience thereof in their callings ; we thereby, upon due 
examination and assured proof, find the whole public 
ministry, ministration, worship, government, ordinances, 
and proceedings ecclesiastical of this land, by authority 
established, to be strange, and quite dissenting from the 
rule of Christ's Testament ; not to belong unto, or to have 
any place or use, or so much as mention in his church; 
but rather to belong unto, and to be derived from, the ma- 
lignant synagogue of Antichrist, being the selfsame that 
the pope used and left in this land ; where we dare not by 
any means defile or subject ourselves in any outward sub- 
it 2 



132 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO jcction or inward consent thereunto, both in regard of the 
1598, whole first table of God's law to the contrary, and of the 
wrath denounced, Rev. xiv. 9, 10, 11, and xviii. 4. 

Again, we by the holy scriptures find God's absolute 
commandment, that all which hear and believe the gospel 
of our Lord Jesus Christ should forthwith thereupon for- 
sake their evil walk, and from thenceforth walk in Christ's 
holy faith and order, together with his faithful servants, 
subjecting themselves to the ministry, those holy laws and 
ordinances which the Lord Jesus hath appointed, and 
whereby he only is present and reigneth in his church. 
Wherefore, both for the enjoying of that inestimable 
comfort of his joyful presence and protection, and to shew 
our obedience to God's holy commandment, we have, in his 
reverent fear and love, drawn and joined ourselves toge- 
ther in that Christian faith, order, and communion, pre- 
scribed in his word, and subjected our souls and bodies to 
those holy laws and ordinances, which the Son of God hath 
instituted, and whereby he is present, and ruleth his church 
9^ here beneath, and have chosen to ourselves such a ministry 
of pastor, teacher, elders, deacons, as Christ hath given to 
his church here on earth to the world's end ; in attending 
there the promised assistance of God's grace, (notwithstand- 
ing any prohibition of men, or what by men can be done 
unto us,) according to God's holy commandment, to worship 
him aright, and to frame all our proceedings according to 
the prescript of his word, and to lead our lives in holiness 
and righteousness before him, in all dutiful obedience and 
humble subjection to our magistrates and governors set 
over us by the Lord. 

Then they go on to shew, how that in both these, as well 
their attempts in forsaking the one, as endeavouring the 
other, that they undertook and were ready, before their 
honours, to approve against all men, as they were publicly 
avowed in the confession and practice of foreign churches, 
so to be warrantable by the word of God, allowable by her 
majesty's laws, no ways prejudicial to her sovereign power, 
or offensive to the public peace of the state. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 133 

That their only special adversaries, that found themselves ANNO 
offended hereat, were the officers of Antichrist's kingdom ; 1592, 
namely, the Romish prelacy and priesthood left in the land. 

Their dealing with us is, and hath been a long time, most 

injurious, outrageous, and unlawful, by the great power and 
high authority they have gotten in their hands, and usurp- 
ed above all the public courts, judges, laws, and charters 
of this land ; persecuting, imprisoning, detaining at their 
pleasures our poor bodies, without any trial, release, or bail 
permitted yet ; and hitherto, without any cause either for 

error or crime, directly objected. And some of us they 

have now more than five years in prison ; yea, four of these 
five years in close prison, with miserable usage, as Henry 
Barrow and John Greenwood, at this present in the Fleet. 
Others they have cast into their limbo of Newgate, laden 
with as many irons as they could bear: others into the 
dangerous and loathsome gaol, among the most facinorous 
and vile persons ; where it is lamentable to relate how many 
of these innocents have perished within these five years. 
And of these, some aged widows, aged men, young maidens, 
&c. Where so many as the infection hath spared shall lie 
in woful distress, like to follow their fellows, if speedy re- 
dress be not had. Others of us have been grievously beaten 
with cudgels in the prison, as at Bridewell ; and cast into a 
place called Little-ease there, for refusing to come to their 
chapel service ; in which prison they (and others of us not 
long after) ended their lives. Upon none of us thus com- 
mitted by them, dying in their prison, is any search or in- 
quest suffered to pass, as by law in like case is provided. 

Their manner of pursuing and apprehending us is with How they 

1 ° . . . , were appre- 

no less violence and outrage. Their pursuivants, with as- hendedby 

sistants, break into our houses at all hours of the night pursuivants. 

There they break up, ransack, rifle, and make havock at 
their pleasure, under pretence of searching for seditious and 
unlawful books. The husbands in the deep of the night 
they have plucked out of their beds from their wives, and 96 

haled them unjustly to prison About a month since, their 

pursuivants, late in the night, entered, in the queen's name, 

k3 



134 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO into an honest citizen's house upon Ludgate-hill, where, 
1592 - after they had at their pleasure searched and ransacked all 
places, chests, &c. of the house, they there apprehended 
Francis two of our ministers, Francis Johnson, without any warrant 
Ind'jotm at all, and John Greenwood ; both whom, between one and 
Greenwood, two f the clock after midnight, they with bills and staves 
Snistenr'led to the counter of Wood-street; taking assurance of 
taken. Edward Boys, the owner of this house, to be true prisoner 
in his own house, until the next day that he were sent for ; 
at which time the archbishop, with certain doctors his asso- 
ciates, committed them all three to close prison ; two unto 
the Clink, the third again to the Fleet, where they re- 
main in great distress. 
Tho. Settle. Since this they have cast into prison Thomas Settle and 
D.studiey. Daniel Studley, lately taken, and Nicolas Lane, upon a 
Lord's day in our assembly, by Mr. Richard Young, and 
committed to prison, and afterward bailed by the sheriff' of 
London, to be now again called for and committed close 
prisoner to the Gate-house. 

Others of us they have in like manner proscribed, and 
sent out their pursuivants to apprehend ; so there is no safety 
to any of us in one place. 

Now you have heard our case and usage : it were long- 
to relate to your honours all their secret drifts and open 
practices, whereby they seek to draw us into danger and 
hatred ; as by their subtle questions propounded, not hav- 
ing or knowing any matter to lay unto our charge ; by 
their subordinate conference, now almost three years since, 
sent into the prisons to well nigh sixty faithful Christians, 
whom they there against all law, and without all cause, de- 
tained ; by indicting us upon the statutes made for disloyal, 
idolatrous, recusant papists, (whom yet after thirty-three 
years obstinacy, they use not after this manner,) though they 
know that we sincerely hold all the grounds of religion, 
published by her majesty in harmony of confession, and 
never refused any wholesome doctrine or truth, shewed us 
in God's word, but only withstand such popish enormities 
as they bring in and urge, contrary to the word of God ; 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 135 

by defaming and divulging us as anabaptists, though they be A ^° 

not able to charge us with any one of their errors to our 

faces; as Donatists and schismatics, though we have Christian 
communion with all that truly hold and walk in the Christian 

faith ; as seditious, covenant-breakers though they 

still by their tyranny drive us into these secret places and 
meetings ; as abridgers of and encroachers upon the royal 
power of the queen, though we from our hearts acknowledge 
her sovereign power, under God, over all persons, causes, and 

actions, civil or ecclesiastical though we gladly obey, and 

never willingly break any of her godly laws ; though we never 
attempted either secretly or openly of ourselves to suppress 
or innovate any thing, how enormous soever, by public 
authority established, patiently suffering whatsoever the 
arm of injustice shall do unto us for the same ; doing such 
things as Christ hath commanded us in his holy worship, 97 
but always leaving the reformation of the state to those 
that God hath set to govern that state ; yet are we all ac- 
cused as pernicious unto the state and public peace of the 
land, though we endeavour nothing but the pure worship of 
God, and sincere obedience to the law of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, within the limits of our calling, &c. 

Likewise they untruly suggested, that we, by our opi- 
nions and proceedings, utterly cut off and condemn her most 
gracious majesty, your honours, and all others not of our 
mind, as infidels, reprobates, &c. wherein they much wrong 
your honours and us. God knoweth our reverent judg- 
ment, loyal hearts, and entire love to you all ; how we seek, 
desire, yea, and have hope of your salvation as our own. 

But, right honourable, this dealing will not for ever up- 
hold their ruinous kingdom, or keep your honourable wis- 
doms from the sight and search of God's truth in these 
matters ; which, if it may please your honours but to per- 
mit to be tried with them, cannot longer be hid. We can 
but in all humble manner beseech, offer, and commit our 
cause and whole proceedings to be tried by the scriptures 
of God, with any that is of contrary or divers judgment, 
before your honourable presence. Where we confidently 

k 4 



136 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO undertake, both to disprove their public ministry, ministra- 
' ' tion, worship, government, and proceedings ecclesiastical, 
established, as they vaunt, in this land ; and also to ap- 
prove our own present course and practice by such evidence 
of scripture as our adversaries shall not be able to with- 
stand. Protesting, if we fail herein, not only willingly to 

sustain such deserved punishment as shall be inflicted upon 
us for our disorder and temerity, but also to become con- 
formable to their line and proceedings. If we overthrow 

not them, we will not say, if they overcome us Neither 

may your honours without great charge deny, or any longer 
defer this Christian and peaceable course, prescribed and 
commanded of God in these causes, seeing it tendeth to 
the appeasing and ending great contentions already begun, 
and like to increase, to the satisfying many doubtful con- 
sciences, &c. 

In the mean time they prayed in the name of God, and 
our sovereign queen, for the present safety of their lives, 
the benefit and help of her majesty's laws, and of the public 
charter of the land ; (to the observation and preservation 
whereof your honours have sworn ;) namely, that we may 
be received unto bail, until we be by order of law convict of 

some crime, deserving bands We plight unto you our faith 

unto God, our allegiance to her majesty, that we will not 
commit any thing (unwilling) unworthy the gospel of Christ, 
or to the disturbance of the common peace and good order 
of the land; and that we will be ready forthcoming at 
such reasonable warning as your lordships shall command. 
It standeth not with your honourable estimation and jus- 
tice, to suffer us to be thus oppressed or punished: yea, 
thus to perish, before trial and judgment; especially im- 
ploring and crying out to you for the same However, we 

here take the Lord of heaven and earth, and his angels, 
98 together with your own consciences, and all persons in all 
ages, to whom this our supplication may come, to witness 
that we have here truly advertised your honours of our 
case and usage, and have in all humility offered our cause 
to Christian trial. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 137 

Number LXIII. ANNO 

1592. 



James Yong, a Jesuit, taken 1592. His confession August ' 
27. the said year, before the lord keeper Puckering, lord 
Buckhurst, and Mr. Fortescue, chancellor of the exchequer : 
being his letter under his own hand, asfolloweth : 

Right honourable, 

BEING much comforted with your friendly dealing, as 
I have imparted unto your lordships that which is so much 
as my life is worth ; so most plainly I shall now set down, 
what my whole knowledge comprehendeth in each sort, as I 
expect to find any favour with your lordships. 

My place of birth was in the bishopric of Durham, in a 
town called Eglescliff. My father's name was Thomas 
Yong, who died about some 25 years ago, and appointed 
that I should be brought up at school, as after I was, 
until the year 1579; at which time I departed from Dur- 
ham school, (where I was the queen's scholar, receiving five 
marks by the year of the college there,) under colour that 
I would go to the university of Cambridge, but indeed to 
go beyond seas. When coming to London, I was acquaint- 
ed with one Richard Bartet, an old master of arts of Oxford, 
with whom I stayed here in London some two months ; and 
both of us together went down to Gravesend, and from 
thence to Dover, going under pretence as though we would 
go to the camp of duke d'Allenson, who then was going into 
Flanders. We arrived at Bulloin the same night, in com- 
pany with one of my lord of Leicester's men called Johnson, 
who carried letters to Monsieur. From thence we went to 
Paris, where I stayed but six or seven days, and talked 
with one Darbishire, a Jesuit, who first counselled me to go 
toRhemes; for I did not know the place before, neither what 
was the manner of their living or profession. Brought thi- 
ther, and seeing some of the same school with me to give 
themselves to priesthood, I applied myself, though with great 
repugnancy, to follow the same trade : whereupon I was 
counselled to study logic : and shortly after I was sent to 
Rome, where anew I began to study logic, physic, and meta- 



138 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO physic; which I ended in three years, and then went to 
1 5 ' )2, school-divinity four years. At the end of which time I was 
preferred to defend printed conclusions of divinity in the 
university of the Roman college, having before made a ser- 
mon in Latin before pope Sixto and the cardinals, in the 
chapel of St. Peter's, upon St. Stephen his day, the same 
year that the duke of Guise was put to death. 
0,9 After this it was thought good that I should not come 
into England, but that I should read a lecture of divinity 
in Rliemes : for which I did prepare myself. Yet before I 
could be sent down, father Parsons wrote out of Spain to 
the rector of the English college at Rome, that he should 
send no priests into England that year : but if any should 
accept of it, as a benefit, to send them to Spain, for that 
he had obtained in Valladolid a new college. Then the 
rector told me, that he thought it would be greater credit 
for me to go into Spain, to see and learn the fashions of the 
Spaniard. Whose counsel I following in the year 1589, at 
Michaelmas time, together with four other priests, took 
shipping at Genua, and landed at Alecante, and from thence 
came directly to Madrid. At which time the king was ab- 
sent, because of the plague which was then in that country 
thereabouts. From thence, after the space of a month, I 
was sent with two other priests to Valladolid, where we 
found but four students in the college. But the number 
was increased to thirty-six before my coming away. 

The Spaniards, who returned out of England, spake much 
of the persecution here, much pitying our cases, who were 
there brought up, to venture our lives by returning home 
again. Whereupon father Parsons took occasion to write a 
little book of the end of the college, and the students there- 
in, which he published in Spanish, and dedicated it to the 
king's daughter, which made the fame of the college greater ; 
which the better to maintain, he hastened to send a mission 
hither into England. Which he did, carrying six priests 
with him from Valladolid unto St. Lucar's in Andaluzia ; 
by the way causing us to go to noblemen, and to collegical 
and cathedral churches, the more to stir them up to favour 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 139 

with their alms the foundation of the new college at Valla- ANNO 
dolid ; when I made a short speech to the cardinal of To- 159 
ledo, signifying the great good that might come to the ca- 
tholic church, if his grace would favour the poor beginning 
of Englishmen, who began now to shew the fruit of the 
alms received, by sending into the vineyard of England, for 
the conversion of souls, irt one year six priests. He pro- 
mised to maintain yearly two students in the college, and to 
further with his letters to noblemen the maintenance of 
more ; as likewise many more, to whom the rest of my fel- 
lows made speeches, did promise. 

At last being come to Sevilla, our journey was in manner 
stayed, upon hopes of a new college there to be erected by 
the cardinal and citizens of that city ; where staying six 
months, and understanding that the fleet could not come 
from Indies, because it was besieged by the earl of Cum- 
berland in Havana, as the report went, we were disposed 
of after this manner : first, four were sent over under pre- 
tence of galley-slaves taken in the Portugal action ; the other 
two, of which I was one, should have gone with two Scot- 
tish ships, and to have landed in Scotland, because it were 
near mine own country : yet being weary with the tedious 
journey, and not able to brook the seas, and parted from 
my fellow, who was in another ship, by a little storm, I ar- 
rived here in Thames ; and being set on land, lay abroad 
under a hedge all that night, and the next day came to 100 
London in my Spanish attire, which presently I changed, L , ands iu 
and went from place to place to get. victuals, not knowing comes to 
any one in London, for that my purpose was not to land LondoD ' 
here : yet remembering a token which I heard father Par- 
sons speak of to one of them who came like galley-slaves, I 
inquired for one Thomas Wiseman, about the inns of court; 
with whom, at last, I met ; and he got me acquainted with 
my lady Throgmorton, with whom I remained a month, 
she being unwilling to keep me any longer, because of 
speech which was bruited of a proclamation, and continual 
search which should be for to find out such as of late came 
from Spain. Then she gave me twenty marks, with other 



140 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO linen, and obtained, that I should table in Clarkenwel, at 
lo92 ' one Mompersons : where I lay as one that made suit to a 
young gentlewoman, who then was at table there. 

It happened about Christmas last, that the officers came 
suddenly to search the house, from whence I escaped by a 
back-door ; another priest, who was then at that house, 
being taken, and shortly after executed. Then came to 

Wiseman Then tabled by his means with one Coole, a 

schoolmaster in Holborn. Then to Wiseman again. 
Apprehend- Then he lay at an inn, the White-swan in Holborn- 
ed ' bridge, where he remained until his apprehension, and 

bringing before Mr. Yong, at the beginning of Easter term 
last, and ever since was prisoner in the counter in the 
Poultry. That since his first arrival he never went out of 
the city, unless it were sometimes to walk in the fields. 

This is the most true and sincere report of my whole 
manner of conversing, since my first departing over seas 
and return home again. 

During the time of my abode in Rhemes, I understood 
nothing of any matter pretended by any against the realm ; 
for that I was young, and not admitted into the company 
of the seniors in the college. After my coming to Rome, the 
first thine; that ever I heard of was of the intent of Ballard 
and his complices ; which I never understood perfectly, 
until I heard of their execution in England. Then I heard 
Dr. Allen say, that he had dissuaded Ballard, (who had re- 
vealed the matter unto him,) with all the earnest persuasions 
Morgan and he could. But the other addicted rather to Morgan and 
cha. Paget. c nar ] cs p a g e t coming to Paris, there laid the plot of their 
devise, with which he came into England, meaning to have 
effectuated it with speed. 
King of The next matter that I heard was of the great hope 

there was of the king of the Scots, that he would become 
catholic. Which was the rather believed, for that one 
Holt, Tyry, a Scotch Jesuit, and one William Holt, an English 
Jesuit. Jesuit, who both came from thence, reported his inclination 
that way. With whom they had spoken privately divers 
times : as likewise with many other noblemen in that coun- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 141 

try. And Morgan wrote divers letters to the cardinal in ANNO 
Rome, that shortly all the Scotch holy bishops should be re- 1592, 
called home to their livings, and made suit that help might 
be made for the reclaiming of England by aiding the Scot- 101 
tish king. Which matter was much furthered by Dr. Lewis, Dr. Lewis, 
now bishop of Casan, and agent for the Scottish nation. 

Yet after the death of the queen of Scots, both Dr. Allen Alien and 
and Parsons wrote to stir up the Spanish king, who, as I 
have heard Parsons say, could never be persuaded to at- 
tempt any thing against England in her lifetime, objecting 
that he should travail for others. That she being dead, 
the expectation was increased for the last invasion. 

News being brought of the great preparations in Spain 
and Flanders, and Dr. Allen made cardinal, Holt and Cres- 
wel sent into Flanders to come with the prince ; and hourly 
the cardinal was to be sent, as legate from Rome, the Mi- 
chaelmas before the Spaniards came : for that it was cer- 
tainly thought that the invasion should have been at the 
Christmas before; because that they understood that the 
English navy was altogether unprovided at that time. But 
the marquis of Santa Cruz, as it was reported, did hinder 
the attempt in winter-time. When it was heard of their 
coming to before Callis, and their cutting of their cables, 
and way towards Scotland, Parsons said, that better news 
would be heard shortly : for that they should land in Scot- 
land, where the matter was already agreed upon with the 
king, whose guard was maintained by the king of Spain's 
pension, and 40,000 crowns of gold, which he hath already 
received. When this was ended, as I did hear, sir William Sir William 
Stanley himself said, a new attempt was to have been made tan ey ' 
the Christmas after out of Flanders. For which purpose, 
he said, four months' victuals were already prepared, with 
16,000 men. But it was countermanded by letters from 
Spain, some five or six days before it should have been 
effected. 

The matter of sir John Parrot I never heard named 
until my coming here in England, the Michaelmas twelve- 
month after the Spanish attempt. 



142 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO I was sent into Spain to Vallidolid, to be one of the be- 
______ ginners of the new college, where I attended the schools, 

to give example to the younger sort: although I had al- 
ready ended my course of divinity in Rome. And to make 
Englishmen known in the university there, I did many 
public exercises. 

About a year after, sir William Stanley came into Spain 
with one Owen, Anthony Standen, Thomas Fitz-Herbert, 
Rolestone, and three others his servants, who all went to 
the court, and stayed six weeks : Fitz-Herbert was sent to 
Paris, Standen to Burdeaux, where he was taken prisoner. 
Rolestone sent to St. John de Luz, where also he was im- 
prisoned, but escaped, paying to the governor eighty crowns. 
Owen returned into Flanders again. These men should 
have given certain intelligence to don John Idiaques, a 
counsellor and secretary to the king ; but they were descried 
in each place before their coming by a Frenchman, who 
lived in the court, under colour of a priest, and apprehend- 
ed in Madrid, by the information which Rolestone gave 
against him. Each of them had twenty crowns a month 
in pension, and one hundred and fifty crowns in their purses 
at their departure. 
102 When Rowlston departed back again, he came to Stanley, 
who said, Thou art welcome, I hope ; thou shalt be employ- 
ed in as good service for the lady of which we have often 
talked. At which time he said no more. Yet being de- 
manded after by one Dr. Stillington, what that lady was, 
O ! saith he, if we had her, the most of our fears were past, 
for any one that could hinder us in England. It is Arbella, 
saith he, who keepeth with the earl of Shrowsbury : whom 
most certainly they will proclaim queen, if their mistress 
should now happen to die. And the rather they will do it, 
for that in a woman's government they may still rule after 
their own designments. But here is Symple, saith he, and 
Rowlston, who, like cunning fellows, have promised to con- 
vey her by stealth out of England into Flanders : which 
if it be done, I promise unto you she shall shortly after visit 
Spain : and, as I judge, they will prove men of their word. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 143 

Shortly after, Symple and Rowlston were sent into Flanders : a N N o 
since which time I never heard any thing of the men. 

Stanley then going to the court, was sent back in com- 
mission to see the army then at Pharol and at St. Anders, 
where don Alonso de Basan is general : who entertained 
Stanley with great honour, in hope for to gain his good- 
will, that he might be general over the army when it should 
come for England. Stanley at his return much magnified 
the strength and furniture of thirty-six ships, which he saw 
at Pharol, as likewise of others in Biscay. Wherein he found 
no fault, but that the gun-ports were cut too high above 
the water, which he laboured to have amended : but it 
could not be granted. That all our Englishmen were sent 
to Pharol, where they were entertained with fifteen crowns 
a month. He that had the least in his company in this 
voyage was one captain Cryps, an Englishman, who hath 
forty crowns a month for his service done in the Portugal 
action : a man greatly favoured with the adelantado of Cas- 
tilia, general now of the galleys* about the Straits. For 
whom all our Englishmen much labour that he may be 
general in the fleet. 

There came also into Spain one Morgan, a captain, who 
some time had served my lord admiral : but the man I never 
saw. I heard that he had given him fifteen crowns at his 
first coming; and that he was to be sent to Pharol. Farn- 
ham, Johnson, and Hagthorp were sent into Flanders in 
pilgrims'' weeds, as coming from St. James de Compostella. 
One Smith was sent by sea in a little pataz after: and a 
month after with a sufficient store of money, and a letter to 
Owen to provide more at their coming, for their despatch 
into England, to provide mariners in the west about Ply- 
mouth, and about Norfolk and Newcastle : Farnham having: 
in charge specially to deal with captains, and other officers, 
and to promise them large entertainment if they would 
accept of the king's service. Whether these men be in 
England, yea or no, I am not able to say with any truth. 
The man I knew well by eyesight. And Hagthorp is mine 
own countryman, born at Chester in the Street, some six 



144 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO miles from Durham. Yet so long I am certain they stayed in 

59 Flanders, until a post came with letters, wherein Farnham 

103 gave notice of thirty-six pieces of artillery, and armour for 

18 or 20 men: which was received safely from Amsterdam; 

and a little before was come out of England. 

In my travel from Vallcdolid we were brought to the 
grand prior of Castillia, an ancient man : who tatking with 
us of our voyage into England, and the danger of our en- 
trance ; I would to God, saith he, you might have but as 
safe arrival, as I hope to have there, before many years 
make my head more gray. 

We asked father Parsons what was the meaning he said, 
that he looked to be general, and that he had entreated him 
to prefer his cause to the king; promising to maintain four 
scholars, and to shew all courtesy that he would command 
for any Englishman. 

At last coming to Sevilia, where I stayed well nigh six 
months, upon expectation that a college should be there 
erected, I had daily access to father Parsons his chamber. 
Of whom I could never learn other, but that shortly an 
armado should be sent for England ; and that the king had 
sworn he would be revenged of England, although he should 
spend all he had, even to the socket of his candlestick. 
One day I being with father Parsons in his chamber, he 
was called by his sacristan to his mass, but willed me to 
stay till he returned, which I did. At that time he was 
writing to sir Will. Stanley, who was shortly to go into Italy 
to see Rome, and from thence into Flanders. In this letter 
he sent him word, how now at length, by the favour of 
Idiaques, the king had yielded to his request for the first 
attempt against England ; but not before the year 93, be- 
cause of the great hinderances that arose in France daily. 
Yet they hoped by that time to have Brest in Britanny : 
from whence he should have sixteen great ships, with 10,000 
men. From which place he should have more commodity 
to come to the Irish Kernes his old acquaintance ; and from 
thence easily to arrive near his own country, where 19 
would be ready to assist him, and that young one 14 he 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 145 

hoped would also help ; although now he would hold no water, ANNO 
but disclosed every one that seemed to move him in the 
matter. I have, said he, ascertained the king upon your 
word concerning nineteen. And the king saith, he remem- 
bereth the man very well : for that he was one of the last 
noblemen which was married in his time. And if the young 
one 14 had been unmarried, there had been none more fit 
to have been proclaimed king at their first arrival than he, 
thereby to gain the hearts of the people. Who these per- 
sonages should be, upon my credit, I could never learn di- 
rectly, other than by conjecture thus. After dinner captain 
Crips came into the Jesuits' 1 college at Sevilia, where, in my 
company talking with father Parsons, he spake of an am- 
bassage, wherein my lord of Darby was sent ; and of a mi- 
nister that came there, from whom a soldier stole a port- 
manteau, while he was disputing with others about religion. 
Nay, saith Parsons, I would he had stolen my lord his golden 
breeches from him, with which he hath been known this 
thirty years at least. The last time, saith he, that I did talk 
with the king, he told me, he did remember him and his 
marriage, which was one of the last in his time. By which 
words I remembered that which I had read in his letter of 
19, but I durst not seem to take any knowledge thereof. 

This assault by Stanley should be in April next. [The 104 
invasion to be April 1593.] Of whose arrival so soon as word 
should be brought, the whole fleet of Spain should be ready. 
Wherein Parsons himself would be present, and the cardi- 
nal should come down from Rome ; but not into England, 
until the event of the navy should be seen. 

At the same time of my abode in Sevilia, one Creeton, a Creeton. 
Scotch Jesuit, came from the Escurial, where the king lay, 
and was presently to go into Italy, and from thence into his 
own country ; sent with instructions to deal with noblemen 
for some harbour, if it should happen that their ships came 
there ; and to have men in readiness for their own defence, 
as though they should be invaded; but in truth to send aid, 
when notice should be given out of England. 

VOL. IV. L 



146 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO The two intelligencers, (for which I feigned myself to be 
' sent,) they were both beyond the seas at Midsummer last a 
twelvemonth : and now remain, the one in Genua and the 
other in Antwerp; for to give notice to father Parsons in 
Spain, who a great time had been without any news, as I 
did know, some three months together. 

This is the whole substance of all that ever I knew con- 
trived or pretended by any person in or without this realm 
against my country, or any person therein : which, upon 
the word of a priest, and as I look for any favour to be 
shewed me by your honour, is the truth in all points, as I 
have set it down : humbly therefore requesting your lord- 
ship to stand my patron and helper in this my misery and 
long imprisonment. What thing soever I shall be able to 
do my sovereign any service, (whose gracious favour I crave 
upon my knees to be extended towards me,) faithfully I 
protest to shew myself ready to perform it, and continually 
to pray for her majesty's long and prosperous reign, to the 
overthrow and confusion of all her enemies, and comfort of 
true and loyal subjects. From which if I have swerved 
in any point from my duty, from the bottom of my heart I 
repent me ; and promise hereafter all duty and obedience, 
as far as becometh any true and Christian subject. 

Your honour's poor suppliant, 

James Yonge, priest. 

This letter was sent by the lord keeper, and lo?-d BucJe- 
hurst, and Fortcscuc, to the lord treasurer, (being' then icith 
the queen in her progress,) with their letter accompanying : 
which were read to the queen by sir Robert Cecyl, her secre- 
tary. Whereof the said lord treasurer acquainted those 
p}-ivy-counscllo?'S with, in this letter following. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 147 

ANNO 



Number LX IV. 



If. .92. 



The lord treasurer to sir John Puckring, lord keeper, and . 

to the lord qf Buckhurst, and Mr. Fortescue, chancellor 

of the exchequer. 

MY very good lords, I have shewed unto her majesty MS. Hadey. 
your lordships 1 letters of the 28th of this month, [August,] 
and the declaration of Yonge, now so named, the seminary 
priest. Which her majesty, beside my report, was pleased 
to have both the letter and the declaration leisurely read to 
her by Robert Cecyl : and none other present with her ma- 
jesty but myself. Upon your letter she hath conceived that 
your lordships have dealt very wisely and cunningly to pro- 
cure him to open himself so liberally as he hath done. 

Upon the declaration she findeth many matters worth to 
be marked. And she would Wiseman, Cole, and others 
named by him, to be apprehended ; and charged with some 
other things, and not with relieving of this Yonge. Of 
whom she would have a general opinion conceived, that 
nothing can be had of himself: neither that it is like that 
he is acquainted with any matter of weight. So as he may 
retain his former credit with his complices ; thereby to dis- 
cover more recent matter. Her majesty would not any here 
of her council know that part of his confession, but only 
myself and Robert Cecil, because seeing the length, to ease 
me, she caused him to read it. 

If your lordships privately can induce him to remember 
more matter, especially to discover in what persons our re- 
bels put their trust, assuring him of keeping the same secret, 
so as he should never be blamed for the same, her majesty 
would greatly like it. 

Yet her majesty is offended, that no sharp, yea, no capital 
punishment hath been done upon the number that rescued 
the rogues in Westminster. Whereof she knew not, but read- 
ing the letter of you, the lord of Buckhurst, to the vice- 
chamberlain. From the court the 30th of August, 1592. 
Your lordships' assured loving friend, 

W. Burghlcigh. 
l2 



148 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 



A ™° Number LXV. 



Thomas Christopher, alias George Dinglcy, that came from 
Rome : committed to the counter about mid April, 1592. 
His confession. MSS. lord keeper Puckr. 

HE took a corporal oath, that he had received the com- 
munion in Egglescliff", in Durham, Easter-day last, and 
came to London to get service; and was never beyond 
106 seas. And after said, he had been sixteen years in Scotland 
with Anthony Dingley, his uncle, that went away at the 
rebellion in the north. 

After, at a third examination, said upon oath, that sir 
William Stanley, at his last coming from Rome, being en- 
tertained with great courtesy by my lord the bishop of 
Montesiaston at supper, discoursed largely of the state of 
England. Among other things, saying, that one young 
lady, as yet unmarried, was the greatest fear they had, lest 
she should be proclaimed queen, if it should so happen 
that her majesty should die : yet there was hope that some 
will be found to hinder this matter. So he would not name 
the lady, his man being there in presence. Yet at my com- 
ing to Paris, and talking with one Mr. Robert Tempest, 
I repeated again these words, demanding, if he did know 
anything concerning this young lady? He answered, that 
very shortly he trusted to God to meet with her here at 
Bruxells: for that one Simple, a Scot, and one Rowlston, 
had undertaken to convey her out of England. The lady 

* Earl of doth ao i t l e w ith an earl a , whose name I do not remember. 

bury. And she is allied to the queen of Scots Divers letters 

which I saw in Tempest his study from father Parsons in 
Spain : but when he came to name any person, then he 
used to set it down in ciphers. Other things I cannot call 
to mind ; but that most certainly there was nothing meant 
for England this year, by reason of Britain affairs. 

Tho. C+fer. 

He confessed, that he came from Rome by the way of 
Paris, and that four other persons came in his company into 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 149 

England. That they came over at Easter last from sir Wil- ANNO 
liam Stanley, as soldiers; and do go under the passport of 
sir Roger Williams ; and landed at Rye, having good store 
of money ; and were directed to go to captains houses, to 
see if they could procure them to serve the king of Spain. 
And they had also in charge to gather mariners, which 
should be ready immediately after Michaelmas. And there 
should be a hoy, or ship, made ready for them at the Thames 
mouth. And they should promise the said mariners ten 
crowns a month wages. And they were sent unto all parts 
of England to gather up mariners ; and were appointed to 
travel as beggars, as though they had no money. 

Subscribed, 

Thorn. XXfer. 



Number LXVI. 

The lord treasurer Burghley's speech in the lords' 1 house, 
ann. 1592. Containing- the causes of the queen's entry 
into a defensive war with Spain. With an account of 
the queen's extraordinary charges by the said war. All 
xorit with his otvn hand ; and transcribed thence. It bear- 
eth this title on the top of the page : The causes of the 
queen's entry into these defensive actions. 

TO make a declaration of the first cause and original be- 107 
ginning, whereby her majesty was provoked to arm her Original 
realms with forces, were a labour lost in this place ; where cause- 
in former times the same hath been often declared ; and 
wherein a great number of the nobility here present have 
heard many circumstances thereof, at the proceeding with 
the late queen of Scots. For whom and by whom the Queen of 
quarrels were first made against the queen's majesty's per- Scots - 
son, against the religion and quietness of the realm. 

And therefore leaving the repetition of that cause, by 
which her majesty was detained in a kind of war, to with- 
stand both the kings of France and Spain, who intermed- 
dled in the case of the queen of Scots against her majesty ; 

l 3 



150 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO yet there heath followed continually such a deadly malice 
1 59 " 2, from the king of Spain, the bishop of Rome, and their con- 
Continu- federates, as unto this day, wherein no intermission hath 
ance of the k een Q f attenl p ts against her majesty and the realm ; although 
malice. at some time more vehement than at some others : as ap- 
peared in the year 88 by his open armies both by sea and 
land ; being of greater force than ever was known made by 
his father the emperor Charles, or by himself, or by any 
prince Christian within any memory of man. 
To overpass But minding to overpass all the attempts afore that huge 
year 'as! t,C enterprise, that was frustrate by God's special goodness be- 
yond the expectation of the world, I considering there hath 
been no assembly of parliament since that time, wherein her 
majesty might publicly declare to the states of her realm 
the continuance of the former attempts, but the increase of 
Causes of more dangers than were seen in any time before. There- 
j£2TJ, d h£fore, as was delivered by the lord keeper of the great seal, 
majesty. h C r majesty hath summarily imparted the same to this as- 
sembly, referring the consideration thereof to the whole 
three estates, whereof two are in this place ; how the same 
danger may be withstood, and by what provision her ma- 
jesty and realm may be preserved in domestic peace, as 
yet it is, as in a centre of happiness, where the circumference 
is in open calamity. 
Our duty to And because it is all our parts and duties, first to God, 
the S provi°- f am 1 to our sovereign head, and our native country, to apply 
sion - all our endeavour, being every one of us called to this place 

by special commandment in express words, upon considera- 
tion of the hardness of the business, and the perils immi- 
nent, to treat with her majesty, and with the prelates and 
great men of the realm, and to give our counsels, so as it is 
convenient for us all, first to consider the perils, and then 
to give counsel. 
An old sick Wherefore in discharge of my duty, with your patience 
n,an - in suffering an old man, beside his years, decayed in his spi- 

rits with sickness, to declare some part of his knowledge of 
Not for the dangers anil perils imminent: but for advice and coun- 
counsel. se i ] low t() withstand the same, I shall be constrained, for 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 151 

lack of sufficient understanding in so great cause, to require ANNO 
some further conference with your lordships, or with so 1592 ' 
many as shall appear more able than I am to give some 
good entry thereto. 

As to the dangers, that they be great and imminent, that 108 
they have both lately grown, and likely to increase, these be The dan g er 
manifest arguments. First, the king of Spain, since he hath imminent. 
usurped upon the kingdom of Portugal, he hath thereby 
grown mighty by gaining the East Indies. So as how great 
soever he was before, he is now thereby more manifestly 
great. But for increase hereof, to be greater ; yea, greater 
than any Christian prince hath been. He hath lately joined 
with his intended purpose newly to invade this realm with 
more might than before he did the invasion of France by 
sundry ways. Not as in former times, when the emperor 
Charles and the French kings, the great Francis and the 
warlike Henry, made former wars for towns their greatest 
wars. Yea, when the present king of Spain had his great 
army against Henry of France. For in those wars none of Not for 
them intended any thing more but to be revenged of sup- kin S doms - 
posed injuries, by burning or winning of some frontier towns 
by besieging. And after such revenges, mutually had to 
the satisfaction of their appetites, wherein neither party had 
any special advantage, they fell to truces, and in the end 
with knots sometimes of intermarriages. And by these kind 
of wars none of them did increase in greatness to be dan- 
gerous to their enemies. And in these kind of wars our 
kings of England had their interest for the most part, to ex- 
pense of men and money, and never to the loss of any 
small portion of any ground in England and Wales, nor 
otherwise ; but by yielding to the king of Spain, by means 
of the marriage of queen Mary, to make war with France, 
the realm lost that noble town and port of Calais, Avith great Calais lost, 
seignories and territories thereunto belonging. 

But now the case is altered. The king of Spain maketh 
these his mighty wars by the means only of his Indies ; not 
purposely to burn a town in France or England, but to con- 
quer all France, all England, and Ireland. And for proof. 

l 4 



152 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
ANNO hereof, first for France, he hath invaded Britain, taken the 

1692. . . 

port, builded his fortresses, carried in his army ; waged a 



To conquer navy in Britain ; [received into wages] a great number of 

England ms subjects, as rebels to France. And there lie keepeth a 

Ireland. navy armed, to impeach all trade of merchandise from Eng- 
land to Gascoign and Guyne : Avhich he attempted to do 
this last vintage. And so he had had his purpose, if to the 
great charges of the merchants, and by countenance of her 
majesty's navy sent to the coast of Britain, the shipping of 
England had not been much stronger than his. Besides this 
his possessing a great part of Britain towards Spain, he hath 
at his commandment all the best ports of Britain towards 

Frontier to England. So as now he is become as a frontier enemy to 
all the west of England. And by his commandment, and 
his waged troops in Newhaven, he hath enlarged his fron- 
tiers now against all the south parts of England, as Sussex, 
Hampshire, Isle of Wight. Yea, by means of his interest 

Frontier to in St. Halo's, a port full of shipping for the war, he is a 
dangerous neighbour to the queen's isles of Jersey and 
Guernsey, ancient possessions of this crown, and never con- 
quered in the greatest wars with France. 
109 Of this matter of Britain a man might enlarge, the danger 
so great to England, as if he had attempted nothing at all 
in Normandy and France ; yet the danger hereof might ap- 
pear so great, as ought to induce England to spare no cost 
to withstand it. And herewith he is not contented to seek 

To conquer this dukedom, but he destines all his forces to conquer the 
kingdom of France, the principal kingdom of Christendom. 
And to achieve this enterprise, he hath, these two years day 
and more, corrupted, with great sums of money and large 
pensions, certain factious noblemen, not of the blood of 
France, nor the great officers of the crown ; and by them, 

Rebellion and with these rebels, and by waging of his soldiers in some 
of the principal towns of France, as Paris, Roan, Orleans, 
Lyons, Toloze, and others, he hath procured a rebellion 
against the king, against all the princes of the blood, against 
all the great officers of the crown. But finding these rebels 
not strong enough of themselves, notwithstanding thev are 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 153 

well waged by him to withstand the king, he hath to his ANNO 
great charges levied and sent into France, even to Paris and 1592- 
Roan, armies collected of Walloons, Lorrainers, Italians, 
Spaniards, Almains, and Svvitzers. Wherewith he hath 
twice entered into France ; though God gave him no good 
success, but great loss and reproach. 

Besides these foreign armies sent from the Low Countries, 
he hath caused his son-in-law, the duke of Savoy, to invade 
France by Provence and Dolphine ; and the duke of Lo- 
raine by Burgundy and Champaign, and to environ France. 
Further, he hath sent armies by sea out of Spain to invade 
Languedoc. And even now at this present, all these foreign 
forces are newly made ready to enter into all parts of France, 
made by a colourable assembly of the rebels in Paris to re- 
present the three estates; yet without a king or a head. 
He intendeth to be the king of that realm, or to make his 
daughter the queen, and to appoint her a husband to be 
as his vassal. 

He hath also the pope so addicted to him, as he that 
never was wont to send to any parts only of Italy, by bulls 
with lead and parchment, did now levy and send an army 
into France. And though he coloureth it with matter of 
defence of catholic religion, yet both he and the king of 
Spain make war against all the princes of the blood, and of- 
ficers of the realm, being sound catholics. And so they 
have by their ambassades lately advertised the pope ; as by 
the cardinal Gundy, and marquis Pysany, ancient counsel- 
sors of France, and catholics. So as the pretence of the 
pope and the king of Spain in that point are merely France. 

These are the dangers in France, and must of consequence 
draw England into like peril, without God's special good- 
ness, and the speedy support to be given to her majesty for 
prevention thereof. 

Now to manifest the king of Spain's attempt to invade Arguments 
England, whereof I think no good Englishman so want of ° Iltt .n ti o" s t o 
feeling to think otherwise, yet I will remember to you divers invade Eng- 
manifest arguments thereof; and afterwards, to supply the 
want of any man's feeling only by arguments or tokens, I 



154 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO will declare to you the very truth of his determination by 
manifest proofs. So as none ought to think, because he was 



15.92. 



1 10 disappointed of his intention for the conquest of England 
by his huge navy, therefore he will put that disgrace up, 
and leave off with that loss. But it is certain he hath the 
two last years buildcd a great number of ships of war, as 
near as he can to the mould and quantity of the English 
navy ; finding by experience his monstrous great ships not 
meet for our narrow seas. He hath lately armed a number 
of galleys on the coast of Britain, which he intendeth to send 
this summer to Newhaven. He hath also these two years 
days both bought and built great ships in Eastland. He 
hath both from thence, and by corruption of our faint and 
covetous neighbours in Holland, recovered with silver hooks 
both mariners, ships, cordage, and all provisions. These be- 
ino- now on the point of readiness to serve on the seas, a 
good argument may be made that this navy must be for 
England. For now that he hath all the maritime coast of 
Britain, and that he hath in Normandy Newhaven, there 
is no service by sea to enter into any part of France with 
this navy. 
A party in How he and the pope ply themselves to win a party in 
b^thTsemi- England to be ready to second his invasion, I am sorry and 
naries. loath to relate ; and how far they have prevailed herein to 
gain so great a multitude of vulgar people ; yea, of some 
that are of wealth and countenance, to adhere to these in- 
vaders at their entry, with vain hopes to attain to the places, 
honours, and livelihoods of such as are now known true, na- 
tural Englishmen, and good subjects. 
Proofs of his But to such as these arguments will not suffice to be per- 
intention. sua{ i oc l ? tr , a t this intention of the king of Spain to invade 
this realm is certain, this that followeth shall fully satisfy 
any man, yea, any man that uscth to believe nothing until 
he shall see it. There are taken in Scotland and impri- 
soned, certain that came first out of Spain, near afore Christ- 
mas, from the king; how before he had been sent out of 
Scotland to the king of Spain. These messengers brought 
assurance to certain noblemen of the greatest calling in 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 155 

Scotland, that if they would send their bonds under their ANNO 
hands and seals to serve the king of Spain for the invasion 1592 ' 
of England by land this next summer, the king would send 
an army of twenty-five thousand to the west of Scotland ; 
and would give the noblemen wages for ten thousand Scots 
to be joined with twenty thousand of his, to invade Eng- 
land ; and would keep five thousand of his in Scotland, to 
aid them to overrule the king of Scots, and to change the 
religion. This accord was perfected by three noblemen 
earls, Arrol, Huntley, and Angus; promising their own as- 
sistance, besides assurance in general words of divers more, 
not yet discovered. And for an earnest penny, these earls 
have received good sums of money from the Low Countries. 

Now for proof hereof, the messenger that was sent, and 
on shipboard, was taken, with the bonds of the noblemen : 
some signed and sealed by them all, and of every earl apart 
in several bonds in French and Latin. The messenger hath 
confessed the whole to the king ; who so carefully proceeded 
therein, as if he had not travailed therein himself, such of 
his council as were appointed to examine the parties that 
were taken durst not, for fear of the greatness of the noble- 
men that had offended, and were fled, examine the messen- 111 
ger of any thing that might concern these noblemen. They 
are all fled ; and yet the king hath gathered of his good 
subjects a certain power to pursue them. But it is doubted 
that they will flee into the west islands. And from thence 
either to pass into Spain, or to have forces sent out of Spain. 
But the king, the day before he went, caused one Fentry, 
an old practiser with Spain for the queen of Scots, a man of 
a good house and great wealth, to be executed, being a prin- 
cipal contriver of this conspiracy. To animate the king to 
follow this action, her majesty hath sent my lord of Bourgh. 

Thus far have I observed my purpose to shew the dan- 
ger ; and to give counsel to the remedy, Hoc opus, hie labor 
est. And I would gladly to have some company, of whom 
I might have some light, how to find out the darkness of 
the question : wherein, when time shall serve, I will not be 



156 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO silent, but deliver mine opinion, and reform it upon good 
l5,q "' ground. 



Number LXVII. 
The queens extraordinary charges by means of the war. 
moved by the king of Spain. Set down by the lo?-d trea- 
surer in the same paper. 

FOR defence of the Low Countries 130,000/. by year. 
For the charge in Mr. Huddleston's time for years 154,000/. 
To the earl of Leicester for Sluce - - 31,000/. 

Feb. 1586. To sir Tho. Shirley - - 531,000,120/. 

Total 



In Normandy with my lord Willoughby for 6000 men 

49,283/. 
In Normandy with my lord of Essex, with thousand 

men --_____ 

In Britain with sir John Norris with 4000 men 

In aiding the French king with money - ■ 

For maintenance of the navy on the narrow seas, sometime 

with 800, sometime with 700 and 600 - 232,000/. 
Besides the ordinary keeping of the navy, 1200/. a month. 

Per aim. 44,400/. 

For the office of the ordnance - - 62,000/. 

Scotland - - .... 15,000/. 

Number LXVIII. 

Thomas Markham to the lord treasurer : concerning his 
affliction for his son Robert Markham, going beyond sea 
Jbr his conscience. 

Right honourable, my singular good lord, 
I HAVE sent your lordship here enclosed the most 
grievous and unlooked-for letter that ever I received ; and 
from my second son, (your lordship's late servant,) simply 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 157 

as he sent it to me. My grief is the greater, for that ex- ANNO 
pectation and opinion was so firmly settled of his good and 1592, 



dutiful behaviour, both to her majesty and the state; be- 112 
side the former hope that I had to see him enable himself 
by his diligent study to serve the same. All which hope by 
his lewd and undutiful practice is now frustrated. I take 
God to witness, not a little to my discomfort, he hath coun- 
terfeited my hand, as by his own confession your lordship 
may perceive. Whereby my good friend Mr. Robert Taylor 
is without lawful security for his 100Z. For in true faith it 
is not my deed ; neither was it received with my privity. 
But by the same faith the gentleman shall be as truly paid 
in the beginning of next term, as though he had my sta- 
tute for it. 

I have no more to say to your lordship touching this 
matter, but humbly to beseech your honourable, grave, and 
true censure of me, and that her majesty by your honour- 
able means may not misconceive of me, but of her princely 
and gracious wisdom rightly deem of me ; and that is all I 
crave concerning this matter. Thus, with my humble duty 
for this time, I humbly take my leave; beseeching God 
long to bless you with health and honour. From Kercby- 
bellers, this 8th of Sept. 1592. 

Your lordship's, 

Tho. Markham. 



Number LXIX. 

The letter enclosed. 

Robert Markham to his father ; upon his departure beyond 

sea. 

HAVING striven thus long in vain to write a letter at 
large in excuse of my hasty travail, which my mind, over- 
burdened with grief, and not able to endure one word 
tending towards departure, will not suffer me to do. Ac- 
cept, therefore, I humbly beseech you, most dear father 



158 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO and mother, these few lines, which for tears I cannot see to 
_ write, and for inward grief cannot endure to read again, as 
an excuse for my hasty journey. For which, upon my knees 
prostrate before you both, I humbly crave pardon and for- 
giveness ; being perplexed in mind upon the reading the 
chapter against delay in the book of Resolution, I endea- 
voured myself to settle my conscience as well as I could. 
Whereupon I betook myself to the study of divinity. 
Wherein for the space of two years I have bestowed some 
time, together with the conference of divers learned on both 
sides. Upon reading and conference my conscience grew at 
length undoubtedly settled, that the Romish religion was 
the most true, catholic church : whereof unless I should be- 
come a member, I could not be saved. Hereupon endea- 
vouring myself to be reconciled, I find, that that reconcili- 
ation to the church of Rome is high treason by act of par- 
liament. Which odious name of a traitor I do so much de- 
113 test, (besides the infinite trouble and charge which I know 
it would bring unto you both,) as I rather choose to leave 
my country than to hazard the staining of our house and 
name with treason, which as yet was never attainted. 

Having therefore resolved this course, and having not 
means to convey myself away, I must confess my villainy. I 
took up an 100/. in your name of Mr. Taylor of the Ex- 
chequer; with which I hope to convey myself cither to 
Malta or Vianna. Where I hope to find some entertain- 
ment ; in how base a place I care not, so that I may be as- 
sured of your safeties, which I tender above all earthly 
treasures. Howsoever I shall fail of entertainment at either 
of these two former places, I assure you, by the duty I owe 
unto you, that I will never serve in France or Flanders 
against her majesty ; neither, whatsoever beggary betide me, 
will I ever serve the king of Spain, nor any of his agents, 
so long as he remaineth enemy to England ; neither be 
guilty to any conspiracy against her majesty's person, but 
reveal it, if ever any such matter chance to come to my 
hearing. And to conclude, my conscience only reserved to 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 159 

myself, (whereupon dependeth my salvation,) as I hope to ANNO 
be saved at the latter day, I am and will be as good a sub- 1592 ' 
ject to her majesty for allegiance as any is in England. But 
such is my present estate at this time, that every hour 
presenteth a hell unto me. On the days I go like a man 
distract of senses for fear of death at this instant. In the 
night I cannot sleep, nor take any rest; so monstrous is 
the horror of my conscience. When I pray, I am discom- 
fited : for I pray without hope to be heard ; because I am 
not of his church, or that church which I believe undoubt- 
edly to be his church. 

All these things hasten my journey, and command my 
absence. If ever I fail in any part of my allegiance, which 
heretofore I have protested, willingly or wittingly, disclaim 
me for your son ; and instead of blessing, which now upon my 
knees I do most humbly desire, give me accursing : which 
God never let me live to deserve. Forgive me and forget 
me, I humbly beseech you, who desire to be forgotten. For 
since it is not God's will (which I have always desired) to 
suffer me by my study at law to do you some service, I 
will assure you so to behave myself, if it be possible, as to 
do you no harm. Be good to this poor man my servant, I 
humbly beseech you, in helping him to a master, who de- 
served a far better master than myself, and who I protest 
did never know my determination till the instant of my de- 
parture. 

Thus humbly beseeching you to give me your daily 
blessings, which I will strive to deserve by my daily prayer 
for your prosperity, most humbly craving pardon for all 
that is past, I cease. 

Your distressed son, desirous, 

Gravesend, this 27 th desirous to be more dutiful, 

of August. Ro. M. 



1G0 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
ANNO Number LXX. 

1592. 

The queen in her progress, noic ut Sudlcy. From thence 



114 sir Tho. Heneage, her vice-chamberlain, writes to the lo?-d 

keeper Puckring ; relating the queen's Kind expressions 

concerning him . MS. Hurley. 
My good lord, 

UPON the receipt of your letters, I acquainted her ma- 
jesty with your joy of her so well passing so long a pro- 
gress, and your great desire to understand how her high- 
ness did, now at the furthest of her journey, the good news 
whereof (being so far divided from her majesty) did give 
you life and most contentment. I also shewed her majesty, 
(as this gentleman, the bearer hereof, told me,) how your 
lordship had been in Waltham forest, and was not pleased 
to take your sport alone, but would have the company of 
the ambassador, whom you invited to dinner, and made part- 
ner of your pastime. 

Touching the first, her majesty willed me to tell you, 
that she found, by your often sending, your love and great 
care of her. And for the next, she bade me sav, that she 
found you could not only speak well, but also do well, and 
perform things with judgment and honour ; praising you to 
me exceedingly. For I could not use any one word of just 
commendation of your lordship, that she gave not allowance 
of, and adding too of her own gracious conceiving. Where- 
of I (that will never be found to deceive you) can assure 
your lordship, you have great cause to take comfort. This 
is the best news that I can either now or at any time send 
to your lordship. But as soon as I come out of France or 
Italy, worthy the writing, I shall send your lordship a brief 
of them. And so with my humble commendations rest. At 
the court at Sudely, the 12th of September, 159'-. 

Assuredly at your lordship's commandment, 

T. Heneage. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 161 



Number LXXI. anno 

1 592. 

Sir Thomas Heneage, vice-chamberlain to the queen, to lord !_ 



keeper Puckring ; signifying from her majesty, how well 
she took his assistance at the celebration of the Ytth of 
November. MS. Harley. 

Further, her highness willed me to signify to your 

lordship, how well she taketh your honourable handling the 
remembrance of the day of her entrance into her govern- 
ment, and willed me to tell you, that she thinketh that the 
good sermon that was then made (which her highness 115 
greatly praised) did utter the words of your mind ; and 
that your great alms and liberality, with the honourable ce- 
lebrating her memory, did shew her highness' s choice to be 
of a man worthy your place, [of lord keeper of the great 
seal,] and did deserve her thanks and best acceptation. 
Which is all I am now commanded to write to your lord- 
ship. To whom I humbly commend myself, and the ser- 
vice of my good-will. At the court, this 23d of November, 
1592. 

Your lordship's at commandment, 

T. Heneace. 



Number LXXI I. 
March the 5th, 1592. Notes for inspection into charitable 
gifts. Set down by the lord treasurer. This being a 
time of great dearth. 

TO send to the lord mayor, to send some answer to the 
money received. 

To move both houses of parliament to make collections. 
To appoint collectors by both houses. 

To appoint distributers, to distribute to the soldiers rea- 
sonable stipends pro viatico with public order. 

To make commission to certain to survey the Bridewell, 
and to certify the disorders ; and the revenues to be better 
bestowed. 

A bill to enact, that all lands that were limited to the 

VOL. IV. M 



162 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO hospitals to be assured again ; and commissioners to view 
159 the state of them. 

A commission to view all hospitals, how they are mis- 
used. 

A commission to view and survey all colleges that have 
had lands for relief of the poor, and for mending of the 
high ways. 



Number LXXIII. 

A fleet of Spaniards ready to invade England. In a letter 
from the lord Howard, lord admiral, to the lord trea- 
surer. Endorsed by the treasurer's own hand, Aug. 29, 
92. 

To the right honourable, my very good lord, the lord trea- 
surer. For her majesty's service. C. Howard. 

Haste, Imste, posthaste. Haste, haste, with all speed. 

My very good lord, 

I SEND you here enclosed a letter, which came to me 
from Portsmouth. The messenger thought to have found 
me at the court ; but missing of me there, came hither. I 
1 1 6 wished that he had delivered the letter to your lordship, 
that you might have spoke with him yourself. He is so 
weary that he is scarce able to stir. In the morning I will 
send him to your lordship. 

The effect of his speech is this: that about Friday was 
sennight he coming from St. Maloes, where he left a fleet 
of Spaniards, being sixteen sail of double fly boats, two gal- 
leons, and two galleys, riding in the range there ; within two 
days after, met another fleet of Spaniards, being very great 
ships ; and one of them a great galleas. Six of them gave 
him chase. Yet he hath sped. Yet they took the governor 
from off Sherbrokc. Afterwards they bore all eastward. So 
that this bearer, being a skilful sailor, thinketh, that cer- 
tainly they be either put in at Newhaven, or into the nar- 
row seas. 

I understand by another letter from a man of mine at 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 163 

Portsmouth, that captain Grove in the Tremontane, and ANNO 
men with him, are put out to discover upon the coast. ' 

My lord, if these things fall out so, I am very sorry that 
her majesty should be so far from home. Whereby things 
will be longer in doing, as they ought to be done. I have 
written in all posthaste unto captain George Fener into the 
narrow seas, that he be not taken improviso ; and to see 
what he can discover with good safety. I have also written 
to my lord Cobham, that the beacons may be well kept at 
the seaside, and that regard may be had of this matter. I 
mean, God willing, upon any alarm that shall be given, to 
repair thither, with the small company which I have of my 
own people. And so in great haste I bid your lordship most 
heartily farewell. From Byflete, the 29th of August, 1592. 
Your lordship's loving friend to command, 

C. Howard. 

Postsc. It is not amiss my opinion, if letters be writ 
with some speed to Flushing ; that they may have warning 
there, to prevent the worst. I cannot imagine, if they pass 
Newhaven, whither they should go to the eastward, unless 
it be for some enterprise upon us, or in Scotland. 

Then follow three lines of the lord admirciFs own hand, 
as the rest above is writ by his secretary. 

My lord, I see the king of Spain is determined to block 
up England ; and so to weary us with time, since by expe- 
rience he sees he can prevail no other way. It must be 
looked into in time. We have heretofore looked for a sum- 
mer war from [Spain] ; but now we shall taste of it in winter. 



Number LXXIV. 117 

Another letter writ by the lord admiral to the lord trea- 
surer : shewing his advice, judgment, and diligence 
upon this dangerous juncture. Titus endorsed by the 
lord treasurer, Ships to be put to the seas; with his 
m 9. 



164 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

anno marginal notes in some places of the letter. September 1, 
l592 ' 1592. 

My very good lord, 
AFTER the receipt of your letter of the 30th [of Au- 
gust,] for the sending of the three ships to the narrow seas 
under the charge of George Fener to Plymouth, to waft 
the carack to Portsmouth, I have received another letter 
from your lordship of the 31st, in answer of certain letters 
of mine, containing the intelligence of certain forces which 
were seen at sea. I sent also the party himself that saw 
them. 

First, It appeareth by your lordship's letter, that her ma- 
jesty thinketh much, that her ships that have served in the 
narrow seas have taken no Leaguers, [against the queen and 
French king,] nor Dunkerkers. But methinks it should be 
more wondered at if they should take any. For they were 
ever kept as passengers, and not men of war, that should 
only go to take ships. Thank is to be given to God, that 
not one of her own ships have been taken, going so slen- 
derly as much they have done, I marvel, how her 

majesty hath forgotten, that when sir Henry Parmer was 
sent only to take ships, he did take fourteen Newhaven 
men. I do not know that they were ever ninety-seven days 
free ; that either they were to waft over men, or something 
else. But since I know her majesty's pleasure, I will see 
her hand before any shall go on waftage, but only to go to 
see what they can catch. And yet I think there hath been 
little cause to grieve at any hurt, that either Dunkerker or 
Leaguer hath done these three years 1 day. And I am sure 
her merchants and subjects have had the narrow seas free 
without danger. But three ships and a pinnace or two can- 
not guard the narrow seas, the western seas, the northern 
seas, the coast of France, and the coast of England, and all. 
I pray God it may hereafter be as well defended as it hath 
been hitherunto, &c. 

For the safeguard of her majesty's navy at Chatham, I 
have sent sir John Hawkins, sir Henry Palmer, and Mr. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 165 

Burroughs. And upon any alarm I will myself be there ANNO 
presently. !__ 

I did write unto my lord Buckhurst for Sussex, in that 
sort, as I did to my lord Cobham for Kent. And I mean 
into every of these places, upon any alarm, to repair with 
what speed I can. But I am of opinion, that if this fleet 
be put into Newhaven, that they will forbear to do any 
thing upon England until the nights be longer. In the 
mean time they will do that service that will serve their 
turn about Newhaven, and up that river of Roan, and im- 
peach our sending of men to Deepe. It appeareth by him 
that saw them, they have many vessels that row with oars. 
Her majesty's pinnaces had been in good case to have been 118 
in the river there now. I did never take it meant, either by 
your lordship or myself, that they should lie like cromsters 
in the river for any plea. It were better her majesty should 
pay that little charge they have been at, (which is not great,) 
than to hazard the dishonour, which they had been very 
likely to fall into by staying there 

Now, my lord, whereas you require my opinion concern- 
ing what force and strength of shipping were fit to be put 
to the seas in respect of this great fleet, if it should be an- Great fleet 
swerable with proportion that might equal them, it would "hipg* 1 " 
be too much to be done in that time, that would be fit for 
it, both in respect of the victualling of them, and the press- 
ing of men ; which at this time will be hard to come by. 
Yet it is fit that something should be done, and that some 
force should be had in a readiness to defend, though not 
able to offend much. 

The rest that follows is my lord admiral's own hand. 
These ships, I think, most fit to be put in some readiness. 

Men. Men. 

The Lion - 250 The Swiftsure - 220 

The Hope - 250 The Rainbow - 250 

The Dreadnought 270 The Advantage - 220 

1310 
m 3 



ANNO 

1692. 



166 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

At the margin of this letter, against the names of these 
ships, the lord treasurer noted several other ships, which 
•were then on the seas, and their number of men, viz. 

Men. Men. 

Trementane - 70 The Moon - 40 

Another - - 100 The Charles - 40 

250 
The admiral proceeded thus : 

If these ships be liked of, as indeed they be the fittest for 
winter service, they may be grounded, and sent in some 
readiness. But I could wish, that the Rainbow and Advan- 
tage were sent into the narrow seas with all speed, and sir 
Henry Palmer to have the charge, if your lordship think 
good, or other of these may be put unto them ; either the 
Dreadnought or the Swiftsure. It may fall out there may 
be no need of the rest. Yet the other three may be put in 
readiness, if need require. If your lordship find her majesty 

to like of this, then you must send for Mr. Gr , and 

take order for their victuals; and that I may hear from 
you for putting the ships in readiness. 

This fleet that was discovered were fifty sail ; and had 
among them a galleas or two. These and those of Britain 
under Sebures are two several fleets. For by the parties 
1 1 q saying, he left but the day before the sixteen flyboats, and 
the two galleys, and four pinnaces in the range of St. Ha- 
loes, it is greatly to be doubted, if they be not gone into 
Newhaven, that they be gone for Scotland. If your lord- 
ship do remember what Mr. Mowlre, the Scot, declared 
unto your lordship and myself at Greenwich, this may 
very well fall out to be the same. And if it be so, it must 
be more than I here set down a good deal, that will fetch 
them out of the Frith, if they once possess it. 

My lord, as you write, it is fitter her majesty were at some 
standing house near, than wandering so far off, to see but 
that she hath already seen [in her progress] ; and not much 
worth the labour. God bless her majesty, and send her well 
home. And that these great and weighty causes may be 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 167 

weightily considered. For every year will grow more dan- ANNO 
gerous than other. The enemy hath the start of us too. 



much already. Let us meet with it in some time. The plot The queen' 
is great and dangerous that is laid ; and although it hath dan S er * 
been once checked, [in the year 88,] the malice was not 
gone, nor the game ended. We must look for more play. 
And God send us no worse luck. And so I commend you 
to the protection of the Almighty, to keep you in health. 
For by the Lord we cannot spare you in this world. From 
Byflete this 1st of September, at eleven of the clock at 
night. 

Your loving friend, and ever at your commandment, 

C. Howard. 



Number LXXV. 

Sir Roger Manwood, lord chief baron, to the lord treasurer 
Burghley : his submission upon several abuses : com- 
mitted, and under restraint. 

My good lord, 

I PROTEST before Almighty God, that I have in 
my heart always much honoured your good lordship for 
your rare gifts and incomparable service in this common- 
wealth. And I never had thought to contend or contest 
with your lordship. Howbeit, forasmuch as I did write one 
letter to your lordship, with sundry particulars of my losses 
and hinderances, otherwise than in duty I ought, I do hum- 
bly confess my folly, and do for the same humbly submit 
myself. Beseeching your good lordship to remit the same, 
my first offence, and, I trust in God, shall be the last ; pro- 
testing before Almighty God, and upon my salvation, that 
I had no intention to have offended your lordship ; but in 
the anguish and agony of my grieved heart against the un- 
true complaints against me, I did so much write and offend, 
which I do not stand in to justify; but do confess, and 
humbly beseech your good lordship, that this my commit- 
ment and restraint of liberty in city and country spread 1 20 

m 4 



168 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO abroad, to my great discredit and heavy grief of myself, my 
wife, children, and family, may by your good lordship's 
means be discharged in charity, without any further re- 
venge, according to your lordship's letter to me. And the 
rather, my good lord, because it is the first commitment 
and restraint that hath happened on me in the whole course 
of my sixty-seven years life. And now in this mine age most 
like to hasten mine end, after my lord Wray, who is with 
God, I trust I may find, that hac niiti castigatione con- 
tenia sit tua bonitas. And I shall be most bounden unto 
your good lordship in all the brief remnant of my days, to 
pray to Almighty God for the long preservation of your 
good lordship. From my poor house in Great St. Bartho- 
lomew's, London. With a most grievous afflicted mind. 
This 12th day of May, 1592. 

Your good lordship's most humbly, 

Hog. Manwood. 



Number LXXVI. 

The lord chief baron's submission to the lords: by whom 
he had refused to have his causes tried. 

I DO acknowledge to your most honourable lordships, 
that where by my late letters, written both in general to 
your lordships, as to her majesty's privy-counsellors, and to 
some others of this table in private manner, your lordships 
have conceived, that I have refused and been unwilling to 
have any causes of mine, whereof complaints have or should 
be made to her majesty, or to your lordships, to be ordered 
or heard otherwise than by the ordinary course of the com- 
mon laws ; 1 am most sorry to have given your lordships 
such just cause to have conceived of me; and for that I did 
by my said writing otherwise than in duty I now know that 
I ought to have done. I do most humbly submit myself 
for the same : beseeching your good lordships to remit the 
same, being my first, and, I trust, shall be my last offence. 

And for further declaration of my dutiful mind here- 
after, and for reformation of my said offence, I do assure 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 169 

your lordships, that I will never refuse to make dutiful an- ANNO 
swers to her majesty, or to your honourable lordships, or 1592 " 
afore such as her majesty or your lordships shall authorize 
to hear any such complaint against me ; being firmly per- 
suaded, that neither her majesty, nor your lordships, will 
commit the hearing or ordering of any such complaints 
from herself, or from yourselves, but to persons of know- 
ledge and indifference, in such sort as upon favourable 
hearing of the probable allegations of both parties, and 
upon due report made to her majesty, or to your lordships, 
if the complainants shall not be otherwise satisfied by my 
answers, her majesty or your lordships may truly under- 
stand in whom the fault shall be, either for the correction 121 
or reproof of the complainants, if they shall have complained 
without cause ; or if the fault or error shall be found in me, 
then I shall be most willing, as in duty I' ought to be, to 
reform myself, and to make amends to the parties, as by 
her majesty, or your lordships, shall be thought reasonable. 
Or otherwise, if the causes of the complaints shall, upon 
hearing thereof, appear to her majesty, or your lordships, 
to be more apt to be tried by the law than by such extraor- 
dinary hearing; then I also shall be ready to be directed to 
the trial and judgment of the law, or as the nature of the 
causes shall require, to her majesty's ordinary courts, or- 
dained for causes of equity. Whereunto also I shall always 
be obedient. 

And for satisfaction of your lordships for my late fault 
committed in my foresaid writings, I do most humbly be- 
seech your lordships, that this writing, voluntarily sub- 
scribed by me with my hand in your lordship's presence, 
may be favourably accepted, and be a testimony of my in- 
tention never hereafter to commit the like fault. Signed at 
Greenwich before the lords of the council, the 14th of May, 
1592. 

These were the minutes corrected by the lord treasurer's 
own hand. 



170 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
AN NO Number LXXVII. 

1592. 

Another letter of the said lord chief baron to the lord trea- 
surer : upon divers complaints and lawsuits against 
him. 

My good lord, 
UPON my last speech to your lordship, I found your 
lordship very bitter, not patient to hear me, to my great 
grief: I am now forced by these to put your lordship in 
mind briefly, that the intent and sum of my late written 
particulars to your lordship is, (for all things done and 
past,) I do with David hold myself contented, accounting 
the same to be God's visitation upon me, when any such 
bad folks in their bad causes have heretofore prevailed 
against me. And so do leave the same to your lordship's 
own conscience. And for things to come, that I may with 
your lordship's good favour enjoy the freedom of a loyal 
subject, not to have any of my goods drawn from me upon 
private complaints of any of mine adversaries, without due 
course of justice in some of her majesty's public courts. 
And thus do briefly cease; praying God long to continue 
your good lordship. At Sergeant's-Inn, this 13th of April, 
1592. 

Your good lordship's humbly, 

Ro£. Man wood. 
Postsc. My writing aforementioned was not of any other 
intent, I take God to my judge: and Intcntiojudicat qacm- 
que, in rules of charity. 



122 Number LXXVII I. 

A case erf' Tho. Diggs, esq. against Manwood, steward of 
the chancery and admiralty court at Dover, in the ports ; 
afterward lord chief baron. Found among the lord trea- 
surer s papers. 

ABOUT the year 1570, the queen granted him a fee- 
farm of such encroachments as had been made in Kent, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 171 

upon her majesty's seas shores and navigable channels, ANNO 
with licence also to and enclose such lands ; so as it 1592 ' 

were not hurtful to any of her majesty's havens, &c. By 
virtue of this her grant in the time of judge Saunders, 
lord chief baron, the said Diggs did recover certain lands, 
and had judgment in the exchequer for them ; and her ma- 
jesty received 3Z. a year rent for ever for them. And in the 
time of the succeeding chief baron, there were divers mat- 
ters in suit ; but by reason of the wealth of the intruders, 
and the devices of their council for delay to weary him, he 
could not come to any full trial till justice Man wood was 
lord chief baron. But he being Digge's extreme enemy, by 
reason of his leases of Barton Wingham marshes, whereof 
Manwood sought to defeat him, he found such imperfec- 
tions, or pretences of imperfections, in all former pleadings, 
verdicts, &c. as all the two or three years' 1 charges were ut- 
terly lost ; and in every new suit he found him so much his 
enemy, as in every suit there was no hope for him of any 
good. And therefore made suit unto him, that he would 
give judgment against her majesty, that in the end he might 
surrender his grant, and let her highness know her grant 
was nothing. 

He procured also Mr. Secretary Wylson to move the 
queen for her commandment unto him, to proceed unto 
some final judgment. Whereupon her majesty did, by se- 
cretary Wylson, require him to do Diggs justice without 
delay. The like suit he made to the lord treasurer ; but all 
in vain. 

For albeit the law was so evident on her majesty's side, 
as the lord chief baron dared not give judgment against 
her ; yet was his hatred so vehement against Diggs, that he 
would not give judgment for his benefit. And therefore by 
sundry kinds of strange delays sought to weary Diggs, as 
he plainly saw, that while he lived, and had that place, 
there was no possibility for him to have any end. And 
therefore seeing he should but consume himself with charge, 
gave it quite over as a matter desperate, as long as he con- 
tinued chief baron : who most unconscionably, [as he ex- 



172 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO pressed it,] by subtile and cunning practices, and extreme 
15,92- rigour of law, sought to have utterly defeated him of those 



leases of Wingham Barton, and his brother "William Diggs 
of his grand lease ; nor could come to any conclusion with 
him, but to his loss, contrary to all equity and conscience, a 
thousand pounds at the least, besides the extreme charge of 
suit many ways by the unjust vexation of the tenants. 
1 23 Then Diggs related the baron's dealings with him and his 
tenants ; and then goes on in these words : 

In this time of my persecution, there was brought unto 
me by a number of several persons in Kent, by the chief 
baron in like or worse sort oppressed, above twenty several 
such and so foul matters, as the least of many (by the very 
justice of law prosecuted and approved on him) would 
have confiscate all the goods, and chattels, and lands he had 
in England ; and some such as concerned also highly her 
majesty's honour, as by their memorials, yet remaining with 
me, may partly appear. But the advancement to the place 
of chief baron so terrified all men from complaining against 
him, that they committed all to God, without seeking any 
redress, as myself also was fain to do, to my detriment 
above a thousand pounds. 



Number LXXIX. 

The bishop of Lincoln to the lord high treasurer of' Eng- 
land ; .shelving the true state of the vicarage of Hock- 
norton ; endeavoured to he alienated J'rom the church, 
upon pretence of concealment ; John Williams, B. D. then 
vicar. About the year 1591 or 1592. 

MAY it please your honour to understand, that the par- 
sonage and vicarage of Hocknorton are by Huckfold, Mr. 
Croker's own bailiff, deposed to be let out yearly for 400/. 
and above. That there be communicants in the parish of 
Hocknorton almost five hundred. That after Palm-Sunday 
last, Mr. Williams turned back from communicating about 
forty persons, most of them of the age of thirty years, or 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 173 

above; who knew not how many Gods there were; or ANNO 
knew who made them, or who redeemed them, or what °' 
they came thither to receive. 

That there hath been not any hospitality kept at either 
parsonage or vicarage this many years by Mr. Croker. And 
three of the parish died lately, within the compass of one 
fortnight, of mere famine. All these are proved to my lord 
keeper. 

Mr. Croker his state in the vicarage of Hochnorton: 

Mr. Croker challengeth the vicarage of Hocknorton to 
be appropriate by an union made to the abbot of Oseney 
by pope Leo only, without authority of the king, in the 
4th of king Henry the Eighth. Which union he hath not 
authentical ; but hath only an extract out of an old book 
without date ; and also by a lease made by King, abbot of 
Tame, and commendatory of Oseney, the 29th of Henry 
the Eighth. 

Williams his estate in the said vicarage. 

Mr. Williams allegeth, that he hath been presented by 
her majesty, and formally instated, and inducted into that 
said vicarage. And to prove it institutive, sheweth xx seve- 124 
ral institutions. And that the said vicarage hath been still 
presented from ann. 1209 to 1536, without intermission, as 
the several institutions recorded do shew, against the pre- 
tended union alleged. A later institution, and the statute 
of the 28th of Henry the Eighth, with many other statutes 
now in force. And against the lease he allegeth, that be- 
ing granted of a vicarage presentative, and never leased be- 
fore, it can no way be good. 

And your said orator most humbly beseecheth your ho- 
nour so to favour the cause of a poor scholar, as that your 
honour, in the right of church, will finally determine the 
matter in your court of the exchequer chamber, according 
to the order set down in that honourable court ; and not 
dismiss it to the common law, to your orator's further mo- 
lestation and utter impoverishing. So that your orator be 
ever bound to pray for the increase of honour to your lord- 
ship . 



174 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

anno Number LXXX. 

' Instructions for the speaker's speech ; drawn up, in several 
articles, by the lord treasurer Burghlcy, Feb. 13, 1592. 

1. HER majesty's loathness to call any parliament fre- 
quently, as her progenitors have always usually done, al- 
most every year, or second year one ; or to call any at all, 
without great and urgent cause. 

2. And for that purpose it may be noted, that in her first 
thirteen years there have been called but four; the rest 
thirteen, but three ; and the rest, being nine, but three. 

3. The causes now are grown greater than any have been, 
and more necessary to be further considered ; and by good 
counsel to be provided for, against the greatness of the dan- 
gers that are grown more manifest, and greater than here- 
tofore. 

4. The king of Spain hath, since his attempt by invasion 
by sea in 1588, (wherein God fought for the realm,) been 
occupied these late years in building of great numbers of 
new ships, making many of them fit to fight with the ships 
of England. He hath made also such provisions out of all 
parts of the east for the arming of his navies, as he intend- 
eth to make the strength of this his navy double to that it 
was. 

5. He hath begun a mighty war in France by so many 
ways, as without God's goodness, for the justice of the 
French king's cause, it is doubtful that he will shortly pos- 
sess that crown, to make himself thereby a monarch of all 
Christendom, and a conqueror of all his neighbours. 

6. The means of his wars against France are these that 
follow : first, he hath already gotten the best part of all 
Britain, in manner of a conquest by sea ; a place as dan- 
gerous to be possessed by him, for invading of England, 
as if he had conquered the Low Countries. 

125 7- Secondly, he maintaineth, with continual wages, and 
pay, and great pensions, a number of rebellious subjects in 
France against the king ; retaining also at his devotion the 
principal towns to rebel, and to be at his command. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 175 

8. He hath presently so corrupted the rebels, although ANNO 
they consist of but a few nobility; yet of great towns and l592, 
vulgar people. And although he hath no prince of the blood, 

or ancient officer of the crown, holding part with him ; yet 
the rebels presently do make a pretence and counterfeit of 
an assembly of three estates at Paris. Therein to make an 
election of a king, wherein he hopeth by his corruption to 
gain the multitude of voices for himself, or for his daughter, 
to match her, where he may command the crown. 

9. Besides this, as he did of late years invade France 
with a mighty army by the duke of Parma, and by another 
sent from the pope, (who never heretofore shewed his hos- 
tility otherwise than by bulls and excommunication,) so he 
now intendeth to renew the same again this year; hav- 
ing begun already to enter into a part of the frontiers of 
France with part of the army, which he mindeth to increase. 

10. He maketh also invasion into France by the duke of 
Savoy, into Dolphine and Provence; and useth also the 
duke of Lorrain to do the like in Burgonie and Mon- 
paignie. And at the present he hath addressed an army to 
enter into France by the way of Navar. So as there is no 
part of any frontier of France by which he doth not attempt 
this invasion ; besides the invading of the body of the realm 
by the rebellion. 

11. Besides this, his purpose to renew the invasion of this 
realm is discovered to be done by Scotland : where very 
lately a treasonable conspiracy is found to have been in- 
tended by divers noblemen in Scotland, being papists. For 
assurance whereof to the king of Spain, they had sent him 
divers bonds under their hands and seals ; which being ready 
to be shipped, and sent into Spain, have been taken. In which 
conspiracy hath been determined, that the king of Spain 
should send the conspirators certain great sums of money 
to wage forces to join with his forces, which he should send 
by sea to Scotland. And therewith to enter, and make inva- 
sion into England ; and to overrule the king there, and to 
make change of religion within that realm. 

12. At that instant also the king of Spain promised to 



176 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO make invasion into England by sea. And what may follow 
1592 ' in Scotland, to the stay of this conspiracy by the apprehen- 



sion of the conspirators, is yet doubtful ; the conspirators 
being so great men, and fled to remote parts of the realm, 
and thought to have a secret party, and many more with 
them not yet known. 

13. These dangers are worthy consideration how to pro- 
vide for them : a matter so needful for this parliament, as 
her majesty thinketh it no ways convenient to treat of any 
other, but of such as tend to the means of some remedies 
hereof. 

14. Finally, her majesty cannot overpass to let this assem- 
bly understand, that though they have heretofore, for lesser 
dangers than these are, offered some relief to her majesty 

1 26 towards her charges, yet the same hath been so abused ge- 
nerally through the realm in the tax of the men of wealth, 
that should have given most aid, as if it should be by some 
examples specified of some commons by name in every 
country, to this assembly, how little the men in greatest 
livelihood in countries have yielded, it would seem an ab- 
surd thing for her majesty to receive it with thanks; con- 
sidering with what good words the parliament did grant the 
same. And except such abuses may be remedied, her ma- 
jesty shall account her service to be in words, and not in 
deed ; and so herself abased in her expectation, and the 
realm frustrate in their intentions, and in danger irrepar- 
able. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 177 

ANNO 

Some remarkable letters of sir Walter Raleigh, ,5! ' 2 - 
admiral of the fleet, concerning the great Spa- 
nish carack, richly laden from the East Indies, 
taken by some of his ships. 

This huge carack was called The Mother of God ,• it was 
seven decks high, 165 foot long, and manned with 600 
men. Of which ship, the treasure, and the taking of it, 
Camden, in his Annals of Queen Elizabeth, gives some 
brief account, under anno 1592. 

Number LXXXI. 

Sir Walter Raleigh to the lord treasurer, concerning the 
robbing of the great Spanish carack. Upon sir Robert 
Cecils coming down to examine the matter, Sept. 21, 
1592. 

THE particularities of all done, your lordship shall re- 
ceive from sir Robert Cecil. If the like diligence had been 
used at Plymouth, where the earl [of Cumberland's] ships 
arrived ; at Portsmouth, where the Foresight arrived ; at 
Harwich, where the Dainty arrived, as hath been here, 
their value of the carack would then have resembled itself 
in some sort. But if the earl a were presented of voluntary a Whose 
gift with so many thousands of pearls and diamonds, and en^Jed' the 
these only from such of his men as were abiding in the ca- cara ck. 
rack, what is to be thought of the rest remaining? His 
own ships I leave to your lordship's discretion : and what 
was unpresented was of some account, if it had been re- 
covered. For mercenary men are not so affectionate or re- 
ligious, but that they can, with safe conscience, lick their 
own fingers. 

What will be done hereafter, I know not ; but I dare 
give the queen ten thousand pounds sterling, for that which 
is gained by sir Robert Cecil's coming down ; which I pro- 
test, before the living God, I speak of truth, without all af- 
fection or partiality, (for God is my judge,) he hath more 
rifled my ship than all the rest : and yet she only stayed by 

VOL. IV. N 



178 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO the carack, lost most men, most of all spoiled ; and only re- 
15!}a ' maineth here under commandment. The rest are gone, every 



one his way. And truly, my lord, Cross was most to blame, 
and dealt Lewdly, to leave the carack, and afterwards to steal 
127 from sir Martin [Frobisher]. I have always served him 
to my power ; but his mad behaviour is too insolent in this 
action. Thus with remembrance of my duty I humbly 
take my leave, and remain most ready to do your lordship 
all honour and service. 



W. Ralegh. 



tm 



Number LXXXII. 

Sir Walter Ralegh to the lord treasurer ; to send down a 

commission for examination and inquiry concerning the 

robbing of the carack, Sept. 17, 1592. 

MY humble duty remembered. If it please your lord- 
ship to send us by this bearer a commission, to examine 
upon oath, as well mariners as townsmen, and all strangers 
of other places, what hath been bought or sold, I doubt not 
but we shall find out many things of importance. For the 
earl of Cumberland's, who had the chiefest pillages, arrived 
at Plymouth, and made port-sale of diamonds, rubies, 
musk, ambergris, and all other commodities. And not 
one of the commissioners ever moved or sent thither ; but 
only sacked my ship, which only attended the carack, even 
to the very keelson. The earl's ships, the Dainty, the Dra- 
gon, the Foresight, and the rest, ran from her into several 
ports, and ever sold all ; only my poor men and ship was 
stripped for her good attendance. And if she had forsaken 
the carack, as the rest did, she had been cast away. 

Also, if it please your lordship to send a commission to 
alderman Marten and others, to make inquiry into Lon- 
don, what goldsmiths or jewellers are gone down, and that 
at their return they may be examined upon oath, what 
stones or pearls they have bought ; I doubt not but many 
things will be discovered. If I meet any of them coming 
up, if it be upon the wildest heath in all the way, I mean 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 179 

to strip them as naked as ever they were born. For it is in- ANNO 
finite that her majesty hath been robbed, and that of the 
most rare things. 

Whereas I wrote to your lordship for 2000/. if we load 
the same ships with the goods, we shall not need to pay but 
part, and the rest at London. So as I think one thousand 
will serve. This in haste, I humbly take my leave. From 
Hartelbery, this Sunday morning. 

Your lordship's humbly at commandment, 

W. Ralegh. 

If it please your lordship to send commission to myself, 
sir John Gilbert, sir Francis Drake, Mr. Killigrew, Mr. 
Christopher Harris, and Mr. Payden, the customer, and 
Tristram George, because some other dwell upon Saltashe 
river, and shall be able among their tenants to find out 
other things. 

Number LXXXIII. 1 28 

Sir Walter RaleglCs cause for the carack. Drawn up by 
himself. 

THE account of our whole charge amounteth to 34,000/. 
Her majesty hath given order that we shall receive 36,000/. 
so as there is given to us of profit 2000/. The city of Lon- 
don is to have 6000/. profits by her majesty's order. 

Then are they to have her majesty's allowance of 2000/. 
upon all ; and 4000/. profit more out of our principal. By 
that means we are to lose 4000/. of our money disbursed. 

The help which we have, 3000/. of the queen. And then 
we lose but a 1000/. But of that 3000/. of the queen, 1200/. 
was bestowed on her own ships to make them perfect. 

Then there remaineth 1800/. towards the loss of 4000/. so 
as the loss will be 2200/. In respect whereof we have the 
remains and our ships again. But we are not allowed for 
our ships in this account, as they were worth in adventure, 
but only according to the loss which we sustain by them. 
And that remain is nothing to us ; for we take our ships in 
part of payment. 

n 2 



180 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO The earl of Cumberland is allowed also 36,000/. and his 
____!__ account came but to 19,000/. ; so as he hath 17,000/. profit. 
Who adventured for himself. And we that served the 
queen, and assisted her service, have not our own again. 

Besides, I gave my ships salt and cables to furnish the 
carack and bring her home, or else she had perished. 
My ship first boarded her, and only stayed with her, and 
brought her into harbour; or else she had also perished 
upon Silley. I was not present, and therefore had not ex- 
traordinary profit. I was the cause that all this came to the 
queen ; and that the king of Spain spent 300,000/. the last 
year. And I lost the last year, in the voyage of my lord 
Thomas Howard, 1600/. beside the interest of 11,000/. which 
I have paid ever since this voyage began. And further, my 
ship, and sir John Hawkins, that were takers with the 
Foresight of the queen's, have no other allowance than 
those that were absent. 

And whereas the city only disbursed 6000/. and have 
12,000/. again; the same being taken out of the halls of 
London among a multitude : I that adventured all my 
state, loss of my principal ; and they have double. I took 
all the care and pains ; carried the ships from hence to Fal- 
mouth, and from thence to the north cape of Spain ; and 
they only sat still, and did but disburse 6000/. out of the 
common store ; for which double is given to them, and less 
than mine own to me; and to the earl of Cumberland 
17,000/. profit; who adventured for himself, and I for the 
queen. 

ip 

129 Number LXXXIV. 

Sir Walter Ralegh to the lord treasurer ; concerning the 
carack, worth 200,000/. How much thereof came to the 

queen's share. Noiv wider restraint. Dated Sept. , 

1592. 

SIR GEORGE CAREW hath dealt with me, to know in 
particular how her majesty might be profited by the carique, 
according to the offer I made. Mv promise was not to buv 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 181 

my bondage, but my liberty. And I hope of her majesty's ANNO 

favour Before I heard of the taking of the carack, I 1592 ' 

thought not worth the labour [to compute the account of 
the voyage.] And myself being the greatest adventurer, I 
was contented rather to smother my loss, than labour to 
publish an hopeless overthrown estate, &c. 

Briefly, of 5000 ton of shipping, her majesty hath but 

1100 Of 18,000/. in money, her majesty hath but 1500/. 

for the other 1500/. was employed on her two ships, as by 
sir John Hawkins's account will appear. To conclude, her 
majesty's adventure will come but to the tenth part. Which 
of 200,000/. (such I think is the value of the carack) her 
majesty's part will be 20,000/. And I know her majesty 
will not take the right of her subjects from them, contrary 
to her hand and seal ; in consideration, that for her service 
sake, and the rather for your lordship's persuasion, they 
were contented to adventure. 

And this is not the last time that her majesty shall need 
their contribution. If her majesty had set out the journey 
of her own charge, it would have cost her 40,000/. And now 
it stood her but in 1500/. besides her two ships. Instead of 
this 20,000/. if I had made it 100,000/-. and done injury to 
none but myself, I hope it may be thought that it pro- 
ceeded from a faithful mind, and a true desire to serve her. 
Fourscore thousand pounds is more than ever a man pre- 
sented her majesty as yet. If God have sent it for my ran- 
som, I hope her majesty, of her abundant goodness, will ac- 
cept it. If I speak with the least, I greater sum, I greater 
sum will be more thankworthy. If my imprisonment or 
my life might do her majesty more good, I protest, before 
God, I would never desire either liberty or further respite 
of breathing. 

And if her majesty cannot beat me from my affection, I 
hope her sweet nature will think it no conquest to afflict me. 
What her will shall be, I shall willingly obey. And so I 
humbly take my leave of your lordship. From this un- 
savoury dungeon this of Septemb. 

n 3 



182 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
ANNO Number LXXXV. 

1592. 

Sir Walter Ralegh to the lord treasurer. His advice for 

the division of the treasury of the carack. Sept. 16, 
1592. 
130 BY your lordship's great favour, I have obtained liberty 
to ride down. I hope it shall be profitable for her majesty, 

and a quietness and satisfaction to the rest Present 

payment must be made the ships, that they come not under 

further charge The way to profit her majesty's cause 

be in this wise. To take a fifth part of her custom. Se- 
condly, a tenth part or more for her particular adventure. 
And next, and chiefly, I will put the third part of all into 
her hands for the mariners : which I did undertake to pay ; 
and of right belongeth unto myself: which will amount to 

the one half of the carack I did bind myself to all the 

ships'" company to pay them. Which indeed I did ; and 

confessed to sir Robert Cecil, while I was a prisoner I 

will aver, that I undertook on us, in the name and right, 
who had promised me to save me harmless ; hoping of her 
majesty's goodness otherwise. For I protest before the liv- 
ing God, both my three years' pension of the Custom- 
house, which was 6000?. and all I have besides is in this 

journey All the wages of the seamen will not amount 

to 6000/. For that the third, I doubt not, but will be three- 
score thousand. 

Number LXXXVI. 

Henry earl of Darby to the lords of' the privy-council ; con- 
cerning- the papists in Lancashire ; and direction for 
dealing with them. Bell a seminary's informations. 

May it please your lordships, 
SINCE I despatched Bell, the seminary, I have well 
considered of that he revealed. And forasmuch as by 
mine own experience and knowledge of the party, I con- 
ceive that many of his informations be true; and that a 
number of these whom he chargeth are either known pa- 
pists to the world, or at the best temporizers, keeping in 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 183 

their houses those that are badly given; I have thought ANNO 

meet hereby to signify that my opinion to your lordships, 

and to let you know, that in hope of your like conception 
of the information, I still expecting some round direction of 
proceedings from your lordships, have forborne hitherto to 
deal much against the papists; on purpose only to draw 
them into a doubtless and secure mind of troubles ; to the 
end I might, upon a sudden receipt of your lordship's direc- 
tion, perform a better piece of service than I should, if I 
had stirred much in this mean time. For in vain it were to 
have attempted any matter or service of importment im- 
mediately upon Bell's sending up. 

Nevertheless, forasmuch as your lordships see by our last 
certificate the great relapse of the people into blindness, 
and neglect of their duties towards God and her majesty ; 
which cometh to pass only by means of the backwardness 
and deep dissimulation of the principals, whom the meaner 
sort follow. And thus you perceive Avell by Bell's informa- 
tion the inclination of sundry of calling. As also that those 131 
that stand out as recusants do shift and convey themselves 
away ; so as they cannot be met withal. 

I will spare to trouble your lordships with mine opinion 
of mine own, but leave all to your grave considerations : 
nothing doubting but your lordships will devise such re- 
medies for the suppressing of these enormities, and pre- 
sumptions of continuance of lenity, as shall stand with 
God's laws, the safety of her majesty, and the quiet of the 
whole commonwealth. Praying also your lordships to cre- 
dit this gentleman, Mr. Fleetwood, parson of Weegan, a 
discreet and painful labourer in the church of God ; who 
can truly make known unto your lordships upon demand 
the state of this country, and private affection of the most 
persons of account. And so commending your lordships 
and your labours to the direction of God's holy Spirit, do 
end. 

Your lordship's assured loving friend, 
New-Park, my house, this and at commandment, 

30th of Octob. 1592. H. Derby, 

>i 4 



ANNO 

1592. 



184 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

Number LXXXVII. 
' The earl of Derby to sir Tho. Heneage, vice-chamberlain, 
and chancellor of the duchy. With a copy of the former 
letter to the council enclosed. The bearer, Mr. Fleetwood, 
parson of Wigan. Papists, temporizers many. 

Sir, 
ALBEIT I well know my letter to your lordships will 
come to your hand, yet to the end you may be the better 
armed to further my intent, which is to have the presump- 
tion of public and secret papists, being temporizers, sup- 
pressed, here enclosed to send you a copy thereof; being 
well assured, that answerable to the hope of all well given 
subjects in these parts, you will effectually further the good 
of the church, and the suppression of the maligners thereof. 
For any particulars touching that sort of this county, this 
bearer, Mr. Fleetwood, parson of Weegan, a discreet and 
learned preacher, can inform you truly, whom you may be- 
lieve. And so with my heartiest commendations do end ; 
wishing to you as to myself. 

Your assured loving friend, 
New-Park, my house, the always faithfully to use, 

30th of Oct. 1592. H. Darby. 



Number LXXXVIII. 
The earl of Darby to the lord treasurer ; that upon the 
directions of the lords he was in prosecution of the recu- 
sants. 
132 My ver y honourable good lord, 

WHAT success your lordship's very grave directions 
(which I assure your lordship have much revived and com- 
forted all well given subjects here) have taken will appear 
by my letter to your lordship, and Mr. Wand's reports ; 
who, having been an eyewitness of all proceedings, hath 
carried himself very discreetly, and with great diligence in 
this service. The which, although it hath been hindered by 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 185 

such means as are set down in my letter, yet within a short ANNO 
time, and upon the sudden, when all things be quieted, I 1592 ; 
hope will appear to effect some good service in the appre- 
hending of Jesuits, seminaries, and such like traitorous 
persons. The rather by intelligence and help of those whose 
appearance there is dispensed withal for a time for good 
purpose ; who by bond and oath (dwelling in corrupt places) 
have undertaken to discover them. 

And so nothing doubting but your lordship will further 
the continuance of these well begun proceedings, I do com- 
mit your good lordship and your labours to the direction 
of God's holy Spirit. 

Your lordship's assured loving friend, 
New-Park, my house, the always faithfully to use, 

27th of Novemb. 1592. H. Derby. 



Number LXXXIX. 

Friar Robert Southwel, a dangerous conspirator, taken. 
Richard Topcliff writ to the queen a letter in June con- 
cerning him,, and his taking and keeping ; and concern- 
ing Anth. Coppley. 

I HAVE him here within my strong chamber in West- 
minster churchyard, [i. e. the Gate-house.] I have made him 
assured for starting or hurting of himself, by putting upon 
his arms a pair of : and there, and so to keep 

him either from view or conference with any but Nicolas, 
the under-keeper of the Gate-house, and my boy ; Nicolas 
being the man that caused me to take him. 

He sent an examination of him to the queen, faithfully 
taken, and of him foully and suspiciously answered ; and for 
what : knowing the nature and doings of the man, may it 
please your majesty to see my simple opinion, constrained 
in duty to utter it. 

Upon this present taking of him, it is good forthwith to 
enforce him to answer truly and directly ; and so to prove 
his answers true in haste ; to the end that such as be deeply 



186 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO concerned in his treachery may not have time to start, or 
92 ' make shift to use any means in common prisons ; either to 



stand upon or against the wall, (which above all things ex- 
ceedeth, and hurtetb not,) will give warning. But if your 
133 highness'' pleasure be to know any thing in his heart, to 
stand against the wall, his feet standing upon the ground, 
and his hands but as high as he can reach against the wall, 
(like a trick at Trenshemarm,) will enforce him to tell all; 
and the truth proved by the sequel. 1. The answer of him 
to the question of the countess of Arundel. And, 2. That 
of father Parsons deciphereth him. 

It may please your majesty to consider, I never did take 
so weighty a man, if he be rightly considered. 

Young Anthony Copley, the most desperate youth that 
liveth, and some others, be most familiar with South wel. 
Copley did shoot at a gentleman the last summer, and 
killed an ox with a musket. And in Horsham church 
threw his dagger at the parish clerk, and struck it in a seat 
in the church. There liveth not the like, I think, in Eng- 
land for sudden attempts ; nor one upon whom I have good 
grounds to have watchful eyes, for his sister Gage's and his 
brother-in-law Gage's sakes. Of whose pardon he boasteth 
he is well assured. 

And so humbly submitting myself to your majesty's di- 
rection in this, or in any service with any hazard, I cease 
until I have your pleasure. Here at Westminster with my 
charge and ghostly father, this Monday the 22d of June, 
1592. 

Your majesty's faithful servant, 

Rye. Topclyff. 

Number XC. 

An inscription upon the coffin of Roger Rippon, a Bar- 
rozcist, who died in Newgate this year, 1592. 
THIS is the corps of Roger Rippon, a servant of Christ, 
and her majesty's faithful .subject. Who is the last of six- 
teen or seventeen, which that great enemy of God, the arch- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 187 

bishop of Canterbury, with his high commissioners, have ANNO 
murdered in Newgate within these five years, manifestly 1592, 
for the testimony of Jesus Christ. His soul is now with the 
Lord ; and his blood crieth for speedy vengeance against 
that great enemy of the saints, and against Mr. Richard 
Young, [a justice of peace in London.] Who in this, and 
many the like points, hath abused his power, for the uphold- 
ing of the Romish Antichrist, prelacy and priesthood. 
Many copies were taken of this libel and shewed about. 



Number XCI. 

Francis Johnson, a Brownist, in prison, his letter to the Anno 1593, 
lord treasurer, Jan. 18, 1593. with a paper of certain 
reasons enclosed ; upon his being' to be indicted. 

ALTHOUGH when I last presumed to write unto you, 134 
right honourable, I thought then no more to trouble your 
lordship with my letters ; yet now of late hearing that if 
the session had holden at Newgate the beginning of the last 
month, as was appointed, two of us (which are falsely called 
Brownists) were to be indicted, I have once again made 
bold to write these few lines unto your lordship ; and here- 
withal to send included two reasons, by which it is proved, 
that we are not within danger of the statute of the 35th of 
Eliz. chap. 1. whereupon we have thought they would in- 
dict us ; much less of the statute of the 23d Eliz. chap. 2. 
as I doubt not but your lordship evidently perceived by 
the reasons which that faithful witness of Jesus Christ, 
John Penry, sent unto your honour touching that matter 
in his lifetime. With this therefore I thought not needful 
to trouble your lordship again at that time. 

Who they be that are indicted, we cannot learn. The 
two that are indicted, one of the commissioners openly Mr. Wroth, 
spake it, when he sat with others at Westminster, the 5th 
of the last month. At which time also a preacher, one of 
us, being called thither: and upon their speeches and de- Mr- Smith. 



188 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO mands, answering, that he marvelled, who hath been above 
1 5-93 ' eleven months prisoner, they should deal with men by im- 



And is yet prisonmcnt, and other rigorous means, in matters of re- 
in the Mar- Jjorion and conscience, rather than by more Christian and 

shalsea. ° . J 

fit proceedings; protesting unto them, that he should but 
dissemble with them, and play the hypocrite, if he should, 
to please them, or to avoid trouble, submit to go to church, 
and to join with the public ministry of those assemblies, as 
it now standeth ; he being persuaded in conscience that it 
was utterly unlawful. The aforesaid commissioner said to 
him again, Come to the church, and obey the queen 1 s laws, 
and be a dissembler, be a hypocrite, or a devil, if thou wilt. 
Pardon my boldness in mentioning this, I beseech your 
lordship : for their unchristian and heathenish speeches to 
us, and usage of us, force me unto it. 

Mr. Justice Young also (who among the rest of the com- 
missioners that usually sit with him, seems to carry matters 
as plcaseth him) will neither alone, nor with the rest, (when 
suit is made unto him,) suffer some of us so much as to 
have the liberty of the prisons (where we are.) Insomuch 
as my brother, called George Johnson, hath now been de- 
tained about eleven months, and myself about fourteen 
months, in several close prisons : he in a noisome chamber 
of the common gaol of the Fleet, and myself in the Clink. 
Yea, when our poor old father, this bearer, sued to him 
but for liberty of the prison. For as he, with the dean of 
Westminster, would have sent him to prison, had not Air. 
justice Barnes stayed them. He sent also, in her majesty^ 
and your honour's names, to take away my papers and 
books, as I wrote to your lordship heretofore; and still de- 
taineth some of my books, although they be allowed by 
public authority, and all my papers ; which albeit for the 
most part they be against the prelacy and other clergy of 
this land, yet are not any way within danger of the statute, 
as your lordship may see by the reasons included. Yet it 
135 may be they will pretend something (though never so un- 
just) out of them against me, as they have dealt with my 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 189 

brethren already ; whom they have killed ; and now can do ANNO 
no more to them. Otherwise I cannot imagine whereon 1S9S - 
they will indict me, unless it be for sending to your lord- 
ship six books ; (touching the Hauns ships which came to 
Middleborough while I was there, about three months 
since ;) that is, for doing the duty of a loyal subject. 

For indeed I remember, that when Mr. Barrow and the 
rest of us were examined the last Lent, I was asked, Whe- 
ther I had ever seen [any] of those books ? Whereunto I 
answered, That being at Middleborough, one Mr. Ferrers, 
then the deputy of the merchant-adventurers there, shewed 
me one of them. And because he understood not the Latin 
tongue, desired me to look upon it. Which when I had 
done, perceiving it to be written against this land, and he 
telling me that six of them came to that town, I wished 
him to buy them all up, and to send them with all speed to 
your lordship ; which he accordingly did, and caused them 
to be delivered to your honour, (as I take it,) either by Mr. 
Saltonstal, alderman of this city, and governor of the com- 
pany of merchants aforesaid, or by some others of his ap- 
pointment. Your lordship may think it strange, that ever 
we should suspect them to be so unreasonable and wickedly 
minded, as to trouble us for these things, wherein we have 
done the duty of good and faithful subjects. But, my lord, 
we have found such unchristian usage at their hands, and 
perceived their hearts so to thirst after our blood, as if they 
were not restrained, partly for fear of her majesty and your 
honours, partly for shame of the world, and chiefly by the 
mighty and overruling hand of God, we might justly fear 
they would bring as much innocent blood upon this land 
at this day, as ever Arundel, Gandymer, Stokesly, Boner, 
Story, Dunning, or any such like bloodsuckers have done 
heretofore. 

Now the scripture saith, [Numbers xxxv. 33.] that blood 
defileth the land ; and that the Lord, when he maketh in- 
quisition for blood, [Psalm ix. 12.] remembereth it. There- 
fore it behoveth your lordship, for the love which you bear 



190 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO to this land, to her majesty, to yourself, and to your poste- 
1593 ' rity, to be a means (according to the authority God hath 



given you) in time to stay their wicked and bloodthirsty pur- 
poses: lest otherwise our blood and God's curse be upon 
you and yours ; because you have not holpen the Lord 
against the mighty, as it is written, [Judg. v. 23.] 

I know, right honourable, that if you look at our per- 
sons, we are a people despised and reviled of all men ; yea, 
every where spoken against, as schismatics, seditious persons, 
subverters of the state, and what not. But this (alas !) hath 
been the lot of the truth, and servants of God ; [2 Tim. iii. 
12. Acts xxviii. 22. Acts and Monuments every where.] 
yea, of the prophets, [Jer. xxxviii. 4. Matt. v. 11, 12.] 
apostles, [Acts xvii. 6, 7. and xxiv. 5, 6.] and of Christ 
himself, [Luke xxiii. 2. John xix. 12.] thus to be railed 
upon, and persecuted for the truth's sake; and commonly 
under other colour and pretence. 

Therefore are we not ashamed of the gospel and suffer- 
ings of Christ: neither ought your lordship to withhold 
136 your help from us, inasmuch as we suffer these things 
only for refusing to have spiritual communion with the An- 
tichristian prelacy, and other clergy abiding in this land ; 
and for labouring, in all holy and peaceable manner, to obey 
the Lord Jesus Christ in his own ordinance of ministry and 
worship, prescribed in his last testament, and sealed with 
his precious blood. Wherein if we did err, yet prisons and 
gallows were no fit means to convince and persuade our 
consciences ; but rather a quiet and godly conference, or 
discussing of the matter by deliberate writing before equal 
judges. Which we have often sued for, but yet could never 
obtain it. 

And now again therefore do in all humble manner sue 
to your lordship to procure it for us ; not that we doubt of 
this cause, whereof we are fully persuaded by the word of 
God, and are still ready, by the grace of God, to seal it 
with our blood ; but to the end that, the truth being found 
out, and made manifest, the false offices, callings, and works 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 191 

of the prelacy, and other clergy of this land, might be quite ANNO 
abolished out of it; and their lordships and possessions 1593 ' 
(which so long as they are the maintenance of this false 
ministry, were fitly of old, by the lord Cobham, that blessed Acts and 
martyr, said to be the venom of Judas shed into the m °°^' 
church) might be converted to her majesty's civil uses; (to ec]it -. 4 - 
whom of right they belong ;) as were, not long since, the like p . 562. 
livings of the abbots, monks, and friars in these dominions ; 
that thus there might be more free passage to the gospel of 
Christ, and more peace to the church. So as no more in- 
nocent blood might be brought upon this land ; but God 
might be worshipped in peace, according to his word ; and 
her majesty obeyed, not for wrath only, but also for con- 
science sake. 

And of these things we are bold to write to your lord- 
ship, being persuaded, that it is high time for your ho- 
nours with speed to consider hereof: especially now, that 
the Lord hath already begun to plead against this country 
and people by so contagious and deadly a plague, as in 
wonderful manner hath been brought upon this land and 
inhabitants thereof, since the shedding of the blood of those 
faithful servants of Christ this year last past 3 . And con- a p en ry, 
sidering also, that her maiesty, as we hear, in a gracious Banow ' 

, . j „ ,. - & and Green- 

and tender compassion of our distressed estate, hath given wood, 
commission to discharge us all. None of which things seem 
to be regarded of our adversaries ; at least not so as they 
ought. 

Unto your lordship therefore I am bold, in the name also 
of my brethren, once again to make this complaint: hum- 
bly praying your good honour to shew that love unto 
Christ [Matt. xxv. 34, 35, &c] at this time in us, his poor 
afflicted children, which he requireth at your hands, ac- 
counted as done or denied unto himself; and therefore will 
accordingly recompense in that great day. 

And thus in all humble manner craving pardon for this 
boldness, I betake your lordship to the protection of the Al- 
mighty; praying him still to lengthen your life in this 
world, to the praise of his name, and furthering of the 



192 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO truth; and to give you everlasting life in the world to 
1 5!>3 - come, to your endless comfort by Jesus Christ. Amen. 
Your honour's most humble suppliant, 

Francis Johnson, 
From the Clink Pastor of this poor distressed church; 

Jan 8 1593. an ^ st ^ m c ^ ose prison for the gos- 

pel of Jesus Christ. 



137 Number XCII. 

Francis Johnson's paper, enclosed in the letter before, had 
this title. " That F. J. for his writings, is not under 
" the danger of the statute of 35 Eliz. ca. 1. made to re- 
" tain the queeii's subjects in their due obedience, ap- 
" peareth thus.'''' 

FIRST, By comparing together the words of this statute 
with the statute of the 1 Eliz. 1. wherein her majesty's au- 
thority in ecclesiastical causes is declared ; and with the in- 
terpretation and defence thereof allowed by public au- 
thority. 

2. It will appear that he is not within the danger of the 
statute aforesaid, by demanding this question of the pre- 
lates and ministers : to wit ; whether her majesty, with the 
consent of the parliament, may suppress and abolish this 
present prelacy and ministry of the land, and transfer their 
revenues and possessions to her own civil uses, as her fa- 
ther, of famous memory, Henry VIII. did with abbots, 
monks, &c. and with their livings. 

3. His writings are only in defence of such doctrines of 
the religion of Christ, as being against the canonical func- 
tion of the pope, were accounted Lollardy and heresy in the 
holy servants and martyrs of Christ in former days. As for 
example, John Wickliff held, that archbishops, bishops, 
archdeacons, officials, deans, were disciples of Antichrist. 
Acts and Monum. 4 edit. vol. i. p. 450. 

4. Seeing his writings are only in maintenance of such 
points of religion as were in the aforesaid martyr accounted 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 193 

Lollardy and heresy, then would follow, that this statute ANNO 
reviveth those three statutes of the 5 Rich. II. cap. 5. and l ™*' 
2 Hen. IV. cap. 15. and 2 Hen. V. cap. 7. and that of 25 
Hen. VIII. cap. 14. and that also it repealed the statute 
1 Edw. VI. cap. 12. 

5. If this statute of 35 Eliz. be against such writings and 
books as reprove the ecclesiastical ministry and government 
of archbishops, bishops, archdeacons, deans, &c. then the 
writing and printing of the public confessions of the re- 
formed churches of Helvetia, Tigur, Geneva, ShafFhuse, 
&c. wherein they write, that as touching arch -prelates, me- 
tropolitans, arch-priests, deans, sub-deans, and all that rab- 
ble, they pass not a rush. And the public confessions of 
the reformed French and Belgick churches : which write, 
that the church ought to be governed by that regiment or 
discipline which Christ hath appointed ; to wit, so that there 
be in it pastor, elders, and deacons. 

6. In his writings he hath proved his assertions by the 
word of God, which her majesty protesteth and defendeth, 
&c. 

7. His writings are in defence of the right and liberty of 
the church of Christ ; which the great charter of England 
granteth shall be free, and have all her whole rights and li- 
berty inviolable, &c. 

8. If every persuasion, not to have spiritual communion 138 
with the ministry of these assemblies, be within danger of 
this statute, as tending to impugn her majesty's authority 

in ecclesiastical causes, then if any should persuade another 
quite to forsake the aforesaid ministry, and to join himself 
altogether to the French, Dutch, or Italian churches, al- 
lowed by her majesty in London, Norwich, Sandwich, &c. 
he should also incur the penalty of this statute. 

9. He never maliciously persuaded any to abstain from 
the church, &c. much less to the end and purpose that they 
should deny, withstand, or impugn her majesty's authority 
in causes ecclesiastical, &c. 

10. He never did, nor doth obstinately, without lawful 
cause, but upon conscience, grounded upon God's word, 

VOL. iv. o 



194 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO and approved by consent of the confessions of the reformed 
* churches. &c. and of the faithful servants and martyrs of 
Christ, &c. refuse to hear, and to have spiritual commu- 
nion with the public ministry of these assemblies, as now 
it standeth. 

Finally, These things standing thus, as is aforesaid, and 
he having been close prisoner ever since a long time before 
this statute of 35 Eliz. was made, he cannot, in regard of 
his writings, or any other thing whatsoever, be lawfully 
convicted to have offended against this statute. And there- 
fore is not under the danger thereof. 



Number XCIII. 

Some books printed and set forth this year, 1593, against 
the new disciplinarian model of church government. 

DANGEROUS positions and proceedings, published 
and practised within this island of Britain, under pretence 
of reformation. Which was printed by John Wolf, 1593. 
The author was Dr. Bancroft; not long after bishop of 
London ; and removed, after archbishop Whitgift's death, 
to Canterbury. In his advertisement to the reader, he 
writes, that the author was required by some persons of 
honour, [Hatton, as it seems, lord chancellor, and the arch- 
bishop,] who might dispose of him and his labours, to set 
down, by way of an historical narration, what he had ob- 
served touching certain positions holden, and some enter- 
prises achieved or undertaken, for recommending and bring- 
ing the presbyterian discipline into this island of Britain, 
under pretence of reformation. 

A survey of the pretended holy discipline. Containing 
the beginnings, successes, parts, proceedings, authority, and 
doctrine of it : with some of the manifold and material re- 
pugnancies, varieties, and uncertainties in that behalf: faith- 
fully gathered, by way of historical narration, out of the 
books and writings of principal favourers of that platform. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 195 

This was writ by the same author, printed the same year, ANNO 



1 .\93. 



and by the same printer. 

Thomas Bilson, D. D. warden of Winchester college, set 13Q 
forth another book this year, entitled, 

The perpetual government of Chris fs church. Designed 
to confute the new discipline of the government of the church 
by a presbytery of pastors and lay elders. 

And as the former books of Bancroft were historical, so 
this of Bilson was argumentative : to disprove the reasons 
and arguments that these disciplinarians used to establish 
their discipline. The whole title ran in these words : 

" The perpetual government of Chrisfs church. Where- 
" in are handled the fatherly superiority which God first 
" established in the patriarchs for the guiding of his church; 
" and after continued in the tribe of Levi and the pro- 
" phets ; and, lastly, confirmed in the New Testament to 
" the apostles and their successors. And also the points in 
" question at this day touching the Jewish synedrion : the 
" true kingdom of Christ : the apostles' commission : the 
" lay presbytery : the distinction of bishops from presby- 
" ters ; and their succession from the apostles'' times and 
" hands : the calling and moderating of provincial synods 
" by primates and metropolitans: the allotting of dioceses: 
" and the popular electing of such as must feed and watch 
" the flock : and divers other points concerning the pastoral 

" regiment of the house of God, perused and allowed 

" by public authority. Printed by the deputies of Chr. 
" Barker, printer to the queen's most excellent majesty.' 1 

In the epistle to the reader, he shewed the reasons of his 
undertaking this controversy : viz. " That when he saw the 
" peace of God's church violated by the sharpness of some 
" men's humours, and their tongues so intemperate that 
" they could not be discerned from open enemies, he 
" thought, as in a common danger, not to sit looking till 
" all were on fire, but rather by all means to try what kind 
" of liquor would restinguish this flame." Another reason 
leading him to this enterprise, " was the discharge of his 
" duty to God and her majesty." For finding that some 

o 2 



196 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO broached their disciplinary devices under title of God's 
1593- eternal truth, and professed they could no more forsake the 
defence thereof than of the Christian faith ; and others de- 
faced and reproached the government of the church here 
received and established, as unlawful, irreligious, and anti- 
christian : he was moved in conscience not to suffer the 
sacred scriptures to be so violently arrested and overruled 
by the summons and censures of their new consistories ; as 
also to clear the state of that injurious slander : as if, not 
knowing or neglecting the manifest voice of Christ 1 s Spirit, 
we had entertained and preferred the dregs of Antichrist's 
pride and tyranny. And that these causes, of great and 
good regard, led him to examine the chief grounds of both 
disciplines, theirs and ours ; and to peruse the proofs and 
authorities of their part. That, by comparing, it might ap- 
pear which side came nearest to the sincerity of the scrip- 
140tures, and society of the ancient and uncorrupt church of 
Christ : the main supporters of their new devised discipline 
being the general equality of all pastors and teachers, and 
the joining of lay elders with them, to make up the presby- 
tery that shall govern the church. 

In this year 1593 came forth also another book for ec- 
clesiastical courts ; written by some learned civilian, (Dr. 
Cosins, as it seems,) in favour of another matter in the 
church, clamoured against; namely, the ecclesiastical courts, 
and the proceedings in them. It was entitled, 

" An apology for sundry proceeding's by Jurisdiction ec- 
" cles'iastical ; of late times by some challenged ; and also 
" diversly by them impugned. By which apology, (as it 
" followed,) all the reasons and allegations set down, as 
" well in a treatise as in certain notes that go from hand 
" to hand, both against proceeding i\v officio, and against 
" oaths ministered to parties in causes criminal, are also ex- 
" amined and answered ; and upon that occasion lately re- 
" vived and much enlarged, above the first private project; 
" and now published, being divided into three parts. The 
" first part chiefly sheweth what matters be incident to ec- 
" clesiastical cognizance: and so allowed bv statutes and 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 197 

" the common laws. The second treateth of the two ways ANNO 
" of proceeding in causes criminal ; viz. by way of accusa- 1593 ' 
" tion, and ex officio judicis. The third, concerning oaths 
" in general ; but more especially the lawfulness of such as 
" be ministered touching supposed offences, either of them- 
" selves that swear, or of their brethren." 



Number XCIV. 

Two Muds of schismatics, and the danger of their opinions, 
either directly or by necessary consequence gathered to 
be holden by those who urge a new church government, 
commonly called puritans. These be of two sorts. First, 
some that will communicate zvith us in prayers, sermons, 
and sacraments. Secondly, others that will not. The 
first sort hold opinions dangerous ; first, to her majesty 
and the crown ,• or, secondly, to the state, and to the po- 
licy of the realm. This paper seems to have been drawn 
up by the lord keeper Puckring, to be produced against 
them in the Star-chamber, after their examination before 
him. 

THE opinions especially touching her majesty and the 
crown, are either against, first, the revenues of the crown ; 
or, secondly, her highness"^ prerogative aad supremacy; or, 
thirdly, the prince's safety in the kingdom. 

Their opinion against the revenues of the crown. That 141 
the detaining of the possessions of religious houses and im- 
propriations (being given once to the church) is sacrilege, 
and ought to be restored to the church again : that the mi- 
nisters and others of the ecclesiastical function ought to be 
exempt from paying first-fruits, tenths, subsidies, and other 
impositions ; like as the priests of Egypt were, even under 
a heathen king. 

Their opinion against the prerogative and supremacy. 
They take away all gifts of bishoprics and deaneries from 
her majesty, by dissolving them. They take away all pa- 
tronages from her majesty and others, and her highncss's 

o3 



198 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO patronage paramount for benefices lapsed: for they make 
all ecclesiastical functions merely elective by the people, or 
their elderships. 

When the supremacy was justly restored to the crown, 
one chief super-eminency was, that the last appellation in 
all ecclesiastical causes was to be made to the king in the 
chancery. This they take away. For they make the appel- 
lation from an eldership consistory to a colloquy or con- 
ference : from thence to a provincial synod : and lastly to a 
national ; and that to be final. 

They deny the prince's authority in making laws ecclesi- 
astical ; which they do attribute to their synods. No, not 
so much as to prescribe what apparel the minister should 
wear: which, they say, cannot be done without injury to 
the minister. And that the church, nor no man else, may 
restrain the people from bodily labour in any of the six 
days. 

Though in words they will not deny the oath of su- 
premacy, yet in very truth they take it away. For they 
say, she is supreme governor over all persons and all causes 
ecclesiastical, but not [in causes ecclesiastical.] For they 
attribute no more to her, but to establish their discipline at 
the first, and to defend them from time to time in the ex- 
ecution of it. Which is nuda potestas Jucti, et non juris: 
an authority attributed by the papists unto their princes. 

That her majesty, being a child of the church, is subject 
to the censures of excommunication by their eldership, as 
well as any other people. And that no man ought to aid, 
comfort, salute, or obey an excommunicate person. And 
that so long as one is excommunicated he cannot exercise 
his magistracy. 

That all persons, as well as meaner persons, must will- 
ingly be ruled and governed, and must obey those whom 
God hath set over them ; that is, the just authority of ec- 
clesiastical magistrates ; and must lick the dust of the feet 
of the church. 

That the elderships and synods are to call and proclaim 
public fasts. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 199 

That the prince ought to give leave at the first to the ANNO 
churches to call their synods from time to time, as they see 1593, 
cause. 

That if the prince without God's warrant will enter in, in- 
termeddle with the church, as Gideon, and Nadab, Abihu, 
Uzza, Uzziah, and Saul did, he must think it none injury 
to be disobeyed. 

That we are not bound to obey the prince's law for con- 
science sake, because only God's laws do bind men's con- 
sciences. 

That the prince may not nominate to the people an ec- 142 
clesiastical person to be chosen. That the prince must take 
heed that he pass no weighty matter of the commonwealth, 
without the assembly of all the estates of the land. Where- 
by he is barred from treating and capitulating, either for 
war, peace, or league, with any other prince, without mak- 
ing the parliament privy to it. 

That every governor of a commonwealth ought in duty 
to appoint a successor, according to the laws of the land, 
before his death. 

The late libeller, Martin, wisheth that our parliament 
would bring in reformation, and put down lord bishops, 
with all other points of superstition, being for the good of 
the commonwealth ; though it be by withstanding the pro- 
ceedings of their sovereign. That our church-government 
is an unlawful church-government, though her majesty and 
the state allow of it. It is a false government, not prescribed 
by the word. 

That the offices of this church of England are invented 
by the magistrate, and so no members of Christ's body. 
That she doth injure the church, to keep the true officers 
out. That she maimeth and deformeth the body of Christ. 
That every Christian magistrate is bound to receive this 
government by pastors, doctors, elders, and deacons, into 
the church within his dominions, whatsoever inconvenience 
may be like to follow the receiving of it. That those who 
withstand it, hold it to be lawful for her majesty and the 

o 4 



200 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO state to bid God to battle against them; and that they 
'__ make our prince and governor wage war against God. 

That these four officers are now the only true members, 
that is, the only true officers of the visible body of Christ. 
So that her majesty, nor any other but these, is a true 
officer or member in the visible body of the church, by this 
assertion. 

That the highest ecclesiastical authority in all matters of 
the church is belonging to their eldership. 

Against her majesty's safety in the kingdom. 

That the government of the church is aristoeratical, or 
popular : and that the government of the commonwealth 
must be framed according to the government of the church; 
even as the hangings to the church. 

Among the Lacedemonians there were certain magistrates, 
called ephori, which had authority to depose their kings. 
They now make such magistrates to be God's ordinance in 
every monarchy, to put a king down, if lie be thought 
by them to be a tyrant: and do think it lawful and be- 
hooveful, even in a kingdom inheritable, for such magistrates, 
or the assembly of the estates, to depose the king, if he 
shall be thought by them to have broken all or the chief 
covenants that he made at his inauguration in that common- 
wealth. 

Against the state and policy of the realm. 

That baptism is to be administered to no known papist's 
children; to none excommunicate person's children; and 
to none but to their children that be within the church. 
143 These they expound to be those that submit themselves to 
their order of discipline. So that all others shall be ac- 
counted as out of God's covenant, and no true Christians. 

That the judicial law of Moses, for punishing divers sins 
by death, is in force, and ought to be observed in every 
commonwealth, as commanded by God. And therefore that 
no prince nor law can or ought to save the lives of wilful 
offenders, not offending by ignorance only; nor of blas- 
phemers of God's Dame; nor of conjurers, soothsayers, per- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 201 

sons possessed with an evil spirit; heretics, perjured per- ANNO 
sons, wilful breakers of the sabbath-day, neglecters of the j ° 93 ' 
sacraments without just reason; disobedient to parents, or 
that curse them ; incestuous persons ; a daughter commit- 
ting fornication in her father's house ; adulterers ; all incon- 
tinent persons, saving single fornicators; and all conspirators 
against any man's life. 

That lex taUonis, that is, an eye for an eye, a hand for a 
hand, &c. ought to be observed of necessity in every com- 
monwealth. That all matters arising in their several limits, 
(though they be mere civil and temporal,) if there may 
happen to be breach of charity, or wrong be offered by one 
unto another, may and ought to be composed by the elder- 
ship. And he that shall refuse to be ordered is to be ex- 
communicated. 

That not only the state ecclesiastical, being one of the 
three in parliament, may, but also ought to be cut off. And 
so laws to be made by the lords temporal and commons 
only : one of the other like essential members being wholly 
taken away. And to this purpose it is said, that all the laws 
of England were made in the first year of the queen's reign, 
when there was never a bishop in the parliament. Martin, 
in his last book. 

That it is unlawful for any state to tolerate the present 
government ecclesiastical. That it is false, unlawful, bas- 
tardly, unchristian. That none can be a good and sound 
subject that defends it. That they are traitors to God and 
his word that so do. That they are all enemies to her ma- 
jesty and the land. That they are to answer for the blood 
which the Spaniard or any other enemies are like to spill. 
That they bring in hazard her majesty's life, and the pros- 
perity of the whole kingdom, and are the greatest enemies 
it hath. That her majesty and her people are seduced out 
of the right way. 

That ministers of duty not only may, but ought to 
determine and decree of all, both civil and ecclesiastical 
causes, though not of the very fact, as civil magistrates do ; 



202 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO yet touching the right, and what the law is: for that thereof 
__ they are appointed of God to be administrators. 



The second sort of puritans, now called Barrozcists. 

They do hold all the former positions. And, besides, they 
also hold these errors following : 

1. That it is not lawful to use the Lord's Prayer pub- 
licly in the church for a set form of prayer. 2. That all set 
and stinted prayers are mere babbling in the sight of the 
Lord, and not to be used in public Christian assemblies. 
144 3. That the public prayers and worship of God in England, 
as it is by law in the church of England established, is 
false, superstitious, popish, and not to be used in any 
Christian congregation. 4. That the church of England, as 
it is now established, is no true member of the church of 
Christ. 5. That the government of the church of Eng- 
land, as it is now established, is no lawful government, nor 
Christian, but antichristian and popish. 6. That the sa- 
craments of baptism and the Lord's supper, as they are ad- 
ministered in the church of England, be not true sacra- 
ments. 7. That infants ought not to be baptized according 
to the form of baptism administered in the church of Eng- 
land. But are rather to be kept unbaptized. And that such 
as have been baptized according to that form are not rightly 
baptized. 8. That the laws ecclesiastical, that are esta- 
blished by authority of the queen and realm, be not law- 
ful. 9. That if the prince or magistrate do refuse, or defer 
to reform such faults as are amiss in the church, the people 
may take the reforming of them into their own hands, be- 
fore or without his authority. 10. That the presbytery and 
eldership may for some causes, after admonition, (if there 
ensue no reformation,) excommunicate the queen. 11. That 
the church of England (as it standeth now by law esta- 
blished) professeth not a true Christ, nor true religion. 
That it hath no ministers indeed, nor sacraments indeed. 
And therefore they will communicate with us neither in 
prayer nor sacraments, nor come to our churches: which 
they call popish parish assemblies. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 203 

Number XCV. ANNO 

1593. 

Cardinal Allen, from Rome, to Richard Hopkins, fugitive, 

August 14, 1593. So endorsed by the lord treasurer's 
own hand. 

This letter of the cardinal was in answer to one from Hop- 
kins, at Antwerp ; upon report of a treaty between Eng- 
land and Spain; to endeavour a liberty of religion for 
the catholics. 

Good Mr. Hopkins, 

YOURS of the 10th of July came safely to my hands ; 
and gave me knowledge of a certain overture made to you 
by one that might seem to do it by some secret commission 
of treaty of an accord between England and Spain, with 
desire of my sense therein, either of myself or with the 
pope, upon some reasonable conditions for toleration of the 
catholic religion in our country. Which argument, how 
grateful it should be unto me, you that of old know so well 
my opinion and desire in that cause may easily deem. 

And after a little pause of mind upon so sudden and un- 
wonted news, I could think no otherwise, but that God 
himself hath stirred up in their hearts this motion for the 
saving of that realm from the present fears, and dangers, 145 
and perplexities it is fallen into. And thereby also a special 
[favour] offered at length unto me, once ere I die, not only 
to give the willing desired comforts I owe unto rny afflicted 
catholic friends and brethren, but therein also to serve, most 
faithfully and profitably, even my very enemies. Though 
otherwise than through these unfortunate differences and 
debates in religion, (our Lord God forgive the author 
thereof,) I know I have none ; or to do to the one or the 
other, and above all to my neighbour country, most dear 
unto me, so much good as an unfeigned peace would bring, 
I would travail to the last drop of my blood. 

I thank God, I am not so estranged from the place of 
my birth, most sweet, nor so affected to foreigners, that I 
prefer not the weal of that people above all mortal things ; 
whereof, if it pleased the queen's majesty or council to take 



204 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO a sure taste, I desire no more but that they would confi- 
1593, dently use and command me in this matter. And in truth, 
upon the receipt of your letter I had not slept before I had 
dealt with his holiness, if the party that made the motion 
unto you had brought any warrant in the world from any 
in authority, or any sufficient proof or attestation of their 
contentment therein : which might have been (as yet it 
may be) kept as close as themselves would require. That 
they so did not, if they meant any matter indeed, I marvel. 
And you did well and wisely to stand on that point : with- 
out which I cannot in reason nor honour attempt a thing 
of that weight and quality with the pope, much less bring 
our purpose to pass, either with him or the king. With 
whom also, not only by his holiness 1 mediation, but by my- 
self, in matters concerning our country and religion, I may 
perhaps do more than I need now to say : and whatsoever 
I can do with either of them, I would employ in this case 
myself to the uttermost. Though to say the truth, if the 
pope were a temporal prince only, being no less injured 
(though in another kind) than the king himself, his person 
were not so fit to be a moderator of this pretended peace. 
But being a spiritual person, and the common and most 
loving father of all Christians, and attending above all hu- 
man respects the service of God, and the advancement of 
religion, without all formalities and punctos of worldly ho- 
nour, I am assured he will embrace this cause with all 
hearty affection. For I know many ways his most tender 
heart and desire towards our country's weal, both in God 
and in the world. 

Only we want good grounds of her majesty's intention, 
and good acceptation of our travails herein : which if you 
can by* writing or other equivalent means obtain, let me 
alone for the rest, promising mine own pains without ex- 
ception ; and not much doubting but that his holiness will 
most favourably and earnestly employ his authority for the 
same. 

In all which matters, as myself would proceed with much 
more alacrity, if I might understand how far and in what 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 205 

sort they of themselves would condescend in matters of re- ANNO 
ligion, so I am sure that upon a reasonable toleration, ac- _________ 

cording to that state of that realm, we may induce his holi- 
ness to take this motion to heart, and to proceed carefully, 
steadily, and effectually in the same. Where otherwise, if 1 4o 
he be not well warranted of some reasonable accord for re- 
ligion, (as 1 know he will never deal, but with all possible 
force debar all other treaty of peace,) so it is no less cer- 
tain, that the king, of his like zeal and piety, will never 
make peace (or if I suppose his posterity after him) with- 
out some important moderation in religion. 

Therefore this point well established and cleared, and the 
places holden of England rendered to the king, I trust, 
without all other restitution or recompense of losses, spoils, 
or damages, the king, by his holiness 1 means, and by labours, 
may be induced to a peace, most necessary and happy for 
England, and profitable for the whole Christian world ; 
whereof if I might, by any office of my life or death, be a 
promoter or procurer, I would reckon the remnant of my 
few years I have to come more fortunate than the many 
evil and long years of all my life past ; assuring myself, that 
there is no other way but this to save my beloved country 
from imminent ruin temporal, and, as it may be feared, 
perdition eternal. From either of which I would willingly 
deliver it by my death. 

Of this my desire and entire affection to serve and save 
them in this cause, I pray you, as you have occasion, make 
them in England to understand : wishing them, if they mean 
sincerely, as I do faithfully, and as before God and my soul, 
for their general and particular good desire it, to send over 
some one or two of their civil or temporal wise lawyers, 
of catholic inclination, void of passion and partiality, that 
know how far the state of the realm may comport [with] 
the exercise of the catholic religion ; and how far the queen 
and council can be contented to condescend therein, for a 
firm and stable peace. Which persons joining with you 
there, and with some such of our principal English clergy 
and gentlemen in those parts, as you shall choose, may set 



206 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO down such articles as among you shall be agreed upon, and 
_ so send them hither to me, that I may present them to his 
holiness : that thereby he may the sooner be incited to take 
this matter in hand. Or if the parties think better to come 
hither with her majesty's licence, and you, if it be thought 
good, with them, for more speed and substantial despatch 
of all things; I will give them, or any of them, protection, 
and procure them large passports, and benign audience of 
the pope : and all this with as much secrecy as themselves 
shall desire. 

But these, and all such like particulars, I commit to your 
discretions, praying you to advertise me of the receipt here- 
of. And so with my hearty commendations 1 bid you fare- 
well. From my house in Rome, this 14th of August, 1593. 

Yours assuredly, 

W. Cardinal. 



147 Number XCVI. 

Holt, a Jesuit, to cardinal Allen: writ from Brussels, Ja- 
nuary the 6th, 1593. Found among the lord treasurers 
papers. 

AL III" 10 et R mo cardinal de Ingleterra a Roma. The 
rest in English. Very gracious and good lord, It is a com- 
fort to all these, as I think, that are resolved to follow your 
grace's opinion in any matters, and namely myself, when 
from your grace's self they may know either your grace's 
resolute mind, or else some light to guess ; as by these of 
the eleventh of December, partly I do, in two or three things. 
And indeed in some accidents it is very necessary, as far as 
the secrecy of the things do permit, lest by ignorance some 
traverse may happen, which neither one part or other doth 
desire ; nor is good going farther off than these affairs can 
well permit. 

And concerning D. Barret and the seminary matters, as 
I have little to do, so as little to say : I do bear both to 
him and them that affection I was wont and ought. NYi- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 207 

ther for one thing between us two did I ever require or ANNO 
advise any satisfaction at all, whatever I said, or whatsoever " ' _ 
adjustam defensionem meant, where I was touched : as also 
to procure him to return to his old good affection : which 
seeing, he saith, he is, all is well. There needeth no more, 
and your grace may be careless of any particular between 
us : of which point, if I be well remembered, I have wrote 
to your grace some weeks past. So that you may see we 

prevented your desire. [It was some quarrel between 

them about the government of the seminary .] 

The inequality committed concerning our nation, 

excepting only my lady Hungerford, Mrs. Allen, and Mr. 
Hugh Owen, were of so small importance, that exceeding 
small occasion men had to be offended. And in other na- 
tions such griefs be daily found. There were but three 
other poor men for special respects that got a double pay : 
which was Mr. Tyrrel, who is agent of the nation ; George 
Persons, at his brother's request ; and Mr. Verstegan, in 
respect he is continually employed, as your grace knoweth : 
and these but with a double pay for this time. Others have 
found oftentimes the like or greater favour. And towards 

redress as Persely, before he died, 300 st. Mr. Paget, 

not long ago, 200 ; the earl of Westmoreland divers times, 
200. And now and then so small, that in the king's books 
there was nothing done to him and divers others. 

So that in that matter, both the writing to your grace, 
and the noise that was made of it here, may well be ac- 
counted to proceed of no good fountain ; but that all men 
seek themselves, and chiefly those which most complain, and 
it may be, deserve it least. 

Your grace hath by accident instructed me in a matter 

that some fifteen days ago I writ to be instructed of that 

within cipher you cause written. God send all good speed, 
according to your grace's good desire and intentions. Such 148 
as I can hear discourse of that subject do think it hard to 
be brought to pass : and assurance on all hands given ; and 
whether 232. 229. [ciphers] do mean bona fide or no, it is 
no small doubt. If any thing would be really in hand, I 



208 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
ANNO would think 1C1 his going to / should be altogether ne- 

1593 1 

' cessary ; where he shall both see the commodities and in- 
commodities, faults and difficulties better, occasions and 
expeditions of things. Neither methinketh is there an}' 
repugnance with this and any thing 215 hath wrote to 
212 concerning H. but altogether may and must be accom- 
modated, &c. 

Mr. Hesket will tell your grace of the non-appearance of 
the first letters to Stephano D. Ivara. Here is come hi- 
ther an advice, that Richard Hesket of England is put to 
death for dealing with the earl modern of Darby : whe- 
ther it be true or no, in short, time we shall understand, as 
of the manner. 

Sir William [Stanley] is here returned from Flanders, 
where he hath been with count Charles, to put order to the 
queen's designments there: and he is well, and in very good 
conceit with the secretary chiefly, and all other men here. 
The rest of our nation be in the old sort, somewhat relieved 
by their last pays. 

Here seems to be resolved upon a new voyage to France, 
with good forces, under the conduct of count Mansfeld, at 
least of 12,000 men, with provison more than heretofore: 
and indeed the payments begin to grow better. With more 
I have not to trouble your grace, but commit you to the 
protection of Christ Jesus. Brussels, this 6th of January, 
1593, in the beginning of the new year : which, and many 
more happy, I wish to your grace. 

Your grace to command, 

Will. Holt. 



Number XCVII. 

Thomas Bell, a convert, to Mr. Young, a justice of peace hi 
London : concerning printing 1 his motives to renounce the 
liom'ishjhith. Writ from Jesus college, Cambridge. 

Good sir, 
MY very hearty and manifold commendations remem- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 209 

bered : with like thanks for your cheerful friendliness and ANNO 
great courtesies. You shall understand, that I have now lo93 ' 
finished and made an end of that piece of work, wherewith 
you were partly acquainted at Lambeth. It containeth 
certain special motives, by which, as external means under 
God, concurring thereto, I was inwardly touched, as also 
fervently moved in heart and conscience, to renounce the 
Romish faith and religion. In which motives (as I trust 
and conceive the matter) the chief grounds of papistry are 
not only shaken, but the bulwark thereof is beaten down, 1 49 
as no papist in the world is or shall be able to stand in 
denial of the same : for I have unfolded the same by evi- 
dent demonstrations, even by the plain testimony of the 
best, most famous, and renowned doctors in the church 
of Rome. More forcible than which, no proof can be 
brought against the pope and his religion : a thing to my 
knowledge never yet attempted by any man. If it be able 
to profit God's people, his holy name be blessed for it, who 
began and accomplished that good work in me. 

I beseech you, good Mr. Young, to do my most humble 
duty to the rt. hon. the lord treasurer, my singular good lord; 
and to acquaint his lordship with the said treatise or mo- 
tives, in such manner as you conceive the same : and to 
know his lordship's pleasure, if his lordship think it good, 
that I put them in print. Which done, I shall desire you 
to certify me thereof in your letter so soon as conveniently 
you may. 

I pray you heartily do my humble duty to my honourable 

good friend sir Foskewe [Fortescue, chancellor of the 

exchequer.] My humble commendations to the right wor- 
shipful, my special and approved good friend, Mr. Attorney- 
general [Egerton]. And so in haste I wish you all hap- 
piness. From Jesus college in Cambridge, this 30th of 
June, 1593. 

Yours, as his own, unfeignedly, 

Thomas Bell. 

Accordingly Mr. Young, a few days after, (viz. the 5th 

VOL. IV. p 



210 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO of July J) acquainted the lord treasurer with Mr. BelPs re- 
quest, and humbly craved that he might lenow his lordship's 
pleasure therein, what he should write unto him, adding 
these words : Nevertheless, under your lordship's correction, 
I think it good that he should send up that treatise to your 
lordship, that so it might be committed to the view and 
examination of such persons as know what good or harm 
may come thereof. Although, for mine own part, I am 
very well persuaded of Mr. Bell, and do assuredly think, 
that as he is willing, so he is likewise able to do much good. 
He xcrote other letters to Mr. Attorney-general, wherein 
he did advertise him of one Hardestie, a priest, who had 
lately submitted himself, and teas then at Emanuel college 
in Cambridge, whom he commended to be very learned and 
well affected. 



150 Number XCVIII. 

Bell to the lord treasurer, from the north; where he preach- 
ed at the desire of the earl of Huntington, lord presi- 
dent : who was desirous of his abiding there, for the 
instruction of that ignorant people. He is ready so to 
do, or to return to Cambridge, according to the lord trea- 
surer's directions. 

Right honourable and my very good lord, 
BY reason of the late sickness at Cambridge, I took oc- 
casion to visit two brothers which I have yet living; with 
whom at this present I make my abode, at Thresk in York- 
shire. At my coming from Cambridge, I thought not upon 
that kind of exercise in which I was very shortly after em- 
ployed by the earnest motion of my very good lord, the earl 
of Huntington, lord president, and lord lieutenant in these 
north parts : a man so zealous in Christian religion, so for- 
ward in the service of his prince, so vigilant in his charge, 
and so favourable to all labourers in Christ's vineyard, as 
he may justly be thought appointed by God himself for 
that only end and purpose. What good he hath done in 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 211 

these parts, since that honourable charge was first com- ANNO 
mitted to him, your lordship knoweth, the country witness- ' 
eth, and myself am not ignorant. 

At the godly motion of this honourable person, I have 
sundry times preached. To which my late exercise God 
hath given more large success, than I ever did or could 
expect. My lord president is desirous to have me stay in 
this country, that in these north parts, where the harvest is 
great, and the workmen few, in respect it may please God 
to use me as a weak instrument under him, for the profit 
and instruction of his people. Touching myself, thus the 
case standeth. My chiefest desire is to glorify my Lord 
God, to honour my dread sovereign, and to do what good 
I can to my native country : not to hunt after promotions, 
worldly riches, or transitory pleasures whatsoever. God 
{qui scrutatur corda et renes) knoweth this to be. So now 
to accomplish this my honest desire, whether it be more ex- 
pedient for me to stay in the country, or at the university, 
or elsewhere, in what place or manner soever, I wish not to 
be mine own judge or director therein ; but with a lowly 
mind crave to be directed by my honourable superiors, the 
higher powers. In order hereof, I beseech your lordship 
in all dutiful manner, that I may know your lordship's plea- 
sure, and have your honourable direction in the premises : 
and so humbly take my leave. From Thresk, in Yorkshire, 
the 19th of March, 1593. 

Your lordship's poor servant, 

Tho. Bell. 



Number XCIX. 151 

Pierse, archbishop of York, and Henry, earl of Huntington, 
of the council of the north, to the lord treasurer; con- 
cerning" an hospital and school, founded by Oglethorp, 
bishop of Carlisle. 

Our very good lord, 
AMONG other things out of order in this country, we 

r2 



212 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO found about a year since, upon complaint, the foundation of 
1 i9s ' a school and hospital, for a schoolmaster and twelve poor 
people, whereof licence was granted by queen Mary to Owen 
Oglethorp, late bishop of Carlisle, to found and incorporate 
the same, and to authorize 40/. a year to the same ; and 
himself giving order by his will to his executors to perform 
it accordingly. Yet nothing in either done these thirty-six 
years to the establishment thereof, but a small stipend given 
to a schoolmaster, at the executor's pleasure : and two poor 
folks only found by them there. 

But we calling Mr. Robert Oglethorp, the surviving ex- 
ecutor, and others of the name to it, find, that the bishop's 
goods were so dispersed and spent in suits, and most of his 
lands that he bought to that end, and put in trust to his 
brother Andrew Oglethorp, by making him joint-purchaser 
with him to that end. Who, as is said, meant to perform it ; 
yet he being suddenly slain by the rebels, that land came to 
collateral heirs, and is sold without recovery. Nevertheless, 
of that small portion of the said land which remaineth, by 
our persuasions and means with Robert Oglethorp, being 
surviving executor, who only by the letters patents and 
will hath power to establish the corporation, and after his 
death nobody, we have drawn him to incorporate the school 
and hospital, according to the licence. And among the rest 
of his name we are in hope to make it up; so as there shall 
be some stay of living for a schoolmaster, being a very 
happy place of the country for that purpose ; and six poor 
folks to have 12d. a week, and their dwelling. 

One only imperfection, there is doubted that a cottage in 
Tadcaster, which was a chantry-house that the said bishop 
purchased, whereupon the school-house is built, and a small 
tenement in the country, called Cobcroft, which the bishop 
in his lifetime assures to this Rob. Oglethorp, that liveth, to 
the use of the schoolmaster and almshouse, executed by 
livery : yet some doubt hath been objected, because there 
is no letters of attorney yet shewed for any to make livery, 
that there is none such, which is hardly credible, because 
Rob. Oglethorp hath enjoyed these lauds ever since by that 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 213 

deed. And we have persuaded him to assure his state and ANNO 
interest therein to the school and almshouse, according to 



the bishop's will. Yet, lest any near lookers into such titles 
might procure it, as a concealment, by colour that no letters 
of attorney were from the bishop, then he being base-born, 
his title therein should escheat to her majesty ; we are to be 
earnest suitors, that your lordship, for the perfecting of so 
charitable a work, (the rather for the quieting of the poor 152 
people, that have no purse to withstand the defence of a 
title so to be pretended, than for any doubt in itself,) that 
your lordship would be a mean, by the soliciting of this 
bearer, Mr. Edward Stanhope, that this cottage and tene- 
ment may either pass gratis, or for some small trifle, in the 
next book that any passeth for concealment, with assurance 
from the patentee with Mr. Stanhope, who hath promised 
to travail in it, and to pass it over to the school and hos- 
pital, according as now they have it, by the intention of the 
late bishop of Carlisle. 

Wherein we will think ourselves beholden to your lord- 
ship, and the poor people daily bound to pray for you. And 
even so we betake your lordship to the tuition of the Al- 
mighty. From York, the 14th of January, 1593. 

Your lordship's assured friends, 

Jo. Ebor. H. Huntyngton. 



«8£J 



Number C. 

Queen Elizabeths letter to the emperor of Germany ; an- 
swering slanderous reports of her; especially, that she 
should stir up the Turk to have war with Christian 
princes. 

VIDE Camd. Life of Q. Elizabeth, p. 473. " At this time 
" was set forth in Germany scandalous libels against queen 
" Elizabeth, as if she had invited the Turk to make war 
" against Christendom. And the letters which she had sent 
" to the Turk were published, but most unfaithfully falsi- 
" fied and corrupted, many things being added ; and divers 

i-3 



214 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
ANNO "contumelious and scandalous matters falsely feigned and 



1593 



" devised. The queen hereupon sent a messenger to the 
" emperor, and cleared herself from these calumnies and as- 
" persions. So that the books were prohibited, and the co- 
" pies thereof publicly burnt at Prague." 

This letter was drawn up and composed by the lo?xl trea- 
surer, and written by his secretary Mr. Maynard : and 
at the latter end is an addition of' his own hand. The 
letter Jblloweth. 

To the emperor. 
ALTHOUGH we have sustained these many years past 
continually great injuries from the king of Spain, and con- 
sequently from the pope, without any just cause given on 
our part, as should appear, if there might be found com- 
petent judges to deal in the causes of princes sovereign: 
153 wherein nevertheless we may doubt, that though in God's 
presence we may clear ourselves, yet your majesty may con- 
ceive otherwise of our actions, by reason of the proximity 
of blood betwixt the king of Spain and your majesty, and 
for your devotion to the see of Rome, varying in some parts 
from ours : and lastly, because your majesty hath had no 
resident ambassador with us, nor we with you, to be parti- 
cipant of our mutual actions, as in former times hath been 
used, to the honour of both our estates. Yet no one thing 
hath more grieved us in all injuries done to us, than that 
there hath been spread abroad in infamous libels, amongst 
many other manifest lies, (wherewith we mind not in this 
our letter to trouble you,) this that is most horrible, that we 
have solicited the great Turk, an enemy against Christen- 
dom, to make war against Christian princes : which hath 
been, we take Almighty God to witness, far from our 
thoughts. And for good proof hereof, the actions of late 
years have manifestly declared the contrary of this false 
slander; when bv our own solicitation we did procure such 
a peace betwixt the king of Polonia and the great Turk, 
when the Turk had entered with a mighty army into his 
country, and had publicly rejected the king of Polonia"s 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 215 

offer of tribute, and had threatened the devastation thereof. ANNO 

For a notable testimony whereof, we require your majesty 

to see the very words of the great Turk's own letter, sent 
to us in June, 1590, as they shall be presented to you by 
this bearer, truly translated. [Then followed the Turlc's 
letter in Latin : which zoas omitted in this letter to the em- 
peror, the bearer being to carry it, and deliver it to him by 
itself.] 

The like to these letters at the same time did Simon 
Bassa, the principal counsellor to the Turk, and Hedar 
Bassa, then governor of the army prepared against the king 
of Polonia, write to us, signifying, that if we had not earn- 
estly solicited their lord to this peace, he would never have 
consented. And according to this, the king of Polonia, 
Sigismond the Third, did acknowledge this obtaining of 
peace, and diversion of so dangerous a war only to us, as 
by his letters and messenger from himself, and by the 
letters from his counsellors and general captain Joannes 
Samoski, is most manifest. 

But of this our Christian action we never made any 
ostentation ; neither now would have occupied your majesty 
with this recital, but for a late lamentable accident, as it is 
reported to us from Constantinople, properly concerning 
your majesty's self, and your kingdoms bordering upon the 
great Turk's dominions, and consequently the rest of Chris- 
tendom. Which is, that upon the ordinary tribute, not sent 
to him in due time by your majesty, he hath published war 
against you and your countries: wherewith we are, as in 
Christian duty we ought, deeply grieved even to our soul. 
And because we have been most falsely slandered to have 
heretofore solicited the Turk to have made war against some 
Christian kings ; and not knowing whether any such reports 
have been by our enemies brought to your ears, as we may 
think, that many other untruths, yea, incredible lies, have 
been, without hearing or defence, to deprave our most just 
actions, taken in hand only for our natural defence ; and 
those supported to this day with God's favour, to our safety 1 54 
and preservation of our country in peace, even in the midst 

p 4 



216 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO of all other countries adjoining to ours, that are in war only 
by reason of such as are all our common enemies ; and we 



could not forbear to impart to you both our great grief for 

this accident now breaking out, and to assure your majesty, 

that if it may lie in our power, and were so allowed of by 

your majesty, we would spare no means to stay this intended 

violent war, as dangerous as the time is, wherein, as the pope 

and the king of Spain do proceed with their hostile actions, 

there is no part of Christendom that will be free from war ; 

Ail this a case very rare and lamentable. For as by the war that is 

the agents' to proceed from the Turk, all the parts of Germany, and 

instruc- t h c east p ar t s f Christendom, and some great part of Italy, 

l. Burgh, shall feel the burden of the same, with loss of Christian 

blood, depopulation of countries and towns ; so on the other 

part of Christendom westward, it is lamentably seen, how 

all France, the Low Countries, our realms of England and 

Ireland, and now of late the kingdom of Scotland, is already 

threatened from Spain, and provoked to rebellion. All 

which are mightily infested by the wars; and France by 

the dukes of Savoy and Lorrain, by the solicitation of the 

king of Spain. 

And here it is to be especially noted, that the king of 
_ Spain's wars are at this day the more dangerous to make a 
destruction of the people of Christendom, in that he maketh 
not his wars, as in former times the emperor, his father, and 
other his progenitors did, to make incursions into France 
or Italy only for revenge, or to besiege or recover restitu- 
tion of some towns : which commonly ended in a few 
months. That in a summer with some loss on both sides: 
but commonly stayed with a truce, or ended with a peace 
and intermarriages. But now all these wars, attempted by 
the king of Spain against so many kingdoms and countries, 
are wholly to conquer the same without any colour of title. 
As certain years past he did attempt, with an army by seas, 
upon our kingdom of Ireland, only upon a pretence that 
the pope would give it him to conquer ; and afterwards, in 
the year 88, purposed certainly with an army by sea, which 
was termed by his Spaniards invincible ; and by another 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 217 

mighty army by land, at the same instant brought by the ANNO 
seaside in Flanders, to have been transported into England, ' 
without any pretence of title. And that at the very time 
when our ambassadors and his were treating of a peace, and 
upon good terms of a conclusion. But by God's invincible 
might, his armies, termed invincible, were proved both vin- 
cible and evicted. 

But to shew this his continual purpose in making war for 
conquest, and total subversion of countries, he hath these 
many years attempted, with infinite charges and loss of his 
people, to make a conquest of his maritime Low Countries, 
to plant his Spaniards in the richest towns and ports ; mind- 
ing also thereby to have opportunity to invade and prose- 
cute his intended conquest of England. And now for a 
further and a most manifest sign of this his unsatiable de- 
sire of conquest, he hath these last years openly with sun- 
dry armies invaded France, the greatest and most noble 
kingdom of Christendom ; seeking by his great powers and 
treasures flowing from all his Indies, and by supporting of 1 5 5 
certain rebellious heads in France, that made leagues and 
confederacies against their last king, whom they procured 
to be murdered, to deprive the lawful king now living, Henry 
the Fourth, of his crown ; whom, without any exception, all 
the persons, being of the ancient royal blood of France, and 
the great officers of the realm, and most of the governors 
of provinces, as they were left by the last king, being also 
catholics, do obey, and offer their lives to defend him as 
their lawful king. And because this attempt is found very 
difficult to compass, he hath stirred up the pope to send 
armies into France over the Alps, a thing never used by 
any pope ; and he hath also provoked with his treasure the 
dukes of Savoy and Lorrain likewise to invade and conquer 
certain provinces of France, lying near to them. And how 
he himself hath gotten possession of the towns and havens in 
Britain, intending a full conquest thereof, is not unknown. 

Beside these, to leave no part of Christendom westward 
in peace, the king of Scots hath lately discovered a full pur- 
pose of the king of Spain, by a compact and corruption of 



218 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO money offered to certain of his nobility, to give entry to the 
°" ' army of the king of Spain into Scotland this summer, both 
to conquer the realm and to invade England. For achiev- 
ing whereof, great sums of money have been provided, and 
a good part hath been sent secretlv into Scotland to such, as 
seeing their conspiracy discovered, are fled into the moun- 
tains of the land : and at this time are pursued by the king, 
both with force and proscriptions, as being notable traitors 
to himself and to their native country. 

Thus your majesty, being the greatest prince in honour 
and degree in Christendom, may behold a lamentable spec- 
tacle of the whole state of Christendom as it were set on 
fire at one time: whereof, though that part where your ma- 
jesty's dominions are towards the east may feel a present 
danger from the common enemy; yet, if they that thus 
trouble the rest of Christendom here in the west (as no part 
is free from the calamities of war) would content themselves 
with their own patrimonial kingdoms and countries, and 
suffer other their neighbours to live in peace, (which they 
desire,) it were to be hoped that the Turk would also for- 
bear this attempt of war against your majesty, with an opi- 
nion very probable to move him thereto ; in that he might 
think, that the rest of Christian kings and potentates would 
(enjoying peace in their own countries) give your majesty 
aid, and so divert the Turk from offending of Christendom. 
[Here the instructions Jbr the agent ended.'] 

And thus having imparted our grief for this lamentable 
estate of all Christendom, we cannot but wish, that both 
vour majesty being a sovereign of highest degree, and others 
that carry the titles of Christian and catholic princes, would 
be Christianly moved to take compassion of this woful estate 
of Christendom, and lay aside all minds of revenge, and of 
unlawful seeking of other countries, and make one solid 
union of the Christian countries for their defence. 
1 5 6 Then begin the lines again for instructions to the agent. 

And where pretences are made, that these wars are taken 
in hand for maintenance of catholic religion, it may be well 
denied so to be in France, where the wars are prosecuted, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 219 

not only against the person of the king, but against all his ANNO 

faithful subjects, the princes of the royal blood, the cardi- _ 

nals, bishops, and clergy, and the ancient nobility, that 
profess the catholic religion according to the church of 
Rome. 

And as to the wars made against us and our people, and 
the king of Scots and his people, though in some sort we 
do not yield to be subject to the pope, as pretending an au- 
thority over our crowns, to dispose them where he will; 
yet we do not dissent from the true catholic religion esta- 
blished by the apostles, and continued in the primitive 
church. Neither hath the king of Spain, by any former 
example, any lawful authority, upon such pretences, to make 
any wars against us, being a prince sovereign, acknowledg- 
ing no superior over us in earth, or any other kings and 
potentates agreeing with us in Christian religion ; as are the 
kings of Denmark, Scotland, Sweden, and the chiefest of 
the princes temporal of the empire. But according to the 
example of all former ages, he ought to suffer decision of 
the controversies of the church to some free and general 
councils to be lawfully congregated. 

How these declarations and arguments for our defence 
shall content your majesty, we know not. But if there were 
not such abounding malice reigning in this age, as that the 
same were not maintained and continued with most shame- 
ful slander and horrible untruths dispersed in libels, in all 
languages, but that nothing were divulged but truth, we 
would not doubt but both your majesty would, according 
to your office, admonish the pope, and advise the king of 
Spain to alter this their violent course, whereby they do 
kindle and stir up fire to inflame all Christendom. 

These lines following are of the lord treasurer's own 
hand, and is the conclusion : 

And to shew our Christian disposition to have this in- 
tended dangerous war, now proceeding from the Turk, 
whereof cannot but great and inestimable damage happen 
to Christendom, which way soever Almighty God shall give 
the victory. We have, in the zeal that we bear to peace, 



220 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO (which is the chiefest blessing of God here on earth,) pre- 
— . — ! — sumed to write and send to the grand seignor our letters 
and message also, to yield to a surcease of war. And there 
by some colloquy betwixt your ambassadors to meet on your 
frontiers, to restore both your states to your former peace. 
And of this matter, and of our Christian purpose, this 
bearer shall further inform you ; and of sundry other 
things, wherein we require you to give him credit. 

On the back-side it is thus endorsed. The 14th of April, 
1593, Minutes of a letter to the emperor. By D. Pa kins. 



15 7 Number CI. 

The letter of the great Turk to the queen, (who had inter- 
ceded by her agent to him in behalf of the king qf Poland,) 
mentioned in the foregoing letter, was asjblloweth: 

REX Poloniae duos suos legatos ad portam nostram 
beatam ct fulgidam mittens significavit, quod rex Poloniae 
missum munus augere vellet. Sed nos supplicationem regis 
Poloniae amplecti et acceptare noluimus : imo iterum exer- 
citum nostrum in regem Poloniae mittere, et Creatoris omni- 
potentis auxilio regnum Poloniae subvertere constitueramus. 
At legato serenitatis vestrae ex mandato vestro pacem pro 
regno Poloniae petente, neve regnum Poloniae ex parte nostra 
turbaretur ct infestai-etur intercedente, serenitatisque hanc 
singularem et peculiarem esse voluntatem exponente, legati 
serenitatis vestrae significatio et intercessio nobis fuit grata 
et accepta. In favoremque serenitatis vestrae, cui omnis 
honos et gratia ex nostra parte debetur, juxta hunc modum 
literae nostrae ad regem Poloniae sunt datae. 

Si ex parte serenitatis vestrae fcedus et pax cum rege Po- 
loniae ineunda sollicitata non fuisset, nulla ratione foedus 
cum rege iniissemus ; sed in favorem solummodo serenitatis 
vestrae, regno et regi Poloniae singularem pra'stitimus gra- 
tiain. Quod ct serenitas vestra et rex Polonia> certo sibi 
persuadere debeant. 



ANNO 

159i. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 221 

Number CII. 

A commission to Mr. Chery, a merchant, from the lord~ 
treasurer, and others of her majesty's principal counsel- 
lors, with her letter to the great duke of Muscovy : vin- 
dicating' the queen against false and scandalous reports 
and libels spread abroad, of assisting the great Turk ; 
and in behalf of her merchants trading in those parts. 
Being minutes drawn by the lord treasurer. 

WE, who have subscribed this writing, being counsellors 
to the mighty queen Elizabeth, by the grace of God queen 
of England, France, and Ireland, and defender of the 
Christian faith ; and being also the principal public officers 

of the realm and crown of England, do authorize you 

Chery, of the city of London, merchant, and the queen's 
servant, to present unto the mighty king and great duke of 

Russia, to the noble prince lord Boricfederow Godo 

principal counsellors to the said great duke, the queen's 158 
majesty's royal letters, whereunto you have been made 
privy ; containing in them her majesty's most friendly saluta- 
tions, and large thanks to the said emperor of the great fa- 
vours of late times shewed on her majesty's behalf to her 
merchants repairing and residing in his countries, with re- 
quest to continue the said favours to them : notwithstanding 
the malicious practices of some subtile and unworthy per- 
sons, that have of late of the devilish mood attempted, by 
slanderous and false reports, to alienate the great good-will 
and affection which the said emperor hath of long time 
borne to the queen's majesty, and his favour to her mer- 
chants and subjects. Among which malicious persons, the 
queen's majesty understandeth that sundry of them have 
been hired, and induced for the pleasing of the pope, and 
especially of the king of Spain, who are known to be her 
majesty's professed enemies, to publish, not only in the parts 
of Germany, and the countries of the emperor of Germany, 
but also in the countries and court of the said great duke 
of Russia, that the queen's majesty hath secretly aided the 
grand seignor of Turkey in his wars against Christendom. 



222 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO For that one that is her agent for her merchants at Con- 
1593, stantinople was in the camp of the great Turk, in summer 
was twelvemonth, being forced thereto by the Turk's com- 
mandment, without the knowledge of the queen's majesty. 
But yet he did thereby use many means to redeem divers 
captive Christians, and procured liberty to the servants of 
the emperor's ambassador, to be freely sent to the emperor 
of Germany ; for the which he received great thanks. And 
in other things he did not give anywise to the favour of the 
Turk, but employed all his labour to the redemption of 
many Christians. Which course he had held of long time 
at Constantinople, where he doth yearly procure the liberty 
of many captive Christians ; a matter publicly known in all 
these west parts of Christendom. 

And besides this, there is pretended, for some particular 
colour and end, proof of her majesty's aid, (though most 
falsely,) that the said Turk hath had from her majesty sun- 
dry pieces of great ordnance, graven and marked with the 
arms of England ; a matter utterly false, and vainly imagin- 
ed. That there was not any intent to aid the Turk against 
Christendom, by any manner of means directly or indirectly, 
entered ever into her heart, being a professed Christian 
prince, as she will answer unto Almighty God. 

And so we, being the principal counsellors of the realm, 
do in the presence of God affirm, that there was never any 
such purpose in her majesty to favour the Turk in his wars 
against the state of Christendom. But contrariwise upon 
our knowledge, and with our advice, her majesty hath em- 
ployed her ambassador and servants, to her great charge at 
sundry times, to be means to cease the war between the said 
Turk and sundry Christian princes ; whereof there is nota- 
ble testimony publicly known of a peace of late years, by 
her majesty's earnest solicitation, made between the Turk 
and the king of Pole. For the which her majesty hath had 
public and large thanks from that king and the states of the 
kingdom. And like thanks also hath she had from the em# 
1 59 peror of Germany for her ambassage sent to solicit peace 
between the said emperor and the Turk : which took not 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 

that effect at that time according to her majesty's desire; ANNO 
because that the emperor affirmed, that he had at that time ' 
such advantage against the Turk, as he then found it not 
profitable for the estates to accept such conditions of peace 
as her majesty had by her agent propounded to be ready 
to be offered. 

So as now for your further direction : you being thus in- 
formed of the contents of her majesty's letters, you shall 
use your best discretion and diligence, by the acquaintance 
which you have with the lord Borycefederow, and by advice 
also of the principal merchants of our nation, there residing, 
present the said letters ; first those which be to the lord 
Boryce, whom you shall use as the means of your access to 
the said great duke : and by the direction of the said lord 
Boryce, you shall present her majesty's letters to the said 
great duke, and require, that his majesty's public inter- 
preter, only with your aid and knowledge, rightly and fully 
interpret the same into the Russian tongue. And so also 
shall you cause the like to be done for her majesty's letters 
to the lord Boryce, with her royal salutations ; and accord- 
ing to the contents of all those letters, as before you are 
here informed, you shall do your best to persuade the said 
great duke and the said lord Boryce, and other great coun- 
sellors of the great duke, that such false and slanderous 
reports are only grounded upon the great malice that the 
king of Spain, and his faction, which he hath in Germany 
by the emperor there, and other his kindred of his house of 
Austria, beareth to her majesty, for her just defence of her 
dominions and subjects against the ambition and tyranny of 
the said king of Spain, labouring, by conquering of his 
neighbouring kingdoms and countries, to be a monarch of 
the greatest part of Christendom. 

And for your more effectual proceeding herein, you shall 
cause this writing to be likewise interpreted into the Rus- 
sian tongue, and offer the same to the lord Boryce to be 
seen, as the testimony of us four, being the principal coun- 
sellors and officers of the crown and realm of England. 
The first of us being the lord chancellor of England ; the 



224 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO second, the lord high treasurer of England ; the third, the 

1593 ' lord earl marshal of England ; the fourth, the high admiral 

of England ; as yourself can report us. For testimony 

whereof we have subscribed this writing with our hands, 

and sealed the same with our seals. 



160 Number CIII. 

A memorial of sundry necessa?-y things to be put in execu- 
tion for the service of the realm, noxo toward the spring 
of the year : upon the formidable preparation of the 
Spaniard. Drawn up by lord treasurer Burgh ley. 
Dated Jan. 8, 1593. 

FIRST, letters to be directed by the council to all the 
lieutenants of the counties of the realm ; to give them know- 
ledge, that her majesty would have them presently, by 
themselves or their deputies, make a review of all the bands 
and forces, both of horse and foot, that have been a few 
years past put into bands, and that have been trained. And 
for that her majesty thinketh, that there hath been for these 
two or three years an intermission made of the musters of 
the said bands, whereby it is very likely that in number and 
in force the same are greatly decayed, as well by death or 
departing away of captains and officers, as of the private 
soldiers; and a diminution also of the horse, armoury, and 
weapons decayed, during the said intermission. Therefore 
her majesty most earnestly requireth the said lieutenants, by 
themselves, or their deputies in their absence, to view the 
estate of all the said bands, and to be duly informed of the 
defects thereof in all the foresaid lacks and wants, as well 
of men as horse and armour. And upon the defects and 
wants found, to devise how to have the same supplied. And 
thereof to make particular certificates of the estate of the 
bands as they were aforetime, and of the particular wants 
and decays thereof: and likewise of the supplements to be 
made of the same wants and decays. And to make certi- 
ficate unto her majesty's council of their said services 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 225 

Whereupon her majesty is determined, for her better satis- ANNO 
faction, to have some special persons to repair into those 1593 ' 
countries to see the said supplies, and for some other order 
about the said bands : and consequently to consult with the 
said lieutenants for the training thereof, to be ready for the 
service of her majesty and defence of her realms. 

Item, Consideration to be had of what counties there be 
lacking lieutenants, by reason of the death of the former a . 
And her majesty to be moved to appoint fit persons to be 
authorized to better [become] lieutenants in the same shires, 
with like authority as the former have had. 

Item, Letters to be written to the towns that were ap- 
pointed to have staples of powder and munition, to be in a 
readiness for the service of their countries. And to cause 
the same to be viewed, what want there is, either of the 
quantity thereof, or the ill condition for lack of good keep- 
ing : and charge to be given to supply the same. For which 
purpose order may be given to have the same supplied out 
of the queen's majesty's stores at reasonable prices for ready 
money; if otherwise the same cannot be had of merchants 
using the trade to bring in foreign powder into the realm. 

A memorial for the border of Scotland. 1 6 1 

The certificate of the earl of Huntingdon to be viewed, 
concerning the causes of such as have been in two several 
commissions certain years past, for the execution of the sta- 
tute for the strengthening of the frontiers against Scotland : 
with a note sent also from the said earl, of a certain number 
newly by him named, that before were not in commission. 
And according to the act of parliament to have a commis- 
sion made under the great seal of England, and under the 
seal of the duchy, as the cause shall require, according to 
the form of the said statute. And that the earl and the 
lords of those north parts may be directed to repair and re- 
side in the same, to the furtherance of the said commission. 



a Countries lacking lieutenants, with the names of them that did serve there : 
Middlesex and Northampton, lord chancellor: Stafford and Nottingham, earl of 
Shrewsbury : Lancashire and Cheshire, earl of Derby : Bucks, lord Grey. 
VOL. IV. Q 



226 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
ANNo A memorial for the navy qfilie realm. 



1593. 



The lord admiral to cause a perfect view to be made of 
all her majesty's own ships ; of what burden they are, and 
in what readiness they are or may be to serve for the war. 

Item, To understand the want of all habiliments fit for 
the equipping of the said ships ; and to procure a parti- 
cular certificate, what are the special wants needful to be 
provided for the arming and equipage of the said ships. 
And what proportion thereof is to be had out of foreign 
countries, and what out of the realm. 

Item, To consider what shall be a convenient number of 
soldiers and mariners to serve in the said ships, as men of 
war ; and where and from what places the mariners may 
be provided and had to be in readiness. And how many 
captains are to be provided for the government and rule of 
the said ships, to serve under the lord admiral, if he shall 
!)(.■ directed to serve personally ; or otherwise also the lord 
admiral to consider with himself, what special men there be, 
of service and experience, which he shall think meet in his 
absence to be employed in particular charges and voyages 
as admirals. 

Item, To be considered what kind and quantity of vic- 
tuals is to be provided for the numbers that arc to be em- 
ployed in the said ships. Or if all the navy shall not be 
occupied, what quantity were fit to serve for the numbers 
to be employed in the half of the said navy, or in two parts 
thereof. And in both cases proportion to be made for five 
or six months, besides the rigging victuals. 

Item, Also to be considered of the number of the mer- 
chants 1 and subjects 1 ships, that be or may be made fit for 
men of war to accompany her majesty's navy. And to 
foresee that none of them be permitted to go in any long- 
voyage, to be absent out of the realm after the mnotfa of 
May. 

The office of the ordnance to be considered asJbUoweth. 

First, How the same is furnished with such proportions 
of powder, saltpetre, and muskets, and such other shot, with 
lead, and other necessaries for the same. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 227 

How the great ordnance is provided for with carriages, ANNO 
both for the sea and for the land : and wherein the wants . 



do consist : and where to be provided : and in what time, 
and at what prices. 

Item, To take better order than in former times hath 
been, for bargains to be made for calivers and muskets, 
and such like. For the which greater prices have been al- lo2 
lowed than were reasonable, upon pretence that the makers 
did forbear their money : which would be remedied, as the 
lieutenant of the ordnance hath thought the same conve- 
nient, having seen the faults before his own time. 

A view would be had of certain engines, that were made 
by Engelbert and his brother ; where they do remain, and 
in whose charge ; and how they may be used. 

A like consideration would be had of the office of the 
armoury. 

First, What quantity of armour is in the Tower, and 
what in other places of the queen's store: and how the 
same is kept clean, or what were fit to be done to put it in 
better order. 

Concerning the recusants in the realm. 

The archbishop of Canterbury to certify his knowledge 
of such persons of quality as have been put to liberty upon 
bond : and where they are. His grace also would send to 
the rest of the bishops and commissioners ecclesiastical in 
the countries, to have the like certificates from them : so as 
the numbers of such ill-contented persons might be known, 
and to be defurnished of any force of armour, or such like. 
And likewise to have their offices of any rule under her 
majesty to be suspended. 

The queen to be moved for a warrant for the buying of 
iron hoops, which certain merchants are to have, coming to 
950/. 

A warrant for money to repair the storehouses of Dover 
and Portsmouth, coming to 600 1. 

To have an account of the armour which the recusants 
had taken away from them. 

To remember also that a magazine of victuals be pro- 
q2 



228 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO vided in the north, to be used upon any occasion. As in 
_ Barwick, or in some place else, where it may be conveniently 
distributed. 



Number CIV. 

The vice-chancellor and heads of the university of Cam- 
bridge, to their chancellor, the lord Burghley : touching 
restraint of plays and shows; especially at that infectious 
season. 

Right honourable, 
IT is now long since we presumed to offer unto your good 
lordship a supplication, as touching a restraint for public 
shows and common plays, to be delivered by our messenger 
unto the lords of her majesty's most honourable privy-coun- 
cil, if it should so seem meet unto your honour. The oc- 
casion, as we thought, was then great, which moved us there- 
unto ; as namely, the regard of our duty, in respect of the 
good safety of this place, wherewithal we are put in trust : 
and therefore, having first resolved then to send some of our 
l63 body unto the university of Oxford, there to observe the 
entertainment given to her majesty, it seemed to us not un- 
meet, upon the occasion of that opportunity, to have it re- 
ferred for that other also unto your good lordship's most 
honourable discretion ; either ourselves erring in judgment, 
as touching the fitness of that time, or our messengers in 
forbearing there the soliciting of your honour more than was 
meet, we know not how otherwise to excuse it, than by ap- 
pealing unto your honourable and accustomed good accept- 
ance : which hath induced us also at this time to undertake 
the renewing of that suit; the rather in regard of God's 
great goodness towards us, who, having hitherto somewhat 
strangely preserved us from such infection as hath greatly 
touched many other parts of this land, are the likelier to 
find the continuance thereof, if by your honourable means 
we may be freed from that kind of people, who arc, as we 
think, the most ordinary carriers and disperscrs thereof. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 229 

And so most humbly craving that it would please your ANNO 
good lordship, as touching the particulars of our desire, to i59s ' 
be referred unto the copy of a letter which was, by your 
lordship's honourable means, long since procured for us 
from the lords of her majesty's most honourable privy- 
council, as also unto the bearer Speech, our messenger, as 
touching any thing concerning this matter, wherein it shall 
further please your good lordship to be informed ; we do 
most humbly take our leaves, daily praying for your lord- 
ship's most honourable, long, and happy preservation, as 
we are all most dutifully bound. Cambridge, the 17th of 
July, 1593. 

Your honourable lordship's most humbly to be commanded, 

Tho. Leggs, vice-chancellor. 
Signed also by 

R. Some, Barwell, Bynge, 

Edm. Hounde, Duport, Tho. Preston, 

Tho. Nevile, Tyndal, Laur. Chaderton. 



Number CV. 

A certificate of certain 'principal traitors, by Diaper, [noio 
a prisoner,] the 25th of September, 1593. So endorsed 
by the lord treasurer. 

THE names of those whom I have seen on the other 
side [of the sea.] 1. The earl of Westmoreland. 2. Charles 
Paget. 3. Sir Timothy Mocket. 4. Sir William Stanley. 
5. Two of the Throgmortons. 6. Throgmorton, since that 
executed. 7. Then there is one Owen. And, 8. One Smith, 
a Jesuit. 9. Also one Thomas Farayn. And, 10. One 
Thomas Winter, of Fowlston in Kent. Also, 11. One 
Flowe, that studieth law. And, 12. Mowdy, known to 
your honour. 

These, my lord, are daily about the court [of Spain.] 
And one Thomas Tresom. There are many others that I 
know, being there ; but I cannot now call them to mind. 1 64 

q3 



230 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO I hope your lordship will pardon a prisoner, though I for- 
X59J ' tune to err in my gross writing ; and wanting the book, my 
lord, I cannot write what I would of Westmorland's life. 

For the traitor Westmorland, it is not unknown to your 
honour, in how bare an estate of life he daily liveth. For 
when the court is at Antwerp, he will be at Brussels ; for 
he cannot abide the smell of the court ; for either he hates 
the court, or some in the court hate him. For not long- 
ago young Charles Mansfield did upbraid him by the name 
of traitor, and told him, that he came into Spain more for 
fear of his life than for love of religion, and would have 
thrust him out of doors, but that some there did persuade 
him. 

Now for his life, it is so lascivious and vile, that but with 
reverence I dare not write it, he keepeth a French boy as 
his pander : and when he hath waited all day, he may go sing 
for his supper. He never carrieth any money: for the filthy 
women, that he daily useth, are ready to receive it before 
he have it : and yet the old colt will be lusty. For if he see 
a brave woman, he sendeth his pandry boy for her, and in 
his drunken humour he will give a Philip dollar for a kiss. 
And so sometimes when he receives his pension, he con- 
sumeth that in three days that should keep him three 
months after ; and that maketh him so far in debt : for he 
oweth more than 15,000/. in Antwerp and Brussels. And 
let there come any English, if he know it, he will send the 
marshalsman to apprehend them as spies. This I speak by 
proof. And he keepeth daily company with sir Timothy 
Mocket, whose life and behaviour is either as bad or worse 
than my lord's. 

lie meddleth with no matters of state, because indeed 
they hold him not wise. He is going into Spain : for I 
know he dareth tarry no longer in Antwerp : for he is fain 
to go under protection of the king, for fear of arresting. 
And he taketh a good order : for look, what he can get is 
his own : for he meaneth not to pay any thing he oweth. 
And still he gocth threadbare. Sir Timothy Mocket and 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 231 

he keep ordinaries, when they have money; and when they ANNO 

have none, they dine with duke Humfrey. So much for 

him, with your honour's pardon for my presumption. 
Charles Paget. 
Paget, my lord, keepeth himself still, as he hath ever 
been, a notable rebel, and a monstrous traitor both to his 
prince and country. He will give any thing to hear of her 
majesty's death : for then, he saith, he doubteth not but to 
make your honour render him his land, which, he saith, 
you have let by lease to a lady in Kent, as I remember he 
said. This old traitor will give money to such as come over 
to undertake a villainy against the state of England, or the 
state of the Low Countries. This rebel is greatly in regard 
with the count Faustus, and Mansfield, and Mountdragon, 
governor of Antwerp castle, and all those of the king's 
council. For they take him to be very wise ; especially in 
plotting such matters as can never be brought to pass. 
He saith, he hopes to be a privy-counsellor in England : but 
I hope and desire of God to see him shorter by the head, l65 
like a traitor. And if good fortune had served, we might 
have had him here, to be rewarded for his treasons and 
practices. It was his villainy to put in that notable rumour 
of the lady Anabel : also that secretary Walsingham died 
in that horrible sort, that he dareth in that traitorous, false 
libel. But how can he do other than lie, when the traitor 
knoweth not the truth ; or at least he will not know it. He 
is a great friend to religion, and will always be talking what 
a sweet life it is to be a capucheny : and how dukes have 
left their livings to be of that sect ; and how they lie upon 
the bare boards with a stone under their heads, and whip 
themselves, and drink nothing but cold water. And yet 
those days they do this penance, in the evening, when the 
audience is departed, they will be so drunk with wine that 
they can scant stand : let the world judge whether this be 
hypocrisy or no. I think Paget would be one of those holy 
men, but that he hath so many bags of money, and so much 
money at usury, that he thinketh it would hinder him from 
his devotion. For indeed he is the wealthiest rebel in that 

q 4 



232 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
ANNO country among: the English rebels that be there. And his- 

1693. J 

house-mate is that traitor, the eldest of the Throgmortons. 



Throgmor- ^nd between them both, they bring up Throgmorton's son 

ton. ' J . b l . . i 

that was executed, that young imp of impiety, that no 
doubt will follow his father step by step to his gallows. 
This young imp told me, that he hoped ere long to see them 
lose their heads that condemned the traitor his father to 
death. He goeth to school in Antwerp. But if Paget could 
speak as many languages as he can tell lies, I think he 
should be out of the king's privy kitchen : for he counts 
many things before they be done. And therefore I count 
him fitter to tell dishes in the king's privy kitchen, than to 
be of a king's privy-council. I cannot write so bad of him 
as he deserveth. But I thought good to shew your honour 
this, ere I proceed any further. 

My irons are heavy, and my imprisonment taketh away 
my memory. And therefore, till I have answered the matter 
for which I was committed, I hope your honour will pardon 
me. 

Sir William Stanley 

Is the next that England calleth to the bar. [And here 
the paper endeth, somewhat abruptly.] 

rp — 



Number CVI. 

Anthony Hall, a messenger and officer qf the queen's : his 

.services and deserts, shewed in a letter to the lord trea- 
surer. Andjbr a favour on that account to be obtained 
for his son. And his abilities in heraldry for that end. 
Feb. 12, 1593. 

MAY it please your honour, That where I am an humble 
suitor in behalf of my son Anthony Hall, in respect of di- 
vers services that your honour and divers others my lords 
1 66 have commanded me; as passing twice to France with the 
seminary priests and Jesuits, being in number fast upon 
sixty, as appcareth by certificates in the council chest; of 
their good usages by me ; as also the conveyance of 4000 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 233 

and 500 Irish, transported to Bristol at two several times, ANNO 

as appeareth by certificates delivered to yovir honours under ° 

the common seal of the town of Bristol ; as also the keep- 
ing of Jaques de Noa, the Scottish queen's secretary, six 
weeks, I only lying on a pallet in a chamber, until he had 
delivered all the truth he knew touching the Scottish queen's 
treasons. Testes, Mr. Philips, her majesty's decipherer, 
and also Mr. Francis Mille, [Walsingham's secretary.] Also 
my house was possessed, at your honour's commandment, 
certain days and nights, whereby Ballard the priest, and 
Babington, with others of that traitorous crew, were appre- 
hended in a garden near my house. Testes, Mr. Philips, 
and Mr. Fra. Mille. As also the keeping of Mr. Richard 
Randolph (a professor of the law) in Bridewell and in the 
Counter, for a prisoner certain days and nights ; who per- 
suaded Bennet the priest that he should revoke those trea- 
sons whereof he had accused the earl of Arundel, until he 
had confessed all the truth. Testis, Mr. Wade, clerk of the 
council. 

In respect of which my loyal and dutiful services, I hum- 
bly am a suitor, that it might please your honour to receive 
into the place of a pursuivant at arms my said son, a scholar 
brought up at Cambridge, in Emanuel college ; and since 
professing the law at Barnard's-inn ; and, by my lord An- 
derson's gift, clerk in the prenuitories [protonotaries] office, 
in the common-place. Notwithstanding, I perceiving his in- 
clination apt to gather gentlemen's coats, as well on church 
windows, stone walls, as noblemen's tombs, whereby he hath 
collected some thirty thousand or more coats, of his own 
tricking and writing, besides a pretty skill in counterfeiting 
pictures after the life, or otherwise ; am hereupon, knowing 
his sufficiency, by some of the said officers at arms made 
known unto me, humbly to beseech your honour to stand 
my good lord in my son's suit. 

Your honour's humble servant, to command, 

Anthony Hall, senior. 



234 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
A S° Number CVII. 



I a* Strangers, Flemings and French, in the city erf' London . 
and complaints of them, and libels against them. Ann. 
1593. MSS. Car. D. Hallifax. 

THEY contented not themselves with manufactures and 
warehouses, but would keep shops, and retail all manner of 
goods. The English shopkeepers made several complaints 
and remonstrances against them : whereupon a strict ac- 
count was taken in every ward of all strangers inhabiting 
within London, with their servants and children. And 
certificates were returned the 4th of May ; when the total 
of all the strangers, with their children and servants, born 
out of the realm, were 4300 : of which 267 were denizens. 

Another scrutiny was made the same year, 1593, by or- 
der of the chief magistrates : which was done by the mi- 
nisters and chief officers of the foreign churches in London, 
and in the same month of May, by which the number of 
the strangers of the French, Dutch, and Italian churches 
did amount to 3325, whereof 212 were found to be English 
born. 

Complaint of them. 

The artificers freemen within the city and suburbs in 
London made complaint, by several petitions, against the 
trades and occupations exercised by strangers. And upon 
due information the households appeared to be only 678. 
Libels set out against the strangers. 

While these inquiries were making, to incense the people 
ao-ainst them, there were these lines in one of their libels. 

" Doth not the world see, that you, beastly brutes, the 
" Belgians, or rather drunken drones, and fainthearted 
" Flemings; and you, fraudulent father, Frenchmen, by 
" your cowardly flight from your own natural countries, 
" have abandoned the same into the hands of your proud, 
" cowardly enemies, and have, by a feigned hypocrisy and 
" counterfeit show of religion, placed yourselves here in a 
" most fertile soil, under a most gracious and merciful 
" prince ; who hath been contented, to the great prejudice 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 235 

" of her own natural subjects, to suffer you to live here in ANNO 

" better case and more freedom than her own people. 1593, 

" Be it known to all Flemings and Frenchmen, that it is 
" best for them to depart out of the realm of England 
" between this and the 9th of July next. If not, then to 
" take that which follows : for that there shall be many a sore 
" stripe. Apprentices will rise to the number of 2336. 
" And all the apprentices and journeymen will down with 
" the Flemings and strano•ers.'' , 



Number CVIII. X Q 8 

A rhyme set up upon the wall of the Dutch churchyard, on 
Thursday May the 5th, between eleven and twelve at 
night : and there Jbund by some of the inhabitants of 
that place, and brought to the constable and the rest of 
the loatch. Beginning, 

You, strangers, that inhabit in this land, 
Note this same writing, do it understand. 
Conceive it well,Jbr safeguard of your lives, 
Your goods, your children, and your dearest zvives. 

THE court, upon these seditious motions, took the most 
prudent measures to protect the poor strangers, and to pre- 
vent any riot or insurrection : sending for the lord mayor 
and aldermen, resolving that no open notification should be 
given, but a private admonition only, to the mayor and 
discreetest aldermen : and they not to know the cause of 
their sending for. Orders to be given to them to appoint 
a strong watch of merchants and others, and like handi- 
crafted masters, to answer for their apprentices 1 and servants"' 
misdoing. The subsidy-books for London and the suburbs 
to be seen : how many masters, and how many men, and of 
what trades, and if they use double trades. The preachers 
of their churches to forewarn them of double trades. And 
such as be of no church to be avoided hence. And a pro- 
clamation of these things to be made publicly in Guildhall. 

After these orders from the council boards, several young 



236 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO men were taken up, and examined about the confederacy, to 

° rise and drive out the strangers. Some of these rioters 

were put into the stocks, carted and whipped, for a terror to 
other apprentices and servants. MSS.Car.D.Hattifax. 



Number CIX. 

A notable Jesuit taken up, named Ogilby, alias Bowrne, 
but his true name Ingram. Certified in a letter from the 
earl 'of Huntington at York, to the lord keeper Puckriug. 
Feb. 12, 1593. 

.... FOR the seminary, which was sent from Berwick, 
I find him still to be close, obstinate, and resolute : but I 
think I may boldly affirm, that he is an Englishman born, 
and no Scot, though himself saith otherwise. I cannot 
lO^ hitherto learn his right name; and I find now that it is 
doubted that his name is not Bowrne, as it is most certain 
it is not Ogylby. But with Scotland he is greatly acquaint- 
ed, and among others, especially with the earl of Huntley ; 
with whom, as it is constantly affirmed, he hath been for the 
most part of one year and an half. And so great is the re- 
putation of him with the archpapists of Scotland, and some 
others, that if money would redeem him, he would not long 
continue a prisoner. And I am told, that if the time of his 
sending from Berwick had been known, some would have 
adventured to rescue him before he had passed Northum- 
berland. A matter which I had cause to doubt of. And 
therefore I sent a man to Mr. Cary, expressly to send him 
away well guarded, on the sudden; which was well per- 
formed. I shall shortly be able to advertise at whose house, 
and with whom he hath been in the south ; (and I do al- 
ready partly know some places and persons, where and with 
whom he hath been in Northumberland ;) when I have got- 
ten hereof more certainty. 

I wish rather that I might be licensed to bring him to 
London, than commanded to send him. For I do greatly 
desire to see her majesty, and say somewhat to herself, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 237 

which I will not write. And that done, if my service here ANNO 
be requisite, I will upon two days warnings return again, 1593 ' 
though I could be contented to stay there a month or six 

weeks this spring time But to return to this seminary. 

I think, till he come to the Tower, he will not speak 
English so rightly as he can and should do ... . From York, 
this 12th of February, 1593. 

Your lordship's assured poor friend, 

H. Huntyngdon. 

Number CX. 

Another letter from the earl of Huntington to the lord 
keeper: concerning- his examination of Ogylby, and 
Walpole, and Ling-en, seminaries, concerning- Ogylby s 
true name. March the 8th. And Ingram sent vp. 

SINCE the receipt of your lordship's letter, I have 

travailed with the seminary called Ogylby, both by strict 
examination and gentle persuasions, sometime myself alone, 
and sometime assisted with some of this council ; with 
whom I could not prevail in any matter to any purpose, 
(such was his obstinacy and wilfulness,) until by that good 
hap, which God giveth to all service for her majesty, I had 
some light given to me by them, of whom, touching him, I 
never did ask a question that they would satisfy me in. For 
of Ogylby, which he always confidently said to be his name, 
or of Bowrne, which I certified was his name, according to 
the information given me, I could not learn any thing, nei- 1^0 
ther of Walpole the Jesuit, nor of his brother Thomas 
Walpole, nor of Lingen ; neither could the two seminaries, 
Hardestre and Maior, tell me any thing of him, which were 
both then here in this house. But calling one day for Tho- 
mas Walpole, to take some examination of him, it was his 
hap to meet this seminary going from me. And when he 
came before me, he told me of himself, that he had seen 
this man both in Brussels and in Antwerp, or one very like 
to him. I did straightway send for the seminary again, 
and made Walpole stand where he might view him well. 



238 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO Which done, I bade him in writing set down all his know- 
°' 93 " ledge of him : which lie did. And so have now sent it to 
my lords, with the seminary's own confession, and another 
of Lingen : whom I take to be a man as badly affected to- 
wards her majesty and this state, as the worst of his com- 
pany. 

I hope it shall not be disliked at this time, that I have 
sent this seminary before I had a direction for it. For in 
part that which your lordship did write in your last letter 
hath emboldened me to do so ; and partly, because I think 
now he is discovered to be an Englishman ; the fear of tor- 
ture, with such other good courses as may there be taken 
with him, will get more from him than here I could obtain. 
And to this gaol I durst not send him, for that I did hear 
very confidently of some liberal offers made for his enlarge- 
ment before he came from Berwick : which moved me to 
think him more fit for the Tower, where he might be in 
more safety, and better sifted than here he could be. — From 
York, the 8th of March, 1593. 



Number CXI. 

Concerning Walpole the Jesuit, Walpole his brother, and 
Lingen, thus the earl of Huntington to the lord keeper 
in a former letter, dated Jan. 10. 

SITHENCE letters from my lords, dated the 17th of 
December, which came to my hands on Christmas-eve, in 
which they directed their pleasure in dealing with Walpole 
the Jesuit, and the two other persons which were taken 
with him, viz. Tho. Walpole his brother, and Edward 
Lingen, I appointed a gaol-delivery to be held here on the 
24th of this month, [January.] And now upon con- 
ference had lately, the learned of this council tell me, that 
this Lingen and Tho. Walpole cannot be tried here without 
a special commission for that purpose : because their trea- 
sons were committed beyond the seas. I have written this 
much to my lord treasurer; and have thought good like- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 239 

wise to advertise your lordship thereof. To the end, that ANNO 
if the lords shall think it meet they should receive their 15!)3, 
trial here, (the example whereof, no doubt, will do good in 
these parts,) your lordship will please to give direction, that 
the commission may come hither in time, before the 23d 

day 

From York, this 10th of January, 1593. 

In another letter of the same date, thus the earl wrote con- 1 7 1 
cerning one of them : Tho. Walpole giveth me some cause 
to hope of his conformity and plain dealing. But Lingen, 
he sheweth himself hitherto far otherwise. 



Number CXI I. 
Henry Barrow, a separatist, now in prison for sedition, 
(and soon after executed,) requireth a conference ; in a 
letter to Egerton, attorney-general. 

MY most humble and submissive desire unto your wor- 
ship was and is, that forasmuch as there remain sundry ec- 
clesiastical differences of no small weight between me, with 
sundry other her highness's faithful subjects, now impri- 
soned for the same on the one side, and this present mi- 
nistry, now by authority established in the land, on the 
other, undecided, or as yet indiscussed ; your worship would 
vouchsafe to be a means to her most excellent majesty, that 
a Christian and peaceable disputation by the scriptures 
might be vouchsafed unto some few of us ; with whom, or 
how many of our adversaries herein shall in wisdom be 
thought meet, for the ready and happy deciding or com- 
posing the same : protesting to your worship, in the sight 
of God, at whose final judgment I look hourly to stand, 
that I hold not any thing in these differences of any singu- 
larity or pride of spirit. And as I am hitherto certainly 
persuaded, by the undoubted grounds of God's word, the 
profession and practice of other reformed churches, and 
learned of other countries. Whereof if we, her majesty's 



240 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO said few imprisoned subjects, shall fail to make evident and 
1503. asS ured proof, and that those learned shall shew any other 
thing by the word of God, in the said Christian conference 
desired, that then I for my part vow unto your worship, 
through God's grace, (as also I am persuaded, my said im- 
prisoned brethren, permitted this conference, will do the 
like,) that I will utterly forsake any error T shall be so 
proved to hold, and in all humbly consent to submit to our 
now dissenting adversaries in all these matters, wherein now 
we differ, if they shall approve them unto us by the word 
of God. 

By which charitable act your worship may put an end to 
these present controversies ; reduce all wherein we err, and 
appease many Christian souls. 

Your worship's humble suppliant, 

Henry Barrowe. 



17 2 Number CXIII. 

This petition of conference was considered of by the bi- 
shops and others; and not thought convenient upon 
these reasons against public disputation with Barrow. 
MSS. Whitg. archiep. Cantuar. 

IT is not equally safe nor fit to grant a disputation to 
sectaries. 1. It hath ever been denied by the state to pa- 
pists, a sect that had the possession of the church for some 
hundred years before. 2. To call the ministry and confes- 
sion of the church of England into question, were to call 
all other churches likewise into question. Against whom 
also those exceptions extend. 3. The church of England 
hath submitted herself to disputation thrice; in king Ed- 
ward's time, in queen Mary's, and in queen Elizabeth's. 
4. The erroneous opinions of these men have been already 
condemned by just treatises of the most famous learned 
men that have lived since restitution of religion. 5. It is 
no reason that religion and the controversies thereof, the 
same being already established by parliament, should be 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 241 

examined by an inferior authority, by way of disputation. ANNO 
6. It is no reason, that all the reformed churches in Eu- 1593 ' 
rope, (acknowledging our church of England for a sister,) 
the same should be now brought into question at the will 
and request of a few sectaries. 7. Their principal errors have 
been already discussed by disputations and writings in the 
days of St. Augustin, and that by himself, &c. 8. To call 
the ministry of England into question is to strengthen the 
papists, and to disable all the exercises of the mysteries of 
religion ever since the establishment thereof. 9. It hath 
ever been the manner of heretics to require the same, by 
great importunities and continual exclamations; as Nova- 
tus, Arrius, Eunomius, Paul Samosatenus, Campion, and 
such like. 10. It hath been already discussed by books 
written ; out of which the truth may better appear than by 
any tumultuary disputation. 11. They that require dispu- 
tation of the civil magistrate will not stand to the judg- 
ment of the civil magistrate. 12. If the church should sa- 
tisfy every sect that riseth, there were no end of disputa- 
tions. 



Number CXIV. 

Another address of Barrow for a conference {as it seems) 
to the council, entitled, A motion tending to unity. 

1. THAT if we may not hear public conference for any 
inconvenience, (in regard whereof it were better we should 
suffer mischief,) yet that our teachers may in our hearing 
(if it may be thought meet) have such as was granted 1 f3 
Campion and his fellows. 2. Or else that there may be 
some conference between two or three of each side, before 
a good number of your honours and worships in some pri- 
vate chamber, the main questions agreed upon, (with pre- 
paration of fasting and prayer.) And when the time comes, 
omitting all taunts and by-matters, only searching the truth 
in love : to the touchstone, to the law and to the testi- 
mony. 3. Or else such a conference as was granted Hart, 
the papist. 



242 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO If it be objected that none of our side are worthy to be 
" thus disputed or written with, (public or private,) we think 
that this will prove the contrary, viz. because there are three 
or four in this citv, [London,] and more elsewhere, which 
have been zealous preachers in the parish assemblies, not 
ignorant of the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew tongues, nor 
otherwise unlearned, and generally confessed to be of ho- 
nest conversation : to be brief, as gentle and learned Mr. 
Reynolds of Oxford, and other like him, are yet alive ; so 
are there right honourable and godly disposed personages 
of sir Fra. Knowles^ mind ; who have power we know, and 
good-will we hope, to further such lawful motions, tending 
to such good purposes. 

If these motions take effect, we are verily persuaded that 
the controversy will soon end (with all or most of us.) For 
by these means shall we, poor wretches, (which only make 
this separation, as knoweth the Lord, for love we have to 
keep his commandments, and for fear to disobey him,) per- 
ceive more plainly, whether as men and simple souls we be 
deceived by any false light, or else, as his dear children, (for 
so we hope,) honoured and trusted with the first view of, 
and faithful standing in, a cause of holiness and righteous- 
ness. Where in most humble and earnest manner, and even 
as you fear God and love righteousness, and as you strive 
to resemble him in liking better of them that are hot, than 
of those which are lukewarm, we entreat your honours and 
worships to labour these or some better motions for pro- 
curing unity and mercy ; and for that the blessings pro- 
mised to faithful men and peacemakers may light upon you 
and yours ; and that the curses threatened for the contrary 
may be far from you. 

You reverend magistrates and noble guides of this most 
flourishing commonwealth, we beseech you again and again, 
in the Lord Jesus, search yourselves narrowly, when you 
seek him whom your soul loveth, and think how you 
would desire to be dealt with, if you were in our case ; and 
so deal with us and our teachers. If you suppose them and 
us to be in grievous error, for common humanity sake. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 243 

(were there no further cause,) let us not perish, either se- ANNO 
eretly in prisons or openly by execution, for want of that _ 
uttermost help which lies in your power to afford them that 
are not obstinate men. If any adversaries shall object, that 
we are worthy of close imprisonment in most contagious 
air, without bail, and unworthy of having or hearing any 
great prepared conference, or of any favour, because some 
of us have been conferred with already, and yet remain in 
great error, as learned men judge, we make this answer, and 
pray each one of tender heart to ponder it deeply ; God 1 74 
forbid, that all they who err greatly in some opinion should 
have no other means to convert them, but sudden, unequal 
conferences by starts, with snatching and catching, without 
good order and indifferent hearing and judges. Such have 
all or the most of our conferences been. And then, if they 
will not by and by yield, be thought worthy of as bad pri- 
sons as thieves and rogues, &c. 

This address goes on in a passionate style, setting forth 
their imprisonments, and the miseries thereof to themselves, 
and all their children and families, and to their undoing. 
And then appeals sometimes to the reverend fathers, and 
sovietimes to the merciful magistrates, and sometimes to 
their worships and honours. More concerning this Bar- 
row will be found in Archbishop WhitgifCs Life, b. iv. 
ch. 11. 



Number CXV. 

A meeting of Barrowists at Islington: where many of 
them were taken and committed; and afterwards exa- 
mined before some of the queens justices. MSS. lord 
keeper Puckring. 

THE examination of Daniel Buck, scrivener, of the bo- 
rough of Southwark, taken the 9th of March before Henry 
Townsend, Richard Young, and John Ellys, esquires. And 
beino- required to be deposed upon a book, refuseth to take 

R 2 



244 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
ANNO any other oath, than to protest before God that all his say- 

159.3. 

nigs were true. 

Being examined, whether he was with the coffin at New- 
gate, [where one of the brotherhood died, and a coffin was 
brought with much pomp, with an inscription, to receive 
the body of a martyr for the cause,] denieth that he was 
there, and that he did not see the libel fixed on the said 
coffin. But saith, that afterward a stranger shewed unto 
him the copy of the same at his own shop in Southwark ; 
saith, that he was upon Sunday last in the afternoon in the 
constable's house at Islington ; where he did see, among 
others of his fraternity, Penryn, [Penry ;] and that George 
Johnson was reader there in the constable's house, as afore- 
said ; and that there were above forty of them together, 
and divers others that were not of their society. And that 
he was not in the parish-church these twelve months, be- 
cause it was against his conscience, unless there were refor- 
mation in the church, according as they be warranted by 
the word of God. 

And as concerning the bishops, he thinketh that they 
have no spiritual authority over the rest of the clergy. Be- 
ing asked, What vow or promise he had made, when he came 
first into their society; he answered, he made this protesta- 
tion, that he would walk with the rest of the congregation 
so long as they did walk in the way of the Lord, and as far 
as might be warranted by the word of God. 
1^5 Being demanded, Whether should be a motion made In 
some of their fraternity, that they should go somewhere in 
the country, whereby they might be in more safety; de- 
nieth that he heard any such matter; but saith, that lie 
heard one Millers, a preacher at St. Andrew's Undershaft, 
say, that if they did maintain the truth, they should not 
keep themselves in corners, but should shew themselves pub- 
licly to defend the same. But he thought that unfit, lest 
it might be a means to stir a rebellion. 

And being further demanded, who was their pastor, and 
by whom he was created; saith, thai Mr. Fra. Johnson was 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 245 

chosen pastor, and Mr. Greenwood doctor, and Bowman and ANNO 
Lee, deacons, and Studley and George Kniston, apothe- 1593 ' 
cary, were chosen elders, in the house of one Fox, in St. 
Nicholas-lane, London, about half a year sithence, all in 
one day, by their congregation, or at Mr. Bilsons house in 
Cree-church, he remembereth not whether. And that the 
sacrament of baptism was, as he called it, delivered there to 
the number of seven persons by Johnson. But they had 
neither godfathers nor godmothers. And he took water 
and washed the faces of them that were baptized. The chil- 
dren that were there baptized were the children of Mr. 
Studley, Mr. Lee, with others, being of several years of age ; 
saying only in the administration of this sacrament, / do 
baptize thee in the name of the Father, of the Son, and of 
the Holy Ghost, without using any other ceremony therein, 
as is now usually observed, according to the Book of Com- 
mon Prayer; being then present the said Dan. Studley, 
Will. Shepherd, Will. Marshal, Joh. Becke, with the names 
of a great many more, [here set down,] with some wo- 
men. 

Being further demanded the manner of the Lord's Sup- 
per administered among them, he saith, that five white 
loaves, or more, were set upon the table. That the pastor 
did break the bread, and then delivered it to some of them, 
and the deacons delivered to the rest ; some of the said 
congregation sitting, and some standing about the table. 
And that the pastor delivered the cup unto one, and he to 
another, till they had all drunken ; using the words at the 
delivery thereof, according as it is set down in the eleventh 
of the Corinthians, the 24th verse. Being demanded, whe- 
ther they used to make a collection or gathering among 
them ; said, that there is a gathering of money among them. 
The which money is delivered to the deacons, to be distri- 
buted according to their discretions, to the use of the poor. 
And he heard say, that they did use to marry in their con- 
gregation. And further refuseth to come to the church, and 
obey the form of service which is used in the Book of Com- 

r 3 



246 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO mon Prayer, because there is not a reformation according 
i;s93 ' to the word of God. 

[Signed] Rych. Young. 



j^g Number CXVI. 

Penry, [or Martin Marprclate,] his indictment. Being ex- 
pressions taken out of the printed books : reflecting upon 
England, and the general state; the archbishops, bi- 
shops, judges, and council. From lord keeper Puckrings 
papers. 

ENGLAND. What hath England answered ! Surely, 
with an impudent forehead, she hath said, I will not come near 
the Holy One ; and as for the building of his house, I will 
not so much as lift up a finger towards that work. Nay, I 
will continue the desolations thereof. And if any man 
speaketh a word in the behalf of this house, or bewaileth the 
misery of it, I will account him an enemy to my state. As 
for the gospel and the ministers of it, I have already re- 
ceived the gospels and all the ministers that I mean to re- 
ceive ; I have received a reading gospel and a reading 
ministry, a pompous gospel and a pompous ministry ; a 
gospel and a ministry, that strengtheneth the hands of the 
wicked in his iniquity ; a gospel and a ministry, that will 
stoop unto me, and be at my beck, either to speak or to be 
mute, when I shall think good. Briefly, I have received a 
gospel and a ministry, that will never trouble my conscience 
with the sight of my sins. Which is all the gospel and all 
the ministry which I mean to receive. And I will make a 
sure hand, that the Lord's house, if I can choose, shall 
be none otherwise edified, than by the hands of such men 
as bring unto me that forsake [foresaid] gospel, and the 
foresaid ministry. 

The general state. As for the general state either of the 
magistracy or the ministry, or of the common people, be- 
hold nothing else but a magistracy of conspirators against 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 247 

God, against his truth, against the building of his house, ANNO 
against his saints and children ; and consequently against __H_ 
the wealth of their own souls, and the public peace and 
tranquillity of the whole realm. 

Archbishops, bishops, and clergy. You shall find among 
this crew nothing else but a troop of bloody soul-murderers, 
sacrilegious church -robbers, and such as have made them- t 

selves fat with the blood of mens souls, and the utter ruin 
of the church. 

Judges. It is now grown, and hath been a long time, a 
common practice of these guiltless men, to make offices, sta- 
tutes, ordained for the maintenance of religion or common 
quietness, a pit, wherein to catch the peaceable of the land. 

Council. And because our council may be truly said to 
delight in this injury and violent oppression of God's saints 
and ministers, therefore whensoever the Lord shall come to 
search for the sins of England with lights, as Zephaniah 
saith, he will surely visit our council with a heavy plague. 
Because undoubtedly they are frozen in their dregs, and 
persuade their own hearts, that the Lord will do neither 
good nor evil in the defence of his messengers and children. 
And then shall they feel what it is to wink at, much more 
to procure, the oppression of the church of Christ. I will 177 
not in this place charge our council with that which fol- 
loweth in Jeremy, upon the place before alleged ; namely, 
that they execute no judgment, (no, not the judgment of 
the fatherless,) but this I will say, that they cannot possi- 
bly deal truly in the matter of justice between man and 
man; insomuch as they bend all their force to bereave 
Christ JesUs of that right which he hath in the government 
of his church. The which ungodly and wicked course as 
they have held on, ever since the beginning of her majesty's 
reign, so at this day they have taken greater boldness, and 
grown more rebellious against the Lord and his cause, than 
ever they were. 



k 4 



248 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
ANNO Number CXVII. 

1593. 

Observations upon Penrifs tracts and xoritings ; as, his 

Protestation of his Loyalty ; his Confession; his Trea- 
tise unto the Queen's Majesty. Ubi supra. 

I. OBSERVATIONS upon the Protestation of his Loy- 
alty. That Penry is not, as he pretendeth, a loyal subject, 
but a seditious disturber of her majesty "s peaceable govern- 
ment, appeareth many ways. 1. By his peremptory con- 
demning of the whole ecclesiastical government established 
by her majesty, as wicked and Antichristian. 2. By his 
libels and pamphlets; wherein he hath for these many 
years past most devilishly railed against the whole state 
ecclesiastical, and condemned their calling as Antichristian. 
Who notwithstanding have no ordinary lawful authority in 
this church, but under and from her majesty. 3. By his 
schismatical separation from the society of the church of 
England, and joining with the hypocritical and schismatical 
conventicles of Barrow and Greenwood. 4. By his justify- 
ing of Barrow and Greenwood, who, suffering worthily for 
their seditious writings and practices, are nevertheless by 
him reputed as holy martyrs. 5. By his seditious practices 
in Scotland against the peace of this church ; as appeareth 
out of certain his writings now lately taken ; which do dis- 
play his seditious intentions. 6. By so many of his pro- 
testations, wherein he acknowledged her majesty "s royal 
power only to establish laws ecclesiastical and civil ; shun- 
ning the usual terms of making, enacting, decreeing, and 
ordaining laws. Which import a most absolute authority. 
As though her majesty had no such power, but only a pre- 
rogative to establish and ratify such laws as are made to 
her hand by the omnipotent presbytery, as he and others 
of his crew have both taught and written. 7. By the doc- 
trines taught in their conventicles, whereof he is a member, 
and practised by his lewd martyrs; viz. that the people are 
not to stay for her majesty's authority in proceeding to re- 
form matters of religion ; neither are to be hindered there- 
from by any her prohibitions. 2. That her majesty envieth 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 249 

her subjects a saving knowledge of the true God. 3. That ANNO 
the sacraments ministered in her land are unto them not 1593 ' 
the seals of God's covenant. 4. That her majesty is yet un- 
baptized. Her people remain in infidelity, and stand gene- 178 
rally condemned to hell. 5. That an honest man cannot 
possibly live under her government in any vocation whatso- 
ever. 6. That her majesty may as well make a new reli- 
gion, as new laws for religion. 7. That her majesty altereth 
the penalties of the judicial law of Moses. And many more, 
all flatly impeaching, defaming, or impugning her majesty's 
lawful authority. 

Pcnrys contemptuous and seditious speeches, in a treatise 
of his unto the queerfs majesty ; taken out of the book 
through the pages set down here. Whereof these are 
some : 

The last days of your reign are turned rather against 
Christ Jesus and his gospel than to the maintenance of the 
same. We cannot be quieted, until we find ourselves rid of 
all the occasions and obstacles that hinder us to enjoy that 
which our soul so much desireth It is not your ma- 
jesty we are to deal with, but it is our God. I have great 
cause of complaint, madam ; nay, the Lord and his church 
hath cause to complain of your government, not so much 
for any outward injury as I or any other of your subjects 
have received, as because we your subjects this day are not 
permitted to serve our God under your government accord- 
ing to his word ; but are sold to be bondslaves, not only to 
our affections, to do what we will, so that we keep ourselves 
within the compass of established civil laws, but also to be 
servants to the man of sin and his ordinances. Reject them 
we must all of us, that mean to live godly in Christ Jesus. 

Your judges in causes of blood, nay, your whole 

council and state, will not be afraid to proceed against us 
by the laws of the land : whereas in the mean time we are 
ready to shew our cause to be good, according to the word 
of God 

It is not the force that we seem to fear, that wilj come 



250 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

anno upon us. For the Lord may destroy both you for denying, 
and us for slack seeking of his will, by strangers, [i. e. by 



the Spaniards.] I come unto you with it. And if you will 
hear it, our case may be eased ; if not, that your posterity 
may know that you have been dealt with, and that this 
age may see that there is no great expectation to be looked 

for at your hands And if your state will thus stand 

against his word, the Lord will surely overthrow it 

Among the rest of the princes under the gospel, that have 
been drawn to oppose themselves against the gospel, you 
must think yourself to be one. For until you see this, ma- 
dam, you see not yourself. And they are but sycophants 
and flatterers, whosoever tell you otherwise. Your standing 
is and hath been by the gospel. It is little or smally be- 
holden unto you, for any thing that appeareth. The prac- 
tice of your government sheweth, that if you could have 
ruled without the gospel, it would have been to be feared, 
whether the gospel should be established or not. For now 
that vou are established in your throne, and that by the 
gospel, ye have suffered the gospel to reach no further than 

the end of your sceptre, limited unto it If we had 

queen Mary's days, I know that we should have had as 
179 flourishing a church this day as ever any. For it is well 
known, that there was then in London under the burden, 
and elsewhere in exile, a far more flourishing church than 
any are now tolerated by your authority. 

It will be said, I know, that I endeavour sedition against 
your majesty, and draw your subjects unto sedition against 
you. Unto which slander I will vouchsafe no other answer 
at this time, but that that state is near ruin, where the 
truth is accounted seditious; and that truth will be verified 
in the overthrow thereof, when it shall wish that it had 
p-iven ear unto the truth before destruction come. If to 
utter the truth be sedition and treason, few Christians can 

be but greater I would not have it said, that the cause 

of God was either ashamed or afraid to come before queen 
Elizabeth. Briefly, madam, you may well sec the founda- 
tion of England rooted up; but thi> cause will you never 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 251 

see suppressed. [With a great deal more. The whole ad- ANNO 
dress may he read in the Life of Archbishop Whitgft, 1593, 
book iv. ch. 11.] 

i g» 

Number CXVIII. 

Advertisements out of Portugal, by one Graye, (a mer- 
chant, as itsee?ns,) lately come from thence, of some Irish, 
and other English there ; zvith other intelligence. 

THE cardinal suddenly left the government of Portu- 
gal, and went for Madril. Then it was bruited the king 
was dead, and that he should marry with the daughter of 
Spain. In his stead the government of Portugal was com- 
mitted to don Juan de Silva, conde de Portulegre, Spa- 
niard, the archbishop of Lixbon, don Duarte Castleblank, 
Merinlomez, earl of Villa Dorta, and Michel de Mores 
of the nobles of Aragon, were beheaded upon an in- 
surrection. The state is still jealous of that country. 

Buttler and Tirol [Irishmen] came to Lixbon to offer 
their service. Where they were committed. Within a month 
discharged. After suspected (they say, accused) of intelli- 
gence, and so committed close prisoners in Madril, and 
put to the torment. Immediately thereupon Tayler, the 
English consul, Lee, an Irishman, both of Lixbon, and 
Rynkin, an English merchant of the Madera, were appre- 
hended, their goods seized for the king, and they sent pri- 
soners to Madril. 

Mr. Stanihurst is said presently to go upon the king's 
business into Scotland, accompanied bravely. The English 
fathers any time this twelvemonth very peremptorily pre- 
saged of the alteration of religion in England and Ireland, 
as if they knew some great matter of estate. 

An English college is in erection at Lixbon. The duke 
of Berganza promiseth a yearly stipend thereto. 

Four months since, George Cawell, out of Mr.Glamand , s 
shipping, came to Lixbon, and offered his service. But that 
before he had served the king in the Low Countries with 
sir William Stanley, and departed the service, he was mis- 1 80 



252 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO trusted, and so committed, with seven Englishmen more 
15,<):3 ' that came with him, to the castle. 

The bishop of Tomond, so called, came out of Ireland 
half a year since, and wrote a letter to the said Cawel, that 
he should advertise him at the court of all them that were 
factious in Ireland, and of Maguyer; because it was at that 
instant a matter of great consequence : the kinsmen of the 
earl of Desmond, and all the rest of the Irish pensioners, in 
December, met at Madril, and, as we heard, to sue to carry 
men into Ireland. 

In November, father Fixer, under the name of father 
Young, came to Lixbon, attired gentleman-like, and within 
three days after was shaven, and took the habit of a priest. 
He is very conversant with don Juan de Silva, the princi- 
pal governor, and hath hourly recourse to all of that coun- 
eil. With him came one Thomas Pool, a young gentleman 
of Hampshire, which lodgeth in the English father's house, 
that came in a ship of Tredawgh. 

The crown of Portugal furnish out the Portugal armado, 
and none govern or serve in them but Portugals. 

Four days before our departure from Lixbon, upon the 
post coming from the court, it was bruited the king was 
dead. Which news continued still in vehement suspicion. 
The second day after, they sat in council, and ordained the 
crown of Portugal to pay all the king's soldiers garrisoned 
in the realm of Portugal. Don Juan de Silva likewise gave 
it out, that all Englishmen afterwards taken should be dis- 
posed of by the archbishop and the Portingals. 

As we came thence it was generally bruited, (but not 
promulgated by royal authority,) that the king had licensed 
free sale of all English commodities in Spain and Portugal, 
so it came not in English bottoms nor by English factors. 

Nothing is so much dreaded in Spain as the Turk, which 
cometh down with great power. His galleys be very busy 
in the coasts of Spain ; and have taken many men out of 
their houses within this twelvemonth. 

The Spanish captains and soldiers, at our coming away, 
would oftentimes argue, that it were fit their king and the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 253 

queen's majesty should have peace, and to assist him with ANNO 
the rest of the Christian princes against the Turk. The ' 

news was there, that the emperor began to solicit a peace, 
and that the duke of Arnezia should govern the Low 
Countries, and begin there the pacification. 

An hundred and fifty captains before Christmas were 
despatched from Madril with their commissions to raise 
companies. They give it out, for defence of Aragon, which 
remaineth troublesome. 

Many Portugals lately apprehended and committed. 
The king is said to owe twenty millions to the merchants of 
Italy, Spain, and Portugal; to have received many rents of 
his estate for six, eight, ten years beforehand ; and to be 
behind with his soldiers wheresoever, for four, six, and 
eight years. 

In December, father Henry Flud came for England. At 
our departure father George, a Lancashire man, went to St. 
Rock, to the divinity exercise, and to be private, to have his 
hair grow, to come likewise for England All English- 
men taken by the way of wars are licensed to come for their 

country without ransom The governor, don Juan de 181 

Silva, hath promised good wars, in his government, with the 

English nation This year came here but two caracks 

of the five which should have come. That called the Pan- 
taleon was brought to Payon, but commanded to come to 

Lixbon to discharge Thirty-seven great and small 

ships, with the six sent, those of treasure, came this year 
from the Spanish Indies. The vice-admiral of them was 
cast away at the island. About the end of May, two ships 
came very rich from the mines of Revelasco. Three saicks 
and 40 [or 90 obscurely writ] barks and ships, the week 
after Easter, go this year for the Indies of Portugal. One 
of the caracks is a new ship of 13 or 1400, and carrieth 
much plate with her. 

At the cardinal's departure, an Italian engineer pre- 
sented his skill before the Altoze and the governor, by 
skirmishing on the water with musket without boat, by 
conveying fireworks strangely, and breaking down a gate 



254 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO and piece of a wall by enginal force. He is lately gone for 
J Madril. And it is said he promiseth the cardinal to burn 

her majesty's navy. They be so afraid of intelligencers, 
as they commit pilgrims, and forbid Portingals peregri- 
nation. 

The governor willed us at our departure to signify our 
good entertainment there, and to be solicitors that the 
king's subjects in like manner might be used and sent home 
without ransom. — That intelligence that the Dutch consul 
sent by me to your honour is with my lord admiral. 



Number CXIX. 

A note of the evidence of all the prisoners for popery in the 
several counties ; as the lord keeper Puchring collected, 
and writ it down for and against the persons herciftcr 
named. So endorsed by his own hand ; anno 1593. 

SURREY. William FloAver, born in Denshire, made a 
priest in France at Michaelmas, anno 28. regincE. He re- 
turned into England, and was apprehended in Surrey about 
June, 29. regince, after the general pardon. His offence 
was of being in the realm. 

Edward Chapman, a person reconciled four years past in 
St. George's Fields in Surrey. After apprehended at Chi- 
chester in Sussex, after Easter, anno 28. regincc. Com- 
mitted to the Marshalsea by the council's commandment, 
26. April, anno 28. regince, where he hath remained ever 
since. He is not within the last general pardon, but ex- 
cepted, unless he will submit himself, in obedience to her 
majesty ; come to church to hear the divine service ; con- 
form himself in matters of religion ; and so continue in the 
same. Also he is further excepted out of the pardon, 29. rf- 
gina, being a prisoner in the Marshalsea. As being then 
restrained of liberty by some of the privy council's com- 
mandment. 
182 Will. Goodacre, reconciled in the Marshalsea, about a 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 255 

year and a quarter past, since the last general pardon. A ANNO 
person within the exceptions of the pardon for not conform- 1593 
ing himself. 

John Vachel hath forborne to come to church these two 
years, was reconciled in the Marshalsea. 

John Cradock, reconciled in France, about a year and a 
quarter since, so, after the last pardon ; but yet two years 
since: he is excepted out of the same pardon, unless he 
conform himself, id supra ; his offence being treason com- 
mitted beyond sea, is to be inquired and determined in 
what county it shall please her majesty, by commission, 
having words tending to that end. And so may now be in 
Surrey by especial words now in the commission. 

Kent. Edward Campion : he was born in Shropshire, 
made priest in Lent, anno 29. regincB ; came into England 
at Easter after. (Which his offence was after the last par- 
don.) Was apprehended in Kent. So a traitor, triable 
there. He wisheth he were no worse traitor than Campion, 
[his namesake,] that was executed for treason. Will not 
directly say, if he will take the queen's part against the 
king of Spain's army ; but will pray that the catholic Ro- 
mish church may prevail. If an army come by the aposto- 
lic authority, to deprive her majesty and to restore Romish 
religion, he refuseth to tell what part he will take, but will 
pray that the catholic religion may prevail so long as he 
liveth. 

Christopher Buxton, born in Derbyshire, made priest be- 
yond sea, at Hallowtide, anno 28. regmtB. Came into Eng- 
land at Hallowtide the 29. regina. Was apprehended in 
Kent after time of the last pardon. This man will not 
take her majesty's part against the [Spanish] army, nor do 
any thing to hinder his religion. 

Robert Wilcox, born at West-Chester, made priest be- 
yond sea. He will pray for the army that shall come hither 
to supplant religion. 

William Margenet, made priest beyond sea. John Bol- 
ton, made priest beyond sea. Committed to the Marshal- 



256 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO sea, 11th Nov. 1585, anno 27. rcgince. Where he hath re- 

______ mained ever sinee. 

Sussex. Edward James, made priest four years past be- 
yond sea. Itafe Croket, made priest beyond sea, three 
years past. John Owen, made priest beyond sea, three 
years past; returned into England. Was banished out of 
the realm about Michaelmas, intno 28. rcgince. And after 
sailing between Deep and Bolleyn, was, by tempest, as he 
saith, driven into England, and landed in Sussex, and there 
apprehended. He will not say he will take the queen's 
part against any for religion. Besides all these in the Mar- 
shalsea, not excepted out of the queen's pardon, there were 
also many more in the Marshalsea, of other counties, and 
particular accounts given of them; and why excepted out 
of the queen's pardon ; as John Robenson, James Harri- 
son, Christopher Thules, priests, made beyond sea. Tho- 
mas Heath, for receiving and relieving of the same Har- 
rison at his house in Cumberford-hall in Staffordshire. 

Richard Webster, schoolmaster, born in Yorkshire; ex- 
amined April 20, 1593, before Dr. Goodman, dean of West- 
183 minster, Dr. Stanhope, Mr. Topcliff, Mr. Barne, and Mr. 
Young. Refused to be sworn, but saith, that he had been 
prisoner in the Marshalsea seven years, or thereabouts, for 
being taken at a mass ; and divers times examined before 
the lord treasurer, lord archbishop of Canterbury, Mr. 
Young, and others, and indicted for hearing of mass, and 
for recusancy. And that he was married by George Beesly, 

a seminary priest, and gave him 28<s. 6d. for his pains 

That two years after Beesly came to him to the Marshal- 
sea. And then his wife made and gave him a cordial. 
Examined, what seminary priests he knoweth. Saith, he 
knoweth divers ; and set down divers ; but all such as are 
in prison, and known to some of the said commissioners. 
Being charged that he gave forty shillings to Fr. Corbet, a 
seminary priest, at Corbet's first coming into England, 
saith, that if Corbet will say so, he will not deny it. Being 
demanded, whether lie will at tins present denounce [re- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 257 

nounce] the pope and his authority, and take an oath ANNO 
thereto, refuseth the same, desiring pardon. Being de- tf "" 
manded, whether if the pope, by the catholic authority of 
the church of Rome, shall proceed against our sovereign 
lady, the queen's majesty, to excommunicate her, accurse 
her, and thereupon pronounce her subjects to be free of 
their oath of allegiance and obedience to her ; then whether 
he thinketh therein the pope do lawfully or not ? I answer 
to this question, I have not read of it. And I cannot tell 
what to answer herein. [This writ with his own hand.] 
And otherwise he will not answer. Being asked, whether in 
the like case, whether if the pope send an army into this 
realm, to establish that which he calleth the Romish catho- 
lic religion, he would fight against such an army on the 
queen's majesty's side, or on the catholic Romish army's 
side? I answer in this case last before written, I will take 

her majesty's part against [And no more written by 

him.] And there he ending, being required to write these 
words following, the pope and his catholic authority and 
army, to make up the sentence, refuseth to write the same. 
I humbly crave pardon not to set my hand to the last ar- 
ticle, [writ also with his own hand,] added in the margin. 

Gratian Browne!, of Sponeden in Derbyshire, bachelor 
of the law in Oxon, of the age of forty years ; in prison in 
the Marshalsea six years ; committed by sir Francis Wal- 
singham : saith, he hath no living, neither lands nor goods. 
[And so did divers others, to save themselves the mulct by 
law for absence from church.] Denied that he ever re- 
ceived a seminary priest or Jesuit. Refuseth to come to 
church. Being asked, whether if the pope by his catholic 
authority, and the authority of the church of Rome, shall 
proceed against our sovereign lady, queen Elizabeth, to 
excommunicate her, accurse her, and thereupon pronounce 
her subjects to be freed of the oath of allegiance and obe- 
dience to her ; then, whether he thinketh the pope therein 
do lawfully or not ? refuseth directly to answer ; and saith, 
he knoweth not what he may answer to this case. Being 
asked, whether in the like case, if the pope send an army to 

VOL. iv. s 



258 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO this land to establish that which he calleth the Roman ca- 
°' tholic religion, he would fight against such an army on the 



queen's side, or on the catholic Roman army side? refuseth 
directly to answer. 
184 April 17, 1593, Raffe Emerson, of the bishopric of Dur- 
ham, scholar, of the age of 42 years, or thereabouts; exa- 
mined before sir Owen Hopton, Dr. Goodman, dean of 
Westminster, Mr. Dale, &c. [ecclesiastical commissioners,] 
saith, that he hath been in prison nine years : in the country 
three years, and in the Clink the rest of the time, in bring- 
ing books, called, my lord of Leicester s books, as he saith : 
had been examined before sir Francis Walsingham and 
others ; confesseth he is a lay Jesuit : took that degree at 
Rome fourteen years since, and was sometime Campion's 
boy. And saith, that when he took that order, he did vow 
chastity, poverty, and obedience to the superior of their 
house. And if he sent him to the Turk, he must go. 

Being urged to take the oath of allegiance to her majesty, 
refuseth the same, and saith, he may not take any oath. 
Would not set down by whom he was maintained, and now 
relieved. Refused to be reformed and come to church; af- 
firming, that he will live and die in the faith. Being de- 
manded, whether if the pope shall send an army into this 
realm, to establish that which he calleth the catholic. Romish 
religion, whether he would in the like case fight for the 
queen on her side against the said army, or on that army's 
side ? saith, that he will never fight against her majesty, nor 
against the religion which he professeth. 

Several other papists, priests and laymen, in the Mar- 
shalsea, examined by the ecclesiastical commissioners in the 
month of April, 1593. 

Thomas Alcock, of Rampton in Cambridgshire, gentle- 
man, examined before Dr. Goodman, Dr. Stanhope, Mr. 
Barnet, Mr. Young. Refused to be sworn. Saith, that 
he hath been in the Marshalsca about thirty-two weeks; 
committed by the archbishop of Canterbury, &C. for recu- 
sancy. Is indicted for the same in Cambridgshire, and hath 
been often examined. Saith, he hath an annuity of 40/. a 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 259 

year from his father for his maintenance, and hath the re- ANNO 
version of all his father's lands, worth 200/. yearly. Saith, 1593 ' 
his father goeth to church. Himself had married one of 
Mr. Edward Gage's daughters, of Bently in the county of 
Sussex. Denieth, that he knoweth any seminary priests or 
Jesuits, or ever had conference with any such. Refuseth 
to depose it. Saith, that he hath had conference with 
Mr. Dr. Andrews and Dr. Fleming. Refuseth to come to 
church. 

Robert Parton, priest, examined. Made priest in queen 
Mary's time. Of the age of 77 years. Refused to be 
sworn. Saith, that he hath been in prison about ten years. 
First in Newgate. From thence set at liberty by sir Francis 
Walsingham. After taken again, and sent to Stafford gaol, 
where he remained six years. Then brought up to the 
Marshalsea : where he hath been ever since Christmas last. 
Committed by the lord archbishop of Canterbury for recu- 
sancy. Divers times examined : never indicted to his know- 
ledge. Confesseth that he was made a priest by Dr. Hop- 
ton, bishop of Norwich, in queen Mary's time. Never be- 
yond the seas since her majesty came to the crown. Hath 
neither land nor goods, but only in money 10/. That he 
hath not come to church these fifteen years last past. That 
he was beneficed the space of ten years, since her majesty 185 
came to her crown, at the beginning of her reign : which 
benefice was to the value of an hundred mark by the year. 
From which being deprived, fell to papistry again. Re- 
fuseth yet to come to church. But he is contented to have 
a conference with the dean of Westminster ; and desireth a 
month's respite. 

Robert Bellamy, of Harrow at Hill, gentleman, of fifty- 
two years, examined ; saith, that he hath been in prison six 
years. First, being taken with Blackborn, a seminary priest, 
in his house at mass, with divers others. Committed to 
Newgate. Indicted for hearing of mass, according to the 
statute. Did afterwards break prison, with others, and fled 
into Scotland. And from thence into Germany. And there 
taken by duke Casimire ; and by him sent into England. 

s 2 



2G0 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO Then committed by sir Fran. Walsingham. By the means 
_______ of Robert Robinson, who had twenty marks for his labour, 

being a suitor to the privy-council, was by their honours set 
at liberty. Afterwards committed again by Mr. Young and 
other commissioners, about twelve months since, or some- 
what more. Then in Easter set at liberty again, upon bonds 
taken with sureties that he should appear at the next ses- 
sions. In the mean time should resort to the dean of West- 
minster for conference. And again, being committed by 
Mr. Young for being found in the court as a man sus- 
pected. But will not yet come to church. 

Being demanded, if any army shall come into this realm 
by the catholic Romish authority, sent from the pope to 
establish the catholic Romish religion (as he calleth it) 
within this realm, whether in the like case he would fight 
for the queen's majesty against such an army, or against 
the queen's majesty and her forces, on the said army's side? 
saith, he will fight for the queen's majesty against any such 
army. And this he affirmeth upon his oath. Saith, he hath 
not been at church these fifteen years. But yet is not in- 
dicted for recusancy. 

Christopher Rocke, an Irishman, 32 years of age : ex- 
amined by the commissioners. Hath been in prison a year 
and a quarter. Committed by the lord treasurer: being 
suspected to be a priest. Indicted about a year since, for 
speaking seditious words against the queen. And was there- 
fore set upon the pillory divers days. Hath not yet been 
indicted for recusancy. Demanded, whether if the pope, 
by his catholic authority, shall proceed against the queen to 
excommunicate her, accuse her, and thereupon pronounce 
her subjects to be free of her oath of allegiance and obedi- 
ence to her ; then, whether he think the pope doth therein 
lawfully or not? saith, this question is too high for him to 
answer unto; and otherwise will not directly answer. Being 
demanded, whether in the like case, if the pope shall send 
an army into this realm, to establish that which he calleth 
the Roman catholic religion, he would fight against such an 
army on the queen's side ? he refuseth to answer directly ; 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 2G1 

saith, he will fight for her majesty against all her enemies. ANNO 
But being further asked, whether he think the pope to be 1593, 
her majesty's enemy? saith, God knoweth, he knoweth not: 
and otherwise will not answer. Whether he thinketh Saun- 
ders, and those that came with him into Ireland, were the 
queen's enemies? saith, he knoweth not. Confesseth he was 
eight years beyond sea. And at that time was at Rhemes, 186 
Doway, Paris, Lorain, and other countries in France. 
Knoweth Corbet, a seminary priest; which came to the pri- 
son : but knoweth not any other seminary or Jesuit ; nor 
never relieved any. But being urged to be sworn thereto, 
refuseth. Refuseth to come to church. Saith, that he never 
had conference with any preacher, nor doth he desire it, ex- 
cept he may have some liberty. A very dangerous Jettozv, 
added by another hand. 

Humphrey Cartwright, of Warrington in Lancashire, 
scholar, of the age of 47. Committed to prison in Man- 
chester nine years, by the earl of Derby. Thence brought 
up to the Counter in Wood-street. In which he remained 
about a year for recusancy. Indicted at Manchester. Hath 
neither lands nor goods. Knew Bell, a seminary priest, in 
Lancashire. Did help him to say mass at Mr. Stopford's 
house in Lancashire ; who was dead. Saw Mr. Michel, a 
seminary priest, in Lancashire : one Baret, a priest, at Mr. 
Whitmore , s house in Cheshire. Met one Brian, a seminary 
priest, in Fetter-lane, and one Lloid, in Fleet-street. But 
never relieved any of them. Refuseth to come to church. 
Never had conference with any preacher since his imprison- 
ment ; neither doth he desire it. 

There were likewise examined this month of April, by 
Dr. Goodman, dean of Westminster, and other commis- 
sioners, now in the King^ Bench and other places : Rob. 
Goldsborow, of Stabridge Weston, of Dorsetshire ; Walter 
Blount, of Utoxeter, gentlemen ; in prison twenty years, in 
divers prisons. Rob. Daubigny, of Sharrington in Norfolk, 
gent. ; John Grey, of Preston in Suffolk ; in prison for the 
most part of twenty years. Will. Cornwallis, clerk. Con- 
fesseth, he was made priest by the bishop of Soissons in 

s3 



262 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO France, by authority from the bishop of Rome. Aged 66, 
''' &c. For his opinion he saith, that he thinketh that the 



pope, by his catholic authority, and his authority over the 
church of Rome, may not proceed to excommunicate or ac- 
curse our sovereign lady, and thereupon pronounce her 
subjects to be freed and discharged of their obedience to 
her. And that if the pope should send an army into this 
realm, to establish the catholic Romish religion, he would 
in that case fight against such an army to the uttermost of 
his power, on her majesty's side. 

Miles Gerrard, of Ince, esq. charged by Mr. Bell to have 
received and lodged divers seminary priests at his house; 
as namely, Norden, Black wel, Gardiner, Fourth, Hughs, 
Hardwyt, Dakins, Butler, and Bell, alias Burton. His 
brother a seminary, to whom he gave 30*. and another 
time 40s. and after, sent him 101. to Wisbich : and to 
another brother of his . Saith, he hath frequented 

the church these seven years, but hath not received the 
communion ; but desireth therein respite and conference, 
hoping he shall conform himself. That he never took the 
oath of allegiance, according to the statute, but is willing to 
take it, if it be tendered. 

Thomas Simpson, alias Iligate, of Brightlingsey in Es- 
sex, clerk. Made a seminary priest beyond sea. He hath 
reformed himself, and is contented to renounce and forsake 
his former calling, opinion, and course of life, and to live 
according to the laws of this realm, and to come to church, 
1 87 an d to do every thing as becomcth a good subject. And in 
sign thereof hath now voluntarily taken the oath of alle- 
giance unto her majesty, and is ready to take the oath of 
supremacy. And is further contented to write his own 
submission and conversion more at large with his own 
hand. And hath renounced all foreign powers, princes, 
and potentates. 

Richard Sampson, of Binfield in Berks. In prison fifteen 
years, in divers prisons. Committed by the bishop of Lon- 
don, for being at mass with the French ambassador in Sa- 
lisbury-court. Indicted for recusancy. Hath taken an oath 



1593. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 263 

upon a Latin Testament of Erasmus's translation, that he is ANNO 
no priest. But refuseth to be sworn upon an English Tes- , 
tament. Refuseth to be sworn, whether he hath been be- 
yond sea or no. Refuseth to come to church, neither doth 
he desire conference. Demanded, whether he think the pope, 
by his catholic authority, and the authority of the church 
of Rome, may excommunicate our sovereign lady? saith, 
he is not able to judge of this matter, but leaves it to such 
as are better learned. Whether, if the pope should send an 
army into this realm, to establish Romish catholic religion, 
he would fight against such an army on her majesty's part? 
he will take the queen's part so far as he shall not offend 
God nor his conscience. And otherwise will not directly 
answer. 

Rich. Waldern, citizen and Salter of London. Hath been 
in divers prisons about London these fifteen years. Com- 
mitted to the Tower by the bishop of London. Found 
about him a written book : which was delivered to him by 
one father Read, an old priest. The contents whereof he 
refuseth to tell. Confesseth the cause of his first commit- 
ment by Mr. Wilkes was, for that there was a portmanteau 
and a chest of Polydore Morgan found in his house; 
which, he saith, was delivered him by the said Morgan's 
brother. Afterwards committed to the Tower. After- 
wards set at liberty. And then taken for suspicion for being 
at mass at the French ambassador's. Stands indicted for 
recusancy. For the question about the pope's excommuni- 
cating the queen, saith, the question appertaineth to learned 
men to answer : and saith, himself is unlearned, and so can 
make no answer to it. And otherwise refuseth to answer 
directly. To the other demand about the pope's invading 
the land, and fighting for the queen in that cause, he saith, 
that when such matter shall happen, then he will make his 
answer to it. But being again asked the same question, 
saith, he would take the queen's majesty's part, so far as it 
shall not be against his conscience. 



s 4 



264 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
A ,NN° Number CXX. 

1 0,93. 



"7T~~ One Whitfield's information concerning Mr. Francis Da- 
cres going to the king erf Spain. Whose two brothers 
ivere papists, and in the rebellion in the north. Disco- 
vered bij John Whitfield (who went in his company} to 
Mr. Henry Dcthick, a justice of peace, October 1593. 
The confession whereof teas brought to the bishop of 
Durham; and he delivered it to the lord president of the 
north. Found among lord keeper Puckring's MSS. 

THE sum of the said Whitfield's information was, that 
he, of Wei ton, waited on Daeres into Scotland. After long 
continuance there, they got a licence from the king of Scots 
for his passage and return from Spain. That they were 
driven by weather into Dartmouth. Landed; and took 
shipping again. Landed at Bourdeaux. Left there a little 
chest of evidences with one Adam Hud, an Irish priest, 
until his return from Rome. Then he travelled to Spain ; 
where he had conference with Parsons, an English seminary: 
by whom all Englishmen, whom he liketh of, have access 
unto the king. But he found more help by father Creiton : 
who followed Mr. Dacre to Rome. Mr. Dacre hath 80 
crowns allowed by the Spanish king every month, paid him 
in Rome by the duke Cessie, the king^ ambassador ; who 
continued three years together in Rome. And his son is at 
Doway. Unto whom the king hath promised 40 crowns 
every month : but doubteth it is not paid duly. 

Mr. Dacre went out of Spain not well pleased that he 
had no greater pay. It was objected to him, that his bro- 
ther had done greater service, and he had but 50 crowns 
monthly. Whereupon Mr. Dacre wished himself in Eng- 
land again, for that he failed of his expectation. Further- 
more Whitfield saitl), that Dacre left him with one of the 
squires of the body to the prince, for to learn the language. 
He did see the king daily, who is sorely weakened with the 
gout : and that his eves and lips are fallen down very much. 
He remained in Spain a year and three months at the least. 
Who perceiving at last that he should be enforced to re- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 265 

ceive the sacrament, his conscience moved to the contrary: ANNO 
and whereas the use is, that a note is taken in every house lo93 ' 
fourteen days before Easter of those which are to receive, 
he willed the examiner not to write his name, for that he 
would not be there. And so hardly escaped, being moved 
in conscience : seeing the fruits of their doctrine ; being ex- 
pressed in their abominable stews, and other idolatries. He 
came to Rochel, and arrived at Plymouth. And so was 
brought to my lord treasurer. Since which time he hath 
been at his father's house, [Raphe Whitfield of Whitfield,] 
and among his brethren in Northumberland. 



Number. CXXI. I89 

IVJiitfielrf's declaration voluntary, of his ozon handwriting, 
concerning Dacrcs. Nov. 8, 1593. So e?idorsed by the 
lord keeper Puckring. 

THE first petition which Francis Dacre had made to go 
to the king of Spain was made by father Parsons ; which 
was very brief. The effect of it was only to make it known 
unto the king, how his brethren had died in his service. 
And the cause of their banishment was in respect of con- 
science, and that not unknown to his majesty. And that 
after the death of both his brethren, he made title to the 
lands which were his ancestors\ And because he was al- 
ways catholicly affected, he was not well thought of by the 
queen's majesty and her council only, but deterred also 
from the common laws of the realm and justice. And in 
respect of his conscience, thought himself happy to be drove 
into a catholic country ; where he might live in the service 
of God, till it should please God to send a catholic prince 
in his country, whom he hoped would restore him to all the 
living which was his ancestors'. 

And concluded his petition to the king, who was the re- 
fuge of all the exiles of his country, that his majesty would 
consider of his estate and quality, and how he should be 
maintained ; and that his majesty would command his ser- 
vice, where his majesty thought most convenient. 



l 266 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO Within a month after Francis Dacrc came to Madrid, 
* news came, that my lord of Cumberland was upon the coast 
of Spain ; and father Creiton [a Scotch Jesuit] did practise 
with Fran. Dacre, that he would go unto the said lord, and 
make an offer unto him, that he should refuse his country, 
and come to serve the king : Dacre would not go, because 
he did distrust that the said lord would have kept him. 
And not having a fit messenger, I was moved thereto, that 
I should go with the message: which I granted to do; 
meaning always to have done the duty of a good subject. 
They concluded, that Dacre, Creiton, and I, should have 
gone all to Lisbon ; and that Dacre and Creiton should 
have stayed ashore. That I should have gone with letters 
and a message in a boat to the ships. But in the mean 
time, while they were agreeing what they should offer him, 
news came that he was gone. At which time Francis Dacre 
was persuaded by father Creiton, that the king would have 
granted him his pension in Scotland, because he made his 
information, as he told me, that in Scotland he was most 
able to do the king service. And that his money should 
have been paid by bank, by Will. Neper, a Scotchman, a 
burgess of Edinburgh : who is the principal man that con- 
veyed the Spaniards forth of Scotland, and the chief mer- 
chant that trafficks into Spain, in all Scotland. But father 
Parsons prevented him privily, that he should not have the 
pension paid him in Scotland, as he thought. Because that 
Parsons had no steadfast hope in Dacre. And also that lie 
1 90 should know, that his credit was more with the king than 
Creiton's, or any other in that matter. 

The duchess of Feria told Francis Dacre, as he told me, 
that it was a common use of the English Jesuits, when they 
give intelligence to the king of Spain out of England, they 
tell the king, that so many Englishmen hath such a Je- 
suit converted ; and that if the king of Spain would make 
invasion into this country, that they would all refuse their 
allegiance unto her majesty, and turn unto the king of 
Spain. 

John Whitfield. 



1593. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 267 

Number CXXII. 
Mr. Frauds Dacre Indicted. The particulars of his in-" 

dictmcnt: anno 1593. Lord keeper Puckrings MSS. 

THE imagining and compassing the death and destruc- 
tion of the queens majesty, and the invasion of the realm, 
&c. practised by him without the realm, in Scotland, Spain, 
and Rome, beyond the sea. 

Overt acts. In Scotland he took upon him the name 
and title of honour of lord Dacres, without her majesty's 
licence, consent, or knowledge. He conferred with sir John 
Seton and others in Scotland, touching the compassing and 
performing of these his treacherous imaginations and pur- 
poses. And procured sir John Seton to write divers letters 
to divers in Spain, being the king of Spain's subjects, to 
shew him favour, and to receive him into the frontier 
towns in Spain ; and another letter to col. Symple in his 
favour. 

In Spain he adhered to sir Francis Englefield and Par- 
sons, the Jesuit, being traitors attainted, and the queen's 
public enemies; and conferred with them touching his 
treason. 

He left and refused his allegiance and obedience to the 
queen, and yielded himself as subject to the king of Spain ; 
offering his service to be at the king of Spain's command- 
ment in what service he thought convenient. 

He devised and set down in articles and notes in writing 
for the invading of England : declaring his opinion, that it 
was best to be done by landing his forces at Kerkeodrey in 
Scotland ; and so to enter upon the west part of England, 
where Francis Dacres was born, was best known, had best 
friends, and able to do the king of Spain best service. 
These articles and notes he delivered to Creighton, a Scot- 
tish Jesuit, to translate into Spanish. And being translated, 
he delivered the same to John de Ideaces. 

He obtained a grant of a pension of 60 crowns for him- 
self, and 20 crowns for his son and heir. Which pension he 
hath received accordingly. 



268 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO He went to Rome, and there adhered to cardinal Allen; 
1593 - and had conference with him, touching the compassing and 
performing of his treasons. 



191 Number CXXIII. 

Whitfield, a spy. To the lord keeper Puchring, offering- 
service. Nov. 16, 1593. 

My good lord, 
I DO think, that if Fr. Da. do send into England, he 
will send by Scotland. And most like he will send to John 
Whitfield, [this Whitfield's uncle,] which was mentioned 
in those notes which I writ yesternight; or to Matthew 
Blcnkensop, who serveth the lord Wharton, and knew of 
Fr. Da. way-going [going away] ; and was a messenger be- 
tween the lady Wharton and Fr.Da.: which men I am well ac- 
quainted withal. And they will not conceal any matter from 
me, as touching those causes. But if it be known unto them, 
that your lordship should shew any favour unto me, they 
would not give to me so good credit as they have done. 
Many others there be in that country which are affected 
that way : which, if it please your lordship to send me into 
that country, I shall take better mark of, and shall be bet- 
ter able to give a reason of them. In this country I know 
no place, where I am acquainted, that I can learn of any 
thing that may tend to her majesty's service, but only at sir 
Rob. Dormer's, which I may do as I go down to the north, 
or in returning. The more hardlier I shall be bruited to 
be thought of by your lordship, the more able I shall be to 
do her majesty service in that respect. In the north I can 
procure what bond your lordship shall think meet, either to 
be given unto my lord president [of the north, for his ap- 
pearance whensoever he should be called,] or to my lord 
[bishop] of Durham. 

I beseech your lordship pardon my boldness, and let the 
rudeness of my country excuse my evil manners. And what- 
soever it shall please your honour to command me, I will, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 269 

with all humbleness and duty, be ready to obey. And after ANNO 
trial I most humbly desire your lordship to think of me as 1593 ' 
my good-will shall deserve, and wherewith I am able to 
perform the same. 

John Whitfield. 



Number CXXIV. 

Whitfield's intelligence, December 2, 1593, of English Je- 
suits and pensioners in Spain. 

SIR Francis Englefield is the principal man who giveth 
intelligence unto the king of Spain. For every post that 
goeth between Spain and Flanders he writeth by them. 
He writeth most commonly to father Holt, a Jesuit, who 
remaineth in Flanders ; for most part at Brussels. And 
presently upon the receipt of letters, the said Englefield re- 1 9 
porteth unto don Juan dey Diaques ; to make known unto 
him what news he hath heard, as touching England. I did 
first understand this by Fra. Jackson. And afterwards I 
saw it evidently, that presently, upon the coming of the post 
from Flanders, he repaired unto don Juan dey Diaques, as 
I have said before. 

Also, the said sir Fra. Englefield sendeth letters to Rome 
with every post that goeth ; and receiveth answers. He 
writeth to every town in Spain where there is English from 
every week, and receiveth answer. Father Parsons for the 
most part writeth to sir Fra. Englefield, when he hath any- 
business as touching matters of England. And the said sir 
Francis repaireth to don dey Diaques, as before is said. 
But for the providing for his college, father Parsons send- 
eth to one Tho. James, who lieth at Madrid only to solicit 
the causes of father Parsons. Which James went in April 
last to Seville, there to be employed by father Parsons in a 
college which is built for English students. And now in Tho. 
James's place is Fra. Jackson employed in Madrid. Which 
Jackson hath of sir William Stanley 600 reals, five shil- 
lings apiece, for to receive and transport by bank, from 



270 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO Spain to Brussels, a pension of 300 crowns a month, granted 
1593 - by the kino- of Spain to sir William Stanley for his life- 



time. Which pension in May last, as I understand by Jack- 
son, as also by letters sent from sir William Stanley to the 
said Jackson, to be delivered to don Juan dcy Diaqucs, that 
for the space of a year and an half he had received no pay 
at all out of Spain. 

The chief Jesuit of the English is Walpole, and one 
Chriswel, and one Fleck Chriswel came from the English 
college at Rome. The cause wherefore he came from 
Rome, as I understand by William Owen, a scholar, who 
some time had been a scholar in the said college at Rome, 
was disagreement one with another among themselves ; and 
that the whole college of Rome was divided into two fac- 
tions, when as the said William Owen came thence, which 
was in summer was a year. 

When I came from Madrid, which was in May last, one 
Richard Burley had a pension granted of 40 crowns a 
month, as he told ; and that he should be sent back again 
to Newhaven in France, where he lay as a spy for the king 
of Spain. 

In May last, one Boswel, a scholar, who had been sick 
in the English college at Valedolid, came to Madrid, to re- 
cover his health. And after he was well, departed from 
Madrid to Seville, where he was to be made priest with di- 
vers others, and presently to be sent into England. I did 
hear it of the said Boswel, when lie took his leave of his 
brother, one Richard Boswel, who was once my lord of 
Huntington's man, and afterwards a soldier in Britain, and 
now is at Madrid in service. 

In the last spring there was a general discharge of all 
pensioners in Portugal, that did not serve by sea in the ar- 
mada, or else in the galleys. And many Englishmen came 
to Madrid, for to seek of the king their pensions which 
were by-past, and due before. But no answer they could 
get. Also, one Owen Paton did seek a pension at the same 
193 time, but could not travail. At the same time I did under- 
stand by sir Francis Englefield, that all Englishmen that 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 271 

were not of good account were in the like manner dis- ANNO 
charged, except they would go and serve in the wars that 15!)3 ' 
were in Flanders. 

The duchess of Feria [who, I think, was an English- 
woman, named Dormer] told Francis Dacre, that he came 
in very late time for to seek any thing at the king of Spain's 
hands : because the king neither doth give so great pensions 
to Englishmen, as beforetimes he had done, nor makes so 
o-reat account of their service. Also she told him, that the 
English priests, when they are in England, as he well knew, 
did seek by all means to drive men forth of their country ; 
promising them, that when they came into Spain they shall 
be well entertained by the king. But when they come there, 
they are neither esteemed by the king, neither by the Jesuit 
who was the cause that made them leave their country. For 
there is no credit in Spain for any Englishmen, but only 
for father Parsons ; who now taketh care only for the col- 
leges, for to maintain English scholars which are most able 
to do most service for the present to the king of Spain. 

Joh. Whitfield. 



Number CXXV. 

An examination of Joh. Whitfield, November 6, 1593, be- 
Jbre sir John Puckring, lord keeper. 

HE saith, that about four years ago, Francis Dacre de- 
parted out of the realm, and went into Scotland, being 
moved thereunto by discontentment. Which did grow by 
reason that he received not such favour at the hands of her 
majesty and the lords of the council as he expected. And 
this examinant was then his servant, and attended upon 
him. And that his intention was to procure the king of 
Scots to deal with her majesty in this behalf. And therein 
he prevailed so far, that the king did write his letters to the 
queen's majesty for him, &c. 



272 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
ANNO Number CXXVI. 

1593. 

Another examination of J. Whitfield, November 8, 1593. 

IT is reported this last year in the court of Spain, 

(and greatly feared,) that sir Francis Drake was appointed 
to come with forty ships to invade Spain on the one side, 
and the Turk on the other side. And that her majesty and 
the Turk were agreed of it. 

He saith, that Rolston wrote letters to Francis Dacre 
into Spain, but they were not delivered till after Francis 
Dacre was gone from Spain to Rome. Which this exa- 
minant receiving did open ; and perusing them found, that 
194 Rolston thereby affirmed, that he was sorry that Francis 
Dacre was not more esteemed, or no more accounted of in 
Spain, since he was able to do the king so good service in 
England ; and no English out of England better able. 

This examinant saith, that at Francis Dacre's first com- 
ing into Scotland, the king said unto him, that whensoever 
he should be king of England, he would restore Francis 
Dacre to all the living that his brothers had lost for the 
queen his mother, and that he would give him the title of 
honour in the mean time. And so was Francis Dacre called 
the lord Dacre among all the lords and gentlemen in Scot- 
land. 

ngw r 

Number CXXVII. 

Names of prisoners now in the Tower. Some that intended 
to lilt the queen. Others for other treasons. Lord keeper s 
MSS. 

EDWARD YORK and Richard Williams ; undertak- 
ing the death of her majesty : confessed. Henry Young ; 
stirring of rebellion, and to kill her majesty : accused by 
them. Laton, for intending the death of the queen. 
Jo. Annias, an Irishman, pensioner of the king of Spain ; 
for intending the burning of the queen's ships ; privy 
of Patrick Collins"s treasons; breaking prison. Edward 
Lingcn, pensioner of the king of Spain ; adhering to her 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 273 

majesty's enemies; came over* with Walpole, the Jesuit, ANNO 
guarded with two ships of war of Dunkirk; and spoiled 1j93 ' 
divers of her majesty's subjects by sea. Walpole, South wel, 
Gerard, Jesuits. 



Number CXXVIII. 

Cardinal Attends letter to Mr. Mush, a priest, anno 1594, 
to pacify the disagreements between the priests in Eng- 
land. In which year the cardinal died. 

I HAVE heard, to my great grief, that there is not that. Anno 1594. 
good correspondence between the fathers [Jesuits] and other 
priests ; I cannot tell upon what discontentments, &c. But 
whereof soever it cometh, it is of the enemy ; and with all 
possible discretion and diligence, by the wiser sort on both 
sides, to be rooted out, or else it will be the ruin of the 
whole cause, &c. And therefore in this point especially, 
Mr. Mush, be earnest and peremptory with all parties, and 
every one in particular. And tell them, that I charge and 
advise them, by the blessed blood and bowels of God's 
mercy, that they honour, love, and esteem one another, ac- 
cording to every man's age, order, and profession. 



Number CXXIX. I95 

Advertisements of the ill estate and order of the Jesuits and 
seminary priests, Sfc. in the prison of Wisbich castle, 
land their manner of living there.'] Lord keeper Puck- 
ring"s MSS. 

THE state of the seminary priests and Jesuits at Wis- 
bich, by liberty and favour of their keeper, growing to be 
as dangerous as a seminary college, being in the heart and 
midst of England. First, there is about twenty-eight semi- 
nary priests and Jesuits, who have compounded with their 
keeper, Gray, for their diet and all provision, and necessary 
entertaining servants, as if they were in a free college, and 

VOL. IV. t 



274 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO no prison. 2. By that means they send abroad into the 
15 ' 04 ' town, being a place of some resort, to the market; where 
they buy up any dainty victuals before the best in the 
town, or in that country. And their men will disdainfully 
ask any person, if they dare buy any thing out of the gen- 
* tlemeiVs hands, before they be served. 3. Great resort and 
daily is there to them of gentlemen, gentlewomen, and of 
other people; who use to dine and sup with them, walk 
with them in the castle yard, confer with them in their 
chambers : whereby they receive intelligence, and send again 
what they list, from and unto all quarters of the realm, and 
beyond sea. And other priests resort unto them : as father 
Scot, the seminary priest, did, anno 91; and others known. 
4. Venison, wine, spices, and all other provision, is sent to 
them from all parts of the realm. And they want no money. 
The townsmen and women be so feasted and entertained, 
as they are far won to be theirs in devotion, and further 
disallegiance : the town and country seated over strongly 
for such people of danger. 5. The alms and devotions they 
give at the gate makes the poor to esteem them for good 
and godly men, and others to affect them. 6. Bakers, 
brewers, chandlers, shoemakers, tailors, and their wives, re- 
sort to them for payment of money ; and thereby won to 
popery. 7. They keep eight poor townsborn children, and 
two strangers of good wit and choice, besides their cooks ; 
and those recusants. S. They be all young and lusty people, 
disposed to mirth and viciousness with women; known to 
attempt them, as well with deeds as words, with enchanted 
almonds; as the keeper's maiden and his two daughters 
have been in whorish manner: one of them run from thence, 
and hath had children from her husband; and overthrown 
in popery, of a modest, fair young wife. 0. Some of them 
promise favour when the Spaniards invade, and speak 
lewdlv of their hope to come. And most of them were ex- 
amined of their disposition, when the Spaniards were on 
the seas in anno 1588. The best said, they would pray for 
the catholic cause. Most of them were banished, and re- 
turned ; some condemned men for treason. Whereby achat 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 275 

lars of the universities, and priests beyond the sea hold, if ANNO 
they be taken, and so entertained, that the worst is but 1594 ' 
good cheer, and great hopes of bishoprics and preferments 
hereafter. 



Number CXXX. 196 

Then follow the names of the priests remaining in the cas- 
tle of Wisbich ; and of such boys as are attending on 
them. Jan. 1595. With their countries. Lord keeper 
Puckrings MSS. 

DR. Christoph. Bagshaw, Staff. 

Dr. Norden, Lond. 

Father Will. Edmunds, Kent. 

Mr. Tho. Blewet, Wales. 

Father Buckley, Staff*. 

Mr. Ralph Ithel, Essex. 

Lewis Barlow, Wales. And 25 more, with their names 
set down, and their countries whence they came. 

Then follow the names of the boys, and on whom they 
attended. 



Number CXXXI. 

Three gentlemen condemned in Middlesex for treason, when 
the Spanish fleet was on the sea, and passed Calais. And 
had their trial at the Old Bailey. Sir George Bond, 
mayor. Ubi supra. 

HUGH MORE, late of Gray's Inn, gentleman, was con- 
demned and executed, for being reconciled to the see of 
Rome, by one Thomas Stevenson, a Jesuit. 

Edward Shelly, late of London, gentleman, condemned 
and executed, for receiving, aiding, and comforting of one 
Will. Dean, a seminary priest. 

Henry Foxwel, of the city of Westminster, gentleman, 
condemned for being reconciled to the see of Rome, by one 

t 2 



276 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
ANNO John Bawdewyn, a Jesuit. He was afterwards reprieved, 



1594. 



,and had his pardon. 



W Number CXXXII. 

Names of recusants, with their several sums of money paid. 

into the receipt, from Michaelmas last to March the 10///, 
1594. 

Their names are set down, and the counties where they 
lived, and the sums that each of them paid. The sum 
total at the end: which comes to 3323/. Is. IQd. Exam, 
per Chr. Wardour, clericum pellium. The names arc 
about 137. Where some paid good round sums; others 
lesser. MSS. D. Puckr. 
MICHAEL HARE, of Suffolk, 140/. Rob. Rookwood, 
of Suffolk, 51/. 7*. 3d. Ferdinand Paris, of Norfolk, 120/. 
John Townely, of Lane. 140/. John Sayer, of Yorkshire, 
120/. Robert Grey, of Norfolk, 59/. 4.?. 9d. Robert 
Downes, of Norfolk, 49/. 4?s. 6d. Edw. Rokewod, of Suf- 
folk, 120/. John Gage, of Sussex, 140/. Joh. Arundel, 
Cornub. 120/. George Cotton, South am. 140/. Robert 
Apprice, Hunting. 120/. Tho. Tresham, Mid. 140/. John 
Talbot, Wigorn. 120/. Edward Sulliard, Suff. 140/. Tho. 
Throckmorton, Bucks. 140/. 

Among these is Tho. More, of York, 5/. 9.d. Many of 
lesser sums. 260/. 50. 40. 30. 20. 10. And some 1/. and 
upward. And in those sums in general, considerable sums. 

There is, as I think, much more money rising by recu- 
sants, which is still paid to the sheriffs of the counties. And 
is paid in their particular accounts in the Pipe Office. Yet 
please it your lordship to say, that order should be taken 
with Mr. Vaughan, that all money growing thereby should 
be particularly paid to the receipt. Which performed, your 
lordship may always know of me the certainty thereof, ac- 
cording to this certificate: [viz. that above, of the names 
of each papist throughout all the counties, and the sums 
by them paid.] This was writ by Wardour, clerk of the 
pells. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 277 

Number CXXXIII. ANNO 

1594. 



Matthew Hutton, bishop of Durham, to the lord treasurer, 
December 1594 ; upon the queen's purpose, upon the 
death of Piers, ai'chbishop of York, to prefer him to that 
see. 

I UNDERSTAND, by a letter sent in a packet to Mr. 
Dean of Durham, from the rt. honourable the lord cham- 
berlain, that her majesty hath set down a full resolution to 
remove me to York ; a thing, I assure your lordship, that I 
did not desire, being very well pleased here, and also so 
aged and decayed, that it is more fit for me to think of my 1Q8 
grave, than any honours in this world. Yet because it hath 
pleased God to incline her majesty's heart towards me, as 
always heretofore especially, I doubt not by your lordship's 
means, I do commit myself wholly to God's good provi- 
dence, to be wholly in her highness's disposition. 

I have written to sir Robert Cecill, [lord treasurer's son,] 
to know your lordship's directions, when to send up for that 
matter. Because I would be loath, either to seem too for- 
ward in hasty sending, or, in protracting the time, to be 
thought undutifully careless of so gracious a resolution, &c. 



Number C XXXIV. 

Another letter of bishop Hutton, ttpon his being nominated 
by the queen to the see of York. Written to the lord trea- 
surer, Febr. 14, 1594. 

MY humble duty remembered, &c. I think myself most 
bound to the queen's most excellent majesty. For now this 
is the third time that her highness hath preferred me above 
desert ; and at this time above desire also. And I account 
the blessing to be the greater, because the same God, who 
of his undeserved goodness inclined the royal heart of so 
gracious a sovereign to my good, hath also moved your 
lordship from time to time to further me. The Lord make 
me thankful, and careful in my calling, &c. 

t 3 



278 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
ANNO Number CXXXV. 

1594. 

Part of two letters of the bishop of Durham to the lord trea- 
surer : in behalf of the lady Margaret Nevyl, daughter 
to the unfortunate earl of Westmerland. 

I SENT up in the beginning of the term to sue for 

the pardon of the lady Margaret Nevyl, taken in company 
with Boast, the seminary priest. She lamenteth, with 
tears, that she had offended God and her sovereign: and 
she is wholly reclaimed from popery. Dr. Aubrey hath 
had her pardon drawn since the beginning of the term. 
If it come not quickly, I fear she will die with sorrow. 
It were very honourable for your good lordship to take 
the care of a most distressed maiden, who descends, as 
your lordship knoweth, of great nobility in the house of 
Norfolk, the house of Westmerland, and the house of Rut- 
land, in memory of men ; and was but a child of five years 
old, when her unfortunate father did enter into the rebel- 
lion. And now she is a condemned person, having not one 
penny by year to live upon since the death of her mother ; 
1,99 who gave her 33/. 6s. 8d. a year. It were well that her ma- 
jesty were informed of her miserable state. She is virtu- 
ously given ; humble, modest, and of very good behaviour. 
From Aukland, the 11th of December, 1594. 



Number CXXXVI. 

Part of the bishops second letter. Writ February JbUow- 
ing, when the bishop was removing to York. 

NOW, because I am presently to leave this country, 

I am bold still to recommend unto your good lordship the 
pitiful state of the lady Margaret Nevyl, daughter to the 
unfortunate carl of Westmerland, prisoner in my house, 
and condemned to die for being in company with Boast, 
the seminary priest. She is wholly reformed in religion. 
She sore lamenteth, with tears, that she hath offended so 
gracious a sovereign and her laws. It is an honourable 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 279 

deed, in my opinion, beseeming your lordship, with favour ANNO 
to prefer her humble suit unto her majesty. Your lordship " ' ' 
knoweth, that she is descended of divers noble houses, in 
the memory of man ; of the house of Buckingham, Norfolk, 
Westmerland, and Rutland. And now behold the insta- 
bility of all human things. Two of them are utterly over- 
thrown : only one standeth unspotted. And she herself, a 
poor maid, condemned to die. I do assure myself, that if 
her highness were truly informed of her lamentable state 
and true repentance, she would take pity and compassion 
on her, and so make known unto the world that she 
maketh a difference between her and her two obstinate sis- 
ters. [Katharine Gray, a widow, one of them.] She hath 
confessed unto me, and I verily believe it to be true, that 
partly want did cause her to wade to woe. For whereas the 
great offence of her father, her highness most graciously al- 
lowed unto her mother 300/. a year, for herself and her three 
children : whereof 33/. 6s. 8d. was by Mr. Clopton, her ma- 
jesty's receiver here, paid unto her yearly; so it is, that 
since the death of her mother, and somewhat before, the 
same annuity was not paid unto her. By occasion whereof, 
she fell to converse with the papists for relief first ; and so 
by little and little did forsake both her religion towards 
God, and her loyalty to her sovereign. For both the which 
she is most heartily sorry, and most humbly craveth one 
drop of her majesty's mercy. 

I have writ unto Mr. Roger Manners, her great uncle, 
to commend her humble suit unto your good lordship. 
Thus beseeching God to bless your lordship with his mani- 
fold graces, that you may yet long continue a most wise 
and faithful counsellor unto so gracious a sovereign, I hum- 
bly take my leave. 

Your lordship's bounden in Christ, 

Matth. Dunelm. 



t 4 



280 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
ANNO Number CXXXVII. 

ir>94. 

The humble submission of Margaret Nevyl to the queen's 



200 most excellent majesty, enclosed in the former letter. 

MOST humbly, with tears, beseecheth your highness, 
your majesty's most desolate, poor subject, Margaret Nevyl, 
one of the daughters of the unfortunate late earl of West- 
merland, to take princely pity upon my lamentable estate. 
With great grief I do confess, most gracious sovereign, that 
sithence the death of my dear mother, having no part of 
that allowance which it pleased your majesty graciously to 
bestow upon me, nor any other maintenance, I was even 
forced, by reason of great want, to receive relief of papists: 
by whose subtilty my needy simplicity was allured from 
mine obedience and loyalty, to their superstition and errors: 
and so being drawn into the company of a seminary priest, 
I was condemned. 

At the assizes the last summer, being destitute of help, 
it pleased the good bishop of Duresme, at the motion of my 
lord treasurer and the judges, to take me into his house. 
Where he only hath and doth yet wholly relieve, and by 
his godly and sound earnest instructions he hath, I most 
humbly praise God, fully reformed me in religion. Which 
by God's grace I shall, with all obedience unto your high- 
ness, constantly profess while I live. And now, alas ! this 
pitiful bishop, my only help, is very shortly to leave this 
country, and I know not how or where to be relieved, I 
commend my case and woful state unto God and your 
majesty : most humbly beseeching your highness, of your 
princely and most gracious wonted compassion, to be mer- 
ciful unto me, a most distressed, poor maiden, and to vouch- 
safe me your most comfortable pardon for my life, and 
somewhat also for my relief. Which if I still want, my life 
will be no life, but only misery. 

So shall the enemies of true religion have no cause to re- 
joice at my woe ; the repenting poor converts, by my ex- 
ample, will be comforted ; and I, as most bound, shall never 
cease with them to pray for your majesty's most happy 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 281 

reign in all wished felicity, and long to endure. Feb. 14, ANNO 

1e „, 1594. 

1594. 



Your majesty's most woful poor prisoner, 

Margarett Nevyl. 



Number CXXXVIII. 20 i 

Tobie Matthew, D. D. dean of Durham, to the lord trea- 
surer. Information of Scotch matters, and the Scots 
Icing. 

OUR papists here do secretly whisper, that the stay 

of Lopus [a Portugal physician, that should have poisoned 
the queen] his execution may argue, that his condemnation 
is but to draw the king of Spain in odium with our nation : 
which indeed would be credited of too many, if he should 
not suffer. 

The earl Bothwers late enterprise to so small effect 
doth much rejoice the papists; who stick not to rumour, 
that the king secretly hath mass, and is catholic, and that 
he hath as sound intelligence in our court as her majesty 
hath in his. Whereof there is doubtless great suspicion, 
howsoever it cometh. There is now with me one William 
Ashby, kinsman to that Mr. Ashby that was by her ma- 
jesty employed in Scotland ; who among other particulars 
(whereof of the king's council he was demanded) was ex- 
amined, whether he knew what money the earl had re- 
ceived from me. I pray God the king's protestations be 
not over-well believed ; who is a deeper dissembler, by all 
men's judgment that know him best, than is thought pos- 
sible for his years. 

They talk much in Scotland of the weak provisions in 
Berwick, specially of powder : and stick not to take notice, 
how little there was between Trent and Tweede at that 
time the Spaniards were last upon the coast. 

The delivery of notorious recusants out of prison al- 
most hand over head, si thence the last statute made, hath 
done, and will do, great harm hereabout. Thus very glad, 



282 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO when your lordship pleaseth to command my service, which 
l ''^ 4 ' I have vowed to your Lordship : and craving pardon at this 
present, I most humbly betake your good lordship to God. 
At Duresme, the 9th of April, 1594. 

Your lordship's most humble and most bounden, 

Tobie Matthew. 



Number C XXXIX. 

The death of ' Pierse, archbishop of York, and the queen's 
almoner; who died Sept. 28, 1594, at his seat at Bishop- 
thorp. Some account of him in the sermon preached hi/ 
Dr. King, his chaplain, at hisj'uneral. 

HE was dean of Chester, dean of Christ's-church, anil 
dean of Salisbury, successively; and bishop of Rochester 
for twenty months ; then bishop of Salisbury about eleven 
years; and lastly, archbishop of York six years. Aged 71 : 
202 buried in the cathedral of York ; with a large inscription 
set up in memory of him : viz. That he was eontemptor 

mundi: optimus,J'acilis, et in sola vitia superbus Ve- 

ram et germanam Christi religionem omnibus modis pro- 
pagavit, &c. His funeral sermon was preached by Joh. 
King, D. D. his domestic chaplain, (afterwards bishop of 
London,) Nov. 17. Which was afterward (anno 1599) 
printed with his Lectures upon Jonah. 

His text was Psalm cxlvi. Put not your trust in princes, 
nor in any son of man : for there is no help in him. His 
breath departeth, and he rcturncth to the earth, &c. In 
which sermon this account was given of his life, discharge 
of his holy function, and Christian departure: viz. 

As he was not great by parentage, so it was his greater 

commendation that he became greater by virtues The 

university tried his learning, the court his manners, the 
church his wisdom. He was transplanted from college to 

college: not by chance, but by advised choice He sat 

in a chair [as a public professor] to teach. In the court, 
while he lived therein, he was not unus e multis, a com- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 283 

mon man there for his deserts: and yet for his pains he AN NO 
was units e multls; he made himself a common man, in 1594- 
keeping as orderly and ordinary a course of preaching, as 
whosoever was most bound to do that service. And as he 
had an office therein besides to wait upon, [the queen's al- 
moner,] so he discharged it with fidelity : not bearing the 
bag like a thief, but with such uprightness of conscience, 
that in the sight of God and man he might justly purge 
himself with those words of Samuel, Witness against me, if 

you can ; whom have I defrauded ? 

Lastly, The church had a long experience of his govern- 
ment. He was thrice a dean : and because he was faithful 
in a little, he was made a ruler over much: for he was 
thrice also a bishop. In the management of which weighty 
charges, malice itself spared him : even that malice which 
blotted and blemished the names of most of the lights of 
this land, [viz. the bishops,] never accused him. But I call 
this the least credit of a thousand. From the first hour 
that he came into this province, you know his behaviour 
among you at all seasons ; how he kept nothing back that 
was profitable, but taught you openly, and through every 
church ; witnessing both to Jews and Gentiles, protestants 
and papists, repentance towards God, and faith towards 
Jesus Christ, &c. 

You cannot truly say of him, Ditavimus Abrahamum. 
He had not a holy trade more than he brought at his first 
coming. What this reverend prelate hath gained and car- 
ried away with him, by continuing among you these many 
years, is only the name of an archbishop, &c. 

Now concerning his travail and pains in his function. He 
dealt both the gospel of Christ and himself among you. 
Whose saying ever was, that which he also took from a 
famous light of this land, which was Julium Sydus, a 
jewel of his age, [Bishop Jewel, perhaps;] Where should a 
preacher die, but in his pulpit ? Oportet me pastorem in 
acie stantem mori. A general must die in the field upon 
his feet. Surely he thoroughly performed it : for when the 
infirmity of his body was such, that the least moving and 203 



284 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO stirring thereof, by travail, drew his blood from him, even 
' then lie drew out his breast, and fed you with the milk of 
God's most holy word, &c. 

Now concerning the last particular of all. This I can 
constantly affirm in general, that all other cares and con- 
sultations, which the world might have drawn him unto, he 
laid aside, and not sought much : as, namely, he only ap- 
plied himself to make some profession and promulgation of 
his faith ; which he rather chose to do, not to all the people, 
but to us witnesses, (then chaplains in his house,) chosen of 
God to the same dispensation of the faith wherein himself 
had been. His speech was to this effect : 

I have sent for you for this end, that before my departure 
I might give some testimony of that faith wherein I have 
hitherto lived, and am now to die. What I have received 
of the Lord, that have I ever delivered. I have received 
much ; written much ; often disputed ; preached often : yet 
never could I find in the book of God any ground for 
popery ; neither have I known any point of doctrine re- 
ceived in the church of England that is not consonant to 
the word of God. Wherefore he exhorted me [said Dr. 
King, the preacher] and my colleague, being then absent, 
to continue in that building wherein I had already laid my 
foundation. And because I was now his ghostly father ', 
(which was the unworthy name a father bestowed upon me, 
a child in comparison,) required, that I would not neglect 
to repair unto him twice or thrice before his ending. I told 
him, that having often in his life ministered so good com- 
forts to others, he could not want comfort to himself. He 
granted it. But because omn'is homo meralax, (wherein we 
took his meaning to be, that a man might flatter and be- 
guile himself.) therefore he again required my resort unto 
him. I replied) that I thought it best, and I feared would 
be the last service that ever I should do him. Howbeit, the 
comforts I had to give, I could but pour into his outward 
ears ; and that it must be the Spirit of God which inwardly 
comfortcth the conscience. To which his answer was, The 
Spirit of God doth assure my spirit that I am the child of 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 285 

God. Yet he proceeded, You have seen long peace, and ANNO 
many good days in Israel ; I hope also you shall depart " 
in peace, and leave peace behind you: neither know I 
any thing in the world wherewith your conscience should 
be troubled. 

He finally concluded, I die in perfect peace of con- 
science, both with God and man. So he licensed me to de- 
part, not willing, he said, to trouble me any more at that 
time. Indeed it was the last trouble that ever in breath 
he put me unto. For the next entrance I made was just 
to receive his last and deepest gasp. Of whom I say 
now not more, but as Philip said to Hipparchus, being 
gone, he died in good time to himself; but to me too 
soon. Thus he, that was ever honourable in the whole 

race of his life, was not without honour at his death 

He fought a good fight, both in the defence of the faith, 
and in expugnation of heresies, schisms, seditions, which 

invest the church I call that labour of his, because he 

made none other at that time, his last will and testament. 
Wherein the particular legacies which he bequeathed were 
these : To myself, (which I hold more precious than the 204 
finest gold,) fatherly exhortation to go forward in planting 
the gospel of Christ, which I had begun. [Meaning, per- 
haps, his lecture in York.] Secondly, To the papists, 
wholesome admonition to relinquish their errors, having no 
ground in the scriptures. And let them well advise them- 
selves, that at such a time, when there is no cause to affect 
favour and partiality to the religion established, no places 
left to dissemble with God or man, tanti meriti, tanti pe- 
ctoris ', tanti oris, tantce virtutis episcopus; (as Augustin 
spake of Cyprian ;) so worthy, so wise, so well spoken, so 
virtuous, so learned a bishop, gave such counsel unto them. 
Thirdly, To all the members of the church of England, 
unity of soul and heart, to embrace the doctrine authorized. 
And, lastly, To himself peace and rest in the assured mer- 
cies of God. This peace he had plentiful fruition of with 
the God of peace. 



2S6 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
\ N *° Number CXL. 

1 594. 



' Cooper, bishop of Winchester, (who died this year, 1594,) 

his monument and epitaph. 

IN the choir of that cathedral church was a plain white 
stone, on the ground, by the south door that goeth out of 
the choir, thus inscribed : 

Hicjacet Tho. Cooperus, olim Lineolnicns. nuper Win- 
tonien. episeopus; mnnifiecntiss. doetiss. ae vigilantiss. prce- 
sul. Qui religiosissime in Dno. obdormivit, 29 Apr. ami. 
Dom. 1594. 

Thesaurus, Chronicon, Cooperi ccetera scripia 
Dum remanent, Celebris Cooperi Jama mancbit. 
Oxonicnsis crat, Glocestrensisqiie decanus. 
Continuus primcc vicccancellarius urbis. 
Turn Lincolncnsisfit prcESid: et hide movctio 
Winton/am, denos ubi sedit episeopus annos. 
Summc doctus crat, summeque benignus egenis, 
Et summo studio divina oraeula pandit. 
Terra tcgit corpus, scd spiritus est super astra. 
Cosies tcs animai ccclestipacefrucntur. 

W. S. Deeasticon. 



205 Number CXLI. 

William Wickhcm, upon his nomination from Lincoln to 
the bishopric of Winchester, to the lord treasurer; in 
gratitude, and upon long leases designed of the revenues 
of that bishopric. 

HE acknowledged that lord to have been the main in- 
strument of his preferment, in a very gentile and courtly 
style. Afterwards he went on in these words : 

Now in this conscience of my devotionate affection to 
your lordship, and of your lordship's high favour to my in- 
stant preferment, suffer me, 1 pray you, after that cause of 
confidence, which you have ministered unto me your ho- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 287 

nourable inclination to the good of my state, to be suitor ANNO 
with your good liking, that as you have thought good to Xoi)4 ' 
bring me forth to this further advancement in our church, 
so you will please to be mean for me to her majesty, that 
like as it is reputed, and I trust intended, so I may indeed 
find it an advancement unto me, by enjoying her highness's 
benefit whole and full, without constrained grants: such 
as, I understand, are by some endeavoured, of extraordinary 
and unlawful leases of lands belonging to the bishopric. 
Whereby not only I shall from my own time be disabled to 
answer equally to my late predecessors the supposed dignity 
and well-known charges of that place, but (whereof I would 
be more loath) shall for hereafter also leave behind me an 
evil fame and report in this whole church ; that I was a 
spoiler of that see, which an honourable bishop there, of 
the same name [William of Wickham] and house sometime 
with me, did diversely before enrich and endow. Hereof, 
my honourable good lord, in most humble and earnest man- 
ner, I again pray you. And so commit your lordship to the 
merciful protection of the Almighty. From my lodging in 
London, the 10th of January, 1594. 

Your lordship's daily and most faithful orator, 

Gulielmus Lincoln. 



Number CXLII. 

Fletcher, bishop of Worcester, his letter to the lord trea- 
surer. Desires a remove to , the see of London : and 
why. 

Right honourable, 
I AM bold to beseech that by writing, which lately in 
presence I desired of your lordship : to wit, your honour's 
opinion and continuance of that begun favour, which lately 
it pleased your lordship to afford me to her majesty. My 
education hereabout, [viz. London,] and long knowledge of 206 
the place, continued as well by my service in court, as by 
sundry other links of friendship with persons of the city, 



288 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO and considering the absence from that charge which I have, 

_do draw me rather to desire the improvement of my poor 

duty and endeavour to the service of God and her majesty 
to this see and city of London, than in any other place of 
the realm. And I doubt not but it will please God to bless 
it withal. 

Your lordship knoweth, that it is not nothing in that 
function, where the flock and the pastor have desire the one 
of the other : in many things, beside the main and principal 
matter of ecclesiastical government and oversight therein, 
your lordship for your long experience knoweth, that there 
may befall occasions concerning the state, where the bishop, 
being regarded and beloved of them, may be a good and 
ready mean to give them furtherance and expedition. Be- 
sides which, the general care and regard of pastoral charge 
which, I trust, it will please God to settle in me for his 
glory there, your lordship shall be assured, if it so please 
the same, that no man, no, not bound with bands of 
nearest duty to your lordship, shall be more ready to re- 
spect your lordship's honourable either desires or directions 
in that place. 

And so, humbly beseeching your lordship to make me in 
this occasion both favoured by her majesty towards her 
own servant, and by the rest of my honourable lords, be- 
holden to your lordship, as in time past I have been, I 
commit your lordship to the goodness of God. The 29th 
of June, 159 4. 

Your lordship's ever in Christ, 

Rich. Wigorn. 

The success of this letter, and what happened to the bi- 
shop afterwards, may be seen in the Life of Archbishop 
Whitg-ift, book iv. chap. 13. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 289 

Number CXLIII. anno 

Adam Loftus, archbishop of Dublin, and lord chancellor of — 

Ireland, to the lord treasurer. His troubles; his in- 
tegrity; displayed to that lord: and his application to 
him. Wrote from Dublin, 9Hth of May, 1594. 

May it please your good lordship, 

AS often as I look back unto the course of my life, which 
draws towards an end, and call to my remembrance the 
manifold crosses and grievous troubles which in my place 
and vocation I have endured, so often must I confess, that 
next after the goodness of God, and her majesty's great 
grace, your honourable patronage and protection of me 
hath been the only means of my deliverance. Wherefore I 207 
most humbly crave your lordship's pardon, to license me 
(being destitute of all other means to make any requital for 
the least of your favours which you have poured upon me) 
in all my letters to acknowledge my most bounden duty 
and thankfulness; which is the only thing I can present 
unto you. 

By your lordship's letters in answer of mine sent by my 
servant, this bearer, I do perceive your just mislike of my 
motion, to have her majesty's leave, during the time of my 
absence in England, to leave the custody of the great seal 
with some one of this council, for whom I would answer. I 
do most humbly acknowledge mine oversight in that mo- 
tion, being misled by some formed precedents in former 
times : and very loath that the keeping of the seal should 
have come into the hands of sir Robert Gardiner, a gentle- 
man not well affected towards me, as I have just cause to 
conceive by his dealings : first stirring up Leg and Rich to 
prefer untrue and malicious libels against me; and now 
lately animating one Tipper, a seditious man of this country 
birth, to prosecute the same course ; who hath his sole de- 
pendence upon sir Robert. Nevertheless I yield my most 
humble thanks to your lordship, for directing my servant 
by your greater advice to suppress my letters to their lord- 
ships, lest any advantage had been taken against me for 



VOL. IV. 



290 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

anno that matter; having now resolved to forbear my suit till a 
" more convenient time, when it shall please all-wise God to 

send it. 

I understand by a postscript, written by your lordship's 
own hand, (for which I am most bound,) that upon such 
informations as were preferred against me, first by Leg, and 
now lately by one Tipper, which have been reported to her 
most excellent majesty by two of the lords, her highness is 
not well satisfied towards me. I am right woful in heart, 
and oppressed with grief of mind, that after my thirty and 
three years service in the place of a privy-counsellor in this 
state, information of so base persons are believed against 
me, and mine answers not credited : which I have delivered 
upon my credit, duty, and conscience ; and do refuse no 
manner of trial that shall be directed for my purgation. 
For remedy whereof, I have no other refuge but still to fly 
to your honourable protection : humbly beseeching your 
lordship, that as it hath pleased God in these our days to 
make you even the father of all good counsel, and the most 
ancient counsellor that ever served prince, that you will not 
suffer a poor servitor of my conscience, after so many ha- 
zards of my life in her majesty's service, to be without cause 
thus unworthily disgraced. 

If either the answers which I have made to Legg's in- 
formations be found untrue, or in any of these new matters 
preferred by Tipper I shall be culpable, I am contented for 
ever to renounce your lordship's favour. I have partly been 
advertised of Tipper's accusations, and do find by experi- 
ence, that the falsehood sometimes carrieth some probability 
of a truth. But if upon due trial of these cases it shall be 
proved that I have offended, let me never after be trusted 
with you. 
208 I hear to my great comfort, upon the late arrival of Tip- 
per, and upon speeches given out by himself, that commis- 
sion is directed to sir William Russel, the two chief justices, 
and sir Ra. Napper, for examination of the matter where- 
with he hath charged me. I am right glad this course is 
taken for (he trial of the truth. And my humble suit to 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 291 

jour lordship in this behalf is only this, to vouchsafe me ANNO 
your letter to the said commissioners to enter with some ,594 ' 
speed into the examination of these causes ; that I may be 
called to answer all that is or shall be objected. And that 
all my answers may be duly certified, for the full satisfac- 
tion of her majesty and your lordships : which is the thing 
I chiefly desire : and to the end no scar may remain against 
me of these informations ; as I am right sorry, by reason of 
Legg's death, there doth of the former, the Lord is my wit- 
ness, without any cause. 

My hope is, that during your lordship's days (which God 
long continue) I shall not want a friend to inform her ma- 
jesty of my long and painful services, and of my zealous af- 
fection and desire to do unto her highness any acceptable 
service. But woe is me, that now I perceive, to my great 
discomfort, your lordship doth begin to complain of sick- 
ness, and want of strength in body to protect such as al- 
ways heretofore have depended upon you. My good lord, 
I have no other to rely upon, being unknown to all the rest 
of their lordships. Hitherto, under God and her majesty, 
I never had dependency upon any but the earl of Sussex 
and your lordship. Neither do I mean to seek a new friend 
so long as you do live : most humbly beseeching your ho- 
nourable lordship to be a mean for me unto your son, sir 
Robert Cecil, that under you I may depend upon his ho- 
nourable favour in my just and honest causes. To which 
end I have purposely sent over this bearer, my servant, 
with my letters for him, humbly craving your lordship's 
good furtherance of this my suit. And I promise your lord- 
ship hereby, upon my honesty and credit, I will never seek 
his favour in any bad or dishonest cause. And even so, 
with due remembrance of my most bounden duty, I com- 
mend your lordship, by my most earnest prayers, to God's 
best graces. From Dublin, the 27th of May, 1594. 

Your lordship's humbly at commandment, 

Ad. Dublin, cane. 



292 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
anno Number CXLIV. 

1594. 

John bishop of Li m rick, from York, who wag, it seems, 

20,9 of the council there, to the lord treasurer: concerning 
some dangerous papists taken in those parts, and sent 
up: and now going to his bishopric in Ireland, desires 
to be one of the council there, and his service promised. 

THE prisoner Gravenor, and the two Hales, by my 

lord president here sent up, and within two or three days 
after this my letter will be at London. They will not here 
confess any practice. But your honour will find them most 
obstinate malefactors and dangerous persons. It appeareth 
they agreed upon a form of a set tale, when they should 
come to be examined, as may seem by their first answer, 
that they were beer-sellers ; which they confessed thev con- 
cluded among themselves, in the way betwixt Barwic and 
York, &c. 

If your honour may be pleased to pardon this one thing 
I now write, I will perform while I live that which I now 
write. Namely, if your honour think me worthy for any 
employment about the state with the deputy and council in 
Ireland, whereby I may have cause sometimes there to re- 
side for her majesty's service, there shall not any one thing 
concerning any service happen there, but thereof will I 
give your honour, or sir Robert (Veil, primary and speedy 
true intelligence thence. In one word, I will in all things 
serve your honour. For I know you serve her majesty 
and your country with all faithfulness. Only were I so 
happy as to be received into your honour's trust and pro- 
tection, I were sufficiently animated from time to time to 
certify your honour all things there said, purposed, or prac- 
tised. Yourself should dwell in their bosoms, when I dwell 
in Dublin. 

And so, humbly desiring your honour to wrap up ni\ 
proffered service and duty in silence and in oblivion, I most 
humbly take leave, praying to the Almighty, with hand 
and heart lift up to heaven, for vour health to be eon- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 293 

tinued, with all honourable happiness. York, the 31st of ANNO 
December. '. 



Your honour's in all duty, 

Jo. Limricensis. 



Number CXLV. 210 

The said bishop to the lord treasurer : for leave to trans- 
port things from Yorh into Ireland; where he was going 
to live, being required residence. 

My most honourable good lord, 
I BESEECH your honour, that I may have licence 
(seeing I am to live in Ireland) to transport with me 50 
ewes, 8 rams, 6 mares, 20 cows, and 2 bulls, for mine own 
breed ; and 10 muskets, and other needful furniture, for 
my own safety. And that my household stuff, which I 
carry with me, my books, chests, trunks, and other my car- 
riages, may be transported with myself or with my ser- 
vants, without any let or trouble to me or my servants, by 
searchers, or customers, or other officers, to be offered unto 
us. I most humbly take my leave ; evermore praying for 
your honour's healthful and happy preservation. York, 
16th of March. 

Your honour's in all duty and service, 

Jo. Limricens. 



Number CXLVI. 

The plague, dreadful storms and unseasonable weather in 
this and the former year, gave occasion to Dr. J. King, 
in one of his lectures at Yo?-k, to use these words. 

THE months of the year [1593 and 1594] have not yet 
gone about, wherein the Lord hath bowed the heavens, and 
come down about us with more tokens and earnests of his 
wrath intended, than the agedest man of our land is able to 
recount of so small a time. For say, if ever the winds, since 

u3 



1594. 



294 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO they blew one against the other, have been more common 
. and more tempestuous ; as if the four ends of heaven had 
conspired to turn the province of the earth upside down. 
Thunders and lightnings, neither seasonable for the time, 
and withal most terrible with such effects brought forth, 
that the child unborn shall speak of it. The anger of the 
clouds hath been poured down upon our heads, both with 
abundance, and (besides those that felt it) with incredible 
violence. The air threatened our miseries with a blazing 
star. The pillars of the earth tottered in many whole coun- 
tries and tracts of our land. For the arrows of the woful 
pestilence have been cast abroad at large in all the quarters 
of our realm, even to the emptying and dispeopling of 
some parts thereof. 

And in another of his lectures. Within the year, each 
sevennight cut off a thousand; yea, sometimes a great many 
more, in one city of our land, [viz. London,] by the infec- 
tion of the plague. Since that time, the note hath returned 
211 [of the abatement of the infection] not one ; or so few, that 
it is as yet as if it were nothing. Remember that the spring 
[that year when the plague brake out] was very unkind, by 
means of the abundance of rains that fell. Our July hath 
been like to a February ; our June even as an April : so 
that the air must needs be corrupted. God amend it in his 
mercy, and stay this plague of waters. But yet the pesti- 
lence is not ceased. 

And concerning a dearth for three years now successively, 
he had these words. Behold ! what a famine God hath 
brought upon our land ; and making it to persevere yet hi- 
therto, doth increase it. One year there hath been hunger: 
the second there was a dearth : and a third there was great 
cleanness of teeth. And see, whether the Lord doth not 
threaten vis much more, by sending such unseasonable wea- 
ther and storms of rain among us. Which if we will ob- 
serve, and compare it with that which is past, we may say, 
that the course of nature is very much inverted. Our years 
are turned upside down. Our summers are no summers: 
our harvests are no harvests : our seeds-times are no seeds- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 295 

times. For a great space of time, scant any day hath been ANNO 
seen that it hath not rained upon us. And the nights are ' b94 ' 
like the days. 



Number CXLVII. 

Francis Bacon, (afterwards the learned lord Verulam,) son 
to sir Nicholas Bacon, lord keeper of the great seal, de- 
ceased, to the lord treasurer: concerning the solicitor's 
place, which he had endeavoured by friends to obtain 
from the queen, 

AFTER the remembrance of my humble and bounden 
duty. It may please your good lordship, the last term I 
drew myself to my house in the country, expecting that the 
queen would have placed another solicitor ; and so, I con- 
fess, a little to help digestion. And to be out of eye, I ab- 
sented myself. For I understood her majesty not only to 
continue in her delay, and, as I was advertised chiefly by 
my lord of Essex, to be retrograde, to use the terms apted 
to the highest powers. Since which time I have, as in mine 
own conceit, given over the suit : though I leave it to her 
majesty's tenderness, and the constancy of my honourable 
friends ; so it be done without pressing. 

And now my writing to your lordship is chiefly to give 
you thanks. For surely if a man consider the travail, and 
not the event, a man is often more bounden to his honour- 
able friends for a suit denied, than for a suit succeeding. 
Herewithal I am bold to make unto your lordship three re- 
quests; which ought to be very reasonable, because they 
come so many at once. But I cannot call that reasonable, 
which is only grounded upon favour. The first is, that your 
lordship would yet tueri opus tuce manus; and give as 
much life to this present suit for the solicitor's place as may 
be without offending the queen : for that were not good for 
me. The next is, that if I did shew myself too credulous 212 
to idle hearsays, in regard of my rt. honourable kinsman 
and good friend sir Robert Cecil], whose good nature did; 

u 4 



296 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO well answer my guest liberty, your lordship will impute 
___ ' it to the complexion of a suitor, and of a stirred seasick 
suitor, and not mine own inclination. Lastly, that howso- 
ever this matter go, yet that I may enjoy your Lordship's 
good favour and help, as I have done, in regard of my pri- 
vate estate. Which as I have not altogether neglected, so I 
have but negligently attended; and which hath been bet- 
tered only by yourself, (the queen except,) and not by any 
other, in matter of importance. 

This last request I find it more necessary for me to 
make, because, though I am glad of her majesty's favour, 
that I may with more ease practise the law, which percase 
I may use now and then for my countenance; yet to speak 
plainly, though perhaps vainly, I do not think that the or- 
dinary practice of the law, not serving the queen in place, 
will be admitted for a good account of the poor talent that 
God hath given me. So, as I make reckoning, I shall reap 
no great benefit to myself in that course, that am desiring 
the continuance of your lordship's goodness as I have hi- 
therto found, and on my part sought also to deserve. I 
commend your good lordship to God's good preservation. 
From Gray's Inn, this 21st of March, 1594. 

Your lordship's most humbly bounden, 

Fr. Bacon. 



Number CXLVIII. 

Sir Thomas Mildmay movcth to Keep a register of all 
strangers coming into the realm. (Hitherto rcjitscd out 
of a compassion, as it seems, of the poor people, that 
came over hither for tlie sake of their religion and their 
lives.) 

THE queen's most excellent majesty, even from the first 
beginning of her gracious reign, having manifested to all 
the world her godly zeal and inclination to the true service 
of Almighty God, by abolishing idolatry and superstition 
from among her people, causing his word to be preached, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 297 

and his gospel to have free passage throughout her high- ANNO 
ness' dominions, hath thereby (through the malice of the 1594 ' 
apparent adversaries to God's truth) procured herself many : 
from whose danger nevertheless God hath, in his great 
mercy, miraculously defended her majesty, notwithstanding 
their practices both abroad and in her own realm ; tending 
to the overthrow of religion, the peril of her royal person, 
and the utter subversion of the commonwealth. In this 
time of her highness' 1 reign, (her princely clemency is such,) 
she hath permitted and suffered a number of strangers and 
foreigners of sundry nations (without account rendered of 
the causes of their coming) liberally and freely to have ac- 
cess into this realm, and under the colour of religion and 
conscience, here to inhabit and accede at their wills and 213 
pleasures ; protected from those exactions and persecutions 
wherewith they were like to have been miserably afflicted 
in their own natural countries: a work highly pleasing 
God, greatly honourable to her majesty, and worthily com- 
mendable among all good men. 

Howbeit sithence heretofore among many good princes, 
her majesty's manly progenitors, and in other well-governed 
commonwealths at this day, (joining policy with pity,) it hath 
been and is reputed great wisdom to provide means, that 
the certain number of foreigners and strangers coming to 
inhabit this our country or any other, and the several occa- 
sions of their coming, might be certainly known by noto- 
rious and perfect registers, kept in some special office to be 
appointed for that purpose, of what nation each foreigner 
were, the cause of his coming, his calling and condition, art 
and science, when and where he arrived, in what place he 
inhabited, and what time he returned again into his own 
country. 

It may so now please her majesty, of her special grace 
and favour, for these necessary reasons ensuing, for the 
yearly rent of 40/. to be paid into her highness' court of 
exchequer, and in consideration of the true and faithful ser- 
vice done unto her majesty for the space of twenty-eight years 
now past, by sir Thomas Mildmay, kt. her grace's servant, 



298 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO to erect an office for that purpose by her highness" letters 
'''"• patents, making and ordaining him, the said sir Thomas, 



officer thereof; granting unto him and his assigns power 
and authority thereby, for the term of twenty-one years, to 
begin from the feast of the birth of our Lord God last past, 
to make and keep a register and registers, yearly, of the 
names, ages, and abilities of body, countries, callings, arts, 
sciences, places of habitation, causes of repair hither, and 
times of departure hence, of all foreigners and strangers, 
now being and inhabiting within this her highness" realm 
of England, and of all other that shall from time to time 
come into this realm to inhabit, or pass forth of the same, 
during the same term of twenty-one years ; except all am- 
bassadors and their trains, noblemen or gentlemen, ladies or 
gentlewomen, coming of pleasure to see her majesty and her 
realm, and Scots. Allowing to the same sir Thomas Mild- 
may, or his assigns, for the first entry after, during the 
continuance of the said term, four pence for every poll of 
such as be householders, and two pence the poll for children 
and servants; and four pence the poll for every one that 
shall depart the realm again. 

The reasons to prove this suit beneficial for the com- 
moniccalth. 

1. Although the number of foreigners and strangers, now 
inhabiting and being within the realm, may not as yet be 
reputed over great, yet is the same meet to be certainly 
known. And well may it be feared, that the wars and af- 
flictions now being, and like to continue sharp in the coun- 
tries adjacent, may procure a greater number to repair hi- 
ther, than with good policy were fit to be endured. 

2. It were necessary to know of what nation each fo- 
reigner is, and the cause of his coming. So may her ma- 
jesty's friends be known from those who are subjects to 
other princes or states, her enemies; and cannot in reason 
be thought to come among us either for zeal for religion 

214 or love to her majesty, but rather to practise against her 
highness and her state, or at the least to rob us of our com- 
modities, to enrich themselves, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 299 

3. The strangers that do now inhabit here, either have ANNO 
placed themselves in the heart of the realm, as London, I594, 
Norwich, and Canterbury, or in the port-towns, as South- 
ampton, Sandwich, Colchester, and divers others; where 

they are ready to do mischief, being of power, (time and 
occasion serving them,) or otherwise lie fittest to engross 
our commodities into their hands, and to transport the 
same to their own private benefit and our great hinderance. 
And therefore it is expedient to know certainly the num- 
ber of them, their callings and trades. So as always at her 
majesty's pleasure the same number might be abridged, if 
either it should seem perilous to the state to suffer it, or 
that it might be granted to such of her majesty's subjects, 
artizans and mechanical persons, to be impoverished by 
the multitude of strangers, being of their trades and fa- 
culties. 

4. Even as her majesty, by her gracious favour, doth 
protect such as repair hither sincerely for their conscience 
sake and for religion, so is there no reason ; but such as 
make religion the colour of their coming, and are in truth 
irreligious, and frequent no church at all, such be known and 
discerned from the other, as by this means they may be. 

5. Her majesty, by knowing their number, ages, and abi- 
lities of body, may understand what serviceable men there 
be among them, fit to be employed in the wars, if it should 
so please her majesty to use them. And accordingly to in- 
crease armour and weapon at their charge, to be kept in 
store at her majesty's appointment, for the benefit of the 
realm, as occasion shall serve to have the same used, either 
by our own countrymen, we having among us many more 
able bodies than we can easily arm, or otherwise at her ma- 
jesty's pleasure. 

6. There be many known rich men among them, and 
others very able, (though not so greatly noted,) which live 
obscurely only to benefit themselves by usury and exchange 
of money, without doing good to our commonwealth. These 
men are meet to lend her majesty great sums of money at 
all times, if it be her pleasure to use it, and thereby ease 



300 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO her highness 1 own subjects. And by the register such may 
* upon all occasions be found oyt. 



7. Many strangers and foreigners, after they have once 
greedily gotten into their hands great riches and treasure 
by engrossing our commodities, suddenly depart the realm, 
and many times steal away with other men's goods, with- 
out any notice given or taken thereof. A matter very hurt- 
ful to the commonwealth, and would be holpcn, if the time, 
place, and manner of their departure were observed and re- 
gistered. 

8. Under the colour of merchandize and religion, many 
intelligencers and spies adventure to come hither among us, 
to the prejudice of the state : which would be reformed, if 
the cause of their coming was well understood and dis- 
creetly examined. 

9. If the meaner multitude of her majesty's people should 
(as in former days) happen, upon some fantastical conceit, 
to find themselves grieved at the extreme prices of victuals, 

2 1 5 or the great enhancing the rents of houses, where the fo- 
reigners inhabit : suppose the numbers of them be the 
cause, it would by the register plainly appear whether it 
were true or no ; and at all times be reformed with speed, 
at her majesty's good pleasure. 

10. There be few or no poor people among them ; so as 
it cannot be justly intended, that this payment of 6d, for 
the first entry, and 4>d. and 2r/. yearly after, as aforesaid, 
cannot be offensive. And it is very evidently seen and 
known, that after they be once settled here they become 
wealthy in short space, however poor and needy they were 
at their first coming. Therefore the burden being so small 
to them, nothing being thereby taken from any of our own 
nation, but so many benefits growing to the realms by the 
means of erecting the said office, and a yearly revenue com- 
ing to the crown thereby, it may therefore please her most 
excellent majesty to favour this humble petition of the said 
sir Thomas, and to grant the same accordingly. 

The like suit was made the year before, 1593, to the lord 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 301 

treasurer, by Edward Dymock, for a view of all aliens and ANNO 

strangers through the realm, and to keep a roll and book of '__ 

the names and numbers of them; with the reasons set down: 
when the answer given him was, that the suits were stale, 
and inconvenient for her majesty to grant. 



Number CXLIX. 

The lord treasurer to the queen's secretary: concerning 
certain rents and revenues to be assured to the queen, 
■upon the vacancies of the bishoprics of Winchester and 
Durham, by the two bishops that should succeed the for- 
mer. MSS. D. Joh. episc. Elien. (Nozv in the royal li- 
brary at Cambridge.) 

To my very loving son, sir Robert Cecill, kt. &c. 
I WOULD wish you to be careful touching the pro- 
ceeding to be had for the nominated bishops of Wincester 
and Durham ; that before they be perfited, there be suf- 
ficient provision made, and assurance to her majesty of such 
rents and annuities as ought to be assured by them. As 
namely, from the bishop of Winchester of a rent charge of 
CCCC lib. [i. e. 400 pounds] per. ann. granted by the late 
bishop deceased, out of the manor of Taunton, and other 
manors ; as also of V m and ilu [880] yearly rents, issuing 
out of the lordship of Allerton, and other lordships within 
the bishopric of Durham, paid to her majesty ; and further, 
of CXL [140] yearly rent for the castle of Durham, and a 
fishing upon the river of Tweed, which my lord chamber- 
lain holds, which rent was likewise answered to her majesty 
by his predecessor. I pray you therefore have a care to 
these things, touching her majesty, before any further pro-2l6 
ceeding be had therein. From my house, Westminster, the 
14th of Feb. 1594. 

This tliat follows was my lord Burghley's own handwriting. 

" I sent for Mr. Attorney to have a care hereof, who is 
" herein wary how to proceed, but I have directed to speak 



302 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO " with the lord chief justice and the master of the rolls, who 

15!)4 - " were attorneys ; and so he will : but he complaineth of 

" want of others, seeing there is but one sergeant, and no 

" solicitor; alleging, that there are many weighty causes 

" of her majesty to be ordered. 

" You may inform her majesty hereof: and for a ser- 
" geant, I know none fitter than Mr. Yelverton. As for 
" any solicitors, I will not presume to name any for some 
" respects. 

" Your loving father, 

" W. Burghley." 



Number CL. 

A prayer of queen Elizabeth, vpon the going forth of her 
army against the enemy. Found among the lord Burgh- 
ley's MSS. 

MOST omnipotent Maker and Guider of all the world's 
mass, that only searchest and fathomest the bottom of all 
hearts' conceits, and in them seest the true original of all 
actions intended : thou that by thy foresight dost truly dis- 
cern, how no malice of revenge, nor quittance of injury, nor 
desire of bloodshed, nor greediness of lucre, hath bred the 
resolution of our new set out army; but a heedful care, and 
wary watch, that no neglect of foes, nor over-surety of harm, 
might breed either danger to us, or glory to them. These 
being the grounds, thou that didst inspire the mind, we 
humbly beseech thee, with bended knees, prosper the work; 
and with best forewinds guide the journey, speed the vic- 
tory, and make the return the advancement of thy glory, 
the triumph of their fame, and surety to the realm, with the 
least loss of English blood. To these devout petitions, 
Lord, give thou thy blessed grant. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 303 

Number CLI. ANNO 

15.95. 

The archbishop of YorTc, and the council in the north, to 

the lord treasurer: signifying their receipt of the queen's^** 
commission ; with certain instructions for authorizing 
the government of that council. 

MAY it please your good lordship to be advertised, that 
we have received yesterday her majesty's commission under 
the seal of England, directed to us and others, together 
with certain instructions, signed with her most gracious 
hand, for the authorizing of the government of this council. 
Wherein we do most humbly acknowledge her highness's 
princely, and your good lordship's honourable regard had 
of this council, and the quiet government of these parts. 
Which commission was this day published, the sitting be- 
ginning accordingly. And whereas upon the death of our 
late good lord, the earl of Huntington, it pleased your good 
lordship to signify unto us, that her highness did well al- 
low, that the steward of his lordship's late household should 
continue the diet for this council, and the ordinary servants, 
(whereof a calendar was before sent up to your lordship,) 
until her majesty's pleasure be further known. Since which 
time, the said steward, upon knowledge of your lordship's 
letters given him, and to her majesty's receiver of this 
county, by us, having received since Christmas but the 
sura of fourscore pounds from the receiver, hath hitherto 
therewith, and with such provision of corn and victuals as 
remained of the late earl, and money disbursed by him, 
maintained the diet for this council and said household. 

And now for so much as it hath pleased her majesty by 
these her last instructions, to declare that her highness will 
give order by warrant to the receiver of this shire, to con- 
tinue payment of such sums of money for the discharge of 
the diet of the household, to be kept for this council, as 
heretofore he hath done ; and so that the household of the 
late earl yet continuing together is very great, the corps re- 
maining still in her majesty's house, and her highness's re- 
ceiver being now at London, not having any warrant from 



304 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO your lordship, cither for the money he hath hitherto paid 
X59 °' to the steward upon this quarter, since his lordship's death, 
nor for the payment of the rest ; so as in his absence the 
steward doth borrow to supply the present provision, till 
some further direction from your lordship : we therefore are 
humble suitors to your good lordship, that present warrant 
may be given, to be sent directly to the clerk, for the pay- 
ment of the rest of this quarter's allowance to the steward ; 
whereby the diet may be the better provided, and the 
money borrowed for the same discharged : as also to know 
your lordship's further pleasure, how long the servants of 
the said lord president, that be here at her majesty's cost, 
and how many shall after be continued for the necessary 
attendance and service of the place. 

We are now about the despatch of her majesty's service 
for the horsemen to be sent to the lord Euric, for defence of 
218 the borders, according to her majestv's gracious pleasure: 
which Ave hope to effect with expedition. And so beseech- 
ing God to bless your lordship, we humbly take our leaves. 
At York, this 1st of March, 1595. 

Your lordship's most assured, 
Matth. Ebor. W. Cardynall. E. Stanhope. 
Ch. Hales. J. Feme. Jo. Gibson. 



Number CLII. 

Matthew Hutton, archbishop of' York, to tlic lord trea- 
surer: eon eerning recusants in those parts. A greed re- 
volt there. 

My honourable good lord, 
TOGETHER with her majesty's commission for keep- 
ing the sitting here, I received your lordship's letter of the 
26th of the last month, [February.] Whereby I under- 
stand you have seen the certificate of the recusants of this 
province, and that you do eompati with us of the clergy, 
whom especially the matter doth concern, and who I fear 
must answer to Almighty God for this great revolt. And 



1595. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 305 

yet I hope it is not so great as it seems to be. Partly, be- ANNO 
cause a great number of those that were indicted for \9,d. a . 
time are either dead or else reclaimed, as yesterday I did 
hear; and partly, for that the most part of them are wo- 
men, or of the meanest sort, not able to endanger the 
state. 

Your lordship is desirous to know my opinion, what 
should be the cause of this falling away. Which I will do, 
as soon as I may conveniently. I am shortly to visit mine 
own diocese : whereby I shall know all things more exact, 
and certify your lordship more perfectly. In the mean 
while, I will use all good means to call in those that are 
gone astray, and to keep those that are within. But I must 
earnestly entreat your lordship to be a mean, that the eccle- 
siastical commission may be renewed. I have been above 
three quarters of a year in suing for it, and yet cannot get 
her majesty's hand. Edward Barker, the register, did un- 
dertake the suing it forth before my coming from London ; 
and every term since I sent to him : and now I hear it is 
delivered to Dr. Caesar. 

Thus, beseeching God to bless your lordship with his 
manifold gifts, and namely, with good health, that her ma- 
jesty, the church, and the realm may long have the fruition 
of your sound counsel in these troublesome times, I bid 
your good lordship most heartily farewell. From York, 
this of March, 159-5. 

Your lordship's in Christ most assured, 

Matth. Ebor. 



Number CLIII. 21Q 

The same archbishop to the lord treasurer: concerning one 
Wright, a dangerous man; dismissed, and sent down to 
York. 

My most honourable good lord, 
ALBEIT it doth not become me to dislike any thing- 
done by that most honourable board, yet because it hath 
VOL. iv. x 



306 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO pleased her most excellent majesty to commit a great charge 
* unto me in this country, I am bold to signify unto your 
good lordship, as to the father of grave counsel, that I have 
no good liking of the coming of Wright unto York, nor of 
his abode here. His father is an obstinate fleering recu- 
sant, and long hath so been : himself went away from 
school at York about 19 years ago; and now is said to be 
a Jesuit. The man, properly studied in the school-points 
of popery, not sound, nor profoundly learned; yet very bold, 
audacious, or rather impudent, to defend the most absurdi- 
ties of that trash in any company ; in presence of myself 
and my chaplains. He did to this assertion stand very 
stiffly: that a private man, being in conscience persuaded 
that it was lawful for him to kill a tyrant, sinneth not, if he 
kill him. And when I replied, that that ignorance itself 
was a sin, and that albeit it might excuse a tanto, yet it 
could not in any wise excuse a toto ; he did boldly and au- 
daciously stand to it, that it did excuse a toto. This opi- 
nion is a most devilish opinion ; most dangerous to all states 
and commonwealths. For he is a tyrant and an heretic, in 
their opinion, whom the pope saith is one. 

I beseech your good lordship consider, whether it is fit 
that this man should be sent for thither, or stay here, with- 
out keeper, without pardon. I pray God, that the papists 
do not make this collection, that seminary priests and Jesuits 
are true and dutiful subjects to her majesty : for it is said, 
he hath done good service of late, &c; but I am in opinion, 
that he doth the pope very good service in this kind of deal- 
ing. And God knows, whether he hath not dispensation to 
bewray some things against the Spaniard, that some other 
way he may do the pope better service, either against this 
state or against religion. 

And thus I commend your good lordship to the blessed 
protection of the Almighty. From Bishopthorp, the 10th 
of Sept. 1595. 

Your good lordship's in Christ most assured, 

Matth. Ebor. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 307 

Number CLIV. ANNO 

1695. 

Newal, a messenger of the queen's chamber, sent by the 



privy-council into Derbyshire, to apprehend certain ^-220 
minary priests there: with directions under their ho- 
nours' 1 hands, unto which houses he shoidd go ; and the 
names of the justices that accompanied him. 

EDWARD COKAYNE went with him, being one of 
the queen's justices, with his own man, Day : and that to 
do her majesty his best service. The first house which they 
searched, according to the messenger's direction, was the 
house of Mr. Tenison, that married one of the lady Gerard's 
daughters: she being a great recusant, and not her hus- 
band. However it is reported, that there was great resort of 
strangers there. But what they were, they could not learn. 
Nor did they find any there, but pictures in the chambers, 
according to their profession. Only one West, that was a 
messenger between the seminaries, was fled six weeks be- 
fore they came. 

The next house they searched in the same county was 
one Mr. Merry's house, of Barton-Park ; whose wife is sis- 
ter to Mr. Palmer of Legworth : she being a great recu- 
sant, and not her husband. And they have likewise, as 
was reported, great resort unto their house. She told the 
messenger, that she heard of his coming the night before. 
In the house indeed they found nothing. 

For these seminary priests which he doth look for, name- 
ly, John Redford, alias Tanfield, Robert Shewel, Nicolas 
Wade, alias Toke, three seminaries, they have been heard 
of to be in this country ofttimes, and yet remaining up and 
down ; but where, as yet, we know not. All this circuit I 
have been with the messenger, who hath taken very great 
pains, and discharged his duty very well. 16th of June, 
1595. 

Edward Cokayne. 

The same messenger came to Fr. Hastinges, another jus- 
tice there, shewing the council's warrant to go with him 

x 2 



308 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO about her majesty's service. They went presently to Mr. 

lo9 °' John Palmer's house at Kegworth : and the messenger 

made due and diligent search ; but found nothing, nor no 

stranger there. This the said Hastings certified, June the 

18th, 95. 



221 Number CLV. 

Prisoners for religion : their prisons, and numbers, sent 
vpjrom the ecclesiastical commission. 

IN the "1 Of popish recusants 24 

Clink, J Of Brownists - 1 

In the Marshal sea - - - - - - 14 

In Newgate _--____ 16 

Whereof one a Brownist. 

In the Gate-house - - 11 

Whereof two convicted of recusancy. 

In Bridewell --_____ 9 

Most upon the council's commandment. 

In the Fleet ------- IS 

Whereof one a Brownist, and three committed for debt. 

In the Counter in Wood-street - 3 

In the White-Lion 3 



9. 



In the King's Bench -_-_-_ 

The one a sectary ; the other convicted of treason. 
In the prison of St. Katharine's - 4 

From the lords of the council. 
The whole number ------ 89 

Of which number, 10, partly upon submission, and partly 
upon promise to admit conference, are enlarged, upon bond 
to return to prison upon warning. 

So there remain prisoners at this present, 79. 

Of which number of threescore and nineteen, only 24 are 
committed by the ecclesiastical commission. 

And they all continue obstinate, and of the same mind 
wherein they were at the time of their commitment. 

And of the same number of 79, there be 28 committed 
by the lords of the council, and by order from then). 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 309 

ANNO 
Number CLVI. 1595. 



October 30, 1595. A memorial for defence of dangerous 
places of the land in several counties: wrote by the 
lord treasurer ; upon apprehension of an invasion from 
Spain. 

A MEMORIAL of the dangerous places for the land- 
ing of the enemy upon the south coast of England, and in 
the river of Severn at the haven of Milford. With a note 
of the forces thought meet to be in readiness to defend the 
same. 

Cornwall 8000. The most notable places are Helford, 
Fawmouth, Foye, and Mountsbay. For the defence of these 
places, or any other in Cornwall, where the enemy may at- 
tempt to land, it is requisite that the lieutenant of the 
shire, or his deputy in his absence, should make choice of 
so many of his most principal gentlemen of credit and 
knowledge in the county, as might take the charge of so 
many bands as should amount to 4000 men, furnished. 222 
And the same to see the same to be truly furnished with 
armour and weapon. And to be ready to repair to those 
places in the county, and especially to the havens above 
mentioned, upon view of the enemy's coming to the coast. 
And for the more effectual service, every of the said gen- 
tlemen, that shall be appointed captains to any of the said 
bands, shall be directed to carry with them, as parcel of 
their numbers, as many of their household servants, being 
able men, with armour and weapon, to the place for de- 
fence ; and also to make choice of some experimented sol- 
diers, to serve under them, as their lieutenants and officers. 

Item, For further succour of this defence, order is to be 
given, that the lieutenant of Devonshire to give assistance 
of 4000 men under like principal gentlemen for their cap- 
tains, with like furniture, of their household servants, and 
assistance of expert soldiers for their lieutenants, and officers 
of their bands. For which purpose the lieutenant of Corn- 
wall shall give knowledge to the lieutenants of Devonshire 
to send his said number to his aid, or so many of them as 

x3 



310 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO he shall think needful upon the landing of the enemy, or 
°' upon the entry of the enemy , s shipping to the haven with 
appearance of his purpose to land his said forces within the 
said haven. 

Devonshire 19,000. Item, The same order shall be given 
to the lieutenants there, for the defence of the havens there, 
of Plymouth, Dartmouth, Torbay, and Salcomb, in this 
manner following. There shall be 6000 of the numbers of 
that county, being furnished in like manner, prepared by 
the lieutenant of Devon. And moreover he shall send to 
the lieutenant of Cornwall, as he shall find it needful, if the 
enemy shall not attempt any thing there, to have the num- 
ber of 4000. And to the lieutenant of Dorset for 3000. 
And to the lieutenant of Wiltshire for 2000. And to the 
lieutenant of Somersetshire for 4000. All which numbers 
the several lieutenants of those counties shall upon demand 
of the lieutenant of Devon send to his aid, and a certain 
advertisement of the landing of the enemy, or of his entry 
into the haven, with appearance to land his forces. 

Do rsct 1 4,000. The places of danger there, are the ha- 
ven of Portland with the isles, and the havens of Pool and 
Weymouth. For defence whereof the lieutenant there shall 
put in readiness, under bands of principal gentlemen of the 
shire, the number of 4000. And for the further succour, 
as need shall require, he shall have the aid out of Devon- 
shire of 4000, and of Somerset of 4000, and of Wilts 2000. 
Which numbers the lieutenants of those several shires shall 
put in order, well furnished with armour and weapon ; and 
under sufficient captains and leaders. And shall send the 
same to the lieutenant of Dorset, or so many of his said 
numbers as he shall require. 

Hampshire 10,000. The places of most danger there, 
are the Isle of Wight and the town of Portsmouth. For 
the defence whereof there shall be provided and made ready 
4000 of the forces of Hampshire. And for further succour 
2000 out of Wiltshire, and 3000 out of Barkshire, 4000 
out of Sussex, 3000 out of Surrey. Which forces shall be 
also commanded to be put in readiness by the lieutenants of 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 311 

the said several shires; and shall be by them, upon the re- ANNO 
quest of the lieutenant of Hampshire, or his deputies, sent I595- 
to the succour of the said county of Southampton and the 223 
Isle of Wight. And yet nevertheless the former orders 
taken with the lieutenant of Hampshire, with the captain 
of Portsmouth and of the Isle of Wight, for succouring the 
said isle and town of Portsmouth, shall not be discontinued. 

Kent 20,000. The places of most danger are about the 
Isles of Shepey and Thanet. For the defence whereof there 
shall be put in readiness by the lieutenant thereof the num- 
ber of 6000. And for further succour, upon request of the 
lieutenant of Kent, there shall be sent out of Sussex 4000. 
Out of Surrey 6000. From the city of London 3000. And 
from Essex 4000. 

Essex 17,000. The place of most danger is Harwich. 
For succour whereof there shall be put in readiness 6000. 
And for further supply, as case shall require, there shall be 
4000 sent out of Kent. From London 3000. From Hart- 
ford 1000. And from Suffolk 3000. 

Siiffolk 13,300. Upon occasion of landing in any place 
to the danger of the country, there shall be made ready 
5000 of that county. And for further supply, there shall 
be sent upon request made to the several lieutenants ; that 
is, out of Norfolk 3000. Essex 4000. Cambridge 500. 
Huntington 300. Hartford 500. 

Norfolk 13,800. The place of most danger is Yarmouth. 
For the defence whereof, or of any other place where the 
enemy shall attempt to land, there shall be made ready and 
provided in Norfolk 6000. And for a further supply, out 
of Suffolk 4000. Out of Lincoln 3000. Out of Cam- 
bridgeshire 500. Out of Hunt. 300. 

Wales. The special place of danger there is the river 
of Severn and the haven of Milford. For the defence 
whereof there shall be made ready in South Wales the 
number of And as need shall require, there shall be 

out of the shires of North Wales made ready And 

for a further supply, out of Herefordshire 1000. Out of 
Somersetshire 1000. Out of Gloucestershire 1000. Out of 

x 4 



312 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO Worcestershire 1000. And if cause shall require greater 
supply, there shall be sent out of Shropshire 1000. 

Item, Every lieutenant that shall send a footman to the 
seacoast of any place, for impeaching of the enemy's land- 
ing, he shall also send, for every thousand of footmen, an 
hundred pioneers, to accompany them with necessary tools, 
as spades and pickaxes, and such like, to serve for intrench- 
ment for grounds, for stopping of passages, or such neces- 
sary things. And that some number of them may have also 
halberds or bills wherewith to offend the enemy. Allowing 
some carriages to carry their tools, whereby to make the 
more expedition. 

Letters to the lieutenants. 

A memorial of certain things to be inserted in the letters to 
all the lieutenants of the counties aforesaid, 

1st, That every lieutenant, within whose county the 
enemy shall attempt to land, shall cause all the forces of the 
horsemen, both lances, light-horse, and petronels, to be in 
such readiness, as upon the sight of the enemy coming upon 
224 the coast to land in any place, the same forces of horsemen 
shall be directed to make their way to the seacoast, there to 
behold to what landing place the enemy shall make his 
course. To which place the horsemen shall direct all their 
course to impeach their landing. 

Item, The lieutenant also shall give order to such forces 
of footmen as are far distant from the seaside and landing; 
places, to be provided of a number of small nags and horse, 
and carriages, as heretofore was prescribed unto them, both 
to carry them with more speed to the place of service, and 
also to aid them for carriage of their armour and victuals 
for some few days. Whereof care would be had, and an or- 
der given to every captain of a band, to cause some propor- 
tion of victuals to be carried, to satisfy the numbers for 
some reasonable time, until a general provision might be 
had of a sufficient store of the common charge of the shire, 
to maintain the numbers during the time of their service. 

Item, It would be foreseen, that besides the quantity of 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 313 

powder, match, and lead, which the shot in every band shall ANNO 
carry with them for their private use, the store also hereto- 1595- 
fore appointed to be kept in public to be supplied in any 
defect; and the same to be carried upon some carts, or 
horseback, to supply the lack that may happen upon the 
expense of the private men's store. 

Item, Every maritime lieutenant, upon the view of the 
enemy upon the seacoast, shall send for the forces of horse : 
which shall repair to the next places of the seacoast ; there 
to attend, to see in what place the enemy shall attempt to 
land ; and then to make their course to that place of land- 
ing, to impeach the enemy : and so what he shall require 
further aid of the other counties, to send him such succours 
of footmen as before is appointed. He shall also, if he find- 
eth occasion to have the use of horsemen, require the aid of 
some reasonable number of horsemen : which horsemen 
shall repair to the next seacoast, there to attend and expect 
where the enemy shall offer to land : to which place the 
said horsemen shall repair. 

Item, Every lieutenant that shall be required to give aid 
shall have like consideration to have horse or nags provided 
to serve the footmen, both for hastening of them to the 
place of service, and to carry their armour and necessary 
victuals for them, for some reasonable time. And shall also 
send with them some further supply of powder, lead, and 
match, to be taken out of that store which hath been or- 
dered to be in readiness for the whole shire. 

Item, Every lieutenant of any maritime county shall 
cause inquisition to be made, whether any gentleman, or 
other person of value, having had his habitation within the 
county, near to the seaside, within the space of one year 
past, have removed their dwellings, or are departed from 
their said houses, either out of the county, or to any remote 
place from their former habitation : which if he shall find any 
so to have done, he shall charge them in her majesty's name 
to return to his former habitation ; and there to continue 
with as many in his family as accustomably he was wont to 
do. And that he also enjoin such persons to provide arms 



314 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO and weapons, both for himself and for every man servant in 
la9 °' liis family, being above sixteen years of age. And upon 



225 this direction given, the lieutenant shall signify unto her 
majesty the names and conditions of all such persons as 
shall not without delay perform this commandment given 
in her majesty's name. So as the party may be sent for, 
and receive such severe punishment and correction as the 
cause doth require for the common weal. 

The lieutenant, as well of the maritime counties, as the 
other counties adjoining, to certify the names of those whom 
they shall appoint to be captains and conductors of those 
men that are appointed for the defence of the landing- 
place, &c. And if in the execution of these directions they 
shall find any defaults in any, to certify the same to her 
majesty's privy-council. 

The names of the lieutenants to whom letters are to be 
written for this service. 
Cornwall. Sir Walter Rawleigh. 
Devon. The earl of Bath. 
Dorset. The lord marquis. 

Hampshire. The lord marquis : lord Mountjoy. 
Sussex. Lord admiral : lord Buckhurst. 
Kent. Lord Cobham. 
Essex. Lord treasurer. 
Suffolk. Norfolk. Lord chamberlain. 
Wilts. Somerset. Earl of Pembroke. 
Wales. Earl of Pembroke. 
Be?-hshire. Lord Norris : Mr. Treasurer. 
Surrey. Lord admiral. 
London. Lord Mayor. 
Harf/brd.shire. Lord treasurer. 
Cambridgeshire. Lord North. 
Hnnt'ingtonshire . Lord S. John. 
Lincoln. Lord treasurer. 
Herefordshire. Lord Pembroke. 
Gloucestershire. Lord Chandois. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 315 

Number CLVII. ANNO 

1595. 

Young, bishop of Rochester, to the lord treasurer: upon a 

malicious report, that he was covetous, and kept a mi- 
serable house: together with an account of his incomes. 

Right honourable, and my very good lord, 
BEING at the court with your lordship upon Sunday 
last, and acquainting you with a report from a suspicion of 
mine own touching an offence of your lordship's towards 
me, it pleased you to say, that without any other offence to- 
wards me, your lordship had only conceived somewhat like 
of me : for that it was affirmed by certain that I was noted 
to be extremely covetous. And that it appeared so to be by 
my near and miserable house which I kept. For the better 
satisfying therefore of your lordship in that matter of my 
housekeeping, and the utter reproof of these sharp, slander- 
ous sycophants, who cease not to blatter out against me, 
and such as I am, they care not what, to the discrediting 
and despising of us and our calling ; indeed of him who 
hath called us, whose ministers and servants we be ; (yor22o 
he that despiseth you despiseth me:) I have set down in 
this note enclosed faithfully and truly the sum of my yearly 
revenues and expenses ; to serve, not only as a glass for 
those malicious Momi, to behold their impudency, but also 
as a pattern for them (or whosoever they be else) to imi- 
tate ; certain prodigal clergymen and laymen excepted, 
which to spoil of Christ's patrimony, or their own, in epi- 
curism and belly-cheer, and other vaunting and bravery, do 
pour out they care not what, and would absume Croesus' 
and Solomon's treasury if they had it. 

Whereas it please your lordship for to object unto me 
my commendams : for answer thereunto I do refer any one 
to the clear yearly value of my bishopric, set down in this 
note ; which doth not amount to above 220Z. And let that 
say whether it be needful to have somewhat added unto it 
by way of commendam. Whereunto I will be bold also to 
add this, that if there be no ease nor abatement of our ex- 



J316 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO cessive payments, this extreme and terrible famine continu- 
° ing, that, my bishopric and revenues, and commendams not- 

withstanding, I must be fain, ere it be long, to dissolve 
my house. In which cogitation I am at present, and to 
send my servants a begging, and my poor miserable neigh- 
bours a starving, for ought they are like to have at my 
gates. 

For other bishoprics, whereof it pleased your lordship 
also to make some mention, as I have not in my lifetime 
sought any, so if they be offered, and I lawfully called 
thereunto, and they meet for me to accept, especially freed 
from outrageous spoils, (as Norwich was not,) I am not so 
precise and scrupulous as to refuse. Honores nee ambiendi, 
nee recusandi, hath ever been a maxim in schools ; and so 
taken to be both good philosophy and good divinity among 
scholars. Thus much I thought good to commit to these 
my letters. But to meet with the false and sinister reports 
of some ill-willers of mine, and for the better satisfaction of 
your lordship ; wherein if I may prevail, I shall be right 
glad, and think myself very much bound unto your good 
lordship ; and so commending the same in my daily prayers 
to Almighty God's most merciful tuition, I take my leave. 
From Bromleigh, the 22d of June, 1595. 

Your lordship's always to command in Christ, 

Jo. Roffens. 

Then follow the notes enclosed. 

The yearly revenues of the now bishop of Rochester. 

Imprimis, The yearly revenue of the bishopric, tenths, 
subsidies, and other expenses deducted, - ccxx/. 

and not above. 

Item, Commendams, and casualties, communibus annis, 
and not above, (but rather less) - cxx/. 

In toto cccxlZ. 
Of this in meat and drink only, communibus annis, (or ra- 
ther more, as is to be shewed,) for sixteen or seventeen years 
together _..---- ccl/. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 317 

So there remaineth towards all other charges, viz. repara- ANNO 
tions of houses and farms, and chancels, removing of house- __^Jl_ 



holdstuff and furniture, apparelling myself and my wife, 227 
maintaining my son at London at school, and liveries, stable- 
charges, expenses in law and physic, gifts, rewards, and to- 
ward the serving of the realm, when it is required, only 

LXXXxZ. 

Some are of opinion, (which I have seen also published 
in print,) that no man can well uphold his state, if he spend 
above the third part of his yearly revenue in meat and 
drink. But by that which is above written, it doth appear, 
that very near three parts of the four are spent in meat and 
drink. 

This therefore being true, besides that the great indig- 
nities and injuries done unto me by certain envious tra- 
ducers in the matter of my housekeeping are made manifest 
to their utter reproof, I am of opinion, that the like will 
hardly be found again in England, in any house of honour 
or worship, unless it be in houses, where all, without all or- 
der, is wastefully and prodigally consumed. Of which sort, 
I am afraid, there be too many nowadays, both of the 
clergy and the laity. 

This that is here set down shall by me, inspectis sacro- 
sanctis, et in verbo honoris et sacerdotis, be deposed at such 
times as I shall be called thereunto. 

Jo. Roffen. 

This bishop Young was master of Pembroke-hall in 
Cambridge. Commended for his quickness in government, 
and readiness in learning. Fit to bridle innovators, not by 
authority only, but by weight of argument. The character 
given him by Elmer, bislwp of London. 

This bishop Young writ notes upon H. Nicolas^s book, 
called Evangelium Regni, and published anno j579. 



318 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
A ^J1° Number CLVIII. 



~ Tho. Bilson, warden of Winchester college, to the lord trea- 
surer, soliciting his interest for the bishopric of Wor- 
cester. 

My very good lord, 

I LEARNED of my lord of Canterbury how much I 
was bound to your honour, for that it pleased you at the 
first of your own accord, without my suit, to set me down 
to the deanery of Windsor ; which I never refused, as I 
hear her majesty is now informed ; but only acquainted my 
lord of Canterbury of my oath, which permits me by no 
means to be absent above eight weeks in the whole year, 
save only in college affairs. If therefore that presence 
might content her majesty in the dean of her chapel, which 
I greatly feared, I would with all duty and thanks accept 
it Only this doubt of her majesty's misliking my over- 
much absence made me become a humble suitor to your 
lordship for your assistance to obtain Worcester. 
228 My lord of Canterbury's favour by friends I have sought : 
but he is besieged by some about him, that he is not suf- 
fered to follow his own inclination, who always spake the 
best of me, and so continueth, save that, as he now saith, 
he hath moved her majesty for Dr. James, and cannot re- 
call it. If my lord archbishop were not overcarried by 
others, this cause would desire no better judge, whether of 
us twain hath taken more pains in the church, and served 
her majesty with greater charge. But my facility being 
surprised by others, I am forced to appeal to your honour- 
able and indifferent wisdom and favour, since her majesty 
useth the advice of more than one in these matters ; and 
am willing by your lordship's censure to stand or fall, as 
never meaning to molest friends for any thing that your 
grave and worthy judgment shall think unfit. Octob. 31, 
1595. 

Your honour's in all duty, 

Tho. Bilson. 

lie obtained (according to his suit) the said bishopric; 
and not long after advanced to Winchester. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 319 

Number CLIX. anno 



15.05. 



Mr. Henry Somite to the lady Russel ; praying her interest, 
with the lord treasurer for the provostship of Eaton. 

Right honourable and my very good lady, 
AS I was bold with your ladyship at the beginning of 
my suit, so I must be importunate now at the conclusion. 
My fortune always hath been hitherto to receive still my 
despatch by my lord treasurer's only means ; so was it when 
I obtained Merton college in Oxford, and so must it be 
now for Eaton. Or else I will hope for small good. I know 
his lordship's favourable opinion of the matter to her ma- 
jesty, at such opportunity as it shall please him to take, will 
end the whole matter. Till then, I assure myself it will 
stick. His honourable promise of favour made to me at Ty- 
balds gave me courage to begin : and her majesty's direct 
nomination at Nonsuch, which I saw in his lordship's own 
hand, gave me hope to continue. It remaineth but that his 
lordship would vouchsafe to perfect his own work with a 
prosperous and happy conclusion. 

To which purpose I pray you, good madam, as hitherto 
you have been, so still to continue to be my honourable me- 
diator to his lordship. I can make profession of nothing but 
my poor humble service : which here I do vow to you both. 
And so take my leave. The 4th of February. 

Your honourable ladyship's humbly at commandment, 

Hen. Savile. 
^ i 

Number CLX. 229 

The vice-chancellor and heads of the university of Cam- 
bridge to the lord Burghley, their chancellor : complain- 
ing of doctrine preached by P. Baro, D. D. Lady Mar- 
garet professor, in his clerum at St. Marys. Univer- 
sity Regist. 

Right honourable, 
OUR humble duty remembered. We are right sorry to 
have such occasion to trouble your lordship, as the peace of 



320 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO this university and church (which is dear unto us) being 
1595, brought into peril by the late reviving of new opinions and 
troublesome controversies among us, hath urged us, in re- 
gard of the places we here sustain, not only to be careful 
for the suppressing of the same to our powers, but also to 
give your lordship further information hereof, as our ho- 
nourable head and careful chancellor. 

About a year past, among divers others, (who have at- 
tempted publicly to teach new and strange opinions in reli- 
gion,) one Mr. Barret, more bold than the rest, did preach 
divers popish errors in St. Mary's, to the just offence of 
many : which he was enjoined to retract. But refused so to 
do in such sort as hath been prescribed him. With whose 
fact and opinion your lordship was made acquainted by Dr. 
Some, the deputy vice-chancellor. Hereby offence and di- 
vision growing; as after by Dr. Baro"s public lectures 
and determinations in the schools, contrary (as his auditors 
have informed) to Dr. Whitakers, and his sounder truth, 
ever since her majesty's reign ; we sent up to London by 
common consent in November last Dr. Tyndal and Dr. 
Whitaker, (men especially chosen for that purpose,) for 
conference with my lord of Canterbury, and other principal 
divines there ; that the controversies being examined, and 
the truths by their consents confirmed, the contrary errors, 
and the contention thereabouts, might the rather cease. 
With whose good travail, with sound consent in truth, such 
advice and care was taken by certain propositions (contain- 
ing certain substantial points of religion taught and re- 
ceived in this university and church, during the time of her 
majesty's reign, and consented unto and practised by the 
best approved divines, both at home and abroad) for the 
maintaining of the same truth and peace of the church, as 
thereby we enjoyed here great and comfortable quiet, un- 
til Dr. Baro, in January last, in his sermon ad dentin in 
St. Mary's, contrary to restraint and commandment from 
the vice-chancellor and the heads, (by renewing again those 
opinions,) disturbed our peace. Whereby his adherents and 
disciples were and are much emboldened to maintain false 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 321 

doctrine, to the corrupting and disturbing of this university ANNO 
and church, if it be not effectually in time prevented. '" 9o " 

For remedy hereof we have, (with joint consent and care,) 
upon complaint preferred by divers bachelors in divinity, 
proceeded in the examination of the cause, according to our 230 
statutes, and usual manner of proceeding in such cases: 
whereby it appeareth by sufficient testimonies, that Dr. Baro 
hath offended in such things as his articles had charged him 
withal. 

There is also, since the former, another complaint pre- 
ferred against him by certain bachelors in divinity, that 
he hath, not only in that sermon, but also for the space 
of these fourteen or fifteen years, taught in his lectures, 
preached in sermons, determined in the schools, and printed 
in several books, divers points of doctrine, not only con- 
trary to himself, but also contrary to that which hath been 
taught and read ever since her majesty's reign, and agree- 
able to the errors of popery : which we know your lordship 
hath always disliked and hated. So that we, who for the 
space of many years past have yielded him sundry benefits 
and favours here in the university, being a stranger, and for- 
borne him when he hath often heretofore been busy and curi- 
ous in aliena republica, broached new and strange questions 
in religion ; now, unless we should be careless of maintain- 
ing the truth of religion established, and of our duty in our 
places, cannot (being resolved and confirmed in that truth 
of the long professed and received doctrine) but continue to 
use all good means, and seek at your lordship's hands some 
effectual remedy hereof; lest, by permitting passage lo 
these errors, the whole body of popery should by little and 
little break in upon us, to the overthrow of our religion ; 
and consequently the withdrawing of many, here and else- 
where, from true obedience to her majesty. 

May it therefore please your good lordship to have an 
honourable consideration of the premises, and for the bet- 
ter maintaining of peace, and the truth of religion, so long 
and quietly received in this university and church, to 
vouchsafe your lordship's good aid and advice; both to the 

vor,. TV. Y 



322 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO comfort of us, (wholly consenting and agreeing in judg- 
1595 ' ment.) and all others in the university soundly affectionate; 
and to the Suppression in time, not only of these errors, but 
also of gross popery, like by such means in time easily to 
creep in among us; (as we find by late experience it hath 
dangerously begun.) Thus craving pardon for troubling 
your lordship, and commending the same in prayer to the 
Almighty God, we humbly take our leaves. From Cam- 
bridge, the 8th of March, 1595. 

Your lordship's humble and bounden, 

to be commanded, 
Roger Goad, pro-can. Tho. Preston, 
R. Some, Humph. Tyndal, 

Tho. Legg, Jam. Mountague, 

Joh. Jegon, Edm. Barwcl, 

Tho. Nevyle, Lawr. Chaderton. 

See the further proceeding with Dr. Baro in the Life of 
Archbishop Whit gift, book iv. chap. 18. 

This learned man .surrendered his professors place, and 
soon ctfter left the university, and retired to the city of 
231 London, zvherc he lived divers years after ; and died anno 
, and zcas carried decently, six doctors of divinity his 
pcdl-bearers,from his house in the parish, to the church of 
St. Olave, Hart-street ; attended by the ministers of the 
city, according to an order from the bishop of London. 
And there the corpse wm interred ; leaving a large posterity 
behind him. His eldest son, Samuel Baro, was a physician, 
and lived and died in Lynn-Regis in Norfolk. 

Feb. 3, 1575. Mr. Petrus Barrow, Ueent'uttus in jure 
civili in academia Biturieensi : ineorporatus Cantabrigia'. 
Regr. Cantab. 

Ann. 1576. Mr. Petrus Barrow, S. 'Ph. P. Cantabr. ibid. 
This is the first year of his receiving the stipend as lady 
Margaret professor. E.r eomputo academies. MSS. Rev. 
I.B.B.D. 

'Phis is subjoined in some remembrance of so remarkable 
a man. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 323 



Number CLXI. A , N *° 

1595. 



Dr. Goad, vice-chancellor of the university qf Cambridge, 
to their chancellor, the lord Burghley. Complaint of Mr. 
Covers sermon. Charging a crime upon some noblemen 
and bishops. 

My good lord, 

I THINK meet to signify to your lordship, that since 
this feast of Christ's nativity, one Mr. Covel, fellow of 
Christ's college, preaching upon the text, Domus mea, fyc. 
vos autem Jecistis speluncam latronum, in applying and 
inveighing against those that (Wdfacere speluncam latro- 
num in our church, did, offensively and extraordinarily, so 
charge the noblemen of this land especially ; and in some 
sort also the bishops. As being present, I thought it my 
duty, not only to call him to answer, which I have done, 
but also by so fit an occasion, for my better discharge, to 
give some signification hereof to your lordship. The rather, 
for that for want of sufficient assistance of heads of colleges, 
now from home, I can do little in these causes. And also, 
because I cannot, as yet, by way of counsel and persuasion, 
induce the said party to make voluntary, convenient, pub- 
lic satisfaction : which I will yet further endeavour. 

In the mean time, until I may have necessary assistance 

required in these cases And so being further loath to 

trouble your lordship, &c. From King's college in Cam- 
bridge, the 2d of Jan. 1595. 

Your lordship's humble and bounden, 
to be commanded, 

Roger Goad, pro-can. 

See some further account of Covers troubles in the Life 
of Archbishop Whitgift, book iv. eh. 19. 



324. ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 



ANNO 
15.95. Number CLXII. 



232 T/ie lord Burghley, Ugh chancellor of the university of 
Cambridge, to the president and fellows of St. John's 
college, being divided among themselves ; strictl/j for- 
bidding them from the queen to proceed to the election of a 
master of that college; Dr. Whitaler, the last master, 
being lately dead. 

AFTER my hearty commendations. Although I have 
by my former letters ordered her majesty's commandment 
should be given unto you, to forbear from all manner of 
proceeding in the election of a master there, until her ma- 
jesty might be further informed what were meet to be done 
in that election for the benefit and quietness of that house ; 
which her majesty's commandment, (she being not only the 
foundress of that college, but supreme governor in all 
causes, and over all persons in her dominions, as well eccle- 
siastical as civil,) she looks to have obeyed by you all and 
every one of you all in that college : which, 1 doubt not, 
but, being notified unto you, you will obey. Yet being 
newly again by her majesty expressly reiterated to be sig- 
nified unto you by me, her counsellor, and your chancellor, 
I do by these presents reiterate her royal commandment 
unto you, charging you, upon pain of your deprivation, 
and her majesty's indignation, to forbear to proceed to any 
election, notwithstanding any local statute of that house; 
wherewith her majesty hath authority to dispense, until her 
majesty's further royal pleasure shall be signified unto you : 
wishing you all charity, quietness, and concord among your- 
selves in the mean season, &c. 15th of Dec. 1595. 



Number CLXIII. 

The chancellor of the university of Cambridge, to the vice- 
chancellor and heads: to enjoin the fellows qfSt.Johtfs, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 325 

divided among' themselves, in the queen's name, to pro- 1595# 

eccd to the election of either Dr. Claiton, or Mr. Stanton, 

for their master. Dated Dec. 19, 1595. 

THIS letter was in answer to one dated Dec. 15, from 
the vice-chancellor and the heads. He had in a former let- 
ter appointed them to acquaint those of St. John's college 
with the queen's commandment. And accordingly in an as- 
sembly, they, the vice-chancellor and heads, had conference 
with such of that college as seemed to be the heads of the 
division there ; and that they intended to have agreed upon 
the nomination of some one meet person for the place of 233 
master. But when they could not so do, they afterwards 
determined upon two meet persons, that had been of that 
company heretofore, and not misliked by such of the fel- 
lows whom they called unto them for conference : which two 
persons were Dr. Webster and Mr. Stanton. And in the 
conclusion of their letter, the vice-chancellor and the greater 
part of the heads shewed themselves inclinable to Stanton. 

The lord Burghley, their chancellor, in his answer to 
them, told them, that he had acquainted the queen with 
what they had done. Who, he writ, had a special care to 
have both a learned, diligent, and wise person, and also a 
man agreeable to the whole company, and not inclined to 
any faction. And that so in the end her majesty did, of 
those two, according to your opinions, (as he wrote,) like of 
Mr. Stanton : but since the same time she also hath heard 
good information made unto her, that one Mr. Dr. Claiton, 
master of Magdalen college, were a very meet person, the 
rather because he is unmarried, as the other two are not. 
And therefore in conclusion, she hath commanded me to 
signify to you, the vice-chancellor and the heads of the 
colleges, and so I do, as your chancellor, by her majesty's 
command, that you should in some assembly with the for- 
mer heads, call the president of St. John's college, and 
some convenient equal number of the fellows that seem to 
be divided in opinion : to whom you shall declare and deli- 
ver her majesty's princely and regal resolution ; that if they 

y3 



326 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
ANNO will have the choice of their master bv an election, it shall 

1595. 

be free for them to choose one of these two, Mr. Dr. Claiton, 
or Mr. Stanton : and so they may quietly proceed. If they 
refuse to promise and yield thereunto, then you must en- 
join them, in her majesty "s name, as they will avoid her 
highness 1 displeasure, to forbear from proceeding to any 
manner of election. So as her majesty may, according to 
her royal authority, having the charge of government of the 
church, for the commonwealth of the college, (whereof she 
is inevitable foundatrice,) name some one to be master there, 
as she shall find to be for the benefit and quietness of the 
house, and furtherance of learning therein. Of which two 
things she meaneth to have chief respect. 

And so committing this matter to your discretion, I do 
wish most heartily to see some good end thereof: and that 
such a master may be there, as may bring seeds of concord 
into the house, being the principal band to continue them 
in charity. And thereby to proceed in grace and living : 
whereof no one in the society whosoever shall take more 
comfort than myself; esteeming and reverencing that col- 
lege as my best parent, that gave me nouriturc to know 
God truly, and to detest popery : which was above three- 
score years now past, &c. 



23 4 Number CLXIV. 

A speech of the lord treasurer Biughley to the queen and 
priiy-council : Jbr commissioners to be appointed by her 
majesty for reforming abuses. The year when spoken 
not inserted, but probably near this year, or not long 
before. The queen had required a copy of it from him, 
and was as fblloiceth ; 

MY dutiful speech, which your highness granted me to 
pronounce in your royal presence, with the attendance of 
your royal majesty's most honourable privy-council, Sec. in 
furtherance of your highness 1 happy service, is; 

As there is none godly wise within the civil parts of the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 327 

world, but lie knoweth how the Almighty hath miracu- ANNO 
lously, above human hope, not only placed and preserved 159 °' 
your majesty in this your own imperial state, but also beau- 
tified your supreme government with his manifold divine 
favours, more plentifully than other princes ; so now that 
it hath pleased his divine wisdom also, who, as himself 
saith, holdeth your heavenly heart in his hand, as the di- 
vision of waters, which way soever he will incline it, to move 
the same, to grant me, a simple one, your royal presence in 
this affable, benign, and gracious sort ; and to admit me to 
inform in these weighty causes. It resteth, and his holy 
will is, that your highness should likewise advance his glory, 
your own honour, and your politic state, by purging and 
rectifying the same, from all my humbly informed and 
many mo heinous enormities. 

If civil law say, that it will be an innovation, which oft 
produceth perils to a peaceable commonweal, let it like- 
wise affirm, that it must needs be dangerous for your ma- 
jesty to be wiser than other princes in performing the will 
of God, and in preferring the wealth of your people. But 
how can it be called an innovation in your majesty's pru- 
dent sight, sith your learned wisdom well knoweth, that 
many, even profane princes, who knew not God, (except 
in a glimsing,) but being led by the line of moral learning 
only, and succeeding vicious rulers in government, have re- 
paired the torn estates of their commonwealths very civilly. 
And yet were it small reason to move your majesty to sue 
so far for examples, when no fewer than eight of your 
highness 1 own most noble progenitors, royal kings of this 
your highness"' realm, sithence the last conquest, (upon the 
whole informations and complaints of their good subjects,) 
have earnestly endeavoured the like reformations, though 
not always for the like godly respects, nor in so mild and 
merciful manner, as the Almighty will induce your majesty 
to do it. For he will never suffer your sacred mind in pu- 
nishing to pass the due proportion and method of justice, 
or to exceed the true limits of mercy, temperance, and truth; 
wherewith he hath ever heretofore corroborated your im- 

y 4 



328 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

anno perial throne, and ever will do. I think, yea, I dare boldly 
169 °' say, that there is no credible history in the whole world, be 



235 it divine or profane, that mentioneth a maiden queen to 
reign so long over a nation in such continual happiness, 
pouring forth such sweet blessings upon her people, as your 
majesty hath done upon us all : and altogether at divine 
disposition, as your highness 1 self teacheth us to know. 

And sith it is his mighty pleasure to make your sacred 
majesty a phenix, a peerless prince, a loadstar, and mirror 
of the world, to shew forth the shining brightness of his 
divine grace ; why should we not then expect of your high- 
ness the accomplishment of rare height, and excellent actions 
of singular consequence every day, more and more ? 

It pleased God to grant to those former famous princes, 
even in their times, some tests of true religion, and of the 
errors, abuses, and ambition of the clergy ; but he reserved 
the holy work of reformation (well begun by the noble 
kings, your majesty's most famous father and blessed bro- 
ther) to be fully consummated by your mighty person. So 
did he eftsoons give them great entrances into the relieving 
of their politic governments ; and yet hath reserved that 
heavenly happiness to be thoroughly perfected by your 
highness. If I should make particular mention, how far 
those good princes proceeded therein, recounting from king 
Stephen hitherward, it would be too tedious for your ma- 
jesty, and eke superfluous, sith your majesty knoweth all 
better than I. But let it please your high excellency to be 
only thus far informed, that I never meant to move the 
same to make choice of three bishops for their sincerity, to 
become controllers of all your officers, as well of justice as 
of account ; trying, punishing, and expelling : as that va- 
liant, learned, liberal, and charitable prince, king Henry II. 
did. Nor yet to shift some sheriff's, to put surveyors over 
the rest ; to set their sheriffalties on sale to who will give 
most; to let them to farm to fat bishops ; to search out by 
general commission, how your fines, forfeitures, amerce- 
ments, penalties, recognisances, have answered, with that 
excellent prince, king Richard the First, Cocur de Lion. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 329 

Whose highness proceeded further in those affairs : and yet ANNO 
no memory of any vice, saving of some hard dealings to- 1595, 
wards the king his father, in his frail and young years, 
which made the same the more excusable. Neither to fol- 
low the tragical course of king Henry III. induced by the 
overbold and eloquent bishop of Winchester by Pat. de 
Rivalls, his nephew, or bastard son, Segrove and Paslew; 
who being suddenly exalted to high estate of government ; 
and sometime undiscreetly punishing innocents with of- 
fenders, in the highest degree of extremity ; yea, expelling 
all high counsellors almost, and great officers English, (be- 
cause some were found defective,) and placing others [over] 
the king's subjects, strangers born ; furnishing also his high- 
ness 1 forces with strangers, (a thing which the English 
ever have naturally hated,) that so far exceeded the bounds 
both of justice, moderation, and civil policy, as their honest 
endeavours, which were both honourable and profitable for 
the good prince in the beginning, by want of moderate, 
ordinary, sincere, and politic proceedings, became clear 
contrary in the end. 

As to the godly and right princely endeavours of that 230 
virtuous, valiant, and wise king Edward the First, in sifting, 
shifting, fining, punishing, and expelling all officers and 
offenders, great and small universally, as well by virtue of 
his gracious commission, termed Trayte de Baston, and as 
by others ; when he found none free from corruption in the 
whole commonwealth, but only John de Mettingham, and 
Elias de Beckingham : the kingly example of that paragon 
among all princes of the time, king Edward III. in chang- 
ing, committing, fining, and punishing of the greatest lords 
and officers, both of justice and account, and in placing of 
others; for that they supplied not his treasure, for the fur- 
therance of his French wars, in the 14th year of his royal 
reign : the perilous precedent of king Richard II. in let- 
ting his whole realm to farm to the lord Scrope, his lord 
treasurer, to sir John Bushie, his secretary, sir Bagot and 
sir Grene : the excellent dealings of the duke of York, 



330 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO protector to the peaceable prince, king Henry VI. together 
i59o. with t| le ear l s f Salisbury and Warwick, when the said 
merciful king reigned in name and dignity only ; and they 
ruled all in rule and authority, till the witty, stout, 
and yet inconstant queen, by changing of that short regi- 
ment, and great alteration both of high and low estate, 
(which yet for the time relieved many oppressions, and 
made justice to flourish,) procured both the king's, her own, 
and the young princes, their sons, all their reigns, even as 
God himself appointed it. And lastly, as to the prudent 
proceedings of that sapient king, your majesty's noble 
grandfather, king Henry VII. whose royal heart was a 
storehouse of all heroical virtues .... in instituting masters 
of forfeitures, and in augmenting of the treasure greatly, 
through sifting of all sorts of people by such means as are 
known to your highness. 

I induce them, not for any direction to your majesty's 
high prudence herein, but this I no less humbly than faith- 
fully and fervently beseech of God and your majesty, that 
it may please your sacred mind to be thereby occasioned to 
enter into your accustomed most pi-incely, prudent, and 
grave deliberation now of these lower and lesser matters. 
And thereupon to make choice of some competent number 
of singular and sincere subjects, learned and well expe- 
rienced in the affairs of your public government, and who 
yet never had their hearts touched, or at least possessed 
with avaricious appetite, ambition, or other notable crime. 
So as it may please your highness to authorize and term 
them to be your majesty's commissioners for a godly re- 
formation of abuses, in politic proceedings; to proceed 
therein indeed, as well by direction and ordinary course of 
your laws, as also by virtue of your majesty's supreme re- 
giment and absolute power, from whence law proceeded : 
and yet in both, and all mild, innocent, moderate, and sincere 
means. And then shall your most excellent majesty not 
only fully complete this whole work, and yet further fulfil 
your blessed function, whereunto the everlasting wisdom of 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 331 

God hath (among all other princes living) especially ap- ANNO 

pointed you, to his own eternal glory, and to your majesty's 

immortal memory; but also the same will more augment 
your highness 1 treasure, with the ancient revenue of your 
imperial crown in a short time, than ever came in account 237 
into the court of Augmentations, erected in the king your 
famous father's reign. 

How the time fitteth now for it, in respect of your high- 
ness 1 higher affairs of supreme estate, I know not. Nei- 
ther is it meet for me to aspire thereunto, otherwise than by 
my dutiful prayers still for blessed continuance of happy 
success. But this I know for certain, that if our most mighty 
king of all times do now vouchsafe the time for your ma- 
jesty to do it, he surely will make all times, all occasions, 
all powers, all policies, all counsels and devices, whatsoever 
they be, to yield and apply thereunto : so much, most 
benign, gracious sovereign, in a generality. Some particu- 
larities, for example, will hereafter follow, as may best stand 
with your majesty"^ mighty pleasure, and be least to your 
grace's trouble. 



Number CLXV. 

Queen Elizabeth falls sick, being- in her climacteric. The 
great apjrrchcnsions and fears arising hereupon ; but re- 
cover eth. Related in a letter of' Camden to sir Robert 
Cotton. Camden's Letters. 

THAT they were all in melancholy and pensive cogita- 
tions, the queen being indisposed by an avu7rv/«, [i. c. want of 
sleep,] and that joined with an inflammation in her breast 
upwards ; and her mind altogether averse from physic. 
And this happening in her climacterical year, did more 
than terrify them all ; and moved the lords of the council, 
when they had providently caused all the vagrants there- 
abouts to be taken up, and shipped for the Low Countries, 
to draw some munition to the court, and the great horses 
from Reading, to guard the receipt at Westminster, to take 



332 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO order for the navy to lie in the narrow seas, and to eom- 
__^__ mit some gentlemen hunger-starved for innovations, as sir 
Edniond Bainham, Catesby, Tresham, the two Wrights, 
and afterwards the count Arundel of Warder, to a gentle- 
man's house, for speeches used by the foresaid turbulent 
spirits. But the queen's dangerous distemper ceased. 

And Camden concluded his letter : That he thought good 
in this generality to impart unto him, that he, as they did, 
might put away fear, and thank God for this joyful recovery 
of her, upon whose health and safety they all depended. 



238 Number CLXVI. 

Edmund Nevyl, [calling himself lord Latymer,~\ a prisoner 
in the Tower : his letter to N. Kamberd, steward of the 
Tower, containing information against the lieutenant of 
the Tower. November 9, 1595. MSS. Bnrghlian. 

Sir, 

I WOULD not be made the author of the things, but 
if I be called and examined upon these points, I will dis- 
charge my conscience: 1. If God shall call her majesty, he 
[the lieutenant] will not obey the council in general, nor 
any one in particular. 2. He doubteth not, but to make 
whom he list to prevail, [that is, to be king ;] because of 
the munition, &c. means which he hath, by taking his place, 
to arm many thousands : for he holdcth all within the 
Tower at his commandment, and himself tied to none. He 
haih demanded many times of divers persons, how many 
nun were sufficient to man the Tower, and what course 
were best to take to furnish it with, in victuals, as myself, 
captain Wainman, and Mr. Wentwoith. 

Wherefore let your articles be drawn, to examine as [us] 
upon these points : which will be verified and proved. Let me 
speak with you before you go : for I would not have my 
hand seen in anywise, because we will reduce these things 
into a better method: and something else I have to say 



lo.9 : 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 333 

unto you, that I will not commit to writing. From the ANNO 
Tower, the 9th of November, 1595. 

To his approved good friend, Your ever assured, 

Mr. Ramberd, steward of Edmond Latymer. 

the Tower of London. 



Number CLXVII. 



Another letter of Latymer "s to Mr. Ramberd ; setting down 
the articles of information against the lieutenant of the 
Tower. 

IMPRIMIS, That if it shall please God to call her ma- 
jesty, he will keep the Tower, and will not obey the council 
in general, nor any one of them in particular. 2. He will 
make king whom he list, by taking of the Tower, by reason 
he hath all the chief munition of the realm within his go- 
vernment, and at his commandment. 3. To this effect he 
hath sought to learn of divers their opinions, and how many 
men will furnish the Tower ; and what discipline were best 
to be used therein. 4. Also, he hath demanded Avhat course 
were best to be taken for to victual the same place, if he 239 
should be distressed before he could make known his intent 
to his friends. 5. He affirmeth, that he shall be able to 
arm four or five hundred men with all manner of munition 
and furniture, which he supposeth sufficient to sway the 
diadem which way it pleaseth him. 

Yours ever, 

Edm. Latymer. 

In the margin of these articles it is thus writ: 
Urge you these articles as of yourself. That whosoever 
of the lords it be, whom it shall please them to grant their 
commission to call before them captain Wainman, Mr. 
Wentworth, and myself, to be examined upon our oaths. 
And for the other matter of the prisoners, they may be 
dealt in either at that time, or when it shall seem best unto 
their honours. But deal you faithfully and secretly herein. 



334 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

anno as you love the credit of your friend, and tender the credit 

1595. - .» . . 
ot the state. 



Number CLXVIII. 

Another letter of Nevyl to Rambcrd. Nov. 13. 

Sir, 
FOR divers considerations it is more fit that I speak 
upon my oath, than set down again things voluntarily: in 
which examination of time and place, with all other circum- 
stances, will sufficiently appear my care of the imperial state 
of this honourable island hath been long known unto you, 
and made well known by you unto that honourable gentle- 
man, Mr. Vice-chamberlain ; in whose time this matter was 
not come to its ripeness that now it is : which may be the 
cause he never acquainted her majesty therewith. As 
you are a faithful witness of my dutiful care, so let me en- 
treat you to be a careful friend for the preservation of my 
credit. Let me be called, deposed, and examined, and then 
am I bound to say what shall be demanded of me ; at least 
my knowledge therein, &c. 



Number CLXIX. 

A fourth letter of Nevyl: concerning the words spoken by 
the lieutenant of the Tower. 

Sir, 
TO all these articles I am able to depose, and do assure 
myself, so can Mr. Wentworth, or to the most of them, if 
lie can be drawn to it. But to the third and fourth, captain 
Wainman both can and will be witness; as also myself: for 
he hath spoke severally unto us thereof. His speech to me 
240 touching the earl of Hertford was, that Mr. Wentworth's 
standing for to have a successor established, was only in the 
favour of his lordship's children : whereof when I spoke to 
Mr. Wentworth, he answered, he doth me wrong. For he 



I I">!>:' 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 335 

himself is of that faction, which he hath plainly discovered ANNO 
unto me, saith he, and shewed me reasons to strengthen _ 
his opinion for his speech to Mrs. Wentworth, that if the 
gentlemen of England were honest, there would be 500 in 
prison. For her husband's opinion ere it were long, both 
Mr. AVentworth and his wife do affirm and have done, be- 
fore captain Wainman and myself. The rest I refer to the 
time of his examination. The times were most often, and 
the places in every walking place, about the hours wherein 
we [prisoners] used to converse. God bless you once more, 
and ever. This 13th of November, 1595. From the Tower. 
Yours ever, as you know, 

Edmond Latymer. 

Tliis Latymer, (as he styled himself from the earls of 
Westmorland,) or Nevyl, xvas concerned in the plot zoith 
Parry, ami. 1585, for killing- of the queen. 

This Wentioorth was a member of parliament, and com- 
mitted to the Toxver for his too free speaking there, and 
much for the succession of the family of the Grays to the 
crown. 



Number CLXX. 

Lord Cobham and lord Buckhurst, of the privy-council, to 
Mr. Wade, clerk of the council : to examine Nevyl, whe- 
ther he gave not occasion to the lieutenant to speak those 
xoords as above. To this question Nevyl wrote thus to 
Wade. 

Sir, 
WHEREAS I understand that you do desire to be 
better informed in my answer to the last question you pro- 
pounded unto me, which was, whether I had not given the 
occasion of the speeches which had passed between the 
lieutenant and me : whereunto I protest, that I have deli- 
vered that thereunto you, which is, that I only commended 
unto him the honour and credit of his place, as a matter of 



336 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO great trust and credit; and therewithal shewed unto him, 
159a " how many earls and some dukes had been constables there. 
Whereupon he entered into the matters already mentioned 
simply and of his own accord, without any manner of urg- 
ing by me : though not all at one time, yet after he had 
once broken with me therein, he never met with me alone, 
but ere I went from him, he would be in that matter, &c. 



241 Number CLXXI. 

N. Ramberd, steward of the Tower, to the lord chamberlain. 
His confirmation of the articles, Nov. 19- 

.... THERE are very strong presumptions to strengthen 
the said article, viz. " If the gentlemen of England were 
" honest, there would be 500 more in prison for Mr. Went- 
" worth his opinion ere it were long. Thus much should 
" Mr. Wentworth and his wife affirm, in the hearing of 
" Mr. Nevyl and captain Wainman."' 1 And shewing his [the 
lieutenant's] very bad mind : which if your lordship please 
to command me, I shall be ready to perform, and with all 
duty to set down. 



Number CLXXII. 

Dr. James, dean of Christ s-church, Oxon, to the lord keeper 
Puchrmg ; concerning a stint of bread to be used in that 
college. 

Ihesus. 
MY duty in most humble wise remembered: I was bold 
to acquaint your honour with a purpose that our company 
had for a stint of bread, which we have now put in execu- 
tion, as by our common letters to your lordship, with the 
order enclosed, may appear. I trust nothing shall be found 
unreasonable or unmeet for men of our places to have been 
done. I send your honour here enclosed the copies of such 
letters as the lord chancellors have in former times written 
in our company, as tliev remain registered in our books. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 337 

AVherein although we have no statute for it, yet your lord- ANNO 
ship may perceive in what place they accounted themselves. ______]_ 

For my own matters, [about a remove to a bishopric,] I 
hear nothing more than I did at my late being with your 
lordship. I presume they shall succeed much the better by 

your lordship's honour's favour and furtherance And 

thus beseeching God to bless and preserve your honour, I 
most humbly take my leave. From Christ's Church, Oxford, 
the 11th of April, 1595. 

Your honour's most humbly at commandment, 

W. James. 



242 



Number CLXXIII. 

The dean and prebendaries of ChrisCs Church, Oxon, to the 
Io?'d keeper Puckring; sending the copies of letters writ- 
ten in times past by the lord chancellor to that college, for 
reducing a stint of bread. 

Our duties most humble to your lordship remembered. 

WHEREAS our house hath been, with the great charge 
which of late years we have sustained, as by suit in law, 
reparations of our sundry houses, church and chancels, 
where we are proprietors, and to the present and former 
dearths of corn, and great waste and spoil of bread, as 
also by detaining of rents in divers places to great sums, 
for the which we are forced to sue, and sundry other occa- 
sions, brought behindhand, as to your lordship hath been 
heretofore signified : for the amendment whereof, after 
many consultations, we find no better or more speedy re- 
medy to grow to a reasonable stint of bread ; yielding to 
every one that be of the king's majesty's foundation but 
12d. yearly, for all allowances 13d. in bread only : and so 
to all others in like proportion. And to bring them to the 
old usual rate of being four in a mess, their commons being 
in a manner doubled over that it was. 

Forasmuch as it may be, that upon the execution hereof 
some resistance may be made here at home, and some com- 

vol. iv. z 



338 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO plaint exhibited above, (which yet we hope will not be done,) 
l59 °* seeing we offer nothing but that which is most reasonable 
and conscionable, as we doubt not shall to your lordship by 
the enclosed appear ; wherein we yield them all the benefits 
of our improvements, by rent-corn, the rent of our pastures 
at Bvnsey, reared to a great rate, the recovery whereof, to 
their only good, hath cost us a thousand pounds, and the 
benefit of feeding upon our several grounds, of most where- 
of neither we, they, nor our predecessors ever tasted ; 
wherein we have good interest, and some of us, above our 
abilities, or the example of others of our place, suffer loss : 
our most humble suit to your lordship is, that if any dis- 
ordered persons in our company complain, or by faction 
draw others better affected, (if such troublesome spirits 
provoked them not,) that they may be sent home to their 
studies, and charged to yield obedience, until such time as 
the next term, or when it shall seem convenient, such griev- 
ances as either they now have, or then shall present, may 
be truly considered of. 

We are bound to acquaint your honour with our pro- 
ceedings herein, for that both we and they have found your 
honourable favour and assistance in the causes of our house. 
For the which we all rest most bounden to your honour ; 
and that in the like causes both we and they have had re- 
course to such as have sitten in the place wherein God now 
hath placed your lordship, and wherein we beseech him 
long to bless your honour. 
243 We trust our cares and travails taken in our house's be- 
half, now for many years, not unknown to your honour, 
shall clear us from any wilful conceit either toward the 
house in general, or any member thereof: and thus we 

most humbly take our leaves From Christ's Church, 

Oxford, the 11th of April, 1595. 

Your lordship's most humble at commandment, 

W. James, Tho. Thornton, 

Joh. Purfey, Ro. Pickaret, 

Arthur Wake, Joh. Weston, 
Ric. Eed>. Tho. White. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 339 

Number CLXXIV. A™ 



Then follows an original paper, endorsed, Christ's Church 
endowments and expositions : declaring the state of that 
college. Sent to the lord keeper. 

KING HENRY VIII. of famous memory, founded 

Christ's Church, Oxon, and endowed it with (as appeareth 

by our letters patent) - 2200 

King Edward VI. gave to supply some wants 21 9 3 

Queen Mary for more, to supply the said church 74 8 4 

Total, terrarum et possessionum - 2295 17 7 

Then follow charges going out of the said revenue. 
Imprimis, The stipends yearly paid to the dean, pre- 
bends, 3 professors, of Divinity, Hebrew, and Greek ; 100 
students ; 12 chaplains, and singing-men ; 8 chorists ; 24 
servants and officers; 24 alms-men, paid ever since the 
foundation, - - - - - - 1057 3 4 

Then are set down reasons for the stint of bread. 
The stint of bread is grounded on equity and necessity. 

I. Equity appeareth. The far greater part of the house 
having but 14d or 12d. for all charges of diet, have 
every one of them by this rate of 9 ounces in bread, 14d. 
3 farthings, besides commons and drink. 2. The other col- 
leges that have stint, have it only of 8 ounces : and such as 
have no stint, if they spend above the first allowance, pay 
for it. 3. It is sufficient for a student, and by them so con- 
fessed : and the better sort spend nothing so much. 4. It 
preserveth them that are sworn (to be true and kind to the 
house, and in nothing to hurt it) from wilful perjury. 5. It 
is general, from the sub-dean and canons, to the lowest and 
meanest servants. 

II. Necessity appeareth. 1. The church cannot bear it, 
as is shewed. 2. It hindereth spoil and waste ; upon every 
offence by them conceived, and upon every punishment by 
the officers inflicted, as shall be proved. 3. It stayeth pur- 
loining and carrying bread out of the hall, at after dinner 244 

z2 



340 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO and supper, to a fire, and for breakfasts, as shall be proved. 

150 °' 4. It riddeth the house of almost an hundred thriftless 

hangbyes, whom they maintain with bread. 5. It shall keep 

our butlers and officers from spoil and waste, and enforce 

them to answer for every farthing. 

The students' commons is little, and not sufficient. 
For answer whereof, 1. They have the king's allowance, 
without bar or abatement : and the king left six or seven 
acres to feed beasts. 2. The dean and chapter have in former 
times purchased, and to their use converted the pastures of 
Chaundense, &c. 3. The now dean and chapter, at their 
great cost and suit, as is known to the lord archbishop of 
Canterbury and lord treasurer, recovered a third part of 
the copyholds, tithes, and pastures of Bynsic, to the yearly 
value of 40/. or thereabouts ; saving some annuities, going- 
out for some years, yet to come, as appeareth in the award ; 
all the remnant remaining to their benefit. 4. The now dean 
and chapter, in whose time provision of corn did first come, 
have given unto them all the improvements of rent-corn by 
statute, wherein of right they have a portion : and so con- 
cluded it capitular iter, until their commons shall be doubled 
throughout the year at dinner and supper : which, with the 
rent and provision of corn of this last year's, did amount 
to 113/. 14*. 8d. And the now dean, for their benefit, hath 
any time this seven year lent them 100/. and forborne his 
own stipend till the year's end ; which was quarterly pay- 
able, as they are paid theirs. 



Number CLXXV. 

Robert earl of' Essex to lord keeper Puck ring, July 1.59->; 
for his retainers, put away because he would not offend 
the laic. And that for the cause of retainers they may 
not be put out of the commission of the peace. 

My very good lord, 
ALTHOUGH I am very loath to leave the name of 
master to so many honest gentlemen in Wales, as out of 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 341 

their love desire to serve and follow me, and do hold the ANNO 
place of justices in those parts; yet I had rather give them li- 1595, 
berty, and free them from retaining unto me, than that in this 
respect they should lose any jot of that former reputation : 
which I do with due regard unto her majesty's service, and 
the good of the several counties where they dwell ; being- 
all of them, to my knowledge, very able and sufficient gen- 
tlemen. It shall therefore suffice henceforth, that I have 
their love without further ceremonies. Praying your lord- 
ship that they may not, by the late order, be subject to the 
loss of their places for this cause, but to deal honourably 
and favourably with them for my sake, &c. July 1595. 

Endorsed, Lord Essex for his retainers, put away be- 245 
cause he will not offend the law, and for that cause they 
may not be put out of commission . 



Number CLXXVI. 

The earl of Essex to the lord keeper Puck-rings in behalf 
qf Buch ridge, his chaplain. Jan. 12, 1595. 

I SENT Mr. Smith, the clerk of the council, not long 

since, unto your lordship, to entreat your honourable fa- 
vour towards my chaplain, Mr. Buckridge, for the benefice 
of Bradfield. And by him received such answer, as gave 
me hope of good success I pray you make me be- 
holden to you for your honourable favour towards my 
chaplain, which I will acknowledge with all thankfulness. 

Thus I commit your good lordship to God's best 

protection. From the court, the 12th of Jan. 1595. 



Number CLXXVII. 

The carl to the lord keeper : for Dr. Meyric, his chaplain. 
Feb. 1595. 

I HAVE a special care of the good and preferment 

z3 



342 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO of my chaplain, Dr. Meyriok, as well for the worthiness that 
1595, is in him, as also in regard of his long dependence on my 
father and myself. This made me lately recommend him 
to your lordship's good favour and remembrance, as oppor- 
tunity should be offered. Which request I do now again 
renew with earnest affection : leaving which, I do desire 
for him to the solicitation of the bearer, his kinsman, &c. 
Feb. 5th. 



Number CLXXVIII. 

In the behalf' of both the above-mentioned clergymen, his 
chaplains, the earl had writ to the lord Keeper the year 
before, viz. Jan. 29, 1594, with mention of their deserts. 

His letter for Dr. Meyrlck. 

UPON the preferment of Dr. Morgan to the bishopric of 
Landaff', the parsonage of Llanrullin, in the county of 
Montgomery, which he now holdeth, will be in your lord- 
ship's disposition. Whereunto I do greatly desire, with 
246 your good favour, that my chaplain, Dr. Meyrick, may be 
preferred. He is a man worthy of it, and one whose good 
I do the more tender, for that he belonged heretofore unto 
my father, and hath only an archdeaconry, whereupon he 
liveth. This parsonage is in the country where he was 
born ; and having the language is the fitter for it, and may 
the better profit the people there. If it shall please your 
lordship for my sake to bestow the same upon him, or, if it 
be already granted, the rectory of Denbigh, which the said 
Dr. Morgan also holdeth. Wherein your lordship shall do 
me a great favour, &c. From the court, the 29th of Jan. 
1594. 

Your lordship's very assured friend, 

Essex. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 34# 

Number CLXXIX. anno 

1595. 

His letter for Mr. Buekridge. Feb. 17, 1594. 



YOUR lordship hath been already moved, as I under- 
stand, by some friends of my chaplain, Mr. Buekridge, for 
a small living in Hertfordshire, called Shephale ; and what 
hope he hath already of your lordship's favour in it, I do 
not know. But if your lordship hath, at any other friend's 
suit, been pleased to bestow it on him, these may be to give 
you thanks. If not, and that it remaineth in your lord- 
ship's power, they come in good time to entreat your lord- 
ship for him, as for a man worthy in himself of good pre- 
ferment ; and besides as my chaplain ; by which name, I 
doubt not but he shall find the more favour at your lord- 
ship's hands. I pray your lordship make me beholden to 
you for this benefit to him. And command me, when I 
can do good to any of yours. From Greenwich, the 17th 
of February, 94. 

This vicarage of Shephale xoas given before. 

This Buekridge, or one of his name, was master of St. 
Joints college in Oxford ; and made bishop of Rochester and 
Ely successively. 



Number CLXXX. 

Sir John Puckring-, lord keeper, his petition to the queen, 
for a lease of part of the possessions of the bishopric of 
Ely : a motion to Jill that vacant see. MSS. D. Puck- 
ring. About the year 1595. 

THAT it may please your most excellent majesty to 
grant me, your most bounden servant, your princely fa- 
vour, that I may have a lease of part of the possessions of 
the bishopric of Ely, not exceeding a third part thereof in 247 
value, for such a reasonable term of years as the bishop 
may grant unto your majesty ; yielding unto the bishop 
and his successors the best accustomed rents now, or any 

z 4 



3-i-i ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO time heretofore, answered to the bishop for the same, and 
performing, as usual, covenant for payment of rent, and 
doing reparations. 

For the accomplishment whereof, it may please your ma- 
jesty to translate one of the eldest bishops ; who may make 
the same lease. By whose great age it is like the same bi- 
shopric will not tarry long forth of your majesty's hands. 
I find no other suit so fit for your majesty to grant me as 
this; for the exchanges, fee-farms, and leases of your ma- 
jesty's own lands are to be taken from your own self, and 
from your royal revenues It may perchance be ob- 
jected, that your majesty having now the revenue of the 
bishopric, doth forego the same by making a bishop. An- 
swer, Your majesty, by giving the bishopric, shall have the 
first-fruits, which is one year's profit, and the tenths and 
subsidies besides : which you cannot have, while the bi- 
shopric remains in your majesty's hands : which, together, 
I take it, will be as profitable to your majesty, as it is now 
the bishopric remaineth in your hands. And your majesty 
shall hereby have moreover the first-fruits of that bishopric 
from whence your majesty shall be pleased to translate the 
bishop to Ely ; and also of so many as you shall be pleased 
by that occasion to remove or translate. 

The clergymen may perchance think your majesty doth 
decrease the revenues of the church by making a lease of 
the bishops' lands. Answer, So long as the inheritance and 
the ordinary rent of the bishopric is not diminished, they 
cannot think any thing thereof, but rather may be glad, 
that after so long vacancy your majesty will be pleased to 
make a bishop. Because there will be one see the more 
filled than hath been many years heretofore: and where, 
for want of a bishop, a great number of papists are har- 
boured in that diocese, and the bishop's houses much de- 
cayed. Your majesty, by making a bishop, may easily re- 
medy those inconveniences. And moreover, if your ma- 
jesty make a bishop of Ely, he is to do your highness divers 
services ; as finding of men and horses in time of war, &c 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 345 

Number CLXX XI. anno 

1595. 

Another discourse of the said lord on the same subject; viz. 

that the placing of a bishop in the see of Ely will be as 
profitable to her majesty as now the vacancy thereof is : 
besides divers reasons for the which, also it appeareth 
to be very expedient. 

THE clear profits of the bishopric of Ely, as it hath 
been answered to her majesty, since the see became last void, 
(as will appear by the accounts remaining with Mr. Auditor 
Neal,) hath been, communibus annis, about 1500 

Her majesty, by placing a bishop there, shall yearly have 248 



for the tenths thereof - 
For the subsidy yearly - 
For the first-fruits, the tenths being 
deducted, each year, by the space of 
two years ------ 

In all years to be answered to her ■ 
majesty -.---- 


213 9 

383 6 

960 13 


10 

8 

Sob. 


q- 
q- 


1557 10 


8ob. 


q 



Moreover, the bishop of Norwich, who is eighty-eight 
years old, being translated to the bishopric of Ely, which 
is of lesser charge and jurisdiction, there will come to her 
majesty, for the first-fruits of the bishopric of Norwich, at 
the least 800 

And so it appeareth that her majesty shall make profit, 
and not any loss, by the placing of a bishop in the see of Ely. 

By occasion also of this translation, divers other removes 
may become very profitable to her majesty : viz. The first- 
fruits of the bishop of Hereford, by that bishop's remove to 
Norwich, 700Z. The first-fruits of the bishop of Chichester, 
by his remove to Hereford, 600Z. The first-fruits of the 
bishop of Chester, by his remove to Chichester, 360Z. And 
the like out of the bishop of Peterborough, by his remove 
to Chester, 3007. ----- 2010 

Furthermore, the bishopric of Ely, being bestowed upon 
so old a man as the bishop of Norwich, is very likely shortly 
to be again at her majesty's disposing. 



346 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
A ™° Number CLXXXII. 



'Another paper of the said lord keeper : soliciting the queen 
for a lease of some part of the revenues of the above-said 
bishopric. 

HE seeketh but to be the bishop's fermour; and that 
only of such portion as the bishop can and will be willing 
to spare : being no part of his mansion-house, or demeans ; 
but that which others shall have, if the lord keeper have it 
not. And the lord keeper having it, will let to the tenants 
for reasonable fines : who will be glad of good and certain 
terms, and will bestow costs upon the same. 

The reasons. By making a bishop of Ely, your majesty 
shall fill that see, which hath been fourteen years void, [that 
is, from year 1581,] and remove that opinion of keeping a 
bishopric so long in your majesty's hands. 

A lease may be made from the bishop to your majesty 
(and so to be given to myself) of 600Z. by year, of those 
possessions, for such reasonable years as the bishop may 
grant, without diminishing any usual rent of the same. 



249 Number CLXXXIII. 

Sir Edward Wotton to the lord treasurer ; suing to be 
treasurer qf the queeiCs chamber, upoti the death of sir 
Francis Knoxcles. 

Most honourable, 
I AM so clear from having given your lordship any 
cause of offence, that I pretend to have deserved your fa- 
vour. In confidence whereof I write this : beseeching your 
lordship to be my mean to her majesty for the treasurership 
of her chamber. Your lordship shall prefer unto her ;t 
faithful servant, and one most thankful unto yourself: 
which point I forbear to amplify; knowing the little credit 
much saying carrieth in this age of words. It may please 
your lordship to hope well of my actions, which are the true 
interpreters of the mind. And so, expecting your honour- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. S47 

able answer, I wish your lordship a speedy recovery, with ANNO 
continuance in health and happiness. From Pykering-house, __1_1_ 
this present Friday. 

Your lordship's, to do you honour, 

Edward Wotton. 

But succeeded not; Roger lord North obtaining the place. 



Number CLXXXIV. 

aS'/V Robert Cecil, lent, made secretary of state : son to the 
lord treasurer, lord Burghley. His familiar letter to 
Mr. Michael Hicks, his friend, secretary to the said lord: 
avowing his principle, chiefly to serve the queen. 

Mr. Hicks, 
THINGS past are known unto you : and the more that 
difficulties were, the more contentment now to remember 
them, being overcome. That which is to come, I pray you 
take care of: which is, especially, that I may not be known 
to have had any particular dealing in the matter more than 
others, of the conceit I had, that his worth justly entitled 
him to this fortune, [perhaps the marrying of a rich ward.] 
For it will disable me to do him or others pleasure here- 
after, by my access to her majesty's ear : which now I so 
used, as her majesty cannot suspect that I look to any thing 
but her service : which, as I profess and protest, I did and 
do most of any thing in all my recommendations : so do I 
not deny to myself the liberty, that, when other things con- 
cur, my friends are now nearest to me in my wishes and 

honest endeavours 

Your friend, 
Ilo. Cecil. 



J348 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
anno Number CLXXXV. 

1 595. 

A book came forth this year ', 1595, (printed at Load. 4to.) 



250 called, The State of the English Fugitives under the 
King of Spain and his Ministers: containing besides, a 
discourse of the said king's manner of government, and 
the injustice of many late dishonourable practices by him 
committed. 

THE intent of the book is, to dissuade the English Ro- 
man catholics to forsake their own country to go into Flan- 
ders, or other countries under the king of Spain, to serve 
him. And that because so many such gentlemen that were 
there met with such great scorn, injury, and destruction : 
the author himself having been five or six years since in 
those parts of Flanders, and seeing (as he writeth in his 
preface) a miserable troop of his unhappy countrymen (some 
of which were gentlemen of good houses in England) 
wandering, in poor looks and afflicted gestures, heavily 
groaning under the burden of an extreme and calamitous 
necessity ; being debarred from return into their own coun- 
try, and daily overlooked with the proud eyes of disdainful 
Spaniards 

Knowing of some of his good friends and acquaintance 
in England, possessed with the like humour as that which 
possessed the aforesaid unhappy gentlemen, to forsake their 
country, and to settle themselves in the service and do- 
minion of the king of Spain, he thought good to advertise 
them of that which his experience had gathered, touching 
the small regard, distress, poverty, scorn, calamities, and 
affliction, that befell to such as had already entered that 
course. 

The around of this discourse was a letter that he had 
formerly sent, who himself then served the king of Spain, 
to a catholic gentleman, his kinsman and friend, that had 
signified to him of his longing to come into those parts, and 
to employ himself there in the service of the Spanish king, 
as many other young gentlemen did; in hope there to 
grow to great preferment, advancement, and employment, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 349 

and wealth: and others pretending matter of conscience, ANNO 
tli inking assuredly to live there with more liberty and ease 1595 ' 
of mind, than within their own country they enjoyed. 
Therefore in the same letter he resolved (out of due and 
humble regard to the service and sacred person of the 
queen, and to his dearly beloved native country and coun- 
trymen) to set down some notes and observations, which by 
a long and dangerous experience in this place he had heed- 
fully gathered ; by which he hoped to make it manifest 
to him, and to all others his countrymen, by apparent ex- 
amples and undeniable truths, how greatly they that 
greatly desired to repair thither in a hope of good, to be 
received by the said king or his ministers, did err and were 
deceived. 

In the conclusion of his book, because many of our coun- 25 1 
trymen, living in great happiness at home, yet (like those 
that cannot take good rest when they lie soft) do in their 

conceit mislike the quiet estate they live in, he shewed 

touching the benefits and blessings God had poured down 
upon her majesty and her people, together with the flourish- 
ing state of the realm, since the time of her majesty's go- 
vernment, so plentiful in peace, victorious in war, so indus- 
trious in arts, so excelling in all sciences, that the very 
Spanish enemy himself did not stick many times to break 
out into an admiration thereat ; and sometimes in his scoff- 
ing,or rather blasphemous humour, to swear, that he thought 
Jesus Christ a protestant. And then the writer made a brief 
comparison between this government and that of the adver- 
sary, viz. the king of Spain : his cruel and inhuman usage 
of his miserable subjects ; his violent abolition, and taking 
away all their privileges; and, in fine, the unspeakable 
bondage, constrained servitude, and pitiful desolation in 
which they lived. 

In this discourse he mentioned eight English gentlemen 
hanged up, after the sack of Antwerp, by his captain-ge- 
neral in the Low Countries, notwithstanding notable ser- 
vices they had done both to him and the duke of Alva: and 
Egrimond Ratclyff and Mr. Grey, gentlemen of noble 



350 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO houses, and faithfully affected both in religion and service 
159 °' to the Spanish king. Nevertheless, upon some groundless 
suspicion, that they should have practised the death of don 
John, were both apprehended; and nothing could be proved 
against them : yet their heads were stricken off in the mar- 
ket-place of Namur, protesting their innocency at that time. 
Four and twenty English soldiers were hanged together in 
the market-place of Audenard, by the Spanish provost. Of 
the surrender of which place, the troops, wherein they were, 
were the chief causes. He mentioned also the miserable 
deaths, or miserable lives of Norris, Barny, Cornish, Gib- 
son, Pigot, Tresham, captains, with abundance more; and 
of some hundreds of brave, tall English soldiers, that never 
received, in all the time of their service, any one month's 
pay. And added, that he had seen lieutenants and ensigns 
of them go up and down sickly and famished, begging their 
bread, covered only with poor blankets, and ticks of feather- 
beds, that they had rifled in the villages abroad. And he 
himself relieved some of them. 



252 Number CLXXXVI. 

The visitation of Richard Fletcher, bishop of London, Oct. 
20, ami. regin. 37. In some articles of inquiry, chiefly 
i-especting the clergy. MSS. I). Joh. episc. Ely. 

Art.10. WHETHER your preacher, in his prayer made 
in the entrance of his prayer to his sermon, do use at all 
times to pray for her majesty by her whole title, by the 
queen's injunctions, given unto her as queen of England, 
France, and Ireland, defender of the faith, &c. over all 
causes, and over all persons, within tier majesty's dominions, 
as well ecclesiastical as temporal, next and immediately 
under God supreme head, &c. 

Art. 11. Whether any teacher in conventicles or private 
meeting have read or used within your parishes, either in 
the church, or privately in any house, by any not suffi- 
ciently licensed thereunto ? Or whether any such reader do 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 351 

teach any doctrine of innovation, to withdraw the people ANNO 

from due obedience unto the ordinary of the church, set 1_L1_ 

forth by public authority, or cause them to forbear the 
participating either in the prayers or sacraments with our 
church ? 

Art. 18. Whether any such do commend a discipline 
contrary to the laws now established, privately or pub- 
licly? 

Art. 27 Whether, &c. do declare or speak any thing 

in derogation of the Book of Common Prayer, &c. 

Art. 28. Whether any preacheth, and doth not at certain 
times in the year minister the sacraments in his own person, 
and in such church wherein he readeth his lectures? 

Art* SI. Whether there be contention for doctrine and ce- 
remony; what, and who was the cause thereof? 



Number CLXXXVII. 

The archbishop of Canterbury to Chadcrton, bishop of Lin- 
coln; removed thither from Westchester, 1595. Touching 
relief of the poor in the time of dearth. 

Salutem in Christo. 

YOUR lordship shall do well, in this time of scarcity 
and dearth of corn and victuals, to admonish the preachers 
within your diocese, to exhort the wealthier sort of their 
parishioners to contribute more liberally towards the relief 
of the poor ; and specially in such sort as by letters is sig- 
nified from the lords and others of her majesty's most ho- 
nourable privy-council, to the sheriffs and others in every 
several county. And I could wish that such as are noted 
to hold up their corn in this time of extremity were spe-253 
cially admonished thereof, and let to understand, how great 
an offence that is in the sight of Almighty God, &c. 

I doubt not but that your lordship will take due care 
hereof, the necessity of the time requiring the same. And 
so, with my hearty commendations, I commit your lordship 



352 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO to the tuition of Almighty God. From Croyden, the 27th 
1595 - of May, 1595. 

Your lordship's loving brother in Christ, 

Jo. Cantuar. 



Number CLXXXVIII. 

Matthew Hutton, archbishop of York, to the lord treasurer, 
in behalf' qf the lady Margaret Nevil, reclaimed from 
popery. 

My honourable and very good lord, 

YESTERDAY in the afternoon I was at your lord- 
ship's lodging in court, to have seen and certified your ho- 
nour, (but that you were then sitting in council,) that I had 
been with her most excellent majesty, making petition for 
the poor distressed lady, Margaret Nevyl, shewing her piti- 
ful estate ; that she is wholly reformed in religion, most pe- 
nitent for her offence, and most humbly with tears be- 
seecheth her highness 1 most gracious pardon for her life, 
with somewhat for her living. It pleased her highness to 
vouchsafe me a gracious speech ; saying, she would have 
consideration of the petition. 

Now I am very heartily to recommend her lamentable 
case unto your honourable and favourable consideration, 
that your lordship would vouchsafe to be a special good 
means for this poor condemned madam; whom many godly 
men do greatly pity, and I have been willing to my power 
to help. Your good lordship, in my opinion, may do a 
o-odlv deed, and make many of her honourable and good 
friends bound unto your lordship in her behalf. And truly, 
my good lord, as, I thank God, I was a means to do good 
to her soul, (whose example may happily do good to 
others,) so I would be right glad it would please her ma- 
jesty to shew to the world, that she putteth great difference 
between her, that is dutiful, and her two sisters, that con- 
tinue obstinate. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 353 

Thus, sorry that I have been so troublesome to your ANNO 
lordship in this matter, I commend your honour to the 15 ' 96 ' 
blessed direction of the Almighty. From Chanon-row, this 
10th of April, 1595. 

Your good lordship's in Christ most assured, 

Matth. Ebor. 



Number CLXXXIX. 254 

The archbishop of York to the lord treasurer. Against 
certain concealers, to deprive him of certain church lands 
in Rippon, upon pretence of concealment. 

My honourable and very good lord, 
1 AM given to understand, that one Ellesworth and 
Proctor, two troublesome and unworthy informers in the 
late vacancy of this see, procured commission out of her 
majesty's honourable court of exchequer; by colour whereof, 
they have indirectly (so far as they could) endeavoured to 
have certain lands belonging to my liberties of Rippon, and 
given to the use of a free chapel, to be proved to be con- 
cealed : although it is well known, and may appear by an- 
cient records, that the same are holden by the archbishop 
of York by copy of court-roll. I am therefore earnestly to 
pray your good lordship, that my poor tenant there be no 
further molested or charged by means of the suggestions of 
such promoting persons, little worthy the countenance of 
that honourable court. Or, if it please your honour to be 
further satisfied herein, that direction may be given to 
some of good credit, that may also certify the state and 
truth thereof. And so I heartily commend your good lord- 
ship to the blessed protection of the Almighty. From Bi- 
shopthorp, the 6th of May, 1595. 

Your good lordship's most assured, 

Matth. Ebor. 



vot,. iv. a a 



354 ANNALS OF CHURCH ANDfSTATE, 
ANNO Number CXC. 

1 595. 

'■. — The council m the north to the lords of the privy-council: 

giving notice of the death of Henry curl of Huntington, 
president of the council of the north. 

Rt. honourable, our very good lords, 
MAY it please your lordships to be advertised, that our 
very good lord, the earl of Huntington, lord president in 
these parts, departed this life at York, about seven of the 
clock in the morning of this 14th day of December. The 
state of his sickness and manner of death, (which was most 
Christian like,) this bearer, his lordship's servant, can at 
large declare to your lordships. Immediately upon his 
death, we, then present, and attendant on his lordship, did 
collect into places fit for the same, all casks, boxes, writings, 
letters, and papers which we could find; and locking up the 
doors of those places, we have sealed up the same with our 
seals, and delivered the keys to the lord archbishop of 
York, till your lordships 1 pleasure be further known. 
255 Wherein, as likewise for your lordships' direction in the 
affairs and government of this place, we most humbly pray 
your lordships" 1 advertisement and instructions. And so, 
most humbly recommending our services unto your good 
lordships, we take our leaves. From York, this 14th day 
of December, 1595. 

Matth. Ebor. 
E. Stanhope, Joh. Gibson, 

W. Cardynal, Jo. Foyne. 



Number CXCI. 

The archbishop of York to the lord treasurer : desiring a 
■pardon for Nelson, a priest, a prisoner; now reclaimed. 

My honourable good lord, 
ONE Martin Nelson, a late massing-priest, taken the last 
summer, wholly reclaimed, and hath before me dutifully 
and willingly subscribed to the book of Articles of Religion 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 355 

established; and also very humbly, upon his knees, taken ANNO 

the oath of her majesty's supremacy earnestly. Considering. _ 

that, as he is most penitent for his offence, so he will faith- 
fully labour as a minister, to do good service to God and her 
majesty, and to persuade and reform such as heretofore he 
hath dissuaded and seduced. And he humbly beseecheth, 
and I humbly pray your lordship, that being aged, and 
having nothing for his relief in prison, he may be bailed, if 
it may be ; and that it will please your lordship to be an 
honourable good means, as my late honourable good lord 
president would have been, to procure him her majesty's 
gracious pardon : her highness being ever most mercifully 
inclined, as a princely pattern of piety, to take great pity 
upon penitent offenders, therein truly imitating Almighty 
God, whose person she doth rightly represent here on earth. 
Thus, beseeching God long to bless your honour with 
his manifold graces, I commend you to his heavenly pro- 
tection. From Bishopthorp, the 15th of January, 1595. 



Number CXCII. 

A memorial: containing the lord treasurer's advice concern- 
ing the Spanish 'preparations. November 4, 1596. 

MY opinion by way of advice, under correction, of for- Anno 1596. 
mer information concerning the matter moved from her 
majesty to be considered, what were meet to be done upon 
the advertisements of the Spanish preparations, is as fol- 
loweth : 

First, For the present, I think the order sent to the 256 
realm, to all lieutenants and governors, for the putting in 
readiness of all their forces, and to put in speedy execution 
all former orders for the defence of the seacoast, hath been 
most necessarily expedited. And where they are eftsoons 
required to certify what they do and mean to do, for speedy 
execution of these orders, the same would be reiterated, if 
they shall not speedily advise. 

Secondly, I think it most necessary, that a convenient 
a a 2 



356 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO number of ships of war be speedily sent to the west parts, 
6 ' both for the comfort of the coasts, and to do such service 
as they shall be able to do, to impeach the enemy from free 
landing of forces in places where the said ships of war may 
impeach them. And though speedily they cannot be put in 
readiness, for lack partly of plenty of victuals, partly be- 
cause the ships meet for this service cannot be so speedily 
rigged as were necessary, and partly for lack of mariners, 
whereof a great number are absent in voyages, such a navy 
as may be sufficient to encounter the Spanish ; yet such a 
number would be presently made ready, as victual and ma- 
riners may be had to serve the purpose. And presently also 
some bargain would be made with the merchants of Hoi- 
land, to make provision of some quantity of grain; whereof 
some part would be brought to London, some part to Do- 
ver, and some part to Portsmouth ; where there are places 
of stowage, and all necessary offices to make provision of 
supplies of victuals for the ships. 

Item, Beside that provision, a former charge would be 
renewed to sir Henry Palmer, to stay all foreign shippings 
with corn which should pass the narrow seas: seizing so 
much thereof as may be proved to be intended for Spain ; 
and all the rest to be taken up by way of bargain for the 
queen's majesty, upon reasonable prices. 

Item, I think it very necessary to consider partly how ;i 
sufficient army may be compounded of the forces of the 
countries bv perusal of the certificates of every county, of 
the numbers there in readiness, what arms may serve to 
withstand and defend the enemy, when he shall land. 
And because it is uncertain where the enemy shall land, it 
is requisite that one army might be compounded of the 
western counties, as of the forces of Cornwall, Devon, Dor- 
set, and Somerset ; and one other of the counties more 
eastwardly, as Wiltshire, Hampshire, Sussex, and Berk- 
shire. And considering the numbers of the countries already 
levied and sorted into bands are number sufficient to make 
a complete army, joining three or four or more of the coun- 
ties together, for the composition of two such armies, which 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 357 

may be readily made of 20,000 men, or mo or less, it shall ANNO 
be necessary, that her majesty do make choice of some fit 1596 ' 
noble person to be her lieutenant-general, to take charge of 
the said armies, whensoever they shall be compounded, and 
shall be used ; who may be ready to have his commission, 
as soon as cause shall require to have the said armies used, 
according as the enemy shall be seen to direct his course for 
landing. And likewise her majesty may do well to name 
some other persons to be ready also to serve over the said 
army as high-marshal of the field, and one other to be the 
general of the horsemen, and one to be lieutenant of the 
lances, and one other of the light horse ; and one to be 
master of the ordnance for the field, and one to be colonel- 25? 
general of the infantry, and a sergeant-major : and to have 
one a provost-marshal and corporal of the field ; and other 
inferior officers, to be named by the advice of the lieutenant- 
general. All which officers, so named aforehand, may be 
ready with the lieutenant to repair to the countries, when 
there shall be cause to have the army assembled. 

And forasmuch as in all the countries the companies both 
of horsemen and of footmen have been of lono- time com- 
mitted commonly to the government of the best men of 
worship and knowledge in the countries, who have been at 
great charges in keeping the said numbers in order, and 
seeing them to be furnished with armour, weapon, and 
other necessaries, and that the people of the countries, so 
distributed by bands to the government of the choice men 
of worship and value, will be most willing to serve and 
venture their lives with their said captains, I think it most 
necessary, that the said gentlemen be continued in the 
charge of their said bands, and not to be discharged without 
notable cause of default or lack, and not to commit the said 
people to the charge of strangers, unknown to them, who 
neither can have that natural care over them, nor have the 
affections of the people so devoted to them, as thereby to 
adventure their persons and their lives under them. Never- 
theless, considering that when those numbers shall be assem- 
bled, and reduced to the body of an army, these particular 

Aa3 



358 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO captains and leaders shall not be thought able to direct 
159() ' them in general sort, as is requisite in an army ; therefore 
all such captains, with all their bands, shall be subject to 
the allowance and commandment of the general lieutenant 
of the army, and to the direction also of the former officers 
named for an army. For seeing that the inferior officers, 
as the lieutenants, sergeants, viewed to be inexperimented 
for their offices, or otherwise, to be removed, and more suf- 
ficient put in their places, by order of the lieutenant-ge- 
neral ; and to avoid the discontentment of such as have 
already offices, as colonels of regiments, the said lieutenant- 
general may do well (except he see great defaults in the 
said colonels) to suffer them to be particular colonels of the 
said regiments, and yet to appoint them to be under the rule 
of the general colonel of the army ; to be employed as the 
lieutenant-general shall order. 

Item, The like order would be had, where any have had 
principal charge of leading of lances and light-horsemen, to 
suffer them to continue their charge ; and yet to be directed 
under the lieutenants of the horsemen for the army. 

Item, Because it may be doubted, that the forces of every 
country may not be in such readiness, nor so furnished with 
armour and weapon as were necessary, or that the persons 
levied, and on roll, as soldiers, may be found unable in 
their persons, it were very necessary, that presently into 
every maritime county upon the south and west, a fit per- 
son of knowledge might be chosen and sent by her majesty 
into the counties, to the lieutenant of the county, to be by 
him directed to take the view of the bands, both of horse- 
men and footmen, in every part of the shire ; and to observe 
the defaults of the persons, armour, and furniture, and in 
her majesty's name to charge the captains of the band to 
see the same speedily reformed ; and to give knowledge 
258 thereof also to the lieutenant of the county, to move him 
to see the same supplied, as he will answer to her majesty. 

Item, I think it reasonable, that wheresoever this army 
shall be compounded, and wheresoever the lieutenant-ge- 
neral shall come personally to execute the office of general, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 359 

that for the time of his residence in any county, he should, ANNO 
by virtue of his commission, authorize the lieutenant of that 1596 ' 
county to be his lieutenant-general, as long as the army 
shall remain in that county : so as the authority of the lieu- 
tenant of the county be not extinguished, but continue un- 
der the rule of the lieutenant-general of the army. 

Item, I think it very necessary, that all persons being of 
the nobility, and being gentlemen, residing within every 
county, which are not by any former order limited to a par- 
ticular charge of leading of horsemen or footmen, nor are 
limited to any martial charge, should be presently enjoined 
to furnish themselves, to the best of their power, both with 
horsemen and footmen, to be ready to serve at the com- 
mandment of the lieutenant of the army, as parcel of the 
army, when he shall come into the county : and to be di- 
rected by him for any special service requisite. Of which 
number, I think, there must be very many of every county, 
that are of the great livelihood, and may have at their com- 
mandment, besides their own family, many of their tenants, 
that are not allotted to any charge of particular bands. 
And of these persons the lieutenant of the county should 
be charged to make present inquisition ; and by his letters 
in her majesty's name to command them to put themselves 
in order with their families, and such of their tenants as are 
not already sorted into bands, to be ready to serve in the 
army, as the lieutenant-general shall command. To whom 
the lieutenant of the county shall give knowledge of the 
number of such persons, and of their force. 

I think it very necessary that letters be written to the 
lieutenants of every shire, and to the bishops of every dio- 
cese within the said shires, to inquire presently, what num- 
ber of persons, that be householders, and of livings able to 
keep house, be recusants, and forbear to come to the churchy 
according to the laws of the realm. And to cause all such 
persons to be apprehended, and removed from their dwell- 
ing-places, and to be committed to the prisons of the shires, 
or except they shall give good assurance in bonds with 
sureties sufficient, to remove out of the counties where their 

a a 4 



360 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

\\\<> dwelling is, to the custody of some other good loyal sub- 
____ject, dwelling in a maritime county, with condition not to 
depart from thence without special knowledge and licence 
of the lieutenant of the county where he did inhabit. And 
that all such horses, armour, and weapons, as such recusants 
.shall have, be delivered to the custody of some public of- 
ficer, to be employed for the common service of the realm ; 
and the charge of maintenance of the horse to be borne 
with the goods of the recusant. 

I mean not here to include such principal recusants as 
have been heretofore committed, and been released upon 
bonds, taken by the archbishop of Canterbury. But that 
all they be presently committed to his custody ; and their 
horses and armour seized for present service. 
259 Item, If there shall be any woman, being a widow, of 
value to keep house, that shall be also a recusant, she shall 
be in like manner committed or bound as a man, being a 
recusant, shall be. Or any horse or gelding able to serve, 
either with armour or weapon, or for carriage, the same also 
shall be seized for the service of the country, and main- 
tained at the charges of the owner. 

Item, If it shall be found that there be any single man, 
able in person to serve, though they be no householders, and 
that are recusants, the same shall also be apprehended and 
committed to prison, there to remain during the pleasure of 
the lieutenant of the shire, as he shall think fit : and their 
charges to be borne by themselves or parents, or otherwise 
to be put to labour for their own living without liberty, &c. 
Item, If there shall be any person that hath any of their 
children fled out of the realm as fugitives, that same person 
shall be bound to good abearing, and not to have any intel- 
ligence with their children, or any ways to relieve them. 

Item, It shall be necessary that all bishops and clergy- 
men be enjoined to have in readiness as many able men, 
both horsemen and footmen, as they or any others, whose 
livings they have, were charged withal in the year 1588. 
The same to cause to be presented to the lieutenant of the 
shire, or to his deputy ; so as they may be ready to serve 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 361 

in the army of the forces that shall be compounded of that ANNO 

1596'. 

county. 

I think it very necessary, that if the enemy shall land, 
and take footing in any place, with likelihood to continue, 
order be given that all horses, and other [cattle] besides, 
and all other things that may serve the enemy for victuals, 
be driven from those ports, with charge to the owners to 
see them kept from the possession of the enemy. And that 
all commodities which the enemy might take by grinding 
of any corn, either by watermill or windmill, may be im- 
peached : which may be done by removing of the grinding- 
stones of the mills, and by taking away the cross-sails with 
[of] the windmills. 

Item, For impeaching of the landing, besides the service 
that her majesty's shipping may most aptly do therein, there 
would be made ready some fieldpieces, to be drawn with 
horses, upon the first view of the enemy upon the coast : 
whereby the enemy's boats might be repulsed from free 
or speedy landing. For the defence of which ordnance 
some banks of earth would be raised, to defend them from 
the shot of the enemy. 

All other particular devices to impeach the coming for- 
ward of the enemy, besides main force of horse and foot, 
are to be referred to the knowledge of the general, and the 
council of war, as by trenching and scouring of the ways, 
and by crossing all strait passages with felling trees, where 
the places may serve thereto. 

The places also for their fresh waterings would be in the 
night disturbed ; or so guarded, as the same might be kept 
from the enemy. 

Some provision of fireworks would be provided, to burn 
the ships in the haven. 



Number CXCIII. 2 6Y) 

A publication of the queen's majesty s commandment to the 
generals of her navy, to offend no manner person of' 



362 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO any nation, but the subjects of the Xing- of Spain, her 
majesty's enemy ; or such as shall manifestly ahl the said 
king, for the intended invasion, of the queens majesty's 
dominions. Thus endorsed by the lord treasurer's own 
hand : the whole being of his drawing up. 

Thus endorsed on the other side by another hand. 

A declaration of the causes moving the queen's majesty to 
prepare and send a navy to the seas, for defence of her 
realms against the king of Spain s forces. To be pub- 
lished by the generals of the said navy, to the intent that 
it shall appear to the world, that her majesty armcth her 
navy only to defend herself and to offend her enemies; 
and not to offend any other that shall forbear to 
strengthen her enemy ; but to use them with all lawful 
favour. May 1596. 

TO all Christian people to whom this declaration shall come 
to be read or heard, greeting. We, Robert earl of Essex, 
&c. and Charles lord Howard, lord admiral of England, &c. 
having the charge of a royal navy, prepared, and sent to the 
seas, by the most excellent princess, the lady Elizabeth, 
queen of England, France, and Ireland, Sec. do give all 
men knowledge, that this said navy under our charge is by 
her majesty prepared and sent to serve on the seas, for de- 
fence of her majesty's realm, dominions, and subjects, 
against such mighty forces as we are advised, from all parts 
of Christendom, to be already prepared by the king of 
Spain ; and by further provision of men and ships, daily 
sent for, are to be mightily increased, to invade her ma- 
jesty's l'ealms, (as heretofore in the year of our Lord 1588 
was attempted ; even when there was a treaty continued 
by both their commissioners for a peace, with a greater 
army than ever before in his time was set to the seas. 
Though by God's goodness, and the valour and wisdom of 
her noble and faithful subjects, the same was notably made 
frustrate.) 

And because her majesty hath good intelligence of per- 
fect amity with all kings and princes of Christendom, saving 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 363 

only with the king of Spain, who hath these many years ANNO 
most unjustly professed openly great inimity by clivers 159 ' 
actions, both against her royal person, and her countries 
and people, without any just cause first given on her ma-26l 
jesty's part : therefore we, the said earl and lord admiral, 
do ascertain all persons, that we are most strictly commanded 
by her excellent majesty to forbear from offending in this 
our voyage of any manner person of what nation soever, 
except the said king's natural subjects, or such other born 
strangers as shall give to the said king manifest aid, with 
men, ships, artillery, victuals, or other warlike provision, 
for invasion of her majesty : which her majesty's command- 
ment we mean dutifully to observe. And do therefore give 
strait charge to all persons that shall serve in this navy un- 
derneath us, upon pain of extreme punishment, to observe 
the same. 

Yet to avoid all occasions that may breed question who 
they are, being not the king of Spain's subjects, that shall 
be charged by us to be manifest aiders for the furnishing 
and strengthening of the king's said forces, provided either 
by land or sea, to attempt any invasion of her majesty's 
countries, we do, for the liquidation of this doubt, earnestly 
and in God's name require and charge all persons that are 
not the said king's natural subjects, and yet that have given 
him aid with their ships, victuals, and munition, as is above- 
said, to withdraw all their said ships prepared for the war, 
and all their provisions for hostility, out of any haven of 
Spain or Portingal, and from the company and service with 
the king's ships against our navy, and therewith to return, 
either to their own countries, or, if they so shall like, to 
come to our navy ; to whom, in the reverend name of our 
sovereign lady the queen's majesty, we do promise all se- 
curity, both for their persons and goods, to be used and de- 
fended as friends, and to suffer all their ships and provi- 
sions that were either taken by the king of Spain, or in- 
tended for his services, and that shall be by the owner 
withdrawn from his aid, to remain in their own free dispo- 
sitions, so as the same be used in all sorts as friends, and 



S64 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO not enemies to the queen's majesty, and to us her generals. 
And if any shall, upon knowledge of this her majesty's 



most honourable order, and of our promise to observe the 
same as favourably as we may, willingly and manifestly 
refuse to accept this our offer, and shall not endeavour 
themselves to perform this reasonable request, tending to 
their good and liberty, we shall then be justly moved, as by 
the law of arms we may, to take and use all such, for re- 
fusing this our offer, as manifest aiders of the king of Spain 
with forces to invade her majesty's dominions, and so, mani- 
fest enemies to us. And in such cause of that refusal, if 
any harm shall happen by any attempts to be made against 
their persons, ships, and goods, by any of our navy for 
their aiding of the said king, there shall be no just cause 
for them hereafter to complain, or to procure their natural 
princes and lords to solicit restitution or amends for the 
same. 

And for the more notification hereof, we have thought 
good to have the original hereof to be signed with our hands 
and with our seals, to be seen by any that will require to 
read or see the same : and likewise we have put the same 
in print, in French, Italian, Dutch, and Spanish. And have 
26*2 also caused the same to be distributed into as many ports of 
Spain and Fortingal as conveniently might be, for the 
better knowledge to be had in the said ports. 



Number CXCIV. 

A prayer of thanksgiving for the queens success against 
Spain, in the year 1596 : composed by the lord treasurer 
liurghlcy, July 3. Printed in a sheet of paper. This 
transcribed from his oxen MS. 

LORD God of hosts, everlasting and most merciful 
Father; we thine unworthy creatures yield unto thy divine 
Majesty all possible praise and humble thanks lor thine 
infinite benefits, which thou hast of long time plentifully 
poured upon thine handmaiden and humble servant, our 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 365 

sovereign lady and queen, and upon her whole realm, and ANNO 
us her subjects, the people of this kingdom. And namely, _____ 
O Lord, for thy gracious respecting us in the merits of thy 
dear Son our Saviour, and by his interest passing over 
and forgiving our manifold sins: Thou hast this present 
summer so favourably conducted the royal navy and army, 
sent to the seas by our gracious queen, (not for any other 
worldly respect, but only for the defence of this realm and 
us thy people, against the mighty preparations of our ene- 
mies, threatening our ruin,) by safely directing them unto 
places appointed, and by strengthening the govei'nors and 
leaders of the same with counsel and resolution ; and bless- 
ing them with notable victories, both by sea and land : 
whereby the insolencies and pride of our enemies, which 
sought our conquest and subversion, is by these late victo- 
ries daunted, repulsed, and abated. 

Grant unto us, most merciful Father, the grace with due 
thankfulness to acknowledge thy fatherly goodness extended 
upon us by thy singular favour shewed to thy servant and 
minister, our sovereign lady and queen. And for thy holy 
name continue these thy wonderful blessings upon us, to 
defend us against our enemies, and bless us with thy grace- 
ful hand, to the endless praise of thy holy name, and to 
our lasting joy. 

And direct our armies by thy providence and favourable 
support, to finish these late victories, to the honour of 
our sovereign, and safety of her realm, that hath most care- 
fully made the same able to overmatch her enemies : so as 
the noblemen and all others serving in the same navy and 
army in their charge, may with much honour, triumph, and 
safety, return home to their countries, and to give thee due 
thanks for thy special favour marvellously shewed unto 
them, in preserving of them all this summer-time from all 
contagion and mortality by sword or sickness; notwith- 
standing their force and violence most manfully exercised 
against their enemies, to the vanquishing great numbers 
both by sea and land, and to the destruction of their most 
mighty ships that heretofore have attempted to invade this 



366 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO realm, and of their forts and castles, and waste of their 
_ notable substances of their churches, without hurting any 



26.3 person that did yield, or of any women or children, or reli- 
gious persons. To whom all favour was shewed that they 
did require. 

All which prosperous successes we do most justly ac- 
knowledge, O Lord, to have proceeded from thy special 
favour. To whom, with thy Son, and the Holy Ghost, be 
all honour and praise. Amen. 

Set forth by authority. 



Number CXCV. 
Hutton, archbishop of York, to the lord treasurer: advising 
what is necessary to be done in this time of great danger: 
and for an ecclesiastical commission for those parts. 

My most honourable good lord, 

I WOULD be right sorry, that your lordship's want of 
health should hinder her majesty's service now, when the 
whole land standeth most in need of your wise and grave 
counsel. I pray God it be not an occasion of some great 
plague for our sins. The enemy groweth strong and pros- 
pereth : good men and valiant men are taken away on our 
side ; wise men are enfeebled to do as heretofore, and as 
they would do: and yet the most of us live in security. 
The Lord be merciful unto us. 

I beseech your lordship, give me leave to inform your 
good lordship what I wish were presently done. 1. That 
most special care be had of the guarding of her majesty's 
most royal person. 2. That all offices of state and in the 
court be presently furnished with the fittest men, &c. 3. 
That a perfect reconciliation be made among the nobility, 
wheresoever there hath been any jarring : that all may join 
together to fight pro rcge, lege, ct gregc ; but cannot be 
perfectly done, except by true repentance we be first recon- 
ciled to God. And indeed that is the first. I beseech your 
Lordship pardon my boldness, and continue your care : that 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 367 

this poor country [of York and the north] may have a lord | ANNO 
president and lord lieutenant; and that the ecclesiastical ' 596, 
commission may be renewed : it is for God's glory, and her 
majesty's service. And I have been a suitor to have it 
renewed, more than a year. And now I send my man for 
that purpose. 

The Lord bless you, and restore you to your perfect 
health again. From York, the 3d of May, 1596. 

Your good lordship's in Christ most assured, 

Matth. Ebor. 



Number CXCVI. 264 

Part of a letter from a person unknown of the clergy, to 
a person of quality; shewing the rigour of judge Ander- 
son towards the clergy and preachers of Lincolnshire, 
when he went the assizes there, in charging them xoith 
Brownism. Writ from Alfbrd. 

SHALL I presume to be tedious unto you, and to 

trouble you with a sorrowful discourse, if I may. The case 
of our country [Lincoln] is this. 

Since my lord Anderson hath obtained to ride this circuit, 
[in the year 1596,] the ministry is grown into intolerable 
contempt : which is universally imputed unto him, both by 
those that would, and those that would not have it so. I 
am not ignorant how dangerous it is to speak the truth of 
mighty men, and how unlawful it is by the word of God to 
malign the rulers of the people. Neither, I thank God, 
have I any affection to blot paper with depraving words. 
And therefore I will only report to you what is done, and 
no further. 

My lord Anderson, in his first and second charge at Lin- 
coln, insinuated, with wonderful vehemency, that the coun- 
try is troubled with Brownists, with disciplinarians, as he 
called them, and erectors of presbyteries. I speak the truth 
to you, sir : having been at Alford these fourteen years, I 
never heard of any Brownist, but only one Tho. Man, who 



368 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO presently fled upon his schism ; nor do know any minister or 
15f)6 *' other in all this country that doth so much as favour the 



erecting of a presbytery. Neither are the people made 
acquainted with the controversy of discipline in all Lindsey 
coast that I can perceive : for men have enough to do to 
stand by that religion which her blessed majesty hath ap- 
proved unto us by her express laws. Nevertheless, the ill- 
affected people, upon the occasion these two charges, do 
think all religion will be made Brownism. And this judge, 
with so much wrath, so many oaths, and such reproachful 
revilings upon the bench, carrieth himself, that there is of- 
fence taken at it, by persons of principal credit and note, 
throughout all the circuits. 

If he take information from covert papists of the state of 
the church there, how lamentable shall our case be ! 

There have been assayes given to extend the statute of 
recusancy to those that go to hear sermons elsewhere, though 
at other times they frequent their own church, and hear di- 
Judge vine service most dutifully. In this charge this last time 
diT^Ta" 8 ne ca ^ e ^ the preachers knaves, saying, that they would 
the assizes, start up in the pulpit and speak against every body. And 
whereas there was the last Lent obtained by lord Clinton, 
and the deputy lieutenants for those parts, with other jus- 
tices, the bishop's allowance, with certain conditions, for a 
meeting to be held at Lowth, to spend the whole day in the 
bearing of the word, wherein men might fast if they would ; 
265 and thereupon certain preachers, being moved by them, 
preached there, and urged thereupon the statute for con- 
venticles, and animated the grand jury accordingly, affirm- 
ing, that he would complain to her majesty of any (though 
ncyer so great) which should shew themselves discontented 
with the jury for any such matter. 

The demeanour of him and the other judge, as they sit 
bv turns upon the gaol, (with reverence I speak it,) in these 
matters, is flat opposite : and they which are maliciously 
affected, when Mr. Justice Clinch sitteth upon the gaol, do 
labour to adjourn their complaints (though they be before 
upon the file) to the next nssi/e: and the gentlemen in the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 369 

several shires are endangered by this means to be cast into ANNO 
a faction. The best is, that there is little faction likely to 1596, 
grow among the ministers hereby : for howsoever they differ Ministers 
otherwise, they hold this to be the common cause, and do ere * 
heartily wish a more Christian proceeding. Now the reason 
why a faction is like to grow in the one, and not in the 
other, is very evident : and that is this, that there are very few 
in the ministry which are papists in their hearts. And the 
most must needs love the common cause of religion : for the 
other sort, you are wise enough to consider the difference. 

Will you hear some instances of these proceedings. First, 
by credible information at Northampton, he shewed himself 
greatly grieved at him which preached at the assizes there. 
At Leicester likewise with the preacher there ; where he also 
fell out with the high sheriff, and shewed himself displeased 
with the grand jury; both upon the same occasion. And at 
Nottingham there was offensive variance between him and 
one of the justices about such matters. Only they say, one 
Beaver, a preacher about Nottinghamshire, contentiously 
and dangerously, opposite to all the godly and learned 
preachers of those parts, in a question about the sacrament, 
to wit, that it was not necessary to inquire how Christ is 
present in it ; preaching before him and others, shewing the 
contradiction of his spirit, pleased him well, and was kindly 
used by him. As for others, he is informed, (as seemeth by 
his own speeches,) and so taketh it also himself, (when he 
heareth them himself,) that they rail upon him : whereupon 
he cometh inflamed with wrath to the bench. When the 
cause is inquired into, they will lament, which may do no 
more than lament ; and they will be angry, which may be 
angry by authority. 

And that which is certainly known at Lincoln, Mr. Allen, 
some time the preacher at Lowth, a man well accepted, by 
occasion of some variance between a justice of peace and him 
about a lease, which the justice would have of his parsonage, 
was indirectly and strangely pursued. He was indicted by 
the said justice's means for not reading all [the prayers] at 
once, among other like things, being a good preacher, (as 

VOL. iv. b b 



370 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO you know,) and using to omit part of it, for the sermon. Of 
1596- his offence of law I can say nothing; hut these two things 



I can avouch : first, that he shcweth conformable affections, 
being a man that is well liked of the bishop, and hath sub- 
scribed : secondly, that I have never heard in any cases of 
like quality (the party being so submissive and tractable) 
the like proceeding in all my life, nor of like effect. Mr. 
266 Allen was caused to go to the bar, and commanded to hold 
up his hand there : and my lord Anderson standing up, 
bent himself towards him with a strange fierceness of coun- 
tenance. To be brief, after he had insinuated some griev- 
ous faults (but unnamed) against the man, to move some 
offensive suspicion to the standers by, he called him one of 
the great distempers, putting him out of countenance, and 
not suffering to speak for himself. He called him knave 
oftentimes, and rebellious knave, with manifold reproaches 
besides : whereby (I am not about to speak at large, but a 
most true word unto you) all the honest hearts in the shire 
were grieved, and the ungodly were notably animated. The 
simple people rejoiced in their return homeward, saying, 
that a minister's cause could not be so much as heard at the 
assizes, and gathered, that all preaching was now, as it 
were, cried down. 

My lord Anderson said indeed, in his charge, that he 
would hunt all the puritans out of his circuit : and so said 
his man Joh. Anderson, before he came to his circuit. And 
as for this John, I am afraid he meaneth by puritans all, 
both papists and atheists. 
Alien's ar- This one thing was worth the marking in Mr. Allen's 

liiitriiuieiit. . ,„ 11 u i • .1 \ 

arraignment, (for so it was generally called in the country,) 
that the bishop sitting by very silent, when Mr. Allen, upon 
some speech, wherein judgment in divinity is required, re- 
ferred himself in that point to his ordinary there sitting, 
the judge entertained that speech with marvellous indig- 
nation, affirming, that lie was his ordinary and the bishop 
both, in thai place, and daring all that should take his part. 
Insomuch that sir George Sampal, sitting on that other side 
of the judge, might not be endured with patience to say 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 371 

softly, that Mr. Allen was an honest man, and of good con- ANNO 
versation, though he be universally so reputed. 15,qi '' - 

To have qualified this proceeding, there was means used 
before. For many preachers, knowing the judge's humour, 
went to the bishop, to entreat him to labour the judge to 
more mildness than his custom was : which the bishop pro- 
mised to do. And after it was past, in like manner a great 
number of the ministers, being that day in Lincoln about 
provision of their armour, lamented his proceeding as their 
general hurt. 

There was another minister also at the assizes strangely 
handled, ever through the bare opinion which wicked men 
have of this judge. The name of the man was Aderster, 
of Gosbertowne : he had belike before, some years past, 
passed some undecent and undiscreet speeches, for which 
he deserved censure ; and had been accordingly deeply cen- 
sured, both ecclesiastically and civilly, until that at last the 
matter was advanced to the high commission at London. 
In conclusion, my lord's grace of Canterbury, wisely ap- 
prehending belike the distinction that was in the cause, to 
wit, both that the party had spoken intolerable words, and 
that his adversaries exhibited them in other construction 
than ever he intended, after that the man was sufficiently 
humbled by silencing and deprivation, and other like cen- 
sures, (as he thought,) he thought fit to recommend him, 
and to license him again to preach through his whole pro- 
vince ; dealing otherwise also very favourably with him. 
And yet this man, forsooth, was brought by his warrant to 
the assizes, and there had the old matter objected against 26*7 
him again ; and notwithstanding these allegations, could 
not be dismissed without divers encumbrances and bonds. 
In this proceeding, who seeth not what opinion these ac- 
cusers had of this judge, to bring such a matter before him ? 
Alas ! sir, what discontentments will these things breed, 
if there be no redress ! The higher magistrates are very 
honourable and wise, and know best what they have to do. 
Malo nodo malus cuneus, is a true proverb : and the sense 
is true. But I will pray for some which are more employed 

Bb 2 



372 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO than watched, though well enough are known, that they 
I "' ;)> ' seek not nodum in scirpo. Most certainly, sir, there are no 
schisms in this country that give occasion to these proceed- 
ings. I would to God it would please the rt. hon. lords of 
her majesty's council to cause an uniform interpretation of 
all the statutes for church causes ; wherein the judges do 
differ in opinion. For want thereof it cometh to pass, that 
the same cause at the selfsame time, in divers parts of the 
realm, is diversly, yea in effect contrarily judged and en- 
forced upon juries: the same cause, I say, without differing 
in any one circumstance, save only in the opinion and af- 
fection of the judges. And I would to God, that they 
which judge in religious causes, though in the name of civil 
affairs, would either get some more knowledge in religion 
and God's word than my lord Anderson hath, or else might 
be assisted in all such causes by those which have. 

My lord Anderson was bonus rnurus (like) for Martin 
[Marprelate] and such like. But, alas ! to what purpose 
have we kept the people ignorant all this while of all those 
questions and courses, if for our labour now, we and many 
more of her majesty's most loving subjects shall be intro- 
duced fautors of that which we have always oppugned? 
Well, we will not be discouraged in our loyal affection to 
her majesty ; but we will comfort ourselves with our rude 
country proverb, that we are persuaded that much zcatcr 
goes by the mill that the miller never knows of': yea, we are 
assured, that her majesty would not have her own religion 
discountenanced, nor her quiet and loving people disquieted 
and grieved. 



Number CXCVII. 

Day, bishop ofWinton, deceased this year : whose last will 
bare date Sept. the AAth, 151)6; and was acknowledged 
by the testator as his last will, Sept. 15 : and was proved 
by the executors Oct. 2. Which will the pious bishop 
tliu.s began: 

I WILLIAM DAY, by God's permission, lord bishop 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 373 

of Winchester, being whole in mind, and sick in body, ANNO 
(thanks be to Almighty God,) make this my last will and 159 
testament, &c. First, I commend my soul into the hands of 
Almighty God, my Creator, trusting verily that he will re- 
ceive it to his mercy for Jesus Christ's sake, my only re- 268 
deemer, mediator, and advocate ; nothing doubting but that 
the same Spirit that raised Christ from death will also 
quicken my mortal body, and make it like to his glorious 
body, by that power whereby he is able to subdue all things 
to himself. — By the legacies of his will it appears he left a 
wife ; to whom he bequeathed one standing cup with a cover, 
whole gilt, weighing 35 ounces, and a chafingdish of silver, 
weighing 28 ounces, a spout-pot of silver, and feather-bed, 
&c. Two sons, William and Richard, his executors : and 
unto his son Richard all his books, saving such English 
books as his son William should choose. And a daughter, 
Elizabeth ; to whom he gave 500Z. to be delivered to her 
within two years after his death. Rachel Barker, his grand- 
daughter, and Elizabeth Barker, his sister ; legacies to them 
also. His daughter Ridley ; to her, four angels, to make 
her a ring. To his daughter Susan Cox, and her sister 
Rachel Barker, and Elizabeth Day, one portague of gold to 
each ; which commonly weigh value at seven angels. 



Number CXCVIII. 

This year put an end also to Fletcher, bishop of London, 
who seems to have died under the queen's displeasure : the 
occasion whereof was his marrying a lady not long be- 
fore his death. See some account of it hi Archbishop 
Whitgiffs Life, book iv. ch. 13. His letter to the lord 
treasurer in behalf of his brother Dr. Fletcher, to be 
made an extraordinary master in chancery, as Dr. Ccesar 
was. 

HE had a brother, Dr. Fletcher, a civilian, a person of 
note and use in those times, employed by the queen in se- 
veral honourable embassies abroad : in whose behalf the 

Bb3 



874 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO bishop in this last year of his life wrote an earnest letter to 
'' ,96, the lord treasurer, which was as followeth ; To be made as 
Dr. Caesar, an extraordinary master in chancery. 

As I have found your lordship's honourable aid to me in 
my occasions, so I humbly pray your lordship to give me 
leave to be a mover and solicitor hereby for my brother, 
Dr. Fletcher, to your good lordship : whom, if he were not 
as he is, I might truly commend to your lordship, to be 
worthy of regard. But your lordship hath much signified 
your honour's respect of him, his service, in place where he 
is, being of much pain and employment without intermis- 
sion, is notwithstanding accompanied by a stipend very un- 
proportionable to his charge and labours. And yet is obnox- 
ious to a people that are jealous of all dealing and solicita- 
tion even of their own agents ; especially in matters of ex- 
penses and charges imposed, as if their negligence or sub- 
ordination were the cause thereof. On the other side, there 
2u'<) followeth him the mislike and displeasure of great persons ; 
for that he is enforced oftentimes to deliver unto them many 
unpleasing and denying messages on the city's behalf; and 
to solicit against the immoderate desires of some noblemen 
and others of the court. Wherein he cannot find that mo- 
deration, but in very few, to excuse the messenger for the 
duty of his place. 

Your lordship also best knoweth his employments in his 
majesty's and his country's services in Scotland with Mr. 
Randolph, in Germany, Hamburgh, and Stade, with very 
good effect of the trade, till this day. In Russia, for the 
repair of the English intercourse then interrupted, and in a 
manner dissolved ; but since greatly increased, and in spe- 
cial sort continued : the regard of all which toward him, con- 
sisted! yet in favour to come. It hath pleased her majesty, 
in other matters besides these, to take knowledge of him ; 
and at his going to Russia, to admit him extraordinary of 
the requests. And if now it may like her highness, that in 
this infirmity of Mr. Rockhie he might stand as Dr. Caesar 
did, and so, upon occasion befalling, to be called further to 
that place of service, he would be found faithful. Where- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 



375 



unto if by your lordship's good and favourable word in his ANNO 

behalf, as opportunity may serve, he shall find furtherance, '__ 

your lordship shall increase his duty and service with all 
faithfulness to your lordship, and add more to both our 
prayers and observance, which unfeignedly we owe always 
to your honour. Whom I pray God to bless with cheerful- 
ness and comfort of body and mind in all your lordship's 
manifold and great affairs. From Fulham, the 17th of May. 
Your lordship's ever in Christ bounden, 

Rich. London. 



Number CXCIX. 
Henry earl of Huntington, lord president of the council in 
the north, concluded his life this year : of whom Hugh 
Broughton, the great learned man for all Jewish learn- 
ing, soon after his death, had these words : 
" MY honourable patron, whose rest is in paradise: 
" whom my pen must honour ; for that he was so deep for 
"judgment in the chief heads of all the Bible: so sincere 
" for affection in the heart of religion, that he is not like 
" ever to be overmatched by any."" 

And Ockland, a learned poet in those times, in his book, 
entitled EUzabetha, (wherein are characters given of the 
queen's great ministers,) hath these verses of the said earl : 



Hie veterum libros ineunte estate studendo, 
Qui Greece sophiam, vel qui scripsere Latine, 
Volvit ; collusor puero post seria regi : 
Magnorum antiqua regum de stirpe propago. 
PrcEconem hie sacrum satrapas attentior audit, 
Exprimit, et vita morum pictate relucens. 



Eduardi 
regis con- 
discipulus 
et collusor. 



b 4 



576 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 



ANNO Number CC. 

1596. 

Dr. Jegon, vice-chancellor of the university of Cambridge , 

2/0 i tkeir high chancellor, concerning the lectures to be 



read at Grcsham college. Jealous of' the injury those lec- 
tures might occasion to the university. 

Right honourable my singular good lord, 
MAY it please you to understand, that whereas certain 
lectures were lately founded by sir Thomas Gresham de- 
ceased, to be read within the city of London by professors 
of several arts, to be chosen by the lord mayor and com- 
monalty of that city ; the said mayor and his brethren 
have directed letters to our university of Cambridge, re- 
questing us to nominate unto them two of our meetest men 
in every faculty ; with like petition made to the university 
of Oxenford, to name two other. Out of which four they 
would elect one for every lecture, as by the copy of that 
letter may more at large appear. 

Wherein doubting that in time it may be greatly preju- 
dicial to our university, I have refrained to do any thing, 
until I mought have your honour's allowance thereof. So 
most humbly praying to know your pleasure therein, I re- 
commend my service to your lordship's commands. At 
Cambridge, Jan. the 30th, 1596. 

Your honour's most bounden ever, 

Jo. Jegon, vice-chan. 



Number CCI. 

William Lambarde, a justice of peace in Kent, a learned 
antiquarian, that xorote the Perambulation of K&nt, and 
Eirenarchia, his letter to the lord treasurer Burghlcy, 
concerning the last will of the lord Cobham, {who died 
this year,) and some of Jtis legacies, lie teas constable 
of Dover castle, and lord chamberlain to the queen. 

ALBEIT, my most honourable and gracious lord, that 
inv lord Cobham will present your lordship with a brief 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 377 

and large copy of the last will of that most honourable and ANNO 
Christian lord both in life and death, his late departed good 1596, 
father; yet forasmuch as his last disposition standeth not 
only in his known testament, but chiefly in the declaration 
of a secret confidence reposed in sir Joh. Leveson, Mr. 
Fane, the lieutenant of Dover castle, and myself; whereof 
he hath also in these his last desires recommended the 
oversight to your good lordship and Mr. Secretary, I take 
it to stand both with his own good pleasure and my duty, 27 1 
to make known hereby (since your lordship's indisposition 
of body permitteth not mine access) the heads and very con- 
tents of the same. 

His lordship therefore minding an undoubted accom- 
plishment of his godly and fatherly intentions, as well to- 
wards the poor, as his own children, did in his lifetime put 
into the hands of sir John Leveson the sum of 5,6001. al- 
most in ready money, over and besides rich furniture of 
his late lady's provision, amounting in his own estimation 
to the valore of 2000 marks. His commandment to us 
was, that with 20007. or more of these monies, the late sup- 
pressed college of Cobham should be reedified, and en- 
dowed with livelihood for the perpetual maintenance of 
twenty poor. Next, that with 20007. or thereabouts, his se- 
cond son, sir William Brook, should be freed out of debt. 
For to so much he knew him to be endangered by mort- 
gage of his lands and leases, and by other bonds. And 
lastly, that an interest for life in some competent dwelling- 
house be procured for his third son, Mr. Geo. Brook. And 
that some consideration should be taken of the poor estate 
of his daughter's children by Mr. Edward Bocher. As for 
these furnitures, he would have them to be delivered to such 
of his three sons as should first bestow himself in marriage. 

Give me leave, most honourable lord, to add somewhat 
of his and of mine, concerning my now lord Cobham and 
his brethren : which neither it will grieve you to hear, nor 
I, without their wrong, may pretermit to write. We find 
them all not only to concur in most cheerful obedience to 
the utmost execution of their good father's will and pur- 



378 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO poses, but also to contend among themselves, whether of 
1 596 '" them shall be more kind and bountiful to the other. 
Whereof I most humbly beseech your good lordship to 
take knowledge, and to confirm it in them with your good 
liking ; their honourable father being moved by me to use 
them, or some of them, now, for the execution of his will, 
however in the setting down of his former wills he had pre- 
termitted them, in regard, as I conceived, of their minorities. 
He answered thus, I would well to follow the example of 
my father herein ; who, notwithstanding that I and other of 
my brethren were then of man's estate, ordained Benedict 
Spinola and Mr. Osborn to be his executors. 

I have said enough, if not too much, considering the 
present weakness of your lordship's body: which I most 
heartily pray the heavenly Physician to recure. And so 
most humbly take my leave. From Lincoln's Inn, the 15th 
of March. 

Your good lordship's most humble, and bounden, 
by your manifold favours, 

Will. Lambardc. 



272 



Number CCII. 



The copy of a letter, written by Ribadcneyra, the Jesuit, to 
D.Juan de Idiaque. Bearing date the 10th of March, 
1596. Translated out of Spanish. Upon the defeat of 
the Spaniard at Coles. It seems to be a letter intercepted. 
I FEARFULLY behold the judgments of God hang- 
ing over our heads, and see that we live only by miracle : 
that the enemy so soon left Cales ; that they so courteously 
used their captives ; that the tumults of the grandees and 
gentry of this kingdom (which are swollen full of wrath 
against ye that govern the king) should be so soon pacified ; 
thai the India fleet escaped when the enemy was shipping 
at the Cape, watching for it, surely was by miracle; and 
your lordship knoweth what a great scourge it would have 
been to all Christendom, if any of these had fallen out 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 379 

otherwise in this so necessitous a time. Certainly we can- ANNO 
not live always in this manner : and therefore must seek 1596, 
means to remedy it : for if we do not help it by one way or 
other, I fear I may too properly cite the sentence of a 
great author, Quorum Deus vult mutare Jbriunam, cor- 
rumpit cons ilia. 

Verily, sir, I am much grieved, and my soul hath often- 
time been thoroughly vexed to hear in this occasion how 
the multitude murmur against his majesty, saying, He nei- 
ther doth any thing himself, nor will give way to others. 
Therefore are they determining to make the prince to rise, 
and with him to seek amendment of these many mischiefs. 
And the more discreet men of the best rank wish that God 
would take away the king, or the people possess themselves 
of the prince. And this resentment I understand is gene- 
ral. God my Saviour help us. What hath this holy man 
done, (for such I hold the king coram Deo;) what, I 
say, hath this man done, that even those that love him best, 
desire his life may endure no longer ? I have asked the 
causes ; it is answered, He neither doth, nor will suffer 
others to reform these abuses. [And so the letter endeth.] 



Number CCIII. 2 jr 3 

Anthony Coply, a popish gentleman, now a prisoner ; some 
time in service abroad: his informations after his re- 
turn, concerning affairs in Flanders, Spain, fyc. To 
Mr. Will. Wade, 1596. Addressed to the lords. 

BEING in my return home to England, a faithful and 
voluntary return to all the duties of a true subject towards 
prince and country, I do willingly and humbly obey, so far 
forth as I am able, to advertise hereby such particulars of 
estate beyond the seas as may any ways redound to the good 
of my country ; at least discharge my duty in so doing, ac- 
cording as I am thereunto by commission enjoined. 

First therefore and foremost, touching the state of Flan- Flanders, 
ders, so it is, (for ought I could ever gather of the speeches 



380 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO and discourses of men, as well natives of the land, as sol- 
159b ' - diers of all nations in those parts,) that the prince of Parma 
now of late hath lost his credit and the good-will of either 
kingdom ; being his demeanour (ever since the time that 
the king of Spain withdrew the garrisons out of Placenza, 
and other his forts about Parma) much altered in the Low 
Countries from that it hath been heretofore; namely, as 
well in his services towards the said king, as in other his 
worthy conditions, which made him heretofore so much ho- 
noured and beloved. For being his estate in Italy, (by occa- 
sion aforesaid,) free from all Spanish subjection, since that 
time, as it hath been noted of the more politic sort of his 
court, (for myself, under correction, will not affirm for 
truth any thing I here set down touching the said prince, 
neither can I,) only I will explain unto your honours what 
I have perceived, during my being in Flanders, by the dis- 
course of the better sort of men there, to be the present 
state of those parts. 

And touching the prince of Parma, that he polled 

Flanders daily for Italy's sake : where in the town of Parma 
it is thought he hath an infinite treasure ; and is supposed 
to exceed in riches at this present any one duke of Italy 
beside. 

The means he useth in Flanders for such his enrich- 
ment is both upon the burghers and upon the soldiers too. 
Upon the burgher by mean of the soldier in this sort. He 
determined! beforehand what town to make his hand of: 
which being conceived, then conformably he giveth order 
to some one regiment or other to march toward that town, 
with commission to be billeted there that winter, or so long 
as is ordained. Now the poor burghers and inhabitants of 
that place, rather than to have soldiers harboured among 
them, (which is a wonderful undoing of towns in the Low 
Countries,) being the soldiers while they live so wondrous 
ill paid, that needs they must grate upon the poor burghers 
for mere necessity, they will rather present his highness, to 
274 the end to be exempt of such distresses, a substantial sum 
of money at once, or else compound to be his tributary, so 
* 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 381 

long paying monthly or quarterly so much as between the ANNO 
prince and them shall be agreed upon. 159G - 

This is one of his most ordinary and often means he 
useth every winter season. And this means is worth him 
yearly infinitely, as may be conceived. 

Other shifts he useth, but of smaller moment, whereby 
he the rather easily bringeth his riches about, by reason di- 
vers naughty nobility of the land (who have their shares 
therein) endeavour to induce the commons to it for their 
own advantage. Insomuch as the burgher beginneth al- 
ready to spy the fraud of their nobles ; and wish in their 
common discourse, that rather a duke of Alva might 2:0- 
vern them again: who indeed, quoth they, plagued our 
nobility ; but in the mean time the commons were spared, 
and committed to their profit without extrusion. 

Now touching the advantage his highness maketh of the 
soldier. He forceth them to be content with their pay in 
coarse northern baize, kersies, scammotts, base silks and sa- 
tins, and such like trash, as is uttered to them at a price 
twice more than tlie worth. Insomuch as when with much 
ado a soldier hath obtained a libranca of an 100 crowns of 
his pay to be paid him in those kinds of stuffs, (which 
otherwise is not granted,) then goeth he to Antwerp to the 
librador, (which is an officer there purposely ordained to 
discharge such comers with such payment,) and is by one 
in the number, (and none may go to other than his shop,) 
he must, when all comes to all, be content with one part of 
three, and very little more. As, for his 100 crowns, to take 
an 100 franks. And so Via, away. Then doth the merchant 
in the town, who buyeth this stuff of the soldier, (for it is 
good for no use,) bring the said stuff again into the libra- 
dor's shop, whence first it came, only accepting for his 
pains a miserie, God- wot, and so departeth. Insomuch as 
one piece, I have seen myself, in one day brought in and 
delivered out again to new comers [no] less than six times. 
So that one piece oftentimes serveth an hundred comers 
and more : which to the end it may be the better able to 
do, the merchants abroad in the town are secretly for- 
bidden, not to buy of the soldier, but whole pieces ever, as 



382 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO they arc delivered out of the first shop, to the end it may 
' be the more able to serve many. Mean time the clerks of 



the offices at Brussels, whence all these librancas or decrees 
of the prince procecdeth, and are enregistered, account them 
to the king, as importing good pay to the soldier ; while in 
the mean time the king is thus abused, and the soldier won- 
derfully discontented. Thus of three parts, the soldier is 
glad of one, and the prince enjoyeth the rest. 

Which dealing the Spaniard in Flanders perceiving, two 
regiments of them mutinied twice in one year's space. For 
the which the one was reformed and cast, to their wonder- 
ful discontentment, having been a regiment standing in 
their colours well nigh eighty years, and continually cm- 
ployed in the services of their country ever since the be- 
ginning. And the other is now in France; the duke of 
Pastrana grieved to see these abuses and disservices to his 
2/5 king while he was in Flanders : and therefore, in very dis- 
contented sort, this time twelvemonth, took his leave, with 
much ado, of his prince, and returned to Spain : where it is 
thought he hath particularly informed the king of all. 

The Spaniard supposeth the prince of Parma his aliena- 
tion to proceed out of England, imputing much treason to 
him in his admittance of her majesty's ambassadors the year 
88. At which time, in being faithful to the king in his ac- 
tion, and preparations for England, they say, he was more 
The Spa- a friend to England than Spain. Briefly, the Spaniard sec- 
niard. j now muc ] 1 t ] lc prince wrackcth all the riches of Flan- 
ders into Italy, and how little he hath availed the king 
since of late time, towards the recovery and subjection of 
his Low Countries; namely, and especially perceiving how 
at this present Italians they be for the most part about 
him, that rule the roast: also the nobility of the Low- 
Countries, how much they begin daily more and more It;i- 
lianated, and is very affectionated : likewise, seeing them- 
selves disgraced in the court, and little set by in respect. 
they adjudge him in tracker-mucker an enemy to their king 
and the estate. Insomuch as the wiser of them suppose, 
that their king dared not all this while depose him from his 
charge of the Low Countries, lest having, as he hath, the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 383 

riches of the land, and the hearts of the nobility, he may ANNO 
chance to become a prince of Orange, and more than he, 159G " 
considering his present might and power in Italy likewise. 

But, say they, if treason should shew itself, yet have we 
a son of his in Spain, in our king's hand. And 

Touching the king of Spain's fleet, it is so that he hath Spain's 
one in perfect readiness in the port of Bisca and Gallicia, et ' 
and his men in all readiness along these coasts, attending to 
be employed. Albeit they have written out of Spain to 
Spaniards their friends, in Flanders, that artillery is not 
yet all come out of Italy for the fleet, which is expected. 
Hvgh Owen. Persons. 

Hugh Owen, at his late repair to Flanders, giveth out, 
that no action is apparently intended in Spain against Eng- 
land this year nor next ensuing. Howbeit Persons hath 
written down much assurance to the contrary ; putting the 
matter out of all doubt and controversy. 

Doway. 

The citizens of Doway have sued of late to have the 
English seminary at Rhemes again in their town : were it 
not the wars along these parts of France, (which is likely to 
endanger their safe passage by the way,) it is thought they 
would : for, as I understand, English begin to be weary of 
Rhemes by reason of the wars thereabouts. In respect of 
which they are with the rest of the inhabitants put to watch 
and ward the town at their turns. 

Sir William Stanley 

Is in Spain lacking no maintenance, as I hear, but credit 
to be employed. 

English catholics abroad. Cripps 2/6 

Hath been lately well rewarded by the king of Spain for 
his sea-service against the Turk. 

In fine, my good lords, so it is, that clivers English gen- 
tlemen there are beyond the seas, whose faith to England 
and her majesty's happy estate is most sincere and loyal; 
and who only for their conscience (for ought I could ever 
know to the contrary) have betaken themselves to foreign 
infelicity and misadventures ; willing, if occasion were, to 
lose life and all for England and her majesty, might they 



384 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO by your honours' favours be but permitted to live at home, 
logo-. j$ u t } so ^ is, that surely the misery a great many of them 
sustain abroad, (not malice to our country,) makes them 
now and then speak at all adventures, as desperate men. 
Whereas, if with mercy, they say, they might be permitted 
to come and live at home, doubtless their truth to prince 
and country would be unfeigned. 

I cannot indeed, neither will I, my good lords, execute 
the malice of a great many ; who, as their state is desperate 
at home, so foresee they little what event betide our coun- 
try. Such be those as either be condemned traitors at 
home, or have by their notorious disservices at home de- 
served amiss, as my lord of Westmerland, sir Will. Stanley, 
cardinal Allen, Paget, and the rest : or else such as being 
themselves but base fellows, and born to no good fortune in 
England, neither have they within themselves wherewith 
to deserve good fortune, being their minds but base either to 
do or suffer honourably, wish perchance, with all their 
hearts, mischief to our dear country, and a troubled water, 
wherein to catch fishes. 

These are such as have either been base serving tacks in 
England, and fain would be gentlemen abroad, or else do 
come over for some egregious villainies by them at home 
committed, justly perchance deserving the gallows. 

But now to make an end of mine own particular. Surely, 
right honourable, myself was always of those kind of gen- 
tlemen beyond the seas, as always did honour and pray for 
the happy state of my country, and am ready to [venture] 
10,000 lives for the same against all the enemies and in- 
vaders thereof, if need require. And in this true and sin- 
cere mind I hope to continue to my life's end. And where- 
as I served with the enemy in Flanders, which is the de- 
merit for which I rest presently in durance, and answerahle 
to the justice of the law ; my good lords and right honour- 
able, 1 humbly submit my life to favour for the same with 
all humility. May my death in her majesty's service, in the 
behalf of my country, make amends hereafter for such my 
offence. I vow it, at all occasions in my heart ; and by 
these lines of mine own writing, to her majesty, my eoun- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 385 

try, and your honours all. And with this mind ventured I ANNO 

lately into England, my good lords, even at all adventures; 1_ 

not so much curious to come in with a pardon, as because I 
know my heart guilty of all love and duty to my country, 
willing and resolved in time to come well to deserve. Fa- 
vour me, therefore, my honourable good lords, and par- 
don the fault of my indiscretion hitherto, humbly I beseech 
you. 

If I departed the realm but a child, I am returned yet 2/7 
young enough to serve it many years. I am not waxed 
old in my offence to my country, but more able I return 
home to serve it, than when, but a child, I departed from 
it. And if I fare well at your honours'' hands, it may 
chance other gentlemen will return home, who are yet be- 
yond seas. Who because they thought themselves wiser a 
great deal than I, rather gave place to my ambition to re- 
turn home foremost, than themselves would venture it. 

Anthony Copley. 



Number CCIV. 

Another letter of Mr. Copley to the lords of the council, con- 
cerning English gentlemen abroad. 

ACCORDING to your demand, I have here under- 
neath expressed such particulars of particular English gen- 
tlemen and others of our nation as are known unto me be- 
yond the seas ; namely, their abodes ; where their enter- 
tainment ; what it is ; and how I have found them inclined, 
so far forth as by conversation I could conceive of them, 
or by privy discourse of others attain unto. 

Cardinal Allen and D. Lewis, who is presently bishop of Cardinal 
Casane, a city of the kingdom of Naples, I understand are d. Lewis. 
at odds with one another, and at jealousies touching points 
of honour. In respect of which, in a manner, all English- 
men in Italy, namely, the seminary in Rome, is divided 
into faction : the one holding with the cardinal, the other 
with the bishop. 

vol. iv. c c 



386 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO The cardinal's living is valued at this present at 15,000 
' crowns by the year : which is 4500 of our pounds. His 



Lewis. 



archbishopric of Macklin in Brabant, I hear, he will 
change for an abbey in Spain, or, as other say, exchange the 
revenues thereof with the king of Spain for a certain sum 
of money, yearly to be paid him out of the king's exchequer 
in Spain and Flanders : for by reason of the wars in Bra- 
bant the said bishopric is not yearly worth him alike ; and 
therefore rather choosing a certain for it of the king yearly, 
than to stand at the courtesy of the wars, what it may af- 
ford him. 

Bishop Contrarywise bishop Lewis contenteth himself, as I hear, 

very well with the little he hath, in respect of the cardinal, 
and maintaineth his credit well in the pope's court : for he is 
a very courtly and courteous gentleman, affable, and withal 
esteemed very wise. 

Of their affections and actions against England, surely, 
sir, I can say nothing. Only, I suppose, they are both pre- 
sently so well settled, that if they will regard but their own 
particular, and be content with their own good fortunes, 
they need not of them be busy, in war matters, tending to 
the destruction of this their noble country. They hope for 
278 a far greater preferment in Italy than England can yield 
them ; if, as men say, to be one day pope is the sum of 
either their desires. 

Cardinal Allen hath about him divers English gentle- 
men ; as Mr. Banes, who hath been long out of England, 
and sometimes in Poland with the young cardinal of that 
country ; a gentleman of some forty years of age, or rather 
upward, well languaged, and otherwise very well qualified, 
discreet, secret, and inclined to high matters. He is a car- 
dinal's secretary of outlandish languages. 

Tho. Hes- Thomas Hesket is the cardinal's nephew ; a virtuous 
young man : and that is all. He likewise is chief with his 

John said uncle. John Thatcher is another : a Sussex youth well 

conditioned, of civil behaviour : discovered to bear the 

Lampson. state of England great good-will. One Lampson, the prince 
of Liege's secretary, is this day concluded beyond sea for 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 387 

another. Mr. Dethike is supposed placed there out of Eng- ANNO 
land for another. And indeed great matters are laid to his 



charge touching England. Of all which notwithstanding, I Dethike. 
suppose, he hath by this time wisely cleared himself against 
his accusers. And there may remain many years to do his 
country service ; if he be, as is thought, so well affected. 

Monsieur de Champaine is thought an extreme enemy to .- 
the present state of England. 

It should seem by the discourses of Spaniards in Flan- 
ders, that their king in his next voyage now in hand for 
England, to the former pretence of religion, will add a 
claim to the realm by right of inheritance, as descended di- 
rectly by the line of Portugal from Edmund Crookback ; 
whom, they say, was in that respect unjustly put beside the 
crown; and therefore that line all this while unjustly de- 
feated of the same. 

It is supposed the prince of Parma will hereafter be pass- 
ing slow in his services in France against the French king. 
And this is sure, that never yet, since his entrance into 
France, hath he joined his camp in battail or esquadron 
with the leaguers; and always hath had it apart from them. 

Surely in this respect is highly commended abroad her 
majesty's policy, in not condescending to assist the states of 
the Low Countries against the Spaniards, unless they first 
yielded her majesty special assurance of their faith to her, 
and pawns for the charges of her wars in their behalf. In 
respect whereof it is easily noted her majesty hath gotten 
into her hands the chief keys of all the Low Countries: 
whereby she hath both means to hold the Spaniard tack, 
and the States at a bay, in case they should prove false. 

Other gentlemen there be, attendants upon the cardinal. 
Because I know them not, I can aver nothing, either of 
their conditions or entertainment: only one Haselock, who Haselocfc. 
was heretofore servant and secretary to the lord prior, sir 
Richard Shelly, and is now attendant upon the cardinal, is 
much reckoned upon among Englishmen beyond sea, con- 
sidering the much dislike and odds had always been be- 
tween the said parties heretofore. 



388 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO The occasion of which their jealousies (for ought I could 
ever hear) did hereof arise. That the said lord prior al- 



Sheiiy, lord ways scorned the two seminaries, so far forth as the cardi- 
prior. na j esteeme( | them the only means for the recovery of Eng- 

279 land by their practices within the realm ; which the lord prior 
always esteemed a light avail ; and was ever more inclined 
to foreign forces to do it. Notwithstanding that otherwise 
indeed he allowed it to be holy means for the good of our 
country, so far as tended to the saving of souls in it, but 
not as a substantial and sufficient means in policy wholly to 
reclaim it. 

There was a gentleman in the Florentine court, called 
Standen, a very sufficient man. I suppose he be yet living 
there in good reputation. His inclination is judged to be to 
a conquest of this realm. 

Fitz Herbert is a sufficient gentleman, and civil, and at- 
tending upon the cardinal. 

Smithson is another, but of no great moment. 

The cardinal's sister, and his brother, with three of her 
daughters with her, remain at Namures. He maintaineth 
them all, but in mean estate. 

Two seminaries are begun to be erected in Spain ; the 
one in Toledo, the other in Valedolith. Warlord, a suffi- 
cient man, a priest, is there. Mr. John Cicil remaineth in 
Salamanca ; a gentleman, I suppose, passing well given to 
his country, and of very good desert. 

There are not many Englishmen pensioners in Spain : 
but such as be, serve either in the galleys, against the Turk, 
or in the armada, which is for England. 

There is Owen Eaton, once sergeant-major of sir William 
Stanley's regiment : he serveth in the galleys with Cripps: 
a man true enough to his country, no doubt. Henry Ire- 
land, John Shelly, and two or three others, whose names I 
remember not, serve in the armada. I suppose young 
Stakely be one. All these have pensions, and well provided 
for. Their chancellor is an English pensioner of the king 
of Spain's in Naples, there married ; and an old stander in 
those parts. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 389 

Oly ver Price is very well entertained of the duke of Ba- ANNO 
varia, who is much a friend to Englishmen, though not to a 
the present state of England. 

Now for English gentlemen, and pensioners of the kingEngiish- 
of Spain, either in France or in Flanders. For that they "onered:" 
are many, if you please, I will hereafter give you a particu- the king of 
lar catalogue of them all, so far forth as either I do know 
them, or can call them to mind. 

Touching sir William Stanley, no doubt he hath re- 
pented himself heartily of his undutiful action of Deventer ; 
and considering the little he is now accounted of, both of 
the prince in Flanders, and the king in Spain. The undo- 
ing of the regiment is his extreme grief and discontent. For 
now it is almost come to nothing ; scarce an 150 men re- 
maining of it. Jaques, I suppose, wisheth himself in Ire- 
land again, seeing how much his hope of advancement in 
Flanders by sir William Stanley is come now to nothing. 

The elder Creake is most maliciously given out against 
the present state of England, and little careth how soon 
misfortune light upon it. He hath not his like Englishman 
for malice to her majesty and the realm in all Flanders : 
but he is of no judgment nor discretion; and therefore of 
no sufficiency to do it harm, or deal against it. 

As for Paget and Morgan. Morgan's matter being yet 280 
in bleeding, and himself still in prison, I suppose neither 
the one nor the other have leisure at this present to con- 
trive actions against the state ; albeit neither of them be 
esteemed beyond sea other than most true spies, as they 
call them, and intelligencers for England ; having either of 
them been, by their practices, the death and occasion of 
many a catholic's trouble here in England ; as is there not 
only believed, but hath been likewise laid to their charges 
this last year. Howsoever their practices have been from 
time to time, sure it is they are both accounted most un- 
lucky men, and not at all beloved of catholics beyond sea. 

Mr. Tho. Throgmorton is wondrous well liked of catho- 
lies beyond sea, and much pitied oft is, that a gentleman of 
so civil good nature should be so much conversant with 

cc3 



390 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO Paget and Morgan, persons so much supposed, as I have 
''^ 96, said, practisers for England, and the present state thereof. 

Hugh Owen and N. Holt have the sovereign dealing for 
all Englishmen's matters in the Flandcr court. None can 
be preferred in that court without their favour, nor obtain 
any pension there without the liberality of their good word : 
the one being in credit with the prince's secretary, none 
more ; the other but a very simple soul, none more. Gen- 
tlemen are ashamed to sue in court by his means ; I mean 
father Holt ; considering indeed he is a man adjudged of no 
sufficiency, nor good grace ; but now held up in that place 
by cardinal Allen's favour and his own society. 

Mr. Tressam, a man esteemed of far more speech than 
sufficiency any maimer of way, either to do his country any 
good, or hurt it. 

Sir Timothy Mocket I suppose no practiser, but content 
with his own private state as it is. 

Mr. Pool no practiser, I suppose, but living after his ac- 
customed maimer. Enemy to none but to himself. 

The lord of Westmerland, according to his want, poor 
and careless of all the world. Capstoak, his kinsman, and 
Lockwood, a follower of him, for late murdering of Alex- 
ander Suigo, because he took part with Italians against my 
lord, are lately absolved by his means. 

Of sir Francis Inglefield I can say nothing, nor yet of 
Persons, other than what I have already declared. 

Hut concerning the opinions and discourses I have heard 
touching the Spanish action for England. For the Spaniard 
in Flanders hath wished, that in their last armada their 
king had sent his daughter towards the Scottish coast di- 
rectly, with a portion of six or seven millions ; and there to 
have offered her to the Scottish king in marriage : which 
they suppose the Scottish king would not have refused ; 
but most honourably have accepted of, and granted free 
landing to their nation ; yea, and which is more, concurred 
with the duke, with the rest of his action for England. 
Conjecturing the just cause, they say, to revenge his mo- 
ther's death, if he will prove a true child. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 391 

An oversight of the duke of Medina they condemn ex- ANNO 
tremely; namely, whereas being advised at his first en- 
trance into the Straits, by don Alonso de Leiva, to have 
fired her majesty's ships in Plymouth, he refused so to do; 281 
alleging only his commission for Flanders coast: wherein, 
quoth they, he was too just, and too, too precise an ob- 
servant. 

They affirm likewise, that their last ships were ill built 
for our seas; to wit, too huge, considering the dexterity of 
our English sail : which was, quoth they, their great disad- 
vantage. This fault of their shipping, I perceive and un- 
derstand, is corrected in the fleet which is now in hand for 
this next year. 

But English gentlemen in Flanders at the time of the 
last armada in our seas, seeing what little countenance the 
prince of Parma gave them in the camp at land, even then, 
when the embarking was supposed, it grieved the better 
sort of them; yea, they sorrowed to see how they were 
even then disdained of the Spaniard : whose only speech 
was of combustion, and extreme destruction of our country, 
if ever they chanced to come ashore. It well appeared, that 
they little pretended the cause of religion, or any good to 
it, as our English catholics always supposed. 

The lord of Westmerland being braved a little before at 
the court at Bruges by a Spanish cavalier, who reviled our . 
nation, was told, his king had not need of any English ca- 
tholics 1 assistance in that action : that he was of himself 
mighty enough: that the English catholics would prove 
but traitors if they were employed : with other like speeches 
of reproach. My said lord, not able to abide such terms, 
drew upon him, and surely had murdered the Spaniard, 
had not the fray been taken up for the present by such as 
stood by; and the quarrel afterwards taken up between 
them by the prince himself. 

For myself. 

Sir, I protest unto you, to see at that time the inso- 
lency of the Flanders Spaniards, and the vile destroying 
mind they shewed they bore towards our country, did so 

c c 4 



392 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO much make me hate their action, then in hand, that while I 
1 596, live, I protested then in my heart to be true to my country 
against that nation in special, and all others the enemies 
thereof. 

Lamot would (at that time the Spaniards' armada was 
understood to be arrived in the Straits) have wagered with 
sir William Stanley, that never our English fleet would dare 
abiden the fight with the Spaniard, but rather betake them- 
selves to land ; there perchance to resist awhile, and fight 
it out in defence of the realm. But sir William Stanley al- 
ways maintained the contrary ; and persuaded the enemy 
in his discourses, not to be too confident of their own, nor 
to be disdainful of our English forces, especially at sea. In 
which kind of service, he still affirmed, we passed all other 
nations in the world. The Spaniard was sorry that at least 
the duke of Medina spoiled not by the way the isles Gersey 
and Garnesey, as he came along. 

The Spaniards* discourses of this next year's armada run 
much upon Ireland ; as though somewhat either is or were 
best to be intended that way for England. 
strangers Hut touching such strangers beyond sea as are thought 
Wends. **' friends and intelligencers for the state of England. In Italy 
282 the duke of Ferrara is suspected, and his brother, the car- 
dinal Est, since his death notoriously known affected this 
way : for since his decease, his secretary, who was an abbot, 
a Venetian born, being convicted of heresy, (so they term 
it,) and other offences, was burnt at Rome. Refore his 
death he bewrayed all his master the cardinal's actions un- 
der him with England, and his advices, what had passed in 
the synod of the cardinals, and the pope's consistory, from 
time to time, touching the estate; and all by the lord prior 
sir Richard Shelly's means at Venice. I knew the abbot 
myself very well ; indeed great was his privity with my said 
lord prior. 

The old duke of Florence, that dead is, was certainly 
thought a friend to England; nay, and partly suspected in 
his religion. Cardinal Cezeo was likewise supposed to have 
inclined this way. In effect all the estates of Italy, (Naples 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 393 

and Lombardy excepted,) by reason they all hate the Spa- ANNO 
niard extremely, may with reason be supposed our friends. 1596 ' 
Though otherwise perchance, in respect of the religion here 
professed, they would not pass one jot, what subversion 
might befall us. They esteem it their safety and advantage 
against the Spaniards, our holding him play ; while in the 
mean time their good-will is no less. But these that I have 
already named have been particularly discovered to bear 
the state of England great good-will. 



Number CCV. 

The archbishop of York to the lord treasurer, to appoint 
speedily a president and lieutenant for the north parts. 

My honourable good lord, 

ALBEIT I know very well that your lordship is as full 
fraught with the affairs of this kingdom as ever you were, 
yet I beseech you, give me leave, in discharge of my duty, 
to add somewhat thereto of the many wants in this coun- 
try. First, In Westmerland, Cumberland, Northumber- 
land, the bishopric of Durham, the places are little ac- 
quainted with training of soldiers. Secondly, In the county 
of York, though there have been some training to no great 
purpose; yet when the numbers shall be renewed, I fear 
they will be found much defective, both the horsemen and 
footmen. Thirdly, This country lieth to be invaded by 
reason of the many good ports and creeks, and few or no 
forts to withstand the enemy. As, Humber, the Spurne, 
Flambrugh, Birlinton, Filay, Scarbrough, Robin Hood's 
Bay, Stooton, Hartlepool, &c. Fourthly, As your lord- 
ship knoweth, there is neither lieutenant, nor any that 
have authority to deal in martial affairs, if any dangers 
should happen. Of these things I beseech your lordship 
take consideration as your leisure will serve. 

For myself, though I am very willing to take any pains 
in her majesty's service, yet for the weal and good of this 
part of her majesty's kingdom, I think it as needful to have 283 



394 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO a nobleman lord president and lord lieutenant, as it were at 
1696. an y t j me jjj j ler majesty's reign. Thus beseeching God to 
bless your counsels, to the honour and safety of the queen's 
most excellent majesty and her kingdoms, I bid your good 
lordship most heartily farewell. From York, the 24th of 
April, 1596. 

Your lordship's in Christ most assured, 

Matth. Ebor. 



Number CCVI. 

The archbishop of York and the council there to the lord 
treasurer : their reason why they stopped all suits com- 
menced in chancery by those within their jurisdiction. 

May it please your good lordship, 

WE have received letters from our very good lord, the 
lord keeper, whereby his lordship signifieth a dislike that 
this council should direct process for the stay of any suits, 
commenced in the chancery for such matters wherein the 
plaintiff may have justice here. For answer whereof we 
have now written to his lordship, that in such cases where 
both parties dwell within this her majesty's commission, it 
hath been used by this court from the erection thereof to 
inhibit the plaintiff from promoting his suit in the chancery, 
or else to appear and shew cause why he should not, and 
to exhibit his complaint here. So that he is not simply in- 
hibited, but conditionally. For upon a reasonable cause, as 
that the matter is for stay of a suit at the common law, or 
the plaintiff inhabiting without this commission, or such 
other matters shewed, as this court determineth not, the 
plaintiff is left at liberty to prosecute in the chancery. 
Which proceeding by this council hath been observed for 
the subjects 1 ease in these parts : for whose relief we have 
causes of equity determined near home. 

Among other things, that commission was ordained be- 
cause contentious persons do often enforce their adversation 
to a hard composition, rather for the avoiding of a tedious 
and chargeable journey, than by the goodness of their 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 395 

cause. Which course between the chancery and this coun- ANNO 
cil hath been well allowed of by his lordship's predecessors. _ 
And a great number of precedents to be shewed thereof: 
whereby there hath been a good correspondence between 
them in the execution of justice; praying the like of his 
lordship. 

Now may it please your good lordship, we having no 
lord president in these parts, who was wont (being a peer 
of the realm) to countenance the jurisdiction of this court, 
in respect of your lordship's long experience in the state, 
and favour to this commission, are bold to pray your lord- 
ship's favourable assistance as touching the premises, being 284 
a matter so greatly importing the commission, and tending 
as it were to an innovation in matters of justice among the 
subjects of these parts, who ever sithence the erecting of 
this court have usually been eased here by the aforesaid 
means, if they were sued in the chancery by any dwelling 
within this commission, and had their causes determined 
here with expedition and small charge. Which course was 
so well allowed often in the times of that honourable coun- 
sellor, sir Nicolas Bacon, and of sir Thomas Bromley, that 
without contradiction, if the defenders had not prayed the 
help of this court, but alleged demurrer, that both the 
parties were resiant within this commission, his plea was al- 
lowed. 

Wherefore we do eftsoons humbly pray your good lord- 
ship, that you would move the lord keeper to give the like 
allowance to our proceedings, that other his predecessors 
have willingly done to the ease of poor subjects. And so 
beseeching God to bless your lordship with his manifold 
gifts, we humbly take our leaves. At York, the 8th of 
June. 

Matth. Ebor 
E. Stanhope. Ch. Hales. Jo. Gibson. 



306 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
ANNO Number CCVII. 

159G. 

A proclamation against such as took upon them to be mes- 
sengers, entitled, 

A proclamation against sundry abases practised by divers 
lewd and audacious persons falsely naming themselves 
messengers of her majesty's chamber; travelling from 
place to place, with writings counterfeited inform of 
zcarrants : as also, against another sort of vagabond 
persons, that carry counterfeit passports, wherewith to 
beg and gather alms. 

THAT her majesty being given to understand of certain 
most notable and lewd practices, put in ure by divers dis- 
solute and audacious persons, to the great slander of her ma- 
jesty's service, and abuse, charge, and hinderance of her ma- 
jesty's loving subjects ; which deceitful persons falsely tak- 
ing upon them to be messengers of her chamber ; and for 
that purpose undutifully wearing boxes, or escutcheons of 
arms, as the messengers do ; being associated with others of 
like bad disposition ; have, and still do go up and down the 
country, with writings in form of warrants, whereunto the 
names of the lords and others of her majesty's privy-coun- 
cil, and other ecclesiastical commissioners, are by them 
counterfeited : by colour whereof they do warn gentlemen, 
ministers of the church, women, yeomen, and others, that 
dwell in sundry counties of the realm, to appear before the 
285 lords and others of her majesty's privy-council, and exact 
fees of them for their labour and travail, as though they 
had been expressly sent from the court to those whose 
names are inserted in such counterfeit warrants. By which 
slanderous practice divers gentlemen, and other honest per- 
sons, are not only defrauded of the money by this fraudu- 
lent means extorted from them, but, to their great charge 
and hinderance, do repair from countries far distant unto 
the court, supposing they were sent for. Notwithstanding 
divers of these shameless counterfeit persons (by such 
means as the lords had used) had been apprehended, and 
brought into the star-chamber, whereby divers of them 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 397 

had been condemned, and set on the pillory, lost their ANNO 
ears, and some marked in the face for their notable abuses ; 159,; ' 
yet such is their audacious, wicked disposition, that they 
continued more and more this practice, to the notorious 
abuse of the lords, and great hinderance and charges of the 
queen's subjects. 

For reformation of these foul abuses, her majesty's plea- 
sure was, that all justices of peace, and other public officers, 
should do their best endeavour, upon any notice or just 
suspicion given them, to apprehend these impostors, and 
see them safely sent up to the lords of her majesty's privy- 
counciL And because these persons did practise this abuse 
especially to make unhonest gain of the same, the queen's 
pleasure was, that from henceforth no messenger of her 
chamber, groom, or other person, naming himself pursui- 
vant, shall exact or take any fees of any person that shall 
be sent for to appear before the lords, until they have 
made their appearance at the court before them ; neither 
shall the party warned give and make any allowance or 
other consideration unto the messenger, until upon his ap- 
pearance order be taken for the same. The party required 
to appear is also to come up in the company of the mes- 
senger ; and to be presented by him to the said lords, or to 
the clerk of the council attending. And if the messenger 
shall refuse to come in his company, pretending any further 
cause or excuse, the party warned may forbear his appear- 
ance. And if there be many named in one warrant, their 
appearance shall be on a certain day, when the messengers 
shall be there also. If the party warned shall have any 
suspicion of the messenger, or the warrant to be counterfeit, 
in that case he may cause the constable of the parish where 
he dwelleth, or the next public officer, to bring the sup- 
posed messenger before the next justice of peace; where 
the same may be viewed, and the party thoroughly exa- 
mined. And if he shall find apparent cause of suspicion, to 
detain him in some prison, until the warrant be sent up to 
the privy-council, and the truth discovered ; or else he 
shall send the party under safe custody to the court. 



398 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO And where also these base and shameless kind of people, 
__the better to cover their lewd dealing, and abuse her ma- 



jesty's subjects, do often compound with the parties whose 
names are inserted in the counterfeit warrants, and to 
dispense with them for a sum of money, and to make their 
appearance before the said lords, whereunto the parties 
warned, to avoid expenses to come up to the court, or fur- 
ther cause of trouble, do often yield ; the queen therefore 
did straitly charge and enjoin all and every person, served 
286 with any warrant, requiring their appearance before her 
privy-council, not to offer to yield to any such agreement 
with any messenger, groom of the chamber, or pursuivant, 
to be forborne for his said appearance, upon pain of im- 
prisonment, and her majesty's further displeasure ; and all 
messengers charged and forbidden to take any composition, 
upon pain to lose their places, and to be imprisoned, and 
severely punished for their misbehaviour. 



Number CCVIII. 

To the lord treasurer. 

Captain Price's account of the expedition of Coles, anno 

1596 : concerning the taking of it, and damages done 

the Spaniards. Writ in June, 1596. 
It may please your honourable lordship, 

THE 20th of this month, being Sunday, we came very 
early in the morning before Cales : many of our men were 
put into small boats for to land; but the sea was so very 
tempestuous and rough, and dangerous, that we could not 
land. That night little was done : but we played with our 
great ordnance upon the ships which we found at anchor in 
the bay of Cales. The 21st day, about six of the clock in 
the morning, we began to skirmish with them by sea very 
hotly, until about three of the clock in the afternoon. We 
sunk the Great Philip, which was their admiral, and two 
other principal ships, that they did set on fire themselves. 
The rest of the ships, which for the most part were rent 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 399 

with our great ordnance, they flet, and went to Port Rial ; ANNO 
where they could not escape from us by no means. Then ' 59b- 
we entered in the island of Cales with our footmen, about 
four of the clock in the afternoon of the same day, where 
were many horsemen and footmen, ready to keep us from 
landing. We put them all to flight. We did, after our first 
landing, gain a sconce ; fronting into the sea. 

Then there was certain of our companies sent to win a 
bridge about eight miles within the island. And the lords 
generals marched to Cales, with a very few number of men 
at the first : and by God's goodness we wan Cales before 
some of our soldiers landed from shipboard. We were pos- 
sessed of the strong and rich city of Cales by eight of the 
clock at night of the same day. 

Sir John Wyngfield was killed with a bullet on the head 
after we had possessed the town. At that time were sundry 
others slain out of the castle. That night we kept a strong 
watch. Many of our soldiers did disorder themselves by 
drinking of much wine in this hot country. 

The 22d day they yielded the castle. And once they 
offered two millions of treasure for their ransom and formal 
freedom, and for saving of their lives. But the duke of 
Medina, which dwelleth about eighteen miles from Cales, 
when he did understand of the offer made unto us, he 287 
caused all their ships to be burnt that lay at Cales, at the 
Port Rial. There was of their ships burnt and made away 
about fifty-seven ships and two galleys : which were already 
laden very richly for the Indies. Their wealth that was 
burnt in them was reckoned by the Spaniards to be worth 
about three millions of treasure. 

The 3d day the women and poorer sort of men were 
conveyed out of Cales, with their bag and baggages; and 
the dead bodies were buried ; and the streets cleansed, for 
fear of infection : for the country is very hot. 

The 24th day, they of St. Mary Port, and they from 
Port Rial, and from sundry other places, [moved] for a 
truce and composition. 

The sixth day an ambassador, and the general of the Spa- 



400 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

AN NO nish galleys, did likewise come unto our generals for to have 

1596'. • • ° 
a composition. 

Thus being bold to trouble your honour, with all humble 

duty I shall continually pray to God, even from the very 

depth of my heart, to send your lordship good health ; that 

your days may be prolonged, to the great comfort of all 

your friends. From Cales, the 28th of June, 1596. 

Your lordship's ever most humble, 

bounden to command for ever, 

H. Price. 

God preserve her majesty, and confound her enemies. 



Number CCIX. 

This letter zaas enclosed in another from Anthony Ash It y 
to the said lord. And his zvas to this tenor. 

Right honourable, 

THERE were killed and hurt of our men about two 
hundred : of the enemy were killed not very many to speak 
of. Myself received some brushes with stones cast down 
from the walls, at our first entry, which was then but very 
few men and number of us : God make us all thankful to 
him : he did mightily defend us, otherwise we had been all 
slain that entered first into the forts of the town walls. 
Your lordship's letter is within this enclosed. Jesus pre- 
serve your good lordship, and all yours, with all your 
heart's desire. 

The 27th of June our generals made fifty-five knights, 
whereof Mr. Ashley, clerk of the council of war, was one. 
He was to register all the counsels taken, and to record 
their actions and enterprises. 



288 Number CCX. 

Sir Anthony Ashley, secretary to this expedition, and com- 
missioner to the had BurgMey: concerning the action at 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 401 

Cales, in a relation drawn up by him oftlie action, by his ANNO 



lordship's order. 

Right honourable, 
THIS, I think, with your lordship's grave perusal and 
amendment, may serve for the present, till the next come 
forth. Wherein I have observed (upon my faith and poor 
credit) nothing so much as the truth ; which, as I take it, 
is the true life and scope of your honourable intent, to the 
better satisfaction of the world, &c. 

I must confess myself ambitious to affect to be remem- 
bered herein, and warranted at least with the truth, though 
not with modesty nor comeliness, if it should pass the press 
with any name thereto ; which is needless. It may be also, 
that the relation will be thought too particular. All I refer 

to your lordship's censure. 1 most humbly take leave, 

this 8th of August, 1596. 

Your honourable good lordship's poor follower 
and true affected, 

A. Ashley. 



15R6. 



Number CCXI. 
D. Pye^s information of popery in Sussex, ann. 1596. 

SINCE the lord Mountague's coming to live at Battel, 
religion in that country, and especially in that town, is 
greatly decayed. Dr. Withens, dean of Battel, where the 
lady Mountague lives, is suspected to be very backward in 
religion : for this two years and more he neither minister- 
eth the communion nor receiveth it; but commonly, if 
there be a communion, he getteth some other to do it. And 
either getteth some other to do it, and getteth himself out 
of the town, or keepeth house. His wife cometh scarce 
twice a year to church. He keepeth company with recu- 
sants, especially Dr. Gray, a priest, whom sir Francis Wal- 
singham committed, and about a year ago confined ; and 
now liveth in my lady's house, being suspected to do much 
harm, both with the dean, and other thereabouts. 

VOL. iv. D d 



402 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO Of late he hath found out a holy well in Battel park, 
'' whither many, especially women, resort, like a young pil- 

grimage, and call it Dr. Gray's well. I have heard that 
there hath been about a score there at even prayer time on 
289 a Sunday. The dean also consorteth with Terry, that was 
a schoolmaster in Battel, and had the bringing up of most 
of the gentlemen in that country. He also was committed, 
as I remember, by sir Francis Walsingham, and hath con- 
tinued in prison till Lent last, and then came to Battel, 
where he now dwelleth a recusant ; and is supposed to do 
much harm. These two and the dean are great companions. 

The jurisdiction of the place is in the dean, wholly ex- 
empt from civil jurisdiction, and is altogether neglected by 
him ; so that they do what they list. Many in the town 
that never received the communion, and come very seldom 
to church. 

At the outside of Battel park dwelleth Mr. Edm. Pelham, 
the chiefest justice of peace in that repe, and ruleth most ; 
who is very backward in religion. Himself cometh to church 
but slackly : hath not this twelvemonth or more received 
the communion. His wife a professed recusant; but since 
the last parliament she hath been at church, and now useth 
it twice or thrice a year, but never receiveth the com- 
munion. He hath two daughters married, that never re- 
ceived the communion, and come to church as the mother 
doth. He is chief of my lord Mountague's council, and a 
great man with the dean of Battel. There are many re- 
cusants frequent his house. A little before the siege of 
Calis, and at the same, one Mr. Dorcl, of Scothey, a noto- 
rious recusant, lay there, hovering about toward the sea- 
coast ; and at the point that our men were to be shipped 
from Rye and Dover to Calis, a servant of the said Mr. 
Dorcl, mounted upon a gelding worth twenty marks, and 
well appointed, having a case of pistols, rid there to Sussex, 
and a great part of the wild of Kent, with an alarm that 
the Spaniards were landed at three places in Sussex : had 
burnt Borne and Pcmsey, &c. And could not be stayed, but 
left his cloak in a constable's hand ; and being pursued, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 403 

forsook, his horse, and ran two miles on foot, till he was ANNO 
taken and brought to Rye, to the said Mr. Pelham, and 159 
other j ustices, who rebuked him, and committed him to the 
Town-house a few hours, though many gentlemen there 
were of opinion that he should be sent to the lords. Upon 
that false alarm there was the greatest hurlyburly, woful 
outcries of the people, &c. that ever was in any memory ; 
the soldiers at Rye ready to march out of the town towards 
Borne, and the service greatly hindered by that means. 
At the same time my lady Mountague , s people, seeing the 
town of Battel in that uproar and miserable state, rejoiced, 
and shewed signs of joy ; insomuch that the people fell 
into great exclamation and cursings of them openly in the 
streets. 

When news was brought that Calis was won, they gave 
out these speeches, God be thank it, we shall have better 
neighbours. 

A little before the siege of Calis, there was apprehended 
at Battel a well aged man, who confessed that he was servant 
of Mr. Dacres, brother to the lady Mountague; that he then 

came from his said master with letters and messages to . 

When Calis was taken, there was much speech in Battel 
(his master's daughter being then with the said lady) of the 
great services did in the taking of it [by the Spaniards]. 
The constable threatened to send him away, unless he could 
find sureties ; whereupon he sent into my lord's house, and 
some of her gentlemen became sureties for him. The next 29O 
day Mr. Hen. Apsley came to the town, the constable de- 
sired him to examine the man : he pretended haste then, 
and desired him to carry him to Mr. Edm. Pelham. Next 
morning Mr. Pelham came to the town, took the man from 
the officer, thanked the constable for his good service, and 
said he would send him up to the lord treasurer. But is 
doubted by the constable and other honest men that it was 
not so done ; but only given out, to stop their further com- 
plaints. 



nd 2 



ANNO 

1596. 



404 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

Number CCXII. 

Vagabonds and rogues in Somersetshire increase : and why; 
sign'ificd in a letter to the lord treasurer, from Edw. 
Hcxt, some eminent justice of peace in that county. 

The calendar of the assizes in that county, an. 1596. 

IN Lent assizes were 134 prisoners criminals: whereof 
nine executed, fourteen burnt in the hand. Fifteen felons, 
but whipped, for that in favour they were found petty 
larceny. Divers reprieved, and sent back to the gaol : others 
sent back to the gaol, to be tried at the sessions. Nineteen 
found guilty of several felonies by the grand jury, but 
acquitted by the petty jury. Forty-seven committed for 
felony, and indictments preferred against them by the grand 
jury : but ignoramus found of them all ; and so they were 
acquitted. 

Of this calendar ninety-seven set at liberty ; all for the 
most part desperate and wicked persons, and must of ne- 
cessity live upon spoil. 

The calendar of the summer assizes. Of this assizes sixty- 
seven delivered : most part of which must of force live upon 
spoil of the country. 

Calendar of Ilchester sessions. Twenty- four soldiers com- 
mitted : abroad again. Eight malefactors executed. 

Calendar of Wells sessions. Four executed. 

In all, executed this year, 1596, forty. So it appcareth, 
that besides those that be executed, and those that be burnt 
in the hand, 35. Whipped for felony, 37. Felonies ac- 
quitted by the grand jury, 67. Felonies acquitted by the 
petty jury, 45. That be cast men, and reprieved to the 
gaol, there are set at liberty this year of men committed, 
or bound over for felonies, 183. The greatest part whereof 
must of necessity live by spoil. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 405 

Number CCXIII. anno 

1 596. 

With the calendar as above, Mr. Hext sent this letter to 

the lord treasurer at the same time. " 

Rt. honourable, my very good lord, 

HAVING long observed the rapines and thefts com- 
mitted within this county, where I serve, and finding they 
multiply daily, to the impoverishing of the poor husband- 
man, that beareth the greatest burden of all services, and 
knowing your most honourable care of the preservation of 
the peace of this land, do think it my bounden duty to pre- 
sent unto your honourable and grave consideration these 
calendars enclosed, of the prisoners executed and delivered 
this year past, in this county of Somerset : wherein your 
lordship may behold 183 most wicked and desperate per- 
sons to be enlarged : and of these very few came to any 
good; for none will receive them into service. And, in 
truth, work they will not; neither can they, without most 
extreme pains, by reason their sinews are so benumbed and 
stiff through idleness, as their limbs being put to any hard 
labour, will grieve them above measure : so as they will 
rather hazard their lives than work. And this I know to 
be true : for at such time as our houses of correction were 
up, (which are put down in most parts of England, the 
more pity,) I sent divers wandering suspicious persons to 
the house of correction ; and all in general would beseech 
me with bitter tears to send them rather to the gaol. And 
denying it them, some confessed felony unto me, by which 
they hazarded their lives, to the end they would not be 
sent to the house of correction, where they should be forced 
to work. 

But, my good lord, these are not all the thieves and rob- 
bers that are abroad in this county. For I know it, in the 
experience of my service here, that the fifth person that 
committeth a felony is not brought to this trial : for they 
are grown so exceeding cunning, by their often being in the 
gaol, as the most part are never taken. If they be, and come 
into the hands of the simple man that hath lost his goods, 

d d 3 



406 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO he is many times content to take his goods, and let them 
i59fa\ slip; because they will not be bound to give evidence at the 
assizes, to his trouble and charge. Others are delivered to 
simple constables and tithingmen, that sometimes wilfully, 
and other times negligently, suffer them to escape. Others 
are brought before some justice, that either wanteth expe- 
rience to examine a cunning thief, or will not take the pains 
that ought to be taken, in sifting him upon every circum- 
stance and presumption ; and that done, see that the party 
robbed give full evidence. And if he find an ignorcermis 
found by the grand jury, and know by the examination he 
hath taken that it is in default of good evidence, then he 
ought to inform the judge, that the party robbed may be 
called, and enjoined by the court to frame a new bill and 
give better evidence. And then ought the justice to be pre- 
sent at the trial of the prisoner, that he may inform both 
2Q2 judge and jury what he found by examination; and like- 
wise see that the party robbed give true evidence to the 
petty jury that he can : in which default of justice many 
wicked thieves escape. For most commonly the most sim- 
ple country man and woman, looking no further than to the 
loss of their own goods, are of opinion, that they would not 
procure any man's death for all the goods in the world. 
Others, upon promise to have their goods again, will give 
faint evidence, if they be not strictly looked into by justice. 
And these that thus escape infect great numbers, em- 
boldening them by their escapes. Some having their books 
by entreaty of the justices themselves, that cannot read ;i 
word. Others, having been burnt in the hand more times 
than one ; for after a month or two there will be no sign in 
the world : and they will change both name and habit, and 
commonly go into other shires, so as no man shall know 
them. And the greatest part are now grown to these petty 
felonies, for which they may have their book : by which 
they are emboldened to this great wickedness. And happy 
wire it for England, if clergy were taken away in case of 
felony. 

For God is my witness, I do with grief protest in the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 407 

duty of a subject, I do not see how it is possible for the ANNO 
poor countryman to bear the burdens duly laid upon him, 15,96 ' 
and the rapines of the infinite numbers of the wicked, wan- 
dering, idle people of the land : so as men are driven to 
watch their sheepfolds, their pastures, their woods, their 
corn fields : all things growing too, too common. 

Others there be, and, I fear me, emboldened by the wan- 
dering people, that stick not to say .boldly, they must not 
starve, they will not starve. And this year there assembled 
sixty in a company, and took a whole cart-load of cheese 
from one driving it to a fair, and dispersed it among them : 
for which some of them have endured long imprisonment 
• and fine, by the judgment of the good lord chief justice, at 
our last Christmas sessions. Which may grow dangerous by 
the aid of such numbers as are abroad, especially in these 
times of dearth : who no doubt animate them to all con- 
tempt both of noblemen and gentlemen, continually buzzing 
into their ears, that the rich men have gotten all into their 
hands, and will starve the poor. 

And I may justly say, that the infinite numbers of the 
idle wandering people, and robbers of the land, are the 
chiefest cause of the dearth : for though they labour not, 
and yet spend double as much as the labourer doth. For 
they live idly in the alehouses, day and night eating and 
drinking excessively. 

And within this three months I took a thief, that was 
executed this last assizes, that confessed unto me, that he 
and two more lay in an alehouse three weeks : in which 
time they eat twenty fat sheep : whereof they stole every 
night one. Besides, they brake many a poor man's plough, 
by stealing an ox or two from him : and not being able to 
buy more, leaseth a great part of his tillage that year. 

Others leese their sheep out of their folds ; by which their 
grounds are not so fruitful as otherwise they would be. 
And such numbers being grown to this idle and thievish 
life, there are scant sufficient to do the ordinary tillage of 
the land. For I know, that some having their husbandmen 
sent for soldiers, they have lost a great part of their tillage 293 

d d 4 



408 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO that year : and others are not to be gotten, by reason so 
" many are abroad, practising all kind of villainy. 

And when these lewd people are committed to the gaol, 
the poor country that is robbed by them are forced there to 
feed them, which they grieve at : and this year there hath 
been disbursed to the relief of the prisoners in the gaol 73Z. 
and yet they allowed but 6d. a man weekly. And if they 
were not delivered at every quarter sessions, so much more 
would not serve, nor two such gaols would hold them. 
But if this money might be employed to build some houses 
adjoining to the gaol for them to work in, and every pri- 
soner committed for any cause, and not able to relieve himself, 
compelled to work ; and as many of them as are delivered 
upon their trials, either by acquittal of the grand jury or 
petty jury, burning in the hand, or whipping, presently 
transferred thence to the houses of correction, to be kept in 
work, except some present will take any into service ; I dare 
presume to say, the tenth felony will not be committed that 
now is. And if some like course might be taken with the 
wandering people, they would easily be brought to their 
places of abode ; and being abroad, they all in general are 
receivers of all stolen things that are portable. 

As namely, the tinker in his budget, the pedlar in his 
hamper, the glassman in his basket, and the lewd proctors, 
which carry the broad seal and green seal in their bags, 
cover infinite numbers of felonies: in such sort that the 
tenth felony cometh not to light ; for he hath his receiver 
at hand, in every alehouse, in every bush. And these last 
rabble are very nurseries of rogues. 

And of wandering soldiers, there are more abroad than 
ever were, notwithstanding her majesty 's most gracious pro- 
clamation lately set forth for the suppressing of them ; 
which hath not done that good it would, if it had been used 
as it ought. For the justices in every shire ought to have 
assembled themselves upon it, and upon due consideration 
had of her majesty's pleasure therein, acquainted all inferior 
officers with it ; and so taken some strict course for the ap- 
prehending of them: but the proclamations being sent to 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 409 

the sheriffs, they deliver them over to the bailiffs to be ANNO 
proclaimed. There a few ignorant persons hear a thing l 9 
read, which they have little to do with, and less regard : 
and the tenth knoweth not yet that ever there was any 
such proclamation. 

Your lordship may perceive by this counterfeit pass that 
I send you enclosed, that the lewd young men of England 
are devoted to this wicked course of life : for the man that 
travelled by colour of it is inheritor to 40Z. land, after his 
father ; and his name is Limerick. His father a gentleman, 
and dwelleth at Northlache, in the county of Gloucester. I 
kept him in prison two months, and examined him often, and 
yet still confirmed the truth of his passport with most ex- 
ecrable oaths. Whereupon I sent into Cornwall, where he 
said his mother dwelt : and by that means discovering him, 
he confessed all. By which your lordship may see, it is 
most hard to discover any by examination, all being resolved 
never to confess any thing, assuring themselves that none 
will send two or three hundred miles to discover them for a 
whipping matter, which they regard nothing : for all that 
were whipped here, upon my apprehension, are all abroad. 

And otherwise will it never be without a more severe 2Q4 
course, that liberty of their wicked life is so sweet unto them. 
I may justly say, that the able men that are abroad, seeking 
the spoil and confusion of the land, are able, if they were 
reduced to good subjection, to give the greatest enemy her 
majesty hath a strong battle, and (as they are now) are so 
much strength to the enemy. Besides, the generation that 
daily springeth from them is like to be most wicked. 

The corn that is wastefully spent and consumed in ale- 
houses by the lewd wandering people will find the greatest 
part of the poor ; for it is most certain, that if they light 
upon an alehouse that hath strong ale, they will not depart 
until they have drunk him dry.- And it falleth out by ex- 
perience, that the alehouses of this land consume the great- 
est part of the barley : for upon a survey taken of the ale- 
houses only of the town of Wells, leaving out the taverns 
and inns, it appeareth by their own confessions, that they 



410 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO spent this last year 12,000 bushels of barley malt ; whieh 
l5,<> ' J " would have afforded to every market in this shire 10 bushels 
weekly, and would have satisfied a great part of the poor. 
A great part whereof is consumed by these wandering peo- 
ple : who being reduced to conformity, corn, no doubt, will 
be much more plentiful. 

By this your good lordship may inform yourself of the 
state of the whole realm, which, I fear me, is in as ill case, or 
worse than ours : for we are wonderfully aided by the best 
lord chief justice that ever was, and the good baron Mr. 
Evans, and our justice of assize, very reverend good men, 
and most careful in their calling. 

But the greatest fault is in the inferior ministers of justice, 
which should use more earnest endeavour to bring them to 
the seat of judgment and justice : wherein if every justice 
of peace in England did, in every of their divisions, quar- 
terly meet ; and before their meeting cause a diligent search 
to be made for the apprehending of all rogues and vaga- 
bonds and suspicious persons, and to bring them before 
them, where they should receive the judgment of the law; 
and the sturdiest of them (that are most dangerous) com- 
mitted to the house of correction or gaol ; and at this meet- 
ing, inquiry of the defaults of alehouses which harbour 
them, of constables, tithingmen that suffer them to wander, 
and of inhabitants that relieve them contrary to the law ; 
and inflict punishment according to the statute ; a rogue 
could hardly escape. 

Egyptians t 
Experience teachcth, that the execution of that godly law 
upon that wicked sect of rogues, the Egyptians, [Gypsies,] 
had clean cut them off; but they seeing the liberties of others, 
do begin to spring up again : and there are in this country 
of them, but upon the peril of their lives. I avow it, they 
were never so dangerous as the wandering .soldiers, or other 
stout rogues of England : for they went visibly in one com- 
pany, and were not above thirty or forty of them in a shire. 
Hut of this sort of wandering idle people, then 1 are three or 
four hundred in a shire : and though they go by two or three 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 411 

in a company, yet all or the most part of a shire do meet, ANNO 
either at fairs or markets, or in some alehouse, once a week. I59bl 



And in a great hayhouse, in a remote place, there did resort 295 
weekly forty, sometimes sixty ; where they did roast all kind 
of good meat. The inhabitants being wonderfully grieved 
by their rapines, made complaint at our last Easter sessions, 
after my lord chief justice's departure : precepts were made 
to the tithings adjoining for the apprehending of them. 
They made answer, they were so strong that they durst not 
adventure of them : whereupon precepts were made to the 
constables of the shire ; but not apprehended, for they have 
intelligence of all things intended against them. For there 
be of them that will be present at every assize, sessions, and 
assembly of justices, and will so clothe themselves for that 
time, as any should deem him to be an honest husbandman : 
so as nothing is spoken, done, or intended to be done, but 
they know it. I know this to be true, by the confession of 
some. 

And they grow the more dangerous in that they find they 
have bred that fear in justices, and other inferior officers, 
that no man dares call them into question. And at a late 
sessions a tall man, a man sturdy and ancient traveller was 
committed by a justice, and brought to the sessions, and had 
judgment to be whipped, he, present at the bar, in the face 
and hearing of the whole bench, swore a great oath, that if 
he were whipped, it should be the dearest whipping to some 
that ever was. It strake such a fear in him that committed 
him, as he prayed he might be deferred until the assizes; 
where he was delivered without any whipping or other harm, 
and the justice glad he had so pacified his wrath. And they 
laugh in themselves at the lenity of the law, and the timor- 
ousness of the executioners of it. 

Calendars. 
And if it please your honour, for the good of your 
country, to command a view of the calendars of all the gaols 
in England, you shall behold a lamentable state, whereby 
your good lordship may inform yourself, and receive no- 
thing from me : which I humbly crave, fearing lest it 



412 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO should be conceived amiss by some. But knowing the 
__!__ danger that may grow by these wicked people to my dread 
and most dear sovereign's most peaceable government, I 
will not leave it unadvertised, though I should hazard my 
life by it : and so most humbly crave pardon for this my 
boldness, with your honourable acceptance of my most 
bounden duty and love. — From my poor house at Nether- 
ham in Somersetshire, this 25th of September. 

Your good lordship's in all humbleness, 
to be commanded, 

Edw. Hext. 



296 Number CCXIV. 

The false certificate before mentioned. 

TO all and singular the justices of the peace, mayors, &c. 
know, that I Tho. Scroope, knt. lord Scroopc of Bolton, lord 
warden of the middle marshes of England, and captain of 
her majesty's city of Carlisle; — 

That this bearer, John Manering, lately arrived from 
Scotland, and came before me, bringing just proof, by his 
conduct, from the lord warden of Scotland, of the cause of 
his arrival in England and country : these are therefore to 
certify of the truth, that the said John, with other of his 
company, through tempest of foul weather, were driven 
ashore upon the north parts of Scotland, whereby they 
were by the northland, called the Scottish Irish, robbed, and 
spoiled of their bark, and all therein. AVherein the said 
John lost of his own part the value of threescore pounds 
and better, and being grievously wounded in the thigh with 
a dart, and in the arm with an arrow, upon the grappling 
of the ship: these are therefore, upon consideration of this 
his loss, his hurt, and great necessity, to request you to 
permit him to pass unto Wormy] in Cornwall, to his mother 
and other his friends there ; and in her majesty's name re- 
quire you to relieve him. — Signed with the name and seal 
of lord Scroope; and in the names of the earl of Cumber- 






UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 413 

land, Rich. Louther, and divers other justices in Westmer- ANNO 
land, York, Stafford, Worcester, Glocester; and so as far 159b '" 
as Somerset: when this gentleman and justice, Mr. Hext, 
found out the cheat, and sent his pass to the lord treasurer, 
enclosed in his letter to him. 



Number CCXV. 

Sir John Smyth, committed to the Tower of London, for 
words spoken by him to the militia that were training 
near Colchester under sir Thomas Lucas : which Smyth 
was cousin-german to king Edward VI. by the lady Jane 
Seimour s sister, and had been sometime ambassador by 
the queen to the king of Spain ; a man of Sjjanish com- 
portment, and well knoxon to that king. And before that, 
a volunteer zvith other English gentlemen in the wars of 
Hungary against the Turk. 

BEING brought this year, 1596, into the star-chamber, 
he confessed that he came the 12th of June, 1596, with 
Mr. Seimour, the second son of the earl of Hertford, Mr. 
Brome, Mr. Tho. Manock, into a field called Windmill 297 
Field, near Colchester, where the band of sir Tho. Lucas 
was trained, and presented himself before the pikemen, as 
they stood there in rank, and rid about the companies of 
the pikemen, and termed Mr. Seimour of the blood royal, 
and moved them to go with him and Seimour, and he would 
be their captain. And the like to which he confessed, be- 
ing in the Tower, in these words : 

" My masters, if you will go with me, you shall go with 
" a better man than myself or sir Tho. Lucas. Here is a 
" nobleman of the blood royal, brother to the lord Beau- 
" champ, that shall be your captain, and I myself will be 
" an assistant unto him. The common people have been 
" oppressed, and used as bondmen these thirty years : but 
" if you will go with me, I will see a reformation, and you 
" shall be used as freemen. All that will go with me, hold 
" up your hands, and follow me t 11 commanding twelve of 



414 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO the best archers to follow him; and that as many as would 
5!> follow him, to march on. 

To which confession he set his hand, John Smith : and 
underwritten, Examined by us, Edward Cooke, Tho. Fle- 
ming, Fr. Bacon. 

These speeches he confessed he uttered, being heated the 
day before with too much eating and drinking in good com- 
pany, which caused a wind in his stomach, and a distem- 
perature in his head, as he wrote in a penitent letter from 
the Tower to the lord treasurer ; to whom he bare a spite, 
and by those bold expressions to the soldiers intended as 
much. Which that lord well understood : as appeared by 
Smiths letter following. 



Number CCXVI. 

Part of a letter from sir John Smyth to the lord treasurer. 

PRAYETH him to inform her majesty, that his disor- 
dered words at Colchester proceeded of nothing else but 
by distemperature of eating and drinking. 

Whereas I understand, by Mr. Lieutenant of the Tower, 
that your lordship required him that I should signify unto 
your lordship, in respect of the most grievous and infamous 
words that I used of your lordship unto those soldiers, 
what treasons I could object against your lordship; I for 
answer do say, that I know not, but do very well know, 
that your lordship in the whole course of your counsellor- 
ship and managing of affairs under her majesty, from the 
beginning of her reign hitherto, hath performed them to the 
praise and honour of yourself and all yours, and to the be- 
nefit of her majesty and the commonwealth. And therefore 
do of myself very willingly offer myself to make satisfaction 
unto your lordship the last star-chamber day in this term, 
in public audience, by confessing great fault and misbeha- 
viour committed to the offence of her majesty, and to the 
great wrong and undeserved injury of your lordship, through 
298 the greal fume, heat, and distemperature of drink and pas- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 415 

sion that was in me at that time: craving therefore most ANNO 
humbly pardon. And I do further offer, that if it may ln9 °' 
please your lordship to be a means unto her majesty, for a 
final punishment, to banish me out of all parts of the world 
and her realm to mine own house in the country, [Little 
Baddow in Essex,] never during my life to depart without 

her special licence, above one mile from thence, or upon 

any severe punishment that shall be allotted unto me. And 
I will here set down in the Tower another satisfaction in 
writing, which your lordship shall see and consider of, for 
the uttermost restoring of your lordship to your honour by 
me, by my distemperature and passion, detracted and touch- 
ed. And the same, being copied out in divers copies, I will 
send them the first market-day after my deliverance out of 
the Tower and banishment, by one of mine own men, to 
Colchester, there to be set up on divers posts and corners of 

the town, whereas they may be publicly read, In the 

conclusion, wishing your lordship again and again, and many 
times again, to set aside all kinds of heat towards me, and 
by Christian charity and heroical compassion to win me 
again to be one of your most affectionate and assured friends 
to my power. 

He had likewise desired in his letter to the lord treasurer 
that this punishment might suffice, and that he might suffer 
no pecuniary punishment in his wife's jointure, being all 
the estate in lands that was left : all this the good lord 
treasurer complied with. And he was confined to his own 
house, and the extent for his estate to the queen stayed : for 
which he writ another letter of thanks, dated, July, 1598, 
from his house and prison, as he called it, at Baddow. 



Number CCXVII. 
A letter- of sir John Smyth to the lord treasurer, touching 
his submission in the star-chamber; the attorney-gene- 
ral, and Mr. Solicitor, and Mr. Bacon being sent unto 
him, Feb. 6, 1597. 

Right honourable, and my very good lord, 
MY most humble duty to your lordship remembered. 



416 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO Your lordship may well consider and see by that which I 
159fi " have done, upon this message and advice of Mr. Attorney, 
Mr. Solicitor, and Mr. Bacon, the wonderful confidence 
and assurance that I have and do conceive of your lord- 
ship's great honour and worthiness, and of that which of all 
things is the chief, and all in all in princes, rulers, and ma- 
gistrates in this world, that is, that your lordship doth love 
and fear God, with all charity. Which causeth all magi- 
strates to have great respect to their honours and reputations 
amono- men. Without which conceit, by me conceived of 
your lordship's great virtue and worthiness, and great favour 
towards me, there is no advice nor authority that should 
299 have moved me to have put my hand to any writing, know- 
ing mine own conscience (as it is to others also) the poor 
and sinful state that I at that time stood in, I was instructed 
by those three learned men (of whom I have a great good 
opinion) of the course I should hold in the star-chamber in 
my speeches and behaviour; and that your lordship will 
not any way that I should make my satisfaction to your 
lordship there, for the great injuries that I in my distem- 
perature did offer unto your lordship, nor that I should so 
much as name your lordship upon any occasion of these 
matters. Which although it seemed unto me strange, yet I 
have resolved to observe that course, with the rest of their 
instructions, and in very great sort to humble myself; most 
humbly beseeching your good lordship it may please you to 
remember me, that according to the promise in your lord- 
ship's name made unto me by those three learned men, of 
so great account, I may be called some day this term to the 
star-chamber ; and that there my offence (in respect of my 
a\ -ife's and my great afflicted state) may receive some good 
end by the censure of that most honourable court, through 
your lordship's most noble and charitable dealing : and that 
I may have a whole day's warning at the least, before the 
star-chamber day, of the hearing of my matter. 

In performance whereof, I assuredly believe your lord- 
ship shall not only greatly please Almighty God, who is the 
author and fountain of all wisdom, truth, and charity; but 
that your lordship shall also win great honour and rcputa- 



UNDElt QUEEN ELIZABETH. 417 

tion in the opinion of the world, whose eyes are greatly bent, ANNO 
and do expect how your lordship will deal with me, who 159 * 
have so greatly offended your lordship ; beside the wonder- 
ful obligation that I shall continually stand bound to your 
lordship and all yours, during my life, as knoweth Almighty 
God ; who send unto your lordship long life and health, 
with continual increase of honour. From the Tower, this 
6th of February, 1597. 

Your lordship's most humble and bound always to 
do your lordship all honour and service, 

Jo. Smythe. 



Number CCXVIII. 



His letter of gratitude to the lord treasurer ; being now at 
liberty from the Tower. Dated from his house at Badozv, 
under confinement there. 

Rt. honourable, and my very good lord, 
MY most humble duty to your lordship remembered. 
My wife and I do yield unto your lordship most humble 
thanks for the very great favour that your lordship shewed 
unto us, in staying the extent for our debt to the queen, that 
the last Lent was coming out against my wife's jointure and 
lands, that are in our present possession. Certainly, there is 300 
no favour nor friendship, how great or small soever, that your 
lordship hath in mine imprisonment or shall hereafter at 
any time shew unto me, but that they are, and shall be, 
double and treble greater in mine account than they should 
have been before my frantic offences, when, (through mis- 
diet and distemperature,) for my sins, I was not myself. 
However, there is no error nor offence once past that can 
be revoked again : and therefore I and all other, that have 
any fear of God or reputation in them, that have any ways 
transgressed, I think, make greater satisfaction to God, to 
themselves, and to the offended, to be sorry for their faults, 
and to make satisfaction by all the ways and means they 
possibly can. Which, by the grace of God, I will never be 
vol. iv. E e 



418 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO ashamed or negligent to perform, although greatly ashamed 
159Ik of my frailties and transgressions committed. 

And therefore, as there was no man in England that did 
more respect and honour your lordship than I did, until 
one of your lordship's own, by misinformation, and upon 
some second malicious meaning, brought me first to doubt, 
and afterwards greatly to mislike of your lordship ; so now 
I having found the contrary by your lordship's most ho- 
nourable dealing with her majesty for me in my great af- 
fliction in your friendship, may be assured that you have 
not found in England that will dispose himself to do more 
honour and service unto your lordship, than I to the utter- 
most of my power. 

I have sent unto your lordship herewith a petition of 
mine ; which if it may please your honour either to read, 
or cause to be read unto your lordship, and to dispose of 
the matter as your lordship shall think good, your lordship 
shall do me a very special favour. And if there be no oc- 
casion of employment for me, then I content myself as well 
with this my restraint, as if I had all England and Europe 
to travel in at my pleasure. From my poor house and 
prison, this 13th of July, 1598. 



Number CCXIX. 

Edward lo?-d Crumwel, to the lord treasurer, lord Burgh - 
ley : a protestation of' his unfeigned love and service, 
by his father s commandment, late deceased: wlvo was 
Henry lord Crumwel. 

My most honourable good lord, 
AT my taking my leave of your lordship, finding that 
your lordship was not well, I feared to be any ways tedious 
or troublesome to your lordship, and therefore forbear to de- 
liver that thankful acknowledgment whereunto your lordship 
hath bound me. I have notwithstanding made bold to pre- 
sent the same by these few lines, as a pledge of that ever- 
lasting, unfeigned love which I and mine do owe and will 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 419 

perform to your lordship and yours: which I desire rather ANNO 
to witness by deeds than protestations. And as by my late °' 
father's last command it was enjoined me, after my prince, 301 
to endeavour myself to the obedient service of your lord- 
ship, which to my power I will religiously observe; so being 
by him recommended and left to the good favour of your 
lordship, as of a second father, I desire only to patronise 
myself under your honourable love. 

And therefore I humbly beseech your good lordship to 
accept and take in good part the continuance of my humble 
offer of the same: and in this so dangerous a time you 
would vouchsafe to protect me with your good favour, de- 
siring nothing more than the good opinion of her majesty 
and yourself; which as I well hope your lordship will be 
pleased to afford the one, so by your good means the other 
may be continued. And if either in my absence, or else 
whensoever, as occasions are or shall be presented, I may 
be so happy as to be remembered in any thing wherein I 
may do her majesty service. And my endeavours and pro- 
ceedings shall, God willing, be so answerable, as none shall 
more loyally serve her highness, nor more truly honour 
yourself. I shall ever think myself most happy in being 
any way obliged by your lordship : to whose good favour I 
will ever attribute any good that may betide me. All my 
endeavours shall be to deserve the good opinion and favour 
of her majesty and yourself. And so, humbly praying par- 
don to have thus much troubled your lordship, I take my 
leave. From Westminster, the 6th of Sept. 1596. 

Your good lordship's most assured to do you service, 

Ed. Crumwel. 



Number CCXX. 



Articles annexed to the commission for recusants. This zcas 
a second commission for their examination, that was is- 
sued out some years before to the justices of every shire : 
occasioned {as it seems) upon the holy league of the pop< 
Ee 2 



420 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, * 

ANNO and king of Spain to invade the realm. These articles 
' 59b *' seem to be drawn up by the lord treasurer Burgh- 
lei/. They were printed, and thus entitled: Articles an- 
nexed to the commission, for a further instruction to the 
commissioners how to proceed in the execution thereof. 
Lord keeper Puck?'ing's MSS. 

FIRST, You, to whom the commission shall be brought, 
shall without delay notify to the rest of the commissioners 
that shall be in that country, or that may shortly repair 
thither, the receipt of the said commission, with some signi- 
fication of the contents thereof, and shall require them to 
302 meet at some convenient time and place, to consider of the 
contents thereof; and thereupon to accord upon sundry 
days and places in every quarter of the shire ordinarily to 
meet about the same : so as now at the beginning, the 
oftener they shall meet, the same shall be the better. And 
after the first meeting you may, according to the quantity 
of that shire, make some partitions among yourselves to ex- 
ecute the commission with more ease. And yet you shall 
every forty days, for this present year, assemble all together, 
to confer upon your several proceedings : so as you may 
once every quarter give knowledge to her majesty's council 
of your actions. 

Item, You shall send to the bishop or ordinary of the 
diocese, and to his chancellor and his official, and to the 
archdeacon in the same, to certify you of all persons, with 
their dwelling-places, whom they shall know to have been 
presented to them as recusants, and that do so continue in 
their recusancy. And the said certificate you shall require 
from the custos rotulorum, or the clerk of the peace, and 
from the clerk of assize of that county, to know such as 
have been presented and indicted as recusants, as well wo- 
men as men, and what process hath been sent forth against 
them. And likewise you shall, by any other means, inform 
yourselves of all such as within that county are commonly 
noted to be receivers and comforters of persons that are sus- 
pected to come from beyond seas, as seminaries, priests, Je- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 421 

suits, or fugitives. And after that you shall be duly in- ANNO 
formed by these or any other means of such persons to be ' 
suspected as principal offenders or accessaries, you shall re- 
ceive to yourselves secretly the names of the same without 
any publication thereof, until you shall afterwards find pro- 
bable and good cause to warn any of them to come before 
you, or otherwise to apprehend and examine them accord- 
ing to the contents of your commission. 

Item, In your examination of any person by this commis- 
sion, you shall not press any persons to answer to a ques- 
tion of their conscience or matters of religion, otherwise 
than to cause them answer, whether they do usually come 
to the church, and why they do not. And if you shall per- 
ceive that they are wilful recusants, then you shall examine 
them upon any matter concerning their allegiance to her 
majesty, and of their devotion to the pope or to the king 
of Spain ; or upon their maintenance of any Jesuit, semi- 
nary priest, or other person, sent from Rome, or from any 
parts beyond seas, to dissuade any subject from their obe- 
dience to the queen's majesty. And to give you some par- 
ticular instructions in what sort you may conceive conve- 
nient questions, whereupon to examine persons that are to 
be suspected to adhere to the pope or to the king of Spain, 
contrary to their duty of allegiance, you may observe the 
form of these questions hereafter following. 

The questions ensuing' to be answered by oath, by such 
as shall be verily suspected to have been moved to give 
assistance to the forces of the pope or Icing of Spain, 
when they shall happen to invade this realm; whereby 
such like seducers may be discovered. 
Whether have you been moved by any, and by whom, 303 
and when, and by what persuasion, to give aid or relief, or 
to adhere to the forces of the pope, or king of Spain, or 
other foreign forces, when they should happen to invade 
this realm for any cause whatsoever, or to forbear to join 
to take part with her majesty or her forces. 

The questions following to be ministered without oath, to 
e e 3 



422 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO discover such as shall be suspected to be priests, semi- 

1 or)G ' naries, or fugitives, dangerous to the state. 

Whether have you been at Rome, or Rhemes, or in 
Spain, at any time within these five years ? When you re- 
turned last into this realm, and to what purpose? And 
where have you been ever since your coming from thence ? 
Be you a Jesuit or priest, made after the Romish order ? 
Where and when were you so made priest, and by whom ? 
Have you been at the seminaries or colleges for the English, 
Welsh, or Irish nation at Rome, Rhemes, or Spain, or else- 
where ? How long were you in any of them ? And when 
were you last sent from any of them, to the intent to come 
into England or Wales, or other her majesty's dominions; 
and to what end ? 

Item, Where by her majesty's late proclamation (whereof 
you shall take knowledge) it is ordered, that all manner of 
persons, of what degree soever they be, without any excep- 
tion, spiritual or temporal, and so forth, shall make parti- 
cular inquisition of all manner of persons that have been 
admitted or suffered to have resort, diet, lodging, &c. within 
the space of all years past, &c. if you shall be informed of 
any such person to have been so lodged or comforted, &c. 
as in the proclamation is at large expressed ; in such case 
von shall require the party that is appointed to make such 
inquisition, to deliver the same his inquisition to you in 
writing ; and thereupon you shall do your best to try out, 
if there have been any suspected person so lodged or com- 
forted by the said party appointed to make the inquisition; 
and him you shall demand to be delivered to you, to be 
committed, and further used according to his deserts. 

Item, Because the like commission is sent into all the 
shires of the realm, and like instructions annexed thereto, as 
these are, and that you may percase be informed of some 
persons meet to be apprehended or examined, which arc 
gone out of that shire into some other part, or do remain 
in places out of the jurisdiction of your commission, in such 
cases we require you to send secret knowledge thereof 
to the commissioners of the countries where you shall think 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 423 

such suspected persons do remain ; requiring them, in her ANNO 
majesty's name, to use all diligence by the apprehension of 1596, 
such, and, by such information as you shall give them, to 
examine the parties, and to proceed against them according 
to their commission. 

Item, You shall do well to make choice of some persons 
of honest behaviour, and loyal in religion, in every quarter 
of the quire, and especially in every port-town, market- 
town, or large great parish, and where the parsons or vicars 
are faithful and careful over their cures, to join them toge- 
ther, with charge to observe all such as refuse obstinately 304 
to resort to the church. And such persons you shall call be- 
fore you, and, without dealing with them for their recu- 
sancy, (for which they are to be otherwise by law punished,) 
you shall (as you shall in your discretion think meet re- 
specting the quality of their persons) require them to an- 
swer to the two former questions, or to either of them ; for 
that by their recusancy they do give cause of suspicion to 
be disloyal in their duties to the queen's majesty and the 
estate, or to favour the common enemies. 



Number CCXXI. 

Notes taken out of the new commission for spies, recusants, 
missionaries, and such like, about London or ten miles 
of it. 

TO inquire of all persons who, since the 21st year of 
her majesty's reign, are come, or shall hereafter come into 
this realm, &c. of whom any direct proof or suspicion may 
be conceived, that they intend or purpose to practise or at- 
tempt any thing to the danger of her majesty, or of the 
state of this realm. 

All persons of what degree soever, &c. that shall wilfully 
abstain to resort to the church to hear divine service, &c. 
and do secretly reside and continue in the city of London 
or suburbs thereof, or within ten miles of the same ; and 
likewise of such persons which at any time heretofore have 

e e 4 



424 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO committed or hereafter shall commit any offence contrary 
1596, to the laws and statutes of this realm, in falsifying or trans- 
porting of any coin or current money of this realm ; and 
all abettors, aiders, counsellors, receivers, and maintainers 
of the several offenders aforesaid ; any four of the commis- 
sioners, whereof, &c. may by their letters send for any such 
like suspicious person, and after examination bail him, or 
commit him, and send him with his examination to be tried 
according to the laws, before the justices of the several cir- 
cuits, &c. or the chief justice, &c. Allowance to be made 
by four aforesaid, under their hands, for the charges of the 
bringing up or removing of any prisoners. The same to be 
paid in the exchequer, if it exceed 61. 13s. 4d. If it do, 
then by the order of the council, [so it stood in the first 
paper of notes: altered thus by the lord treasurer's own 
hand, to certify the council to procure further warrant,] 
and further authority to apprehend all such vagrant and 
idle persons, terming themselves soldiers, wandering within 
the limits aforesaid, and to punish them according to the 
laws and statutes, &c. To follow instructions and directions 
herein, as at any time they shall receive under the hand of 

any six of the council. A commandment to all justices 

and officers to assist. See the instructions above, in the 
Articles. 



305 Number CCXXII. 

Anno 1597. Hutton, archbishop of York, to the lord treasurer: for a 
pardon for Dawson, a priest, converted by the said arch- 
bishop. His converting also of Ri. Stapleton, constable, 
Sfc. Recusants in those northern parts. 

My honourable and very good lord, 
I AM bold at this time to inform your lordship, what ill 
success I had in a suit for a pardon for Miles Dawson, se- 
minary priest, whom I converted wholly the last summer 
from popery. Upon his coming to the church, receiving 
the holy communion, and taking the oath of supremacy, I 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 425 

and the council here, about Michaelmas last, joined in pe- ANNO 
tition to her majesty for her gracious pardon, and com- 1597, 
mended the matter to one of the masters of requests, and 
writ also to Mr. Secretary to further it, if need were; 
which he willingly promised to do. In Michaelmas term 
nothing was done. And therefore in Hilary term, I, being 
put in mind that all was not done in that court for God's 
sake only, sent up twenty French crowns of mine own 
purse, as a small remembrance for a poor man's pardon ; 
which was thankfully accepted of. 

Some say, that Mr. Topcliff [whose business was to look 
after recusants] did hinder his pardon : who protesteth that 
he knoweth no cause to stay it. There is some fault some- 
where. I know it is not in her majesty : of whom I will 
say, as the prophet David speaketh of God, Hath queen 
Elizabeth Jbr gotten to be gracious? And is her mercy come 
to an end Jbr evermore? Absit. The whole world knoweth 
the contrary. Your lordship may do well, in mine opi- 
nion, to move Mr. Secretary Cecil to deal often in these 
works of mercy. It will make him beloved of God and 
man. 

May it please your lordship further to understand, that 
since the conversion of Ri. Stapleton and his wife, (who re- 
ceived the holy communion publicly in the minster of York, 
on Whitsunday last,) I have been dealing with Joseph 
Constable and his wife, and have brought him to hear di- 
vine service, and she, being great with child, promiseth to 
do the same with all dutifulness. In consideration whereof 
my humble suit is in their behalf, (because he is passing 
poor, and the prison very chargeable,) that he may be set 
at liberty upon good sureties, that they shall not only duti- 
fully repair to hear divine service, but also appear before 
the council here, or the justices 1 assize, &c. This council 
are precise in this matter, because he is indicted and out- 
lawed for receiving a seminary priest. And yet your lord- 
ship, in Lent past, sent a letter touching that matter, with 
a letter enclosed directed unto yourself and Mr. Attorney- 
general, shewing his opinion in that the indictment was er- 



426 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO roneous in two or three points: and therefore the outlawry 
_ void. So that I must earnestly pray your lordship, that, if 



it seem good, we may have some direction for his enlarge- 
ment upon bonds, as is aforesaid. 
306 Thus, beseeching God to bless her majesty and the 
whole realm with your lordship's long life in good health, 
I bid you most heartily farewell. From York, the 27th of 
May, 1597. 

Your lordship's in Christ most assured, 

Matth. Ebor. 



Number CCXXIII. 

Matthew, archbishop of York, and the rest of the council 
in the north, to the lord treasurer Burghlcy ; informing 
if the execution of certain papists. The plague in the 
north. 

MAY it please your lordship to be advertised, that the 
assizes and general jail delivery for this county of York 
being ended here, there was executed the fourth of this 
month, [of July,] for high treason, one Fulthorp and Ab- 
bot ; being reconciled to the pope, and condemned at a 
jail delivery holden by this council in November last. 
There was likewise now executed Auleby, a priest, made at 
Doway, and one Warcop, that received him : the same 
Warcop having also formerly received one Neal, a seminary 
priest; for the which being prisoner in the late earl of Hun- 
tington's time, escaped by breach of prison. The two last 
were condemned at these assizes. All of them persisted in 
their obstinacy. And at their being willed to pray for her 
majesty, they answered, God make her his servant. And 
being required to pray for her preservation against her ene- 
mies, they would not answer any thing. 

Joseph Constable did openly at the bar, before the jus- 
tices of assize, confess his errors in religion, and his offence 
against her majesty and her laws; making his submission 
in very humble manner, and discovered what seminaries 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 427 

have had resort unto him. He hath taken the oath of her ANNO 
majesty's supremacy before this council most willingly; and 1597 ' 
he promiseth to receive the sacrament, and to bring in his 
son. And it seems to me, the archbishop, that he is fully 
reclaimed from popery. 

The justices of assizes have adjourned the assizes and 
jail delivery for the county of Duresme and Northumber- 
land, in regard of the great infection of the plague in those 
counties, especially in and about Duresme and Newcastle. 
For which respect likewise we have adjourned all causes 
depending before this council, between such parties as are 
inhabiting within those counties, until the sitting after Mi- 
chaelmas: before which time we hope the sickness will stay. 
And so, beseeching God to bless your lordship with his ma- 
nifold graces, we humbly take our leaves. At York, this 
6th of July, 1597. 

Signed by the archbishop, Ch. Hales, Jo. Ferae. 



Number CCXXIV. 30 ; 

Sir Edward Coke, the queerfs attorney-general, to the lord 
treasurer Burghley : concerning his examination of Ge- 
rard, a Jesuit. 

Rt. honourable, 
MY duty most humbly remembered. Yesterday, in ex- 
amining Gerard, the Jesuit, I find him to deny such things 
as I know to be perspicue vera : and doubting him to be 
of that opinion that others of his profession had been, I 
charged him therewith ; who discovered himself in such sort, 
as by this enclosed your lordship may perceive. Where- 
by what good may be expected by their examination it may 
easily be seen ; and what desperate and damnable doctrine 
this is, that taketh away the use of an oath, that God hath 
appointed to be a mean to decide controversies, or rather to 
bring in a most horrible abuse thereof, by condemning the 
innocent and justifying the wicked, it manifestly appeareth. 
And because this strange opinion of these boy priests 



428 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO and devilish good fathers might be the better testified, I 

lo97 ' thought it good to have Mr. Lieutenant, Mr. Solieitor, Mr. 

Ward, [clerk of the council,] and myself to testify it. And 

thus I most humbly take my leave. This 14th of May, 

1597. 

Your lordship's most humbly at commandment, 

Edw. Coke. 



Number CCXXV. 



The examination of John Gerard, a Jesuit, before Cokc> 
attorney-general, and others, May the \2>th, 1597: con- 
cerning an oath. Enclosed in the letter above. 

JOHN GERARD, the Jesuit, being told, that upon the 
arraignment of Southwel, the priest, of high treason, one of 
the witnesses being asked upon her oath by one of the 
judges in open court, whether Southwel was ever in Bel- 
lamy's house, said, that she had been persuaded by South- 
wel to affirm upon her oath, that she did not see Southwel 
in Bellamy's house, and to keep this secret in her own 
mind, of intent to tell you; whereas, in truth, she had seen 
him divers times in Bellamy's house. And Southwel being 
charged herewith, openly confessed the same ; and sought 
to justify the same by the place out of Jeremiah, that a 
man ought to swear in judicio, justitia, et veritate. And 
this John Gerard being asked, what his judgment and opi- 
nion concerning Southwel's opinion abovesaid, said, that he 
308 was of the same opinion ; and seemed to justify the same 
by the example of our Saviour Christ, who said to his 
disciples, that you shall go to Jerusalem. Ego autem nan 
ascendant: keeping this secret to himself, of intent to tell 
them. And also saith, that our Saviour Christ saith, that 
the Son of man did not know the day of judgment, keep- 
ing this secret to himself, of intent to tell them. For he 
said, that as he was the Son of man he knew it, and could 
not be ignorant of any thing. And further saith, that a wit- 
ness being examined juridice, and of temporal things, not 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 429 

concerning religion or catholics, cannot answer with such ANNO 
equivocation as is above said. 

And forasmuch as this opinion, and the defence thereof, 
seemed to be damnable and blasphemous, he was requested 
to set down his own opinion therein, lest he should be mis- 
taken. But he denied the same ; not because it is untrue, 
but because he would not publish it. Then being requested 
to subscribe the same, he denied the same also. 

Richard Burkley. Edw. Coke. 

William Ward. Tho. Fleming;. 



Number CCXXVI. 

Adam Loftus, archbishop of Dublin, to the lord treasurer: 
concerning Mr. Rider's case: wlio had a mandamus for 
the deanery of that cathedral church of St. Patrick, being 
no member thereof. 

It may please your lordship, 
IMMEDIATELY after the receipt of your letters, sig- 
nifying her majesty's pleasure and commandment in the be- 
half of Mr. Ryder to the deanery of St. Patrick's, I assem- 
bled my chapter, and made the same known unto them, 
whom I found humbly willing, according to her majesty's 
pleasure, to make election of him. But forasmuch as they 
made a scruple to elect him, until he were a member of 
themselves, which they allege to be done by them in dis- 
charge of their consciences, being sworn to the form of their 
foundation, I have, to remove that scruple, reserved a pre- 
bend now void, in my gift, for Mr. Ryder; which presently 
upon his arrival I will admit him unto : and have taken the 
hands of my chapter thereupon, to elect him ; which I as- 
sure your lordship, upon my credit, (which I would not 
break with you for all the deaneries and bishoprics of Ire- 
land,) shall be done within ten days next after his coming. 
Whcreunto I find my said chapter the more willing, (al- 
though there be among themselves as many learned gra- 



430 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO duates as belong to any one church that I know in Eng- 
lof)7, land,) because they acknowledge your lordship to be a chief 



pillar for the upholding of their church. 

And so, hoping that your lordship will rest well satisfied 
for this time with the proceedings aforesaid, I commend 
you with my prayers to God's blessing. From Dublin, 29th 
of November, 1597. 

Your lordship's humble at commandment, 

Ad. Dublin. 

309 If this course before mentioned be not to your lordship's 
liking, then if it please your lordship to signify to me by 
the next post what you would otherwise have to be done 
therein, I will not fail to expedite and effect the same. 



Number CCXXVII. 

William, bishop of Coventry and Litchfield, to the lord trea- 
surer : to suspend his opinion of him upon a false '/>/- 
formation, as if he zvere a maker or maintainer of inces- 
tuous marriages. 

My humble duty premised, 
I UNDERSTAND your lordship, upon some sinister 
information, hath conceived hardly of me, namely, for mak- 
ing or allowing of incestuous marriages, or some other like, 
as was pretended. I know your lordship to be wise; and 
therefore doubt not but you will suspend your judgment 
till you hear me speak, and defend my innocency that way, 
when your lordship will : and am contented to clear mine 
innocency openly, (if it may be so thought good,) in the 
presence of all the honourable of our house ; so far off am 
I from any fear or mistrust of my cause. I was once or 
twice coming to do my service to your lordship in the par- 
liament house: but I thought better to forbear, till I had 
satisfied your lordship by my letters touching those slan- 
derous reports; but I am nevertheless ready to do you all 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 431 

duty and service. And so I humbly take my leave. From ANNO 
my lodgings by Hoi born Conduit, the 16th of November, 15f)7 ' 
1597. 

Your lordship's always to command, 

W. Coven, and Lich. 



m 



Number CCXXVIII. 

Rogers, suffragan bishop of Dover, and dean of Chrisfs- 
church, Canterbury , died in May this year, 1597. A 
letter of his {the year uncertain) written to Mr. Bois, a 
learned civilian: concerning the validity of his leases. 

Sir, 

I UNDERSTAND that you have oftentimes, and in 
any places, given it out, that I, as dean of ChristVchurch, 
with the chapter there, cannot make any leases of fur- 
ther continuance than for my lifetime, by reason of my 
suffraganship. If this be your opinion and report, I doubt 
not but you have law and reason for it. And inasmuch as 3 10 
I do hear that you are of council with us, the dean and 
chapter, I am bold to desire you to advertise me with as 
much speed as you may, upon what law and reasons this 
your opinion is grounded ; that thereupon I may provide 
such remedy as by counsel I shall be advised. 

The matter in respect of myself I weigh very little; but 
in respect of the church's estate, (which is maintained much 
by fines raised of leases,) and in respect of the fermours, 
which may be much prejudiced by not renewing their 
leases, I will endeavour to remedy of this inconvenience as 
much as I may, and as I shall see it needful. But I cannot 
learn, either of her majesty's attorney-general, either of Mr. 
Baron Flowerdew, (which both are of council with us,) that 
there is any thing in law, whereby I may not as lawfully, 
to all intents and purposes, make leases with the chapter, as 
any other dean. And sure I am, that the dean of Norwich, 
(which immediately preceded the present dean,) [i. e. Salis- 
bury, bishop of Man,] being a suffragan, as I am, did in 



432 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO his time lease out all the lands appertaining to the dean and 
1597 ' chapter there : which leases stand yet in good force. And 
yet have they been thrice sifted and called in question in 
the best courts of this land, and once in the parliament 
house, as the new dean tells me; saying withal, that he 
would gladly give a 1000 mark, if he could in law over- 
throw those leases against the bishop of Salisbury that now 
is, [Piers,] being heretofore dean of that church and bishop 
of Rochester together, did make leases, as dean, which 
stand in good force still ; as the now dean of Salisbury, Dr. 
Bridges, telleth me. 

Moreover, king Edward in his nonage, and queen Mary 
in her coverture, being invested in the duchy of Lancaster, 
the one as duke, the other as duchess thereof, made leases 
of land appertaining to that duchy; which are in law 
holden to be good : because neither the nonage of the one 
nor the coverture of the other was judged in law to be pre- 
judicial to the corporation of the said duchy, in respect that 
it was a corporate thing. And so, by the like reason, my 
counsel here saith, that my being of a bishop cannot preju- 
dice any act that I and the chapter shall do, because I do it 
not as a private person, but as one of that corporation. In 
the time also of king Edward VI. Mr. Hooper had two bi- 
shoprics together, viz. Gloucester and Worcester, which 
are more incompatible than a deanery and a suffraganship ; 
yet he made leases pertaining to either of those bishoprics : 
which were as effectual as any lease of any other sole bi- 
shop. And I do persuade myself, that if I would enter into 
searching of records in that faculty, I should find many 
mo precedents of those which have had bishoprics and 
deaneries together, whose leases were never to this day 
called in question. And therefore till I hear from you, I 
shall think that you, in holding the contrary, are much de- 
ceived. 

I could allege an old suffragan, dean of York ; by whom 
the dean of that church came to be first called lord dean, 
because he was a bishop: whose leases of things appertain- 
ing to that deanery never vet came into question. Neither 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 433 

did the foresaid leases of the foresaid bishop suffragan of ANNO 
Norwich come in question in respect of his suffraganship, 15,97 ' 
but upon other points. 

To conclude, I do not hold my deanery as other bi- 311 
shops hold benefices in commendam, but I hold it by mere 
dotation from the queen, and am by her letters patents put 
in possession thereof, as all other deans are. And for avoid- 
ing all cavil, I am besides under the like letters dispensed 
withal to hold it, either with or without my suffraganship, 
notwithstanding any constitution or canon to the contrary : 
which dispensation I take to be sufficient against all canons 
and civil laws. Out of which the greatest question in this 
matter doth arise, as I suppose. 

But howsoever it be, let me, I pray you, have your rea- 
sons to the contrary, and I shall thank you for them : but 
much more would have thanked you, if you had at the first 
imparted your opinion to me, as ordering the church's 
estate, whereunto you are a counsellor, and not published 
the same abroad, so much as I hear you have done, to the 
impairing of my credit in that place, and much more to the 
hinderance of the church's estate, in giving occasion thereby 
for our fermers to be afraid to renew their leases at my 
hands. Howbeit, I am persuaded you had no ill meaning 
either towards me or the church in this report: neither have 
I towards you in this my expostulation for the same ; but 
will be ready, in any thing I may, to stand you in stead, as 
I hope you will be the like towards me. And so, after over- 
long troubling of you, I end ; committing you to the grace 
of the Almighty. Sothewark, the 7th of December. 

Your very loving friend, 

Ri. Dover. 



VOL. TV. F f 



4:54 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
ANNO Number CCXXIX. 

1597. 

Dr.Jegon, vice-chancellor of the university of Cambridge, 

and the rest of the heads, to the lord Burghlev, their 
high chancellor: complaining of 'their privileges Infringed 
by the town; thai they shall be forced to seek relief extra- 
ordinary. 

Right honourable, 
OUR humble duty remembered. May it please you to 
give us leave to acquaint your honour with the hard courses 
that the mayor and townsmen of Cambridge hold with us. 
All matters of variance and grief betwixt both bodies have 
been referred, at the direction of the lord chief justice of 
England, to conference among ourselves : and articles have 
been exhibited of either to other in writing, and answers 
given in on both sides, and a treaty which the council 
thereupon appointed and yielded unto. Notwithstanding 
all this, they still injuriously exhibit complaints against us 
of untruths, foul and odious, as of late to your honour, and 
to the lord North [who was their high steward and friend] 
in court; and here to the lord chief justice and his assist- 
312ants, they do in open speeches except against our esta- 
blished jurisdiction or consistories, lawful censures, the best 
of our ancient proclamations, the right of our leet ; and 
have notoriously disfranchised many of their own corpora- 
tion, for serving the queen at our leet lately holden. Tiny 
summon our known privileged persons to their town ses- 
sions: they award process against them: they daily com- 
mit them : they openly discharge victuallers : they take 
scholars 1 horses to serve post upon ordinary commission : 
and generally they adventure to do any thing against our 
charters with such unwonted boldness and violence, that we 
shall be driven of necessity to seek relief extraordinary. 

Whereof, before we make any resolutions we most hum- 
bly crave your honour's direction, ready to attend your 
pleasure in person, if it .shall seem so good to your honour's 
wisdom. And so, with our most heart v prayers to God for 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 435 

the long continuance of your happy days, we humbly take ANNO 
our leave. At Cambridge, the 23d of June, 1597. ' r ' 97. 

Your honour's in all duty most bounden, 
Signed, John Jegon, vice-chan. 

Roger Goad, Laur. Chaderton, Humfrey Tyndal, 
Robert Some, Edward Barwel, Thomas Preston. 



Number CCXXX. 

Dr. Jegon, vice-chancellor of Cambridge ; in answer to the 
lord their chancellor: who had advised him to carry him- 
self temperately towards the mayor and his company. 

Rt. honourable my singular good lord, 
AFTER my last answer returned to those slanderous 
complaints that were exhibited by Mr. Mayor of Cam- 
bridge, it pleased you to respite my appearing till you sent 
for me : and also to advise me (in your honour's favour) to 
carry myself temperately, in regard that the mayor and his 
company had received hard opinion of my proceeding. 
Since which time, (and also before,) I have forborne to do 
any thing that might justly occasion any grievance whatso- 
ever ; in regard of your most gracious love to myself, and 
tender care of this university, so reverently acknowledged 
by us all, as that we are even afraid, lest our own com- 
plaints made to your honour should be offensive. Not- 
withstanding, whatever we do, the mayor still with great 
violence doth so cross my proceedings, and abet offenders, 
whom with assistances of wise men I do censure, as that ex- 
cept it please your honour to look into his endeavour, and 
to restrain his factious endeavours, neither shall I be able 
any way to govern in my place, neither the poor town reap 
those benefits and relief by scholars that it hath always re- 
ceived. 

For myself, although by reason of my place I sustain 313 
under your honour, and my oath taken, I must maintain 
the privileges of the university, (which, with the loss of all 
the livings I have, I am willing to do,) vet for the common 

rf 2 



436 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO peace of both the bodies, and the good of the poor town 
' wherein we live, I refer myself to any man, whomsoever 

you shall appoint to hear and order, confirm or reverse, 
whatsoever I have done or shall do. For our charter, which 
we have from so many noble princes, so many hundred years 
so inviolably enjoined, (in the name of the whole university,) 
I most humbly crave, that your honour would be pleased, 
either by yourself, or some at your honour's appointment, 
to take knowledge and view of them. And if ought therein 
be unequal, to cause it to be revoked ; or otherwise reason- 
able, to confirm and strengthen them against the bold and 
intolerable attempts of insolent and unmannerly men, that 
live by us and our societies, and yet would never endure 
us, or freedoms granted ; but have always grown from 
envious mislike to malicious practice, and open tumultuous 
mutinies, to their own overthrow and utter disfranchising, 
as in former princes'' times is notoriously recorded. 

Wherefore, in tender care of the commonwealth of both 
these bodies, we humbly beseech again and again your ho- 
nour's advice and assistance to withstand the beginnings of 
their malicious purposes ; shaming to make (as they use to 
do) any particular or personal complaints to your honour. 
Whereof, if it please you to vouchsafe the hearing, this 
bearer, one of the proctors of the universitv, can deliver 
many just, grievous, and very foul. So, most humbly re- 
commending to your honour's wisdom the fatherly care of 
this your university, I beseech the Lord God long to pre- 
serve your honour in happy days. At Cambridge, this 23d 
of July, 1597. . 

Your honour's most bounden at command always, 

Jo. Jegon, vice-chanc. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 437 

Number CCXXXI. anno 

1597. 

Questions disputed at a commencement at Cambridge in 

the year 1597: of law, divinity, and philosophy . 

Qucpstiones juris civilis. 

1. POTESTAS gladii est penes solum principem. 

2. Civitas,quae se protectioni alicujus submiserat, ei subest. 

3. Factum principis prgestare tenetur respublica. 

4. Alienigenae apud nos commorantes legibus et statutis 
Angliae obligantur. 

5. Ubi princeps est, ibi patria est. 

6. Statutum generale, licet contrarium, statu to priori spe- 
ciali non detraxit. 

7. Beneficium principis latissimam interpretationem ha- 3 14 
bere debet. 

8. Judex pcenam quam irrogavit, remittere non potest. 

Qu(Estiones theologicce. 

1. Politica Mosis non sunt Christianis rebus publicis ob- 
trudenda. 

2. Unio personalis non tollit carnis Christi circumscriptio- 



nem. 



This against the iiapists'' real presence : the former a- 
gainst the Calvinists, that fetch the church govern- 
ment from Moses. 

Qucpstiones philosophicce. 

1. Omnis mutatio reip. est perniciosa. 

2. Mediocritas est tutissima ratio conservandi respublicas. 

3. Metus magnatum est causa seditionis. 

4. Magistratus iisdem semper sunt committendi. 

5. iEqualitas in republica est periculosa. 

1. Animus est aut numerus vel figura. 

2. Natura non admittit infinitum. 

3. Sensus non falluntur. 

4. Cerebrum est principium sentiendi. 

5. Anima sequitur temperaturam corporis. 

Ff3 



438 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
anno Number CCXXXII. 

1597. 

Charisma, sive Don um Sanationis : 

Being- a book in quarto; written in Latin by William 
Tooker, queen Elizabeth's chaplain, and dedicated to 
her; dated prid. id. Jan. 1597: treating concerning her 
cures in the king's evil, by this miraculous gift of heal- 
ing, imparted to her. 

IT was written against such as denied that gift to the 
queen. He shewed in this book, how this queen excelled 
all other princes and her own ancestors in this gift. He 
hath a chapter of the manner and form of healing : wherein 
is discoursed concerning the simplicity and chastity of the 
ceremonies and rites in healing those afflicted with the king's 
evil ; and of the piety, charity, and humility of the prince. 
There is another chapter, of the certainty of the effects, and 
the wonderfulness of the events in those who have obtained 
their health. 

This Tooker was for some years present when the queen 
touched, and when many miserable mortals, as he writ, 
were restored to their former soundness and health : and 
avowed, and gave his faith, [in these words, obligavi Jidcm 
meam,] that he could produce many who had been restored 
to their healths, even of such who were ready to believe 
3 1 5 that that power of healing was ceased, but, as it were, asto- 
nished at it, held their peace. He mentioned a man who, 
going into the country from London, met another of good 
carriage, but a Romanist, who after divers words asked 
him, what news? He said, he was lately come out of pri- 
son, and being grieved with the hinges evil, after the trial 
of many remedies, kneeling before the queen Elizabeth had 
been perfectly ct sanissime [as the word is] cured ; and in- 
genuously acknowledged, that he now at length found by 
experience, that the pope's excommunication denounced 
against her majesty was of no moment : for if she had not 
by right obtained the sceptre of the kingdom, and her 
throne established by the authority and appointment of 
God, what she attempted could not have succeeded ; be- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 439 

cause the rule is, that God is not any where witness to a ANNO 

,. 1597. 

lie. 

He said moreover in his said book, that he met with 
several afterward, who had been touched by the queen ; 
and he asked them, if their disease returned ; but they con- 
fessed ingenuously to him, sanhshnos esse ex illo tempore, 
that they were in perfect health from that time, and freed 
from all incommoditate morbida. 

That in the city of Exeter, John Capel, son of an honest 
citizen, and another, daughter to one Appelin, were both 
healed of the king's evil. Both which, when they had in 
vain tried other remedies, were bid by Francis Brine, an 
Italian, and exile for the gospel, a doctor of physic, to go 
to the queen, and desire to be healed. Who came home 
joyful and glad, and as sound as fishes. 

John Sherland of Molton, in the archdeaconry of Barum, 
now alive and well, openly professed, that he sunk with 
despair; found no ease, but the touch of the queen's 
hand. 

The writer added, that he knew a certain woman, of the 
family of the Turberviles, who for ten yeai*s remained cured 
of that disease. He looked upon her, and asked her, where 
her gold was of the queen's gift that was wont to be hanged 
about her neck. She blushing said, that because she was 
poor, she had sold it for necessary uses. 1 presently under- 
stood, that the gold was nothing else but the symbol of 
health; and that health lasted without gold. At length 
he concluded, that it was sure the queen had cured many 
thousands ; and that it would make a great volume to set 
them all down. 

Once in Gloucestershire the people came in vast flocks 
and crowds, to see the queen touch certain that had the 
evil ; when the queen used these words to them : " I wish 
" I might afford you help and assistance. It is God that 
" is the best and great physician of all. He is the wise and 
" holy Jehovah, who will help your diseases. He is to be 
" prayed to." Wherever she came, she set before her eyes 

Ff 4 



440 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO God, the giver and founder of the help of body and soul. 
1697, And made God her helper, whensoever she cured those 
that were brought to her affected with these diseases. But 
that it was clear, by the confession of these diseased persons, 
by the relation of physicians, by the recitation of pamph- 
lets, and the certainty of what had happened, that some 
were healed presently, others more quick, others more 
slowly, at the distance of longer time ; very many were re- 
stored to the best temper of body, and a continual habit of 

health. 

— O— 

316 Number CCXXXIII. 

A book- of prayers printed this year, 1597 ; being certain 
prayers, set forth by authority, to be used for the pros- 
perous success of her majesty's forces and navy. They 
were eight in number. The first whereof was of the 
queens composing ; and zvas asfolloweth: 
OH GOD ! almaker, keeper, and guider : inurement of 
thy rare seen, unused and seeld heard of, goodness poured 
in so plentiful sort upon us full oft, breeds now this bold- 
ness to crave, with bowed knees and hearts of humility, 
thy large hand of helping power, to assist with wonder our 
just cause, not founded on pride's motion, or begun on ma- 
lice-stock ; but, as thou best knowest, (to whom nought is 
hid,) grounded on just defence from wrongs, hate, and 
bloody desire of conquest. For since means thou hast im- 
parted to save that thou hast given, by enjoying such a 
people as scorns their bloodshed, where surety ours is one. 
Fortify, dear God, such hearts in such sort, as their best 
part may be worst, that to the truest part, meant worse, 
with least loss to such a nation as despise their lives for 
their country's good : that all foreign lands may laud and 
admire the omnipotency of thy works, a fact alone for thee 
only to perform. So shall thy name be spread for wonders 
wrought, and the faithful encouraged to repose in thy un- 
allowed grace : and we that minded nought but right, en- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 441 

chained in thy bonds for perpetual slavery, and live and ANNO 
die the sacrificers of our souls for such obtained favour. I597, 
Warrant, dear lord, all this with thy command. Amen. 

This was that queen's stiff, affected language. Imprinted 
at London by the deputies of Chr. Barker, printer to the 
queen 's most excellent majesty, 1597. Uo. 

The first prayer is in a different character from the rest, 
to shew it, as I presume, to be composed by a different 
hand. The queen'' s arms prefixed. 



Number CCXXXIV. 

The captain-general of the king of Spain's army : his com- 
mission Englished ; in the year 1597. 

Don Martin Padilla, governor of Castile, lord of Gadea 
and Buendia, captain-general of the army of his majesty, 
and of the Spanish galleys, and of the royal army in the 
ocean seas. 

BEING commanded by his majesty to raise in this king- 
dom a quantity of footmen, for to serve him at sea and 
land, wherein to me it shall seem good, serving upon wages 
in this army, because of the news that we have that the 
enemy armeth ; by reason of the small number we have in 3 1 7 
our army, that they cannot go to such parts needful ; and 
thither being come, that they may have sufficient defence 
as well in the sea as land, for the execution and accomplish- 
ing that which his majesty commandeth ; it is fit to pro- 
vide persons for captains to levy them, order, and govern 
them to the parts of service in Christendom, with ability and 
sufficiency as to this effect is required. And being satisfied 
of the good parts in you, Francisco de Godoy, in this and 
many other services, I trust you will put forward yourself 
for the service of his majesty, as you have always done for 
the space of twenty-four years, in Italy and in Spain, in 
Granada, having the charge of the captainship of one hun- 
dred and fifteen men, being master of the camp Antonio 



442 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO Moreno; and also in all the journeys of Portugal, Tercera, 
... . _ and in the army of the duke of Medina to England, being 
then ancient to the said Antonio Moreno de Godoy, your 
brother. And since you have served in the galleys at the 
enemy 1 s coining to Cales. Whereof you have given good ac- 
count, and reason of your said service; hoping, that the like 
you will do in all that is committed unto you, at this present 
I do make choice, create, and name you, in the name of his 
majesty, for captain of the Spanish footmen ; and as such 
an one, I give you charge that you take up the greatest 
numbers of men you can in the towns of the Mores, and 
in the liberties thereof, and in six leagues 1 compass ; that is, 
in the towns of Noye and Vergantines ; notwithstanding the 
same liberties are appointed to other persons for the same 
effect. If you find resistance, let the parties come to me, 
that I may appoint them in such places thereabouts, being 
places of more account. 

In behalf of his majesty I exhort you, and for my part 
I pray you, the justices of the said kingdom, of whatsoever 
quality or condition they be, that they give all the favour 
and help they can, or you shall need of, to raise the same 
number to that effect and intent of his majesty, providing 
you place to lodge, for you and yours, every one in their 
places and liberties, without taking any thing of you, as 
they were accustomed, nor also to suffer them to make any 
tumult or offence ; but rather to use you with good enter- 
tainment, as men that remain in his majesty's service, giv- 
ing you for your monies such provisions and other things 
you shall have need of, at reasonable prices without ex- 
tortion. 

Also I ordain and command, that all such soldiers or of- 
ficers of companies, that they acknowledge and repute you 
to be their captain, and obey such orders as you shall 
make for the service of his majesty, as if they were serving 
under myself. And the like commandment I give to all 
masters of camps and sergeants, or their assistants, and to 
all other officers and soldiers of this army to allow you for 
a captain of footmen; and that they observe unto you the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 443 

like honour and reverence, with all other preeminences and ANNO 
privileges that they enjoy, or shall enjoy, in any captain of 1597, 
footmen of his majesty's. 

And in having any quantity of men you shall give advice 
to us, that we may send a commissary, to take the muster 
and list of them, and to put them down upon the king's pay 
from that day that you begin to enjoy them, or take your 
charge ; and likewise of all the officers and soldiers of your 
band. 

And for the present I do ordain don Francisco de Mosco318 
to be overseer general of the said army ; and to the pay- 
master, that he put it down in his books of office, to put it 
in execution, and to pass you over unto the paymaster of 
the said army, to allow you your due in pay. And for your 
better confirmation, I give you this firmity with my name 
and hand, sealed with the seal of my arms, ratified by the 
secretary within written. Who shall return you the original. 
To the end that you may have it for your style or title of 
your office. Made in Ferol, the 28th of May, 1597. 



Number CCXXXV. 

GEORGE ABBOT, afterwards archbishop of Canter- 
bury, this year, 1597, read theses upon six questions in the 
divinity schools in Oxford: pro forma disciissoB, et discu- 
tiendce. Whereof the sixth question was, An Deus sit au- 
thor peccati ? Negatur. They were afterwards printed at 
Oxford, by Jos. Barnes, university printer. 

i^gi— 



Number CCXXXVI. 

A relation of the stirs in Wisbich castle among the secular 
priests and Jesuits. A book set forth 1597. 

WHEREIN is sheAvn how the Jesuits and seculars 
made such quarrels, that they divided their tables; and 
one, the greater part of them, was driven out of the com- 
mon hall by the help of the gaoler. And to prevent the 



444 ANxNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO Jesuits charging the seculars to make a separation here in 
J ' 97, the castle of Wisbich, they sat at every table in the hall. 
For had the Jesuits 1 faction been so much against the lesser 
number, that they had flocked together at one table, the 
separation should have been fathered upon them, although 
they never dreamt thereof. And this humour of the Je- 
suits being known by them, they used to sit at every table 
some; because it should be manifest, that the other side 
made the separation. 



Number CCXXXVII. 
Dr. Elie's Notes. And Dr. Bagshaw set forth some things 
in the end of those Notes. Both seculars. Which Notes re- 
lated to the controversy in the business of Wisbich. 
THE quarrel at Wisbich among the prisoners was be- 
tween the secular priests and the Jesuits, or between the 
priests and archpriest ; and with what ambition they sought 
their own preferment in the castle of Wisbich ; and by what 
3 19 scandal they wrought it by a most wicked separation or 
schism. At what time the true state of the question was, 
Whether the Jesuits and their fellow-factions committed 
any sin, and did like Christians, in making their division in 
Wisbich from their fellow-prisoners and priests as they 

were The question was, Whether the priests were 

bound to subject themselves to the authority procured by 
falsehood, as the letter of institution shewed, and promoted 
with falsehood ; as then the archpriest could not deny, be- 
ing taken in the manner, and put in execution contrary to 
the tenor thereof; having no letter from his holiness. 

Mr. Rlackwel [that was the archpriest's name] sent for 
Mr. Collington and Mr. Charnock, and urged them to like 
of the said institution, and threatened them, that unless 
they would positively affirm that they did like thereof, he 
was to send information to Rome, that they did dislike 
thereof. But would give no other answer than this, that 
they did neither like nor would dislike, but would bear 
themselves as became catholic priests to do. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 445 

Number CCXXXVIII. ANNO 

1597. 

The former of these, John Collington, afterwards wrote a 

book of this matter, entitled, An Appeal to Rome, made 
by the priests from the archpriest. Subscribed by several 
priests, Oszvald, Needham, Sfc. 

THIS gave great offence to the archpriest; that in a 
letter to a lay-gentleman, in the year 1601, April 16, he 
affirmed, that he writ to him to make him privy of the spi- 
ritual clanger wherein he and all that received any spiritual 
sacrament of Oswald, Needham might be ; if it were so, 
that the said Needham had subscribed unto a seditious 
pamphlet, coloured with the name of An Appeal And he 
denounced Mr. Rob. Drewry to have incurred the penalty 
of the decrees for subscribing the same. And he sent him a 
form of submission which he was to make, or not to be re- 
stored ; viz. Ego N. confteor, Sfc. in English, « I do con- 
" fess and acknowledge, that without any just cause I have 
" complained of grievances, and many injuries offered me 
" by the most reverend archpriest, and have cast upon him 
" the blame of these dissertions, tumults, and deadly wars ; 
" and that I have transgressed his wholesome decrees. Of 
" all which I humbly crave pardon, restitution of my facul- 
" ties, and the removing of censures if I have incurred 
" them. I recall all these aforesaid, and do greatly wish 
" that I had never spoken, written, or approved them. 
" Moreover I do swear that I will hereafter behave myself 
" peaceably and obediently towards this my superior, and 
" will procure, according to my bounden duty, what lieth in 
" me, that others do the same." London, March 1600. 

But about a year after this constitution of the archpriest 
came the pope's breve, that, confirmed his said authority. It 
bore date the 17th of August, 1601. Upon which all with- 
out delav yielded themselves. 



446 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 
ANNO Number CCXXXIX. 

1597. 

Dr. Mey, bishop of Carlisle, deceased at Dalston Feb. 15, 

320 1597: and interred in the cathedral the same day in 
the evening. From the register of the parish of Dalston 
in Cumberland. He zvas elected j'cllow of queen" s college ', 
Cambridge, anno 1550. 

FEBRUARY 15, 1597. Reverendus in Christo pater Jo- 
hannes Mey, divina providentia episcopus Carliolensis, hora 
octava matutina, decimi quinti diei Februarii mortem oppe- 
tiit, et hora octava vespertina ejusdem diei Carliolensi in 
ecclesia sepultus fuit. 

Cujus justa celebrabantur die sequente Dalstonii. 

m 



Number CCXL. 

The archbishop of York to the lord treasurer : touching tin- 
loan ; ichich some of the clergy were assessed to lend. 

My honourable good lord, 

ACCORDING to direction, the council and I called be- 
fore us such as Mr. Scudamore, his majesty's receiver here, 
informed to be slow in the loan money. Some did allege, 
that at the last loan they were unpaid, some two, some 
three years. Some openly protested, and offered to swear, 
that they were not worth in all the world so much as 
was demanded. Others were humble suitors to be borne 
withal till the spring, that they might make money of some 
of their goods. But in fine, many of them have paid will- 
ingly ; not one refusing in mutinous manner, though some 
in mourning manner complain of the hardness of the time, 
and great dearth of all things. 

I wish there had been more indiff'erency in direction of 
the privy seals : for I know some clergymen that are not 
worth so much as they are assessed to lend, and yet must 
they pay tenths and double subsidy ; which will go very 
hard with them. 

Mr. Scudamore hath been very painful and diligent in 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 447 

this her majesty's service: and yet useth himself so, as ANNO 
there is no exclamation against him. Which is a plain de- ______ 

monstration of a settled opinion in the subject, of her ma- 
jesty's very wise and godly government, and of his discreet 
and good carriage of himself in a matter that hath often 
been unpleasant unto the people. And thus beseeching 
God long to bless your lordship with his manifold graces, I 
bid you most heartily farewell. From York, the 9th of 
February, 1597. 



Number CCXLI. 321 

The archbishop of York to the lord treasurer: upon di- 
rections for Keeping sir Rob. Car, lord Sesforth, an 
hostage from Scotland. 

YESTERNIGHT very late I received your lordship's 
letters of the 21st of this month, to receive sir Rob. Car, 
alias the lord of Sesforth, and him to keep in safe effect at 
Bishopthorp, or some other place without the city of 
York ; so that no access of strangers be unto him. The last 
hostages in the time of besieging of Edenburgh castle were 
placed by my lord of Huntington in her majesty's house 
there ; which is without the city, and much more in safety 
than either Bishopthorp or any other place near hand. 
They had them sometime in their chamber, and sometimes 
at the council- table. If it please her majesty, I will lodge 
him in this house under the charge of some of mine own 
men, and of Mr. Rafe Westthorp, sergeant at arms, who 
liveth in this house, and hath nothing else to do. 

The sitting continueth the three first weeks in Lent ; 
and the assizes the fourth week : therefore I am desirous to 
have him near unto me, that I may have a vigilant eye 
upon him : for I understand that the gentleman is wise 
and valiant, but somewhat haughty here and resolute. I 
would pray your lordship that I may have directions too, 
whether he may not go with his keeper in my company to 
sermons, and whether lie may not sometime dine with the 



448 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO council, as the last hostages did. And thirdly, whether he 
1597- may sometimes be brought to sitting to the common hall, 



where he may see how careful her majesty is, that the 
poorest subject in her kingdom may have their right, and 
that her people seek remedy by law, and not by revenging 
themselves. Perhaps it may do him good as long as he 
liveth. 

Thus beseeching God long to bless your good lordship with 

his manifold graces From York, the 25th of February, 

1597. 

Your good lordship's, &c. 

Matth. Ebor. 

m 

Number CCXLII. 

The archbishop to the lord treasurer's answer. 

Right honourable, 
THIS morning, at eight of the clock, I received sir Rob. 
Car, the lord of Sesforth, whom I am now sending to Bi- 
shopthorp by Mr. Sergeant Westthorp my comptroller, and 
other of my servants, to be kept according to her majesty's 
322 direction and commandment. Who tells me that he hath 
been used to open air ; and therefore prayeth me to write 
to your lordship to be a means to her majesty that he may 
have some more liberty for his health's sake ; and he will 
give security, or his word, (which it is said he doth chiefly 
regard,) that he will be true prisoner. Thus beseeching 
God From York, 16th of March, 1597. 



Number CCXLIII. 

Otto duke of Brunswick and Lunenbcrgh to the lord 
Burghley. Salutatio. Wishing success to the queen's fleet, 
preparing against her enemies. 

Dei gratia Otto dux Brunsviccnsium et Lunceburgcns'unn. 

S. illustris et generose comes, amice carisshne, 
POSTQUAM cognovimus te Dei bcneficio salvum et in- 
columem adhiic esse, non potuimus intermittere, quin te ve- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 449 

terem atque singularem nostrum amicum hisce nostris hwi- ANNO 
seremus, tibique de felici tuo statu gratularemur. Deus 1537, 
Opt. Max. te multos annos valentem et incolumem conservet. 
Cumque nobis perlatum sit serenissimam Angliae reginam 
contra hostes suos et refractarios iteruni magnam classem 
reparasse, et omni apparatu bellico instruxisse, quae brevi a 
littore solvet, quare a Deo Opt. Max. felicera successum et 
prosperum exitum, precamur, et optamus ; ut, rebus gna- 
viter expeditis, salva et integra in amplissimo Angliae regno 
appellere possit. Turn quoque ardentibus votis Omnipo- 
tentem precamur, ut regiam illius majestatem ab omnibus 
insidiis inimicorum semper et ubique, uti hactenus fecit, 
clementissime protegat, ac plurimos in annos regno amplis- 
simo salvam, et superstitem benigne conservet; omniaque 
consilia et actus ad nominis sui gloriam porro dirigat et se- 
cundet. 

Vale, amice carissime, et reginae vestrae clementissima? de 
meliori nota nos commendare haud graveris. Data? in arce 
nostra Harburgo, 28. Junii, MDXCVII. 

Otto dux Bruns. et Lunenb. 



Number CCXLIV. 
The said duke of Brunswick to the said lord Burghley, 
upon the queer? s declaration of sending forth her fleet 
against Spain. 

Dei beneflcio Otto Brunovicensiuni et Lunceburgensvum 
dux> fyc. 
S. LITER.AS tuas, illustris et generose comes, amice 
singulariter dilecte, serenissimae reginae Anglise aula regia 
Grenovici, 23. Julii datas, una cum implicito exemplari de- 
clarationis clementissimae nostrae reginae, quam cuilibet in- 
notescere et voluit et fecit ; quibus causis adducta hanc clas-323 
sem adornaret, et instruxerit; minister noster 5to Augusti 
bene tradidit. Et quanquam antehac ejus declarationis ex- 
emplar Belgicae linguae ad nos pervenerit, nihilominus ta- 
men haec quoque tua Latini exemplaris commumcatio, ut 

VOL. IV. g g 



450 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

anno singularis tuse erga nos benevolentiae argumentum, gratis- 
?59 '~ sima fuit. Dolemus profecto, quod classis ilia, contrario et 
impctuoso vcnto, magno cum periculo, a recto cursu re- 
pulsa sit ; e contra lactamur quoque quod Dei beneficio (cm 
laus et honos) sine ulla vel hominis vel navis jactura, salva 
in optimum jiortum delata est. Unde propositum primum 
iter, optimo favente orientali vento jam cum ccepit, quo, 
Deo volente, (a cujus nutu omnia pendent,) dies aliquot 
continuente, non diffidis, quin optatos exitus sit nactura. 

Neque sane est, quod dubitas, quin Deus Opt. Max. re- 
giae majestatis tarn justum defensionis opus optimo et faeli- 
cissimo exitu sit beaturus ; atque omnia hostium et adver- 
sariorum consilia, conatus et molitiones, ut antehac saepius. 
(pro quo illi laus et gloria,) benigne et clementer fecit, in 
propriam perniciem retorqueat, et regiam majestatem sub 
tegmine alarum suarum protegat et defendat, longa vita, 
quieto regni sui statu, et omni fortunae flatu secundo uti, 
frui faciat. Quod profecto regia? ejus majestati ex ammo 
precamur et optamus, petentes amice ut nos ames, et regiae 
majestati de meliori nota commendare non graveris. Deus 
Opt. Max. te diu salvum et incolumem servare non dedignc- 
tur. Data? 3° Septembris, anno 97°. 

Otto dux Bruns. et Lunenb. 



Number CCXLV. 
The said (hike of Brunswick's letter to the lord Burghley* 
writ the next year, 1598. upon the return of the queen * 
agent, Lesieur, sent to the electors and princes of Ger- 
many. 
Otto, Dei hencjicio dux Bruns-iciccnsium, et Lunccburg. §c. 
Anno 1598. POSTEAQUAM, illustris et generose comes, amice sin- 
gulariter dilccte, praesens clementissimae vestra? regina? le- 
gatus generosus, nobisque singulariter dilectus vir, domi- 
nus Stephanus Lesieur, demandatis sibi a regia majestatc 
negotiis apud electores et principes quosdam imperii fc- 
liciteT expeditis et confectis, Angliaxn rt petit ; nolumus in- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 451 

termittere, quin hisce nostris te inviseremus, ct memoriam ANNO 
pristinae familiaritatis refricaremus. Jncundum nobis auditu ' 
fuit, te secundo rerum statu et bona valetudine frui. Deus 
Opt. Max. ea largiri velit, qua? ad praesentis et futurae vita? 
beatitudinem salutaria sunt. 

Quo successu legatus clementissima? vestrae reginae nego- 
tia expediverit, ipse coram prolixius enarrabit. Onmipotens 
Pater faxit, ut hujusmodi publico? tranquillitatis perturba- 
tiones propediem tollantur, et magno totius Christiana? 
reip. commodo, pax et tranquillitas ])ublice stabiliatur et 
confirmetur. Quod a Deo Opt. Max. ex intimis animi votis 
precamur, et paternae ejus tutelae te diu salvum et incolu- 
raein conservandum committimus; tibique propense bene 324 
Aoluraus, et favemus. Quod itidem ut tu quoque facias, 
nosque clementissima? nostra? reginae de meliori nota com- 
mendare non graveris, amice petimus. Data? ex arce nos- 
tra Harburgo, 17 Martii, anno MDXCVIII. 

Otto dux Brans, et Lunenb. 



Number CCXLVI. 
Considerations of a motion for a treaty of peace with the 
king qf Spain: upon a motion of the French king: 
drawn %ip by the lord treasurer Burghley, and writ by 
his own hand: and seems to be some qf his last writ- 
ings. 

IF it shall be held for a certainty, that there can be no 
condition obtained by her majesty for assurance of the 
United Provinces, to continue their estate, without evident 
danger to be in short time subdued to the king of Spain's 
absolute power, as they were in former times, then it were 
in vain to send any to treat for any particular peace for 
England : for that the queen of England can have no as- 
surance to continue a particular peace, except she may be 
also assured that the United Provinces may be free from 
the danger of such conquest, as by good proofs are known 
to have been intended at the first coming of the duke of 



458 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO Alva with his armies into those countries. And so also the 
ln98 ' like purposes continued by the king of Spain's ministers, 
with intention thereby to invade and conquer England. 

So if upon these grounds no treaty shall be convenient 
for England, then may the French king be answered, that 
though there be a commission sent for the Spaniard to treat 
of a peace with England, yet considering without a good 
accord to be made for the United Provinces, for their as- 
surance against the former purposes of Spain, her majesty 
can make no account for continuance of any peace with 
Spain. And for that the deputy of the States have peremp- 
torily answered the French king, that they will not, nor 
may, with their safety, yield their consent to hearken to a 
treaty with Spain. And so also other their deputies, being 
sent hither to her majesty, do concur in the same opinion, 
to refuse such treatv ; notwithstanding that they have been 
with sundry reasons moved to the contrary. Whereunto 
they will in no wise yield ; but do rather choose to con- 
tinue in their defence ; earnestly urging the queen's majesty 
to continue her confederacy with them. Though it hath 
not pleased the French king, according to the former joint 
league, both offensive and defensive, to perform the same, 
but to hearken to make a peace apart for himself. And 
hereupon her majesty, considering with herself that her 
danger from Spain shall continue, notwithstanding any 
form of peace to be made by her apart, if the United Pro- 
vinces shall not have a good accord with Spain ; whereof 
325 they do despair; and whereof also her majesty hath mo 
causes of doubt, being no wise informed of any good dispo- 
sition in the king of Spain's commissioners, or in the cardi- 
nal, to make any good accord with the United Provinces, 
but to the contrary by good proof, which her majesty hath 
seen in the very letters and writings between the cardinal 
and the deputies concerning hard conditions for the States, 
that cannot be denied. 

And so upon these former reasons, her majesty may 
with honour, and without misliking of the French king, im- 
parl thcs<> reasons to him, why her majesty cannot with her 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 453 

safety accept any treaty for peace with Spain, except she ANNO 
may also see the States better assured of a peace than she 1598 ' 
seeth a disposition thereto on their part. And so the kino- 
may be thanked for his intercession made for his obtaining 
of the commission from Spain ; but to require him, that his 
commissioners may be directed to inform the Spanish depu- 
ties upon what grounds and for what reasons for this time 
her majesty will forbear to send any commissioners to treat 
of any peace with the king of Spain, except she may be 
more certainly informed how the United Provinces shall 
continue in surety from their manifest dangers of subver- 
sion ; and thereby also her majesty ensured from the dan- 
gers that have been intended against her realm by the Spa- 
niards 1 absolute conquest of those Low Countries, thereby 
to invade her countries. A true knowledge whereof being 
had, her majesty will never refuse to assent to any peace : 
a matter very profitable for all parts, and therefore to be 
approved. 

A consideration of a second course to be held for the 

treaty. 
Considering an offer is made by a sufficient commission 
from the king of Spain, to treat with her majesty of a 
peace, and that it is to be confessed of all Christians, that 
where peace may be had, there the refusal thereof, by con- 
tinuing of war, will displease Almighty God, who is a God 
of peace, and an avenger by way of war : and for that no 
war can be ended by form of a peace without treaty ; and 
for that without a treaty it cannot be certainly known with 
what conditions at this time a peace may be had, with con- 
sent of the parties that are in war, without proof by confe- 
rence and treaty to be had by ministers thereto authorized : 
therefore there is great reason, both to content Almighty 
God, who is best pleased with peacemakers, and to satisfy 
the opinion of all men that shall hear of this offer, and to 
comfort the good people of the realm that desire to live in 
peace, to authorize and send some convenient number of 
persons of respective qualities to join with the Spanish de- 

Gg3 



454 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO puties, to treat hereof according as they shall be instructed 
° from her majesty to enter into the same with due respect to 



her honour. And if in their precepts they shall perceive, 
that by treaty there cannot be obtained such conditions as 
shall be by her majesty precisely required according to rea- 
son, and indifference for all parties now in war, to enjoy an 
assured peace ; then it shall be no displeasing to God, nor 
to be disliked of any indifferent persons for the commis- 
sioners of England, to forbear to prosecute the treaty upon 
the wilful refusal of the Spanish, either to allow her ma- 
jesty's demands, or by their urging from her majesty of un- 
reasonable conditions to be granted by her. 

And for the prosecution of this purpose for sending, an- 
32b swer would be sent to the French king, that according to 
his request reported by her ambassador, her majesty's prin- 
cipal secretary to be advertised within forty days, from 
the coming away of the ambassador, whether her majesty 
would consent to send her commissioners to treat with 
the Spaniards, her majesty hath yielded to with some dif- 
ficulty, how to resolve, and to return answer within that 
number of days ; considering of those forty days there 

were days past before her ambassador, or any from 

him, could come into England ; partly, by the long and te- 
dious journey he had from Nantes through Bretain to the 
seaside, to take his passage into England, which he adven- 
tured against all favourable winds, having spent of the time 
limited two days and two nights on the seas with great 
hazard. But at his coming, being informed of the French 
king's earnestness to have answer within fortv [days], her 
majesty weighing the cause to be of a great weight, as it is, 
either to proceed, or of so short a time to consider thereof, 
having a mind not to be noted in the world to refuse to 
live in peace, being offered, neither vet to fear her enemy, 
that shall refuse to accord to reasonable conditions, she hath 
yielded to send certain commissioners into France, to sonir 
convenient place; to meet with such as shall be authorized 
from the king of Spain to meet and treat hereof. 






UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 455 

And therefore she requireth of the French king these ANNO 

. 1598. 

things following, to be reported to this her messenger Ed- 

monds [sir Tho. Edmonds.] 

1. That she may know who shall be authorized on the 
Spanish part to treat. For it is not convenient, that any au- 
thorized by the pope, as either the legate, the nuncio, or any 
other, be admitted to be participant in this treaty, which 
properly belongeth but to the king of Spain and the queen 
of England : except the French king shall offer to name 
some of his council as indifferent persons, to further the 
treaty by reasonable motions to both parties. 

2. To have a copy of the king's commission, and of their 
deputation, to the end that her majesty may, finding the 
same sufficient, form the like in her commission. 

3. That a place indifferent may be named for meeting, 
being as near in some parts of Picardy as may be to the 
seaside : and that a large safe conduct may be given on the 
king of Spain's part for the commissioners of England 
and their train to land in any place ; and to pass safely 
from their landing to the place of the meeting. And so 
also to return safe without let or stay, by any of the king of 
Spain's subjects, or ministers, or by any of his soldiers. 

After these things had, and her majesty's commissioners 
thereby warranted to proceed, these things following seem 
to be necessary to be delivered to them, besides their ge- 
neral commissions by way of instruction. 
Instructions. 

At their first meeting, after an interchangeable view of 
the commissions on both parts, and finding them agreeable 
to the copies afore delivered, either party shall deliver 
to the other true copies of their commissions in writing, 
subscribed with their hands. That being done, our com- 
missioners shall require, that before they shall begin to treat 
of any condition of peace, they may deliver some speeches 
by way of a preface, to declare our sincerity in proceeding, 
since we heard from the French king of any offer by the 3 27 
cardinal for the king of Spain to treat of a peace with the 
French king, and consequently with us. Hereof what re- 

Gg4 



456 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO port hath been made of her majesty's dealing herein, this 
15!)8- in brief is the truth : Here being, by a message sent by one 
of the French king's council, named mons. De Mezzy, in- 
formed, that the French king had an offer from the king of 
Spain to treat with him for a peace, and that the cardinal 
had authority so to do, and also to treat with her majesty; 
and therefore, considering he was bound by a league both 
with her majesty and the states of the United Provinces to 
continue the war against the king of Spain, the common 
enemy, he required the queen's majesty to certify him whe- 
ther she would make choice to continue the war, or to 
hearken to peace : for thereto would he conform himself in 
answering the cardinal. To this her majesty made answer, 
that she had cause to doubt, that though this offer to the 
French king to make peace with him might have warrant, 
but yet for any treaty for peace to be offered to her majesty, 
she understood of no good warrant from the king of Spain. 
And when De Mezzy said that he thought that the cardinal 
might have authority, then her majesty, to increase her 
doubt of insufficient dealing, called to remembrance, and 
so told monsieur De Mezzy, how deceitfully she had been 
used by the king of Spain in the year of 88, to take advan- 
tage of her, by offering her by the duke of Parma, both by 
sundry messages and letters, that he was authorized from 
the king of Spain to treat for a peace. Whereon the said 
duke, with as good earnestness of good meaning as by words 
and oaths he could, did affirm the same : and thereupon 
the queen's majesty, trusting that the king of Spain was of 
the same mind, she did send a solemn ambassade of her 
privy-counsellors, whereof one was an ancient earl of the 
realm, the other also an ancient baron of the same, anil 
others of the council of her state : who when they came 
to the place appointed for their meeting, and demanding to 
see the commission from the king, whereof the duke of 
Parma had made mention, there was none extant ; but by 
speech it was said that they looked for one shortly out of 
Spain. But while such one was thus promised, and treaty 
held on, her majesty had certain knowledge of the king's 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 457 

preparation of a navy and army, so mighty, as the like never ANNO 
was made in any men's memory, and with all haste possible, 1598, 
to come to the narrow seas to invade this realm, with an 
opinion to conquer it: and for that purpose so published, 
and whole families shipped to have inhabited this realm. 
Whereupon her majesty, for defence of her realm, armed 
some number of ships, far inferior in number to the king of 
Spain's ; yet Almighty God, for her defence, and to be justly 
revenged upon this manner of deceitful dealing of the king 
of Spain, to further his dangerous attempts by colour to 
treat of a peace, did subvert the king of Spain's great army 
with such a ruin, as to this day he hath not been able to 
make the like. 

This dishonourable accident hath been known to the 
world to be true. And you our commissioners may boldly 
say, if Richardot the king's president shall be there, he 
cannot truly deny it ; but rather may be charged as privy 
to the same, as he was openly at Burborough by our com- 328 
missioners charged. And doubting of some like accident 
to accompany this, here offer in the name of the cardinal, 
did forbear to give any resolute answer to De Mezzy ; but 
sent soon our principal secretary, with some others, to the 
French king, to understand the truth, how any offer was 
made from the king of Spain to treat with us : but in fine 
we could not understand that there was any commission 
indeed from the king of Spain~ to treat with us, but the 
commission from the king of Spain was only to treat with 
the French king. And as this was discovered to us by the 
sight of a multitude of writings of the cardinal and his 
deputies, being at Vervin, so the French king also, by his 
deputies, found that to be true which we formerly doubted, 
that indeed there was no commission from the king of Spain. 
Whereupon, to reform this abuse, the Spanish commissioners 
offered to send into Spain for a commission, requiring the 
French king to give a safety for their messenger to pass into 
Spain: which he did. And after some good time spent at 
the return of our ambassador, told him, that his deputy 



458 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO affirmed, that there was now come a sufficient commission, 
1598, though they could not have a copy thereof. Which had not 
been inconvenient to have been seen, that, the like might 
have been made by us. 

Now you shall have, sir, his Spanish deputies, to consider 
whether we have not dealt sincerely, in prolonging of the 
time of our answer, whether we would assent at this time 
to treat, or no: and so you shall conclude that you will 
enter to treat. For prosecution whereof yon shall observe 
these directions following. 

First, You shall require to know of them, whether there 
be any intention in them to debate upon the occasions that 
have ministered these great hostilities between these two 
crowns, that aforetime had such perfect amity betwixt them, 
and of the long continuance, as the like was never, of such 
perpetuity, nor for such utility for the subjects on both par- 
tics; but especially for those of England, from the house of 
Burgundy, and all the Low Countries : insomuch, that not 
only the kings of England, and the dukes of Burgundy, and 
the earls of Flanders, Holland, and some other provinces, 
did make treats, both for amity with the nobility, cities and 
great towns of England, for mutual defence of one to the 
other. For the which there do remain particular bonds and 
seals here among the queen's records, for performance 
thereof; which strict manner is not to be seen in any other 
foreign dominions. And by force of such mutual bonds, 
never repealed, there remaineth just cause for the subjects 
on both sides to regard their mutual preservation and their 
safety. But considering it hath been publicly and truly 
witnessed to the world the first notable unfriendly actions 
of the king of Spain, refusing at the beginning of the 
queen's reign to ratify his father's treaties, commonly named, 
Focdus struct/wan amicifice: and so by degrees did incite 
certain of the greatest of the nobility of England to rebel; 
and at the same time sought how to invade this realm, and 
acquiring into the absolute possession of the towns and ports 
of Holland, Zealand, and other places of the Low Conn- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 459 

tries: whereupon she did also for her defence strengthen ANNO 
herself sundry ways, to the misliking of the king of Spain, ° 
and to withstand his great hostility. 329 

But you shall say, since this meeting is to treat of peace 
and not of war, and how friendship that hath been exiled 
may be reduced home again, it shall be convenient to pass 
over the discussion of the cause, that hath produced such 
hostility, and to consider the state of the former treaties, 
both for mutual amity between the princes, and for the 
intercourse for the merchants and subjects on both sides : 
how conveniently the same are to be renewed by mutual 
covenants on both parts : and for a new treaty to be made 
with sufficient words, and in good form, to confirm and 
ratify all former treaties that were in force at the entry of 
the king of Spain to his duchy of Brabant, being termed 
his joyous entry; foreseeing to the beginning of the act of 
confirmation there by one general capitulation, that every of 
the princes, so for the love of peace, accord, that all actions 
past before this treaty of confirmation shall take place, that 
may any wise be pretended to have been done by either of 
the two princes or their subjects, or any other by their com- 
mandment, contrary to the treaties, either of the amity or 
of the intercourse of merchandise, shall be remitted, and a 
perpetual oblivion enjoined to be held and professed, with- 
out permitting any person by way of law or other fact to 
pursue, either for recompense or restitution of any thing 
taken from either part afore this confirmation. And that 
all prisoners of either side, that have not compounded or 
agreed for their ransom, to be delivered. 

And this motion may be alleged to be reasonable from 
both parts, considering, that otherwise the diversity and 
multitude of acts committed on both parts on one another, 
in so many years, and so various places, it is not only diffi- 
cite to discuss, but impossible to reduce them to any cer- 
tainty ; but whatsoever may be on the one side alleged to 
have been justly committed, there may be, both for the 
number and for the quality and greatness of the fact, as 
much alleged on the other side, to counterpoise the other ; 



460 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO and so must follow that which is called compcnsatio 
1598 - delicti 

When you have thus far proceeded, whereby in outward 
appearance a form of a peace between us may seem to be 
assented to, you shall require them to consider, that it be- 
hoveth us, as well for the continuing- of a peace, as for the 
framing of one in words and sentences ; therefore you must 
let them understand, that the time hath given just occasion 
for us to add to this treaty some other matters, whereby 
we may be assured of the fruit of this peace. Which are 
these; not newly now devised, but the same whereof our 
commissioners at Borborough, in the year 1588, did treat; 
and if the navy of Spain had not then arrived and broke 
up that treaty, the commissioners were in good hope to have 
obtained their desires, having found the duke of Parma, in 
his private conference with some of our commissioners, well 
inclined to our commissioners 1 demands. And now you 
shall say, that we must, for our surety, renew the same to 
be now required, as then it was. 

The first and principal matter that we are to demand is, 
to have the United Provinces, with whom now for our safety 
we are bound to a mutual defence, to have such assurance 
330 made to them, and promised to us also by special covenant, 
as they may continue in the state wherein they are, both for 
the government of the people and country, for their ancient 
liberties, and defence of their towns and ports, without chang- 
ing of their profession or religion : which being granted 
with good assurance, we shall have just cause to accept that 
peace, before treated on, and to make account of the conti- 
nuance thereof. But otherwise we manifestly see aforehand, 
that what manner of peace soever shall be offered in words 
and writing to us for ourselves will not be firmly kept ; but 
opportunities taken to renew the Spanish counsels to attempt 
the subjecting of the principal towns and ports of the Low 
Countries, and to obtain the possession of their great ship- 
ping ; to make with the same an invasion of England, as it 
were a bridge to come over into this realm. And you may 
well avow this to be no vain doubl, new invented by us, but 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 461 

that we have very notable good proof by sundry former ANNO 
actions, attempted in the duke of Alva's time, and the same lo98 ' 
continued by others the governors that succeeded him. 
And for more evidence to prove the intention of these 
actions merely against England, the same hath been mani- 
fested by sundry letters and discourses, in way of advice and 
counsel, intercepted, that have been by the king of Spain's 
counsellors and ministers so written at sundry times. And 
such hath been their earnestness therein, fraughted with 
diabolical malice, as divers of them, among whom some have 
been of the general governors, that have, to accomplish their 
purposes, hired certain persons to have killed us, and some 
to have poisoned us. Which purpose Almighty God in good 
time discovered to us, and the parties apprehended, and 
voluntarily confessed the same, and received their death for 
the same without repentance. But the author that moved 
them thereto, even with tokens from the king of Spain, be- 
ing at the time of his procurement a governor of the Low 
Countries, though he could not but hear how the parties 
executed did openly avow him to have procured and hired 
them to the said horrible fact, did never give any cause to 
excuse himself. 

Now for that it is like that the Spanish deputies will 
answer, that the people of the United Provinces are the king 
of Spain's subjects in right of his dukedom of Burgundy, 
and being earl of Holland and Zealand, and that we have 
no more interest to join with them than we will suffer the 
king to deal with our subjects in England ; you may see, 
that if the king had not by his tyrannous governor op- 
pressed them, and attempted to subdue them, to have ex- 
iled them that were natural and obedient, to have inhabited 
the country with Spaniards, as he hath generally done in 
other countries, and especially in India, by the destruction 
of more creatures than all Spain hath living, then in truth 
their answer to be allowed. But they are also to consider 
that this is not the question, whether we shall or may inter- 
meddle in the causes concerning the king's subjects in ge- 
neral, but. whether upon good proof finding that he doth 



4(& ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

anno earnestly suppress Ins subjects, and seeketh by conquering 

1598 ' of them both to plant his Spanish nation there, and with 



them, bv possessing and conquering of those countries, to 
proceed thereby to the invasion and conquest of England ; 
33 1 these circumstances being certainly proved true by many 
certainties that cannot be justly denied, the question then, 
accompanied with those circumstances, is to be answered, 
that both the states of the provinces have just cause, even 
by the law of nature, to arm and defend their natural coun- 
try and their families against the tyrannous, bloody at- 
tempts for their subversion, and planting of strangers, Spa- 
niards, not unlike to tigers, in their habitations. And so 
have we as just cause, for our own surety and our country, 
to join with the said States and their countries, to preserve 
them so in their liberties, as the Spaniard, intending to con- 
quer them, shall not also prosecute their intention to con- 
quer England. 

And for that it is like the Spanish commissioners will, 
for answer to these your arguments, peremptorily deny, that 
any good proof can be made of the king's intention to sub- 
due or to oppress the Low Countries, or to invade Eng- 
land, you shall have a collection made of the sundry actions 
committed by his governors, and of sundry other his minis- 
ters : which are so many in number, and so various in their 
qualities, as were a tedious work to be inserted in these in- 
structions. To which collection we do remit you, to use the 
same, or any part thereof, for maintenance of the foresaid 
matters alleged for the defence of the said States; as well 
by themselves as by us, against the common enmity pro- 
fessed and executed by the enemy. 

After this manner of proceeding, to demand in general a 
surety for the States, you shall say, that you would be glad 
to understand in what sort and with what conditions they 
will offer to the States such good assurance as shall be ne- 
cessary. Whereto, because we think it likely they will offer 
none, or very slender, you shall say, you will change your 
general demands into some particular. As first, that the 
provinces united may be permitted to continue themselves 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 463 

in arms for their defence, and that no forces be sent against ANNO 
them, they only continuing in their possessions, without at- 1598, 
tempting by any hostility upon any of the king's territories 
now in his possession. And for maintenance hereof, that 
some form of truce, or abstinence of war, may be accorded 
for some number of years. Secondly, that the people of 
the provinces may be governed, as they now are, by the 
natural officers of every province. And that it may be law- 
ful for them to resort to any of the king of Spain's coun- 
tries without restraint, either for their religion or any other 
cause, not being to the breach of peace, or to do injury to 
any man. Thirdly, to comfort, them with opinion, that the 
king will not attempt by any outward force to invade them 
against his promise, that it may be ordained to send away 
out of all the Low Countries all strange soldiers ; and that 
the necessary garrisons to be kept in the Low Countries may 
consist of the native people of the countries : as it is mani- 
fest that the whole States of every province have of late in 
their request to the cardinal desired. And so the same more 
reasonable to be granted, considering the peace now intend- 
ed between the French king and the king of Spain ; where- 
by the Low Countries shall enjoy a general peace, being a 
greater happiness to the cardinal, if he shall have with the 
infante the Low Countries, than hath happened to any per- 33 2 
son since the death of the emperor Charles. 

And for more certainty, to avoid length in the treaty, 
you shall require, that the assurance may be agreeable to 
the pacificat of Gaunt, which was confirmed by the king, 
and sworn to by don Jhon. 

Now you may say, that as by the former demands you 
have dealt specially for the States, so should you commit a 
great error, if you should not specially require some neces- 
sary things for us your sovereign. And for that purpose 
you shall require that no impediment be offered us by the 
king or his ministers, but that we may retain the possession 
of the two towns of Flushing and Brill, according to such 
covenants as are made between us and the States. Se- 
condly, that if the States shall for their defence have need 



464 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO to be supported with any number of English soldiers, that 

_ it may be leeful for them to wage any convenient number 

of English, without charge of breach of covenant contained 

in our peace with Spain. [This second condition hath cross 

set on the side.] 



Number CCXLVII. 

The lord treasurer, lord Burghley, slandered by one John- 
son, the queen s f armour of Claxby; whereof' one Savyl 
was the bailiff, and Dobby and Goodwin two of the te- 
nants, June 1598, that is, about a month or two before 
his death. -The examination of this slander. 

THIS farmour and his bailiff raised a slander of the said 
lord treasurer : of which, coming to his ears, he caused ex- 
amination to be had about it ; which was as followeth : 

Brian Cottinghani was sworn. The evidence was, that 
there being talk with Savyl about Mr. Johnson's affairs, lie 
urged him to know of him for whom the kine were bought; 
he answered, for one of my lord treasurer's gentlemen. 
Whereupon Savyl said, " Let me entreat you to say, they 
" were bought to give to my lord treasurer for a bribe, for 
" that he had been so good a lord unto them ; and I will 
" promise you the best pair of hose that ever came on your 
" legs : and if you can do so much for me and my master 
" as to procure one Beck to say the like, I will give you 
" three shillings more. And if you get a wife, my master 
" will bestow an house on you, and you shall win his favour 
" for ever. For the truth is, my master can have neither 
" law nor justice at my lord treasurer's hands. And said, he 
" hoped my lord would die before the next term, and then 
" they may go shake their ears like villains." And this de- 
ponent denying to do any such thing, he desired him to 
hold his peace, or else his master and he were undone. 

William Long sworn, That Savyl, Mr. Johnson's bailiff, 
told him, that his master said, that Dobby and Goodwin 
did l)ii v ten kine and a bull, to give niv lord treasurer for 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 465 

a bribe, and that his master said he was like to lose 500/. ANNO 
and two hundred acres of ground ; for that they made such Jl 



means to my lord treasurer, as that he could not have law 333 
nor justice at my lord's hands. And that if he would go to 
London, and swear, as James Wilson promised him to do,- 
that the same kine were bought for my lord, whereby my 
lord's displeasure might be had against them, he should 
have a farm of his master's : otherwise his master was like 
to lose a deal of his best ground. But he denying to meddle 
in the cause, he entreated him not to betray it. 

Harrison sworn, That whereas, as one of Mr. Johnson's 
men depose, that this deponent said, that Dobby and Good- 
win told him, that they bought ten kine to give to my lord 
treasurer for a bribe, he utterly upon his oath denieth the 
same. That Mr. Johnson, at Candlemas last, sent to him, 
and desired him to tell him, if he could, for whom the kine 
were bought : he answered, he heard they bought them to 
send to Theobald's, [the lord treasurer's house,] to Mr. 
Stileman. To which Mr. Johnson replied, I can have no 
law ; but I hope, said he, ere long to bring the copyholders 
about : but if that which is done were to do again, I would 
never do it. I would rather lie in prison. 

Another sworn, That Dobby would have bought kine of 
him, which he proposed, as he said, to send to Mr. Stileman. 
And was afterwards urged by Savyl to tell him for whom 
the kine were bought : the said Savyl saying, We hear they 
are bought for my lord ; but would we could prove it. For 
the truth is, my master saith, he can have no law. 

The lord treasurer to sir Will. Periam, chief baron : com- 
mitting this matter to him. 

After my very hearty commendations to your lordship, I 
have received from Mr. Irby the examination of certain 
tenants of Claxby, touching a false report made of me : by 
which examination it seemeth the poor man Dobby hath 
cleared himself; and that Johnson hath been the deviser of 
the slander. And for that Mr. Irby is able to inform your 
lordship of the particularities thereof, I desire you to hear 

VOL. iv. h h 



4(J6 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO him; And if upon clue proof it shall appear that Johnson 
J hath made this lewd report of me, or procured the same to 
be made by any others, that your lordship would let me 
understand the truth thereof, that he may be punished, as 
he well dcserveth. The breviat of the examinations I send 
herein enclosed, and refer the rest to Mr. Irby^ report. 
From my house in Westminster, the 27th of June, 1598. 
Your very loving friend, 

W. Burgh ley. 

The lord barmis answer, having perused the depositions 
at large of the persons mentioned in this abstract or breviat: 

" I find them to agree with the breef : and as it seemeth 
" unto me, there is some fault in Mr. Johnson, but much 
" more in Will. Savyl, his servant and bailiff: who hath 
" behaved himself very lewdly herein. 

" Wv. Periam." 

This Johnson a little before was laid in the Fleet for 
some crime, perhaps relating to his farm of Claxby, held 
of the queen. 



334 Number CCXLVIII. 

I [feVis at ^ e t° r( l B ur gMcy-> lord high treasurer of England, was 
Burleigh- born the \2>th of September, 1521, and died the 4th of 
August, 1598 : and zcas interred at Stanford, under 
a fair monument. The pious preface to his rcill, bear- 
ing date October 20, 1579, and revised afterwards, 
April 7, 1580, and June 1, 1580, and February 22, 
1582, 7vas as follows. 

CONSIDERING by the goodness of Almighty God, I 
have been created a reasonable creature, and thereby or- 
dained to serve him, and born of Christian parents, and 
christened in the name of the Father, of the Son, and the 
Holy Ghost; and consequently, brought up and instructed, 
in my young years, in the knowledge of the gospel of our 



house. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 467 

Saviour Jesus Christ; which was more clearly revealed in ANNO 
the times of my young years than it had been many years 159 
before ; being thereby taught, that there was no other means 
for the salvation of my soul but by the death and resurrec- 
tion of Christ the Son of God, wherein I do put my whole 
confidence and trust, and do desire the assistance of his holy 
Spirit to have grace to be thankful for the same, and to 
have a desire to obey his will and commandment, as far 
forth as the infirmity of my flesh will suffer, in living reli- 
giously and virtuously ; whereunto adding the inevitable 
certainty of the death of my body, though I am uncertain 
of the time ; and yet by the increase of time, and infirmities 
of my body, necessarily induced to look shortly by order of 
nature for my worldly end ; and that whatsoever worldly 
goods God hath given, or rather lent unto me, I do cer- 
tainly know that by death I must leave them all to the 
world ; and that whatsoever godly and spiritual graces and 
gifts hath been by God's special grace bestowed upon me, I 
hope certainly by God's goodness and mercy, though my 
body shall be committed to earth, yet to enjoy the fruits 
thereof in heaven, after this mortal life, if I shall use and 
dispose them in this life to God's glory; acknowledging 
them to have proceeded of his mere goodness, and that 
more plenteously than to many others. 

Upon all these, and many other like considerations, I 
being at this present time occupied with the cogitations of 
my mortality, and yet of whole mind and memory, (for 
which I humbly thank Almighty God,) do determine, as 
many times heretofore I have done, to declare my last will 
and testament in writing, concerning the disposition of my 
lands and goods, which are worldly; what my mind is there- 
in, and to whom I will and desire that the same shall re- 
main after my decease, in such sort as by the laws of the 
realm I may, and as I hope shall not offend God, the giver 
of them all to me : considering, as it is in the Psalm, Ccclum 
coeli Domino, terrain dedit Jiliis hominum. And therefore 
first, this 20th day of October, in the year of our Lord 1579, 

nh 2 



468 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

ANNO and of queen Elizabeth the 22d, I do revoke all my former 

__ wills in writing, which are many, and do mean that none 

shall, from this time forward, be of any force, but this now 

written, and that which shall from time to time be added 

hereunto. 



335 Number CCXLIX. 

August the 3d, 1598. Oratio expirantis Domini. So is the 
title of the prayer, made by Mr. Thompson, the lord 
treasurers chaplain, the night before he died. 

O GOD of heaven, father of spirits, thou founder and 
restorer of mortality and immortality, open thine ears at 
this time to our humble requests, and favour the deep sighs 
and last prayers of us sinful men, for this thy true and 
faithful servant, our honourable lord and master, so deeply 
strucken, and so grievously wounded with the arrows of 
sickness, and the terror of death, that the venom thereof 
hath drunk up his spirits, and so utterly consumed him, 
that he refuseth all hope but in thy protection, and will not 
have any rest but under the shadow of thy wings. Look 
down, O Lord, from heaven upon him, with the eye of thy 
pity and compassion in this his last extremity. Let the saving- 
beams of thy mercy shine upon him in this day of his re- 
demption. Assuage the fury of his sickness with the joyful 
remembrance and present hope of a better life at hand : 
support his weakness with thy right hand, and assist him 
now and evermore with thy blessed Spirit, which is his only 
comfort in the hour of death. 

And because the day of his death is the day of his judg- 
ment, and the hour of his dissolution the entrance into an- 
other estate, grant him, O Lord, grant him a joyful passage 
from death to life. Forgive him, O Father of mercies, for- 
give him all that is amiss. Wash away his sins in the blood 
of the unspotted lamb, Christ Jesus, his redeemer. Let his 
obedience take away the guilt of his sin. O! let the day 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 469 

of his death in this world be the day of his nativity in the ANNO 
world to come ; and the hour of his dissolution here be the 1598, 
full fruition of thy glorious presence in heaven. 

Lord, look upon him in thy Son Christ Jesus. Cover his 
nakedness with the robe of his innocency, that so he may be 
without spot. Release him out of these grievous bonds, if it 
be thy heavenly pleasure, wherewith he is tied, that this 
mortal may be swallowed up of life. Receive him to mercy, 
whom thou hast most mercifully this long time preserved. 
Open him the gate of life, that in thy righteousness he may 
enter in. And as thou hast satisfied him with lono- life and 
fulness of years here on earth, and brought him to great 
honour in the eyes of his prince and country, so give him 
now, O Lord, eternity and length of days at thy right hand, 
and the desire of his heart in the world to come, and trans- 
late him out of this vale of misery, wherein he hath long 
groaned and sighed, to the kingdom of thy blessed Son 
Christ Jesus. Give him full possession of that heavenly 
city which thou hast purchased and promised ; to which he 
hath travailed all the days of his pilgrimage. And since on 
earth thou hast granted and favoured him many years above 
others, for the glory of thy name, and the government of 
thy people, so now in his death make him a fixed star of 
light in the firmament of thy glory, to shine among thy 
chosen saints in heaven for evermore. 

Leave his body to the earth, from whence it came, there 336 
to rest, in assured hope of restitution ; but his soul, O Lord, 
the work of thy hands, created to joy and eternity, redeemed 
to glory and immortality, let it with eagle's wings fly up to 
heaven, from whence it came, and be carried by the hands of 
angels into the bosom of Abraham, the father of faithful 
men, there to be kept blameless and unspotted, until the 
coining of our Lord Jesus Christ in the clouds. For he 
knoweth, O Lord, for he knoweth, and we all here confess 
before thee, that though his strength be dried up like a pot- 
sherd, and his kidneys appear within his body ; and though 
his body be brought into the dust of death, and lodge in 
the land of forgetfulness, yet his Redeemer liveth as a faith- 

Hh 3 



470 ANNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

\ \ .\ o ful witness in heaven, that will never shrink, but that one day 
1598- he shall redeem him. For with his own eyes he and no 
others shall behold his dear Saviour Christ, coming in the 
clouds to judgment, with thousands of angels: and that in 
soul and body he shall be made a joyful heir of the king- 
dom of bliss, there to live for ever with God and the Lamb 
Christ Jesus, to enjoy all the blessings of the kingdom of 
God in a better life. For which graces we bow the knees 
of our hearts, and lift up the eyes of faith, praying, as 
thou, Lord, hast taught us in thy gospel, Our Father, 
which art, &c. 



Number CCL. 

Of this great statesman and counsellor, Will. Lombard, that 
great antiquarian, gave this short character to his son, 
sir Robert Cecill, in his epistle dedicatory before his 
/earned book Archion, in his commentary upon the high 
courts of justice, in these words: 

THAT as he was already by nature his son, so, he 
prayed, that he might at the length, by imitation, become 
the very heir of that renowned Nestor, and only Atlas of 
the English country and commonwealth. 



Number CCLI. 

Another writer, that translated the history of France out 
of French, about the latter end of queen Elizabeth's 
reign, in his dedication thus styled the said lord 
Burghley. 

THE ancient counsellor of Europe, pater .putr'ur, pillar 
of the state. Through whose prudent policy and careful 
watchings that may justly be applied, Ncque periculum in 
rcp.fuitgravius unquam, nee majus otiuvi. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 471 

Number CCLII. ANNO 

1598. 

A large Latin inscription upon a Juir monument of this 

nobleman: composed by himself soon cvfter the deaths of ^7 
the countess of Oxford, his daughter, and his own lady. 

SI quaeratur quis sit hie vir senex, genua flectens, canitie 
venerabilis, toga parliamentaria amictus, ordinis garteriani 
eques : quae etiam sunt ilia? duae feminas nobiles, splendide 
stolatas: quique sunt ad earum capita et pedes genubus 
nixi ; ex sequenti sermone senis, et ex inscriptionibus cui- 
que subjectis, haec omnia intelliget. 

Ilia cujus imago est infima, fuit, heu ! fuit niea Mil- 
dreda uxor longe charissima. Altera fuit Anna, mea filia 
dilectissima. 

Mildreda vero uxor mea ab anno Dom. 1546. vixit me- 
cum perpetuo ad annos 43 conjunctissime, fuitque particeps 
omnium fortunarum mearum, temporibus et secundis et 
adversis, regnantibus regibus, Henrico Octavo, Edwardo 
Sexto, reginisque Maria, et Elizabetha, jam felicia sceptra 
tenente. Peperitque mihi multos liberos, sed ad maturam 
aetatem tantum tres pervenerunt ; nempe duae filiae, Anna 
et Elizabetha, ac filius unus, Robertus : Anna autem filia 
mea semper fuit mihi in deliciis, atque in matrimonium data 
Edwardo Veero, illustriss. comiti Oxoni^e, dno. magno ca- 
merario Angliae. Ex eoque fit comitissa Oxon. Peperitque 
viro suo, praeter aliquos liberos, non diu superstites, filias 
tres, adhuc vivas ; quarum imagines visuntur genua fle- 
ctentes, ad caput matris. Prior est dna. Elizabetha : se- 
cunda est dna. Brigitta : tertia dna. Susanna. Vixit ilia filia 
mea Anna a teneris annis, multa cum laude semper apud 
omnes, tarn in aula, quam domi, tarn virgo valde pia et pu- 
dica, quam uxor vere casta suo viro : tandem magno mae- 
rore meo ac matris, nobis praerepta; spiritumque reddidit 
Deo, qui ilium dedit. Cujus corpus, et animam post Deo 
redditam, ego et uxor mea multis cum lachrymis, sub hac 
mola lapidea reponi curavimus. 

Non multo autem post sequitur mater filiam ; de qua 
quanquam nunquam sine lachrymis serio cogito, aliqua ta- 
il h 4 



472 AXNALS OF CHURCH AND STATE, 

anno men occurrunt, qua> nuerorcm meum paululum lcnire vi- 

1398. , . . , 

demur; nenipe cum in memonam repeto, quoniodo per 

totam vitam versata sit in sacrarum literarum et sanctorum 
viroruni scriptis, eisque maxime Graecis, ut Basilii Magni, 
Chrysostomi, Gregorii Nazianzeni, ac aJiorum similium. 
Maxime autem consolatur, (qnocl quidem jam post mortem 
omnibiis magis patet, quam cum viveret,) recordari quanta 
beneficia secreto in doctos, quantasque eleemosynas in pau- 
peres contulerit. 

Quomodo etiam collegia in utrisque academiis donariis 
ornaverit, ad sustentationem scholarium reddilibus perpe- 
tuis, praesertim collegium D. Jobannis evangelistse Cantab, 
dotaverit : de egenis etiam fovendis in villa Romfordiae, 
unde ortum familiae babuit, et Chestoniae, ubi sedes nostras 
sita> sunt, curam magnam babuit. Ita ut singulis primis 
sabbatis omnium mensium et commeatus et pecuniam per- 
petuo pauperibus, maximeque viduis et orpbanis Cbestoniae 
338 degentibus, et ad frequentes conciones verbi Dei ibi liaben- 
das, distribui curaverit: ac in utrisque cisdem villis pau- 
peribus mecanicis perpetuis temporibus singulis bienniis 
pecuniarum bonam summam utendam, distribui ordina- 
verit. 

Post ista autem multaque alia ejus generis pnestita of- 
ficia, et Deo et patriae, mibique conjugi, ac liberis suis, do- 
ctisque et pauperibus, sponte in anno suo cliinacterico, viz. 
LXIII. spiritual reddidit Deo, quarto Aprilis anno 1589. 
Cujus corpus ego maritus