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Full text of "Annals of the reformation and establishment of religion, and other various occurrences in the Church of England, during Queen Elizabeth's happy reign : together with an appendix of original papers of state, records, and letters"

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PRINCETON, N. J. 



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BR 756 .S87 1824 vTw 
Strype, John, 1643-1737. 
Annals of the reformation 
and establishment of 



SM/.^ 



ANNALS 



OF 



THE REFORMATION 



AND 



' ESTABLISHMENT OF RELIGION, 

AND OTHER VARIOUS OCCURRENCES 

IN THE 

CHURCH OF ENGLAND, 

DURING 

QUEEN ELIZABETH'S HAPPY REIGN: 

TOGETHER WITH 

AN APPENDIX 

OF ORIGINAL PAPERS OF STATE, RECORDS, AND LETTERS. 



BY JOHN STRYPE, M. A. 



A NEW EDITION. 



VOL. I. PART I. 



OXFORD, 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS. 

MDCCCXXIV. 



TO 

THE KING. 



X HIS presumption, dread sovereign, of setting your 
august name before these Annals of the Reforma- 
tion of the Church of England, will, I hope, obtain 
your majesty's pardon ; since God hath placed you, 
next under himself, the great patron and supreme 
head of the same happy reformed church. And you 
have often, in a most gracious manner, declared to 
your people your royal defence and protection there- 
of: the evident and remarkable blessing of Almighty 
God, from your auspicious entrance upon the go- ^ 
vernment of these kingdoms, accompanying your 
majesty therein ; and preserving us in this holy reli- 
gion, (as we pray in our excellent office,) in " wealth, 
" peace, and godliness." 

Nor is it without precedent that I offer my de- 
dication of this part of our church's history to your 
majesty, since the beginning and progress of it, 
written by a right reverend bishop of this church, ur.Bumet, 

*" ^late bislioD 

the former part of which was inscribed to one or of Salis- 
bury. 
your royal predecessors, and the latter part to your-^j^^ 

self, with good acceptance. And so the favour to ^'"'''" "• 
these volumes may seem entitled to your royal pa- 
tronage, as being but a continuation of the same 
YOT,. I. a 



ii DEDICATION. 

history, where the former ended ; viz. commencing 
at the happy access of queen Elizabeth to the 
throne : when the great and divine work was taken 
in hand again, of removing the gross superstitions 
and errors of Rome, which had been restored by 
queen Mary, her immediate predecessor ; shewing 
the steps then taken in the restoring and reesta- 
blishing that excellent primitive religion professed 
among us, and continued (thanks be to God) to this 
day. 

And I cannot but add, that as we, your majesty's 
subjects of this protestant communion, have abun- 
dant cause to give God thanks for his peculiar 
blessing in setting over us a prince under whom we 
enjoy this true, reformed religion ; so also for your 
preserving and maintaining us in our civil rights 
and properties, together with peace at home and 
abroad : insomuch that we seem to be altogether as 
happy a people now, under your majesty's influence 
and care, as they that lived under the glorious 
queen Elizabeth. 

And as your majesty's reign over us hath hitherto 
l)een so signally blessed by God, moved by the 
many devout petitions, daily and constantly made, 
in the words of the liturgy of this our church, and 
the good effect they have found, so I cannot con- 
clude this my humble address to your majesty bet- 
ter than in another address to the great " King of 
" kings and Lord of lords, the only Ruler of 
" princes," that (as we pray in our said holy office) 
you may long reign over us; and that he would 



DEDICATION. iii 

rule your heart in his faith, fear, and love ; and 
give you the victory over all your enemies : and 
that as God hath set your majesty, and other kings 
and princes of the earth, in great place and dignity, 
so to make you and them great instruments of be- 
nefiting mankind ; and as you are earthly gods, so 
you may have gi'ace to imitate the God of heaven 
in doing good to all, and in executing justice, mercy, 
and truth in the earth : and that we, your subjects, 
duly considering whose authority you have, may 
faithfully serve, honour, and humbly obey you, ac- 
cording to God's holy word and ordinance. And 
lastly, that your royal issue, that God hath l3lessed 
you and us with, may be enriched with all heavenly 
graces, and prosper in all earthly happiness ; and, 
after you, may happily reign over these kingdoms 
in a long succession of after-ages. These are the 
sincere and daily prayers of, 

May it please your majesty, 
Your most dutiful and 
ever loyal subject, 
JOHN STRYPE. 



a 5^ 



THE 

PREFACE. 



W1^» 



X* OR the church of England, piously and rightly re- 
formed under queen Elizabeth, have been written solid 
apologies and vindications, both of its doctrine and dis- 
cipline, ministry and worship, by divers able and learned 
men. Care also hath been taken from time to time to pre- 
serve and establish it by wholesome laws and constitutions. 
And the members of it have (thanks be to God) enjoyed 
plentiful means of Christian knowledge and edification, not 
only by the constant preaching of God's word, but by the 
practical and devotional books frequently published for 
their use. But one thing hath been wanting still, after so 
long a time that this excellent church hath flourished ; viz. 
an historical account of its reformation, and the particular 
method and order of the proceedings in that glorious work ; 
and what oppositions or encouragements it met with from 
time to time ; what friends or enemies it found ; what bi- 
shops or divines, singular for their piety or learning, it was 
adorned with ; and the various successes and occurrences 
that attended it after its first settlement. 

And it is some wonder that we should be left destitute 
to this day of so material a branch of our English history 
vmder that incomparable princess, except what is written by 
Mr. Fuller, (who is very brief,) and Dr. Heylin, and the 
right i-everend bishop of Sarum, who goes little further 
than the beginning of her reign. It is probable such an 
undertaking was intended long since, that is, in Camden's 
time : for in his Annals of that queen, he purposely passeth 
lightly over church-matters ; and in some places hinteth 
the reason, that he left them for the ecclesiastical historian ; 
as if there had been some such fixed upon for that work in 

a 3 



vi THE PREFACE. 

his time. And before him John Fox intended his last la- 
bours that way, and had prepared very considerable mate- 
rials for that purpose; some whereof are fallen into my 
hands ; many are dispersed elsewhere ; and not a few lost. 
And I have been told, great heaps of collections were in 
and after the times of that queen got together, in order to 
write her ecclesiastical history ; but that this good work 
and the collections themselves were stifled, and lost in the 
civil wars. 

Notwithstanding, of the use of such an history, there is 
none, I believe, but is sensible. Both the clergy of this 
church, (who are the ministers and professed servants of 
it,) and all its other members, may hereby satisfy them- 
selves, and (as occasion serves) inform others, what reason- 
able, just, and wise methods were taken in the reforming of 
it ; and how signally the providence of God all along fa- 
voured and furthered it. It will shew us upon what firm 
ground of scripture and antiquity our reformation stands, 
and will help to direct and enlighten us in our controver- 
sies about it. And by making us understand what our ori- 
ginal constitution is, we shall not be easily imposed upon ; 
and we shall know, when we, or others, go beyond, fall 
t>hort of, or vary from the true reformed church of Eng- 
land. 

Since then, after so long a time, no abler pen hath un- 
dertaken this province ; viz. to relate how true religion was 
restored, imder the foresaid princess, so regularly, wisely, 
and legally, by consent of prince and people, and what pro- 
gress was made therein ; I have at length attempted it, and 
done my endeavour, according to my small capacity, to. 
serve God, and this church herein ; and that from proper 
collections by me, for many years made, as well out of pri- 
vate studies, as other public libraries and treasuries of 
MSS. : where many choice and secret matters are disco- 
vered, to furnish out a true account of these religious trans- 
actions. 

And that I might not write superficially, by undertaking 
too much at once, I have stinted myself to go no further 



THE PREFACE. vii 

than to the thirteenth year of queen Ehzabeth. Within 
which compass of time, as there was great variety of events, 
so at that period the rehgion seemed to have surmounted 
its chief difficulties, and to have been well and strongly 
settled. However, there is room enough, in the succeed- 
ing years of the queen, for the pen of an ecclesiastical his- 
torian. 

In this work I have pursued truth with all faithfulness 
and sincerity. My relations of things are not hearsays, nor 
taken up at second hand, or compiled out of other men''s 
published writings ; but I have gone as near the fountain- 
head as possible ; that is, to archives, state-papers, registers, 
records, and original letters, or else to books of good credit 
printed in those times ; directing more surely to the know- 
ledge how affairs then stood. And the unfeigned disposi- 
tion I have ever had to truth, and my inclination to give 
fair and just representations of men and things, will prepare 
the reader, I hope, ,to have a good opinion of my integrity, 
and of the impartiality of my writing. 

I have set down as much as hath come to my knowledge, 
of moment, for the illustration of our religion, and to open 
a true prospect into the affairs of our church in those times : 
though I suspect I may be censured by some of different 
persuasions : as, that I had not used a discretion in conceal- 
ing some things rather than in relating them ; and that the 
knowledge of other things might have better, for the service 
of the church, been buried in oblivion ; because the bring- 
ing them to light might tend to provoke and irritate party 
against party, or supply matter for contest, or pei'haps be- 
tray some imperfection in the government, or the like. But 
this practice (which cannot be exempted from partiality) 
becomes not a just historian; nor ought he to assume such 
a power to himself; nor, in my judgment, by any means to 
omit or obscure any thing material, (whatever the supposed 
consequences be,) no more than to alter or misrepresent 
what he pleaseth : when by taking this liberty, the history 
becomes defective, actions and events are not set in a full 
light : and hence the reader is not sufficiently instructed ; 

a 4 



viii THE PREFACE. 

and so either is led into error, or disabled from niakinga 
true judgment of things. And therefore, had I taken this 
course, I could not have avoided the heaviest charge against 
an liistorian ; which is, of writing odio mit favor e ; i. e. 
with favour to some, or displeasure towards others. 

Besides the general course of the history, (for the further 
laying open to view those times,) I have mentioned the books 
written of religious subjects or controversies, that were pub- 
lished from year to year, as many as I have seen, and given 
some brief account of them. I have also made notes and 
remarks of the several eminent men, of what persuasions or 
principles soever, that have been spoken of in the series of 
the history, and have given them their just and due cha- 
racters. I have also observed the several bills brought into 
the parliaments relating to religion, and shewn, as I have 
had light, their ends, how they were managed, and with 
what success passed or rejected. And many short and par- 
ticular notices I have interspersed of civil or more private 
affairs and transactions, passed over by our historians, and 
yet perhaps not unworthy recording to posterity. 

I have chosen commonly to set down things in the very 
words of the records and originals, and of the authors them- 
selves, rather than in my own, without framing and dress- 
ing them into more modern language : whereby the sense 
is sure to remain entire as the writers meant it. Whereas 
by affecting too curiously to change and model words and 
sentences, the sense itself, I have observed, often to be 
marred and disguised. 

In conclusion, he that readeth and wcigheth this history, 
will see great reason to acquiesce in the reformation of oin* 
church, and to be a peaceable and thankful member of it ; 
and be convinced what a mighty hand of God overruled in 
this blessed work, and overthrew all opposition before it. For 
(take it in the words of one that lived in the beginning of 
Bishop these times, and bore a great ])art in them,) " All these 

Jewel's . 

serni. " thmgs camc to pass at such a time, as to any mane's reason 

J). 207, 208. « jj inight seem impossible, when all the world, the people, 

'^ priests, and })rinces were overwhelmed with ignorance ; 



THE PREFACE. ix 

" when the word of God was put out of sight ; when he [the 
" pope] took upon him the great rule of all together, was 
" crept into the holy place, and had possessed the con- 
" sciences of men, as if he had been God ; and had set 
" himself above the scriptures of God, and gave out de- 
" crees, that whatsoever he should do, no man should find 
" fault with him : when all schools, priests, bishops, and 
" kings of the world were sworn to him, that whatsoever 
" he took in hand, they should uphold it : when he had 
" chosen kings'* sons and brothers to be his cardinals ; when 
" his legates and espies were in every king's council ; when 
" nothing could be attempted any where, but he by and by 
" must have knowledge of it ; when whosoever had but 
" muttered against his doings must straightways havg been 
" excommunicated, and put to most cruel death, as God's 
" enemy ; when no man could have thought there liad been 
" any hope that even these days should have been seen, 
" that God of his mercy hath given us to see ; when all 
" things were void of all hope, and full of despair ; even 
" then, I say, even contrary to all men's reasons, God 
" brought all these things to pass. Even then God de- 
" feated their policies ; not with shield and spear, but only 
" with the Spirit of his mouth ; that is, with the preaching 
" of the gospel. And therefore this is the day that the 
" Lord [and not man] hath wrought. 

" And the power of God was as remarkable, that all die 
" bloody, cruel, and inhuman methods, to destroy all that 
" would not submit to their errors, could not prevail. No per- 
" secution, no torments, no fire, no fagot did ever weaken 
" the cause of the gospel. This must be acknowledged 
" the Lord's doing, and marvellous in our eyes. 

" And such a religion now was brought in and settled, 
" that whosoever shall come near (as the foresaid father 
" shewed) and view it well, and try it to the uttermost, 
" shall find that all things were done seemly and orderly, 
" according to the old doctors, to the apostles, and to the 
" primitive church of Christ ; and shall fall down to the 
" ground and confess, that the order and manner thereof, 



THE PREFACE. 



Hooker's 
Eccles. Pol. 
Jib. iv. 
p. 184. 



Uishop 
Carlton's 
Thankful 
Ilenioiubr. 



" or any thing that is taught therein, is not heretical, as the 
" papists most falsely charged it. And if any stood in 
" doubt of this religion, ^vhether it were of God or no, he 
" bade him but consider and think with himself, how great 
" numbers of errors were now revealed ; superstition was 
" removed, idolatry was taken away, the sacraments rightly 
" and duly used, the dumb speak, the blind see, the poor 
" afflicted minds receive the gospel ; the prayers are in such 
" sort used, as the people may take profit and comfort by 
" them." Thus bishop Jewel. 

And by whose influence, under God, these blessed things 
in our church were brought to pass is another contempla- 
tion, wherein more of the miracles of mercy towards us 
shine forth : which I will give in the words of another 
great divine, that lived a little after the former. " That 
work [namely, that king Henry VIII. and king Edward 
VI. had begun and proceeded in] was in short space so 
overthrown, as if it almost had never been ; till such time 
as that God, whose property is to shew his mercies then 
greatest, when they are nearest to be despaired of, caused 
in that depth of discomfort and darkness a most glorious 
star to rise; and on her head settled the crown, whom 
himself had kept as a lamb from the slaughter of those 
bloody times : that the experience of his goodness in 
her own deliverance might cause her merciful disposition 
to take so much the more delight in saving others, when 
the like necessity should press. But that which especially 
concerns ourselves was the state of the reformed reli- 
gion ; a thing which at her coming to the crown was even 
raised, as it were, by miracles, from the dead : a thing 
which we so little hoped to see, that even they which be- 
held it done, scarcely believed their own senses at the 
first beholding." 

" Here we have a work," (writeth another great divine 

and bishop, not long after him,) " for which we are bound 

' to glorifv God. Elizabeth, a prince at the beginning 

' weak, destitute of friends, unfurnished of treasure, unpre- 

' pared of all things, had in no other account of her great 



THE PREFACE. xi 

" neighbours round about her, but as one left as a prey to 

" the strongest that would invade her and her kingdom : 

" yet preparing her heart to God, giving God the glory, 

" establishing his truth in her land, and trusting in him, she 

" was in a few years made strong against her enemies. 

" They feared her more than she feared them. This is an 

" example can hardly be paralleled : it was the work of 

" God in the deliverance of his church here." This was the 

sense of those wise, learned, and godly fathers, concerning 

this great work of the reformation, and of her that under 

God was the chief instrument thereof. 

These passages concerning the queen, together with her 

vigorous methods used for the overthrowing of popery, and 

her frequent public declarations of her mind, (apparent in 

the following history,) are abundantly sufficient to evince 

how little affection she had to that religion ; however Par- Ch. xv. and 

sons the Jesuit would impose upon the world a different ^Q5„,grt„ 

conceit of her : which hath indeed amused some observing the 5th part 

* of sir Ed- 
men. But we may resolve briefly what he relates concern- ward Coke's 

ing her, partly into her dissembling for her life, in her sis-^^P* 

ter's reign ; the rest into uncertain hearsays, and popish 

calumny. 

This church thus planted, reformed and continued by 
the wonderful providence of God, still stands now for a 
century and half of years, and more, and flourishes at this 
day under the influence of an incomparable king, by the 
same peculiar and singular care and favour of God to- 
wards it, notwithstanding all the plots and machinations 
used by its open sworn enemies, and its pretended friends, 
to overthrow it. " Thus many years"" (to use the words of Mr.Hooker. 
the aforesaid judicious author) " it hath continued standing 
*' by no other means, but that one only hand which erected 
" it : that hand, which as no kind of imminent danger could 
" cause at the first to withhold itself, so neither have the 
" practices, so many, so bloody, following since, been ever 
*' able to make weary."" 

Mr. Hooker goes on : " And no other aid or help hath 
" been hereunto ministered for the preservation of the work 



xii THE PREFACE. 

" of reformation, other than such kind of help as the 
" angel in the prophet Zachary spake of: Neither by army 
" nor strength, but by my Sjnrit, saith the Lord of hosts : 
" which grace or favour of divine assistance hath not in one 
*' thing or two, nor for some few days or years appeared, 
" but in such sort, so long continued, (our manifold sins 
" and transgressions striving to the contrary,) what can we 
" less thereupon conclude, than that God would at least- 
" wise by tract of time teach the world, that the things 
"' which he blesseth, defendeth, keepeth so strongly, cannot 
" choose but be of him."" 

This conclusion is more abundantly illustrated since that 
writer^s time, by those manifold additions of divine pro- 
tection, and signal footsteps of Providence, shewn in the be- 
half of this reformation, and this reformed church. 

The reason of this second impression of these Annals 
was, because the first was gone off some years ago, and was 
wanted by divers learned persons, especially such as are 
studious of the history and transactions in the introducing 
and settlement of our happy reformation, when queen 
Elizabeth first set that great work on foot, and our holy 
religion then so regularly and carefully reformed, according 
to the word of God, and the primitive practice. And I, 
having since met with many other historical remarks, for 
the further improvement of this volume, (communicating 
more knowledge of those ecclesiastical affairs,) was loath to 
let them lie in obscurity, since an opportunity by this new 
edition presented itself, to make them public. 

These additions are of two sorts : some entered in the 
body of the history in many places of it, and divers records 
more set in the Appendix. Among which are not a few 
original letters of our divines and bishops at the beginning 
of the reformation to the divines of Zuric in Helvetia, and 
of them to ours : for between them tiiere was a very bro- 
therly correspondence. They are authentic, having been 
transcribed from tiie originals (extant in the library of that 
church) divers yt'ars ago byDaillec, a French refugee, and 
connniuiicated to me by Mr. lloger Morice, who had em- 



THE PREFACE. xiii 

ployed the said learned man to write them out : as were 
divers more of them sent hither. At the end of all which 
the said French minister wrote thus : 

Superiores epistolas ex MS^° codice ecclesice Tygiirincc N. efis 
{quce Magnum Monasterium vocatur) ubi aufographce ser~ 
vantur, scripsi mense Martio, ineunte anno Christi 1689. 

Joannes Dalltseus, Jo. Fil. Parisiensis ecclesice patri(S 

Carentona olim (heu!) sacros coetus habebat, pastor ; nunc 
autem evangelii causa exul, Tiguri. 

And for the supply of both sorts of additions, to such as 
have the first edition, and so want them, they are all, upon 
request, printed by themselves, and may be added at the 
end of the second volume ; together with dii*ections to the 
several places to which those additional insertions and re- 
cords do belong. Thus, good reader, I take my leave, and 
wish you both profit and pleasure in the reading. 

J. STRYPE. 

Jan. 14, 1724-5. 



THE CONTENTS. 



THE INTRODUCTION. 

SECT. I. 

JhiLIZABETH proclaimed. The present ill condition of the Anno 155R. 
kingdom. What presently to be done. Counsels taken. A 
fleet set out. A plot already against the queen. Conjurers, 
Dangers from France and Scotland. The queen makes war- 
like preparations. She removes from Hatfield, France intends 
a conquest of England, P. 1 , 

SECT, II. 
The queen procures money diligently. She calls in her debts. 
She requires her myzes from Wales. She looks to her forts 
and castles. Berwick : orders for that place ; and for New- 
castle ; and the east and middle marches. Letters to the lord 
warden. The assured Scots. Peace with Scotland. P. 17. 

SECT. HI. 
Provision for Portsmouth, and the Isle of Wight j and Dover; 
and the cinque portsj and for Wales; and Guernsey; and 
Ireland. The condition of the ordnance. Commissioners ap- 
pointed for the care of the kingdom. Treaty with France. 
The queen inquires into the loss of Calais. Embassy from 
Sweden. Her respect to Spain. Preparations for the coro- 
nation. A call of sergeants; and some to be ennobled. The 
queen comes to the Tower. Goes through London trium- 
phantly. A Bible presented her there. Crowned. Queen 
Mary's funerals celebrated. Letters to the sheriffs for elections. 
Other miscellaneous matters. P. 31. 



xvi THE CONTENTS. 

THE HISTORY. 
CHAP. I. 

Anno 1558. Pioliihitioii to C'anic, resident with the pope. Cardinal Pole's 
])mial. Letters in favour of his executor. The queen dis- 
misseth prisoners for religion. Orders from the council for 
that purpose. A late commission against Lollards looked into. 
Preaching prohibited. Notwithstanding, papists preach ; and 
protestants. Slanderous words of papists. Pulling down 
images in churches. The council's letter to the city about it. 

P. 50. 
CHAP. II. 

Cardinal Pole's message to the lady Elizabeth before his death. 
The carriage of the bishops to the queen. The posture of re- 
ligion. Secret counsels for restoring it, A parliament; and 
convocation; what was done there; and in the parliament. 
The act of supremacy ; and uniformity. Private acts. Many 
bishoprics become void by the act of supremacy; and other 
ecclesiastical preferments. P. 71. 

CHAP. III. 

Anuo l.").')!/. Some bishops and the abbot of Westminster, their speeches in 
the house against the bill for the supremacy, and the English 
Common Prayer Book. The two religions compared by Harps- 
field, Remarks upon some other bills. Dr. Story's impudent 
speech in parliament. Two private acts. Bill for marriage 
of priests. The English liturgy of king Edward established. 

r, 107. 
CHAP. IV. 

Divines review the Common Prayer Book. Secretary Cecil's 
influence therein. Guest, a very learned man, his labours 
about it. Posture of receiving. King Edward's ornaments. 
An objection of Dr. Bo.xal against the communion office: 
wherein the present book varied from king Edward's book. 
Dr. Haddon's account of the English service. Foreign 
churches rejoice at it: but some English dislike it. P. 119. 

CHAP. V. 

A tlisputation at Westminster in parliament time, between some 



THE CONTENTS. xvii 

papists and protestants, before a great assembly of the nobi- 
lity. The questions. The papists decline the dispute. The 
argument of the protestants. Jewel's wish for a disputation. 
The popish disputants punished. P. 128. 

CHAP. VI. 

The queen's marriage motioned. Exchange of bishops' lands. 
Bishop Cox's letter to the queen. The bishops elect, their se- 
cret application to the queen about it. Considerations about 
bishops' temporalities. Commissions for the exchanges. 

P. 140. 
CHAP. VII. 

The behaviour of the English professors and exiles ; and of the 
popish clergy towards them. Consultation about admitting 
ihe pope's nuncio. P. 150. 

CHAP. VIII. 

The protestants' declaration of their doctrine, in vindication of 
themselves against the slanders of papists. The Dutch strang- 
ers return to their church in London. Bishop Grindal their 
superintendent. Dutch anabaptists. P. 166. 

CHAP. IX. 

The reformation in Scotland. Knox's book against women's 
government : answered by an English divine. Christopher 
Goodman's book of that argument. Some account of that 
book. His recantation thereof, Knox's letter to John Fox 
concerning his book. The principles of these books enter- 
tained. The French king's funerals solemnized at St, Paul's, 

P. 176. 
CHAP. X. 

The poor neglected condition of the protestants, being returned Anuo 1559. 
home : and the state of religion. Jewel's and Cox's letters 
thereof to BuUinger and Weidner. P. 122. 

CHAP. XL 

Preachers at St, Paul's Cross. The beginning of the use of com- 
mon prayer. The deprivation of the old bishops. Their 
practices. Their condition afterwards j and other popish 
churchmen. Their letter to the queen; and her answer. The 
VOL. I. b 



xviii THE CONTENTS. 

emperor's letter to the queen. A match propounded with the 
archduke of Austria. The vacant churches supplied. Articles 
to be declared ; and a protestation to be subscribed by the 
clergy. Subscription for readers. P. 1 97. 

CHAP. XII. 

Bishoprics and dignities in the church void. Persons designed 
for preferments. Dr. Parker made archbishop of Canterbury. 
Consecrations and ordinations. The vacant sees filled. A ta- 
ble thereof. The queen's Injunctions. Holy table and bread. 
Altars. Book of Articles of Inquiry. A royal visitation. The 
visitors. The effect of this visitation. P. 226. 

CHAP. XIII. 

Ecclesiastical habits and other matters scrupled. Peter Martyr 
applied to for his judgment thereof. The roods and crucifixes 
in churches. A crucifix in the queen's chapel. The bishop of 
Ely excuseth his ministering in the chapel by reason thereof. 
Ceremonies established. Complying popish priests. Readers. 
Some hinderers of the reformation. A slackness in discipline. 
Preaching useful. P. 256. 

CHAP. XIV. 
The progress of the reformation. Orders for cures vacant. The 
foreigners' joy in behalf of England. A proclamation for pre- 
serving monuments, &c. in churches. Another for apparel. 

P. 274. 
CHAP. XV. 
A collection of various historical matters falling out within this 
year, 1559. P. 282. 

CHAP. XVI. 
Anno 1560. Lent sermons at St. Paul's and at court. Bishop Jewel's public 
challenge there. The church and kingdom happily restored. 
More bishops and inferior clergy ordained. Dr. May, dean of 
St. Paul's, elect of York, dies. Succeeded in the deanery by 
Nowel. John Fox at Norwich, promoting religion there. 
His character. P. 296. 

CHAP. XVII. 

Advice concerning ministers. Orders for the clergy 3 and regu- 
lation of the church. Interpretation of the Injunctions. Di- 
vers ecclesiastical ordinances to be prescribed ministers. A 



THE CONTENTS. xix 

declaration of faith to be read by them. Resohitions for uni- 
formity. All drawn up by the bishops, P. 312. 

CHAP. XVIII. 

The bishops address to the queen against images. Table of mar- 
riages, Latin prayers for the colleges. Latin office for fune- 
rals; and commendation of benefactors deceased. A new ca- 
lendar of lessons. Order for churches and chancels decayed, 
or kept unclean : and for places where the Latin prayers were 
said. P, 330. 

CHAP, XIX, 

A writing of an expulsed bishop. Pope Pius IV, his practices 
about England. His plot to sow divisions. Mason a convert, 
his report. Bible of Geneva, Bishop Pilkington's Exposition 
of Aggee. Dr, Wylson's books of Logic and Rhetoric, Ge- 
rard Hoenrich, a German, his oflFer of services to England, 
Melancthon dies. Merited well of the English church, Now- 
el's and Calfield's sermons at St, Paul's Cross. Horarium. A 
Spanish church in London. P. 338. 

CHAP. XX. 

Some Englishmen in the inquisition in Spain, Frampton's nar- 
ration of his usage there. Occurrences. Some secular mat- 
ters. Lent preachers. P, 355. 

CHAP. XXL 

Archbishop of York confirmed. Three other bishops conse- Anno 1561. 
crated. The church filled with her bishops. Papists' objec- 
tions against them, Richard Cheney's complaint. Fox's Mar- 
tyrology comes forth : vindicated, Peter Martyr invited over. 
Archdeacon Wright's sermon at Oxford. Bullinger's sermons 
upon the Revelations come forth translated : and Calvin of 
Relics. His judgment, approving some rights used in the Eng- 
lish liturgy j and of episcopal government. P. 370. 

CHAP. XXIL 

A reflection upon what was already done in the church. Papists 
write against itj take occasion at the fire of St. Paul's. An- 
swered by bishop Pilkington. Popish questions and cases dis- 
persed. Answered, Reformation of the coin of the nation. 



XX THE CONTENTS. 

Sir Richard Shelly, lord prior of St. John's, and turcopolier at 
Malta. P. 388. 

CHAP. xxm. 

A journal of memorable matters falling out within this year, not 
hitherto noted. A Common Prayer Book with pictures of the 
saints laid before the queen at St. Paul's j disliked by her. 
Paintings in churches. P. 399. 

CHAP. XXIV. 

The papistical clergy busy. Lists of the names of the popish 
recusants, late dignitaries in the church, or otherwise. And 
their confinements and bounds, prescribed by the ecclesiasti- 
cal commissioners. P. 410. 
CHAP. XXV. 
Auuo 15(52. Cheny, bishop of Gloucester, consecrated. Some passages con- 
cerning him. Commissions for Bristol. The Great Bible 
printed; and bishop Jewel's Apology. Peter Martyr dies. A 
nonresident proceeded against. Elizeus Hall, a notorious im- 
postor. P. 417. 
CHAP. XXVI. 

The lord keeper's and Mr. Speaker's speeches. A second parlia- 
ment. Matters transacted relating to religion. The penalty 
of high treason in the bill for the supremacy argued. Speeches 
of the lord Mountague, and Mr. Atkinson, a lawyer, against it. 
Another for it. Acts passed 3 viz. for the assurance of the 
queen's royal power : against conjurations : for execution of 
the writ for taking a person excommunicated, &c. The queen's 
answer about her marriage. P. 435. 

CHAP. XXVII. 

A convocation. The archbishop opens it. Matters done therein. 
Papers of weighty matters drawn up to be laid before the 
synod. P. 470. 

CHAP. XXVIII. 

The Articles of Religion. Difference between these and King 
Edward's Articles. The authority of the church. The names 
of the subscribers of the upper and lower house : observations 
on some of them. Remarks on the XVIlth Article, of Pre- 
destination. On the Xth Article, of Free-will. The Xlth, of 
Justification. The XXVIIIth, of the Lord's Supper. P. 484. 



THE CONTENTS. xxi 

CHAP. XXIX. 

Rites and ceremonies debated in the synod. P. 499. 

CHAP. XXX. 

Government of the church. Petitions of the lower house, for 
orders to be observed in the church. The condition of vicars 
considered by the synod. P. 506. 

CHAP. XXXI. 

Papers prepared, for doctrine and discipline, to be offered by the 
synod to the queen, or to the parliament. A catechism com- 
posed by Alex. Nowel, allowed by the synod. Bills prepared 
by them for frequenting divine service; and for excommuni- 
cation. The canon law. A petition for regulation thereof, 
moved by Ralph Lever. The ill state of the universities. 

P. 518. 
CHAP. XXXII. 

Inquiries into the churches and chapels of the realm. The state 
of Norwich diocese. The queen's studies. Osorius's letter to 
her. A treatise of bishop Hooper j now printed. Miscella- 
neous matters. The Poles and others, condemned of treason. 
Matters between the French and English. New Haven put 
into the queen's hands by the protestants of France. P. 538. 

CHAP. XXXIII. 

French protestants fly hither. Laws of Geneva printed in Eng- 
lish. A patriarch of Assyria. A relation of the Poles' con- 
spiracy. The French and Spaniard concerned. Restitution. 
Some account of the queen; and present state of the king- 
dom. P. 552. 



INTRODUCTION. 



SECT. I. 



Queen Elizabeth proclaimed. The present ill condition of 
the kingdom. TVhat presently to he done. Counsels taken. 
A fleet set out. A plot already against the queen. Conju- 
rers. Dangers from France and Scotland. The queen 
makes warlike preparations. She removesjrom Hatfield. 
France intends a conquest of' England. 

Jr OR entrance into this present undertaking, of shewing 
the happy steps queen EHzabeth made for bringing in and 
settling religion reformed from popery in her kingdom, it is 
necessary to see with what policy and counsel she began her 
reign. Without which, and a wonderful success attending 
her affairs, it had been impossible she should so soon have 
attempted, and so fortunately proceeded in this great w^ork. 
And I shall the rather do this, because our printed histo- 
rians are so silent, or so short and superficial in these matters, 
which were the very basis of her succeeding prosperous go- 
vernment ; and have been all taken by me, partly out of a 
book of the minutes of the council, sometime belonging to 
this queen's secretary, and partly out of divers other au- 
thentic MSS. either in the king's paper-house, the Cotton 
library, or elsewhere. 

Queen Mary deceased the 17th day of November anno Anno 1558. 
1558, and about eleven or twelve ©""clock aforenoon, the ^''^f ''.^th 

1-1 IV I ) J r proclaimed 

lady Elizabeth was proclaimed queen by divers heralds or queen. Cot- 
arms, trumpets sounding, and many of the chiefest of the^ljjj'^^ ^ 
nobility present, as the duke of Norfolk, the lord treasurer, 
the earls of Shrewsbury and Bedford ; also the lord mayor 
and his brethren the aldermen, with many others. In the 

VOL. I. B 



2 INTRODUCTION 

SECT, afternoon the bells in all the churches in London rung in 

■ -_ token of joy ; and at night bonfires were made, and tables 

Annol5D8. ^^^ ^^^^ -^^ ^1^^ j.t,.j,ets, where was plentiful eating and drink- 
ing, and making merry. The next day being Friday, it was 
not thought decent to make any public rejoicings, out of 
respect, I suppose, to the day, being a fasting-day. But on 
the next, viz. Saturday, November 19, Te Deum landamus 
was sung and said in the churches of London. Thus the 
satisfaction generally conceived by the people for this new 
queen superseded all outward appearances of sorrow for 
2 the loss of the old one. And no wonder, since the nation 
Theptesent yyas not pleased with her administration, having left the 
tioii of kingdom in as low and miserable an ebb as ever it was 
p:n<>l;ind. [^^own to have been in, in any former times : embroiled in 
war with France and Scotland, the exchequer very low, 
that queen having contracted great debts. By this means 
Elizabeth had formidable enemies before her and behind 
Council- her: but illy guarded at Portsmouth, the Isle of Wight, 
'^ ' Dover, aoainst France ; so that an invasion was feared on 

that side. And on the Scotch quarters, Berwick was in 
a woful condition, wanting both fortifications and men. 
Thus the new queen's hands were now full, to secure her- 
self and kingdom. 
How the And indeed what to think of the queen at this time, as to 

queen stood • i i • i i • i 

affected to her religion, one might hesitate somewhat: who in her sis- 

rehgion. ^^^-.^ reign went to mass, and complied outwardly with her 

January28, practice ; as John Knox told her in a letter dated from 

lon9. Edinburgh ; though indeed (as he added) it was for fear 

of her life, that she declined from religion, and bowed to 

idolatry. And sir Richard Shelly, called lord prior of 

St. John's of Jerusalem, but living beyond sea under this 

queen, in a piivate letter to her, speaking of what he had 

lost for his diversity of conscience in religion, disagreeable 

to the law established, " Whereunto," saith he, " your ma- 

" jetty's self at the first was not easily brought to con- 

" descend ;" and mentioning the schism, as he called the 

religion reformed, " wlu reof," said he, " your majesty was 

" not the cause eflicient, but one without which it could not 



Causa sine 
(lua nou. 



TO THIS HISTORY. 3 

" take effect." She protested also to count Feria, (whom SECT, 
king Philip had lately sent into England,) that she acknow- 
ledged the real presence in the sacrament. Which he sig- Anno 1558. 
nifled to the said Phihp in a letter dated in November, but Nov. 16. 
the day before queen Mary died. The same also she pro- rp"^^^ ^c[\q, 
tested to the lord Lamac ; and also that she did now and 
then pray to the virgin Mary. 

And moreover, to see in what ill case the kingdom was The nation 
when queen Elizabeth came to the crown, hear what one at j" EiiQ^er'j 
that time spake. " She received it at the hand of her sister Harb. 
" entangled (I will not say oppressed) with foreign wars : 
" the French on the one side, and the Scots on the other : 
'^ which sucking out of their ancestors' poisoned breasts im- 
" mortal and deadly hatred against this realm, lay in wait 
" like thieves to invade and spoil it. The French, though 
" in truce, when he heard of queen Mary''s death, kept still 
" his Germans about him, upon hope, that if there had 
" been any stirs in England, he might have set in a foot. 
" And for that purpose had willed the cardinal of Lorrain 
" to confer with our churchmen to see what might be done. 
" Whether he did so or no, God knoweth : but it was cer- 
" tain that the cardinal had such commission. And besides 
" that she was thus left, who saw not the realm not phi- 
" lipped^ but fleeced for Philip's sake, by maintaining all 
" the last summer such a navy on the seas, and an army on 
" the land ; besides some tokens of love [money and pro- 
" visions sent over] that past, I am sure, from the queen to 
*' her spouse, to shew that she was a loving wife .?"" 

This was well known and observed by the wise men in 3 
those days. Insomuch that the lord keeper Bacon in his '-'"'f' "^eep- 

*' . ' er s account 

speech, at the opening of her first parliament, spared not to thereof to 
call it the ragged and torn estate of her kingdom by ""'■*- ^'gnt'"^"'" 
governance : and noted ■' the great decays and losses of ho- D'Kwes' 
" nour, strength, and treasure, and the peril that happened 

*' to this imperial crown of late time, the marvellous 

" waste of the revenue of the crown, the inestimable con- 
*' sumption of the treasure, levied both of the crown and of 
" the subject, the exceeding loss of munition and artillery, 

B 2 



4 INTRODUCTION 

SECT. " the great loss of divers valiant gentlemen of very good 
" service, the incredible sums of money owing at that pre- 



/innol558. " sent, and in honour due to be paid, and the biting interest 

*' that was to be answered for forbearance of this debt." 

The late These evils the said statesman, under the commendation 

mlsff'overn- °^ ^^^ present queen, laid to the charge of the former, say- 

inent. jng, " that she [the present queen] was a princess, that was 

" not so wedded to her own will and fantasy, that for the 

" satisfaction thereof she would do any thing that were 

" likely to bring servitude or bondage to her people; or 

" give any just occasion to them of any inward grudge, 

*' whereby any tumults or stirs might arise, as had been 

" done of'late days, [by the Spanish match.] Things most 

" pernicious and pestilent to the commonwealth : a princess 

*' that never meant nor intended, for any private affection, 

" to advance the cause or quarrel [of another] with any 

" foreign prince or potentate, [as Mary did with France for 

** her affection to king Philip,] to the destruction of her own 

" subjects, to the loss of any of her dominions, or to the 

" impoverishing of her realm." 

rhequeens Qf ^}^jg qiieen''s first course she took in her government, 
•ourse in . ^ . . 

govern- this account was given by one who had opportunity of 

Harb of knowing well the court, and lived at that time : " That 

the Faithf. « whereas the former queen did all in haste in the beginning 

Pr. at " o^ ^^^^ reign, her sister did every thing with more advise- 

Strasb. a ment and less trust, r'or she knew," said he, " that to be 

" true which Seneca saith, Vciox consilium sequitur paeni- 

" tentia, i. e. Repentance follows that counsel that is taken 

" too speedily. Whereas she, being God's chosen instrument 

*' to represent here among us his majesty, walked wisely in 

" the steps of him that called her ; and studied diligently to 

" represent a lively image in her mortality of the inconipa- 

" rable and infinite Majesty, by using correction without 

" severity, by seeking the lost with clemency, by governing 

" wisely without fury, by weighing and judging without 

" rashness, by purging evil humours with deliberation ; and 

The choice " ^" conclude, in doing her duty without affection."" 

ofhercoun- The choice of her counsellors bespake also her wariness 

Cil. ' 



TO THIS HISTORY. 5 

and great discretion, and contributed much to her first sue- SECT. 
cesses. For such she picked out to serve her (as the former ^' 
observing man related) as were neither of common wit nor Anno 1558. 
common experience. Of whom some by travel in strange 
countries, some by learning, some by practice, and like au- 
thority in other rulers' days, some by affliction, either one 
way or other, for their gifts and graces which they had receiv- 4 
ed at God's hand, were men meet to be called to such rooms. 

Add, that this wisdom and caution wherewith she ma- Qualified to 
naged herself and her affairs, took place in her in a gi'eat ^^"^j'^^^®'" 
measure by occasion of the hardships and misusages she 
underwent before : whereof she had a greater share than 
commonly falls to the lot of princes born ; but out of which 
dangers God miraculously delivered her. She was taught 
by afflictions. I think (saith the person before mentioned) 
no Englishman is ignorant that her afflictions were far 
above the condition of a king''s daughter ; for there was nt) 
more behind to make a very Iphigenia of her, but her 
offering up upon the altar of the scaffold. How she be- 
haved herself in those storms and tempests, let them wit- 
ness, who, being her adversaries, had the muying of her : of 
which he would say nothing, though he could say much. 
But this he must say^ that then she must be in her afflictions 
marvellous patient, who shewed herself now in her prospe- 
rity to be utterly without desire of revenge, or else she 
would have given some token, ere this day, of remembrance 
how she was handled. And then he descends to some par- 
ticulars of her unjust sufferings: " Was it no wrong, think 
" you, that she sustained to be first a prisoner, and guarded 
" with a sort of cut-throats, which ever gaped for the spoil 
" of her house, that they might have been fingering of 
" somewhat ? Then with great solemnity, with bands of 
" harnessed hangmen (happy was he that might have the 
" carrying of her) to be fetched up as the greatest traitor in 
" the world; hoisted into the Tower; there kept, not like a 
" king's daughter, nor a queen's sister, but as one that had 
" come out of Turkey to betray England. What assemblies 
" and coimcils, what examinations and wrackings of poor 

H 3 



6 INTRODUCTION 

SECT. " men were there, to find out the knife that should cut her 

' " throat ! What gaping among many lords of the clergy to 

AnnoloSS.fc g^g j|^p ^r^y wherein they might wash their goodly white 

" ratchets in her innocent blood !" 
The mea- But through all these diflliculties the divine Providence 
took* ^ ^ brought Elizabeth safe to the government ; which neverthe- 
less ended not her dangers, beginning her reign at so great 
disadvantage, as was shewn before. But she, by taking 
other measures than her sister did, and using more moderate 
counsels, and favouring a reformation of religion, was as 
prosperous to this church and nation, and retrieved again its 
Elizabeth a ancient splendour and glory- Insomuch that within four or 
nateoueen" ^^^ years after her accession to the crown, by means of her 
Epist. de- wise and careful administration, she was extolled among her 
Muscul. people for a princess, " worthily to be compared with the 
Comm. tt most noble, most peaceable, most honourable, most mer- 
" ciful, and most godly governors that ever reigned in the 
" world." 
Amemorial And what methods she took we may perceive by a paper 
of tecil for Qj, memorial drawn bv her great counsellor sir William 

her govern- •' ^ 

meat. Cecyll, November the 17th, (that is, on the very day of the 

former queen's decease,) for the first steps she was to take 

in her government ; taken out of one of the volumes of 

the Cotton library, viz. 

5 I- "To consider the proclamation, and to proclaim it; 

Cott. libr. '• and to send the same to all manner of places, and sheriffs, 

•tus, . . n ^^j^j^ speed, and to put it in print. 

II. " To prepare the Tower, and to appoint the custody 
" thereof to trusty persons : and to write to all the keepers 
" of forts and castles in the queen's name. 

III. " To consider for removing to the Tower: and the 
" queen there to settle her officers and council. 

IV. " To make a stay of passages to all the ports, until 
" a certain dav. And to consider the safety of all places 
" dangerous toward France and Scotland ; especially in this 
*' change. 

V. " To send special messengers to the pope, emperor, the 
" kings of Spain and Denmark, and to the state of Venice. 



TO THIS HISTORY. 7 

VI. " To send new commissioners to the earl of Arundel, SECT. 
" and the bishop of Ely, (who were treating a peace at Cam- , 

" bray.) And to send one into Ireland with a new commis--'^°"<''^^^- 
" sion, and letters under the queen's hand, to all ambassa- 
" dors with foreign princes, to authorize them therein. 

VII. " To appoint commissioners for the interment of 
" the late queen. 

VIII. " To appoint commissioners for the coronation ; 
" and the day. 

IX. " To make a continuance of the term, with patents 
" to the chief justice, to the lord treasurer, justices of each 
" bench, barons, and masters of the rolls ; with inhibition, 
" quod non confer ant aViquod officlum. 

X. " To appoint new sheriffs and justices of peace, or 
" continue the old, by a proclamation to be sent to the 
" sheriiFs, under the great seal. 

XI. To inhibit by proclamation the making over of 
" any money by exchange, without knowledge given to the 
" queen's majesty ; and to charge all manner of persons, 
" that either have made any, or have been privy to any ex- 
" change made by the space of one month before the 17th 
" of this month. 

XII. " To consider the condition of the preacher of 
" PauFs Cross, that no occasion be given by him to stir any 
" dispute touching the governance of the realm." 

As to the first of these articles, she took care with speed 
to have her right and title proclaimed to the imperial crown 
of this realm, "as the only right heir by blood and lawful Thequeen 
"succession to the kingdoms: giving knowledge by the^j^jg q_ 
" same proclamation to all her subjects, that from the be- claimed. 
" ginning of the seventeenth day of November, at which 
" time her sister departed this life, they were discharged of 
" all bonds and duties of subjection towards her, and bound 
" only to Elizabeth as their only lady and queen. And 
" then professing on her part no less love and care towards 
" their preservation, than had been in any of her progeni- 
" tors. And lastly, straitly charging all her subjects to 
" keep themselves in peace. And [as thougii she meant the 

n 4 



8 



INTRODUCTION. 



ber 20 
Council- 
book. 



SECT. " better to conceal her intention of altering religion] not to 

^- " attempt upon any pretence the breach or alteration of 

Anno 1558. " any order or usage at that time established in the realm. 

6 " The proclamation may be read in the Repository." 
Numb. I. ^ The lady Elizabeth was at her seat at Hatfield when 
first coun. queen Mary died. Thither some great persons forthwith 
cil, Novem- repaired to her, namely, the earl of Pembroke ; lord Clinton, 
lord admiral; the earl of Arundel, lord chamberlain : which 
three, with sir Thomas Parry, sir William Cecil, sir Am- 
brose Cave, sir Ralph Sadleir, (who was sent from the lords 
at London,) and sir Richard Sackvile, sat at Hatfield in 
council with her, being the first privy council she held. 
(Yet the lords of the deceased queen's counsel sat at Lon- 
don.) The chief matters then done were, that sir Thomas 
Parry, knt. aforesaid, who had been a servant much about 
her, was by her command, and in her presence, declared the 
comptroller of her household, and sworn of her privy coun- 
cil ; sir Edward Rogers, knt. her vice-chamberlain and cap- 
tain of her guard, and one of her privy council ; sir William 
Cecil, knt. her principal secretary, and one of her privy 
council. And letters were despatched by this present council 
to Dr. Walter Haddon to repair thither : and in like manner 
to John Norris, esq. late gentleman usher of the deceased 
queen's privy chamber. 

The next day, viz. November 21, the earl of Bedford 
came to Hatfield, and sat in council with the rest before 
named. 

And whereas robberies were now very rife, the robbers 
expecting their pardon of course upon the coronation ; this 
occasioned the drawing up of a proclamation touching such 
as robbed on these hopes: which was sent to the lords of the 
council at London by sir Ralph Sadleir; who also carried 
letters to the said lords. 

The late queen's commissioners were now treating beyond 
sea about Calais, lately lost. And now at this council, 
November 21, a letter was dated from Hatfield, sent by the 
queen and her council there to Malyn, vice-admiral of the 
narrow seas, to equip the ships in his charge to the seas, to 



Robbers. 



A fleet set 
forth to 
sea. 



TO THIS HISTORY. 9 

keep the passage, and to hinder as much as he might the SECT. 
victualling of Calais, and to see good wafting of such as 



should come from the commissioners; and to set none over, ■'^"^^o* ^^8- 
except he had a passport from hence. 

And this order was so strict to Malyn, that not so much Orders to 

n 1 n 1 " T. 1 the lord ad- 

as iisnermen or coasters were allowed to go out. Jout the miral about 
inconvenience arising hence made the lords of the council restraining 

. ° ships to go 

soon after, viz. November 24, to send a letter to the lord to sea. 

admiral, that he would take order, " that fishermen and CouncU- 

" other coastmen, that crossed not the seas, should be suf- 

" fered to go to sea about their occupations an8 business, 

" notwithstanding the former restraint : yet foreseeing that 

" such as had charge of the ports should have good eye 

" unto them that were so suffered, that they carried not out 

" any of the commodities of the realm, or any persons not 

" having licence ; and to stay all persons that should be 

" found suspicious herein." 

And on the same November 24, this restraint was taken And to the 
off in a great measure by another order to the lord warden gn'^oflt 
of the cinque ports, to set the passages at liberty, and to cinque- 
suffer all men that were not otherwise prohibited by thejjr 
law to pass thereby. And the lord admiral was required to 
suffer such lords as had been stayed, to pass to the seas. 

The queen and council, still at Hatfield, are taking care Care for 

of her remove to London ; and considering what noble per- Ll^"!^" * 

or remove. 

sons to have present. Whereof the marquis of Winchester, 
and the earls of Shrewsbury and Darby were sent for by 
a letter ; in which were enclosed the names of such other 
noblemen as her highness thought good to attend upon her 
to London ; and the archbishop of York, with sir Wil- 
liam Petre and sir John Mason, appointed in the interim 
to transact any urgent business emerging. The letter may 
be consulted in the Repository. Number II. 

There were some already of the popish faction contriving Some al- 
mischief agamst the queen, by settmg up the bcotch queen Stjngagainst 

title, and by getting assistance from the Guises in France ^^e queen, 
' J fe & I I J r -1 apprehend- 

to carry on their designs in her behalf, and by dealmg with ed. 

some conjurers, to cast their figures to calculate the queen's 



10 INTRODUCTION 

SE(;T. life, and the duration of her government, and the like. In 
this plot cardinal Pole"'s brothers were concerned. The 



Anno 1558. |^,^Q^y|g(jg,g ^^f jj^jg coming to the queen and her council, it 
was ordered at council, November 22d, that Anthony For- 
tescue, who had been comptroller to the cardinal, should 
be apprehended ; a letter being sent for that purpose to the 
earl of Rutland ; and that he should have conference with 
nobody. Sir John Mason had the bodies of two more 
charged in the said accusation, viz. Kele and Prestal. He 
was willed to examine them diligently upon such points as 
the said Kele should open unto him, and to keep Kele in 
safe custody in his house ; so as none should have confer- 
ence with him. Accordingly examinations were taken by 
Mason and the earl of Rutland : which examinations the 
lords perused November 25, and resolved, they should be 
forthwith set at liberty ; bonds being first taken of each of 
them for their forthcoming, when they should be called by 
the lords of the council. 
Conjurers. One named Thirkel, a tailor, was now also in hold for 
conjuring about the matters aforesaid, and in the custody 
of John Mai'ch, esq. who was ordered, November 24, to 
examine him, and to keep him in safe custody without con- 
ference with any. And Richard Parlaben was another of 
these conjurers, taken up, and in custody of Thomas Sack- 
ford of Greys-inn, esq. Thus early did this excellent 
lady"'s enemies plot, and continue their devices of mischief 
against her, and combine to dethrone her, when she had 
been scarcely possessed of her crown. 
Orders to Divers other conjurers were now also in custody, of the 
ner to pro- same design and purpose, I suppose, with the former ; and 
ceed against ^yg^p examined. And December 18, the lords sent their 

them. . . ... 

letters to the bishop of London, viz. Boner, with certam 
examinations, sent withal by Mr. Attorney : and he was 
willed to proceed by such severe punishments against them 
that should be proved culpable herein, according to the 
order of the ecclesiastical law, as he should think meet; 
and to signify back wjiat he did herein. 
8 It is strange to consider, how these sorceries prevailed 



TO THIS HISTORY. 11 

about this time, and so on for some of the first years of the SECT. 

queen's reign, and the mischiefs they did, and the fears __ll__ 

many good and sober men had of their bewitching the^"""^^^^- 

queen herself. This is evident from a passage in a sermon f,""^^^? 

of bishop Jewel's before the queen: wherein he thus ad- Jewel's ser- 

dresseth himself to her: " By the way to touch but a word"^""' 

" or two of this matter, for that the horrible using of your 

" poor subjects enforceth thereunto. It may please your 

" grace to understand, that this kind of people, I mean 

" witches and sorcerers, within these few last years are 

" marvellously increased within your grace's realm. These 

" eyes have seen most evident and manifest marks of their 

" wickedness. Your grace's subjects pine away even unto 

" the death, their colour fadeth, their flesh rotteth, their 

" speech is benumbed, their senses are bereft. Wherefore 

" your poor subject's most humble petition unto your high- 

" ness is, that the laws touching such malefactors may be 

" put in due execution. For the shoal of them is great, 

*' their doings horrible, their malice intolerable, the exam- 

" pies most miserable : and I pray God they never practise 

" further than upon the subject." This I make no doubt 

was the occasion of bringing in a bill the next parliament, 

for making enchantments and witchcraft felony. 

And now because this Scotch business falls thus in our ^PP'"''^^'^- 

way, we shall relate what the acts and practices of the reason of 

friends of that party were : from whence we may conclude, ^^^ Scotch 

^ "^ , , . queen, 

what just jealousies were raised in the queen's mind hereby. 

Mary queen of Scotland, and the dauphin of France, to 
whom she was married, gave broad signs of their pretences 
to the crown of England, by the coat of arms that they 
gave : whereby the queen became in danger at this time of 
two nations invading; her. It was borne baron and femme : The arms 
in the first was the coat of the dauphin of France, which ^ egave. 
took up the upper half of the shield ; the lower half con- 
tained the arms of Scotland. This impaled quarterly. 
1. The arms of Scotland. 2. The arms of England. The 
third as the second. The fourth as the first. Over all, half 
an escutcheon of pretence of England, the sinister half be- 



12 INTRODUCTION 

SECT, ing as it were obscured or cut off: perhaps so given to 

! denote that another (and who should that be but queen 

nno D . Elizabeth ?) had gotten possession of the crown in her 

prejudice. Under the arms were writ these rhymes in 

the Scottish dialect : 

The arms of Mary queen dolphiness of Fraunce, 
The noblest lady in earth, for till advaunce : 
Of Scotland queen, and of England, also 
Of Fraunce, as God hath providit so. 

The he- This escutcheon being lately brought out of France, was 

ment there- '^^^^^^^^^ to the duke of Norfolk, earl marshal of England ; 
°^ who sent it to the office of heralds for their judgment upon 

it, June the 13th, 1559. Their answer was to this tenor : 
9 " Hyt may please your grace, that upon good delibera- 
MSS.N.51. ,i iiQ^ y-Q garter and clarencieux, with others of the office, 

intit. Pre- ° . 

sidents in " have perused this escutcheon of arms, delivered by your 
o carmor. ,, gj-g^g . ^j^j ^g fjj^j ^[jg game prejudicial unto the queen's 

" majesty, her state and dignity ; and that hyt doth not ap- 
" pertain to any foreign prince, what marriage soever he 
'* hath made with England, to quarter, bear, or use the 
" arms of England otherwise than in pale, as in token of 
" marriage. And albeit James, late Scottish king, grand- 
" father to the Scottish queen that now is, married with 
" one of the daughters of kino^ Henry VII. And the said 
" Scottish queen, being but one of the collaterals, cannot 
" nor ought not to bear any escutcheon of the arms of 
" England : nor yet the dolphin her husband in the right 
" of her, or otherwise. 

" Furthermore, we find the said escutcheon falsely mar- 
" shalled, contrary to all law and order of arms." 
These arms But that the French king might keep his pretence to 
stiH usurp- j;,^g]jj,jjj^ jjg would not forego usurping the title, and quar- 
tering the arms of England and Ireland with Scotland. 
July the 27th. The arms of the Scotch queen, with the 
arms of England, were set up at the marriage solemnized 
for the king of Spain with the French king's daughter, and 
those verses written, The arms nf Mary (jueen dolphiness 



TO THIS HISTORY. 



of Prance^ &c. as before. And in November, the queen of SECT. 
Scots made her entry into the castle Heraut, where her '_ 



style was published as queen of England. And four verses ^°""^^^^- 
were made upon her ; whereof the two last were, 

Nunc Gallos totoque remotos orbs Britannos, 
Unum dos Maiise cogit in iniperiuin. 

But queen Elizabeth in the treaty did require Francis of 
France, and Mary of Scotland, to leave off this usurping 
title and arms. To which they gave no direct answer, but 
solicited pope Paul IV. to declare the queen's title not 
good. 

And this was long after, viz. anno 1572, laid to the Just resent- 
Scotch queen's charge, when she was detained in England, ""^"^ "^ '*• 
(among other articles drawn up against her,) namely, " her 
" claim to the crown of England in possession, with refusal 
" and delay to remove the same : giving the arms of Eng. Cott. libr. 
" land without difference, in escutcheons, coat-arms, plate, •^"^'"^'^•^• 
" altar-cloths, which were openly seen at the triumph ; 
" writing of the style of England, Scotland, France, and 
" Ireland, in letters patents during her coverture ; and 
" of her pedigree, conveying her three ways to the crown : 
" first, as descending from the eldest daughter of king 
" Henry VII. another, from the duke of Somerset: the 
" third, from a daughter of Edmund before the conquest." 

To which may be added, that there was a grant, dated Sir William 
Jan. 16, 1558, of certain things made to the lord Fleming, ^^"^'!^ ^j^^ 
by the dauphin of France, and his wife the queen of Scots, Cott. libr. 
by the style of king and queen of Scotland, England, and 
France, and Ireland. 

And the queen had still more reason to be jealous of the 10 
Scotch title, since her sister, the late queen Mary, used to ^-amd. Eliz. 

' ' • o intheintro- 

taunt her by telling her often, that the queen of Scots was duction. 
the certain and undoubted heir of the crown of England, 
next after herself. Add to this, that the caidinal of Lor- 
rain in a conference with some delegates from S})ani at 
Cambray about this time asserted, that his niece, the said 
queen of Scots, was most just queen of England. 



14 INTRODUCTION 

SECT. Which consideration might well be the reason of the 
queen's and councirs forementioned order to the vice-admi- 



Annol558. j.^]^ forthwith to set out a fleet to guard the narrow seas 
makeTwar-^"^ that in the beginning of December strict inquiry was 
like prepa- made what ammunition was in the Tower, in order to a 
Dec. 6. ^"PpJy thereof. For December 6th, the council sent a 
Council- letter to sir Richard Southwel, master of the ordnance and 
^*°°^' armory, to make his repair to the lords, and to bring with 

him a perfect declaration of the state of his office, as well 
touching the provisions, expenses, and remains, as also of 
the present wants of the same. Care was also taken about 
Portsmouth and the strong places on that coast. For at 
the same council Richard Worsely, esq. was ordered to 
repair to Portsmouth and the Isle of Wight, and the forts, 
castles, and bulwarks thereabouts; and consider the state 
of the same. 
The re- Now these were the several removes of the queen before 

queen from ^'^^ came to the palace at Westminster. And she sat in 
Hatfield, council every day, except her days of travelling. She sat 
first in council at Hatfield, (where she was saluted queen,) 
November the 20, 21, 22. The next day, being the 23d, 
she removed towards London, attended with a thousand or 
more of lords, knights, gentlemen, ladies, and gentlewo- 
men, and came to the Charter-house, then the lord North's 
Comes to place; where the archbishop of York and the earls of 
Vitell. r.5. ^'^'*^"'^'^^"T ^"'^^ Darby came to her. Here she remained 
six days, and sat in council November the 24, 25 26, 27, 
28. Her next remove thence was to the Tower, which 
was on the 28th day of November. All the streets she was 
to pass, even to the Tower, were new gravelled. And so 
she rid through Rarbican and Crlpplegate, and along Lon- 
don-wall unto Bishopsgate, and thence up to Leaden-hall, 
and so through Grasschurch-street and Fanchurch-street, 
turning down Mark-lane into Tower-street, and so to the 
Tower. Before her rode many gentlemen, knights, and 
nobles ; after them came the trumpeters blowing ; then all 
the heralds in array, my lord mayor holding the queen's 
sceptre, riding with garter : my lord of Pembroke bare the 



TO THIS HISTORY. 15 

queen''s sword. Then came her grace on horseback, appa- SECT, 
relied in purple velvet, with a scarf about her neck : the 
sergeants of arms being about her person. Next after her-^""^^^^^- 
rode sir Robert Dudley, (afterwards earl of Leicester,) mas- 
ter of her horse : and so the guard with halberds. There 
was great shooting of guns, the like was never heard before. 
In certain places stood children, who made speeches to her 
as she passed ; and in other places was singing and playing 
with regals. Here at the Tower she lay until the 5th of 
December, which was the eve of St. Nicolas. The 1st, 2d, 
and 4th of which month, with the last day of the month 
preceding, were council days there. 

Then, December the 5th, she removed a little nearer toll 
Westminster ; viz. to the Strand-house, or Somerset-house, Thence to 
going by water, and shooting the bridge, trumpets sound- jj^^^g 
ing, much melody accompanying, and universal expres- 
sions of joy among the people. Here she sat also in coimcil 
daily, viz. December the 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 16, 17, 
18, 19, 20, 21, 22. And now at last she came to West- Comes to 
minster ; that is, the 23d day of December ; where she kept gter. 
her Christmas, and continued all the ensuing winter ; her 
first parliament then sitting there ; and where she was in 
April 1559. 

And now having brought the queen to her palace, let us France in- 

•,.,., Ill tends a con- 

proceed m shewing her present cares, it was concluded atq„est of 

court, and taken for granted, that the French meant to en-^'Jg'^""^ 

" , this year. 

deavour the conquest of this realm, by reason of the pre- 
tence of title which they made thereto, in these four re- 
gards ; their open challenge at the treaty of Cambresey ; 
the bearing of the arms ; the using of the style, and the 
making commissions under the seal, and with the style of 
England and Ireland, It was likewise concluded, that the 
French would attempt this conquest this present year; and 
that upon these grounds which secretary Cecil drew up. 

" First, they would not defer it, because of the doubt ofSoconchid- 
" the queen [of Scots] life. Secondly, they had now got an e„„„^.ii for 
" occasion to conquer Scotland, and had already men of war these rea- 
" there, and prepared a great army, both out of France 



16 INTRODUCTION 

SECT. " and Almain, Their captains were appointed ; their vic- 
" tuals provided ; their ships in rigging. Thirdly, they 



Aniiol558. .. reckoned within a month to have their wills in Scotland. 
" Fourthly, that done, it seemed most likely they would 
" prosecute their pretence against England ; which had no 
" fort but Berwick to stay them : and that was unperfect, 
" and would be these two years day. Fifthly, if they 
" offered battle with Almains, there was great doubt how 
" England would be able to sustain it; both for lack of 
" good generals and great captains ; and principally for 
" lack of people, considering the waste that had lately been 
" by sickness and death these three last years. Again, if it 
" were defended with strangers, the entertainment would 
" be so chargeable in respect of money, and so hurtful to 
" the realm, as it could not be borne." 

Several Hence these questions were propounded by the said se- 

things to be ■ i • 

considered cretary. First, what to do. Next, whether it were better 

hereupon, j.^ i^ipeach the enemy in Scotland now in the beginning, 

before their army were come ; and so to take away their 

landing places : or to permit them therein, and to provide 

for the defence of the realm ? 

Upon the question, it was to be considered, as convenient 
to be done : " First, that the queen's majesty did with speed 
" send to king Philip to understand his mind, and to obtain 
" his friendship. Item, That one be sent to the king of 
" Denmark, to stay him, and to cause him to doubt of the 
" French. Item, To send to the princes of Almain. Item, 
" To provide all manner of ways for money, armour, &c. 
" Item, To send with all speed to the French king, to de- 
" clare to him what occasions the queen hath to doubt his 
12" proceedings : and therefore to let him know her purpose 
" of defence. And that if his proceedings increased as they 
" were begun, her majesty must needs provide to prevent 
" the dangers. Item, That in the mean season, the ships 
" lie in the Frith of Edenburgh, and to pike as many quar- 
" rels as they might of themselves, to impeach any more 
" succours to come out of France to liCthe. And this to 
" be done by them upon their own heads, without notice of 



TO THIS HISTORY. 17 

" a commandment so to do; and so to use the matter as SECT. 
" the cause miglit come of the French. Item, That if the ^- 
" French armed any greater navy to the seas, whicli by ap- An»o loss 
" pearance should annoy ou]-s in the Frith ; then also the 
" like to be armed by the queen s majesty. Item, The duke 
" of Norfolk, lord lieutenant of the north, to have a power 
" of horse and foot ready upon the borders, both to defend, 
" and invade, or offend, if cause were given.'"' 

And upon this it was moved that sir Nicolas Throgmor- Ambassa- 
ton should be despatched to France; and the lord Moun- froJJ/E'f„. 
tague and sir Thomas Chamberlain to Spain. And so they 'and. 
were. 



SECT. II. 

The queen procures money diligently. She calls in her 
debts. She requires her myzesfrom Wales. She lool:s to 
her forts and castles. Berwick : orders for that place, 
and for Newcastle; and the east and middle marches. 
Letters to the lord warden. The assured Scots. Peace 
with Scotland. 

-T URTHERMORE the queen, for the better strengdi- She is diii. 
ening herself, and providing against her enemies, besides ^^"jij'"^^"" 
what she had already done, saw that money was with all "ey- 
speed to be procured. Presently therefore she employed Takes up 
lier merchant and agent, sir Thomas Gresham, knight, to 
take up at Antwerp divers sums of money ; and the city of 
London gave their bonds for payment ; a letter having Nov. 28. 
been sent from the queen's council to the lord mayor, alder- ijoupj f^r 
men, and common-council, for sealing bonds for that end : payment. 
which service towards her they readily shewed their good- 
will by doing. 

She was diligent also in callina; for the remainders of the Arrears of 

o o _ _ the i;,te 

fifteens and tenths given by act of parliament to her sister, subsidy 
which had not yet been brought into her exchequer. And '^"""^ 't>'- 
because several of the collectors were behindhand in their 
accounts, letters from the lords of the council, dated in De-Dec. i. 
cember 1558, were sent forth to the sheriffs of the several 

VOL. I. c 



18 INTRODUCTION 

SECT, counties of Bucks, York, Gloucester, Nottingham, Oxon, 
^^' Berks, Stafford, and Warwick ; and to the mayors of the 
Anno 1558. towns of Northampton, Darby, King's Lyn, and South- 
ampton, to apprehend the collectors of the fifteens and tenths, 
in the said shires and towns behind of their collections ; and 
to bind them into good bands in treble the sums, to make 
payment of all that was by them due in the Exchequer, 
13 within fifteen days after the bands taken. Again, letters 

Dec. 9. were sent to* John Aylworth, receiver of the counties of So- 
merset, &c. and to the sheriffs of the counties of Lincoln, 
Nottingham, Darby, and Chester, to make payment forth- 
with into the receipt of the exchequer, of all such sums as 
were by them due in their several collections at Michaelmas 
last, as they would answer for the contrary at their utmost 
peril. And when it Avas understood, that some of her own 

A letter to household Were behind in their payments of the subsidy, a 

the tellers jg^gj. proceeded from the council to the tellers of the Ex- 

of the ex- ^ i i /> i j? u 

chequer; chequer, to send them a perfect book of the names of all 
such as were behind, within the queen's house, of the pay- 
ment of the last subsidy granted to the late queen. 
And to the And for the better understanding of the debts, the lord 
lord Paget, pg^gg^^^ ^y[[\^ others, having been appointed commissioners in 
the time of the late queen, for the taking knowledge of what 
was owing to her, was prayed to give a particular note of 
what he had found touching the same matter. 
The queen The queen began thus early to look intently also into her 
fanners of own revenue, and unto all such as were the chief farmers of 
her revenue jt. ^^d in this busiucss sir Walter Mildmay, one well versed 
in accounts, (having a great while belonged to the Augment- 
Dec. 22. ations,) was chiefly to be employed. And a letter was di- 
rected to him from the lords, to send to all the auditors, 
and such others as he thought good for his better instruc- 
tions in the matter, for the names of all the head farmers, 
within the realm, of the queen's majesty's revenue; and 
especially of all tiie copyholders westward ; requiring him 
thereof to make a book out of hand, and to send the same 
to court with all convenient speed. 

And the next council-day, the lord treasurer (who was 



TO THIS HISTORY. 19 

the mai'quls of Winchester) was ordered to cause process sect. 
to be made with all speed out of the exchequer, for the ^^' 



answering of the temporalities of these bishoprics now void, Anno loss. 
viz. Canterbury, Norwich, Rochester, Bristol, Oxon, Chi-'^'l*^.**^™?"- 

'' ^ ' ' ' ' _ _ ralities of 

Chester, Hereford, Sarum, Gloucester, and Bangor; signi- the vacant 
fying also unto his lordship, that the queen*'s pleasure was, t^^jj^'an*^* 
that sir John Mason, treasurer of her chamber, should have swered to 
the care of seeing this prosecuted with speed. 

And that she might know the true state of her purse, Mr. Debts to be 
Damsel was sent to certify all manner of debts due in the ^ the court 
court of wards: and so was sir Ambrose Cave, chancellor"^ "?'''' V 

and m the 

of the duchy, to do the like in the court of the duchy. And duchy. 
the lord treasurer at the same time, namely December 24, Dec, 24. 
to cause speedy certificate to be made to the queen, of all 
manner of debts due in the exchequer ; to the intent, the 
same being known, order might be given by such as she had 
appointed in commission, to see the same answered with 
all expedition. 

To this may be added, that she appointed a commission A commis. 
to understand what lands had been granted from tlie crown jands 
in the late queen's reign. The commissioners whereof were f'^^^lf^^ 
the marquis of Winchester, the lord Rich, the lord North, crown. 
Mildmay, &c. 

In the same month she also took her advantage against 
certain Italian merchants for bringing in commodities from 
the enemy : ordering her customers of London to levy and 14 
get into their hands the sum of 2542Z. 7^. M. [by way off/JJ^/f^l 
fines and forfeitures] due to her from Germin Ciol, Alex- some fo- ^ 
ander Bonvice, Augustin de Sexto, and John Heath, forj.,,ants. 
the impost of certain wines and other French wares. And 
also laid Ciol in prison. 

Nor did she 'forget her myzes ; that is, what was due to She requires 

~ •-' . . her niyzes 

her from the people of Wales, by ancient custom due to the f,oni Wales, 

princes of Wales, and to all the princes of the realm at their 

first entrance upon the supreme government. Which thnig 

was anciently an honorary present to the prince, of corn and 

wine from each county towards the expense of his fanuly : 

but afterwards paid in money. For the receiving of this 



20 INTRODUCTION 

SECT, she appointed a commission, which, in February 1558, met 
' with some opposition in the town of Carmarthen, chiefly by 



Anno i358.jjjjg Thomas Lloid, of Llan Stephan, gent, and certain others 
ance there- '^^^ coniphces, making a disorder against her commissioners 
upon. in that county ; who were therefore committed to ward ; 

Feb. 24. a,i J a letter was sent to the lord president and council of 
"Wales, to send for them to the marches, and to take svich 
order at their coming thither, as to send up forthwith unto 
the queen''s council, under safe custody, the said Lloid, and 
two or three other most faulty ; and to commit to ward the 
rest there, to remain till the principals had been brought up 
and received condign punishment for their said disorders. 
The names of the others sent up with Lloid, were David 
ap Gorwared, John Palmer, and William Jack : all which 
were presently committed to the Tower. But it being for a 
contempt only, and for the terror and example of others, 
the letter from the council had instructed the heutenant to 
use them honestly ; but to keep it to himself. They were 
committed March 18, 1558, and discharged April the 8t)i 
following. And of this the lords of the council advertised 
the lord president of Wales ; and mentioned withal, how 
they alleged, that after the death of king Henry VIII. and 
king Edward VI. greater sums were levied for the myzes 
in the county of Carmarthen, than was answered to the 
prince. The said president therefore was willed to hear 
what the said Thomas Lloid could say herein : and to call 
for such before him as should be found faulty in this mat- 
ter ; and to cause them to repay to the queen''s use what 
they had detained ; and further to punish them as the qua- 
lity of their default sliould demerit. 

Let me here add one passage more in transitu concern- 
The Welsh- ing this custom. In the month of March the inhabitants of 
^on on'ac- Wales, and of the county palatine of Chester, presented the 
count of queen a supplication for their ancient liberties and customs 

their myzes. , ,, , • pi- /> • i i /? 

to be allowed, in respect or tlicn* myzcs^ or certam debts, fe- 
lonies, &c. Which business the queen committed to the lord 
president and council of the marches of Wales. 

And upon another petition of theirs, an order was made 



TO THIS HISTORY. 21 

in the queen's first parliament, by the queen with the con- sect. 
sent of the lords, that in this year wherein a subsidy was to. ^^' 



be paid the queen, they should not be charged with the-'^nno i^ss. 
payment of the myzes : nor at any other time that she re- 1 5 
ceived them, her subsidies should not be paid that year. 

But to return a httle backward, to observe further this The deputy 
part of the new queen's state-wisdom, in her care of her ^"^^5^'^"^ „£ 
treasure: she also called upon Sir Anthony St. Leger, late Ireland, 
lord deputy of Ireland, and Andrew Wise, of Baigtiss in to the 
the kingdom of Ireland, esq. vice-treasurer of that kinffdom, l"*^^" '^*^'" 

. . * . ^ ^^ ed for. 

requiring their accounts, (as well as she had done others,) 
especially being in considerable arrears with her. The for- 
mer she wrote to, to this purport, " that being indebted to 
" her in great sums of money, he was willed to make pay- 
" ment thereof forthwith to her use; and to signify with 
" speed to the lords what he minded to do." And in Fe- 
bruary certain soldiers of Ireland claimed their wages for one 
and twenty months, due in the time that he was deputy there, 
and he ought to have paid ; which made the lords write 
to him another letter. And a third was sent him in March, March ii. 
with order to pay the poor soldiers of Ireland such sums of 
money as were due to them : and if it should be found that 
he ought not to pay the same, it should be defalked out of 
such sums as he owed to the queen. As for Wise, he was 
put into the Fleet : and a little after, viz. about the middle 
of January, a bond of 12,000Z. was taken of him, with two 
sureties, to discharge all such sums of money with which he 
stood charged and indebted to the queen. And the lords 
appointed sir William Petre, sir John Mason, sir Richard 
Sackvile, and sir Walter Mildmay, to audit his account. 
But it seems he was not able to give up his accounts to the 
satisfaction of the queen, and so his bond was forfeited, and 
he committed again to the Fleet, April 12th, 1559- 

Nor would the queen release the merchant adventurers She calls 
of a new impost laid by queen Mary upon cloth and otlier p^^^ ^^^^ 
commodities : which the said merchants did earnestly sue to the 
the council to be released of: refusing a good while to an- 
swer such sums as were by them due upon the same ac- 

'c3 



mer- 
chants. 



22 INTRODUCTION 

SECT, count. Whereupon, in January 30, they were summoned 
before the lords, where thev declared they would stand to 



Anno 1558, such end as should be ordered by law: and this they sub- 
scribed to in a bill, which was delivered to the lord great 
seal. But after divers appearances before the privy council, 
they were finally answered, March the 30th, that the queen's 
majesty could by no means (her great charges considered) 
either undo or mitigate the same. Nevertheless they gave 
the merchants further dav to be asain before them ; who 
were pleased both to hear what they could further say in 
this matter, and also to consider certain licences which 
they claimed of the grant of the late queen, for the carrying 
out of cloths. 

Thus did the queen play the good husband, that she 

might have treasure, for the better providing for the charges 

of her royal estate : for she saw round about her vast ex- 

The iieen's P^'^^^^ necessary to be laid out, for the defence of herself 

great and in this State of hostility, wherein she found the kingdom 

expenses involved. She was to pay off her sister's debts, besides her 

1 6 funerals ; the garrisons and army were behind in their wages ; 

the strength and fortifications on the frontiers, both against 

France and Scotland, very defective ; her number of soldiers 

too few, and her forces to be increased, 

A book of And that the queen might the more effectually look to her- 

aii the forts ^^j^ ^ letter was wrote in the beffinninoj of January to the 

of the realm ' o o j 

required to lord treasurer, to send thither a perfect book of all the cas- 
tles, forts, and bulwarks of the realm ; and Avhat captains 
and soldiers were placed in the same, and what entertain- 
ment each of them had. AVhich letter was in order to 
what was agreed to by the board, a day or two before, viz. 
that the lord admiral should have the consideration of all 
the forts and bulwarks of the realm, and to undei-stand the 
present state of the same. 
The condi- And now let us see what care was taken for Berwick, 
iTcl!* ^"' whereof the lord Eure was captain. The place was found 
Orders for to be in great danger of being taken by the Scots, wanting 
Nov,^2K ' both men and strength. Some fortifications had been begun 
imder that lord ; and a letter, dated in November 1558, was 



TO THIS HISTORY. 23 

sent to him, that he should go forward as the season of the SECT, 
year would suffer; so as at the least, so much might be ^^' 
done as should have been done by the late queen, had she^^nio i568. 
lived. Ordnance and munition was also hastened thither, 
and the lord admiral had instructions to give order for the 
wafting of it. And in the same month a letter was sent to Nov. 30. 
the lord Eure for the garrisons at Berwick ; requiring him, 
for the better meeting; with such fraud as was used at mus- 
ters, and for that it appeared that the numbers appointed 
to serve were not full, and divers wanting, to cause on a 
sudden, without warning given, musters to be taken by some 
fitting persons, and to observe what defects were in their 
numbers and in their arms. The queen also encouraged 
the said lord, captain of Ber^rick, upon his suit, granting 
him 20^. a day, bv way of her majesty ''s relief, towards the 
entertainment of an hundred horsemen serving there under 
him, though not as captain of Berwick : but whereas he 
sued to come up, and leave his charge for a time with i\Ir. 
Bowes, the marshal there, he was by the lords required to 
forbear, until a more convenient time hereafter, that her 
highness might be moved, and her pleasure therein signified 
unto him. 

Abynffton, the surveyor of victuals for Berwick, had •^"'^ f""" 

1 /> 1 1 n • /> ^ 1 provisions. 

bought up at Hull, for the better turmture 01 that place, 
an hundred quarters of wheat, and as many of malt. And 
a letter was despatched to Alrede, customer of Hull, requir- 
ing him to suffer it to pass unto Berwick ; yet to keep a per- 
fect docket of the very quantity that passed. 

And because the soldiers in those parts were too apt to Soldiers 
be absent from their quarters, (a thing of very dangerous to^^pj" to 
import, while invasion was daily expected,) therefore the their charge 
queen caused a proclamation to be made for Berwick, as Dec. 20. 
also for the frontiers governed by the earl of Northumber- 
land, that all captains and soldiers that were absent from 
their charge should repair thither upon pain of forfeiture 
of all such wages as were due unto them, from the last pay 
unto the first of January next, if they were not found there 



24 INTRODUCTION 

SECT, at that day. She also confirmed the liberties and corpora- 
______ tion of this town of Berwick. 



Anno 1558. Newcastle was now in great danger of being surprised by 
* the French, who intended that way to invade England : 

intend to ^ut some secret intelligence thereof coming to the queen, 

surpnse g]^g endeavoured timely to prevent the danger by fortifying 
the place, and supplying it with sufficient forces, to be sent 
from the neighbouring parts, the duke of Norfolk being lord 
lieutenant of the north. This present danger she signified 
to the earl of Shrewsbury, lord lieutenant (as it seems) of 

Dec. 23. Derby.shire : and by her letters in December, committed a 
special charge to him for the defence of the realm, against 
these attempts of the French that had been lately discovered 
(as the lords of the council wrote to him) though not dis- 
closed, to levy certain horsemen, both demi-lances and 
corselets : and she sent also her letters to divers persons of 
good livelihood within that county, to will them with all 
speed to make ready certain horse, and to send them to 
Newcastle by the 25th of January. The council gave the 
earl particular instructions in this emergence, as to send for 
the sheriff, and for other of the principal in every quarter 
of the shire, and to confer with them how this charge and 

Dec. 26, service might best be performed. The queen also at this 
time ordered the said earl to levy certain numbers of foot- 
men to be raised in Yorkshire, to be sent to Berwick. And 
secretaiy Cecyl in a letter shewed him, that the French had 
pressed fifteen thousand Almains in Germany, and were 
arming all their ships to the seas. 

The go- On Thursday the latter end of December, the abovesaid 

vernor does ,, "^ /.i-i ii 

service a- lord ii,urc, govcmor of this place, did some service against 
gainst Scot- Scotland, (for which he received a letter of thanks from 

land. ' ^ _ 

above,) namely, in annoying the enemy, and burning the 
mill, the kill, and other houses near unto Aymouth : but 
he was required utterly to forbear to embrace any French- 
man's ofier (of which nation several supplies were already 
sent to Scotland) that should run away from Scotland, if 
they might be sufferctl to j)ass through the realm ; nor other- 



Council 
book. 



TO THIS HISTORY. 25 

wise to use any one of them during the wars, than to procure SECT, 
intelligence at their hands, and to learn somewhat that might ^^• 
advance the service of the queen. Anno 1558. 

Care was also taken to send treasure to Sir William En-Ti 



Lreasure 



golby, treasurer of Berwick; that is, so much as should JJ"/^!"^^"' 
make the full pay for the old ordinary garrison there ; and timber. 
for what should be due February 14. And the same month 
a thousand ton of timber was bought by the queen''s order 
of sir Richard Lee, at 10s. the ton, to be sent to Berwick, » 

and delivered at Hull. For which the queen*'s council sent 
order to Richard Whalley, esq. to go forward in the bar- 
gain: and the said sir Richard Lee not to make sale of 
any^wood that he should fell, but to keep the same for the 
queen's majesty''s use at the said price. And in March they 
were very busy in making strong the fortifications there. 
And Abyngton, surveyor of the victuals, received a letter March 9. 
from the council, signifying unto him, that the queen''s high- 
ness might be the better answered of such money as should 
be due by the labourers and workmen of the fortifications 
there, for their victuals ; her highness' pleasure was, that he 1 8 
should appoint certain particular victuallers under him, to 
take upon them the care and charge of the victualling of 
the same labourers from time to time; and to be present 
also themselves at every pay, and to defalk so much of their 
wages as should be due by them for the said victuals so re- 
ceived at their hands. 

And finally. Sir James Croft, knt. who had been em-SirJ. Crofts 
ployed by the queen in overlooking, and examining, and or- "f„^of ''*' 
dering of all matters relating to Berwick, by many parti- Berwick. 
cular letters wrote to him from the council, at lengdi in 
March had a commission under the great seal of the captain- March 28, 
ship of the town and castle of that place, in the room of the 
lord Eure. Crofts had desired a continuance of a benevo- 
lence for the increase of the wages of the old garrison (which 
was Scl a day) granted the last year : but it was answered 
him, that forasmuch as this was a new charge, the lords did 
not think meet the same should be continued. And there- 
fore he was required to persuade the soldiers to be contented 



26 IxNTRODUCTION 

SECT, with their ordinary entertainment, until her highness should 
be of better ability to consider them. The sick and unser- 



Anno i558.viceable men he was ordered to cass, by taking up money 
of the merchants at Newcastle, which should be repaid 
them at the coming down of the treasure, that should be 
shortly. 

And this was the provision and care the queen took for 
Berwick, for the restoring it to its pristine condition and 
strength, to be able to maintain itself against Scotland. 
Care taken The like also she took for the frontiers of the east and 
aud middle middle marches, which were under the government of the 
luarches. QrJ^y\ ^f Northumberland, lord warden thereof. There was 
an evil practice among the soldiers for these borders, which 
w-as of very dangerous consequence : it w as, that their num- 
bers being not full, but divers of them wanting, at the mus- 
ters persons were procured to appear then only, that it 
might seem as though none were wanting. Therefore for 
the better meeting with this fraud, as sir Henry Percy had 
reported it, the lord warden was appointed to cause forth- 
with, in most secret manner, certain discreet gentlemen, not 
being Northumberland men, or borderers, to repair at one 
instant time to all the several places w^here any numbers 
were set, and to take musters of them, to see how many 
were w-anting, how many were Northumberland men, and 
how many inland men ; how they that remained were ap- 
pointed and furnished with arms ; and to signify the same 
up to council : and what other device he thought meet for 
redress hereof: as order was also given for the like pur- 
pose to the lord Eure aforesaid for his government. This 
was done in November. And sir Henry Perc)', (who was 
the earl's son,) as he had been lately despatched out of the 
north from the earl to the court, so lie was sent back again 
to him with these instructions. 
Orders for Orders were also given to the said earl to see the bands 
wa^rden diligently furnished. An hundred hagbutters were sent to 
thereof. the frontiers from the lord Dacres, lord deputy of tlie west 
marches: and the earl was required to be careful in mus- 
19tering the bands ; to have espials in Scotland ; to kc^p the 



TO THIS HISTORY. 27 

fords and watches: and as the queen added Qd. a day to SECT, 
the pay of the soldiers, so it was to be pubhcly declared, for ^^' 
the better encouragement of the soldiers in their duty. Anno 1558, 

And to secure the loyalty of sir Ralph Grey in those sir Ralph 
parts, who had before the grant of leading an hundred men, [^[p^jjj'^li^^e 
in consideration of his losses upon the borders, and his good parts, en- 
forwardness in service, she caused a letter to be wrote to'^""'^'**'^ ' 
him, signifying her good pleasure that he should be conti- 
nued in his place, and that he should also have an aug- 
mentation, by way of reward, for the said number ; and so 
was required to shew himself answerable to her majesty''s 
expectation in service, as she might think this charge to be 
well bestowed : otherwise it was plainly told him, she would 
not fail to place another in that charge. 

There was a proclamation to be issued out for these east A procia- 
and middle marches, to be published in those parts, viz. ti,ese 
that all captains and soldiers having charge upon the fron- ui'^'ches. 
tiers, being absent from it, should repair thither, upon pain 
of forfeiture of all their wages that would be due the first 
of January. The lord deputy was required accordingly to 
put this proclamation in execution upon all such as should 
not accomplish the contents thereof. And all this care was 
taken for these borders in the month of December. 

According to a late order, the earl of Northumberland The council 
sent up the muster-book of garrisons under his charge, toge- warden. 
ther with his letters for instruction in certain points. It was ^°""'^''' 
signified to him from above, " that as the lords did very well 
" like his diligence and secrecy in taking of the musters 
" upon the frontiers, so it could not but much mislike them 
" that there were such deficiencies in the numbers. And 
" whereas he wrote that the garrison of the enemy was in- 
" creased, the lords thought, that if the numbers under his 
" charge and the garrison of Berwick were reduced into one 
" number, the same would far exceed the power of the 
" enemy : and considering that the enemy's force was for 
" the most part placed in forts, and that they would not 
" leave the same in danger to come to the frontiers; yet 



88 INTRODUCTION 

SECT. " nevertheless his lordship's request was allowed, to have 
! — " some further relief, wherein order should be taken.*" 



Addo 1558. 



In the mean time the lord Eure was writ to, to help the 

captain of loi'd warden in time of necessity only, with some horsemen 

Berwick. q,jj- ^f Berwick, in the day time, so as they might return to 

Berwick before night, for the guarding of that piece : for it 

was thought the enemy would attempt nothing before the 

next light night. 

And to the Orders also were sent to the bishop of Durham, to send 

Durham. ^"'^'^ from the bishopric in case of necessity. And finally the 

earl was desired to stand upon his guard. 
Dacres sets And when, toward the beginning of January, Leonard 
Scots sue- Dacres, the lord Dacres' son, had by his valour and con- 
cessfuiJy. duct done some considerable service against the Scots, the 
lords of the council sent him the queen's thanks ; and re- 
quired him to thank captain Tutty, and the rest that served 
with him. And that as the lords did very well like his for- 
wardness, so they would have wished he had forborne the 
annoying of them, and stood only upon his own guard, con- 
20 sidering that they would seek to revenge it : and indeed so 
it proved ; for the Scots soon after did some exploit upon 
the English, and increased their former forces upon the 
frontiers. 
A thousand Whereat the queen determined to send forthwith to the 
raised for borders a thousand men : and for that purpose, as she had 
the borders, addressed her letters to the bishop of Durham, January 7, 
to put the force of the bishopric in such readiness as they 
might, vipon any sudden warning, be ready to serve under 
sir George Conyers : so four days after, by another letter, 
he was enjoined to levy in the bishopric five hundred foot- 
men; and that he should confer with sir J. Croft concerning 
fit gentlemen to have the leading them ; and to have special 
foresight, that none of the officers used any frauds for the 
sparing of any man from this service ; a disorder which as 
it had been practised in the south, so the lords would be 
sorry it should creep into the north. Letters were also writ- 
ten to certain gentlemen of the north riding of Yorkshire, 



TO THIS HISTORY. 29 

to levy two hundred men in that part of the shire; and to SECT, 
the earl of Northumberland, to levy three hundred men in ^^' 



Richmondshire, where he was steward. And he was also Anuo 1 558. 
willed to confer with sir James Croft, who was newly sent 
down there, touching the placing the same numbers upon 
the borders in such sort as might most annoy the enemy ; 
and that he should always have good espials. 

The queen also now took occasion to let the earl know of instruc- 
the notice she took of his son sir Henry Percie''s activity )ord warden 
and forwardness, commending it ; but addino- that she ^"'i ^^^'^ 

Dacres. 

would not in any case he should hazard himself, otherwise 
than that he should be at all times ready to make his party 
good. And lastly, she advised, that the lord Dacres (which 
now came from her) and he, the earl, should confer, for the 
better annoying of the enemy : which the lords thought 
would be best done, if they agreed upon some enterprise 
against them at one time. These were the transactions of 
January and February. 

In March, the lord deputy of the east and middle marches A cessation 
discharged the garrison of the Northumberland men ; and 1^,^^^ Eng- 
orders were sent to him to discharge and cass many others, 'and and 

1 1. ij u 'icotland. 

as by reason of sickness, or any other respect, should be 
thought unfit or superfluous for their present service : yet 
so, that his doings tended not to the weakening or danger 
of his charge. Now about the middle of March there was a 
cessation of arms between the EngUsh and Scots ; and in- 
structions were sent to the lord Dacres, upon his letter, how 
to use the asstired Scots during the abstinence from war : The assured 
he was willed to signify their names and behaviours, and to ' '^° *" 
send a copy of the articles of their assurance; to the end 
some order might be taken for them upon the conclusion of 
the peace : and in the mean time give them in charge to 
forbear to make any incursions into Scotland, but to use 
themselves quietly as the subjects of this realm, as they 
minded the preservation of their security. 

Now there being a fair prospect of peace, the earl of Orders to 
Northumberland was ordered to proceed in cassmg the num- ,,,.^„y ^'^f ^^e 
ber of horsemen on the frontiers, for the abridging of the latei^y n"sed 



30 INTRODUCTION 

SECT, queen's charges, so far forth as he should perceive the same 
'^' might he done without any danger to the frontiers; and to 



Anno 1558. cass all such as might conveniently be spared, especially 

^ ^ Northumberland men, and those that joined upon them. 

And for the better understanding what he was to do in this 

matter, to have good espial of the Scots doings. And a mass 

of money was soon after sent down. 

Peace with And in the beginning of April 1559 peace was con- 

AnT\i7.' eluded with the Scots: which occasioned another letter 

from the council to the earl of Northumberland, signifying 

the same ; and therefore requiring him to give order, that 

none serving under him should annoy the Scots, but to use 

them as friends. And he was A\Tilled to stay the publishing 

of this by proclamation, until he should further understand 

from the queen. And the like was sent from sir James 

Croft, now captain of Berwick. 

The queen's commissioners for Scotland were, the earl of 
Northumberland, the bishop of Durham, the lord Dacres, 
and sir James Croft ; (whereof the bishop was of the quo- 
rum ;) these met the commissioners of Scotland : and in 
July 1559 they fully concluded the articles of peace with 
Epist.com. the Scots accordingly. And the 14th of the said month 
Salop, in ^1 ^j bishop was at Doncaster, onward of his journey to 

othc. armor. r ' ... 

E. court, to make a full relation of the said commission : taking 

small journeys, though they were great to him ; " carrying 

" his old carcass with him," as he wrote from Doncaster to 

the earl of Shrewsbury. 

Dangers Now the English forces were revoked from the marches 

Fr'ancT°by ^^ Scotland; but as for the French, the queen's other 

tiie way of neighbour enemy, their army continued still in Scotland, 

and increased by secret supplies out of France. The galleys 

were appointed to be brought from Marseilles: agi'eatnavy 

prepared in France for the marquis D'Albeuf, to pass into 

Scotland with wonderful preparation. Monsieur Martiques 

assembled the nobility of Scotland, moving them to invade 

England : but they, after deliberation, answered, that the 

success would never be good. Captains were sent into the 

east parts of Germany for soldiers, and put al)oard two men 



TO THIS HISTORY. 31 

of war, not signifying where they should be employed. SECT. 
Hereupon the queen amassed some numbers of men both 



by sea and land, and sent them into Scotland : where an ac-^""^ i^^^- 
cord was made, that the French should avoid. 

This was two or three years afterwards urged by the 
queen's ambassador to France, for the restoration of Ca- 
lais ; viz. upon the breach of an article agreed upon at the Cott. libr. 
treaty at Chasteau, in Cambresis: her ambassador (sir Tho- '^"^'"*' ^' ^' 
mas Smith, if I mistake not) arguing from these aforesaid 
attempts, that the French thereby had lost their pretended 
right to Calais, according to the orders of that treaty ; since 
this evidently was attentare^ armis innovare et moliri vel 
directe vel iudlrecte, as the article ran : and had also thereby 
forfeited 500,000 crowns, nomine poence. 



SECT. III. 22 

Provision for Portsmoidli ; and the Isle of Wight ; and 
Dover ; and the cinque ports ; and for Wales ; and 
Guernsey ; and Ireland. The condition of the ordnance. 
Commissioners appointed for the care of the Mngdom. 
Treaty zoith France, The queen inquires into the loss of 
Calais. Embassy from Sweden. Her respect to Spain. 
Preparations for the coronation. A call of sergeants ; 
and some to he ennobled. The queen comes to the Tower. 
Goes through London triumphantly. A Bible presented 
her there. Crowned. Queen Mary''^ funeral celebrated. 
Letters to the sheriffs for elections. Other miscellaneous 
matters. 

And as the queen took this care of her northern confines Portsmoutii 
against her enemies the Scots, so she had the like caution ^^^^^1^,1,^' 
for her southern quarters, against her other enemies tlie FovWed 
French. For this purpose provision was made for Ports- 
mouth, and the Isle of Wight especially. To that intent an 
hundred soldiers were commanded from Guernsey, left 
there September last, to be conveyed to Portsmouth : and 



82 INTRODUCTION 

SECT, the lord Chidiock Poulet, who had the charge of the go- 
vernment there, was instructed to receive them, or so many 



Anno 1568. of them as should be thought necessary. And Rich. Worsely, 
esq. was ordered to repair to Portsmouth and the Isle of 
Wight, and the forts, castles, and bulwarks thereabouts; 
and to view and consider the state of the same. The said 
Worsely, and one Peter Smith joined with him, were ap- 
pointed to muster the garrison at Portsmouth : and the 
lord Chidiock Poulet was sent to, to be aiding unto them 
therein, and in such other things as they had commission to 
do there. 
Sir Richard And the lord marquis of Winchester, lord treasurer, had 
from thence ^ "^^^ ^^^^ to him of such provisions as were thought re- 
to be con- quisite to be made for the fortifications there, and at the 
Isle of Wight ; which note sir Richard Lee brought him. 
And the said marquis was desired by the queen's council to 
confer with the said sir Richard herein ; and if he thought 
it needful, to appoint some trusty and skilful person for the 
providing of the same. The queen also ordered the gar- 
risons here should be paid by Peter Smith, by the money 
brought down with him, according to certain instructions ; 
and to use the advice of the foresaid lord Poulet herein. 
And that being done, to proceed to the viewing of the forts 
and munition at Portsmouth and thereabouts, according to 
former directions, and to make Worsely privy to his doings; 
who was then indisposed in his health. And that no unjust 
embezzlement of powder and munition might be concealed, 
the lord Poulet, the governor of Portsmouth, was sent to, 
23 to signify with speed, how much powder was spent the last 
year, and for what purpose, and what remained of that 
quantity that was sent thither, that order might be taken 
therein. And all this was done in the month of December. 

In the beginning of March, the queen made the said 

Rich. Worsely captain of the Isle of Wight ; as about the 

same time sir James Croft was made captain of Berwick, 

as is before said. 

Care taken ^he like care was taken for Dover : the soldiers whereof 

The condi- were behind of their pay now, in March 1558, for seven 

tion thereof. 



TO THIS HISTORY. 33 

months; of which they complamed to the council. Order SECT, 
was taken for the looking- carefully into that piece, lying ^^^' 



also against France. And Tho. Wotton, esq. (who, if I Anno 1553. 
mistake not, was now high sheriff of Kent,) was required, 
either by himself in person, or to appoint one Rudston, or 
some other trusty gentleman, to repair thither, to take the 
muster of the soldiers on the sudden ; and to learn whether 
any of them were wanting; how long they had served there; 
and what money they had already received ; and what ar- 
mour and weapon they had. And soon after, the queen sent 
them their full pay. 

There was a decay of the pier and black bulwark there : The mayor 
a complaint of which the mayor and jurats of Dover made^i^gir^y'*,^*. 
to the queen. Therefore the said Wotton was willed to cause I'laint. 
the same to be viewed, and to signify what should be done 
therein. And in April following, she sent thither sir Will. 
Woodhouse, knt. to view and consider the state of the said 
pier and black bulwark ; and to take order for the repair of 
the same, according as was prescribed him. And a letter was 
now also sent to the said mayor and jurats, and such other 
to whom it did appertain, to attend upon the said Wood- 
house, and to shew him what they thought meet to be 
known for the redi'ess thereof. 

The lord warden of the cinque ports, sir Thomas Cheyne, Orders sent 
being lately deceased, the queen well considered those places, Jnq|,e 
and caused five several letters to be writ to the said five pfts, Jan. 
ports ; willing all the officers and inhabitants to continue 
the accustomed good order, in keeping of peace, justice, 
and quietness, until she would appoint a lord warden there. 
And in the mean time, if any wreck or other casualty 
should happen in any of the ports or members of the same, 
to signify it up to her; and to take care that the thing were 
kept to the queen's majesty's use, or such as her highness 
should appoint. 

Wales was another of her extreme borders that she found Wales. 

• Instruc- 

needful to be looked after : here bemg a government consti-^i^n^forihe 
tuted, called the president and council of the marclies of'^^^^^^ 
Wales, was signified unto them, in November, the queen's n^,.. 28. 

VOL. I. D 



34 INTRODUCTION 

SECT, pleasure for their continuance in their commission ; and that 
^^^" the instructions they had ah-eady they were to follow, until 



Anno 1558. the contrary should be signified unto them. And if they 
thought any thing necessary to be added to their instruc- 
tions, when they should be signed anew by the queen, they 
were willed to put the same in articles, and to send them up 
for that purpose. 
24 In April 1559, the council sent down sir Hugh Poulet 

Sir Hugh ^Q |jg vice-president there in the absence of the lord Wil- 

vice-presi- liams, who was appointed president. 

dent there. gj^ Leonard Chamberlain was captain of Guernsey. He 

Guernsey. ^ , v • i 

now wrote to the queen lor greater lorces to be sent tnitner; 

and licence to be granted him to repair to her : which he 

had accordingly. 

The state In Ireland also things were but in ill case : for sir An- 

of Ireland, ^.j^^^y gj. Legef, lord deputy there, and Andrew Wise, 

treasurer, consulting their own profit more than the good of 

that kingdom, had left great debts upon the queen, and the 

soldiers unpaid, notwithstanding the sums they had received 

for public uses. The queen therefore called them to account, 

as was shewed before. And the lords set apart a day on 

pui'pose, about the beginning of February, to bestow it 

wholly, forenoon and afternoon, for the considering the state 

of that kingdom, and taking order therein. 

The condi- for the better strengthening herself in the midst of her 

ordnance dangers round about her, she had a careful regard to her 

and amiim- ^yy^^ ^nd ammunition. In order to which, in December, sir 

nition of _ 

the Tower, Richard Southwel, master of the ordnance and armory, was 
Decemb. 6. ordered to make his repair to the council ; and to bring 
with him a perfect declaration of his office, as well touching 
the provisions, expenses, and remains, as also of the present 
wants of the same. And on the 17th of December, the said 
sir Richard made suit to the lords, to make a declaration 
before them of the state of his office: when it was resolved, 
the earl of Bedford, the lord admiral, Mr. Vice-chamberlain, 
and sir Ambrose Cave, should hear the same, and make re- 
port thereof. 
And in the The like care the queen took about her ammunition in 

north. 



TO THIS HISTORY. 35 

the north ; whereof Thomas Gower was master. For in this SECT, 
month of December he was ordered by the councirs letter "*" 



to set all things in his charge in good order; and there- ^nnoisss. 
upon to repair up with speed, bringing with him all such '^"^^^J^' 
books and writings, for declaration of the state of his office, tiiereof 
And in the beginning of February, the council sent a letter come'up. 
to sir James Croft and sir Will. Engleby, to consider what Dec 17. 
proportion of munition, ordnance, and other things the said 
master had issued out of his office for the queen's service at 
Berwick ; and to comptrol his books from time to time. 
And when they would have any thing out of the said office 
for the service and furniture of the town, they were required 
to address their warrant to the said Gower, signed with the 
hands of both of them. 

Information was someway s brought, that certain pieces of Certain 
ordnance were delivered by John Benet, late master of the '^l^^^^^zild 
ordnance in the north, and were concealed by certain inha- inquired 
bitants of Newcastle ; and that they had caused the queen's 
arms and mark to be defaced and taken out of the said 
ordnance: whereupon a letter was sent from the council 
to the mayor of NeAvcastle, to Bartram Anderson, and to 
the said Tho. Gower, to examine diligently where and in 
whose hands any of those pieces remained, and to cause the 
same to be returned to the office of the ordnance ; and to 
signify what they had found therein. 

Thus exactly and pensively did the queen mind her bu- 25 
siness at home. And in short, December 23, to put the Commis- 
cares of her kingdom into a method, she distributed them J^e care 
into several commissions. First, for the care of the north "^ the king- 
parts towards Scotland and Berwick, the earls of Arundel, 
Shrewsbury, Bedford, and Pembroke, the lord admiral, and 
sir Ambrose Cave were commissioners. 

Secondly, to survey the office of the treasury of the cham- 
ber, and to assign orders of payment, lord chamberlam, Mr. 
Comptroller, Mr. Secretary, and sir Walter Mildmay. 

Thirdly, for Portsmouth, Mr. Worsely and Mr. Smith. 

Fourthly, for consideration of all things necessary for the 
parliament now suddenly to meet, the keeper of the great 

D 2 



3G INTRODUCTION 

SFX'T. seal, the judges, sergeants, attorney, solicitor, sir Thomas 
"^' Smith, and Mr. Goodrike. 



Anno 1 558. Fifthly, to Understand what lands have been granted from 
the crown in the last queen's time, marquis of Winchester, 
keeper of the seal, lord Rich, lord North, Mr. Mildmay. 
The coun- Only I may insert here a note of this early care that was 
to sir Aiu- taken for staying the further persecution of the professors of 
brose Jer- i\^q o-ospel, by an order from the queen''s privy council to sir 

nun to stop ., _. ,. . ^,.,. ^ m m \ i j 

persecution. Ambrose Jcrmm, (a justice, as 1 think, in butiolk,) aatecl 
Nov. 28 this year : on this occasion : commissions were given 
out under queen Mary to certain persons in the countries, 
for the giving information of all such, which the commis- 
.sioners made their privy use and benefit of; by getting 
money out of such as they found of that sort, to prevent any 
prosecution of them : or by virtue of some order given, to 
lay a pecuniary punishment upon them. But now sir Am- 
brose Jermin, upon this change of government, put a stop 
to the practice of these men and their doings: w-hich the 
queen's council being made acquainted with, sent him their 
letters of approbation of what he had done, and gave him 
some further instructions to deliver to the other justices in 
those parts in this matter ; and of requiring an account of 
those in the aforesaid commission, viz. 

The council then sitting at the Charter-house, sent their 

MSS. Ceci- letter of thanks to him, " for his discreet doings, touching 

iian. it ^^j^g gj^^y q£ ^y^^^^ commission, granted to John Shepherd 

" and his fellows. Whereof he was both required by them 

" to warn the justices of peace his neighbours in those parts 

" to do the like ; and also to certify thither to them, what 

*' sums of money had been extorted, or otherwise received, 

" by any colour of the said commission, of the queen's sub- 

" jects there ; with such further particularities, as he could 

" by examination learn of that matter. To the end the 

" same being objected there [at court] to the parties, they 

*' might be further proceeded withal as should be thought 

" convenient."" 

Siie sets And as became a prince that intended not to rule with 

prisoned At rigoiu', but with justicc and clemency, one of her earhest 

Jibertv. 



TO THIS HISTORY. 37 

actions was to relieve the captives, and to restore liberty to SKCT. 
those that were freeborn ; especially if their faults were par- ^"^' 



donable, or none at ail. Of this matter we shall have the Anno 1 658. 
particulars hereafter. 

These were the queen''s cares at home for her own security 26 
and her kingdoms. Now to look abroad, and to see what I'le^ty with 
was to be depended upon from France, as she had brought 
herself to good terms with Scotland, as was shewed before. 
Thirleby, bishop of Ely, and Dr. Wotton, dean of Canter- 
bury, were queen Mary''s commissioners to treat with France, 
about the restoration of Calais, and for making peace. To 
them queen Elizabeth sent a new commission, and in Ja- 
nuary 1558, by her council, writ to them to proceed accord- jdn. \o. 
ing to that commission ; sending now the earl of Arundel, 
lord chamberlain, to join with them : for she was much dis- 
posed to be at peace with her neighbours, having great 
matters to do at home, and in no very good condition to go 
to war. 

The pains of these her commissioners succeeded. For in P^ace with 

I Fnincc. 

tlie beginning of April, the council sent a letter to the lord 
mayor, declaring the peace concluded between the queen 
and the French and Scots : which he was willed to cause to 
be proclaimed in such places within the city, and in such de- 
cent manner, as had been accustomed. And letters were 
likewise sent the same day to the customers, comptrollers, 
and searchers of the five ports, Southampton, Pool, Bristol, 
Plymouth, and Dartmouth, to have special care, that now, c-u,: now 
upon the publishing of the peace, no bullion or money be lf^^"'^^l^^_ 
suffered by them to be transported out of the realm. ing bullion. 

Several Frenchmen, prisoners, were in hold at Ric, that J'j^^'^^^'y^''- 
expected now to be set at liberty freely, without paymgj-je. 
their ransom. But the lords of the council let the mayor 
and jurats of the town understand, that it was not meant 
otherwise by the conclusion of the peace, but that such 
French as were taken and remained in the town should pay 
their ransoms to their takers, notwithstanding the peace: 
which they were willed to declare unto them ; and upon the 
payment of their ransoms to set them at liberty. 

d3 



38 INTRODUCTION 

SECT. And now peace being effected, but Calais still in the 
hands of the French, and a great question whether it were 



Anno 1558. ever like to go out thence again, the queen thought it con- 

qufreHnto venient to look into the causes of the loss of it. And if any 

the loss of of the captains or officers had not done their duty, she re- 
solved to frown upon them, and call them to a strict trial for 
their lives, in case she found any want of trust and faithful- 
ness in their respective charges ; though perhaps this was 
more for a cover, to satisfy the angry people in a loss so dis- 
honourable to the English nation. Therefore several of 
them were indicted of high treason. And among the rest 

Captain Harleston, captain of Ricebank, one of the forts of Calais : 
which Harleston, now in the beginning of April 1559, being 
come over, was retired among his friends in Essex. But 

April 2. this coming to the ears of the queen and her coimcil, a letter 
was speedily despatched to Tho. Mildmay, esq. high sheriff 
of the county, importing, that it could not but seem very 
strange, that he, the said Harleston, being indicted of high 
treason, and being come over, and presently remaining in 
Essex, was suffered to go at liberty. He was therefore com- 
manded in the queen's name to cause search to be made for 
him ; and to apprehend him, and send him to the lords under 
27 safe custody. He was soon brought up : for in two or three 

April 13. days after, he was by the order of the lords sent to the 
Tower ; and by a letter to the lieutenant he was willed to 
keep him in ward, without conference with any, until lie 

Lord Went- were examined. And within a few days after, the lord 
Wentworth, the late governor of Calais, was also committed 
by the council's letter to the said lieutenant to receive him, 

April 21. and to keep him in safe ward without having conference 
with any, until he should receive order from the lord 
marquis of Northampton, appointed high steward of Eng- 
land for the time. But he was acquitted by his peers. 
Harleston nevertheless, and another captain, called Cham- 
berlain, were cast ; but pardoned. I was willing to lay these 
French matters together, though this last mentioned belong 
to the beginning of the year following. 

from Swe- It was not Icast in the wise queen's thoughts and endea- 

clcn. 



TO THIS HISTORY. 39 

vours to carry all fair abroad, and to express all oblio-ino- sect 
behaviour towards the states and princes her neighbours. 1''- 
The king of Sweden had already sent an ambassador to her, Anno 1,558. 
as well to court her for a wife, as to congratulate her acces- 
sion to the throne of England. But upon some disgust to 
the ambassador, occasioned I know not how, a great uproar 
was made at his house by the common people, December 
16, at night, against the ambassador, and certain of his ser- 
vants. But the very next day the queen caused a letter to 
be sent to the lord mayor, willing him to send some discreet 
persons to the said ambassador, to learn the circumstances 
of this matter, and the doers thereof: and thereupon to 
cause them to be committed to ward, and further punished 
according to the quality of the fault. And that the said 
ambassador might understand, that it was not otherwise 
meant, but that he and his should be courteously treated 
here. The said mayor was also ordered to signify to the am- 
bassador the time, when the mayor minded to proceed to 
the punishment of the offenders, to the end, the ambassa- 
dor might send some one that he trusted, to see the doing 
thereof. 

She was also very respectful towards Spain, being loath to Her respect 
give any offence to king Philip : as appeared by these two or spvlL 
three passages. John Galarzo and John de Sarausse, ser- 
vants to certain officers of the king of Spain, were going in 
December by ship from Rie to Spain : but they were ar- Decemb.22. 
rested, by occasion, I suppose, of the order of the council to 
stop all passengers from going over sea, especially carrying 
bullion with them. But a letter was sent from above to the 
mayor of Rie, and all the queen's officers of that port, re- 
quiring them to suffer those two to pass in dieir intended 
voyage to Spain, with their provision of wax, rosin, and 
1300 ducats in money, which they had in their pinnace, for 
the furniture of the king of Spain's army : commanding the 
said officers further in her majesty's name, friendly to aid 
them with victuals, and all other things necessary to thc4r 
voyage, for their reasonable money. 

1) 4 



40 



INTRODUCTION 



SECT. 
III. 



And some days before this, certain merchants of Flan- 
ders complained to Dassolevile, the king of Spain's ambassa- 
Anno 1558. dor, concerning wrongs and delays of justice done them 
Some of his hg^e. The king laid this before the queen"'s council. 

merchants -i-v i -< n i i r-» t • 

of Flanders Whereupon, December 18, they sent a letter to Dr. Lewas, 

complain, j^jge of the Admiralty, with a note of these complaints, 

willing him to consider them, and to signify to them the 

state of the same suits in the court of the Admiralty, the 

sooner to give them justice and despatch. 

Implements Again, the king of Spain had coined money in the Tower : 

of coinage , , . . i p • o • i i 

in the mint but ills miplcmeuts oi coinage were tor some time stopped by 
^^^""^ing some officers, supposing they might belong to the queen''s 

to lllc Klllg 

of Spain, mint. But upon Mr. Stanley, comptroller of the mint, his 
Januarys, certificate to the council, a letter was directed to the lieu- 
tenant of the Tower, to suffer seignior Frauncis de Lix- 
alde, treasurer of the king of Spain, to carry and convey 
out of the Tower at his pleasure certain iron tools and 
other instruments belonging to the said king, and not to the 
queen's majesty, as did appear by letters addressed in the 
matter to Mr. Secretary Cecil from Stanley. 

Having seen these transactions of the queen for the secu- 
rity of herself and kingdoms, let us proceed to relate another 
of her first cares, which was for her coronation. Which 
that it niioht be done with the o^reater mao-nificence, the 
customers of London were appointed in November last, to 
stay all crimson-coloured silk as should arrive within their 
ports, until the queen should first have her choice towards 
the furniture of her coronation ; and to give warning to the 
lords of the council, if any such should arrive there : but 
nevertheless to keep the matter secret. And perhaps that 
was the reason of another order of council the next day by 
letters to sir Nicolas Throgmorton, and sir Gawen Carew, 
to desire seignior Prioli, executor to cardinal Pole lately de- 
ceased, to suffer certain parcels of that cardinal's plate, 
Pole's plate. ^Iiigj^ were thought mcetest by the officers of the jewel- 
house for the service of the queen, to be bought ; and that 
some of his own folks might bring them. That the same 



The coro- 
nation pre- 
pared for. 



Crimson 

silk. 



Cardinal 



TO THIS HISTORY. 41 

being viewed he might receive the vakie thereof, or of so SECT, 
much of it as should be thought meet for her highnesses *"• 



use ; and the rest to be safely returned back to him again ; Auno isss. 
which, as the letters ran, they might be bold in her majesty's 
name to assure him. 

Another provision was also thought fit by the council to 
be made respecting the coronation. The hopes of pardon Fo"" ""ob- 

1 n .... beries no 

and grace, usually accompanymg it, occasioned many enor- act of grace 
mities, and especially robberies, to be committed. There- ^''•"^ *^'^ 

/. /. 1 .* „ . • 1 , coronation. 

tore, tor the preventing ot it as much as might be, a copy of 
a proclamation was sent, November 21, from Hatfield, to the 
lords of the council at London, wherein public warning was 
given, that such violators of peace and good order should 
expect but little favour by any such acts of grace. 

In order to this inauguration, preparation was making for Preparation 
the queen's coming up to London, and reception at the,.„een's 
Tower. Therefore, November 21, those of the nobility and c"mi"g to 
council that were with her at Hatfield, wrote to the marquis 
of Winchester, and the earls of Shrewsbury and Darby, to 
attend upon her to London, with a schedule enclosed of the 
names of certain other noblemen, whose company she 29 
thought good to have at that time. And letters soon after November 
were sent to sir Tho. Cavarden and others at the Tower, 
willing them, for tne making room against the queen's being ^o"'" *° ^'^ 

^ ,i«i • o • »"=*''^ ^t the 

there, to take order for the removing of certain persons out Tower; 
of their lodgings there: and particularly Dr. Weston, late ^"^^ .^^ *'*" 
dean of Windsor, committed in the last reign [not for his 
goodness,] of him to take sureties, such as he had in a readi- 
ness, for his good behaviour ; and to suffer him thereupon 
to have the liberty of the Tower, until such time as his 
cause might be further considered. He was, for sickness, 
soon after removed to one Wintour, a friend's house in 
Fleet-street, where he died, December 8, and ,vas buried at 
the Savoy. 

And as for certain others, namely, Dudley, J^owycr, ^^J^^"'^'^" 
Mylford, Pollard, and Flabell, (persons, I suppose, or somcsoners in 
of them, concerned in a late insurrection, headed by Slaf- jl* g^^^^f 
ford, wherein Scarborough castle was taken,) they wore all 



4£ 



INTRODUCTION 



A call of 
sergeants. 



SECT, to be appointed to one lodging; there to remain, till upon 

further examination of their several cases the same might 

Annoi658.be further ordered. Of these, Bowyer soon after had the 

queen"'s pardon. 
Middiemore One Henry Middlemore was sent beyond sea, December 

sent into , i n i • -tm ^ • i ^ ■ 

Flanders, the 13th, mto FJanders, to provide things necessary against 
the coronation : for which he had a passport to the mayor 
and jurats of Dover, to suffer him to pass without search, for 
that reason. 

Now the queen also made a call of sergeants, accustom- 
ably practised at such times : and December 11 commanded 
Martin, clerk of the crown, to make writs after the usual 
manner to the persons following, being appointed to be ser- 
geants at the law, viz. to Tho. Carus, — Reignold, — Corbet, 
John Welsh, and John Southcote, of the Middle Temple ; 
William Symonds, George Walle, Richard Harper, of the 
Inner Temple ; Randolph Cholmely, of Lincoln's Inn ; 
Nicholas Powtrel and John Birch, of Gray's Inn. And to 
Oliver St. Johns, esq. the lords wrote, that the queen's high- 
ness, for his worthiness and estate, was determined to ad- 
vance him to the degree of a baron at her coronation. And 
therefore that he was required both to put himself in readi- 
ness, and to repair to the court to receive the same accord- 
ingly. With him also she raised to honour sir Will. Par, 
Edward Seymour, lord Thomas Howard, and Henry Cary; 
and no more. 

Let me add one particular more, as preparatory to the 

The bishop queen's coronation. The lords sent to Boner, bishop of 

robes bo*r- * •'^°"*^°"' to send to the bishop of Carhsle, who was ap- 

rowed. pointed (as they writ) to execute the solemnity of the queen's 

Januarys, ujajesty's coronation, universam apparatmn pontificium, 

quo uti Solent episcopi in htijusmodi tnagnificis illustrissi- 

moriim regiim incmgurationibus, i. e. all the pontifical habit 

that bishops were wont to use in such glorious inavigurations 

of most illustrious kings. 

In Cliristmas week scaffolds began lo be made in divers 
places of the city, for pageants against the day the queen 
was to pass through to her coronation, which was to be Ja- 



St. Johns 
appointed 
for baron. 



The city be 
gin their 
prepara- 
tion. 



TO THIS HISTORY. 43 

nuary 14, and the conduits to be new painted and beau- SECT, 
tified. J'^- 



On the 12th day, the queen took barge at Whitehall, and^"»o isss. 
shooting the bridge went to the Tower ; the lord mayor and fo'|f,J'TJ" 
all the crafts waiting upon her in their barges, adorned with tiie Tower, 
streamers and banners of their arms. '^^ 

On the 13th day the queen made knights of the bath 
within the Tower. 

On the 14th she came in a chariot fi'om the Tower, with ^''^'^^ 
all the lords and ladies, all in crimson velvet, and their horses the city. 
trapped with the same; and trumpeters in scarlet gowns 
blowing their trumpets, and all the heralds in their coat 
armour; the streets every where laid over with gravel. The 
city was at very great charge to express their love and joy, 
in the magnificent scaffolds and pageants they had erected, 
in adorning the conduits, appointing music, preparing 
speeches and verses to be said to her ; which the queen took 
very well, and promised to remember it : besides the present 
of a purse of a thousand marks in gold, which they pre- 
sented her at the little conduit in Cheap, where the aldermen 
sat ; and the recorder, in the name of the city, made a speech 
to her. But for a full relation of all the splendour of this day, 
recourse may be had to Holinshed's Chronicle. 

Yet let me mention one particular, as having some more An English 
special respect to religion. In a pageant erected near the ^J,, Jj^J^" 
said little conduit in the upper end of Cheapside, an old her. 
man with a scythe and wings, representing Time^ appeared, 
coming out of a hollow place or cave, leading another person 
all clad in white silk, gracefully apparelled, who represented 
Truth, (the daughter of Time,) which lady had a book in 
her hand, on which was written, Verbum veritatis, i. e. the 
word of truth. It was the Bible in English : which, after 
a speech made to the queen. Truth reached down towards 
her, which was taken and brought by a gentleman attend- 
ing, to her hands. As soon as she received it, she kissed it, 
and with both her hands held it up : and then laid it upon 
her breast, greatly thanking the city for that present ; and 
said, she would often read over that book. Which passage 



44 INTRODUCTIOxN 

SECT, sliews as well how the citizens stood affected to religion 



III. 



t> 



(notwithstanding the persecution that had raged among them 
Anno 1558. for some years before,) as what hopes the kingdom might 

entertain of the queen"'s favour towards it. 
Crowned. On the 15th day she was crowned with the usual cere- 
monies at Westminster-abbey. She first came to West- 
minster-hall. There went before her trumpets, knights, 
and lords, heralds of arms in their rich coats : then the no- 
bles in their scarlet, and all the bishops in scarlet : then the 
queen and all the footmen waiting upon her to the hall. 
There her grace's apparel was changed. In the hall they 
met the bishop that was to perform the ceremony, and all 
the chapel, with three crosses borne before them, in their 
copes, the bishop mitred ; and singing as they passed, Salve 
Jesta dies. All the streets new laid with gravel and blue 
cloth, and railed in on each side. And so to the abbey to 
mass : and there her grace was crowned. Thence, the cere- 
mony ended, the queen and her retinue went to Westminster- 
hall to dinner ; and every officer took his office at service 
3 1 upon their lands ; and so did the lord mayor of London, and 
the aldermen. 
Great just- On the I6th day, in honour of the queen's coronation, 
*"^*' were great justings at the tilt ; there being four challengers, 

whereof the duke of Norfolk was the first. 

And on the 17th was tourneying at the barriers at 
Whitehall. 
Various his- Now, to Set dowu a few more historical collections of less 
ters. moment, yet not fit to be lostj of things that happened be- 

tween the queen's first taking the sceptre, and the conclu- 
sion of this year 1558. 
Bisiiop of November the 20th, Maurice Griffin, bishop of Roches- 
buried. ^^^"' ^"'^^ parson of St. Magnus on London-bridge, died. 
November 30, he was carried from his place in Southwark 
unto the said church ; and had a hearse of wax, and five 
dozen of pensils, and the quire lunig with black, and with 
his arms; two white branches, and two dozen of torches, 
and two heralds of arms, attending: sir William Petre chief 
mourner, sir William Garret, Mr. Low, and divers others, 



TO THIS HISTORY. 45 

mourners. Twelve poor men with black goAvns, and twelve sect. 
of liis men bearing torches, waited. White, lord bishop ^ ' 
of Winchester, preached his funeral sermon. The funeral '^""" i^ss. 
was adorned with a great banner of arms, and four banners 
of saints, and eight dozen of escutcheons. And after he 
was buried, they all repaired to his place to dinner. 

December the 10th, the late queen Mary was brought Queen 
out of her chapel, (where her corpse had been laid,) with all ^^^J^]^] 
the heralds, lords, and ladies, gentlemen and gentlewomen, 
attending, and all her officers and servants in black ; and 
brought to St. James's. On the 13th day she was brought 
from St. James's in great state in a chariot, with an image 
resembling her, covered with crimson velvet, her crown on 
her head, and sceptre in her hand, and many goodly rings 
on her fingers. And so she was attended along Charing- 
cross to Westminster-abbey. December the 14th was the 
queen's mass said, and all offered on the high-altar. The 
bishop of Winchester preached her funeral sermon. 

About this time of this queen's death and biu'ial, being iviany per- 
a very sickly season, many other men and women of qua- ii""^,|'ie.''"''' 
lity, and eminent churchmen, died, and had honourable bu- 
rials, as attendants of her into another world. November 
the 22d, Robert Johnson, gentleman to the bishop of Lon- 
don, was buried in Jesus' chapel, [a chapel, I suppose, in 
St. Paul's,] with many mourners accompanying, and the 
masters of [the fraternity of] Jesus, with their black satin 

hoods. November 26, Basset, esq. one of queen Mary's 

privy-chamber, was buried in the friars' church in Smith- 
field. November 30, the bishop of Rochester, as is above 
mentioned. December 7, lady Cholmcly, wife of sir Ro- 
ger Cholmely, knt. late lord chief baron of the Exchequer, 
buried in St. Martin's, Ludgate., December 8, Dr. Weston, 32 
dean of Westminster, and after of Windsor, buried at the 
Savoy. December 9, Dr. Gabriel Dun, buried honourably 
at St. Paul's. December 10, Cardinal Pole was removed Caniinai 
and carried forth to his burial, from Lambeth towards Can-ried. 
terbury, being the same day the queen's funerals began. 
Ditto 12, sir George Harper, knt. buried at St. Martin's, 



46 INTRODUCTION 

SECT. Ludgate, And the same day, Verney, master of the 

jewel-house, buried within the Tower. At or near the 



Anno 1 558. same day, was the lady Windebank (late of Calais) buried 
in St. Edmund's, Lombard -street. The 16th, the lady 
Rich, wife of the Lord Rich, was carried in a chariot from 
St. Bartholomew the Great, into Essex, to the place where 
she dwelt there ; [which was either Lees or Rochford ;] 
and on the 18th she was buried in the parish church in 
great state. The 23d, was performed at Westminster the 
solemnity of the obsequies of Charles V. emperor of Ger- 

Bishop of many. The 28th, Christopherson, bishop of Chichester, 

buried. ^^^^ buried at Christ-church, London, with all the popish 
ceremonies. A great banner was carried of the arms of the 
see of Chichester, and his own arms ; and four banners of 
saints. Five bishops did offer at the mass, and two sung 
mass. And after, all retiring from the place of burial, were 
entertained at a great dinner. In January, the lord Cheyne, 
(who died December the 8th,) master treasurer to the late 
queen, lord warden of the cinque ports, and knight of the 
order of the garter, was buried in great state in the Isle of 
Shepey. The same month also was sir John Baker, knt. 
sometime chancellor of the augmentations, buried with much 
state in Kent. Finally, in the beginning of February, was 
the marchioness of Winchester carried down in a chariot to 
Basing to be buried : and sir Thomas Pope, knt. a great 
man with the former queen, buried with much magnificence 
in Clerkenwell. But now to some other remarks. 

Contest be- 'p}^g Jq^-^j chief iustice of the queen's bench, sir Edward 

tween the i i i i i • i • i 

lord chi<'f Sauuders, had made out an attachment agamst the judge 
^ud*'rof the "^ the admiralty, Dr. Lewis; upon pretence that he had 
admiralty, intermeddled within his jurisdiction, in a matter depending 
between one Adam Wintrop, of London, and John Combes, 
Min.Coun- a Frenchman. The lords of the council, December 3, upon 
the hearing of both the said judges, and what either of 
them could allege for himself, ordered that the process 
awarded against the said judge, and the said matter in con- 
troversy between Wintrop and Combes be stayed, until 
their lordships should take some fiu'ther order therein, upon 



TO THIS HISTORY. 47 

consideration of what should be alleged on both sides, for SECT, 
the maintenance of their several jurisdictions. For the bet- '''' 



ter doing whereof, they were commanded to bring to the Anno isss. 
lords of the council a note in writing, of the causes wherein 
they have contended, or may contend, for their said juris- 
dictions: that thereupon the lords might determine some 
stay and order between them, according to equity and jus- 
tice. 

December the 9th, Gilbert Gerard, esq. was sworn in the Gilbert Ge- 
council-chamber the queen''s attorney general ; and Thomas ^ ^, V_°' 
Sackford, esq. was also in the same day and place sworn ford. 
one of the masters of requests in ordinary. ^^ 

December 25, the marquis of Northampton, queen Ka- Marquis of 
tharine Parr"'s brother, condemned, but pardoned in the ^^^"^^ '^"'P" 
late reign, was by the queen"'s command declared by Mr. 
Secretary to be sworn one of her privy council. 

December ult. the council wrote to Sir John Mason and Bishop Rid- 
Clement Throgmorton, to examine diligently a complaint ^g,* (.oj,jJ 
made to the queen"'s highness, by certain near kinsmen of r'=""- 
Dr. Ridley, late bishop of London, for divers parcels of his 
goods, that came into the hands of the bishop of London 
that now is, [viz. Boner,] and to signify to them what they 
should find out therein. 

January the 7th, letters were despatched from the coun- Letters to 
cil to Thomas Mildmay, esq. high sheriff of Essex, touch- ,,;g,,™^JrW^ 
ing the choosing of knights of that shire at the next county 
court, according to the minutes in the council-chest. 

Such letters to the high sheriffs, instructive of the per- Letters to 
sons to be elected parliament-men for the shires, were not f^^. ^jg^. 
unusual in former times. At least, so it was done by queen tions, from 

rr<i 1 queen 

Mary, this queen's immediate predecessor. Ihere be extant Mary. 
her letters, which I have seen, to the sheriffs, for choosing 
such parliament-men " as were of the wise, grave, and ca- 
" tholic sort, such as indeed meant the true honour of God, 
" with the prosperity of the commonwealth : the advance- 
" ment whereof she and her dear husband, the king, did 
" chiefly profess and intend, without alteration of any par- 
" ticular man's possessions, as, among other false rumours, 



48 INTRODUCTION 

SECT. " was spread abroad to hinder her godly purpose, by such 
' " as would have their heresies return, and the realm by the 



Anno 1558. u jygj ^vrath of God to be brought to confusion. From 
" which she had seen the same marvellously delivered ; and 
" minded, by God's help, and the advice of her counsellors 
" and estates of that parliament, to uphold and continue :" 
as she wrote in the said letters. 

Messengers. The same day Kobert Gascoyn, John Foster, John Win- 
ter, Tho. Clark, John Man, and Robert Kicheman, mes- 
sengers, being sent with letters, [to the high sheriffs, I sup- 
pose, for the purpose abovesaid,] sir John Mason, treasurer 
of the chamber, was ordered to pay them such sums as lie 
should think necessary. 

Lord Rich. Against the time of this election, the lord Rich (who was 
a great man in the county) liad taken up one Scofs house 
in Chelmsford. Afterwards the said Scot let his house to 

Sir John sir John Rainesford: but upon this, Rainesford was or- 
aiiiesou. ^QYQ^ ^^ appear before the council: and, January the 5th, 
a letter was writ to him from thence, requiring him to give 
place to the said lord Rich, considering it was first ap- 
pointed for him, and for avoiding all inconvenience that 
might otherwise arise. 
34 Thomas Nele, bachelor of divinity, had the reading of 

Nele, He- ^j-^^ Hebrew lectin-e in Oxford, according to the foundation 

brew reader _ . 

at Oxford, of king Henry VIII. The council, January 16, wrote to 
the dean and chapter of Christ-church, to pay to him all 
such money as was due to him for the reading of the said 
lecture, and to continue the payment thereof, until they 
should receive further order from thence. They writ again 
to the same dean and chapter, February 20, to the same 
purpose, requiring them to pay the said Hebrew reader, 
whose salary they had detained without just cause. This 
Nele was of New college, chaplain to bishop Boner, and re- 
mained reader to the year 1569. 
Bishop of January the 19th. l^his day the bishop of Winton,who had 
vvinton en- jj^gf, ^jefore commanded to keep his house for such offences 
as lie had committed in his sermon at the funeral of the 
late queen, was called before the lords of the council ; and 



TO THIS HISTORY. 49 

after a good admonition given him, he was set at hbert}^, SECT, 
and discharged of his said commandment of keeping his ^'^' 



house. Anno 1558. 

Ditto, a letter was sent from the council to Thirleby, bi- Commis- 
shop of Ely, and Dr. Wotton, commissioners now abroad, pea"" with 
for settling terms of peace with France and Scotland, signi- France, 
fying the queen''s determination to send the lord chamber- 
lain, lord Arundel, to join with them : and that they should 
in the mean time proceed according to their commission 
now sent. And John Malyn, admiral of the float in the 
narrow seas, received an order the same day, to waft John 
Sommers presently sent with these letters to the commis- 
sioners; and to provide shipping for six geldings of the 
lord chamberlain's to be transported over. 



VOL. I. 



35 ANNALS 



OF THE 



REFORMATION OF RELIGION, 

UNDER 

QUEEN ELIZABETH. 

^ 

CHAP. I. 

Prohibition to Carne, resident with the pope. Cardinal 
Pole's burial. Letters in favour of his executor. The 
queen dismisseth prisoners for religion. Orders from 
the council for that purpose. A late commission against 
Lollards looked into. Preaching prohibited. Notwith- 
standing.) papists preach ; and protestants. Slanderous 
words of papists. Pulling down images in churches. 
The council's letter to the city about it. 

Anno 1558. What with more special regard to religion was trans- 

ceedLeTof ^cted or fell out upon queen Elizabeth"'s first assumption of 

the church the crown, we shall now proceed to declare. 

ng an . j^ccording to the twelfth article of the memorial given to 

the queen by Cecyl the first day of her government, the 

Dr. Bill next Sunday after, being the 20th of November, Dr. Bill, 

arpaui's her chaplain and almoner, a prudent and learned man, 

Cross. preached at St. Paul's Cross, and made a pious sermon. 

No appeals Whereas the late queen had an old civilian, viz. sir Ed- 
to Rome. . 

ward Carne, resident at the court of Rome, the present 

queen intending to have little correspondence with that Ro- 

35 man prelate, gave him a check very early, not to meddle in 

the transferring of any causes within her dominions to that 



ANNALS OF THE REF. UNDER Q. ELIZ. 



n 



court. And there being now a controversy about a matter CHAP, 
of matrimony, depending between Mr. Chetwood and Mr ^• 



etter to 
arne, re- 



Tyrrel, a letter was despatched to him from her council; Anno isss 
requiring him, that forasmuch as he was heretofore placed [:^^ 
there as a public person by reason of his ambassade, hesident' 
should therefore from henceforth forbear to use his autho- iJjcenib. i . 
rity in soliciting or procuring of any thing in the said busi- ^^i"- °^ 
ness. And so he abode there privately till February fol-i,'"3ar i 
lowing, when it was signified unto him by the council, that 
the queen was pleased, in consideration thei-e was no further 
cause why he should make any longer abode there, to com- 
mand that he put himself in order to return home, at such Sent for 
time and with such speed as he should think most nieet.*^"™^' 
But March ult. the pope, hearing that the queen had re- 
ceived the discipline of protestants, required this knight, by The pope 
virtue of his command by the oracle from his own mouth, <^°'""^^"'^- 

•' ' etli Carne 

under pain of the great excommunication, and forfeiture oft" remain 
all his goods, that he should not stir out of the city of 
Rome, and take upon him the English hospital near St. 
Hierom's church. 

But before the year came about he dies, viz. January the Dies at 
18th. And though the aforesaid command of the pope was 
pretended for his not coming home, yet in truth it was his 
own choice to remain where he was : as appears by his mo- 
numental inscription, which was as followeth ; giving some 
account of him, and the time of his death, though not a 
word of his being rector of that Enghsh hospital. 

EDWARDO CARNO, 

Britanno, equiti aurato, Jurisconsulto, oratori, summisque \'arior. 
de rebus BritannicB regum ad imperatores, ad reges^ bis- u'.,j^.i^, 
que ad Romanam et apostolicam sedem, quarum in altera 
legatione a Philippo Mariaqiie pits regibus, misso. Obor- 
to deinde post mortem MaricE in Britannia schismate^ 
sponte patria carens ob cathoUcam Jidem^ cum magna in- 
tegritate, veroique pietatis existimatione decessit. Hoc 
monumentum Galfrid. Vachanus et Thomas Frecviannus 
amici ex testamento pos. Obiit MDLXI. 14 cal. Fcbr. 
e2 



52 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. The abovesaid cause, being an appeal depending at Rome, 
' (which this Carne solicited there,) had it seems obtained 



Anno 1558. so mvich favour in the queen''s first parliament, that in the 
in'\he court ^^^ then made for restoring to the crown the ancient juris- 
of Rome diction over the state ecclesiastical, wherein the pope's pre- 
tended authority was extinguished over all the queen's sub- 
jects; there was notwithstanding a clause, that if the sen- 
tence in the said appeal should be given at the court of 
Rome before the end of threescore days after the session of 
that parliament, then it should be judged and taken good 
and effectual in the law. The matter was thus: one Ri- 
chard Chetwood, esq. and Agnes his wife, by the name of 
Agnes Woodhull, in a case of matrimony solemnized be- 
tween them, at the suit of Charles Tyrrell, gent, were 
brought into the consistory at St. Paul's, before certain 
3 7 judges delegate, by the authority legatine of cardinal Pole; 
and a sentence was obtained against them, as it seems, to 
annul the marriage, in favour of Tyrrel. From this sen- 
tence they, the said Chetwood and Agnes, appealed to the 
court of Rome : which appeal depended there till queen 
Elizabeth came to the crown ; and yet while the parliament 
was sitting was undetermined. Perhaps it stopped by the 
council's letter to Carne above-mentioned. But now in fa- 
vour of the said Chetwood the cause was permitted to go 
on, and the sentence in that court to stand good in law, if it 
could be obtained in sixty days, for the reversing of the 
pretended sentence given against him by cardinal Pole's 
delegates. But if not, then the said Richard and Agnes, and 
either of them, at any time hereafter might commence, take, 
sue, and prosecute the said appeal from the said pretenced 
sentence, within the realm, as was used to be done at any 
time since the 24th year of king Henry VIII. upon sen- 
tences given in the court or courts of any archbishop within 
the realm ; and the sentence therein to be judged good and 
Cardinal effectual in law. 
Pole's Cardinal Pole, who died at his palace at Lambeth, Novem- 

burial : two ... 

bishops at- ber 17, between five and six in the morning, (or about three, 
viteii'ius according to the author of the British Antiquities,) lay there 

F5. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 53 

till the council gave order for his burial, both as to the time CHAP, 
and place. And his corpse being intended and allowed to ___!___ 
be interred at Canterbury, seignior Prioli, his executor, re-"^""^ '^^^' 
quested the queen and council, that two bishops, of the 
cardinal's great acquaintance, and who formerly had adhered 
to him, when he was an exile, might attend his funerals ; 
namely, Pate, bishop of Worcester, and Goldwell, (who had 
been his chaplain,) bishop of St. Asaph. Whereupon a let- 
ter, dated the latter end of November, was directed from the November 

28. 

council, then at the Charter-house, to the said bishops, sig- 
nifying that it was the queen's pleasure they should attend 
upon the said funerals, according to seignior Prioli's request ; 
which two bishops perhaps performed, the one the Latin, 
the other the English oration pronounced at his funeral. 

The council sent another letter in December to Sir Tho. Letters of 
Finch, (to whom was committed the keeping of the park at in favour 
Canterbury after the cardinal's death.) to deliver to the said "*^ '"* '=^'^- 

" /• n 1 • 1 1 cutor. 

executor all such cattle, hay, and wood felled m that park, December 
belonging to the said cardinal, and in the house of St. '°' 
Augustin's ; and six or eight does, and one hundred couple 
of conies, for the furnishing of the funeral of the cardinal. 

The said executor was courteously assisted by the council The council 

1 1 ' 1 order debts 

for the better recovery of debts and arrears due to the car- to i,im to 

dinal ; there being an open letter, dated in December, from ^ J;^^^'^ ^ 

the council to all the receivers, bailiffs, and tenants of the 

late cardinal, to pay all such rents as were by them due at 

the feast of St. Michael the archangel last, of the revenues 

of the archbishop of Canterbury, to Mr. Pynning, for the 

use of the said cardinal's executor. 

And whereas by the act of the 2 and 3 of Phil, and Mary, And pen- 
the tenths, impropriations, and other spiritual rents and t^,,,,,^, and 
pensions due to the crown, were given for augmentation of Ji^f^'fI;;.- 
small livings and better maintenance of the clergy ; and the rears. 
payments of them to be made to the cardinal, who was to 
dispose thereof according to his discretion; (and of these 3 8 
were many arrears;) the queen and her council were so 
obliging to this executor, that, in the beginning of January, January 3. 
letters were sent to all the bishops of the realm, and where 

E 3 



54 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, bishops wanted, to the deans and chapters of the cathedral 
churches, to make payment in the city of London, by the 
Anno 1558. last of January next, such sums of money due of the 
revenues arising of the first-fruits, and tenths, and benefices, 
impropriate within every several diocese ; either to the mi- 
nisters of the late lord cardinal, that were appointed for this 
purpose, or to such as should be appointed by the arch- 
bishop of York, and the rest of the council. 
Another Another letter was written the same month by the coun- 

thTmavor ^^^ ^^ ^^^ Same purpose, to the mayor of Chichester, and the 
of chiches- bailiff' of Lcwcs ; to make several proclamations in the same 
Jari. 21. towns where they had charge, upon the next market-days, 
that all and singular persons, as well spiritual as temporal, 
that had not yet paid such rents as were by act of parlia- 
ment granted to the disposition of the late cardinal, within 
the diocese of Chichester, should make payment of the same 
within six or seven days after the publishing of the procla- 
mation, at the bishop''s palace in Chichester, to Peter Adi- 
shed, appointed collector for this purpose : or else to repair 
forthwith to the council, to make payment of the same there 
to such as the same collector should appoint. This gives 
me occasion to suspect, that a great share of these tenths 
and pensions, designed for augmentations, were converted to 
Pole's own use, and went partly to maintain that cardinal's 
port and family, and partly distributed among his retinue. 

And this is the last tidings Ave hear of the cardinal and his 
concerns here in England. For the Italian his executor, as 
soon as he could pick up the cardinal's debts, and had dis- 
tributed his legacies, which were chiefly to Italians, retired 
into Italy 
The queen Tjig queen was not backward upon her first coming to 

spCBclilv 1 O 

sets prison- the crown, to shew her merciful nature (so different therein 
bert*** '' fro"^ ^^^r late sister) towards tlie afflicted professors of the 
gospel in bonds and imprisonment ; and for putting a speedy 
stop to the cruel methods used before, for the detecting 
them in all places, and taking them up by a kind of Spanish 
inquisition ; so as became a prince that intended not to rule 
with rigour, but with justice and clemency. One of her 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 55 

earliest actions was to release the captives, and to restore CHAP. 
liberty to the freeborn. Therefore order from above was ^' 



sent to the keepers of the prisons, wheresoever these honest Auno i568. 
and pious people were detained, that they should set them 
at liberty, taking their own bonds for their appearance, 
whensoever they should be called to answer. 

In the queen's bench were detained John Morice, Henry Order for 
Burgess, Robert Seulthroppe, Henry London, committed, ofTrlsonrrs 
I make no doubt, for heresy. Concerning whom an order '" *^''^ 
was despatched from the council to Richard Mallory and bench ; 
Henry Fallowfield, officers of that prison, to take bonds of 
these persons to be forthcoming when they should be 
called, and so to dismiss them, and set them at liberty. 
" For that they, the lords, by such examination as they 
" the said Mallory and Fallowfield had taken, found no 
" great cause of stay for them there :" as they expressed it 
in this their order, which bore date December 7. Decemb. 7. 

John Tother, priest, was delivered out of the Tower by a 39 
special order from the lords to Sir Edward Warner, lieu- in the 
tenant there, December 12. And four days after, the Newgate, 
sheriffs of London were sent unto to set at liberty the and the 
bodies of one Mather Mainard, remaining in Newgate; and Decemb. 12. 
one Burden in one of the counters ; taking their own bonds 
to be forthcoming, when they should be called for to an- 
swer to what should be objected against them. And also 
one Gilbert Gennings, remaining in one of the counters for 
the like cause, to be in like manner discharged of his im- 
prisonment. 

If we look out of London, in Colchester gaol were de- in Coi- 
tained Richard George, John Pilgrym, James Wilson, Decemb.21. 
Elizabeth Yong, and three others. Concerning whom, De- 
cember 21, a letter from above was directed to John Taye 
and William Carnal, (or Cardinal,) esquires, justices of the 
peace of Essex, to call unto them the bailiffs of Colchester, 
and to examine for what causes these were committed to 
their castle, and to certify the same. 

In Salisbury gaol lay certain prisoners committed thither {^"J^^"''*" 
by the bishop's officers, and others; and there still remain- "'^' 

E 4 



56 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



CHAP. 
I. 

Anno 1558 
Decemb.31 



And in 
Maidstone. 
January 4. 



A second 
order for 
those in 
Colches- 
ter castle. 
Jan. 14. 



A commis- 
sion in tlie 
late reign 
at^ainst the 
Lollards 
looked into. 



40 



ing. Concerning whom the lords sent a letter, December 
ult. to the lord Montjoy, Sir Will. Keylway, and Sir John 
• Zouch ; willing them to examine what the cause of their 
"committing was. And if they found that there was no 
cause by law to detain them, then to set them at liberty ; 
taking first their own bonds to be forthcoming, when they 
should be called to answer that which should be objected 
against them. 

In Maidstone gaol now remained Joan Saunders, Agnes 
Terre, Joan Valeant, and Margaret Atterbury. For the 
setting of whom at liberty, Mr. Wotton, high sheriff of Kent, 
was sent to, January the 4th, by special letters from the 
lords ; taking first their several bonds to be of good be- 
haviour and quietness. And no doubt many more such 
letters from the council were despatched to other prisons in 
the realm on the same account. 

For those in Colchester castle mentioned before, (who it 
seems refused to give their bonds, standing upon their own 
innocency, and their unjust imprisonment, which was certi- 
fied up by the two justices, January 14,) another order came 
to the said j ustices ; requiring them to take order with the 
bailiffs of Colchester, for the enlarging and setting at liberty 
those that remained in the castle there, committed thither 
in the late queen Mary's time, as persons suspected in re- 
ligion ; naming the foiu' above-said, and four more, viz. 
Alice Michel, Christian Crampe, John Hoste, and Edward 
Grewe : taking nevertheless their own several bonds, to be 
of quiet behaviour, and forthcoming when they should be 
called. Which if they should refuse, then to cause them to 
be sent up to the lords of the council, with whom further 
order should be taken. 

To give account next of a commission for inquisition after 
such persons as had any inchnation towards the gospel ; by 
means of whicii those above mentioned, and many others, 
had been laid up : this commission was so disliked by the 
queen, a lady of a more mild and merciful disposition, that 
it was presently taken notice of. But to fetch this commis- 
sion from its first beginning. It was made anno 1556. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 57 

against the Lollards, (as the professors of the gospel were c H A P. 
called,) for the more effectual extirpating them; and went ^^ 



forth from the king and queen. The commissioners were Anno 1558. 
the lords of the council, and many bishops and others. And 
besides this general commission, there were many other 
commissions more particular ; as one for Norfolk and Suf- 
folk, another for Essex. This last was directed to the earl of 
Oxon, the lord Darcy, Terryl, and other gentlemen of 
Essex : who were empowered to impose an oath upon 
whomsoever they called, to answer to what should be de- 
manded of them. Whereby they were to swear in effect to 
accuse themselves and all their friends that were of the same 
opinion, and held the same doctrine with themselves. And 
these commissioners might seize the lands, tenements, and 
goods of such as fled from their houses : which by inven- 
tories taken were to remain in safe keeping. This was an 
effectual way to ruin infinite numbers of persons, and re- 
duce poor widows and children to beggary, in case the fa- 
thers fled for their lives from the tyranny that pursued 
them. And by this means great numbers of men and wo- 
men were clapt up every where, or skulked in woods and 
by-places from their houses. And yet the names of those 
that fled were brought and given in, as persons suspected for 
treason, or fugitives, or disobedient to law. These commis- 
sioners, and those under them, had scraped together much 
money and goods of poor honest people by these means ; 
and the queen had thoughts of calling them to account for 
them. 

For London and other parts adjacent were three chief Three com. 
commissions : wherein the bishop of London, and sir Roger forYondoa, 
Cholmely, a judge, but a turncoat and a covetous man,^^^. 
amono- others were concerned. And these commissions had 
registers appointed them. To those three commissions afore- 
said, William Say, Robert Warrington, (or Warnington,) 
and Will. Babham, proctors of the arches, were registers, j^,^^^^^ ^^ 
To these three, three private letters were sent from thecouiaii to 
lords of the council, ordering them to make a particular and te,^[,nhose 
perfect note of all such matters as had been brought before Jjj>||^"is- 



58 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, the bishop of London and the said Chohnely and other 
commissioners, appointed to call before them certain persons 
Anuo 1658. of this reahn : and to signify withal, what judgments had 
been passed against them, and what fines were cessed and 
levied of them ; and to whom the same were paid. And 
in the mean time they were commanded, as they would 
answer for the contrary, to keep this matter close to them- 
selves, and that they were written unto herein ; because they 
were registers attendant upon the said commissioners. These 
Decemb. 18. letters were dated December the 18th. Present at this coun- 
cil, the marquis of Winchester, the earls of Arundel, 
Shrewsbury, Bedford, Pembroke; the lord admiral, i. e. 
lord Clinton ; the lord chamberlain, i. e. lord Howard of Ef- 
fingham ; Mr. Vice-chamberlain, i. e. sir Edward Rogers, 
who was also captain of the queen\s guard ; secretary Cecil ; 
sir Ambrose Cave, (chancellor of the duchy ;) sir John Ma- 
son, (treasurer of the chamber ;) and sir Richard Sackvile. 
And to the Likewise, the council wrote in the beginning of the next 
London" month to Boner, bishop of London, to repair thither on the 
January 3. morrow at two of the clock afternoon : and at his coming to 
4 1 resort to Mr. Vice-chamberlain : and to bring with him all 
such commissions as were made to him and others, for the 
examination and ordering of heresies and other misorders in 
the cliurch, in the time of the late queen. 
The fines Again, to those three registers aforesaid were three several 
*^*h *^h tT ' l^t*^^^^ directed in January following, from the privy coun- 
registers oil, to pay to Mason, treasurer of the chamber, all such sums 
Januarv*"i ^^ money as remained in their hands, of such fines as had 
been levied of divers persons in the time of the late queen, 
by order of the bishop of London, and other commissioners 
for the examination of heretics, and other misdemeanours in 
the church. 
Papists and Now did both the evangelics and the papalins bestir 
both jealous themselves for their parties. The former were afraid the 
of the queen would not set upon the work of reforming religion, 

queen. ^ , i n i • 111 

or make too much delay in so necessary a work : the latter 
were very jealous of her, by the little she had already done 
towards a reformation, that she would in the end throw 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 59 

down the late new raised structure of their rehgion. There- CHAP. 
fore on the one hand, many of the gospellers, without au- ^• 
thority, abhorring the superstitions and idolatry remaining Anno 1558. 
in the churches, were guilty of great disorders in pulling 
down images and such other relics there. The others spared 
not for lewd words poured out against the queen, without 
measure or modesty. And both took their occasions to 
speak freely their minds in the pulpits. 

Of which last the queen being aware, forbad all preach- Preaching 
ing, and especially in London. And the latter end of De- Decemb.28. 
cember, a letter was sent to the lord mayor of London, with 
ten proclamations of one tenor, for the inhibition of preach- 
ers; which he was required to cause to be published the 
day after in divers parts of the city, and to be set up where 
the people might see and read. By virtue of which procla- 
mation, not only all preaching was forbidden for a time, but 
all hearing and giving audience to any doctrine or preaching. 
And nothing else was allowed to be heard in the churches, 
but the epistle and gospel for the day, and the ten com- 
mandments in the vulgar tongue ; but without any manner 
of exposition, or addition of the sense or meaning thereof. 
And no other manner of prayer or rite to be used than was 
already used, and by law received, except the litany used then 
in the queen's chapel, and the Lord"'s prayer and creed in 
English. And so to last till consultation might be had by 
parliament, for the accord of matters and ceremonies of re- 
ligion. This proclamation maybe found in the Repository. Numb. ill. 

But it happened that on the very day that this proclama- An assem- 
tion was given forth, at Worcester-house was an assembly cester- 
got together for this purpose : which occasioned an order ^""*^- 
to be sent the same day to the said lord mayor, with the 
body of one Thomas Parrys ; whom he was willed to com- 
mit to ward in one of the counters, to remain there, until 
further order should be taken by the council ; for suffering, 
contrary to the queen's proclamation, assemblies of people 
to be at the said house, whereof he had the keeping. For 
though these gospellers could not yet get the churches, yet, 



60 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, instead of them, they held congregations in other places, 
' com'enient for the capacity and largeness of them. 
Anno 1558. Yet, although preaching was thus inhibited, in the Lent 
yet before foUowing scrmons were preached at court, however not so 
the queen much as allowed at Paul's Cross. Some of these court- 
\ty preachers I can name. On Ash -Wednesday, or the first day 
of Lent, February 8, Dr. Cox, sometime dean of West- 
minster, preached before the queen. Friday after, preached 
Dr. Matthew Parker, who was afterwards archbishop of 
Canterbury. Sunday following, Skory, late bishop of Chi- 
chester: and the Wednesday following, Mr. Whitehead. 
The rest of the preachers are not mentioned in my MS. till 
February the 22d, when Grindall preached. And on the 
25th, Sandys, and next, Cox again. 
Spitai ser- The next month, when the prohibition against preaching 
™"°*' seems to have been taken off, the preachers of the Spitai 
sermons were, March 27, Dr. Bill ; the 28th, Dr. Cox ; 
and the 29th, Mr. Horn. And April 2, being Low Sun- 
day, Mr. Sampson preached at PauFs Cross. Where, by ob- 
serving what sort of learned men were put up to preach at 
court, might be gathered how the queen stood affected to 
religion, however at present she concealed herself. But to 
return back again. 
The popish Now also, but especially a while after, when the parlia- 
pxiests nient came together, and by their authority, a common 
form of prayers in the vulgar tongue was like to be brought 
in, instead of the old mass ; the popish priests that could 
preach, bestirred themselves every where in the churches, to 
prejudice the people against receiving it. Thus in February, 
Morwen John MiuTcn, [Morwen perhaps,] chaplain to the bishop of 
t**The'Fieet London, and parson of Ludgate, was summoned before the 
for preach- lords of the council, for preaching contrary to the queen''s 
'"^' proclamation, and expounding the gospel in the church : 

which, when he was before them, he could not well deny. 
Wherefore he was committed to the Fleet, there to be kept 
without conference with any, until he were examined. 
Bishop On which day the said bishop of London, Boner, was or- 

Boner cited 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 61 

dered to be before tlie council ; perhaps to be present when CHAP, 
this chaplain of his made his appearance, and to understand ^- 
whether what he had done was by the bishop's knowledge, Anno 1558. 
suggestion, or connivance. But this contempt Murren some-'"''^"'^*'"' 

. r 1 • council. 

tniie after bemg content to declare and confess in the same 
church, according to a bill thereof subscribed by him, re- 
maining in the council chest, the lords therefore sent an 
order in March to the warden of the Fleet to set him ataiarch is. 
liberty. 

About the same time, Henry Cumberford, one of thecumber- 
canons of Litchfield, had also preached lewdly, and mis- |^"|j[^' ^ 
demeaned himself; (those are the words in the minutes of Litchfield, 
the council-book ;) of which the lords had information sentyg\^,j*jy|^* 
them by the bailiffs of Litchfield. Which occasioned the Feb. 23. 
said lords to send the said Cumberford a letter to appear 
before them, and another to the bailiffs and burgesses of 
Litchfield, to send some one sufficiently instructed at the 
time of the appearance of the said Cumberford, to object 
svich matters against him as he was to be charged with. 
But Cumberford, pretending sickness, stayed fourteen or 
fifteen days: when the lords sent another letter to the 
said bailiffs and burgesses, to signify to them, that if it were 
so indeed, that he had been sick, then when he should be 
able to travel, to command him in the queen's name to re- 
pair up ; and then they to send one sufficiently instructed 
to charge him. This matter (whatever it was) proving so 43 
lewd on Cumberford's part, when he appeared before the 
council, on the 20th of March, the lords thought fit, that 
the disorder committed by him, and complained of by the 
bailiffs, should be referred to the hearing and examination 
of the lord chief justice of England, and master solicitor. 
This man was detained in prison unto April the 17th, 1559, 
when he was bound in a recognisance to the queen of an 
hundred mark, to make his personal appearance before tlie 
lords of the council about Michaelmas next ; and then not 
to depart before he should have licence so to do; and 
further to stand to such order as should be taken with him 
for such matter as was objected to him. The last I find of 



62 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, this man was, that he was discharged the 2d of December, 
' until the town of Litchfield began their suit again, having 
Anno 1058. reasonable warning. 

And so does Likewise in Canterbury, a zealot there, namely the curate 
of St" * ^ of St. George"'s, the first Sunday in Lent had given such of- 
George's fence, that the mayor gave in a declaration thereof to the 
bury; Council. Him they willed the said mayor, by their letter 
March 6. -wrote the beginning of March, to commit to ward, and there 
to keep him, till he could be content to resort to the place 
where he offended ; and there in humble sort to acknow- 
ledge his folly, and recant the same. Which if he should 
refuse to do, and continue his obstinacy, to signify it up ; 
that he might receive further order how to proceed with 
him. 
And the cu- Here was also another priest, named sir Loye, curate of 
splints ^^^ Saints, who had also now transgressed in the same na- 
there. ture. Concerning which the lords ordered the said mayor 
to call unto him two of the next justices of the peace, and 
having substantially examined him, to give such order for 
his punishment, as the quality of his offence should seem to 
him and the said justices to have deserved. And to observe 
the like order henceforth towards such offenders, without 
further troubling or molesting the council with any such 
matters. The very words or matters spoken by these priests 
are not expressed in the council-book ; but very probably 
they were such as tended to charge the queen as a promoter 
of heresy, or some reflections upon her mother"'s marriage, 
and the like. 
The coun- In Devon and Cornwall also the priests were very officious 
to the^"he- ^^^ ^" seditious preaching : insomuch that letters were sent 
riffs of De- to the sheriffs of those two counties, " that where the lords 
Cornwall " '^^^^ given to Understand, that notwithstanding the queen"'s 
concerning « majesty's proclamation, certain within that county had 

preachers. ii -i ^ • ii 

" taken upon them without authority to preach ; they were 
" required to call such of the justices unto them as they 
" knew to be serviceable to her liighness; and upon con- 
" ference with them to take order, that all such as should so 
" attempt to preach, might be apprehended and committed 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 63 

" to ward : and to signify up from time to time what they CHAP. 
" should do therein."" ^• 



The queen herein shewed herself impartial. For onAnnoisss. 
which side soever they were, she punished the breach of her r™<«ftant 

. . . . . preachers 

proclamation : which evidently appeared in that two pro- punished. 
testant preachers, viz. Mr. Pullen and Mr. Dodman in Col- 
chester, were commanded to be sent up to the lords under 
safe and sure custody: a letter to that intent being sent 
from the council to Thomas Mildmay, high sheriff of the 44 
county of Essex, the bailiffs of Colchester, and other justices 
of the peace thereabouts. And a few days after, another 
letter was wrote from the council to the said sheriff of Es- 
sex, and to the rest of the justices, to give order for the ap- 
prehending, and committing to ward, such preachers as 
used to preach in that shire [noted to be well affected in re- 
ligion] as was informed, without a licence, and against the 
queen's late proclamation in that behalf. And thereupon to 
signify their names, and further proceedings herein, to- 
gether with the faults of the said preachers. 

But the popish priests and other zealots took frequent Papists use 
occasion not only to preach (as was said before) but to^.Q^ds 
speak very untoward words against the queen, reflecting (as against the 
it seems) upon queen Ann Bolen, her mother, and her own 
legitimacy and title to the succession, and in favour of the 
queen of Scots. For they had a great eye upon her as the 
next heir (at least) to the crown : and reckoned queen Eli- 
zabeth, being accounted no better than an heretic, was to be 
put by. Which they imagined and suggested would come 
to pass either by the French's invading England, (whereof 
indeed there were great preparations,) or by the shortness 
of her life ; wizards and conjurers prognosticating that she 
should not live out a year. Many were the complaints of 
this nature that were brought to the council. Thus, beside 
what was mentioned before, one Robert Forrest in Lincoln- Rob. For- 
shire, had spoken slanderous words. Which caused the '"' " 
council in December to send order to sir Edward Dimock,Decemb.ii. 
knt. to commit him to ward, there to remain for a month : 
and then to be set on the pillory in the market-town next 



64 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, to the place of his dwelling, with a paper on his head con- 
^' taining in great letters these words, For false and slander- 

Anno I sbs.ous reports. And in case he should not shew himself re- 
pentant for his fault, then to cause one of his ears to be cut 
off. 

JoiuiShory. John Shory also, sacristan of the cathedral church of 
Chichester, in the said month of December spoke lewd 
words ; whom the council directed to be punished by pil- 
lory, or otherwise, as should seem good to sir Thomas Pal- 
mer, John Palmer, and John Appesly, esquires. 

John Buke. There was also one John Buke, in Surrey or Sussex, that 
had also spoken lewd words, whom sir Edward Gage had 
apprehended, and certified the same to the council : who 
sent to the said knight, and thanked him for his diligence 
therein; willing him to send unto them the said Buke under 
safe custody, that the matter objected against him might be 
further examined. And he was willed to do the like with 
all others, whom he should find touched in that matter. 

A fellow of In the same month of December, a lewd malicious fellow 

Ashford. ^^ Ashford in Kent spake treasonable words against the 
queen. Sir Thomas Moyle, sir Thomas Kempe, sir Tho- 
mas Finch, knights, and Thomas Wotton, esq. were sent 
unto by the council, to call this man before them ; and to 
examine him of his misdemeanours. And if the matter should 
upon sufficient testimony be found true, to send up the ex- 
amination and the person himself, to be further ordered ac- 
cording to the laws. 
45 In the month of January from Southampton a supplica- 
tion was brought to the lords of the council, exhibited by 
certain inhabitants of that place, touching a disorder, and 

Sir Thomas, certain lewd words uttered by sir Thomas, priest of St. Mi- 

a pries . chaefs in the said town, and others. Whereupon the lords 
sent their letter to the mayor of Southampton, Thomas 
Pacy, and other magistrates there, to consider of the same. 
And if they should find the matter so as was represented in 
the said supplication, to cause the party culpable to be ap- 
prehended, and committed to safe ward : and to signify what 
they should find in the matter ; that order might be taken. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. C5 

in the same, agreeable to equity, and the quahty of the of- CHAP, 
fence. 



In the same month, the council wrote to the archdeacon Anno isss. 
of London upon a complaint against Geffrey Frauncis, Geffrey 
sumner, some forward man against the pi'ofessors of the£j""^'j;' 
gospel ; and by their order he, the said Frauncis, was com- sham, 
mitted to the Gatehouse in Westminster. And one sir Ed- 
ward Clypsham, priest, Avas, by the like order to the mayor 
of London, committed to one of the counters. But both 
soon dismissed ajrain. 

In February, Mountford, commissary to the bishop of Mountford 
Lincoln, and one Sabcots, scribe, were, by virtue of a letter ^"^^ * " 
to the alderman of Stamford, and two of his brethren, to 
give to the said two persons letters of appearance before the 
lords, upon an information of the said nature against them. 

John Gregyl, vicar of Barking in Essex, had spoken ma- John Gre- 
liciously. Wherefore the lords directed their letters to sir^'^ ' 
Anthony Cook and sir Thomas Wroth, with the informa- 
tion exhibited against him by one Thomas Pierson : which 
they were willed to examine ; and to send for the parties : 
and to signify what they should find. Afterwards he was 
committed to the Fleet without having conference with any. 
But after he had been in hold about two months, he pro- 
mised to make a public recantation. The lords hereupon 
sent to sir Anthony Cook and sir Peter Mewtas, requiring 
them, for that they were neighbours, to be present (at least 
one of them) at the said vicar"'s acknowledging his late of- 
fences before his parishioners ; and referring it to their dis- 
cretions to appoint the time and place. 

Information was also brought against one Christopher chiistoph. 
Savery, living, as it seems, in the west. The lords sent to"^^^'^' 
sir Rich. Edgecomb, Mr. Hogmore, and Mr. Reignolds, to 
examine diligently the said information touching lewd words 
by him spoken, and to signify what they should find therein. 

To Dr. Harpsfield, archdeacon of Canterbury, a letter of Dr. Harps- 
appearance was sent upon the like account. For in February ^^^^^^^ ^t 
information had been brought against him, that he used Canter- 
himself of late very disorderly, in stirring up the people, as 

VOL. I. F 



66 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, much as in him lay, to sedition. And that it was reported 
by some of tlie servants of the college of Chrisfs church, 



Anno 1558. (Canterbury, that religion coidd not nor should not be so al- 
tered. And that one man of the college had well near an 

Febr. 11, hundred harnesses. So a letter, dated February 11, came 
from the lords to sir Thomas Finch, and George May, an 
alderman of that city, to examine this matter diligently; 
46 and to call before them all such, whom they should think 
meet, to be examined herein, or culpable touching the same. 
And thereupon to cause such as were faulty to be com- 
mitted to ward; and to signify what they should find. And 
also to search what armour was in the said college; and what 
had been delivered out; and by Avhom; and for what pur- 
pose; and to whose hands. And to write their knowledge in 
these particulars. 

Thomas Thomas Malet wrote a lewd and untrue letter to his 

uncle Dr. Malet : for which he was by the lords committed 
to the Gatehouse ; and there to remain without conference 
with any. And soon after was bound in a recognisance of 
an lOOZ. to be of good abearing ; and personally to appear, 
and make his attendance upon the lords of the council every 
council day betwixt that and Easter, and not to depart 
without licence. 

Tho.Haii. One Thomas Hall, of Huntington, spake certain lewd 
words also : which the justices of assize in that county were 
wished to consider : and finding them culpable, to commit 
him to ward, and to see him further punished according to 
the quality of his offence, to the terror of others. 

William Qne William Bassenden, parson of St. George's in Canter- 

bury, had also spoken lewd words : whose body the mayor 
of Canterbury was ordered to send up under safe custody, 
with some one that was present when he spake the same. 

A Spanish In the month of March, a Spanish priest in Bristow, called 

1""'*^ • Francisco del Gado, used much unseemly talk of the queen"'s 
liighness. Whereupon the mayor and aldermen stayed him: 
and took an examination of him; which they sent up to the 
council. Who in a letter thanked them for what they had 
done, and gave order to keep him still in prison, till he 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 67 

could be content to be sorry and acknowledge his fault. In CHAP, 
which case he should be suffered to depart; or otherwise re- [ 



maining stubborn and without repentance, the same to be Anno 1558. 
signified to the lords, and to receive further order there- 
upon. 

Thomas Pain, of Castle Acre in Norfolk, was sent up for Tho. Pain, 
upon the same account. Thomas Birch, vicar of Witley, foimDeu- 
and John Deuton, parson of Spelhurst in Kent, for the like ton. 

. . • • R Back- 

ill behaviour, were ordered to be committed to ward. Sir l^Q^^se. 

Raphe Backhouse, parish priest of Little Wenham in Suf- 
folk, had spoken lewd and seditious words ; whereof sir 
Henry Doyle, and Christopher Goldingham informed the 
council. Who in answer required them, if they knew the 
accusers to be of honesty and credit, to cause the said priest, 
upon the next market-day to be holden at Ipswich, to be 
set on the pillory, and one of his ears to be cut off, and 
after committed to prison, there to remain until the justices 
of assize shall come next into the country : and then to be 
brought before them, and further ordered. 

One sir Peter Walker, priest, living in Colchester, uttered Peter Wai- 
certain lewd and untrue reports. For which the bailiffs of ^'^' 
Colchester were by the lords ordered to put him in the pil- 
lory the next market-day in Colchester, with a paper on his 
head, having these words written in great letters. For false 
seditious tales: and after, if he can find sureties for his good 
behaviour, to be set at liberty, or otherwise to be committed 
to gaol. The vicar of Hoo in Kent was also by order of vicar of 
the lords to be apprehended, and sent up in safe custody. .J*' 
All these in the month of March. 

I will add but one more of these delinquents, namely, Robert 
Robert Forster, parson of Over-Watton ; against whom ^°'''*'^'^''- 
matter had been exhibited. The lords sent to Hercules 
Rainsford and Thomas Gibbons, esquires, to examine hiir* 
upon the same : and in the mean time to keep him in safe 
ward. This was in April 1,559. But I intend to stop here; 
because I will not step over the present year. 

One would admire the new good queen should have so Certain 
many ill- wilier s every where, as appeared by these slanders ^^^^„\^^_ 

F 2 



G8 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, and false reports given out and spread against her, to breed 
^' disaffection in her subjects towards her from her first com- 



Annoi558.ino- (o the crown, and to sliake her title to it. Hence no 
into par- question it came to pass, that one, two, or three of the first 
stop siaii- bills brought into the queen's parliament, that sat in Ja- 
nuary, were designed to meet with these defamatory reports 
and libels: as the bill for the recognition of the queen's title 
to the imperial crown of this realm; and the bill, wherein 
certain offences be declared treason ; and that against slan- 
derous ami seditions zoords. These bills ripened into acts 
before the parliament ended. 
The act tie- That entitled. An act idierehy certain offences be made 
treason treason^ was but the renewing of the like act made in queen 
Mary's reign. But that act extended no further than to 
that queen's person : so that if the hke offences mentioned 
and contained in that statute happened to be committed 
against the queen that now was, viz. queen Elizabeth, there 
was no due remedy or condign punishment provided. This 
statute therefore was now made and declared to be in force 
in behalf of the present queen. It was made against such 
as should maliciously compass or imagine to deprive the 
queen's majesty and her heirs of her body from the style, 
honour, and kingly name of the imperial crown of this 
realm, or to destroy her or any of her heirs, or to levy war 
within the realm; or to utter by open preaching or express 
words the same compasses or imaginations. 
Ecciesiasti- Ecclesiastical persons for every such offence, immediately 
''uiir'^here "P"" ^"^^^ attainder, to be deprived of all their benefices and 
of, how pii- promotions. This act also reached to such as affirmed by 
"'^ * ■ writing or printing, or some overt act, that the queen ought 
not to have the style, honour, and kingly name of this realm : 
or tliat any other person beside the queen ought to have 
^and enjoy the said style : or that the queen that then was 
ought not to be queen of this realm during her life. This 
was made high treason. 
The act f.)r That Other bill against slanderous words, when it became 
woiliT'"* ^" ^^^> ^^^ entitled, An act for the cocplanation of the sta- 
tute of seditious words and rnmours : which was also a 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 69 

former act, made 1 and 2 of Philip and Mary. This act the CHAP, 
same parhamcnt thought most convenient to revive and re-_ \ 



enforce, rather than to frame a new one. Wherein they Amio i558. 
made every branch, article, word, and sentence to be ex- 
pounded and judged to extend to the queen's highness, as 
fully to all intents and constructions as it had to the former 
queen. And that all persons that should maliciously speak 
or utter any false, seditious, or slanderous news, rumours, 
sayings, or tales of the queen or of her heirs, being kings or 48 
queens of this realm, should incur such pains and penalties 
as in the said act [of queen Mary] was limited and ap- 
pointed. Which punishment was the pillory, and the cutting ivnaity, i 
off both ears, or the payment of an hundred pounds, and ^J^|| ^j ' 
imprisonment three months, for him that of his own ima-i:»i'-3. 
gination spoke false, seditious, or slanderous rimiours of the 
king or queen. And the reporting thereof from any other 
was the pillory, and cutting off one car, or 100 mark, and 
imprisonment one month. 

And for malicious writing or printing, and setting forth 
any book, rhyme, or ballad, containing false matter, clause, 
or sentence of slander of the king or queen, or to the stirring 
or moving of sedition or insurrection ; his right hand that 
had so done was to be stricken off, for the first time ; and for 
the second, imprisonment during life, and forfeiture of all 
his goods and chattels. 

And surely these severe laws afterwards terrified and re- 
strained these malecontents and ill-willers to the queen, and 
bigots for popery, which appeared already so numerous. 

There was also in this beginning of the queen's reign Some pull 
much zeal shewn on their side that desired reformation of |"^^"^ • , 

lUJclgcn 111 

corrupt religion. Who not being able to away Avith the su- churches 

. , 1 1 • -111 without 

perstitions practised, and the images m the churches, com-^rder. 
mitted great disorders by their own hands, pulling them 
down without any public authority, and defacing the churches 
where they were. Of this I shall give some instances ; com- 
ing to the ears of the queen's council. It was but about the 
beginning of December, that one Thomas Pike committed 
some such disorder in the church of Sholisbury, (Shobury 

f3 



70 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, in Essex perhaps,) of which the parson of the said church 
sent up a complaint to the council. Who listening to it, sent 



Annoi558.it back enclosed in a letter to the lord Rich, hving in those 
parts, and no very good friend to protestants : willing him 
to send for the said Pike ; and if, upon examination of the 
matter, he should find the same true, then to cause him to 
be punished according to the quality of his offence. 

What acts of this nature happened afterwards I do not 
find (only that on the 8th or 9th of January the image of 
St. Thomas, that is, Thomas Becket, the patron of the mer- 
cers, that stood over their chapel door, was thrown down and 
Disturb- broken) until the beginning of March ; when a notable dis- 
verlbout°' turbauce was made in the churches of Dover. Upon which 
pulling the lords of the council sent to Thomas Keyes, sergeant 
images. porter, and Edward Boys, esq. to examine it diligently; and 
to cause such as they should find faulty there, to be appre- 
hended, and bound in good bonds to appear at the council 
to answer their doings. Which if they refused to do, then to 
commit them to ward ; and to signify what they had done 
herein. The next month I find John Castle of Dover, ma- 
riner, Tho. Ramsden of the same town, shoemaker, and John 
West of the same town, butcher, were each bound in re- 
cognisances of 20Z. on condition that every of them should 
henceforth be of good abearing; and should also on the 
Sunday next, each of them in the parish church of Dover, 
whereof he was a parishioner, declare openly in the time of 
49 service, that he did very ill, and without order, to pluck 
down the images of that church, before a law did authorize 
him so to do. 
And in Ha- And in the latter end of March, the parish church of 
lyieshani. Halylcsham in Sussex was spoiled, and that by the inha- 
bitants of the said town : whereof Tho. Busshop and John 
Thatcher, justices of the pea^e, made complaint to sir Rich. 
Sackvile, one of the council. This (whatsoever it was they 
had done) the council styled a heinous disorder; and by 
March 29. their letters to the said justices willed them, for the better 
punishment thereof, to call for the assistance of sir Nicholas 
Pelbain and sir Edward Gage, and other justices dwelling 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 71 

nigh unto them: and having found out who were the au- CHAP, 
thors and ringleaders of that matter, to commit them to 



ward ; and to put them to such fines for their offence, as by Anao 1558. 
their discretions should be thought most meet, and agreeable 
to the laws. 

In Bow church, London, also about this very time, se- And in Bow 
veral got together privately and undiscovered, and puhed l^^^jj^^^ 
down the images and the sacrament, and defaced the vest- 
ments and books : which notwithstanding was so well hked 
by many, that no complaint was preferred thereof to the 
council. But some infoi-mation coming to them, they sent 
a letter to sir Thomas Lee, lord mayor, calling it an out- March 30, 
rageous disorder; and not hearing of any order by him'^^^* 
taken for redress thereof, they found it very strange. He 
was therefore put in remembrance of an exhortation made 
by the queen's majesty unto him on Candlemas-day last 
past, and straitly commanded to use the best means he 
could to bolt out the doers hereof, and to cause them to be 
apprehended and committed to ward ; and to signify unto 
them [the council] what he should find therein. Thus even 
and impartially did the state carry it toward both parties, 
until some further law should be made to direct the subjects 
in their public worship and service of God. 



CHAP. IL 

Cardinal Pole's message to the lady Elizaheth hefore Ms 
death. The carriage of the hisliops to the queen. The 
posture of religion. Secret counsels for restoring it. A 
parliament ; and convocation : lohat was done there ; and 
in the parliament. The act of supremacy ; and uni- 
formiiy. Private acts. Many hislioprics become void by 
the act of supremacy ; and other ecclesiastical prefer- 
ments. 

Xi/ARLY interest was made with Elizabeth for the con- Cardinal 
tinuance of the old religion. For, when the papalins saw ^°'^p,'Jpf 
their power was unequal to put her by from reigning after lain to lady 

. Elizabeth. 

r 4 



i^ ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, her sister, tliey laboured to persuade her to let religion re- 
' main as she found it. There was a secret message sent from 



Anno 1558. cardinal Pole but three or four days before his death, to her, 
being now but lady Elizabeth, together with a letter; 
whereof Seth Holland, dean of Worcester, his chaplain, was 
the bringer. The letter was as follows : 

His letter " It may please your grace to understand, that albeit the 

Cottoii iii)r. " ^°"& continuance and vehemency of my sickness be such 

Vespasian, " as justly might move me, casting away all cares of this 

" world, only to think of that to come ; yet not being con- 

" venient for me to determine of life or death, which is 

" only in the hand of God, I thought it my duty, before I 

" should depart, so nigh as I could, to leave all persons sa- 

" tisfied of me, and especially your grace, being of that 

" honour and dignity that the providence of God hath 

" called you unto. For which purpose I do send you at 

" this present mine faithful chaplain, the dean of Worcester; 

" to whom may it please your grace to give credit in that 

" he shall say unto you in my behalf. I doubt not but that 

" your grace shall remain satisfied thereljy. Whom Al- 

" mighty God long prosper to his honour, your comfort, 

" and the wealth of the realm. 

" By your grace's orator, 
'■^ From Lamhehhh. the \^th ,, u ^ /-> . • i-> 

^ , ' " Rt^ff- ^ar. Cantuarien. 

'' of November, 1558." ^ 

By this letter and message, as it seems to me, he drove 
at two things: the one, to satisfy the lady Elizabeth, that 
he was in none of the faction against her life and reign ; 
and thereby to recommend himself and his friends unto her, 
when she should come to the crown, which he saw was not 
far off', the present queen being past hopes. The second, to 
leave with her certain counsels and instructions for her fu- 
ture government and behaviour of herself, especially in re- 
gard of the Roman religion, that then was in jilace, and to 
continue it: importing this in point of policy to be her safest 
course; and the extraordinary danger hanging over her 
head, should she attempt the alteration of it. Which no 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 73 

question the cardinars chaplain set as home upon the queen CHAP. 
as possible. ^^- 

Yet surely it tended not a little to disafFect the queen to- Anno i558. 
wards that relieion, that the clerffv and bishops from the ^''^ ^""^^^^ 

n 1 11 1 1 1 V 1 1- disobliged 

very tirst she wed themselves so very wayward and disobhg- by the 
ing. Many instances of this in the inferior clergy we have ^^w^^^ '^' 
related already : now some passages concerning the bishops, 
which I take from a Roman author of great fame. Ogle- Answer to 
thorp, bishop of Carlisle, standing ready to say mass before justice" 
the queen, she commanded him not to elevate the conse-P-^^- 
crated host, to prevent the idolatry that the people were 
wont then to commit ; but to omit the ceremony, because 
she liked it not. Which the said bishop nevertheless (to his 
great honour, said the writer) constantly refused to obey. 
When she was to be consecrated by some bishop at her co- 
ronation, they all refused, till with much ado the foresaid 
bisliop was prevailed upon to do it, who was the inferior al- 
most of all the rest. For his former refusal he never repented 
it, but for the doing the other office towards her, when he 
saw the issue of the matter, and both himself and all the rest 5 1 
of that order deprived, and the church''s holy laws and faith, 
(as that writer expresseth himself,) against the condition of 
her consecration, violated, he sore repented him all the days 
of his life ; which were, for that special cause, both short 
and wearisome afterward to him. And the reason those bi- 
shops refused to crown her, (as that Romanist relates,) and 
that they durst not invest her, was, for that they had evi- 
dent probabilities and arguments to doubt, that she meant 
either not to take the oath, or not to keep the same, which 
all Christian kings, and especially ours in England, did 
make in their coronation, for maintenance of holy church''s 
laws, honours, peace, and privileges, and other duties due 
to every state, as in the time and grant of king Edward the 
confessor. They doubted also, lest she would refuse, in the 
very time of her sacre, the solemn divine ceremony of unc- 
tion, through the evil advices of certain young counsellors, 
being then in the heat, prime, and pride of their heresy; 
whereby great scandal might arise, and hurt to the realm. 



74 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. Upon this surmise of her future misgovernment, they did, 
what in them lay, reject her from being their queen. These 



Anno isos-caj-j-iages might well estranoe her mind from them. 

Religion as But whether she were determined in her mind before or 

yet at a ^ certain it is, that the affairs of the church continued for 

st.ay. ' ' 

a while in the same posture and condition they were in be- 
fore, abating persecution for religion : mass celebrated in 
the churches; the ejected and exiled clergy not restored to 
their former places and preferments; the popish priests 
keeping possession; orders, that things in the church should 
for the present continue as they were ; such punished as in- 
novated any thing in the church or public worship : which 
put the favourers of the gospel under great fears and jea- 
lousies; and they began to suspect the queen intended to 
make none, or very little amendment in religion. 
Secret deli- But as certain it is, (and we may believe the queen privy 
t'hrreform- ^^ ^^>) ^^^^U ^t the vcry beginning of her reign, some there 
ing of re- were of Considerable rank engaged in a deep and very secret 
deliberation about the method and way of restoring religion 
again ; and what was to be done in matter of policy for se- 
curinof the inconveniencies that might arise at home and 
abroad, from the reformation of religion ; who of the queen's 
council were first to be made acquainted with the design ; 
what learned men to be employed in making the alterations; 
and concerning the appointments of time and place. There 
was about the beginning of December such a device drawn 
up by some notable hand, and offered to secretary Cecyl ; 
and which, by the steps that afterwai'd were taken, ap- 
peared to have been followed. By whose pen it was writ 
doth not appear. I suspect it to have been either John 
Hales, a man of a politic and working head, and a zealous 
protestant, and clerk of the hanapcr to this queen, as he had 
been to king Edward VI. or sir Thomas Smith, a very wise 
man, and secretary of state to king Edward : and I am ra- 
ther incUncd to think it the latter. 
52 In which device arc these questions, with practical, apt 
The device answers to them. I. When the alteration shall be first at- 

drnwii tor i • i ■ * i 

briiiping It tempted .'' The answer to which is, At the next parliament. 

about. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 75 

II. What danger may ensue upon the alteration? The an- C HAP. 
swer to which weighs the danger from the bishop of Rome, ^^' 
from the French king, from Scotland, from Ireland, and Anno 1558. 
from many people here at home. III. What remedy for 
these matters ? Answer to which is given particularly and 
distinctly, as to France, Rome, Scotland, Ireland, and at 
home. IV. What the manner of doing it ? The answer to 
which propounds certain learned men to contrive and bring 
in a book, or platform of religion ready drawn, to the 
queen ; and having her approbation, to be put into the par- 
liament-house. The men named for the drawing this up, are 
Bill, late master of Trinity college, Cambridge; Parker, 
late dean of Lincoln ; May, late dean of St. PauFs, doctors 
in divinity ; all under king Edward heads of the university 
of Cambridge, but cashiered by queen Mary, and remaining 
obscurely in England in her reign : and beside these, Cox, 
Whitehead, Grindal, and Pilkington, who were exiles, and 
newly come home; and sir Thomas Smith, a learned knight, 
and doctor of the civil law, was to call them together, and 
assist with them in the work. And before this, it was 
thought necessary that all innovation should be strictly for- 
bidden, until such time as the book should come forth. 

By the sequel it appears, that this advice was taken, who- 
soever Avas the giver of it ; those being the persons ap- 
pointed for the revising king Edward's book of common 
prayer : and a proclamation being issued out in the latter 
end of the month of December to the effect aforesaid, as 
shall be told by and by. 

But proceed we to the other questions. V. What might 
be done of the queen, for her own conscience, openly, before 
the whole alteration.? Or, if the alteration must tarry longer, 
what order is fit to be in the whole realm, as an interim .'' 
The resolution was, to make no further alteration than the 
queen had already done : except, to receive the communion 
as she pleased on high feasts ; (that is, whether in one or 
both kinds ;) and that the chaplains at mass receive in both 
kinds ; and that some devout sort of prayers be framed and 
used for a while, and mass said more seldom. VI, What 



76 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, noblemen might be thought to be most fit to be made privy 
to these proceedings, before the privy council shovild have 
Anno i568.it propounded? To which four are mentioned, Northamp- 
ton, Bedford, Pembroke, and Grey. VII. What allowance 
should be assigned to the learned men, while they were re- 
viewing the book of common prayer ; and where to meet ? 
The answer to which is, Sir Thomas Smith ""s lodgings in 
Chanon-row ; and sufficient provision to be made of meat 
and other things. This excellent paper is summed up by 
Camden in his History of Queen Elizabeth, but first saw 
the light by the means of the right reverend the bishop of 
Sarum, who hath printed it in his History of the Reforma- 
Voi. ii.Coi-tion, from the MSS. of the lord Grey of Ruthen, now lord 
ec .p. 'yjg^.Qmjt Longuevil. But there being another MS. of it in 
the Cotton library, somewhat different from that used by 
him, and explanatory of it in some places, and more cor- 
Nuinberiv. rect, I am therefore tempted to put it into the Repository 
from that MS. 
53 A difficult work this was now taking in hand : the re- 
Many for formation of corrupt religion being the harder to bring to 
gustan Con- pass, because there was not only in this juncture a for- 
ffssion. midable popish party to struggle with, but a Lutheran 
party also. For there was not a few now that, in the altera- 
tion of religion, would endeavour to have it settled accord- 
ing to the Augustan Confession: whereby a real and sub- 
stantial presence might be acknowledged in the eiicharist ; 
crucifixes and images might be retained in the churches ; 
the wafer put into the receiver''s mouth, and such like. And 
of this the learned men of the foreign reformed churches 
Bii)iiotii. were much afraid. I find a letter written anno 1559, from 
Bullingcr, chief pastor in Zurich, to Utenhovius, another 
learned man, now at Frankford, (but under king Edward 
VI. belonging to the Dutch church in London,) signifying, 
how many strove to have the Augustan Confession received 
Video ct in here. " I see," saith he, " no little disturbances like to arise 
Angiia non ^^ • j^j^oiand, if, as some do require, the Confession 

niouicas ob- & ' ' i _ ' 

orituras " of Augsburg be there received ; a thing imsuitable in 
(lumiquT- " "liiny respects.'"' He went on, and shewed how this con- 



cedes, liel- 
gic.Londoa 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 77 

fession had caused vexation in all the sincei-er churches, and CHAP, 
laboured to infect all with its leaven. That Utenhovius 



knew what it had done in Poland; and bade him take heed, Anno isss. 
and give his assistance that it took not place. And that king i,^ji„njs"^. 
Edward's reformation satisfied the godly. mam muitis 

But notwithstanding this stay of religion enjoined by the postulant, 
queen, as was said before, divers of those that Avere nii- '"'^'^'P"^^"'' 

. . . . Anji^ustana 

nisters in king Edward"'s days now soon returning home Coutessio, 
from abroad, and others concealed within the realm, began J*^". 
to shew themselves, and exercise their ministry, especially pUs Edvanii 
in London, after the order of the reformation in that reign ; •"«fo''niatio. 
great numbers of people assembling at those times. And this ^^ j^g •„ ^e- 
the Cj[ueen shewing herself displeased at, upon pretence of *'e'"" y<^t 5 
the occasion it gave to unfruitful disputes and contentions, 
declared the same by a proclamation sent out December 27, 
from Westminster : wherein she charged all, as well such as 
were called to the ministry, as others ; the one to forbear to 
preach or teach, and the other to hear any doctrine or 
preaching, than the gospel and epistle for the day, and the 
ten commandments in English, without exposition or addi- 
tion of any manner of sense or meaning to be applied. Nor 
any manner of public prayer to be used in the church, but 
what then was used, and by law received; except the li- 
tany, the Lord''s prayer, and the creed in English, as she 
used in her own chapel. Yet this order of the queen''s was 
somewhat mitigated, by adding, that it was to last only till 
she and her three estates in parliament should meet, and Till a par- 
consult for some reconciliation of matters as were then 
moved in point of religion : withal promising, that she 
meant, by all means possible, to procure and restore the ad- 
vancement of religion among her people ; but threatening 
severe punishment to those that should disobey this her pro- 
clamation. Which proclamation I have also placed in the 
Repository. And accordingly, Jan. 1, the htany, epistle. Numb. ill. 
and gospel in English, began to be said in London, by vir- 
tue of that proclamation of the queen, according as was used 
in her chapel. 

But the day of the parliament's meeting now drawing on, 54 



78 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, being January the 23d, we shall proceed to look upon their 

transactions, especially in the matters of religion, wherein so 

Anno 1568. mucli was to be done. As we must also look into the con- 

ihe parha- yocation-house, wliere the clerffv sat at the same time upon 

meat meets. _ ">' -"^ 

the same business. 
Lord keep- The sitting of the parliament this day, by reason of the 
at the^'open- fiueen*'s bodily indisposition, was prorogued till January the 
ing of it. 25th, when the lord keeper, sir Nicolas Bacon, opened it 
with a long and eloquent speech : and that branched into 
three general matters : which the queen, he said, had called 
D'Ewes' the parliament together for. The first whereof was, for the 
well making of laws for the according and uniting of the 
people into an uniform order of religion. This he touched 
tenderly and wisely, as representing the queen not inclinable 
to one side or other, but only aiming to settle the religion, 
to be professed among her subjects, upon true principles. 
Laws to be The sum of what he said relating to this point was, " that 
settling re- " the queen had God before her eyes, and was not unmind- 
iigion. a fui of precepts and divine counsels ; and therefore meant 
" chiefly in this conference, that the advancement of God^^s 
" honour and glory should be sought, as the sure and in- 
" fallible foundation whereupon the policies of every good 
" commonwealth were to be erected; and was as the straight 
" line, whereby it was wholly to be directed and governed ; 
" and as the chief pillar and buttress, wherewith it was con- 
" tinually to be sustained. And as the well and perfect 
" doing of this could not but make good success in all the 
" rest, so the remiss and loose deahng in it could not but 
" make the rest full of imperfection and doubtfulness: which 
" must needs bring with them continual change and altera- 
" tion ; a thing to be eschewed in all good governances, but 
** most of all in matters of faith and religion. That the 
*' queen therefore principally required them, for the duty 
*' they bore to God, and their service to her and their coun- 
*' try, that in this consultation they would, with all humble- 
*' ness, singleness, and pureness of mind, use their whole 
" endeavour and diligence to establish that which by their 
" wisdoms should be thought most meet for the well pre- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 79 

" serving of this godly purpose : and this without respect CHAP. 
" of honour, rule, or sovereignty, profit, pleasure, or ease ; ^^' 
" or of any thing that might touch any person in estimation Anno 1556 
" or opinion of wit, learning, or knowledge; and without 
" all regard of other affection. 

" And that in their conference about this, they should 
" wholly forbear, as a great enemy to good covmsel, all 
*' manner of contention, reasonings, disputes, and sophisti- 
" cal, captious, and frivolous arguments and quiddities, mat- 
" ters for ostentation of wit, rather than consultation of 
" weighty matters; comelier for scholars than counsellors. 
" And because commonly they were causes of much expense 
" of time, and bred few good resolutions. 

" He advised, that by counsel provision should be made, 
*' that no contentious and contumelious words, as heretic, 
" schismatic, pajnst, and such like, being nurses of sedi- 
" tious factions and sects, should be used, but banished out 
" of men's mouths, as the causers, continuers, and increasers 
" of displeasure, hate, and malice; and as utter enemies of 5 5 
" all concord and unity, and the very marks they were now 
" come to shoot at. And that as nothing should be advised 
" or done, that might any way breed or nourish any kind 
" of idolatry or superstition, so heed was to be taken, that 
" by licentious or loose handling, any occasion were given, 
" whereby contempt or irreverent behaviour towards God 
*' and godly things might creep in. 

" That the examples of fearful punishments that followed 
" these four extremities, that is to say, idolatry, supersti- 
" tion, contempt, and irreligion, in all ages and times, were 
" more than he could declare : and yet not so many as the 
" blessings and benefits of God to those that had forsaken 
" them, and embraced their contraries. That for their bet- 
*' ter encouragement to run this right and straight course, he 
" thought he might aflSrm, that the good king Hezekiah 
" had no greater desire to amend what was amiss in his 
" time, nor the noble queen Hester a better heart to over- 
" throw the mighty enemies of God's elect, than their sove- 
" reign lady and mistress had to do that which might be 



80 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, "just and acceptable in God's sight. And so forced to 

' " this by their duties to God, feared tliereto by his punish- 

Anno 1558." ments, provoked by his benefits, and drawn by their love 

" to their country and their wives, and lastly, encouraged 

"by so princely a patroness, he exhorted them in God's 

" name to go about this work." 

Now before we observe what impression this speech had 

upon the parliament, let us first see a little what was done 

among the members of the convocation. 

Aconvo- Herein the popish clergy did notably bestir themselves. 

wherein It began the 24th day of the said month ; that is, the next 

the popish jjjjy after the parliament Avere called together, Nicolas 

clergy be- -^ ^ r , 

stir them- Harpsfield, archdeacon of Canterbvny, being prolocutor : 
Ms" c c '^^h^n? by the order of the bishop of London, president, the 
c.c. Syno- lower house drew up articles, and desired the bishops of the 
upper house to present them to the parliament. The his- 
tory of it was thus ; as I take it from archbishop Parker's 
volume, entitled Synodalia. 

In the fourth session, the bishop of London asked the 
clergy of the lower house, whether they had thought of any 
thing which they would explain that day? When the prolo- 
cutor, with Thomas Reynold, John Harpsfeld, and Wil- 
liam Chedsey answered, that they knew not for what cause, 
and concerning what things they were to treat ; and they 
prayed, that a way might be considered of, how religion 
might be preserved. To which the bishops answered, that 
it seemed expedient, that the clergy should make a suppli- 
cation to the queen, that no burden might be imposed upon 
the clergy in that parliament; and that then they should 
consider about the supply of a subsidy, and the way of 
raising it. 

Session 6. The prolocutor and the clergy offered to the 
bishops certain articles in writing, which the said clergy 
had devised, for the disburdening of their consciences, as 
they said, and the protestation of their faith : and petitioned 
the bishops, that they would head them in the same. 
56 Session 7. Fcbr. ult. They exhibited their articles con- 
ceived in the former session ; which were read, and the bi- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 81 

shops promised to present them to the upper house of par- CHAP, 
liament the next day. The articles were these : ^^' 



I. That in the sacrament of the altar, by virtue of the Anno issa, 
words of Christ, duly spoken by the priest, is present 7-^^. ^''^e articles 
litery under the kinds of bread and wine, the natural body by them. 
of Christ, conceived of the virgin Mary, and also his natu- 
ral blood. 

II. That after the consecration there remains not the 
substance of bread and wine, nor any other substance but 
the substance of God and man. 

III. That in the mass is offered the true body of Christ, 
and his true blood, a propitiatory sacrifice for the living and 
dead. 

IV. That to Peter the apostle, and his lawful successors 
in the apostolic see, as Christ's vicars, is given the supreme 
power of feeding and ruling the church of Christ militant, 
and confirming their brethren. 

V. That the authority of handling and defining concern- 
ing the things belonging to faith, sacraments, and discipline 
ecclesiastical, hath hitherto ever belonged, and ought to be- 
long only to the pastors of the church ; whom the Holy 
Ghost for this purpose hath set in the church ; and not to 
laymen. 

The three former of these were solemnly disputed at Ox- 
ford, the first year of queen Mary, as the great xpjriljpiov of 
popery, against Cranmer, Ridley, and Latymer. 

The next session, the prolocutor and clergy asked the 
bishops, whether they had presented the articles ? The bi- 
shop of London said, he had presented them to the lord 
keeper of the great seal ; and that he received them, as ap- 
peared, gratefully ; but gave no answer. They desired the 
upper house, that they would before the next session in- 
quire the good pleasure of the keeper concerning them. 

In a session following, the bishop of London told them, 
that the articles under the hand of a public notary were 
exhibited, (one only article, viz. the last, excepted,) being 
before approved by the universities of Oxford and Cam- 
bridge. 

VOL. I. G 



d2 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. Nothing more followed, but adjournments, until the mid- 

die of May 1559, when, I suppose, this convocation was con- 

Anno i558.ckided, the parliament being dissolved a little before, viz. 

the eighth day of the said month. 
The pro- xi\ tJjig while the clergy that favoured sincere religion 

cier")' not Were but private slanders by, and were not consulted with : 
yetrestxired.^l^-gj-j p^j. ([iqi^ into some disturbance, fearing the issue; 
their hearts trembling, as old Eli''s did, for the ark of God : 
and well they might, there being neither any order taken 
for the restoration of the old protestant bishops to their sees, 
whereof there were four surviving ; nor of the inferior clergy, 
that married wives under king Edward, and were deprived 
under queen Mary, to their former dignities and benefices. 
The bishops j^^i ^ow let US look into the pai'liament, and see what 
queen's was douc there about religion, and for the establishment of 
first par- |^|^g queen upon her throne. First, Richard Cox, D. D. 

liament. . 

Stew's (sometime dean of Westminster, and of Christ church, 
"^°"' ew Oxon, but that had lived abroad all the late reign, and now 
lately come home,) preached before the jWliament at the 
opening of it. But queen Mary's bishops and prelates only 
sat in the house, from whom was to be expected all the op- 
position that could be against casting off the pope's usurpa- 
tion, and restoring of true religion. They were indeed few, 
some being newly dead, as Canterbury, Salisbury, Norwich, 
Chichester, Rochester, and some others ; several absent, who 
had sent their proxies, as Durham, Peterborough, Ely, (now 
abroad in an embassy,) Bath and Wells, St. David's: to 
which add, one prior, sir Tho. Tresham, lord prior of St. 
John's of Jerusalem, who also sent his proxy. Those that 
appeared were, Heath, archbishop of York, that had been 
lord chancellor, Boner, bishop of London, White of Win- 
ton, Pate of Worcester, Kitchin of Landaff, Bayne of Co- 
ventry and Litchfield, Turbervile of Exeter, Scot of Ches- 
ter, and Oglethorp of Carlisle, with Feckenham, lord abbot 
of AVestminster. 
Bills The chief bills brought in, Avhich this present history 

™"° '"■ especially rcquircth our taking notice of, shall follow. The 
most wliereof passed into acts, (but some were rejected,) 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 83 

to all which, the bishops that sat in the house, generally, CHAP, 
one and all dissented and protested. 



The first bill pi-eferred in the upper house was read on Anno i568. 
Monday, January the 30th. The substance was, for the ^■^- tu'tlon^o'f" 
stitution and amiexation of the first-fruits, tenths, &c. to the first-fruits, 

&c. 

imperial crown of this realm. Which, by reason of the present 
impoverished state of the revenues, was thought highly ne- 
cessary to be restored again to the crown, to help to uphold 
the "huge, innumerable, and inestimable charges" of the 
royal estate, as the bill expresseth it ; mentioning how these 
first-fruits, tenths, yearly rents of impropriations, rectories, 
&c. had been given away by queen Mary from the crown, sand 3 Pisii. 
which they accounted a great disherison and decay done to**" ^'^^' 
the crown and royal estate of the realm, and the succession 
thereof. This bill was read the third time, and passed Sa- 
turday, February 4. To this bill all the bishops present, 
which were eight, dissented, viz. York, London, Worcester, 
Landaff, Coventry and Litchfield, Exeter, Chester, Carlisle. 
But all the temporal lords consented nemine contradicente : ^'^-'^'^^' 
as appeared easily by the standing up, first of the temporal 
lords, who voted in the affirmative, and then of the spiritual 
lords, who voted the negative : in respect of the apparent 
inequality of their voices. 

The second and next bill brought in, and read in theForreeog- 
lords' house, was on Wednesday, February the 1st, which ^,'J j^y^g^^ 
was still in order to uphold the queen's estate, being for 
recognition of her title to the imperial crown of this realm. 
This bill was finished February the 9th, and by universal 
consent concluded. Observe that here the bishops did not 
dissent. This bill was conform to the practice of queen 
Mary's first parliament, wherein such a bill was brought 
in and passed, declaring and recognising her to have been Sess. ii. 
born in a most just and lawful matrimony ; and so conse- 
quently their rightful queen. 

The third bill that was read in the said house was on the 58 
said 9th of February, still relating more nearly to the queen. ^,g%']."g'*'j; 

%this bill certain offences were declared treason. . 

•^ . , Against 

And the fourth bill was read the same day, against m««- slanderous 



G 2 



words. 



84. ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, derous and seditious words. What need there was of such 
a bill to restrain the tongues of many against the queen and 



Anno 1558. jjgj. pi-Qceediugs, is evident from what hath been related be- 
fore. 
For the The next (being the fifth bill proper here to be taken 

be inherit- notice of ) was read February the 10th, wherein the queen 
able to her ^yjjg made inheritable to the late queen Anne, her maiestv"'s 

mother. . . '■ ' j j 

mother. And it is remarked by the author of the history 
of the journal of this parliament, concerning this bill, that 
after the reading two other bills the same day, it was read 

SirSyraonJs again, and ordered to be engrossed. Which speed, he saith, 
the house took for the passing of this bill, to express their 
zeal and affection to her majesty. February the 13th, this 
bill was read the third time, whereby the queen was re- 
stored in blood to the late queen Anne, her mother, and 
concluded with the common consent of all the lords : neither 
is there any mention in the journal of the house, of the bi- 
shops dissenting to this : which because it is a private act. 

Number V. and unprinted, I exemplify it in the Appendix. 

For restor- February the S7th came a very material bill from the 

ing the su- •, ^ , . 

premacy. house of commons, where it had been despatched ; it was for 
the restoring the supremacy to the imperial crown of this 
realm ; and Jbr repealing divers acts made to the contrary. 
This bill was tossed about in both houses, and many altera- 
tions made, and many provisoes added. Once it was entitled, 
" A bill to avoid the usurped power claimed by any foreign 
*' potentate in this realm ; and for the oath to be taken for 
" spiritual and temporal officers." This was the reason it was 
read so often in the upper house, as the 27th and 28th of 
February : again the 13th, 15th, 18th of March : on which 
day it is said in the journal to be concluded ; these two tem- 
poral lords dissenting, viz. the earl of Shrewsbury and vis- 
count Mountague; and these spiritual, being nine bishops 
and one abbot, that is, I suppose, all that were in the house, 
viz. York, London, Winton, Wigorn, Landaff, Coventry 
and Litchfield, Exon, Chester, Carlisle, and the abbot of 
Westminster. And after, March the 18th, by reason of 
some additions, provisions, and reviews of so weighty a bill, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 85 

it came into this house again several times before it was CHAP, 
finished. ^^• 



March the 20th, fourteen bills were brought up from the Anno isss. 
commons to the house of lords : whereof one was to take ^""^ taking 

away cer- 

away all pains and penalties for religion in queen Mary's tain penal- 
time ; and another^r making ecclesiastical laws by thirty- fo^makin-^ 
two persons. The rest of the fourteen were about temporal ecciesiasti- 
matters. The former was taken into the bill of the supre- 
macy. The latter bill, being for an emendation of the civil 
and ecclesiastical laws, (wherein infinite pains had been 
taken by archbishop Cranmer, and divers of the learnedest 
men in king Edward's reign,) had been often brought into 
that king's parliaments, and had found difficulty to pass, 
though earnestly desired by the best men : nor had it better 
fortune in this reign. Men did not then care to be re- 
strained by church discipline. 

March the 22d, the billj^r the restitution of the first- ^^ 
fruits and tenths was returned from the lower house, and^''^ ^o'"*^*® 

Ti • 1 1 Ml /» • first-fruits, 

concluded by the lords. And likewise the bill jor restoring and that for 
the supremacy to the imperial crown, with a new proviso ^^,.y"^,^ft',i 
added by the commons ; which was read the first, second, a proviso. 
and third time, and concluded ; the bishops of York, Lon- 
don, Winton, Landaff, Coventry and Litchfield, Exon, 
Chester, Carlisle, and the abbot of Westminster, dissenting. 

The same day, the bill^r admitting and consecrating Yor admit, 
archbishops and bishops was sent from the lower house, and ^^^^^^^' 
was read then, and read again the second time: and the 
next day, viz. March the 23d, was read the third time, and 
concluded. This bill also was put into the bill for the su- 
premacy. 

April the 4th, 1559, the bill, that the queen, upon the For ex- 
avoidance of any archbishopric or bisJiopric, might exchange ^iXTpl ° 
the temporal possessions thereof with parsonages impro- lands, 
priate, was read now the first time. April the 5th, the 
same bill was read again, but worded thus ; " That the 
" queen, upon the avoidance of any archbishopric or bishop- 
*' ric, may resume the temporal possessions thereof into her 
*' hands ; recompensing the value thereof with parsonages 

g3 



m ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " impropriate," &c. The next day the same bill was read 
the third time, and concluded; the bishops of York, Lon- 



Anno 1558. Jon, Wigom, Coventry and Litchfield, Exon, Chester, Car- 
lisle, and the aforesaid abbot, dissenting. 
fT,''i^^r"^ April 14, Friday, four bills were brought from the com- 
and restor- mons : whereof one was to review the act 5 Edw. VI. for 
crown *&c. keeping of holydays and fasting-days. This bill either came 
to nothing, or was taken into the bill of Uniformity. And 
another ,j^r restoring to the crown the ancient jurisdiction 
over the state ecclesiastical and spiritual, and for abolishing 
all foreign power repugnant to the same : both which were 
read. Here this important bill of the Supremacy came into 
the upper house again, and received the title wherewith it 
stands in the statute: but by reason of other provisoes 
added yet unto it, it was not fully completed until the 29th 
day of April ; as will appear in the sequel. 
Bishop of April the 17th, the bishop of Ely was in the house: 

Elv now in , . . c- ^ • t 

tiie house, bemg now returned home from his embassy abroad with 
Dr. Wotton. For this day, to him and some other bishops 
and peers was committed the bill for restoring to the crown 
the ancient jurisdiction ; now having been read the second 
time. 

BiiiofUni- April the 25th, nine bills were brouffht from the com- 

lornuty, ^ ' ... 

and for hi- mous to the lords. Those concerning religion were, first, 

ley's leases, touchiug un'ifbrmity of common prayer^ and service in the 

church, and administration of the sacraments : which passed 

in the commons'" house April the 20th. Secondly, To make 

good the leases and grants of offices and copyholds, made 

by Nicolas Ridley, late bishop of London. This bill. May 

the 1st, was rejected after a third reading. 

The case. T!\\c case was this, (as I have it from an authentic paper :) 
MSS. penes pi • r r / 

me. Boner, bishop of London, was deprived by two several 

commissions, dated the eighth and seventeenth days of Sep- 
tember, in the third year of Edward VI. The commissions 
and sentence of deprivation both of record. 
6o From which sentence of deprivation Boner appealed, as 
appeareth by record. 

The privy council examined and rejected the appeal by 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 87 

sentence definitive. Which sentence is of record: but the CHAP, 
commission whereby they did it cannot as yet be found. ' 

Upon the rejectment of the appeal, Dr. Ridley was trans- ^nno isss. 
lated to be bishop of London, and made leases of certain 
lands, parcel of the said bishopric. 

Primo MaricB, Boner was restored : who made leases of 
the same lands unto others ; supposing Ridley to be but an 
usurper. 

So that upon the validity or invalidity of their two leases, 
the question was, whether Ridley were lawfully bishop of 
London in the reign of king Edward VI. or no. 

The inconveniences that might grow thereof were reserved 
to the considerations of the good and godly : for that many 
titles did depend thereon. 

April the 26th, Wednesday, again the bill for restoring Proviso to 
to the crown the ancient jurisdiction over the state ecclesias- i^upi-emacy. 
tical and spiritual, &c. with a proviso added thereunto by 
the lords, read a third time, and concluded ; the bishops of 
York, London, Ely, Wigorn, LandafF, Coventry and Litch- 
field, Exon, Chester, Carlisle, and the foresaid abbot of 
Westminster, dissenting, with viscount Mountague only of 
the lords temporal. It was yet read again the 28th of April, 
because of a new proviso added by the commons. And 
April 29 read a third time, and concluded. 

This 26th day, the bill for uniformity of common prayer. Bill of Uni- 
and service in the church, sent the day before from the '^^^^^y^ 
commons, was read the first time in the lords'* house. April 
the 27th, the same bill was read the second time: April 
the 28th, read the third time, and concluded ; the bishops 
(as before) of York, London, Ely, Wigorn, Landaff, Co- 
ventry and Litchfield, Exon, Chester, Carlisle, dissenting; 
(the abbot is not mentioned here in the Journal among the 
dissenters : I suppose he was now absent.) The dissenting 
temporal lords were nine, viz. the marquis of Winchester, 
the earl of Shrewsbury, viscount Mountague, barons Morly, 
Stafford, Dudley, Wharton, Rich, and North. 

The 27th day likewise were three bills brought from the „ iuhcraft 
lower house; of one I will take notice, having been twice=*nci en- 

' " chant- 

G 4 meats. 



88 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, read, though it passed not into an act this session; but in 
• the next parliament it did : by this bill the use and practice 



Anno 1558. of' enchantments, "witchcraft, and sorcery, was made felony. 
The reason of bringing in this bill was, because conjurers 
and chamtiers, and such as invoked evil spirits, were so fre- 
quent and busy upon the queen*'s first coming to the crown, 
and perhaps before : who meddled in matters of state, and 
endeavoured by sorcery and the black art to deprive the 
queen of her kingdom. Besides, that many people nowa- 
days were strangely taken, deprived of their speech, bereft 
of their senses, pined away, their flesh rotting ; which were 
justly supposed to be the effects of conjurations and en- 
chantments: and so the preamble of that act doth set 
forth. 
6 1 Another of these three bills, for the security of the queen''s 
Bill apinst peace in her proceedings, and to prevent popular tumults, 
assemblies, did pass the lords'* house April the 29th, confirming an act 
*' '^* made in the first of queen Mary, against unlazcfid and re- 
bellious assemblies. Which as it served that queen, so it 
was like to prove very serviceable now to this, in the present 
alteration of religion. For by this act were stopped any in- 
tents or attempts to alter or change, by force of arms, any 
laws made or established for religion ; if any persons to the 
number of twelve or above, of their own authority, should 
meet together for such purpose. 
Another Apnl the 29th, (i. e. the same day,) another proviso an- 

the bin for "tixed by the commons to the bill for restoring to the crown 
restoring, the ancient jurisdiction over the state ecclesiastical, was read 

the third time, and concluded. 
Bill to exa- May the 2d, several bills came from the commons to the 
causes of lords '. whcrcof one was, that the queen by commission might 
spiritual examine the causes of dep?-ivation of spiritual persons, and 

persons de- , . . 

privation, restore them again. This was in favour of such of king 
Edward's clergy, (whereof were great numbers,) that in the 
beginning of queen Mary''s reign were thrown out of their 
ecclesiastical preferments and places, and others clapt in 
their rooms, (either because they were married, or for that 
they favoured the gospel,) without, or contrary to law. But 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 89 

this bill, for some political reasons, I suppose, passed not, CHAP, 
being not found among the printed acts. ^^' 



Another of these bills was, to annex to the crown certain i^nno i558. 
religious houses^ and to reform certain abuses in chantries, ^o annex to 
These bills were this day read ; and read again the next day : certaia re- 
and May the 5th, both read the third time, and concluded : I'S'o"^ 

'' . _ ' _ _ houses. 

but the bishops and abbot dissenting to the bill for annexing 
to the crown religious houses ; to which three provisoes were 
added. This also is not among the printed acts. 

Let me add the mention of one temporal bill, and that Bill for the 
was for the subsidy and two fifteens and tenths; to shew in*" *' ^' 
what low circumstances the crown now was, and how sensi- 
ble the nation was of it. This bill was first read in the 
house of commons, February the 3d, and brought up to the 
lords February the 11th. This subsidy was extremely free, 
and readily granted without any special labour or desire of 
the queen, but out of most necessary consideration had by 
the court of parliament for the wealth and public affairs of 
the realm. For the parliament in their consultations well 
saw what great debts had, been left to the queen's majesty 
to pay on the other side of the seas, (which yet remained and 
grew intolerable to the realm,) and what other great charges 
and debts had been left to her, by reason of the wars as well 
towards Scotland as in Ireland : a great part whereof, with 
no small care, pains, and consideration, had been defrayed ; 
together with other charges lying now upon her since the 
late queen^'s death, for her funerals, and for her own co- 
ronation. 

The queen, soon after the parliaments breaking up, sent Levied by 
forth her commissions for the levying this subsidy through- gjon, gpist. 
out England: and the lords of the council backed the said '^'"ni^- ^*: 

.... IT lop. inOflic. 

commissions with their letters for the more effectual and true Armor. E. 
assessing and collecting of it. In their letter to the lord presi- 63 
dent of the north, (whence I have taken what is above writ- 
ten,) they write further, " that they could not but lament- 
" ably report, that the burdens, debts, and charges had been 
*' and were intolerable, which daily did appear. And they 
" prayed him and the rest of the commissibners in those 



90 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. '* northern parts, (as they should have occasion offered them 
• " in the execution of this commission,) by their earnestness 



Aimo 1558. " and dihgence to further this subsidy, which was so frankly 
" given, as with more good- will and fuller accord never was 
" any granted : and that they would shew themselves to 
" have respect to this time. And so to use the demands and 
" assessment of this subsidy, that it might appear (as true 
" it was) nothing to the particular benefit of her majesty, 
" but only towards the discharge and alleviating of some 
*' part of that burden wherewith her majesty found her im- 
" perial crown overcharged by the late queen''s great debts." 
This was written from Westminster, May the 22d. But to 
return a little back again. 

Bills con- Let me now shew several things transacted in the lower 

cei ning bi- Jjousc (as I havc hitherto chiefly done in the upper) concern- 
simps, &C. . . .. *' 11-1-- 

ill the lowering bishops and spiritual persons, and their deprivations, 
'''"*'^* and the alienations of their lands, or other matters respect- 
ing religion. 
For the pa- February the 15th, a bill was brought into the commons' 
the bishop house for the restoring of the patentees of the bishop of 
of Win- Winchester's lands. Of which lands they had been thrown 

cli6sttir's 

liuids. out in queen Mary"'s reign, and their patents from king 
Edward evacuated ; and the said lands procured back to 
Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, and his successors: this 
*^ bill was, February 18, read again the second time. And 
again, ten days after, (viz. February 28,) the bill was 
amended, or rather renewed, and now entitled, A bill for 
assurance of lands, late parcel of the bishopric of Win- 
chester, granted to king Edward VI. and by his letters pa- 
tents granted to the earl of Pembroke, sir Will. Fitz- 
Avilliams, sir Philip Hobby, sir John Mason, sir Henry Sey- 
mour, sir Henry Nevil, and sir Richard Sackvile. This bill 
was now read the first time. 
The lord- One of tlicsc patentees (though not mentioned in the 
inamir 'of Journal among the rest above named) seems to be the 
Southwurk niarquis of Northampton, whose authority now might give 
of. some speed to the passing this bill. He had, in the year 155% 

made an exchange with the king ; and had of him the lord- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 91 

ship and manor of Southwark, sometime belonging to the CHAP, 
bishop of Winchester, for the chief and capital mess of ______ 

Lambeth, sometimes parcel of the estate of the duke ofAnnoisas, 
Norfolk, attainted with treason ; as I find in the book of 
grants, passed vmder the bishop of Ely, lord chancellor: 
unless perhaps the marquis having been attainted under 
queen Mary, this lordship with the rest of his lands were Cot. libr. 
forfeited to the crown ; and so not mentioned among the " '"^' " ^* 
patentees. 

But to see further how this bill proceeded. March the 
1st, being Wednesday, White, the bishop of Winton, in The bishop 
proper person came, and required the copy of the bill ex- apMa^ *"^ 
hibited here, touching his lands ; which was granted : and against the 
further, it was allowed him to bring in his answer and 
counsel on Saturday next at nine of the clock. March the 63 
2d, Mason required that the counsel of the patentees for the 
bishop of Winchester's lands might be there the next day, 
to hear what the bishop and his counsel would say : which 
request was granted by the house. 

March the 4th, Saturday, the bishop of Winchester in 
proper person opened his title to his manors, [taken away 
by king Edward, and given to his patentees,] saying they 
had been parcel of the bishopric for a thousand three hun- 
dred years, and required justice of this house. The queen'*s 
attorney, hearing the talk of the bishop, required that he 
might be heard for the queen touching these lands. And 
day was given as well to Mr. Attorney as to the bishop, to 
be heard on Monday next, at half an hour before nine. 

Master chancellor of the duchy, who was sir Ambrose One of the 
Cave, took this opportunity (the bishop being now in the j],"^"^^^^^"^'"* 
house of commons) to complain, that Mr. White [so he the bishop, 
termed the said bishop] had called him a witness, not to Hke 
the boolc of service, [which the bishop, it seems, had said 
while he was arguino; against the said book in the lords' 
house.] But the bishop answered, in excuse, or for the 
rectifying the report, " That Mr. Chancellor said, he 
" zvished the booJc to be ivell considered of. But since the 
" house did take it, that he [the bishop] did misrepresent 



^2 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. <« him, therefore he standing up asked him forgiveness: 
,*' which Mr. Chancellor again took thankfully from the 



Anno 1553. u bishop." 

The counsel March the 6th, Monday, the bishop of Winchester 
or the bi- hrouffht learned counsel with him ; and divers arguments 

shop argues. ^ . 

were had about the late bishop's lands. Then the qucen''s 
attorney desired, that he and the rest might say their minds, 
whereby they might fully answer. The bishop now seemed 
to delay the cause, saying, that his counsel was not yet in- 
structed. Notwithstanding Mr. Attorney answered at large. 
The effect of his speech was, that the appeal made by bishop 
Gardiner in the last reign, when he was deprived, [which 
appeal seemed most to be insisted upon,] was not of effect. 
For that in the commission at his deprivation was contained, 
cum omni appellatione remota. And so the appeal made to 
king Edward VI. by that bishop ti' ay point cTeffect. Mr. 
Noel and Mr. Bell, of counsel with the patentees, declared 
in effect for the patentees, as Mr. Attorney had shewn for 
the queen. 

The next time we hear of this business was March 9- 
Then the bill to assure lands late of the bishopric of Win- 
ton, to the queen and certain patentees of Edward VI. was 
read the second time. 
He can- The bishop of Winchester had, it seems, in this cause 

celled re- ^^^^j^ upon him to cancel records ; which the house was in- 
cords. A 

formed of. And thereupon, March 14, articles were devised 

for the punishment of the bishop : and it was ordered that a 
bill should be thereof drawn by Mr. Keilway. And March 
21, a new bill was read against cancelling of records by war- 
rant or otherwise. 

March 16, the bill for the assurance to king Edward's 
patentees of the lands late parcel of the bishopric of Win- 
chester was read the second time. And March 18, the third 
time : and upon the question passed the house. 
64 To the rest this may be worthy noting, that on March 
Dr. story ^^ ^3^ \^ ^^s reported to the house by one of the bur- 
reprimand- -nrr TO yi i -x 
ed in pariia- gesses, that Mr. [or Dr.] Story (who was a very hot papist) 

'"^°*" had not well used himself, being a member of this house, in 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 93 

going before the lords, and being of counsel with the bishop CHAP, 
of Winchester, against the patentees. Which by the house , 



was taken to be a fault, [in so open a disallowance and op- Anno isss. 
position of that which had passed the house whereof he was 
a member,] and, it seems, to the breach of some order of the 
house in such cases. Whereupon Story excused himself by 
ignorance of any such order : and nevertheless that he had 
since considered it, and did acknowledge it not to be well 
done ; and therefore required the house to remit it : which 
accordingly by the house was remitted. 

The foresaid bill was, with several other bills, brought up The bill of 
to the house of lords March the 20th, and March the 22d patentees 
read the third time, and passed ; yet the archbishop of p'****^'^ ^]^^ 
York, and the bishops of London, Winton, Wigorn, Lan- lords, 
daff, Coventry, Exon, Chester, and Carlisle, and the abbot 
of Westminster, and these temporal lords, Winchester, 
Stafford, Dudley, and North, dissenting. 

There were other bishops' lands alienated from the bi- other lands 
shoprics under king Edward VI. and given away to parti- ^,1^^^^°^* 
cular persons after the deprivation of the said bishops, and As, 
the bishoprics being then vacant ; which lands were restored 
again under queen Mary. And in this parliament endeavour 
was made to recover them back again : as appears by these 
bills following. 

March the 1st, a bill was read the second time in behalf of of the bi- 
the lord Wentworth, and others, who had got much of the ^J^^^llj^jj,^ 
lands of the bishop of London in king Edward's reign, and to the lord 
now endeavoured to obtain a bill for the holding them. It ^,orth, &c. 
was entitled, A bill for the assurance of certain lands, 
parcel of the bishopric of London, to the lord Wentworth, 
the lord Rich, and the lord Darcy. And the next day, 
another bill was read the first time in the house of commons, 
(where the former was read,) for confirmation of the bi- 
shopric of London to the now bishop of London, [viz. 
Boner.] Which seems to be put in, in opposition to the bill 
read before, craftily framed by the said bishop. 

March the 11th, a bill to confirm bishop Ridley's leases Bishop 
and grants was read the second time, and ordered to be en- poseth it. 



94 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, grossed. Two days after, viz. Monday, March the 13th, 
Boner, bishop of London, in proper person came, and re- 



Anno 1558. quired a copy of a bill put in for confirmation of leases 
granted by Dr. Ridley, usur-per of the bishopric, as he 
styled him. Which copy was granted him; with addition, 
that the house did intend to take Ridley's title in the bi- 
shopric as it was : and that he should make his answer by 
words on Wednesday next peremptory at nine of the clock. 
Accordingly, on Wednesday March 15, the bishop of Lon- 
don in his proper person came, and shewed the untruth of 
the bill, as, he said, he took it; and concluded, that the 
king's commissioners for his deprivation did not according to 
their commission. And yet by his appeal then, and by his 
letters patents from queen Mary, he affirmed, that he stood 
65 still bishop. And therefore finally, that the grants made by 
Dr. Ridley were void. 
BisiiopRid- But notwithstanding, April the 15th, the bill for con- 
confirme" ^'^"'^^.tion of these leases, grants of offices, and copyholds, 
made by Ridley, late bishop of London, had its third read- 
ing, and passed the house. 
The con- This bill set forth, " How the said Edmond Boner, 
b^iTforV/-^ " bishop of London, was upon good and just caases and 
shop Rid- " considerations, by just sentence, and order of the law of 
eys eases. ^^ ^j^^ realm, deprived, deposed, and put from his said 
" bishopric, and all other his spiritual promotions, for his 
" contumacy ; and that afterwards the said bishopric was 
" justly collated and given to Nicolas Ridley, D. D. by 
" letters patents of King Edward VI. "vvith all the lands and 
" tenements thereunto belonging. And that he being placed 
" and possessed in the said bishopric, did make divers 
" leases of manors, lordships, meses, lands, tenements, mea- 
" dows, pastures, &c. by his several deeds under the seal 
" and confirmation of the dean and chapter of Paul's, for 
" term of years and term of lives : and also divers demises 
" of his lands, tenements, &c. customary by copy of court- 
"roll; and took and received divers fines for the same; 
" and granted also to divers persons divers offices, as stcward- 
" sliips, bailiffwicks, &c. That the said farmers had been 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 95 

"at great cost and charges in and about reparations and CHAP. 
" buildings upon their farms, or otherwise : tliat afterwards ^^' 



" the said Boner was restored in the time of queen Mary, Anao 1553. 

" by colour of a certain appeal, and other surmised causes ; 

" whereas indeed, by right, he could have had none : since 

" which the said leases, grants, copyholders and customary 

" tenants had been, and daily were, with great cruelty, ex- 

" pulsed, and put out of their said farms, offices, and copy- 

" holds by the said Boner : surmising the same leases, grants, 

*' offices, and copies of court-rolls to be void ; for that the 

" said Nic. Ridley did not, as he surmised, lawfully possess, 

*' occupy, and enjoy the said bishopric of London, by rea- 

*' son of the said appeal, or other causes, by the said Ed- 

" mond Boner untruly and insufficiently alleged : 

" That therefore it might be ordained, published, and 
" enacted, that all leases, demises, and grants, &c. offices, 
*' bailiflf'wicks, and stewardships to any one, lawfully made 
" by the said Ridley, during the time of his possession of 
*' the bishopric, should be judged, expounded, deemed, 
" construed, &c. as good and effectual in the law, to all in- 
" tents and constructions, against the said Nicolas and Ed- 
" mond, and the successors of them, &c. as the same should 
" have been, if the said Edmond Boner had been dead at 
" the time of his said deprivation, or had never made any 
" kind of appeal, &c. And that the said leases and demises 
*' of any of the said lands, &c. and their executors, adminis- 
*' trators, &c should and might have such like benefit, com- 
" modity, and advantage by all ways and means, &c. against 
" the bishop of London, or hereafter for the time being, and 
" their successors, and every other person, persons, bodies 
" politic or corporate, to whom the reversion of the same 
" lands, tenements, &c. so demised shall belong, as the said 
*' leases or demises, &c. might or should have had against 
" the leasor or leasors." 

But, whatever was the reason, it was rejected in the lords' 66 
house. May the 1st, after a third reading that day, as was 
mentioned before. 



96 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. Such another bill for the confirmation of lands taken 

^^' from the bishopric of Worcester, under king Edward, was 

Anno 1558. brought into the lower house, March 4, viz. for the assur- 

Lands of ^^^^ ^^ Hartleburv and Wickenford, late the bishop of 

the bi- "^ . . 

shoprics Worcester's lands, to sir Francis Jobson and Walter Blount, 
°^^^^^°^JJj severally : and March the 7th, read the second time, and or- 
try aiienat- dered to b© eugrosscd. The next day Pate, the present bi- 
shop of that see, in proper person came and required the 
copy of a bill exhibited against the bishopric, (to which it 
seems those lands were reunited under queen Mary,) and 
that a day might be appointed him to make answer in writ- 
ing, or otherwise. 

The bishop of Coventry and Litchfield (being belike in 
the like case) the same day made the same petition. And 
it was ordered, that the bishop of Worcester should have 
the said copy, and make his answer upon Saturday next; 
and the bishop of Coventry on Monday following : and it 
was likewise granted, that the other parties should then and 
there have their counsel, to hear the bishops. 
These bi- Here D'Ewes, the publisher of the Journals, interposeth 
dealt withl^^^^s observation, " That these and other bishops, notwith- 
" standing their stiff opposition against the reformation of 
" religion moved in this parliament, had free hberty to de- 
" feud their own cause, either in person or by counsel : 
" which shewed the queen's incomparable clemency and 
" moderation, who so impartially dealt with them, and so 
" patiently suffered their opposition, and gave way to their 
" allegations." 

March the 11th, Saturday, the bishop of Worcester came 
with his counsel, and declared that Hooper (late bishop of 
Worcester) was not lawful bishop, by reason of the appeal 
of bishop Hethe, when he was deprived under king Edward 
VI. and so his grants not good. And so prayed the house 
to consider of it. 

ypon the appointed day. Bain, bishop of Coventry and 
Litchfield, came also with his counsel, and declared, that, for 
the fine levied, Mr. Fisher had no cause to complain. To 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 97 

which Mr. Fisher''s counsel alleged, that the fine was made CHAP, 
by compulsion. ' 



Now we go on to take notice of some other bills of re- Anno i^sg. 
mark, relating to bishops or spiritual persons. 

March the 15th, a bill was brought in to restore bishops Bill for re- 
and spiritual persons, that had been deprived in the time of as°i"ad been 
queen Mary: which was read again April the 6th. This deprived, 
bill went, it seems, but heavily, considering how long the 
space was between the first reading and the second : but 
surely it was a necessary bill, since so many ecclesiastical 
persons of unblameable life were most injuriously deprived 
of their livings and livelihoods, most of them for being mar- 
ried, which the law expressly allowed. This bill passed, and 
went to the upper house, and there failed, (whatever the 
reason was,) as was said before. 

The next day, viz. March 1 6, a bill was brought in to For making 
make lawful the deprivation of bishops and spiritual per- "[|,^'^"^j,^" 
sons. This bill is somewhat obscure, not mentioning in what lawful, 
reign these deprivations happened. If by it be meant the QJ 
deprivations under king Edward VI. Boner and other bi- 
shops then deprived seemed to give the occasion thereof, 
who had insisted in the house, that their deprivations were 
unlawful ; as, the day before, the said Boner had the confi- 
dence to urge to them in the house of commons. And so 
the grants to be void, which were made by Dr. Ridley, as he 
called him, his immediate predecessor in the see of London, 
not vouchsafing him the name of bishop. And it appeared 
by the reading of this bill the next time, viz. March 21, to 
be meant in the foresaid sense, when the bill ran, to male 
lawful the deprivation of the bishops of London, Winchester, 
Worcester, and Chichester. 

March the 17th, a bill was brought in, that no person In favour 
should be punished for exercising the religion used in king ^jj^t ^^^^ 
Edward's last year : read the first and second time, and or- '^i"? ^'i- 
dered to be engrossed. This bill seems to be grounded upon \\^\Qn. 
this good intention, to free all such as were put in prison 
under queen Mary, for the exercise and profession of the 
gospel. 

VOL. I. H 



98 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

^^'^^- March 21, a bill was read now the second time, that the 
queen shall collate or appoint bishops in bishoprics being 



Anno 1559. 



vacant, and that without rites and ceremonies, [used, I 
to collate suppose, in popish ordinations,] and ordered to be engross- 
bishops. g^j ji^^^ ji^g j^gj.j. ^^y ^i^g |j-]| ^yjjg j.g^(j j-j^g j-j^^j^jj time, and 

passed the house, and sent to the lords. 
The pariia- March the 24th, Friday, for weighty affairs to be done 

ment ad- . , . .. /' , ^ "^ i ^ i 

journ for m tliis parliament, according to the example ot the upper 

ten days, house, the house of commons, according to former prece- 

Mmutes of dents, adiourned until Monday the 3d of April next. And 
council. . *' . ... „ t •11 

in the mean time I find in the minutes of the council, that 

on the 27th of March, letters were sent from the queen's 
privy council to the sheriffs of the several counties, to ad- 
monish and give warning to the knights and burgesses of 
their several counties, that were departed from this parlia- 
ment without licence, that in no wise they fail to be there 
on Monday next, being the Sd of April, as they would an- 
swer for the contrary. 

.Tourn.Dom. D'Ewes saitli, that it did not appear upon what occasion 
that adjournment was, but he conjectureth it was by reason 
of a disputation held that day in the forenoon, between the 
popish bishops and some learned men of the protestant re- 
ligion, lately returned from exile; (of which, account will 
be given hereafter.) At which the lords of the upper house, 
and the knights, citizens, and burgesses of the house of 
commons, some did desire, and some were desired, as it 
should seem, to be present. 

Bill for ex- jt^py\\ [}^q 17th, 1559, a bill that the queen should have 

changing of iiir>i ii-i ii-i 

bishops' divers temporal lands of the archbishops and bishops, m re- 
lands. compcnce of tenths and parsonages impropriate, (to be set- 
tled upon the bishops instead thereof,) was read in the com- 
mons'' house the third time, and passed, upon the question 
and division of the house: with the bill were 104; against 
the bill 90. We shall hear more also of this bill in the pro- 
cess of this history. 
Bill of uni- April ] 8, the bill for uniformity of common prayer in 
**'"" '■ the church was read the first time. April 19, read the se- 
cond time, and ordered to be engrossed. April 20, read 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 99 

the third time, and passed the house. So current, it seems, CHAP 
this bill went. ''• 



This bill was sent up Avith nine others to the house of Anno 1559. 
lords, and brought by sir Anthony Cook, knt. a man of "^ 
great learning and abilities, who was, no doubt, a great 
dealer in this bill. 

April 27, a bill was read, that the queen by commission Bin for 
may examine and restore spiritual persons deprived : read sp^rituaf 
the first time. It seems the old bill of the same import, that p^'sons. 
had been twice read, was thrown by, and this new one 
brought in, in the place of it. April 29, the said bill to 
restore such persons to their benefices, as had been unlaw- 
fully deprived, was read the second time, and ordered to be 
engrossed. May the 2d, it was read the third time, and 
passed the house, and sent up to the lords, being brought 
by Mr. Sadleir and others, with some other bills. May the 
5th, this bill was read a third time in the upper house, and 
concluded. Yet I do not find it was enacted and passed 
into a law. 

April 29, a bill for abbeys, priories, nunneries, hospitals. For uniting 
and chantries, founded since the reign of queen Mary, to to the^' 
be annexed to the crown, was read the third time, and pass- crown, 
ed the house upon the question ; and was sent up to the 
lords, who concluded it the 5th of May, the bishops and 
abbot, and one temporal lord, viz. viscount Mountague, 
dissenting. 

This parliament was dissolved May the 8th, after the Lord 
queen had given her royal consent to the bills. Immediately gpei^^ at 
before the doing of which, the lord keeper Bacon made a *}>e co ciu- 
speech to the parliament : the sum of that part of it that parJiament. 
concerned religion was, " that as to the observation of the 
*' uniform order in religion, they of the parliament, in their 
" several places, should endeavour, to the best of their 
" powers, to further and set forth the same : which by great 
" and deliberate advice in that parliament had been esta- 
" Wished. That watch should be had of the withdrawers 
" and hinderers thereof; especially of those that subtilly 
" and by indirect means sought to procure the contrary. 

H 2 



100 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " Among these he comprehended as well those that were 
' " too swift, as those that were too slow ; those that went 



Anno 1559. « before the law, or behind the law, as those that would not 
" follow. For good government could not be, where obe- 
" dience failed, and both these alike broke the rule of obe- 
" dience. That these were they that in all likelihood would 
" be the beginners and maintainers of factions and sects, the 
" very mothers and nurses of all seditions and tumults. Of 
" these therefore great heed would be taken : and upon them 
" being found, sharp and severe corrections should be im- 
" posed, according to the order of law : and that in the begin- 
" ning, without respect of persons, as upon the greatest 
" adversaries that could be to unity and concord ; without 
" which no commonwealth, he said, could long endure." 

The act of 'pbe public acts passed this first parliament are well 

supremacy. 

known, being printed in the statute book : yet those that 
settled the supremacy^ and the public service of God, may 
have some short account given of them, for enlightening 
the rest of the history. By the act of supremacy, called. 
An act for restoring to the crown the ancient jurisdiction 
over the state ecclesiastical and sjnritual, and abolishing' 
foreign power, no foreign prince, person, prelate, state, or 
potentate, spiritual or temporal, should use, enjoy, or ex- 
69 ercise any mannei" of power, jvn-isdiction, superiority, au- 
thority, preeminence, &c. within this realm, or any of her 
majesty''s dominions : but from henceforth the said power, 
jurisdiction, &c. to be clearly abolished out of the realm ; 
and that all jurisdictions, privileges, superiorities, preemi- 
nences, spiritual and ecclesiastical, as by any spiritual or ec- 
clesiastical power or authority have been lawfully exercised 
in the visitation of the ecclesiastical state and persons, and 
for the reformation, order, and correction of the same ; and 
of all manner of errors, heresies, abuses, offences, &c. should 
for ever be united and annexed to the imperial crown of 
this realm : and that the queen and her successors should 
have power by their letters patents under the great seal, to 
Ecciesiasti- assign, name, and authorize, and as often as they should 
mission. think meet, and for so long time as they should please, per- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 101 

sons, being natural born subjects, to use, occupy, and exer- CHAP. 
cise under her and them all manner of jurisdictions, privi- ____!__ 
leges, and preeminences, touching any spiritual or ecclesi-^""^ ^^^9. 
astical jurisdiction within the realm of England and Ireland, 
&c. to visit, reform, redress, order, correct, and amend 
all errors, heresies, schisms, abuses, offences, contempts, 
and enormities whatsoever. 

And further by this act, for the better observation and The oath to 
maintenance of it, all archbishops, bishops, and other eccle- ^^^^ queen ** 
siastical persons, and ecclesiastical officers and ministers, and fo"" the su- 
every temporal judge, justice, mayor, and other lay and tem- 
poral officer, and other person having the queen's fee or 
wages, should take a corporal oath upon the evangelists, ut- 
terly to testify and declare in their consciences, that the qiieat's 
highness is the onli/ supreme governor of' this realm, and all 
other her highness\s dominiofis and countries, as xvell in spi- 
ritual and ecclesiastical causes as temporal: and that no 
Jbreign prince, person, prelate, state, or potentate, hath or 
ought to have any jurisdiction, power, superiority, Sfc. with- 
in this realm. And therefore utterly to renounce and forsake 
all foreign jurisdictions, powers, superiorities, <§•<?. and to 
promise to bear foaith and true allegiance to the queen and 
her heirs and laxoful successors ; and to their power to as- 
sist and defend all jurisdictions, privileges, preeminences, 
and authorities granted or belonging to the queen''s high- 
ness, her heirs and successors, as zmited and annexed to the 
imperial crown of this realm. The penalty of the refusal 
to take this oath was the losing, during Hfe, all ecclesias- 
tical promotions, benefices, and offices, and every temporal 
and lay promotion and office. And the same oath was to be 
taken of all that should hereafter be preferred to any such 
spiritual or temporal benefice or office. 

Further, this act did restrain all writing, printing, teach- Penalties 
ing, preaching, express words, deeds, or acts, whereby any ta^iw"' 
did affirm, hold, or stand with, set forth, maintain, or defend foreign 
the authority or preeminence of any foreign prince, prelate, 
person, state, &c. whatsoever, heretofore claimed, used, or 
usurped within this realm, or the putting in ure or exercise 

H 3 



102 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, of any thing for the extolHng, advancing, setting forth, or 
defence of any such pretended jurisdiction. They that 



Anno 1559. should SO do, as also their abettors and aiders, being there- 
of convicted, to forfeit all their goods and chattels. And if 
70 they had not, or were not worth to the value of 20/. then, 
besides the forfeiture of their goods, to suffer imprisonment 
by the space of one whole year. And spiritual persons so 
off*ending, to lose also their benefices, prebends, or other 
ecclesiastical preferments. And for the second offence, every 
such offender to incur the dangers, penalties, and forfeitures, 
ordained and provided by the statute of provision and pre- 
miinlre, made the 16th year of Richard II. And for the 
third time, such offences to be deemed and adjudged high 
treason, and the off'ender being thereof lawfully convicted 
and attainted, to suffer the pains of death ; and other pe- 
nalties, forfeitures, &c. as in cases of high treason. 

One ground of this act was, as is mentioned in the pre- 
amble, the great intolerable charges and exactions formerly 
unlawfully taken and exacted by such foreign power and 
autliority. Of which therefore king Henry VIII. by divers 
good laws and statutes had disburdened his subjects : but 
which had been laid on them again by the late queen Mary. 
The need of This act WHS thought very rigorous by some in those 
tmies, especially for some of the penalties. But m answer 
to this, see what is said in a little book long since set forth 
The rooting and dedicated to Robert earl of Leicester : " Queen Eliza^ 
mish su- "" " ^^^^^ following the steps of her father and brother, had it 
premacy by " enacted in her first parliament, that the authority of the 
esq. ' " bishop of Romc, and of all other foreign powers and po- 

" tentates, spiritual and temporal, should be utterly driven 
" away, and removed out of her majesty "'s territories and 
" dominions : and that upon such penalties unto all her sub- 
*' jects, that to uphold, maintain, or set forth any such fo- 
" reign authority within this realm, is in some points and 
" degrees high treason. So that they lose and forfeit their 
*' lives, lands, and goods, who are guilty of it. A statute 
*' that may seem severe, and perhaps accounted of some over- 
*' rigorous. But they who mark it wisely, cannot choose 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 103 

*' but see how sharp tools were necessary to root out this CHAP. 
" weed ; which many godly princes before king Henry VIII. 



" did endeavour to nip off by sundry good laws; but it Anno 1559. 

*' budded still again, and brought forth such blossoms, or 

" rather fruits of rebellion, ambition, covetousness, hypo- 

" crisy, and wicked superstition, as it was to be feared would 

" have poisoned the whole land, had not our gracious 

*' prince used such sharp instruments to root it out utterly."" 

So that author. 

But beside these things aforesaid contained in the said By the for- 
act, there was another notable branch of it, that renewed ^.^^g ^^q^ 
and revived a great many good laws of king Henry and acts revived, 
king Edward, that had been repealed by queen Mary, viz. 
first, an act that no person shall be cited out of the diocese 1.23H. s. 
where he or she dwelleth, except in certain cases. Another 2.24 H. 8. 
act, that appeals in such cases as have been used to be pur- 
sued in the see of Rome, shall not be from henceforth had 
nor used but within the realm. Another, for the restraints s. 25 H. 8. 
of payments of annates and first-fruits of archbishoprics and 
bishoprics to the see of Rome. Another, concerning the4.Eod.ann. 
submission of the clergy to the king"'s majesty. Another, 5. Eod.ann. 
restraining the payment of annates and first-fruits to the 
bishop of Rome, and of the electing and consecrating of 
archbishops and bishops within the realm. Another, con- 6. Eod.ann. 
cerning the exoneration of the king"'s subjects from exactions / 1 
and impositions, heretofore paid to the see of Rome ; and 
for having licences and dispensations within this realm. 
Another, for nomination and consecration of suffragans 7. 26 H. s. 
within the realm. Another, for the release of such as have s. 28 H.8. 
obtained pretended licences and dispensations from the see 
of Rome. Also, so much of another act as concerned pre- 9. 32 H. s. 
contracts of marriage, and touching degrees of consangui- 
nity, as in the time of king Edward VI. by another act or 
statute was not repealed. Also another, that doctors of the ^o.srH. a, 
civil law being married, may exercise ecclesiastical jurisdic- 
tions. Besides these acts made in king Henry the eighth's 
reign, was revived an act made in the reign of king Edward 11.1 Ed. 6. 
VI. (which hkewise had been repealed by queen Mary,) viz. 

H 4 



104 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, against such persons as should irreverently speak against 

^^- the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ ; and for the 

Anno 1559. receiving thereof in both kinds. And lastly, as this act for 

1 & 2 Phil. t}^e supremacy revived all the foresaid good acts that had 

and Mary. i i i -nr • i i 

been repealed by queen Mary, so it repealed a severe act 
made by her, for the reviving of three statutes made for the 
pvinishment of heresies : and the three statutes mentioned 
in the said act, abrogated by the same. 

So that by this single act of the supremacy, a great and 
notable step was made towards the restoring of religion, and 
bringing it on in effect as far, as with much pain and great 
opposition it had gotten in many years before under the 
two kings of most noble memory, viz. king Henry and king 
Edward. 

Especially if we join to this, one other act made this par- 
Acts of uni- liament, y'lz. Jhr the unvformity of common 'prayer and ser- 
o™' y- ^if,g Ij^ ff^g church, and administration of the sacraments. 
By which act king Edward's Book of Common Prayer, that 
had been abolished in the first of queen Mary, was establish- 
ed again, and enjoined to be used Avith the order and ser- 
vice, and the administration of the sacraments, and rites and 
ceremonies; with certain alterations and additions therein 
added and appointed : and to stand and be, from and after 
the feast of the nativity of St. John Baptist, in full force 
and effect. Those additions mentioned before were certain 
lessons to be used on every Sunday in the year : and two 
sentences added in the delivery of the sacrament to the com- 
municants : and the alterations were in the form of the litany. 
In this act are penalties appointed for depravers of the said 
book, and such as should speak in derogation of any thing 
contained in it. 
Private acts This for the public acts : the private ones were these that 
liament. follow, as they Were taken out of the clerk of the parha- 
ment's book. 

An act for assuring lands to the lord Wentworth, lord 
Rich, and others. 

An act for assuring lands, parcel of the bishopric of Win- 
chester, to king Edward's patentees. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 105 

An act giving authority to the queen's majesty, upon the CHAP, 
avoidance of any archbishopric or bishopric, to take into 
her hands certain of the temporal possessions thereof, recom- Anno 1559. 
pensing the same with parsonages impropriate and tithes. 

An act to annex to the crown several rehgious houses, 72 
&c. those, I suppose, as had been lately refounded by queen 
Mary. 

By the laws made this first parliament of the queen, the The great 
ancient supreme authority of the kings of this realm was religion and 
vindicated from the papal encroachments and usurpations the state by 

^ / ,.11 this parlia- 

upon it, popery overthrown, true religion, rounded upon ment. 
the word of God, brought in again and established, notwith- 
standing all the policy, laws, commissions, inquisitions, and 
rigours made and used in the former reign, to prevent its 
taking footing for ever after. And all this work done 
within little more than three months ; and that even while 
all the bishops, zealous creatures of Rome, and many other 
popish lords, sat in the parliament house, and had free 
votes there, and bestirred themselves as much as they 
could. So averse did the universality of the nation stand 
against popery. 

By virtue of one of these acts, viz. that of the supremacy. Bishops and 
the bishops and the clergy, as well as others of the laity, others of 
that enjoyed places and offices under the queen, were bound deprived. 
to take an oath (as was shewn before) to renounce all foreign 
jurisdiction and power : which those that obstinately refused 
to do, did forfeit and lose all their preferments. Whereby 
the abbot of Westminster, and some other abbots and ab- 
besses, were deprived some time after the end of the parlia- 
ment. And in the month of July (according to Stow) the 
bishops, some archdeacons, prebendaries, and others of the 
clergy, were summoned and required by certain of the coun- 
cil, or other commissioners, to take the said oath ; which 
they wilfully refusing, lost their bishoprics, deaneries, arch- 
deaconries, prebends, or other ecclesiastical benefices. And 
that was all the penalty they suffered for the said refusal. 
But if some of them were imprisoned, (as Camden and others 



106 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, write,) it was for another breach of this act, viz. either for 
II. • . , . 

teacliing, preaching, or by express words or deeds affirming, 



Anno 1559. holding, or defending the authoi'ity of the foreign prelate, 
the pope, or for other misdemeanours, as we shall read after- 
wards. 

Which sue- This voidance of so many bishoprics happened well for 

ceeds well . . . t 

for the re- the furthering of the reformation of religion ; that their 
formation, places being vacant, men of other principles, and such as 

favoured true religion, might succeed therein : but by a 
D'Ewes* calculation then taken of all the clergy in the land, of 9,400 
p. 23. ' ecclesiastical persons, .settled in their several promotions, but 

177 left their livings, rather than to renounce the pope, and 

change their idolatrous mass for the use of the English 

liturgy. 

Tiie num- In oiie of the volumes of the Cotton library, (which 

deprived, volume seemetli once to have belonged to Camden,) the 

Cott. libr. whole number of the deprived ecclesiastics is digested in 
Titus, C.io. , . , ^ ° 

this catalogue. 

Bishops - - - 14 Prebendaries _ _ _ _ 50 
Deans - - _ _ 13 Rectors of churches - - 80 
Archdeacons - - 14 Abbots, priors, and abbesses 6 
Heads of colleges 15 In all - - - 192 

Camden, in his Annals, little varies; only reckoning 12 deans, 
and as many archdeacons. 
73 The answerer to the English Justice (supposed to be car- 
dinal Allen) mentions the deprived after this reckoning: 
viz. fourteen bishops; (and in Ireland the archbishop of Ar- 
magh, and an uncertain number of other bishops there;) 
three elects; one abbot ; four priors, or superiors of religious 
convents; a dozen deans; fourteen archdeacons; above three- 
score canons of cathedral churches; not so few as an hundred 
priests ; fifteen heads or rectors of colleges in Oxford and 
Cambridge ; and above twenty doctors of divers faculties, 
that fled the realm, or were in the realm imprisoned. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 107 

CHAP. III. 

Some bishops and the abbot of Westminster their speeches 
in the hoicse against the bill for the supremacy^ and the 
English common prayer booh. The two religions com- 
pared by Harpsjield. Remarlis upon some other bills. 
Dr. Story'' s impudent speech in parliament. Two private 
acts. Bill for marriage of priests. The English liturgy 
of king Edward established. 

XlAVING shewn before briefly what was brought to pass Anno 1559. 
in the parliament for the regulating of religion, and ex- Endeavours 
tinguishing the pope's power in this kingdom ; (a thing ,eforma- 
which no doubt met with great opposition, especially from t'°"' 
the bishops and the Romish party;) I shall look back and 
observe the endeavours of these men to stop these proceed- 
ings, and especially what discourses they made in the house 
to preserve the pope's authority in England, and to hinder 
the abolishing of the mass. 

When, February the 21st, the bill for giving the queen Archbishop 
the supremacy, and restorino- that ancient jurisdiction to°'^^°'^''* 

i O' o J speech 

the crown of this realm, was read, and the matter agitated against the 
in the house, Hethe, archbishop of York, stood up, and ^"P'®'"'**^^* 
made a long solemn speech against it. Which speech the 
right reverend author of the History of the Reformation 
saith, he had seen, but did believe it forged, because it 
spake of the supremacy " as a new and unheard of thing;" Vol. li. p. 
so undoubtedly it was in the copy he saw. But there is a 
copy of it in the Bene't college library ; and another among voi. intit. 
the Foxian papers ; wherein there is no such expression : ^l""*^^''*:. 
and I, having perused both, do find so much learning, and Mss. penes 
such strokes therein, that we need not, I think, misdoubt '"^' 
but that it is his under whose name it ffoes. Herein he 
speaketh of two points : 

" The foi-mer, that by this act they must forsake the see 
" of Rome, and the weight and force, danger and inconve- 
" nience thereof. And the latter, to consider what this 
*' supremacy, to be given the queen, was; whether it con- 
*' sisted in spiritual government or temporal. If in spi- 



108 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " ritual, then to consider in what points that spiritual go- 
^^^ " vernment consisted : and then, whether the house could 
Anno 155.9. " grant such a government to the queen ; and whether her 
74 " highness were an apt person to receive it. These things 
" he went over. And as to the first, he said, that, by for- 
" saking and fleeing from the see of Rome, they must first 
" forsake and flee from all general councils ; secondly, all 
" canonical and ecclesiastical laws ; thirdly, the judgment of 
" all other Christian princes; fourthly, the unity of Christ's 
" church ; and by falling out of Peter's ship hazard them- 
" selves to be drowned in the waters of schisms, sects, and 
" divisions. And then as to the second head, wherein the 
" spiritual government consisted, it he made to stand in 
" four things : 1. In binding and loosing ; 2. In those 
" words, pasce, pasce, pasce, that is, in feeding the flock 
" of Christ ; 8. In confirming the brethren, and ratifying 
" them by wholesome doctrine and administration of the 
" sacraments ; 4. In excommunication and spiritual punish- 
" ment : these things, as the scripture allowed them not to a 
" woman, so it was not, he said, in the parliament's power 
" to grant them to the queen." But I refer the reader to 
the whole speech, as I have diligently transcribed it into the 
Numb. VI. Repository. 

And bishop Scot, bishop of Chester, also, after the second reading of 
this bill, which was February 28, stood up, and pronounced 
Numb. VII. an oration against it at sufficient length, which I have placed 
also before the reader's eye : wherein that bishop made an- 
swer to somebody in the house, that had questioned, whe- 
ther ever the Greek church had acknowledged the pope of 
Rome. Whereat, he said, he marvelled, seeing that church 
remained eight hundred years in obedience to the Roman 
church ; and since her falling off", had fourteen times re- 
turned with submission again unto it. 
Arguments Herein the bishop laboured also to answer other matters, 
housi "of "^ which some lords had urged for abolishing the pope's au- 
lonis for re- tliority, and restoring the supremacy to the imperial crown 
supremacy. ^^ ^liis realm : as, namely, that this had been done before at 
a solemn provincial council and assembly of the bishops and 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 109 

clergy of the land. And whereas some of these had after- CHAP, 
wards revoked what they had done, it was said by one, that ^^^" 



he would never trust those men again which once denied Anno 1559. 
the pope's authority, and now stood in defence of the same. 
It was urged also, that the spiritual supreme power must be 
in the prince, otherwise he could not confer authority in 
spiritual matters upon others. For no man could give that 
to another which he had not himself. 

By this speech of the bishop of Chester also we gather, The bill of 
that several other speeches were made in the house against a3nded*^^ 
this bill: and that the lords, to whom this bill was com- 
mitted, to be weighed and considered by them, were such 
as favoured the popish religion. For it appeared they would 
not suffer the old service of the church and administration 
of the sacraments to be altered, but to be still retained ; as 
they mitigated the rigour of the punishment mentioned in 
the bill, as it was, it seems, at first drawn up against such of 
the clergy as refused to comply with the supremacy. 

I know not any more that was said in the house in behalf 7 5 
of the supremacy, there being; no protestant bishops yet ■'^ ^'^<=°'^'"*® 
made, and so none sitting there ; but I meet with the heads favour 
of a notable discourse, or rather a treatise, designed to vin-*^^'^^*' 
dicate the queen's right to the suprem^acy, and to display 
the usurpations of popes ; calculated, I suppose, for this 
matter and purpose. See it in the Repository. N".viii. 

February 1 5, a bill was brought in for casting away the Abbot 
old service, and bringing in the English liturgy ; but this QjakeTa ^^ 
was laid aside ; and in April another bill was brought in, speech 
Jbr uniformity of common prayer and service in the church, bin for the 
and administration of the sacraments. This also the Ro- liturgy. 
man prelates in the house did tooth and nail stickle against. 
And Feckenham, abbot of Westminster, made a set speech 
against it in the best manner he could, which I suppose 
was at the second reading, April 26th. This speech the 
right reverend the author of the History of the Reformation 
makes the aforesaid Hethe to be the speaker of, finding in 
the Bene't college volume, where this speech is, these intit. Syno- 
words, (writ by somebody as his conjecture :) That Dr. 



110 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. Hethe was thought to be the penner of the said speech, 
and that it was spoken to the queen''s council. But it ap- 



Anno 1659. pears that he that wrote this was but an ignorant or heed- 
less conjecturer, in that he makes this to be a discourse ex- 
hibited to the queen's council, whereas it is plain it was 
Vespasian, spoken to the house of lords. But I have met with the 
' '^* same oration in a Cotton volume, where it is expressly en- 
titled thus : The oratio7i of Dr. Feckenham, abbot of West- 
minster^ made in the parliament house, arino 1559- In 
this oration he makes a boast in the beginning, " that they 
" and their fathers had been in possession of the old reli- 
*' gion for the space of 1400 years. Then he propounded 
" their honours three rules, whereby they should be able 
" to put a difference between the true religion and the 
" counterfeit. The first rule was, to see which of the two 
*' had been most observed in the church, of all men, and 
*' at all times. Secondly, which of them both is the most 
" staid religion, and always agreeable to itself. Thirdly, 
*' which of the two did breed the more humble and obe- 
" dient subjects unto God and unto the queen."" 
Reflects In the prosecution of this his speech, he made very un- 

worthily worthy and unbecoming reflections upon the foreign pro- 
upon the tcstants of greatest eminence, as Luther, Melancthon, Zuin- 

reformers. -ii«-/> ^ ■ t rr> 

gnus. Martyr, for their different sentiments about the sa- 
crament ; and especially upon two of our own bishops, 
Cranmer; Cranmer and Ridley. Cranmer he makes to contradict 
himself in two books, which he set fortii in one year, viz. 
the catechism in the English tongue, dedicated to king Ed- 
ward, wherein he affirmed the real presence : and another 
book which he shortly after set forth, " wherein" (to use 
Feckenham's own expression) " he did shamefully deny 
" the same, falsifying both scriptures and doctors." This 
charge he did but take up from others of his persuasion ; as 
bishop Gardiner and Dr. Rich. Smith in their books against 
archbishop Cranmer''s admirable book of the sacrament. 
But Feckenham thought fit to take no notice of the an- 
swer that the said archbishop in his last excellent book 
gave to this accusation : which was, that he then, when he 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. Ill 

put out the catechism, and when he put out his other book chap. 
after that, did hold and teach the same thing ; namely, that ^^^- 
we receive the body and blood of Christ in the sacrament Anno 1559. 
truly; and he that received it spiritually received it truly. 7^ 
But he no where writ really and substantially : which were mer'^ Me' 
the papists' terms to express their carnal presence. So that™o''-P-i^o. 
it was not fairly done of Feckenham, to urge that in such 
an audience against him, which he had so publicly and suf- 
ficiently cleared himself of; and especially to belie a man 
whom they had cruelly burnt to ashes before. Of bishop And Ridley 
Ridley, whom he called the notablest learned man of that ^'° "^* ^ ' 
opinion, he said, that he did in a sermon at Paul's Cross 
publicly set forth the real presence of Christ's body in the 
sacrament ; repeating certain words, which, he said, he 
heard him speak ; and that shortly after, at the same Paul's 
Cross, he did deny the same. This was also a calumny ; 
and a calumny which before now he had cast upon him, 
namely, in a sermon which he preached at Paul's, in the 
beginning of queen Mary's reign. And Feckenham had 
heard Ridley vindicating himself soon after against this 
slander of his ; telling him to his face in the Tower, before Fox's Mar- 
the lieutenant, secretary Bourn, Cholmely, late lord chief ^'^'^ ' 
justice, and divers others, that speaking in his sermon of 
the sacrament, he inveighed against them that esteemed it 
no better than a piece of bread, and bade them depart, as 
unworthy to hear the mystery : and that then he quoted 
Cyprian, that he should tell how it was that Christ called 
it, viz. " the bread is the body, meat, drink, flesh. Because 
*' unto this material substance is given the property of the 
" thing whereof it bears the name." And then Ridley added, 
that he took this place to maintain that the material sub- 
stance of bread did remain. At this clear vindication which 
Ridley then made of himself, (which was in the year 1553,) 
it was observed, that Feckenham, as privy to his false re- 
port made of Ridley, was as red as scarlet in the face, and 
answered him never a word. And yet now again, five years 
after, did he lay the same thing to his charge in the parlia- 
ment house, now he was dead ; though before, being alive, 



112 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



CHAP, he had so sufficiently refuted it to his face. This was not 
• fair, to say no worse. But I must remember I am not now 



Bisbop 

Scot's 

speech 



Anno 1559. writinor an apology, but an liistory : and tlierefore I forbear 
to add any thing more on this subject. This speech of 
Number IX. Feckenham aforesaid I have placed in the Repository with 
the rest ; that it may be seen what the learnedest men of 
that persuasion could then say for the retaining of the old 
religion. 

Dr. Scot, bishop of Chester, also made another long 
speech upon the third reading of the foresaid bill, which 
against the was April 28 ; and according to his hot temper began after 
turey!' ' ^his manner: " That the bill was such as it was much to be 
lamented, that from so honourable an assembly it should 
be suffered to be read, or any ear to be given to it of 
Christians : for it called into doubt such things as ought 
to be reverenced without any doubt ; [meaning the mass :] 
and, which was more, made earnest request for alteration, 
nay, for the abolishing of the same. He proceeded upon 
these heads: that their religion consisted of certain in- 
ward things, faith, hope, and charity ; and certain out- 
ward, the common prayer and holy sacraments. Now he 
7^7 " laboured to shew how this motion did extinguish those 
outward things, and put in their place he could not tell 
what. And it shook those inward things, and left them 
very bare and feeble. That by this bill Christian charity 
was taken away, which consisted in unity. And it was 
evident, that divers of the articles and mysteries oi Jaith 
were not only called into doubt, but partly openly, and 
partly obscurely denied. And faith and charity being 
gone, liope was left alone, or presumptuously set in higher 
place : whereupon, for the most part, desperation followed. 
He dwelt much upon the unlawfulness of calling into 
doubt the matters of faith which had been decreed. And 
if Athanasius did think that a man ought not to doubt of 
matters determined in the council of Nice, where were 
present but 308 bishops, how much less ought we to 
doubt of matters determined in the catholic church by 
300,000 bishops, and how many more he could not tell. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 113 

" And that if the certainty of faith should hang upon an CHAP. 
" act of parliament, we had but a weak staff to lean to. 



For, for matters of religion, he doubted not, that it Anno 1559. 
" ought not to meddle with them, because of the certainty 
" which ought to be in faith, and the uncertainty of sta- 
" tutes and acts of parliament. But that the parliament 
" consisted partly of noblemen, and partly of commoners, 
" which were laymen ; and so not studied or exercised in 
" scriptures, nor doctors, nor practice of the church, so as 
" to be accounted judges in such matters. And then, the 
" better to convince them that these matters belonged not 
" to them, he enlarged upon these things : the weiglitiness 
" of the matter of this bill ; the darkness of the cause ; and 
" the difficidty in trying out the truth ; and the danger, if 
" they took the wrong way. And under each of these heads 
" occasionally, he shewed the defectiveness of the new 
" book, so much extolled, as he said. He spake of a cer- 
" tain lord, that in a speech the day before did say, that 
" he believed that Christ was received in the communion 
" set out by that book. And being asked, if he did wor- 
" ship him there, he said. No, nor never would, so long as 
" he lived. Which, this bishop said, was a strange opinion, 
" that Christ should be any where, and not be worshipped. 
" Some had said, they would worship him in heaven, but 
" not in the sacrament : which the bishop compared to a 
" man that should say, he would honour the emperor in 
" cloth of gold, and under his cloth of state, but not in a 
" frieze-coat in the street." His speech went on to a good 
length ; and what it was, from the beginning to the end, is 
set down in the Repository. But notwithstanding these Number x. 
speeches, the bill for uniformity of common prayer passed 
April 28, all the prelates dissenting, viz. the archbishop of 
York, the bishops of London, Ely, Wigorn, LandafF, Co- 
ventry and Litchfield, Exeter, Chester, Carlisle; as was 
shewn before. 

There was also about this very time some man of learn- a discourse 

. (% ^ ^ iji\ framed to 

ing, (whether it were Harpsfield, or somebody else,) pro- compare the 
cured to write a discourse, whereby the two religions should ^'^'^ ''^^^' 

VOL. I. I 



114 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 
CHAP, be compared, viz. the Roman catholic, and that now en- 

I IF 

deavoured to be estabhshed. " Which discourse, he said, 



Anno 1559." he wrote upon sliort warning, without meditation or help 
" of books : yet he esteemed it so well grounded, that it 
" could not well be answered : which by God's grace, he 
rg " said, should be tried, when he should see a direct answer 
" made." This paper consisted of several notes of the 
church, which he accommodated to the Roman church, 
and made the protestants to fail in. As, " that the church 
*' is one; that it is apostolic; that it is holi/ ; that it is ca- 
" tholic ; that there is bvit one sheepfold, and one shep- 
" herd, John xviii. And that one sheepfold is no where, but 
" that which he is head of. But all other churches distinct 
" from that of Rome have so many shepherds as there be 
" divers realms. The cities of Germany each of them one, 
*' Geneva another, England another, &c. But all that be 
" now called papists have but one head : and therefore they 
" are so much the nearer to the unity of the church. Again, 
" that church is apostolic that can shew her descent from 
" the apostles : no church can do that so well as the pa- 
^^ pists. We can, saith he, in Canterbury, and in every 
" other see, shew you, how our bishops came from the 
" apostles. Because they could by chronicle go up from 
" William Warham, the apostolic last before Cranmer, to 
" the first, who was sent by pope Gregory. And then they 
*' could bring Gregory up to St. Peter. But in Canterbury, 
" Cranmer disagreed from all his predecessors; and in Exe- 
'• ter, Miles Coverdalc, and so forth. Now it was not enough 
" for these bishops to leap up from these present days unto 
" the apostles' times, by saying, they agree with them ; but 
" they who challenge the see apostolic must bring their pe- 
" digree by lineal descent unto the apostles, as we do. He 
" proceeded, that their church was catholic ; that is, spread 
" abroad through all places, times, and persons. And 
" apostolic^ because they shewed the succession from the 
" apostles downward, and could go upward lineally to the 
" apostles. Therefore the church, called papistical, having 
" one head, the pope ; being holy, [that is, as he interpreted 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 115 

it,] having benefits of God by flourishing miracles; ca- CHAP. 
tJiolic, that is, spread in all times, in all places, through 



" all persons universally; that is to say, for the most part Anno 1539. 
*' being able to shew their pedigree, even to the apostles, 
" without any interruption; that church, I say, is only 
" the true church." This discourse in full is placed in the 
Appendix, with the rest of the same nature. Number XI. 

And as these hot and earnest speeches before mentioned Dr- story'* 

speccli in 

happened in the upper house, so the house of commons the house 
had some popish members as hot, or hotter. Dr. Story was^'^'^"™' 
one of these, who had been one of queen Mary"'s trusty com- 
missioners, for the taking up, imprisoning, and burning the 
gospellers. This man made a bold and bitter speech in the 
house, justifying himself in his doings under that queen, 
when so many by his sentence were burnt. " He wished, 
" he said, he had done more than he did, and that he and 
" others had been more vehement in executing the laws ; and 
" impudently told the house, how he threw a fagot into the 
" face of one, (an earwig, as he styled him,) at the stake at 
*' Uxbridge, as he was singing a psalm, and set a bush of 
" thorns under his feet : and that it was his counsel to 
" pluck down men of eminency that were heretics, as well 
" as the more ordinary sort ; and mentioned two such, 
*' brought into trouble by his means ; Sir Phihp Hoby, 
" and another knight of Kent. And that he saw nothing to 
" be ashamed of, nor sorry for : and that it grieved him, 79 
" that they laboured only about the young and little twigs, 
*' whereas they should have struck at the root." By which 
words it was well enough known he meant the queen herself. 
This man afterwards left England, and became an officer 
under the king of Spain at Antwerp. Whence divers years 
after he was craftily seized on board an English vessel, and 
brought into England, and being found guilty of treason, 
died the death of a traitor. 

This man, and his impudent speech this parliament con- He was for 

1 p A u 1 hewing up 

cermng the queen, was not soon lorgotten. A dook was tj,g ^oot. 
writ in the year 1569, entitled, A warning against the ^W- j°^^' p"*''' 

I 2 Ep. Elien. 



no ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, g-eroiis practice of papists, &c. wherein he and such as he 
are glanced at : viz. " Other some are such, as one of them, 



Anno 1559." evcu opcnlj in her majesty's high court of parUament, 

" made such moan that his counsel was not followed in 

" queen ]Mary"'s time, to hew itp the root, as all men plainly 

" saw and understood his grief, that the queen's majesty was 

" not in her sister's time despatched. And it is said, that 

" some others made grave motions for her disinheritance." 

The popish But that it was not their consciences that led these zeal- 

guided hy ^^^^ Yaew (as wc related before) thus to stickle against the 

conscience, queen's supremacy and the English liturgy, but rather some 

other politic ends, is evident, by what they and other such 

chief papists did in cool blood declare in king Edward's 

days : which convinced Bernard Gilpin, a diligent inquirer, 

and contemporary with them, of the unsoundness of the 

Life of papal religion. Of which matter we have this notable rela- 

!?!["i' ^'k' tion, in his own letter to his brother George Gilpin, 1575 : 

pin, oy Di- ^ o 1 ^ 

shopCnrie- " That in his desires to search out truth, he repaired to 
' ''■ ■ " [Tonstal] the bishop of Durham, that he might be fur- 
" ther instructed : who told him, that in the matter of 
" transubstantiation, Innocentius, pope the third of that 
" name, had done unadvisedly, in making it an article of 
" faith. And further confessed, that the pope committed a 
" great fault in the business touching indulgences, and 
" other things. That in conferring with Dr. Redman, a 
" man of eminent virtues and great scholarship, he af- 
" firmed to him, that the Book of Common Prayer, [then 
" newly composed,] was an holy book, and agreeable to the 
" gospel. That afterwards one of the fellows of Queen's 
" college told him, that he heard Dr. Chedsey say among 
" his friends, that it must come to this point, that the pro- 
" testants must grant imto them [papists] a real presence 
" of Christ in the sacrament, and they likewise give way 
" unto the protcstants in the opinion of transubstantiation. 
" Dr. Weston [another chief papist in Oxford] made a long 
" oration touching the supper of the Lord, to be admi- 
" nistcred under both kinds. Mr. Morgan [another great 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 117 

disputant] told him, [Gilpin,] that Dr. Ware, a man most CHAP, 
famous for life and learning, affirmed unto him, that the ^^^' 



" principal sacrifice of the church of God was the sacrifice Anno 1509. 

*' of thanksgiving. This was his answer, when Gilpin de- 

" manded of him, what could be said for the sacrifice of the 

" mass. And lastly, that the bishops in this kingdom, at 

" that time, confuted the primacy of the pope both in words 

" and writing." 

Among other acts passed this session, there were two 80 
private ones ; one concerning cardinal Pole, and the other '^" '^'^^ 
concerning cathedral and collegiate churches; which must ceniing 
have some mention here. '^^"^' ^°^^" 

That relating to the late cardinal was, that whereas a 
parliament in the first and second of king Philip and i^ueen 
Mary had repealed and taken off his attaint, that lay upon 
him by act of parliament in the 31st of king Henry VIII. 
and had cleared him of every branch and article of that 
act, and also of all indictments and processes of outlawiy 
procured against him, many questions had been moved 
upon some woixls in the said act of repeal : as, from what 
time that act should extend or take effect ; it was declared 
by this present act, that it should take effect, as touching 
any estate, right, or title, from the time of making the said 
act. And that the act made under king Henry should be 
of force and effect, for all the mean acts and things, hap- 
pening or done befoi'e the making of the said act of repeal : 
which was a prudent act for the stopping or ending many 
contentious lawsuits that might be, or probably had been 
commenced, for the recovery of any estates or lands belong- 
ing to the said cardinal, and disposed of by king Henry 
unto others. 

The act concerning cathedral and collegiate churches, And con- 
was to empower the queen to make statutes for divers such tiVe'draf ^^' 
ecclesiastical foundations and schools erected either by churches. 
king Henry VIII. king Edward, queen Mary, or cardinal 
Pole, in case of some defect of good rules, orders, and con- 
stitutions thereunto appointed. And that she might, at her 

I 3 



118 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, pleasure, alter or change, augment or diminish those sta- 
^^^' tutes and ordinances of the foresaid churches, schools, and 
Anno 1559. corporations. And that all such statutes, which the queen 
should appoint under her great seal of England, should be 
kept and observed, notwithstanding any former rule or con- 
stitution Avhatsoever: and that they should remain good 
and effectual to all intents and purposes. This was an act 
of great use and service for the intended reformation. Both 
these private acts I have thought not unworthy a room in 
X^xin. ^y Repository. 

No act But among the good acts made by this parliament, one 

would pass ^^,^g wanting, though, as it seems, laboured by the protestant 
riage of divines to be brought about. It was, to revive king Ed- 
pnes, s. ward's act for the marriage of priests, which queen Mary 
had repealed. But the queen would not be brovight so far to 
countenance the conjugal state of her clergy. This troubled 
not a little the divines, especially such as were married, as 
was Dr. Sandys, and Dr. Parker, and Mr. Lever now very 
lately, and divers more. Of this matter Sandys speaks in a 
letter, dated April ult. to Parker, then in the country ; 
telling him, " that no law was made concerning the mar- 
" riage of priests, but that it was left, as it were, hi medio ; 
" and that the queen would wink at it, but not establish it 
" by law : which is nothing else, said he, but to bastard 
** our children." The inconvenience hereof was, that the 
clergy was fain to get their children legitimated. So I find 
did Parker his son Matthew. 
The Com- But to return to the English liturgy : notwithstanding 
Book^esta" ^^^^ opposition of spccchcs and arguments made by popish 
biished, bishops and others against this bill for the Book of Common 
°1 Prayer, it passed, as was said before, into an act of unifor- 
mity : and was to begin to take effect at St. John Baptist's 
day ensuing. This was but the reestablishment of king Ed- 
ward's book, set forth in the fifth and sixth year of his reign, 
with these few changes, as they are mentioned in the said 
act ; one alteration or addition of certain lessons to be used 
on every Sunday in the year ; the form of the litany al- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 119 

tered and corrected; and two sentences added in the de- CHAP. 

livery of the sacrament to the communicants. But besides ' 

these mentioned in the act, there were some others, as shall Anno 1559. 
be shewn by and by. 



_— -^ 

CHAP. IV. 

Divines review the Common Prayer Book. Secretary CeciVs 
injfnence therein. Guest, a very learned man, his labours 
about it. Posttire of receiving. King EdwarcTs orna- 
ments. An objection of Dr. Boxal against the commu- 
nion office : wherein the present book varied Jrom king 
£dward's book. Dr. Haddoji's account of the English 
service. Foreign churches rejoice at it : but some Eng- 
lish dislike it. 

-t3UT great pains had been used in reviewing of the old The divines 
Common Prayer Book, and weighing all things in it; toU^^^^y^* ^ 
render it fit to be presented to the parliament, to confirm it 
by an act. In this business the divines, Dr. Sandys, Dr. 
Bill, and the rest above mentioned, were diligently employed 
at sir Thomas Smith''s house in Westminster. And in this 
affair, sir WilHam Cecil, the queen"'s secretary, was a great 
dealer and director ; and was very earnest about the book. 
Here let me insert what Dr. Sampson, the great puritan, Cecil's in- 
in the year 1574, wrote to him, being then lord Burghley, f,"g^°gfor" 
when the said doctor urged him to reform the established mation. 
government in the church, and to alter the episcopacy for 
Calvin's discipline, which he was too wise and too knowing 
to do. He called to mind what he did in the beginning of 
the queen"'s reign in repairing of religion. " What your 
" authority,"" said he, " credit, and doing then was, you 
" know, God knows, and there are witnesses of it," And 
when Edward Dering, another great labourer for the abo- 
lishing of episcopal government, had charged him with neg- 
lect of religion, and unhandsomely and untruly told liim, 
" that he [the lord Burghley] had for many years looked 
" upon religion cminus, and now scarcely loved it ;"" he, in 

i4 



120 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, a concern to be charged so unjustly, answered Dering's let- 
' ter witli another, shewing him therein, " how active he was 



Aniio 1559." above others in propagating rehgion in the beginning of 
" the queen, and that he underwent many and great la- 
" hours in anxieties and disquiets of mind : and that he did 
*' cominus dimicare in estabhshing it, enduring great con- 
82 " testation in it." And he said true ; for there was indeed 
great opposition now made to the reformation of religion by 
many men at court. And had it not been for Cecil's wisdom, 
diligence, and interest with the queen, in all likelihood it had 
not proceeded with that roundness it did. This I set down 
here, as a debt of gratitude owing from this church to his 
memory. 

Appoints But to ffo uo further in this place in discourse concerning 

Guest to . . . . . . ^ 

examine him, than as to his influence in the English liturgy ; he ap- 
the b'^^k'*'^^ pointed Guest, a very learned man, (afterwards archdeacon 
of Canterbury, the queen''s almoner, and bishop of Ro- 
chester,) to be joined with the rest of the revisers of the 
book ; and, as I conjecture, substituted him in the room of 
Dr. Parker, being absent, at least some part of the time, by 
reason of sickness. Him the secretary required diligently 
to compare both king Edward''s communion books together ; 
and from them both to frame a book for the use of the 
church of England, by correcting and amending, altering and 
adding, or taking away, according to his judgment, and the 
ancient liturgies : which when he had done, and a new ser- 
vice book being finished by him and the others appointed 
thereunto, the said Guest conveyed it unto the secretary, 
together with a letter to him containing his reasons for his 
own emendations and alterations; and therein particular 
satisfaction given unto divers things, many whereof seem to 
have been hints and questions of the secretary's, pursuant 
to the settlement of the liturgy. 
Question* As first, Whether such ceremonies as were lately taken 
soive'd're- ^^^^7 ^X ^^'"S Edward's book might not be resumed, not 
lating to being evil in themselves .'' 

II. Whether the image of the cross were not to be re- 
tained ? 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 121 

III. Whether processions should not be used.? CHAP. 

IV. Whether in the celebration of the communion, ^^' 



priests should not use a cope beside a surplice "^ Anno 1559. 

V. Whether the communion should be divided into two 
parts? [that is, the office or book of the communion.] And 
whether a part thereof should be read to all without dis- 
tinction, and another to the communicants only, the rest 
being departed ? 

VI. Whether the creed is rightly placed in the commu- 
nion office ; as though it were to be repeated by the com- 
municants only .? 

VII. Whether it be not convenient to continue the use 
of praying for the dead in the communion "^ 

VIII. Whether the prayer of consecration in the first 
communion book should be left out "^ 

IX. Whether the sacrament were, according to the first 
book, to be received into the communicant*'s mouth, or to 
be delivered into his hand "^ 

X. Whether the sacrament were to be received standing 
or kneeling; "^ 

To all these Guest gave learned answers : and thereby 
vindicated what alterations were newly made in the book 
prepared to be laid before the parliament. And by this 
writing it appears, that the main care of the revisal and 83 
preparation of the book lay upon that reverend divine, 
whom I suppose Parker recommended to the secretary to 
supply his absence. And for his pains was soon after by 
him, when archbishop, rewarded with the archdeaconry of 
Canterbury. But thus Guest having shewed good cause, as 
he thought, why the service was set forth by him and his 
company as it was, he concluded his paper, " beseeching 
" God, for his mercy in Christ, to cause the parliament with 
" one voice to enact it, and the realm with true heart to use 
*' it." This discourse of Guest, shewing him to have been 
a solid and well-read man, I have transcribed from tlie ori- 
ginal, and put in among the monuments in the end of the Number 
book. ^'^^^• 

What the original draught of the service book was, as it 



122 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, came from the divines'' hands, and was presented to the 
IV • 
' house, would be worth knowing : I suppose very little was 

Anno i5o9. altered by the parliament; yet something, it seems, was. For 
receivlo'^ it appears, by Guest's paper, that the posture of receiving 
the sacra- the sacrament, eitlier kneeling or standing, was left indif- 
ferent in the book by the divines, and that every one might 
follow the one way or the other : for this reason, to teacli 
men that it was lawful to receive either way. But the par- 
liament, I suppose, made a change here, enjoining the an- 
cient posture of kneeling, as was in the old book. 

April was almost spent before the divines had finished 
King Ed- this new service book ; wherein was a proviso to retain the 
^^'^,J„!'J' ornaments which were used in the church in the first and 

nainents re- 
tained, second years of king Edward VI. until it pleased the queen 

cf'c E ^ to take order for them. " Our gloss upon this text,"" saith 
Iiiust.viror. Dr. Sandys in a letter to Dr. Parker, " is, that we shall not 
" be forced to use them, but that others, in the mean time, 
" shall not convey them away ; but that they may remain 
*' for the queen." But this must be looked upon as the con- 
jecture of a private man. 
Dr. Boxai's The particular exceptions that were made to this book, 
exception. ^]-,gj^ jj j^^y ^gfoj-e the parliament, I cannot tell ; but I find 
Boxal, who was dean of Windsor, and had been secretary 
to queen Mary, and still it seems at court, found much 
fault with one passage in the communion office; namely, 
that in the consecration of the elements there was not a 
thanksgiving : for Christ, said he, took bread, and gave 
thanks ; and in tlie consecration here they give not thanks. 
This he put into the lord treasurer's head, and endeavoured, 
according to the interest he had with the queen, to alienate 
her from passing the act. The divines gave their reasons 
for what they did ; and their particular reason for this may 
be seen in Guest's paper beforesaid. But by the means of 
secretary Cecil, and the great esteem the queen had for him 
and his advice, the divines were in good hope their enemies 
should not prevail ; and their hopes were not deceived. 
DiiTennccs The book came out with small variation from the second 
two books'.^ l^^^"'^ of king Edward. I will set down a note of the dif- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 123 

ferences verbatim, as archbishop Whitgift afterwards, upon CHAP. 
some reasons, sent them to the lord treasurer Burghley. ' 



Which note was thus endorsed by that lord's own hand : Anno 1559. 
" Archbishop of Canterbury ; Differences betwixt the Book 
« of Prayers of K. Edward and of Q. Elizabeth." 

" First, King Edward his second book differeth from her §4 
" majesty's book in the first rubric, set down in the begin- Mss. 
" ning of the book : for king Edward's second book hath it ""^^ 
" thus ; 

" The morning and evening prayer shall he iised in such 
" place of the church, chapel, or chancel ; and the minister 
" shall turn him, as the people may best hear. And if there 
" he any controversy therein, the matter shall he referred to 
*' the ordinary, and he or his deputy shall appoint the 
^^ place. And the, &c. 

" Whereas the queen's book hath it thus ; 

" The morning and evening prayer shall he used in the 
*' accustomed place of the church, chapel, or chancel, except 
*' it shall be otherwise determined by the ordinary of the 
" place. And the chancels shall remain as they have done 
" in times past. 

" Again, King Edward's second book hath it thus ; 

" Again, here is to be noted, that the minister at the time 
*' of the commtinion, and at all other times in his ministra- 
*' tion, shall use neither alb, vestment, nor cope. But being 
" archbishop or bishop, shall have and wear a rochet ; and 
*' being a priest or deacon, he shall have and wear a sur- 
^^ plice only. 

" The queen's book hath it ; 

" And here is to be noted, that the minister at the time of 
" the communion, and at all other times in his ministration, 
" shall use such ornaments in the chicrch, as xvere in use by 
" authority of parliament in the second year of the reign 
" of king Edzvard the sixth, according to tlie act ofparlia- 
" ment set forth in the beginning of this book. 

" Secondly, In king Edward's second book, in the litany 
" there are these words ; From the tyranny of the -bishop of 



124 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, " Rome^ and all his detestable enormities ; which are not in 
" her niajesty"'s book. 



Anno 1559. *' Thirdly, In the Utany, her majesty's book hath these 
" words more than are in king Edward''s second book, viz. 
" Strengthen in the true zoorsMpping of' thee in righteous- 
" ness and true holiness qflife^ &c. 

" Fourthly, In the end of the litany there is no prayer 
" in king Edward's second book for the king, nor for the 
" state of the clergy. And the last collect set in her ma- 
" jesty''s book next before the first Sunday in Advent, and 
" beginning, O God, zchose nature and property is ever to 
" have mercy, is not in king Edward's second book. Fur- 
" ther, there are two collects appointed for the time of 
" dearth and famine, whereas her majesty's book hath but 
" one. And in kino; Edward's second book this note is given 
" of the prayer of St. Chrysostom, The litany shall ever 
" end with this collect Jbllozoing ; which note is not in her 
" majesty's book. 

" Fifthly, King Edward's second book appointeth only 
" these words to be used, when the bread is delivered at 
" the communion, Tal^e and cat this in remembrance that 
" Christ died Jbr thee ; and feed on him in thine heart by 
^^ faith zvith thanksgiving. And when the cup is delivered, 
" Drink this in 7'emembrance that Chr'isfs blood was shed 
^^Jor thee, and be thankfid. [Whereas in her majesty's 
" book, at the delivering of the bread, these words must be 
" said. The body of our Lord Jesus Christ, xchich teas given 
8 5 '•^Jhr thee, preserve thy body and soul unto everlasting life. 
" Take and eat this, &c. And at the delivery of the cn]> 
" these words. The blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, tchich 
" was shed Jbr thee, preserve thy body and soul unto eve?-- 
" lasting life. DrhiJc th'is,''^ &c.] 
Papists cia- And thus the pure worship of God was again happily 
inour a- established in this nation. It hii^hly indeed offended papists 

gainst the " -l i • , 

reforma- abroad, as well as at liome : and they represented it to the 

t'on. world, as though hereby all rehgion were abandoned in 

England. Thus did Hieronymus Osorius, a Portuguese bi- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 125 

shop, (a man famed in those times for eloquence,) in an CHAP, 
epistle which he took the confidence to write to queen • 



Elizabeth about the year 1562: that " all rites and sacra- Anno 1559. 
" ments and sacred things were overthrown to the very "^^'^^'.*^'^" 

o J renionias 

" foundations." But Dr. Haddon, master of requests to the et sacra- 
queen, a grave and wise civilian, and who very well knew ^"ia fun- 
what was done in this reformation of the church of Eng;- •^■t"* everti, 

&c. 

land, took occasion hence, in his epistle responsory to this jjaddon 
foreigner, (in no less eloquent a style,) briefly to give him Opuscui. 
and the world this account of our rites of religion now re- 
formed. 

" First, Because faith,"" said he, " cometh by hearing, we What was 
*' send teachers of the holy scriptures to all the coasts reform"- 
" and corners of our country, to instruct the people in all ^'°"- 
" the duties of piety, and to inform them in the true wor- 
" ship of God. Then, we have a public form of prayers, 
" collected out of the sacred scriptures, ratified by au- 
" thority of parliament, as we call the assent of the three 
" estates of the commonwealth ; from whence we do not 
*' sufl^er any to stray or vary. Providing in both, as 
" much as we can, that the precept of the Holy Ghost 
" be obeyed, that proclaimeth. He that speaketh in the 
" church must use the oracle or word of God in it ; and 
" then, that all be of one mind. The sacrament we do, 
>' as near as possible, take care to administer according 
" to the prescript of scripture and the example of the 
" ancient church, as our Lord Jesus Christ first insti- 
" tuted it with his disciples. All this is set forth in our 
" mother tongue : inasmuch as it is a great folly to utter 
" that before God which we know not what it is; and 
" it manifestly impugneth the sound doctrine of St. Paul, 
" together with all ancient examples of the apostolical 
." churches. We perform the imposition of hands, the ce- 
" lebration of matrimony, the bringing to church women 
," after childbirth, and the burial of the dead, with solemn 
" and public ofiices: that all things may be done in the 
" churches conveniently and in order, as we know well we 
" are admonished to do in the New Testament. As for 



126 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " times, places, clays, and other circumstances, there is in 
" effect no change made among us : nor in all our religion 



Anno 1559." is any thing new, unless what had either evident ab- 

" surdity in it, or express impiety." Thus Haddon. 
The divine And indeed concerning our holy service thus settled, to 
cordTn *to' ^^ used in the public worship, it was commonly urged by 
God's word, the friends of the reformation in those times, how agreeable 
it was to the holy scripture; that some part of it was the very 
word of God, and the rest was framed according to that 
word. And as to that part of it that consisted of the cate^ 
chism, it was also a great part of it God"'s express words, (as 
86 the ten commandments and the Lord's prayer,) and that it 
taught young people so much of the knowledge of scrip- 
ture, that is, God's word, that children hereby knew more 
of Christian religion, than the oldest before, bred up in the 
former superstition. For thus did another great divine and 
bishop (sometime an exile) speak to these offended papists : 
Bisiiop " Our service hath nothing in it but what is written in 
Confutat " ^o^'s book, the holy Bible, (where no lie can be found,) 
" saving Te Deum^ and a few collects and prayers ; which, 
" although they be not contained in the scripture, yet, dif- 
" fering in words, they agree in sense and meaning with the 
" articles of the faith, and the whole body of the scripture. 
" None is so ignorant, but he sees the popish service and 
" doctrine to agree little with the scriptures, and ours to 

" contain nothing else but scriptures Is that new- 

" fangled and schismatical, [as they had charged it,] that 
" containeth nothing but the doctrine of the prophets and 
** apostles .''" 

And then again, to prove that our faith is right, as well 
as our worship, he added, " that the faith of a Christian 
" man is generally contained in the creed, and particularly 
" declared in the scripture at large." And then he pro- 
ceeded, " that we do esteem these articles of the Christian 
" faith so much, with the Lord's prayer and the ten com- 
" mandments of Almighty God, that by common order it is 
" appointed (and good ministers practise it) that children 
" might learn them, not in a tongue they understand not, as 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 127 

*' the pope would have them, but in their mother tongue; CHAP. 
" with such a short declaration of it by a catechism, that ^^- 
" now a young child of ten years old can tell more of his Anno 1559. 
*' duty towards God and man, than an old man of their Vl^ *^^^^" 

. . . . chism. 

" bringing up can do of sixty or eighty years old." 

The great and good archbishop Cranmer's judgment of Archbishop 
king Edward's Book of Common Prayer may deserve here . j'^^"^"^"^* 
to have a place. When bishop Gardiner would have fortified of the com- 
his corrupt doctrine of the sacrament out of that book, and 
asserted that the receiving- of the body and blood of Christ 
into our mouths was a teaching set forth there, and there ca- 
tholicly spoken of, the said archbishop thus answered: "That Cranmer a- 
" the Book of Common Prayer neither used any such speech, ^^'"^"^ ^^^ 
" nor taught any such doctrine ; and that he [the archbi- 
*' shop] did not in any point injprove [i. e. disprove] that 
" godly book, nor vary from it ; and that no man could 
" mislilie it, that had any godliness in him, joined with 
" Inowledge.'''' 

To which passages let me add, that, as in the beginning 
of this settlement of religion by this Book of Common 
Prayer, the papists were the chief persons that were dis- 
gusted, and opposed it, so afterwards divers protestants Foreign 
among; ourselves fauna great fault with it : the vindication I'l'i^L'^ff 

o <~J rejoice alt 

of which Dr. Bancroft (another archbishop of Canterbury this re- 
afterwards) undertook, in a sermon at St. Paul's, February jj^ ^ 1 
1588. Wherein he told his auditory, how glad all the churches croft, 
of Europe were at this establishment of religion in the be- 
ginning of this queen's reign. Then he shewed what pains 
were taken in reforming the book ; and brought divers tes- 
timonies of godly learned men, to prove that the book was 
in a manner void of all reprehension. 

Yet it is true, that divers of our English, in the time of 8/ 
their exile, living and conversing: in some of the reformed ^",'"^^"^' 

' o . . ^ _ _ lis), dishke 

churches abroad, had imbibed a better opinion of the model the liturgy 
of their church-worship than this at home now established, |]j"l,'[jg^^'^" 
and were very desirous to bring it in, and use it instead of 
our liturgy ; and certain eminent members of those foreign 
churches had applied to the queen, for an indulgence to 



128 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, these her subjects in tliis matter. But she, resolving firmly 

^^' to adhere to her laws, would not permit of this variety of 

Anno 1559. public worship ; and wrote thus courteously, but steadfastly. 

Sir Hen. in answer to them : " That it w as not with her safety, 

Menior.^in " honour, and credit, to permit diversity of opinions in a 

Foxes and a kingdom where none but she and her council governed ; 

part iii. " not Owning either imperial or papal powers, as several of 

" the princes and states there did, and were glad to com- 

" pound with them." And thereby she satisfied several of 

them. 



CHAP. V. 

A disputation at Westminster in parliament time, between 
some papists and protestants, before a great assembly of 
the nobility. The questions. The papists decline the 
dispute. The argument of the protestants. JeweTs wish 
for a disputation. The popish disputants punished. 

A public UURING this session of parliament, there be two or three 
( ispu a ion. ^j^jjgj, j]^jjjgg ^j^at must be remembered, relating to religion. 
The first is concerning a conference between some popish 
bishops and other learned men of that communion, and cer- 
tain protestant divines, held in the month of March, by 
order of the queen"'s privy council, to be performed in their 
presence : eight on one side, and eight on the other. 
Ei^ht and For wliercas it is said by the right reverend the author of 
side^ "" ^ the History of the Reformation, that there were nine and 
nine on a side, according as Holinshed indeed sets it down, 
it is an error ; as appears by a letter of Dr. Richard Cox, 
one of the disputants on the protestants' side, written to 
Weidner, a learned man at Wormes, therein giving a rela- 
tion of this conference, mentioning but eight; as likewise 
by the account thereof kept in the paper office, and tran- 
Voi. ii. p. scribed thence into the Collections of the said History of the 
^''^* Reformation, tliat speaks of four bishops and four doctors 

Names of only appointed to dispute. And these were White, AVatson, 
the dis- IJaine, and Scot, bishops of Winchester, Lincoln, Coventry 

putanU. ' ' I 7 7./ 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 129 

and Litchfield, and Chester; and the doctors Cole, dean of CHAP. 
St. PauFs ; Langdale, Harpsfield, and Chedsey, archdea- 



cons of Lewes, Canterbury, and Middlesex: and on the ^""o 1^59. 
protestants"" side were these eight only; John Scory, late 
bishop of Chichester, David Whitehead, John Jewel, John 
Mlmer, Richard Cox, Edmund Grindal, Robert Home, 
and Edmund Guest; as they are set down by Dr. Mat- 88 
thew Parker's own hand, at the end of his MS. paper, con- 
taining the protestants' discourse upon the first proposition. 
So the bishop of Carlisle on the papists'" side, and Sandys 
on that of the protestants", are misadded to the aforesaid 
disputants, though probably they were present at the con- 
ference : and we find that the bishop of Carlisle was present 
the second day ; and so was Turbervile, bishop of Exeter, 
too, and abbot Fecknam. 

But because the bishop of Sarum in his History, and Mr. 
Fox before him, have set down at large the transactions of 
this conference, therefore I shall pass it over with more bre- 
vity, only relating somewhat perhaps by them omitted, and 
rectifying somewhat mistaken. Hethe, archbishop of York, A motion 
did make the motion, that this dispute should be managed ;" ,^''",%! 
especially by writing: which way was most acceptable also to 'ng. 
the protestants ; and was once propounded by Hoper, and 
some other divines in prison under queen Mary, after they 
saw how unfairly the disputation was carried (all by noise 
and confusion) with Cranmer and Ridley at Oxford. Bram- 
hall, archbishop of Armagh, approved and required such a 
way of disputing with some papists that he had to do with. 
" Conferences," saith he, " in words do often engender Brambaii's 

, . 1 • 1 •..• • Works, p. 

" heat, or produce extravagancies and mistakes: writing is 337. 
" a way more calm, more certain, and such as a man cannot 
" depart from :" in his letter to Mrs. Cheubien, in the nun- 
nery. And, according: to this motion, the queen ordered it The rules 

■^ . . ■I- -J- ofthedis- 

should be managed m writing on both parties, lor avoiding pyjj^ji„„_ 
of much altercation in words: and she ordered likewise, 
that the papist bishops should first declare their minds, with 
their reasons, in writing ; and then the others, if they had 
any thing to say to the contrary, should the same day de- 

VOL. I. K 



130 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, clare their opinions. And so each of them should deliver 
' their writings to the other, to be considered what were to be 



Anno 1559. disproved therein; and the same to declare in writing at 

some other convenient day. 
The begin- All this was fully agreed upon. And hereupon diA^rs of 
manaerof *^^^ nobility and estates of the realm, understanding that 
it. such a meeting should be, made earnest means to her ma- 

jesty, that the bishops and divines might put their assertions 
into English, and read them in that tongue, for their better 
satisfaction and understanding, and for enabling their own 
judgments to treat and conclude of such laws as might de- 
pend thereupon. And so both parts met at Westminster 
abbey : the lords and others of the privy council were pre- 
sent, and a great part of the nobility and of the commons. 
But while all were in expectation to hear these learned men 
and their arguments, the bishop of Winchester, Dr. White, 
said, they were mistaken, that their assertions and reasons 
should be written, and so only recited out of a book : add- 
ing, that their book was not then ready written ; but that 
they were ready to argue and dispute : and therefore that 
they would only at that time repeat in speech what they had 
The papists to Say to the first proposition. This, with some words, was 
*^"°* passed off: and then the bishop of Winchester and his col- 
leagues appointed Dr. Cole, dean of St. Paul's, to be the 
utterer of their minds : who, partly by speech, and partly 
by reading authorities written, and at certain times being 
informed by the colleagues what to say, made a declara- 
tion of their meanings, and their reasons to their first pro- 
position. 
The pro- Which being ended, they were asked by the privy coun- 

go Then the other part was licensed to shew their minds, which 
they did according to the first order ; exhibiting all that they 
meant to propound, in a book written : which, after a prayer 
and invocation made to Almighty God, and a protestation to 
stand to the doctrine of the catholic church built upon scrip- 
ture, was distinctly read by Dr. Horn (who was the penner 
of the same) upon the first proposition. And so the as- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 131 

sembly was quietly dismissed. This was on Friday, the CHAP.' 
last day of March. The question then disputed was, That ^' 
it was against the word of God ^ and the custom of the pri- Anno 1559. 
mitive churchy to use a tono-ue unknown to the people in^^^^^^^ 

' _ cj Jr jr question. 

common prayer and administration of sacraments. 

When Monday, the second day of conference, came, and The second 
all the grave assembly were set. White, bishop of Winches- ™^^^ "^* 
ter, and the rest of that side, refused to proceed on the se- 
cond question, but would by all means insist still upon the 
first, argued the last day ; and, pretending they had more The two 
to say of it, were resolved to read upon that argument only : ^^'^'^^ j, J^j 
urging much, that they and their cause should suffer pre- 
judice, if they should not treat of the first. And Watson, 
bishop of Lincoln, striving to have his turn of speaking, 
hotly said, that they were not used indifferently, that they 
might not be allowed to declare in writing what they had 
to say of the first question ; and added, that what Dr. Cole 
spake in the last assembly was extempore, and of himself, 
and with no forestudied talk, and that it was not prepared 
to strengthen their cause. These sayings made the nobility 
and others the auditors frown, knowing that Cole spake out 
of a paper which he held in his hand, and read in the same : 
and that according to the instruction of the bishops, who 
pointed unto several places in his paper with their fingers, 
for his direction. Watson also complained that their ad- 
versaries had longer warning than they : and that they 
themselves had notice of it but two days before, and were 
fain to set up the whole last night. But Bacon, the lord 
keeper, told them, that at the last conference, when Cole 
had done, he asked them, the bishops, whether what he had 
spoken was what they would have him say, and they granted 
it : and whether he should say any more in the matter, and 
they answered, No. But for their satisfaction the lord 
keeper added, that they should at present, according to the 
order agreed upon, discourse upon the second question; 
and at another meeting, when the day came for them both 
to confirm their first question, they should have liberty to 
read what they had further to say upon the first. To which 

K 2 



132 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, all the council there present willingly condescended: but 
' this also the bishojis would not be contented with. At last 



Anno 1559. Hethe, archbishop of York, told them they were to blame, 
for that there was a plain decreed order for them to treat 
at this time of the second question, and bade them leave 
their contention. Then the bishops started another matter 
of quarrel, and said, it was contrary to the order in dispu- 
tations that they should begin ; for that their side had the 
negative, said the bishop of Chester: and therefore they 
that were on the affirmative should begin : that they were 
the defending party : and that it was the school manner, 
90 and likewise the manner in Westminster hall, that the plain- 
tiff should speak first, and then the accused party answer. 
To which the keeper told them, they began willingly on 
the first question ; and the protestants told them, that they 
had the negative then. Home wondered that they should 
so much stand upon it, who should begin. Then the bi- 
shops charged the protestants to have been the propounders 
of the questions. But the keeper told them, that the ques- 
tions were of neither of their propounding, but offered from 
the council indifferently to tliem both. Then Bayne, bishop 
of Litchfield and Coventry, minding to run from the matter, 
began to question with the protestants, what church they 
were of? saying, that they must needs try that first: for 
there were many churches in Germany ; and he demanded 
of Horn, which of those churches he was of? who prudent- 
ly answered, that he was of Christ's catholic church. The 
keeper told them, they ought not to run into voluntary talk 
of their own inventing. The bishop of Litchfield said, that 
they, on their part, had no doubt, but assuredly stood in 
the truth. But those other men pretended to be doubtful. 
Tiierefore they should first bring what they had to impugn 
them, the bishops, withal. And the bishop of Chester told 
the lords plainly, if themselves began first, and the others 
spake after, then they speaking last should have the advan- 
tage to come off with applause of the people, and the verity 
on tlieir side not be so well marked. And therein indeed he 
spake out the true cause of all this jangUng. And here- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 133 

upon Winchester in short said, he was resolved, except they CHAP. 
began, he would say nothing. When the lord keeper could ^' 
not persuade them, he spoke of departing. And Winches- Auno 1559. 
ter, as though this were the issue he desired, presently cried. 
Contented, and offered to go. But the keeper first asked 
them man by man, to know their resolution, and they all, 
save one, Fecknam, abbot of Westminster, utterly denied 
to read, without the other party began ; and some so very 
disorderly and irreverently as had not been seen in so ho- 
nourable an assembly of the two estates of the realm, nobi- 
lity and commons then assembled, besides the presence of 
the queen"'s council. 

And so, without any more dispute, all was dismissed. They break 
But the lord keeper at parting said these words to them ; **' 
*' For that ye would not that we should hear you, perhaps 
" you may shortly hear of us." And so they did ; for, for 
this contempt, the bishops of Winchester and Lincoln were 
committed to the Tower of London ; and the rest, saving 
the abbot of Westminster, were bound to make their per- 
sonal appearance before the council, and not to depart the 
cities of London and Westminster till their order. A brief 
account of this which I have set down is given in a small 
book, printed long since by Jug and Cawood, by the queen''s 
authority. The original copy whereof is in the Paper-office ; 
and published from thence by the bishop of Sarum in his 
History. It is also extant in Holinshed's History of Queen Vol. ii. Coi- 
Elizabeth, and at the end of Fox's Acts. ec . p. 

Dr. Cole's paper upon the first question, together with Tiie papers 
that of Dr. Hoin, remains among archbishop Parkers MSS. piom ex- 
in the volume entitled Synodalia: whence they are both^^"*- 
published in the History of the Reformation. But I ob- Vol. ii. Coi- 
serve Horn's excellent preface omitted there, as indeed it is 338. 
in the MS. the author made use of; which I have therefore 9 1 
supplied in the Appendix. And a great part of Horn's Numb. xv. 
discourse, about the middle thereof, is also left out; con- 
sisting of authorities out of St. Ambrose, Hierom, Chrys- 
ostom, Dionysius, Cyprian, and a Constitution of Justinian : 

which may be supplied out of Fox's Acts, towards the con- First edit. 

^ p. 1721. 

K 3 



An error 
corrected 



134 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, elusion, where the same learned discourse is preserved. And 
let it be marked, that that discourse which the right re- 
Anno 1559. verend author of the History of the Reformation sets down, 
as that which Cole first read, must be mistaken : for it 
plainly appears not to be read before Horn''s discourse, but 
after it, being a reply to him. For thus Cole begins; 
" Most honourable. Whereas these men here present have 
" declared openly, it is repugnant and contrary to the word 
" of God to have the common prayer and ministration of 
" sacraments in the Latin tongue ; ye shall understand, that, 
" to prove this their assertion, they have brought in as yet 
" only one place of scripture, taken out of St. Paul his first 
" epistle to the Corinthians, chap. xiv. with certain other 
" places of holy doctors, whereunto answer is not now to 
" be made ; but when the book which they read shall be 
" delivered unto us according to the appointment made in 
" that behalf, God willing, we shall make answer," &c. as 
it follows in Coles's paper. By this preface it is undeniably 
evident, that this cannot be the paper that Cole first began 
with. And I conclude it was that which the bishops had 
prepared, and made all that ado to have read at the second 
meeting, but would not then be permitted. 
The second The Second question which was to be disputed, but was 
question, j^^^^ Y)y reason of the refusal of the popish side, as is above 
said, was. That every imrt'icidar cliurcli hath authority to 
institute^ change^ and abrogate ceremonies and rites of the 
church, so that it be to edijication. A learned discourse in 
writing was prepared by the protestant side for the proof of 
this; which follows in the said MS. where the other dis- 
courses are. And because little account is given of this in the 
Page 394. bishop of Sarum"'s History, only what we find thereof a page 
or two after, I ^vill here shew briefly the arguments. The 
method was, to prove this assertion by God's word, by an- 
cient writings, and by examples. The proof from the word 
of God consisted in these six particulars follo\ving : 
The pro- I. All ecclesiastical rites and ceremonies are things that 

/ume'nt for appertain to order and decency. But St. Paul committed 
''• to the church of Corinth the disposition of all such things : 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 135 

and committing that authority to that particular church, he CHAP, 
consequently committed it to all other particular churches. ' 



II. That the principal foundation, whereupon may be Anno 1559. 
gathered, that any council or assembly hath authority to 
change or institute rites and ceremonies, stood upon those 

words of Christ, Wheresoever two or three are gathered to- 
gether in my name. But in a particular church, not only 
two or three, but also great numbers may be met together 
in the name of Christ. 

III. The authority of the church, both universal and 
particular, to institute, abrogate, and change rites and cere- 
monies, dependeth only upon obedience to Christ and his 92 
word, in directing of all things to the edification of faith 
and charity. 

IV. Ceremonies, that were profitable at first, may grow 
by continuance to abuse, and be hurtful. And as for gene- 
ral councils, they come together but seldom ; nor can do 
other, by reason of wars and troubles in the world. So that 
if particular churches may not remove rites tending to ido- 
latry, great numbers of souls may perish before general 
councils can come together. 

V. Look what authority the seven several pastors and 
churches in Asia had to reform the things that were amiss 
among every of them ; the same authority now have the se- 
veral pastors and churches in all kingdoms and provinces. 

VI. If a particular church were bound to retain and ex- 
ercise, and might not abrogate evil rites and customs insti- 
tuted by men, then were the same church also bound to 
obey men more than God ; who hath commanded, that all 
things should be done in the church to edify. 

But because their adversaries stayed themselves most 
upon old councils, and the writings of doctors and fathers, 
therefore, to match them Avith their own weapon, the rest of 
the discourse consisted partly in the proof of their allega- 
tions from thence, (which is very large,) and partly in ex- 
amples in ancient times. Lastl}'^, they proceeded to answer 
objections, which they promised to consider more at large, 
when their adversaries' book should be exhibited. This, 

K 4 



136 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



CHAP, though long, is an excellent learned discourse, but by whom 
composed I know not, perhaps by Jewel or Guest, though 



N". XVI. 



Anno 1559.1 make no doubt the whole club was concerned in it, and 
contributed their assistance. The whole is recommended 
to the reader's perusal in the Appendix. Therein they said, 
that the old councils thought it a thing commodious for 
the church to have variety in ceremonies. That such 
uniformity of rites and ceremonies as was then seen in 
the popish churches, was not in the church when it was 
most pure, but was brought in after, when the bishop of 
Rome had unjustly aspired to the primacy, and was con- 
tinued in those churches rather for a public recognition 
of his monarchy, than for any edification. That it was 
more for the profit of the church to have some variety of 
ceremonies in divers places, than to have all one; that 
the Uberty of the church might remain, that in indifferent 
things every church might abound in their own sense; 
and that ceremonies might not be too much esteemed, and 
be made equal with God's word. That late experience in 
this our country shewed, that the abrogation of many ce- 
remonies estabhshed by general authority was lawful and 
profitable. For that in king Henry's time many super- 
stitious observations and idolatrous rites were abolished ; 
and that by the consent of many of them which now 
were, or lately had been, adversaries ; as pilgrimages, par- 
dons, superstitious opinions of purgatory, holy water, 
masses for cattle, scala coeli, &c. And that even in that 
late time of queen Mary it appeared that they were 
ashamed to restore the same again. Then they proceeded 
to instance in several superstitious fables out of the Fes- 
93 " tival Book, Avhich in time past were propounded to the 
people for Mholesome doctrines, but indeed were occasions 
of dissolute life and sin. One Avhcreof was, of a woman 
which never did good deed, but only that she had con- 
tinually kept a candle burning before our lady ; and of a 
candle that by our lady's appointn)ent was kept burning 
before her when she was in hell ; which light the devils 
could not abide : and by reason thereof she was rescued 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 137 

" from hell, and restored to life again ; and then became a CHAP. 
" good woman. They demanded whether, when in the late ^' 
" days there was so much preaching against reading the Anno 1559. 
" scriptures in the vulgar tongue, there was any inveighing 
" against this Festival, or such like superstitious books ; 
" and when strait inquisition had been made for English 
" Bibles and Testaments, to have them burned, they left 
" others to judge whether the like diligence had been used 
" for abolishing those books."" 

They ended this their learned argument with some brief 
consideration of their adversaries' reasons concerning " the 
" authority of general councils, the continuance of time, 
" and their possession in the church. As to the two last, 
" they bade their adversaries prove their things true, and 
" then allege time. For against the eternal truth of God's 
" word, no continuance of time can make prescription. And 
" that they should never be able to prove the bishop of 
*' Rome head of the universal church by the scriptures, 
" (by which title he claimed his authority,) nor that under 
" his obedience all Christians ought to live, under pain of 
" damnation : this they should never be able to do, as had 
" been often proved in the realm and elsewhere : and that 
" therefore the authority of their church was nothing, and 
" their possession unjust." 

Great pity it was this disputation ended so abruptly, and The papist 
proceeded not as was designed, that this discourse before- ^'*''."^''^** 
mentioned might have been read to that grave, honourable, ciine the 
and numerous audience ; and that this argument might '*'" ^* 
have been further pursued, by considering and answering 
the adversaries' papers, as the protestant side were prepared 
to do. But the popish disputants thought it their wisest 
course to forbear, lest they might have been too closely 
pinched in their cause, if they had gone on ; and therefore 
warily declined entering further into this contest, lest the 
weakness of their arguments might more openly appear to 
all. 

It was Jewel's desire that this disputation had gone on ; Jewel's wish 
and his wish that some such public conference might have*,'" '^/'"'^ 

1 c? tlisputation. 



138 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, been appointed, for the full satisfying menu's minds in these 

controversies, and for making the truth more evidently ap- 

Aano 1^59. pe^ ^q ^H. Thus in one of his sermons, reflecting upon 
this last disputation, he hath these words : " That however 
" it might not become him to set order in these things, yet, 
" if it were lawful, lie would wish that once again, as time 
" would serve, there might be had a quiet and a sober dis- 
" putation ; and that each part might be required to shew 
*' their grounds, without self-will, and without affection, 
" not to maintain or breed contention ; (for he trusted it 

Works* " ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^'^y ^o t^^6 away all contention ;) but only 

p. 207. " that the truth might be known, many consciences quieted, 

94 " and the right stone tried by comparison of the counter- 

" feit. For at the last disputation that slwuld have been, 

" every one knew which part gave over, and would not 

" meddle. And whereas some would say, the judge Avould 

" not be indifferent ; alas ! said he, what man that doubted 

" his own matter would ever think the judges indifferent? 

" But, he added, [none should be appointed judges; but] 

" let the whole world, let our adversaries themselves be 

" judges here, (affection put apart.) What can we offer 

" more ? Let them call for their doctors and councils. If 

" they come, said he, but with one sufficient doctor or 

" council, they may have the field. That he spake not 

" this to boast himself of any learning, but that the good- 

" ness of the cause made him the bolder. Neither would 

" he have said so much as he had in this behalf, saving that 

" the matter itself, and very necessity, forced him so to do : 

" since it were great pity that God's truth should be de- 

" faced with privy whisperings, that whole houses should 

" be overthrown, men's consciences wounded, the people 

" deceived." 

Thecoun- The resentments of the court, for this sullen and refrac- 

ceedings tory bchaviour of the popish disputants, appeared soon after, 

iigaiust by these orders of the council ag-ainst them. April the 3d, 

these po- , , 1 , IT r. 1 ni • / 

pish iiis- the lords sent a letter to the lieutenant 01 the 1 ower, with 
putaiits. ji^g bodies of the bishops of Winton and Lincoln, (who had 

Minutes of _ ^ _ _ ' ^ 

Council, given most offence,) and willed him to keep them in sure 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 139 

and several wards : suffering; them nevertheless to have each CHAP. 

V 
of them one of their own men to attend upon them, and. 



their own stuff for their bedding, and other necessary furni--'^nnoi559. 
ture; and to appoint them to some convenient lodging meet 
for persons of their sort : using them also otherwise well, 
especially the bishop of Lincoln, for that he was sick. For 
which respects also, and because this was his sick night, the 
said lieutenant was willed the rather to have regard unto 
him, and to spare him some of his own lodging and stuff 
for this night : and also to suffer his chirurgeon, and such 
other as should be needful for his health, to have access to 
him from time to time. And the same day the lords of the 
council did appoint sir Ambrose Cave and sir Richard Sack- 
vile, [two of the council,] to repair to the houses of the 
foresaid bishops here in London, and both to peruse their 
studies and writings, and also to take order with their offi- 
cers for the surety and stay of their goods. 

And the next day, being April 4, this order passed upon 
the rest of these offenders, that Lafe, bishop of Coventry 
and Litchfield, Cuthbert, bishop of Chester, and Owin, bi- 
shop of Carlisle, Henry Cole, LL. D. John Harpsfield, 
S. T. P. and William Chedsey, S. T. P. should all (and ac- 
cordingly did) enter into bonds severally to make their per- 
sonal appearances before the lords of the council as often as 
they sat, and not to depart the cities of London and West- 
minster, and the suburbs, until they should have licence so 
to do : and further to stand unto and pay such fines as 
should be by the lords of the council assessed upon them, 
for their contempt committed against the queen''s majesty's 
order, as the obligation ran. The first of these bishops was 
bound in 2000 marks sterling, the second in 1000/. the 
third in 500 mark. Dr. Cole in 1000 mark. Dr. Harpsfield 
in 500 mark, and Dr. Chedsey in 300Z. 

And so accordingly they all, both bishops and doctors, ^5 
did from day to day come personally and wait upon the 
council from the 5th of April till the 12th of May next, 
desiring daily their appearances to be recorded. The day 
before, viz. May the 11th, the council came to assess the 



140 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, fines which each of them were bound to stand to for their 
. contempt, and w ere as follows : the bishop of Litchfield and 



Anno 1559. Coventry, 333/. 6s. 8d.; the bishop of Carhsle, 250Z.; the 
bishop of Chester, 200 mark ; Dr. Cole, 500 mark ; Dr. 
Harpsfield, 40/.; and Dr. Chedsey, 40 mark. The next 
day, IMay the 12th, when they came to make their personal 
appearances. Dr. Harpsfield paid his 40/. into the hands 
of William Smith, clerk of the council ; and Dr. Chedsey 
his 40 mark. And so they were discharged, recognisances 
of their good abearing being first taken of them. How and 
when the greater fines were paid by the rest, I know not, 
only I find these favourable orders of council for the two 
bishops in the Tower. 
Favoura))ie April 27, letters were sent from the lords to the lieute- 
the two nant of the Tower, to suffer the bishop of Lincoln, presently 
bishops. remaining in his ward, to come at such times as he by his 
discretion should think meet to his table, for the better re- 
lief of his quartan ague : and also to have the liberty of the 
house, as prisoners heretofore, having the liberty of the 
Tower, have used : the ordering whereof was referred to his 
discretion. And May the 10th, the lords sent to the heu- 
tenant their letters, to suffer the bishop of Winchester's 
cook from time to time to attend upon him, for the dressing 
of his meat ; so as he spake only with him in his presence, 
or such as he should appoint. And in like sort to suffer 
the lady White, his sister, to repair unto him at such times 
as he should think meet. Thus gently did these bishops 
and divines feel the displeasure of the lords of the council. 



CHAP. VL 

The queen" s marriage motioned. Exchange of bishops" 
lands. Bishop Cox's letter to the queen. The bishops 
electa their secret application to the queen about it. Con- 
siderations about bisftojis" temporalities. Commissions 
Jhr the exchanges. 

lofs^SilT J- ^lE parliament had a great desire to see the queen well 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 141 

married, that there miffht be an heir to the crown : nor did CHAP, 

• • • vr 

she want suitors in the very entrance upon her kingdom. 



Philip, king of Spain, late husband to her sister queen Mary, A»no 1559. 
was one of the first. And almost as soon as he, did the P'""P°"nded 

' lor a match 

emperor make a motion for either of his sons, as I find by with the 
some papers among the Burghleian MSS. George Van''"*^^"' 
Helfenstein, baron of Gundelfingen, was in England with 
the queen, soon after her first coming to the crown, in qua- 
lity of agent or ambassador from the emperor : then there 
happened communication between him and sir Thomas 
Chaloner about the queen''s marriage, which Chaloner and 
all good men then had their thoughts much bent upon : qQ 
they talked together of the emperor's son, the archduke of 
Austria. And now Van Helfenstein being departed, and 
at Brussels, wrote March 21, 1558, to Chaloner, and sent 
him the picture of that duke, which he might shew as 
he should think most convenient: this representation of 
him shewed him to be a most comely person, but his mind 
and inward abilities exceeded his person, as the noble Ger- 
man told Chaloner in his letter ; " That if the most excel- Quodsi 
" lent virtues and gallant endowments of his soul were p^^j^j.;^"* 
" known as well to him, as they were to himself and others, s'^ae virtu- 
" he would soon acknowledge they did by many degrees que dotes 

" surpass the beauty of his body." But that picture re- *''^'' **i"® 

• • ^ 11 • 1 • 1 • 1 1 ^''^ ""'" ^t 

ceivmg some damage by the wagons m which it was brought, aiiis, cog- 
he promised to send Chaloner another of the duke''s whole "'** fo't^ntj 

r ^ ^ ^ tacile eas 

body, and of his brother also ; wishing that he might have venustatem 
a sight of them both alive, without the help of paint and ii^,7^rante- 
colour. He told him all the report at Brussels was, that ceiieie di- 
the king of Spain was to marry the queen; although, as he ]\iss. Bmg. 
subjoined, men of great authority, when he was in England, 
seemed not a little to misdoubt it. But he prayed Chaloner, 
out of their great friendship, to give some account of that 
whole matter. For that indeed was the very reason why 
the emperor, who intended to offer to the queen either of 
his sons, did forbear at present to do it ; because he would 
not any ways disoblige one so nearly related. But if the 
king''s suit succeeded not, he then requested his friend, the 



142 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, said sir Tho. Chaloner, to ffive him with all silence an ac- 
count of it : and then would the emperor put in strongly 



Anno 1559. for one of his sons. And so he did afterwards. But the 
queen, though she would sometimes retain suitors, yet was 
not minded to wed herself, but to her kingdom only. How 
this affair proceeded, and what hand the papists had in it, 
hoping to effect some benefit to themselves hereby, we shall 
see hereafter. 
An act for In this parliament was a bill (mentioned before) for ex- 
bishops' change of bishops"* lands, and it passed into an act, remain- 
lands, ij^g among the private and unprinted acts of parliament. 
By virtue whereof authority was given to the queen, on the 
avoidance of any archbishopric or bishopric, to take into her 
hands certain of the temporal possessions thereof, recom- 
pensing the same with parsonages impropriate and tenths. 
And soon after this time, there being an avoidance of all, 
or almost all, the bishoprics, the queen and her courtiers 
had a fair opportunity to pick and choose what houses, 
lands, and revenues they pleased, belonging to the episcopal 
sees throughout England, that were the fairest and the best, 
and that had no incumbrances upon them ; which, no ques- 
tion, was now done ; and in lieu thereof were made over to 
those sees certain parsonages formerly belonging to the 
monasteries. To many of which parsonages appertained 
decayed chancels and ruinous houses, and sometimes pen- 
sions to be paid out for the maintaining of vicars and cu- 
rates. And for the tenths, which were also to go in exchange 
for the bishops' good lands, these were and would be but 
ill paid, being to be collected from the clergy, many whereof 
were indigent, and some obstinate, and so could not or would 
not pay them without great trouble. And, which was 
' d7 worse than this, the tenths being so peculiarly settled upon 
the crown, the bishops could not have a right to receive 
them, unless some law were made in that case, and provided. 
These and many other inconveniences arising from this 
act, and well perceived by the clergy, and especially Parker, 
and other bishops elect, made them sad. 

But to help the matter as well as they could, they put up 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 143 

an address to the queen, suing to her " to stay and remit this CHAP. 
" exchange, and not to use this hberty which the parha- 
** ment had given her. And that if they could not obtain Anno 1 55.9* 
*' that, (to make the best terms they could for themselves,) ^''^ *"", ^ 

' ^ _ -' ^' shops elect 

*' that tlie exchanges might be even and equal, and that address to 
*' consideration might be had of the expenses of parsonages, iiereupoii! 
*' and the ill payment of tenths, and of the advantages and 
*' benefits of their lordships and manors. In this address 
" they signified, how much this, if it came to pass, would 
*' endanger the decay of hospitality and of learning, and 
'* discourage men from serving the church in the ministry." 
And to incline the queen to grant this their suit, and lest 
they should not appear to consider the queen's great charges 
daily sustained, (which, it seems, was one of the pretences for 
this bill,) Parker and the other four elects, who made the 
address in the name of the province of Canterbury, did 
offer to give unto her yearly a thousand marks during their 
lives and continuance in their bishoprics, for and in consi- 
deration of the exoneration of the said exchange. 

They took this opportunity also to pray the queen in 
their own behalf, that they might be discharged of all ar- 
rearages of subsidies and tenths past in the days of their 
predecessors, and in times of vacation ; and to be discharged 
of their own subsidies the first year of their fruits-paying ; 
and that in consideration of their necessary expenses, as in 
furniture of their houses, and the payment of great fees, to 
suffer them to enjoy the half year"'s rent last past, and that 
their first-fruits might be abated somewhat, and distributed 
unto more years, and that she would take their own bonds 
for payment. In the behalf also of the new bishoprics Favours re- 
erected by king Henry, they besought her for their conti- thrsmaii*"^ 
nuance : and that the bishops thereof might nominate and bishoprics. 
appoint the prebendaries, as other bishops did, for the main- 
taining of learned men and preachers ; and that Cliff might 
be joined to the see of Rochester ; and that from the see of 
Chester the benefice lately annexed might not be dismem- 
bered, in consideration of the smallness of the revenues of 
those bishoprics. 



144 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. And here let me add, that Cox, bishop of Ely, an ancient 
and very learned man, and in great esteem both with the 



Anno i559.queen"'s father and brother, and likewise with her, privately 
Bp. Cox's Qjj jjjjg occasion addressed himself to her, ajjainst takinsr 

private let- . ,. . , , ^ . 

ter to the away the bishops' temporalities by exchanges ; in some pa- 
queen a- .g ^£ arguments sent her, shewing the inconvenience and 

gainst ex- to ' C3 

changes, cvil, iiot to Say unlawfulness of them. 

Mss. Guii. " Forasmuch" (writeth he in one paper to her) " as I am 
Numb. 64! " ^^^^y persuaded, that God's Holy Spirit hath adorned your 
" majesty with three excellent graces; first, that you are well 
" instructed in God's sincere and true religion; secondly, 
" because I have heard you say, that you are not in fear of 
" death, whensoever it shall please our heavenly Father to 
98 " call you ; thirdly, necessarily to follow upon this former, 
" that you work uprightly in conscience and in the fear of 
" God ; I am the more bold to become an humble petitioner 
" to your highness, and that alone, without the knowledge 
" or consent of others ; to the intent that, if your highness 
" incline to my petition, the grant may come only of your 
" own bountifulness ; or if your grace grant not my peti- 
" tion, it may pass in silence, as though never motion had 
" been made thereof. 

" Mine humble request unto your Majesty is, that it 
" might stand with your highness' pleasure, to command 
" your officers not to proceed any further in the exchange 
" appertaining to your grace's bishoprics : which will be as 
" noble and as famous an act as the like hath seldom been 
" seen. The causes which move me to sue unto your ma- 
" jesty are these." This paper goes no further : but in an- 
other paper of the same bishop, in the name of the rest, 
there be divers considerations urged to her, all writ with his 
own hand. But whether it was actually delivered her, or 
only prepared for her, I cannot tell. It begins with apt 
arguments, taken from scripture, viz. 
His argil- I. Genesis xlvii. Joseph brought all the lands of the 
with hei-! kingdom of Egypt unto the possession of king Pharaoh in 
the extremity of famine; but the lands of the priests re- 
mained untouched. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 145 

II. 1 Esdras vii. King Artaxerxes, sending great riches CHAP, 
to tlie building of God's temple in Jerusalem, commanded 



all the Jews to be contributors to the same ; the priests and Anno 1559. 
Levites being excepted from all impositions and contribu- 
tions. These examples are written by the Holy Ghost not 
in vain, but to admonish princes liberally to use God's mi- 
nisters, and not withdraw things from them. 

III. Agg. i. God threatened sore plagues to his people, 
because they were negligent in building up of the earthly 
temple. If now then the builders of Christ's heavenly 
church be diminished of their wages, God cannot be well 
pleased. 

IV. Mai. i. God was mightily angered with his people, 
because they offered unto God the blind, lame, and worried 
sacrifice ; which therefore was counted polluted and foul. 
And God was very angry with his priests, because they 
would receive such things to be sacrificed. Wherefore, if 
the best be taken from his ministry, and worse put in the 
place, God will be displeased, both with the takers away, 
and with his ministers, which agree to the same. 

V. Gal. iii. St. Paul alloweth not that the will of the 
testator should be altered, by putting to or taking away ; 
especially when the bequests are needfully and godly be- 
stowed. Godly men have bestowed livings and lands upon 
the ministry of Christ's gospel, and godly and needful func- 
tions in Christ's church : with what conscience can their 
godly wills be broken ? 

VI. God saith, Mai. iii. that the whole people were 
cursed with penury, because they defrauded the payment 
of tithes and first-fruits : and we fear God will not bear it 
well, that the stipend of his holy ministry should be dimi- 
nished or impaired. 

VII. Esa. xlix. Thus God saith to his church, Eriint 
reges nutrii tui, et reg-incB nutrices, Kings and queens shall 

be patrons and nurses [not spoilers and stepdames*] of his « Added in 
church and people. Therefore great kings and princes have ^^^py 
not only submitted themselves to Christ's yoke, but with 99 
gifts and possessions have maintained and conserved the 

VOL. I. L 



146 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, ministry of Christ's church. Kings and queens of this 
^^' reahn having but a dim knowledge of Christ's faith, in 



Anno 1559. comparison of your grace, have shewed themselves in all 
ages honourably beneficial toward the ministry of Christ's 
gospel. God forbid that your grace's affection should in 
this behalf swerve from the godl}'^ examples of your noble 
progenitors, to the rejoicing of the adversaries to God's 
truth and your highness, and to the dismaying of God's 
faithful ministers, beside the slanderous talk of the world, 
which cannot possibly be stayed. 

VIII. Your grace's father and brother, of honourable 
memory, took away the foully abused lands and possessions 
of monks, friars, nuns, &c. But they touched not the 
possessions of the ministry of God's holy word and sacra- 
ments. Insomuch that when the colleges of the universities 
were given by act of parliament to your majesty's father, to 
change their lands and possessions, he would by no means 
meddle with them. We most humbly beseech your majesty, 
of your bountiful goodness and Christian affection toward 
the ministry of Christ our Saviour, now to do the like, the 
cause being not unlike. And forasmuch as your godly zeal 
doth so fervently tender God's heavenly and true religion, 
we trust that your highness will tender and encourage by 
all means the ministers of the same. 

IX. Concerning exchange of lands for impropriations; 
it will be unto us a grievous burden to take benefices im- 
propered : because we are persuaded in conscience, that the 
parishes ought to enjoy them, in such sort, and for such 
godly end, as they were appointed for at the beginning. 

X. We do not disallow the zeal of the lionourable par- 
liament, which hath travailed to relieve your grace's necessity 
in this miserable time, (yet God knoweth what relief it will 
be to your majesty in the end,) but under your majesty's 
reformation, we put you in remembrance, according to our 
bounden duty and dischai-ge of our conscience, to weigh this 
matter by yourself, as God's holy Spirit shall direct your 
godly heart in liis fear and love towards his heavenly word 
and sacraments, and the ministry of the same. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 147 

Finally, We, bearing your majesty like good heart and CHAP, 
zeal as your honourable parliament hath expressed, do offer , 



towards the relief of your majesty's necessity the sums fol-^""° ^ssg. 
lowing, yearly to be paid out of the lands of our bishoprics ; 
making therewith humble requests, that your majesty and 
your successors will graciously hereafter restore them again, 
when God of his goodness shall enrich and plentifully fur- 
nish the crown of this realm. 

On the other side of the paper stand the names of cer- 
tain sees, with sums annexed, agreed to be paid to the queen 
annually by the respective bishops ; with intent no doubt, 
as other bishops should be consecrated to the vacant sees, to 
have their subscriptions also added, for competent sums of 
money to be yielded by them. 

Canterbury - - 200/. Hereford - - 100 mark. 100 
Ely - - - - 200/. Chichester - - J 00 mark. 
London - - - 100/. 
This paper was thus concluded : " God we call to wit- 
" ness in the last and great day, we say thus much, without 
" any corrupt or sinister affection, for the maintenance of 
" learning in this your realm, for the continuance and in- 
" crease of true religion, and for the establishing of your 
" majesty"*s honour and godly report throughout whole 
" Christendom." 

There was another paper drawn up by the same bishop''s Another 
hand, and prepared for the queen, consisting of more argu- ^'gj'j^J/^t 
ments, to dissuade her from these exchanges, which bore bishops' 

^ • • 1 -1 • 1 • T7-r 1 7'' 7 ,j temporali- 

this title. Considerations "why bishops tempoi'ahties snoula i\es. 
not be taJi'en aivay. 

Bishops heretofore have brought up to be learned, a great 
number of scholars in the universities, which they shall not 
be able hereafter belike to do. Bishops heretofore haveMSS. Guii. 
builded colleges in the universities, for the increase of j^'^^^^j^ij'*,?^'' 
learning; which hereafter they shall not be able to do. 
Men are men, and have not always a spiritual eye : and 
when they see the reward of learning decay, they will not 
set forth their children to that kind of learning. And thus 
shall learning decay in this realm ; and shortly Christ Jesus 

l2 



148 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, be utterly forgotten, and darked as much, or more, as in 
the time of papistry. 



Anno 1559. To break the will of the testator, when the mil is made 
to a godly use, it may appear against nature and godli- 
ness. 

King Henry VIII. of noble memory erected new bishop- 
rics and new colleges, and endowed them, and never took 
any land from any of them : to alter his godly will cannot 
be good. 

Queen ]\Iary restored again to the bishoprics such lands 
as were taken from them in king Edward's time : because 
she thought such taking away to be sacrilege. Reason 
would, that the true ministers of the church should find as 
much favour at your highness"'s hand, as the false ministers 
foimd at the hand of your grace''s predecessor. 

Further, the fact will be ill spoken of through Europe. 
For the like example hath not been seen : for in Germany, 
though the bishops have been dispossessed of their lands, 
but princes, who set forth the gospel, have given to those 
ministers, but not taken from other bishops. This fact wiU 
be slanderous to the gospel : for all men will say, that the 
gospel is set forth to this end, that the bishops should lose 
their lands. 

When the bishops' lands are gone, the kings and queens 
of this realm shall never have such present relief any where 
else, as they may have of the bishops, if need should re- 
quire. Your highness, for the present necessity, may take 
such sums of them as they may be most able to give ; and 
so likewise at other times. 

Your highnesses ancestors and noble progenitors, yea, 
your father and brother of most noble memory, have main- 
101 tained honourably the ministers of God's holy word ; we 
trust your highness will do the same. The fame of the 
contrary all true Christians would be sorry to hear. For- 
asmuch as your majesty doth so fervently tender God's 
lioly word and true religion, we hope assuredly, that your 
highness will by all means tender and encourage all godly 
ministers of the same. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 149 

It is evident what came to king Balthazzer, because he CHAP, 
did bring forth the holy plates and vessels, and used them 



in banqueting; which Nabuchodonozer had taken out of Anno 1559. 
God's temple. He was slain the same day. Whereby it ^^'^' ^'' 
may appear, that God willeth not that things appointed to a 
godly use should be otherwise ordered. 

But notwithstanding all these endeavours of the bishops Commis- 
to the contrary, the queen proceeded roundly in this busi- exchanges 
ness. And soon after the parliament was broken up, in °f bishops' 
order to these exchanges, she appointed commissioners to 
survey the several vacant bishoprics, (which were now about 
fourteen, vacant either by death or deprivation,) and to 
send in their certificates into the exchequer, of the values of 
all the lands, revenues, &c. pertaining to the respective 
vacant bishoprics. And besides, she appointed by her let- 
ters bearing date in September, other commissioners, viz. September 
. . . . .13 1559. 

the lord treasurer, sir Bichard Sackvile, sir Walter Mild- ' 

may, and Mr. Keilway, a lawyer, to consider which of these 
lands she should take into her hands, and what impropria- 
tions and tenths it should be convenient to grant instead 
thereof. The reason of this commission might be, that both 
the queen might receive congruous benefit and convenience 
to her royal state hereby, and likewise that the bishoprics 
might receive no damage, but a just proportion and equal 
value in the exchanges to be made. 

The queen's said letter to the lord treasurer and the other Queen's 
commissioners was to this purport: it mentioned an act passed ^1,^ i^^d 
in her late parliament, which, among; other things, granted treasurer 

, ,^ . n 11- 1 • 1 • hereupon. 

unto her, that upon vacation 01 every archbishopric or bi- Pap.. office, 
shopric within the realm, it should be lawful for her to take 
into her hands and possession as much, and so many, of any 
of the honours, castles, manors, lands, and tenements, parcel 
of the possessions of such arciibishoprics and bishoprics, as 
the clear yearly value of all her parsonages impropriate and 
yearly tenths, within every such bishopric, should yearly 
amount unto ; and for the trial of the very value of sucli 
honours, castles, &c. it should be lawful for her to appoint 
commissioners to survey the same : and thereupon to certify 

l3 



150 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, the very clear yearly value, over all charges, to her court of 
exchequer by such time as should be to the same commis- 



Auno i559.sioners appointed, with such other matter, as in the said act 
thereon made more fully was contained. 

Forasmuch as sithen she had, according to the said act, 
addressed forth sundry her commissions for the survey of 
the lands, tenements, &c. of certain archbishoprics and bi- 
shoprics presently vacant, the certificates of which commis- 
sion were in part already returned into the court of exche- 
quer, and the rest looked for daily ; she let them wit, that 
for the proceeding to the end in the said matters, according 
to the meaning of the said act, knowing their approved 
102 wisdoms, diligences, and dexterities in such cases, she had 
authorized them, four, three, or two of them, to consider 
dihgently, as well the certificates of such lands of such as 
were already returned, as such others as should heieafter be 
returned, and certified in the said court: and likewise to 
consider what parcel of the said lands, &c. should be meetest 
for her to take into her hands and possessions: and what 
impropriations or yearly tenths she should in recompence 
depart withal again ; with such further matter in and about 
the premises, as their wisdoms should think meet for her 
knowledge : willing them, after the deliberated and advised 
consideration of the premises, to certify her of their opinion 
in writing : to the intent she might resolve her determinate 
pleasure touching the same, as should be thought good unto 
her. 



CHAP. VII. 

T]ie behaviour of the English jjrofessors and exiles ; and of 
the impish clergij toxcards them. Consultation about ad- 
mitting the pope'^s nuncio. 

The exiles iS O W it is time to look a little back upon the professors of 
jirofessors the gospcl, wlio had been so harassed in the late reign ; 
now shew j^^^j jy obscrvc their present condition and circumstances in 

themselves. ... i i i i 

this juncture : both how they have behaved themselves, and 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 151 

how the papists behaved themselves with respect to them. cHAP. 
Some of them who lay close and concealed in the late evil ^^^- 
times, and hidden in secret retirements, now crept forth ; Anno 1559. 
among these was Dr. Matthew Parker, afterwards made 
archbishop of Canterbury, and sir Thomas Smith : others 
were exiles abroad, who now hasted home, to partake of the 
blessings they expected under this queen, and to assist in 
the work of the reformation of religion, which they had, 
it seems, some secret intimations of. Of these were Cox, 
Sandys, Grindal, Jewel, Home, &c. : and many persons of 
quality and learning, as sir Ant. Cook, Knollys, Wroth, 
Hales, &c. of the laity. Others chose to stay somewhat Some tarry 
longer in their quarters where they were, in Germany, jittie ion- 
Switzerland, Geneva, or other places; to see first, howS^r- 
things would go in England in this critical time ; and to 
follow and finish works they had in hand. 

Those at Geneva were busy in finishing a more correct Those at 
English translation of the Bible, and of the Psalms in verse 
and prose : having the assistance of learned men and other 
helps, they tarried some time in that place. John Fox was 
at Basil ; (where was a good printing press, the master of 
which was Oporinus, a learned and able man ;) here the 
said laborious Englishman was detained in printing, or pre- John Fox. 
paring to print, in the same house, the History of the Eng- 
lish Martyrs, in Latin. And Grindal and Sampson were 
just now coming from Strasburgh to him, to bring him in- 
formations from England, and to assist him in the work: 103 
but were prevented therein, being urged (as Grindal in a 
letter, dated December 19, 1558, to Fox, wrote) by friends 
to take their journey into England, upon this happy change 
of government. 

But something was done by the aforesaid English congre-Tiie exiles 
gation of Geneva, (which seems to have been intended to ^gf^^g j,,^;^ 
prepare the minds of all the exiles to peace, against their re- return. 
turn home,) moving them for an amicable understanding, 
before they came into England, in respect of the contentions 
about some church matters, which had been among them at 
Geneva and Frankford, and other places ; yet resolving to 

T. 4 



152 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, follow the best reformed churches thev had seen abroad. 
VII. . 

Rut other churches of the Eng-lish exiles resolved not to 



Anno 1559. contend about ceremonies when they should return into 

England, but submit to the decrees of their superiors. To 

relate this matter more at large. 

at Geneva '^^^^ English church at Geneva, upon the tidings of queen 

writes to Mary's death, and the lady Elizabeth's coming to the crown, 

the re^t 

of the thinking now of their coming home, consulted among them- 
churches of geiyg;^^ and concluded, that it was expedient and necessary, 
that an unfeigned reconciliation should be betwixt all the 
churches of the exiles, whatever contests there had been 
among them before about the Rook of Common Prayer and 
Ceremonies: and that they should so join together in mat- 
ters of religion and ceremonies, that no papist or other enemy 
should take hold or make advantage by any further dissen- 
sion, when they came into their own coimtry ; which might 
arise in time to come, if it were not seasonably foreseen and 
prevented. Whereupon they wrote a circular letter to the 
English congregations at Arrow, Rasil, Strasburgh, Wormes, 
Frankford, &c. and sent it by the hand of William Kethe, 
their messenger, and one of their members. The said letter 
bore date December 15, 1558, and is extant in the book 
Troubles of called. The Troubles of Frankford. Wherein, " to cut 

Frankford. oo\-y ■ c • • i i 

" off all occasions from papists, and other cavillers, they de- 
" clared a reconcilement; and desired that they might all 
" teach and practise unanimously that knowledge of God's 
" word, which they had learned in this their banishment, 
"■ and seen in the best reformed churches." This letter was 
signed by Christopher Goodman, Miles Coverdale, John 
Knox, John Rodlcigh, William Williams, Anthony Gilby, 
William Whittingham, John Pullein, Francis AVithers, 
William Fuller, and William Revoies, in the name of the 
whole church. 
The answer 'j'j^g eft'cct of the answcrs of the church of Frankford and 

of the 

church at of Arrow to the former letter, as the same Kethe brought 

Frankford. ^j^^^ ^^^^^ ^^.^^ ^^ follows. Thc letter from Frankford was- 

flated January the 3d, which imported, " That it would 

*' not lie in cither of their hands to appoint what cere- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 153 

" monies should be, but in such men's wisdoms as should be CHAP. 

• VII 

" appointed to the devising of the same ; and which should 



" be received by common consent of parliament : and there- •'^""o 1559. 

" fore it would be to small purpose to contend about them. 

" Wherefore as they, fviz. of the church at Frankford,! Troubles at 

,.11 Frankford, 

" trustmg they should not be burdened with unprofitable p. 1 62, 

" ceremonies, purposed to submit themselves to such orders* it. 1642. 

" as should be established by authority, (not being of them- 

" selves wicked,) so they would wish them [of Geneva] to 104 

" do the same. And that whereas all reformed churches 

" differed among themselves in divers ceremonies, and yet 

" agreed in the unity of doctrine, they saw no inconveni- 

" ence, if they used some ceremonies diverse from them ; so 

" that they agreed in the chief points of their religion. 

" Notwithstanding, that if any shovild be intruded that 

" should be offensive, they, [of Frankford,] upon just con- 

" ference and deliberation upon the same at their meeting 

" with them in England, (which they trusted by God's 

" grace would be shortly,) would brotherly join with them, 

" to be suitors for the reforming and abolishing of the 

" same."" The subscribers to this, in the name of the rest 

of the church, [many being already departed for England,] 

were James Pilkington, Francis Wilford, Edmond Isaac, 

John Gray, Henry Knolles, Henry Carew, Richard Beesley, 

Christopher Brickbate, John Mullins, Alexander Nowel, 

John Browne. 

The answer from the exiles at Arrow in Switzerland, And of 
dated January 13, imported, " That they of that church 
*' desired, that as oft as they might find occasion hereafter 
*' to consult or confer by word or writing, that they both 
*' might so take and seek the same, as might be most to their 
*' unity in minds, and diligence to do good in the Lord's 
" work. And for preaching and professing of sincere doc- 
" trine, so as they had seen and learned in the best re- 
*' formed churches, they did gladly hear the church at 
" Geneva's advice to be so agreeable to their own purpose."" 
They that subscribed hereunto, being of the ministry, in 
the name and consent of the whole church, were Thomas 



154 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. Lever, their minister, Robert Pownal, Richard Langhorne, 
and Thomas Tm-pin. These things may not be amiss to 



Auno 1559. have specified, concerning those of the exiles that yet re- 
mained abroad. 
Tiie popish As for the popish clergy, they looked with a very angry 
hm^li^^' and displeasant eye upon them ; and of all things dreaded 
tiiem. these learned men, lest they should take their places, and 
occupy room in the churches. And they seemed to make it 
one point of their policy, to keep the protestant ministers 
(as much as they could) from officiating there : and for that 
purpose counselled the priests and curates then in possession 
of ecclesiastical preferments and benefices, to comply with 
the constitution of religion that should be set up, that they 
might retain their parishes and places, and in the mean 
time, as opportunity served, exhort the people to hold and 
think well of their old superstitions. 
An instnic- There is a passage sounding to this tenor in the sermon 
parish preached at Westminster by White, bishop of "Winton, at 
priests by ^]^q funeral of queen Mary. " If they who by God are 

bishop ^ • . 

White. " placed to keep watch and wai'd upon the walls, and give 

" warning when the enemy cometh, see the wolf come to- 

" ward the flock, as at this present, I warn you, the wolves 

" be coming out of Geneva, and other places of Germany, 

" and have sent their books before, full of pestilent doc- 

" trines, blasphemy, and heresy, to infect the people ; if the 

" bishops, I say, and ministers in this case should not give 

" warning, neither withstand and resist, but, for fear or flat- 

" tery with the world, forsake their places, and thereby give 

1 05 " occasion to the wolves to enter and devour the flock ; then 

" should the more mighty be more mightily scourged, and 

" the blood of the people be required at their hands.'''' 

The mis- The popish bishops and clergy however entertained a 

Jf^'j"/'"'.'^'^ conceit now, that the number of learned divines and mi- 

pish clergy, nisters of thc gospel (after so many of them put to death, 

and such great discouragements to study or profess pure 

doctrine) was so very small and inconsiderable, tliat if they 

themselves held together, and remained incoinpliant with the 

steps that were taking, the queen must be forced to keep 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 155 

them in the church, lest otherwise it should be wholly un- CHAP. 

supplied : but they were much deceived. This is declared ;__ 

fully in the British Antiquities, set forth b}^ some that lived Anno 1559. 
in those times, and were well acquainted with the affairs ^"!"^'' 
thereof. " They resolved among themselves not to comply Matth;eu5. 
' to take the oath of supremacy to the queen, nor to re- 
' nounce all foreign jurisdiction : going upon this policy, 
' that the queen could not displace them, there being none 
' else to supply the rooms and places in the church, whe- 
' ther dioceses or parishes. In which crafty counsel, while 
' they seemed to be wise, and please themselves, they were, 
' as by a j udgment and revenge from Heaven, deceived and 
' infatuated. For a great many very learned and godly men, 
' in all tiiat tyranny of the papists, which lasted almost six 
' years, were either abroad in banishment, or skulking so 
' closely here, that tliese their enemies, searching never so 
' diligently for them, could not find them. And they, as it 
' were by inspiration, in all that dreadful and cruel time of 
' queen Mary, followed close the study of divinity. And 
' being reserved to the prosperous and happy time of queen 
' Elizabeth, did as it were blow away the popish arguments 
' which themselves thought so mighty knotty and unan- 
' swerable. Men who coming forth of affliction and exile Ability of 
' were looked vipon with contempt by the Romanists ; sim- '*^ *^^' '^'" 
' pie men without pontifical ornaments to set them out, but 
' eminent for the integrity of their lives, the gravity of their 
' behaviour, and the greatness of their spirits ; and finally, 
' for their diligent search and accurate knowledge of scrip- 
' ture, councils, orthodox fathers, and all ecclesiastical anti- 
' quity. And the papists could not equal them in strength 
' of reason and written authorities, but were fain to endea- 
' vour to overcome them by calumnies." 

The English protestants abroad soon expressed their pub- They con- 
lie joyful congratulation to the queen upon her advance- f,j^ ^'j^^g^jj^ 
ment to the crown. And this they did sundry ways, ac- 
cording to their present abilities : as, in a prosopopoeia of 
the nation of Germany, addressing her speech to England 
in a very elegant Latin style, done in the name of the rest by 



156 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. John Fox; wherein they take opportunity, in the person of 
another, to express their own minds at large, and the glad- 



Anno 1569. sonie sense they had of this happy change. It was entitled, 
Jobu Fox. Qgrmani(£ ad Angliam restituta Evangelii luce, Gratu- 
latio ; and was printed at Basil by Oporinus, anno 1559- 
Bemnning thus : 

Facit divincB erga te clementice magnitudo (germana in 
Christo soror Anglia) atqiie immensltas, tit merito impia 
sim, &c. To this tenor in English : " It might justly be 
" imputed to me as a piece of impiety, (O England ! mine 
lOo" own sister in Christ,) if, upon this great and unmeasur- 
" able mercy of God towards you, I should not, in your 
" name, render to God, in the first place, (as is fit,) most 
" hearty thanks; from whom alone all must acknowledge 
f " all good things to come : and in the next place, it might 

" in like manner be esteemed a piece of ingratitude in me, 
" should I not, on account of our old friendship and neigh- 
" bourhood, congratulate you this so great happiness in the 
" Lord, befallen you ; who hath granted you strength to 
" struggle out of so many difficulties, and now at last, as it 
" were, out of the grave to breathe again the more joyful air 
'^ of liberty." 

It goeth on in a very handsome style, expressing, " how 
" she, [Germany,] not in her own name only, but in the 
" name of other nations, that loved Christ, aud that had any 
" sense of godliness, did, as well as she, congratulate Eng- 
" land her felicity and her queen. By whose most desired 
" influence there was no question but that the British state, 
" if heretofore it had lost something of its former splendour 
" and glory, should recover it again with much advantage, 
" and restore itself to its ancient, yea, and greater, both civil 
" and religious tranquillity. Some surer and more certain 
" hopes whereof did also those noble beginnings give, as 
'* some tokens and aiguments of vindicating the church of 
" England from a long servitude into greater amplitude and 
" liberty. If therefore the liberty of human nature were so 
" sweet, which was only outward, how much more reason 
" was there to congratulate her this spiritual and Christian 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 157 

freedom, which not only took off from her shoulders the CHAP, 
yoke of outward aifliction, but freed the soul and con- 
science from base idolatry, false worship, manifest im-Anno 1559. 
piety, and forced dissimulation ? And although the divine 
goodness had at no time been wanting to the afflictions 
and sufferings of the church, yet never did it more on a 
sudden, or (certainly) more in season, stretch forth its 
help ; whether we' consider the greatness of the evils it en- 
dured, or the dreadfulness of them which it expected. 
For why (as she goes on) should I here mention the gib- 
bets, fires, poison, famine, sword, banishment, or the 
numbers of those that died, or the sharpness of the pu- 
nishments .'' What good man in the whole kingdom was 
there, whom either the storm of the persecution took not 
away, or the fear of danger did not shake, or religion dis- 
sembled, contrary to his conscience, did not afflict more 
grievously than any death ? in short, whom affliction did 
not render miserable, or dissimulation had rendered (I had 
almost said) wicked?" 

Then Germany comes to shew her own hospitality to her 
ster England''s natives : " In what one respect of friendly 
duty might I help your English people flying to me, but 
I did it ; and out of love to you, with ready embraces, re- 
ceived, cherished, protected, and brought on their way. 
Nor opened I only my houses, but my churches to them. 
In a word, I made no other difference in my harbouring of 
them than I did of mine own Germans. And although I 
did not adorn you with the same splendour, riches, and 
plenty you had at home, yet, according to my poverty, I 
took care that none might justly complain against me of 
unkindness ; that in the mean time I say nothing of the 

supplies of money, and secret benefits. And I think I 

may testify this both truly, and for my credit, that how- 
ever they were with me in a mean condition, yet in safety, io7 
and preserved from all danger and fear of their enemies 
within my walls, while they could not be safe at home. 
And now, when all is safe at home, and they may return 
securely, and do so much desire it, I send them back again 



158 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " safe and sound to you, and I hope better, and more im- 
" proved in learning." 



Anno i5o9. Then she proceeds to give good counsel to the queen and 
her court, and excellent advice to the preachers. 

And in conclusion she congratulates also Scotland, and 

the restoration of religion there. 

An cucha- Another tract the exiles set forth at this time was, their 

exiles to thanksgiving to Christ, in like elegant Latin ; which I be- 

Jesus lieve was done with the same pen, namely, that of John 

Fox. It was entitled, Ad Christum Angloriim exulantiuvi 

sd^apKj-Tix.ov. It began, 

Postidat privata njffidi ?wstri rath, communis erga pa- 
triam cJiaritas, turn in utrosque j^ctriter nostrum cumula- 
tissima tua henejicentia^ pietatisquc incffabilis mag-tiitudo, 
summe ac ormiipotens redeynptor 7iostcr, &c. i. e. " As well 
" our own piivate duty, and our common love to our coun- 
" try, as thy abinidant kindness, and unspeakably great 
" affection towards us both, O Lord Jesus Christ, oiu- 
" highest and almighty redeemer, require us to set forth 
" perpetual panegyrics of praise and thanks to thee. Who, 
" besides that eternal indulgence of thine towards us, wherc- 
" by thou hast spent thy sacred blood to redeem us, hast 
" exercised at this time that clemency to us in vouchsafing 
" to restore us again to our country, and our country to 
" us. Oh ! that now that same pity of thine, Avhich joineth 
*' us into one body, who have been separated far from one 
" another, would vouchsafe to retain us thus joined. That 
" being all sodered together in mutual peace and good will, 
" we may never cease to trumpet forth the glory of thy 
" name with one voice, one spirit, and one faith. Let thy 
" same pity grant to the French, the Spaniards, the Italians, 
" the Flemings, and the Scots, a return in common with us 
" to their own countries. That as we have all one and the 
" same cause, so the same good success may in like manner 
" by thy favour unite us all together in gladness. We know 
" it is thy gift and goodness, if it be well at any time with 
" thy people; without whose eye not a hair or a sparrow 
" falleth to the ground : and we know again, that it is thy 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 159 

"justice, if any thing happening otherwise grieveth us. CHAP. 
Whereby we are the more confounded with a secret. 



" shame, in the enjoyment of this mercy, that when we have '^""'^ ^^^^• 
" deserved heavier judgments, yet that we now less rejoice 
" for them than for ourselves. But thy dispensing wisdom 
" knoweth what is expedient for every one, and not less 
" wisely disposest all things in their seasons. 

" Therefore as our good success teacheth us, that we 
" distrust not the manifestation of thy mercy towards them ; 
" so for thy present favours towards us, as it is fit, with 
*' most joyful minds, and on most ample accounts, we ren- 
" der all possible thanks to thy benignity : to whom, our Confess 
"sad banishment being at an end, thou hast mercifully ^.•^^[j^^j'^' 
" opened so glad a return to our own country seats. It was verance. 
" thy great mercy first, that when we might not be safe at 
" home, thou wouldest have some haven of refuge lie open io8 
" for us among thy German people : but it was greater, 
" that in an unknown tongue, in unknown lands, thou hast 
" so kindly cherished us, and fed us so liberally ; since 
" there hath been none of us all that hath not experienced 
" the supphes of thy providence after a singular and won- 
" derful manner. But above all, that is the highest, the 
" chiefest part of our happiness, that, commiserating the 
" condition of our most deplorable country, thy pity hath 
" changed those most sharp flames of persecution, which 
" otherwise no floods could put out : that thy merciful eye 
" knew, saw, and looked upon the unworthy butcheries of 
" God men, and their bitter torments ; some whereof were 
" spoiled of all their goods, others of their lives; many 
" afflicted in prisons with hideous cruelties ; not a few, 
" wasted miserably with famine, perished ; the faces of 
" some were scratched and torn with the nails of bishops, 
" and their beards half pulled off; some lost their hands, 
" being, at the command of the bishops, roasted ; and 
" many, being put alive into the flames, were reduced to 
" ashes. 

" These and other torments of thy people, thou, I say, 
" O Lord Jesus, hast sufficiently beheld : nor hast thou be- 



IGO ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. « held only, but hast in a manner suffered the same thyself 
' " in thy members. And moreover, how bitter these things 



Anno 1 559. « ^^.g ^q flesh, thou art not ignorant, who hast partook of 
" our flesh. And indeed our wickedness deserved sharper 
" sufferings than these ; but thy pity surpassed our im- 
" pieties; thy grace overcame thy justice. Therefore thou 
" sawest the torments of thine in thine own cause, and 
" broughtest help. Thou knewest the groans of thy sighing 
" ones ; thou sawest their prayers, and heardest them : thou 
" sawest the evil days, and shortenedst them : thou sawest 
" their tears, and wipedst them off". Grant now, most merci- 
" ful Jesu, in like manner, their tears being wiped off", that 
" they degenerate not into the undecent and mad mirth of 
" this world. Grant to the queen and nobility, that they, 
" ruling rightly and mercifully, may long rule and reign. 
" Give to the people, and thy poor sheep, shepherds endued 
" with learning mixed with meekness, and diligent without 
" pride : grant again to the shepherds a flock that may be 
" ready to follow, and be obedient ; and while they teach 
" them rightly, shewing themselves willing to obey. Grant 
" both to the highest and to the lowest, that, being endued 
" with thy Spirit, they may know thee, and the free sal- 
" vation that is in thee alone. 

" Vouchsafe to those that are, whether in a private or 
" public capacity, that, piously governing, and modestly 
" obeying, they may mutually defend peace, and each serve 
" in his vocation in thy fear. Lastly, vouchsafe, most merci- 
" ful Jesus, even to our enemies, or thine rather, a better 
" mind, without obstinacy, and an humble desire of truth. 
" In a word, for our German nurses and harbourers, ac- 
" cording to their kindness to us, we pray for a mutual re- 
" turn of kindness from thee upon them : whom, in the 
" saving knowledge of thy gospel, let thy almighty good- 
*' ness confirm more and more, and replenish with all thy 

A letter " blessings. Amen.'''' 

congratu- Jojin Fox also at this time, on this occasion, writ and 

latory to ' ' 

the duUe of printed a pretty large epistle to Thomas duke of Norfolk, a 
from J. Fox. .y^u'^g nobleman of great hopes, whom formerly the said 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 161 

Fox had under his care and tuition, and instruction in his CHAP, 
learning. The said epistle bears this title, Nohilitate ac ^^^' 



indole ornatissimo et prcepotenti Domino ThomcB iVor/oZczce Anno 1559. 
duci, iSfc. Joan. Foxus veram in Christo et cBternam cum 
salute nobilitatem. It is full of excellent counsel and advice, 
with relation to the present hopeful prospect of religion ; 
congratulating him, both on the public account of the flou- 
rishing again of religion, and likewise on occasion of his own 
private good fortune in the late recovery of his ancient style 
and title. 

Another learned exile, and of an eloquent pen, viz. Law- Humfrey's 
rence Humphreys, (afterward president of Magdalen college, servings and' 
Oxon,) took also this opportunity to write a seasonable tract ; reforming 
which was also printed at Basil, as Fox's writings were, and ^^ '^'°"* 
by the same printer, Oporinus, and in the same year 1559. 
The said tract bore this title, De religionis conservatione et 
reformatione •vera, &c. i. e. Of the true preservation and re- 
Jvrmation of religion : and of the supremacy of kings and 
magistrates ; and of the yielding obedience to them, as the 
highest ministers of Christ here on earth. Dedicated to the 
nobility, clergy, and people of England. This little book 
seemed to be written on purpose to prepare the great work 
designed in parliament, viz. for the restoring of the supre- 
macy, and reforming of religion from popery. 

It begins in this tenor ; I71 ilia superiorum temporum 
tristitia, honorandi patres, et colendifratres, neminem ho~ 
num civem, tarn ab omni humanitatis sensu alienum c^-c. i. e. 
" In that sad state of the times foregoing, honoured fathers 
" and respected brethren, I suppose, no good citizen is so 
" alienated from all sense of humanity, and so enslaved to 
" irreligion, whom the late common grief of godly men, 
" and the woful disturbance and confusion of all things, 
" have not moved. For all saAv the present hand of an 
" angry God, and expected his future hand too. They felt 
" war, the sword, and many dangers, their thoughts were 
" disturbed with the fears of more. The banishments of 
" many innocent persons, their prisons, and most unworthy 
" deaths, were before all men's eyes. They underwent a 
VOL. I. M 



162 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " slavery laid upon their shoulders and their consciences 
• " too ; and especially they experienced a famine of God's 



Auijo 1569. « word, miserably slaying the souls of men. All which things 
" would force some tears from a man that had not altogether 
" put off humanity ; yea, I think, though he had put it off, 
" although he were a stone or a flint. 

*' But when God and our heavenly Father had pardoned 
" us his children, adopted in grace and mercy by Christ, 
" when now those evils do not any more press nor lie upon 
" us, nor hang over us, in this time, in this your and our 
" public joy, I would not be wanting to my duty, not so 
" much to express my affection, who have hitherto been 
*' concealed, as that I might fully persuade all, and myself 
" too, that the best and greatest cause of congratulation is 
" now com.e : that we may not seem to be Avithout the sense 
** of the benefit of our God in this change of things, and 
" the felicity of this time, which would be great stupidity ; 
110" or not to have regarded it, which would be dissolute 
" neglig'ence ; or not to have acknowledged it, Avhich would 
" be the part of the highest ingratitude."''' 

The design of this his discourse Avas, first, to make all 
men sensible of this mercy, and to refresh the memory 
thereof; and then to treat, 1. concerning true and perfect 
reformation ; 2. concerning the reforming of religion ; and, 
3. of the primacy of kings against the papacy, and of obe- 
dience to be yielded to magistrates. And in the conclusion 
of his book stands his dedication of it to Francis, earl of 
Bedford, president of the queen's privy council, dated from 
Basil. 
The exiles After this manner did the exiles in Germany and Swit- 
nreseu" the z^rland cxpress their joys and congratulations. The English 
queen witii diurch at Geneva, consisting also of other of her majesty ""s 
I'sairas. exiled subjects, signified to her their welcome of her to her 
kingdom, by presenting her in February with the book of 
Psalms in Englisli, printed there in a little volume, with 
notes in the margin ; being a part of the good work which 
the learned of this church set themselves about, viz. o 
translate the whole Bible more correctly according to the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 163 

Hebrew : wherein they had proceeded a good way already ; CHAP, 
and resolved to tarry still at Geneva, till it was completed. '___ 

In the dedication, they seasonably exhorted her now, in Anno 1559. 
her entrance on her government, to go on with resolution in thrdedica- 
reforming religion from the corruptions of papistry; thustio"- 
addressing; themselves unto her: " That as the famous 
" queen of Saba obtained most worthy renown, for lier 
" great desire to hear the wisdom of Solomon ; so queen 
" Elizabeth's noble fame should remain for ever, not only 
" upon earth, in perpetual memory, but also registered in 
" heaven, among the holy angels of God, if with earnest 
" zeal and hearty affection she sought after and set fortli 
" the heavenly wisdom of the true Solomon, (even Christ 
" Jesus:) who had opened and offered the rich treasures of 
" his divine wisdom in such abundance at this present to all 
" nations, but especially to her noble realm of England by 
" her means : which other realms and nations set before 
" their eyes as a pattern of true religion and Christian life, 
" to imitate. That they could look for no greater blessings 
" to come, but only that this king should right shortly ap- 
" pear with his mighty angels, to execute his judgments 
" for the deliverance of his servants, and the punishment of 
" his enemies. 

" That in the mean season, they her humble subjects, ac- 
" cording to the talents that God had given them, thought 
" it their duty with the most convenient speed to further, 
" even with the utmost of their power, her godly proceed- 
" ings and most worthy enterprises. And albeit they had 
" begun more than a year ago^, for the comfort of the » Viz. anno 
" church, then most grievously afflicted by the cruel rage^^^{^^^^ 
" and horrible tyranny of the papists, to peruse the English upon a new 
" translation of the sacred Bible, and to bring it to the pure translation 
" simplicity and true meaning of the Spirit of God, as far as "^ ^J"-" 
" they were able to attain unto the same by the knowledge 
" of the Hebrew tongue, the conference of most perfect 
" translations in other languages, and by the judgment of 
" the best learned in those parts ; yet when they lieard that 
" the almighty and most merciful God had no less miracu- 

M 2 



1G4 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



CHAP. 
VII. 



Anno 1559. 

HI 



lously preserved her to that most excellent dignity, than 
he had, above all men"'s expectations, preserved her from 
the fin-y of such as sought her blood ; with most joyful 
minds and great diligence they endeavoured themselves 
to set forth this most excellent book of the Psalms unto 
her grace, as a special token of their service and good 
will, till the rest of the Bible, which, they praised God, 
was in good readiness, should be accomplished, and pre- 
sented. 

" They supposed, in their judgments, that no part of the 
whole scripture was more necessary for her grace than 
that little book of Psalms, if it were well weighed and 
practised. For here she should see painted, as in a most 
lively table, in the person of king David, such things as 
she had felt, and should continually feel in herself; that 
is, the perils and persecutions that he sustained before he 
came to his royal dignity, and also the assistance of God 
in the same ; and moreover, the sharp storms and rough 
tempests raised against him, when he was entered into his 
kingdom, as well by foreign enemies as by the Philistines, 
Moabites, Edomites, Ammonites, and Amalekites, as by 
his own subjects; yea, even by them of his own house; 
as by Achitophel his counsellor, and Absalom his son : 
and how God never forsook him, but was present with 
him in his greatest afflictions, and delivered him from all 
danger ; because he put his whole trust in him alone. 
" That as he had mercifully preferred her to this high 
honour, so should she be zealous of his gloiy, obedient to 
his will, and diligent to suppress all papistry, vice, and 
heresy, and to cause the light of God's holy word speedily 
to shine through all her dominions. That if she honoured 
God, and advanced his kingdom, he would honour her, 
and make her kingdom stable ; he would bless her with 
godly posterity, and maintain her in perfect peace and 
quietness. If she were apprehensive of any weakness, 
that she should remember what promise the Lord, in the 
person of Joshua, makcth to all them that faithfully exe- 
cute their vocation, saying, / will not leave theCy norjbr- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 165 

** sake thee. If the outward enemy threatened or invaded, CHAP, 
'' she should remember also how God preserved his servant . 



" David, and enlarged his kingdom. If the inconstant mul- Anno 1559. 
" titude murmured against her, she should call to her mind 
*' God's appointment, who had set her up to execute his 
" will, and not the fantasies of the ignorant mviltitude. For 
" though infinite thousands pitched against her, yet she 
" ought not to fear, because God was on her side,*" &c. 
Dated from Geneva the 10th of February, 1559. [anno 
ineunte.~\ 

I omit the Latin poem which Walter Haddon, LL. D. Dr.Had- 
the great orator and poet in those times, made to the queen congram-"' 
upon her accession to the crown, (to whom he was after lato'y- 
master of the requests) beginning, 

Anglia, tolle caput, S(£vis j aetata proceUis, 

Exagitata malis, Anglia, tolle cajjut. 

Aurea virgo venit, roseo venerabilis ore, j j 2 

Plena Deo, princeps Elizahetha venit, &c. 

That the queen stood not much aifected to the divines in The first 
vogue in the former reign, appeared, that the public preach- ^[^^^1^^^^^^^ 
ers, at court or at St. Paul's, were such learned protestants ^^^ ^t. 
as were newly returned from exile, or that had privately 
concealed themselves at home. Two of the first public ser- 
mons were preached by Dr. Bill (who was the queen's al- 
moner) and Dr. Cox ; the former preached at St. PauFs 
the very next Sunday after the queen was proclaimed ; and 
the latter at Westminster before her first parliament, at the 
opening of it. All preaching was soon prohibited for some 
time, (as hath been observed already ;) but when it was al- 
lowed, I find the preachers appointed to preach before the 
queen, and at St. Paul's, were generally the learned pro- 
fessors and confessors of the gospel; as hath been partly 
shewn before. 

One important point of policy this first year of the queen Consuita- 

T 1 1- 1 1 11- 1 ^ 1- tion about 

was adjusted, tendmg much to the estabhshment 01 religion : receiving 
which was a consultation held at Greenwich, whether it the pope's 

nuncio 

were for the- good of the commonwealth to grant, that the cot. libr. 

SJulius, F. 6. 



166 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, abbot of Martinego, [or Martinengo,] the pope's nuncio, 
^^^* should come into England, who, it seems, was now in election 



Anno 1559. to be Sent hither by the pope. This matter, duly deliberated, 

came to this conclusion, that it was against the ancient and 

late laws of this realm, that any nuncio from the pope should 

enter into this realm. That in ancient time the nuncio 

could never enter but by licence, and by a solemn oath 

on the other side the sea, not to attempt any thing to the 

derogation of the king or the liberties of the realm. That 

he could not come without great peril to the realm, as the 

time stood, and that his coming would be a preparation to 

animate discontented minds in the cause of religion. 

Entrance The next year notwithstanding, viz. 1560, or 1561, the 

reahif'de- ^^^^ Martinengo came to Brussels, requesting licence to 

nied him. come into the realm ; but it was denied him. 



CHAP. VIII. 

The Protestants' declai-ation of their doctrine^in vindication 
()f themselves against the slanders of papists. The Dutch 
strangers return to their church in London. Bishop 
Grindal their superintendent. Dutch anabaptists. 

The pro. JL HE papists at this time spared not to cast reproaches 

nsei"*^ and defamations upon the professors and profession of the 

charged hy gospel witli all their might ; and that, no doubt, openly in 

papis s. parliament : and many of these accused them to the queen, 

(before whom some of them had lately preached,) as men 

113 that were inconsistent to themselves, and that they had no 

affreement of doctrines among them ; as well as that more 

common charge, that their doctrine was nothing but heresy, 

and they a company of sectaries and schismatics, disturbers 

of commonwealths, and persuaders of rebellion. Therefore 

Dr. Sandys. Dr. Sandys, and the rest of the divines, concerned now about 

preparing of the Book of Common Prayer, and in the late 

conference at Westminster, among themselves, in the month 

«)f April, drew up a declaration of their faith, intending to 

publish it in their own vindication. Of this, Sandys, April 

ult. wrote to Dr. Parker, not yet come up from London, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 167 

telling him, " how they were forced through the vain CHAP. 
" bruits of the lying papists to give up a confession of their 



" faith, to shew forth the sum of that doctrine which they Anno 1559. 

" professed, and to declare, that they dissented not among 

" themselves. That this labour they had then in hand on 

" purpose to publish, as soon as the parhament was ended ; 

" wishing they had his hand to it, as it was subscribed by 

*' the rest." Meeting with this declaration among the said 

Parker''s papers, I shall here set it down. 

A declaration of doctrine, offered and exhibited hy the pi'o- 
testants to the queen. 

" As our ancient enemy Satan hath ever, and at all times. Their de- 
*' hated and persecuted the truth of God's word, with the t^'^.'-f fallb" 
" ministers and professors of the same ; so in these our evil w^^S- c.c. 
" and latter days, as one let loose for the trial of God's tit. syiio- 
" elect, and subversion of unbelievers, he hath wonderfully ''''''^- -^l'°'=- 
" raged, labouring by all possible power, like a subtile ser- 
*' pent, to deceive. And how much in these few years 
*' past, God so permitting, and our sins so deserving, he 
*' hath prevailed, the world can bear witness. What old 
" heresy hath he not revived .'* What strange and new doc- 
" trine hath he not invented .'' What idolatry and supersti- 
" tion hath he not planted .'* What ignorance and blindness 
" hath he not brought in .? What truth hath he not ob- 
" structed and darkened .? Not only abusing the power of 
" princes by all means to persecute Christ in his members, 
" and by unlawful laws to stop tlie free course and passage 
" of the gospel ; but also using practices of his false pro- 
" phets, in whose mouth he hath ever been a lying spirit, 
" by all subtile persuasions to bring into hatred, and to 
" slander for heresy, the infallible truth of God's written 2 Kings 
" word ; falsely defaming, slandering, and misreporting the 
" ministers of the same, as a ready way to deface their doc- 
" trine. Of this practice all ages can report, as may easily 
" appear to all such as have travelled in ancient writers and 
" histories. 

" Yet at no time hath the subtile serpent been more 
M 4 



168 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " strong in his wicked members and deceitful workers, to 
'__ " deface the doctrine of the gospel, and to slander the setters 



Anno 1559. " forth of the Same, than he hath shewed himself at this 
" time ; and namely, against us who have of late preached 
" before the queen's majesty, as against our brethren, teach- 
" ers of the same truth : most untruly reporting of us, that 
" our doctrine is detestable heresy ; that we are fallen from 
114" the doctrine of Chrisfs catholic church ; that we be sub- 
" tile sectaries ; that we dissent among ourselves ; and that 
" every man nourisheth and maintaineth his peculiar opi- 
" nion ; and that we be the teachers of carnal liberty, con- 
" demning fasting, praying, alms, and like godly exercises ; 
" that we be disordered persons, disturbers of the common- 
" wealth, persuaders of rebellion, and teachers of disobe- 
" dience, against magistrates, and what not. 

" But it is no marvel if [these] children be like unto their 
" father, who hath been a liar from the beginning, and the 
" author thereof. Neither can it be strange to the teachers 
" of God's truth to be untruly reported. Elias the prophet 
" was burdened with false doctrine, and to be a disturber 
" of the commonwealth of Israel. And the Son of God, 
" the author of truth, was not only charged to work by the 
" power of Beelzebub, to seduce the people, and leave 
" them to carnal liberty ; but also to be a transgressor of 
*' the laws, a glutton, a drunkard, and a companion with 
*' publicans and sinners. The apostles of Christ were re- 
" ported to be sectaries, and teachers of new doctrine, dis- 
" ordered men, and stirrers up of sedition and tumults. 
" The learned and godly of the primitive church were slan- 
*' dered with horrible incest, and the unnatural eating of 
" man's flesh. The good bishop of Jerusalem, Narcissus, 
" was untruly defamed of incontinency. The learned and 
*' godly bishop of Alexandria, Athanasius, was most falsely 
" accused, not only of incontinency, but also of murder. 
" And who hath hved so purely, or taught so sincerely, 
" which hath not cither been charged with evil life, error, 
" or heresy ? And although a clear conscience can easily 
" bear this burden, neither ought the servant to grudge, if 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 169 

** he be used like his master: and, as St. Paul saith, we CHAP. 
*' ought to behave ourselves in all things as the ministers of _______ 



*' God, so confirmed in true piety and sincere doctrine. Anno 1559. 

** that we can patiently bear all manner of reports, and 

" constantly go forward in the office of our vocation, whe- 

" ther we be defamed or well spoken of; as hitherto, 

" through the grace of God, (his name be praised,) we have 

" gladly and joyfully done ; contemning, for the truth"*? 

*' sake, the slanderous reports of the wicked world. 

" Yet notwithstanding, lest we should seem utterly to neg- 
" lect our good name, and through silence in this behalf not 
" only suffer the truth to be slandered, and our innocency 
" defamed, but also false reports to be credited for true, to 
" the great hinderance of the gospel, and abusing of the 
*' simple ; we have thought it good and necessary to pub- 
" lish and set forth to the world a brief sum and confession 
" of that our faith and doctrine, which we have heretofore 
" professed and taught ; which presently we do profess, 
" and, as time shall serve, intend to teach ; purposing, 
*' through the grace of God, and assistance of the Holy 
" Spirit, constantly to remain in the self-same until our 
" life''s end : that thereby it may appear how untruly we 
*' have been charged, and how falsely we have been slan- 
" dered. 

" And although, in our last protestation made before the 
'^' honourable auditory at Westminster, we sufficiently set 
" forth in few words the sum of our faith, whereunto we all 
" fully consent, yet, to confound all lying lips, and to stop 
" all such vain rumours as are bruited abroad, we shall 
*' more at large set forth the chief and most necessary 115 
*' articles of the doctrine which we believe and teach, as 
" hereafter shall follow : most humbly beseeching the Al- 
" mighty God for his mercy sake, and for the merits of his 
" Son Christ, to pardon and forgive our persecutors and 
" evil reporters, to turn the hearts of the wicked, to illu- 
" minate the ignorant with the knowledge of his truth, and 
" to give us all the grace, that we may consent together in 
<« the unity of the uniform truth, and live in brotherly love 



170 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " and charity, to the praise of his name, and our everlast- 
VIII • • • 
'__ " inff comfort in Christ. Amen."" 

Anno 1559. And then they proceed unto the confession of their faith 
in divers articles, agreeing much with the articles concluded 
in convocation under king Edward, anno 1552, but more 
large, as explanatory of them. And then, having declared 
their articles, they make this conclusion. 

" And thus both to satisfy the godly minded, and also to 
" stop the mouths of evil and slanderous reporters, which 
" have laboured by all means to defame our doctrine and 
" doings; we, for our just purgation in the defence of our 
" innocency, have with one uniform consent set forth this 
" short declaration concerning the principal points of our 
" religion, and chief articles of our faith. Wherein we have 
" neither swerved from the infallible truth of God's written 
" word, neither yet from the doctrine and confession of 
" Christ's catholic church ; as we by God's grace shall be 
" able and ready at all times evidently to shew unto all 
" men. 

" And although in this our declaration and confession 
" we do not precisely observe the words, sentences, and or- 
" ders of certain godly articles by authority set forth in the 
" time of king Edward of most famous memory » (for the 
" malice of our adversaries hath occasioned us otherwise, to 
'* Avhose wrongful defamation we must of necessity make 
" answer otherwise,) yet in altering, augmenting, or dimi- 
"i. e. (lis- " nishing, adding, or omitting, we do neither improve % 
approve. ^^ ^^^ ^^^ recede from any of the said articles, but fully 
" consent unto the whole, as to a most true and sound doc- 
" trine, grounded upon God's word, and do refer ourselves 
" unto such articles there as in our confession, for shortness 
*' sake, we have omitted. 

" And for so much as the sum of this our doctrine is to 
" set forth Christ crucified to be the only Lord and Re- 
" deemer, giving all glory unto God, the only worker of 
" our salvation, and removing all merit from man ; and 
" that we commend and teach such good works of all men 
" diligently to be done, as God in his word hath prescribed, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 171 

" only reproving such vain and superstitious works, as man CHAP. 

*' of himself hath invented ; moving all men to believe and ^^^*- 

** live according to the rules and statutes given forth by Anno 1559. 

" God, and not according to the devices and traditions set 

" by man ; (for God will be served as he biddeth, not as 

" man willeth ;) and that in all the course of our doctrine 

" and doings, as we call God, who seeth and searcheth the 

" secrets of our hearts, to record, we seek not our own 

" praise, but the increase of Christ's heavenly kingdom ; 

" having our chief care, how we may set forth faithfully 

" the office of our vocation; ever considering with our-ll6 

" selves, that Christ is ready to come and call us to ac- 

*' count, and that they shall be judged worthy of eternal 

" damnation, which through false doctrine infect and se- 

" duce the people of God : 

" We trust, the godly, setting these considerations in their 
" sight, cannot so ill conceive of us, that wittingly and will- 
" ingly we would either cast ourselves headlong into hell, 
" either yet through offence kill our brethren, whom to save, 
*' Christ the Son of God hath willingly suffered; and so 
*' consequently, to the utter wounding of our conscience, 
*' procure God's hot wrath upon this realm, our natural 
" country. 

" Seeing therefore that we teach none other doctrine 
*' than that which is warranted by God's word, and that 
" we seek nothing else but the glory of God, the promoting 
**' of his gospel, and the edifying of his church and people, 
" (as we trust, through God's grace, the contrary shall 
" never appear in us,) we exhort and beseech the godly, 
" for the merits of Jesus Christ, charitably to judge of us, 
" esteeming us the servants of Christ, and ministers of his 
*' word ; and that they will with all reverence and humble- 
" ness of heart, in one spirit with us, hear the voice of 
" their true shepherd Christ, and refuse hereafter to give 
*' ear unto a stranger, and thankfully receive and embrace 
*' the wholesome doctrine of salvation : that we all together 
" bringing forth the fruit of faith, may testify ourselves to 



172 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. « be the children of God, to the eternal praise of his name, 
L_ " and our everlastino^ salvation in Christ. Amen.'''' 



Aimo i5o9. Qjj |.]^g backside of this paper are writ these words by 
GrindaPs hand, as it seems, Articnli subscripfi anno primo 
rcg-ints mmc, i. e. " Articles subscribed the first year of the 
" present queen." 

Though I have omitted, for brevity sake, transcribing 
all the articles of this confession, yet, to satisfy curious 
readers for a taste of them, I will hereunder set down some- 
what said under two of them. 

The article j^ Under the article of Predest'ination. they have these 

of Predesti- . 

nation. words. " And although there are many godly men in these 
" our days will think, that in this our corrupt age, in the 
" which men are given to all rashness of judgment and dis- 
" soluteness of life, and do not weigh the mysteries of faith 
" with such Christian humility as they ought to do, it were 
" best that such articles should be passed over in silence : 
*' indeed we do think that discreet ministers will speak 
" sparely and circumspectly of them, and that upon the 
" consideration before rehearsed : yet notwithstanding, see- 
" ing some men of late are risen, which do gainsay and op- 
Rom, viii. " pugn this truth, we cannot utterly pass over this matter 
Eph. i. " ^ith silence, both for that the Holy Ghost doth so often 
" make mention of it in the scriptures, especially in St. 
" Paul's epistles : which argueth it to be a thing both fruit- 
*' ful and profitable to be known. And also being occa- 
" sioned by the same reason which moved St. Austin to 
" write of this matter oi predest'mation, &c. Notwithstand- 
" ing we do not despair, but that such as are curable, 
" through free and open preaching of the gospel, will be 
117" brought to see and understand the truth better than hi- 
" therto they have done : for true it is, that these and other 
*' most grievous errors have increased in these realms, in 
" these late years, for want of true preaching." 
The article H. Under the title of the Civil Magistrate, here they 
Magistrate, took occasion to shew their loyalty to government, and their 
utter disallowance of Christopher Goodman''s and Knox's 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 173 

books against the regiment of woman. *' Some are born to CHAP. 
" be kings or queens, and so by inheritance come to king- ^^^^- 
" doms, &c. The word of God doth not condemn the go- Anno J559. 
" vernance or regiment of women, but that such women as 
" by succession, inheritance, or other just title, according to 
" the orders and pohcies of the reahn, are placed in such 
" esteem, are lawful magistrates, and are no less in any 
" respect to be obeyed and honoured in all lawful things, 
*' than if they were men, kings, princes, &c. 

" A tyrant, or evil magistrate, which by succession or 
" election attaineth to a princely state or government, is a 
" power ordained of God ; and is also to be honoured and 
" obeyed of the people in all things, not contrary to God, 
" as their magistrate and governor. 

" It is not lawful for any private person or persons to 
" kill, or by any means to procure the death of a tyrant or 
" evil person, being their ordinary magistrate. 

" All conspiracies, seditions, and rebellions of private 
*' men against their magistrates, men or women, good go- 
" vernors or evil, are unlawful, and against the will and 
" word of God." 

This new face of things, and the countenance given to The state of 
pure religion under queen Elizabeth, rejoiced the poor per- ^^^^ and ^" 
secuted protestants abroad, especially in Flanders, and diose their church 
that had under king Edward quiet and safe harbour here, 
and the liberty of religion. Many of these were already 
come into England ; and one Adrian Hamstedius, a learned 
preacher, and one that had done and suffered much under 
the cross, came from Zealand hither, and gathered a congre- 
gation of his countrymen. He was chosen their minister, 
and got liberty to perform his function of preaching God's 
word to them : which he did sometimes in Christ Church, 
and sometimes at St. Margaret's, and sometimes in other 
places. These strangers, who consisted chiefly of Low MSS. Ec- 
Dutch and Germans, had once the west part of the church ^^^j p^^'*^* 
of the Augustine friars in Broad-street granted to them bySim.Ruy- 
king Edward VI. and his royal letters patents, directing and Gheschied- 
confirming the constitution of this congregation ; whereof Jo- "'ssen. 



174 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, annes a Lasco, a noble Polonian, was their minister, with the 
^''^" title of superintendent. But under queen Mary they were 



Anno 1559. dissolved, and glad to flee into foreign parts. And the 
members of this church settled themselves, some in Poland, 
others in Friezeland. But upon this happy change, these 
strangers bent their minds fully to return again into Eng- 
land, and take possession of their former church and li- 
berty. Shortly after, Johannes Utenhovius, a person of 
learning and quality, and who had been a chief member of 
this congregation under king Edward, arrived at Frank- 
118 ford, Aug. 24, 1559. Here he received letters of commen- 
dation from Henry Bullinger, chief minister of Zurick, (un- 
der whom the English exiles had received great favour,) to 
the queen's majesty. And with these letters he proceeded 
in his voyage to Friezeland ; and thence to England, taking 
with him Peter de Loene, a minister, son of Walter : who 
being arrived here, was admitted to serve the church of 
strangers aforesaid with Hamstedius. It must be known, 
that these worthy men, Utenhovius and De Loene, brought 
over with them king Edward's charter to this church ; and 
soon took their occasion humbly to petition the queen to 
establish it, and to grant them their church in St. Augus- 
tine's, and the privileges, as they had before imder her royal 
brother of blessed memory. But the matter being referred 
to her most honourable council and the bishops, it was re- 
fused at first for certain reasons. As, because the queen 
thought it not convenient in her kingdom to have another 
to be superintendent over a church, and that a stranger, 
besides the bishop of the diocese. 
Bp. Grindai But to take off this objection, this church soon after 
i„'tgnjj",j"' chose Grindai, bishop of London, their superintendent: 
who did shew himself on all occasions a true patron to 
them, and concerned himself tenderly in their affairs. But 
after him, I think they had no other superintendent. 

Further, the queen did not like that clause in the patent, 
of their being called corpus corporatum polificum. And 
lastly, it was thought worthy some furtlier consideration, 
before all the ground whereon the church and churchyard, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 175 

and the ministers'' houses stood, (which king Edward gave CHAP, 
them,) should be granted away. This seemed to be the ^^^^' 



counsel of the marquis of Winchester, lord treasurer, who Anno 1559. 
had obtained from that kino; all the situation of St. Auffus- 
tine friars, except this church and premises, and had his 
house upon part of it ; and so laboured, that as little of that 
monastery as might be should escape his hands : for of re- 
ligion he had little or none. 

But yet thus far the queen readily gratified them, and The Dutch 
yielded to their petition; that she gave them a letter, for *^'^""'^'*, . 
her purveyor to empty the said church or temple of all strangers, 
casks and vessels, and other stuff wherewith it was filled in 
queen Mary"'s days, (laying up there her naval stores and 
such like things,) and to restore the said strangers to the 
possession of the said temple. The next year, on the 29th 
of January, the same congregation did again renew their pe- 
tition to the queen for the confirmation of king Edward's 
grant. But what success they then had, I cannot tell ; but 
ever since, throughout all the succeeding kings' reigns, 
they have quietly enjoyed their temple and original consti- 
tution. 

The French protestants at this time did not concern The French 
themselves in this matter with the Dutch ; though they F^*^^*''"*^* 
were formerly included as members of this church of stran- church, 
gers ; but contented themselves now with another church in 
Threadneedle-street, which they had either borrowed or 
hired, belonging to the dean and chapter of Windsor, and 
which they have to this day ; being part of St. Anthony's 
hospital dissolved. 

But the registers of this Dutch church do shew (and The bishop 
gratefully confess it) that their main assistance now was°[^^""jj°" 
from bishop Grindal aforesaid ; and whom therefore they strangers. 
submitted unto as their superintendent. I find a case orll9 
two wherein he exercised his superintendency and authority 
in this church. In the year 1560, one of their ministers, 
namely Hamstedius, was convened before the said bishop 
judicially, for favouring some Dutch anabaptists, that de- 
sired to be received into this church, and had supplicated 



176 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, the bishop to be admitted. He had assei'ted in their behalf 
^^"- concerning that heresy of theirs, (viz. that Christ took not 



Anno 1 559. his flesh of the virgin Mary, but brought it from heaven,) 
that the doctrine of the incarnation of Christ, and his par- 
taking of our nature, was not a foundation, [?'. e. a fundar. 
mental doctrine,] but a circumstance cnjy of the foundation ; 
and that children and distracted persons were saved without 
faith. But the bishop required him to renounce these and 
other like errors ; which he refused to do, and continuing 
obstinately in them, was excommunicated by the bishop. 
And so was declared the next Sunday in the said Dutch 
church. Soon after, Hamstedius retired beyond the sea. 
And in the year 1564 there happened again an earnest con- 
tention in that church concerning baptizing infants : which 
was finally referred to the bishop of London, as their super- 
intendent, to decide. 



CHAiP. IX. 

The reformation in Scotland. Knox's booJc against wo- 
men^s government: answered hy an English divine. 
Christopher Goodman'' s hook of that argnment. Some 
account of that book. His recantation tJiereof. Knox's 
letter to John Fox concerning his hook. The pj-inciples 
of these books entertained. The French king''s Jiinerals 
solemnized at St. PauVs. 

Knox comes J- HE reformation was now carrying on in the neighbour- 
land^*^"*' ^"S kingdom of Scotland, as well as here: and May the 2d, 
John Knox the Scotchman, being fifty-four years of age, 
arrived at Edinburgh from France. From whence, anno 
1557, he had earnestly wrote to the Scotch nobility, who 
Life of had taken upon them the public reformation : telling them, 
that " he had the judgment of the most godly and learned 
" in Europe," (meaning, no doubt, the ministers of Geneva 
where he sojourned,) " to warrant his and their consciences, 
" for their present enterprise." The position maintained by 
them was this. That if kings and princes refuse to reform 



Knox. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 177 

religion, the inferior magistrates and people, being directed c H A P. 
and instructed in the truth before by their preachers, might ^^'^• 
lawfully reform within their own bounds themselves: and Anno 1559. 
if all, or the far greater part be enlightened, they might 
make a public reformation. 

In 1559, while he tarried at Dieppe, he wrote thus to one 
Mrs. Anne Lock, an English woman, from a mind suffi- 
ciently embittered against the English reformation: "A 120 
" portion of his [the beast's! mark are these dreors of pa- *^"<"' '^'^ 

, . or enemy to 

" pistry, which are left in your great book of England ; the English 
" crossing in baptism, kneeling at the Lord's table, mum-^"""' 
" bling or singing of the Litany, A fulgure et tempestate, 
" &c. any jot of which diabolical invention will I never 
" counsel any man to use. The whole order of their book 
" appeareth rather to be devised for the upholding of mass- 
" ing priests, than for any good instruction which the sim- 
" pie people can receive thereof. Their sacraments weie 
" ministered for the most part without the soul, and by 
" these who to Christ Jesus are no true ministers; and 
"God grant that so they be not yet. Without the soul, I 
" say, they were ministered, because they were ministered 
" without the word truly and openly preached. And your 
" ministers before, for the most part, were none of Christ's 
" ministers, but massmonging priests." And therefore to- 
wards the end of his letter he dissuaded this gentlewoman 
" from countenancing of such superstitious priests in their 
" corrupt, lifeless, liturgical services; and affirming with 
" great fervency, that all things should be judged abomi- 
" nable, yea, execrable and accursed, which God by his 
" word hath not sanctified in his religion." This is enough 
to shew the hot spirit of this man, and the prejudice he 
had, for some cause or other, conceived against this church 
and kingdom; where he had once been kindly harboured. 

About this time were two books dispersed abroad, and Two dan- 
in the hands of people, set forth by certain protestant au- ^o„'J;"^^is. 
thors, and found many approvers: which did the protest- persed. 
ants very ill service, in making the court jealous of a re- 
formation. In one of these books was asserted, that a wo- 

VOL. I. N 



178 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, man could not by the law of God be queen, nor sway the 
sceptre, and govern over men ; to whom they ought to be 



Anuoi559. in subjection, by the scripture. The other allowed a private 
subject in some cases to rebel against, nay, to do to death 
the sovereign, supposing him a tyrant. Dr. Parker, and 
many other of the learned and sober divines of the church, 
were extremely nettled and offended with these books, and 
declared publicly against them. 
Knox the But to inquire into the authors of these books, and the 
oiieofthem. P^"'*^^^"^^'' arguments of them. Whosoever was the author 
of the latter, the former was composed by John Knox, the 
famous Scotch divine above mentioned, and printed at Ge- 
neva about the year 1556 or 1557, and entitled. The Jirst 
Blast against the monstrous regiment and empire of wo- 
men. Wherein he endeavoured to prove, that it was alto- 
gether unlawful for women to reign. This book was ex- 
ceedingly ill taken, and ill-timed, being noAv fresh in the 
hands of the English people ; many whereof began to 
doubt whether they should obey the queen, and when at 
this time she had France a powerful enemy. This treatise 
therefore by all the sober protestants of the church of Eng- 
land was much cried out against, and styled, a treasonous 
booh ; and the queen was most highly disgusted with Knox 
for writing it ; though indeed he wrote it in spite to queen 
Mary, rather than levelled it at her. And when by certain 
messengers he desired leave of the queen to pass from 
France through England into his country, and to visit in 
the way the north parts of England, where he had formerly 
prcaclied, there would no licence be granted him ; nay, and 
121 the messengers he sent had like to have been taken up- 
^h'^^T ^^ "^y further, the English exiles that were newly returned 
mation of from Geneva (to whom Knox had been preacher there) felt 
of SM)tiaHd ^^^ effects of it here at home, being frowned upon, and hav- 
Knox writes ing no favour shewn them. However this book Knox stout- 
to secretary ]y gfood to in a letter to secretary Cecyl, saying, " he did 
this matter. " no more doubt of the truth of the proposition, than he 
" doubted this was the voice of God, which first did pro- 
" nounce this penalty against women. In dolour shalt thou 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 179 

" bear thy children.'''' And threatened to reply to whom- CHAP, 
soever should answer his book, as there was then much talk __iJ__ 



that it was to be answered. But notwithstanding his book, Anno 1559. 
Knox was willing, by the help of a distinction, to own hearti- 
ly queen Elizabeth and her government, though it were a 
woman ""s government : " because, as he said, he reckoned 
" her to be set up by God's extraordinary providence in 
" the behalf of relia-ion. Her he acknowledged God had 
" promoted for his miraculous work ; comforting his af- 
" flicted by an infirm vessel. He acknowledged and would 
" obey his power, and his most potent hand in raising up 
" whom best pleaseth his mercy, to suppress such as fight 
" against his gospel ; albeit that nature and God's most 
" perfect ordinance repugn to such regiment."" And by 
this way only he would allow the queen to be obeyed, and 
not by virtue of her right by succession or the laws of the 
land. For so he told the secretary, and charged him, in 
the name of the eternal God, to acquaint the queen there- 
with, [in these words;] "That if queen Elizabeth would 
" confess, that the extraordinary dispensation of God's great 
" mercy made that lawful unto her, which both nature and 
" God's laws did deny unto all other women besides, then 
" should none in England be more Avilling to maintain her 
" authority than he. But if, God's wondrous work set 
" aside, she grounded the justness of her title upon con- 
*' suetude laws and ordinances of men, then, as he was as- 
" sured that such foolish presumption did highly offend 
" God's supreme majesty, so he greatly feared, that her in- 
" gratitude should not long lack punishment." 

And to the queen also he wrote a letter to the same pur- And to the 
pose, in the month of July, 1559, telling her, "that it was theTs'th!' ^ 
" God's peculiar and extraordinary providence that brought 
" her to the kingdom, and that she was not to plead her 
" right by descent or law ; and plainly said, that if she be- 
" gan to brag of her birth, and to build her authority and 
" regiment upon her own law, her felicity would be short, 
" flatter her whoso listed." This was written from Edin- 

N 2 



180 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, burgh. Thus he look upon him to play the prophet, to 
uphold his own conceit. 



Anno 1559. The truth is, the main reason of Knox"'s writing this 
ground'of book, that made such a stir in these days, was the anger he 
Knox's conceived against two zealous popish queens that reigned at 

writing his , . , • -nr o t • 

book. that very time he wrote it ; Mary or Lorain, queen regent 

of Scotland, and Mary queen of England. And so he 
hinted politicly in one of his letters to Cecyl : " We ought 
" rather to bring to pass Christ''s reign over us, than vainly 
" to travail for the maintenance of that whereof already we 
" have seen the danger and feel the smart. If the most 
" part of women be wicked, and such as willingly we would 
" not should reign over us, and if the most godly, and 
122 " such as have rare graces, be yet mortal, we ought to take 
" heed, lest, in establishing one godly and profitable to her 
" country, we make an interest and title to many, by whom 
" not only will the truth be impugned, but also will the 
" country be brought into bondage." Therein meaning the 
Scotch queen regent, who at that time oppressed the gos- 
pellers. 

Knox's se- Two more blasts of Knox's trumpet were designed to 
have been blown by him, but queen Mary ending her days 
so soon, he blew his trumpet no more. Yet the second 
blast was almost ready; and that would have been a ter- 

Giiby's Ad- rible one indeed, as Anth. Gilby, at the end of his Admoni- 

En"iand° ^'^ ^^^'^ ^^ England and Scotland, sets it down ; viz. I. That 
it was not birth only, nor propinquity of blood, that made 
a king lawfully to reign over a people professing Christ 
Jesus and his eternal verity, but in his election, the ordi- 
nance which God had established in the election of in- 
ferior judges must be observed. II. That no manifest ido- 
later, nor notorious transgressor of God's holy precepts, 
ought to be promoted to any public regiment, honour, 
or dignity, in any realm, province, or city, that had sub- 
jected themselves to Jesus Christ and his blessed evangile. 
Ill, That neither promise nor oath could bind any such 
people to obey and maintain tyrants against God and 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 181 

against his truth known. IV. That if they had rashly pro- CHAP, 
moted a manifestly wicked person, or yet ignorantly had 



chosen such an one, as after declared hunself unworthy of ^"no 1559. 
regiment over the people of God, (and such were all idola- 
ters and cruel persecutors,) most justly might the same men 
depose and punish him, that unadvisedly before they had 
nominated, appointed, and elected. 

Papists took occasion hence (and not without cause) to Protestants 

1 I , . 1 p 1 ... on this oc- 

siander the protestants in general as lalse to tneu' prmces. casion sian- 
So Dorman to Alex. Noel in the name of all English pro- ^^^^.^ ^y 

papists. 

testants ; " When it served your turn, you defended stoutly. Dorm. 
" with tooth and nail, that a woman might not govern a ^'°" * 

... p. 1 19. 

" realm lawfully descended to her, no, not in civil and po- 
" litic matters. Within how few years, yea months after, 
" taught ye, that a woman may rule, not only a realm in 
" temporal things, but the church too in spiritual .P" But 
this was all popish calumny, Knox's doctrine being abso- 
lutely disowned, by the church and chief churchmen of Eng- 
land ; as shall appear by what follows. 

As Knox had heard, so it was true : for a notable and Knox's 

. . 1-11 I'l Blast an- 

full answer in April 1559 came out against his book : wJiich s^ered by 
answer was printed at Strasburgh; the author (a witty as^^'"^''- 
well as learned man) was John ^Imer, an exile, formerly 
archdeacon of Stow, who gave his book this title : J Har- 
bor ouglijhr Jhitlif id and true subjects against the late blotvn 
Blast concerning the government ofzcomen: xcherein zcere 
confuted all such reasons as a stranger of late made in that 
behalf: with a brief exhortation to obedience : and printed 
an. Dom. 1559 at Strasburgh. Dedicated to Francis earl 
of Bedford, and the lord Rob. Duddely, master of the 
queen's horses. And all little enough to reconcile the 
queen to the exiles. 

It was not long after Knox's book, that Christopher Goodman's 
Goodman, or Gudman, (formerly a public reader ot divi- 
nity at Oxford,) one of the exiles at Geneva, printed a book 
to the hke tenor widi that of Knox's, while queen Mary 
was alive ; instigating her subjects to rise up against her, 
and to take away her authority from her, because of her 123 

n3 



182 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, idolatry, cruelty, overthrowing the good laws of the land, 
_______ misgovernment, and betraying the nation by the Spanish 



Anno 1559. match. But to give some more particular account of this 
so remarkable a book, and the rather, it being now so rarely 
to be seen. It was a little tract in dccimo sexto, and bare 
this title; Hozo superior powers ought to be obeyed of their 
subjects, and wherein they may lawfully be disobeyed and 
rejected. Wherein also is declared the cause of all this pre- 
sent misery in England, and the only way to remedy the 
same. By Chr. Goodman. Printed oi Geneva, by John 
Crispin, mdlviii. A preface commendatory of the man 
and his work was wrote by Will. Whittingham ; beginning 
thus, W. Whittingham, to all them that love and know the 

Whitting- truth, and follow it ; grace and peace. In this preface he 

ham's pre- *: • p r^ ^ i •• ^ ^ ^ • 

face. speaks oi the occasion oi Goodman s writing the book, m 

these words : " When Mr. Chr. Goodman, one of our minis- 

" ters, according to the course of the text, expounded both 

" faithfully and comfortably this place of tjie Acts of the 

" Apostles, Judge, whether it be just before God, to obey 

*' you rather than God, Acts iv. 19, certain learned and 

" godly men most instantly and at sundry times requii-ed 

" him to dilate more at large that his sermon, and to suffer 

" it to be printed, that not only we here present, but our 

" brethren in England and other places, might be per- 

" suaded in the truth of that doctrine concerning obedience 

" to the magistrate, and so glorify God with it. Which 

" request he admitted not easily ; till at length, well weigh- 

" ing how many perished in their ignorance for lack of 

" means to attain to the knowledge of the truth ; and also 

" conferring the articles and chief propositions with the 

" best learned in these parts, who approved them ; lie con- 

" sented to enlarge the same, and so to print it, as a token 

*' of his duty and affection towards the church of God; and 

" then, if it were thought good to the judgment of the 

" godly, to translate the same into other languages, that the 

" profit thereof might be more universal,"" &c. Dated from 

Geneva, Jan. 1558. 
Th6 au~ 
tiior's de- Then follows Goodman''s own preface ; wherein are these 

sign. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 183 

expressions, which shew the design of his ensuing book: CHAP. 
" And yet these men, in the middle of their fury, without 



" all obedience and order, subverting the laws of God and Anno issg. 

" of nature, will be called, notwithstanding, defenders of 

*' the faith, maintainers of true religion, authors of peace, 

" teachers of obedience, and most discreet governors of 

" commonwealths and policies. To the intent therefore that 

" these disguised persons, which abuse the whole world, 

" may appear in their own lively shapes, and be known as 

" they are indeed, I have thought it good, having occasion 

" by this worthy answer of Peter and John, and being 

*' hereto of divers godly persons provoked, somewhat to 

" write of true obedience, to wit, what God himself requires 

" of us, and what he commands to be given also to men ; 

*' whereby, God willing, the disguised cloaks and crafty 

" pretences of obedience, used and practised by the ungodly 

" worldlings, shall be discovered ; who have sought always, 

" and yet do seek, under the pleasant name oi obedience, only 

" to maintain their ambition, pride, and liberty. Whereby 

" we shall learn also, liow in times past we have been shame- 

" fully abused in yielding to the wilful will of man, in obey- 1 24 

" ing his ungodly commandments, and fearing man more 

" than God," &c. 

In his book he bitterly inveighs against those protestants. Some dan- 
clergy, and counsellors, that set up queen Mary ; and that ^"ig^^if/Hls 
upon many reasons : as first, because she was a woman ; book. 
" the anointing of whom, if Moses and his ceremonies fj^J"* 
*' were in full authority, would not have been lawful for Mary. 
" him to do : it being never appointed to be ministered to 
" any but only priests, kings, and prophets. Again, be- 
*' cause the government of a woman the law forbade, and 
" nature abhorred ; and whose reign was never counted 
" lawful by the word of God, but was an express sign of 
" his wrath and notable plague for the sins of the people ; 
*' as was the reign of cruel Jezebel and ungodly Athaliah, 
" special instruments of Satan, and whips to the people of 
" Israel. Thirdly, she was an idolatress, and a wicked wo- 
" man. Nay, fourthly, he calls her a woman begot m adul- 

N 4 



184 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " tery, a bastard by birth: it being contrary to the word 
^^' " of God, and the English laws, that such should reign. 



Anno 1559." And that she was adjudged as a bastard by all the uni- 
" versities in England, France, and Italy, as well of civi- 
" lians as divines. And all bastards are deprived of all 
" honour : insomuch as by the law of Moses they were pro- 
" hibited to have entrance into the congregation of the liOrd 
" to the tenth generation. Deut. xxiii. And therefore he 
" reproved those that set her up, preferring her to the law- 
" fully begotten daughter."" To instigate the people further, 
he added, " That if without fear princes transgressed God's 
" laws themselves, and commanded others to do the like, 
" then they had lost that honour and obedience which other- 
" ^v^se their subjects did owe unto them ; and ought no 
" more to be taken for magistrates, but punished as private 
" transgressors." Much more might be added ; but this is 
enough to shew the man and his dangerous doctrines. If 
you would see more, you riiay have recourse to Tho. Rogers's 
Catholic Doctrine of the Church of England^ where lie hath 
preserved another taste of Goodman's book. 
The author Dr. Sutcliff, in liis Brief Reply to a certain odiofiis and 
book. scandalous libel by N. D. [that is, Robert Parsons,] who 
therein had laid to the charge of protestants their rebellion 
against their princes, and mentioned Goodman's book ; Dr. 
Sutcliff, I say, answered, " That Goodman did not like re- 
" bellion, but misliked Avomen's government : and that this 
" opinion he himself had since retracted." Which remark- 
able retraction I have met with among certain MSS. made, 
as it seems, before the lords of the council, with Goodman's 
name subscribed by himself; and these are the very words : 
The recan- " For SO much as the extremity of the time, wherein I 
MSS. Gui. " ^^^ write my book, brought forth alteration of religion, 
Petyt, ar- '< setting up of idolatry, banishment of good men, murdering 
" of saints, and violation of all promises made to the godly ; 
" I was, upon consideration of the present grief, moved to 
" write many things therein, which may be, and be, ofFen- 
" sively taken, and which also I do mislikc, and would wish 
'• had not been written. And notwitlistandinjr the which 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 185 

*' book so by me written, I do protest and confess, that CHAP. 
" good and godly women may lawfully govern whole realms 



and nations: and do from the bottom of my heart allow Anno 1559. 
" the queen's majesty's most lawful government, and daily 125 
" pray for the long continuance of the same. Neither did 
" I ever mean to affirm, that any person or persons of 
" their own private authority ought or might lawfully have 
" punished queen Mary with death : nor that the people of 
" their own authority may lawfully punish their magistrates, 
" transgressing the Lord's precepts : nor that ordinarily God 
*' is become head of the people, and giveth the sword into 
" their hands, though they do seek the accomplishment of 
" his laws. 

" Wherefore, as many of these assertions as may be rightly 
" collected out of my said book, them I do utterly re- 
" nounce and revoke, as none of mine ; promising never to 
" write, teach, nor preach any such offensive doctrine: 
" humbly desiring, that it may please your lordships to 
" give me your good and favourable allowance ; whereby I 
" shall, by God's grace, endeavour to labour in furthering 
" the true service of God, and obedience to her majesty, to 
" the utmost of my power, during my whole life ; to the sa- 
" tisfaction of all good men, and to the contentation of her 
" majesty and your good lordships. 

" Christopher Goodman." 

This recantation was made either before the queen's privy 
council, or her bishops of the ecclesiastical commission : who 
in all probabihty had summoned Goodman before them for 
his book, that contained such principles as they could not 
but take notice of; and gave Dr. Matthew Parker no small 
offence, as also many others. 

Though some of the English at Geneva allowed of these The pro- 
books of Knox and Goodman, yet generally the English J||f_*^^,','J'|^^; 
exiles in all places utterly disliked them : neither did Beza ni^ed these 
himself approve of either ; being published, though in Ge- 
neva, yet without his knowledge. But as to the English 
exiles, John Fox, one of them, then at Basil, expostulated 



186 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, with Knox in a letter about this his principle. To which 
Knox, in a letter dated in May 1558, from Geneva, thus 



Anno 1659. justified his book: " That in the writing of it he neither 
" sought himself, nor yet the vain praise of men : that his 
" rude velicviency and inconsiderate affirmations, (as he 
" rightly styled them,) which might appear rather to pro- 
" ceed from choler, than of zeal and reason, he did not ex- 
" cuse ; that it was enough for him to say, that black was 
" not white, and man's tyranny and foolishness was not 
" God's perfect ordinance. That he writ not so much to 
" corrupt commonwealths, as to deliver his own conscience, 
" and to instruct the conscience of some simple."" But this 
N". XVII. whole letter I have put in the Repository, to be read by 

those that please. 
To have These books seem to have been studiously conveyed into 

them in tiie]7j-|g|^j^j under queen Mary, to disaffect the people from 
son, under her government : but with whomsoever they were taken, 
queen ^H-^^y incurred treason ipso facto. One Lithal, of South- 
wark, was taken up for religion in the year 1558, by A vales 
the promoter, and Cluny the keeper ; who brought him to 
Dr. Darbishire, bishop Boner's chancellor. Avales had 
seized upon Lithal's books in his house ; where, among the 
rest, was one of these books against the regiment of wo- 
men: which when Darbishire saw, he told LithaPs friends, 
1 26 that he had in his keeping a book by which he could make 
him guilty of treason, and have him hanged, drawn, and 
quartered. But the queen's sickness at that time saved him, 
and the chancellor took bonds for his appearance, and so 
dismissed him. 
These prin- Thcsc principles against women's government seemed not 
tinue.'°" ^® ^^ buried many years after, but to be secretly enter- 
tained, and that by papists as well as protestants : as may 
well be conjectured from some passages in those sermons in 
the homily book, framed by occasion of the popish rebel- 
lion, ann. Dom. 1569. Where, in the first part, having 
(juoted the two places for subjection to government, Rom. 
xiii. and 1 Pet. ii. immediately it follows, " By these two 
" places of holy scriptures it is most evident, that kings. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 187 

*' auEENs, and other princes (for he speaks of authority and CHAP. 
*' power, be it in men or women) are ordained of God, ' ' 



" are to be obeyed and honoured of their subjects." And Anno 1559. 
again, " Rebels are ever ready to rebel against princes, espe- 
*' cially if they be young, [having herein respect to king 
" Edward,] women in sex." And so throughout these ser- 
mons, whensoever there is occasion to mention kings, queens 
are commonly joined. " It comes neither of chance nor 
" fortune, nor of ambition, that there be kings, queens, 

" princes But all kings, queens, and other go- 

*' vernors are specially appointed by the ordinance of God." 

If we desire to know what became of Goodman after- what be- 
wards; in the year 1560 (after the wars and troubles inQ^"j°^jj 
Scotland were over, and religion established there) he was 
appointed to be preacher at St. Andrew''s, when John Knox 
was appointed at Edinburgh, having returned during these 
commotions to Ayre. For so we read in the History of the 
Reformation of the Church of Scotland, of one Christopher 
Goodman ; who, I suppose, was the same with Christopher 
Goodman whom we have been speaking of. He afterwards 
was in England : and when sir Henry Sidney, lord deputy 
of Ireland, went against the popish rebels there, Goodman 
was his chaplain. He lived long in the city of Chester ; Usher's 
where, in the year 1602, being very ancient. Dr. Usher, af-^^"^''** 
terwards archbishop of Armagh, saw him, and had dis- 
course with him, as he related in one of his own letters 
lately printed. 

Henry II. of France departed this life at Paris in the The funeral 
month of July ; and the queen, according to the custom of p^^^'^jj 
princes, in shewing honour to each other even at their king ceie- 
deaths, appointed his obsequies to be solemnly observed in Paul's. 
the chief church of her realm, the cathedral of St. PauFs, Lon- 
don : Avhich was done the 8th and 9th days of September; 
beginning the funeral pomp, according to the usage of those 
times, on the eve of one day, and continuing and finishing it 
on the morning of the day ensuing. 

The attendants on these obsequies were, sir William Tliemourn- 
Paulet, marquis of Winchester, and lord treasurer, chief^''*" 



188 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, mourner, who walked alone; then the lord AVill. Howard, 

baron of Effingham, lord chamberlain, and Henry lord of 

Anno 1559. Burgavenny ; then the lord Dacres of the south, and Henry 

Ex offic. Gary, baron of Hunsdon ; next. Will. Brook, lord Cobham, 
Armor. "^ 

and Henry lord Scrope ; then the lord Darcy, lord Chiche, 

and sir Rich. Sackvile ; after them, Charles son and heir to 
127 the lord Will. Howard, and sir Edward Warner, lieutenant 
of the Tower, two and two: four bishops, all elects, namely. 
Dr. Matthew Parker, archbishop elect of Canterbury ; 
Grindal, bishop elect of London; (but he by reason of sick- 
ness was absent ;) Scory, of Hereford ; and BarloAv, of Chi- 
chester; [the bishops had black go^vns given them, and eight 
black coats apiece for their servants:] then the French am- 
bassador; two gentlemen ushers; the kings of arms, heralds 
and pursuivants ; officers of the household, of the wardrobe, 
and others. 

The garnishment of the hearse came to . . 80 13 3 

The majesty 97 18 1 

The helmet, mantlets, sword, &c 14 6 

The carpet of velvet for the communion table 16 13 4 

Banners and pensils 168 8 2 

Hangings, covering the ground in the chancel 48 4 4 

Duties of St. PauFs church 13 6 8 

The charge of black cloth for all the mourn- 
ers and other officers 251 13 8 

Charges of dinner 88 3 11 

Hire of the hearse 600 

Reward to the clerk of the wardrobe ... 500 

Offerings 17 4 

The dole 10 

The whole expense was the queen's; which in all, with 

some other charges not here set down, cost her 789^. IOa. 10(7. 

The funeral But to give somc accouut of the funeral ceremonies ; and 

ceremomes. ^] father, bccausc now they were not such as were lately 

Ex Ortic. ' ... ^ 

Armor. iiscd uudcr popcrv, (the religiim being now reformed,) but 
altered, and the grosser superstitions, customarily observed 
before, were now omitted. On Friday, Sept. 8, when the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 189 

hearse was solemnly brought into the church, and every CHAP, 
man placed, whereas the ancient custom was for one of the ' 



heralds to bid aloud the prayer for the soul of the party Anno 1559. 

departed, saying, "Pray for the soul of," &c. now there was 

an alteration in the words: for York herald, standing at the 

upper choir door, bade the prayer, (as it used to be called, 

but now more properly the praise,) first in English, and 

after in French, Benoist soU eternel, &c. " Blessed be the 

" King of eternal glory, who through his divine mercy hath 

" translated the most high, puissant, and victorious prince 

" Henry II. late the French king, from this earthly to his 

" heavenly kingdom." Which words he used again at the 

end of Benedictus, and at the end of the service : and again 

on the morrow, at the times accustomed. The archbishop 

of Canterbury, in his surplice and doctor"'s hood on his 

shoulders, who did execute, began the service, assisted by 

the bishops of Chichester and Hereford, appareled as the 

archbishop, and by two of the prebendaries in their grey 

amices. And first, certain psalms of praise were sung for 

the departure of the dead in the faith of Christ, instead, I 

suppose, of the Dirige: after that, one chapter of the book 

of Job, (perhaps taken out of the Dirige,) and then certain 

like psalms : after that was read the fifteenth chapter of the 

first epistle to the Corinthians : which ended. Magnificat 

was sung : and lastly, the latter part of the evening prayer. 

All things ended, they retvirned in like order as they 128 
came, (except the banner left in the church,) to the great 
chamber within the bishop''s palace, where they had a void 
of wine and spices and other things: and after they had 
taken order to meet there again by eight of the clock in the 
morning, they shifted them, and departed. 

Saturday the 9th of September, about the hour assigned, 
they met together at the said bishop's palace. And about 
nine of the clock they proceeded up to the hearse, as the 
day before; and all being placed as before, the three bishops 
elect in copes, and the two prebendaries in grey amices, 
came forth of the vestry unto the table of administration, 
and then York herald bade the prayer as before. Then the 



190 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, communion-office began, and proceeded forward until the 
_______ offering ; when the chief mourner proceeded, the officer of 



Anno 1559. arms and gentleman usher before him, with his train borne, 
the rest of the mourners following him ; but he alone of- 
fered, being a piece of gold for the head-penny; and he and 
others returned to the end of the service. Then the said 
chief mourner, with Clarencieux before him, again pro- 
ceeded up without any state, and offered for himself, and 
returned to his place. Then the lord chamberlain and the 
lord of Burgaveny, with two heralds before them, proceed- 
ed up, and offered, and returned and took their places : in 
which like order offered all the other eight mourners, two 
after two; the money for them to offer had been before de- 
livered to them by Tanner, gentleman usher. Then offered 
the ambassador of the French king. Then the lord mayor, 
with his brethren, followed him, but offered not. Then sir 
William St. Low, with Rouge Dragon before him, offered 
the banner to Clarencieux, &c. 
The sermon The offering finished, the sermon began by the elect of 
preached by jjgj.g£Qj.jj . ^^.j-jg q[qqi of London, who should have preached, 

Scory. being sick;) his anthem, [that is, his text,] being Veniet 
hora, et mine est, quando mortui audient vocem FUi'i Dei, 
he. The hour shall come, and norv is, ivhen the dead shall 
hear the voice of the Son of God, and they that hear shall 
Ex Offic. live. Whereupon he declared and proved the last day not 
J ^^T.' ^^ ^^ ^^^ °^' ^^^ therefore persuaded amendment of life, 
and to live well. And further he endeavoured to pacify 
both parties of the people ; that it seems now freely uttered 
their minds according as they stood affected to religion : the 
one party thinking and saying, how the ceremonies used 
for burial were too many; yea, rather, that none at all 
ought to be used for the dead : the other thinking them to 
The ancient be too few. Hencc he took occasion to shew out of divers 
order of the ancient authors the order of the burial of the dead in the 
the dead, primitive church, and how the service at the same was to 
give praise to God for taking away their brother in the 
faith of Christ: which selfsame order they had now ob- 
served, and were about to fulfil and observe. As for the rest 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 191 

of the ceremonies there used, which were but few, seeing CHAP, 
they were not contrary to the faith of Christ, nor yet con- 



trary to brotherly and Christian charity, but for the main- Anno 1559. 
tenance thereof, the rather to continue amity betwixt both 
princes, which charity Christ especially doth command; 
therefore ought to be observed, and not gainsaid. But for 
the other ceremonies, for that they were neither beneficial 129 
to those which were alive, nor yet to the parties deceased, 
nor yet according to the order of the old fathers and primi- 
tive church, they were therefore now taken away and 
abolished. After this, commending the royal person de- 
parted, for his worthy and noble chivalry and valiant heart, 
as well in prosperity as adversity, together with great com- 
mendation of his chaste life, keeping himself only to his 
own wife, (being a rare thing, he said, in princes,) he made 
an end. 

After the sermon concluded, they went forward to the The com- 
communion. At the time of the reception thereof, the lord "^""'""• 
chamberlain, the lord Dacres, and sir Edward Warner rose 
up and went to the table, where, kneeling together with the 
three bishops, they all six received the communion; the 
rest, it seems, of the nobility here present were not yet so 
well reconciled to the new way of receiving the sacrament, 
as to partake at this time of it. All which ended with the 
other service : which finished, York again bade the prayer, 
as before. This done, the mourners and others returned to 
the bishop's palace in order : where the said lords and am- 
bassadors, and all other which had attended these exequies, 
were treated with a goodly dinner, and so departed at 
pleasure. 



192 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. X. 

The poor 7xeglected condition of the protestants, being re- 
turned home : and the state of religion. JciceTs and 
CoaPs letters thereof to Bidlinger and Weidner. 

Anno 1559. XjUT now to make a few notes how religion stood at this 
je state ot j jj-^^g ^^g fgj. ^^ exiles returned from Germany, Helvetia, 

the exiles J ^ ' 

come home, and other countries, whither they had fled for their con- 
sciences, and preserving of their lives, in the last hai'd reign, 
they were much discouraged, having little notice or regard 
taken of them, nor any orders given for the restoration of 
them to their former preferments and benefices. And though 
they came threadbare home, yet they brought back along 
with them from the foreign churches and universities much 

John Jewel, experience, as well as learning. John Jewel, upon his re- 
turn home into England, was harboured about three months 
with Nicolas Culverwel, a citizen, living (unless I mistake) 
in Thames-street : then the lord Williams, of Thame, being 
sick, sent for him ; and M^ith him he abode some time. 

Tho, Lever. Another of these was Tho. Lever, a very grave man, and 
formerly master of St. John"'s college in Cambridge ; who 
liad taken this opportunity of his exile to travel into all the 
chief protestant towns and cities ; as Argentine, alias Stras- 
burgh, Basil, Zuric, Berne, Lausane, and Geneva; noted 
the doctrines and disciphne in those places, and talked with 
their learned men. And thence had experience of their sin- 
130 cere doctrine, and godly order, and great learning: and 
especially of much virtuous learning, diligence, and charity, 
in Bullinger at Zuric, and Calvin at Geneva, as did greatly 
advance God's glory, imto the edifying of Christ's church 
" with the same religion for the which you be now in })ri- 
" son," as the said Lever wrote to John Bradford, the holy 
martyr. 

John Fox, Rut this learned divine, with the I'est of his fellows, at 

his poor their first coming over, lay by, not much regarded, as was 
said before, the state then being so full of other employ- 
ment. About October, 1559, John Fox, the laborious com- 
pilei- of the chiu'ch's history, chiefly as to her persecution, 



UxNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 193 

was in London, but very poor ; and had sent a letter to the CHAP. 
duke of Norfolk, to whom he had been tutor, and of whom 



he was dead}- loved, to afford him relief, and supply his Anno 1559. 
want, being newly come over. In the close of which letter j,J'^^^j*,.^° 
he had these expressions : " That as to religion, he needed "f Norfolk. 
" not to admonish him where the truth stood, but prayed ^t^grs"^^^* 
" God that he would manfully stand on truth's side ; and 
*' [fearing his interest for religion was not great enough] he 
" advised him, that he should above all take heed, that if 
*' he could not help Christ at this juncture, at least that no 
" mortal creature should ever prevail so far with him, as to 
" be an adversary against him in any thing : for, saith he, 
" Christ will overcome, in spite of all men. And for a con- 
" elusion, exhorted him to bestow that time in reading the 
*' holy scriptures, which other nobles did in the pomps and 
*' pastimes of the court." But as to Fox"'s own present con- 
dition, it appears by his letter that this M'as not the first pe- 
tition he had made to the duke, his great patron ; and that 
not having answer, and yet knowing the forwardness of the 
duke"'s nature, and his great propensity towards him, he at- 
tributed the cause of this seeming neglect to the present 
time, wherein it seemed not safe for him to take notice or 
shew compassion to Fox, or that sort of men. As for him- 
self, his nature was such as the duke knew, and so averse 
from importunate craving, that he should first almost perish 
with hunger before he could do it. In this letter he also ex- 
cused himself, that he had not of late dedicated any thing 
by him written to his most illustrious name, and that it was 
out of a care of his grace's safety, well knowing what dan- 
ger might ensue to him in the late reign, if it should have 
been known that he had any favour for such a man as Fox 
was ; and that this was the true reason thereof he should 
soon know : he meant he should know it by his Latin Mar- 
tyrology, which he had dedicated to him, newly finished, 
and printed beyond sea, and now brought over with him. 
This was the substance of Fox's letter, in an elegant Latin 
style, to his noble pupil. To which he, on the 30th of Oc- And the 
tober, gave him as elegant an answer in the same language, ^^^^ 
vol,, I. o 



194 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, full of kindness, and expressive of his care for him, and of 
^ the order he had given his servants to provide for him all 



Anno 1559. things that he needed upon his first coming over. In which 
letter, as he calls Fox optime prcBceptoy; so Fox, in his, had 
called him mi Thoma. All this may be seen more fully in their 

No.xvili. letters, which I cannot forbear placing in the Appendix. 

„ \' This their neglected condition the learned exiles took not 

Sandys to _ *^ _ 

Parker con- a little to heart. Dr. Edwin Sandys, one of them, being 
Ss"^ ^''^ then at Westminster, in a letter to Dr. Parker in the coun- 
131 try, spake of this with some concern ; as, " That they never 
" asked them in what state they stood, nor considered what 
" they wanted : so that, as he protested, in the time of their 
" exile they were not so bare as they were now brought.' 
These words of Sandys were occasioned by a kind letter of 
Dr. Parker to him, together with some gratuity sent at the 
same time, as it seems : which moved him to what he wrote 
before, and to add, " That he rightly considered, that these 
" times were given to taking, and not to giving ; and that 
*' he had stretched forth his hand [in liberality] further 
" than all the rest." 
Some of Yet the exiles of the most eminency and learning were 

the'quee°n. sometimes about the queen's person, and preached often be- 
fore her. Lever had so much of her ear, as to dissuade her 
from taking the title of supreme head; which Sandys, in his 
forementioned letter to Parker, blamed him for; and for 
wisely [as he seemed ironically to speak] putting such a 
scruple into the queen's head. 

But to represent yet further how it fared now with our 
English refugees, and withal what the state of religion now 
was, I shall take it from the pen of two others of the same 
Bibiioth. rank, Jewel and Cox, in their letters to their friends abroad, 
gnrin. Bullinger, the great divine and superintendent of Zuric, 

had lately sent a letter to Jewel and Parkhurst, exhorting 
them in this juncture to carry themselves stoutly and boldly 
in the cause of religion, which was now upon its critical 
.Tewei to point. Which Jewel, in a letter dated in May, said, " was 
co'iicem^ni' " '"^^ admonition almost absolutely necessary. And that ba- 
the exiles, « causc they were tr) oppose, not only their old popish ad- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 195 

' versaries, but even tlieir late friends, who had now re- CHAP. 
' volted from them, and were turned against them, and 



' sided with the adversaries, and did much more stubbornly^^^^o 1559. 
' resist them than any of their enemies. And, which was ^"^f,/*^^" 
' most troublesome of all, they were to wrestle with the re- f'tn it 
' lies of the Spaniards, [tliat is, what they left behind j^^j|^^ ^^ 
' them,] their most filthy vices, pride, luxury, and lust, tiie Spa- 
' They did as much as they could, but at that present they 
' lived after that sort, as though they scarce were returned 
' from their banishment. For, to say no worse, tlieir livings 
' and preferments were not yet restored to them. But they 
' were in good hope their expectations should not be frus- 
' trate, having a queen both wise and godly, and favour- 
' able to them. That religion was restored on that foot on 
' which it stood in king Edward's time. To which, he told 
' BuUinger, his letter to the queen much contributed : but The queen 
' that the queen would not be styled head of the church of g^yied head. 
' England, giving this grave reason thereof, that that was a 
' title due to Christ only, and to no mortal creature besides ; 
' and that those titles had been so foully stained by Anti- 
' christ, that they might no more be piously used by any.'' 
Then he spake of the present state of the university of Ox- State of 
ford : " That whatsoever had been planted there by Peter ^ °^ ' 
' Martyr was, by the means of one friar Soto, and another 
' Spanish monk, so wholly rooted out, that the Lord's vine- 
' yard was turned into a wilderness : so that there were 
' scarce two to be found in that university of their judg- 
' ment. And therefore, he told Bullinger, he could not ad- 
' vise any of their youths yet to be sent to Oxford, unless 
' they would have them sent back thence wicked and bar- 132 
' barous. That the lord Russel did what lay in him to Lord Rus- 

* forward the reliaion, and used the best skill and art he had *^*'^ favour 

c> ' _ to rehgion. 

' to bring it about : and that he was so sensible of the kind- 
' ness of those of Zurick to the poor English there, that he 
' had seriously inquired of Jewel what might be acceptable 
' to them to send them, as a grateful acknowledgment. 

* Jewel told him, he was sure nothing would be more 
' acceptable to them, than for his lordship studiously to 



196 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



CHAP. 
X. 

Anno 1559. 
Cox to 
Weidner of 
the same 
subject. 
Papists 
strong in 
the pailia- 
nieut. 



Exiles 
preach be- 
fore the 
queen. 



The good 

effect 

tliereof. 



The late 
dispute at 
We.^t min- 
ster. 



" propagate Christ's religion. Which he promised he would 
" do." This was the substance of Jewel's letter. 

Cox, in his letter this year to Weidnerus, the chief pastor 
of the church at Wormes, gave this account of the present 
state of religion here : " That the papists were so hardened 
in popery under queen INIary's five years' government, 
that it was exceeding difficult for the queen, and those 
that stood for the truth, to get room for the sincere reli- 
gion of Christ ; and in the parliament, the bishops, the 
scribes aud phar-isees, as he called them, opposed it. And 
they seemed to have the victory on their side ; and that 
none did then scarce speak to the contrary, because of 
the great place and authority they bare. That the exiles 
in the mean time (which was all they could do) preached 
before the queen, and in their sermons shewed the Roman 
bishop to be Antichrist, and his traditions for the most 
part to be mere blasphemy. And that at length many of 
the nobility, and multitudes of the common people, fell off 
from popery : but of the clergy none at all ; standing as 
stiff as a rock. 

" Then he informed his correspondent of the disputation 
that was lately held at Westminster, eight against eight. 
That the popish eight were the chief of their bishops and 
other learned men. The protestant eight were some of 
the poor exiles, [whereof himself was one.] That it was 
agreed to manage the dispute by writing, for avoiding 
many words. That the queen's council and almost all the 
nobility were present. That the disputants on the popish 
side looked and spake big, and applauded themselves as 
victors. One on the other side answered, depending on 
the truth, not with great words, but in the fear of God. 
But having ended, the auditory declared their great satis- 
faction by tlie applause they gave the cause, to the great 
perturbation and confjision of the adverse party. How that 
another day they came prepared for another dispute. 
Then they were required to begin as they had done be- 
fore, and the protestant side should follow. But that they 
refused to do it. being, a-s it seems, sensible of the last 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 197 

" day's ill success: they cried out, that it was unjust that cHAP. 
" they should begin, who had so many years continued in__J^__ 



" the possession of the catholic faith ; and that if they [the Anno 1559. 

*' protestants] had any thing against them, they should pro- 

*' pose it, that they by their authority might confute it, and 

" silence them as degenerate children, that had departed from 

" the unity of the church. But while they thus stood out, fur- 

" ther disputation was stopped, and they lost their cause." 

He added, " That soon after this, Christ's sincere religion cinist's 
" was planted every where, and that after the same manner ^.'""'"^ ^^' 
*' it was professed under king Edward." This letter was writ planted. 
May the 20th : at which time, as he wrote, " they were 
" breaking down the popish hedge, and restoring the Lord's 133 
" vineyard. And that they were then in the work, but the 
*' harvest was great, and the labourers few." This letter of 
Cox's, together with the former of Jewel's, worth gold to a 
lover of these antiquities, I have put into the Appendix : Numb. XX. 
having been transcribed out of the originals, kept yet in^^^- 
the great church at Zuric, by the hand of John Daille, late 
minister of the church at Charenton, but then a refugee at 
Zuric : which were kindly communicated to me by Mr. 
Roger Morice, lately deceased ; whose name I here men- 
tion in gratitude. 

CHAP. XL 

Preachers at St. PauFs Cross. The beginning of the use 
of common prayer. The deprivation of the old bishops. 
Their practices. Their condition afterwards ; and other 
popish churchmeji. Their letter to the queen ; and her 
answer. The emperor''s letter to the queen. A match 
propounded with the archduke of Austria. The vacant 
churches supplied. Articles to be decla?-ed ; and a pro- 
testation to be subscribed by the clergy. Subscription Jbr 
readers. 

iN OW, after the dissolution of the parliament, which was 
on the 8th day of May, let us see how the summer and the 
remaining part of the year was spent. 

o3 



198 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. Great care was taken, while this important work of the 
.change of religion and rejection of the papal power was in 



Anno 1559. hand, to have good preaching at St. Paul's ; and that none 

at^aurs* ^"'- ^^^^" ^^ good wisdom and learning should come up at 
the Cross, the better to reconcile the people to the work that 
was doing. And such preachers were put up as were after- 
wards made bishops, and advanced to eminent places in the 
church. 

Bil. April the 9th, Dr. Bil, the queen"'s almoner, then or soon 

after dean of Westminster, preached at the Cross : where he 
declared wherefore the bishops were sent to the Tower; 
namely, those who carried themselves so frowardly in the in- 
tended disputation at Westminster, disappointing such an 
august assembly as came to hear and to be satisfied in the 
controverted matters of religion. 

Grindal. May the 15th, Grindal (afterwards bishop of London) 

preached at PauFs : where were present the queen's council, 
and the great men of the court and kingdom ; as the duke 
of Norfolk, the lord keeper of the great seal, the lord high 
treasurer, the earl of Arundel, the lord marquis of North- 
ampton, the lord admiral, the earls of Sussex, Westmorland, 
Rutland, Bedford, and many more lords and knights, toge- 
ther with the lord mayor and aldermen. After sermon they 
went to dine with the lord mayor. 

Horn. The 22d, preached Mr. Horn, (afterwards bishop of Win- 

chester,) present the judges and sergeants at law. 
134 The 28th, Barlow, late bishop of St. David's, and soon 

Barlow. ^f^gj. ^f Chichester, preached. 

Sandys. June the 11th, Sandys (soon after bishop of Worcester) 

preached. That day being St. Barnabas feast, the apostles' 
mass ceased to be said any more : and no mass said that day. 
Then the new dean took pos.session of his church. And the 
same nioht was no evensong at St. Paul's. 

Jewel. The 18th, Jewel (soon after bishop of Sarum) preached : 

now was sir Edward Rogers, comptroller of the queen's 
household, and other noblemen, present. 

Viten.T.s. 1'^ie 25th, Bentham (afterwards bishop of Litchfield) 
preached. These were all exiles in the late reign ; and this 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 199 

year appointed the queen's visitors, and soon after preferred CHAP, 
to bishoprics. '__ 



But to go on with the preachers, as I can collect them from Anno 1 559. 
the foresaid MS. diary, though somewhat imperfect. 

Aug. the 13th, Skory, new bishop of Hereford, preached skory. 
at St. PauPs, while the visitation of that church was in 
hand. Two days after, the rood there, with the altar, was 
pulled down. 

Let me insert here, that on the 30th of August one Mr. Alien. 
Edmund Allen, who in the said manuscript is said to be 
elect bishop of Rochester, was buried in the body of the 
church of St. Thomas Apostle''s, London ; a few clerks at- 
tending ; and his funeral sermon preached by Mr. Hunting- 
ton the preacher. This Allen, the diary writer notes to 
have a wife and eight children. And Guest was conse- 
crated bishop of that see. This Allen was an ancient, emi- 
nent protestant divine. 

Sept. the 3d, Mr. Makebray, a Scot, and an eminent exile, Makebray. 
preached at St. Paul's. 

The 10th, preached Dr. Turner, [William Turner, I Dr. Turner, 
suppose, who was formerly the duke of Somerset's chap- 
lain, and dean of Wells ;] his audience was very great, 
(perhaps increased by his fame,) consisting both of court, 
city, and covmtry. 

Sept. the 17th, Mr. Veron, a Frenchman by birth, a new Veron, 
preacher, (as they termed the favourers of the reforma- 
tion,) preached at the Cross. He was soon after minister of 
St. Martin's, Ludgate, and St. Sepulchre's. In his sermon 
he had these words, " Where are the bishops, and the old 
" preachers ? Now they hide their heads." Spoken in some 
joy and triumph, being now laid aside, and deposed ; who 
had made themselves odious to the people for late rigours 
and cruel persecution of them and their relations. 

My diary observes, that on the day of this month St. Antho- 

of September, began the new morning prayer at St. Antho- a,„r„';na. 
lin's, London, the bell beginning to ring at five; when api'ayer' 
psalm was sung after the Geneva fashion ; all the congrega- 
tion, men, women, and boys, singing together. 

o 4 



200 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. Sept. the 24th, Huntington the preacher officiated at 
PauPs Cross before a great audience, together with the 



Anno 1559. mayor and aldermen. 

Hunting- October the 8th, Veron the above-mentioned preached be- 

Veron. fore the queen at Whitehall. He was a bold as well as elo- 
quent man. In this his sermon he advised, that the new 
bishops should have lands and fair incomes, as the old bi- 
135 shops had: and that otherwise they would not be able to 
maintain hospitality, and keep such good houses as they 
ought, and was expected at their hands. 

Crowley. The 15th of October Mr. Crowley preached at Paul's 
Cross. He was once a printer, then an exile, but a learned 
and zealous man, and a writer. 

A sermon I insert here a sermon preached November the 4t]i, at St. 

weddi*!!'" * Botolph, Bishopsgate, at the wedding of a priest to a priest's 
widow of Ware, by one West, a new doctor : who took oc- 
casion to speak freely and eai'nestly against the roodlofts; 
and that those godly ministers that fled for the word of God 
were to be helped, and to be presented to livings for their 
subsistence. Which it seems hitherto was more sparingly 
done. 

November the 12th, old Miles Coverdale preached at 
the Cross. 

The 19th, Mr. Bentham (ere long to be bishop of Co- 
ventry and Litchfield) preached there. And so did, 

Jewel. The 26th, Jewel, bishop of Salisbury. Where, upon the 

fame of that learned man, was a very great confluence of 
auditors as had been ever seen at the Cross ; and where, be- 
sides the mayor and aldermen, were many of the court. 
But now to look a little back into the transactions of this 
summer. 

The En?- The 24th day of June, being the festival of St. John 

l"*'' *^"j!^^' Baptirt, made a great alteration; that being the day ap- 

to be used, pointed by the late parliament, from which the new service- 
book was to be only used in all the churches throughout 
England. Hitherto the Latin mass-book remained, and the 
priests celebrated service, for the most part, as they did be- 
fore; that is, from November 1558 to this month of June 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 201 

1559. During which time were great and earnest disputes CHAP, 
and arguments held among the clergy, both protestants and '__ 



papists, concerning the English book for public prayers. Anno 1059. 
But when that day came, the protestants generally received Generally 
the book with great joy, finding it to consist of the same di- i„t ^ss. 
vine service with that in godly king; Edward's days. Let me ^- Jo''D. 
set down the words of one Earl, a curate in London in these iNum. soe. 
days, in a diary he kept. Against the 24th day of June he 
wrote, O blessed day ! And again, 

Saint John Baptisfs day^ 
Put the pope azvay. 

Then was Ving Edward's hook restored to all merCs com- 
fort. And verily the people were most willing to receive the 
book of divine service thus brought to us. Yet he makes a 
note of exception to a few of Calvin's church ; that is, such 
as lately came from Geneva, and perhaps from some other 
places where his platform was followed, and where it was 
their lot to reside, who fled abroad in the Marian days. But 
yet of these he observed withal, that many complied and 
obeyed. 

But the popish priests, that is, the majority of them, ut- Except by 
terly refused. Whose peevish obstinacy, he writes, was ^^^'^ *" 
patiently suffered seven months, in conferences and open 
disputations. 

They objected against the legality of the use of the com- The pre- 
munion-book ; and clamoured against the law that esta- gamy'^oMt. 
Wished it, as defective : as they declared in a paper of ques- ^^g 
tions, that was a little after privately dispersed. Which Pil- 
kinton, bishop of Durham, printed and answered. Herein 
they say, that this manner of ministering of the sacrament, 
set forth in the book of common prayer, was never allowed 
nor agreed upon by the universal church of Christ in a ge- 
neral council ; no, not by the clergy of England at the last 
parliament. But that it was only agreed upon by the laity, 
who had nothing to do in spiritual matters ; meaning, in re- 
spect of the bishops then in parliament disagreeing to the act 
of uniformity ; and that nothing could be concluded as a 



202 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, law in parliament, but by consent of the clergy there pre- 
sent. To which the said answerer replied, " That this was 
Anno 1659." done but just as queen Mary had done before; who by 
" her statute took away one religion, and brought in another. 
" And no more was done now. Nor was all the clergy of 
" the realm compi'ehended in a few popish bishops. Was 
" there (replied he) no clergy in the universities, nor other 
" parts of the realm, besides these few bishops that con- 
" sented not ? Many in the universities, and abroad in the 
" realm, had used this service openly and commonly in their 
" churches afore it was received or enacted by parliament : 
" which was an evidence that many of the clergy approved 
*' it. Nor did the parliament (said he) set forth a new reli- 
" gion, but restored that which was before defaced ; re- 
*' stored tliat which was godly begun under good king Ed- 
" ward, confirmed by his parliament and clergy then ; but 
" suddenly by violence trodden under feet by bloody papists 
" a little after." 

He further shewed, " That it was not to be granted as 
" true, that no laws at all could be made without consent of 
" the bishops. For that the old statutes of parliament, 
" when bishops were highest, afore king Edward III. we 
" read, passed by consent of the lords temporal und commons, 
" without any mention of the lords spiritual ; which statutes, 
*' many of them, stood in force at that day. And that it 
*' was as necessary to have abbots in the parliament ; for 
" they were present of old time ; and their consent was re- 
" quired as well as the bishops." 

Further, " That the practice of the lawyers, judges, and 

" justices evinced this and the rest to be good laws ; for they 

" all executed them : and that their doings might be a suffi- 

" cient reason to lead the unlearned in their opinion of these 

*' laws for religion ; that they would not have executed 

" them, had they not the strength and nature of laws." 

Thus Pilkinton. 

Tiief)ueen's Soon after St. John Baptist's day, commissioners were 

skmerrvi- ^^^^ forth to Visit the universities, the dioceses of bisliops, 

«*• cathedral churches, head cities and boroughs, to administer 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. WS 

to them the oath of sicpremacy, and to see the order of par- CHAP, 
liament for uniformity in the use of the book set on foot, ' 



and observed. Anno 1559. 

Now also, since many churches were left destitute, the The supply 
ministers that remained, and that were put into the places o^ ^.^^^^[^^ '^^ 
the popish priests, especially in London, were fain to serve 
three or four churches on Sundays and holydays, in read- 
ing the prayers, and administering the sacraments to the 
people. And yet they sufficed not. So that in this year. By laymen 
and some years following, until the year 1564 inclusive, !^ia*°eT.^ 
many of the laity, who were competently learned, and of 137^ 
sobriety and good religion, were appointed to read the ser- 
vice in the churches, by letters of toleration from the bi- 
shops, some as deacons, some as helpers of the ministers in 
the word and sacraments : and divers having been made dea- 
cons, after long and good trial of their doctrine and conver- 
sation, were admitted into priest's orders, and beneficed. As 
we shall hear more of these matters hereafter. 

By the way, I cannot but here bring to mind, that, in Lay readers. 
this course of procuring readers, the present bishops seemed ^.j^g f^/^ " 
to follow the direction of some great divines that suffered *'><="!• 
under queen Mary, and foresaw the havoc and destruction 
would be made of the ministers of the church of England 
reformed. John Rogers, the first that suffered under queen 
Mary, in a prophetical spirit told Day the printer, (who Day the 
was then a prisoner in Newgate with him for religion,) that ''"" '^^' 
he would live to see the alteration of religion, and the gos- 
pel to be freely professed and preached again ; and bade 
him recommend him to his brethren, as well in exile as 
others ; and that when they came in place, they should be 
circumspect in displacing the papists, and putting good 
ministers into the churches. And because there would be 
a lack of such at the first restoration of religion, his advice 
to them was, (and bishop Hooper also agreed to the same,) 
that for every ten churches some one good and learned sii- 
perintendent should be appointed ; who should have under 
him faithful readers, such as might well be got : and the 
bishops once a year to oversee the profiting of the parishes. 



204 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. And if these readinor ministers did not their duty, as well 
in profiting themselves in their books, as the parishioners in 



Anno i65f).good instruction, so that they might be trained by little and 
little to give a reckoning how they did profit, then to be ex- 
pelled, and others put in their rooms: and the bishops to 
do the like with the superintendents. But to pursue our 
history. 
Queen Fourteen of queen Mary's bishops, now alive, were all 

shops dis- deprived. These, besides their carriage in the parliament- 
obii^e the }j(^^gp }^ad doublv disoblio^ed the queen. I. In that they 

queen. . * 

had conspired among themselves, that none of them would 
set the crown upon her head : which all refused to do, till 
it came to one of the last of them, namely, Oglethorp, bi- 
shop of Carlisle. II. When some heads of religion were to 
be handled between them and the protestant party, for the 
satisfaction of the noblemen, the counsellors, and the mem- 
bers of the parliament, they declined it, nor would be con- 
cerned in it : as appeared plain enough by their manner of 
coming to the dispute ; and having heard what their adver- 
saries urged, altogether refused, in the face of the honour- 
able company assembled, to engage in further dissertation 
with them ; as hath been told before. 

They are But Seeing the obstinate refusal of the bishops to acknow- 

ledge the queen''s supremacy, and how they scarcely owned 
her government, they were to be deprived, and others, that 

Coke's In- would Comply, to be placed in their rooms. For the effect- 

p.Vas" '*^"o ^^^^^ ^^'^^ that ecclesiastical commission intended, (as we 
learn from a wise and knowing man of the law that lived 
near those times,) enacted in the first of queen Elizabeth, 
(in the act entitled. An Act restoring to the crown the an- 
cient ptrisdicfion, &c.) For herein was a power granted 
138 for the visitation of the ecclesiastical state and persons. This 
branch was enacted of necessity : for that all the bishops 
and state of the clergy of England being then popish, it 
was necessary to raise a commission to deprive them that 
would not deprive themselves. 

The com- This first commission upon the statute aforesaid, whereby 

nus-iion for _ _ ' . ' •' 

their dcpri- the popish bishops were deprived, and many other of the 

vHtion. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 205 

clergy, is said to be lost: and enrolled it is not, saith my CHAP. 

lord Coke, as it ought to have been. But there were some, ' ' 

he added, that had seen it, and affirmed, that it passed not Anno 1559. 

above twenty sheets of paper copy wise : whereas afterwards 

the high conmnission contained usually three hundred sheets 

of paper. It was affirmed likewise, that never any high 

commissions were enrolled, as they ought to have been, 

until the lord chancellor Egerton's time. The papists them- P. 194. edit. 

selves, in former times, did acknowledge the popish bishops "jj^gj**^ 

were deprived, though the instruments thereof are lost. So Mason De 

Champney ; " The bishoprics now vacant, either by death, gijc. p.345. 

'' as Avas that of Canterbury only ; [yes, besides Canter- 

" bury, Salisbury, Chichester, Rochester, Bangor, and Nor- 

" wich ;] or, per iiijustam depositionem ; i. e. by unjust 

" deprivation, as were all the rest.'"' And the papists did 

not so much as dispute of that deprivation, viz. whether 

there was a deprivation of the popish bishops, as whether it 

were justly done. Which Mason, in his learned book of De MinU- 

the English Ministry, hath a chapter to prove. And Saun-„p 1. Mas. 

ders, in his book of the English Schism, writing of this de-^^*^ '^'"• 

privation, saith thus; PrcBter iimim omnes Yepiscopi regiiKE i^o-i. 

Mari(E\ paulo post de gradu et dignitate sua depositi, ac 

carceribus var'iisque custodus commissi, &c. That is, " All 

'' queen Mary"'s bishops but one, a little after, [that is, after 

" Midsummer-day, 1559,] were deposed from their degree 

" and dignity, and committed to prisons and various custo- 

" dies." 

Bishop Boner was sent for before the council May the Deprivatioa 
30th, (and so, I suppose, were some other bishops with '^^^^^ y 
him, and the rest at times,) and there tendered the oath of 
supremacy: which he refused to take, and thereby lost hisAth.Oxon. 
bishopric. This rcmaineth under his own hand writ, in rei ^' 
memoriam, in his own Eusebius, (which fell into the hands 
of the late antiquarian Anthony a Wood,) in these precise 
words; Litera dominicali A. an. Dom. mdlix. die Mail 
XXX. vocatus ad concilium recusavi prcestare juramentum : 
et omnino deprivatus. Yet the sentence of deprivation was 



206 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, not pronounced till next month by the queen''s commis- 
' sioners. 



Anno 1559. So then he and all the rest of the bishops (excepting the 
rest of th'e^ bishop of Landaff, who took the oath) were deprived, or 
bishops. rather deprived themselves, for refusing to swear the supre- 
macy. But that they were also committed to prisons, (as 
our historians commonly write, perhaps taking up upon 
credit what popish authors write,) I doubt much ; since 
that act of supremacy maketh their punishment that refuse 
the oath, to be only forfeiture of their spiritual promotions 
and benefices. And Boner himself, in his memorandum 
before specified, with his own pen, mentions only his depri- 
Stow's An- vation, and no imprisonment. And Stow, who lived in 
those times, and was a careful observer of matters that 
•passed, relateth only, how they were deprived after they 
were called and examined by certain of the queen's council : 
adding, so were other spiritual persons deprived also ; and 
139 some indeed committed to prison. But that was for another 
transgression of the same act, viz. by some word or deed 
extolling a foreign jurisdiction superior to the queen, or 
within her dominions. Which to do was forfeiture of goods 
Some im- and chattels. And if such person were not worth 20Z. then, 
^,"j°"^.' besides the said forfeiture, it was imprisonment for a year. 
Whereby it seems several, both of the bishops as well as 
of others of the popish clergy, were committed to the Fleet, 
Marshalsea, or Tower of London. 
The bishops But to represent this business more certainly and exactly, 
called bT/ out of a valuable memorial of sir Henry Sidney, transcribed 
fore the among the MSS. of archbishop Usher, we learn more par- 
ticularly, that these fourteen bishops, (which were all that 
Hunting. Were alive, excepting the bishop of LandafF,) viz. Hethe, 
Rom. Fox. archbishop of York, Boner, bishop of London, Thirleby of 
Ely, Watson of Lincoln, White of Winchester, Bourne of 
Bath and Wells, Turbervil of Exon, Bayne of Litchfield 
and Coventry, Pool of Peterborough, Gouldwell of St. 
Asaph, Pate of Worcester, Scot of Chester, Tunstal of 
Durham, Oglethorp of Carlisle, on the 15th of May, (the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 207 

parliament being that day sevennight dissolved,) were by CHAP, 
the queen called together, with other clergy : (perhaps it was 



the body of the convocation then assembled :) and she told Anno issg. 
them, that in pursuance of the laws lately made for religion, 
and restoring the ancient right of the supremacy to the 
crown, they would take into their serious consideration the 
affairs of the church, and expulse out of it all schisms, and 
the superstitious worship of the church of Rome. 

Whei'eupon the archbishop of York, in the name of the Archbishop 
rest, made this incompliant and peremptory declaration to° °|j ^^ 
the queen ; " That in the behalf of the catholic church here the queen. 
" planted within her grace"'s dominions, he was entreated by 
" several of the reverend fathers of the mother church, the 
" bishops of several dioceses within the realm, to move her 
" majesty, that she would seriously recollect to memory her 
" gracious sister's zeal unto the holy see of St. Peter at 
" Rome, as also the covenants between her and that holy 
" see made soon after her coronation : wherein she had pro- 
*' mised to depress heresies and all heretical tenets ; bind- 
" ing both her gracious majesty, her successors, and this 
*' realm, under perpetual ignominy and curse, if not per- 
" fected by them. And that upon these conditions that 
" holy see would be pleased once more to take her and the 
" realm into her bosom, after so long a heresy increasing 
" within this isle."" 

The queen hearing this, and regarding well how these 
bishops stood affected, (notwithstanding they had been thus 
fairly and candidly dealt withal, nor were arbitrarily thrust 
out of their bishoprics and livelihoods, as king Edward's 
bishops and clergy were under queen Mary, but might have 
remained in their places, had they owned the queen"'s su- 
premacy, and the act for uniformity, whatever their former 
miscarriages were, and the constant opposition they made in 
parliament to the good bills brought in about religion,) she 
made this resolute and brave reply to Hethe and the rest. 

" That as Joshua declared, saying, I and my house Z2;i// The queen's 
" serve the Lord ; so she and her realm were resolved to "^^^ ^' 
*' serve him. For which cause she had there assembled 



208 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " J^er clerffv ; and was resolved to imitate Josiah ; who as- 
XI. 

" sembled the ancients of Judea and Jerusalem purposely 



Anno 1 559. <( ^^ make a covenant with the Lord. Thus had she as- 
" sembled her parliament together, with them of the clergy, 
" for the same intent, to contract with God, and not with 
" the bishop of Rome. And that it lay not in her sister's 
" power to bind her, her successors, or her realms, unto the 
" authority which was usurped. That therefore she, with 
" her predecessors, who had (as our records justified) ejected 
" that usurped and pretended power, (which for future 
" times would be precedents for her heirs and successors to 
" imitate and to dive into,) did absolutely renounce all fo- 
" reign jurisdiction: as her crown was no w^ay either sub- 
" ject to, or to be drawn under any power whatsoever, saving 
*' under Christ, the King of kings. That the bishop of Rome"'s 
" usurpation over monarchy shewed his desire of primacy 
" over the whole earth : which to him and his successors 
" would prove confusion. And that, finally, she should 
" therefore esteem all those her subjects, both ecclesiastical 
" and, civil, as enemies to God, to her, and her heirs and 
" successors, who should henceforth own his usurped, or 
" any foreign power whatsoever."" 
The effect This noble declaration of the queen, as it somewhat 
quelled the Romish zeal of these popish fathers, so it much 
encouraged the hearts of those who were affected to the re- 
formation. 
The hi- The queen's council were displeased at this stubborn and 

trieues'un- ^lisloyal behaviour of the bishops. And hereupon some of 
dir king their former intrigues and unlawful practices under king 
discovered. Edward were brought to light ; concerning some private 
transactions with Rome, in laying plots against some of 
that king's best friends: of which matters queen Mary, 
when princess, Avas privy. And of these things divers 
letters and papers remained in her closet at her death. 
Which closet, upon her decease, (as is customary,) was 
sealed up by order of her privy council, for the use of her 
present majesty, her successor. Here were several bundles 
of letters from cardinal Pole, and from this archliishop 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. ^09 

Hethe, (who then, being bishop of Worcester, was dis- CHAP. 

affected to the said king Edward and his proceedings,) and '. — 

Hkewise from most of the foresaid popish bishops, written ^""° ^^^9- 
unto queen Mary, both before and during her reign. The 
earl of Sussex was the person that sealed up the said closet, 
and took this occasion to acquaint the queen therewith : 
whose words caused her to send him to search for them. 
And being found, they were brought to the council, and 
therein much was discovered of these secret practices in 
those times : as, how to order affairs to strengthen the in- 
terest of the bishop of Rome, and the Romish religion, in 
case king Edward should miscarry : also, all the intrigues 
that were carried on by the bishops of London and Win- 
chester; and letters thereupon sent from them to Rome, 
and from Rome hither. The sum of which was, how to 
lay plots to cut off the protector, and most of the wisest of 
the king's council : hoping hereby to procure the settlement 
of the Romish religion, and to weaken the interest of the 
crown. 

Had these projects been but discovered during king Ed- 
ward's days, it was thought it would have hindered queen 
Mary's reign. For when they were read at council, those 
privy counsellors who were instrumental for her coming to 1 4 1 
the crown before the lady Jane Grey, were much amazed, 
having never heard of these things till now. 

May the 18th, the council met the second time upon the The bishops 

"^ ' T • x? I ■ tendered 

bishops' business ; and having taken these domgs of theirs the oath, 
aforesaid into further consideration, it was generally de- ^^^"^^'/"'^ 
clared, that these acts, being committed partly in king Ed- prived. 
ward's reign and partly in queen Mary's, and nothing since 
laid to their charge, saving their zeal to the see of Rome, 
her majesty's sister's pardon, and her own at her entrance 
to the crown, would clear them. Yet the council advised 
the queen to tender them the oath of supremacy and alle- 
giance. Which Avas accordingly now, or some time after- 
wards, tendered them : and they refusing, were all expulsed 
their bishoprics within a short time after, as was shewn before. 

These bishops, in this round dealing with them, as well ^^^^^^^ 

VOL. I. P 



210 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, as others of the popish clergy, seemed to be much mistaken ; 
^^' deeming that the present state of the church was such, as 



Aaijo 1559. there would be a necessity of continuing them in their places, 
for want of ministers to supply their rooms. And after- 
wards, finding that good shift was made without them, they 
repented themselves for their incompliance. Thus one that 

Noel's Con- lived in these times tells them : " That a great many of them 

Doi-man. " by this time, he believed, beshrewed their own heads, that 
" they so at once gave over their bishoprics and livings, 
" upon a false hope of leaving the realm utterly destitute 
" of ecclesiastical ministry : and so, by troubling all, trust- 
" ing that themselves should shortly with more honour be 
" called again. Which not coming to pass according to 
" their expectation, a great many of them took penance 
" enough upon them, that they gave not place in some 
*' points colourable, as they did in king Henry and king 
" Edward's days ; and so to have retained their livings and 
" authorities still : whereby they might have pinched the 
" hearty protestants somewhat more shrewdly than now 
"they could do." 

The times Take this more particular account of these popish bi- 

of the bi- , , . 1 , 1 . ^ ^ ^ . 

sho[.s' de- shops, together with the conclusion oi some monasteries 
privations, j^jgiy erected, as I have collected it out of a certain diary 

\ itel. I-. 5. _ -' ' _ , _ *' 

in the Cotton library, kept by some diligent observers of 
matters in those times, especially in and about London. 

June the 12th, 1559, the friars of Greenwich were dis- 
charged, and went away. 

June the 21st, the bishops of Litchfield and Coventry, 
of Carlisle, Westchester, and two bishops more, were de- 
prived, [by the queen's commissioners that came now into 
the city to tender the oath.] 

The 25th, the bishops of Lincoln and Wincliester were 
brought to IVIr. Haws the sheriff's house in Mincing-lane, 
[where some commissioners assembled,] and there were de- 
j)rived. Winchester went to tlie Tower again; Lincoln 
was delivered, that is, set at liberty. 

The 29th, bishop Boner was deprived finally [by tlie 
commissioners.] 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 211 

July the 5th, archbishop Hethe and bishop Thlrlby were CHAP, 
deposed at the lord treasurer"'s place in St. Augustine''s ; 



that is, in Broad-street, where he had a house situate upon Anno 1 559. 
part of the Augustine friars, [and where the queen's com- 142 
missioners or visitors seem now to have met.] 

July the 7th, (being St. Thomas of Canterbury's day,) 
White, bishop of Winchester, was brought from the Tower 
by sir Edward Warner, lieutenant, by six in the morning, 
unto the lord keeper's; from whom he was dismissed to 
Mr. John [Thomas] White, alderman, living near Bartho- 
lomew-lane, to sojourn mth him, [for he was not well.] 

The 12th, the Black friars in Smithfield went away ; as 
the 4th day, the priests and nuns of Sion did, as also the 
monks of the Charter-house ; and the abbot of Westminster 
and his monks were deprived. 

The 20th, the bishop of Durham came riding on horse- 
back to London, with about threescore horse; and so to 
Southwark, unto one Dolman's house, where he remained. 

The 25th, being St. James's day, the warden of Win- 
chester, and other doctors and priests, were delivered out of 
the Tower, Marshalsea, and other prisons, in honour of 
king Philip, on this Spanish saint's day. 

September 29, the bishop of Durham was deprived. 

If we desire to know what became of these bishops after- The popisli 
wards, they, or some of them, were under some confinement ti,e Tower, 
for some time in the year following, viz. 1560; for then I ^|*^^- ^'^' 
find six of them, together with an abbot and a dean, in the 
Tower : who had been committed thither by the archbishoji 
of Canterbury, and others, I suppose, of the ecclesiastical 
commission. These were now permitted to come together 
at their meals, by virtue of a letter of the council to the 
archbishop, if he approved of it : namely. Dr. Hethe, Dr. 
Boxal, Dr. Pate, and Dr. Fcckenham, to be admitted to 
one company for one of the tables : and for the other table, 
Dr. Thirleby, Dr. Bourne, Dr. Watson, and Dr. Turbcr- 
vile. But after a little time they were all committed to easier 
restraints, and some restored to their perfect liberty. 

Yet they did not escape all spiritual censures; for I find^°"j^°^_ 

r 2 



212 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, excommunication inflicted upon some of them : as upon 
^^' Boner, July 28, 1560, denounced at Paul's Cross by the 



Anno 1559. preacher. In the month of February, 1560, Hethe, while 
communi- ]-,g remained in the Tower, was excommunicated : and the 

cated. 

25th of the same month, Thirleby also being there, under- 
went the same censure, declared at Bow church. And this 
was the utmost severity from the church they endured : 
which was far short of what they had used when they were 
in power. 
How these Hethe, late archbishop of York, having been lord chan- 
lived af- cellor of England, and having in parliament declared the 
terwards. death of qucen Mary, and the just title of the lady Eliza- 
beth, her sister, to succeed ; for this duty towards his 
prince, he hved (after a little trouble) quietly and nobly in 
his own lordship of Chobham, situate in Surrey ; yet giving 
security not to interrupt the laws of church or state, or 
meddle with the affairs of the realm. And, being old and 
full of days, he made his last will, and gave away his said 
estate to his kinsman and heir. He was always honoui'ably 
esteemed by the queen, and sometimes had the honour to be 
143 visited by her majesty. And differing manifestly in religion, 
Execut. of yet was he not restrained of his liberty, nor deprived of his 
Eng. pr. proper lands and goods, but enjoyed all his purchases, liv- 
an. 1582. jjjg discreetly in his own house, during his natural life, 
until by very age he departed this life; and then left his 
house and livings to his friends, as he thought good. An 
example of gentleness never matched in queen Mary's days. 
Tunstai. Tuustal was committed to the gentle custody of the arch- 

bishop elect at Lambeth, where he was treated with much 
respect, and lived contentedly ; and it was said (but that he 
thought it some disgrace, and that his bishopric was like to 
be elsewhere disposed) lie would have complied with the 
queen's laws. For the archbishop assured the queen, that he 
complied during his life in several points of the reforma- 
tion. 

" Bishop l^unstal's judgment in the point of transub- 
" fitantiation^ and his dislike of pope Innocent's making it 
" an article of faith, shewed him a wise man. The bishop 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 213 

" [meaning bishop Tunstal] was of the mind (said Bernard CHAP. 
" Gilpin) that we ought to speak reverently of the holy 



" supper, as did the ancient fathers; but that the opinion Anno 1559. 
" of transubstantiation might well be let alone. This thing JJ' If j^||^"'^'^ 
" also the same bishop was wont to affirm, both in words Geithnrp, 
" and writings; that Innocent III. knew not what he did, „ ig4_ ' 
" when he put transubstantiation among the articles of 
" faith ; and said, that Innocent wanted learned men about 
" him. And indeed, added the bishop, if I had been of 
*' his council, I make no doubt but I might have been able 
" to have dissuaded him from that resolution." 

But Tunstal soon died, [viz. November 18,1 having lived Cecil's Me- 
to the age of eighty-five or eighty-six years ; and was buried 
in the chancel of the parish church of Lambeth, with a fu- 
neral decency becoming his rank and quality, and the offices 
he had borne in church and state ; and had a fair stone, with 
an honourable inscription laid over him. 

Thirlby (a person of nature affable) was also committed Thiriby. 
to the care of the same archbishop. He at first had his 
liberty, till he began to preach against the reformation : but 
being pardoned, afterwards was in custody of the arch- 
bishop, and living in much ease and credit with him for ten 
years, was buried in the same church with the like decency, 
and a stone laid over him. 

White died in liberty, saith bishop Andrews : he, although White. 
he had the hberty to walk abroad, would not be quiet, hut^^^.^ j^g 
would needs preach ; which he did seditiously in his Romish 
pontifical vestments. For which he was committed to pri- 
son ; but upon his acknowledgment of his misdemeanours 
he was set free. This bishop, with bishop Watson, had the 
presumption to threaten to exconununicate the queen. He 
died of an ague, January 12, 1559, at Sir Thomas White's 
place in Hampshire ; and the 15th, was carried and buried 
at Winchester. 

Bourne was harboured chiefly with Dr. Carew, dean of Bourne. 
Exeter, his old friend : and after eleven years died, and was 
buried at Silverton, in Devon. 

p3 



214 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



CHAP. 
XI. 

Anno 1559. 
Turbervile. 
D. Poole. 



144 

Ogletliorp, 



Bayne. 



Watson. 



Boner. 



Cott. libr. 
V'itelljus, 
F. 5. 



Turbervile, an honest gentleman, but a simple bishop, 
hved many years a private life, and in full liberty deceased. 

David Poole, an ancient grave person, and quiet subject, 
was used with all kindness by his prince, and living in his 
own house, died in a mature age, and left his estate to his 
friends. 

Oglethorp, who had the honour to consecrate and crown 
the queen, died of an apoplexy the year after, and was 
buried the 4th of January, 1559; to whom the queen, had 
he lived, would have shewn some particular kindness. He 
was privately buried, with half a dozen escutcheons of arms, 
at St. Dunstan''s in the West. And 

Bayne soon after him, the same month, (having lived 
with the bishop of London,) died of the stone, and was bu- 
ried near the beginning of January in the same church of 
St. Dunstan''s. 

Watson, altogether a sour and morose man, lived twenty- 
four years after his deprivation, some time with the bishop 
of Rochester, and some time with the bishop of Ely. But 
afterwards, when certain Roman emissaries came into the 
realm, and began to disturb the church, he (being too con- 
versant with them) was committed to Wisbich castle a close 
prisoner. 

As for Boner, I find he was committed to the Marshalsea, 
in April, 1560, and seems to have been at liberty till then. 
It is true he was kept in the prison of the Marshalsea : and 
that turned to his own safety ; being so hated by the people, 
that it would not have been safe for him to have walked in 
public, lest lie should have been stoned or knocked on the 
head by some of the enraged friends and acquaintance of 
those whom he liad but a little before so barbarously beaten 
or butciiered. He grew old in prison, and died a natural 
death in the year 1569, not suffering any want, or hunger, 
or cold. For he lived daintily, had the use of the gar- 
den and orchards when he was minded to walk abroad, and 
lake the air : suffering nothing like imprisonment, imless 
that he was circumscribed within certain bounds. Nay, he 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 215 

had his liberty to go abroad, but dared not venture : for the CHAP, 
people retained in their hearts his late bloody actions. ' 



Scot, a rigid man, detained in the Fleet for some time ; and Anno 1559. 
Goldwell: these went privately away beyond sea. And so did ^'■°*- 

Pate, after some confinement in the Tower. _ ^ ^ 

' _ , Pate. 

Goldwell lived afterwards at Rome twenty-six years, and 
there died. Pate, I find afterwards a prisoner in the Tower, 
anno 1563, perhaps for presuming to sit in the council of 
Trent. 

Of some of these, more a great deal might be said, if 
need were ; some things shall be read of them in the process 
of this history. 

So little cause had Saunders to write, (and such little 
truth was in it,) " that all the bishops but one Avere deposed Omnes 
" from their degree and dignity, and committed to prisons u„ijn,^&c_ 
" and divers restraints. And so hereby at this day all of P°^^°'""^s 

1 . T hodie longo 

" them, by long and tedious misery, are come to then- ends, miseriarum 
Other dimiified men svifFered also some favourable re-**'''° ^^". 

& tmcti sunt. 

straints : as Feckenham, abbot of Westminster, first in the 
Tower, and then with the bishop of London, and the bishop 
of Winchester ; being a man of quiet and courteous beha- 
viour for a great while, though afterwards not so : behaving The popisii 
himself so ill towards his host bishop Horn, that he was '^ 
fain to vindicate himself against the said Feckenham, in aFecknam. 
book printed, as we shall hear further in its place. Dr. Boxai. 
Boxal, dean of Windsor, a person of great modesty, learn- 
ing, and knowledge ; Dr. Cole, dean of St. PauPs, a person CoJe. 
more earnest than wise ; Dr. Reynolds, dean of Exeter, not 145 
unlearned, and many others; having borne offices and dig- ^^°° *' 
nities in the church, and who had made profession against 
the pope, which profession they begim in queen Mary''s 
time to change, yet were they never burdened with any ca- 
pital pains, nor yet deprived of any of their goods or proper 
livelihoods, but only removed from their ecclesiastical of- 
fices, which they would not exercise according to the laws. 
And most of them, and many others of their sort, for a great Their kind 
time were retained in bishops' houses, in very civil and cour- 
teous manner, without charge to themselves or their friends, 

p 4 



216 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, until the time that the pope began by his bulls and mes- 
sages to offer trouble to the realm by stirring of rebellion. 



Anno 1559. ^IjQUt ^hich time only, some of these aforenamed, being 
found busier in matters of state, tending to stir troubles, 
than was meet for the common quiet of the realm, were re- 
moved to other more private places, where such other wan- 
derers, as were men known to move sedition, might be re- 
strained from common resorting to them to increase trouble, 
as the pope"'s bulls gave manifest occasions to doubt. And 
yet without charging them in their consciences, or other- 
wise, by any inquisition, to bring them into danger of any 
capital law. So as no one was called to any capital or 
bloody question upon matter of religion, but all enjoyed 
Treatise their lives as the course of nature would : as a peron of ho- 
Execution "our wrote who lived in those times, and had occasion to 
for Treason; know perfectly all that was then done. 

treasurer But it is here to be remarked, that all or most of these, 

Burghiey. ]^qi]^ bishops and other dignified men of the clergy, (how- 
shops and ^^'^^' they were now zealous for the pope, even to the parting 
others once ^yj^h their preferments for liis sake,) had in the time of kinij 

abhorred ' '^ . . » 

popery. Henry VIII. and kmg Edward VI. either by preaching, 
Avriting, reading, or arguing, taught all people to condemn, 
yea, to abhor the authority of the pope. For which pur- 
pose they had many times given their oath publicly against 
the pope"'s authority : and had also yielded to both the said 
kings the title of .supreme head of the clmreh of England, 
next under Christ. And many of their books and sermons 
against the pope'^s authority remained, printed in Enghsh 
and Latin, to be seen long after, to their great shame and 
reproof, to change so often, but especially in persecuting 
such as themselves had taught and established to hold the 
contrary. 
The de- But tlicsc bisliops, tlius discharged from their public 

shops' letter ministration in the church, ceased not to solicit the queen 
to the j,-j t]jg behalf of tlic old relio-ion. For the change amonff 

queen. . , . 

the clergy being effected by her, several of them in the be- 
ginning of December sent this message to her majesty, with 
their names subscribed. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 217 

" Most royal queen, we entreat your gracious majesty to CHAP. 
" listen unto us of the catholic clergy within your realm, ^^' 



" as well as unto others, lest that your gracious majesty and Anno 1559. 

" subjects be led astray through the inventions of those evil^'''^-^y'^"" 

" counsellors, who are persuading your ladyship to eiubrace 

" schisms and heresies in lieu of the ancient catholic faith, 

" which hath been long since planted within this realm, by 

" the motherly care of the church of Rome. Which your 

" ancestors duly and reverently observed and confessed, 

" until by heretical and schismatical advisers your father was 14.6 

" withdrawn ; and after him your brother prince Edward. 

" After whose decease, your virtuous sister queen Mary of 

" happy memory succeeded. Who, being troubled in con- 

" science with what her father's and her brother's advisers 

*' had caused them to do, most piously restored the catholic 

" faith, by establishing the same again in this realm : as 

*' also by extinguishing the schisms and heresies which at 

" that time bes:an to flame over her territories. For which 

"God poured out his wrath upon most of the malefactors 

" and misleaders of the nation. 

" We further entreat your ladyship to consider the sti- 
" premacy of the church of Rome. And histories yet make 
*' mention, that Athanasius was expulsed by her and her 
" council in Liberius his time; the emperor also speaking 
" against him for withstanding the head of the church. 
" These ancient things we lay before your majesty, hoping 
" God will turn your heart ; and, in fine, make your ma- 
" jesty's evil advisers ashamed ; and to repent their heresies. 
" God preserve your majesty. Which be the prayers of 

" Nicolas Hethe, James Turberville, 
December 4. " Edmond Boner, David Poole."" 

" Gilbert Bourne, 

At this letter, so boldly charging king Henry and king 
Edward, monarchs of noble memory, and both so nearly re- 
lated unto the queen, and likewise so rudely reflecting upon 
her and their counsellors, whom they called their advisers, 



218 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, she was angry, and so were several of her council And she 
returned them this answer before she rose from the council. 

Anno 1559. 

The queen's a ^ j| gjj.g j^g ^^ y^^j. entreaty, for US to listen to 

answer to . ,•' . 

them. " you, we wave it : yet do return you this our answer. Our 
" realm and subjects have been long wanderers, walking 
" astray, whilst they were under the tuition of Romish 
" pastors, who advised them to own a wolf for their head, 
" (in lieu of a careful shepherd,) whose Inventions, heresies, 
" and schisms be so numerous, that the flock of Christ have 
" fed on poisonous shrubs for want of wholesome pastures. 
" And whereas you hit us and our subjects in the teeth, 
" that the Romish church first planted the catholic faith 
" within our realms, the records and chronicles of our 
" realms testify the contrary ; and your own Romish idola* 
" try maketh you liars : witness the ancient monument of 
" Gildas; unto which both foreign and domestic have gone 
" in pilgrimage there to offer. This author testifieth Jo- 
" seph of Arimathea to be the first preacher of the word of 
" God within our realms. Long after that, when Austin 
" came from Rome, this our realm had bishops and priests 
" therein, as is well known to the wise and learned of our 
" realm by woful experience, how your church entered 
" therein by blood ; they being martyrs for Christ, and put 
" to death, because they denied Rome's usurped authority. 
" As for our father being ^vithdrawn from the siqiremacy 
" of Rome by schismatical and heretical counsels and ad- 
147 " visers ; who, we pray, advised him more, or flattered him, 
" than you, good Mr. Hethe, when you were bishop of 
"Rochester.'' And than you, Mr. 13oncr, when you were 
"archdeacon.'' And you, Mr. Turberville.'' Nay further, 
" who was more an adviser of our father, than your great 
" Stej)hen Gai-diner, wlien he lived ? Arc not ye then those 
" schismatics and heretics .'' If so, suspend your evil cen- 
" sures. Recollect, was it our sister's conscience made her 
" so averse to our father''s and brotlier's actions, as to undo 
" what they had perfected ? Or was it not you, or such like 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 219 

"advisers, that dissuaded her, and stirred her up against CHAP. 
" us and other of the subjects ? 



And whereas you would frighten us, by telling how^"""' i^^^- 
" emperors, kings, and princes have owned the bishop of 
" Rome's authority ; it was contrary in the beginning. For 
" our Saviour Christ paid his tribute unto Caesar, as the 
" chief superior ; which shews your Romish supremacy is 
" usurped. 

" As touching the excommunication of St. Athanasius 
" by Liberius and that council, and how the emperor con- 
" sented thereunto ; consider the heresies that at that time 
" had crept into the church of Rome, and how courageously 
" Athanasius withstood them, and how he got the victory. 
" Do ye not acknowledge his creed to this day? Dare any 
" of you say, he is a schismatic ? Surely ye be not so auda- 
" cious. Therefore as ye acknowledge his creed, it shews 
" he was no schismatic. If Athanasius withstood Rome for 
" her then heresies, then others may safely separate them- 
" selves from your church, and not be schismatics. 

" We give you warning, that for the future we hear no 
" more of this kind, lest you provoke us to execute those 
" penalties enacted for the punishing of our resisters: which 
" out of our clemency we have forborne. 

" From Greenwich, December 6, anno secundo regn^'' 

This was the mild way of this protestant princess, to Her miid- 
arguc thus at large with her dissenting subjects, and to con-"^^^' 
vince them by authorities, and evidence of reason ; though 
several of her council moved her to punish these men for 
their insolency ; and especially Boner, since he had been so 
inveterate against the protestants in the late reign. But 
she with much clemency and Christianity replied, " Let us 
" not follow our sisters example, but rather shew that our 
" reformation tendeth to peace, and not to cruelty." 

Yet she took her counciFs advice at the same time, which She secures 
they gave her at least to secure these bishops from sowing 
future seditions or factions among the people, since divers 
flocked after them, and visited them : and sometimes they 



220 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, would take their opportunity of preaching. Thus White 
preached sedition, and that in his Romish pontifical vest- 



Anno loog.ments. For which he was committed to prison ; but upon 
acknowledgment of his misdemeanours, he Avas set at liberty, 
as we heard before. And Thirleby had his liberty too, till 
he began to preach against the reformation. But being 
pardoned, he was afterwards appointed to sojourn with the 
archbishop of Canterbury. 

It is certain the papists were now very bold and stirring ; 
as may appear from the preamble of an act made the next 
148parhament for the further establishment of the queen''s su- 
premacy : where it is set forth, " that the favourers of the 
" pope's usurped power were gi-own to marvellous outrage 
" and licentious boldness, and required more sharp restraints 
" and correction of laws," This may suggest the reasons 
of the commitments following. 

April 20, 1560, Boner, late bishop of London, was car- 
ried to the Marshalsea. May the 20th, the same year, Feck- 
enham, late abbot of Westminster, Watson, late bishop of 
Lincoln, Cole, late dean of St. PauFs, Chedsey, late arch- 
deacon of Middlesex, at liberty, as it seems, before, were 
all sent to the Tower. And the same day, at eight o'clock 
at night, Dr. Story, the civilian, was sent to the Fleet. June 
the 3d following, Thirleby, late bishop of Ely, was sent also 
to the Tower. June the 10th, Hethe, late archbishop of 
York, was sent to the Tower ; and Cole (who had been in 
the Tower) to the Fleet. 

June the 18th, Boxal, late dean of Windsor, (if I mistake 

not,) and secretary to queen Mary; and Bourne, late bishop 

of Bath and Wells, and Troublefield, (as he is sometimes 

writ,) or Turberville, late bishop of Exeter, were sent to the 

Tower. 

The enipe- The next endeavour of the bishops deprived and others 

r ti^^^iieen ^^ ^^ popish clcrgy, was to get the free exercise of their 

in behalf of religion, contrary to the law established. And for this, in 

bis'hop™'* ' t^iis second year of the queen's reign, the emperor Ferdi- 

Foxes anil nand, and several other of theRomish catholic princes, wrote to 

part 3. ' her majesty, making earnest suit, that those Romish bishops, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. S21 

and other of that clergy who were displaced for refusing CHAP, 
the oath of supremacy , might be mercifully dealt withal ; 



and that churches might be allowed to the papists in all the Anno 1559. 
cities and chief towns of the realm. 

The answer the queen made to these desires of the em- The queen's 
peror and princes was to this purpose : " That although the 
" popish bishops had insolently and openly opposed the 
" laws and the peace of the realm, and did still wilfully 
" reject that doctrine which many of them had publicly 
" owned and declared in their sermons, during king Henry 
" VIII. and king Edward VI. their reigns; yet she would, 
" for so great princes'" sakes, deal favourably with them, 
" though not without some offence to her subjects ; because 
" they had been so cruel to the poor reformed protestants 
" in her sister'^s reign. But to grant them churches, where- Refuseth 
" in they might celebrate mass, and have congregations and churdies. 
*' public assemblies, she could not with the safety of her 
" realm, and without wrong to her own honour and con- 
" science : neither did she see cause, why she should grant 
" it, seeing England embraced not new or strange doctrine, 
*' but the same which Christ commanded, and what the pri- 
*' mitive and catholic church had received, and was approved 
*' by the ancient fathers, as might be testiiSed by their writ- 
" ings. Therefore for her to allow churches which contra- 
" dieted the truth and the gospel, were not only to repeal 
*' the laws established by act of parliament, but to sow reli- 
" gion out of religion, to distract good people's minds, to 
*' cherish factions, to disturb religion and the common- 
*' wealth, and to mingle divine and human things : a thing 
*' evil in itself, but in example worst of all : to her own 
" good subjects hurtful, and unto them to whom it is grant- 
" ed neither greatly commodious nor safe. That therefore, 149 
" in fine, she determined, out of her natural clemency, and 
" especially at their requests she was willing, to bear the 
" private insolency of a few by much connivance ; yet so as 
" she might not encourage their obstinate minds by her in- 
" dulgence.'* 



ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. The papistical religion was in danger of getting footing 
again by another endeavour of papists, namely, by the 



Anno 1559. match that was in hand between the queen and the arch- 
sit'iou^about ^^^^ °^ Austria, which the emperor earnestly promoted ; of 
religion in which we heard something before. The earl of Sussex was 
duke's t^6^ t^^ queen's ambassador at that court, and managed 
match with this business on the queen's part. The matter came to cer- 

the queen. . . . /t> i i mi 

tarn propositions oitered on the emperor s part. That about 
Foxes and religion was, that a public church might he allowed, zvherein 
part iii. ' 9nass might he celehrated to him and his. But this was de- 
P-io. nied at the English court. Then it was proposed, that the 

archduke might peaceably hear mass in some private place 
in the court, as was permitted to catholic princes' ambassa- 
dors in their houses. And that with these conditions : that 
no Englishman should be admitted thereunto; and that 
neither he nor his servants should speak against the pro- 
testant reformation revived in England, or favour those 
that should speak against it. That if any displeasure 
should arise in respect of religion, he should be present with 
the queen at divine service to be celebrated after the church 
of England. Thus far the emperor and archduke Charles 
went; straining a point, out of great hopes conceived by 
himself and the papists, that the Romish religion should 
by this means be celebrated for the present, and within 
some space of time perhaps be thereby established again. 
But the queen dashed all, by returning this answer, That 
in case she should adhere to these proposals, and gi'ant 
them, she should offend her conscience, and openly break 
the public laws of her realm, not without great peril botli 
of her dignity and safety. 
The queen So that by all these tokens already shewn, sufficient assur- 
ance was given by her, that, however wavering some might 
think the queen before, she was well confirmed against po- 
pery. And that she was thus, one of her first bishops, viz. 
Sandys, in a great audience, afterwards gave this accoiuit of 
Serm.at hcr : " She is the very patroness of true religion, rightly 
15.08' Nov. " tc'ii^''^ the defender (yfh'is faith; one that before all 

17. 



firm to re 
ligion 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 223 

" other things seeketh the kingdom of God. If the threat- CHAP. 
*' eninffs of men could have terrified her, or their allure- ^^* 



*' ments enticed her, or any crafty persuasions have pre- Anno 1559. 

" vailed with her, she had revolted long ere this, so fiercely 

" by great potentates her constancy hath been assaulted. 

*' But God hath strengthened his royal handmaid : the 

*' fear of God hath put to flight the fear of man. Her re- 

" ligious heart is accepted of the Lord, and glorious it is 

*' also in the eyes of the world. A princess zealous for 

" God's house ; so firmly settled in his truth, that she hath 

" constantly determined and oftentimes vowed, rather to 

" suffer all torments, than one jot to relent in matter of re- 

" ligion." And this, that most reverend man said, he spake 

not of flattery, but in an upright conscience ; not of guess, 

but of knowledge. 

Thus from the queen^s first entrance to the crown, she 150 
feared not all the potentates of the world, nor the back- J?^"^ ■'^^°'"" 

•I _ '_ _ tion not- 

wardness of her own subjects, nor the combining almost of withstand- 
all her own clergy ; but that in the name of God, (I repeat ^'jes.' Dr.'o' 
the words of a great observer of those times,) and in un- Abbot 
daunted confidence of his maintaining of his own truth, sheniii p. 224, 
did spread the banner of the gospel. And [so she con- 
tinued steady all along her government] without discou- 
ragement, persisting in that resolution till the day of her 
death ; the English fugitives and the Irish malecontents, 
yea the pope and Spaniard, contriving to the utmost to im- 
peach it. 

Now care was taken by those in commission for religion 
to supply vacant churches, and that fit men might be pro- 
vided to officiate in them. 

And for that purpose those that were admitted to cura- Subscrip- 
cies were bound to subscribe certain articles of doctrine, and ^■^^l^g j.g_ ' 
other articles for their behaviour and obedience in the dis- 1"'''^'' °^ 

1 /> 1 • • • curates. 

charge of then* mmistry. 

The former articles were printed by Richard Jug, the Articles of 
queen's printer ; and reprinted by the right reverend au- par. ii. coii. 
thor of the History of the Reformation, and remain among ^°^^^^^ j j 
archbishop Parker's MSS. in Bene't college library. They 



224 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, bore a title very expressive of what was required, in regard 
^ of those articles, from all that had curacies ; and likewise of 



Anno 1559. the reason of urging them at that time. Namely, "for 
" unity of doctrine to be taught and holden of all parsons, 
*' vicars, and curates ; and to testify their common consent 
" in the said doctrine, to the stopping of the mouths of 
" them that went about to slander the ministers of the 
" church for diversity of judgment."" And the said parsons, 
vicars, and curates were to read this declaration at their 
possession-taking, or first entry into their cures : and also, 
after that, yearly, at two several times ; that is to say, the 
Sundays next following Easter-day and St. Michael the 
archangel, or on some other Sunday, within one month after 
those feasts, immediately after the gospel. This declaration 
will be found in chap. xvii. 

Articles for ipj^g articles of the latter sort were as follow : 

behaviour. 

A protestation to be subscribed unto by the ministers. 

MSS. Joh. " I promise in mine own person to use and exercise the 

Eiyen. " ministry, and my Christian office in my rank and place, 

Numb. 206. " chiefly and before all things, unto the honour of Almighty 

" God, and our only Saviour Jesus Christ; with loyal 

" obedience to our sovereign the queen"'s majesty, for the 

" salvation and best quiet of her highness"* subjects within 

" my charge : and thus teaching and living in true concord 

" and unity. 

" Again, I protest to observe, keep, and maintain all such 
" orders with uniformity in all extern policy, rites, and 
" ceremonies of the church, as by the law, good usages, and 
" orders are already established and provided. 

" I shall not preach without special licence of the bishop 
" under his seal. 
151 "I shall read or sing divine service audibly, plainly, and 
" distinctly, that all the people may hear and understand. 

" I shall use sobriety in my apparel, both in the church, 
" and in my going abroad. 

" I shall faithfully keep the Register Book and the 
" Queen"'s Injunctions. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 225 

" I shall read every day one chapter of the bible at least. CHAP. 
" I shall not covetously use open mechanical labovir or. 



" occupation, if my living be twenty nobles a year. Anno 1559. 

" I shall move and keep the parochians to peace ; and 
" labour to make peace to the uttermost of my power, in 
" doctrine and conversation."" 

To which I will subjoin the subscription of readers, the Articles for 
lowest sort of ministers in the church, yet very needful now subscribe. 
to be made use of, for supply of the churches, that would 
otherwise have been shut up upon this turn of religion : for 
many livings, now become vacant, were sequestered ; and a 
portion thereof allowed to the respective readers. And by 
observing these articles, to be by them subscribed, we may 
the better understand what their office was. 

Injunctions^ to be confessed and subscribed by them that 
shall be admitted readers. 

" I shall not preach or interpret, but only read thatExMSS. 
" which is appointed by public authority. armik 

" I shall read the service appointed plainly, distinctly, vol. C 
" and audibly, that all the place may hear and understand. 

" I shall not minister the sacraments, nor other rites of 
" the church, but bury the dead, and purify women after 
" their childbirth. 

" I shall keep the Register Book according to the Injunc- 
" tions. 

" I shall use sobriety in apparel, and especially in the 
" church at common prayer. 

" I shall move men to quiet and concord, and not give 
" them cause of offence. 

" I shall bring in to mine ordinary a testimony of my be- 
" haviour from the honest men of the parish where I dwell, 
" within one half year next following. 

" I shall give place upon convenient warning to me by 
" the ordinary, if any learned minister shall be placed there 
" at the suit of the prime of the parish. 

" I shall claim no more of the fruits sequestered of such 

VOL. I Q 



226 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " cure where I shall serve, but as it shall be thought meet 
' " to the wisdom of the ordinary. 
Anno 1559. « I shall daily at the least read one chapter of the Old 
" Testament, and another of the New, with good advise- 
" mcnt, to the increase of my knowledge. 
152 "I shall not appoint in my room, by reason of mine ab- 
" sence or sickness, any other man, but shall leave it to the 
" suit of the parish or the ordinary, for assigning some able 
" man. 

" I shall not read but in poorer parishes destitute of in- 
" cumbents, except in time of sickness, or for some other 
" good considerations to be allowed by the ordinary. 
For dea- " I shall not intermeddle with aay artificers' occupations, 

" as covetously to seek gain thereby, having in ecclesiastical 
" living the sum of twenty nobles or above by the year. 



coos. 



CHAP. XII. 

Bishoprics and dig-nities in the church void. Persons de- 
signed for 'preferments. Dr. Parker made archbishop of 
Canterbiirij. Consecrations and ordinations. The va~ 
cant sees filed. A table thereof The queeii's Injunc- 
tions. Hoi}) table and bread. Altars. Book of Articles of 
Inquiry. A royal visitation. The visitors. The effect 
of this visitation. 

Places in J^ j^g popish bishops being deprived, as before was shewn, 

tlie church fi- ^i i i-i 

void. and put out of their respective churches, and other bishops 

dead, and many dignities and preferments besides void by 
death or deprivation ; one main care of the state was for 
the filling up those sees and the chief places in the church 
with able and honest men. An eye was cast upon IMatthew 
Parker, D. D. and divers other learned and godly men for 
that purpose ; who for the most part had been exiles or 
great sufi'erers in the last reign : and so had given sufficient 
proof of their abhorrence of jiopery. 

And that both the places vacant and the persons to be 
preferred might lie in view to be considered, I find among 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 227 

secretary Cecirs papers certain rough lists of both: which CHAP. 

it may not be amiss here to lay before the reader. And first '_^ 

of the bishoprics, wherein, when this list was made, (which Anno 1559. 
was soon after the parliament was up,) are shewn, who were 
dead, who deprived, and who were yet alive and unde- 
prived; together with the current reputed values of each 
bishopric at that time. 

Bishoprics, whose pastors were dead ; eight in mimber^ viz. Bishoprics 

Canterbury, - 2900Z. Salisbury, - 1000^. 

Norwich, - 600Z. Rochester, - 207Z. 

Chichester, - 590Z. Gloucester, - 300Z. 

Hereford, - 500Z. Bangor, - QQl. 

To which may be added the bishoprics of Oxon and Bris- 153 
tol, now void also. 

Whose pastors were deprived ; six in number, viz. 

Winton, - 3700Z. Carlisle, - 2681. 

Lincoln, Chester, 

Litchf. and Gov. 6001. Worcester, - 920Z. 

The popish bishops that held these sees were first de- 
prived : displeasure (as it seems) being taken against the 
five first, for breaking off the public disputation at West- 
minster, mentioned before: and Worcester being a very 
obnoxious man. 

Whose pastors were alive, and not yet deprived ; in mem- 
ber ten, viz. 
London, - lOOOZ. a st. Davids, 

St. Asaph, - lOZ. Landaff, 

177Z. spiritual. Peterburgh, 
Ely, - - 2000Z. York, 

Bath and Wells, 5001 Durham, 
Exeter, 

Places and preferments void. 

The deanery of Chest. 
Three prebends in Windsor, each in value, 

q2 



300Z. 
126Z. 
300Z. 




a This bi- 
shop died i 
December 
1558. 


. lOOOZ. 






- 2700Z. 






I. s. 


d. 




100 





And other 


51 1 


10 


prefer- 
ments. 



228 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



CHAP. 
XII. 



A prebend in Norwich, 



I. 



d. 



Anno 1559. A prebend in Canterbury, 

A prebend in Rochester, 

Ruscomb preb. in Sarum, - - - 6 13 4 

Burrow preb. in Chiches. - - - 13 6 8 

Two preb. in Hereford, 
And other A commissary's place to the archbishop of Canterbury, for 



prefer- 
ments 



granting of faculties. Dr. Cook had it. 
A clerkship to the same. Dr. Lyel had it. 
Another clerkship for the faculties ; which Vaughan had. 



Benefices void. 






Benefice. 




County. 


Value. 
I. S. 


d. 


Cliff rectory, 




Kent, 


51 





North-Creak, 




Norw. 


34 6 


8 


Sutton, 




Warw. 


33 9 





Stokesly, 




York, 


30 6 


8 


South- Hill, 




Cornub. 


38 





Beer vicar. 




Dors. 


25 5 





Felfham with a vicar. 






19 15 


7 


Stoke-Brewen, 




Nor. 


30 





St. Christ. Lond. 






14 





Fassenham in Prest. 






14 





Then was a list of the 


names of persons 


fit to be 


pr 



Proper per- Then was a list of the 


names of 


persons 


fit to be pre 


preferred, fcrred, bearing this 


title. 


viz. 






154 Spiritual men 


ivithout promotion at thii 


f present. 


Mr. Barlow, 




Sampson, 




Latymer, 


Scory, 




Ghest, 




Banks, 


Coverdalc, 




Horn, 




Stokes, Col, 


Dr. Cox, 




Wilshaw, 




Regin. 


Parker, 




Parry, 




Thoulwel, 


Mey, 




Peddar, 




Newman, 


Sandys, 




Herman, 




Nowel, 


Mr. Cheney, 




Hide, 




Waites, 


Whitehead, 




Blake, 




Hewet. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 229 

There was yet another list of names of persons of emi- CHAP, 
nent character, out of which some were already pitched. 



upon for the chief preferments, viz. such as had crosses ^^""° i^^s- 

prefixed before their names ; as follow : 

•f- Parker, -f Jewel, Wisdom, 

f Bill, -f- Bentham, Ghest, 

-f- Whitehead, -f- Nowel, Peddar, 

-|- Pilkinton, -f- Becon, Lever, 

f Sandys, PuUan, f Allen \ ' Nomi- 

, -r-r I T-v • nated for 

f Home, t L)aviS, Rochester. 

■f- Sampson, Aylmer, 

As several in these catalogues were afterwards preferred 
to bishoprics, deaneries, or other chief dignities in the 
church, so several others were preferred, whose names are 
not here specified, who were not yet, though afterwards, 
better known : and several others here set down, yet at- 
tained not the chief preferments, choosing rather perhaps to 
serve God and his church in some privater capacity. 

But now let us proceed to take notice how the vacant 
sees were all filled, (which was the work of two years before 
the church was completely full,) and who they were on 
whom this weighty charge was laid. 

Their names, dioceses, countries, ages, degrees of school. The church 
universities, orders, and dates of their respective consecra- with new 
tions and confirmations, this ensuing table will shew, taken bishops. 
out of the Antiquities of Canterbury. For more particular 
characters of these reverend fathers, and for relation of their 
preferments and appointment to their sees, I refer the 
reader to a book that may ere long see the light, concerning 
the life and acts of Matthew Parker, queen Elizabeth's first 
archbishop of Canterbury. 



Qii 



S30 



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^55 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 231 

And now, after the siffht of this scheme, one would wonder CHAP. 

• • • 1 XII 

at the liberty some disaffected people took in king Charles 



I. his time, in the books they published, and the stories -^""o i-^'JS- 
they set abroad. In one pamphlet, (which I have,) printed ^^^ 
anno 1642, it is expressly said, that at the beginning of 
queen Elizabeth''s reign, the better half of the protestant 
bishops were those that but a little before had been popish 
prelates in queen Mary's time : and so were very indifferent 
men for their religion. 

Of all the divines in the kinopdom, for his learning, wis-'i'i'^ q'""*^" 
dom, gravity, and piety, the foresaid Dr. Parker was pitched u] on Par- 
upon by the queen, to fill the metropolitical see of Canter- '^';'"|^°. ^^^^ 
bury. He had been chaplain first to queen Anne Bolen, of Canter- 
then to king Henry VIII. master of Bene''t college. Cam- '*"^" 
bridge, and in king Edward's reign dean of Lincoln ; but 
lost all his preferments under queen Mary, for his marriage, 
and for the gospel : and during those times lived obscurely 
and in great danger. He was elected by the dean and 
chapter of Christ's Church Canterbury, August the 1st. 
His election confirmed in the church of St. Mary le Bow, 
London, December the 9th. And consecrated in the cha- 
pel of the palace at Lambhith, December the 17th, by the 
reverend fathers. Barlow, late bishop of Bath and Wells, 
Scory, late bishop of Chichester, Coverdale, formerly bishop 
of Exeter, and Hodgeskin, suffragan bishop of Bedford. 
All things were rightly and canonically performed ; as may 
be seen at large in the register of Canterbury yet extant; 
and in certain transcripts exactly taken thence, and out of 
the archives of Bene't college, Cambridge, and published at 
the end of archbishop Bramhal's works, printed at Dublin 
1677, and in the collection of records in the second volume 
of the History of the Reformation, by Dr. Burnet, late 
lord bishop of Sarum. Which abundantly confutes that 
idle story of the archbishop's ordination at the Nag's Head 
Tavern in Cheapside : which some papists had impudently 
invented, and spread abroad. j,j^j^^ 

After the archbishop's consecration was despatched and consecrated 
finished, and he seated by the queen in the care and govern- ^j^^p'^p^j.'" 

Q 4 Jier, 



232 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, ment of the church, many otlier bishops were consecrated 
,by him; that the sees miglit be furnished with sound and 



Anno 1559. able divines. As Grindal bishop of London, Cox bishop of 
Ely, Sandys bishop of AVorcester, and Merick of Bangor : 
who were all consecrated together by the archbishop at 
Lambhith, in the month of December, a few days after his 
own consecration. In January following he consecrated five 
bishops more ; Young to the see of St. David's, Bolingham 
to Lincoln, Jewel to Sarum, Davis to St. Asaph, and Ghest 
to Rochester. The next month were two bishops more 
consecrated by him, \'iz. Barkley bishop of Bath and Wells, 
and Bentham of Litchfield and Coventry. And the conse- 
cration of other bishops followed soon after in the next 
year. 

The reve- But though the church was replenished with gospel bi- 

niies of the , , , , . i i 

bishoprics sliops, yet none Jiad any cause to envy then" wealth or great- 
embezzeied ness. For the revenues and incomes of the bishoprics had 

by the form- . , , . , ,. . , - 

er bishops. bccH SO stnpt by their immediate popish predecessors, that 
the present bishops were in want even of convenience and 
necessaries for housekeeping ; especially some of them. Their 
lands, houses, and parks were so few, and so reduced, that 
157 they had scarce enough to keep them out of debt, and to 
maintain that hospitality that was looked for at their hands. 
It is true, some of their lands and parks were against their 
wills exchanged, by virtue of a late law, mentioned before, 
but, for the most part, the malicious popish prelates that 
were their predecessors, (I have this from one that was a 
bishop himself, and well acquainted with the transactions of 

Piikinj^ton, this time,) seeing their kingdom decay, and that professors 
of God''s gospel should fill their places, would rather give 
them to women, children, housekeepers, (to say no worse,) 
by lease, patents, annuities, than that any that loved God 
should enjoy them. Many bishoprics of the realm had 
they impoverished by these means. So that they who now 
succeeded were not able to relieve themselves, nor the poor 
as they would and should. The multitude indeed cried 
out of the protestants, that they kept not houses like the 
j)apists, nor entertained such a number of idle servants; but 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 233 

they considered not how barely they came to their livings; CHAP, 
what pensions they paid, and annuities, which they that 



held the sees before them had granted away; and how all Anno 1559. 
commodities were leased away from them: what charges 
they were at for first-fruits, and subsidies, and tenths, and 
how they lacked all householdstuff and furniture at their 
entrance : so that for three years' space they were not able, 
as he said, to live out of debt, and get themselves ne- 
cessaries. 

Whereas the popish prelates under queen Mary, after To the great 
they became bishops, had divers fat benefices and prebends : and Imw- 
they were stored of necessaries of household. After they verishuient 
entered, they had no first-fruits : so that they might do on cessors. 
the first day more than the others could do in seven years. 
So did the foresaid writer set forth this matter. Nay, he said 
further, concerning these Marian prelates, that they had so 
leased out their houses, lands, and parks, that some of the 
new bishops had scarce a corner of an house to lie in ; and 
divers not so much ground as to graze a goose or a sheep, 
so that some were compelled to tether their horses in their 
orcliard. And j'^et had these fathers provided, that if they 
should have been restored (which they looked for, as many 
thought) they should have had all their commodities again. 
But to come again to our matter. 

After the church was thus furnished with some protestant Ordination 
bishops, it was necessary to supply it with inferior clergy, ^nd dea-* 
for the filling of many parishes that were already and would cons. 
be vacant ; and for providing honest and conscientious men 
to officiate and preach to the people. Therefore the day 
next after the ordination of the four first consecrated bi- 
shops, was an ordination of priests and deacons, viz. De- Park. Re- 
cember the 22d. Then Scory, now bishop of Hereford, ^'**' 
by order and authority from the archbishop of Canterbury, 
ordained in the chapel at Lambith eleven deacons, and 
ten priests and deacons together, conferring both orders 
upon the said ten ; and one who was deacon before was 
made priest. These were of several dioceses. And among 
the rest I observe one whose name was John Hooper, of 



234 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, the diocese of Gloucester; wlio perhaps might be the late 
bishop Hooper's son. 



Anno 1559. January the 7th following, Roland bishop of Bangor, by 
ord^na^k)n ^^'^^^ ^"^ authority from the said archbishop, ordained in 
■■ to Bow church, London, five, giving them deacon's and priest's 
Readers or- ordcrs together ; and five readers. For the churcli standing 
dained. in need now of sober persons to serve in it, the bishops were 
fain to take many laymen that had little more learning than 
ability of reading well, and of good lives and conversations ; 
and to ordain them only to read the sci-vice and the homilies 
to the people in the church, till others could be procured. 
And what order was taken about them by the archbishop, 
we shall hear by and by. 
Another. February the 11th the archbishop commissionated Nicolas 
bishop of Lincoln, to ordain ten deacons and four priests : 
which was performed in a certain low chamber Avithin the 
archbishop's manor at Lambhith. 
Another. j\larch the 3d following was another ordination at Lamb- 
hith by the archbishop himself. 
Notification Then a notification was published of orders to be cele- 
t lereo . jjj-ated, to this tenor : " Be it known to all Christian 
" people by these presents, that upon Sunday, being the 3d 
" day of March next ensuing, the most reverend father in 
" God, INIatthew, by God's sufferance archbishop of Can- 
" tei'bury, in his chapel within his manor of Lambeth, by 
" the grace and help of Almighty God, intendeth to cele- 
" brate holy orders of deacon and priesthood generally, to 
" all such as shall be found thereunto apt and meet for their 
" learning and godly conversation ; bringing with them 
" sufficient letters testimonial, as well of their virtuous liv- 
" ing and honest demeanour in those places where they now 
" dwell, and have dwelled by the space of three years last 
" past ; as also other things by the laws in this behalf re- 
" quisite to be had and shewed. And likewise be it known, 
" that the Thursday and Friday next before the said Sun- 
*' day, being the 3d of INIarch ensuing, at Lambhith afore- 
" said, the aforesaid most reverend father in God, and his 
" officers, intend also to set upon the appositions and exa- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 235 

" minations of them that shall come to be admitted in the CHAP. 
" said orders." ^^'• 



Again, March the 10th, in a certain inner chamber Avith-Anno 1559. 
in the manor of the archbishop at Lambhith, called ^A<?Auother. 
chamber of presence, the archbishop committed to Nicolas 
bishop of Lincoln the ordination of such as were approved 
by his examiners. Then were ordained one hundred and 
twenty deacons, thirty-seven priests, and seven took deacon's 
and priest's orders together. 

Again, March the 17th, the same bishop of Lincoln or- Another, 
dained in the chapel at Lambhith seven priests of such as 
had been ordained March the 10th last past. And more of 
these ordinations will follow the next year. In this plenty 
did well-disposed people come and offer themselves to labour 
in God's harvest in this newly reformed church ; many of 
whom, I suppose, were such students as remained abroad, 
and followed their studies in foreign universities, while 
queen Mary reigned. 

Now also injunctions for the ordering of matters of the The queen 
church and religion were framed and set forth, to the num- ^l^nctimi's?" 
ber of fifty-three, called the queevbs injunctions, by virtue 
of her supremacy in causes ecclesiastical as well as civil : 
which were to be ministered unto her subjects. Which in- 159 
junctions, printed this year 1559, had this preface. 

" That her majesty, by the advice of her honourable 
" council, intending the advancement of the true honour of 
" Almighty God, the suppression of superstition throughout 
" all her highness's realms and dominions, and to plant true 
" religion, to the extirpation of all heresy, enormities, and 
" abuses, as to her duty appertained, did minister to her 
" loving subjects these godly injunctions. All which her 
" highness willed and commanded her loving subjects obe- 
" diently to receive, and truly to observe and keep, every 
" man in their offices, degrees, and states, as they would 
" avoid her highness's displeasure, and the pains of the 
" same hereafter expressed." These injunctions may be 
read in bishop Sparrow's Collection. 

Who the compiler or compilers were, I cannot say as- ^.''® ''°"'' 

^ ■*■ •' liners there- 



236 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, suredly, but I make little doubt they were that select com- 
pany of divines at Westmmster, who had been employed in 



Anno 1559. Sir Thomas Smith''s house in Chanon-row about kino- Ed- 
wards book, and other church-matters; as Cox, Sandys, 
Grindal, &c. and most probably Parker among the rest, 
after his coming up to London. And to this business of 
the injunctions I am apt to think Cox had respect in that 
passage of his letter to the divine at Wormes, " That they 
" were then breaking down the popish hedge, and restoring 
" the lord"'s vineyard : and that they were then in the work ; 
" but the harvest was great, and the labourers few." To be 
sure in these injunctions Sir William Cecyl the secretary 
had a great hand ; who, as his office was, after the copy of 
them was brought to his hand, reviewed, considered, and 
worded them according to his discretion ; as appeareth by a 
passage in a letter of archbishop Parker to him, April 11, 
1575. " Whatsoever the [queen"'s] ecclesiastical prerogative 
" is, I fear it is not so great as your pen hath given it in 
" the injunctions."" 
The admo- At the end of these injunctions there was an admonition 
cerningthe to any such of the clergy as scrupled the form of the oath, 
queen's ec- -yvhich by the late act of parliament was required to be taken 

4^1gs13.s1iC(11 */ a X 

supremacy, by divers persons for the recognition of their allegiance to the 
queen. For some of the papists, to withdraAv and dissuade 
the inferior ministers from taking that oath, gave out that 
the kings and queens of the realm, by virtue of the words 
of the said oath, might challenge authority and power of 
ministering divine service in the church. Which by this ad- 
monition the queen declared the falsehood of: " That it 
" was never meant, nor by any equity of words or good 
" sense could be thereof gathered. And that she would have 
" all her loving subjects to understand, that nothing was by 
" that oath intended, but only to have the duty and alle- 
" giance, that was acknowledged to be due to the noble 
" kings, king Henry and king Edward, and was of ancient 
" time due to the imperial crown of this realm ; that is, 
" under God, to have the sovereignty and rule over all man- 
" ncr of persons born within her realms, either ecclesiastical 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 237 

" or temporal, whatsoever they be. So as no other foreign CHAP. 
" power shall or ought to have any superiority over them." 



There was also at the conclusion of these injunctions an ^""01559. 
order for the tables in the churches, and another for the sa- 1 '^O 

Order for 

cramental bread. the holy 

And here, before we relate the order for the table, let me ta'^ie and 
first shew what labour was used by the divines aforesaid, Arguments 
(as I suppose,) that assembled and sat for reformation, to to move the 

quGGn to 

persuade the queen to suffer the popish altars to be taken take away 
away, and tables to be placed in the room of them : which *'"^ altars, 
altars, in many places taken away, the queen had s'ome incli- 
nation to have set up again. I have seen U^eir reasons 
draAvn up to be offered to the queen's majesty's considera- 
tion, loliy it was not convenient that the comrmcnion should 
be ministered at an altar. Take them verbatim, as I found 
them in an authentic manuscript. 

" First, The form of a table is most agreeable to Christ's IMSS. Guii. 

. . . Petyt. ar- 

" example, who instituted the sacrament of his body and ,nig. yoi. 
" blood at a table, and not at an altar. *"• 

" Secondly, The form of an altar was convenient for the 
" Old Testament, to be a figure of Christ's bloody sacrifice 
" upon the cross : but in the time of the New Testament, 
*' Christ is not to be sacrificed, but his body and blood 
" spiritually to be eaten and drunken in the ministration of 
" the holy supper. For representation whereof, the form of 
" a table is more convenient than an altar. 

" Thirdly, The Holy Ghost in the New Testament, speak- 
" ing of the Lord's supper, doth make mention of a table, 
" 1 Cor. 10, mensa Domini, i. e. the table of the Lord : 
" but in no place nameth it an altar. 

" Fourthly, The old writers do use also the name of a Epist. 5. 9. 
" table : for Augustine oftentimes calleth it mensam Domi- 
" ni, i. e. the Lord's table. And in the canons of the Ni-'f""- 2^- '" 

A J "^°an. Horn. 

'' cene council it is divers times called divina mensa. And is. in 2 
" Chrysostom saith, Baptismus unus est, et mensa una, i. e. "'"• 
There is one baptism, and one table. And although the 
" same writers do sometimes term it an altar, yet are they 
" to be expounded to speak abusive et improprie. For like 



238 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, "as they expound themselves, when they term the Lorcfs 

'_ " suppei- a sacrifice, tliat they mean by this word sacr'ificium. 

Anno 1559. " i. e. a Sacrifice, rccordationem sacrijicii, i. e. the remem- 

Chrys, « brance of a sacrifice ; or shmUtudinem sacrificii, i. e. the 

Heb.Aug. " hkeness of a sacrifice, and not properly a sacrifice : so the 

Ep. 23. a game reason enforceth us to think, that when they term it 

" an altar, they mean a representation or remembrance of 

" the altar of the cross ; and not of the form of a material 

" altar of stone. And when they name it a table, they ex- 

" press the form then commonly in the church used accord- 

" ing to Christ"'s example. 

" Fifthly, Furthermore, an altar hath relation to a sacri- 
" fice : for they be correlativa. So that of necessity, if we 
" allow an altar, we must grant a sacrifice : like as if there 
" be a father, there is also a son ; and if there be a master, 
" there is also a servant. Whereupon divers of the learned 
" adversaries themselves have spoken of late, that there is 
" no reason to take away the sacrifice of the mass, and to 
" leave the altar standing; seeing the one was ordained for 
" the other. 
l6l " Sixthly, Moreover, if the communion be ministered at 
" an altar, the godly prayers, Sec spoken by the minister 
" cannot be heard of the people ; especially in great 
" churches. And so the people should receive no fruit of 
" this part of English service. For it was all one to be in 
" Latin and to be in English, not heard nor understood of 
" the people. 

" And admitting that it were a thing which in some 
" time might be tolerated, yet at this time the continuance 
" of altars would bring marvellous inconveniences. 

" First, The adversaries will object unto us (as they 
" have accustomed) inconstancy, in that the order esta- 
" blished by king Edward of famous memory, with the as- 
" sent of so many learned men, is now again reversed and 
" altered. 

" Secondly, Moreover, the most part, or almost all the 
" preachers of this realm, which do heartily favovu' tliis your 
" majesty"'s reformation in religion, have oftentimes in their 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. S39 

several sermons (and that upon the ground of God's word CHAP. 



XII. 



" before rehearsed, and other) spoken and preached against . 

"altars, both in king Edward's days and sithence ; and Anno 1559. 

" therefore cannot with good conscience, and without con- 

" fession of a fault committed before, speak now in defence 

" of them. For, as St. Paul saith. Si qucB destruxi ea rur- Gai.ii. 

" Slim (Edifico, transgressor em meipsum constituo ; i. e. If I 

" build up again those things which I destroyed, I make 

" myself a transgressor. 

" Thirdly, Furthermore, whereas your majesty's prin- 
" cipal purpose is utterly to abolish all the errors and abuses 
" used about the Lord's supper, especially to root out the 
" popish mass, and all superstitious opinions concerning the 
" same, the altar is a means to work the contrary, as ap- 
" peareth manifestly by experience. For in all places the 
" mass-priests (which declare by evident signs that they 
*' conform themselves to the order received, not for con- 
" science, but for their bellies'' sake) are most glad of the 
" hope of retaining the altar, &c. : meaning thereby to make 
" the communion as like a mass as they can, and so to con- 
" tinue the simple in their former errors. 

" Fourthly, And on the other side, the consciences of 
" many thousands, which from their hearts embrace the 
" gospel, and do most earnestly pray to God for your grace, 
" shall be wounded, by continuance of altars; and great 
" numbers will abstain from receiving the communion at an 
" altar : which in the end may grow to occasion of great 
" schism and division among the people. And the rather, 
" because that in a great number of places altars are re- 
" moved, and a table set up already, according to the rites 
" of the book now published. 

" Fifthly, And whereas her majesty hath hitherto de- 
" clared herself very loath to break ecclesiastical laws esta- 
" blished by parliament, till they were repealed by like au- 
*' thority, it will be much mused at, if any commandment 
*' should come forth now for the reedification of altars, see- 
*' ing there be special words in the Book of Service allowed 
" by parliament, and having force of a law, for the placing 



240 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, " and using of a table at the ministration of the commu- 
XII. a nion. Which special words cannot be taken away by ge- 
Auuoi559." neral terms. 

162 " Sixthly, IVforeover, the altars are none of those things 

" which were established by act of parliament in the second 

" year of king Edward, of famous memory. For Dr. Ridley, 

" late bishop of London, procured taking down of altars in 

" his diocese about the third year of the said king ; and dc- 

" fendeth his doings by the king's first book, set forth anno 

" 2d Edw. VI. And immediately after, the king's majesty 

" and his council gave a general command throughout the 

" whole realm to do the like before the second book was 

" made. And Dr. Day, bishop of Chichester, was com- 

" mitted to prison, because he would not obey the said 

" order. Which thing they Avould not have done, if altars 

" had been established by authority of the said parliament. 

Judgment " Seventhly, It may please your grace also to call to re- 

of foreign a membrance, that the greatest learned men of the world, 

about ai- " as Buccr, CEcolampadius, Zuinglius, Bullinger, Calvin, 

" Martyr, Joannes a Lasco, Hedio, Capito, and many 

" more, have in their reformed churches in Sabaudia, Hel- 

" vetia, Basil, Geneva, Argentine, Wormes, Frankford, 

" and other places, always taken away the altars ; only Lu- 

" ther and his churches have retained them. In the which 

" churches be some other more imperfections ; as gilding of 

" images, the service of the church half Latin, half Dutch, 

" and elevation of the sacrament of the altar. All which 

" things Melancthon, when he is called to counsel for a 

" reformation to be had in other places, doth utterly re- 

" move. And in Saxony they are tolerated hitherto only 

" because of Luther's fame ; but are thought that they will 

*' not long continue, being so much misliked of the best 

" learned. 

The late " Eighthly, It may also please your majesty to join here- 

fend/rsof^ " ""^° ^^ judgment of the learned and godly martyrs of 

king Ed- " this realm, who of late have given their lives for the testi- 

war. s)oo<, j^ mony of the truth; as of Dr. Cranmer, archbishop of 

" Canterbury, who protested in writing, (whereupon he was 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 241 

*' first apprehended,) that the order appointed by the last CHAP. 
" book of king Edward was most agreeable to the scrip- 



tures, and the use of the primitive church. And also of Anno 1559. 
" Dr. Ridley, bishop of London, who travailed especially in 
" this matter of altars ; and put certain reasons of his doing 
" in print ; which remain to this day : of Mr. Latimer, Mr. 
" Hooper, Mr. Bradford, and all the rest, who to the end 
" did stand in defence of that book. So that by reedifying 
" of altars, we shall also seem to join with the adversaries 
" that burnt those good men, in condemning some part of 
" their doctrine. 

" And last of all, it may please your majesty to tender the 
" consent of your preachers and learned men, as now do re- 
" main alive, and do earnestly, and of conscience, and not 
" for livings' sake, desire a godly reformation : which if they 
" were required to utter their minds, or thought it necessary 
" to make petition to your grace, would with one mind and 
" one mouth (as may be reasonably gathered) be most 
" humble suitors to your majesty ; that they might not be 
" enforced to return unto such ordinances and devices of 
" men, not commanded in God's word : being also once 
" abrogated, and known by experience to be things hurtful, 
" and only serving either to nourish the superstitious opi- 
" nion of the propitiatory mass in the minds of the simple, 1^3 
" or else to minister an occasion of offence and division 
" among the godly minded." 

From this notable paper of address to the queen, she Order for 
yielded to the taking away the altars, as by the effect it ap- ti,e"abie. 
peared. For the order for the table in the aforesaid Injunc- 
tions was added upon occasion of the removal of the altars 
in many churches, and tables placed in their rooms ; though 
in other places they were not yet removed, upon opinion of 
some order to be taken therein by the visitors. The order 
therefore was, " That no altar should be taken down but 
" by the oversight of the curate and churchwardens, or one 
" of them at the least, and without any riot or disorder, 
" And that the table be decently made, and set in the place 
" where the altar stood ; and so to stand, but when the com- 

VOL. I. It 



242 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



CHAP. 
XII. 



The order 
for the 
bread. 



" miinion should be celebrated. And then it should be so 
," placed within the chancel, as the minister might more con- 
Annoio59. « veniently be heard of the communicants, and the commu- 
" nicants in more conveniency and number communicate 
" with the minister." Thus much for the holy table. 

The order for the bread was, " That whereas the sacra- 
" mental bread in the time of king Edward used to be com- 
" mon fine bread, now, for the giving the more reverence to 
" the holy mysteries, this bread was to be made and formed 
" plain, without any figure impressed on it," [as the popish 
wafer had the figure of the crucifix,] " and to be of the 
" same fineness and round fashion, but somewhat bigger, as 
" was the usual bread or wafer, heretofore named sing'mg- 
" cal'es, which served for the use of the private mass.'"* 

This order for the table and the bread was occasioned from 
the variety used in both, for some time, until these Injunc- 
tions came forth. For indeed in the beginning of the queen's 
reign the protestants were much divided in their opinion 
and practice about them ; which was the cause of some dis- 
turbance. And the papists made their advantage of it ; lay- 
ing to the charge of the protestants their mutability and in- 
constancy. Thus did Thomas Dorman, in his book called 
A Proof. " This day your table is placed in the midst of 
" the quii'e; the next day removed into the body of the 
" church ; at the third time placed in the chancel again after 
" the manner of an altar," [that is, vipon the coming forth of 
this before-mentioned order,] " but yet removable as there 
" is a communion to be had. Then, your minister's face 
" one while to be turned toward the south, and another 
" while toward the nortli ; that the weathercock in the steeple 
" was noted not to have turned so often in a quarter of a 
" year, as your minister in the church in less than one 
" month. And at your communion, one while decreeing, 
" that it be ministered in common and leavened bread ; by 
" and by revoking that, and bringing it to unleavened.*" 
The book of There was also now, beside these Injunctions, a book of 
articles. Articles prepared, to the number of fifty-six, to be inquired 
of in the queen's visitation, which was held this year, pursuant 



Different 
practice 
about the 
table and 
bread. 



Dorman's 
Proof, p. 

no. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 243 

to her Injunctions. These Articles were reprinted anno 1600; CHAP, 
and again in Sparrow's Collections, 1671; and in Rogers's '__ 



Catholic Doctrine. From them we may learn somewhat of Anno 1559. 
the state of the church and the churchmen in these days : as, lo4 
that the religious service now commonly performed in the obse^rva- 
church, (before June 24, when the new book commenced,) tions there- 
was, the singins of the old popish prayers, and the litany or 

' *',. ^ . J • 1 • 1 J V The clergy. 

general supplication, and repeating the epistle and gospel in 
English. And besides these, on holydays the curate went 
up into the pulpit, and recited openly the Lord's Prayer, the 
Creed, and the Ten Commandments in English ; and sermons 
preached rarely. That there were many of the parsons, 
vicars, and curates carelessly absented themselves from their 
cures, and left them supplied by rude and unlearned persons. 
That many of them discouraged their parishioners from read- 
ing the Bible either in Latin or English. They haunted 
taverns and alehouses, and gave themselves to drinking, riot- 
ing, and playing at unlawful games. They would extol vain 
and superstitious religion ; as pilgrimages, relics and images, 
lighting of candles, kissing and kneeling to, and decking 
the same. They would counsel their parishioners to pray in 
a tongue unknown, rather than in English, and to trust in a 
certain number of prayers, and in saying over a number of 
beads. Many of them bought their benefices, and came into 
them by fraud and deceit. And as to the laity, many of The laity. 
them were open adulterers, and some had two wives living 
within the same parish. Many were letters or hinderers of 
the word of God to be read in English, or sincerely preached, 
and in the time of litany, or of sermon or homily, or while 
the scriptures were reading in English, would depart out of 
the church,^ and sometimes disturb the ministers, and some- 
times contemn and abuse them ; and sometimes jangle and 
talk in the church in the time of prayer, or reading and de- 
claring of the scriptures : and sometimes, to avoid the hear- 
ing of God's word read by their own minister, they would 
resort to other churches. And some procured minstrels, to 
sing or say songs in derision of godly order set forth ; some 
kept in their houses images, tables, pictures, and paintings, 

R 2 



244 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, and other monuments of feigned and false miracles, (many 
. of which had been set up in churches, and taken thence,) and 



Anno i659.(ji(j adore them. Many did use enchantments, invocations, 
circles, witchcraft, soothsaying ; and especially in the time 
of women"'s travails. 

Inquiry Bcsidcs, bv somc of these articles of inquiry it appeared 

into the , .... ' -^ - 1 T P 1 

late perse- what ciuigence was used to get a true understandmg oi the 
cution. Yate persecution under queen Mary ; what wrongs were done, 
what blood was shed, and who were the persecutors. To 
this purpose tended the 46th, 47th, 48th, and 49th articles ; 
the substance whereof Avas, " What books of the scriptures 
" were delivered to be burnt, or otherAvise destroyed, and to 
" whom they were delivered. What bribes the accusers, 
" promoters, persecutors, and ecclesiastical judges, and other 
" the commissioners appointed within the several dioceses of 
" the realm, received by themselves or others, from such 
" persons as were in trouble, apprehended or imprisoned 
" for religion. Also what goods, lands, fees, offices, or pro- 
" motions, were wrongfully taken away, in those times of 
165 *' queen Mary, from any person which favoured the reli- 
** gion. How many persons for religion had died by fire, 
*' famine, or otherwise, or had been imprisoned for the 
" same." And there was an injunction among the queen's 
Injunctions to this import, viz. Injunct. 45," That the or- 
" dinaries should exhibit to the visitors their books, for a 
" true copy to be taken of the same, containing the causes 
** why any person was imprisoned, famished, or put to death 
*' for religion."" 

This book of Articles, when first printed, was entitled. 
Articles to be cnquyred in the visitation, in the fyrstc ycarc 
of the raygne of our moost drad soveraygne lady Eliza- 
hcthy by the grace of God of Englandc, Fratincc, and Ire- 
lande, qncne, defender qfthejhyfh, ^-c. anno 1559- At the 
end of the Articles it is said to be imprinted at London in 
Poules Churchyardc, by Rich. Jugge and John Cazvoodef 
printers to the quene''s majestic. Anno M.D.LIX. 

Joined to this book of Articles was another little book, 
entitled Interrogatories. At the end is set the printer''s 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 245 

name, viz. Imprynted at London in Foster-lane hy Jhon ^^^P- 
Waley. These were inquiries of some ordinary at his visita- 



tion, instituted soon after the year the Articles aforegoing ^«no i^^^. 
were set forth. And what they were, see in the Appendix. [N". xxi.] 
The Injunctions and book of Articles being thus finished, Jt^^j^^J/'" 
the queen set on foot her royal visitation throughout Eng- 
land, touched before ; and divers commissions were issued 
out from her unto divers persons : some to visit some dio- 
ceses, and some to visit others. And all these were to de- 
liver the Injunctions, and to make inquisition upon the 
Articles abovesaid, and to minister the oath of recognition, 
and to enjoin the use of the new book of service, which was 
to commence and come in force at the festival of John the 
Baptist, i. e. June 24. One of these commissions the bishop 
of Sarum met with, and published in his History ; which was Hist. Ref. 
for the visitation of the cathedral churches, cities, and]^"^^',"^ '^ 
dioceses of York, Durham, Chester, and Carhsle, and bore number 7. 
date at Westminster June 24. And among the rest of the 
matters committed to them to do, one was to examine such 
as were imprisoned and in bonds for religion, though they 
had been condemned before; and the causes of their im- 
prisonment and condemnation first known, and fully dis- 
cussed, to deliver such out of prison, and set them at liberty, 
justice requiring it so to be done. Other business incum- 
bent on these commissioners to do, was to examine the 
causes of deprivations of ministers from their livings, and to 
restore such as were depi-ived contrary to the statutes and 
ordinances of this realm, or the order of the ecclesiastical 
law : which, I suppose, was in favour of such who were de- 
prived of their preferments and benefices for being married, 
or favouring the gospel. These commissioners were Francis visitors for 
earl of Shrewsbury, president of the council in the north, 
Edward earl of Darby, Thomas earl of Northumberland, 
lord warden of the east and middle marches, Thomas lord 
Evers, Henry Percy, Thomas Gargrave, James Crofts, 
Henry Gates, knts. Edwin Sandys, D. D. Henry Harvey, 
LL. D. Richard Bowes, George Brown, Christopher Escot, 
and Richard Kingsmel, esqrs. 

K 3 



246 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



CHAP. 
XII. 



This commission I saw in the queen's Paper-house, bound 

up in a volume in foHo, containing all the inquisitions and 

Anno 1559. matters done and found in this large northern visitation. It 



166 



Present- 
ments here. 



The visitors 
come to 
Aukland. 



Gilpin 
jireacheth. 



began at St. Mary, Nottingham, August the 22d, 1559, 
die Martis. The visitors took the complaints of many 
clergymen that had been turned out of their livings under 
queen Mary, for being married, whom they restored. And 
among the rest was one remarkable known learned man, and 
an exile, namely, Robert Wisdom ; who brought a com- 
plaint against one Thorneton, for coming into his benefice, 
viz. the church of Setterington, in the county of York. The 
presentments were most frequent (almost in every parish) 
about fornication, and keeping other women besides their 
Avives, and for having bastard children. 

These visitors of the northern parts came to Aukland ; 
where they sent for the clergy of that diocese to appear be- 
fore them ; and among other things gave them a declaration 
to subscribe. Dr. Sandys, one of the visitors, preached. 
They sent to Bernard Gilpin, of the bishopric of Durham, 
and required him to preach at Durham ; and gave him his 
subject, which was against the primacy [of the pope.] Be- 
cause the oath of supremacy being to be required of all the 
clergy, they might be the better prepared to take it. Sandys 
himself had preached the day before ; and his subject was a 
suitable subject too, viz. against the real presence in the sa- 
crament. But he so handled this argument, that he seemed 
to deny utterly any real presence : which so offended Gilpin, 
and many others, no doubt, (who were used to the contrary 
doctrine,) that he could not sleep all the next night, as he 
declared himself. 

The next day after Gilpin had preached, all the ministers 
of that diocese were met to subscribe ; and he, as a leading 
man, was called first. But there was a point or two of the 
Articles, wherein his conscience was not so well resolved ; 
which made him willing to have forborne. But he straight- 
way thus thought with himself, that his greatest confidence 
was reposed in this religion ; because it gave glory to God, and 
authority to the word of God, for rooting out of superstition 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 247 

and human doctrine: and his heart only doubting in cer- CHAP, 
tain points of smaller consequence, which God, he hoped, in ^ 



time would reveal unto him. He considered further, that if Anno 1559. 
he should refuse, he should be a means to make many others ,,4" Life' 
refuse ; and so consequently hinder the course of the word of p- 132. 
God. Therefore on these Christian and prudential rules he 
came to a resolution, and subscribed. But the night follow- 
ing, he sent to Dr. Sandys his protestation touching those 
two points that troubled him; and the doctor being nothing 
offended, took his protestation very courteously. And then 
his curate also, who had made some stop too, subscribed. 

But it happened that the day after, the curate fell sick ; 
and while Gilpin went along with the visitors to Kendal and 
Lancaster, he died before his return, having not been sick 
a whole week. This gave occasion to some disaffected, to 
suppose that his subscription had killed him. But others 
said, that his sickness proceeded from excessive drinking. 
In process of time Gilpin grew more and more strengthened 
and resolved. 

I find also the visitations were commonly committed to 1 6I 
the lords lieutenants of the divers shires within the said dio- 
ceses, and certain other gentlemen of quality known in those 
parts ; and also to some divines, and other professors of the 
civil and common laws. 

The commissioners appointed by the queen to visit the Visitors for 
dioceses of Oxford, Lincoln, Peterborough, Coventry and Lincoln &c. 
Litchfield, were William marquis of Northampton, the earl Regist. de- 
of Rutland, the earl of Huntington, besides divers other capjt.cant. 
nobles; sir Will. Cecyl, sir Ambrose Cave, and divers other 
knights and esquires ; Tho. Bentham, Alex. Nowel, S. 
Theol. PP. William Fleetwood, a lawyer, and Stephen 
Nevynson, LL. D. Their commission was dated July the 
22d, 1559. 

The commissioners appointed to visit the dioceses of For Wales, 
Landaff, St. David's, Bangor, St. Asaph, Hereford, Wigorn, 
were John lord Williams, president of the council within 
the principality of Wales, and divers others of the laity ; of 
the clergy Avere Richard Davids, S. Th. P. Tho. Yong, Ro- 
il 4 



248 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



CHAP. 

XII. 

Amio 1559, 
ForSarum, 
Bristol, &c 



For Nor- 
wich and 
Ely. 



For Cam- 
bridge, 
Eaton. 
MSS. D. 
Joh. Ep. 
Eliea. 
num. 757. 



Visitation 
in London. 



Vitelliiis, 
F. 5. 



land Meyrick, LL. PP. and Rich. Pates, lawyer. The 
commission dated July the 18th, 1559. 

The commissioners for visiting Sarum, Bristol, Exon, Bath 
and Wells, and Gloucester dioceses, were William earl of 
Pembroke, &c. John Jewel, S. Th. P. Henry Parry, licen- 
tiate in laws, and Will. Lovelace, lawyer. The commission 
dated July 19, 1559. 

The commissioners for the dioceses of Norwich and Ely, 
were Nic. lord Bacon, lord keeper, Thomas duke of Nor- 
folk, &c. Rafe Sadleir, Anthony Cook, Thomas Wroth, 
Thomas Smith, &c. knts. Robert Home, S. Th. P. Thomas 
Hulck, LL. D. and John Salvyn, lawyer, not Savage, as is 
erroneously writ in Holinshed. The commission dated 
Aug. 21, 1559. 

There were commissioners appointed likewise to visit 
Eaton college, and the university of Cambridge, and to 
take their oath of allegiance to the queen, and of her su- 
premacy. These were sir Will. Cecyl, chancellor of the 
said university, Matthew Parker, S. Th. P. Will. Bill, 
S. Th. P. and the queen''s great almoner, Walter Haddon, 
esq. master of the requests. Will. May, LL. D. and dean of 
St. Paurs, Tho. Wendy, esq. physician to the queen, Rob. 
Home, S. Th. P. and James Pilkinton, S. Th. P. This 
commission bore date at Westminster the 20th of June, in 
the first year of the queen. 

To rehearse a few thino;s concerning the visitation in 
London. The visitors sat at several times, and adjourned 
themselves according to their discretion. Here the popish 
bishops and clergy in the prisons and parts in and about 
London and Southwark were summoned before them ; and 
received, as it seems, their sentences of deprivation from 
them ; as was in part related before. The first time I meet 
with the queen''s visitors in London was June the 18th, 
when they sat at the bishop of London's palace ; and Dr. 
Boxal, bishop Bourne, and some others were sent to the 
Tower. Other days of their sessions were June the 21st ; 
and the 25th at sheriff Ha wcs in Mincing-lane; and the 29th; 
and July the 5th at Winchester-place ; and August the 11th, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 249 

at St. Paul's, when Dr. Home and the other visitors sat CHAP. 

XII 
upon Dr. Harspfield, archdeacon of London, and divers 



other members of that church, to tender them the oath. Anno 1559. 

August 21, they sat at St. Bride's, where two churchwardens 

and two more were sworn to bring in an inventory of that I08 

church. The 22d, they sat at St. Lawrence, Jury. The 

23d, at St. Michael's, Cornhill. October 23d, they sat again 

at St. Paul's ; when Harpsfield and divers other prebendaries 

and vicars of that church were deposed. 

But a true copy at large, taken from the original register 
of this visitation at St. Paul's, follows : 

Visitatio iUustrissimcB in Christo principis et domincB Visitation 
nostrcB domincB Elizabetlice Dei gra. AnglicB, SfC. Perve- Reo-ist.^" ^' 
nerahiles viros, magistros Rohertum Home, sacra tlieolo- Grindai. 
gi(B prqfessorem, Tho. Huyclie, Icgum doctorem, et Johan- 
nem Salvyn, juris peritum, commissarios, Sec. Commis- 
saries general of the same most illustrious. To visit, as well 
in capite as in memhris, the cathedral churches of the cities 
and dioceses of London, Norwich, and Ely ; and the clergy 
and people dzoelling or abiding therein ; by the supreme au- 
thority lawfully constituted and confirmed. Begun and cele- 
brated in the chapter-house of the cathedral church of St. 
Paul's, London, the 11th day of August, and in the first 
year of the said queen. 

Aug. 11, these three visitors came into the church of St. 
Paul in order to visit. And first, the prayer, that is, the 
English litany, was said. Then Mr. Home then and there 
preached, sincerely and learnedly, the word of God, a great 
multitude gathered together, and expounded; taking it for 
his subject. Who is then that faithful and wise servant, 
whom his lord hath set over his household, to give them their 
meat iii due season ? Matth. xxiv. This sermon done, the 
venerable commissaries went to the chapter-house of the said 
cathedral, and there sat judicially. The queen's letters com- 
missional, signed by her own hand and seal, were read by 
Peter Lylly, principal register of the queen in that behalf. 
And the said commissioners, for the honour and reverence 
of so illustrious a queen, took on them the burden of the 



250 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, execution of the same. John Incent, notary public on the 
part of the dean and chapter of the said church, produced 



Anno J 559. an original mandate, together vnth certain names and sur- 
names of all and singular of the said church cited ; and 

they were called : but vei-y few appeared. The absent were 
pronounced to incur the pain of contumacy/. 

Then the articles of inquisition were publicly read : and 
then the commissaries nominated and deputed the masters, 
Saxy, Whitebroke, Sebastian, Westcote, Wakelyn, Robert 
Saye, for inquisitors ; for declaring and relating all and sin- 
gular matters as well upon the said articles, as other matters 
worthy reformation in the said church. And they delivered 
them the Articles, and gave them a corporal oath to speak 
and declare the truth, touching the holy gospels : and ad- 
monishing the inquisitors to exhibit in writing the next day a 
full and faithful answer to tliose articles. 

Then, that is to say the next day, in the same place, Mr. 
John Harpsfield exhibited a certain book of statutes, and of 
divers ordinances of the church, and a certain final instru- 
ment sealed, viz. of agreement betwixt the dean and chap- 
l69ter: which the said commissioners received, and committed 
to the register ; and assigned him a further term to exhibit 
before them the original foundation of the said church to- 
morrow in this place, and also a full and faithful inventory 
of all and singular the jewels, ornaments, and whatsoever 
books, belonging to the said church, in the parochial church 
of Cornhill, of the city of London ; to be held there in the 
eve of St. Bartholomew next. 

And offering to them, viz. John Harpsfield, archdeacon 
of London, and Nic. Harpsfield, prebendary, and John 
Willerton, as well the book of the queen"'s Injunctions, 
with admonition inviolably to observe them, and to take 
care they were observed by other ministers of the said 
church ; as also the book of religion received, to subscribe 
the same. The same John and Nic. IIarj)sfield and J. Wil- 
lerton did altogether refuse those Injunctions, or to subscribe 
to the said religion ; protesting nevertheless, that they re- 
fused them animifi non tnalicws'is aid obstinaiis, sed ex ca 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 251 

tcmitum causa, quod conscientiis non salv'is ad himc \adhuc\ CHAP. 
in ca parte non plene instrnctis in receptionem Injunctio- '' 
nuniy aut subscriptionem religionis. Sec. consentire non po- Anuo i569. 
tuerunt : i. e. not with malicious or obstinate minds ; but 
for this cause only, that they could not consent, their con- 
sciences not safe, nor as yet fully instructed for the receiv- 
ing the injunctions, or for subscribing to the religion, &c. 

The visitors also enjoined them, that they should take 
care, that the cathedral church should be purged and freed 
from all and singular their images, idols, and altars : et in 
loco ipsorum altariiim ad providend. mensam decentem in 
ecclesia pro celebratione coencB Domini ordinaria ; i. e. and 
in the place of those altars, to provide a decent table in the 
church, for the ordinary celebration of the Lord's supper. 
And present this notice as soon as possibly might be. The 
said Harpsfield, Harpsfield, and Willerton refused, under 
the protestation before mentioned. 

Whereupon the commissaries delivered the queen's In- 
junctions to Mr. Saxy and Mr. Whitebroke, firmly enjoin- 
ing them, (who humbly received them;) and gave them in 
commandment, with other ministers of the said church, to 
abolish all the images, idols, &c. as above: which they 
took u]3on them to perform speedily, and to do other 
things, &c. And finally, offering them the book of religion 
received, to subscribe, the said Saxy, Whitebroke, together 
with John Watson, with others, subscribed the said book of 
religion. One Sebastian Westcote, master of the choristers, 
being required thereunto, refused; making the same pro- 
testation as Harpsfield, &c. before. 

Lastly, the commissaries, by reason of the manifest con- 
tumacies of Harpsfield, Harpsfield, and Willerton, (refus- 
ing to receive the Injunctions, and to subscribe to the reli- 
gion,) bound them in penalty of 200Z. to the queen in their 
respective recognisances, as in their recognisances more fully 
appears. 

Then they continued their visitation to the next day, in Continue 
the same place, between the hours of one and three sdter ^-^^^ ^ '*'**' 
noon. 



252 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 
GHAP. Sahhati, 12 Aue. in the chapter-house aforesaid, Mr. 

Y IT , 

____1_ Will. Saxy, with others, appeared ; and exhibited the ori- 



Anno 1 559. ginal foundation of the said cathedral church of St. Paul : 
^/" which, ere they looked over, they decreed to be delivered 
back again ; and saving to themselves a power of examining 
again those instruments, if it were found needful. 

Then Saxy and the others that were sworn brought in 
their answers to the articles of inquiry ; and the commis- 
sioners received them. Then they ministered their Injunc- 
tions in writing, and delivered them to Saxy, humbly re- 
ceiving them, as well in his own name, as in the name of 
the dean and chapter, and the rest of the ministers of the 
church : commanding and firmly enjoining him to observe 
those Injunctions as much as in him lay; and that he 
should procure them to be observed, as was fit. And they 
further enjoined and gave in command, that none in the 
said cathedral church henceforth use aliquihus coronis 
rasisy amisiis aut vestlbus, vocai. le coopes; i. e. any shaven 
crowns, amices, or clothes, called copes; under penalty. 
And then those that had been summoned in this visitation, 
and not appearing, they pronounced contumacio7is, and in- 
curring penalties : and for penalty of their contumacies they* 
decreed their fruits, rents, incomes, &c. of their promo- 
tions ecclesiastical, to be respectively sequestered, until they 
thought fit to release them, or otherwise. 

And lastly, they required all and singular that had been 
cited, to appear before them in that place the 12th day of 
October next ; to do and receive further such things, as to 
the visitors should be thought good to exact and require. 
And the contumacious then to give reasonable and lawful 
cause, (the contumacy increasing more,) why the commis- 
sioners should not proceed ad g-raviora, i. e. to some heavier 
courses against them and every of them ; and to deprive 
them respectively of their canonical dignities, &c. And so 
the commissioners continued their royal visitation to the 
12th of October. 
They sit November the 3d, tlie commissioners sat at St. Paurs 

again. again. [For I find nothing in this instrument of tlieir meet- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 253 

ing October 12, so I suppose it was adjourned.] Then they CHAP, 
decreed to proceed further concerning the matters formerly 



done. Anno 1559. 

Then preconlzation being made of all and singular per- Darbishire : 
sons cited, Mr. Thomas Darbishire personally appeared ; g^op Bo- 
and being required by the judges [meaning the commis- "^"^'^ '^•"^P" 
sioners] to subscribe the articles of religion received, (to 
which hitherto he had refused to subscribe,) he desired a 
further time to be appointed him, for better information of 
his soul in that behalf. Whereupon domini, i. e. the lords, 
{meaning the commissioners,] assigned to him to appear be- 
fore the commissioners residing at London on Wednesday 
next ; and then to hear their wills upon the same. 

Then further cry being made, Tho. Millet appeared, and 
exhibited a proxy in writing for one John Standish, arch- Standish, 
deacon of Colchester ; and alleged that the same, his mas- 
ter, personally had appeared before that honourable man, 
the commissary of the queen in the parts of Yorkshire, and 
had subscribed to the articles of religion received, as by the 
acts under the hand of the register in those parts appeared. 
Yet because he satisfied not in other things to be objected 
to him, according as was required by the tenor of the mo- 1 J^l 
nitions, they decreed him contumacious; reserving his pu- 
nishment to a certain day. 

Then Richard Marshal, prebendary de Medston, Will. Marshal, 
Murmere, John Murren, John Stopes, not appearing, and Mm-ren ' 
not satisfying the royal visitation, they pronounced them •^^- '^^- 
contumacious, and deprived them of their prebends by sen- 
tence definitive. 

Upon a further preconlzation made of Edmund Stubbes, 
Christopher Hawks, and Tho. Wynyver, minor canons, 
being cited to appear on this day, and long expected, and 
not appearing, they were pronounced contumacious: and 
for punishment of their contumacy deprived by sentence 
definitive. 

Sebastian Westcote personally appeared ; and being re- Westcote. 
quired to subscribe to the religion received, as he had been 
otherwise required by the commissioners, desired a further 



254. ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, delay or deliberation to be appointed him; and they of their 
abundant graces granted him to the next sitting. 



Anno 1559. Another cry made for those that were cited, and appeared 
not, nor duly satisfied the visitation : them they pronounced 
confinnacious, and to incur the penalty; referring it to their 
next meeting, next Monday. 

The same day, viz. the 3d of November, 1559, a preco- 
nization was made of all and singular rectors, vicars, and 
curates or chaplains, not duly appearing in the royal visita- 
tion, exercised and celebrated within the city and diocese of 
London, nor luidergoing the said visitation ; the punish- 
ment of whose contumacy respectively was reserved to that 
day, and none of them appearing to undergo it, nor to sa- 
tisfy the said visitation, the commissioners pronounced them 
and all of them contiimanous ; the punishment reserved to 
Monday next, ad quindenam : and then, if they appeared 
not, them and every one of them to be declared [(lcp7'h'edJ] 
Roods pull- That which was further done in this visitation in Lon- 
ed down, ^j^j^ ^^.^^g ^|-jg puUina down and demolishingf the roods, and 

and other , . ... 

relics taken taking away other things used for superstition in the 
*'**^" churches. August the 15th, the roods in St. Paul's were 
pulled down, and the high altar, and other things pertain- 
ing, spoiled. The 24th day, being St. Bartholomew''s day, 
in Cheapside, against Ironmonger-lane and St. Thomas of 
Acres, as the lord mayor came home from Smithfield that 
fair-day, and from the accustomed sports and wrestlings in 
Clerkenwell, were two great fires made of roods and images 
of Mary and John and other saints, where they were burnt 
with great wonder of the people. The 25th day, at St. 
Botolph''s, Billingsgate, the rood and the images of Mary and 
John, and of the patron of that church, were burnt, \vlth 
books of superstition : where at the same time a preacher 
standing within the church wall made a sermon ; and while 
he was preaching, the books were thrown into the fire. 
They then also took away a cross of wood that stood in the 
churchyard. Sept. 16, at St. Magnus, at the corner of 
Fish-street, the rood, and Mary, and John were burnt, and 
several other things of superstition belonging to that church. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 255 

This visitation did much good, and brought forward the CHAP, 
rehgion very considerably throughout the nation. And of. 



the clergy, (i.e. bishops, abbots, heads of colleges, pre- -^nno 1359. 
bendaries, and rectors,) the commissioners brought in but ^7^ 

. The effect 

one hundred and eighty-nine, throughout the whole nation, of this vi- 
that refused comphance. In this visitation it was, that all*'^**^°"* 
the beneficed clergymen were required to make a subscrip- 
tion with their hands to what the parliament, anno 1558, 
had enacted, concerning restoring the supremacy to the 
queen, and the book of divine service, to be according to 
the word of God: and that was done in this form, as I 
found it in the MS. hbrary at the palace in Lambhith. 

"We do confess and acknowledge, the restoration again Tbe sub. 

,.,.. , ,.., . scription of 

" of the ancient jurisdiction over the state ecclesiastical and the clergy 
" temporal of this realm of England, and abohshing of all^*;*'^'^ ^''' 

y o ' o sitation. 

" foreign power repugnant to the same, according to an act Bibiinth. 

" thereof made in the last parliament, begun at Westrain- ^^^'"^i^^jj^ 

" ster, January the 23d, in the first year of our sovereign 

" lady queen Ehzabeth, and there continuing and kept to 

" the 8th day of May then next ensuing; the administration 

" of the sacraments, the use and order of the divine service, 

" in manner and form as it is set forth in a book commonly 

" called The Book of Common Prayer, &c. established by 

" the same act ; and the orders and rules contained in the 

" Injunctions given by the queen's majesty, and exhibited 

" in this present visitation, to be according to the true 

" word of God,' and agreeable with the doctrine and use of 

" the primitive and apostolic church. In witness whereof 

" hereunto we have subscribed our names." 

This was writ at the top of a long scroll of parchment, 
with the names of the subscribing clergy, and their re- 
spective livings underwritten by themselves. 

Several learned and dignified papists relenting, made their 
submissions and acknowledgments by their subscriptions be- 
fore these visitors. Among which I met with this of Robert Paper 
Raynolds, who before had been an opposer of the queen"'s '^ 
proceedings ; which ran in these words : 



^56 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " I, Robert Raynolds, clerk, do in my most humble ways 
^^^' " desire the queen's most excellent majesty to take these my 



Anno 1559." former doings not to be of disobedience or contempt, but 
submi^ si*' " °^ ^^^ persuading and leading of my poor and simple con- 
" science: and yet do I in the like humble manner require and 
" ask her most gracious pardon and remission for the same. 
" And I shall be most willing to embrace, advance, and set 
" forth all such good and godly laws and ordinances as be 
" made and provided by her high court of parliament. And 
" \v\\l from henceforth be ready, with all obedience, to take 
" and receive the oath of me required; and will use the ser- 
" vice of the church, which is by the said laws provided, as 
" to me shall appertain. For the testimony whereof I have 
" made this my humble submission, and thereunto set my 
" hand the 16th of August, 1559. 

" Robert Raynold.'' 

This Robert, it is like, was a brother or relation of Tho- 
mas, head of Merton college and dean of Exon, or of Hie- 
rom, William, and John Raynolds, eminent men of Oxford 
about this time, and several of them zealous of popery. 



173 CHAP. XIII. 

Ecclesiastical habits and other matters scrupled. P. Martyr 
applied to Jar his judgment thereof. The roods and cru- 
cifixes in churches. A crucifix in the queen'' s chapel. The 
bisliop of Ely excuseth his ministering' in the chapel by 
reason thereof. Ceremonies established. Complying popish 
priests. Readers. Some hindcj-ers of the reformation. A 
slackness in discipline. Preaching usejul. 

One nomi- i-N OW let US take up some other matters before we pass to 

bishop sci-u-^^^ next year. One of the new made bishops, whose name 

pies the occurs not, (but one of the exiles, I make no doubt,) being 

nominated and elected, scrupled the habits and the cap so 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 257 

far, that he was in doubt of accepting the preferment: but CHAP, 
for the better satisfying of himself, he wrote a letter, dated 



Aug. 27, to Peter Martyr, then at Zurick, for his advice Anno 1559. 
and judgment what he should do. To whom also the same 
divine wrote two other letters, in the months of October and 
December, upon the same inquiry. The sum of Martyr's P. Martyr'* 
reply to his first letter was, " That indeed when himself was ^^-^^^^ 
" at Oxon, and a canon of Christ-church there, he never P- Mart. 
" wore the surplice in the choir : but his reason for it was, s^j^g^^j i,jj 
" not that it was unlawful in itself, but because, if he had judgment. 
*' done it, he should, being such a public professor, seem to 
*' have confirmed that which his conscience approved not 
" of. But as to the round cap and garments, to be worn 
" extra sacra, he thought there ought not to be much con- 
*' tention : for superstition seemed not properly to have any 
" place there. But of garments, as holy, to be used in the 
" ministry, when they carry the resemblance of the mass, 
" and are mere relics of popery, of these, he said, it was 
" Bullinger's opinion that they were not to be used, lest by 
" his example that should wear them, things that were 
" scandalous might be confirmed." But P. Martyr himself 
told this English divine that writ to him, " that his judg- 
" ment was something differing from that of Bullinger; 
" namely, that though he was always averse to the use of 
*' these ornaments, yet because he saw the present danger, 
" lest they that refused them might be deprived of the li- 
" berty of preaching; and because haply, as altars and 
" images were taken away, so these appurtenances of the 
" mass might in time be taken away also, if he [whom he 
" now wrote to] and others that had taken bishoprics would 
" be intent upon it; (which matter perhaps might not so well 
" proceed, if another should succeed in his place, who would 
" not only not care that those relics might be abolished, but 
" rather would defend and cherish them ;) therefore, to 
" keep out papists and Lutherans, as he said, he was not so 
" forward to persuade him rather to forego the bishopric 
*' than to use the garments. But because he saw scandals 
VOL. 1. s 



258 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, "of that sort were by all means to be avoided, therefore he 
" easily gave his consent to that opinion."" 



Anno 1559. In another letter he tells the same divine, " That he 

^74" thought it not worth much disputing of the square 

able advice. " Cap, and the external garments of bishops, when it was 

" Avithout superstition, and might have a civil reason for it, 

" in this kingdom especially. He wished all things might 

" be most simply performed : but that if peace might be 

" obtained between the Saxon churches and theirs, [of Hel- 

" vetia,] there should be no separation for such kind of 

Etsi enim " garments : Jhr although we should not at all approve 

probare- " thevi^ yet we would bear them. Therefore you may," said 

mus, fere- \^q^ a ^se tliosc garments either in preaching or administer- 

mus tamen. • i r ii i i i 

" mg the Lord s supper ; yet so as to speak and teach 
" against the superstitious use of them. And finally, he ad- 
" vised him not to withdraw himself from the ministerial 
" function, because of the great need of ministers : whence 
" if he, and such as he, who were, as it were, pillars, should 
" decline to take ecclesiastical offices on them, they would 
" give way to wolves and antichrists." 
Certain But beside the habits, this divine (whether it were Grin- 

theTresaid ^^^' °^ Parkhurst, or some one else) had made his observa- 
divine. tion of Other things which he disliked in that degree, as to 
doubt the taking of the episcopal office upon him, lest in so 
doing he miglit seem to approve, and uphold, and coun- 
tenance those things. And they were these: I. The spoils 
of the church, and impropriations. And he and others ap- 
prehended, that the queen intended to take away the whole 
revenue of bishoprics and parish ministers, and settle what 
livelihood and stipend she thought convenient upon them. 
II. The inimunity of those that were papistical persecutors, 
or such as had turned from protestants to be papists. The 
good man did judge, that such ought not to have an in- 
demnity granted them, but to be imprisoned, or enjoined 
penance, or the like. III. The enjoining unleavened bread 
to be used in the sacrament. IV. The processions in Roga- 
tion-week ; which seemed to liave been derived from the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 259 

processions of tlie heathen, and the superstitions attending CHAP, 
thereon. V. The iraasre of the crucifix on the communion- * 



table in the administration of the supper. VI. There were Anno 1559. 
thoughts now of receiving the Augustan Confession ; the 
better to join in league with the German protestants. 

Of these two last scruples I have something further to Some are 
observe. As to the Augustan Confession, and how willing ^y^si^ur-rh 
many were here to entertain it, Bullinger wrote thus to Confession. 
Utenhovius, a learned man, that had lived in England in 
king Edward's reign, an assistant to John a Lasco in the 
German church in London, but now with him in Poland : 
" I see," said he, " no small disturbances like to rise in 
" England also, if the Augustan Confession be received, 
" which some would have ; a thing very unworthy in many 
" regards. This gives vexation to all the purer churches, and 
" would infect them all with its leaven. I pray God restrain 
" men otherwise pious, but sufficiently troublesome to godly 
*' men and the purer religion. And you know what was 
" done in Poland. Beware, and lay to your helping hand, 
" that it be not received. King Edward's reformation satis- 
" fieth the godly a." 

Concerning the use of the crucifix to be still retained in the 1 75 
churches, the divine before mentioned was so offended at it, ^''"^ cruci- 

. fix. 

(and such offence was taken at it by many more,) that in 
his letter to Dr. Martyr, he desired him and Bullinger and 
Bernardin [Ochin] to write to the queen against it. But 
Martyr excused himself by reason of his great business. Yet, 
as he said, he had wrote already certain public letters into 
England. But his own judgment was, that he could never 
approve of having the image of the crucifix upon the table 
in preaching or administration of the sacrament. 

The queen indeed being used to these things, that is, 'f lie queen 



retains it in 
lier chapel. 



* Video et in Anglia non modicas oborituras tarbas, si, quod quidani (rem 
indignissimam multis modis] postulant, recipiatur Augustana Confessio. Vexat 
haec omnes ecclesias sinceriores, et cupit suo fermento inficere omiies. Deus 
colierceat homines satis alioquin pios, at pietati puriori molestos. Et tu scis 
quid factum sit in Polonia. Cave et adjuva ne recipiatur. Satisfacit piis Ed- 
vardi reformatio. Ex Epist. MSS. in Biblioth. Ecdes. Belg. Lond. 

S 2 



260 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, crosses and saints'' images in churches, where she and her no- 

XIII ■ • 
^_ bles that resorted thither used to give honour to them, had 



Anno ) 559. them at first in her own chapel. But she seemed to have 
laid them aside, and that upon the earnest addresses that 
were made to her by her bishops, that in her Injunctions it 
might be enjoined, that all images should be removed out 
of the churches ; wherein they did prevail. But it seems 
not long after the queen resumed burning lights and the 
image of the crucifix again upon the altar in her oratory. 
" For March 24, Barlow, formerly bishop of St. David"'s, in 
" Lent time preached at court, in his chimer and rochet : 

Cott. Libr. <« when the cross stood on the altar, and two candlesticks 
" and two tapers burning."" Whereupon the archbishop of 
Canterbury performed his part, by applying himself honestly 

A bishop to the queen, for divers reasons to remove them. And so 

hardly per- j^-,m.|^ these fumitures of her chapel disgusted some good 

suaded to . . 

minister in men, that ouc of her chief bishops, (viz. Cox, bishop of 
chape'r^" " -^^J') being appointed to minister the sacrament before her 
there, made it a matter of conscience to do it in a place 
which he thought so dishonoured by images ; and could 
scarce be brought to officiate there, denying it a great 
while; and when he did it, it was with a trembling con- 
science, as he said. And to plead for himself, and to give 
his humble advice to the queen, he wrote her a letter in a 
most submissive manner ; acquainting her both with his 
conscience, that would not a great while permit him to mi- 
nister in her chapel, namely, because the lights and cross re- 
mained ; though he believed she meant not the use to any 
evil end; and likewise shewing the reasons moving him 
No. XXII. herein : which letter and reasons I cast into the Appendix. 
Crucifixes I add here, that not long from the beginning of the 
burnt. queen's entrance upon her government, crucifixes were so 
distasteful to the people, that they brought many of them 
into Smithfiold, and there broke them to pieces and burnt 
them ; as it were to make atonement for the many holy 
men and women that were not long before roasted to death 
there. By which it did plainly appear, that however queen 
Marv by a strong hand had brought in the Roman religion 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 261 

again, yet the people's minds were generally prejudiced CHAP, 
against it, and the superstitions thereof: and they shewed it 



openly, as soon as they might safely do so. And this was Anno i569, 
no more than was ordered to be done by the queen's visitors 
and by her injunctions : which was executed about Bartho- 
lomew tide, when, in Paul's churchyard and Cheapside, as 
well as Smithfield, the roods (as they called the crosses) 
were burnt to ashes, and, together with them, in some places, 
copes also, vestments, altar-cloths, books, banners, sepul- 1 76 
chres, and such like occasions of superstition in churches, as 
was mentioned before. 

But this violence, especially exercised towards crosses and Which 
crucifixes, gave great disgust to zealous papists. And for f Jnje/ 
this very thing some of that sort, that were then abroad in some, 
foreign parts about their business, chose rather to tarry 
abroad than to return home. Sir Rich. Shelly, who was And among 
now titular lord prior of St. John's of Jerusalem, (and su- J{^c^^sheiiy 
perior of that new priory founded by queen Mary, near 
St. John's-street, London,) being at Antwerp, to recover a 
debt, and so to return home, because he had promised all 
obedience and allegiance to queen Elizabeth, altered his 
purpose, and resolved to stay abroad ; hearing what work 
was made with the crosses in England. And of this occa- MSS. Ceci- 
sion of his not coming home, he remembered the lord '*"* 
Burghley many years after in a letter he wrote to him, in 
these words : " There came news, that the crucifix, being 
" honoured (as the abridgment of all Christian faith) in the 
" queen's chapel and closet by her most excellent majesty, 
" and by your lordships of her most honourable council, was 
" nevertheless in Smithfield broken to pieces and burned in 
*' bonfires : which made me call to remembrance that which 
" I had heard your lordship say to the old lord Paget, (that Cecil's 
" God forgive,) to whom, pretending that queen Mary, of j{^g"^j.j° 
" famous memory, had returned the realm wholly catholic, Paget. 
*' your lordship answered, ' My lord, you are therein so far 
" deceived, that I fear rather an inundation of the contrary 
" part, so universal a boiling and bubbling I see of stomachs 
" that cannot yet digest the crudity of that time.' That 

s3 



262 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " saying of your lordship, upon the news of burning the cru- 
" cifix, I called to remembrance. And albeit I was encou- 



Anno 1559." raged to come home with the remembrance of my service 
" done to her majesty in the time of her adversity, whereof 
" the king of Spain is witness, and Avith her most gracious 
" accepting of me at my coming out of Flanders ; and with 
" the favour, that you, my good lord, both then and always 
" had ever shewed me ; yet finally, I was feared with that 
" fury of the people ; and then saw, that your lordship fore- 
" saw the wind and tide so strong that way, that 1 deter- 
" mined never to leave her majesty ""s service, but secedere 
" aliqiio, dum illce silescerent turbte ; and to keep my ser- 
" vice in store, till a more seasonable time.*" And thus ill 
affected stood the people at this time to crucifixes. 
Tiie queen It is Certain, however these crucifixes and roods were 
the mici'fix. taken down by authority in all the churches, yet the crucifix 
J. Marshal remained in the queen''s chapel afterwards. For about the 
"^•i''^ ^''j^'^year 1564, one John Marshal, an English papist in Lovain, 
wrote a treatise of the Cross, and had the confidence to dedi- 
cate his book to her : and that on this account, (as he expressed 
it in his epistle dedicatory,) that her good affection to the 
cross moved him to adventure to recommend his treatise to 
her highness. But this book was learnedly answered anno 
1565, by Mr. Calfhil; and the queen defended; as we shall 
see in due place. But it is true, this gave offence to many 
of her subjects, as we have heard, and may hear hereafter. 
Ceremonies And as for the other ceremonies used in the Roman 
"r1s'h"ser- ^^'lu^c^i' these our divines could have been contented at this 
vice dis- juncture to have been without, observing what jealousies 

Avere taken at them ; and that there might not be the 

177 • • • • 

' * least compliance with the popish devotions. Bishop Jewel, 

in a letter dated in February 1559, to Bullinger, said, 

Jewel's *' The surplice moved weak minds, and that for his part he 

them.'' " wished that the very slightest footsteps of popery might 

" be taken away, both out of the church and out of the 

" minds of men. But the queen, he said, could at that 

" time bear no change in religion, [other than what was al- 

" ready done and established.""] 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 

But the pacific purpose of the exiled professors of the CHAP, 
gospel, concerning their observation of the ceremonies that . 



should be established, is worthy marking. Those that had Anno 1559. 
in queen Mary's reign placed themselves in Frankford, and resoiutiolfs 
were yet there, wrote to those exiles their countrymen, that concerning 
were at Geneva, a letter dated Jan. 3, 1559- By which it „ies to be 
appears, that thev were now in much fear of ceremonies : established 

^i ^ J _ 'in England. 

yet knew not what particularly would be established. But 
they said, the better to prepare themselves and their bre- 
thren in Geneva, for taking the ministry upon them, when 
they came into England, or conforming, if they were of the 
laity, " that it would not lie in either of their hands to 
" establish the ceremonies, but in certain men's who were 
" appointed thereunto. And then they would be received 
" by common consent of parliament. They trusted that both 
" true religion would be restored, and that they should not 
" be burdened with unprofitable ceremonies. And that 
" they purposed to submit to such orders as should be esta- 
" blished by authority, being not of themselves wicked. 
*' Because the reformed churches differed among themselves 
" in divers ceremonies, and yet agreed in the unity of doc- 
*' trine. They saw no inconvenience, if they observed some 
" ceremonies, so they agreed in the chief points of religion. 
" But that if any should be intruded that were offensive, 
" they, upon conference and deliberation with their brethren 
*' then at Geneva, whom they should soon meet in England, 
" would brotherly join with them to be suitors for the re- 
" formation and abolishing of the same.*" They who signed 
this peaceable letter were these, in the name of the rest of 
the church of Frankford. 

James Pilkington, Richard Beesly, 

Francis Wilford, Christopher Brickbate, 

Edmond Isaac, John MuUins, 

John Grey, Alexander Nowel, 

Henry Knolles, John Browne. 
Henry Carew, 

And the first bishops that were made, and who were but I'^^'e first bu 

i shops, their 

S 4 



264 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, newly returned out of their exiles, as Cox, Grindal, Home, 
X.III 

Sandys, Jewel, Parkhurst, Bentham, upon their first re- 



Anno > 55.9. turns, before they entered upon their ministry, laboured all 
to thrcere- ^^^^Y could against receiving into the church the papistical 
monies, habits, and that all the ceremonies should be clean laid aside, 
biished. Rut they could not obtain it from the queen and parlia- 
ment. And the habits were enacted. Then they consulted 
together what to do, being in some doubt whether to enter 
into their functions. But they concluded unanimously not 
to desert their ministry, for some rites, that, as they consi- 
dered, were but a few, and not evil in themselves, especially 
178 since the doctrine of the gospel remained pure and entire. 
And in this counsel which they had at first taken, they con- 
tinued still well satisfied ; and also upon the considerations, 
that by filling these rooms in the church, they might keep 
out Lutherans, and such as were suspected papists : which 
was an argument the learned foreigners, their fiiends, sug- 
gested to them. 
Popish The church now being so slenderly provided of curates, 

forming"" and persons to officiate in the parishes, the bishops w^ere 
are suffered forced to allow of many who had been popish priests, but 
' now complying with the present proceedings : which indeed 
gave great distaste to many who considered not the neces- 
Part of a sity of the thing. So one of those that were brought before 
register. ^\^q commissioners ecclesiastical in the year 1567, to answer 
for their not going to the parish churches, said, the minister 
of his parish was a very papist. Whereat the bishop of Lon- 
don told him, he might then go to another place, and men- 
•^ tioned particularly St. Laurence. And another of them said, 

he knew one that persecuted God's saints in queen Mary's 
time, and brought them before Boner ; and now he was a 
minister allowed of, and never made recantation. Indeed a 
great sort of these were men of little conscience, and though 
they outwardly complied with the present ecclesiastical or- 
ders, and read the connnon prayer, and subscribed to the 
doctrine now professed ; yet inwardly they favoured popery, 
and, as much as they durst, would encourage tlieir parishioners 
to do the same. Therefore Augustin Beruher, once old fa- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 265 

ther Latymer"'s trusty friend and servant, declaimed against CHAP, 
them, for their complying in all the times; but that when ^^^^' 



they complied under queen Elizabeth, a great many of them Anno 1559. 

privately set the people against the queen and the religion. 

" Whereas before," said he, " in the time of antichrist, boldly Epist. be- 

" and openly you did deceive the people of their salvation Sermon.* 

" by Christ, now in the light of the gospel secretly you 

" whisper in the ears of the simple, and dissuade them from 

" embracing the truth The spirit of the Lord is departed 

" from you. This is more evident in your manifold and 

" manifest perjuries in king Henry's time, in king Edward's 
" time, in queen Mai-y's time. And what may be said of 
" you at this time, but that you be false, perjured hypo- 
*' crites, bearing two faces under one hood, being ready like 
" weathercocks to turn at all seasons as the wind doth carry 
**you.?" 

Another inconvenience the want of clergymen now Readers, 
brought, was the ordination of illiterate men to be readers : 
which likewise many were offended at. These readers had 
been tradesmen, or other honest, well-disposed men ; and 
they were admitted into inferior orders, to serve the church 
in the present necessity, by reading the common prayer and 
the homilies, and orders unto the people : whereof something 
hath been said before. 

This was cast upon the present governors of the church The church 
as a reproach, both by papists and by some protestants "P^°*^^^ 
themselves. The former had nothing so rife in their mouths by papists. 
whereby to burden the present ministry in England, as their 
heaping together the mention of a great many base occupa- 
tions ; and then to shew how such craftsmen were become 
our preachers [or readers rather.] Which Calfhil, in his 
book against Marshal, thus apologizeth for : " Grant," saith 1/9 
he, " that the inferior sort of our ministers were such in- Calf iiii's 
" deed as these men in spite imagine ; such as came from Marshal of 
" the shop, from the forge, from the wherry, from the loom ; t''^ "oss,^ 
" should ye not think you find more sincerity and learning face. 
" in them, than in all the rabble of popish chaplains, their 
" mass-mongers, and their soul-priests ? I lament that there 



266 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



CHAP. 
XIII. 

Anuo 1569, 



Preface to 
the Dis- 
proof. 



Nowel's 

Confuta- 

tioa. 



Rogers's ad- 
vice for 
readers. 
Fox, p. 
1356. 



" are not so many good preachers as parishes. I am sorry 
" that some so unskilful be preferred ; but I never saw the 
" simple reader admitted into our church, but in the time 
" of popery ye should have found in every diocese forty sir 
" Johns in every respect worse." 

Another of this tribe of writers, viz. Dorman, had most 
despitefully, not only laid the same charge upon this church, 
of ordaining tradesmen, but hinted them to be of the very 
meanest and most contemptible trades and occupations of all 
others: saying, "Of late, tinkers, cobblers, cowherds, fiddlers, 
" broom-men, and such like, were created divines; and dis- 
" puted upon the ale-bench for their degree." To which 
calumniation Nowel, dean of St. Paul's, made this discreet 
and home answer : " That indeed the papists' cruel mur- 
" dering of so many learned men had forced them of mere 
" necessity to supply some small cures with honest artificers, 
*' exercised in the scriptures : not in place of divines, bache- 
" lors, or doctors, but instead of popish sir Johns Lack-La- 
" tin, learning, and all honesty ; instead of Dr. Dicer, 
*' bachelor Bench-Whistler, and Mr. Card-player, the usual 
*' sciences of their popish priests ; who were the true dis- 
*' puters pro et contra for their forms upon the ale-bench ; 
'"' where you should not miss of them in all towns and vil- 
" lages. Instead of such chaplains of trust, more meet to 
" be tinkers, cobblers, cowherds, yea, bearwards and swine- 
" herds than ministers in Christ's church, that some honest 
" artificers, who (instead of such popish books as dice and 
" cards) have travelled in the scriptures, and have suc- 
" ceeded, is more against Mr. Dorman's stomacii, than St. 
" Paul's or St. Petei-'s either doctrine or example ; who 
" being artificers themselves, and in the highest place of 
" Christ's church, using sometime their art, would not dis- 
" dain other hone.st artificers to be in the meanest places." 

A great many of another sort quarrelled witii them, as 
no ministers, because they could not preach : and extraordi- 
narily displeased they were with the bishops for ordaining 
such. But they did not consider exigences, nor the advice 
of John Rogers, that learned and wise man, and first martyr 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 267 

under queen Mary ; when Day, the famous printer, was fel- CHAP, 
low prisoner with him, and afterwards fled over sea. To him 



Rogers had said, that he should live to see the alteration of Anno 1559. 
religion, and the gospel freely preached again ; and bade him 
recommend him to his brethren in exile and others, and that 
they should be circumspect in displacing the papists, when 
that time should come. And for lack of good ministers 
then to furnish the churches, he advised, (and so did bi- 
shop Hooper at the same time,) that for every ten churches 
one good and learned superintendent should be appointed, 
which should have under him faithful readers^ such as might 
be got ; so that the popish priests should be clean put out. 
And the bishop once a year should oversee the profiting of 
his parishes ; and if the minister did not his duty, as well 1 80 
in profiting himself in his book, as his parishioners in good 
instructions, and so to be trained by little and little, then he 
to be turned out, and another put in his place ; and the bi- 
shop to do the like with the superintendents. This advice 
in part was now followed by the guides of the church, by 
appointing readers for the churches ; but the method they 
thought too violent to turn out all the former priests, espe- 
cially being willing to conform themselves. For this would 
make too great a devastation in the church. And they hoped 
by time, and better information, even these priests might 
come to be hearty embracers of the reformation, and service- 
able to it. And as for the readers whom they ordained. Readers 
they were only tolerated, and to serve for the present ne- porary, 
cessity: hoping in time that the universities might produce 
men of learning to occupy places in the church. 

Yet these whom the bishop appointed to be readers were These read- 
often men of some tolerable learning in Latin, bred up in "« o^'e" 

o ^>- had learu- 

their youth in schools ; and some of them designed for the ing. 
universities, had not the discouragement of the times inter- 
posed. And so these scholars were put to trades and call- 
ings. And even then studious in the scripture and good 
books, and sometimes suff'erers for religion. Such an one 
was Tho. Earl, a reader in London in these times; and Earl a 
afterwards raised to a higher degree in the church, and ob- ^^^ ^^' 



268 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, tained a parish church. This man (as I find in a journal of 
" his own writing) was the son of a citizen and draper of Lon- 



Anno 1559. don, and put to school there in Henry VIII. his reign, with 
£p. Eiieu. ^^^ f"^*" Appleyard, belonging to the college of St. Thomas 
of Acars, and afterwards to the college of Corpus Christi. 
From this Appleyard he was removed to St. Anthony's 
school : his masters there were Archer and one Field, a 
martyr ; who, it is like, infused good principles into him. 
Twice he writes, he was hindered, as it seems, from going to 
Oxford. And then he was forced to become an apprentice 
for ten years to William Gardiner, painter stainer of London, 
in the time of king Edward and his sister queen Mary. His 
master and mistress were both very great Romanists. Who 
laid many labours and hardships, and many beatings too 
upon him, for reading of books, and for denying to consent 
to them to be a papist. And many were the complaints and 
clamours they put up against him. " But O ! Jesus Christ,"*' 
saith he, " thou wert always my helper." One Robert Asky, 
his schoolfellow, was his true friend in these his troubles. 
But he went afterwards to Lisbon and Spain, (whither he 
would have had Earl also to have gone with him,) and there 
he was suspected and imprisoned : but God's wonderful 
grace delivered him, and he returned into England in 1558, 
when queen Mary died and queen Elizabeth received the 
crown, and the grief of the godly was turned into the 
greatest joy. Soon after, he assisted at divine services in some 
places : afterwards he was ordained deacon ; and anno 1564 
got Mildred, Bread-street, having been curate there the year 
before, as he writes in his journal. 

But concerning these popishly affected priests, and some 

of these tolerated readers, and others newly ordained, for 

their imtoward way of reading, and the scandalous beha- 

181 viour of some of them, there was niucli complaint, as we 

The beha- Said before. Thus we find in a book printed not long after 

viour of (_}^ggg times: The church, said the author, did most consist 

some of the _ ' ' 

new cier>;y. then of popisli pricsts and tolerated readers, and many new 

Frai'iirford. "^^.de ministers, who read so, that the people could not be 

edified thereby ; and one of these tolerated to serve two or 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 269 

three churches. And when they read, they turned their CHAP, 



XIII. 



backs to the people, [that they might stand after the old 
way, with their faces to the altar.] In many places, preach- Anno 1559. 
ings they had none. Some were commissionated to preach ^^\ P''^'*<="" 
therefore, who went about as itineraries : but even many of 
these were ruffianly rakehells, nay common cozeners : by 
whose preaching the word of truth was become odious in 
the eyes of the people. Nay, and even in the city of Lon- 
don, the preachers there, being many of them such as had 
been in exile, wanted discretion and learning, either in over- 
valuing the foreign churches'' discipline, or betraying too 
much heat, or in making too severe reflections, or in dis- 
coursing weakly and inconsistently. Which the prudenter 
sort did then observe with no little discontent : of whom 
Mr. Whitehead was one, a very grave man, and whom 
archbishop Cranmer had once recommended to a bishopric. 
" That learned and ancient father," said Dr. Whitgift," hath Answ. to 
" sundry times lamented in my hearing (and other of his*;^ ""* 
** friends he thought had heai'd the same) the loose, fri- 
*' volous, and unprofitable preaching of divers ministers in 
" London." 

Many other things were now complained of and lamented 
in the beginning of the queen's reign. As the delay for 
some time of reforming the superstitions and disorders in 
the church. Many there were that fain would have con- Hinderers 
tinued the old papal religion, and hindered the reformation 'loxml.xs.on 
that was now on foot ; who pretended, upon politic accounts, censured, 
that it was not yet a season to do it, and that it would be 
dangerous at present to go about it, for fear of some rebel- 
lion among the people ; especially in some parts of the na- 
tion, which were much addicted to the old religion. Which 
made an eminent man, soon after bishop of Durham, speak 
after this manner, in a book about this time published : 
" Are not we guilty of the like fault as they in Haggai, Piikington's 
" that said. It is not time yet to build the temple ? When ^7°^!°" 
" God stirred up our kings as chief in the realm, and Tho. 
" Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, with others, for mat- 
*' ters in i-eligion, to drive the buyers and sellers of masses, 



270 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " pardons, trentals, &c. out of God's house, which they had 
" made a den of thieves ; was not this in all our mouths, It 



Anno 1559." is not yet time to build God's house, the people cannot 

" bear it ; we fear strange princes and rebellions? As though 

" God were content to suffer idolatry for a time, and would 

" not or could not promote his own matters without our 

" politic devices." And again elsewhere the same pious 

man hath these words ; " Let us think, that God speaks 

*' thus by his prophets, saying. This people of England, to 

" whom I have given so plentiful a land, delivered them so 

" often, and sent them my preachers, and whom, when they 

" forgot me and their duty, I punished ; sometimes sharply 

" of fatherly love, and sometimes gently, that they might 

" turn to me: yet they say, It is not time to build God's house, 

*' for fear of their own shadows. They would lie loitering 

182" still. — Be waked out of this sleep. Let us consider what 

" benefits we have received daily of our good God, and see 

" what a grief it is to be unthankful, and have our unkind- 

" ness thus cast in our teeth. Poor cities in Germany, com- 

" passed about with their enemies, reform religion tho- 

*' roughly without any fear, and God prospereth them. 

*' And yet this noble realm, which all princes have feared, 

" dare not. We will do it by our own politics, and not by 

" committing the success to God ; and so we shall over- 

" throw all." 

A slackness Others there were, that, being magistrates and officers 

^°,,'*^|^^ '"^both in church and state, however well affected they were 

straint of to a reformation, pretended they saw so much out of order, 

that they began to despair to attempt it; and so left the 

reins of discipline loose, and the people might come to 

church, or go to mass, or the alehouse, without restraint. 

And of this the same writer thus ; " Worldly wise men see 

" so many things out of order, and so little hope of re- 

" dress, that they cannot tell which to correct or amend 

" first ; and therefore let the whip lie still, [alluding unto 

" the whip that Christ used, to whip the buyers and sellers 

" out of the temple,] and every one to do what liim list, and 

" sin to be unpunished. The world is come to such a dis- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 271 

" solute liberty and negligent forgetfulness of God, that CHAP 
" men sleeping in sin need not so much a whip to drive any L 



" out of the church, so few come there, but they need a^""°^^^^' 

" great sort of whips to drive some few thitherward. For 

" come into a church the sabbath-day, and ye shall see but 

" few, though there be a sermon ; but the alehouse is ever 

" full. Well worth the papists therefore in this kingdom ; 

" for they be earnest, zealous, and painful in their doings : 

" they will build their kingdom more in one year with fire 

" and fagot, than the old gospellers will do in seven. A 

" popish summoner, spy, or promoter, will drive more to the 

" church with a word, to hear a Latin mass, than seven 

" preachers will bring in a week's preaching to hear a godly 

" sermon. Oh ! what a condemnation shall this be.-^ To see 

" the wicked so diligent and earnest in their doings to set 

" up antichrist, and Christian rulers and ofl^cers of all sorts, 

*' having the whip of correction in their hands, by God's 

" law and the prince's, have so coldly behaved themselves 

" in setting up the kingdom of Christ, that neither they 

" give good examples themselves, in diligent praying and 

" resorting to the church, nor by the whip of discipline 

" drive others thitherward." 

This made the sober and earnest bishops and divines Preaching 
press preaching. And as they preached much themselves ^i^hiy'^use- 
for the instruction of the people, so they did what they could '^"'• 

1 TT 1 11 • 1 Ti'ii Expos, on 

to promote it every where, " Hence we learn, saith Filk- Haggai. 

ington, " the necessity of preaching, and what inconvenience 

" foUoweth, where it is not used. Where preaching fails, 

" saith Solomon, the people perish. Therefore let every Prov. xxix. 

" man keep himself in God's school-house, and learn his 

" lesson diligently. For as the body is nourished with meat, 

" so is the soul with the word of God : as St. Matthew saith, 

'* A man doth not live hy bread only, but by every word that Matt. xxiv. 

" Cometh from the mouth of God. This is then the ordinary 

" way to keep us in the fear of God and continual remem- 

" brance of the last day ; often diligently to read, and hear 

" God's word preached unto us : for that is it which doth 1 83 

" and will kill sin in us. Faith is kept and increased by 



272 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " the same means that it is given. — What is the cause that 
Xlll 

" the papists lie so sound on sleep in their abominations, 



Anno 1559. « i^^f fj^aj; they care not for preaching, nor think it so ne- 
*' cessary ; and because that they would not be told of their 
" faults, that they might amend them." 

Despised by j^^ thcsc words this reverend divine had his eve upon 

many. _ . . 

several people, instructed secretly by papists to despise 
preaching, and to absent themselves as much as they could 
from sermons. For it was commonly said even in these 
times, but chiefly by the enemies of the gospel, " What 
" should I do at a sermon ? I know as much before I go as 
*' I shall learn there. I can read the scripture at home, 
" and comfort myself sufficiently."" These are better than 
they that will neither hear nor read, but say, " I know 
" there is no more but Do xcell and have well. I know 
" that this is all that can be said. Love God above all things^ 
" and thy neighbour as thyself. I can say my Pater noster 
*' and my Creed, as well as he : and further I know, that 
" in the one is contained all things necessary to be asked at 
" God's hand, and in the other all that is to be believed ; 
" and what can or should a man have more than this ? 
" These sayings, albeit they be true, yet are they most brut- 
" ish, and nothing else in very deed but naughty exposi- 
" tions to cloak our slothful wickedness Avithal : and that 
*' we would not in any wise have preaching, because we 
" would not have our faults rebuked, nor yet our minds ex- 
" ercised in meditation of God and his goodness, and of our 
** own sin and miserj'." 
Papists Moreover, concerning this preaching, thus would the pa- 

preathinfj. pists also Say, "that it is not necessary to preach often, by 
And why. <' the example of Pambo, which when he had heard one 
" lesson, would hear no more till he had in many years 
" learned to practise that one. Which example proveth ra- 
*' ther," said my foresaid author, " that we should diligently 
" learn, than seldom preach." They were desperately afraid 
the people should have too much knowledge. " It was never 
*' a good world, they say, since every shoemaker could teach 
" the j)ricst his duty. They were ashamed of their faults,** 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 273 

said my author, *' and therefore would have the people in CHAP. 
" blindness still, that they should see neither their own 



faults, nor tell them of theirs. For that especially they Anno 1559. 
*' could not abide." And be sure those that were under 
these priests should have learning little enough. " For how 
" can they be learned," said he, " having none to teach 
" them but sir John Mumblemattins .'"■ 

And here I cannot but insert the mention of a popish 
archdeacon, that never preached ; and the witty reason 
which he gave why he did not ; as we have it related by a 
good author that lived in those times. " An archdeacon An arch- 
" asked a young scholar once in discourse, whether he [the never 
" archdeacon] had a good wit, or no ? Yes, sir, said he, preached. 

. . , !•/• 1 • 11 1 • ArtofRhe- 

" your wit is good enough, 11 you keep it still, and use it toric, by 

" not : for every thing, as you know, is the worse for yi^H'. 

" wearing. Thou sayest even truth, said the archdeacon, 

" for that is the matter that I never use preaching : for it 

" is nothing but the wasting of wit, and a spending of wind. 

" And yet if I would preach, I think I could do it as well 184 

" as the best of them. Yea, sir, said the other, I would 

" not you should prove it, for fear of straining yourself too 

" much. Why dost thou fear that ? replied the archdea^ 

" con. Nay, thou mayest be assured I will never preach so 

" long as I live, God being my good Lord. There are 

" over-many heresies for good-meaning men to speak any 

" thing nowadays." [Meaning preaching to be the cause 

of heresy.] 

And as these men would in these days speak their mind Some mur- 

•' . raur at the 

against preaching, so would they do also against the common allowance 
use of the holy scriptures. " It was never good world, "j^J^^^^jpf 
" would they say, since the word of God came abroad : and tures. 
" that it was not meet for the people to have it or read 
" it, but they must receive it at the priest's mouth. For 
" they were, they said, the nurses that must chew the meat 
" afore the children eat it." But the said learned man 
sharply replied, " It is so poisoned in their filthy mouths 
" and stinking breaths, that it poisoneth, but feedeth not the 
" hearer." 

VOL. 1. T 



274 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



Anno 1559 
Churches 
purged of 
supersti- 
tious. 



Pilk. Ex- 
posit, on 
Hagg. 



Orders for 
the cures. 

181 



CHAP. XIV. 

The progress of the refoj-mation. Orders for cures vacant. 
The foreigners'' joy in behalf of England. A proclama- 
tion for preserving monnmcnts, ^-c. in churches. Another 
for apparel. 

X ET did the reformation silently and surely go on, 
though slowly, and with great opposition, as the walls of 
Jerusalem were built : and, by the diligence of some about 
the queen, many abuses were already despatched and laid 
aside. And if we went now into the churches, you might 
see all the former superstitions, that used to appear there, re- 
moved and gone ; purged of images and relics : which ex- 
ceedingly grieved the papists. " The papists weep to see our 
" churches so bare, saying, they were like barns; and that 
" there was nothing in them to make courtesy unto ; neither 
" saints, nor yet their little old god, [meaning the pix 
" hanging over the altar.""] And a little before, " The 
" pope's church hath all things pleasantly in it to delight the 
*' people withal : as for their eyes, their god hangs in a rope : 
" images gilded, painted, carved most finely : copes, cha- 
" lices, crosses of gold and silver, with relics and altars. For 
" the ear, singing, ringing, and organs piping. For the nose, 
" frankincense, sweet perfumes. To wash away sin, as they 
" say, holy water of their own hallowing and making. Priests 
" an infinite sort, masses, trentals, dirges, pardons, &c. But 
" where the gospel is preached, they, knowing that God is 
*' not pleased but with a pure heart, are content with an 
" honest place appointed to resort together in, &c. with bare 
" walls, or else written with scriptures." 

But as for the archbishop, he was not idle in doing his 
service at this time to the church. For the performing of God's 
service purely and profitably in the many vacant churclies, 
he drew up and gave out rules, orders, and directions,^?- 
serving of the cures now destitute : as there were not a few ; 
some priests going away, and departing from their benefices, 
and others non-resident, and many livings of so mean in- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 275 

come, that none would take them up. This order was as CHAP. 
foUoweth : ' 



First, That the bishop of the diocese take special care to^°"° '^^3- 
foresee such men to be presented to their benefices of their Petyt, 
collations, or of others, which will promise to be resident "'^'"'S- 
upon their cures, and which also will take to their care and 
oversight some other vicarages and parsonages next adjoin- 
ing to their principal place of residence, more in number or 
fewer, as the bishop by his discretion shall think meet for 
the worthiness of the person, and for the convenient unition 
of the said cures. 

Item, Order to be taken for faculty of pluralities, &c. 

Item, At the receiving of his principal benefice he shall 
also compound for the rest, as they shall fall vacant, having 
favourable days of payment of those said united benefices, 
which few men will be induced singularly to take upon 
them, and answer other charges ordinary and extraordinary 
depending upon the same, until such time as some one able 
clerk or minister will offer to take upon him to serve any of 
the said united benefices. In which case the said principal 
incumbent to be discharged, or to be otherwise appointed 
as the ordinary and patron shall conveniently agree there- 
unto, with convenient contentation of the ministers between 
themselves. 

Item, That the lay patrons of such benefices may be ad- 
vertised by authority of parliament, or otherwise, to suffer 
the cures of their presentations and collations so to be united 
for the time in this case of necessity, without hurt of their 
rights, as may be conveniently agreed on by the ordinary 
and the said patrons. Provided that this uniting of benefices 
of the patronage of any ecclesiastical or lay person, with any 
promotion of the queen's majesty's gift and collation, shall 
not be prejudicial to the right, interest, and title of the said 
subjects'" patronage, ecclesiastical or lay, as afore, except for 
lack of presentation within six months by the lay patron, 
the benefice falling into the lapse. The bishop then for 
that turn to dispose it agreeably to such device as here is 
expressed. 

T 2 



276 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAT. Item, Tlmt the said principal incumbent shall depute in 
-^*^' every such parish committed to his care, one able minister 



Anno 1559. within orders of deacon, if it may be, or else some honest, 
sober, and grave layman, who, as a lector or reader, shall 
give his attendance to read the order of service appointed ; 
except, that he shall not, being only a reader, intermeddle 
with christening, marrying, or ministering the holy commu- 
nion, or with any voluntary preaching or prophesying ; but 
read the service of the day with the litany and homily, 
agreeable as shall be prescribed in the absence of the prin- 
cipal pastor, or some one pastor chanceable coming to that 
parish for the time. 

Item, That the said principal incumbent and pastor shall 
in course resort in circuit to every his peculiars, as well to 
preach the word of God, as to minister the holy communion 
to them that shall be thereto disposed, as to marry and bap- 
186tize the childer, born sithence the day of his last being with 
them. Provided, that the people be taught by an homily 
made therefore, that they need not to stand in any scrupu- 
"Nonpro- Josity for the delay of baptism^, if they depart before they 
was the be presented to the minister in the church ; considering that 
quarrel of -^^ ^^^ primitive church, the fathers used but two principal 
nish rebel- feasts, Easter and Pentecost, to admit the childer to the holy 
was nut in ^^^^ ^^ regeneration. Not forbidding yet the minister and 
by sir w. pastor aforesaid, if he may conveniently minister the said 
der. sacrament of baptism on the week day, being required 

thereunto, without pact or covenant of rewai'd, but of cha- 
rity and zeal which lie ought to bear to the reasonable re- 
quests of his people ; and as they again of their charitable 
considerations may request the same in respect of the time, 
weather, or distance of place, not to molest the said pastor 
more than need. 

Item, That the said pastor shall have special care at his 
repair to such of his circuits, to know how the youth do 
profit in the catechism taught them l)y the lector or minister, 
weekly attending upon them : and to see that the elder and 
ancient folk do prepare themselves three times of the year at 
the least, to receive the Jioly communion in love and charity. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 277 

Which pastor shall refer all causes of great importance to CHAP, 
the bishop, or his chanceLor, as the case shall require, and as 



is provided by injunction. '^""o 1559. 

Item, That the pastor being presented to such churches 
compatible, over and above his principal cure, shall not, be- 
fore some receipt of his possession, pay to the ordinaries for 
his institution and induction more than for the fees of the 
register only, for all such benefices as shall be thought to be 
of an exile portion of living, and chargeable to the first- 
fruits. 

Item, That the lectors or readers shall not be appointed 
but with the oversight of the bishop, or his chancellor, to 
have his convenient instruction and advertisement, with 
some letters testimonial of his admission, how to order them- 
selves in the said charge. Which said lectors shall be al- 
ways removable upon certificate and proof of their disabi- 
Hty and disorder. 

Item, That there be a convenient rate made by the bi- 
shop and his counsel, with the consent of the patron of such 
benefices to be united, what portion shall be appointed in 
stipend to the principal pastor, what to the reader, what to 
the bearing of ordinary and extraordinary payments, what 
to the reparation of the chancel and mansion houses, and 
what may remain to be distributed to the poor in such 
parish united. 

Item, That the principal pastor shall not let to ferme over 
one year, and ever at Annunciation of our Lady, any one 
such benefice united, but with the consent of the ordinary 
and patrons of the same. To whom above three years it 
shall not be lawful to let them forth to ferme. 

Item, That those fermors shall be aided and assisted as 
well by the laws and diligence of the ordinary, as by the aid 
of the divers justices next dwelling to such benefices : that 
the rights, tithes, and all other ecclesiastical emoluments be 
duly contented and paid : Avhereby the charges and persons 
aforesaid may have their due relief and stipend according to 
law, equity, and good conscience. This was the prudent I87 

T 3 



278 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, course taken in the present distress to svipply the church 

XIV. M • • , 

■ with mniisters. 



Anno 1659. In fine, there was great joy abroad among the eminent 
Joy anioDf; y,gjjjg ^f ^j^g reformers, for the good profijress of religion in 

loreigners ' o i o o 

for the sue- England; and hkewise in Scotland too, and in Poland, and 
4on. "^ ' other places. For thus Peter Martyr writ to Utenhoven in 
p. Martyr's Poland, January 7, signifying his great joy conceived for 
upon. Bib- the good successes of religion in Poland. " If there was joy 
hoth. Lcci. a ^^^q^^ ([^q angels of God for one poor sheep lost and 
" found again, what pleasure is it fit we should take for so 
" many provinces, and so great a kingdom as Poland is, if, 
" as you give hope to believe, it be converted to the true 
" religion of Christ. God seems, at this time especially, to 
" have a mind to reveal his kingdom. Concerning Eng- 
" land. Martyr said, he had writ before to Alasco: and 
" for the good news thereof, he knew they would both 
" rejoice and congratulate Christ these accessions to his 
" kingdom, because both of them so greatly favoured it.*" 
Then he descended to mention the work he was upon, of 
giving an answer to bishop Gardiner's book, in vindication 
of his great patron archbishop Cranmer. " That he had 
" sent a part of it to Alasco and him, praying him that he 
" would deal with the booksellers in Poland to take off 
" some of the copies the next Frankford mart, and to 
" disperse them in that realm, for the better increase of re- 
" ligion there. And the book, when finished, he intended 
" to dedicate to the present queen of England." Of the 
The people realm of Scotland he wrote, " That the people there had the 
Scot""n'd! " gospel also, and that public sermons were preached there, 
" and that there was a just ministiy of the sacrament. But 
" that these were not favours given them by the public 
" laws, or the will of the queen, but that the people by a 
" great consent usurped them to themselves. And that 
" when on the first of September there had been a solemn 
" procession in Edinburgli of the chief idol of the city, one 
" Giles, and the queen herself accompanied, and some 
'' noblemen, the people rose, and dissolved the shew, and 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 279 

" threw the idol mto the public sink of the city. The CHAP. 
" queen and nobles withdrew themselves into the castle. ;_ 



" And the people caused it to be writ to the French king, Anno 1559. 
" exhorting him to follow the pure religion ; and that if he 
" would grant it them, they would be quiet, otherwise they 
" would join themselves to the English." 

For the conclusion of this year, I will take notice of two Piociama- 
proclamations the queen issued out. The one, bearing date '""g^.^'j^^ 
September 19, from Windsor, was against defacing monu- old monu- 
ments in churches, and taking away bells and lead. In ti,e bells 
which I do ffuess the archbishop had a great hand, being ^""^ ^^^'^ ''^ 

° . . f ° . ^ churches. 

SO great a lover of antiquity, and so sore an enemy against 
the spoil of the monuments of our forefathers and of the 
churches; and the proclamation itself being so excellently 
and fully expressed, as though it were done by his pen or 
direction : it was entitled, A ijroclamation against hredk- 
ing or defacing of monuments of antiquity ; being set up 
in churches or other public places for memory^ and not 
for superstition. It set forth, " How the ancient monu- 
" ments of metal and stone in churches and other public 
" places had been lately spoiled and broken : which were 
" set up only for the memoi'y of persons there buried, 
" or that had been benefactors to the buildings or dotations 188 
" of the churches. The mischief of demolishing these mo- 
" numents are reckoned to be, 1. That those churches and 
" places were spoiled, broken, and ruinated. 2. The ho- 
" nourable and good memory of virtuous and noble persons 
" extinguished. 3. The true understanding of divers fa- 
" milies in the realm, who have descended of the blood of 
" the same persons, darkened. 4. The true course of their in- 
" heritance hereby might hereafter be interrupted, contrary 
" to justice. 5. Such as gave or had charge in times past 
" only to deface monuments of idolatry, and feigned images 
" in churches and abbeys, slandered. The queen therefore 
" commanded all such breaking of monuments hereafter to 
" be forborne and forbad, without consent of the ordinary, 
" to break an image of kings, princes, or noble states of the 
" realm, or any other in times past set up for the only re- 

T 4 



280 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " menibrance of tiiem to jwsterity, and not for any religious 
" honour ; nor to break and deface any image in any glass 



Anno 1559. " windows: and that upon pain to be committed to the 
" next gaol : and at the next coming of the justices to be 
" further punished by fine or imprisonment, besides the 
" restitution and rcedification of what was broken ; using 
" therein the advice of the ordinary. 
Present- « And for the restoration of such as be already spoiled, 

made of " she charged all archbishops, bishops, and other ordinaries, 
such viola- n ^^ inquire by presentments of the curates and church- 
" wardens, what manner of spoils have been made since the 
" beginning of her reign, and by whom : and to enjoin 
" them, under pain of excommunication, to repair the same 
" by a convenient day ; or to notify the same to her ma- 
" jesty''s council in the star-chamber : and if they were not 
" able to repair the same, then to be enjoined open penance 
'* in the church two or three times, according to the quality 
" of the crime. And if the party offending be dead, then 
" the ordinary was to enjoin the executors of the deceased 
*' to repair and reedify. And when the offender could not 
" be presented, if it were in any cathedral or collegiate 
*' church, which had revenues belonging to it, remaining in 
" the discretion of the governors thereof to bestow, the 
" queen required them to employ such parcels of the said 
" sums of money as might be spared, upon the speedy re- 
" pair of such defaced monuments, as agreeable to the ori- 
" ginal as might be. 

" And whereas some patrons or impropriators, upon pre- 
" tence of their being owners of the parsonages impro- 
" priatc, did persuade witli the parson and parishioners to 
" throw down the bells of the churches and chapels, and 
** the lead of the same, converting the same to their private 
'* gain, and thereby sought a slanderous desolation of tlie 
" places of prayer ; the queen, to whom in the right of tiie 
" crown the defence and protection of the church belonged, 
*' expressly forbade any person to take awav the bells or 
" lead, under j)ain of imprisonment during her pleasure, 
** and further fine for tlic contempt. And she commanded 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 281 

" all bishops and ordinaries to inquire of such contempts CHAP. 
" done from the beginning of her majesty's reign; and to ^^^' 
" enjoin the persons offending to repair the same within a Anno 1559. 
" convenient time. And to certify her majesty's privy coun- 
" cil, or the council in the star-chamber, that order might 
" be taken therein." He that is minded to see this procla- 
mation at length, may find it preserved in Fuller's Church Book ix. 
History. P- ^^• 

Another proclamation, dated from Westminster, October Prociama- 

21, was against the excess of apparel, which grew on apace, *'°" ^S'""**^ 

and gave great offence to pious people : who thought it con- apparel. 

sisted not with the gravity and seriousness of a nation pro- ^ ^9 

fessing true religion, to lash out so excessively that way ; 

and many spending upon their backs more than they covild 

well spare, to the impoverishing of themselves and family, 

and to the decay of charity. Therefore the queen in this 

proclamation made a declaration of her purpose ; " To take 

' the penalty of sundry former laws for wearing excessive 

' and inordinate apparel. As particularly that act in the first 

' and second of Philip and Mary ; and certain branches of 

' another statute, made the 24th of Henry VIII. against 

' excessive apparel. The mulcts were, by order of council, 

' to be put in execution in the queen's court and in their own 

' houses. And in the countries, the mayors and governors 

' of cities and towns corporate, sheriffs, and justices of the 

' peace, noblemen, heads of societies, either ecclesiastical or 

' temporal, within twelve days were to take order for the 

' execution of the foresaid statutes. And she charged and 

' commanded, that there should be no toleration or excuse 

' after the 20th of December next, touching the contents 

' of the statute in the first and second of Philip and Mary ; 

' nor after the last of January, touching the branches of 

' the other statute. Yet allowance was given for the wear- 

' ing of certain costly furs, and rich embroideries, bought 

' and made by sundry gentlemen before this proclamation, 

' to their great costs, with which the queen dispensed." 

What these vanities in apparel now were, may be the 
better understood, if we observe what one of the prelate:* 



282 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, about this time writ, reproving them. " These finefingured 
^^^' " rufflers witli their sables about their necks, corked sHp- 



Anno 1559." pers, trimmed buskins, and warm mittens, — furred sto- 
Tiie vaiii u machers, lonsr sowns. These tender parnels must have 

apparels ' » rt i /. i • 

nowadays, " one gown for the day, another for the night : one long, an- 
^u^ c " other short: one for winter, another for summer: one furred 

shions. Ex- ' 

pos. upon " through, and another but faced : one for the workday, an- 
"»o- ;< other for the holyday : one of tliis colour, another of that : 
" one of cloth, another of silk or damask. Change of ap- 
" parel ; one afore dinner, another at after : one of Spanish 
" fashion, another of Turkey. And to be brief, never con- 
" tent with enough, but always devising new fashions and 
" strange. Yea, a ruffian will have more in his ruff and his 
" hose, than he should spend in a year. He which ought to 
" go in a russet coat, spends as much on apparel for him 
*' and his wife, as his father would have kept a good house 
" with." 



CHAP. XV. 

A collection of various historical matters Jailing out within 
this year, 1559- 
Misceiiane- J^ Q W, lest I should let slip many other historical matters, 

ous matters. . . . . ' 

both religious and secular, private as well as public, that 
fell out within the compass of this year, 1559, being miscel- 
laneous, and not so easy to be brought into a due method ; 
I shall here set them down by way of diary as I have met 
with them in manuscript letters or memorials. 
190 April the 7th, a gentlewoman was buried at St. Thomas 
A proti'st- (jf Acre : whose funeral beinff performed after a different 

ant func- r> i i . . , . , 

rai. way from the then common superstitious and ceremonial 

Cott. libr. custom, luv joumalist sets it down as a matter worthy his 
Vitcll. F. 5. . -^ , . , , , , „ o ,^ , 

noting ; ana writes, that she was brouglit from St. liartho- 

lomew''s besides Lothbury, with a great company of people, 
walking two and two, and neither })riests nor clerks present, 
[who used ever to be present (and that in considerable 
numbers) at the burials of persons of any note, going be- 
fore, and singing for the soul of the departed.] But instead 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 283 

of them went the new preachers in their gowns; and they CHAP, 
neither singing nor saying, till they came to the church. ^^' 



And then, before the corpse was put into the grave, a collect Anno 155.9. 
was said in English, [whereas beforetime all was said in 
Latin.] And the body being laid in the grave, one took 
earth and cast it on the corpse, and read something that be- 
longed to the same ; and incontinently they covered it with 
the earth. And then was read the epistle out of St. Paul to 
the Thessalonians for the occasion. [Perhaps that place 
where it begins, But I would not have you igmorant, bre- 
thren, concerning' them zohich are asleep, that ye sorrow not 
even as others, which have no hope, &c. 1 Thess. iv. 13. 
Unless here be a mistake, and the Thessalonians put for the 
Corinthians; the epistle that is appointed in our Common 
Prayer Book to be read at funerals.] And after this they 
sung the Pater-noster in English, as well preachers as all 
the company, women not excepted, after a new fashion. 
And after all, one went into the pulpit and made a sermon. 
This was accounted strange at this time : but it seems to be 
partly the office of burial used in king Edward's time, and 
some other additions to it. And this was somewhat boldly 
done, when as yet the old religion was in force. 

April the 8th, peace was proclaimed between the queen Prodama- 
and Henry the French king, the dolphin of France, and '"^Jl 
Scotland, for ever ; and all hostilities to cease both by land 
and sea. It was proclaimed with six trumpeters, five he- 
ralds of arms. Garter, Clarenceux, Lancaster, Rouge-Cross, 
and Blewmantle, and the lord mayor and aldermen in their 
scarlet. 

A proclamation was also made the same day against Players, 
players, that they should play no more till a certain time, to 
whomsoever they belonged. And if they did, the mayor, 
sheriffs, bailiffs, constables, or other officers were to appre- 
hend them, and carry them to prison. 

April the 12th, the corpse of sir Rice Mansfield, knight. Sir Rice 
was brought from Clerkenwell unto the Blackfriars, with funerals, 
two heralds, and the rest of the ceremonies usual : twenty- 
four priests and clerks singing before him, all in Latin. 



284 ANxNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. The friars" church was hiiiiff with bJack and coats of anus. 
XV . 

The dinge was sung both in tlie parish where he died, and 



Anno 1659. likewise where he was buried. There were carried alono; \nth 
him four banners of saints, and many other banners. The 
morrow masses were said in both churches. Afterward was 
his standard, coat, helmet, target, offered up at the high 
altar. And all this being performed, the company retired 
to his place to dinner. This was the common way of fune- 
rals of persons of quality in the popish times. 

Anibassa- The day of April, the queen's ambassadors, viz. the 

home. lord chamberlain, the lord bishop of Ely, and Dr. Wootton, 
dean of Canterbury, returned from France. 
191 The 22d day of the said month the lord Wentworth, the 

The i:ite laj-g and last lord deputy of Calais was broueht from the 

lord deputy . . . 

of Calais Tower to Westminster, to be arraigned for losing of that 
tne( . place. Several were his accusers ; but he acquitted himself, 

and was cleared by his peers : and went thence unto Whit- 

tington college, where he afterwards lived. 

S^'^sf" ^P^'^^ ^^^^ ^^^' ^^^^"S ^^- Geoi'g'^'s ^^y^ ^^^ queen went 
George's about the hall, and all the knights of the garter, and about 
^^' the court, singing in procession. The same day in the after- 

noon were four knights elected, viz, the duke of Norfolk, 
the marquis of Northampton, the earl of Rutland, and the 
lord Robert Dudley, master of the queen"'s horse. 
Procession The 25th, St. Mark's day, was a procession in divers pa- 
Mark's day. rishes of London, and the citizens went with their banners 
abroad in their respective parishes, singing in Latin the 
Kyr'ie eleeson after tlie old fashion. 
Tiie queen The Same day the queen in the afternoon went to Bai- 
castie. nard's castle, the carl of Pembroke's place, and supped with 
him, and after supper she took a boat, and was rowed up 
and down in the river Thames ; hundreds of boats and 
barges rowing abt)ut her; and thousands of people throng- 
ing at the water side to look upon her majesty ; rejoicing 
to see her, and partaking of the music and sights on the 
Thames : for the trumpets blew, drums beat, flutes played, 
guns were discharged, squibs hurled up into the air, as the 
queen moved from place to place. And this continued till 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 285 

ten of the clock at night, when the queen departed home. CHAP. 
By these means shewing herself so freely and condescend- '__ 



ingly unto her people, she made herself dear and acceptable Anno 1559. 
unto them. 

May the 12th, Sunday, the English service began at the Engrish ser- 
queen's chapel : which was but four days after the use of it before the 
was enacted, and before it was enjoined to take place in the i"^^"- 
nation by the act of parliament : which was at St. John 
Baptist's day. 

May the 22d, the bishop of London's palace, and the The French 
dean of Paul's house, with several other houses of the ca-jors! 
nons and prebendai-ies of the said church, were taken up 
for the French ambassadors, monsieur Montmorency, &c. 
and their retinue. 

The 23d, they came and landed at Tower wharf, where 
many lords and nobles came to meet them, and conducted 
them to their said lodgings. 

The 24th, they were brought from the bishop's palace 
through Fleet-street by the greatest nobles about the court, 
to the queen's palace to supper. The hall and the great 
chamber of presence was hung with very rich cloth of ar- 
ras, and cloth of state. There was extraordinary cheer at 
supper, and after that, as goodly a banquet as had been 
seen ; with all manner of music and entertainment till mid- 
night. 

The 25th, they were brought to court with music to din- 
ner. And after a splendid dinner, they were entertained 
with the baiting of bears and bulls with English dogs. The 
queen's grace herself and the ambassadors stood in the gal- 
lery looking on the pastime till six at night. After that, 
they went by water unto Paul's wharf, and landed there, to 
go to their lodgings at the bishop's palace to supper. It 
was observed of these ambassadors, that they were most 
gorgeously apparelled. 

The 26th day they took barge at Paul's wharf, and so 
to Paris Garden ; where was to be another baiting of bulls 
and beai-s. And the captain with an hundred of the guard I92 



286 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, kept room for them against tliey came, that they might have 
■ place to see the sport. 



Anno 1559. The Same day was proclamation made of five acts of par- 
Acts of par- liamcnt lately passed and made : which I conclude to be the 

liaiuent •' ^ 

proclaimed, five first acts in the statute book primo Eliz. viz. 

I. For restoring to the queen the ancient jurisdiction 
over the state ecclesiastical, and for abolishing all foreign 
power. 

II. For the uniformity of common prayer and service in 
the church, and administration of the sacraments. 

III. For recognition of the queen''s title to the imperial 
crown of this realm. 

IV. For restitution of first-fruits and tenths, &c. and par- 
sonages impropriate to the crown. 

V. An act whereby certain offences are made treason : all 
which were so necessary to be proclaimed and known, for 
the universal concern and import of them to all the queen's 
subjects. 

The aiubas- The 28th, the French ambassadors went away, taking 
i,'jirt. their barge towards Gravesend ; and carried with them 

many mastiff's, given them for hunting their wolves. 
Lady Barnes June the 2d, was buried in Little St. Bartholomew''s, 
the lady Barnes, late wife of sir George Barnes, knight, 
sometime lord mayor of London. She gave to many poor 
men and women good russet gowns ; and to the poor men 
and women of Calais, [who now, being driven out thence 
from their habitations, trades, and estates, into England, 
and that in great numbers, were no doubt in great straits,] 
she gave so much apiece in money, and an hundred black 
gowns and coats. There attended the funeral Mr. Claren- 
ceux, and twenty clerks singing afore her to the church, all 
in English. All the place, [i. e. her liouse,] and the streets 
through which they passed, and tlie church, all hung in 
black and coats of arms. Being come to the church, and 
the English procession sung, ISIr. Home made a sermon. 
After that, the clerks sung 7V Dcian in English. Then 
tlie corjise was buried with something sung. I suppose it 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 287 

was the versicles, beginning, Man that is born of a xvo- c H A P. 
man, &c. ^^* 



June the 6th, St. George's feast was kept at Windsor. Anno 1559. 
The earl of Pembroke was the queen's substitute. There f ""'", ^ . 

^ knights in- 

were stalled at that time the four noblemen that were lately stalled at 
elected into the order. There was great feasting. And that ^' "''"""• 
day the communion and English service began to be cele- 
brated there. 

June the 11th, being St. Barnabas-day, the apostle's mass Mass ceas- 
ceased, and no mass was said any more at St. Paul's : and Paul's. 
on that day Dr. Sandys preached, the lord mayor and alder- 
men, the earl of Bedford and many of the court present. 
And now Dr. May, sometime dean of St. Paul's, but de- The old 
posed, took possession of his place in the church as dean. st^or"d.^' 
And that afternoon was none of the old evensong there, 
and so abolished. 

The same day, about eight of the clock at night, the The queen 
queen took her barge at Whitehall, and many more barges barge. 
attended her ; rowing for her pleasure along the bank-side, 
by the bishop of Winchester's : and so crossing over to 
London side ; with drums beating and trumpets sounding. 
And so to Whitehall again. 

July the 2d, the city of London entertained the queen at 193 
Greenwich with a muster; each company sending; out a ^^^ '^'^'"^ 

'■ , •' . " zens muster 

certain number of men at arms ; [1400 in all, saith Stow ;] before the 
to her great delight and satisfaction : whose satisfaction sa- 'i"'^'^"- 
tisfied the citizens as much ; and this created mutual love 
and affection. 

On the first of July they marched out of London in 
coats of velvet and chains of gold, with guns, morris-pikes, 
halberds, and flags: and so over London-bridge unto the 
duke of Suffolk's park in Southwark ; where they all mus- 
tered before the lord mayor, and lay abroad in St. George's 
fields all that night. The next morning they removed to- 
wards Greenwich, to the court there ; and thence into Green- 
wich park : here they tarried till eight of the clock : then 
they marched down into the lawn, and mustered in their 
arms : all the gunners in shirts of mail. At five of the 



288 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, clock at nig-lit tlie queen came into the gallery over the 
^^ • park gate, with the ambassadors, lords, and ladies, to a great 

Anno 1559. number. The lord marquis, lord admiral, lord Dudley, 
and divers other lords and knights, rode to and fro, to view 
them ; and to set the two battles in array to skirmish be- 
fore the queen. Then came the trumpets to blow on each 
part, the drums beating and the flutes playing. There were 
given three onsets in every battle. The guns discharged on 
one another; the morris-pikes encountered together with 
great alarm. Each ran to their weapons again, and then 
they fell together as fast as they could, in imitation of close 
fight. All this while the queen, with the rest of the nobles 
about her, beheld the skirmishings ; and after, they re- 
cluded back again. After all this, Mr. Chamberlain, and 
divers of the commons of the city, and the whifflers, came 
before her grace; who thanked them heartily and all the 
city. Whereupon immediately was given the greatest shout 
as ever was heard, with hurling up of caps. And the queen 
shewed lierself very merry. After this was a running at 
tilt. And lastly, all departed home to London. 

The Eli- The ncxt day, being July the 3d, the queen went to 

i^rtunched. Woolwich, to the launching of a fine ship newly built, and 
called by her own name Elizabeth. 

Tilting be- 'pj-jg ;ioth of the same month, the queen, being still at 

fore the ' 1 ' fc> 

queen at Greenwich, well knew how pomps and shews, especially 
Greenwic i j^^jjitary, with her own presence thereat, delighted her sub- 
jects, and perhaps herself too : now therefore was set up in 
Greenwich park a goodly banqueting-house for her grace, 
made with fir-poles, and decked with bircli-branches, and all 
manner of fl(jwers both of the field and garden, as roses, 
July-flowers, lavender, marigolds, and all manner of strew- 
ing herbs and rushes. There were also set up tents for the 
kitchen, and for the officers, against to-morrow, with pro- 
visions laid in of wine, ale, and beer. There was also made 
u]) a j)lace for the (]ueen^s j^ensioncrs, who were to run with 
spears. The challengers were three, the carl of Ormond, 
sir John Perrot, and Mr. North : and there were likewise 
defendants of equal valour with lances and swords. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 289 

About five in the afternoon came the queen with the am- CHAP. 

XV 

bassadors and divers lords and ladies, and stood over the 



park gate to see the exercise. And after, the combatants ^""o i^^g. 
ran, chasing one the other. After this the queen came down 
into the park, and took her horse, and rode up to the ban- 19^ 
queting-house, and the three ambassadors ; and so to sup- 
per. After was a mask ; and then a great banquet. And 
then followed great casting of fire and shooting of guns till 
twelve at night. This was undoubtedly the queen's policy, 
to accustom her nobles and subjects to arms, and to give all 
countenance to the exercise of warfare, having such a pros- 
pect of enemies round about her, as well as to entertain the 
ambassadors. 

July the 17th, the queen removed from Greenwich in her^iie queen 
progress, and goes to Dartford in Kent. And the next day cobham's. 
she came to Cobham, the lord Cobham's place: and there 
her grace was welcomed with great cheer. 

July the 20th, king Philip of Spain was married unto King Philip 

- ^ II- , 11 -r-<T 11*1 • marries. 

the French kmgs daughter Elizabeth. And great justs 
were made: the French king himself justing; but fatally: 
for one of his eyes were struck out in this exercise by a 
piece of the spear ; whereof he died. Whose funerals were 
honourably kept at St. Paul's, as was shewn before. But 
no great loss for England. 

The same day the old bishop of Durham came riding to Bishop of 
London out of the north, with threescore horse, and so to rides into 
Southwark, unto the house of one Dolman a tallowchandler, London. 
where he laid : [having seen two houses at least belonging 
to him, viz. Durham-place and Cold-harbour, taken from 
his bishopric] 

The 26th, tidings came to London, that the young The French 
French king had proclaimed himself king of France, Scot-^'j^g^jjj'i'^^ff 
land, and England. England. 

Auarust the 5th, the queen being now at Eltham in Kent, The queen 

. at Nonsuch. 

one of the ancient houses of the kings, removed thence unto 
Nonsuch, another of her houses ; of which the noble earl of ■ 
Arundel seems to be now housekeeper. There the queen 
had great entertainment with banquets, especially on Sun- 
VOL. I. u 



290 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, day night, made by the said earl; together mth a mask; 
and the warUke sounds of drums and flutes and all kinds of 



Anno 1059. music, till midnight. On Monday was a great supper made 
for her : but before night she stood at her standing in the 
further park ; and there she saw a course. At night was 
a play of the children of Paul's, and there [music] master 
Sebastian. After that, a costly banquet, accompanied with 
drums and flutes. The dishes were extraordinary rich, gilt. 
This entertainment lasted till three in the morning. And 
the earl presented her majesty a cupboard of plate. 

She comes rpj^^ ^qj.!^ ^£ Auffust, beinff St. Laurence day, she re- 

to Hamp- O ' & J ' 

ton- court, moved from Nonsuch to Hampton-court. 

Strangways, And the Same day was brought to the Tower Strang- 

taken. ' ways, the great sea-rover, and others. And the 14th day 
there landed at the bridge-house fourscore rovers and ma- 
riners taken with Strangways ; and were sent unto the Mar- 
shalsea, and King's Bench, and their trumpeters; and im- 
mediately fettered. 

The queen 'pj^g 17th, the queen removed from Hampton-court to 

at the lord ^ . ^ 

admiral's the lord admiral's place : and there she had great 

P *'^^* cheer. The said lord had built a goodly banqueting-house 
for her grace : it was richly gilded and painted ; that lord 
having for that end kept a great many painters for a good 
while therejn the country. 
Sir The. The 20th, died at Nonsuch, sir Tho. Chardin, deviser of 

master of all the banquets and banqueting-houses, master of the re- 
the revels, xe\s, and Sergeant of the tents. He was buried September 5, 
at Bletchingly. 
19^ The 24th, being St. Bartholomew's day, and the day 
bur^nt? "^ before and after, were burnt all the roods of St. Mary and 
St. John, and many other church goods, with copes, crosses, 
censers, altar-cloths, rood-cloths, books, banners, banner- 
staves, wainscot, with much other such gear, in London. 
A great September the 5th, at Alhallows, Bread-street, betwixt 

clap. " twelve and one at noon, was a dreadful thunderclap. It 
killed a water-spaniel at the church-wall side ; felled one of 
the headmen of the Salters' company, and the sexton of the 
said church ; cracked the steeple above the battlements, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 291 

which was all of stone, that some of it flew out in divers CHAP, 
pieces : so that the month after, October the 5th, they be- 



gan to take down the top of the steeple. Anno 1559. 

The same day, viz. September 5, was a frame set up in Hearse in 
St. PauPs quire of nine stories for the late French king de- ^\^^ French 
ceased, with valance of sarcenet and black fine fringe, and '^'"S- 
pensils : and round about the hearse a piece of velvet. All 
the eight pillars and all the quire hung with black and 
arms. His hearse garnished with thirty dozen of pensils 
and fifteen dozen of arms. 

The 8th day began the obsequies ; which was performed 
very honourably, as hath been already described. 

The 15th, the hearse was taken down by the heralds ; 
who, as their fees, had all that was about it; both cloth, 
velvet, sarcenet, banners, escutcheons of arms, banner-staves, 
rails, &c. 

The 22d, Strangways and his crew, being above eighty Strangways 
persons in number, were arraigned at Southwark; and all an i,'is crew. 
cast to suffer death. Strangways and five more, October 2, 
were broug-ht from the Tower to the Marshalsea. And the 
day after, two new pair of gallows set up, one at St. Thomas 
of Waterings, the other at low water mark at Wapping. 
The 4di of October was the day that Strangways and all 
his men should have suffered death : but there came tidings, 
that they should stay till it pleased the queen and her 
council. 

The 27th of September, tidings came to London that the The prince 
prince of Swethen was landed at Harwich. comes. 

October the 5th, the prince of Swethen, (whose title was 
duke of Finland,) having been conducted from Colchester 
by the earl of Oxford and the lord Robert Dudley, master 
of the queen''s horse, came to London, entering at Aldgate, Enters Lon- 
and so to Leadenhall, and down to Gracechurch-street corner, °"' 
where he was received by the lord marquis of Northampton, 
and the lord Ambrose Dudley, and other gentlemen and 
ladies. The trumpets blew, and a great number of gentle- 
men with gold chains rode before and after them, and about 
two hundred yeomen riding also: and so over the bridge 

u 2 



292 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



CHAP. 
XV. 

Anno 1559. 
Lodged at 
Winches- 
ter-place in 
Sontliwark. 
Comes to 
court. 



Comes 
again. 

Stands god- 
father to sir 
Tho. Cham- 
berlain's 
son. 



Justs at 
court. 



Sir Robert 
Southwell 
dies. 

And lord 
Williams, 

And the 
duchess of 
Suffolk. 
Jewel 
preaches. 



unto the bishop of Winchester''s place; which was hung 
with rich cloth of arras, wrought with gold and silver and 
silks : and there he remained. 

The 12th, the said prince went by water to the court 
with his guard. He was honourably received by many 
noble personages at the hall door ; where the guard stood 
in their rich coats, reaching unto the queen'^s chamber. The 
queen's grace received him there : and after, he was wel- 
comed with great cheer. 

The 19th, he went to court again, and was treated at a 
great banquet by the lord Robert. 

The 27th, he and the lord Robert, and the lady mar- 
chioness Northampton, stood sureties at the christening of 
sir Tho. Chamberlayne's son : who was baptized at St. 
Bene't church at Paurs-wharf. The church was hung with 
cloth of arras. And after the christening were brought 
wafers, comfits, and divers banqueting dishes, and hypocras 
and muscadine wine, to entertain the guests. 

November the 5th were great justs at the queen's palace. 
The lord Robert and the lord Hunsdon were the chal- 
lengers ; who wore scarfs of white and black : and they had 
their heralds and trumpets attending on them. The de- 
fendants were the lord Ambrose Dudley and others. They 
and their footmen in scarfs of red and yellow sarcenet. And 
had also their heralds and trumpeters. 

November the 8th, sir Robert Southwel, knt. master of 
the rolls, and one of queen Mary's privy covmsellors, was 
buried in Kent. 

The 15th, the lord Williams of Thame was buried at 
Thame. 

December the 5th, the duchess of Suffolk, Frances, some- 
time wife of Henry, late duke of Suffolk, was buried in 
Westminster-abbey. Mr. Jewel (who was afterwards bi- 
shop of Sarum) was called to the honourable office to preach 
at her funerals, being a very great and illustrious princess 
of the blood; whose father was Brandon, duke of Suffolk, 
and her mother Mary, sometime wife of the French king, 
and sister to king Henry VIII. She, the said Frances, de- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 293 

parted this life November the 20th, in the second year of CHAP, 
the reign of queen Elizabeth ; not in the sixth of her reign, ^^' 



as Mr. Camden hath put it ; led into that mistake, I suppose. Anno 1559. 
by the date on her monument ; which indeed shewed not 
the year of her death, but of the erection of that monument 
to her memory, by her last husband Mr. Stokes. She was 
buried in a chapel on the south side of the choir, where 
Valens, one of the earls of Pembroke, was buried. The 
corpse being brought and set under the hearse, and the 
mourners placed, the chief at the head, and the rest on each 
side, Clarenceux king of arms with a loud voice said these 
words ; " Laud and praise be given to Almighty God, that 
*' it hath pleased him to call out of this transitory life unto 
" his eternal glory the most noble and excellent princess 
" the lady Frances, late duchess of Suffolk, daughter to the 
" right high and mighty prince Charles Brandon, duke of 
" Suffolk, and of the most noble and excellent princess 
" Mary, the French queen, daughter to the most illustrious 
*' prince king Henry VII." This said, the dean began the 
service in English for the communion, reciting the ten 
commandments, and answered by the choir in pricksong. 
After that and other prayers said, the epistle and gospel 
was read by the two assistants of the dean. After the gos- 
pel, the offering began after this manner : first, the mourn- 
ers that were kneeling stood up: then a cushion was laid 
and a carpet for the chief mourners to kneel on before the 
altar: then the two assistants came to the hearse, and took 
the chief mourner, and led her by the arm, her train being 
borne and assisted by other mourners following. And after 
the offering finished, Mr. Jewel began his sermon ; which 
was very much commended by them that heard it. After 
sermon, the dean proceeded to the communion; at which 
were participant, with the said dean, the lady Catharine 
and the lady Mary, her daughters, among others. When all 
was over, they came to the Charter-house in their chariot. 

December the 9th, proclamation was made for settHng 197 
the prices of fowls, capons, conies, geese, and all manner of ^^^"^^J^ 
flesh, eggs, and other things. set. 

u 3 



294 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. December the 20th, Hodelston, or Hurleston, late keeper 
^^' of Ricebank, a hold of Calais, who had been committed to 



Anno 1559. the Tower the 13th day of May last, and Mr. Chamberlain, 
Hodelston J^eepcr of Calais castle, were both brought to Guildhall, 

and Cham- ^ ' O ' 

heriain ar- London, where they were arraigned, and cast to suffer death 

n.tgne . ^^^ their nefflitrence. 

A play acted Ult. December was a play at the court before the queen : 
but they acted something so distasteful, that they were com- 
manded to leave off. And immediately the mask came in, 
and dancing. 

Prince of January the 1st, the prince of Swethen rode to court 

rides to gorgeously and rich attired ; and his guard in velvet jer- 

court. kins, carrying halberds in their hands, accompanied with 
many gentlemen with chains of gold. 

Mayor and i^hg 6th, beiuff Twclfth-dav, in the afternoon, the lord 

aldermen ' o J ^ ' 

go in pro- mayor and aldermen, and all the crafts of London, and the 

cession. bachelors of the mayor's company, went in procession to 
St. PauFs, after the old custom, and there did hear a ser- 
mon. The same day was a scaffold set up in the hall for a 
play. And after the play was over, was a fine mask; and 
after, a great banquet, that lasted till midnight. 

Ambassa- January the 30th, viscount Montacute and sir Tho. 

Spain. Chamberlain, knt. took their journey towards the king of 
Spain. 

The pur- The design of this embassy was to keep all fair with that 

embassy. '* ^^"S ' which SO much concerned the queen to do, being at 
this time in no good understanding neither with Scotland 
nor France, Therefore she sent that viscount, named sir 
Anthony Brown, one of the former queen's privy council, 
and a zealous Romanist, that he might have the better 
countenance with the king. And by the instructions given 
him he was to acquaint the king with her particular cir- 
cumstances at that time, both as to her dealing in Scottish 
matters, as concerning her matching herself in marriage. 

Cott. libr. The instructions were to this import : " That the queen of 

' " " " Scotland was sickly, married to a sickly stranger, a second 

" person to the crown : that his life was sought in Scotland, 

" and his son's in France. The purpose driving on was, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 295 

" to knit the crown of Scotland to France, and not to that CHAP. 
" queen. That the proceedings of the lords of Scotland ;_ 



" was no rebellion, but a dutiful preservation of their king- Anno 1559. 

" dom for their queen and her lawful successors. That 

*' the matters of faith in the land were consonant to the 

" fathers. That the superiority of Scotland belonged to 

" the crown of England : and the right of her majesty was 

" touched by the practice of the French in Scotland. That 

" notwithstanding divers motions of marriage had been made 

" to her, as well in her late dear sister's time, as some also 

" lately, whereof none was more honourable than the mo- 

" tion late made for the emperor''s majesty's son Don Ca- 

*' rolo, the archduke, [related to king Philip ;] yet hitherto, 

" as she found no manner of disposition in her own nature 

" towards marriage, so she would not presume to make 

" a peremptory answer, utterly to refuse marriage for ever ; 

" but as God should please to direct her mind and afFec- 

" tions hereafter, so she trusted his goodness would govern 

" her to the best : to whom she referred herself and all her I98 

*' doings : beseeching the king to continue his good affec- 

" tion towards her, notwithstanding her answer at this pre- 

" sent. That the Scots had requested her to take the realm 

" into her protection, and to preserve the same from con- 

" quest : offering on that condition not to invade England 

" by the procurement of France : and offering twelve hos- 

" tages for performance." 

February the 2d, being Candlemas-day, at the dean of Several 
St. PauPs house, where now was lodged the French ambas- ^.J^^ * 
sador, were taken at mass divers men and women, who 
were brought to the lord mayor's, and by him sent to the 
counter. 

The same day in the afternoon, according to old custom. Mayor and 
the mayor and aldermen, and all the crafts, went to St. ^^ ^^ g^ 
Paul's, and there heard a sermon, [instead of going in pro- Paul's on 

• • • • 1 1^1-1 1^T^^ (^'andlemas- 

cession about Paul's, and visitmg the tomb of bishop Wil-day. 
liam, and such like superstitions, used beforetime.] 

March the 8th, eleven persons, malefactors, rode to hang- A priest 
ing ; seven men and four women. One of these men was a '*"^^ " 

u 4 



296 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, priest; liis crime was for cutting a purse, wherein was three 
' shilUngs. But he was burnt in the hand before, or else the 



Anno 1559. book would have saved him. He was observed to be fifty- 
four years old. [Such loose persons were some of the sir 
Johns in those popish times.] 
A gentle- March the 14th, one Duncomb, gent, and his company 
ed for a ^^^^ Committed a great robbery down in Bedfordshire. They 
robbery, -were examined before the council. After, being found guilty, 
they were carried down thither by the sheriff of the county, 
and were hanged in a place where the said Duncomb might 
see two or three lordships that should have been his, had 
he behaved himself as he ought. [Which stirred him, no 
doubt, to repentance, but, alas ! too late.] 
Duke Van March the 28th, 1560, the duke of Holstein, who was 

Hoist II* 

comes hi- lately come nito England, went by water in the afternoon to 
®''* Somerset-place, appointed for his residence. He was nephew 

to the king of Denmark, who sent him to be a suitor to the 
queen, to obtain her for his wife. And this the rather to 
intercept the Sweed his neighbour, endeavouring the same 
at this time. This duke came also (as did the other prince 

Camd. Eiiz. before mentioned) blown up with great hopes to marry queen 
Elizabeth. But she went no further with him than to oblige 
him by her honourable reception of him, and giving him 
the honour of the garter, and a yearly pension. 



199 CHAP. XVI. 

Lent sermons at St. Pauls and at court. Bishop JeweTs 
public challenge there. The church and Vingdom happ'ily 
restored. More bishops and inferior clergy ordained. 
Dr. May, dean of St. PauVs, elect of York, dies. Stic- 
ceeded in the deanery by Nozvel. John Fox at Norxaick, 
promoting religion there. His character. 

Anno 1560. J^ jjjg i^^^^ divcrs of the most eminent protestant clerffv. 

Preaching i «. /• v • 

in Lent at confcssors and sufferers for religion under queen Mary, were 
cro« and P"^ "P ^° P^^ach at the court and at Paul's Cross ; where, 

at court. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 297 

no question, they took their opportunity to recommend the CHAP, 
rehgion newly established. It may not be amiss to record 



their names. Anno i56o. 

I shall begin with those that preached a little before Lent 
came on, and so go on with them ; (though but imperfectly ;) 
and withal take in some other proper notices, as they fall in 
my way. 

January the 8th, Grindal, now bishop of London, preach- 
ed at the Cross. 

February the 10th, Nowel, dean of St. Paul's, preached 
there. Then one did penance for marrying another wife, 
having one before. 

March the 1st. Now against Lent a proclamation was 
set forth by the queen and council, that no manner of per- 
son, nor any keepers of tables or eating-houses, should eat, 
or set forth flesh to be eaten, in Lent, nor other times in 
the year, commanded by the church to forbear eating it. 
And that no butcher should kill flesh, upon pain of a great 
fine, or to stand six hours on the pillory, and imprisonment 
ten days. 

March the 3d, Grindal, the new bishop of London, 
preached at St. Paul's Cross in his rochet and chimere, the 
mayor and aldermen present, and a great auditory. And 
after sermon a psalm was sung, (which was the common 
practice of the reformed churches abroad,) wherein the peo- 
ple also joined their voices. 

The same day, in the afternoon, Scory, one of king Ed- 
ward's bishops, and an exile, now bishop of Hereford, 
preached at court in his rochet and chimere, before a great 
and noble audience. 

March the 6th, Dr. Bill, dean of Westminster, preached 
in the queen's chapel : where on the table, standing altar- 
wise, was placed a cross and two candlesticks, Avith two ta- 
pers in them burning. 

Ditto the 8th, in the afternoon. Dr. Pilkington, bishop 
elect of Durham, preached at court. And as he was master 
of St. John's in Cambridge, his discourse tended much to 
the maintenance of the scholars of the universities of Cam- 



298 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, bridge and Oxford; and that the clergy might have better 
^^'^- livehhoods. 



Anno 1560. Ditto the 10th, bishop Scory preached at St. Paul's Cross 
in his rochet and chimere, the lord ma^^or and aldermen 
present, with a great audience : for the people now flocked 
to sermons, and to hear the exiles. 

And the same day Dr. Sandys, bishop of Worcester, an 
eloquent man, preached at court. 
200 The 13th and 15th were also sermons at court preached 
by eminent men, whose names are not mentioned : [perhaps 
Cox and Parkhurst, men of as great fame as any of the 
rest.] To one of these the queen herself gave thanks for 
his pains : however some w^ere offended at him. What his 
subject was, it appears not ; it may be, the supremacy. 

Ditto the 17th, Mr. Veron, a Frenchman by birth, but a 
learned protestant, and parson of St. Martin''s, Ludgate, 
preached at St. Paul's Cross before the mayor and alder- 
men. And after sermon done, they sung all in common a 
psalm in metre, as it seems now was frequently done, the 
custom being brought in from abroad by the exiles. 

At court the same day, in the afternoon, Jewel, bishop 
of Salisbury, preached in his habit. 

The 20th, Bentham of London-bridge, (so styled in my 
MS.) where at St. Magnus he seems to have been preacher, 
now bishop of Litchfield and Coventry, preached at St. 
Paul's. 

The 22d, the same preached at court. 

The 24th, being Midlent Sunday, Dr. Sandys, bishop of 
Worcester, preached at St. Paul's Cross in his habit ; the 
mayor and aldermen present, with the earl of Bedford, and 
divers other persons of quality : as was customary in these 
times for the nobility and court to resort to these ser- 
mons. 

The same day, in the afternoon, bishop Barlow, one of 
king Edward's bishops, now bishop of Chichester, preached 
in his habit before the queen. His sermon ended at five of 
the clock : and presently after her chapel went to evening 
song : the cross, as before, standing on the altar, and two 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 299 

candlesticks, and two tapers burning in them: and, service chap. 
concluded, a good anthem was sung. ^^^^- 

The 27th, Mr. Wisdom, (now the year 1560 entering,) Anno iseo. 
an ancient learned preacher in king Henry and king Ed- 
ward''s reigns, and an exile afterwards, preached at court. 

The same day peace with France and Scotland was pro- 
claimed at the Cross in Cheap, and divers other places, 
(trumpets blowing,) by Clarenceux king at arms, in his rich 
coat, and a sergeant at arms with his mace attending, and 
the two sheriffs on horseback. 

The 31st, Mr. Crowley, another exile, and a learned 
writer, afterwards minister of St. Giles, Cripplegate, preach- 
ed at St. Paul's Cross. 

April the 2d, Alley, bishop elect of Exeter, (and late 
reader at St. Paul's,) preached at court. His discourse was 
levelled against immorality ; as blasphemy, playing at dice, 
converse with lewd women, drunkenness, &c. 

Friday before Palm Sunday, Mr. Clieney, sometime 
archdeacon of Hereford, afterwards bishop of Gloucester 
and Bristol, preached at court. 

Palm Sunday Mr. Wisdom preached at Paul's Cross. 

The same day Matthew Parker, archbishop of Canter- 
bury, preached at court with great commendation. 

Maundy-Thursday, the queen kept her maundy in her The queen's 
hall at the court in the afternoon: and then gave unto *"^"°'^y- 
twenty women so many gowns; and one woman had her 201 
best gown. And her grace washed their feet : and in a new 
white cup she drank unto every woman, and then they had 
the cup. The same afternoon she gave unto poor men, 
women, and children, whole and lame, in St. James's park, 
being two thousand people and upwards, 2<i. apiece. 

Let me add the Spital sermons, and the preachers of 
them. Easter Monday, preached Bentham ; Easter Tues- 
day, Cole, another exile ; Easter Wednesday, Jewel. The 
rehearsal sermon was preached at Paul's Cross by Tho. 
Sampson, an exile also, and soon after made dean of Christ- 
church, Oxon ; who abridged the said three sermons, before 
a very numerous auditory. 



300 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. April the 28th, father Coverdale [the ancient confessor, 
^^^- and translator of the Bible] preached at Paul's Cross. 



Anao 1560. May the 5th, INIullins, another exile, now archdeacon of 
London, preached at the Cross. 

The 19th, at the same place preached Cox, bishop of 

Ely. 

The 26th, Skamler, the archbishop''s chaplain, sometime 
after bishop of Peterburgh, preached there. 

And June 2, bishop Grindal took his course, and preach- 
ed above in St. Paul's. 

These sermons, so well and learnedly performed, at which 
assembled such vast confluences of auditors, countenanced 
also by the presence of the queen and nobility, reconciled 
great respect to the new religion, (as it was called,) and to 
the persons of this clergy, newly appearing out of their ba- 
nishment and recesses, shining with clear consciences, and 
holy zeal for the truth and gospel. 
Bishop As bishop Jewel had preached at court this Lent, so he 

chrnen e ^^^ ^^^ ^^y ^^ ^^^ Cross, wliich was the second Sunday be- 
to the pa- fore Easter. In both places he preached that famous ser- 
mon wherein he openly challenged the papists. And Dr. 
Cole, late dean of St. Paul's, for saving the credit of popery, 
took him up, as we shall hear. The challenge the bishop 
made was, as it appears in his sermon printed in his works, 
" Tliat it could not appear by any authority, either of scrip- 
" ture, or of the old doctors, or of the ancient councils, that 
" there was any private mass in the whole church of Christ 
** at that time ; or, that there was then any communion mi- 
" nistered in the church to the people under one kind only ; 
" or, that the common prayers were then pronounced in a 
*' strange tongue, that the people understood not ; or, that 
" the bishop of Rome was tlien called iinivcrsaUs cp'iscopus, 
*' or caput universalis ecdcsicc; universal bishop of the whole 
" world, or else, the head of the universal church ; or, that 
*' the people were then taught to believe, that in the sacra- 
*' ment after tiie consecration the substance of bread and 
" wine departed away, and that there remained notliing else 
" but only the accidents of bread and wine ; or, that then 



pists 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 301 

it was thought lawful to say ten, twenty, or thirty masses CHAP, 
in one church in one day; or, that then the people were ______ 



" forbidden to pray or read the scripture in their mother Anno iseo. 

" tongue ;" together with many other articles of doctrine 

and practice in the present Roman church, which he then 

reckoned up. The bishop''s open offer then was, " That if 

*' any one of all these things he then had rehearsed could 

" be proved on the popish side by any sufficient authority, 

*' either of the scripture, or of the old doctors, or of the 202 

*' ancient councils, or by any one allowed example of the 

*' primitive church, and as they had borne the people in 

" hand they could prove them by, he would be contented 

" to yield to them, and to subscribe." 

The sermon of Jewel, wherein he made that challenge 
to the papists at PauFs Cross, was preached before he was 
bishop. For so it is asserted in the book of the Antiquities 

of the British Church: \'\z. Johannes Juell ante ^m^- Matthaeus. 

ceptum episcopatum pi'o puhlica Jrequentis popiili condone 
Londini in coemiterio Paulino, pontifici ex principalibus 
suis dogmatihus in apertum discrimen et aciem postulavit, 
eaque asserttit, neque scripturarum, nee patriim orthodoxo- 
rum, neque conciliorum, quingentis post Domini ascensio- 
7iem annis celebratortcm, authoritate, stare posse. 

Dr. Cole, aforesaid, upon this wrote a letter to him, Cole's let- 
March the 18th, offering to dispute the matter with him by 5"reuponT^' 
letters. And some letters passed between him and Jewel : 
wherein it is evident how Cole shuffled and shifted off the 
main business, and nibbled at other by-matters. But at 
length he privately, among his own party, scattered several 
copies of an answer, (as he called it,) by way of letter to 
the said bishop. To which the bishop made and printed 
his reply. 

But Dr. Harding of Lovain afterwards undertook the Harding 
bishop's challenge more briskly, giving his answer, as well ^^^ chai-^* 
as he could, to the twenty-seven articles distinctly, of which 'enge. 
the challenge consisted. The bishop made answer again to 
Harding in the year 1565. And Harding wrote a re- 
joinder. And the bishop again made a most learned reply 



302 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, thereunto in the year 1567, shewing abundantly how good 
L_he made his challenge: which may be read in his works, 



Anno 1560. an impregnable bulwark of the church of England. 
How Hard- A learned writer in those days observed how Harding 
flld* shuffled in his writing against the bishop: that he in his 

Noel's Con- reply printed fairly Harding*'s whole book, [that the reader 
face.^"^*' niight see and judge the strength of each writer's reason, 
having both under his eye.] But Harding, when he put 
forth his rejoinder to the bishop's reply, (besides, that it 
meddled only with one of the twenty-seven articles in con- 
troversy,) he laid not that one article wholly before the 
reader : but after he had at the first related little more than 
one half leaf of the beginning of the bishop's book, as it lay, 
(which he might seem to have done to blear the reader's eye 
with a false shew of sincere dealing,) continually after inter- 
rupted the process of the said treatise, and snatched here 
and there at certain parcels of the book, being discontinued 
and dismembered from the rest. 
Others write Besides Harding and Cole, several others zealously rose 
bfshop of*^ "P against the bishop's book : as Dormer, Harding's scho- 
Saiisbury. lar, wrote a Proof of some of the popish articles, denied in 
the bishop's challenge. Rastal also snatched at certain par- 
cels of the book, and thereby patched up two new books. 

Dr. Saunders discoursed likewise upon some fragments 
of the same book, and a few lines of Nowel's book : and 
thence published an huge volume. Lastly, Stapleton wrote 
another great volume upon the bishop of Salisbury's mar- 
ginal notes. By violent plucking of the which, from the 
continuance of the process whereupon they depended, and 
203 whereby they were made plain, he both blinded the reader, 
and depraved and corrupted the notes, contrary to the true 
sense and meaning of them ; as Nowel above mentioned re- 
lated and observed. 
WHiat was Let me add, that there was not long after an Apology 
•formation Set forth, (mentioned hereafter,) writ by the said Jewel, 
iiRioi). l)ishop of Sarum, for the church now reformed and esta- 

\pol. 1. 1 

blished, and for the departing thereof from the Roman com- 
munion ; wherein it is at large justified. Therein are these 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 303 

words: "We have departed from that church, wherein CHAP. 
" neither the word of God could be heard purely, nor the 



" sacraments rightly administered, nor the name of God, Anno 1560. 

"as it ought to be, called upon. And which they them- 

" selves confess to be corrupted in many things : and where- 

" in, to say the truth, there was nothing that could stay 

" any man that was wise, and that had any consideration of 

" his own salvation. To conclude, we have departed from 

" that church that was in time past: and we have departed 

" in such sort as Daniel did out of the den of lions, and as 

" the three children out of the fire. Yea, rather cast out 

" by them with their cursings and bannings, than departed 

*' of ourselves. 

" Again ; we have adjoined ourselves unto that church, 
" wherein they themselves, in case they will speak truly, and 
" according to their own consciences, cannot deny, but all 
*' things are soberly and reverendly handled, and so far forth 
*' as we were able to attain, most nearly unto the order of 
" the old time. For let them compare their churches and 
" ours together, they shall see, that both they most shame- 
" fastly have departed from the apostles, and we most justly 
" have forsaken them. For we, after the example of Christ, 
" of the apostles, and of the holy fathers, do give the whole 
" sacrament to the people. These men, contrary to all the 
" fathers, contrary to all the apostles, contrary to Christ 
" himself, nor without (as Gelasius spake) high sacrilege, 
" do divide the sacrament, and pluck the one part away 
" from the people. We have restored the Lord''s supper 
" according to the institution of Christ ; and desire to have 
" it, as much as may be, and to as many as may be, most 
" common ; and as it is called, so to be in very deed, a com- 
" munion. These men have changed all things from the 
" institution of Christ ; and of the holy communion they 
" have made a private mass. So that we present unto the 
" people a holy supper, they a vain pageant to gaze upon. 
" We do affirm with the most ancient fathers, that the body 
" of Christ is eaten of none but of godly and faithful men, 
" and such as are endued with the spirit of Christ. These 



/ 



304 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " fellows do teach, that the very body of Christ may in 
^^^' " very deed, and, as they term it, realli/ and substantially. 



Anno 1560. " be eaten, not only of wicked and unfaithful men, but also 

" (it is horrible to speak it) of mice and dogs. We do 

" pray in our churches after such sort, that, according as 

1 Cor. xiv. «< St. Paul doth admonish us, the people may know what 

" we do pray, and with one mind answer. Amen. These 

" men pour out in the churches unknown and strange 

" words, like unto the noise of sounding brass, without any 

" understanding, without sense, without judgment. And 

*' this is their only endeavour, that the people should not 

" be able to understand at all. 

204 " And because we will not rehearse all the differences 

" between us and them, (for they are in a manner infinite,) 

*' we translate the scriptures into all languages ; these men 

" will scarce suffer them to be abroad in any tongue. We 

*' do exhort the people to hear and read the word of God ; 

" these men drive them from it. We would have our cause 

" heard before all the world ; these men fly all judgment 

" and trial. We lean unto knowledge ; they unto igno- 

*' ranee. We trust unto the light ; they unto darkness. 

*' We have in reverence, as reason is, the words of the 

" apostles and of the prophets ; these men do burn them. 

*' To conclude, we in God's cause will stand to the judg- 

** ment of God only ; these men will stand to their own. 

" But if they will consider all these things with a quiet 

" mind, and a prepared purpose to hear and to learn, then 

*' shall they not only allow our doings, which, leaving all 

" errors, have followed Christ and his apostles, also they 

" themselves shall fall away of themselves, and of their own 

" accord incline themselves to join with our fellowship,*" &c. 

The objec- And whercas their party would say, " That it was an un- 

a^ene^nir " lawful attempt to go about such matters without a holy 

council. " general council : for therein was the whole power of the 

" church ; and there Christ had promised he would be al- 

" ways ready at hand ; yet, as it was answered, they them- 

" selves had broken the commandments of God and the 

" decrees of the apostles, &c, and that without tarrying for 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 305 

*' any general council, &c. We surely do not despise coun- c H A F. 
" cils or assemblies, and conferences of bishops and learned ______ 



" men: neither have we done those things, that be done, Anno iseo. 
" altogether without bishops, or without a council. The 
" matters we handled in full parliament with long delibera- 
" tion, and a great assembly." 

And now at length, after this change of government, and The good 
establishment upon better laws, in how easy and happy ajeforma- 
condition did both the church and state of Eng-land feel"^'""- 
themselves ! The people were abundantly sensible of it, 
and many of the best and wisest sort could not but acknow- 
ledge it openly. Thus one very intelligent person, and not 
long after the queen's ambassador to Spain, writ to the 
archbishop of Canterbury, " how gravely, learnedly, and Epist. de- 
*' christianly, he and the other bishops, by their godly tra- muscuI. 
" vail, with the good help of her grace's laws, in that be- ^°'"^^'*'^- 
*' half provided, had reformed the state of corrupted reli- 
*' gion, restored to God his due honour in public service, 
" planted true obedience to her majesty in the hearts and 
" consciences of her subjects, delivered the minds of true 
" Christians from their heavy bondage and oppression, 
" drawn deceived souls out of the most dangerous errors, 
*' and to all their eternal comforts published the most glo- 
" rious light of God's holy truth ; both her majesty to her 
" great contentation joyfully beheld, and they, the flock 
*' committed to her charge, and under her to them, the 
" archbishops and bishops, did feel." 

And the blessing of these bishops did appear the greater. Queen 
being compared with queen Mary's late bishops ; " when quge^„*£i". 
" the souls and consciences of Christian people within this zabeth's bi- 
*' land, as they were most dangerously and damnably blind- p^red. 
" ed, by withdrawing the free course of God's most holy 
*' gospel, so most miserably and sorrowfully thralled and 
" oppressed, by the ungodly and uncharitable dealing of 205 
*' those that in profession bore the most godly and cha- 
" ritable title of bishops and fathers." 

And again, in regard of this queen's countenance of true The state 

... J 1 - , . i. •. ^u oftheking- 

rehgion, and the former queen s oppression oi it, tne same j^^j g^^_ 
VOI-. T. X P'""«^- 



806 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, person makes this observation, "That by her God had so 

" refreshed and strengthened the state of the commonweal, 



Anno lotio. " that in few years [he wrote this in the year 1563] Eng- 
" land now saw herself of the weakest made one of the 
*' mightiest; of a poor one made one of the richest ; of the 
" most disordered made one of the most justly ruled realms 
" in Christendom." But to proceed with our relation. 
Other bi- About May or June, in the year 1560, Wilham Hon- 
shops ap- ^- /^^.|^Q ^y^g gjgj.], Qf ji^g council to king Edward, and, I 

pointed. & ^ . 

suppose, tarried in his office under queen Mary) writ to the 
earl of Sussex the news of certain other persons that were 
determined for the sees yet vacant. " Dr. May, dean of 
" St. Paurs," as he wrote, " is now resolvedly appointed to 
" the see of York. Mr. Alley, a jolly preacher, hath Exe- 
" ter ; and with the same, for the tenuity of that Uving, a 
" promotion or two for five years : hke as Mr. Parkhurst, 
" elect of Norwich, hath alike for three years, to enable 
" him the better for the payment of first-fruits." 
Dr. May, William May, LL. D. aforesaid, a very wise man, and 
elect of made much use of in king; Edward's time for the reforma- 

^ork. , _ » 

tion, was elected archbishop of York ; but dying, Aug. 8, 
before he was consecrated, was buried in St. PauPs church, 
August the 12th, the bishop of London preaching at his 
funeral. This May was a counsellor to king Edward, one 
of his visitors, and one of those that sat in the court of re- 
quests in his reign. So that archiepiscopal see remained 
void till the next year. I find a daughter of this May, 
named Elizabeth, was married to John Tedcastel, a gentle- 
man, dwelling in the parish of Barkin in Essex, by whom 
he had a numerous offspring, even nine sons and seven 
daughters. She deceased October 27, 1596, in the forty- 
third year of her age, and was buried in the chancel of the 
said church, wliere she hath a monument, 

Aiex.Nowe) This eminently pious and learned dean was succeeded by 

iiean of St. another eminently pious and learned man, Alex. Nowel, D. D. 

Paul's. pje „rjis under king Edward schoolmaster of Westminster, 
and prebendary of that church, and an allowed preacher by 

Dugd. Hist. licence from that king: under queen Mary an exile: and 

of Pfllll'^. ^ ' ' 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 307 

of the ancient family of the Nowels of Lancashire: who, CHAP, 
according to the inscription on his monument in St. Paul's, ;__ 



for thirty years preached the first and last Lenten sermon Anno i560. 
before the queen, and that with a great freedom, becoming 
one that was delivering God''s message. He was patron of 
Middleton school, gave two hundred pounds a year to 
Brazen-Nose college, Oxon, and appointed thirteen students 
there, where himself was admitted at thirteen years old, 
and studied there thirteen years. He was an exciter to 
piety by his frequent sermons and his threefold catechism. 
He was forty-two years dean, and died at ninety, when nei- 
ther the eyes of his mind nor of his body were yet grown 
dim : dying anno 1601, February 13. 

It may not be amiss to leave upon record some further 206 
account of this reverend man's life, taken from his own ^°'^'^ ^^; 

count of 

writings. When he was twenty years old, anno 1541 oriiim. 
1542, he was pulilic reader of logic in his university. And '(^^"j^f^tat in 
the logic he read was Rodolph's. When he was master of t lie Answ. 
Westminster school, he brought in the reading of Terence, p^gf. 
for the better learning the pure Roman style. As it was 
said of Dr. Barnes, that he brought in that author and 
TuUy into his college of Augustin's in Cambridge, instead 
of barbarous Duns and Dorbel. And one day every week 
Terence gave wa}' to St. Luke's Gospel and the Acts of the 
Apostles ; which he read in Greek to such of his scholars 
as were almost at man's estate ; whereof he had a good 
number: whereby he also prepared himself some way to 
the teaching of God's people in his church : whereunto he 
had directed his intent since he was sixteen years old. When 
queen Mary came in, and brought in popery with her, he 
travelled abroad, and underwent much pains and loss for 
the religion of Christ ; which he kept with a good con- 
science. For sundry years, both at home in his own coun- 
try, and in this exile, he read over the whole body of the 
holy scriptures, and whole volumes of the best ancient doc- 
tors. He was a preacher in king Edward's days, 1551 ; 
and had preached in some of the notablest places and audi- 
tories in the realm, before he went out of England. This 

X a 



ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 
CHAP, he said, in answer to Dorman"'s scoffing slander, " That he 

XVI 

!_'• had read some scattered scraps of John Calvin"'s old, cast, 



Anno 1 560. «t overworn, heretical divinity: and that he returned home 
*' from his exile, and became suddenly of a mean school- 
" master a valiant preacher." 

He made his entrance into the choir of St. Paul's, No- 
vember 27, Te Deum being then sung, and the organs 
playing, with the consort of the choir. Of this man we 
shall have occasion to speak more hereafter. 
Certain bi- This year were these bishops consecrated, for the further 
secrated. Supply of the church. As, for the church of Exeter, Wil- 
liam Alley aforesaid, M. A. born in Barkshire, aged 50 ; 
was consecrated July 14. For the see of Norwich, John 
Parkhurst, A. M. of Guildford in Surrey, aged 50 ; con- 
secrated September 1. Robert Home, D. D. a man of 
Cumberland, aged 47, for the diocese of Winchester ; and 
Edmund Scambler, D. D. of Lancashire, aged 47, for Pe- 
terburgh : these two last being consecrated January 16. 
And in the province of York, James Pilkington, B. D. a 
Cambridge man by education, a Lancashire man by birth, 
and an exile, (but of great piety and learning,) was conse- 
crated bishop of Durham, March 2, aged 45. And on the 
same day was John Best, B. D. consecrated bishop of Car- 
lisle. This man was educated in Oxon : at first a gramma- 
rian ; and in the science of grammar he took a degree: he 
was a native of Yorkshire, and aged 48 at his consecration. 
Herein, I acknowledge, I leave the scheme of queen Eliza- 
beth's first bishops as it is set down in the Antiquities of 
Canterbury ; which placeth the consecration of these two 
last mentioned under the year following. But I am per- 
suaded so to do from the credit of Mr. Anthony Wood, 
who saw the patents of the restoration of their temporalities ; 
the one dated March 13, 1560; the other April 18, 1561. 
207 Besides above sixty priests and deacons ordained in St. 
Ordination Pjj„pg jj^ January last by the new bishop of London, there 
and dea- Were also this year these ordinations of inferior clergy. 
I'a'rk Re- -'^P'''^ ^5 Nicolas bishop of Lincoln, by the archbishop's 
gist. order and allowance, ordained seven deacons and nineteen 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. S09 

priests. Again, June 23, Gilbert bishop of Bath and Wells, CHAP, 
by licence from the archbishop, ordained six deacons in the 



church of St. Pancrace, [Soperlane,] belonging to the deanery Anno iseo. 
of the church of the arches. And July 20, the same bishop 
ordained two deacons and four priests. Another ordination 
without date, but next following in the register, performed by 
William bishop of Exon, by the order of the archbishop, in 
the churcli of All-Saints, Bread-street; wherein were ordained 
nineteen deacons and thirteen priests, and five both deacons 
and priests. 

John Fox, the learned preacher and martyrologist, about John Fox 
the latter end of the year, went down with his wife and fa- ^^ "'^"'"^ ' 
mily to Norwich, and was with the bishop there : whom, I 
suppose, the bishop took down with him, not only for his 
company, but to preach the gospel, being of excellent elo- 
quence, and to instruct the people of those quarters in good 
religion ; not over forward in it, having been leavened with 
popery by the late bishop Hopton. While Eox was here, 
Richard Prat, a London minister, and Fox's old friend, 
wrote to him, lamenting his absence: "What comfort we Letters to 
" had in your presence, and what loss we received by your '!'"..'" 
*' absence, it is best known to us who have tasted of both. 
*' Notwithstanding we must be contented to lose you for a 
" time, considering that you are daily travelling to win 
" others that be not so forward as we [in London] are. I 
" beseech God prosper your doings." Another pious friend 
of his, named W^illiam Wintrop, writ to him, November 18, 
from London, also " praying God to bless him and his la- 
" hours in the church; and recommending unto him several 
" sober, learned young men, to be put into preferments 
" and places in this diocese of Norwich," 1 suppose where 
Fox now was. His letter run to this effect: " Wishing hisMSS. Fox. 
" prosperous success in the Lord's harvest, and that many 
" labourers might by his means be set forth in that good 
" work, to call the younglings to the great supper of the 
" Lamb that zvas slain from the beginning of the world. 
" And for his memento he noted a few names, which had 
" not bowed their knees to Baal, which he committed to his 

x3 



310 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. '< remembrance; viz. Mr. Bull, James Youncp, Mr. Playfer, 
" William Faucet, minister of Lnisey, and the bearer, Peter 



Anno 1560. a Fomian ; who were all virtuous men, fearing God. And 
" thus he prayed the eternal Spirit to govern him in all his 
" affairs, to God's glory, and his eternal comfort. He 
" prayed him likewise to procure some living of 501. a yeai*, 
" or upward, for Robert Cole, being minded to give up 
" where he was, and Richard Berd, a good minister." Some 
of these, I suppose, had been exiles, and students abroad in 
the former reign. 

Character Of tliis reverend man. Dr. Whitgift (afterwards archbi- 

** ***■ shop of Canterbury) gave this honourable testimony ; call- 
Answer to ' ^/O 111 lll'l^ 

the Admon.ing him " that worthy man, who had so well deserved of 
in4to.p.75. u this church of England." And for his judgment of the 
ecclesiastical government of it, (that none may take up a 
mistake of Mr. Fox,) I shall add what the same author 
saith of him, where he had occasion to speak of the orders 
208 of ecclesiastical persons in this church. " In the ecclesiastical 
" state," saith Fox, " we take not away distinction of ordi- 
" nary degrees, svich as by the scripture be appointed, or by 
" the primitive church be allowed ; as patriarchs, or arch- 
" bishops, bishops, ministers, and deacons: for of these four 
" we specially read, as chiefest. In which four degrees, as 
*' we grant diversity of office, so we admit also in the same 
'' diversity of dignity ; neither denying that which is due to 
" each degree, neither yet maintaining the ambition of any 
" single person : for as we give to the minister [or priest] 
" place above the deacon, to the bishop above the minister, 
" to the archbishop above the bishop, so we see no cause of 
" inequality, why one minister should be above another 
'' minister, one bishop in his degree above another bishop 
" to deal in his diocese, or one archbishop above another 
" archbishop. And this to keep an order duly and truly in 
" the church, according to the true nature and definition of 
Liber, de " order, by the authority of Augustin, Ordo est parium 
Civitat. u dispariumqne rcrum sua cuiquc loco tnbncns d'lspositio.'''' 
Thus Fox : which Dr. Whitgift brings to answer that con- 
fident assertion of the Admonition, that these offices of 



.^^ 



#' 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. Sll 

" archbishops, bishops, &c. were unheard of in the church CHAP. 
" of Christ." But this by way of digression. ^^^' 

The queen's visitors sat at Lambeth this summer, in the Anno 1060. 
months of June and July. Hither, amons: others, was sum- ^.''.*^ 'i"^^"'* 

•' ' o ' visitors sit 

moned Dr. Henry Cole, (of whom before.) This man had at Lambeth, 
framed an answer (as was shewn above) to the bishop of^''f"3? 

o , . . cited thi- 

Sarums sermon, requiring and challenging the Romanists t her, 
to shew the grounds of their religion, if they had any. 
This answer was by way of letter to the bishop, though he 
never sent this letter to him, but had divers copies of it 
dispersed abroad among his own party : which made the 
bishop use these words to him in the reply he made to 
Cole: " That he thought a man of his credit and age would 
" not have been ashamed of his own writings, or would 
" have concealed them from him to whom he had directed 
*' them." 

And when Dr. Cole appeared before the visitors, among 
other demands, they demanded of him. Whether that letter, 
that went abroad under his name, in answer to Jewel elect 
.of Sarum, was his, and whether he would acknowledge it 
soj or no : and the rather, because it had gone abroad in all 
places, even to the bishop's own diocese, to discredit him in 
corners at his first coming. Cole answered, that it was his 
own : but that it was much abridged, and that the original 
was twice as much. Hereupon the bishop blamed him after- 
wards, in his letter to him, " that he would so unadvisedly 
" bestow his writings to others, that had curtailed them ; 
" and because many honourable and worshipful persons 
" would gladly see what both said in print." The bishop 
tlierefore had desired him, for the bettering of his own 
cause, to send him his own copy fully and largely, as he 
said he gave it out at the first; that he might have no 
cause to think himself injured, if he answered one parcel of 
his letter, and not the whole. This the bishop wrote to him 
from Shirborn, July 22, 1560. Cole never sent his copy, 
nor made answer one way or other ; and so the bishop was 
fain to answer that paper that went about. 

The visitors at Lambeth, mentioned above, called there 209 
X 4 



312 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, before them, besides Cole, many other popish divines, to 
swear to the supremacy : who refusing it, they took of them 



Anno i560.|3onds for their good behaviour. 

Popish di- 



vines citeil 
to Lambeth. 
Why. 



CHAP. XVII. 



Advice concerning' ministers. Orders for the clergy ; and 
regulation of the church. Interpretation of the Injunc- 
tions. Divers ecclesiastical ordinances to he prescribed 
ministers. A declaration qfjhith to be read by them. Re- 
solutions Jbr unijbrmity. All drawn up by the bishops. 

Reforina- J^ SHALL here insert a paper in order to the reformation 

tion for _ _ _ 1 r 

luinisters. of reHgion, containing proposals for ministers, and such as 
should officiate in the church. Though I can neither as- 
sign the author, nor yet the exact time of the writing 
thereof, yet I suppose I am not much wide from the time; 
and it seems to have been the advice of some one of the 
exiles. His judgment was, that in the ordination of minis- 
ters, there should be the consent of the congregations over 
whom they were to be set, together with the presentation of 
the respective patrons; and that the old oft-revolted priests, 
that complied under all the late revolutions of religion, 
should not be suffered to officiate any longer, but to be de- 
posed. But behold the paper. 

Foxii MSS. " Notes Jbr some reformation of the ministry and minis- 
" ters in this corriqyt time and state of the church of 
" England, to be observed until better reformation may 
" be devised and executed. 

I- '* First, That none be admitted into the ministry of the 

be admitted " word and sacrauicnts, but such as be able to minister the 
into tlie (( sanie according to God's word, and such as shall be at 

ministry. . " . 

" the same time admitted to a certain place and congrega- 
" tion. 

" So may the congregation of every parish give their 
*' consent and election, with the patron, unto him that is to 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 313 

*' be presented : or if they have any just cause against him, CHAP. 
" allege it. So as then for the same he may not be ad- 



" mitted a minister, when as he is presented of the patron Anno i^eo. 

" unto the bishop, and is also then nominated and shewed 

" to the parishioners. And this may be done by the arch- 

" deacon, or such as for him do present any to the bishop 

" for to be admitted into the ministry. For he that doth 

" present any to be admitted into the ministry, must ex- 

" amine, and be sure in what parish he should be minister, 

" and what those parishioners will justly say with him or 

" against him, afore he can well present him to be admitted 

" a minister to serve in that parish. 

" And upon such election and admission into the minis- 
" try, and institution unto the benefice, then may well fol- 
" low induction, with a sermon unto the minister inducted, 210 
" and parishioners assembled, for better instruction, admo- 
" nition, and exhortation unto them of their duties. And 
*' for not admitting any such as cannot or will not thus 
" orderly be admitted into the ministry, the bishop can be 
" in no danger ; neither can the patrons look in any wise to 
" have him instituted to the benefice, which cannot or will 
*' not be orderly and well admitted into the ministry. 

" And secondarily, for such as be already admitted into II. 
" the ministry, when as they be presented by the patron to^j.™'"'^^ 
*' have institution to a benefice; yet then may they be caused admitted 
" orderly and well to pi^oceed, as is aforesaid, by the con- g^es. 
" sent of the parishioners. Or if sufficient cause be thereby 
" tried and known, why they should not be instituted, then 
" may they justly be rejected. 

*' And if any be admitted into the ministry, and also into HI. 
*' a benefice, which doth not the duty of the same according ^^^^"IJ^"!.*^^ 
" to God's word ; then by the authority of God's word he ministry 
" may, and should for a season, be suspended from the tices, to be 
" function of the ministry, if there be hope that he can and suspended 

•' \ '■ or deposed. 

" will amend, to do according to God's word. And when as 
" there is no hope that ever he can be able and meet to do 
*' the duty of a minister according to God's word, that then 



314 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



CHAP. 
XVII. 

Anun 1 56'0 
IV. 

The case of 
■want of a 
lawful mi- 
nister. 

V. 

Of reading 
ooly. 



VI. 

Of serving 
of two or 
nio pa- 
rishes on 
one day. 



VIT. 

Of ministry 
of baptism. 



211 

VIII. 
Of minis- 
tering the 
communion 



" he be utterly deposed from the ministry ; excepting only 
" the case of bodily infirmity. 

" And in case of the aforesaid infirmity, suspension, or 
" any other want of a lawful minister to serve in any pa- 
" rish, that then no sacraments be ministered, except a lawful 
" minister be procured to minister unto them of that parish, 
" either in their church, or else in his church. 

" And that none for reading only be permitted to take 
" any part of the stipend, or living, due to the ministry. 

" So may all such as have no vocation, but seek to have 
*' some portion and profit of the ministry by reading only, be 
*' excluded. And any that liveth honestly upon any voca- 
" tion, and, in the absence of a n)inister, can and will read 
" any thing appointed to be read, only of good will to serve 
" the parishioners, may be permitted. And so shall not the 
" parishioners lack that which may be done of honest men 
*' unto them of good will ; neither the ministry, nor any 
" thing thereto belonging, be abused in this case, by such 
" as seek to serve themselves of covetousness. 

" That no minister serve mo than one parish in one 
" day. 

" So they which cannot or will not serve any parish at 
" any time, according to God's word, shall not be allowed 
" or permitted to serve, yea, to delude and abuse many 
" parishes at divers times on one day, according to the 
*' fashion of this ungodly world. 

" That baptism be ministered only on Sundays and holy- 
" days in the church. 

" So that no liberty or occasion be offered unto women 
*' to baptize. And at a most convenient time and place in 
" the congregation, by a lawful minister, the true doctrine 
" and use of baptism may be declared and exercised, unto 
" the abolishing of errors and abuses vet remaining con- 
" cerning baptism. 

" That at every communion there be a sermon. 

" So may such as have quarter sermons have at every 
" sermon a communion. And such as cannot or will not 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 315 

*' have preachinff of the word in season and out of season, CHAP. 
" according to God''s word, nor quarter sermons, according. 



*' to man's ordinance, shall not be allowed to abuse the seals Anno i560. 

" of sacraments, according to their own affections and cor- 

" rupt customs. But they, by deferring of this sacrament 

" to be ministered until doctrine be preached and received, 

" may be thereby caused and occasioned more to desire and 

" frequent preaching of the word : by the which God hath 

" ordained that men should be saved ; and by the which 

*' men learning and using well to examine themselves, may 

" eat of this bread, and drink of this cup worthily, unto 

" their own salvation. For this sacrament, as a seal an- 

" nexed to good doctrine received, may be well used ; but 

" being by ignorance or negligence separated from sound 

*' doctrine, cannot be well used, but evil abused. Thei-e- 

*' fore when and whereas preaching wanteth, the people 

" perish in their own sin, and their blood shall be required 

" at the hands of those that have charge over them. Yea, 

" in such place and case, to such persons the communion 

" used doth increase the danger and damnation. And being 

*' omitted and deferred, is a great occasion to breed more 

" desire and diligence in all persons to have preaching 

" afore and with the communion, well restored, and used 

*' unto edification. 

" That all priests made to say mass afore it was abo- ix. 
" lished in king Edward's days, which then first liad said ^^^.°J|!^°^*" 
" mass ; and secondarily, after it was then abolished, re- priests. 
*' nouncing the mass and papistry, did profess and practise 
" the Christian ministry ; and thirdly, in queen Mary"'s 
" time, revolted again unto papistry ; and fourthly, now in 
" queen Elizabeth's time, be returned again into the minis- 
" try ; that therefore now they cease from any ministry of 
" the word and sacraments, until further examination and 
" order be taken with them and others according to God's 
" word. 

" For they be all in offensive and notorious infamy, by 
" reason of inconstancy, ever turning with the time ; by 
" reason of manifold apostasy, in oft renouncing their pro- 



S16 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. *' fession and religion; by reason of hypocrisy, in pretend- 
" " ing the service of God according to his word, and prac- 

Annoiseo." tisinff the serving of themselves accordingf to the fashion 
*' of this world ; by reason of perjury, joined with treason, 
" against the princely majesty, in breaking of the oath in 
" queen Mary's reign, which they had sworn in the reign 
" of king Henry VIII. and king Edward VI. By these 
*' reasons it is evident, that they be in notorious and of- 

s Pet. ii. " fensive infamy. And also because that in queen Mary's 
" time, as hogs to their wallow, and dogs to their vomit, 
" worse in the end than at the beginning, they returned to 
" their idolatrous and blasphemous mass, resuming and re- 
" newing their old former abusing of bread and wine, to be 
" honoured and sacrificed as Christ. And also in this 
" queen"'s time they have so framed themselves to the fa- 
" shion of this world, in turning, as afore, from the mass 
" of papistry by force of the law and ordinance of man, 
" that it is evident, how they have not at any time repented, 
" neither been persuaded nor reformed by the word of God. 

Cap. xiv. " And it is manifest in Ezekiel, that if any keep such cor- 
212 " ruptions in their hearts with evident offences, and tokens 
" of the same before their faces in their deeds, and yet de- 
" mand, and be answered and accepted, to be allowed, as 
" men meet to serve God ; then is the sin and danger very 
" great, as of such demanders, so of such answerers : for 
" that they answer and accept such with ignorance and 
" error through negligence, as may and should be known 
" and rejected, as manifest and presumptuous hypocrites, 
" by diligent examination, good trial, and experience. 

sRcg.xxiii. " Therefore, as in Josiah's time, after long time and dili- 
" gence of reformation, yet upon better searching and re- 
" garding God's word in holy scriptures, and according 
" thereto, in further proceeding to better reformation, such 
" priests as had served idolatrously in the high places, al- 
" beit they were suffered to eat unleavened bread, to have 
" their living among their brethren, yet were they not suf- 
" fered to come to the altar at Jerusalem, nor suffered to 
" exercise the function and office of priests. And so now in 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 31T 

" England, after long time of reformation: yet by better CHAP. 
" considering and proceeding according to God''s word in '__ 



" holy scriptures, it will well appear, that albeit old oft-re- Anno i56o. 

" volting priests, afore noted, be not deprived, but suffered 

" to have and keep their livings ; yet should they be sus- 

" pended or deposed from the function and exercise of the 

" ministry of God's word. And as in Ezekiel it is taught Cap. xHt. 

" and commanded, that of those Levites which went with 

" Israel from God to idolatry, none might return and 

" ascend to the dignity of priests ; but those priests of the 

" Levites which kept the charge of the sanctuary, not turn- 

" ing from God to idolatry, they were allowed to serve as 

" priests in the ministry : so in England, of such as once 

" only renounced the papistical priesthood, and since have 

" entered and continued in the Christian ministry, without 

" any revolting unto papistry, many may be well allowed 

" to have continuance, as ministers, in the ministry. But of 

" such as revolted both to and from the ministry of Christ 

" unto Antichrist, with notorious, offensive infamy, as is 

" aforesaid, none should be allowed or suffered, as ministers, 

" in the ministry well I'eformed, or well proceeding in re- 

" formation. 

" Now if bishops, archdeacons, and other ecclesiastical 
" officers will not use these nor other means to reform, then 
" must they needs not only suffer, but also maintain great 
" abuses and enormities in the ministry and ministers to 
" continue. For such must be suffered and maintained, as 
" have been put forth of cloisters into pensions, and from 
" pensions into parishes ; yea, from papistical priesthood 
" into the Christian ministry, and from the Christian mi- 
" nistry into the papistical priesthood again ; and from the 
" papistical priesthood again into the Christian ministry 
" again ; alway for filthy lucre, seeking so to serve and 
" please men, as that therefore they cannot be the servants 
" and ministers of Christ. 

" And many also be now in the ministry, which cannot Gal. i. 
" or will not do any thing to serve God and the pa^ 
" rishioners according to God's word ; but be suffered and 



318 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " maintained to serve themselves and others, according to 
XVII. <; ^j^g fashion of the world : which do not serve and feed 



Anno 1560." the parishioners with doctrine and hospitality, according 

" to God's word ; but, with the spoil of all provision made 

" for doctrine and liospitality, do feed themselves, and serve 

213" others that be all takers of that spoil, according to the 

" fashion of this world. And this spoiling of the parishes of 

*' provision for doctrine and hospitality did begin by im- 

*' propriations given from the parish, to maintain the tradi- 

" tions and ordinances, doctrines and doings of men in re- 

*' ligious houses." 

Interpreta- Another thing also was now drawn up in writing by the 

tion of the archbishop and bishops, for the further regulation of the in- 

Injunc- . ^ , . • 1 /> • • J 

tions. fenor clergy. This paper consisted oi interpretations ana 
further considerations of certain of the queen's injunctions, 
for the better direction of the clergy, and for keeping good 
order in the church. It was framed, as it seems to me, by 
the pen of Cox, bishop of Ely, and revised by the archbi- 
shop, and was as followeth. 
MSS. c.c. To the third injunction the interpretation is, "That if 
9'^']°^' " the person be able, he shall preach in his own person 
nodal. " every month ; or else shall preach by another, so that his 
G Petyt " absence be approved by the ordinary of the diocese, in 
armig. « respect of sickness, service, or study at the universities. 
" Nevertheless, for want of able preachers and parsons, to 
" tolerate them without penalty, so they preach in their own 
" persons, or by a learned substitute, once in every three 
*' months of the year." 

Item, To the eighth, " That no visitors' licences to preach 
*' be continued in force." 

Item, That to the sixteenth article be added, " That at 
*' the archdeacon's visitation, the archdeacons shall appoint 
*' the curates to certain texts of the New Testament to be 
" conned without book ; and at their next synod to exact a 
'* rehearsal of them." 

To the nineteenth, "That in the procession [in Rogation 
" week] they sing or say the two psalms beginning Benedic, 
" (tnimn mea, Domino, with the litany and suffrages thereto. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 319 

*' with some sermon, or a homily of thanksgiving to God; CHAP. 

• • • • WIT 

" and moving to temperancy in their drinkings." ' 



To the twentieth, Item^ "That on Sundays there be no Anno iseo. 
" shops open, nor artificers going about their affairs worldly: 
*' and that all fairs and common marts falling upon the 
" Sunday, there be no shewing of any wares before the ser- 
" vice be done." 

Item^ " That there be some long ^ catechism devised and » in dis- 
" printed, for the erudition of simple curates : homilies to ^.^^ ^^^^^ 
" be made of those arguments which be shewed in the book catechism 
" ot homilies ; or others oi some convenient arguments, as common 
" of the sacrifice of the mass, of the common prayer to be ^^^^^^ 
" in English : that every particular church may alter and 
" change the public rites and ceremonies of their church, 
" keeping the substance of the faith inviolably, with such 
" like. And that these be divided to be made by the bi- 
" shops ; every bishop two, and the bishop of London to 
" have four." 

Item, " That all bishops and others, having any living 
" ecclesiastical, shall go in apparel agreeable, or else, within 
" two monitions given by the ordinary, to be deposed or 
" sequestered from his fruits, according to the discretion of 
" his said ordinarv, or his lawful deputy." 

Item, " That such as be for their wilfulness deprived in 
" this necessity of ministers, shall be called by the discre- 
" tion of the ordinary to minister some cure upon reason- 
" able wages ; else to be ordered according to the laws." 

Item, " That incorrigible Arians, Pelagians, or Free-will- 2 1 4 
" men, be sent into some one castle in North Wales, or 
" Wallinirford ; and there to live of their own labour and 
" exercise ; and none other be suffered to resort unto them 
" but their keepers, until they be found to repent their 
" errors." 

Item, " That public teachers of grammar be neither of- 
" fleers in cities or towns ; or farmers, or otherwise encum- 
" bered worldly, to the let of their labours." 

Item, " That young priests or ministers made or to be 
" made, be so instructed, that they be able to make answers 



320 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



CHAP. 
XVII. 

Anno 1560. 



For the di- 
vine service. 



• Those 
words in 
italic were 
inserted by 
archbishop 
Parker's 
hand, in- 
stead of 
these words 
crossed 
through, 
viz. in the 
caletidar of 
the service 
book, with 
two days 
/bllowing 
the /easts 
of Easter 
and Pente- 
cnst. 



For Ijurial'i, 

christen- 



according to the form of some catechism to be prescribed: 
and that readers neither serve in any cure, nor where is 
any incumbent.'" 

Item, " That the churchwardens once in the month de- 
clare by their curates, in bills subscribed with their hands, 
' to the ordinary, or to the next officer under liim, who they 
' be which will not readily pay their penalties for not com- 
* ing to God's divine service according to the statutes." 
Concerning the hook of service. 
First, " That there be used only but one apparel ; as the 
' cope in the ministration of the Lord's supper, and the 
' surplice in all other ministrations : and that there be no 
' other manner and form of ministering the sacraments, but 
' as the service book doth precisely prescribe, with the de- 
claration of the Injunctions; as for example, the common 
' bread." 

Item^ " That the table be removed out of the choir into 
' the body of the church, before the chancel door ; where 
' either the choir seemeth to be too little, or at great feasts 
' of receivings. And at the end of the communion to be 
' set up again, according to the Injunctions." 

Item, " That there be no other holy days observed be- 
' sides the Sundays, but only such as be set out ^ m the act 
' of king Edward, an. 5 et 6, cap. 3." 

Item, " That the ministers receiving the communion at 
' the hands of the executor be placed kneeling next to the 
' table." 

Item, "That the communion bread be thicker and broader 
' than it is now commonly used." 

Item, " That private baptism in necessity, as in peril of 
' death, be ministered either by the curate, deacon, or reader, 
' or some other grave and sober man, if the time will suffer." 
Item, " That children be not admitted to the communion 
' before the age of twelve or thirteen years, of good discre- 
' tion, and well instructed before." 

Concerning hurialt, christenings, admission of 
ministers, SfC. 
Item, " That when any Christen body is passing, the bell 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 321 

" be tolled; and the curate be especially called for, to com- CHAP. 
" fort the sick person. And after the time of his passing, to 



" ring no more but one short peal; and one before the bu-Anno iseo. 
" rial, and another short peal after the burial." ings,rninis- 

Item, " To avoid contention, let the curate have the value 21 5 
*' of the chrisom ; not under the value of four pence, and 
" above as they can agree, and as the state of the parents 
" may require." 

Item, " That ministers being not learned in the Latin 
*' tongue, if they be well exercised in the scriptures, and 
*' well testified of for their lives and conversations, and of 
*' their wives, to be tolerated in the office of deacons ; and 
*' after a good time of experience to admit them to the order 
*' of priesthood. And of such as be skilled in the Latin 
*' tongue, to have good examination of their competent 
" knowledge in the principal articles of the faith, and of 
" some competent matter to comfort the sick and weak in 
" conscience, [ere they be admitted to higher orders."] 

Item, " Against the day of ordering appointed, to give 
** open recognizations to all men, to except against such 
" whom they know to be not worth}^, either for life or con- 
" versation. And there to give notice, that none shall sue 
" for orders but within their own diocese, where they were 
" born, or had there long time of dwelling: and that by the 
" testimony of their ordinaries ; except of such as be de- 
" greed in the universities." 

Item, " That canonical impediments be still observed to 
" respect them which sue to be ordered, except they have 
" decency agreeable to the same." 

Item, " That ministers or readers of service remove not 
" from the diocese or cure where they first began, and were 
" admitted by the ordinary ; except they bring letters testi- 
*' monial of their removing, allowed by the ordinary." 

Item, " Suit to be made to the queen's majesty for re- 
" formation of pensions imposed." 

Item, " That the order of the articles prescribed to mi- 
" nisters be inserted in this form, ut 'iTifraT 

Item, " That one brief form of declaration be made, set- 

VOL. I. V 



322 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " ting out the principal articles of our religion; the ra- 
■ " ther, for the unity of doctrine in the whole realm : espe- 



Annoi66o. c< ciallv to be spoken by the parsons, curates, or both, at 
" their first entry; and after, twice in the year, for avoiding 
" all doubt and suspicion of varying from the doctrine de- 
" ter mined in the realm." 

Item^ " That the bishops do call home once in the year 
" any prebendary in their church which studieth in the 
" universities, to know how he profiteth in learning; and 
" that he be not suffered to be a serving or waiting-man 
" dissolutely ; or else to sequester the fruits of his living.*" 
Matrimony. 
" For the banns asking, forasmuch as the statute of fa- 
" culties doth not define the cause, whether the canon or 
" the custom hitherto in use may be followed without dan- 
*' ger or no, it is left to every man's prudence. 

" Whether a bishop may dispense in times prohibited: in 
" which matter deliberation is thought best."" 
216 Collation of benefices. 

First, Agreed, " That no bishop shall grant in ^vrlting 
" any advowson of his patronage, until the benefice be void; 
" except that, in a synod or convocation, the more part of 
" the bishops do think it reasonable to be released in some 
" special case." 

Item, " That from this day forth no confirmation [per- 
" haps it should be dispensation'\ be given by any bishop 
" for term of years upon benefice with cure." 

Item, "That no bishop hereafter shall ever grant any 
" appropriation to be newly made without the like consent 
" as in the first article." 

Item, " That the ordinaries do use all good, diligent 
" examination, to foresee all simoniacal pacts or covenants 
*' with their presenters, for the spoil of their glebe and 
" tenths." 

Item, " That the ordinary shew to the curates, in their 
" suits for their tithes, &c/reasonable favour with expedition: 
" so that their causes be determinate within three weeks, if 
" the case doth not evidently require more leisure." 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 

And much was done not long after, according to this re- CHAP, 
formatory platform. For there was a larger catechism com- ^^^^- 
posed in Latin, and puhhshed by Alex. Nowel, dean of St. Anno iseo. 
Paul's, having been first revised and approved by both 
houses of convocation, anno 1562. A second book of ho- 
milies was also compiled and set forth, as we have them at 
this day in our homily book. And articles of faith to be 
subscribed to by ministers, and the form of declaration to 
be by them openly spoken and professed, were likewise 
framed. 

The articles of the principal heads of religion prescribed Articles to 
to ministers, as was mentioned before, now follow : scribed by 

ministers. 

S. scrij)tura in se continet omnem doctrinam pietatis : ex 
qua sicjfficienter et error omnis convinci possit^ et Veritas 
stabiliri. 

Symholum Nicenum, Athanasii, et quod commtmiter Apo- 
stolorum dicitur, continet b?'evissime articidos Jidei nostrce 
sparsim in scripturis ostensos. Qui istis no7i crediderint 
inter veros cathoUcos non sunt recipiendi. 

Ecclesia Christi est, in qua purum Dei verbum prcedi- 
catur, et sacramenta juxta Christi ordinationem admini- 
strantur : et in qua clavium authoritas retinetur. 

Qucevis ecclesia particularis autlioritatem instituendi, 
mutandi, et abrogandi ceremonias et ritus ecclesiasticos ha- 
bet ; modo ad decor em, ordinem, et cedijicationem fiat. 

Christus tantum duo sacramenta expresse nobis commen- 
dat, baptisma et eucharistiam : quibus corifertur gratia rite 
sumentibus, etiamsi malus sit minister. Et non prosunt in- 
digne suscipientibus quantumvis bonus sit minister. 

Laudandus est ecclesice mos baptizandi parvulos, et reti- 
nendus est. 

Ccena Dominica non est tantum symbolum mutucE bene- 
volentice Christianorum^ inter se ; sed magis symbolum est 
nostrce redemptionis per Christi mortem, et nostra con- 21*^ 
jtmctionis ctim Christo. Ubifidelibus vere datur et exhibe- 
tur commiinio corporis et sanguinis Domini. 

Sacramentum eucharistice [neqtie ex prcEcepto] neque ex 
Y 2 



324 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, usu primcevcB ecclesioz aut servdbatur^ aut circumferehatur, 
^^^"' vel elevahatur, ut adoraretur. 



Anno 1560. M'lssa, ut consuevit a sacerdotibus did, non erat a 
Christo instituta, sed a multis Romanis pontijicibus con- 
sarcinata. Nee est sacrifictum propitiatorkim pro vivis et 
defunctis. 

Scholastica transiibstantiatio panis et vini in corpus et 
sanguinem Christi probari non potest ex sacris Uteris. 

Non omne peccatum mortale, sen voluntarie perpetratiim 
post baptismum, est irremissibile, et peccatum in Spiritum 
Sanctum. 

Post acceptum Spiritum Sanctum potest homo peccare, ac 
denuo etiam resipiscere. Nemoque sine peccato vivit, quam- 
vis regencratis in Christo non imputatur. 

Justificatio ex sola Jide est certissima doctrina Christior- 
norum. 

Elizabctha regina AnglicB est unictis et snpremus gu- 

bernator hujus regni et omnium dominioruni et regionum 

suarum quarumcunque, tarn in rebus et causis ecclesiasticis 

quam temporalibus. 

• iiicarticu- Vevbum Dci nou prohibetjisminarum regimen ; cui obe- 

lus additur, ciiendum est juxta ordinationem Dei \ 

ut obviam «^ ■,■...■,.. 

eaturasser- Romauus pout'ifex nullam habet jurisdictionem in hoc 

s'coti iiu-^" f'^gfio, nee alia quacunque potestas extranea. 

perae, et Lcgcs civilcs possunt Chvisttanos propter Jlagitia morte 

qiiorutidam . 

Angloruni pWlire. 

exuium in Christianis licet ex jussu principis bella gerere, et ex 
commoT&n- Justa causajurare, et propria possidere ^. 
b'pi'acitaa- Doctrinu scliolasticorum de pur gator io, et invocatione di- 
nabaptista- vorum, nullum habet Jimdamentum ex verbo Dei. 

Proiceptum Dei est, ut qute leguntur in ecclesia ilia lingua 
proferantur quce ab ecclesia inielligatur. 

Absque externa et legitima vocatione non licet cuiquam 
sese ingerere in aliquod ministerium ecclesiasticum vel sce- 
culare. 

Matrimonium inter Christianos legitime Juxta verbumDei 
initum et contractum, est indissolubile, nee per traditiones 
hom'nium unquaju rouvellendum. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 325 

Coelibatus nulli hominum statui prcedpHur^ neque injun- CHAP. 
gitur ministris ecclesicB ex verbo Dei. '_ 



HcEc omnia vera esse et puhlice docenda prqfiteimir,^'^'^°^^(^^- 
eaque juxta datum nobis facultatem et ernditionem 
tuebimur et docebimns. Hancque nosiram corifes- 
sionem manuum nostrarum subscriptionibus testifi- 
camur^ contrariamque doctrinam abolendam essejxi- 
dicamus, et detestamur. 
Now next for the form that all ministers were to read 
and declare publicly upon their first coming into their bene- 
fices, being a confession of their faith and belief, contained 
in eleven articles: this was put in print the next year by 
Rich. Jugg, the queen's printer, and was entitled, A Decla- The decla- 
ration of certain principal articles of religion, set out by f^'^j'^'!. °u 
order of both archbishops metropolitans, and the rest ofthere&d by 
bishops ; for the unity of doctrine to be taught and holden 
of all parsons, vicars, and curates; as well in testification 
of their common consent in the said doctrines, to the stopping 
of the mouths of them that go about to slander the ministry 
of the church for diversity of judgment, as necessary for 
the instruction of their people. To be read by the said par- 
sons, vicars, and curates at their possession-taking, or first 
entry into their cures ; as also after that, yearly at tzvo 
several times ; that is to say, the Sundays next following 
Easter-day and St. Michael the archangel. 
The Declaration was as foUoweth : 

" Forasmuch as it appertaineth to all Christian men, butE Bibiiofh. 
" especially to the ministers and pastors of the church, being ^- ^- ^- ^• 
" teachers and instructors of others, to be ready to give a 
" reason of their faith, when they shall be thereunto re- 
" quired, I for my part, now appointed your minister, vicar, 
" or curate, having before ray eyes the fear of God and the 
" testimony of my conscience, do acknowledge for myself, 
" and require you to assent to the same ; 

" First, That there is but one living and true God, of in- 
" finite power, wisdom, and goodness, maker and preserver 
" of all things. And that in unity of this godhead there be 

Y 3 



326 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " three persons, of one substance, of equal power and eter- 
^^"- " nity, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. 



Anno 1560. " Secondly, I believe also whatsoever is contained in the 
" holy canonical scriptures. In the which scriptures are con- 
" tained all things necessary to salvation. By the which also 
" all errors and heresies may sufficiently be reproved and 
" convicted, and all doctrines and articles necessary to sal- 
*' vation established. I do also most firmly believe and con- 
" fess all the articles contained in the three creeds, the Ni- 
" cene creed, Athanasian creed, and our common creed, 
" called the Apostles' creed. For these do briefly contain 
" the principal articles of our faith, which are at large set 
" forth in the holy scriptures. 

" Thirdly, I acknowledge also that church to be the 
*' spouse of Christ, wherein the word of God is truly taught, 
" the sacraments oi'derly ministered according to Christ''s in- 
" stitution, and the authority of the keys duly used. And 
" that every such particular church hath authority to insti- 
" tute, to change, to alter, clean to put away ceremonies 
" and other ecclesiastical rites, as they be superfluous, or be 
" abused ; and to constitute others, making more to seemli- 
" ness, to order, or edification. 

" Fourthly, Moreover I confess, that it is not lawful for 
" any man to take upon him any office or ministry, either 
" ecclesiastical or secular, but such only as are lawfully 
" thereunto called by the high authority, according to the 
" ordinances of this realm. 

" Fifthly, Furthermore I do acknowledge the queen's 
" majesty's prerogative and superiority of government of all 
" states, and in all causes, as well ecclesiastical as temporal, 
" within this realm and other her dominions and countries, 
" to be agreeable to God's word, and of right to a})pertain 
219" to her highness, in such sort as is in the late act of })arlia- 
" ment expressed, and sithence by her majesty's Injunctions 
" declared and expounded. 

" Sixthly, Moreover touching the bishoj) of Rome, I do 
" acknowledge and confess, that by the scriptures and word 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 327 

" of God he hath no more authority than other bishops have CHAP. 
" in their provinces and dioceses. And therefore the power ^^^'' 



" which he now challengeth, that is, to be supreme head of Anno iseo. 
" the universal church of Christ, and so to be above all em- 
" perors, kings, and princes, is an usurped power, contrary 
" to the scriptures and word of God, and contrary to the 
" example of the primitive church. And therefore is for most 
"just causes taken away, and abolished within this realm. 

" Seventhly, Furthermore I do grant and confess, that 
" the Book of Common Prayer, and Administration of the 
" holy Sacraments, set forth by authority of parliament, is 
" agreeable to the scriptures. That it is catholic, apostolic, 
*' and most for the advancing of God's glory, and the edify- 
" ing of God's people; both for that it is in a tongue that 
*' may be understanded of the people, and also for the doc- 
" trine and form of ministration contained in the same. 

*' Eighthly, And although in the ministration of baptism 
" there is neither exorcism, oil, salt, spittle, or hallowing of 
" the water now used ; and for that they were of late years 
" abused and esteemed necessary, where they pertain not to 
" the substance and necessity of the sacrament, they be rea- 
" sonably abolished ; and yet the sacrament is full and per- 
" fectly ministered to all intents and purposes, agreeable to 
^' the institution of our Saviour Christ. 

" Ninthly, Moreover I do not only acknowledge that private 
" masses were never used among the fathers of the primitive 
" church ; I mean, public ministration, and receiving of the 
" sacrament by the priest alone, without a just number of 
" communicants, according to Christ's saying. Take i/e, and 
" eat 7/e, &c. but also that the doctrine which maintaineth the 
*' mass to be a propitiatory sacrifice for the quick and the 
" dead, and a means to deliver souls out of purgatory, 
*' is neither agreeable to Christ's ordinance, nor grounded 
" upon doctrine apostolic; but contrariwise, most ungodly 
" and most injurious to the precious redemption of our Sa- 
" viour Christ, and his only sufficient sacrifice, offered once 
" for ever upon the altar of the cross. 

" Tenthly, I am of that mind also, that the holy commu- 
Y 4 



328 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " nion and sacrament of the body and blood of Christ, (for 

^" the due obedience to Christ's institution, and to express 

Anno 1560. " the virtuB of the same,) ought to be ministered unto his 
" people under both kinds : and that it is avouched by cer- 
" tain fathers of the church to be a plain sacrilege, to rob 
" them of the mystical cup, for whom Christ hath shed his 
" most precious blood ; seeing he himself hath said, Drinlc 
" ye all of this : considering also, that in the time of the an- 
" cient doctors of the church, as Cyprian, Jerom, Augustin, 
" Gelasius, and others, six hundred years after and more, 
" both the parts of the sacrament were ministered to the 
" people. 

" Last of all. As I do utterly disallow the extolling of 
*' images, relics, and feigned miracles ; also all kinds of ex- 
*' pressing God invisible in the form of an old man ; or the 
" Holy Ghost in the form of a dove ; and all other vain 
220*' worshipping of God, devised by man''s fantasy, besides or 
" contrary to the scriptures ; as, wandering on pilgrimages, 
" setting up of candles, praying upon beads, and such like 
*' superstitions ; which kind of works have no promise of re- 
" ward in scripture, but contrariwise threatenings and male- 
" dictions : so I do exhort all men to the obedience of God''s 
*' law, and to works of faith ; as charity, mercy, pity, alms, 
*' devout and fervent prayer, with the affection of the heart, 
" and not with the mouth only, godly abstinence and fasting, 
" chastity, obedience to the rulers and superior powers, Avith 
*' such works and godliness of life, commanded by God in 
*' his word, which, as St. Paul saith, hath promises both of 
*' this life and of the life to come, and are works only ac- 
*' ceptable in God''s sight. 

*' These things above rehearsed, though they be ap- 
*' pointed by common order, yet do I without all compul- 
*' sion, with freedom of mind and conscience from the bot- 
** torn of my heart, and upon most sure persuasion, acknow- 
" ledge to be true, and agreeable to God's word. And 
" therefore I exhort you all, of whom I have cure, heartily 
*' and obediently to embrace and receive the same : that we, 
** all joining togetlier in unity of spirit, faith, and charity. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 329 

*' may also at length be joined together m the khigdom of CHAP. 
" God ; and that through the merits and death of our Sa- ^^'^' 



*' viour Jesus Christ. To zvhom, with the Father and jfAe Aimo iseo. 
" Holy G/iost, be all glory and empire now and for ever. 
" Amen." 

Such was the pastoral care of archbishop Parker, by 
whom, I believe, this Declaration was chiefly framed, that so 
all that came into livings, and served in the church, might 
be purged of popish doctrines and superstitions, and to make 
the best security he could of admitting none to officiate but 
such as consented to the gospel, and took the profession 
thereof upon them. 

Near about this time also (unless it were the year before) Orders and 
another thing was drawn up by the archbishop for the prac- f^r",'nif°"! 
tice of the clergy, as the former was for them to declare, en- mity. 
titled. Resolutions and Orders taken by common consent of 
the bishops for this present tifne, 7intil a synod may oe had, 
for preservation and maititetiance of uniformity in matters 
ecclesiastical throughout all dioceses in both provinces. 

" First, That the licences given for preaching by the late mss. 
" visitors general be no longer in force. And that such as^'^'^'^' 
" hereafter shall be admitted to preach shall be diligently 
" examined, as well in unity of doctrine established by pub- 
*' lie authority, as admonished to use sobriety and discre- 
" tion in teaching the people ; abstaining from busy med- 
" dling with matters of controversy ; and to consider the 
" gravity of their office, and to foresee with diligence the 
*' matter which they will speak, to utter them to the edifica- 
" tion of the audience. 

" Item, That they set out in their preaching the reverend 
" estimation of the holy sacraments of baptism and the Lord's 
*' supper ; exciting the people to the often and devout re- 
*' ceiving of the holy communion of the body and blood of 
" Christ, in such form as is already prescribed in the Book 
" of Common Prayer, and as shall be further declared in an 
" homily concerning the virtue and efficacy of the said sa- 
" crament. 



330 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " Item, That they move the people to all obedience, as 

, '__ " well in observation of the orders appointed in the Book of 

Anno 1560. « Common Service, as in the queen''s majesty's Injunctions, 
^"^^ " as also of all other civil duties for subjects to do. 

" Item, That they use not to exact or receive unreason- 
*' able rewards or stipends of the poor curates, coming to 
" their cures to preach. Whereby they might be noted as 
" followers of filthy lucre, rather than use the office of 
" preaching of charity and good zeal, to the salvation of 
*' men's souls. 

" Item, That public baptism be ministered in the font 
" commonly used ; not in basins, or in any other like thing : 
" and that the said font be not removed by any private 
" advice. 

" Item, Private baptism in necessity, as in peril of death, 
" to be ministered, either by the curate, deacon, or reader, or 
" some other grave and sober person, if the time will suffer." 



CHAP. XVIII. 

The bishops address to the queen against images. Table of 
marriages. Latin prayers Jbr the colleges. Latin office 
for funerals ; and commendation of benefactors deceased. 
A new calendar of lessons. Order for churches and chan- 
cels decayed, and kept unclean: and for places zvhere the 
Latin prayers were said. 

Tliebi- J- HUS industrious were these careful bishops in settling 
shops ad- ti^g affairs of the church, and retjulatina: the ministers 

dress for ..... 

uking a- thereof. But the great business of retaining of images in 
way images, ji^g cHurches, or removing them, yet stuck; the queen hi- 
therto not satisfied in that matter: which therefore these 
godly reformers had been and still were extraordinary so- 
licitous about. Addresses had been several times made to 
her before, for the taking them away totally out of the 
churches; now this year they made another humble appli- 
cation to her for the removing that offensive evil, as they 
called it, out of the church of England. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 331 

" They urged to her the necessity of it, which had, they CHAP, 
said, compelled them to renew their former suit, not in 



" any respect of self-will, stoutness, or striving against her Anno i56o. 

" majesty, but for that fear and reverence which they bore ^'^^•»" *«■§"- 

" to the majesty of Almighty God ; and lest, in giving of- mss. 

" fence to the little ones, in setting a trap of error for the 

" ignorant, and digging a pit for the blind to fall into, they 

" should not only be guilty of the blood of their brethren, 

" but procure to their reclaiming consciences the biting 

" worm that never dies, for their endless confusion. And 

*' they doubted not, but that God would happily finish in 

*' her majesty that good work which he had most graciously 

" begun: that she, following the example of the godly princes 

" that went before her, might clearly purge the polluted 

" church, and remove all occasions of evil. 

" And as they had heretofore at sundry times made pe-222 
" tition to her concerning the matter of images, but had not 
" exhibited any reasons for the removing the same ; lest 
" they might seem to allege conscience without the warrant 
" of God"'s word, and unreasonably to require that for which 
" they could give no reason ; they had now put in writing 
" their authorities of scripture, reason, and pithy persuasions, 
" which they exhibited to her gracious consideration." 

These are large, but are contracted by the bishop of Sa- Hist. Re- 
rum in his History ofthe Reformation. They are taken from i°'^™'3*p, 
the word of God, from sentences out of the ancient fathers, 397. 
and from other weighty considerations. 

They added, " That these reasons had moved all their 
" brethren, that now bore the office of bishops, to think and 
" affirm images not expedient for the church of Christ ; and 
" were of such weight with them [who made this address to 
*' her majesty] that they would not suffer them to consent 
" to the erecting and retaining of images in the places of 
" religious worship, without great offending of God, and 
" grievous wounding of their own consciences. And for 
*' these causes they beseeched her most humbly not to strain 
*' them any further ; but to consider that God's word did 
" threaten a terrible judgment unto them, if they, being 



332 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " pastors and ministers of his church, should assent unto 
" the thing whicli in their learning and conscience they were 



Aunoiseo." persuaded tended to the confirmation of error, supersti- 
" tion, and idt)latry ; and unally, to the ruin of the souls 
" connnitted to their charge. And they prayed her ma- 
"jesty not to be offended with this their plainness and 
" liberty : which all good and Christian princes had ever 
" taken in good part at the hands of godly bishops : alleg- 
*' ing, as a proof of this, a saying of St. Ambrose to Theo- 
Ep. lib. V. " dosius the emperor; Sed neque imper'mle est, &c. i. c. 
" That it was neither the part of an emperor to deny free- 
*' dom of speech, nor the part of a priest not to say what 
*' his judgment was. 

" They entreated her further to consider, that besides 
" weighty causes in policy, the establishing of images by her 
*' authorit}^ would not only utterly discredit their ministries, 
*' as builders of things which they had destroyed ; but also 
" blemish the fame of her most godly brother; and also 
*' such notable fathers as had given their lives for the tes- 
" timony of God's truth : who by public laws removed all 
" images. 

" And in fine, they beseeched her, that these and such 
" like controversies of religion might be referred to be dis- 
" cussed and decided in a synod of the bishops and other 
" godly learned men, according to the example of Constan- 
" tine the Great and other Christian emperors. That the 
" reasons of both parties being examined by them, judg- 
" mcnt might be given uprightly in all doubtful matters." 
And to these grave and weighty persuasions the queen at 
length condescended. 
A table of Another useful thing done this year by the same vene- 
marnage yr^^i^ company of reformers was, to prevent incestuous and 
unlawful marriages, too common in those times. And a 
table of marriages was framed, instructing what matrimony 
was lawful and agreeable to tlic word of God, and what 
was not. This, archbishop Parker had the main hand in. 
It was put into print for the more common use, and en- 
223 titled, An admonition Jbr the necessity of the present timey 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 333 

till some further consultation^ to all such as shall intend CHAP. 
hereafter to enter into the state of matrimony, ffodly a7id ^^^^^- 



agreeable to law. Annoi56o. 

Though the pubhc prayers were by the late act of parlia- Latin pray- 
ment to be said only in the vulgar tongue, that all the people ^"g^uf^i^g^. 
might understand ; yet upon the petition of the vmiversities s'ties : 
of Cambridge and Oxford, and the two colleges of Win- 
chester and Eaton, that for the further improvements of 
their members in Latin they might use the same form of 
public prayer in Latin ; the queen, by her letters patents, 
dated at Westminster, the 6th of April, in the second year 
of her reign, granted the same : and being minded to con- 
sult (as her patents ran) for all the members of her common- 
wealth, as much as in her lay, did constitute, that it should 
be lawful and ])ermitted by her autliority and privilege 
royal, as well to the dean and fellowship of Christ-church in 
her university of Oxford, as to the presidents, keepers, rec- 
tors, masters, and societies of all and singular the colleges of 
Cambridge, Oxford, Winton, and Eaton, to use this form of 
common prayers in Latin publicly in their churches and 
chapels; declaring how she had also taken care that her 
printer should print the same in Latin, agreeing with the Eng- 
lish book of public prayers : but still providing, that in those 
colleges, to which parishes of the laity were annexed, and 
also in the rest, to which the lay-servants, and ministers of 
their colleges, or any others ignorant of the Latin tongue, 
necessarily must resort ; that for these should be assigned 
some seasonable hours and places in the said churches and 
chapels; in which, at least on festival days, morning and 
evening prayer should be read and recited, and the admi- 
nistration of the sacraments celebrated in their seasons in 
English, to the edification of the laity. 

And further, she exhorted all other ministers of the And minis- 
church of England to use the same Latin form of prayer pri- t|,g„, p,.}. 
vately, of what degree soever they were, on those days on^'^t^'y- 
which eitlier they were not wont or not obliged to say the 
public prayers to their parishioners in the English tongue, 
accordincT to the form of the said statute. 



334 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. To this edition of the Latin prayers which came forth 
this year, she also appointed to be joined certain peculiar 



rals 



Anno iseo.fornis in Latin, to be used at the funerals and exequies of 
of p'raye™ Cliristians deceased, when the friends and neighbours were 
for fune- minded to celebrate the Lord's supper ; a custom then, 
but now wholly disused : it was entitled, Celebratio CcencB 
Domini in Jimehrihiis, si amici et vicini defuncti commu- 
nicare velint. It consisted of a collect, and an epistle and 
gospel. The collect began, Misericors Deiis, &c. which is 
the same in English with the second prayer in the burial 
office, to be used at the grave after the interment of the 
corpse ; only with these variations. 

224 English Office. Latin Office. 

— We may rest in him. — We may sleep with Christ. 
That at the general re- " And in the resurrection 

surrection in the last day " at the last day, we, toge- 

we may hejhund acceptable " ther with our brother, be- 

in thy sight, and receive that " ing raised again, and re- 

hlessing which thy xcell-he- " ceiving our bodies, may 

loved Son shall then pro- " reign together with thee in 

noimce to all that love and " life eternal, through our 

fear thee^ saying, Come ye " Lord^'' &c. 
blessed, &c. 

Then the epistle, being the 1st Thess. iv. / would not have 
you ignorant, brethren, concerning those that sleep, &c. — 
Wherefore comfort one another with these words. 

The gospel was John vi. Jesus saith to his disciples and 
the multitude of the Jews, All that the Father giveth me shall 
come to me, &c. — That every one that seeth the Son and be- 
lieveth in him, may have eternal life ; and I will raise him 
tip in the last day. Or this, John v. Jesus saith to his dis- 
ciples and the multitude cf the Jews, Verily, verily, I say 
unto you. He that heareth my words, and believeth &c. — 
And they that have done evil, unto the restirrcction of damna- 
tion. And this office our reformers brought in, in the room 
of the popish superstitious office at the burials and exequies 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 335 

of their dead; and was nothing else but the correction and CHAP. 
reformation thereof. ' 



There was also in the popish times an office used in the^""° ^^^^' 
colleges at certain times of the year, for the commendations com^ienda- 
of their benefactors : so called for their commending their tion of be- 
souls to God on account of the merit of their good works. But 
now in the same book of Latin Common Prayer was added 
a reformed Latin commendation of them, which was to this 
import : That at the end of every term should be commen- 
dations of the founders and other famous men, by whose 
beneficence the colleges had been enriched. Whereof this 
was to be the form. First, to begin with the Pater-noster. 
Then the recitation of these Psalms, 144, 145, 146. Then 
the lesson, which was the 44th chapter of Ecclesiasticus. 
These read and ended, followed a sermon, in which the 
preacher was to set forth the most ample munificence of their 
founder ; the great usefulness of learning : with what praises 
they deserved to be extolled, who by their liberality pro- 
moted the good study of learning : how great an ornament 
it was to a kingdom to have learned men, who of matters 
controverted in the world might give the true judgment: 
how much the holy scripture excelled human authority : 
how profitable the doctrine of it was to the common people, 
and how wide it extended itself: and how excellent and 
truly royal it was for them to whose care God had com- 
mitted the whole people, to provide them many ministers of 
the word, and to take care that these ministers should be 
honest and learned men. 

The sermon ended, the Benedictus was to be sung. Then 
certain versicles, thus sounding in English : Minister, The 
just shall he had in everlasting remembrance. Response, 225 
He shall not he afraid of evil tidings. Min. The soids of 
the righteous are in the hand of God. Resp. Neither doth 
any torment touch them. Which were instead of these ver- 
sicles in the popish office. Versus. Requiem cBternam dona 
eis,Domine. Hes^. Et lua: perpetua luceat eis, kc. That is, 
Versicle, Grant them eternal rest, O Lord. Answ. Jnd let 
perpetual light shine upon them. Vers. From the gates of 



336 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. hell. Answ. Lord, deliver their soids. Vers. / trust to see 
'_the goodness of the Lord. Answ. In the land of the living. 



Anno 1560. Then followed a prayer, Dowim^ D^w*, &c. Thus Eng- 
lished : " O Lord God, the resurrection and the life of those 
" that believe, who art ever to be praised, as well in the liv- 
" ing as in the dead ; we give thee thanks for our founder 
" N. and the rest of our benefactors ; by whose benefits we 
" are here maintained unto godliness and the studies of learn- 
" ing : beseeching thee, that we, rightly using these gifts to 
" thy glory, may be brought together with them to the 
*' immortal glory of the resurrection, through Jesus Christ 
" our Lord, Amen.'''' Which was instead of this prayer in the 
popish office of commendations, viz. Tihi, Domine, commen- 
damus animam Jhmidi tui N. et animasyaviulorunijramida~ 
rumqiie tuarum, ut defunctl scecido tihi vivant : et qucB per 
frag'd'itatevi mnndance conversationis peccata admisernnt, tu 
venia mise7-icord'issim(B tncs pictatis absterge per Christum, 
&c. That is, " To thee, O Lord, we commend the soul of 
" thy servant N. and the souls of thy servants, both men 
" and women ; that they, being dead to this world, may live 
*' to thee ; and what sins they have committed by the frailty 
*' of a conversation in this world, do away by the pardon of 
*' thy most merciful pity, through Christ our Lord, Amen. 
" And let them rest in peace." 

Thus were all the old superstitious forms every where 

purged and reformed. These offices in Latin may be read in 

Bishop Sparrow's Collections. 

A new ca- Care was now also taken for certain chapters and lessons 

lendar of 'm {[^f. Commou Prayer Book, as they stood in king Edvvard"'s 

be made, book, to be altered for other portions of scripture, of more 

MSS. vol. edification, to be read to the unlearned and lay people. For 

C. C.C.C. which purpose the queen had written to four persons of her 

ecclesiastical commission, viz. the archbishop of Canterbury, 

the bishop of London, Dr. Bill, her almoner, and Dr. Had- 

don, one of the masters of her requests; that it was her will, 

.that they, or two of them, should be joined with the rest of 

her said commissioners, to ])rovide an order of the lessons 

throughout the wliole year; ami to cause some calendars to 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 337 

be printed, whereby such chapters or parcels of less edification CHAP, 
might be removed, and other more profitable be appointed " 



to supply their rooms. This order and calendar, with anAnnoi5eo. 
order for the setting; up the Ten Commandments, was finished ^"^ fo'set- 

o jr ' ^ ting up the 

and dispersed to all the bishops to see observed, in the CoimnHnd- 
month of February. Yet a liberty seems to be left notwith- '"'^" ** 
standing to the discretion of ministers to alter the lessons of 
the Old Testament. For this instruction was given to eccle- 
siastical ministers in the admonition before the second tome 
of the HomiUes, (which came out two or three years after :) 
" That where some or other chapter of the Old Testament, 
" to follow in order to be read upon the Sundays or holy- 
" days, were better to be changed with some other of the 226 
" new, of more edification ; it should be well done of them 
" to spend their time to consider well of such chapters be- 
" forehand ; Avhereby their prudence and diligence in their 
" office might appear." 

In the same letter of the queen, the same four commis- Orders for 
sioners were authorized to consider the great disorder in the ^,Jj7han- 
decays of churches, and the unseemly keeping and ordering eels iie- 
of chancels ; which were kept unclean, and let run into great ^^ qj^^_ 
ruin, with the roofs, walls, and windows : and what unmeet ments. 
and unseemly tables, with foul cloths, were appointed for 
the holy communion ; and how desolate of all cleanliness 
and meet ornaments the places of prayer were left. And 
that they should determine for some good and speedy means 
of reformation of these things. And further, to order the 
tables of the Commandments to be decently set up in the east 
part of the chancels : and that such ornaments be appointed 
in the churches, that they might appear to be places of reli- 
gion and prayer. 

Further, she commanded them to take care, that this or- 
der and reformation should be every where of one sort and 
fashion, and especially in all collegiate and cathedral churches, 
where cost might more probably be allowed. 

And whereas the queen had caused a Book of Common And for 
Prayer to be translated into Latin, for the use and exercise of ^,|"g^'g'"jj_ 
such students and others as were learned in the Latin tongue ; tin prayers 

were said. 
VOL. I. Z 



338 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, it was her will, that they the said commissioners should 
_____ prescribe some order to the collegiate churches, to which she 



Anno 1560. had permitted the use of the divine service in the Latin 
tongue, in such sort as they should judge meet to be used, 
in respect of their companies, or of resort of her lay-subjects 
to the said churches. So that her good purpose in the said 
translation might not be frustrated, nor yet corruptly abused, 
contrary to the effect of her meaning. And for the publica- 
tion of what should be so ordered, she required the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury to see the same put in execution 
throughout his province. And that he and the rest of the 
commissioners should prescribe the same to the archbishop 
nominated for York, for his province. 

And lastly, that every alteration so by them to be made 
should be done quietly, without shew of any innovation in 
the church. This letter was dated from Westminster in 
January, the third of her reign. 

What the archbishop, the bishop of London, and the rest 
did, according to the queen"'s command aforesaid, in pre- 
scribing orders for the places where the Latin prayers were 
allowed ; namely, that provision might be made likewise for 
those of the unlearned laity that resorted thither for devo- 
tion ; may be seen in the conclusion of the queen's letters pa- 
tents, where she indulged the colleges that hberty, as was 
shewn before. 



227 CHAP. XIX. 

A ivrit'mg of an expulsed bishop. Pope Pius IV. his prac- 
tices about England. His jjlot to sow divisions. Mason 
a convert, his report. Bible of Geneva. Bishop Pilking- 
ton''s Exposition ofAggee. Dr. Wylson's books of Logic and 
Rhetoric. Gerard Hoenrich, a German, his offer of services 
to England. MelanctJion dies. Merited loelloftlie Eng- 
lish church. NoweTs and Calfield's sermons at St. PauPs 
Cross. Horarium. A Spanish church in London. 

Endeavours As the archbishop and the rest of the pious bishops and 
due" no- divines were thus commendably industrious in shaking off 

pery. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 339 

the pope''s fetters, and recovering religion from his super- CHAP, 
induced tyranny and superstitions; so the adverse party '_ 



was as subtle and unwearied to undermine these good en-^nnoiseo. 
terprises. 

They threw abroad pamphlets and writings to amuse the An argu- 
people, and to bring them into a good opinion of the aban- 1," puis" d*^" 
doned religion. One of the expulsed bishops this year wrote l^'siiop dis- 
a little scroll for the authority of the church, which he sent 
about privily to his friends, to comfort and confirm them in 
their popery : and the argument was that of succession ; 
asserting, " That in every see in England there had been a 
" succession of bishops derived from Rome ; and took that 
" of Canterbury for example. We can reckon, said he, all 
" the bishops there, since St. Austin, who was the first; and 
" from him go to Gregory, bishop of Rome, who sent Austin 
" hither; and from Gregory up to Peter." And thence he 
would prove that all our religion came from Rome by suc- 
cession from the apostles ; and that therefore we must hang 
on Rome still. And added, that the like might be shewn in 
every see besides. But this book was soon taken notice of. Answered, 
and answered by Pilkington, afterwards bishop of Durham, 
in a book he wrote concerning the burning of St. Paul's 
church, London, offering to stand with him in the trial of 
this. But we have greater things to tell concerning the 
practices to restore popery. 

And here we shall first relate what courses Pius IV. the Courses of 
present pope, took. He was, as is said, solicited earnestly '"° 
by some of the court of Spain to proceed roundly with the 
queen by excommunicating of her ; but he chose to take 
another method first. In the month of May this year he 
writeth her a letter dated from St. Peter's in Rome, com- 
posed in a gentle and loving style, which is translated 
into English in Camden's English history of this queen, and Camd. Eii- 
alsoin the third part of Foxes and Firebrands ; and therefore 
it needs not here to be repeated. The pope professed therein 
how he tendered and desired her salvation and honour. He 
bade her reject evil counsellors, obeying his fatherly admo- 
nitions. He promised her all the assistance she could desire, 

z2 



340 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, not only for the comfort of her soul, but for the establish- 
XIX 

ment of her royal dignity, according to the authority, place, 



Anno 1560. ajj(j charge committed unto him by God. And that if she 
228 returned to the bosom of the church, he would receive her 
with like affectionate love as the father in the gospel re- 
ceived his son, when he returned. But that Vincentio Par- 
palio, his nuncio, whom he sent with this letter, should more 
amply certify her of his fatherly affection ; desiring her 
highness to receive him courteously and graciously, and to 
give credit to what he should declare to her, as she would 
unto himself. 

Offers made The nuncio's offers from the pope were said to be these : 

to the queen ,,.,,. ,, , , . » 

bythepope. to conhrm the English hturgy ; to allow the partaking oi 
the sacrament in both kinds, as it was in Bohemia ; nay, and 
that he would disannul the sentence against the queen's 
mother's marriage, in case she would rank herself and sub- 
jects under the pope of Rome, and own that see. But she 
bravely refused, and slighted all these specious offers. 
A nuncio The Same pope Pius left not off yet his dealing with the 
to seTfo^nit ^1"^^"? ^^t Sent another nuncio the next year, named abbot 
in England. Martincgucs, with other letters full of assurance of love. 
But he was stayed in Flanders, and was not so much as ad- 
mitted to set foot in the realm. 
The queen Whcii tliese methods would not take effect, the French 
send'to ^'"J? ^"*^ Other priuces, Romanists, were laboured with by 
Trent. Martinegues and the bishop of Viterbo, the nuncio in 
France. So that they were prevailed upon to write to the 
queen, that she would send over ambassadors to the council 
of Trent, to treat there about matters of religion. But she 
Archbishop quickly and prudently answered them, " That she desired 
Mss. in " with all her heart an oecumenical council, but that she 
Foxes and u should not Send any ambassadors from hence, as that coun- 

Firebrands, i /. • 

part 3. '■ cil was of the pope, with whom she had nothing to do, and 
" as she disowned and rejected that authority. Neither was 
" that council lawful, it being the emperor's property to ap- 
*' point a council, and not the pope's, he having no more 
" authority than another bishop." 

Mason, a p^,j besides these courses, the same crafty bishop of Rome 

convert. ' ' 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 341 

hath other irons in the fire. There was one Samuel Mason, CHAP, 
an Englishman, bred a Jesuit in Paris, a man of learning, ^^^- 
who being in Ireland, was converted to the gospel in the Anno 1660. 
year 1566. Him Sir Henry Sydney, then lord lieutenant of Foxes and 
Ireland, made his chaplain. This man made a speech of ^^^^'2''"'**' 
recantation in Christ-church, Dublin; and in a narrative 
presented to the said sir Henry, shewed pope Pius IV. his 
contrivance against the protestant religion newly stablished 
in England ; with what policy and craft you may easily per- 
ceive, but you will not so easily discover the piety thereof. It 
was thus. In this year 1560, this pope dispensed with several Friars and 
of the most active and learned Franciscans and Dominicans, ■'es"'ts s«nt 

' hither dis- 

and of the society of Jesus, to preach among the protestants guised. 
in England wild doctrines, on purpose to sow divisions ; and 
allowed some of them to marry ; saying, that the marriage 
established by the queen and her clergy was no marriage. 
And these so dispensed with, were to give monthly intelli- 
gence hence what progress they made in these practices. 
And for fear any of these their missionaries might them- 
selves be seduced from their orders, others were sent to dis- 
cover them, if they found their inclinations so bending, before 
they came to be fully resolved. 

One of these emissaries was John Giles, who being at Joim Giles, 
Gloucester, recanted. Directions were brought from the^'"'** '^' 
council of Trent to the Jesuits at Paris by another of them, 
one Lodowicka Freak, an Englishman. Among these di-229 
rections this was one; " That they were not to preach allLodowick 
" after one manner, but to observe the places wherein they ^^^^^J._ ' 
*' came. If Lutheranism were prevalent, then to preach ;jirections 
" Calvinism ; if Calvinism, then Lutheranism. If they came^'^'.^^"^ 
" into England, then either of these, or John Husse's opi- 
*' nions, anabaptism, or any that were contrary to the holy 
" see of St. Peter ; by which their function would not be 
*' suspected. And yet they might still drive on the interest 
" of the mother church ; there being, as the council was 
" agreed on, no better way to demolish this church's heresy, 
" than by mixtures of doctrines, and by adding of ceremonies 
" more than were at present permitted." 

z3 



342 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. But thanks be to God, though these plots of popes and 
" ' ' popish councils have so long and so earnestly been carrying 



Anno istjO.Qo^ []jey have not been able yet to root out the gospel, since 

it was in these early days replanted in the kingdom. 
The reasons That which gave the first ground and occasion of this 
divide pro- ^'^^^ project of the pope was this. That Calvin, the great 
testants. minister of Geneva, had Avritten to archbishop Parker, in 
the year 1560, for a good understanding and union to be 
had among protestants: which pope Pius having knowledge 
of, he laboured to obstruct the good motion from taking 
Hunt, of effect by this way, with the advice of his cardinals, viz. as 
p. .97. e ^^'^s said before, to grant indulgences to several orders of 
Mss. D. Rome, to set up new tenents and principles of religion, and 
luac. such as seemingly should be against the church of Rome ; 

hereby to confound the protestant religion, and to hinder 
for the future all genera] assemblies, [of protestants, moved 
by the said Calvin to unite all protestants together in one 
doctrine and worship,] lest there should be a general union 
and concurrence among them, wheresoever dispersed. Upon 
these indulgences several of the English popish clergy, lately 
fled from England upon the change of religion, joined Avith 
other foreign clergy, and came into England to distract the 
common people's heads with new-found opinions and fancies 
in religion, and all against the liturgy established. Some of 
these were. Dr. Thomas Lacy ; Tho. Tonstal, a Franciscan 
friar, cousin german to bishop Tonstal ; James Scot, cousin 
to Scot, late bishop of Chester ; Faithful Cumin, a Domi- 
nican friar, who, some years after, for his religious hypocrisy, 
narrowly escaped hanging ; and William Blagrave, of the 
same order, who was caught and hanged at York, May the 
10th, an. 1566. He being suspected to be an impostor was 
seized, and divers treasonable papers were found in his closet. 
He was so hardened, that when he went up the ladder he 
laughed in the archbishop of York's face, telling him, that 
those converts tiiat he had drawn unto him would hate the 
church's liturgy as nnich as his grace did Rome. And when 
the archbishop desired him to tell who they were, he re- 
fused, but said, " he hoped they would be ashamed of their 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 343 

folly ; [that is, in retaining the unsound doctrines he had CHAP, 
taught them on purpose to divide them from other pro-. 



" testants;] and that they would turn back again to their ^"°° '5^^- 
" mother principles, and not to heresy." 

Now was first printed at Geneva, in 4to. the Bible, com- 
monly called, The Geneva Bible ; being the English transla- The Geneva 
tion, revised and corrected by the English exiles, sojourning iished. 
at Geneva, (who stayed there after queen Mary's death to 230 
finish it,) with an epistle to the queen, and another to the 
reader : which are left out in the after editions of this Bible, 
These epistles, dated April 10, touched somewhat severely 
upon certain things still remaining in the church, which 
they excited the queen to remove, as though they looked 
with a popish aspect; and this might be the reason these 
epistles were afterwards left out. The parties concerned in 
the translation were Miles Coverdale, Christopher Good- 
man, Anthony Gilby, Thomas Sampson, William Cole of 
C. C. C. Oxon, and William Whittingham. But before the 
greater part was finished, queen Mary died. And then the 
protestant divines there returned home. But Whittingham 
and one or two more stayed behind at Geneva a year and an 
half after queen Elizabeth took possession of the crown, 
being resolved to go thorough with the work. 

But this Bible would not be permitted to be printed in 
England for the use of the public ; which the favourers of 
the church at Geneva took ill. For which an author in 
those times makes this complaint : " If the Bible be such as Troubles at 
" no enemy of God could justly find fault with, then may p,'^ig4 ""^ ' 
" men marvel, that such a work, being so profitable, should 
" find so small favour as not to be printed again. If it be 
" not faithfully translated, then let it still find as httle fa- 
" vour as it doth." 

An exposition of the prophecy of Haggee was printed and Piikmg- 
set forth this year, 1560 ; the author whereof was James ^°j"„^ „7"" 
Pilkington, then master of St. John's college, Cambridge, Haggai. 
and not long after bishop of Durham. It came forth sea- 
sonably, and on purpose to stir up well-minded people to go 
forward with the reformation of religion vigorously. For it 

z 4 



344 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, was perceived there was too much coldness in the matter 
^^^' among those that were chiefly employed about it. As this 
Anno 1560. prophecy was intended to excite the Jews, now after their 
return from their captivity, to set earnestly upon building of 
the Lord"'s house at Jerusalem, so did this divine effectually 
explain it, and apply it to the present state and time ; blaming 
the negligence of such as pretended to favour the gospel, 
and to quicken them in this great work ; as he declared this 
to be his end, toward the conclusion of his preface to the 
reader, viz. " That he, a poor workman in God''s house, had 
*' said these things to encourage other workmen, and espe- 
*' cially those that should be the chief builders and pillars of 
" his church." And in the beginning of the same preface, 
he shewed how agreeable his present undertaking was to the 
prophet Aggee's message to the Jews : " That as that pro- 
" phet was sent from God to the prince, the high priest, and 
*' the people ; so he spake to the rulers, the ministers, and 
" commonalty : and that, as the chief intent of the prophecy 
" was to stir up all to the speedy building of God's house, 
" which they had so long neglected ; so his labour was to 
*' bring some of every sort (for all was not possible) to an 
" earnest furthering of God's truth, of late most mercifully 
" restored to them, which not long ago most cruelly was per- 
*' secuted, of many yet hated, and of every man almost 

" too coldly followed and practised. That the state of re- 

*' ligion in those miserable days of theirs was like to the 
" troublesome times that this prophet lived in. And he 
231 " prayed God to gi-ant, that after many grievous storms, it 
" might take like root in us as it did in them : that as, after 
" the long captivity of God's people in Babylon, G(xl gave 
" them gracious king Cyrus, which set them at liberty, and 
" sent them home to build God's house; so, after our long 
" Romish slavery, God raised us up good kings, which rc- 
*' stored us God's book, that long had been buried, and 
** loosed us from the bondage of strange gods, foreign 
" powers, cruel hypocrites, and wicked idols. And as after 
*' that short freedom under good Cyrus ensued the cruelty 
•' of Haman, for negligently handling God's building; and 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 345 

" not long after mild Esther came bloody Antiochus, for CHAP, 
" their falling from God : so for our present talking of the ' 



" gospel, and not worthily walking after and following itAnnoi660. 

" under our late gracious Josias, crept out a swarm of Ro- 

" mish wasps, stinging to death all that would not worship 

" their gods nor believe their doctrine. And he prayed 

" God for his mercy sake to grant, that now, for their un- 

" thankful coldness in God''s cause imder their mild Esther, 

" brast not out again bloody Antiochus with his whelps, 

" justly to avenge their slackness in God's religion, and in- 

" sensible dulness." 

The same divine made an exposition upon Nehemiah, 
tending, as it seems, to the same effect ; but not published 
till the year 1585, by John Fox, with his preface to it; 
speaking honourably of the said author, and shewing a re- 
verence to that bishop"'s memory. 

This year Tho. Wylson, LL. D. (a very learned man, 
afterwards master of St. Katharine's near the Tower, and 
principal secretary of state,) set forth two books of the two 
sciences, the one of logic, and the other of rhetoric, in Eng- 
lish : which was the first time those arts ever appeared in 
our tongue ; wherein the terms of art were so difficult to be 
expressed. 

The former was entitled, The Rule of Reason, containing The Art 
the Art of Logic: set forth in English. This was a second °[.^°^^j':'^ 
edition. The first edition was by the author dedicated to English, 
king: Edward VI. Here he shews the reason of his work 
in publishing this piece of learning in our own language ; 
and occasionally extolling that young prince's learning and 
studies. Tlie former he described after this manner : " That 
" this fruit was of a strange kind, such as no English ground 
" had before this time, and in this time, by any tillage 
" brought forth. And it might perhaps in the first tasting 
" seem somewhat tough and harsh in the mouth, because of 
" the strangeness. But a httle use and familiarity accustom- 
" ing thereunto, he doubted not but the same would wax 
" every day more pleasant than other. That he had assayed 
" through his diligence to make logic as familiar to the 



346 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " Englishman, as by divers men's industry the most part of 
' " other the liberal sciences were. 



Anuo 1560. a ^j^fj ti^at considering the forwardness of that present 
" age, wherein the very multitude were prompt and ready 
" in all sciences, [so much did learning accompany the true 
" religion, that then began to flourish,] that had been by 
" any man's diligence set forth unto them. Weighing also 
" that the capacity of his countrymen, the English nation, 
" was so pregnant and quick to achieve any kind, or art, of 
" knowledge, that they were not inferior to any other. And 
" fiu'ther, pondering, that divers learned men of other coun- 
232 " ti'i^s had heretofore, for their furtherance of knowledge, 
" not suffered any of the sciences liberal to be hid in the 
" Greek or Latin tongue ; but had with most earnest travail 
" made every of them familiar to the vulgar people ; he 
" thought that logic, among all other, being an art as apt for 
" the English wits, and as profitable for their knowledge, as 
" any of the other sciences, might with as much grace be set 
" forth in the English, as the other arts heretofore have 
" been. Wherein, as he added modestly, he took not upon 
" him so cunningly and perfectly to have writ of the said 
*' art, as though none could do it better ; but because no 
" Englishman until now had gone through with this enter- 
" prise, he thought it meet to declare that it might be done." 
His address And then addressing to the king, " That he knew his 
wani'Tn re- " g^'^c^i for his own Studies, little needed any help of such 
spectof his " an English enterprise, being so well travailed both in the 
' &• a Greek and the Latin for the same purpose, through the 
" help of those right worthy men, sir John Cheke and sir 
" Anthony Cook, his majesty's teachers and schoolmasters 
** in all good literature. But to feed and satisfy the thirst 
" and desire of such Englishmen, as, for default of the said 
" tongues, could not come to the knowledge of logic, he had 
" judged it wortli the labour, to give the precepts and rules 
** thereof in English ; that all, according to the gift that to 
" every one is measured, might be the more provoked to 
" follow the example of his majesty, as well in studiousness 
" and desire of knowledge, as also in the exercise of all vir- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 347 

'* tue and princely worthiness: wherein his grace had made CHAP. 
" a goodly entry. In which most godly trade if his grace ^^^' 



should continue, (with the fear of God, and the most re- Anno i56o. 
" verent observation of his most holy commandments and 
"gospel; wherein at that day all England, to their in- 
" comparable joy and comfort, did see and find his majesty's 
" chief delight to be,) it could not be doubted, but that the 
" same should be to the wicked a terror, to the godly a com- 
" fort, to the realm of England a perpetual defence and 
" safeguard, and to all Christian kings, either then living, 
*' or hereafter to come, an example of kingly worthiness, 
*' and a miroir to princely governance.*" 

Wylson's other book reprinted this year was, The Art qf^he Art of 
Rhetoric ; for the use of all such as are studious of elo- i^^'etoric 

'^ '^ ^ printed. 

quence : set forth in English. The former edition (which 
was about the year 1552) was by the author dedicated to 
the right honourable John Dudley, lord Lisle, earl of War- 
wick, and master of the horse to the king's majesty. Wherein 
he shewed the occasion of his writing this book, that it was 
upon that lord's motion to him : " That it had pleased him, 
" among talk of learning, earnestly to wish, that he might 
" one day see the precepts of rhetoric set down by him in 
*' English, as he had erst done the rules of logic, which he 
" promised that lord then that he would do. And soon 
" after he [Wylson] being retired into his own country, in a 
" quiet time of vacation, with the right worshipful sir Ed- 
" ward Dimmoch, he travailed as much as his leisure served 
" thereunto, to the fulfilling of his lordship's request ; and 
*' through that motion to help the forwardness of some 
". others, not so well furnished, &c. And also because, that 
*' by his lordship's tender embracing all such as were learned, 
*' and by his own right studious exercises, he evidently de- 233 
" clared what estimation he had of learning and excellent 
" qualities ; and what a special desire and affection he bore 
" to eloquence." 

This (that I may observe it en passant) is the character Duke of 
that this writer, that knew him, gives of him who was after- beriand. 
wards the great duke of Northumberland. That he was a 



348 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



CHAP. 
XIX. 

Anno 1560 
Want of 
utterance 
in some 
learned. 



A German 
captain 
comes into 
England, 
and ofl'ers 
great mat- 
ters. 



Studious man ; a great patron of scholars ; and that elo- 
quence naturally flowed in him. 

In a certain page of this book, the author hinted at some 
pretended learned men in his time without utterance; in 
these words : " Enter into talk with such as are said to be 
" learned, and you shall find in them such lack of utter- 
" ance, that if you judge them by their tongue and ex- 
" pressing of their minds, you must needs say, they have no 
*' learning." And he compared such barbarous clerks to 
slovens ; " Methinks they do like some rich snudges, that 
" have great wealth, and go with their hose out at heels, 
" their shoes out at toes, and their coats out at elbows ;" 
jesting at some priests in those days, pretending to great 
learning. 

This book, as it hath great learning and instruction in the 
use of it, so it hath much pleasure and diversion intermixed. 
But however it had like to have cost him dear: for travail- 
ing abroad under queen Mary's reign, (when many learned 
and pious men fled abroad to avoid persecution,) he came 
as far as Rome ; where some understanding who he was, for 
this his book he was taken up and cast into the inquisition ; 
but escaped by a wonderful providence : as we may here- 
after relate. Both these books were so well esteemed, that 
they were printed the third time in the year 1567. 

A German captain, named Gerard Hoenrich, came this 
year into England, pretending to deep skill in matters of 
war, fortifications, and other mechanical arts ; and making 
himself known to sir William Cecyl, offered to serve the 
queen as a captain, and undertook to shew, in time of peace, 
how to make such warlike preparations as to be able to re- 
sist the enemy by land and sea ; and to teach to make ships 
far more useful than those which were then used, which he 
called by a nick-name, hcrj-'ing ships; namely, such as should 
go with oars, when no wind were stirring, as well as galleys, 
and in storms might be kept out at sea, and fit to enter into 
any ports, and to transport as well land as sea forces. He 
offered also to treat with the (pieen, if she desired that he 
should teach the arts belonging to war. Moreover, he offered 



UNDER QUEExN ELIZABETH. 349 

to shew the art and manner of producing saltpetre out of the CHAP, 
earth ; for which he required three hundred pounds in re- 



ward. Also, he offered to shew the manner and way of Anno i56o. 
fortifying buildings and making havens at much less charges, 
and sooner than hitherto fortifications had been made, either 
by French or English : for that he had the art of carrying 
earth to an higher place, to what height you please, and 
that with less labour ; and this three manner of ways, by 
horse, by singular art, and by the labour of hired men. All 
which should be so united, that they might be fitted to all 
places ; and hitherto not seen. He knew also four ways of 
drawing up water, and to erect buildings needful to prevent 
the water hindering the miners, and whei-eby they might dig 
their mines the deeper ; never hitherto seen by the English. 
The way also of driving in piles, wherein foundations and 234 
walls might be set ; to the doing of which there should be 
need but of six men, who by this art should do more than 
four and twenty. He had also a new art of building in the 
water to stand dry : and lastly, to remove a rock placed in 
some river, so as to render the river navigable, or so as to 
build upon it. And for the teaching these arts he required 
300Z. more. 

That all these arts might be delineated and demonstrated 
by certain platforms, so as by them the queen might pass a 
judgment, and see that her charges should not be to no pur- 
pose. He spake also of a sort of guns, that should be of 
great use both by sea and land ; which he was ready to shew 
to the queen. Finally, he could shew a way. whereby land 
seated near rivers should produce two crops of hay every 
year, at very little charge. 

This virtuoso the queen somewhat listened to, and pre- The queen 
sented him with a sum of money out of her own royal 
bounty. But of all his proposals she most seemed to like of 
learning the way of extracting saltpetre out of the earth : 
and about Christmas concluded to give him a certain re- 
ward, which he demanded for shewing the same; and in- 
tended to appoint somebody to treat with him concerning 
the other projects. And in March he had letters patents 



rewards 
him. 



350 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, from the queen concerning the nitre business. And upon 
■^^^' this, if the queen would pay him 50Z. he pi*omised to give 



Aduo 1560. her the model of a powder-mill, which each year should 
bring to her as much as that 50/. was worth. The queen 
also desired of this German to direct her how to procure 
some Freezeland horses and mares for breed. 
Meiancthon But to let this German pass, that seems to have been but 
'**■ a brasrsadocio ; there was another German, and he a di- 

vine, that deserveth to be more respectfully and honourably 
mentioned in this place ; namely, Philip Meiancthon, pro- 
fessor at Wittenbergh, where he died this year on the 13th 
of the calends of May, [i. e. April the 19th,] in his grand 
climacteric : a man famous for his learning, wisdom, and 
moderation, and the service he did religion in Germany, and 
in England also ; having writ several letters to king Henry 
VIII. concerning reforming corrupt religion, who had 
earnestly sent for him to come into England to consult with 
him. He writ also to kinff Edward VI. advising- and en- 
couraging him in his proceedings. And he had thoughts in 
that king's reign of coming over into this kingdom, from the 
violence of the persecution raised upon the interim, as he 
wrote to Alasco. And he was formerly sent unto by that 
king, anno 1553, to come and succeed in the place of Bucer 
deceased, late the king's public professor of divinity in 
Cambridge; and archbishop Cranmer had ordered a sum 
of money to be sent over to him for his viaticum, to bear 
his charges. But that king's death prevented. Melancthon's 
judgment ran not so high in the doctrine of the presence of 
Christ's body in the sacrament, as other German dii-ines 
did ; whom he blamed much for their expressions and 
His opiuion heights. But what his maturest and last thoughts were in 
°^^''* g that great controverted point may be seen by a letter he 
Pincior's wrotc, uot a montli before his death, to John Crato, doctor 
Basil. 1561. of physic in Uratislaw, who was under some doubts concern- 
ing this doctrine. In this letter (which is not among the 
rest of his published letters, but in a little book printed at 
235 Basil a year after his death) he shewed the doctor how the 
ancient Greek and Latin writers expressly called the bread 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 351 

and wine symbols and antitypes of the body ; also the sign CHAP. 
ax\di figure of it. To which may be added his great judg- 



ment of this point in a letter written about four months Anno i56o. 

before his death, [viz. November 1559,] to Frederic, count 

palatine of the Rhine : wherein he said, " That it would be 

*' best to retain the words of St. Paul, The bread which we 

" break is the communion of the body. And that divines 

" should speak largely of the fruits and benefits of the sup- 

" per, that men might be invited to the love of this pledge, 

" and the frequent vise of it. And the word xojvwv/a, i. e. 

" communio?!., should be declared. He doth not say, the 

" nature of the bread is changed, as the papists say ; he 

" doth not say, the bread is the substantial body of Christ, 

" as Heshusius saith ; but that it is the communion, that is, 

*' that whereby is made a consociation, or a consortship with 

" the body of Christ, &c." 

His great endeavour was the union of the reformers ; and His endea- 
that the differences among them might be buried. And tOy^J^"/,* 
effect this, his great labour was the proposing to the church ^^^S ^''^ 
of England, and other churches, to have a meeting of 
learned men of each church, who should draw up articles of 
religion, and an agreement of faith and doctrine, wherein all 
might consent and subscribe. This he propounded to arch- 
bishop Cranmer ; and he spake of it but a few months be- 
fore his death to Frederic, prince elector of the Rhine and 
duke of Bavaria : Oj)to autem ut sapientum principum con- Pincier's 
silio., &c. " I wish (as he wrote to him) that at last by the Antidote. 
" counsel and authority of wise princes might be convened 
" out of ours and the churches of other nations, some 
*' learned and pious men, to consult of all the controversies ; 
" and that one concordant, true, and clear form of doctrine, 
" without any ambiguity, might be delivered down to poste- 
" rity. In the mean time, that we cherish, as much as may 
" be, the conjunction of our churches with moderate coun- 
*' sels." Thus that excellent and wise Melancthon. And 
with this character and memorial we leave him : adding only 
this further concerning him ; that his judgment was for the 
government of the church by bishops. Camerarius, who 



352 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, writ his life, speaking of his moderation and wisdom, saith, 
^^•^' there was one thing that he ceased not to persuade, to 



Anuo 1560. which also Luther agreed, viz. that if the German bishops 
would grant the liberty and use of the pure doctrine of 
heavenly truth, according to the exposition of the [Augus- 
tan] Confession, their power and the administration of their 
dioceses should not be refused nor denied them. And Me- 
lancthon in one of his letters writes to Luther in these words; 
" You would not believe how I am hated by the Norisi, [a 
" people near those in Bavai'ia,] and bv others, because the 
" jurisdiction of bishops is restored. Thus do those of our 
Page ■jss, " party quarrel for their own kingdom, and not for the 
cof^ '^'*" " gospel-" See more concerning this great divine's opinion 
for episcopacy in Adrianus Saravia's book De diveis. gra~ 
dib. minist. evangel. 

This most learned and chief reformer of religion was bu- 
ried at Wittenburgh, whence Randolph, an English travel- 
ler, long since transcribed his epigraph in his journal, viz. 

236 WITTEBERGJE. 

Philip Me- Ph'ilippo Melcincthoni sacrarum literarum solertissimo et 

motiuiuen- .y^^^^^**^^^ eocplicatori; verifatis ccelestis patrono, et pro- 

tai inscrip- pugnatovi imprimis strenuo ; optimarum disciplinarwn et 

artium cum instauratori^ tum conservatori : qui omnem 

doctrinam quasi vagam et dissipatam collegit ; et ad certam 

rationem revocavit : viro pietate, studio puree castceque reli- 

gioniSf sapientia, virtute, humanitate, benignitate erga 

omnes prcBstanti, JeUciter et sancte in terris mortuo XIII. 

calend. Mali C. V. mi. LXIII. M. II. D. II. H. I. academ. 

Witteberg. cui ille totis ann. XLII. operam navasset H. 

M. P. C. 

Dein of A sermon was preached at St. Paul's the third Sunday 

Paul's ser- after Epiphany, by Alexander Nowcl, the dean ; a passage 

presented, whcreof was much talked of, and grossly misrepresented by 

papists: and Dorman, a popish writer, took the confidence 

to charge him with it in print. The expression charged 

upon him was, that " it would do him good to raze his buckler 

" upon a papist's face.'' To this, Nowel was forced to answer, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 353 

and said, " It was a false lie; and that he had rather go a CHAP, 
*' thousand miles about, than to be put to that necessity to . ^^^' 



save his life by such hard means : and have his own face Anno is 6o. 
" razed ten times, than he would once raze another man"'s^°?'^V 

against 

*' face, or hurt any Christian man; so little good would it Dorm, 
" do him," The truth was this; he preached on the said '^^^' 
Sunday upon the epistle of that day. There, upon these 
words, Non vosmetipsos ulciscentes, dilecti, or defendentes, 
as it is in the common and old translation, after he had de- 
clared, that we may not avenge ourselves, he observed, how 
the common translation had it, that we should not defend 
ourselves. And hereupon he moved this question. Whether 
a Christian man might defend himself.? Whereunto he an- 
swered by these words : "In case we be by any magistrate 
" or officer, or at the commandment of the prince, by any 
" man wronged, I know no defence, but patient suffering : 
" for no true Christian hath any hand to lift up against 
" the prince. But in case a thief would set upon me by the 
" highway, where I could have no help at the magistrate's 
*' hand, I would, if I were able, defend myself; and rather 
" than I would be slain, I would, if I could, maim him : 
" for to kill the thief, who, being in that cause slain, should 
" a thousand pounds to a penny be damned, would be most 
" horrible. Yea, said he, if any private person without any 
" authority of office, or commandment of the prince, should 
" quarrel with me, and call me heretic, thief, or would in- 
" vade me forcibly, I would lift up my buckler-hand, and, 
" rather than he should kill me, I would lay my buckler 
" upon his face, if I could, though it were rough with studs, 
" and had a pike in the middle :" speaking (as he said in his 
vindication) those words only in case of saving his own life, 
if he could no otherwise do it. 

Another notable sermon was preached in the month of Caifieid 
January, at St. Paul's Cross, near the time the former was a[Vaui's 
preached ; the preacher, James Caifieid, or Chalfhill, an Cross, 
Oxford man, afterwards subdean of Christ-church there, 23/ 
His sermon was highly commended, both for the wholesome 
doctrine of it, and for the preacher's excellent delivery, even 
VOL, I, A a 



354 ANiNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



CHAP, to tlic amazement of the auditors. Of this sermon one Prat, 

. ;_ a friend of John Fox, being then at Norwich, wrote him 

Anno 1560. gQfj^p account, viz. "■ A young man of Oxford, called Mr. 
ian^ '^^' " Cawfield, prebendary of Christ-church, made a notable 
" sermon at Paul's Cross on Sunday was sevennight. His 
** excellent tongue and rhetorical tale, filled with good 
*' and wholesome doctrine, so ravished the minds of the 
" liearers, that we were all in an admiration of his elo- 
*' quence. Among other things, he lamented the misery of 
" Oxford, and that it was yet under the papistical yoke. 
" He published the dissimulations of the papists, and theu' 
" practice to dissuade young men from the truth ; in such 
" sort that he moved a number of tears. We are much 
" bound to thank God, who hath raised up such young 
" imps to publish the name of his son Jesus Christ. Though 
" the papistical persecution took away the old preachers, 
" Christ never leaveth his church destitute." So he in his 
letter. I give this note of Calfield here, that we may the 
better know him, when we shall have occasion to speak 
more of him hereafter. 
The Hora- This year was printed, if not reprinted, a prayer book, 
nuin print- galled Horarium^ set out by the queen'^s authority. This 
Horary was printed again 1573, with privilege at London, 
by Will. Seres. This book doth Mr. Cosins mention in the 
preface to his book Of Hours, entitled, A collection of pri- 
vate devotions in the practice of the ancient church ; be- 
ing of the same nature with that Horarium. Cosins's book 
was first printed anno 1626, with the approbation of George, 
bishop of London, being composed for the use of the lady 
Denbigh, then warping towards popery. It was often 
printed, but at last gave some people great offence, as po- 
pish ; and Prin wrote against it. 

There had been many Spaniards in England since Henry 
the Eighth's time, whose first wife was a Spaniard ; and 
wliose daugliter Mary, that king's only issue by her, had 
favoured and entertained them about her. But especially 
their numbers increased here upon the persecution in Spain; 
which was about the reign of king Edward ; many whereof 



A Spanish 
church in 
LonJuii. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 355 

being protestants, remained still in this realm. For I find CHAP, 
now a congregation of Spaniards in London ; and one Cas- 



siodorus was their preacher: which congregation began Anno i56o. 
about the last year, when they met in a private house ^^*^****^°™** 
for their devotion : but in this year 1560, the preacher did 
earnestly request of the secretary, and bishop of London, 
some church to have their religious assemblies in, for the 
avoiding of scandal, lest it might be surmised they taught 
such doctrine, and used such worship as they were loath 
should be publicly known. In the year 1563, Anthony Cor- Corranus. 
ranus, another learned Spaniard, and professor of religion, 
(whom we shall speak more of hereafter,) wrote out of 
France to this Cassiodorus, to forward here the impression 
of a Spanish Bible. But a little before this letter came to 
his hand, Cassiodorus was fled and gone, as was thought, 
into Germany, upon an accusation against him de peccato 
Sodomitico. 



CHAP. XX. 238 

Some Englishmen in the inquisition in Spain. FramptonbS 
narration of his usage there. Occurrences. Some secu- 
lar matters. Lent preachers. 

J. HIS year were two Englishmen clapt into the cruel andTwoEng- 

•' o • TVT- 1 -r» lishmen 

mhuman mquisition m Spam : the one was JNicolas liurton, burnt in 
for Britton,] a merchant of London, and the other a mari- ^^^'^. \l *'^^ 

L 'J ... inquisition. 

ner of Southampton ; who, after a severe imprisonment in 
a prison called Triana, in Sevil, were condemned to be 
burnt. And so they were, immediately after the sentence pro- 
nounced, December 2, together with a great many others, 
both French and Spaniards ; as namely, these whose names 
do follow : 

Julian Hernandes, born at Valverda. He had been aAnddiveis 

. _, others. 

corrector to the press of such books as were prmted at tre- discovery 
neva in the Spanish tongue ; and afterwards, for the zeal he "^ ^t^'^^^''- 
had to set forward the gospel, returned into Spain ; where, tices of tht* 

Q Inquisition. 

•A a <4 Printed 

1569. 



356 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, after he had continued certain years distributing Testaments 
^^' and other godly books that were in the Spanish tongue, to 



Anno 1660. divers men, and in sundry places, he returned into Flan- 
ders, and by occasion of a certain book which he had given a 
smith, who shewed the same secretly to a priest, and he 
complained thereof to the inquisitors, this Julian was sought 
for and apprehended by certain familiars, that hunted after 
him in his way going to a city called Palma, and by them 
was cast into prison, afterwards condemned by the inquisi- 
tors, and died most constantly for the profession of the gos- 
pel of Christ : having great disputations during the time of 
his imprisonment with a learned clerk and famous divine, 
one D. Hernand Rodrigues. 

Juan de Leon, born at Pallentia, a monk of St. Isidore's 
cloister ; apprehended in Zealand, as he was taking ship to 
go into England, at the departing of the Englishmen from 
Geneva, after the death of queen Mary. 

Guiliermo Brocemolez, a mariner. 

Francisca de Chavez, a nun of the cloister of St. Eliza- 
beth, in the city of Gibraleon. 

Bartolome Fabricio de Baiena, a Frenchman. 

Anna de Ribera, wife to Hernando de Sant Juan. 

Francisca Ruiz, wife of Francisco Duran of Sevil. 

Leonor Gomez, wife of D. Hernando Nunnez, a physi- 
cian in Gibraleon. 

Elvira Nunnez, daughter to the same D. Hernando by 
his former wife. 

Lucia Gomez, daughter to the said Leonor Gomez by her 
former husband. 

Leonor Gomez, wife to another Hernando Nunnez, an 
apothecary in the city of Lepe. 

J nana de Macuelos, of Sevil. 

Melchior de Salto, a citizen of Granata. 
239 In this act also were burnt the bones and picture of 
D. y^<]gidio, and tlie bones and picture of D. Constantino de 
la Fuente. 

At the same time likewise was read the sentence of the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 357 

inquisitors given upon a noble woman, called Donna Juana CHAP, 
de Bohorques, who died amidst the tormentors'* hands ; ' 



wherein she was declared to be guiltless and innocent. Anno iseo. 

Divers other, both men and women, as well of nobility as 
of worship, were at the same time condemned to perpetual 
imprisonment, and their goods confiscated. 

The like executions were done the year before this, both 
in Sevil and Valladolid : where both men and women of 
Spain, Flanders, France, monks, priests, nuns, and others, 
were burnt, or imprisoned for life. 

But to keep ourselves within the bounds of England. Frampton, 
When Burton [or Britton] was thus in the inquisition, his ^" ^^J^fut ' 
goods were also seized and confiscated: which yet were'Q^hein- 
not all his, but some belonged to merchants in England. 
Among the rest, to a certain merchant, who to recover 
them sent his attorney, being also a merchant factor. Who 
arriving at Sevil, applied himself to the holy house, as they 
called it, to claim the said merchant''s goods, shewing for 
that purpose his letters and writings. They told him he 
must sue by bill, and retain an advocate : which he did for 
four months. Then, upon pretence that his letters and tes- 
timonials were not full, he went back into England for other 
and more ample writings and certificates, which he brought 
with him on his second arrival in Spain. But after all this, the 
inquisitors, loath to part with so good effects, caused Framp- 
ton himself, (for that was his name,) to be seized by their 
officer, and made their prisoner. The narration of which 
most base, treacherous usage he wrote. The sum of which 
was, as I have it from the MS. " That being at Cadiz, or Penes me. 
*' some other Spanish port, he was taken ; and that being 
" set upon a mule, he was tied with a chain that came un- 
" der the belly of the mule three times round about : and 
" at the end of the chain a great iron lock made fast to the 
" saddlebow. And this done, we took our journey towards 
" Sevil ; the familiar [that is, a promoter employed by the 
" inquisitor] and his man well armed. We rid through 
" many towns and villages before we came at Sevil. And at 
*' my coming thither, I was delivered at the castle of Tri- 

A a 3 



358 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



CHAP. 
XX. 



Anno 1560. 



240 



ana ; wliich by estimation is as great as the Tower of 
London ; and being delivered to the hands of the gaoler, 
he brought me into one of the towers, God knows, dark, 
and comfortless. In the which dark house I found an old 
man of the city of Sevil, one of the aldermen of the city, 
called there ajurado. There was also a friar of the order 
of St. Isidore. There was also a scholar of Salamanca, 
and a preacher, a priest. Which persons were there ap- 
prehended for matters of religion. And being then night, 
they had a little oil in a dish, with a linen match lighted, 
to light them in that house. 

" I demanded of them the orders of that house, and they 
answered to all such questions as I asked. And Avhen the 
time drew near that they should go to sleep, one of them 
gave me a piece of a mattress of straw to lie upon, and 
told me, that it were best for me to lay my cloak under 
my head, for that there was no other thing in that house; 
and so I did. And being locked up under five locks, I 
remained there till the morning ; and then was I called 
before Juan Gonsalius, bishop of Tarazona, and before 
two inquisitors, and a notary, ready with paper and ink to 
make my process. The bishop asked me, what my name 
was ? I told him, John Frampton. He asked me what 
age I was of? I told him, twenty-five years. Where I 
was born ? 1 told him, in England. What my father's 
and mother's names were ; I told him. And still he went 
forward asking me, and the notary writing all that he 
asked, and what I answered. He asked, how long past I 
came out of England, and what place I came first unto, 
and from thence, whither I went ; and in every town 
where I lay, at whose house, and what their names were ; 
and what goods and money I had in the country of Spain, 
and in whose power it was. I told them the truth as it 
was in all points : and at the end of long circumstance, 
he commanded me that I should declare what I knew of 
myself, or of any other man, that we had committed 
against their holy catholic faith of Rome. For otherwise, 
if I did not declare it to them of mine own voluntary 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 359 

"mind, that then the promoter, otherwise called the Jis- CHAP. 
" cal, should accuse me by order of law ; and then they ^^' 



" would proceed against me, and condemn me as an here- Anno iseo. 
*' tic. And then by law they would have no mercy on me. 
" So that with long talk, and many threatening words, I 
" was committed to the gaoler, and so to my prison. 

" I was called for again in the afternoon, and was asked 
" by the bishop, what I had thought of, as touching my 
" business with them ; and why I did not disclose that I 
" knew of myself and others : for if I did not, I might lie 
" there long enough. I answered, I knew not what they 
*' meant, nor knew nothing wherein I should accuse myself, 
" nor any other man : for that my coming into that coun- 
" try was not to treat of any matters of faith, but as a mer- 
" chant to trade in the trade of merchandise, as by my do- 
" ings did appear ; nor had not offended in any thing, nor 
" knew not wherefore they commanded me to be brought 
" thither after any such sort, as by their order I came : for 
" that I never offended any law in Spain, in word nor deed. 
*' The bishop asked me, whether a servant of mine landed 
" my chest of apparel at Cadiz. I answered. Yea. He de- 
*' manded of me, what other thing was in my chest beside 
" my apparel. I told him, a small book of Cato in the Eng- 
" lish tongue. He asked me, if that I knew the book, if it 
" were shewed me. I said, Yea. The book was forthwith 
" shewed me. I said, it was the same book. He demanded 
" of me, to what intent I brought it. I answered, to pass 
" the time at sea in reading of it. He asked me, if I could 
" say my Ave Maria. I told him. Yea. Then say it, says 
" he. I said it. Ave Maria, gratia plena, Dominus tecum. 
" Benedicta tu in mulierihus, et henedictus fructus ventris 
" tui, Jesus, Amen. Say forth, said the bishop of Tara- 
" zona. I have said all that I can say. Then he said, 
" Herein thou dost deny the intercession of saints. I an- 
" swered, that I never knew more, nor it Avas never other- 
" wise taught in England; and I never knew more, nor 241 
" heard of more. Then saith he. There lacketh Sancta Ma- 
" ria, mater Dei, ora pro nobis peccatoribus. I told him, I 

A a 4 



360 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " never heard it till then. Then said he, Remember thy- 
• " self, and declare what thou knowest of thyself, and of 



Anno 1560." others: for if thou do not, we mean to proceed by rigour 
" of justice. I answered always, that I knew nothing 
*' wherein I should accuse myself, or any other ; for I had 
" offended in nothing. And for the which I was com- 
" manded to my prison. 

" And at the end of twenty days they called for me 
" again ; and being brought before the inquisitors, they 
" asked me, why I did so slake the time, and not declare 
" the truth. I always answered, I knew not what they 
" would have. AVell, said he, there is no remedy but that 
" we must proceed against thee by order of justice: and so 
" was I commanded to my prison. And after this order 
*' was I called for three times, and admonished with much 
" violence ; and every time twenty days between. And so 
" at the end of three admonitions, an accusation was laid in 
" against me; which the fiscal, being a priest, came into 
" the audience personally, and in a sheet of paper laid in 
" by writing. And also said by word of mouth, when he 
" put in the accusation ; ' I do accuse this man in these ar- 
" tides that I do lay in here against him. And thereupon 
" I do ask justice to be done of him.' The notary took the 
" paper, and began to read. In the which was written diis 
" that hereafter followeth. 

" I do accuse this man, for that he hath departed from 
" our catholic faith of Rome, and hath passed to the sect of 
" Martin Luther, not having respect to the true faith, nor 
" unto the fear of God. 

*' Secondly, He will not discover his heresies, nor other 
" heretics that he knows of, but doth obstinately remain an 
" heretic, and a coverer of other heretics. 

*' Thirdly, He is one that hath heretics' books, thinking 
*' tliem to be good, and will not discover where they be, 
" nor what he hath done with them, and much against the 
" fear of God keepeth himself frowardly, and will not con- 
*' fess any thing of himself, nor any other. Whereupon I 
*' do ask, that you do proceed according to justice by 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 361 

him. Then said the notary, Do thou answer to thy accu- CHAP. 

XX 

sation. 



" I answered, that I had always believed in the faith of Anno i56o. 
Jesus Christ ; as from my baptism I had no other. And 
by his death I trusted to be saved. And for any other 
sect I knew not. 

" Secondly, I knew not any other person that I ought to 
accuse. But always I, for my own part, lived and be- 
lieved as aforesaid, without breaking of any law here or 
elsewhere in word or deed. 

" Thii-dly, I knew no heretics'" books that I had : for the 
book, for which occasion you brought me hither, was of 
Cato ; which book treateth of no manner of religion, in 
the which there was no fault to be found. And my com- 
ing hither into this country is only in the trade of mer- 
chandise, and for no other intent. 

" Then said one of them. It cannot otherwise be, but 
that thou being an Englishman must needs live and be- 
lieve according to the laws of thy country. I answered, 
that I had been always obedient to the laws of the coun- 
try, and had believed always according as before in the 
accusation I had declared. Divers times in the commu- 242 
nications I had with them in sundry points, they would 
command the notary not to write what they asked, nor 
what I answered. 

" The answer of the accusation being ended, I was c6m- 
mitted to my prison : and at the end of five months, or 
thereabout, I was sent for, and brought before the bi- 
shop, the two inquisitors, and the provisor ; and being 
in the house of audience, where they always sat in judg- 
ment, the bishop of Tarazona, called John Gonsalius, be- 
gan with me, saying, John Frampton, thou hast had time 
enough here to declare thy faults, and also what thou 
knowest of others ; tell the truth, and yet we will do well 
by thee. 

" I answered, that I had said what I knew, declaring to 
them the hinderance and great losses that they had put 
me unto in keeping me prisoner so long time without a 



362 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " cause : and also declai-ing to them, that I never offended 
^^' " them ; as I did not certainly. 
Aano 1560. " Then they asked me if I would have a man of law to 
" answer for me in the suit that the fiscal had ag-ainst me. 
" I told them, Yea, if that thereby I might be the sooner 
" delivered. Then there came in one, called Martin Alonso, 
" a man of law, that doth speak in the behalf of the pri- 
" soners, incontinent after their declarations be made, and 
" answered upon their accusations. My accusation was 
" read to him, and the answer that I made ; so that it 
" seemed to me, that he spake in my behalf what he could, 
" saying, that I ought to be put at liberty, and worthy of 
" no punishment, for that I gave no occasion for it : and 
" that I had been obedient to the laws of my native coun- 
" try, and had no fault : wherein he made a great circum- 
" stance, I thinking thereby that the matter would have 
" been someAvhat eased ; but all did not help ; nor do they 
" that kind of ceremony, in giving any prisoner a man of 
" law, but to make them believe that they do them a great 
" pleasure ; for the man of law speaketh not any word to 
" the prisoner, but sitteth by the inquisitors in their con- 
" suit. And so the prisoner is sent away, and the man of 
" law within a while after departeth. And he being de- 
" parted, the prisoner is forthwith sent for again ; as I was : 
" and being brought before the bishop, the two inquisitors, 
*' and the provisor ; Well, said the bishop, thou wilt not 
" confess the truth. I answered, I had no other truth to 
" say than I had said. 

" Then forthwith the bishop commanded the notary to 
" read a sentence that they had made against me : which 
" was, that I should be tormented. Then after sentence 
" was read, the bishop said, If thou die in torment, thank 
" none but thyself And forthwith the gaoler was called 
" for, and carried me to the house of torment, where he left 
" me standing alone, God knows, in a place of great sor- 
" row. And forthwith came in to me two men covered with 
" white canvass coats, from their heads to their feet, and 
** every of them a vizard upon their faces : and they said 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 368 

" never a word to me, standing by me. And incontinent CHAP. 
" came in to me two inquisitors and the provisor, which is 



the bishop of Sevil's deputy, and a notary to write. Anno isso, 
*' Which four persons sat at a round table ; and upon the 
" table was two candles lighted, for the house was dark. 
" And then the inquisitors began with me, saying, Now 
" thou shalt tell the truth ; I answered, that I had told 
" them what I knew. I was forthwith commanded to put 243 
" off my apparel, and the two men that had the vizards 
" took me in hand, and stripped me of my coat, doublet, 
" and hosen, into my shirt. And this being done, the in- 
" quisitors commanded them to bind me both my arms be- 
" hind me, even by my hand-wrists. The which they did 
*' with a small cord six times rovmd about as hard as they 
" could pull it. And there was a great rope that did hang 
" in the middle of the house, in the roof, on high, in a pul- 
*' ley ; Avhich great rope one end thereof was made fast to 
" the small cord that was put about my arms ; and they 
" put a pair of fetters upon my bare legs, and with a wind- 
" lass, made of timber, that went round beneath at the 
" other end of the rope, the two men that had the vizards 
" began to pluck me up from the ground, so that I thought 
" that all my body had been broken in pieces. And I being 
" lifted from the ground, the inquisitors called upon me to 
" tell the truth. By reason of the extreme pains that I was 
" in, I willed them to say what they would I should say, 
" and I would say it. 

" And after a while they put me down, and asked me, 
'* Whether there were any mass said in England ? I told 
" them. No. They asked me, how that I believed touching 
" that.? I told him, that I had believed in all things as it 
" was taught in England, being my native country. Then 
*' said they, What is that that thou believest? and how say est 
" thou unto the mass ? I told them, that their mass was 
" not used according as that sacrament was ordained by 
" our Saviour Jesus Christ. Thou didst believe, said they, 
" even so as thou wert taught ? I answered, Yea. Then, 
" said they, say forth the truth. I told them, that I did 



364 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " confer in all things as I was tausrht in Eno-land. And 
" forthwith I was plucked up again ; and after a while let 



Anno 1560. u jQ^yri again. And being put down well near dead, and 
" very faint of this torment of the stappado, they asked me 
" in particular, What other thing touching the church of 
" Rome I believed not in.'' I told them, that I had con- 
" ferred in all things in faith as it was taught in England. 
" Then, said they, say on, what it is. I told them, that 
" there could be no remission of sins bought for money, as 
" was in Spain by the pope's bulls. But that all sins were 
" forgiven only by the death of Christ. And that this doc- 
" trine was taught in England. Wherein I believed. What 
" sayest thou of confession .'' said Licentiado Gasco. I told 
" them, that it was not necessary for salvation. Nor purga^ 
*' tory was there none ; and holy water a ceremony not 
*' good for any thing. Then said the Licentiado Gasco, 
" Truth it is, that thou mayest be saved without holy water, 
" and with the death of Christ only thou mayest be saved. 
" But with the ceremonies of the church thou mayest be 
" saved the better. As if thou go bai-efoot on the ground, 
" thou mayest go the easier with a pair of shoes on thy 
" feet, and the warmer. Even so likewise believing on the 
" sacraments and ceremonies of the church, thou mayest 
" be saved the better. 

" And the third time I was plucked up again, where I 
" thought to have made an end of my life. And after a 
*' while I was put down, and my arms loosed from the 
" small cords, and fell down by my sides, not feeling any 
" more than though I had no arms^ And I lay flat on the 
244 " ground, half dead and half alive. And the two men with 
" the vizards did take me up from the ground, and chafed 
*' my arms with hot tallow. And after a good space my 
" arms came to feeling, and the blood sprang out at my 
" hand-wrists, where I was tied. And this done, after a 
" while that I was come to myself, the two men with the 
" vizards put on my apparel, and delivered me to the 
" gaoler, and so I was carried to my prison. 

" The inquisitors sent for me the next day to ratify that I 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 365 

had confessed in torment. And after, they asked me, whe- CHAP, 
ther I would confer with their religion. I answered, that . 



" I would do what they would command me. And I did-'^°'*«> i56o. 

" confer with them in their religion ; and was committed to 

*' my prison. And in a few days after, the promoter, called 

" there the fiscal, brought in another paper, called a publi- 

" cation of witnesses that was against me. Wherein one 

" witness did say, that he had seen in a chest landed at Ca- 

" diz, a suspicious book in a strange tongue. And this was 

" aU they were able to say against me by any manner of in- 

" formation, more than that which they had forcibly made 

" me confess in torment, and otherwise as you have heard. 

" Which confession, that they forcibly made me confess, was 

" the occasion of the confiscation of my goods ; for I never 

" offended them in any one jot of their laws. 

" I answered to their publication, that the book was 
" mine ; and so having conferred with them, they sent me 
" to my prison, where I remained to the end of fourteen 
" months from the day that I came in. And at the end of 
" the same time, I was suddenly called with another that 
" was in my company, and commanded by the gaoler to 
" come forth : and so we were carried to another prison, 
" where we were put in company of forty persons of all sorts 
" of men. This being in the evening. 

" But two hours before day we were called, and every 
*' man set in his order to go as it were in procession towards 
" a mighty great scaffold, that was made in the city in the 
" place of St. Francis. So that of these persons that were 
" put in my company, some of them were condemned to 
" wear a disguised coat, and to remain wearing that coat in 
" perpetual prison ; whither they were commanded all the 
" days of their lives. Some of them, as they went towards 
" the scaffold, went in their coats with halters about their 
" necks. The most of all these were condemned to the gal- 
" leys, there to row, some for six years, some for ten years, 
" and some all the days of their lives : and some to the per- 
" petual prison for a year. But all in general lost their 
" goods. And also it is an order among them, that if a 



366 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " man be put to wear a coat, generally they do command 
" that never more he shall be witness in any cause, neither 



Anno 1560. " to wear on his person, silk, gold, silver, pearl, or precious 
" stone. And to this they added to me, that I should never 
" depart the realm of Spain, during my life, upon pain of 
*' death. 

" There was another company, that came out of the 
" castle, which were brought out of another prison : which 
" company came forth with mitres of paper upon their 
" heads : which were thirty of them, men and women : all 
" condemned to be burnt ; and were burnt that day. So 
" this sort came forth with coats on their backs to the like- 
" ness of fire, and painted devils, as it were. Of them there 
245 " were divers notable learned men, as friars and others. And 
" because they should not speak, they had their tongues 
" plucked out of their mouths, and sticks bound to them. 
" That day were burnt Dr. Constantino and Dr. Egidio, 
" the greatest famous learned men that ever preached in 
" Sevil : I say their pictures, as they preached in their pul- 
" pits being alive, were burned. They died in the castle, 
" God knows after what sort. Nicolas Britton of London, 
" and a mariner of Hampton, were burned that day, and 
" ten women, and also seven or eight friars. 

" Another company came out that day without coats, 
*' and some of them, or most, were whipped upon an ass 
*' round about the city : which was for speaking of words 
*' against their religion. And these be banished the country 
*' for years or months, and lost no goods. These went bare- 
" headed to the scaffold, and in their own coats, and a can- 
" die lighted in their hands. 

" All the which aforesaid companies went in procession, 
*' by one and one ; and two familiars with every one pri- 
** soner, leading them by the arms till they came to the 
*' scaffold : and there every prisoner"'s sentence was read. 
" They that were to be burned came all behind in the pro- 
" cession : and the inquisitors behind all, riding upon their 
" mules. And for the inquisitors another scaffold was made 
" very sumptuous, where they sat to hear the sentences 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 867 

' read of every prisoner, and commanded in all points CHAP. 
' touching these matters, like men of mighty authority. ^^' 

" From the scaffold were carried those that went to the Anno i56o. 
' fire to be burnt. Every one was severally set up upon a 
' several ass by himself: and so were carried to the stakes, 
' where they died. All the rest returned to the castle. And 
' the next day every man sent to the place whither the 
' sentence of every one commanded. 

" They kept me fourteen months in another prison at 
' my own charges, after they had taken all my money and 
' goods, and apparel from me. And at the end of that time 
' they put me at my liberty upon the condition declared in 
' my sentence. So that I was in their hands two years and 
' four months, and lost 760/. of mine and of my friends, as ap- 
' peareth evidently. The goods that they confiscated that 
' day of the prisoners for the king's chamber, as the sen- 
' tences declared, were above 50,000Z. Many other matters 
' are used in this kind of tyranny, which are here too long 
' to rehearse." 

And here let me insert a few secular matters belonging 
to this year. 

July the 5th, the queen"'s ambassadors happily concluded Peace with 
the peace with Scotland, (after the treaty had been like to '^ 
have been broken off, and the war renewed.) But as yet it 
was kept secret ; but shortly to be published. 

Papa petiit consensum Hispani, ut reginam excommuni- Cott. libr. 
caret, is writ in a journal of this year, 1560, and about this '*"^'<^'-i°' 
time. 

In July or August, the queen in her progress came to The queen 
Winchester : and being in those parts, she went to Basing, ^^J^ '"ches- 
the lord treasurer''s house, who was marquis of Winchester ; 
with whom she was most splendidly entertained, and with 246 
all manner of good cheer. Where she openly and merrily 
bemoaned herself that the marquis was so old : for else, by 
my troth, said she, if my lord treasurer were but a young 
man, I could find in my heart to have him for my husband 
before any man in England. 



368 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. In September was a resolution taken very shortly of 
^^' calling do^vn base monies. And the queen swore, (as one 



Anno 1560. Alen wrote from court to the earl of Shrewsbury,) that the 
Base money j^ ^^^ J ^^^^ should be kept secret to herself; and that 

to be cried •' _ _ "^ 

down. few besides should know it : so tliat men should have but 
short warning: of the matter. 

About the beginning of September, she came to Wind- 
sor; and was there every hour in an expectation of the 
King of king of Sweden's coming ; being very shortly looked for at 
pected. Westminster ; where certain works were in hand ; and the 
workmen wrought day and night to finish them against his 
reception. His business was to court the queen for his Avife. 
But he came not himself, being advised to the contrary : 
yet his brother the duke did ; and was a passionate advo- 
cate for his brother with the queen. 
Preachers. I shall conclude this year with the mention of some of the 
public sermons, and a few other matters falling in, that may 
deserve to be remembered. 
Piikington February the 9th, Pilkington, elect of Durham, preached 
Pad^s!^^ "^ ^^ Paul's Cross ; there being present (beside the lord mayor 
and court of aldermen) the lord Robert Dudley, secretary 
Cecil, and divers others of the queen''s council : who after 
sermon repaired to the lord mayor'^s to dinner. 
Dr. Holland March the 5th, Seth Holland, (who had been warden of 
All Souls in Oxon, and dean of Worcester, and chaplain to 
cardinal Pole ; and who had been sent by the said cardinal 
to the lady Elizabeth with a message a few days before his 
death,) was buried in St. George'^s, Southwark, out of the 
King's Bench ; being in point of respect brought to church 
by about threescore gentlemen of the inns of court and Ox- 
ford. 
Prociama- In the beginning of Lent, this year, was a pi'oclamation 
keeping issucd out, that if any butcher did kill any flesh that time 
Lent. of Lent, he should forfeit 20Z. for each time he did so. 

One Adam, a butcher, dwelling in little Eastcheap, killed 
three oxen this Lent ; and an inquest went upon him ; and 
he was cast to pay the said fine. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 369 

February the 19th, Nowel, dean of St. PauFs, preached CHAP, 
before the queen. He made a godly sermon, and had a vast ' ' 



and honourable audience. Anno i56o. 

The 22d, Skamler, now bishop of Peterborough, preached J^^ns'^'" 
before the queen in his rochet and chimere. 

The 24th, Mr. Sampson, dean of Christ-church, Oxon, 
preached before her at the court. 

The 27th, Pilkington, elect of Durham, preached before 
her there. 

March the 6th, Horn, bishop of Durham, preached at 
the queen"'s chapel, and made a pious sermon. 

March the 10th, the bishop of London preached at court. 

And the same day, Mr. Gressop of Oxford preached in 247 
the shrouds at St. PauPs. This man read an English di- 
vinity lecture in that university. 

The 16th, being Midlent Sunday, the bishop of Dur- 
ham preached at court. 

The 19th, the dean of St. Paul's there. 

The 23d, the archbishop of Canterbury preached at Nevv- 
ington, beyond St. George"'s, Southwark. 

The same day, at the court, preached the bishop of Ely. 
He insisted in his sermon upon this argument, " That none 
" should preach of high matters in divinity but those that 
*' were learned." 

The same day, a bishop unnamed preached at the Cross. 

March the 26th, (now the year 1561 entering,) Mr. 
Sampson preached at the court. 

April the 4th, at St. Paul's Cross, preached Mr. Mulling, 
ai-chdeacon of London. To which let me add the Spital 
sermons this Easter : which were preached by Horn, bisliop 
of Winton ; Pilkington, bishop of Durham ; and Cole, par- 
son of High Ongar in Essex. And to conclude this list of 
preachers, 

April the 13th, Jewel, bishop of Salisbury, preached at 
St. Paul's. 

And so it was the wisdom of the present governors to put 
up from time to time able, learned, discreet, and aged men 
to be the teachers of the people at these solemn and great 

VOL. I. B b 



370 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, assemblies: who did commonly make it their business in 
^^' their sermons to prove and evince the present proceedings 



Anno 1560. in religion, and, as occasion served, to lay open the errors 
and corruptions of that religion and worship that was now 
lately rejected. 



CHAP. XXI. 

Archbishop of York confirmed. Three other bishops conse- 
crated. The church filled with her bishops. Papists'' 
objections against them. Richard Cheney's complaint. 
Fox's Martyrology comes Jhrth : vindicated. Peter Mar- 
tyr invited over. Archdeacon WrigMs sermon at Ox- 
fiord. Bidlingers sermons tipon the Revelations come 
fiorth translated : and Calvin of Relics. His judgment ^ 
approving some rites used in the English liturgy ; and 
of episcopal government. 

Anno 1 561. xxS yet the see of York remained without an archbishop; 
^""^ "^'^^ William May, archbishop elect, deceasing before his conse- 

archbishop _ -^ . '^ " 

of York. cration, as was said before. But now was Thomas Yong 
translated from St. David's, and confirmed, Feb. the 25th, 
chief pastor of that archiepiscopal see : though a certain 
diary sets the confirmation at March 2, and to be done in 

Viteii.F. s.the bishop of London''s palace. He was charactered to be 
a virtuous, godly man ; but yet there was a former blot that 
248 stuck upon him still, that he the chanter, and one Constan- 
tine, register of the church of St. David's in king Edward's 
reign, raised up a great many enemies, and abundance of 
trouble against Farrar, their bishop, (who died a martyr 
under queen Mary,) chiefly because he would visit his 
church. Constantine was dead, but Yong, yet alive, was 
not forgotten for this behaviour. But to cover it as much 
as might be, now lie was to be so highly advanced, one Prat, a 
reverend friend of IVIr. Fox's, (who in a letter to him, dated 
in January 1560, had signified Yong's intended preferment,) 
desired, that as he had mentioned this matter in his Latin 
History, so he would leave it out in his English Martyr- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 371 

ology, which he was now preparing ; and to pass it over in chap. 
silence, or else to write of it in such sort, as no man might ' 



be defamed; whereby the reUgion might sustain hurt, orAnnoi56i. 
papists take occasion to accuse us of persecution, a tiling 
laid so closely by us to their charge : especially since both 
Yong and Constantine were reconciled to that bishop before 
his death ; coming to him and asking him forgiveness ; and 
so were again united in brotherly love. 

In this province of York was placed James Pilkington, Piikington 
D. D. (whom we have had occasion to mention before,) for ^"^'{j'^p'^o/ 
to govern the see of Durham. He was of a good family inDuriiam. 
the north ; and had learned brothers that were divmes also, Du^r. foi. 
viz. Leonard and John: the latter, being; professor of di-^^, 58. 

Tho Baker 

vinity, he made his chaplain, and soon preferred to a pre-s.T.B. 
bend in his church, October 2, 1561, and collated him to 
the archdeaconry of Durham, December 5, two years after. 
He also preferred to a prebend in his church another very 
learned man and an exile, viz. Thomas Lever, S. T. B. for- Tho. Lever. 
merly of St. John's college, and sometime master, (as was 
the bishop himself.) He was also master of Sherborn hos- 
pital in the diocese ; which place he held to his death : but 
of his prebend he was deprived, (I suppose,) for refusal to 
comply with the ecclesiastical orders prescribed. The said 
bishop also gave a prebend in his said church to another 
eminent exile of the same stamp, viz. John Fox, (for I 
make little doubt it was the same John Fox that was the John Fox. 
martyrologist,) being entitled in the register of Durham, 
Artium magistri et sacri verbi Dei professoris. It was 
the same prebend that was held by another memorable man, 
Thomas Sparke, suffragan bishop of Berwick. Fox"'s col- 
lation was dated September 2, 1572; but he resignetl it 
the next year. But another prebend, viz. of Shipton, in tlie 
church of Sarum, he and his posterity enjoyed even to our 
days. 

In May 1561 was Richard Davis translated from St. A bisiiop of 
Asaph to St. David's : and Thomas Davis, LL.D. of Oxon, '^i^',, of\J' 
a Welshman, ae-ed forty-nine, was consecrated. May 26, bi-Asajih; and 

J ' of Cluster. 

shop of St. Asaph : and William Downham, of Hereford- 

B b2 



372 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, shire, aged fifty, an Oxford man, was consecrated bishop of 
■ ■ . Chester on the 4th day of May. Now were both the pro- 



Anno i56i.vinces filled with their bishops. 
The new And thus was the church replenished with a new set of 

bislio'l.s ^^'^ bishops, professors of the gospel, and most of them sufferers 
compared, for it : men of good learning and true godliness, though in 
outward appearance contemptible, in comparison with those 
that filled the sees before. They were not so well learned 
in canon law, in matters of contention about worldly con- 
249 troversics, (I use the words of dean Nowel,) in bearing of 
Reproof, temporal office and authority, in income, courtly behaviour, 
and worldly pomp, as were those bishops ; yet in all kinds 
of learning, manners, and qualities, by St. Paul in the of- 
fice of a bishop required, there were found as many learned 
bishops, and as able and willing to do the duty of good and 
godly bishops, [jje?' se non jper alhim^ among them even at 
this day, as ever were among the papists, or in England, 
since the first bishops were created in it. And he trusted, 
likewise, that the clergy next under the bishops should not 
be found any whit inferior in learning, nor honesty of life, 
to theirs. 
Papists' ob- I will not conceal the cavils made by papists against 
jections a- tj^gj^ Yox the adversaries had divers obiections against our 

gainst the _ _ . . 

present bi- arclibisliop and liis brethren the bishops ; which were now 

''"'''^' made in the beginning of this reign, (as the lord Coke, 

whose words I use, shews us,) and by consequence against 

Institut. the bishops ever since. " First, That they were never con- 

321*, 32I.' " secrated according to the law, (see Dier Mich. 6 & 7. Eliz.) 

" because they had not three bishops at least at their conse- 

" cration ; nay, never a bishop at all, as was pretended. 

" Because that they, being bishops in the reign of king Ed- 

" ward VI. were deprived in the reign of queen IMary, and 

" were not, as was pretended, restored, before their presence 

" at the consecration. These pretences being in truth but 

" mere cavils, tending to the scandal of the clergy, being 

" one of the greatest states of the realm, (as it is said in the 

" statute of the 8th Eliz. cap. 1,) are fully answered by the 

" said statute, and provision made by the authority of tliat 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 373 

" parliament, for the establishing of the archbishop and bi- CHAP. 
" shops, both in prcesejiti and inj'uturo, in their bishoprics. 



" Of this statute, archbishop Parker, in his book De Antiq. Anno isei. 

" Britann. speaking of himself, saith, Ann. Dam. 1559, Britami'.'' 

" Cantuar. episc. electus est a decano et cajnkdo eccles. me^ 

" tropolit. Caniuar. Postcaque eodem anno 17 Dec. adhi- 

" bitis quatuor cpiscopis, Sfc. lege quadam de hoc re lata 

" requisitis consccratus est. Another objection was made 

" against them ; for that the commission being never en- 

" rolled, whereby the bishops made in queen Mary''s time 

" were deprived before the fourth year of the reign of 

" queen Ehzabeth ; or the record of the approbation [de- 

" privation, perhaps] of them cannot be found. And there- 

" fore it was pretended, that the archbishops and bishops 

" made by queen Elizabeth, living the former, should be 

" no lawful bishops. But by the statute of the 39th Eliz. 

" cap. 8, the archbishops and bishops are adjudged lawful, 

" as by the said act appeareth. And by these two statutes, 

" these and all other objections against our bishops are an- 

" swered." These are the words of that great lawyer. 

In April, Richard Cheney, a learned man, made a com- Rich, che- 
plaint to secretary Cecil concerning a wrong sustained by Jljj^^, ^j^" 
the late royal visitation. He was incumbent of a parish the secre- 
called Halford, in Warwickshire, of ten pounds per annum, ^^^' 
[in the king's books, as it seems ;] whereof he allowed his 
priest ten pounds per annum, and he hved on the rest, (as 
he wrote,) that is, on the remainder, which was little more. 
But being in that visitation absent from his said living, cha- 
ritably preaching about in the country, in the great want of 
preachers at this time ; the harvest being, as he said, great, 
but the labourers few, yea very few ; whether it were his 
absence, or something else, which the visitors took notice of 250 
and offence at, but he was worse by forty pounds since the 
queen came in, than he was before. This man, being arch- 
deacon of Hereford under king Edward, was one of the 
convocation in the first year of queen Mary ; and with five 
more did boldly dispute in that synod against transubstan- 
tiation, with the learnedest men there that held that doc- 

Bb3 



374 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, trine. In his younger days he was often at court, I suppose 
a preacher tliere ; but now in his age chose a country re- 



Anno i56i.tireniont. " I began first in my youth," said he, in a letter 
to Cecil, " at the court, but I intend to make an end in 
*' mine age at the cart, at my circumcised benefice." He 
was a good Grecian, and affected the true, though new way 
of pronouncing it, which Mr. Cheek, the Greek lecturer, 
first set on foot in Cambridge. He had friends which of- 
fered to procure him a bishopric, or a prebend in Westmin- 
ster ; but he declined both, affecting rather a private life. 
He Avas lately called vip to preach at the court: where 
Cecil afterwards spying him, went, after his courteous way, 
towards him, and saluted him, offering him his hand. This 
gave Mr. Cheney a fair encouragement to write to him, and 
to let him know what damage he had lately sustained in his 
poor preferment. And so writ to him in April, after a fa- 
cetious style, which was his way, hinting therein his wrong, 
and present poor estate. His letter, in memory of the man, 
N". XXIII. I have reposited in the Appendix. 

Cecyi re- But this Complaint of his made such an impression upon 
)ihn"to"he Cecyl's tender heart, that he sent Cheney's letter to the 
archbishop, archbisliop, and these kind words endorsed upon it: "I be- 
" seech your grace consider of this poor man's merry, simple 
" request. Indeed it is not his shame to lack : and there- 
" fore, for God's sake, let him be helped. I cannot with 
" leisure do for him : but whatsoever your grace will devise 
" for me to do, I will not forbear. 

" Your grace's at commandment, W. Cecil." 

Preferred. The Same year, Eaton college wanting a provost, (the 
former having been deprived at a visitation,) the archbishop 
put the secretary in mind to recommend him to the queen 
for that preferment, styling him " a good, grave, priestly 
" man." But failing of that, he was preferred the next year 
to the bishopric of Gloucester, as we shall see in due place. 
Foxs Mar- About this year did the laborious John Fox set forth the 
comes forth /"''^^ edition in English of his great book of Acts and Mo- 
numents, in one thick volume. Wherein he hath done such 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 375 

exquisite service to the protestant cause, in shewing from CHAP, 
abundance of ancient books, records, registers, and choice ^^^' 
MSS. the encroachments of popes and papahns, and the Anno isei. 
stout oppositions that were made by learned and good men 
in all ages and in all countries against them ; and especially 
under king Henry and queen Mary here in England : pre- 
serving to us the memories of those holy men and women, 
those bishops and divines, together with their histories, acts, 
sufferings, and their constant deaths, willingly undergone for 
the sake of Christ and his gospel, and for refusing to com- 
ply with popish doctrines and superstitions. The design of 
writing this history was first set on foot among the exiles 
abroad in queen Mary's hard days ; and many of them wei'e 
concerned in it, to supply Fox with matter from England. 
The chief of these were Grindal, afterward bishop of Lon-251 
don. From him Fox had the history of the holy John 
Bradford, and the letters writ by him in prison, besides 
many other things. It was agreed upon by them, that this 
history of those days should be written both in Latin and 
English, and printed ; the former for the use of strangers, 
and the latter for the use of our own country : and so it 
was. And first it was printed beyond sea, in Latin : the 
overseeing and finishing of which edition detained the au- 
thor some while abroad, after the entrance of queen Eliza- 
beth upon her government. 

Great was the expectation of the book here in England vvhat re- 
before it came abroad. The papists then called it scur- "^^ '°^Jj, 
rilously, Fox's golden legend. When it first appeared, papists, 
there was extraordinary fretting and fuming at it through 
all quarters of England, even to Lovain. They charged it 
Avith lies, and that there was much falsehood in it : but in- 
deed they said this, because they were afraid it should be- 
tray their cruelty and their lies, as the author speaks in the 
epistle before his book. His calendar, standing before his The caien- 
said book, which he made on purpose to set down the names *"^" 
of all that suffered for pure religion in those evil days, gave 
the papists great offence ; taking it in that sense, as though 
he had cast out of the calendar the ancient saints, and in 

B b 4 



376 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, their places put new ones. But he said for himself, that he 
composed this calendar only for an index, designing the 
Anno 1561. month and year of each martyr. Yet, as he added, that if 
pJjgfl'L*,^,,, the cause, and not the punishment, made a martyr, he 
judged one Cranmer to be preferred before six hundred 
Beckets of Canterbury ; and that there was in one Nicolas 
Ridley what might be compared with any that went by the 
name of St. Nicolas. 
Fox charged Parsons also, in his book of the Three Conversions of Eng- 
ing records, land, chargetli him with spoiling of the bishops' registers and 
ancient records: which he spake without any assured ground, 
Parsons' more than his own uncharitable guess. He pretended, " that 
vers*^ "" " ^^^ coidd have found abundant matter to have confuted 
" Fox out of the records he used, had not he and his fellows 
" made away and defaced the said records : which were to 
" be found before him in the registers of every bishopric 
" and cathedral church ; but now no more, as we presume." 
Which last words, as zee presume, do plainly let us know, 
that what he had severely charged upon him expressly be- 
fore, depended indeed upon nothing but his own and his 
party's mere presumption. Fox was an indefatigable searcher 
into old registers, and left them as he found them, after he 
had made his collections and transcriptions out of them. 
Many whereof I have seen, and do possess. And it was his 
interest that they should remain to be seen by posterity : 
and therefore we frequently find references thereunto in the 
margins of his book. Many have diligently compared his 
books with registers and council-books, and have always 
found him faithful. 
Matters in Hc dedicated this first edition to queen Elizabeth ; and 
fdUiou o- another edition, many years after done by him, he also de- 
niiticd in dicatcd to hcr. In this first edition, which is rarely to be 

the after- . , , . ..." 

editions. "i<-'t With, are many tinngs, as connmssions, mstriunents, 

252 letters in Latin, and divers other matters, which are left out 

in the after-editions for brevity sake, there being such store 

of other things coming to light to be inserted. 

Fox reward- And for some reward of these his labours, the queen, in 

queen. "^ ^^^ sixth of her reign, gratified him with the prebend and 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 377 

parsonage of Shipton in the county of Oxon, belonging to CHAP, 
tlie church of Sarum : which his posterity enjoyed unto sir ^^^' 



Richard Willys, knt. and bart.; who married the heir ofAnnoi56i. 
the family, daughter of Robert Fox, M.D. sometime an 
eminent physician in London. 

The credit of this book of Mr. Fox is mightily under- Mr. Fox's 
mined by the papists, as was said before, and most profess- *^'"^'^>*- 
edly and earnestly by Parsons, in his book before men- 
tioned. I leave it to others to vindicate him, (that being 
not my present business ;) but yet he must not go without 
the commendation of a most painful searcher into records, 
archives, and repositories of original acts, and letters of 
state, and a great collector of MSS. And the world is in- 
finitely beholden to him for abundance of extracts thence, 
communicated to us in his volumes. And as he hath been 
found most diligent, so most strictly true and faithful in his 
transcriptions. And this I myself in part have found. And 
several passages in his book have been compared with king 
Edward's council-book, lately discovered, and found to agree 
well together. 

The papists do endeavour to shake the credit of the rest A jjassage 
of his story, by his supposed falsehood in one part of it ; jjpj^^j'j^'"' 
namely, concerning one Grimwood ; who, being a great per- 
secutor, and, withal, one mightily addicted to cursing and 
swearing, a great judgment from God is related to have 
fallen upon him, to the depriving him of his life. Once it 
happened, that a minister in his sermon quoted this passage 
of Grimwood, and propounded it as a warning to sinners ; 
and for them to take example by him. But Grimwood was 
then alive, and present in the church. Whereupon he sued 
the minister for scandalizing him. But the judge, after due 
hearing, would not suffer the action to lie, because he did 
it not maliciously, and had alleged what he said out of a 
book, and so none of his own invention. This case is extant 
in judge Croke's Reports. And hence Fox's enemies liave 
triumphed, and chai'ged him as a man to whom little credit 
ought to be given, as taking up reports upon little or no 
good ground at all. This supposed falsehood of Fox, the 



378 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, author of the Athena? Oxonienses makes a great flourish 
^^^- with, and useth it to make the story improbable which the 
Anno 1561. said Fox relates of judge Morgan, who condemned lady 
Vol.). p. Jane Grey, and died mad soon after. But to return to 
Grimwood's story. It could not be avoided but that Fox 
must make use of other men to bring relations of matters to 
him, to furnish his book ; and he, trusting to their fidelities, 
set them down as he received them : whence, in such vast 
collections, it is no marvel if some failures sometimes hap- 
pen. But what if, after all this, the relation of Grimwood's 
judgment was true.'' I have been assured so from a very 
»Mr.Ro- careful inquirer^ after such matters; who told me, that he 
ger Morns, j^^^ YQad it in a very authentic paper, carrying so much 
evidence with it, that he did not in the least misdoubt it : 
the judgment indeed not falling upon that Grimwood that 
sued the minister, but another of the same, both Christian 
and surname, as was well known afterwards. 
253 There is another passage, as it seems, erroneously set 
A supposed (jQ^yn ijy Fox, whicli he is to be vindicated in also, so far 

error in iox . 

considered, forth as taking the relation from another hand. It is con- 
cerning one Cooper, who suffered under queen Mary for 
rebellious words spoken against her, rather than for reli- 
gion : and concerning a judgment from God falling upon 
one Grimward, (perhaps the aforesaid person,) for his false 
witness bearing against the said Cooper. But this relation, 
as Fox had inserted it in his history, be it true or false, he 

Will. Punt, had from William Punt, who under queen Mary had been 
a diligent inquirer into the sufferings of the professors ; and 
taking the same in writing, had procured the printing of 
them beyond sea, and then vended the books here in Eng- 
land. The same Punt was informed against by Tye, bishop 
Boner''s commissary in the parts about Colchester, as a lead- 
ing heretic. This is the character of the man. But to pur- 
sue this matter further, and to search whence this Punt had 
his information : lie had it from credible witnesses, who 
gave in this account before him and Sutton, a minister of 
Ipswich, and one Fox, brother to our martyrologist. But 
after the Martyrology was printed. Will. Rushbrook, mi- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 379 

nister of Byldeston, a neighbouring parish to Ipswich, read- CHAP, 
ing the aforesaid relation of Cooper in the said book, and ' ' 
knowing something of the business, perceived several errors -'^"no isei. 
therein. Therefore, out of a care of consulting for the cre- 
dit of the author and book, in the year 1563, and month of 
April, he wrote hereupon to Mr. Walker, an eminent mi- 
nister in Ipswich, shewing wherein Punt's information failed, 
and wishing it had not been put into Mr. Fox''s book, and 
desiring him to inform the said author thereof: Cooper's 
punishment, as he asserted, having been justly inflicted, not 
so much for religion, as treasonous words against the queen. 
The sum of his letter was, " That he had talked with those Int. Fox. 
*' which he judged could best certify the truth of the mat- 
" ter which was reported of Cooper. That if every man 
" indeed might be a martyr which was then punished for 
" rebellious words, we should have many martyrs indeed. 
" That Will. Punt was much to blame, because that he, 
" llushbrook, told him more than two years past, that his 
" paper that contained that report was untrue, which, as he 
" had then writ it, was now put into print. That in this 
" report he committed these faults ; viz. that Cooper was no 
" such man that ought in commendation to be named in 
" that book : that whereas Whyte was named to be a false 
" witness, he witnessed truly: that Grimward was unjustly 
" reported to be a witness, much more a false witness : that 
" what was said to come upon the said Grimward was as 
" true as the rest: that Cooper was valued more than he was 
" worth, as to his goods, which were seized by the sheriff; 
" a true account whereof in kine, horses, and other cattle, 
" and householdstufl', came but to 611. Is. 4d." 

When all this was understood by Mr. Fox, he came him- 
self to Ipswich, to inform himself truly about it. Punt also 
went to Mr. Sutton beforesaid, who remembered it very 
well, every part thereof as it was then imprinted. Notwith- 
standing, these two, with another honest man, went to the 
party that had related it, and read the story unto them; 
who boldly affirmed the same to be true, and would so con- 
fess before any man, as they said. There were tAvo that at- 



380 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, tested this, being one and twenty years of age apiece. He 
^^'' also procured Mr. Candish, a justice of peace, as it seems, 



Auiio 1561. and the wife of Cooper, to meet at Ipswich; whom, Avith 
-^^^tJie children, they minded to bring before Candish and 
others; and so to make a true certificate thereof with their 
hands, as witnesses of their words ; and then would send it 
up with speed ; as Punt Avrote up to London, to Fox's bro- 
ther, living at the duke of Norfolk's house by Aldgate. He 
wrote also, that Mr. Sutton had and would take great pains 
therein. And so I leave the matter undecided to the reader's 
judgment and discretion. I have set down all this at this 
length, to shew what diligence and care w^as used that no 
falsehood might be obtruded upon the readers; and Fox 
and his friends' readiness to correct any mistakes that might 
happen. 
Fox thank- Fox, as he had thus several that clamoured against him, 
book"^ '"* so on the other hand he had many encouragers ; and many 
letters and applications made to him, giving him thanks for 
his great and useful pains, and exhorting him to go for- 
By John ward. One of these was John Loud, an eminent man in 
■ his time; who wrote him a letter to this purpose in the year 
1579, and withal furnished him with many other remarkable 
passages of the sufferings and stories of the professors of 
religion under king Henry and queen Mary, and of the 
judgments of God upon persecutors. This Loud, however 
his very name is now lost, yet in his time made a figure, 
being an earnest professor of religion in the reign of king 
Henry VIII. and a companion with Mr. Philpot the mar- 
tyr, both in Oxford, Winchester, and London. He studied 
also in Bene't college in Cambridge, where he was tutor to 
sir Richard Southwel, a man advanced to be a privy coun- 
sellor, and dwelt in the Charter-house, London. Here Loud 
dwelt with him, and instructed his son in Latin, and in the 
laws civil and tem}X)raI. For Loud, after his leaving the 
university, liad been a .student of the laws in Lincoln's-inn. 
And several Bcsidcs tliis letter of Loud's before mentioned, I have 
otii.r learn- gj>^.,j thcsc letters Hkewisc concerning Mr. Fox's said book : 
Penes mc. one in the year 1565, from Morice (once the famous secre- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 381 

tary of archbishop Cranmer) to John Day, Fox's printer: CHAP, 
another, anno 1567, from Dr. Turner, dean of Wells, to ^^^' 
Fox: another to him writ anno 1565, from Dr. Humfrey,Anno i56i. 
of Oxford, concerning Alan Cope, and other popish adver- 
saries of this book, and disparagers of his martyrs, exciting 
him to answer them sharply : another to him from the same 
Humfrey and one Parret, from Oxford, anno 1582: and 
lastly, another from Richard Taverner, signifying his send- 
ing to Fox cardinal Pole's last will. In which letters are 
some things worth the reading. 

Peter Martyr, the great divine, and public professor of P. Martyr 
divinity in the university of Oxford under king Edward, E.rSid"**' 
upon the new establishment of religion here in England, 
was ardently invited to come again hither. And that this 
invitation might have the greater force with him, one un- 
named, but entitled by P. Martyr in his answers illustrissi- 
mus princeps, (whom therefore I believe to be Thomas duke 
of Norfolk, and he set on by his tutor John Fox,) wrote a 
kind and earnest letter to him to come over, and sent it by 
his friend Julius, that then was in England about some bu- 
siness: whom this nobleman had assisted in his affair with 255 
much humanity. In his letter to Martyr he signified to 
him, how he had suggested to the queen, that he might be 
recalled into England, and had spoke to her in his favour. 
In his said letter he expressed exceeding good will towards 
Martyr; and that the reason he loved him was only his 
piety and religion. He promised him all the favour and 
benefit from him that he could do ; and added, that it was 
the love of this his own country, and his care to have the 
word of God furthered, that were the causes of his affection 
to him. This endeavour of getting Martyr into England 
proceeded, no question, from an order made by the archbi- 
shop and bishops at Lambeth, where they sat by commis- 
sion; which was, to raise a contribution out of their own re- 
venues for learned strangers to be placed readers in the uni- 
versities, both for their stipends, and for the defraying of 
their expenses in their journey. 

But Martyr excused his coming, partly because he was 



382 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, obliged to the city and church of Zurick, (whence he wrote 
^^^' his letter, July 22, 1561,) and so not his own man. And 



Anno 1561. therefore vnth them, both magistrates and ministers, he had 
But declines ^Qj^gyjjg J . y,\^Q indeed very readily, for the good of Eng- 

it, and wliv. iiii i-ii i 

Peter Mart, land, Were willmg he should depart thither; but on the 
Epist. 223. Qti^pj. hand they considered his age and weakness, and how 
he was not able to bear such a journey. They considered 
also the great danger he might run in divers places through 
which he should pass; and moreover, how he was called 
into England to bear greater labours by far than there he 
had : and therefore they concluded it best for him to tarry 
wath them ; and that there, both by teaching, writing, and 
publishing what he had ready, he might serve them in Eng- 
land, and others also. And so Martyr, taking this advice, 
stayed at Zurick, and there died in peace. 
Archdeacon The pulpits sounded every where with the approaching 
AV rights happiness of this nation, under the influence of so gracious 

sermon, and i t^ _ ' _ o 

death. and well educated a princess, and under the joyful expecta- 
tion of the entrance of God's true worship into England 
again. And even in Oxford, where, to all outward appear- 
ance, every the least footstep of pure religion was utterly 
worn out, was a very notable sermon preached ; and that by 
a person of as great eminency as any there. It was Dr. 
Wright, archdeacon of Oxon, and head of a college there. 
He was vice-chancellor when Dr. Richard Smith made his 
challenge to P. Martyr to dispute with him ; and in that 
dangerous hurlyburly he conveyed Martyr away, through 
the rout and crowd at that time assembled, to his own 
house. Upon the turn under queen IVIary, he made a shift 
to comply : and for his wisdom and learning was one of the 
visitors of Magdalen college, Oxon, when both the president 
and so many of the fellows were put out, soon after that 
queen's access to the crown ; and was noted to be the equal- 
est in hearing, and the readiest to absolve. He was also af- 
terwards one of cardinal Pole's visitors of that university, 
complying with the time and orders then in force, and con- 
cealing his opinion during her five years' reign ; with what 
conscience himself best knew. But as occasion served, he 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 383 

would speak favourably of the gospellers. So when they of CHAP. 
Corpus Christi college had expelled Mr. Jewel, he, knowing ^^^' 



the worth of that Jezcel, told some of the college what an Anno issi. 
ornament he was to them. He had but one eye, vet, saith vita Juei. 

•' '' ' per Huin- 

my author, he was homo octdatus. But the reason I havefred. 
here taken occasion to mention him is this: that at queen 2 5o 
Elizabeth's first coming to the crown, he openly, in All 
Saints, preached with a great spirit, though with a weak 
voice, " that Christ was not mixed nor leavened, but simple 
" and crucified." In the same sermon he commended to 
the clergy the liturgy of the church of England, the cele- 
bration of prayers and sacraments in the English tongue ; 
and learnedly and solidly asserted it out of scripture, and 
Origen against Celsus. Saunders added, in his relation of De Visibiii 
him, that alleging that place of St. Paul, He gave some, ^^*'°^'''^^»- 
apostles ; and some, prophets ; and some, evangelists ; and 
some, pastors and teachers ; he said, " Ye see here is not a 
" word oi the pope.''"' And May the 10th, being eight days 
after this public and godly confession, he died. The foresaid 
famous popish calumniator said of him, " That his recantation 
*' of the pope was the cause of his death, and the beginning 
" of the defect of his understanding:" though he had his 
understanding and memory to the last, making his will; 
as many could attest, that were then present. 

This year, 1561, came forth an hundred sermons upon Buiiinger's 
the Apocalypse, made by Henry Bullinger, chief pastor of *'^'''"°"* 
Zuric; translated out of Latin into English, by John Daus, Revelations 
of Ipswich ; dedicated to sir Thomas Wentworth, lord ^"" ^ 
Wentworth, lieutenant of the county of Suffolk : set forth 
and allowed according to the queen's order appointed in her 
injunctions. Buiiinger's preface was, " To all the exiles of 
" France, England, Italy, and other realms and nations in 
" Germany and Switzerland, for the name of Christ ; and 
" to all the faithful, wheresoever they be, abiding and look- 
" ing for the coming of Christ, our Lord and Judge." This 
preface was writ by him in the year 1557. The publishing 
of these sermons in these persecuting times was very sea- 
sonable, considerinsr the sum and end of this revelation of 



384 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. Jesus Christ to liis servant John was, as the learned author 
' ' shewed, " tliat he would never fail his church on earth, but 
Anno 1561." would govem it with his Spirit and word through the ec- 
" clesiastical ministry : but that the church itself, whilst it 
" remained in this world, should suffer many things, and 
" that for Christ, and the truth of his gospel professed. 
" And that it opened all and singular evils, in a manner, 
" that the church should suffer ; shewing how it must be 
" exercised with common calamities, as war, plague, famine, 
" &c. : what it should privately suffer of the false brethren 
" through heresies and schisms, and grievous and continual 
" strifes, contentions, and corruptions in the matter of reli- 
" gion : finally, how terribly it should be vexed by the 
" most cruel persecution of the old Roman empire : and 
" lastly, by the wicked crafts and extreme tyranny of Anti- 
" christ. All which things appertain to this end, that all 
*' his chosen, being sufficiently warned before, and provided 
" in all ages, whilst this world shall endure, might with 
" true faith cleave unto Christ our Redeemer, King, and 
" High-priest, &c. and in innocency of life serve him, and 
" patiently attend him, coming to judgment, &c. And 
" chiefly, that they should flee Antichrist, which should 
257 " come in the end of the world, usurping unto himself most 
" unjustly the kingdom and priesthood of Christ, griev- 
" ously persecuting the church of Christ even to the last 
" judgment." 
Calvin of This year also was translated out of French into English, 
ulnsLtcd ^y Steven Withers, a treatise of Rehcs, writ by another 
learned foreigner, viz. Mr. Calvin. It began, " St. Augus- 
" tine, in the book which he entituled. Of the Labour of 
" Monies', complaining of certain trifle-bearers, who already 
" in his time did exercise a most villainous and filthy kind 
" of carrying hither and thither relics of martyrs, addeth, 
" 1/ea, if they he relics of martyrs. By the which word 
" he signifieth, that even then the abuse and deceit herein 
" was conuiiitted, in making the poor simple people to be- 
" lieve, that bones gathered here and there were the bones 
" of saints. But seeing the original of this abuse is of such 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 385 

antiquity, it is not to be doubted, but that it hath been c H a p. 
in the mean while, by so long continuance of time, great- 



*' iy multiplied: especially seeing the world since that time Anno isei. 
" is marvellously corrupted, and hath declined from worse to 
" worse, even until it be come to the extremity in the which 
" we see it."" A book which, by relating what relics were 
in divers countries, and of what sort, and of what quantity, 
abundantly evinceth the horrible abuses of them. It bore 
this title ; A very 'profitable treatise^ made by Mr. John Cal- 
vin, declaring what great profit anight come to all Christen- 
dom, if there were a register made of all saints'' bodies, and 
other relics, which are as zcell in Italy as in France, Dutch- 
land, Spain, and otlier kingdoms and countries. 

The mention of Calvin must bring in a very remarkable ^^^^'^'n'sre- 

1 I'll -1 1^* 1- solution of 

letter, which he wrote in the month oi August this year, some rites 
concernine; certain ecclesiastical rites used in our office of'" ^''^ ''" 

. . turgy. 

public prayer newly established : which were scrupled by 
some of the English exiles upon their return ; chiefly be- 
cause not used by the reformed church in Geneva. Con- 
cerning which they had sent to Calvin for his resolution 
and judgment. Wherein he gave his opinion generally in Aug. 12. 
favour and approbation of them. For so I take that epistle Ep. num. 
of his, which he wrote as an answer to several persons, 
whom he styled, eximii viri, et ex animo colendi fratres : 
i. e. worthy men, and very much esteemed brethren : whom 
I am apt to think were the divines and scholars that lately 
sojourned at Geneva. By the answers he made, the ques- 
tions propounded by these brethren, I suppose, were these : 

First, Whether it was expedient, after the public con- Absolution, 
fession, to have any absolution, declaring the gracious pro- 
mise of God to repenting sinners ; because there was none 
such used in the church of Geneva. Calvin approves it, 
saying, that there was none of them but acknowledged it 
very profitable, to join to the public confession some singular 
promise to raise penitent sinners to the hope of pardon and 
reconciUation. He added, that from the beginning it was 
his mind to bring in this practice. But some feared offence 
would be taken at the novelty of the thing : whereupon he 

VOL. I. CO 



386 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, was too easy to yield : and so the thing was omitted ; that 
^^^' is, to be inserted into their office. But he wished that the 



Anno 1.561. people, to the pastors whereof he wrote, were accustomed to 
both. 
258 Secondly, Another query was concerning the using of 
The words certain proper words to every communicant singly : whicJi 

to the com- ,., i mi-ii ii- i 

nninicants. Caivui used not to do. i o which he answered, that m acl- 
ministering the supper, he sometimes used St. Paul's words. 
But because he could not repeat them to every one, without 
taking up more time than could well be spared, he rather 
desisted. 
Sacrament Thirdly, The third question seemed to be, how often the 
a year. sacrament of the Lord's supper should be administered ? 
and whether it were not fit to have it monthly, rather than 
as it was enjoined but three times a year, viz. in the great 
festivals.'' Calvin did most of all like to have it administered 
every month ; so that the more frequent use of it begat not 
nesligence. Which seemed to ffo so far with him, that he 
somewhat inclined to have it (on that account) not so fre- 
quent : for, said he, while the greater part abstain from the 
communion, [as they woidd do, if it were celebrated every 
month,] the church is after a manner scattered from one 
another. But that he had rather the church were invited 
to the sacrament every month, than four times a year only, 
as was the custom then with them. He added, that when 
he came first to Geneva, the sacrament was communicated 
but thrice in the year, [that is, at Christmas, Easter, and 
Whitsuntide,] when there were seven months coming be- 
tween Whitsuntide and Christmas, without any sacrament 
of the Lord's supper ministered at all. Whereupon he de- 
clared his liking of monthly .sacraments. But that when he 
could not prevail, he thought it good to spare the weakness 
of the people, than more stiffly to contend about it. Where- 
by he signified his advice in effect to the brethren here in 
this church, where the people were also used to the said 
three public times of receiving the sacrament, and would at 
present be hardly brought to an alteration. And all that 
Calvin did in this case wa.s, to omit the reformation of this 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 387 

more seldom receiving the eucharist, till a more convenient CHAP, 
opportunity should offer hereafter. Yet he caused it to be ^^^' 



entered into the pubUc acts, that this custom was faulty : Anno 1 56 1. 
that it might be more easy and free to correct it by those 
that came hereafter. 

Fourthly, The fourth query was, whether it were conve- Connmmi- 
nient to communicate the sick.? and if so, with what num- sfj,!"|^|,*'^ 
ber and company "^ and whether in this private communion 
the public office should be used, or no office, but the conse- 
crated bread only brought from the church unto the party 
home to his house ^ To which Calvin gave in substance this 
answer ; That the sick should not be denied the sacrament, 
many and weighty causes moved him : for should they not 
be communicated, it would be a very blameworthy neglect 
of Christ"'s institution. But that when the sick party was to 
partake, there should be some assembly of the kindred, 
friends, and neighbours, that so there might be a distribu- 
tion, according to Christ''s commandment. And that the 
holy action should be joined with an explication of the 
mystery ; and that nothing should be done diffi?rently from 
the common form and way of the church. He liked not 
carrying the sacrament up and down promiscuously ; for 259 
the avoiding of superstition in some, and ambition and vain 
ostentation in others : many for such ends being apt in those 
days to come to these private sacraments. Which he es- 
teemed a very difficult thing to prevent. And that there- 
fore the greater judgment and care should be used to whom 
they gave it. And lastly, he looked upon it as a prepos- 
terous thing to bring bread as holy from the church ; but to 
carry it in pomp, by no means tolerable. 

To this judgment of this great French divine, concerning His jmig- 
rites used in this church, I will briefly subjoin his approba- "''j"^.^" j 
tion of the episcopal government of the church, which is al- go^em- 
leged out of his Institutions by Dr. Whitgift : " That every 
" province had among their bishops an archbishop ; and that 
" the council of Nice did appoint patriarchs, which should 
" be in order and dignity above archbishops, it was for 
" the preservation of discipline. Therefore for this cause 

c c 2 



388 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " especially were those degrees appointed, that if any thing 

^^^' " should happen in any particular church which could not 

Anno 1561. »■' be decided, it might be removed to a provincial synod. 

Answer to u jf ([^^ oreatness or difficulty of the cause required yet 

the Adnio- ft - ni-i 

nit. 4to. " greater consultation, then were there aclaed patnarchs, 
^'"'*' " together with the synods: from whom there was no ap- 

" peal but unto a general council. This kind of govern- 
" ment some called h'lerarchia^ an improper name, [which 
" he disliked, because it imported dominion and rnleJ\ But 
" if, omitting the name, we shall consider the thing itself, 
" we shall find that these old bishops did not frame any 
" other kind of government in the church from that which 
" the Lord hath prescribed in his word." And so much 
concerning Calvin''s sense of our church"'s hturgy and go- 
vernment. 



CHAP. XXII. 

A r(iflection upon what tvas already done in the church. 
Papists write against it ; take occasion at the fire of 
St. PatiTs. Answered by bishop Pilkrngton. Popish 
questions and cases dispersed. Ansxvered. Reformation 
of the coin of the nation. Sir Richard Shelly, lord prior 
of St. John''s, and tnrcojwlier at Malta. 

The pro- zjlND now we may look back, and observe w^hat good pro- 
gress of the . . or 
reformation grcss was already made in the reformation of religion. The 

hitherto. Jiocescs Were supplied with learned, pious, protestant bi- 
shops ; images were removed out of the churches ; the com- 
mon prayers celebrated in the English tongue ; the saci'a- 
inent of the Lord's supper administered to tiie people in 
both kinds ; mass and transubstantiation exploded ; the 
pope"'s })retended jurisdiction in England rejected; sound 
articles of Christian faith framed, and professed by the 
clergy ; homilies, that is, plain, practical sermons, set forth, 
to be read to the people, where preaching could not be had. 
260 So that the church of England was reduced to the same 
good state wherein it was in the latter years of king Ed- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 389 

ward. Which was thus described by good bishop Ridley, CHAP, 
a httle before his death, when queen Mary had unhappily 



overthrown all. Anno 1 56 1. 

" The church of England had of late, of the infinite Letters of 
"goodness and abundant grace of Almighty God, great foi_ 34. 
" substance, great riches of heavenly treasure, great plenty Word and 
" of God's true and sincere word, the true and wholesome *'*'^'^'"^" ^' 
" administration of Christ's holy sacraments, the whole pro- 
" fession of Christ's religion truly and plainly set forth in 
" baptism, the plain declaration and understanding of the 
" same taught in the holy catechism, to have been learned The cate- 
*' by all true Christians. The church had also a true and j ,, " 

/ _ Lord s sup- 

*' sincere form and manner of the Lord's supper, wherein, per. 
" according to Jesus Christ's own ordinance and holy insti- 
" tution, Christ's commandments were executed and done. 
" For upon the bread and wine, set upon the Lord's table, 
" thanks were given, and the commemoration of the Lord's 
" death was had ; the bread, in remembrance of Christ's 
" body torn upon the cross, was broken ; and the cup, in 
" remembrance of Clirist's blood shed, was distributed ; and 
" both communicated unto all that were present, and would 
" receive them ; and also they were exhorted of the minis- 
" ter so to do. All was done openly in the vulgar tongue. The vulgar 
" so that every thing might be easily and plainly under- *^""°"^' 
" stood of all the people, to God's high glory, and the edi- 
" fication of the whole church. This church had of late Divine ser- 
" the whole divine service, at common public prayers, or-^"''^" 
" dained to be said and heard in the common congregation ; 
" not only framed and fashioned to the true vein of holy 
" scripture, but also all things set forth according to the 
" commandment of the Lord, and St. Paul's doctrine, for 
" the people's edification, in their vulgar tongue. It had 
" also holy and wholesome homilies, in commendation of Homilies. 
" the principal virtues which are commended in scripture : 
" and likewise other homilies against the most pernicious 
" and capital vices that used always to reign in this realm 
" of England. This church had, in matter of controversy, Aitides. 
" articles so penned and framed after the holy scripture, 

c c3 



390 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

C HAP. " and grounded upon the true understanding of God^s word, 
that in short time, if they had been universally received, 



Anuo loGi. a ^]^^^y ^oukl have been able to set in Christ's church much 
" concord, and unity in Christ"'s true religion, and to have 
" expelled many false errors and heresies wherewith this 
" church, alas ! was almost overgone."'"' 

All this reformation the holy bishop so lamented the 
overthrow of, was now again, in so few years in this happy 
reign, reestablished. 

The papists* ^m {[^q popish party in England, blinded with old pre- 

opposition. . ,. , , * . ,.1 

judiccs, would not see the present happmess of the English 
church; but laboured all they could to oppose and dis- 
parage and undermine this reformation : which they did 
partly by th(^ir writings privately dispersed. Thus when 
by lightning, on the 4th day of June this year, the steeple, 
the bells, and roof of St. Paul's church were burnt, a pa- 
pist, soon after this accident, spread certain papers about at 
West-Chester concerning it; wherein were these words: 
261 " In St. PauPs church in London, by the decree of the 
about'tje " '^'^'^*'*^^^ fathers, every night at midnight they had matins; 
biiniinic of " all the forenoon, masses in the church, with other divine 
a service, and continual prayer ; and in the steeple, anthems 
" and prayers were had at certain times. But consider how 
" far now contrary the church hath been used : and it is no 
" marvel, if God hath sent down fire to burn part of the 
" church, as a sign of his wrath.""" 
Piikiug- And whereas, June 8, that is, the next Sunday after this 

luon a" fire, Pilkington, bishop of Durham, preached at PauFs 
Pauls Cross, and took notice in his sermon of the dreadful de- 
vastation of this church, exhorting the people to take it to 
be a warning of a greater j)lague to follow to the city of 
London, if amendment of life were not had in all estates : 
he did also recite certain abuses of the said church ; as talk- 
ing, buying and selling, fighting and brawling there: he 
shewed also how the virtue of obedience to superiors was 
much decayed in those days. These causes assigned for 
this judgment were reflected upon in the said paper; mak- 
ing the chief causes rather to be, " that the old fathers and 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 391 

the old ways were left, together with blaspheming God CHAP 



XXII. 



" in lying sermons, preached there, polluting the temple, 
"with schismatical service, and destroying and pulUng^""** '^^^• 
" down altars, set up by blessed men, and where the sacri- 
" fice of the mass was ministered." This occasioned the 
writing of a tract in confutation of the paper aforesaid ; 
printed by Will. Seres, an. 1563. 

The which tract seems to have been writ by the same bi- A tract vin- 
shop in vindication of his sermon. There the writer shewed hlsDo'p'f ser- 
more at large, how that church and all parts of it had beenJuon. 
defiled, partly by popery, and partly by other gross profa- 
nations. " That no place had been more abused than Paul's 
" had been, nor more against the receiving of Christ's gos- 
" pel : wherefore it was more marvel, that God spared it 
" so long, than that he overthrew it now. That from the Profana- 
" top of the steeple down within the ground, no place had ^""paui's 
" been free. From the top of the spire, at coronations, or church. 
" other solemn triumphs, some for vainglory had used to 
" throw themselves down by a rope, and so killed them- 
" selves, vainly to please other men's eyes. At the battle- 
" ments of the steeple sundry times were used their popish 
" anthems, to call upon their gods, with torch and taper, in 
" the evenings. In the top of one of the pinnacles was 
" Lollard's tower, where many an innocent soul had been 
" by them cruelly tormented and murdered. In the mid- 
" dest alley was their long censer, reaching from the roof 
" to the ground ; as though the Holy Ghost came down in 
" their censing, in likeness of a dove. In the Arches, men 
" commonly complained of wrong and delayed judgment in 
" ecclesiastical causes : and divers had been condemned there 
" by Annas and Caiaphas for Christ's cause. Their images 
" hung on every wall, pillar, and door, with their pilgri- 
" mages, and worshippings of them : passing over their 
" massing and many altars, and the rest of their popish 
" service. The south alley was for usury and popery ; 
" the north for simony ; and the horse-fair in the midst for 
" all kind of bargains, meetings, brawlings, murders, con- 
" spiracies. The font for ordinary payments of money, as 

c c 4 



392 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " well known to all men, as the beggar knows his dish. 
^^^^' " That the popish clergy began and maintained these, and 



Anno lofi). «' godless worldlings defended them ; Avhereas the poor pro- 
2o2 a testants lamented, and would have amended them. Judas^ 
" chapel, [misnamed on pui*pose for Jesus' chapel,] under 
" the ground, with the apostles' mass, so early in the morn- 
" ing, was counted, by report, as fit a place to work a feat 
'* in, as the stews or tavern. 

" So that without and within, above the ground and 
" under, over the roof and beneath, on the top of the steeple 
" and spire, down to the low floor, not one spot was free 
*' from wickedness, as the bishop had in his sermon de- 
" clared. So that the whole should praise God (saith he) 
" for his mercy in sparing it so long : and now tremble at 
" his fearful judgments in justly revenging such filthiness." 
And again a little before ; " God''s house must be a house 
" of prayer, and not the proud tower of Babylon, nor the 
*' pope's market-place, nor a stews for bawds and ruffians, 
" nor a horse-fair for brokers ; no, nor yet a burse for mer- 
" chants, nor a meeting-place for walking and talking. And 
" that if a convenient place to meet for honest assemblies 
" could not be found, nor had conveniently otherwhere, a 
" partition might be had, to close up and shut the praters 
" from the prayers, the walkers and janglers from well- 
" disposed persons, that they should not trouble the devout 
" hearers of God's word."" 

And lastly, the said author, making this judgment upon 
this church of St. Paul's to be a signification of what God 
had done in the present reformation of the church of Eng- 
land from its superstitions, hath these words ; " That God 
" had once again, with the trumpet of his word, and the 
" glad receiving of his people, thrown down the Avails of 
" Jericho, and the jX)}X''s bulwark there, by his own might, 
" without the power of man, if men would so consider it, 
" and fear the Lord." 
i'oi.i»ii There were also about this time, or the year ensuing, 

aii.i cases questions and cases of conscience pro|)ounded, and conveyed 
disjicrsid. „j, and down by some papists, with solutions to thcni, agree- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 393 

able to their purpose; to keep the laity, as well as the CHAP. 
j)riests, from compliance and conformity to the present or- 



dei's about religion. And they were these: Anaoi56i. 

" What is the catholic church ? 
" Who is an heretic .'' 

" AVhether be priests in schism, that have subscribed to 
" the religion now used in England ? 

" Whether be priests in schism, that minister the com- 
' m union and other sacraments accoi'ding to the Book of 
^ Common Prayer now set forth .'' 

" Whether be they in schism, that minister no sacra- 
' ments, but only, instead of divine service, read chapters 
' and psalms. Sec. afore the people ? 

" Whether it be lawful for priests that say the commu- 
' nion, also to celebrate mass ? 

" Whether it be lawful for priests to say mass, which 
' say no communion, but only read psalms and chapters to 
' the people, instead of service ? 

" Whether is this to be called a wicked time, that such 263 
' heresy and schism doth reign in ? 

" Whether it is lawful for the laity to receive the com- 
' munion, as is now used ? 

" Whether the people, compelled with fear for loss of 
' worldly goods, may receive the communion, as bread and 
' Avine, not consenting to it in the heart ? 

" How should the people do, that cannot have the sacra- 
' ment ministered to them according to the ordinance of 
' Christ''s church ? 

" Whether is not every one, as well priests as laity, 
" bound to obey the queen and her laws ?'''' 

These dangerous and captious questions, with their solu- Answered 
tions, falling at length into the hands of the beforemen- p[j^^j'^^°P^_ 
tioned bishop Pilkington, (and dispersed perhaps in his dio- 
cese,) were well answered by him : and his little book, pub- 
lished for the common good, being printed also by Will. 
Seres, an. 1563. 

But to give a taste of the popish solutions to two or three The solu- 
of these cases ; only enough to shew what earnest endea- ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ 



394 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, vour they used to keep both priests and people from unit- 
^^"' ing M'ith the present church, or to call off those that had. 



Anno 1561. To the case, Whether it were laivfidjbr the laity to receive 
the ques- ^^^ communioTi as now used, it was answered, that in re- 

tions by _ _ _ ' ' _ 

papists. ceiving tlie communion as now used, they broke their pro- 
fession made in baptism, and fell into schism ; separating 
themselves from God and his church, refusing the bishops 
[i. c. late deposed] their true pastors, and so entering into 
the malignant church of Satan, &c. And that the bishops 
were in prison, ready to suffer death, afore they would either 
minister or receive the communion, like true pastors, &c. 
That the catholic church, which they professed at their 
baptism to believe and obey, taught them to receive Christ's 
body consecrate at mass, with prayers, invocations, and be- 
nedictions, with the sign of the holy cross; and not bare 
bread and wine, without consecration and benediction, as 
they used in this communion ; being against the decrees 
and ordinances of Christ's catholic church. That God Al- 
mighty commanded them to separate themselves from such, 
&c. 

To the next question. Whether the people, compelled xvith 
fear, or Toss of worldly goods, or temporal pwiishment, 
might receive the communion, as bread and wine, and not 
consenting to it in the lieart; the answer was. That St. 
Paul said, it was requisite to our salvation, with our mouths 
to confess the truth. Also, that our Saviour said, he that 
denieth him afore men, he will deny afore his Father in 
heaven. And to kneel down to receive their cui'sed and 
polluted bread, was to commit idolatry. Nor was it lawful 
to dissemble herein. For no punishment the good catho- 
lic people would receive with the Arians : much less ought 
they to receive the communion now used for any punish- 
ment. 

To the next question, Hoxv should the people do, that 
could not have the sacrament ministered to them according 
to the ordinance of Christ's church? the answer was. That 
in no wise they ought to receive the communion, but to 
commend their minds and wills to God with devout prayer, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 895 

firmly continuing in that doctrine which they were christ- CHAP, 
ened in. And so doing, in will to receive the blessed sa- ' 



crament; if they were not in place where it was ministered Anno i5(>i. 
according to the ordinance of Chrisfs church, God would -^"'^ 
accept their will and good intent, as if they did receive it 

corporally. But that if they received this communion, 

they separated and divided themselves from the sacraments 
and prayers of all the universal church of Christ. 

But all this, and other the like cases and resolutions of The reason 
these papists' own making, did bishop Pilkington briefly "^.^.^ ^^j'' 
despatch, and clearly lay open the folly and falsity of. " And swer of 
" that, as he said, for the sake of simple ones he under- tions. 
" took this labour, that they should not be deceived and 
" overcome with fond fancies of idle brains : and lest God's 
" enemies should crack, that none could or durst answer 

" them. That [in respect of the foolishness of this writer] 

" it was the polity of papists to set out a broker to utter 
" their wares, and catch the unlearned : but that the sub- 
" tiler sort held their tongues ; stood aloof, to see how this 
" forerunner would take place ; and were thought by their 
" silence to be able to say much more, whenas they feared 
" indeed, lest, in being answered, they might take the foil, 

" to the clear overthrow of their cause. That if the mise- 

*' rable state of the people had not moved him, he would 
" have holden his tongue. But that, with the poor simple 
" ones, whom they deceive in corners with such lies as these, 
" such common, bald reasons should not prevail, he thought 
" good, for pity sake, to say thus much, to stay them whose 
" eyes God should open to see. And that his reasons and 
" authorities on purpose were commonly taken out of their 
" own doctors and writers, and such as were not counted pro- 
" testant, nor made use of by any of this new learning. And 
" for the nonce, he forbore to allege the learneder sort, lest 
" the unlearned should say, they did not skill of such books, 
" nor knew whether they were truly brought in." 

Though it be not so suitable to the ecclesiastical story of The queen 
these times, (of which my professed purpose is to write,) J^^||^y^^.^^ 
yet let me relate a passage that happened this year in the true value. 



396 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, state, so much tending to the honour of the nation, and to 
^^''' the ingratiating the queen to her people. As slie had called 



Anno id6i.in before copper and mixed money, and allowed those that 
brought them in to the exchequer as much in good money 
as those pieces ordinarily went for, to her own considerable 
charge, that her subjects might not be losers ; so she now 
made another step to the amendment of the current coin, 
reducing all fine money to the true standard ; and appoint- 
ing the several gold and silver pieces to pass at a lower rate 
than they went at before, that so they might come to the 
exact old English standard. This I do the rather relate 
here, because it is so imperfectly and uncertainly, if at all, 
set down by our historians : and because I make some 
doubt, whether the queen's proclamation thereof were ever 
printed, I have exemplified it from a written copy thereof in 
the Appendix. By which it appeareth, that the Michaelmas 
last past, 1560, the queen turned base copper money to money 
that was good sterling. And all this coarse money being 
called in, and fine, that is, gold and silver, money made 
current, she then signified her intention to reduce that fine 
money to its true worth, so that it should pass for no more 
than its true, intrinsic value, which hitherto it had not done. 
2d5 Yet for some reasons she forbore for some time to put this 
her purpose in execution. But this was soon noised abroad 
how monies were to be taken down to the lower value ; so 
that they who were worth an hundred pounds before, now 
should not be worth, it may be, fourscore, though he had 
the same quantity of cash as before. This had many in- 
conveniences attending it, beside the discontent of the people. 
Rumours of it ran from one market-day to another ; and 
the markets rose, and provisions grew dear. This imsea- 
sonably jirevcnted the quecn''s determinations : so that she 
was fain in the miilst of these bruits to issue out a procla- 
mation to stay them. But neither could this remedy it, 
the same rumours being beforehand universally spread into 
men\s heads by sinister means. And another sort took hold 
of these rumoiu's out of covetousness. And so the prices of 
all things were universally enhanced, that were to be sold 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 397 

for money. Pitiful hereby was the condition of the meaner CHAP, 
sort of people, as labourers in husbandry, handicraftsmen, ^^^^- 



serving-men, soldiers, and others, living by wages or pen- Anno 156 1. 
sions, who must buy their victuals and sustenance with 
money : these were miserably oppressed with unreasonable 
prices and dearth. 

This moved the queen ; and for the remedying hereof What the 
she thought fit to delay no longer putting her intent into ^**"'^*'^'^ 
execution : and so she reduced the monies of her realm to 
such a true standard, as should never hereafter be changed 
nor altered ; being indeed the standard that remained in 
the kingdom since the sixth of king Edward IV. and so 
continued down to the sixteenth year of king Henry VIII. 
anno 1524, who then first debased the money by mixing it Ann. 1524. 
with brass. 

All monies now were either fine gold, crown gold, Strang- The several 
ers' gold, or fine sterlino- silver. Of the fine gold, was the^? '^". „ 

o ' & o ' Sliver pieces 

sovereign, that went at thirty shillino-s ; which was brought "ow cur- 
down to twenty : for no more was it worth : the royal, that their values, 
went at fifteen shillings ; which was brought to ten, accord- 
ing to its true value : the angel, that went at ten, was made 
current at six shillings and eight pence: the half angel, 
five shillings, to three and four pence. The crown gold 
pieces were, the sovereign, half sovereign, crown, half crown. 
The strangers' gold pieces were the French crown and the 
Burgundian crown. The sterling silver pieces were, the 
shining, and the half shilling, the quarter shilling, the three 
halfpence, the three farthings. What these pieces hitherto 
went at, and to what value reduced, may be seen in the 
proclamation. And in conclusion, this the queen would have 
to be accepted of all her good subjects, as one of the prin- 
cipal acts, tending to the recovery of the ancient fame and 
wealth of the kingdom ; and desired that none, that out of 
malice or ignorance depraved this noble act, should liave 
credit given to them ; wherein she evidently sustained so 
great burden in her treasure, as it ran in the said procla- 
mation. 

Richard Shelly, styling himself of St. John's, afterwards 



398 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, calling himself /orfZ prior of St. John's of Jerusalem, (sir 

^^^^- Tho. Treshani was the last lord prior in England, who died 

Anno 1561. anno 1558, and was carried down to Northampton, to be 

Sir Rich, ijufigd amonffst his ancestors, March 16,) went this year 

Shelly, tur- o •/•ii--. 

copoiierof 1561 from Spain, where he was a pensioner ot that kings, 
Malta. ^^ Malta, to establish his office and dignity of turcopolier 
for the English nation, as he wrote in a letter to sir Tho. 
266Chaloner, his acquaintance in England. He Avent, as he 
said, though to his great cost and travail, because he could 
in no wise suffer so goodly preeminence of our nation to be 
lost in his time, for lack of taking possession of the place. 
He had the king of Spain's letter to allow him to go, and 
take upon him the said title of turcopolier : which title was 
due to him, as heir apparent ; and he was dom'mus natiis. 
This, he said, was the reason he would not take upon him 
to be called there [in Spain] prior DTnglaterra; which to 
every man's understanding was a title of known honour ; 
whereas turcopolier was so diffusive a name, as not worthy 
the pains of pronouncing; and so strange a dignity, by rea- 
son of the long intermission, as had no ready place of ac- 
ceptation abroad. But, as he wrote to his friends, he did 
it for the honour of his nation ; and that he would respect 
his nation afore his person, and the public afore his parti- 
cular. He swoi'e afore God, that for the same reason, and 
none other respect, he had already procured in Madrid, and 
would procure as he went, so much favour as might be, for 
the establishing of the English privileges in Malta. And 
lest any offence might be taken by the (pieen at this his en- 
terprise, he declared himself a true English subject ; that to 
Malta he went true and mere English, in following his con- 
science, to be bestowed in the queen's service, whereinsoever 
it should be meet to employ a man of his order. 
Takes the Wlicu lie was at Genua, the king of Spain sent a letter 
of St John's'. ^" ^"'" ^" return in post, because he would send him ambas- 
sador into Persia. And at the same time the lord great 
master of Malta sent him a letter, charging him to defer no 
longer to take u])on him the title of his priory ; and that 
upon pain of taking away his cross, and upon his oath of 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 399 

obedience. And this was the reason he took the title of CHAP. 
prior upon him, and upon a force declined that of tiirco-. 



polier. For this office in the convent was of high preemi-^nno isei, 
nence, and was above all priors. But it could not be brook- 
ed that he should then enjoy so high a title, and therefore 
was commanded to call himself j97-io?- qfSt.Jo]in''s. And 
there he lived some time with great honour and favour, till 
a contest happened between him and the prior of Capua, 
who came to be grand master by simony, and would have 
usurped his place, that in right should have succeeded there. 
This put an end to his being at Malta ; otherwise, there he 
reckoned to have been resident all his life : if he would have 
borne, as he said, the abasing of his nation ; " which neither 
" as a Christian man, nor as an English man, nor as a 
" Shelly, he might no way endure." 



CHAP. XXIII. 267 

A journal of memorable matters falling out xoithin this 
year, not hitherto noted. A Common Prayer Book with 
pictures of the saints laid before the queen at St. Paul's ; 
disliked by her. Paintings in churches. 

X SHALL conclude this year with a brief relation of several Short me- 
matters that happened from month to month; which (in my ,^jg^^ters. 
judgment) deserve a memorial to be made of them, and to 
be rescued from oblivion, since they may give a further 
view of these times, and let in light into things of greater 
moment. 

March the 26th, the young lady Jane Seimour, daugh- Lady Jane 
ter to the late duke of Somerset, and one of the queen's buried, 
maids of honour, and in great favour with her royal mis- 
tress, (dying the 20th of the same month,) was brought in 
the afternoon from the queen's armory to the abbey of West- 
minster, to be buried, with all the quire of the said abbey, 
and two hundred of the court, and threescore mourners; 
consisting of lords and ladies, gentlemen and gentlewomen. 



400 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, all clad in black ; besides others of the queen's privy cham- 
XXIlI. ijgj. gi^g j^^jj .^ great banner of arms borne ; Mr. Claren- 



Anno i56i.ceux was the herald attending; and Scambler, bishop of 

Peterborough, added to the solemnity a funeral sermon. 

And being a duke's daughter, was buried in the same chapel 

where the duchess of Suffolk was. 

Certain April the 10th, one was brought out of Bethlem, and 

blasphemers ^l^ippgtj throuffh the Streets. His crime was blasphemy, 

punished. ' ^ . ® . r J ' 

for saying, " he was Christ." And one Peter taken out of 
the Marshalsea was likewise whipped, for that he said, " he 
" was the same Peter that did follow Christ." 

April the 12th, one who was a stranger was set in the 
stocks at Westminster market, being clad all in red, for 
saying, " he was the lord of all lords, and king of all 
" kings." 
Altars in April the 16th were all the altars in Westminster abbey 

ster abbey, demolished ; and so was the altar in the chapel of Henry 
VII. where that king and king Edward VI. lay buried. 
And all the stones thereof carried where the late queen 
Mary was buried : [perhaps toward the making of her mo- 
nument with those religious stones.] 
Mass-hear- Ditto the 22d, sir Edward Walgrave, knt. (who was a 
soned. ' great officer in queen Mary's court, and a pi'ivy counsellor,) 
and his lady, were carried to the Tower. It was for hear- 
ing mass, having a popish priest in their house. Others 
were brought to the Tower at that time ; and, as it seems, 
for the same breach of the law. This knight and his lady 
had the character of very good alms-folks, in respect, no 
doubt, of their great liberality to the poor. 

Ditto the 23d, sir Edward Hastings, lord of Lough- 
borough, kniglit of the garter, and another great counsellor 
with the late queen INIary, was brought unto the earl of 
Pembroke's [at Baynard castle] for the same fault, I pre- 
sume, in being present at mass. 
208 The same 23d of April, being St. George's day, the festi- 
st" George ^^' ^^^ '^^P^ solenmly at court in this manner: all her ma- 
kept, jesty's chapel came through her hall in copes, to the number 
of thirty, singing, "O God, the Father of heaven ,"&c. the out- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 401 

ward court to the eate, and round about beincj strewed with CHAP. 

XXIII. 
green rushes. After came Mr. Garter and Mr. Norroy, and . 



master dean of the chapel, in robes of crimson satin, with a*'^"'^" ^^^'* 
red cross of St. George : and after, eleven knights of the 
garter in their robes. Then came the queen, the sovereign 
of the order, in her robes ; and all the guard following in 
their rich coats. And so to the chapel. And after service 
done, back through the hall to her grace's great chamber. 
And that done, her grace and the lords went to dinner : 
where she was most nobly served ; and the lords sitting on 
one side were served in gold and silver. After dinner were 
two new knights of the garter elected, viz. the eai4 of 
Shrewsbury and the earl of Hunsdon. There were attend- 
ing all the heralds in their coat-armour before her grace. 
These were installed at St. George"'s feast held at Windsor 
the 18th day of May following, the earl of Arundel being 
the queen's deputy. 

June the 4th, Corpus Christi eve, between eleven and Great thun- 
twelve of the clock at noon, be^an great thundering and f.*^""^. '*"'^ 

, ■■ lightning. 

liglitning. At St. Martin's church by Ludgate a thunder- • 
bolt smote down certain great stones from the battlement of 
the steeple, which fell down upon the leads of the church, 
and brake the leads and boards, and a great chest in two 
pieces. 

The same day, about four or five of the clock at after- St. Paul's 
noon, the lightning took St. Paul's church, and entered at^"^'^"^'^^ 
one of the holes in the outward part of the steeple, about brast forth 
two yards under the bells, and set the steeple on fire; andya^ds be- 
never left, till the steeple and bells, and top of the church, "^ath the 
were all consumed, unto the arches ; burnmg both wood and cross, and 
lead, and the bells, and the timber under which stood the *'"^"'^^^, 

' ' _ down the 

great organs ; and the chapel where the old bishop was spire to the 

1 • i bells. 

buried. 

And in divers other places of England great hurt was 
done with lightning. 

June the 15th, which was the next Sunday but one after Dean of 
this dreadful burning of St. Paul's, Nowel, the dean, ^*^;J'^']"J^*^^ 
preached at the Cross an excellent sermon, the lord mayor the Cross. 

VOL. I. J) d 



402 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, and aldermen, and most of the crafts, present, and a great 
^ audience besides. Whose subject, no doubt, was the rueful 



Anno 1561. spectacle of their cathedral lying in ashes; and he exciting 

them witli all his rhetoric to set upon the reparation of it. 

For but two days after, viz. 

The city June the 17th, the lord mayor and common council 

the repair of agreed and concluded, to what men to commit the care of 

St. PaiU's. overlooking such as should be set on work for Paul's ; and 

who might be vigilant in all places for carrying on the 

building vigorously ; resolving to choose men of knowledge 

and ability to oversee both the work and the workmen : 

which was in pursuance of what the said court had done 

June 10, when they granted three fifteens towards the 

building of the church and steeple with great speed, as soon 

as they might possibly get timber, and other materials, and 

workmen. 

269 The 22d, ]\Ir. Ralph Skinner, belonging to the church of 

Skinner re- Durham, being appointed dean there, preached a recantation 

book at sermon at the Cross ; giving men warning of a note-book 

the Cross. ^y}ji(.h he had printed, and bade every man take heed of it ; 

for it was, he said, " very heresy." 
St. Grego- The 23d, began the service to be said at St. Gregory's 
^^' church by the Paul's quire, till St. Paul's might be got 

ready. 
Conjurors. The Same day, at Westminster seven men were set on the 
pillory for conjuring, and other misdemeanours ; whereof one 
was a priest, named Bettison. 

The 25th, the same men were set on two pillories in 

Chcapside. 

Tiie repair J"ly the 1st, the work began at St. Paul's for the repara- 

of St. Paul's tiojj of the church and steeple: Mr. Grafton, grocer, Mr. 

Harrison, goldsmith, and others, overseers and directors of 

the works. 

Ambassador July the 4th, all the queen's council dined with the am- 

of Sweden, [jj^gj^^dor of Swcdcn, who came hither to transact a match 

between the queen and his master. 
Gray Friars. The 6th, the Paul's Cross sermon was preached at the 
Gray Friars, [i. 0. Christ's-church,] it being very rainy 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 403 

weather, and the shrouds at Paul's (where in such seasons chap. 
the sermons were preached) being, I suppose, demoUshed in ^^^^^" 



the late great fire. Anno issi. 

The 10th, the queen came by water unto the Tower of The mint 

■ 'ted by 
queen. 



London by twelve of the clock : her business now was to ^iie ^ ^^ 



visit her mints, which she did in person ; where she coined 
certain pieces of gold, and gave them away to several about 
her : whereof one she gave to the marquis of Northampton, 
and another to the earl of Hunsdon. About five o'clock she 
went out at the iron gate, and so over Tower-hill unto Aid- 
gate church; and so down Hounsditch to the Spital, and 
down Hog-lane ; and so over the fields unto the Charter- She comes 
house, being the lord North's place ; attended in great state, ter-house. 
(as was customary when she went abroad,) before her, going 
on horseback, trumpeters, the gentlemen pensioners, the 
heralds of arms, the sergeants at arms; then gentlemen, 
then lords, and the lord Hunsdon beai-ing the sword imme- 
diately before the queen ; after the queen the ladies riding. 
Here at the Charter-house she tarried till 

The 13th day, when she took her way from thence by Then to the 
Clerkenwell over the fields unto the Savoy to Mr. Secretary ^*^'"^' 
Cecyll, where she supped. Here her council waited on her, 
with many lords and knights, and ladies ; and great cheer 
made till midnight: and then her grace rode back to the 
Charter-house, where she lay that night. And 

The next day, she departed thence on her progress into Takes her 
Essex ; and the chief streets of the city being renewed with fnto Sex 
fresh sand and gravel for her equipage, she passed from thethroxgii *'>« 
Charter-house, through Smithfield, under Newgate, and so 
along St. Nicolas Shambles, Cheapside, Cornhill, unto Aid- 
gate and Whitechapel. All the houses were hung with cloth 
of arras and rich carpets, and silk. But Cheapside was hung 
with cloth of gold and silver, and velvets of all colours : all 
the crafts of London standing in their liveries from St. Mi- 
chael the Quern as far as to Aldgate. The cavalcade was 
after this manner : first, serving men riding ; then the queen's 
pensioners, gentlemen, knights, lords, the aldermen in scar-270 
let, the sergeants of arms, the heralds in their coat-armour : 

i> d 2 



404 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, then my lord mayor bearing the sceptre; then the lord 
^^"^' Hunsdon bearing the sword: and then came the queen's 

Anno 1561. grace, and her footmen richly habited; the ladies and gen- 
tlewomen followed : after all, the lords' and knights' men in 
their masters' liveries. And at Whitechapel the lord mayor 
and aldermen took their leave of her grace; and so she took 
her way toward Essex ; and, I suppose, lodged that night at 
Wansted-house in the forest. 

Dr. Bill The 20th of July died Dr. Bill, who was dean of West- 

minster, provost of Eaton college, and master of St. John's 
in Cambridge, the queen's chief almoner. 

Terrible The SOth, about eight or nine, was a great thundering 

lightning's, and lightning as any man had ever heard, till past ten. 

and rains. After that, great rains till midnight ; insomuch that the 
people thought the world was at an end, and the day of 
doom was come, it was so terrible. This tempestuous wea- 
ther was much this summer. Thus the 21st of this July 
it rained sore, beginning on Sunday night, and lasting till 
Monday night. And the 5th and 6th of the same month 
were great rains and thundering in London. What mischief 
was done by the dreadful thundering and lightning June 
the 4th, was told before. And before this, April the 20th, 
were great thunder, lightning, rain, and hailstones, for big- 
ness the like whereof had scarce ever been seen. 

SirEd. Wai- September the 1st, sir Edward Walgrave, who was brought 

gia\e (ics. ^^ j^j^^ Tower last April, died there. His confinement here 
was thought to have been the cause of his death. He was 
much swoln. The 3d day of September he was buried in 
the c|uire of the Tower church, beside the high altar, by 
torchlight. And the 6th day the lady Walgrave came out 
of the Tower. 
Supersfi- Tlie 5th, superstitious utensils were burnt at Oxon by 

tions uton- r, , /• /-il • ^i i i 

jjlj^ bampson, dean or Lhnst s-cliurcli. 

The 8th, being the day of the nativity of our Lady, they 
began to set up the rails of Paul's steeple upon the battle- 
ments. 
The qiiucn The same day, the queen, who had been in her progress, 
home.' "^^^ removed from Hartford castle to Enfield. And the 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 405 

22d, she came from Enfield to St. James's beyond Charing- CHAP, 
cross. From Islington thither the hedges and ditches were ^^^"• 



cut down to make the next way for her. There might be Anno issi. 
ten thousand people met to see her ; such was their gladness 
and affection to her. It was night ere she came over St. 
Giles in the Fields. 

The 20th, a commandment came from the queen unto No wives to 
the college of Windsor, that the priests belonging there- leges and 
unto that had wives should put them out of the college ; cathedral 

A _ _ ^ churches. 

and for time to come to lie no more within that place. And 
the same to be observed in all colleges and cathedral 
churches, and likewise in both the universities. 

The 23d, Dr. Gabriel Goodman was made dean of West- P""- ^• 

■11 1 1 T Goodman. 

mmster in the room of Dr. Bill, late deceased. 

Octob. the 3d, a royal present of the kino; of Sweden to her The king of 

. . . Sweden's 

majesty (whom that king courted for his wife) came to Lon- presents to 
don ; being eighteen great horses, all of them pied coloured. ^^^ queen. 
They were brought and set up at the Cross-keys in Grace- 
church-street. The next day came two ships likewise from 27 1 
Sweden to Woolwich laden with more royal presents for the 
queen. And the 6tli day those presents, whatever they were, 
having been put into certain vessels, the said vessels being 
brought up to London were unladen at the water side, and 
carried into the Tower. What these presents were is not 
related; but August the 30th, last past, the news were, 
that the king of Sweden was sending a great number of 
wagons laden with massy bullion, and other things of value, 
to England. Nay, and on the 15th of September, news 
came to London, that the king of Sweden himself was landed 
in the north. And indeed he was himself determined to 
come, had not the queen by a letter dissuaded him. 

This king'^s name was Ericus. He continued his court- The queen 
ship of her majesty most eagerly from 1560, when his father "^1^*^'^*^ ^^ 
was alive, (who first set it on foot,) to the year 1562, with the king of 
assured hopes of marrying her at last, deluded by some 
Englishmen : which was the reason of his resolution of taking 
a voyage into England. For some idle cheats of this nation, 
pretending themselves well acquainted with the court, and 

Dd3 



406 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, the intrigues of it, had signified by letters to the king, that 
■ they knew the mind of the queen and her council, and that 



Anno 1561. she had used such expressions, (which they feigned them- 
selves,) that she desired nothing more than his coming over. 
Of all this the lords of the queen's council in a letter in- 
formed that king"'s chancellor : and that in truth these per- 
sons were some obscure impudent fellows, that knew little of 
tlie affairs of the queen or court ; and that they did but be- 
fool his master : but that they had taken two or three of the 
framcrs of these letters to the king, who upon examination 
had acknowledged that poverty and hope of gain put them 
upon what they did ; hoping by this means to have fished 
out money either of the king or him. And therefore upon 
them they resolved to inflict some exemplary punishment, 
for the terror of all such sycophants for the future. This 
letter was dated from the court at Greenwich the 5th of 
August, 1562. 

Service be- About the last of October they began to sing service at St. 

gun at St. ^ ,, - . . in-,. • 1 

Paul's. Jraul s ; being, it seems, the hrst time of opening the quire 
after the fire. The bishop began the service himself. There 
was then also a great communion. 

The mayor, November 1, the mayor and aldermen went in the after- 

aldermen, c -r» ii • i n i • i • t • 

and com- noon to St. Paul s With all the crafts m their liveries, at- 
thit'her'^"'"^ tended with fourscore men all in blue, carrying torches. The 
bishop of London preached the sermon. They tarried in 
the church till night ; and so the lord mayor with his com- 
pany went home all with torchlight. 
Penance November 2, a young man stood at PauPs Cross in ser- 

done for . i i 

defaming mou time With a sheet about him, for speaking certain words 

prebeli'dary ^g^"^st Vcrou the preacher; who had often preached the 

of Paul's, Paul's Cross sermon, and before the queen at court, and was 

a learned and zealous protestant, and prebendary of that 

church. And on that account it was thought fit that the 

scandalizing of such a person should not be passed over 

without public satisfaction. This penitent perhaps had 

cliarged that reverend man with incontinency. Certain it 

is, that on the 23d of this same month, whilst Mr. Reneger, 

272 the queen's chaplain, preached the sermon at Paul's Cross, a 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 407 

certain French gentleman, named de Machin, sat at the CHAP, 
sermon time, [i.e. in the place of penance,] for reporting, as ______ 

he had heard, that Veron the Frenchman and preacher was^^no 'sei. 
taken with a wench. And he kneeled down before the said 
Veron and the bishop, to forgive him, having also several 
worshipful men his friends interceding for him. This Veron 
was also rector of Ludgate. 

December the 15th, a pillory was set up in Paul's church- A fray in 
yard against the bishop's place, for the punishment of a man punished. 
that had made an affray in St. Paul's church. His ears 
were nailed to the post, and after cut off*. 

January the 4th, while the dean of St. Paul's preached at a cheat 
the Cross, one did penance for a cheat, who pretended him- ^"^^^ j*^" 
self to be dumb; but the master of bridewell made him 
speak. For which cause he was brought there, by his own 
mouth to acknowledge and confess his imposture, and to ask 
the church pardon. 

The 31st, a proclamation for the strict keeping of Lent, Lent en- 
upon great charge and penalty. Such proclamations came^°'"^ 
out yearly. Some of the preachers this Lent at court before 
the queen were these. 

February the 11th, being Ash-Wednesday, Goodman, dean 
of Westminster. The first Sunday this Lent, Sandys, bishop 
of Worcester. The first Wednesday the second week, Nowel, 
dean of St. Paul's. The next Sunday, Alley, bishop of Exe- 
ter. March the 8th, Horn, bishop of Winchester. March 
the 11th, Wednesday, Nowel again. March the 13th, being 
Passion-Friday, Nowel again. March the 15th, Passion- 
Sunday, Nowel again ; for the bishop of London, who should 
have preached, was sick. March the 20th, Jewel, bishop 
of Sarum. 

March 27, 1562, being Good-Friday, in the afternoon, 
(as all the sermons at court were on afternoons, that they 
might not interfere with the sermons at St. Paul's,) the bi- 
shop of London preached before the queen. 

The same Good-Friday in the forenoon, old, venerable Coverdaie 

1 at Paul's 

Miles Coverdaie, formerly bishop of Exeter, the translator ^^ ,.oss. 

D d 4 



408 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, of the Bible into English, a confessor and an exile, and one 
" __ that lately assisted at the consecration of archbishop Parker, 



Anno 1561. now morc lately rector of St. Magnus at the bridge-foot, 

preached at PauFs Cross. 
Spitai ser- Let me mention also the Spital sermons for the conclu- 
™'*°*' sion. ]\Iarch the 30th, Monday, preached Mr. Renager, 
the queen''s chaplain. March the 31st, Tuesday, Mr. Nowel, 
dean of St. Paul's. April the 1st, Wednesday, Mr. Tur- 
ner of Canterbury. The 5th, being Low-Sunday, Sampson, 
dean of Christ's-church, Oxon, preached at Paul's Cross; 
Rehearsal whei'C he declared the three former Spital sermons in Easter 
Sampson.^ Week, as he had done, I think, twice before; being ap- 
pointed thereunto in regard of his excellent elocution and 
memory. 
A service -pj^g aforesaid dean, so often noted before for his frequent 

book with 1 • 1 /> 1 1 • 1 

pictures laid preaching before the queen, and in other great and honour- 
before the j^j^ assemblies, preached on the festival of the Circumcision, 

queen at St. 'a ' 

Paul's. being new-year's-day, at St. Paul's, whither the queen resorted. 

Hei'e a remarkable passage happened, as is recorded in a 

SirH. Syd- great man's memorials, who lived in those times. The dean, 

ney's me- }^ayino; gotten fi'om a foreioner several fine cuts and pictures, 

luorials a- . . . . 

niont; arch- representing the stories and passions of the saints and mar- 
r'sher's ^yrs, had placed them against the epistles and gospels of 
Mss. Foxes their festivals in a Common Prayer Book. And this book 

and Fire- . . 

brands, pt. he had caused to be richly bound, and laid on the cushion 
^* for the queen's use, in the place where she commonly sat ; 

* intending it for a new-year's-gift to her majesty, and think- 
ing to have pleased her fancy therewith. But it had not 
that effect, but the contrary : for she considered how this 
varied from her late open injunctions and proclamations 
against the superstitious use of images in churches, and for 
the taking away all such relics of popery. When she came 
to her place she opened the book, and perused it, and saw 
the pictures, but frowned and blushed ; and then shut it, 
(of which several took notice,) and calling tiie verger, bade 
him bring her the old book, wherein she was formerly wont 
to read. After sermon, whereas she was wont to get immc- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 409 

diately on horseback, or into her chariot, she went straight CHAP, 
to the vestry, and applying herself to the dean, thus she ^^^l^^- 



spoke to him : Anno losi, 

Q. Mr. Dean, how came it to pass that a new service Questions 
book was placed on my cushion ? To which the dean an- '|ean Ibout 
swered, it. 

D. May it please your majesty, I caused it to be placed 
there. Then said the queen, 

Q. Wherefore did you so .'' 

D. To present your majesty with a new-year's-gift. 

Q. You could never present me with a worse. 

D. Why so, madam ? 

Q. You know I have an aversion to idolatry ; to images 
and pictures of this kind. 

D. Wherein is the idolatry, may it please your majesty ? 

Q. In the cuts resembling angels and saints ; nay, grosser 
absurdities, pictures resembling the blessed Trinity. 

D. I meant no harm ; nor did I think it would offend 
your majesty, when I intended it for a new-yearVgift. 

Q. You must needs be ignorant then. Have you forgot 
our proclamation against images, pictures, and Eomish relics 
in the churches .'* Was it not read in your deanery ? 

D. It was read. But be your majesty assured, I meant 
no harm, when I caused the cuts to be bound \vith the 
service book. 

Q. You must needs be very ignorant to do this after our 
prohibition of them. 

Z). It being my ignorance, your majesty may the better 
pardon me. 

Q. I am sorry for it ; yet glad to hear it was your igno- 
rance, rather than your opinion. 

D. Be your majesty assured, it was my ignorance. 

Q. If so, Mr. Dean, God grant you his Spirit, and more 
wisdom for the futvu*e. 

D. Amen, I pray God. 

Q. I pray, Mr. Dean, how came you by these pictures ? 
who engraved them ? 

D. I know not who engraved them. I bought them. 



410 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. Q. From whom bought you them? 
■ D. From a German. 



Anno 1561. Q. It is well it was from a stranger : had it been any of 
2/4 QQj. subjects, we should have questioned the matter. Pray 
let no more of these mistakes, or of this kind, be committed 
within the churches of our realm for the future. 
D. There shall not. 
Paintings in This matter occasioned all the clergy in and about Lon- 
defeced** ^°"' ^^^ ^^^ churchwardens of each parish, to search their 
churches and chapels ; and caused them to wash out of the 
walls all paintings that seemed to be Romish and idolatrous ; 
and in lieu thereof suitable texts taken out of the holy scrip- 
tures to be written. 



CHAP. XXIV. 



What 

course was 
taken with 



The papistical clergy busy. Lists of the names of the 
popish recusants, late dignitaries in the church, or other- 
wise. And their confinements and bounds, prescribed by 
the ecclesiastical commissioners. 

feUCH as bore affection to the old popish religion were now 
very busy about the kingdom, to disaffect the minds of the 
the popish queen''s subjects. These were both of the laity, and of the 
cJ<-Tgy. clergy, and of the universities; whom it was therefore thought 
necessary to watch diligently. This was a great part of the 
charge lying upon the commission ecclesiastical. Several of 
the busiest of these that could be found were taken up, and 
placed under custody in the prisons of London and South- 
wark. And informations were given in against several more 
in the north parts of the land that could not yet be found. 
And many were about this time brought before the eccle- 
siastical commissioners; from whom yet they received fa- 
vourable handling : for they did not put or continue them in 
prison, nor prosecute the law upon them, but only prohibited 
them certain places, and circumscribed them within some 
particular countrit's or j)laccs, or number of miles thence, 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 411 

and generally to abide there where they were best known, CHAP, 
and their friends lived. And such as had been scholars of ' 
the universities were restrained from going thither. And so-^nno issi. 
all to give security to behave themselves quietly in the realm. 
And thus they might have lived and died here safely and 
securely, as several did ; but many, or most, acted by a 
turbulent spirit, soon after this fled away beyond the, seas, 
and settled themselves in Louvain, Antwerp, and other 
places in the Low Countries, or elsewhere, where they writ 
books, or otherwise practised maliciously against their own 
prince and country. 

I have met with a particular list of the names of these Four lists 
men, whether deans, archdeacons, prebendaries, beneficed paper™ 
priests, scholars of the universities, &c. the several bounds ^o"*^- 
wherein they were to be confined; with their characters 
added in the margin : and another list of the names of such 
who were known to be dangerous persons, but not taken: 275 
also a third, of the names of such as were fled : and a fourth, 
of such as were in hold. These several scrolls seem to have 
been transcribed for the privy council, being signed by the 
hands of several of the commissioners, viz. Edmund London, 
Richard Ely, William Chester, bishops ; Godfrey Good- 
man, D. D. Walter Haddon, T. Huicke, civilians. But 
behold these catalogues. 

Recusants which are abroad, and bound to certain places. 

Alexander Belsar, [or Belsire,] clerk, [the first president 0W> weai- 
of St. John Baptist's college, Oxon,] to remain in the town stubborn. 
of Hanborough, in the county of Oxford, or within two 
miles compass within the same. [Where he had been rector; 
and there lived and died.] 

Dr. Pool, late bishop of Peterborough, to remain in the ^ '"»° 

^ ^ . . .. known, and 

city of London, or suburbs, or within three miles compass reported to 

about the same. and?here/' 

Thomas Willanton, late chaplain to Dr. Boner, to remain fore hither- 
in the county of Middlesex or Buckingham, or in the city of stiffandnot 
Ijondon ; and bound to appear once evei'y term. unlearned. 



412 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. Robert Purseglove, late suffragan of Hull, and before an 
^^^^- abbot or a prior ; to remain in the town of Ugthorp, in the 



Anno 1561. county of York, or within twelve miles compass about the 

Wealthy 

andstiftin same. 

papistry, and of estate in the country. 

Learned, Tliomas Seagiswick, D. D. to remain in the town of Rich- 

^ise. mond, or within ten miles compass about the same. 
Not un- William Carter, D. D. late archdeacon of Northumber- 

very'stub" -^^"^ ' ^^ remain in the town of Thirsk, in the county of 

born, and York, or Avithin ten miles compass about the same, 
sidered. Tliomas Harding, D. D. to remain in tlie town of Moncton 

, , Farly, in the county of Wilts, or sixteen miles compass 

in king about the same ; or within the town of Tollerwilme, in the 

time*"^ * county of Dorset, or twenty miles compass about the same. 

preached the truth; and now stiff in papistry, and thinking very much good of liimself. 

An un- Richard Dominick, clerk, late parson of Stradford, in the 

priest, but diocese of Sarum ; to remain in the town of East Knoyle, in 
very stub- ^^q county of Wilts, or within sixteen miles compass about 

the same. 
Notun- William Boys, clerk, late parson of Gyseley, in York- 

very wilful shire ; to remain in the town of Southwell in the county of 
and stub- Nottingham, or within four and twenty miles compass about 

the same. 
Very stub- David dc la Hyde, an Irishman, late scholar of Oxford ; 
worthy to ^^ his liberty, saving that he is restrained to come within 
be looked twenty miles of either of the universities. 
Wilful Edward Brunbrough, Robert Dawks, George Simpson, 

scholars, late scholars of Oxford, restrained as before. 
A learned Anthony Atkins, clerk, late of Oxford ; to remain within 
•wilful'. ^^^ counties of Gloucester or Salop. 

William Thules, late schoolmaster of Durham, bound for 

his good behaviour in matters of religion, and restrained 

from the diocese of Durham. 
Late asu- Roger Thompson, clerk, restrained from the dioceses of 

perstitious -»r i j ta i 

inonkof York and Durham. 

Mountager, and unlearned. 

Wilful scho- ''^"^^" Rastal, Nicolas Fox, Robert Davies, William Gib- 

lars, and learned in divinity. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 413 

bet, John Durham, late scholars of Oxford ; restrained from CHAP, 
the universities, and bound for their quiet behaviour in ^^'^^- 



matters of religion. Anno i56i. 

Richard Halse, late prebendary of Exeter, to remain in An un- 
the counties of Devon or Cornwall; the city of Exeter, and'*^^^™^*^ 
within three miles of either of his late benefices, always ex- 
cepted. 

John Blaxton and Walter Mugg, late prebendaries of Two stub- 
Exeter ; to remain in the couftty of Hereford. ^ °™ jj^^^J^g 

processes being sent for tbem, and so supported in Herefordshire, that the same cannot be 
executed against tlieni ; and reported to be maintained by Mr. John Skedmore, Mr. Pye, 
and one William Lusty, a prebendary of Hereford. 

Robert Dalton, clerk, late prebendary of Durham ; to re- Unlearned, 
main with the lord Dakers [or Dacres] of the north. and stift' 

Nicolas Marley, late prebendary of Durham ; to remain in Unlearned. 
the bishopric of Durham, so that he come not within eight 
miles of Durham. 

Thomas Redman, late chaplain to the late bishop of Ely ; Unlearned. 
to remain in the counties of York, Westmorland, and Lan- 
caster. 

Henry Comberford, late of Litchfield ; to remain in the Learned, 

„ „ ™ 1, • 1 Ti 1 • but wilful, 

county ot buitolk, with liberty to travel twice every year and meet to 
into Staffordshire; allowing six wrecks at every time of ''^ '^""*"^^'"" 
his travel. 

John Ramridg, lately punished, bound to be quiet, and Sometime 
to go to the service ; and sureties bound for his appearance, Litchfield. 
when he shall be called. 

John Ceaton, for Seaton,] D. D. to remain in the city ofLeai'ned; 

. . . . . settled in 

London, or within twenty miles compass within the same, papistry. 

John Erie, clerk, late of Winton ; to remain in the county A° ""- 
of Southampton : so that he always give notice at Hyde in priest. 
the same county, where at all times he shall make his abode. 
And that he come not to the Trinity church, or college of 
Winton. 

Laurence Vawce, [or Vaux,] late warden of Manchester ; These two 
to remain in the county of Worcester. to\ehave' 

Richard Hart, late one of the curates of Manchester ; to themselves 
remain in the county of Kent or Sussex. tious, and 

contrary to their recognizances ; secretly lurking in Lancashire ; and are said to be main- 
tained there by rulers, and gentlemen of that country. 



414 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



CHAP. 
XXIV. 

Anno 1561 
Meanly 
learned, 
but of esti- 
mation in 
the couu- 
try. 

An un- 
learned 
priest. 
One that 
pretendeth 
a sobriety, 
but yet 
stubborn. 
One very 
stiff and 
perverse. 

Very per- 
verse in re- 
ligion. 
An un- 
learned 
priest. 

Not un- 
learned, 
subtle, and 
stiff. 
An un- 
learned 
priest. 
A man, 
■whose qua- 
lities are 
well known. 
Learned, 
and very 
earnest in 
papistry. 
An un- 
learned 
priest. 



Not alto- 
gether un- 
learned, l)Ut 
very per- 
verse. 



Anthony Sabryn, late prebendary of Durham ; to remain 
in the town of Kirkby Mooreside, in the county of York, or 
elsewhere within the said county, the city of York only ex- 
cepted : so that he pass not above five miles northward of 
Kirkby Mooreside aforesaid. 

Robert IVIanners, late parson of Wotton at Stone ; to re- 
main in the town of Baldock, in the county of Hertford, or 
within twenty miles compass about the same. 

Edmund Daniel, late dean of Hereford ; to remain with 
the lord treasurer, or within twelve miles compass of his lord- 
ship''s house, where he maketh his abode. 

Thomas Hide, late schoolmaster of Winton, with the lord 
treasurer. 

Robert Hill, late commissary at Calice ; to remain in the 
town of Burton upon Trent in the county of Stafford, or 
elsewhere within the said county. 

Nicolas Banister, late schoolmaster at Preston ; to remain 
in the county of Lancaster, the town of Preston in Amaun- 
ders always excepted. 

William Winck, late of Cambridge; to remain in Nor- 
folk. 

Clement Burdet, late of Bath ; to remain at Crondal in 
Hampshire, or else at Sonning in Barkshire. 

Dr. Tresham, late of Oxford; to remain in Northampton- 
shire. 

Albone Langdale, D. D. to remain with the lord Monta- 
cute, or where his lordship shall appoint : and to appear 
within twelve days after monition given to the said lord 
Montacute or his officers, before the commissioners. 

John Porter, late parson of Crondal in Kent ; to remain 
in Maidstone in the county of Kent, or in the city of Lon- 
don or suburbs, or in any other place within the said county 
of Kent, the city of Canterbury excepted. So that always 
he give intimation to the sheriff of Kent of his present 
abode. 

John Dale of Cambridge ; to remain in the town of New- 
market, or ten miles compass about the same, saving to- 
wards London and Cambridije but four miles. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 



415 



Alan Cope, and William Lewis, late scholars of Oxford. 
The said Cope is bound to appear once within fourteen days: 
and the said Lewis restrained from the universities ; other- 
wise at liberty. 

Stephen Hopkins, clerk, confessor, as he saith, to the 
bishop of Aquila, [the Spanish ambassador,] and a daily 
resorter unto him. He was delivered out of the Fleet by 
the queen's majesty's special commandment, to the lord 
archbishop of Canterbury. 

Tristram Swadell, late Dr. Boner's servant: and yet 
thought to be a practitioner for him. 

Thomas Dormer, late scholar of Oxford ; restrained from 
the universities. 

Henry Johnson, clerk, late parson of Brodwas in Wor- 
cestershire ; to remain in the county of Hereford. 

Robert Shawe, late prebendary of Worcester; to re- 
main in the county of Salop. 

Robert Shelmerden, clerk ; to remain in the county of 
Northampton. 

William Burton, clerk ; to remain in Oxfordshire. 

Henry Saunders, clerk ; to remain- in the county of 
Warwick. 

Edward Atslowe, Walter Russel, Robert Young, Robert 
Fenne, Rafe Keat, late scholars of Oxford ; restrained from 
the universities. 



CHAP. 
XXIV. 

Anno 15G1. 



Altogether 
unlearned, 
but yet very 
subtle. 



Unlearned, 
stubborn 
priests, late 
of the dio- 
cese of 
Worcester. 



Wilful 
scholars. 



A list of ceHain evil disposed persons ^ of whom complaint 2^ ^ 
hath been made : which lurk so secretly, that process can- 
not he served upon them. 

Philip Morgan, late of Oxford. 

John Arden, late prebendary of Worcester. 

Frier Gregory, alias Gregory Basset, a common mass- 
sayer. 

One Ely, late master of St. John's college in Oxford. 

One Haverde, late chaplain to Mrs. Clarentieux, [a 
gentlewoman very much about the late queen Mary.] 

William Northfolk, late prebendary of Worcester. 



Are suppos- 
ed to be in 
Hereford- 
shire : espe- 
cially by the 
parties 
above 
named. 



416 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. Dr. Marsliall, late dean of Christ"'s-cliurch in Oxon, who 
XXIV. hath had recourse to the earl of Cumberland. And one 
Anno 1561. Mr. Metcalf, his brother-in-law, in Wenesdale in York, 
as it is supposed. 

Dr. Robinson, [or Robertson, archdeacon of Leicester, 
and] late dean of Durham, is excused by his lameness. One 
thoug-ht to do much hurt in Yorkshire. 

One Morren, [or Morwen,] late chaplain to Dr. Boner, 
wandereth in Cheshire, Staffordshire, and Lancashire, very 
seditiously. It is he that did cast abroad the seditious libel 
in Chester, [that, I suppose, upon the burning of St. Paul's, 
London, anno 1561, which libel was answered by bishop 
Pilkington.] 

Robert Grey, priest, who hath been much supported at 
sir Thomas Fitz-Herbert's ; and now, it is said, wandereth in 
like sort. A man meet to be looked unto. 

One Dr. Hoskyns, late of Salisbury ; a subtle adversary. 

Baldwin Norton, late chaplain to the archbishop of York. 

Stafford- Item, We are informed, that through the example of sir 

shire and Thomas Fitz-Herbert, John Secheverel, and one John 

Darbyshire 

most dis- Draycot, esquires, by us committed to prison, and so. re- 
maining ; and through the bearing and succouring of their 
wives, friends, kinsfolks, allies, and servants ; a great part 
of the shires of Stafford and Derby are generally illy in- 
clined towards religion, and forbear coming to church, and 
participating of the sacraments : using also very broad 
speeches in alehouses and elsewhere. And therefore it 
may please your honours to have special regard unto these 
parts. 

Others Jled, as was repo7-ted, over the seas, viz. 

Dr. Bullock, late prebendary of Durham. 

Dr. Darbishire, late chancellor to Dr. Boner, and his 
kinsman. 

William Taylcr, late chaplain to the archbishop of York. 

John Hanson, late chaplain to Dr. Scot, [bishop of Ches- 
ter.] 

John Parfeu, nephew to the late bishop of Hereford. 



affected. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 417 

Henry Hensliaw, late rector of Lincoln college, Oxon. CHAP. 
One Bovel, late prebendary of Southwel. " 



Prisoners in the Fleet hy order Jrom the commissioners. Anno 1562. 

Sir Thomas Fitz-Herbert, knight. ^T'^ 

Dr. Scot, late bishop of Chester. 

Dr. Harpsfield, late archdeacon of London. 

Thomas Wood, late parson of High Ongar in Essex, and 
chaplain to queen Mary, [and nominated by her to the 
pope for a bishopric then vacant.] 

Dr. Cole, late dean of St. PauFs. 

Thomas Somerset, gent. 

Dr. Draycot, [sometime archdeacon of Huntingdon.] 

Dr. Chadsey, or Chedsey, [late one of Dr. Boner's chap- 
lains, and archdeacon of Middlesex.] 
Prisoners in the Marshalsea by order Jrom the commis- 
sioners. 

Dr. Boner, late bishop of London. 

John Symms, a priest of Somersetshire. 
Prisoner in the Counter in the Poultry by order as before. 

John Draycot, gent. 
Prisoners in the Counter in Wood-street by order as before. 

Dr. Yong. John Secheveral, esq. Thomas Atkinson, 
clerk, late one of the fellows of Lincoln college, Oxon. John 
Greete, a priest, late beneficed in Hampshire. 

In the King's Bench by order as before. 

John Baker, clerk, late parson of Stanford Rivers in 
Essex. 



CHAP. XXV. 

Cheny^ bishop of Gloucester., consecrated. Some passages 
concerning him. Commissions for Bristow. The Great 
Bible printed ; and bishop JeweTs Apology. Peter Martyr 
dies. A nonresident proceeded against. Elizeus Hall, a 
notorious impostor. 

The bishopric of Gloucester being yet without a pastor, Jj^^^^y^^'" 
April 19 was consecrated bishop thereof Richard Cheny, Gloucester, 
B.D. educated at Cambridge, aged forty-nine years; who ^^^''j"^-^ 

VOL. I. E e of Bristol. 



418 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, was famous for being one of the six, that in the first convo- 
'^■*^^' cation under queen Mary, being then archdeacon of Here- 



Anno 1562. ford, undertook boldly the cause of the gospel in a disputa- 
tion agaijist almost the whole synod. 
His chariic- What his character and merits were in the former reign 
^er an n>e- ^^^ further be gathered from a letter of his to secretary 
Cccyll, his good friend. He seemed to be well instructed in 
Greek literature, which was rare in those days. Wherein 
he shewed his skill once at Oxford, in discourse with some 
of the university there ; and blaming the old corrupt way of 
pronouncing some of the Greek letters, (which some of them 
defended,) he instanced particularly in the sound of the 
letter ^'ra, in the same manner as the English letter /; and 
shewing them the absurdity thereof, he told them of a cer- 
tain bishop, in whose company he once was, sitting at the 
table with him, (who stiffly maintained the common way of 
pronouncing the Greek,) he directed him to read those 
words in the twenty-seventh chapter of St. Matthew, 'HXi, 
'Hx», Xcifiai (Ttjc(3!2^$xvl. Which bishop presently calling for 
the Gi'eek Testament, read it, / /y, / I?/, lama sab read- 
ing false Greek, but true English, as he merrily told those 
Oxford scholars. 

He was called by some of his friends to London from his 
country living to take a bishopric, or a prebend of West- 
minster, so well esteemed he was upon the queen''s access to 
the throne ; but he refused it, as requiring residence ; and 
choosing rather retirement. And being of note for his learn- 
ing and ability in preaching, was appointed one of those that 
preached before the queen in the beginning of her reign. 
In whose sermon he took the liberty to tell her of certain 
her commissioners, as visitors, who were pretty severe upon 
the incomes of the clergy, whom he called therefore the 
queen's takers: who had taken a quantity of wheat from 
him of tlic value of 10/. and by so much less yearly his 
living was like to prove. Of which he complained in his let- 
ter to the secretary ; using this expression, " That he was in 
" his younger years employed at the court, but he thought 
" he must make an end at the cart, in his circumcised bene- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 419 

" fice, [as he said, in his facetious way of speech.] And CHAP. 
" that he thought it hard, that he only should be a loser ^^^' 



" now, that had more conference with the learned men of Anno 1562. 
" the contrary side in queen Mary's time, than many 
" others had, that were now favourites."" But see his whole 
letter in the Appendix, as some remembrance of this bishop. N". XXIII. 

He had also, by secretary Cecyl's means, the bishopric of 
Bristol, then void also, in commendam. Which cornmendam 
was granted him by the queen's letters patents, bearing date 
April 29, in the fourth year of her reign. He was a Lon- 
doner: and thirty years after, I meet with a Richard Cheney, 
a goldsmith in London, whether his nephew or relation, I 
do not determine. 

The archbishop of Canterbury issued out a commission Made the 

to him, under the title of bishop of Gloucester, and com-","^\'' 

' r ' shop s com- 

mendatory of the cathedral church of Bristol, appointing missary. 

him his vicar-general, delegate, and commissary general in ..jst ' 
spirituals, and keeper of the spiritualty of the city and dio- 
cese of Bristol : to visit the church of Bristol, &c. And this 
during the vacancy of the see. This commission was dated 
at Lambeth, May 3. But it was not long before this com- The arch- 
mission was taken away from him again by the archbishop, Ji^ij^'^. 
disliking most probably soviie of his principles and opinions, his 
At which bishop Cheny took such distaste, that he wrote to ogi 
sir William Cecil to release him of the bishopric of Glou- 
cester. And in September he renewed his request, that he 
might have leave to resign his office, considering the juris- 
diction of Bristol was taken from him : and such preaching 
in the rash and ignorant, he said, was continued in Glou- 
cester diocese, as his poor conscience could not think to be 
good. What this preaching was we may guess, and but 
guess at, by the remembrance of a former bishop there; 
namely Hooper; who did not much affect ceremonies, either 
of habits or ornaments of religion, nor allowed of any man- 
ner of corporeal presence in the sacrament : which senti- 
ments most probably were by him or his chaplains so dili- 
gently sown in that diocese, that much of them remained to 
this day; opinions, l)y no means liked of by bishop Cheney, 

E e 2 



raws 
com- 
niissioa. 



420 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, who was, as Camden saitli of him, most addicted to Luther, 
^^^" both in respect, I suppose, of the doctrine of the presence. 



Anno 1 562. as also for the retaining of many old customs, as crucifixes 
History of ^^^j pictures of Faints in the churches, and such hke. He 

queen r.li- ' 

zabetb. had made some complaints to the archbishop of rash preach- 

in£j, when he was at London ; and the archbishop promised 

him countenance in suppressing it. And accordingly he had 

a commission from his grace, as was before said. But after 

some short time he and his principles were better known, 

and less approved: which caused the archbishop, as we may 

conclude, to withdraw his commission. This made him tell 

the secretary, that his grace of Canterbury acted contrary 

to his promise with him. 

Commis- And indeed I find divers commissions directed from the 

Bri"stoi archbishop to others, for the inspection of that diocese of 

from the Bristol : as one, dated May 23, 1563, to John Cottrell, 

archbishop. _,-r^ ii- • iii i- i 

LL. D. to be Ins commissary and delegate, durmg the va- 
cancy. Another commission. May 18, 1571, to John, bishop 
of Sarum, to be the keeper of the spiritualties, and his com- 
missary general for Bristol vacant. Which bishop, being in 
his journey to visit this diocese, died at Moncton Farley; 
which created a great sorrow to the archbishop, who loved 
him dearly. Yet another commission there was issued out, 
dated Sept. 29, 1571, to Dr. Cottrell, archdeacon of Dorset, 
to be the commissary for Bristol : and another, dated Nov. 
21, 1571, to the bishop of Bath and Wells for the same 
diocese. And besides these there were some other com- 
missions for that place : Cheny all this v/hile alive. By 
wiiich it appears that the government of Gloucester, of 
which he was consecrated bishop, was only left him, but 
not that of Bristol, though the revenue thereof, I believe, 
remained to him. 
Bishop of But these latter commissions to others are no wonder, 
exco'imnu- ^'"^6 in the synod in A})ril, anno 1571, he was solemnly 
nicated. denoiuued exconnuunicate by the president, the lord arch- 
bi.shop liimself, for absence and contumacy, in Henry the 
seventlTs chapel, before the whole synod. 

Upon these discontents, taken at the beginning of his 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 421 

episcopal honour, he was desirous to resign. He said, " He CHAP. 
" had rather hve a private life, as he did before, like a poor. ^^^' 



man, than to continue with such burden and torment of Anno 1562. 
" conscience, beside cares for great payments and charges ^^''*^"J 
" of household: that he had enoug-h of lording; whereof he si?n. MSS. 
" found nothing but splendidam miseriain. He complained J^^^ ' 
" how the charges of his housekeeping were exceeding 
" large, living in a great city, as Gloucester was, and in his 
" own hired house, and all upon the penny, and now in the 
" time of his first-fruits, and a dear world. And that if he 
*' had not had the help of the revenue of Bristol, he could 
" not have subsisted. But yet he would gladly leave both, 
" if he might resign at such a time, that he might depart 
" from his living out of debt, as he supposed he might do, 
" if he resigned between Michaelmas and AU-hallowtide." 
This was the sum of a letter he wrote to the secretary. In 
what year exactly this was written, I cannot say, only that 
he was not yet past his first-fruits. But notwithstanding his 
letter, he continued bishop of Gloucester many a year after. 
He affected good housekeeping, and kept many servants, 
which ran him much into debt. So that in the year 1576, 
which was but two years before his death, he was beliind- 
hand with the queen, and was got 500Z. in her debt. The 
issue of which was, that process came down to the sheriff 
of Gloucester, to seize his land and goods for payment. 

One of his successors in the see of Gloucester, named Charged to 
Godfrey Goodman, (who indeed turned papist,) in a certain Review of 
MS. book of his own writinar, makes the world believe that the Court 
this bishop Cheney was a papist, and was suspended m the james. 
court of Arches for popery, and had brought up his servants j^^^g^'"'"' 
papists. But I do not find any where that he was indeed of 
that faith, any further than that he was for the real, that is, 
the corporeal, presence of Christ in the sacrament. By a 
letter wrote unto him in November, 1571, by Campian the 
Jesuit, who knew him well, we rather collect the contrary. 
For therein he earnestly exhorted him to return to the 
church ; " that he was more tolerable than the rest of the Campian 
" heretics, because he held the presence of Christ in thej^^^ Antw. 

E e 3 1631. 



422 ANNALS OF THE REFORlVrATION 

CHAP. " altar, professed the freedom of man's will, and punished 
^^^' " not cathohcs in his diocese; whereby he got the hatred of 



Anno 1562." the puritans; yet he tells him that he was hcereticoritni 
" odium et catJiolicornm piidor ; that is, such a one as the 
" heretics hated, and the catholics iccre ashamed of'.'''' And 
his suspension, which is spoken of, (if true,) related, no 
question, partly to his being in the queen's debt, partly to 
his Lutheran doctrine; but chiefly to his excommunication. 
A ciiaracter But we wiU give this brief character of him, taken from 
Cheny!"'^ the aforesaid Campian, and so pass away to other things. 
He was an excellent man, both in his nature and his learn- 
ing, his urbanity and his manners. He kept good hospita- 
lity for the citizens and other good men, and preserved his 
palace and farms in good case and condition. He was in 
judgment for the unerring of general councils. And when 
that of Carthage was objected to him, how it erred about 
the baptism of heretics, he said, that the Holy Ghost was 
promised, not to one province, but to the church ; adding, 
that no doctrine could be shewn that had universally de- 
ceived an (Ecumenical council. And on this he built his real 
presence in the sacrament; because this was the ancient 
faith, and the Christian world, and the company of bishops, 
283 ^vho were the keepers of that which was committed to the 
church, (custodes depos'iti,) held this doctrine. And he used 
to commend these as the interpreters of scripture. I shall 
add no more of him, but that he died at the age of sixty- 
five or sixty-six, and was buried at his own cathedral of 
Gloucester, anno 1578. 
The queen The quecu now taking compassion upon the poor perse- 
Fre*ncii luo-^*^'^^'^ protostauts iu France, and seeing withal lier own 
tistants. welfare and ))rosperity undermined by the Guisian faction 
there, both out of ])ity and policy resolved to aid those per- 
secuted Christians, and sent a considerable force of men 
thither. And tliat God might l)less this expedition, and 
give success to the queen, a form of })rayer was enjoined to 
be used for the present estate in the churches, at the end of 
the litany, on Sundays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, through- 
out the whole realm : and was as follows : (which I set 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 423 

down the rather, as being instructive of the iust reasons of CHAP, 
this undertaking.) ' ' 



" O most mighty Lord God, the Lord of hosts, the Go- Anno isea. 
vernor of all creatures, the only Giver of all victories, ^p.^o^nTed 
who alone art able to strengthen the weak against the on this oc- 
mighty, and to vanquish infinite multitudes of thine ene-gjst. Grind, 
mies with the countenance of a few of thy servants, call- 
ing upon thy name, and trusting in thee. Defend, O 
Lord, thy servant and our governor under thee, our 
queen EJizabeth, and all the people committed to her 
charge. And especially at this time, O liord, have regard 
to those her subjects which be sent over the seas to the 
aid of such as be prosecuted for profession of thy holy 
name, and to withstand the cruelty of those which be 
common enemies, as well to the truth of thy eternal word, 
as to their own natural prince and countrymen, and mani- 
festly to this crown and realm of England, which thou 
hast of thy divine providence assigned in these our days 
to the government of thy servant, our sovereign and gra- 
cious queen. O most merciful Father, if it be thy holy 
will, make soft and tender the stony hearts of all those 
that exalt themselves against thy truth, and seek to op- 
press this crown and reahuof England; and convert them 
to the knowledge of thy Son, the only Saviour of the 
world, Jesus Christ : that we and they may jointly glo- 
rify thy mercies. Lighten, we beseech thee, their ignorant 
hearts to embrace the truth of thy word ; or else so abate 
their cruelty, O most mighty Lord, that this our Chris- 
tian region, with others that confess thy holy gospel, 
may obtain by thy aid and strength surety from our ene- 
mies without shedding of Christian and innocent blood : 
whereby all they which be oppressed with their tyranny 
may be relieved ; and all which be in fear of their cruelty 
may be comforted. And finally, that all Christian realms, 
and especially this realm of England, by thy defence and 
protection, may enjoy perfect peace, quietness, and secu- 
rity. And that we for these thy mercies jointly alto- 
gether, with one consonant heart and voice, may thank- 
j; e 4 



424 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. '* fully render to thee all laud and praise; and in one godly 
' ' ' " concord and unity among ourselves may continually mag- 



Annoi5fi2. " nify thy glorious name: who with thy Son, our Saviour, 
284 " Jesus Christ, and the Holy Ghost, art one eternal, al- 
" mighty, and most merciful God, to whom be all laud and 
" praise world without end. Amen.'''' 
The Great The Great Bible was this year printed, viz. that of Cover- 
ed. ^'"'" dale's translation; that had been printed in the time of king 
Henry VIII. and dedicated to that king; and also in the 
time of king Edward VI. for the use of the ^hurch ; and 
now again under queen Elizabeth, having again undergone 
his review. And this was to serve till the bishops, who were 
to take their particular portions of the holy scriptures, had 
finished their review, in order to the setting it forth more 
correctly. But this was not done till some years after : and 
this is that, which when it came forth was called the Bi- 
shops' Bible. W^hereto the archbishop set a preface, and 
whereupon he bestowed a great deal of pains, as we have 
shewn in his life. 
Jewel's And as an handmaid to the Holy Bible, this year also bi- 

pHnted.^ shop JewePs Latin Apology was first printed, though writ- 
ten the year before. Which book was approved by the al- 
lowance and authority of the queen, and published by the 
consent of the bishops and others. 
The occa- This book was entitled in English, An Apology or 
writing it ■^'^^'^^'^^' ^^^ Defence of the Church of England: zcith a hr\ef 
and jilain declarut'ion (rf the true religion professed and 
tised in the same. The occasion and grounds of writing it, 
as the author himself reported, were the slander devised by 
papists against this late reformed church: as, " That we were 
" heretics ; that we were departed from the faith ; that we 
" with our new persuasion and wicked doctrine had broken 
" the consent of the church ; that we raised, as it were out 
" of hell, and restored to life again, old heresies, and such 
" as long ago were condemned ; that we sowed abroad new 
" sects and furious fancies, that never before were heard of. 
" Also, that we were now divided into contrary factions and 
" opinions, and could never agree by any means among 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 425 

ourselves. That we were wicked men, and made war, CHAP, 
after the manner of giants, (as the fable is,) against God '_ 



'• himself; and did live together without care or reverence Anno 1 562. 

" of God : that we despised all good deeds, and used no 

" discipline of virtue, maintained no laws, no customs, no 

" equity, no justice, no right; that we loosed the bridle to 

" all mischief, and allured the people to all kind of licence 

" and lust. That Ave went about and soug-ht how all the 

" states of monarchies and kingdoms might be overthi'own; 

" and all things might be brought unto the rash govern- 

" ment of the people, and to the rule of the unskilful mul- 

" titude. That we had rebelliously withdrawn ourselves 

" from the catholic church, and shaken the whole world 

" with a cursed schism ; and had troubled the common 

" peace and general quietness of the church. And that like 

^^ as in time past Dathan and Abiram severed themselves 

" from Moses and Aaron, so we at this day departed from 

" the pope of Rome without any sufficient and just cause: 

" As for the authority of the ancient fathers and old councils, 

" we set them at nought. That all ancient ceremonies, such 

" as by our grandfathers and great grandfathers, now many 

*' ages past, when better manners and days did flourish, 

" were approved, we had rashly and arrogantly abolished ; 

" and had brought into the church by our own private au-285 

" thority, without any commandment of any holy and sa- 

" cred general council, new rites and ceremonies. And that 

" we had done all these things, not for any respect of reli- 

" gion, but only for a desire to maintain strife and conten- 

" tion. But as for them, they had changed nothing at all ; 

" but all things, even as they received them from the apo- 

" sties, and were approved by the most ancient fathers, so 

" they had kept them from age to age unto this day.*" 

These were hideous charges against what had been lately 
doing in the church of England : and highly necessary it 
was, that a justification should be set forth of what was 
done by the reformation ; upon which all these aspersions 
were cast. Which Jewel's able pen happily undertook. 
And of what esteem and reputation it was in the church of 



426 ANNALS OF THE REF0R:MATI0N 

CHAP. England in these times, appears by a state-book set forth 
tile year after ; " I refer you to the Apology, which our 



Aniio 156-2." church hath placed openly before the eyes of the whole 
" Christian world, as the common and certain pledge of our 
" religion ^.'' 
Written So that it was written upon a state account by the corn- 

account/ ^i^ion advice and consultation, no doubt, of the college of di- 
vines that were then met about reformation of the church. 
And so the reverend author himself shewed in his epistle to 
Jewel's De- queen Elizabeth before ,his Defence, viz. that it contained 
the whole substance of the catholic faith, tlien professed and 
freely preached throughout all the queen"'s dominions : that 
tliereby all foreign nations might understand the considera- 
tions and causes of her doings in that behalf. As in old 
times did Quadratus, Melito, Justin Martyr, Tertullian, 
and other godly learned fathers upon the like occasion, as 
well to make known the truth of God, and to open the 
grounds of their profession, as also to put the infidels to si- 
lence, and to stop the mouths of the wicked. 
Made com- This Apology was translated out of Latin into sundry 
most parts tongues, and so made common to most parts of Europe, 
of Europe, and was well allowed and liked of by the learned and godly, 
who gave open testimonies of the same. And it was never 
reproved in Latin or otherwise, either by any one private 
writing, or by the public authority of any nation ; till Mr. 
Hardine; Harding, resiant at Louvain, published an open Confuta- 
Confiita- t'"" ^^ 't, and offered the same to the queen. But the main 
tion of it. ground of his whole plea was, that the bishop of Rome, 
whensoever it shall like him to determine in judgment, can 
never err: that he is always undoubtedly possessed of God's 
holy Spirit : that at his only hand we must learn to know 
the will of God ; and in his only holiness stands the unity 
and safety of the church : that whosoever is divided from 
him must be an heretic: and that without obedience to him 
there is no hope of salvation. Nay, he affirms, that he is 

" .\d Apoloi^iani alili';;(), qiiaiii eccloia nostra taiiqiinin comniunein et certain 
nostra' religionis ohsidem, palain in ociilis orbis Christiani collocavit. Gual. 
Ifnditon. Ep. Hirr. Osorio. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 427 

not only a bishop, but a king; and that all kings and em- CHAP, 
perors receive their power at his hand, and ought to swear ^^^' 



obedience and fealty unto liim. Jewell, in his said epistle Anno 1 562. 
to the queen, quotes the particular places and folios in the 
Confutation, where Harding asserts all this. The bishop 
published some answer to Harding in the year 1567, dated 286 
from London, October the 27th, that year. And again in 
the year 1568, there came forth, written by the same Hard- 
ing, A Detection of stindry foul Errors, &c. printed at 
Louvain. Both which Confutation and Detection the bi- 
shop most learnedly answered at large in his book called, A Answered 
Defence of the Apology, and dedicated it to the queen about jg^vj^'"^ 
the year 1569, as he dated the preface to the reader, from 
Sarisbury, December the 11th that year. But to go back 
to the Apology itself. 

It was composed and written by this reverend father, as The sum of 
the public confession of the catholic and Christian faith of ^^,^ ??." 
all Englishmen. Wherein is taught our consent with the-Jut^"-p. 
German, Helvetian, French, Scotch, Genevian, and other 
reformed churches. The cause is shewn of our departure 
from the Roman see, and answer is given to those slanderers, 
who complained that the English came not to the pretended 
general council of Trent, called by the pope, nor sent any 
legate thither, nor excused their absence by any letters or 
messengers. The reason of writing this Apology was, that p- iss. 
papists might see all the parts and foundations of the doc- 
trine we defended, and might understand the strength of 
the arguments on which our religion stands. And it is so 
composed, that the first part is an illustration of the truep-i87. 
doctrine, and a paraphrastical exposition of the twelve ar- 
ticles of the Christian faith. The second, a succinct and 
solid reprehension of objections. If the order of the book 
be regarded, nothing could be more distinct ; if the perspi- 
cuity, nothing more clear ; if the style, nothing more terse ; 
if the words, nothing more eloquent ; if the matter, nothing 
more nervous. " A book," added Dr. Humphrey, the writer 
of Jewell's life, " which I would not have Hosorius only 
" take into his hand, but also be propounded to Christian 



428 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAV. " youth in all schools, whence they might safely and fully 
^'^^ • *' be attracted by tropes of eloquence and principles of 



Anno 1562." piety." 

Wrote This book nettled the papists; and many sharpened their 

papists. ^ P^"s against it, and some wrote their invectives in Latin, 
and some in English. In Latin wrote Alan Cope ; in Eng- 
lish, Nicolas Sanders, Stapleton, Rastal, Dorman, Heskins, 
and Harding. With this last, Alexander Nowel contended, 
but specially with Thomas Dorman; Jewell especially with 
Harding in vindication of his own book, and by the way 
with others. 
Translated This famous Apology was soon after translated into pro- 
lisii* "° V^^ English by a very learned lady, (the lady Bacon,) and 
published for common use, which we shall mention under 
the year 1564. There was also another English translation 
of the Apology before this, done by the said lady, came 
forth, viz. this year 1562. 

Let me add concerning this book, that it was made much 
of by those of Zui'ich, where Jewell was well known ; nay, 
of all protestants : and was, besides the English, translated 
And other almost into all languages, as German, French, Italian, Spa- 
anguages. jjjg]^ The council of Trent, held about this time, saw it, 
and censured it : and appointed one Frenchman, and an- 
Jeweii's other Italian, to answer it ; but they gave no answer to it : 
2 3*^ ^' ^' though several afterwards ventured to do, and were suffi- 
ciently confuted. 
287 Let me add ; Grindal, bishop of London, sent this Apo- 
oiog!^^*^"" ^°^y "^ ^^^ church of England to Peter Martyr at Tigur: 
P. Mart. which came to his hands about the calends of August : the 
24th day of which month the same Peter wrote a letter to 
bishop Jewel the author. Concerning which book he gave 
Peter Mar- his great approbation in these words: JEa vcro non tanfum 
concernh"' ^"'^*'j ^^<* omniu tutt probantu)'^ ct vilrijice j)lacait, omnibus 
his book, modis ct numeris satisfecit, verum etiam BulUngero^ ejus- 
que JiUis ct ffenerh, necnon Gualthcro ct Wolphio, tain sa- 
jjien,Sy mirab'dis- ct cloqucns vmi est, lit ejus luudandi nul- 
lum modumj'aciant, nee arbitrantiir hoc tempore quicquam 
perfectius editum fuisse. Hanc 'ingcnlo tuo fclicitatemy 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 429 

hanc edificationem ecclesicB, hoc Anglice. decus vehementer CHAP. 
gratulor : teque obtestor, vt quam ingressus es viam, per- ^^^- 



gas tuis vest'tgiis premere. Etenim honam licet habeamus A.nno\ 562. 
causam, tamen p7'(B hostium fiumero pauci sunt, qui earn 
tueantur. Et illijam videntur experrecti, ut bonitate stili 
et argutis sophismatis multum se probent imperitcB multi- 
tudini. Loquor autem de Staphylis, Osiis, et plerisqiie aliis 
hujus JhrincB scriptoribus : qui hoc tempore mendaciortim 
piapce strenuos patronos agunt. Quare cum in Apologia tua 
ilia doctissima et elegantissima tantum, spes de te concita- 
veris, certo scias, omnes bonos et doctos Jam sibi polliceriy 
veritatem evangelicam, te vivo, non esse ab hostibus impune 
lacessendam. 

Ego vero plurimum, loitor, quod ilium diem viderim, quo 
Juctus sis parens tarn illustris et elegantis Jilli. Largiatur 
Deus ccelestis Pater, pro sua bonitate, ut sobole non absi- 
milij'requenter augearis. 

To this sense in English : " Tliat his book, in all respects 
* and accounts, gave him satisfaction, and to whom every 
' thing that came from him was approved. And not only 
' himself, but also Bullinger, his sons and sons-in-law, 
' Gualter and Wolph [chief ministers there] were infinitely 
' pleased with it : to whom it seemed so wise, so admirable, 
' and eloquent a piece, that they could not sufficiently 
commend it: and that these thought there had nothing 
' at this time been set forth more perfect. He exceedingly 
' gratulated this felicity to his wit and parts, to the church 
' this edification, and this glory to England. He beseeched 
' him that he would go on vigorously in this way that he 
' had entered into : for we, said he, have a good cause, yet 
' in respect of the number of adversaries, there were but 
' few that defended it : and that they themselves seemed to 
' be awakened, that by the smoothness of their style, and 
' cunning sophisms, they might much approve themselves 
' to the ignorant multitude. He spake of the Staphili and 
' the Osii, and many other writers of that sort ; who at 
' that time yielded themselves patrons of the lies of the 
' pope. And that therefore, since by that his most learned 



430 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " and eloquent Apology, lie had raised such hope of him, 
■ "he might certainly know, that all good and godly men 



Anno 1662. " promised themselves, that the truth of the gospel, while 
" he lived, should not be assaulted by the enemies unre- 
" vcnged. 

*' And that for himself, he exceedingly rejoiced to see 
" that day that Jewel became the parent of such an illus- 
" trious and beautiful issue : praying that God the heavenly 
" Father would grant him often an increase of such ofF- 
" spnng. 
288 November 12, Peter Martyr died : who deserves to stand 

Peter Mar- j^i our English history for his great and good deservings 

tyr dies. . . " . 

here in this realm under king Edward. And the next year 
Josiah Simler dedicated his oration of Martyr's life and 
death unto bishop Jewel, and sent it to the said bishop 
with Martyr''s connnent upon Genesis, as it still stands be- 
His effigies, fore that comment; together with Martyr"'s effigies in silver. 
Of which this was Jewell's judgment, that although it re- 
sembled him very well in many things, yet there was some- 
thing, he knew not what, in which the skill of the artist was 
short. " And what wonder," added he, " is it, that an error 
" should be committed in the likeness of him, whom in- 
" deed, when I consider all things, I think there was scarce 
" any thing like unto." Beside this comment on Genesis, 
Martyr in his lifetime dedicated to him his dialogue, De 
utraque in Chr'isto iiatura, against the ubiquitaries. 

Peter Martyr declined in his health some months before 
his death : for in August, in his letter to bishop Jewel, he 
gave him this account of himself. De me vero quomodo ha- 
beam^ si nipis d'llucidius cog'iioscere, scito, animo esse in 
Christo hilari, et in iisdem versari laboribus, in quos cum 
adesses, inciimbebnm : at corpore non ita sum valido et 
Jirmo, ut antcafui. Nam quotidie onus a^fatis ingravescit. 
Jain a sesquianno sum prorsus edentulus, nee ventriculus 
ojficium fecit, ut me oppefitu ad comedcndum excitet. La- 
bora pra'terea capitis distillatiouibus : ad quoi mala tibiarum 
noil leves accesserunt dolores^ propter duo ulceja, quibus 
infcrditm graviter disrrucior. Uhi licet proprie et per se 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 431 

corpus angatm\ attamen propter consenstim, quern Grcpci CHAP, 
sympathiam vocant^ animus quoque non potest non affic'i. '_ 



Hoec qucB non dubito, pro eo quo in me animo es^ tibij'ore Anno 1562. 
auditu molesta, minime hisce Uteris inseruissem, nisi tuce 
preces mild vehementcr p7-odessent, quas ex necessitate^ qua 
urgeor jiagrantiores impetratum iri mihi persuasi. 

This learned and pious confessor, and sometime the His cbarac- 
king''s pubhc professor of divinity in Oxford, justly requires 
that we take some honourable leave of him. It is true, he 
was mortally hated by the popish bigots here at home, and 
most foully slandered by them, as a time-server, a renegade, 
and the like. Dr. Tresham, in his epistle to the lords of the 
council, before his relation of the dispute at Oxford between 
the said Peter M artyr and other papists, calls him a " dot- Senex qui- 
" ing old man, subverted, impudent, and a notable master sui".ersus"^' 
" of errors." Dr. Richard Smith, another of his antagonists, impudens, 
gave out m prmt, that at Martyrs nrst connng to that uni- magisterin- 
versity he was but a Lutheran, and taught in the matter s'gms, &c. 
of the sacrament as he did ; but going once to court, and 
observing that doctrine there misliked, and fearing his opi- 
nion might do him hurt in his living, he anon turned his 
tippet, and sang another song. Now to all this charge, to do Bishop 
him right, let me subjoin for answer what archbishop Cran- ^^1*^"""^^ 
mer said in his behalf, viz. that he was a man of that ex- J^mith's 
cellent learning and godly living, that he passed Dr. Smith 
as far as the sun in his clear light passeth the moon being 
in the eclipse. And again, that as for Peter Martyr's opinion 
and judgment in the aforesaid matter, no man could better 
testify than he : forasmuch as he lodged within his house 
[at Lambeth] long before he came to Oxon : that he [the 
archbishop] had with him many conferences on that sub- 289 
ject, and knew that he was then in the same mind that he 
was afterwards at Oxon, and as he defended openly there, 
and had written in his book. And that if Dr. Smith under- 
stood him otherwise in his lectures at the beginning, it was 
for lack of knowledge : for that then Dr. Smith understood 
not the matter, nor yet did, as it appeared by his foolish 



432 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, and unlearned book which he had then set forth. But as 
• for Dr. Martyr, (added the archbishop,) did he seek to 



Anno 15G2. please men for advantage, who, having a great yearly re- 
venue in his own country, forsook all for Christ\s sake ; and 
for the truth and glory of God came into strange countries, 
where he had neither lands nor friends, but as God of his 
goodness (who never forsaketh them that put their trust in 
him) jjrovided for him. 

dent""!"'' '^'^^ church now, partly by former bad example, and 

nished. partly by dislike of, and withdrawing themselves from the 
service now established, had abundance of nonresidents. I 
meet with one about this time, whom the archbishop him- 
self took to task. His name was Thomas Mon'ison, rector 
of Henly upon Thames, in the diocese of Oxford, which as 
yet was vacant. He was sequestered, and the fruits of his 
church sequestered into the hands of two persons appointed 
to receive them. This was done in December. The arch- 
bishop"'s instrument ran thus : 

An instru- Mattliccus pcrm'is.sione divina, SfC. Cum, uti ex fide 

luent of se- J. . . , "^ 

questration; dignu relatione acceperimus^ rectoria stve ecclesia parochi- 
Piirk. Re- ^^^^ ^^ Henly per pradict. processionem, sive cwitinuam ab~ 
sentiam ultimi i-ectoris, et incumbentis ejusdem aliguandiu 
vacaverit, et pastoris solatio destituta extitit, prout sic va- 
cat in prcEsenti : cujus prcEtextu cura dictcB ecclesifB peni- 
tus inofficiata relinqidtur in animarum parochianorum 
ibidem grave pei-iculum, et interitiim manifestum : Nos 
igitur prcBmissa conniventihns oculis prcEterire nolentes, 
sed its pro posse nostro subvenire volentes, omnes et singu- 
losfrtictus, Sfc. 
And depri- Another instrument the archbishop sent forth to all the 
clergy of Oxford diocese, " To cite and admonish, once, 
" twice, thrice, Morrison [sometimes called Morris] to ap- 
" pear, if he might be apprehended. If not, to fasten a ci- 
" tation on the door of the church of Henly, that the said 
" Thomas Morris, the said rector, within six months per- 
" jH'tually serve the cure of the souls of the parishioners. 
" Otherwise, he contemning this monition, to appear before 



vat ion. 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 433 

"him, or his vicar-general in the cathedral church of CHAP. 
" PauFs, to render a reasonable cause of his absence, and ^^^- 
" to receive what shall be judged right: otherwise that heAnnoisya. 
" would proceed to deprive him." And so he was June 
28, 1563, a sentence of deprivation being then denounced 
against him; and one Bai-ker, B. A. was presented to the 
church. This Morrison undoubtedly was a papist, and had 
fled from his benefice, because he would not comply witli 
the present settlement of religion. 

A notorious impostor arose in these days, and shewed One pre- 
himself in London, called Elizeus Hall, who gave out J",f 't,,*',"" a 
himself to be a messenger from God ; and pretended to "lessenger 
revelations and voices speaking to him from heaven ; and yen. 
writ books by inspiration. He was at last brought before 29O 
the bishop of London the 12th of June this year. Where, 
upon interrogatories, he gave this particular account of this 
his phrensy, viz. 

That his name among the common people was Elizeus 
Hall, but that he writ himself, Ely the carpenter's son ; 
because that one night in a vision he saw a fire in his cham- 
ber, and heard a voice saying unto him, " Ely, arise, watch I'ap. House. 
" and pray; for the day draweth nigh." And that this voice "^'jJ|'5'J"J; 
was heard thrice that night : and that this was about eleven 
years ago. Further, he said, that he was rapt out of the 
bed, and saw heaven and hell, and was absent from the 9th 
of April, 1552, till the 11th next following, viz. two nights Anno 1552. 
and one whole day, [answering to the time between Christ"'s 
death and his resurrection.] And that there appeared to 
this examinate one in white apparel, [viz. an angel,] and 
commanded him to watch and to pray seven years, and 
to write three years and an half, according to the time of 
Christ's ministry, saying, " Two years and an half thou 
" shalt bring nothing to pass : in the other year reserved, 
" thou shalt be troubled and fall into persecution." And 
so, he said, it came to pass : for in the year past he had 
been before commissioners, and examined divers times. 
That there remained yet behind of the three years not 

VOL. I. F f 



434 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP, much more than one month : and then he knew not what 
should become of him, (except he had a new revelation :) 
Anno i56'2.for then his commission was ended. 

His mes- Tiiat he took upon him no name of minister, preacher, 
*'^*' nor prophet ; for he was called to none of these offices. 

And being asked what name his office bore, he termed him- 
self a messenger sent from God to the queen, and to all 
princes ; and that his commission endured but one month, 
And reveia- or little more. He said, he had his vocation by revelation, 
'*'°' and that he never learned of any creature ; that he had not 

read much in the Bible; and that he was able, having pen, 
ink, and paper, to write, and to cite, and allege authori- 
ties forth of the scriptures : meaning, as appeared, that he 
had all his knowledge by revelation. Being demanded 
His writ- whether there were any more learning in the Great Boole 
'"S*- [writ by him] than in his book of Obedience, which the said 

bishop had read afore ; he said his book of Obedience was 
but the fifteenth part of his new Great Bool'. That in the 
latter end of queen Mary's days he did begin to write, but 
he could bring nothing to pass : his gift was not come to 
him ; and till he had given over all things, he could ne- 
ver write effectually : and that since he began to write, he 
neither did eat fish nor flesh, nor drank wine, according to 
his revelation, which he then remembered ; wherein he was 
forbidden to forsake all things pleasant to the flesh : and 
that he writ every word of his book on his knees. 
This im- Being demanded what his judgment w^as of the mass, [as 

papist^ ^ suspected perhaps to be set on work by papists,] and what 
of transubstantiation, and especially purgatory ; for it was 
like, that if he had seen heaven and hell, he should have 
seen purgatory also, if there were any ; he refused to an- 
291 swer, referring himself to his book, saying, he was com- 
manded not to speak of those matters till he had delivered 
his book to the queen. 

Being interrogated, whether he had received the sacra- 
ment within two years past, he answered not directly, but 
so as it might ajopear he had not ; and that he was one of 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 435 

the popish judgment in religion, which very manifestly ap- CHAP, 
peared by divers of his speeches. For his apparel, [which it ^^^' 
seems was distinct,] he alleged his revelation. Anno isea. 

In a catalogue of books belonging sometime to sir John 
Parker, son to archbishop Parker, among the rest, there was 
a book, entitled, The Visions ofElizeus Hall in metre. ."'* ''''•°°« 

"^ in metre. 



CHAP. XXVI. 

The lord 'keeper''s and Mr. Speaker\<i speeches. A second 
parliament. Matters transacted relating to religion. 
The penalty of high treason in the hill for the supremacy 
argued. Speeches of the lord Mountague, and Mr. At- 
kinson, a lawyer, against it. Another for it. Acts 
passed ; viz. for the assurance of the gueen''s royal 
2)Ozoer : against conjurations : for execution of the writ 
for taking a person excommunicated, Sfc. The queerCs 
answer about her marriage. 

WN the 12th day of January the queen's second parlia- The queen's 
ment began to sit at Westminster. She rode that morning ifa'^ent^'"^" 
from her palace in great state unto Westminster-abbey, ac- 
companied with all her lords, spiritual and temporal. The 
queen was clad in a crimson velvet robe, and the earl of 
Northumberland [of Worcester, writes D"'Ewes] bearing the 
sword before her ; all the heralds of arms in their rich 
coats, and trumpets blowing. The bishops were twenty-two 
in number, (LandafF and Carlisle wanting,) riding in their 
robes of scarlet lined, and hoods down their backs of meni- 
ver. She lighted at our Lady of Grace''s chapel ; and with 
her noble and stately retinue went in at the north door into 
the abbey, where she heard a sermon preached by Nowell, 
dean of St. PauPs ; and then a psalm being sung, she and 
her honourable company went out of the south door, and so 
to the parliament chamber, and soon after to the house. 

The lord keeper Bacon, at the queen's commandment. Lord keep- 
opened the cause of this parliament's meeting (as he did of "^"^^ ^^'^^^ ' 
the former) in an eloquent speech, declaring the causes to 

Ff 2 



436 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 



the state of 
relij!;ioii. 
D' Ewes' 
Journal, 



CHAP, be partly for religion, for the setting forth God's honoui* 

'__ and glory ; and partly for policy and the commonwealth, as 

Anno 1562. ^rg|j f^y^ provision at home, as for foreign enemies abroad. I 
shall only take notice what the lord keeper said with respect 
Shewing to religion. He shewed, " that God''s cause being sincerely 
weighed, considered, and followed, would bring forth 
good success in all affairs ; and being not followed, but 
neglected, how could any thing prosper or take good ef- 
fect ? He blamed both spirituality and laity : that the 
preachers were not so diligent in their vocation as they 
ought ; and the laity neither so diligent in hearing, nor 
yet in doing, as they should : and some of the laity, in not 
giving credit to God''s word preached, as ought to be. 
He took notice here of the great want of ministers ; and 
that some of those that were ministers were much insuf- 
ficient, which notmthstanding, considering the time, were 
to be borne withal ; not doubting the circumspection of 
the bishops in well looking to the placing of such which 
should be appointed hereafter : and such as were negli- 
gent or blameworthy, and would not be reformed, to 
have sharp punishment. 

" That heretofore the discipline of the church was not 
good, and the ministers thereof slothful. Whence sprung 
two enormities : first, that for lack of the former every 
man lived as he listed, without fear. And by reason of 
the second, many ceremonies were agreed upon ; but the 
right ornaments thereof were either left undone or for- 
gotten : that it was for want of discipline that few came 
to service, and the church so unreplenished ; notwithstand- 
ing a law made the last parliament for good order to be 
observed in the same : but as yet it a])pcared not exe- 
cuted : that therefore, if it were too easy, it should be 
made sharper : and if already well, then to see it executed : 
for the want of discipline caused obstinacy, contempt, 
and growtli of heresy. 

" That in his opinion the device was good, that in every 
diocese officers should be appointed and devised, as should 
be thought good, to sit for the redress of these and such 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 437 

" like errors twice or thrice a year, till the fault were CHAP. 
" mended. In the doing of which, the head officers were ^^^^- 
" to be borne withal, and maintained; and laws to be made Anno 1562. 
" for the purpose. The chief care of which, he said, [ap- 
" plying himself to the lords spiritual,] pertained unto 
" them, wherein they should take pains; and whereunto 
*' laws should be joined, not only for the more perfecting of 
" the same, but for the maintenance as well of the heads as 
" of the members thereof." 

On the 15th of January, Thomas Williams of the Inner The speak- 
Temple, esq. being chosen speaker to the lower house, was|"^ ji^^"^''''' 
presented to the queen : and in his speech to her, what he queen, 
said relating to religion was to this purport. First, he did 
in the name of all the commons give most humble and 
hearty thanks to God and her, who had brought and re- 
stored God's doctrine into this realm. He took notice of the Want of 
want of schools; that at least an hundred were wanting jjj ^'- '"" '•• 
England, which before this time had been, [being destroyed 
(I suppose he meant) by the dissolution of monasteries and 
religious houses, fraternities and colleges.] He would have 
had England continually flourishing with ten thousand 
scholars, which the schools in this nation formerly brought 
up. That from the want of these and good schoolmasters, 
sprang up ignorance : and covetousness got the livings by impropii- 
impi'opriations ; which was a decay, he said, of learning : and' 
by it the tree of knowledge grew downward, not upward ; 293 
which grew greatly to the dishonour, both of God and the 
commonwealth. He mentioned likewise the decay of the 
universities ; and how that great market-towns were with- 
out schools or preachers: and that the poor vicar had but 
20Z. [or some such poor allowance,] and the rest, being no 
small sum, was impropriated. And so thereby, no preacher 
there; but the people, being trained up and led in blindness 
for want of instruction, became obstinate : and therefore 
advised that this should be seen to, and impropriations re- 
dressed, notwithstanding the laws already made [which fa- 
voured them.] 

He took notice also of a third monster, called error, (as Error. 
F f 3 



438 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. ig7iorance and necessity were the two others that troubled 
^^^^' the kingdom.) Under this monster he brought the Pela- 

Anao i562.gians, hbertines, papists, and such other, leaving God's 
commandments, to follow their own traditions, affections, 
and minds : that if the papist was (and indeed he was) in 
error, that we should seek the redress thereof; for that the 
poor and Ignorant were abused. Until which redress be 
had, he told her majesty, that neither she nor her realms, 
neither at home nor abroad, should ever be well served of 
such persons which were so divided. And therefore, said 
he, speedily look to it, and weed out this wickedness and 
error, too much known nowadays. 

Libertin- He added further, that in the country he had heard tell 

**""■ of, but since he came up, walking in the streets, he had 

heard oftentimes [with his own ears] more oaths than 
words. A pitiful hearing! He urged to have it punished. 

A safe fort He moved her maiestv (with the assent of this assem- 

for the . J J \ 

realm. bly) to build a strong fort for the surety of the realm, for 
the repulsing of her enemies, and to be set upon firm and 
stedfast ground : which fort to have two gates, the one 
commonly open, the other a postern, and two watchmen at 
either of them ; one governor, one lieutenant : and then no 
good thing would be there wanting. The fort he meant was 
ihe Jear of God ; the governor God himself; her majesty 
the lieutenant ; the stones of it the hearts of faithful people. 
The two watchmen at the open gate, to be knowledge and 
virtue ; the other two at the postern, to be mercy and truth ; 
all being spiritual ministers. That this fort was invincible, if 
every man would fear God ; for all governors reign and 
govern by the two watchmen, knowledge and truth : and 
that if she, being the lieutenant, saw justice, with prudence 
her sister, executed, she would then rightly use the office of 
a lieutenant : and for such as departed out of this fort, let 
them be let out at the postern by the two watchmen, mercy 
and truth : and then she would be well at home and 
abroad. Finally, he exhorted her continually to seek God's 
glorv, and his true honour ; and then she would have this 
fort well built, and by her well governed. In this ingenious 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 439 

speech I strongly suspect Cecil had a great hand: who as cHAP. 
he was first chosen speaker himself, but got himself ex- XXVI. 
cused, so he seems to have been the main instrument ofAnnoi562. 
getting Mr. Williams chosen in his room : for when sir Ed- 
ward Rogers, comptroller of the queen's household, had 
recommended him to the house to be their speaker, and 294 
Williams had disabled himself, Cecil answered him, the 
house had gravely considered of him as a fit person, and re- 
quired him to take the place, and so he was seated in the 
chair. 

Now to take notice of the bills that were brought in, hav- 
ing a tendency to religion, or the church. 

The very first thing they set about in the house of com- Bills in 
mons was the succession to the crown : and (in order to P'tI'*'"*"*' 

^ ^ tor the 

that) the queen's marriage with some fit person, for heirs of succession. 

her body to inherit her kingdoms : for January the 16th, 

which was but the next day after the speaker was chosen 

and accepted, a burgess (viz. the mayor of Windsor) moved 

for the succession. And the 28th of the same month, they 

exhibited their petition to the queen for the establishment 

of the said succession. Which petition was drawn up in 

very eloquent and pressing language, yet tendered with all 

humble deference. The arguments were chiefly taken from 

the danger of the realm without the prospect of succession, 

and particularly from the fear of papists, styled, " A faction 

*' of heretics in her majesty"'s realm, who, most unnaturally 

** against their country, most madly against their own 

" safety, and most treacherously against her highness, not 

" only hoped for the woful day of her death, but also lay 

" in wait to advance some title, under which they might re- 

" vive their late unspeakable cruelty, to the destruction of 

" the goods, possessions, and bodies, and thraldom of the 

" souls and consciences of her faithful and Christian sub- 

" jects They found how necessary it was for her pre- 

" servation, that there should be more pei-sons set and 

" known between her majesty's life and their desire 

" They knew not how many pretended titles and trust to 

Ff 4 



440 ANNALS OF THE REFORMATION 

CHAP. " succeed her And they found by good proof, that 

XXVI. 4( j.j^^ certain Hmitation of the crown of France had in the 



Anno 1562." reahn procui'cd so great quiet, that neither the person of 
" the prince in possession had been endangered by secret 
" and open practice, nor the commonweal molested by civil 
" dissension, through any quarrel attempted for the title of 
" that crown," &c. And the 1st of February, the lords of 
the parliament were with the queen, as it was thought, upon 
the same account. But she deferred her answer. 
Cecil's let- An eminent member of the house, I mean the queen's 
secretary, Cecil, in the beginning of February wrote to Sir 
Thomas Smith, her ambassador in France, concerning this 
matter, and what his judgment was therein; viz. " That 
" the heads of both houses were fully occupied with the 
" provision of surety to the realm, if God should to our 
" plague (as he said) call the queen, without leaving of chil- 
" dren. That the matter was so deep, as he could not reach 
" into it; and praying God to send it a good issue. And 
" soon after, (viz. February 18,) he writ again to the same 
" person, that he could not see that any effect would come 
" of the earnest suits made of the three estates to the 
" queen's majesty, either for marriage or state of succes- 
" sion." 

In this house of commons were many good public-spirited 
members. These I find in a journal of CeciFs, viz. Bell, 
Wilson, Goodyere, Norton, Warner, Sir Anthony Cook, 
&c. To which I may add Cecil himself, who (as himself 
295 writ to the aforesaid Smith) was so full occupied to expe- 
dite matters in this present j^arliament, that he had almost 
no leisure to attend other things. 

The bills following were such as were read and concerted 

in the house of lords. 

For assur- The 30lh of January, a bill for assurance of certain lands 

siioDs" '" assumed by the queen's majesty, during the vacation of bi- 

lands. shoprics, was read the second time, the first reading not 

mentioned in D'Ewes' Journal. 

Tliis bill seems to be intended for the further establish- 



UNDER QUEEN ELIZABETH. 441 

ment of an act made the last parliament for the exchange of CHAP, 
bishops'' lands. This had no more reading this session, and '_ 



was laid aside. Anno isfis. 

February the 15th, read the first time, the bill against Against 
fond and fantastical prophecies; and for the punishment of pi,g(,i^.5^i„_ 
invocation of evil spirits, enchantments