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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1884, by 


in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, Washington, D. C. 



The object of writing prefaces to books must consist 
chiefly in the desire to place the reader, to some extent, in 
harmony with the subject before him. Preliminary re- 
marks may thus aid in accomplishing the purpose held in 
view by the writer. There should be a reason for all 
things; and certainly a good reason is required when 
people resort to print. 

In the present case, the writer feels that peculiar justi- 
fication is needed, which it is his duty to explain at the 
beginning. He had not the most remote idea, on com- 
mencing to write the following records, that they would 
ever be presented to the public; such a thought was 
not in his mind, nor was the suggestion then made by 

A number of persons, engaged chiefly in rural pursuits, 
desirous of improving their minds while cultivating their 
farms, united twenty-five years ago in the erection of a 
comfortable building, to which they gave the name of 
The Lyceum. Einding much satisfaction in the interest- 
ing proceedings that attended their various meetings, a 
company was formed, and regularly incorporated under the 


title "The Sandy Spring Lyceum Company." Although 
the lectures were generally well attended, it was found 
difl&cult to get a quorum together at the annual meetings 
for the election of officers. Francis Miller suggested that 
if these meetings could be made interesting the people 
would attend; he proposed that a historian and statis- 
tician should be appointed, to give at each Annual Meeting 
a sketch of events during the year. The idea was cordi- 
ally seconded, and William Henry Farquhar was elected 
Historian. The appreciative audiences since have demon- 
strated the wisdom of the plan ; and from it sprang the 
following "Annals." After listening for twenty years to 
the reading of these records, it was resolved by a unani- 
mous vote in the session of '83, that they should be 
published in the form of a book. 

The persons of whom the company was composed were 
chiefly, though by no means exclusively, members of the 
" Society of Friends," settled over the southeastern part 
of Montgomery County, Maryland. These primitive 
settlers of Sandy Spring neighborhood were confined 
within no precisely defined limits, but were linked to- 
gether by the ties of similarity in birth, education, and 
manner of living; without which, the attempt to con- 
dense the interests and incidents of ordinary life into one 
chronicle must be fruitless. 

The writer has formed decided and possibly peculiar 
views in regard to the practicability of considering the 
people of a whole neighborhood as an entity in itself, one 


united being, and thus claiming the right to give their 
Annals the more dignified name of History. Of this it 
is for the reader to judge. He will find a variety of 
topics ; and, though no abundance of rare or exciting in- 
cidents, yet a fair portion of those simple, homely traits 
in human life and character which are never without 
natural interest. The book is neiu, and it is true. It 
tells the story of country life as it passes through suc- 
cessive periods, at long intervals. Agriculture is the chief 
subject and concern of the work ; a subject requiring no 
excuse for intruding upon the people of America. We 
who are specially connected with it, as the principal busi- 
ness of our lives, cannot fail sometimes to observe that 
our position in the world is not properly appreciated, nor 
even fully understood. Believing this to be the case, we 
would fain supply the rest of the world with some im- 
portant facts to them unknown. The works written upon 
agriculture are naturally addressed chiefly to farmers; 
but it is surely not amiss to promote a closer union of 
interests and ideas between the huo halves into which the 
people of the United States are nearly equally divided, 
viz. the farmers and those not farmers. 

The present book is not, as appears at sight, merely a 
transient local concern, describing the incidents which 
occur every year to a limited number of ordinary farmers 
residing in the interior of Maryland. Were that all, it 
would require some assurance on the part of " The Sandy 
Spring Lyceum Company " to publish the book to the 


world. But there is an impression in the minds of many- 
persons outside of that company, and confirmed from time 
to time by visitors impartial and qualified to judge, that 
Sandy Spring is not quite an ordinary country neighbor- 
hood. In defence of this seeming pretension we invite 
our readers to commence with examining Chapter YII 
of this book, and the book itself. 

If there is any truth in the flattering opinions expressed 
in the j)ages referred to (in which we all acknowledge a 
degree of exaggeration), it must be of some interest to 
other farmers to trace the course that has led to such 
results. In reviewing the various chapters it will be 
observed that one central idea of unlimited association 
has been the leading influence. 

The book will contain an Appendix, which we believe 
will add to its interest and value. Meteorological Pheno- 
mena, carefully observed by Henry C. Hallowell and 
Allan Farquhar, for many years, exhibit the weather of 
this region — and all take an interest in the weather. 

I could not close this preface without acknowledging 

the benefit which the Annals have received from the 

assistance of two Friends, Hadassah J. Moore and Mary 

B. Thomas. 

W:m. H. Farquhar. 



Centres of settlement — The Sandy Spring : mistakes in its char- 
acter — Land patents — The unbroken forest — The Indians 
and wild animals — Tide of immigration rolling up from lower 
counties — First settlers — Adventures with wild beasts — 
Friends' Meeting — George Fox — James Brooks — Evan 
Thomas — Simplicity of our ancestors — Emancipation — 
Three periods — Declitie of soil — Revival — Bone dust and 
guano — Social, literary and business affairs ; insurance and 
savings institutions — Fidelity to principle. Page xiii. 

Ode on Lyceum, Page xxxvi. 



Origin of the book — Historian's chief duty — Turnpike and map — 
First invasion by '• the Gray " — Historical Society — Clubs, 
and other associations — Speeches by Judge Bowie, Judge Blair 
and Gov. Randall — Obituaries of John'Elgar Hallowell, Caleb 
P. Iddings and Matilda Gilpin. Page 1. 



An eventful year — Charitable contributions — Uses of Lyceum 
Hall — Invasion of Maryland — Battles near home — Obituaries 

of Thos. P. Stabler, Evelyn Stabler, Bertha Miller, Peirce, 

Tarleton Brooke, B. W. Waters, Alexander J. Brooke, Archi- 
bald D. Moore, William Chandlee and Mary H. Brooke. 

Page 9. 




Tame annals happiest — Peace celebration — Lincoln mourning — 
Wheat declining — Sorghum — Schools — Marriages numerous 
after the war — Mrs. Clarke's colored school — Obituaries of 
Elizabeth Briggs, Isabella Stabler, Timothy Kirk, Martha 
Thomas, Edward S. Hallo well, Annie Moore and Clarkson Sta- 
bler. Page 21. 



Invitation to assist the Historian — Farm improvements — Life of 
the clubs — Mercantile interest — Branch turnpike — Toll- 
gate — First appearance of railroad engineers — Literary so- 
ciety — Schools prosperous — Obituaries of three young chil- 
dren of Edward Peirce and R. S. Moore, Mary Brooke, Julia 
Miles and William Stabler. Page 31. 



A changed neighborhood — A fair month following a discouraging 
one — New road system, 7iot the railroad — New school system 
— Savings institution organized — Five years' statistics — 
Agreeable immigration — Obituary of Koger Brooke. 

Page 40. 



What is a neighborhood ? — Disappointments — Attempt at a census 
of the neighborhood — Fires and flood — Political contest — 
Science in the Lyceum — Amusements — Hard times — Dearths, 
none. Page 50. 




Descriptions of Sandy Spring by William Darby, Monciire D. Con- 
way and A. G. Eiddle, Esq. — "Noblesse oblige" — Dull 
year — Crops fairly good despite rainless months — The 16-year 
interval — The societies flourish — Lectures of B. Hallowell 
and others — The girls ahead of the boys in respect to educa- 
tion — Obituaries of Abby Maigne, Dr. W. P. Palmer, George 
Brooke and Elizabeth Kirk. Page 60. 



Why the Lyceum year commences with the 4th month — Moral- 
izing — Census of Friends' Meeting — New buildings and roads 

— Norwood Branch — Home interests — Oyster-shell lime vs. 
phosphates — County agricultural fair — Society and late 
hours — " The marriage gale " — Deaths, none. Page 71. 



Variations of weather — More compliments from Mr. Ramsdel — 
Summer boarders — Birth of the various associations — Use of 
supper — Fresh news of railroads — PostofRce reports — * ' The 
Farmers' Convention" — Obituaries of Rachel G. Gilpin, Wil- 
liam Thomas, Mary E. Stone and Catharine Chandlee. 

Page 83. 



Progress of the history — Dry season and good crops — Epizootic 

— How does farming pay ? — The labor question — Severe 
remarks on railroads — Extent of the association principle — 
Summary of ten years' statistics — Obituaries of Wilson Scott, 
Isaac Bond, Ann Wetherald and Virginia Moore. Page 98. 




Resumption of the history — Influence of the age — Solid basis — 
Increase of travelling and of fresh meat — Economy — Dairy 
busmess extending — Rise of the ' ' Grange ' ' — Lectures by 
Rev. J. F. W. Ware, Samuel Stabler, and others — The Black 
Friday — The telegraph established at Olney , and the Metro- 
politan railroad at Rockville — Golden weddings — Obituaries 
of Walter Bond and Isaac Briggs. Page 116. 



**The bright side, the true side" — Progress always — Sandy 
Spring less affected by drought — The Colorado bug makes its 
appearance — Encouraging views — Annual Convention of 
farmers highly successful — The Grange flourishing, and all 
the societies — Telegraph withdrawn — Obituaries of William 
D. Stabler, Elizabeth Feast and Roger B. Nesbit, and of Wil- 
liam Bellows, Sam'l Pumphrey and Thomas Marriott, three 
excellent colored men. Page 129. 



Grumbling among farmers — The Centennial influences — Paris 
green effectual against the bugs — A dairy association insti- 
tuted — A reporter of the Sun appears at the *' Farmers' Con- 
vention" — Obituaries of Mary B. Brooke, Margaret E. Hal- 
lowell, Samuel Thomas, Robert M. Farquhar, Sally Gilpin (95 
years old), and Joseph Scott. Page 144. 




Ancient recollections — Animated pursuits — Sandy Spring at the 
Centennial — The Murderer caught — Presidential election — 
Defence of the Lyceum — Science — List of visitors at the Cen- 
tennial — Obituaries of Anna Stabler, Howard Stabler, Samuel 
Miller, Harriet Iddings, Anna Holland, Deborah Paxson and 
Hannah Birdsall. Page 161. 



The story of the world — Influence of the Meeting House — Former 
remarkable seasons — Our bank — Telephones — Improved roads 
— Immigration of Baltimoreans — Book club — Character of 
the obituaries — Obituaries of Mary Chalfant, Elizabeth Plea- 
sants, Benjamin Hallowell and Sarah T. Brooke. Page 176. 



Census of the Neighborhood — The great hailstorm — Stanmore 
school removed to Kockland — Pleasure tours in new directions 
— Relief to yellow fever sufferers — A bad sport — ** Benevolent 
Aid Society " — Elections — Obituary of Frank Sullivan. 

Page 195. 



The largest tree^ — Changes in man — A year of action — Barn 
raising — Help to sick harvesters — New amusements — New 
Bible class — The great cyclone — Sanitary facts — The success 
of the ladies at the Lyceum — The Dickens calendar — Revising 
the discipline — Two new societies — Obituaries of Ann M. 
Stabler, Phebe Farquhar and Alice Stabler, Page 212. 




Historian' s proper business — Evolution — Darwinism — Local Option 
campaign — Census of Friends — Dr. Scott in Europe — Sad, 
sudden death of Dr. J. "W. Magruder — Orthodox Meeting — 
Glorious victory of local option — Afternoon First-Day Meeting 

— Fast driving — Obituaries of Samuel Ellicott, James Stone, 
B. R. Roberts and Judge R. J. Bowie. Page 233. 



Early history of Sandy Spring, transferred to ' ' The Introduction ' ' 

— The Women Board of Directors — Fund for benefit of library 
— Death of President G-arfield — Ensilage — Aid to sufferers by 
Michigan fires — Election of Joseph T. Moore as senator of 
Montgomery County — New arrangements in Friends' graveyard 

— Obituaries of Martha T. Harvey and Cleorah Palmer. 

Page 253. 



Conclusion of the Lyceum company to print the annals — Epithets 
used in the war " scattered to the wind" — The army worm — 
Pleuro-pneumonia — The three weddings at Rockland — Higher 
school at Sherwood — The bank — Fire insurance company — 
Last tribute — Obituaries of Eliza Brooke, Anna Stabler, Ed- 
ward Thomas, Mary B. Kirk, Caroline Stabler and Wm. 
Henry Stabler. Page 257. 


Remiiuscences of Thomas McCormick, .... 276 
Letter on Mutual Insurance Company, of Hon. A. B. Davis, 281 
Meteorological Notes, 285 


It must be a natural conclusion of every one who com- 
mences to I'ead " The Annals of a People for Twenty Years," 
that such a people, if worthy of these records, must have 
possessed something in the character of a prevmis history. 
In point of fact the (so-called) historian, who first ac- 
cepted the name, as a mock- title of dignity, had made 
careful researches into the facts relating to the early 
history of " Sandy Spring Neighborhood," several years be- 
fore the Lyceum Company instituted the annual records of 
which the following chapters consist. In the year 1860 
a lecture was delivered by him at the L3^ceum, as the 
result of those researches; many of the historical inci- 
dents being from aged persons then alive, as well 
from all the books in his reach relating to the subject. 
What follows nov/ will be 

The Eaely History of Sandy Sprikg. 

In order that its position may be rightly understood it 
is necessary to remind the present reader that it was 
addressed to the same Lyceum Company which listened 
to the various chapters that follow. 

At the commencement of this history it is proper to 
fix some definite ideas in regard to the region of the 
country which is included under the name *' Sandy 
Spring." The most distinguished writers tell us there 
have always been certain "centres of settlement" for all 
the principal nations. Humboldt speaks of " the central 


radiant points " as being of the highest importance first 
to understand. 

Xow where is onr Central Eadiant Point? In order 
to begin at the fountain-head, both literally and figur- 
atively, I made a pilgrimage to the Spring from which 
our neighborhood receives its name. A fraction of a mile 
south of the Lyceum and of our Meeting House, the 
waters flow out of the earth. I cannot say of them what 
Whittier tells us in describing the sources of the Saco 
river, among the White Hills of 'New Hampshire, that 

" There, in wild and virgin freshness, its waters foam and flow, 
As when Snowden first beheld them, near two hmidred years ago." 

Indeed, the 2:»lace is very much changed since then. 
Ko longer does the water bubble up through the white 
scmd that gave the spring its name, so famous once 
that the neighbors sent to it, some distance round, on 
account of its peculiar scouring and polishing excellence. 
Where the red Indian stopped to drink, unfastening the 
wild beast's skin from his swarthy neck ; where the white 
man chasing the deer, the wolf and the" bear, first parted 
the tangled wildwood that clustered thick over the clear, 
refreshing fountain, we now see only the plain, ordinary 
spring of our common fields. Wagon loads of stone, 
together with alluvial deposits of other soil, have almost 
covered the large original basin, and the white sand of 
the original Sandy Spring exists only in history. 

It is a singular fact that the name of our neighbor- 
hood, thus derived, has caused among strangers a double 
deception. On first hearing it they imagine (giving the 
latter part of the name a plural termination) that we 
have here a regular watering place, — an honor to which 
we by no means aspire. On the other hand, the agri- 


cultural traveller expects to find a ligld, sandy soil — the 
very ojjposite of that which the condition of our winter 
roads soon makes apparent. 

Those who discovered and named our spring had no 
such quizzical intentions ; and it is the sincere, earnest 
and special desire of the inhabitants that the letters ad- 
dressed to our postoffice shall omit the final S, so often 
improperly used. 

It is a circumstance much to be regretted that the 
name of the first discoverer of this particular region has 
not been found with any degree of certainty. 

It appears from the earliest Land Records, that the 
first settlements ^vere made soon after the beginning of 
the last century. The tract taken up under the name of 
" Snowden's Manor," which is now in possession of our 
friends, the Thomases and Stablers, was dated in 1715; 
"BealFs Manor," adjoining it on the south, five years 
later. The " Charles and Benjamin," a tract of land be- 
ginning at a point not far from Hawlings river, and ex- 
tending in a very meandering direction, nearly through 
the heart of the neighborhood (as was unfortunately too 
much the old fashion of taking up fresh land), bears the 
date 1718. In and among and around several of these 
tracts, an independent grant of near 2000 acres was made 
to' Major John Bradford, the 10th day of August, 1716, 
and called " Charley Forrest," which must certainly be 
regarded as one of the chief " centres of settlement." 

From this evidence we find very nearly the exact perii:)d 
when the wild lands of this region were conveyed by 
the Lord Proprietor of Maryland to the first regular 
settlers. No doubt the roving liunter, always pioneer in 
exploring new countries, had impressed " the white man'^ 
tread" as early as the latter half of the 17th century, or 


full 200 years ago. What did he find here, and what was 
the spectacle that met his eye? An unbroken forest 
covered the whole region, except in a few spots where the 
wigwams of the native Indian showed around them little 
patches of corn and tobacco, so few and far between as 
scarce to break the face of the primeval wilderness. A 
fact showing that the forest of these days was not, like 
ours, filled with shrubby undergrowth, was brought to 
my knowledge in riding with John M. Sandidge, himself 
a pioneer settler of the forests in the Southwest. He 
ventured to assure me that any of the old-time settlers 
would confirm the statement. Going on to "Brooke 
Grove " we proposed to the venerable Eoger Brooke (then 
past 80 years of age), the opinion expressed by Mr. 
"Sandidge. The old gentleman said at once that he was 
right, and related an incident that happened at a very 
early period. " A horse had got loose some miles up in 
the country and made his way down through the dense 
forest. His owner was able to follow his course by the 
distinct tracks left where the horse's feet were placed. 
This could not be readily done now.'* 

It aj^pears quite certain that the Indians could never 
have existed here in any considerable numbers, from the 
circumstance that no burial place containing their re- 
mains, so far as I am able to learn, has been discovered 
hereabout. And this is one of the monuments which 
perishing mortality is sure to leave behind it, where has 
been even a moderate population. The absence of gi'aves, 
and scarcity of other remains, go to redeem our fore- 
fathers from any large share in the extermination of that 
doomed people. Arrow-heads, with a few rude attempts 
at the manufacture of culinary utensils, are occasionally 
picked up still in our fields. 


Next we come to the wild animals that abode in these 
forests. The bear, the panther, the wolf, the deer, and 
some others long extinct, shared the woods with the 
human inhabitants scarce less wild than they. Evidences 
of their existence are found in the names given to the 
tracts of land taken up by the first settlers of our country. 
Such designations contained in the original patents as 
" Bear Den," " Bear Garden," " Deer Park," " AYolf Den," 
and others of similar signification are quite numerous; 
while "Bear Bacon," one of the very ancient patents, 
lying on 1;he Laurel road, about Spencerville, serves as a 
plain indication of the use often made of these wild 
tenants of the forest. 

Into this waste and wilderness, bearing scarce any im- 
press but fi;om Nature's hand, rolled slowly and gradually, 
from the southeast, the tide of immigration. The region 
of our State lying toward the mouth of the Potomac re- 
ceived its first European settlers in the year 1634. The 
companions of Oecilius Calvert, a brother of Lord 
Baltimore, came over in two small vessels, bearing the 
auspicious names of " The Ark " and " The Dove " : Ark 
of refuge — Dove of peace. The liberal policy of those 
Catholic founders of Maryland, securing to all who came 
that rare boon in those benighted ages — religious toleration 
to all sects — attracted a mingled crowd of emigrants from 
many lands. The lower counties were first partially 
occupied ; and it required abouf three-fourths of a century 
for the tide of immigration, passing successively through, 
and instituting first St. Mary's, then Charles, then 
Prince George's, at length reaching our borders. In 
1748 what is now Montgomery was made part of 
Frederick county, continuing so till 1776. The route 
can be traced by the dates of the Land Patents along the 


line of the Laurel Road. The tract of " Bear Bacon," 
before mentioned, at or near Spencerville, is of 1703, while 
those lying farther east were still earlier . Snowden's Manor, 
on this side, is only twelve years younger, which shows liow 
slowly the settlement progressed westward. It appears 
that emigration taking this direction w^as determined by 
an old Indian trail, used now as the bed of the road ; and 
the coincidence is not uninteresting, as the same road 
wdiich formed the avenue of approach for the earliest 
settlement of this neighborhood, after lying many years 
almost unused, has become in these times the way by 
which we communicate daily with the rest of the world. 
Our best conveyance is still by stage ; but great hopes are 
entertained of seeing the car moving with lively speed 
along that same road, albeit the " narrov/ gauge " be the 

It is time now to shoAv that the true fathers of " Sandy 
Spring Neighborhood " were not the first settlers. Neither 
Major Bradford, nor the Eichardsons, nor Charles Beall, 
nor Benjamin Berry, had much to do with laying the 
foundation. It was left to another band, immediately 
following, to form the institutions, to impress the char- 
acter and affix the name. Drawn to Maryland by the re- 
ligious toleration denied them in the old world, " the 
Friends," or " People called Quakers," appeared in this 
colony in considerable numbers at quite an early period. 
In 1672 George Fox himself came over; and (borrowing 
now" from the Vv^ork of Lackland Davis) " proceeded on his 
mission. Being a true reformer, a man of rude but 
powerful eloquence, his fame had preceded him. Travel- 
ling wath an energy almost incredible over various 
parts of the continent, through forests and thickets, 
through deep marshes and dangerous bogs — crossing 


rivers and bays in canoes and sleeping in the open woods ; 
preaching at the cliffs of the Patuxent and npon the 
banks of the Severn, upon the Choptank and elsewhere 
to Indians and crowds of colonists; speaking before abor- 
iginal kings and leading emigrants from the Old World ; 
giving utterance to the Spirit in words of fire, and with all 
the power of an Apostle — no wonder he promoted the 
growth of a denomination which soon absorbed a number 
of the most distinguished families of the Province." And 
so it is that George Fox, though never here in person, 
was the founder of Sandy Spring ! 

The Friends, who had been fortified by the harsh, but 
strengthening hand of persecution in the Old World, and 
fitted to bear the hardships of the New, appeared at this 
place in sufficient numbers to organize a meeting a while 
before the middle of the last century. In the minutes of 
an ancient monthly meeting held at the Cliffs and Herring 
Creek is contained the first mention that I have seen of 
the " Meeting at Sandy Spring," presenting its report to 
the former meeting on "the 27th of the 7th month, 1753." 
The first members composing the meeting appear to have 
belonged to the families of the Brookes, the Thomases 
and Snowdens. It was in 1742 that Eichard Snowden 
conveyed 500 acres, part of his Manor, to Philip Thomas. 
It is stated on the Genealogical Tree of the Brooke 
family — a complete and beautiful picture recently pro- 
duced by the delicate labors of Mary 0. Brooke of Avon — 
that James Brooke settled at "Charley Forrest" in 1728, 
and founded in our county the well-known family of that 
name. He w^as a descendant of one Eobert Brooke, who 
had emigrated from England in 1650 to St. Mary's county, 
bringing with him a large family and a numerous band of 
retainers. The Brooke family, like the Calverts, were 


originally Catholics; but ancestor James bad left the 
ancient faith for the simple tenets of the Quaker ; being 
inditced thereto (as is believed) by that influence which 
converted so many heathen kings to Christianity — namely, 
the gentle power of woman's faith and love. He married 
Deborah, daughter of Richard Snowden, in the year 1725, 
and " went to housekeeping " soon afterward ; as stands 
recorded in his own handwriting in a little ancient book 
belonging to the Brooke family. Thus settled comfortably 
at " Charley Forrest," James Brooke continued making 
large acquisitions of land property, securing near 20,000 
acres in one tract, which he called " Addition to Brooke 
Grove." This patent reaches from the beginning, a high 
stone still standing in Samuel Elliott's lane, to Seneca 
Creek, distant some ten or twelve miles. 

The Friends Meeting being thus organized principally 
by the Brooke and Thomas families, to which were joined 
other sympathizing friends, these energetic colonists pro- 
ceeded with the serious business of subduing the wilder- 
ness. They cleared the forest, planted corn and tobacco, 
and built comfortable dwellings. It was said by William 
Darby, the highest geographical authority ever domiciled 
among us, that when the house still standing on "Charley 
Forrest" (though considerably altered now) was first erected, 
it was the only framed building between here and Canada, 
on this meridian. Another legend (perhaps as doubtful) 
relates to the brick house of Philip Thomas — now the 
dwelling of William John Thomas — which is declared to 
have had the bricks brought from England. It is certain 
that the building of the largest number of that substan- 
tial sort of houses within Sandy Spring is due to the 
Thomas family. 

Among these pioneers a more exciting occupation was 


found in liimting the wild beasts; and many a severe con- 
flict was required before their farms were cleared of these 
fierce enemies. The wolf and the bear ate their young 
swine and lambs; and the panther made the lonely paths 
through the woods perilous to them and their children.* 
The story was told me of an animated conflict which 
took place between old James Brooke and a panther, that 
has still a lively interest. A war w^as then prevailing 
(it must have been the French War of 1755), which had 
produced a scarcity of ammunition among the settlers. 
The oft-mentioned J. B. was out hunting with six dogs, 
when he came, in the deep recesses of a forest, upon a huge 
specimen of this North American tiger. The ferocious 
beast attacked the dogs, and in the twinkling of an eye 
they were laid out, with his enormous paw^s, sprawling on 
every side. At this juncture the old man came up and 
fired, but ineff'ectually, on the enraged animal, which now 
turned upon him. He endeavored rapidly to reload, but 
found he had shot away his last bullet. The situation 
was a serious one, but the men of those days were trained 
for all such emergencies. Cutting oft' one of the metal 
buttons of his coat, he dropped it down the capacious 
mouth of his old musket and blazed away at the panther, 
striking him right between those cruel eyes and putting 
an end to the beast. (I fancy there was no scolding at 
home that evening from his Deborah on account of the 
missing Mittonl) How different is a nocturnal walk 

* The curious reader who had examined Scharf's "History of 
Western Maryland ' ' might be struck with the coincidence between 
cohimns of that work, page 773-G, and the above recitals and 
others that follow. The latter was collected by me, and furnished 
by request to Mr. Scharf's agent ; this was all right — but, perhaps, 
it would have been as well to acknowledge the source. W. H. F. 

xxii ixtroductio:n^. 

through onr woods now, from what it was in those days ! 
Many stories are related, some quite humorous and others 
very frightful, of adventures with wolves, bears, and 
panthers. The following may be depended upon, coming 
down as it does through such channels. A carpenter, 
who had been at work through the day at the first attempt 
to build a house in the village of Brookeville, was making 
his way to his own hut in a dark night though the dense 
forest. Suddenly he was startled at the sight of two 
sliiniiig eyes in the path before him. He had no gun, 
but the axe was in his hand ; lifting it he flung it with all 
his force at the horrid object, and then ran with all his 
might. On the following morning the axe was found 
stuck fast in the cloven skull of a young panther. 

Tracks in the snow were inspected in those days with 
painful interest by the children ; thus learning the value 
of an art now too much neglected — the grand art of 

Then, the most valuable of all animals, without ex- 
ception, was the sagacious and faithful dog. Without his 
efficient services it would have been .almost impossible to 
subdue and settle the wilderness. No wonder he is still 
held in such esteem, especially by the descendants of the old 
pioneers, if only for the good he has done. Yet it does seem, 
in the progress of civilization, that some of the very things 
most essential at the beginning became wholly unneces- 
sary, and to be regarded as — an ornament or — a nuisance. 
Strange, but true I Well, they say "every dog has his 
day." May not the same be said of the gun, at least 
of the 2^istol ? — an instrument invented in evil ingenuity, 
used only in barbarism, and now in wickedness — properly 
to be banished from the face of the earth. 

At length the wild beasts disappeared before the hunter 


with his dog and gun. The last bear shot in this neigh- 
borhood was brought down from the forks of a chestnut 
tree, a little way north of " Sharon "; this was in 1780. The 
wolf and deer were exterminated a short time afterward. 

Their first severe hardship past, the early settlers, whom 
I have partially described, began evidently to prosper in 
their agricultural pursuits, chiefly by the culture of the 
great staple, tobacco. So profitable was the cultivation 
of their precious weed, that in the fear of seeing more 
essential crops neglected, the Legislative Assembly inter- 
posed with a law requiring every planter to put in two 
acres of corn for each member of the family engaged in 
working tobacco. The fact is mentioned that Kichard 
Snowden had 24 tobacco houses standing in a row on one 
tract of land. 

Although prosperous in their affairs, the forefathers of 
our neighborhood maintained great simplicity in manners, 
food and costume ; having great contempt at the intro- 
duction of what they regarded as luxuries, of which some 
are now considered necessaries of life. An instance of 
this simplicity is shown in the fact, that there was for a 
time, indeed for quite a number of years, only one pair of 
boots in the settlement. This rare article was in posses- 
sion of the head of the Thomas family ; and was loaned 
out, in the true spirit of the olden time, to any of the 
neighbors about to undertake the serious enterprise of a 
journey to Annapolis ! It is also w^ll established that a 
single great-coat served the purposes of the community on 
similar occasions. Another incident, coming from an 
authentic source, gives a strong impression of the tough- 
ness and hardihood of body possessed by these old patri- 
archs. For a number of years they had no fire in the 
Meeting House : it is to be supposed that zeal kept them 


warm even in winter. At length some efficient members 
prevailed in getting a stove placed in the centre of the 
house. Great opposition had been manifested; and one 
of the hardy elders, determined to show his indifference, 
on entering the meeting pulled off his coat at the door 
and flung it on the stove. It happened to be moderate 
weather and no fire was kindled on that day, so nothing 
remarkable occurred; but the next time he came the 
weather was colder and a fire was kindled in the stove. 
Determined to set a proper example to the weakly ones, 
the good man walked firmly up the aisle, and exclaiming 
" Oh, the dumb idol ! " he again threw his coat across the 
stove, and took his place in the gallery. A slight com- 
motion was roused among the younger members (very 
slight, for the boys were order itself in those days). 
Surprised at so extraordinary a manifestation he lifted his 
eyes and beheld his outer garment enveloped in smoke 
from its own substance. After this he never mentioned 
the "dumb idol" again. Connecting this incident with 
the rule in those days relating to bed-covers — to make 
use of one Uanket only until Christmas, and never more 
than two afterwards — we can form an idea of the degree 
of bodily hardiness possessed by the early settlers — so 
difterent from the present customs. 

Thus lived and flourished in peace and growing plenty 
the " rugged forefathers of the hamlet," when that great 
event occurred which put a new face on the history of the 
world, extending its influence to the dwellers in the 
"backwoods" of Sandy Spring. I refer, of course, to 
the American Ke volution. The Friends, by profession 
and practice, were men of peace. Owing to that love of 
established order, united to a dread of innovation, which 
has ever rendered them the most conservative of sects, the 


Friends in general took no active part in the great contest. 
Some exceptions there were. One of the Brooke family 
joined the army and became a colonel, for which and 
some other breaches of the peaceful customs of his people 
he was condemned (according to the superstitions of the 
times) still to make nightly visits up and down the stairs 
of the fair mansion on the hill, built by him and claimed 
as his own. Courage and fortitude of another sort were 
manifested in those "times that tried men's souls," by 
Evan Thomas, whose son Philip E. has been called the 
father of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. This excel- 
lent man resided in the old brick house near Colesville, 
and attended regularly the Sandy Spring Meeting, of 
which he was a solid and faithful minister. Born in 
this county in 1738, he made numerous friends and ac- 
quaintances as he grew up, and entered freely into social 
circles. When the troubles of the Revolution came on he 
joined the patriots, and was elected a member of the Con- 
vention at Annapolis. Though fully impressed with the 
truth of Friends' principles, he at first saw nothing in- 
consistent with them in the bold "Declaration of the 
Rights of the People" that emanated from the Convention. 
"The true Quaker," Bancroft says, "is always a brave 
man, and a true Republican." Evan Thomas was re- 
elected; but the conviction was soon forced upon his 
mind that those patriotic resolutions meant war. He 
turned away from the path into which events were hur- 
rying him, and came back to the strait and narrow path 
of his convictions of truth. A thorny way it proved to 
him ; for years to come he had to suffer severely in person 
and goods, for conscience sake. By one of the intolerant 
laws of the period no person was allowed to preach unless 
duly allowed by secular authority. But Evan Thomas's 


warrant to preach came from a higher Power, and he was 
careful to obey only its behests. Oftentimes he was forcibly 
dragged from the gallery when he stood up to speak ; he 
was fined and imprisoned ; but on the next meeting-day 
after his release he was there again, pleading for heaven's 
mercy to his oppressors. 

The persecutions ceased with the w^ar. A fair share of 
worldly success was the reward of his faithfulness to 
principle ; and he w^as enabled to rear a prosperous family, 
whose education was duly attended to, and who gained 
highly respectable positions in life. I have dwelt the 
longer upon this individual biography because it is of 
represe7itative character; a type of the sort of moral 
strength requisite to carry a community safely over diffi- 
culties, and to build up durable individual characters. 
Many other worthies, as well among the women as the 
men of Sandy Spring in those early times, might be 
described as progenitors of the bone and sinew, brain and 
heart, that aided to give the neighborhood the reputation 
and influence which it acquired; but now we pass on 
down the stream of time. 

It is here requisite to relate a grand historical event, 
which has exercised so efficient an influence over the 
character and fortunes of the people of Sandy Spring 
that no faithful narrator could fail to give it due place. 

A little while before the commencement of the Revo- 
lutionary War, about the year 1772, "the Yearly Meeting 
of Friends in Baltimore," (I quote the words of the 
ancient minutes) "recommended to the subordinate Quart- 
erly jMeetings to keep under the weight of a concern which 
had arisen in the society some time ago, in regard to mem- 
bers holding slaves." The following year a committee 
reported that " some appear concerned to discharge their 


slaves; divers are convinced of the injustice of the practice, 
while too many make excuses," &c. It is evident that 
great tenderness, patience and deliberation marked every 
step taken by our society in this weighty matter. Time 
was afforded to all to examine the subject for themselves. 
No outside pressure was employed. Appeal was made 
only to the sense of right in the minds of those immedi- 
ately concerned. At length the society, impressed by 
their own convictions, took up "the testimony against 
slavery," and held it ever since. Under its operation 
large families of slaves were discharged from compulsory 
service, who became the progenitors of the useful, and 
comparatively prosperous " free-colored working people " 
of the neighborhood. Lives there a man who would 
deny that a blessing rested on us for this sacrifice made 
by our forefathers, in compliance with this call of duty ? 

In the life of neighborhoods, as well as of individuals 
and nations, there are eras or stages that mark their 
progress. I note three such periods in the history of our 
community. The first period includes the settlement of 
the country, and the formation of the institutions which 
were to mould and stamp its future condition and char- 
acter. Without afiecting any close precision of dates, 
that first portion may be said to extend nearly to the close 
of the third quarter of the last century: this would in- 
clude a period of about fifty years, bringing us np to the 
establishment of free labor. To this succeeded a period 
of comparative quiet, which, toward the latter portion or 
second era, threatened to become stagnation. 

The cultivation of tobacco, which formed the chief 
wealth of the early settlers, grew to be unprofitable. Our 
soil, resting as it does on the solid foundation of the 
primitive rocks, was soon exhausted of some essential 


constituents upon which that odious weed draws so 
largely. Agriculture began to languish; old fields, 
abandoned to broom sedge, became the most striking 
feature of the rural landscape; and this to an extent 
that our young farmers can now scarcely realize. Toward 
the end of this second period, and for the first and last 
time, a small emigration to the West began to exhibit 
itself. Yet it does not seem that our people were seriously 
retrograding. There w^ere at least two enterprises belong- 
ing to the quiet period which serve to redeem it from 
stagnation. One of these enterprises was the building in 
1817 of our large brick Meeting House. The erection 
of so expensive a building (it being, when I took the 
census in 1850, the largest religious structure in the 
county), manifested the existence of the old sj^irit in our 
people, assisted, however, from abroad. It is told that 
Philip E. Thomas, son of Evan, as before mentioned, con- 
tributed ^500 toward the valuable improvement. 

The second historical event was the location here of 
the Eair Hill Boarding School, a year or two after the 
Meeting House was built. The selection of this neigh- 
borhood by the Yearly Meeting of Baltimore as its edu- 
cational centre, may fairly be regarded an indication of 
the character for intelligence which Sandy Spring had 
acquired. Schools have never been neglected by the 
Society of Eriends. From an early period " useful learn- 
ing" was inscribed on their book of discipline as one of 
their religious obligations. And so the cultivation of the 
mind was still persevered in, after the time came when the 
culture of the soil yielded meagre results. The price of 
land, once much inflated, fell off heavily, reaching its 
lowest point about 1835, when the second era or period of 
our neighborhood's history may be said to close. A farm 


in the central part sold for $6, and one at the eastern edge 
for $2.05, per acre. 

It luas time for a revival: and it came. The third 
period then began. A way must be found to improve 
the land. The first experiment was made with lime. In 
the year '38, nineteen lime kilns could be counted within 
the sweep of a short radius, the stone being brought from 
five to ten miles. It is still subject of dispute as to the 
actual fruits of that lime experiment; but there is no 
doubt as to the fruits of the spirit that dictated it. It 
showed the tuill; and that is bound in all such cases to 
find the way. 

The "way" which was found in the next year, '39, to 
bring about the real improvement which was to come, 
appears now very strange, almost a craze. " Thereby hangs 
a tale," which had perhaps be better left in oblivion. Yet 
one of the uses of history is to teach how to avoid the 
errors of the past; and if mankind ever did take warning 
from the blunders of their predecessors, it might be well 
to dilate upon Sandy Spring experience witii "Morns 
multicaulis ! " 

The only thing worth telling about that affair is the 
very valuable discovery which it led to, in the use of 
bone dust. A few trials of this article soon showed that 
we had found what we had been looking for, viz. a 
fertilizer that was attainable, and that could be trusted in, 
A few years later, in 1844, that miracle of agriculture — 
" Guano " — was brought amongst us in appreciable quan- 
tities, and — you know the rest. 

Eadical improvement had begun of the sort sure to go 
on. Our young people found there was no need now to 
emigrate to newer, richer soils. Notwithstanding the 
adhesiveness that has bound them more closely to their 


birthplace than, perhaps, has been exhibited in any 
other part of the State, who can believe that one-third of 
those young men who constitute our junior clubs, and 
who are now using " Cooley Creamers," " digging Silos," 
and such, would have been content to remain even at 
Sandy Spring, if bone and guano had never been intro- 
duced among us ? 

It may be said, without using any extravagant ex- 
pressions, that from the time these powerful fertilizers 
came into general use, the march of improvement was 
steadily onward. Energy and industry, thus encouraged 
by the certainty almost of securing their reward, were 
not found wanting ; and a fair increase of outward pros- 
perity followed. But the discovery and use of bone and 
gnano may be considered as accidental circuvistaiices. 
The question arises, are we sure there was enough of" 
spirit and power within to control and mould circum- 
stances, and to make proper use of the opportunities 
which the more prosperous times afforded ? Before enumer- 
ating the multitudinous improvements which began to 
come to light, it is due to a right understanding of these 
results that we acknowledge the great benefits, along 
with some drawbacks, which Sandy Spring neighborhood 
received from the immigi^ation of valuable persons coming 
from outside its borders. Although these newcomers have 
been jestingly styled ^'carpet-baggers" by a few belonging to 
the original settlers, rather famous for loving a joke, truth 
requires the statement that these strangers could not have 
well been spared. "Carpet-baggers" or not, they have mixed 
with the natives, and continue mixing together beauti- 
fully. When we name Hallowells, Farquhars, Moores, 
Millers, w^e have made only a beginning of real additions to 
the worthy folks who happened to come here first. With- 


out the arrival, at a still earlier period, of a certain group 
entitled "the Stablers," there is good reason to believe 
that our banks, insurance companies, and other advan- 
tages too numerous to mention, might present a less 
flattering condition. 

Belonging to the new era there is another important 
fact not to be omitted. The rapid increase of the 
communication between town and country, which com- 
menced in force with the third era, and has gone on with 
accelerating ratio ever since, has unquestionably exercised 
considerable influence. Though we may find much fault 
with the city, and quote the saying that " great cities are 
great sores," it is undeniable that civilization, with its 
fruits of refinement and livelier activity, originated there. 
And it is by the happy action and mutual reaction of town 
and country that activity of mind is stimulated and 
brought into the most fruitful operation. Still it is also 
true that the life and gTowth of cities are kept up only by 
fresh importations from the country. Also along with 
the valuable importations received into the- country, there 
come various customs and fashions which were better 
left out of the invoice. The city fashion of turning 
night into day and day into night does not suit country 
life at all. Self-respect should bar the entrance. 

It remains only to set down together the names of the 
social, literary, and business institutions which have 
sprung up within a few years, following the beginning of 
a new era, and proving that such an era had come. The 
annual records of this book have kept a fair account of 
these associations, as they were formed within the last 18 
or 20 years ; and it is proper now only to enumerate some 
which preceded and formed the basis of a social system 
which is assuredly the distinguishing feature of Sandy 


Spring. In 1842 an encouraging step was taken when 
Eichard T. Bentley (according to my recollection) pro- 
posed that Sandy Spring should have a library of its own. 
The neighboring village of Brookeville has the credit of 
starting one some years precedent. Thus an excelsior 
wheel was set in motion the right way. In the beginning 
of the year 1844 the "Farmers Club" was instituted 
with general approbation. This book would scarce 
contain an account of all the beneficial results that fol- 
lowed the successful effort at co-operation by farmers. 
Four years more were required to put in successful 
operation that great enterprise, now well known over the 
whole State, namely, " The Mutual Fire Insurance Com- 
pany of Montgomery County." Two several attempts 
had been previously made to organize such an institution 
by a number of persons, amongst whom the most active 
were* Dr. Charles Farquhar, Benjamin Hallowell, E. J. 
Hall, A. B. Davis and Joshua Peirce. A pamphlet was 
printed; but the plan was not ripe, nor was it satis- 
factorily adjusted. In 1847-8 Edward Stabler took up 
the subject; and, after procuring the willing subscrip- 
tions of his neighbors, he travelled through his own and 
the adjoining county of Carroll, where William Shepherd 
gave him ready support; a company was formed, the 
charter was obtained, and on the 1st of June, 1848, the 
greatest public achievement of Sandy Spring went into 
operation. Several circumstances favored the successful 
beginning of this institution ; but none has been of such 
importance as was the procuring of an accomplished 
secretary, Robert Pi. Moore, who continues to fill the ofiice 
to the present time. 

* Refer to the letter of Hon. A. B. Davis in Appendix^ p. 381. 


The following statement would exhibit the condition 
of the Company at the end of the first year : 

Total amount of property insured $193,695 00 

Amount of premium notes in force 10,722 95 

Amount of expenses from commencement, 

June 1st, 1848, to date 245 25 

Assets on Hand. 

Certificate of Baltimore City Stock |205 6Q 

Cash 39 93 

245 59 

Due State for tax on policies 35 00 

|210 59 
Wm. H. Farquhar, ~) 

Geo. E. Brooke, v Co7n. Board Directors, 
Kich'd T. Bentley, j 

Next in dignity and consequence, the " Savings Insti- 
tution," started just 20 years after the insurance com- 
pany, occupies a place in which it has been able to difi'use 
real benefits over a wide extent of country. 

In the meantime several other improvements sprung 
out of the spirit of association, which, being turned into 
action, is but another name for co-operation. The Lyceum 
Building, the Sandy Spring turnj^ikes, were valuable re- 
sults from the latter. 

Equally important, indeed essential to true progress, 
must be mentioned the co-operation of the ladies, com- 
mencing in 1857 with the pure, high-toned " Association 
for Mutual Improvement," that has set such a healthful 
example to the sex: multiplying, ramifying, diverging 
in more ways than can be here described. 

xxxiv i:n^troductioi^. 

Thus it is claimed that under the influences of social 
co-operation, certain interesting and beneficial results have 
been obtained in this little section, called Sandy Spring, 
of which we are willing to transfer some of the benefits 
to others. Whence did these advantages come ? The 
foundation was laid somewhere and somehow ; and gen- 
uine good material has been used in carrying on the 
building. On a previous page I ventured to write that 
" George Fox founded Sandy Spring." Not in person, 
of course. What I meant was that the Spirit to which he 
truly assigned all proper moving influences continued to 
overshadow his people. Without claiming merit to the 
Quakers for which they are not entitled, no sound and 
well-informed mind can deny that a power has dwelt with 
them strong enough to influence nations — Bancroft says 
" to move the world." Now, if this be so, we have the 
right to attribute the successful career of our neighbor- 
hood to the moral, invisible influences, accompanying 
fidelity to principle, possessed and partially handed down 
by our forefathers. Principle it was, and is, and shall be, 
not forms. As regards them, little or no account need 
be taken now. Old notions of innocent amusements, 
being contrary to the natural laws, need a complete 
revision. The same may be said of that narrow view of 
"building a hedge around our children in order to keep 
them from contact with the world " : it is to be hoped 
that all such forms are of the past. Only principles 
are eternal. 

The placing duty before pleasure ; the giving to intel- 
lectual pursuits the preference to all amusements that are 
in conflict with them ; these, with several other solid 
principles that might be named, belong to those higher 
sorts of life and conduct from which to depart is certain 


A slight, imperfect sketch of the rise and progress of 
Sandy Spring having now been offered, the thought pre- 
sents itself, shall it be the work of some future historian 
— another Gibbon — to describe its decline and fall ? Or, 
may we not hope that its people will hold fast to the old 
truths which experience has proved, while reaching after 
all the new that revolving time will certainly bring ; above 
all, cultivating "the harmony that secures union, in 
which alone is strength " ; seeking and finding the same 
support which upheld our fathers in the wilderness ; and 
so, speed rejoicing on their way ! 

Would that some truly magnificent man or woman 
would rise among our young people and convince them 
wherein true, lasting pleasure lies ! Well, the future of 
Sandy Spring is in their hands, having entered fairly on a 
fourth period in their history. 



We've met at last within these waUs, 
And hail the hour with gladsome hearts ; 

Although we've buUt no marble halls, 
It matters not to nobler arts. 

Here in these woodlands we Iiave reared 
A structure suited to the scene ; 

And Science' star has now appeared 
Above our vales and walks serene. 

By toil we've gained enough to feed 
These bodies, soon to pass away ; 

Our minds immortal now find need 
Of higher sustenance than they. 

In yon log school-house, years ago, 
Our fathei*s taught, our fathers learned ; 

In yon old graveyard, lying low, 

The senior forms to dust have turned. 

But if their souls look downward now, 
I fain would think they smile to see 

The kindling eye, the expanding brow, 
The thii'st to know, the joy to be. 

A thirst not bounded by the rates 
Attached to gain — on Mammon bent ; 

A joy that swells above the Fates, 
Above all time and each event. 


Let us, ray friends, devote oiir Hall 

To worthy uses of the mind : 
If Science comprehend them all, 

Then say for Science 'twas designed. 

We have our schools for early youth, 

Houses of worship when we will ; 
But this for scientific truth 

We've built — we'll dedicate — and fill. 

Here let Philosophy recount 

Its wondrous secrets to the ear, 
And through its aid let students mount 

To knowledge of each rolling sphere ; 

Dive in the earth for many a gem, 

Not for a sordid, mean abuse. 
But that their souls may look through them 

To first beginnings — holiest use. 

Here let the Orator profound 
Delve in the deepest mine of thought ; 

Here lesser lights diffuse around 
The rays with milder beauty fraught. 

Here let not Satire plunge its dart 

With poison tipped, to rankle long; 
Here Truth still act its honest part. 

By proof of right, to banish wrong. 

E'en by this building we have shown 

Onr aspirations reach more high 
Than aught that we before have known, — 

Excelsior ! then be our cry. 

Here long may sages lessons teach. 

And here the young their questions bring ; 
Perchance far higher points we'll reach 
From these old woods of Sandy Spring. 

Excelsior ! 
Sandy Spring, 2d mo. 16th, 1859. 



Annals of Sandy Spuing. 


Object of the book — Nature of history — Movement — Chief duty 
of the historian — Subscription to a short turnpike — Neighbor- 
hood map projected — First invasion by "the Gray" — Sandy 
Spring Branch of Brookeville turnpike — Establishment of Hor- 
ticultural Society — The Clubs and Ladies' x\ssociation — 
Literary Society — Reading Circle — School re-established — 
State Sanitary Fair — Speeches of Judge Bowie, Judge Blair 
and Gov. Randall — Deaths, births and marriages. 

At a meeting of the Sandy Spring Lyceum Company, 
held April 6th, 1863, an order was passed, appointing a 
historian for the Company, whose duty it should be to 
make a record of neighborhood events, and read it at the 
following annual meeting. 

Having been selected to fill this office, after repeated 
unsuccessful efforts on my part to devolve its duties on 
another member of the company, I now proceed to dis- 
charge the function in the best manner I may. The 
undertaking appears to be both difficult and interesting. 
A mere monthly journal of events might readily be kept ; 
but the simplest sketch deserving in the least degree the 
name of history, while it includes the material of such a 
journal, implies much beyond. History, in its true sense, 
is the life of nations, of communities of men. Now we 


may be informed of all the remarkable incidents in the 
life of a man (and still more true is this in the life of a 
woman) and yet know very little about the individual. 
The biographer worthy of the name must look more 
deeply, and enable us to look more deeply into the sub- 
ject, than that. History is biography — wath the com- 
munity, instead of the individual, as its subject. 

Thus it happens, when T set before my mind the real 
nature of the w^ork wdiicli I have undertaken, that its 
intrinsic dignity and magnitude inspire a discouraging 
sense of the responsibility of the performance. One year 
in the life of a community ! Look at it, and reflect! You 
find it is no light thing. However carelessly we may 
talk of time as it passes by, however slightly we mark 
the great current which is sweeping us on — the child to 
maturity — maturity to old age — sweeping us all, from 
our starting-point the cradle, to our common landing- 
place the grave — this eternal, ceaseless, never retrograd- 
ing movement is always the one thing most worthy of 
profoundest thought. The movement — that is the impor- 
tant matter in the life and history of individuals or of 
nations: not so much what we are, as Avhat we are hecom- 
mg; not so much what ^5, as what is thence to be. This 
affords the proper clue to the complex history of the 
world : this consideration of the movement, the progress, 
forms the centre round which readily and distinctly 
group themselves, the else confused, inexplicable mass of 
the world's events. 

Now this neighborhood of ours is also a part of the 
moving world. But it is a^^ari! that, in a certain sense, 
includes the loliole. It is a microcosm, a little world in 
itself: the great scheme of earthly existence is all photo- 
graphed here and now ; and thus a true history of our 


neighborhood for one year is a condensed epitome of uni- 
yersul history. 

Yon will not find fanlt with me, I trnst, for laying the 
fonndations of my work thns broad and deep; making 
the effort to dig down to the primary rock ; even thongh 
the immediate strnctnre as now erected should appear of 
slight proportions. You must have other builders who 
will raise up successive stories of the never-to-be-com- 
pleted edifice, as years roll on. 

It may be seen from the foregoing remarks that I con- 
sider it the chief duty of the historian to note down and 
to dwell upon those incidents which pertain especially to 
the permanent interests and progressive movements of 
the people of our neighborhood. 

We commence with the evening of the last annual 
meeting of the Lyceum. Owing probably to the natural 
influence of the tremendous struggle in which our 
country is still engaged, evidences had begun to be 
apparent that there was a diminution of public spirit, 
and an abatement of zeal for improvement amongst our 
people. On that evening, these fears, which perhaps had 
no actual foundation, were completely dispelled. A 
proposition being ofiered to raise a sum of money for the 
purpose of making a turnpike from the insurance office 
to the meeting house, a liberal subscription was made up 
on the spot ; the amount was increased by outside efforts, 
until a sufficient sum was raised, the work was put into 
able hands, and completed in a highly satisfactory 
manner to a point beyond the Lyceum. Since this temple 
of literature and practical science is, as it ought to be, 
only a station on the way to the house of worship, there 
is scarcely room for a doubt of the entire completion of 
the original design. 


On the same evening, measures were taken to organize a 
Union Eeading Association. Although this enterprise was 
ultimately less successful than the turnpike scheme, still 
the zeal that prompted both alike gave proof that " there 
is life in the old land yet." But that was not all : a 
movement was made to take steps for the accomplishment 
of a beneficial, long-desired improvement, a map of the 
neighborhood. A committee was named, Avho agreed to 
execute the necessary field and office work. Considerable 
progress has been made in the survey, several members of 
the committee having completed their share of the duty, 
and reported the field-notes to the chairman. Some of 
their colleagues are a little behindhand yet, owing doubt- 
less to busy occupation with other matters. 

In the first summer month, the quiet of the neighbor- 
hood began to be disturbed by rumors of hostile invasion. 
The month had nearly passed, and our anxieties on this 
account were nearly abated, when a serene Sabbath even- 
ing, the 28th of June, brought us unexpectedly our un- 
welcome visitors. A small troop of cavalry, wearing the 
gray uniform, which we had hitherto only read of, or else 
had seen under circumstances that rendered its wearer 
powerless to injure, quitting the large body of 4000, under 
the famous "Mr. Stewart," actually defiled along the roads 
leading through the centre of this our own neighborhood. 
At first we saw them with most incredulous e3^es : it was 
a sight long to be remembered — our first actual contact 
with the terrible Kebellion. Yet after all (especially to 
us who lost no horses) it was a mere ripple of the mighty 
wave. Though no apologist for rebels, your historian 
feels compelled to record in these annals the fact that 
Sandy Spring came off wonderfully well from this its first 
experience of horrid war. 


The alarms which disturbed ns during the week follow- 
ing that memorable visit were worse, for a number of 
persons, than the visit itself. The remembrance of these 
groundless fears may be of value for us to refer to in the 
days yet to come. Perhaps it is still more advisable not 
to anticipate future troubles. 

The most important enterprise ever undertaken by the 
combined efforts of our people for effecting material im- 
provements, viz. " The Sandy Spring Branch of the 
Brookeville and Washington Turnpike," has made fair 
progress during the year. We were informed in the 5th 
month last that our road would be received as part of the 
main stem, so soon as it should be satisfactorily com- 
pleted. At the same time material aid to the amount of 
$370 was tendered to us by the other company. 

Additional subscriptions were obtained from our own 
people, amounting to near $600 ; with this fund the gaps 
in the road were filled up and various repairs effected. 
It was unfortunate that the demand for labor in other 
channels through the summer and early fall seemed to 
render it impracticable to recommence operations, until the 
season was so much advanced that the work had to be 
done under the great disadvantage of short days and in- 
clement weather. The road looked very well, however, in 
the early winter, and was considered ready to pass inspec- 
tion, when the breaking up of a frost of unusual depth 
stirred its foundations of quicksand, and placed it for the 
time outside the conditions on which it was to be merged 
in the other road. Still, even in its present state, it is of 
great value in getting our produce to market. Every one 
must see that it is by nature an essential part of the main 
road and must be consolidated therewith. The foregoing 
details might perhaps be thought to belong more to a report 

6 A^*:jrALS or SA^'■DT sprixg. 

to the stockholders of " The Sandy Spring Branch/' than 
to the stockholders of the Lyceum ; hut this road, its pro- 
gress and its prospects are a material item in the neighhor- 
hood annals. It has naturally been a subject for criticism 
and comment ; and in the exercise of the former privilege, 
critics have not always remembered the essential difficul- 
ties of the work. Your historian adds, by way of com- 
pleting the discussion, that the road, though conforming 
rather to the curve line of beauty than the stiffness of the 
right line, is not claimed as an ornament, but for its 
utility, like the houses in which some of us still have 
to live, and which, beginning with a log hut for a centre, 
getting a wing added here and there as way opens for im- 
provement, do yet come to be right comfortable dwellings, 
while possessing no complete apartment. Our turnpike 
had to be made just so. 

We note as an event of the past year, the establishment 
of a Horticultural Society, certainly a very laudable 
undertaking. This brief notice must suffice, as your his- 
torian, in common with very many other fellow-citizens, 
has had very little opportunity afforded to become ac- 
quainted with its ^proceedings. 

The "Farmers' Club" and the " Club's Wife," (which 
is so descriptive an epithet as to be not unworthy the 
dignity of history), the former in its 21st year, the latter 
just entering her 7th, continue to flourish with unabated 
vigor and interest. [The proper name of the latter 
Society is " The Mutual Improvement Association.''] 

Last fail a Literary Society was organized, designed to 
combine the idea of a reading circle with other novel and 
important features. Its success has so far justified the 
hopes of its projectors; and it will not be difficult so to 
conduct it as to make it ri^^en from a pleasing novelty 
into a settled institution. 


It would imply great neglect upon tlie part of your 
historian if he were to fail in doing justice to the solid 
excellence of the Sandy Spring School, re-established just 
one year ago by Milton Jackson. 

It is also a labor of love to refer to the amiable exertions 
made recently by the ladies of our neighborhood, to con- 
tribute worthily to a noble and worthy object, the State 
Sanitary Fair. The priest and the Levite in the olden 
time passed with dignified indifference "to the other 
side," when only one wounded man lay before them ; now, 
when 40,000 sick and wounded fellow-creatures implore 
their aid, the course of the good Samaritan has seemed to 
our ladies a safe and hallowed path to tread. 

The last event in which our neighborhood is specially 
interested occurred but yesterday; when this hall, "dedi- 
cated to the diffusion of truth and knowledge among 
men," echoed to the eloquent addresses of three distin- 
guished personages, viz. our own Chief Justice R. J. 
Bowie, Judge Blair, and Gov. Randall. Their theme was 
Human Liberty; and no more remarkable event has 
occurred during the past year in this part of Maryland, or 
any other part, than such a discussion as we then enjoyed. 

My imperfect retrospect must presently close. Does it 
not prove that ours is a " living age," and that our own 
neighborhood partakes in the new light that illumes the 
world ? The thought will surely stimulate us to press 
toward higher and still higher modes of life, and produce 
a grateful sense of the many blessings bestowed upon us. 
The year just elapsed has brought in its train, not only 
the cheering evidences of life, but also the mournful 
visitations of life's dread attendant. Death. On every 
human record place must be left for him. During the 
year our neighborhood has had to lament the departure 


of three valued members of its social circle. On otli 
month 12th, 1863, died John Elgar Hallowell. "In the 
pride and glory of youthful spring," he was called to 
leave ns ; and the vacant place is still warm Avith the life 
of which he was so lavishly possessed. He was one of the 
original projectors of this Lyceum, and he continued while 
he lived to be among its most efficient friends and sup- 
porters. 8th month 19th, 1863, Caleb P. Iddings was 
relieved from his long suffering. Although resident but 
a few years in our neighborhood, the agreeable impression 
which he made upon us will be long remembered. 7th 
month 26th, of the same year, Matilda Gilpin was taken 
from the amiable band of good Samaritans, with whom 
^she had been an early and zealous co-worker, ever ready 
to visit and relieve the sick and wounded sufferer. 

These were not the only visitations of death during the 
year. Two little mounds in the neighboring gi-aveyard 
cover the remains of two precious little beings, transferred 
for full development to another sphere. " The little feet 
that never went astray are safe in the Father's dwelling ! " 

In order to bring my record to a more cheerful close, it 
is my duty to state, from good authority, that ten children 
have been born during the year in our social circle. Also 
there has been one marriage. " How many engagements ?" 
inquires one of my fair friends. These are questions 
which must be left for answers in the next record. 



Ending Fourth Month 3d, 1865. 

An eventful year — Election for new constitution — Loss of mail 
contract to Laurel — Charitable contributions in Baltimore and 
in Tennessee — Farm crops — Uses of Lyceum Hall — Invasion 
of Maryland by Gens. Early and Bradley Johnson — The 
Guerillas— ''Battle of Rickett's Run" — Plan of "Home 
Defence" laid aside — Far more serious losses, by 7iine deaths; 
their monition to take better care of health. 

An eventful year has passed, as well for our whole 
country, as for that small portion of it whose history we 
are here to record. The car of the nation's destiny rolls 
resistlessly onward, carrying us along with it, whether we 
would or not. But though we may neither stop nor 
check its course, it is lawful for us in mind to pause and 
look back on the career we have run since this day a 
twelvemonth ago. There may be an advantage in with- 
drawing our thoughts for a time from the whirl of the 
world's great Babel, in order to contemplate our own 
special position, to see where we are, and to judge 
whither we are tending, by measuring the part of the 
way actually trod. One great lesson will be thus im- 
pressed upon us, namely, that of the intimate and in- 
separable connection of the welfare and interests of each 
community with those of the whole land. And our 
young people may learn how important it is to study the 
duties of citizenship; how mistaken and dangerous to 
ignore the just claims of the country which protects us. 

During this month of last 3^ear, our community, in 
common with the rest of the State, was agitated by the 


coming, at an nnacciistomed period, of an election. We 
had to choose the members of a Convention whose duty 
it would be to revise the Constitution of the State and 
determine some momentous questions affecting its future 
destiny. Our people took a lively part in the settlement 
of these questions. Although prevented by the force of 
superior numbers from having their views represented 
directly in the choice of delegates to the Convention, yet 
when the great, decisive struggle came on in the Fall, 
they turned out in full strength, and gave a nearly 
unanimous vote in favor of the principles of their fore- 
fathers. When the time of trial came, the people of 
Sandy Spring were not found wanting ; unitedly they 
aided to secure to the rest of their State the blessings of 
freedom and free labor, to which the neighborhood had 
so long ow^ed its own prosperity. 

Proceeding with the narrative in regular order of time, 
we note that an event occurred in the month of April 
from which an injury to the interests of the neighbor- 
hood was apprehended. This was the loss of the mail 
contract by the company which had been running a 
stage to Laurel for some fifteen or sixteen years, with con- 
siderable benefit to our community. The apprehended 
injury has not so far been realized. Indeed, the result 
goes to confirm the general principle that individual 
enterprise is apt to succeed better than corporate com- 
panies. Under the management of our accommodating 
and energetic contractor and driver, that important daily 
communication with Laurel and the rest of the world 
has been kept steadily open, W'hile zealous exertions to 
improve the road by our friend of the Manor, Caleb 
Stabler, have contributed materially to the satisfaction of 


The same month of April was further d i s tin gni shed by 
the successful exertions of our patriotic and benevolent 
ladies in contributing to the State Sanitary Fair, held in 
Baltimore. The quality of the articles exhibited and the 
amount of profits derived from their sale nobly main- 
tained the reputation of the neighborhood. The spirit of 
practical benevolence was suffered to sleep after the effort 
of the spring, during a large portion of the year; but was 
again revived toward its close by another successful effort 
to excite our interest in behalf of grievous suffering in a 
distant State. The articles then prepared were sent to a 
lady in Nashville, who acknowledged their reception 
nearly in the following words : " Your box was unpacked 
three days ago, and with it I have made glad the hearts 
of some of the most destitute and most grateful of human 
beings." Your historian is so far a believer in the doc- 
trine of imputed righteousness as to hope that these acts 
of charity will be received as an offset, in part, to mani- 
fold shortcomings, much worldliness, and sadly imper- 
fect exercise of continued " love one to another." 

The season of growth came on, though somewhat later 
than usual, yet with full accustomed richness and beauty. 
The wheat crop was short, but the great harvest of this 
neighborhood, namely, the hay crop, was very luxuriant, 
and all manner of fruits unprecedentedly abundant. In- 
teresting exercises were prepared in the month of June 
for our entertainment. The young men got up an affair 
at the Lyceum which proved a success ; it was their first 
effort of the kind, and it were a great pity should it 
prove to be the last. Those who contribute rational and 
innocent amusement may justly be considered as bene- 
factors of the community. 

It may be here remarked how varied and interesting 


have been the uses of this Lyceum Hall. When we re- 
call the different purposes to which it has been applied 
during the past six years since its initiation — lectures, 
than which none could have been more instructive ; public 
discussions of momentous national questions ; meetings 
of literary and benevolent societies ; school exhibitions ; 
draft clubs; defence meetings, &c., &c., may we npt all 
unite in the sentiment lately expressed by a friend: "Xo 
building in this neighborhood has ever paid so well " ? 

But the summer brought other scenes which may in- 
deed be termed historical ; scenes which were vastly 
more exciting at the time than any that I have here re- 
corded, yet leaving effects very slightly proportioned to 
the deep interest which they inspired while passing. 
'None of the audience will be at a loss to understand the 

In common with the rest of our countrymen, I may 

venture to say with the whole civilized world, we had 

watched with intense interest the progress of the great 

campaign commenced early in May on the banks of the 

Eappahannock. The main tide of war rolled away from 

us further to the South ; but various alarming intimations 

received from time to time gave token that we were not to 

jj-,escape its wrath. Early in July it was found that the 

^(Rebel invasion of Maryland was going to prove a serious 

g^affair. The too well-known sound of cannon in actual 

P^battle was heard again. On the 9th of that month 

^^occurred the engagement at Monocacy; and the same 

«^eveuing came the news, " the Rebels hold Frederick and 

- the line of the Monocacy." The 10th, which was First 

day (I now copy notes from my Diary, written at the 

time), " was a memorable day, probably the precursor of 

others still more so. Our meeting was large, and the 


gathering was pleasant and strengthening. Benjamin 
Hallowell spoke from the gallery with much feeling, and 
very appropriately to the serious times. Accounts of the 
progress and near approach of the Kebels crowd upon us 
throughout the day. In the evening we learn from 
Charles H. Brooke, who had been for awhile their captive, 
that they are in or near Laytonville. Men arrive from 
New Market, fleeing with their horses from the danger. 
Rumors of the capture of a fort near Washington finished 
this day. — The 11th. After a sound night's rest, awoke 
fi'om a dream, uttering the words, ' Is Washington taken V 
Went over early to alarm my neighbor, Richard T. Bentley, 
about his store goods; found him very calm. The next 
news came, 'the Rebels are at Stanmore,' whence they 
soon departed, but not empty-handed. Benjamin Hallo- 
well has an adventure with a favorite horse, which he 
rescues for the time at some risk. Federal cavalry arrive. 
There is total suspension of business throughout the 
neighborhood. Washington is certainly invested, and the 
B. & W. R. R. is cut. Federal cavalry ride by in the night 
toward Laurel. Thermometer 94°. — The 12th. The ex- 
citement has, we hope, reached the highest point to-day. 
A kind neighbor sent express in the morning that * more 
Rebels were at Mechanicsville.' Horses were put under 
cover. Soon the Graybacks appear, forerunners of Brad- 
ley Johnson's large cavalry force of near 2000 men. In 
passing they take Francis Miller prisoner, and Benjamin 
Hallowell loses his horse after all, to the shame of the 
General be it spoken. They rob the Sandy Spring store 
of a small amount and pass on toward Bladensburg. — 
The 13th. Heard at Mechanicsville the good news, 'the 
Rebels have left from before Washington.' Things begin 
to look much brighter. A beautiful moonlight night for 


the 3'ourig and happy. — 14th. The excitement is passing 
away, and reaction coming on." 

We may repeat what was said in last year's history, 
that " only a rijiple in the tide of war has swept by Sandy 
Spring." A few horses were taken, but not so many as 
in last summer. 

It is a well-known experience that the things left be- 
hind after a great inundation, the slime and the ugly 
crawling creatures, are often more to be dreaded than the 
flood. The after effects and consequences of a disease 
are sometimes worse than the disease itself. So it hap- 
pened in our experience of rebel incursions. A robbery 
committed on one of our friends while riding on the high- 
road near the middle of the neighborhood, some time near 
the end of July, was the first unpleasant intimation that 
person and property were no longer safe from outrage in 
Sandy Spring. On the night of the 5th of September, 
Ash ton store was robbed of money and goods to a con- 
siderable amount, the perpetrators being rebel guerillas, 
as was proved bej^ond reasonable doubt. One month 
later, it being the night of the 6th of October, Sandy 
Spring was invaded by a band of eleven guerillas, who, 
after threatening to hang the clerk, broke open the store 
and helped themselves freely to its contents. So far the 
outrages committed in the neighborhood, the taking of 
horses by violence, the pillage of stores and personal 
robbery, had been suffered quietly and without resistance. 
I have now to record an occurrence of different character. 
It is one so anomalous, so outside the long even tenor of 
life at Sandy Spring, that the recital might be omitted as 
being an exception; but the truth of history makes an 
irresistible claim for the statement of facts just as they 


After the robbers above referred to had gone their 
way, the proprietors of the store, without losing much 
time about it, sent for the Sheriff of the county, whose 
duty it was to pursue and arrest the perpetrators of the 
outrage. Under his official sanction, acting as a jt>05se 
coinitatus, a number of the neighbors, fifteen, I believe, 
in all, with the accoutrements required by the nature of 
the expedition, proceeded in the track of the guerillas. 
They went to find them, and they did find them. What 
was the next thing they intended to do this historian 
knows not ; but whatever the intention may have been, 
the result naturally to be expected actually followed. 
Somebody was hurt; and, fortunately for us all, it was 
not one of the pursuing party. The leader of the gueril- 
las, in the act of charging upon our party, with intent 
unquestionably to kill, was himself killed. The rest 
fled, it is presumable more through ignorance of the 
force and character of their pursuers than from any othSr 
circumstance. Part of the plunder was recovered ; some 
horses were restored to their rightful owners, and the 
whole affair passed off as favorably as could be expected 
under the circumstances. If censure falls anywhere in 
this transaction when calmly and impartially reviewed, it 
should be limited to the charge of imprudence. Viewed 
in the best light, however, it must be owned that there 
are other things in the annals of Sandy Spring upon 
which we shall hereafter dwell with higher satisfaction 
than upon " the battle of Eickett's Run." 

These events occurring in connection with the stirring 
scenes of war in all parts of the country, naturally 
directed the more fiery spirits among our young men to 
the subject of " Home Defence." Several meetings were 
called to examine this question, but after a fair discus- 


sion, the counsels of prudence and the influence of early 
religious impressions prevailed, and the idea of an armed 
home-guard was laid aside. 

This eventful summer was marked by the prevalence 
of an extreme drought, which, however, proved less hurt- 
ful to our interests than was feared. Bounteous fall 
rains went far to redeem the losses from the dry, hot 

Autumn came on. The season had indeed been a try- 
ing and eventful one. Rebel raids, highway robberies, 
pillage of stores, the drought and the draft had inflicted 
serious injuries. These, the hand of industry, the genial 
rain and sunshine, and the welcome return of sweet peace, 
will soon repair. But far more serious losses Avere now 
impending, which no human eff()rts, no rain or sunshine, 
no gentle peace, can ever mitigate or restore. Only His 
hand that inflicted the wound can drop the balm. 

Our bereavements commenced in the spring. On the 
30th of April, Thomas P. Stabler was suddenly taken 
from among us. No one in the neighborhood was more 
identified with its history, progress and character, than 
he. Every house, every farm, every road, and especially 
every sick room knew him ; for he was ever ready, by kind 
action or interesting conversation, to help or to entertain. 
His clear head and warm heart seemed to grow warmer 
and brighter to the last. Contrary to general experience, 
his views of life became more enlarged and liberal as he 
advanced in years ; and he watched with lively interest, 
aiding by tongue and pen, the cause of social progress. 
Sound and true were his views of the nature of the great 
struggle going on in our country; the end of which he 
predicted, though he did not live to see. The long 
funeral train that followed the remains of Thomas P. 


Stabler to the resting-place he had provided was watched 
from the window of a neighboring house by a pale, sweet 
invalid, his little granddaughter. Just a week later, the 
earthly remains of Evelyn Stabler were laid near those of 
her grandfather. She was taken in the early morning of 
life, when only a few had the opportunity to mark the 
promise of excellence which she gave; but with those 
few, her traits of solid worth, above all her ripened con- 
scientiousness, will long keep her memory green. 

Shortly after midsummer, an infant, Bertha Miller, 
child of Warwick P. and Mary Miller, struck by a 
strange, sad decline, fell asleep. A month later, another 
babe, daughter of Edward and Sophy Peirce, was released 
from lingering pain. 

Thus had death visited the extreme points of the 
neighborhood, the west, the east and the north. Its next 
awful visitations were to the south and the centre. It 
had removed the old man, the budding girl and the 
tender babe; it was now to cut down youthful and 
manly prime. 

On the 28th of September died Tarleton Brooke, in 
the 21st year of his age. Of such as he we are told : 

" He, the young and strong, who cherished 
Noble longings for the strife, 
By the wayside fell and perished, 
Weary with the march of life." 

If I know myself, no word of eulogy shall ever be 
traced in these pages which my conscientious convic- 
tions do not sanction ; but when a youth of noble promise 
is taken away from the neighborhood, I cannot fail to set 
it down among the most important, as well as saddest 
incidents that go to constitute our annals. 


November 13th died B. Worthingtoii Waters. Thougli 
not exactly included within the local limits of Sandy- 
Spring, the deceased was so near and so intimate with 
many of our people, it is deemed proper not to pass him 
by. He died in the prime of years and usefulness ; leav- 
ing an impressive example of the results that energy can 
achieve in the boundless field of agricultural pursuits. 

ISTovember 20th, Alexander J. Brooke, in the 22d year 
of his age. The best poet of America can best give an 
impression of his sufferings and his life: 

" He, the patient one and weakly, 
Who the cross of suffering bore, 
Folded his pale hands so meekly, 
Spake with us on earth no more." 

But life was not all suffering with him. He had high 
enjoyments too. I have seen his cheeks glow and his fine 
eyes kindle while exploring with eager faculty the wond- 
rous mechanism of the vegetable and insect world ; and 
in vision I have seen them brighten with unfading lustre, 
impressed with the wonders of that glorious land which 
needs no microscope to reveal. 

November 27th. Another interval of a week, and within 
six hours of one another, two near neighbors, each a youth- 
ful husband and father, are called away from the earthly 
home to which they were bound by such ties of love. The 
one, Archibald D. Moore, passed quietly away after an 
acute illness of just three weeks. His good and gentle life 
will long be held in tender recollection by his friends, — 
enemies he had none The other, William Chandlee, was 
the victim of a sudden and terrible accident. While 
quietly attending to his own concerns, interfering with 
none, he was instantly deprived of consciousness, and soon 
of life, by the bursting of a gun in his own hands. 


One more victim of this strange, fatal year ! The yener- 
able grandfather, the budding girl and the babe, the 
promising youth, the energetic man, the long-suffering in- 
valid, the youthful husband and father — these, Death ! 
were thine ! But there is a still tenderer name than these 
— and thou wilt have the tenderest and best — the young 
wife and mother — she too must be thine! 

November 29th died Mary H. Brooke, daughter of 
Benjamin and Margaret E. Hallowell, having just com- 
pleted her 25th year. And now death's hand was stayed. 

*'What is the use," does any one ask, "of seeking to 
revive all these sad recollections ? " It appears to me there 
may be much use in it. Here are we sitting where we sat 
a twelvemonth ago, when all these were as full of life as 
we are now, calling to mind the work of death. Are we 
not solemnly bound to realize the awful fact, to stand face 
to face with it, ready to draw the lessons it was designed 
to teach ? We have surely no right to shrink from the 

It is not for me to point you to the highest, the only 
efficient consolation ; I would in silence share it with you. 

But there is another aspect in which to view these afflic- 
tions, that I may not pass over. Can you believe it was 
the design of Providence that these our friends should 
perish, all (with one exception) so long before reaching 
full maturity ? Is there not good reason to believe that if 
the conditions which regulate the well-being of our bodily 
frame received as much attention as so many less impor- 
tant subjects, that the life given us here would generally 
be prolonged until it could answer the end for which life 
is given? We possess capacity to know and ability to 
practice the laws on which health depends. May these 
solemn monitions serve to confirm the resolve to make 


knowledge and practice go hand in hand I Eemember 
that "History is philosophy teaching by example," and 
to be Tallied only so far as it teaches us. 

The clubs and other associations which begin to distin- 
guish our neighborhood are to be regarded as so many 
wheels in the machinery of social progress ; and from the 
way in which they have been kept running during the past 
year, we may hope that our progress has been good. The 
exclusively masculine club, the exclusively feminine asso- 
ciation, and the Literary Association which so gracefully 
mingles the two, have flourished with unabated vigor and 
interest. The Horticultural way become, if it live a year 
or two longer, one of the institutions of the neighborhood. 

The Lyceum, at once the focus and crown of our literary 
and intellectual activity, certainly appears to have lost none 
of its interest. Fears have been expressed lest the minds 
of our people should be worked up to a high pitch of 
excitement by this " dangerous " novelty. No just grounds 
for such apprehension are perceived by this historian. 

Our roads are improving. I had hoped that the Sandy 
Spring Pike would merit a decided puff; but unfortunately, 
the recent condition of one section does not admit of such 
praise; it will have to wait until next year. Perhaps the 
commencement of another sort of road may then be 

It is altogether in order, I am sure, to mention that 
marriages have taken place this year in our commu- 
nity to the number of three. The immediate effect has 
been that we lose one fine woman and gain another, being 
kept even so far. Also eight have been added to our infan- 
tile population, being three boys and five girls. 

In conclusion, it seems proper to make the inquiry by 
weighing our losses and gains, — have we, as a community, 


or have we not, made progress during the year ? A sad 
weight is thrown into the negative scale by the removal 
into another sphere of so many valuable members of society. 
What counterpoise can we place on the opposite side? 
JEven in point of numbers we have lost. Are we entitled 
to throw into the scale a few acres of land improved, a few 
investments in stocks, or a multitude of greenbacks ? I 
fear their weiglit would be insignificant in such a scale. 

We can add some show of mental activity — that is well: 
some works of practical benevolence — that is better. But 
we are still obliged to confess that the balance sheet is 
against us, unless we may claim that our grief for the dead 
has increased our tenderness for the living; unless the 
wondrous thread of blessings and afflictions woven and 
mingled together in this past year has served to draw 
closer the bands of good fellowship and social union. 

United we stand — divided we fall. 


Ending 4th Month 7th, 1866. 

Tame annals, best, of a quiet local character — Unanimity of views — 
The conservative element prevalent — The peace celebration — 
Lincoln mourning — Wheat crop declining — Horticultural Ex- 
hibition — The Club Junior — Sorghum manufacture — Close of 
Fair Hill Boarding School — Opening of James S. Hallowell's — 
New Public School System — Colored School by Mrs. Clarke — 
Marriages numerous after the war — Six in one year — Contrasted 
with the deaths, the rate of the latter too large. 

"Blessed is the nation that has no history," exclaims 
one of the most distinguished writers of Europe. I sup- 
pose what is true of nations is equally true of neighbor- 


But the history referred to by that writer was of the 
sort that usually goes by the name ; a record of exciting 
events, mostly calamities; of wars, with their battles and 
sieges ; of the overthrow of one tyrant, and the climbing to 
his throne by another, up steps gory with blood. The 
less of such history the better. 

In this sense the neighborhood annals of the past year 
compared with the preceding, are necessarily tame. 

The year had, however, a very animating commence- 
ment. On the evening of our last annual meeting, just 
one year ago, the announcement was made to us from the 
chair, and received with tumultuous cheering, that the 
National troops had on that very morning taken quiet 
possession of the Confederate Capital. Events of most 
exciting character followed each other in rapid succession 
for a few brief weeks, and then the great rebellion passed 
into history ; but not into this one. Our affairs are of a 
local, not a national character. Only as public events 
affect directly the situation and welfare of this little com- 
munity, tending to influence its progress, do they become 
proper material for the present historical sketch. Our 
connection has been for the past few years of a close kind. 
We have been both an active and a ^jf/ssiVe party, through 
the late tremendous civil convulsion. In making up a 
summary of the parts thus performed, it seems proper to 
acknowledge on the one hand, that our sufferings have 
been comparatively light and trivial, with a great balance 
of gratitude due for our preservation; and on the other, 
we have a right to enjoy the consciousness that our ex- 
ertions and sacriQces, though insignificant when compared 
with those of some other communities, were yet mainly on 
the right side ; that we did not stand neutral or lukewarm 
in a conflict where such transcendent principles were in- 


volved, but with a concert of action amounting nearly to 
unanimity, our whole neighborhood gave its influence by 
tongue and pen and vote, by hands and purse, to aid the 
cause approved by our highest convictions of right and 

This near approach to unanimity among us on the 
great question of the age appears to me as a matter of just 
satisfaction. We have disciples here with widely diverg- 
ing doctrines. Radicals and conservatives, each with very 
decided opinions, are to be found among us ; although it 
must be acknowledged that the conservative element has 
always predominated at Sandy Spring. But in our coun- 
try's extremity, the conservatives saw that the very founda- 
tions of government were assailed, and naturally rallied to 
the support of law and order; while the radicals beheld in 
the success of the National cause the triumph of their 
own cherished principles. Both earnestly desired peace : 
all came together and joined with enthusiasm in the re- 
joicings that signalized the close of the contest. On the 
evening of the 12th of that eventful month of April, this 
Lyceum building saw another sight than any it had yet 
witnessed — yes, saw, looked out into the night with a 
hundred burning eyes, while the interior resounded with 
paeans for union and peace ! 

When the Nation's birthday returned there was 
another successful celebration, somewhat unusual in this 
special locality, but justified by the extraordinary, the 
transcendent occasion. As our people were one with the 
other loyal people of the land in their joy, so were they one 
in mourning. There were few places where the tidings of 
President Lincoln's assassination produced such chilling 
horror, such sincere grief. 

Equally indifferent to our joy and our loss, the months 


moved on. In the fields the season was an unusually early 
one, and our farmers rejoiced in the bountiful promises of 
the spring. The summer and autumn fulfilled these 
promises, with tAvo notable exceptions. The important 
crop of wheat, which had been declining in our neighbor- 
hood for several years, reached what is to be hoped will be 
the lowest point of production, in an average of eight to 
ten bushels per acre. The apple, most valuable of fruits, 
was also a remarkable failure. As to the productiveness 
of the season in other fruits, in garden vegetables, in corn 
and grass, some evidence was afforded by a Horticultural 
Exhibition, or miniature Agricultural Fair, held on the 
16th of September, in this building. For a first attempt 
it was regarded as a decided success, and Avell worthy of 
being repeated. If this very creditable affair is to be con- 
sidered an outgrowth and practical result of the Horti- 
cultural Society, whose establishment and progress are 
noted in our two preceding chapters, the enterprising 
young institution may aspire to an honorable place among 
the beneficial associations with which the neighborhood 
is so highly favored. In this connection, your historian 
could not think of passing over without respectful notice 
the birth of a new agricultural society — " The Club 
Junior," as it is termed in the absence of a distinctive 
epithet. We anticipate a rich harvest of usefulness from 
this new enterprise, proportioned to the zeal and energy, 
and (I hope we shall be able to add) the constancy and 
perseverance of our younger brethren in agriculture. 

Before leaving the subjects that concern us so nearly as 
farmers, we have to note the establishment of the manu- 
facture of sorghum. About 1500 gallons were made 
during the year, and growers and manufacturers both 
«eem to regard the enterprise thus far as being a success. 



An event occurred during the summer which was of 
interest to several families. I refer to the final close of 
Fair Hill Boarding School, and the sale of the property 
to a private individual, after having been for nearly half a 
century in charge of the Baltimore Yearly Meeting of 
Friends. That building has not been without its history. 
Between seven and eight hundred young persons, prin- 
cipally females, were scholars there. Scattered widely 
over the two adjoining States, they doubtless retain varied 
yet vivid recollections of the period passed under the old 
roof, which would furnish ample materials for many a 
lively story, destined probably to remain unwritten. 

One "boarding school for girls" was closed; another 
was opened by James S. Hallowell, at Fulford, during the 
year, under reasonably favorable auspices. 

In connection with this subject it is proper to mention 
that the new system of public schools, inaugurated in our 
State under the new Constitution, was at once introduced 
into our neighborhood. 

In regard to this important subject, it is well for us to 
remind ourselves that the grand object and ultimate aim 
of this vital institution is to level upwards. Therefore, 
if any community (such as ours for instance) shall con- 
sider that it is not much benefited at first, it may be con- 
soled by the self-complacent idea that the high position 
it occupies has not yet been reached by the swelling tide, 
perceptible only on average elevations. But the tide is 
swelling, and will reach even them. Let us be patient: 
the beneficial wave of intellectual light ever rises, and can 
know no ebb. *''For God Himself is Light ! " 

Another school was organized in the neighborhood 
during the present year, altogether as successful, and 
probably quite as useful as the preceding. A school for 


colored people was no new thing in onr neighborhood ; 
and though the attempt to keep it up was often interrupted 
and the school dispersed by violence under color of law, 
it served among sundry other causes to attract and retain 
the more valuable class of operatives. Viewed in a merely 
material and selfish light, it was a benefit to us all. 

These advantages, and many more of a much higher 
character, have been secured and confirmed by the truly 
admirable teaching of Mrs. Clarke, the lady who under- 
took the arduous task of conducting the present colored 
school, situated in a spot that has borne the name of 
" Sharp Street." Every person who is willing to visit 
there, and to give full play to the instincts of reason, 
justice and humanity, while listening to the exercises, 
must echo with honest enthusiasm the beautiful couplet 
they fondly sing — 

"Long may our land be bright 
With freedom's holy light ! " 

Change we now the thenje ! " To heavenly themes 
diviner strains belong.*' The events now to be recorded 
demand a pen of rosewood and the juice of roses for ink. 
Would that I might command language flowery enough 
to describe the incidents for which this year of grace, 
judged by the emotions of many of our young friends, was 
especially made. I keep, however, to the simple facts, 
and refer you to a certain evening, still fresh in j^our 
recollection, when at a meeting of the Literary Society it 
was found nearly impossible to fix a time for the next 
meeting, at which somebody or other was not going to be 
married ! 

Certainly there was never in our neighborhood such a 
revival of the matrimonial spirit during any year that I 


have known it. The parties waited so appropriately for 
this year of peace and union, thus adding to life's 
brightest charm its crowning grace. 

Six weddings in one year in our small circle show pro- 
gress indeed. The coming of the most important event 
in life to at least twelve persons leads naturally to other 
material improvements. The bird must have its cage, 
either newly made or enlarged; thus several comfortable 
additions have been procured to the homes of Sandy 

It seems an abrupt transition, yet one frequently made 
in this world, to pass from the marriage altar to the 
tomb ; from the commencement of life's serious cares and 
duties, to the place of never-ending rest. Two sweet 
stanzas express the peculiar contrast: 

"I saw two maids at the kirk, 

And both were fair and sweet — 
One in her wedding robe, 

And one in her winding-sheet. 

'* One, on the morrow, woke 
In a world of sin and pain ; 
But the other was happier far. 
And never woke again." 

This page of our record is again filled with many 
names. On the 24th of August died Elizabeth Briggs. 
After nearly two years of severe illness she passed very 
quietly away. In patience, in meekness, and all the 
mild, unobtrusive virtues that diffuse their light round 
the domestic hearth, her character was peculiarly blessed. 
A sportive fancy and playful humor, amusing all and 
hurting none, were remarked by those who knew her best. 
Of such as she we do not need to say "peace be with 


them ! '' for their lives are wholly peace. A month later, 
a fine, blooming child was taken away from parents who 
had already experienced the crushing bereavement. 
Clarkson Stabler died the 22d of September. Too 3'oung 
to have made a permanent impression outside the circle 
of his immediate friends, it seems to others a void easily 
filled, but to the parents that void is deep in proportion 
to the narrow space which the little life filled. It was a 
lovely afternoon of the 11th of October, just when the 
fading graces of autumn flush the dying year, that the 
sweet, pure spirit of a young girl was rendered back to 
God who gave it. Isabella Stabler was in her 18th year. 
To minds concerned only in the things of earth, such a 
bereavement is utterly overwhelming and irreparable. 
There was everything about her to give satisfaction to 
the present and promise for the future. Favored by per- 
sonal attractions, and in the fairer charms of an amiable 
disposition, she possessed a mind earnestly drawn to the 
pursuit of knowledge. All these gifts and graces were 
reft at one blow. Nay, not wholly reft ; they live still in 
the memory of her friends, who cherish fondly the tender 
recollection, admonishing them, 

"Though 'tis an awful thing to die," 

('Twas even to her), 

" yet, the dread path once trod, 
Heaven lifts its everlasting portals high, 
And bids the pure in heart behold their God." 

Only four days later, Timothy Kirk died at the advanced 
age of 87. His active years had been spent in another 
part of the country, but his connection with a valued 
brother and a beloved sister, both passed away from 
among us a 'few j^ears ago, served also to draw him near. 


A month later, on the 21st of November, having also 
reached a very advanced age, Martha Thomas, mother of 
Edward, William John, and Samuel P. Thomas, closed a 
quiet and gentle life by a peaceful death. It was remarked 
by one who looked upon her calm brow, " stamped with 
everlasting peace," that the transition to another life, 
often so abrupt, was in her case easy and natural, as if 
" the gates opened of themselves." 

When the new year came, death returned to find 
his victims among the young. In the early morning 
of the 18th of March, Edward S. Hallowell yielded 
up a life most dear and precious. His worth was 
known and appreciated outside the home circle, in 
which it was felt with such peculiar regard. He was 
a good boy: he performed well and faithfully his part 
while he lived; his short career was speedily accom- 
plished, we shall see him here no more. Cold indeed 
must become the hearts of our young people, and wholly 
devoted their minds to gathering the sordid gear or to the 
perishing pleasures of earth, if they fail to keep green the 
memories of Isabella Stabler and Edward Hallowell. 
Another victim still. We are even now just returned 
from following to their last resting-place the remains of 
Annie Moore. The little darling of a young widowed 
mother was soon called to climb to the abode of the other 
parent, Archibald Moore, whose early removal was chron- 
icled in a preceding page. In gazing on the little face of 
the dead a few hours ago, we could not but remark that 
it was the most beautiful one in the whole assembly. 
How justly may we ask, if death is so beautiful, if the 
spirit in parting leaves such a celestial impress on the 
clay, why should we regard the mortal stroke with so 
much horror? 


Turning now from tender sentiment to sober fact, it 
may be well to remark that in the past three years w^e 
have recorded the deaths of 23 persons. " Our neighbor- 
hood" is a rather uncertain tract of country, the lines are 
not determined with such precision as to justify reliable 
mortuary statistics. But your historian having some ex- 
perience in that department of business, and being deeply 
interested in the results which can fairly be drawn from 
such facts as we can depend upon, will venture to add 
to this Chapter the following conclusions : 

The annual death rate for the three periods must 
amount to 1 in 45, or thereabout. Now this mortality is 
far above the rate found to prevail in our whole country. 
Here is a serious fact which we are called upon to face. 
Can it be that life in Sandy Spring is really less secure 
than in the rest of the United States ? You do not believe 
that — neither do I. 

We must fall upon more precise statistics if these 
historical sketches are contiuued. 



Ending 4th Month 1st, 1867. 

Invitation to assist the historian — Farm improvements — Potatoes 
beginning to be largely grown — Croaking for drought — Wheat 
almost ceased to be a staple crop, yet the drought was relieved 
by inundating floods — Life of the clubs, with a spice of rivalry 

— The Horticultural supported by the ladies' hands excels — 
The mercantile interest — Sorghum — "Sandy Spring Branch 
Turnpike ' ' incorporated with the main stem — Tollgate at Ash- 
ton — First appearance of i*ailroad engineers — Lyceum porch 

— Professor of elocution appreciated — The Literary Society 
less lively — Xew Debating Society — Newspapers suggested 
without success — The schools really prosperous — Marriages 
less so (as to numbers) — Interesting facts relating to some of 
the deceased — Warning against " the busy tongue." 

You are again invited to stop for a few moments the 
rolling wheel of time, and consider attentively what its 
last revolution has brought and taken from us. 

How many of you, allow me to ask, can at once recall a 
number of occurrences of the past year which might 
properly constitute material for neighborhood history? 
My annual task would be much lightened, as well as 
rendered more valuable and interesting, if several persons 
among you would keep a record of such events as each 
one might consider of the most general interest, suffering 
me to draw thence the materials thus gathered together. 

In the absence of such help, I proceed to transfer from 
my own brief notes a few leading incidents, accompanying 
them with such remarks and reflections as they naturally 

As this neighborhood constitutes a community engaged 


mainly in agi^cultural pursuits (although depreciating 
remarks have occasionally been made to the contrary), we 
will first take up the farming operations of the year. 
These commenced last spring in a lively manner. The 
spirit of improvement was exhibited in the clearing up of 
grounds and fencing them in, a larger amount being done 
than usual. 

A full spring crop was put in, especially of potatoes ; 
at least 200 bushels being planted by the members of the 
two Clubs alone. As the season advanced, a drought of 
unusual severity for the spring of the year set in, and a 
corresponding amount of the inevitable croaking was an 
accompaniment. " The grass crop was gone, that was a 
certainty." Potatoes depend entirely on having sufiicient 
moisture — " our 200 bushels of seed would almost have fed 
us," and so on. And how did it turn out? Why, just as 
it generally does. Some crops were unusually good, 
especially was this the case with corn and potatoes, while 
others were only moderate. The hay crop was consider- 
ably shortened, also the wheat except with a few favored 
individuals; but wheat has almost ceased to be a staple 
crop. That drought was succeeded by abundant rains — 
bountiful rains— almost inundating floods. Probably 
tons of the most fertile particles of our soil are carried off 
to feed the fishes. Yet judging from the unusually fine 
appearance so far of the wheat this spring, there must be 
a good deal left in the fields still. 

As the question is even now being agitated, owing to 
the quantity of moisture in the ground, resulting from 
the abundance of fertilizing snows, whether it will be 
possible to get through with the necessary farm work, it is 
well for us to be reminded that it has often been just so 
before, only "more so." And that "while the earth 


endnreth, seed time and harvest, and summer and winter, 
and day and night, shall not cease." 

The farming interests of the neighborhood may thus be 
regarded as having been fully sustained. The Club, and 
its off-shoot, the Junior Club, which promises to surpass 
its parent in respect of activity and energy (as indeed it 
should : we are not jealous of our sons, the more they excel 
us the prouder we shall be), these institutions and the 
interest by which they are sustained serve as a gauge 
whereby to measure the condition of agriculture among 
us ; because they measure the spirit, the life, out of which 
all real improvement must grow. 

In this connection it is a pleasure to acknowledge the 
Horticultural Society as a very important adjunct to the 
two Clubs, chiefly because the ladies can join hands and 
add their direct influence to the great work of making 
mother earth do her best for us in every way. A second 
highly successful exhibition of vegetables, fruits and 
flowers held last fall, ought to be regarded as placing 
"the Horticultural" among the leading associations of 
the neighborhood. Is there room for another ? Not if it 
would be compelled to arrogate the title of " Junior " ! 

Next to the agricultural interest, what comes second 
in Sandy Spring? Is it the mercantile? This is an 
interest of considerable magnitude both for buyers and 
sellers. The business done in this is also one of the 
gauges to estimate the material prosperity of a community; 
but being placed rather out of sight, certainly out of the 
reach of your historian, he is unable to report whether the 
year's transactions show advance or recession. The manu- 
facturing interest represented in the sorghum mill was 
apparently prosperous, looking to the amount of sweets 
produced last fall; but here too I am unable to say 
whether the bulls or the bears have it. 


The social, literary, and other higher interests remain to 
be looked into. But, first it is necessary to complete the 
history of one of the important enterprises of the neighbor- 
hood, which has been referred to in each previous chapter 
of our history, and which, it is hoped, may hereafter be 
dismissed from it^ pages. The Sandy Spring Branch Turn- 
pike was consolidated with the main stem, and our com- 
munity thus relieved from its charge. This transfer was 
attended with a circumstance which at first produced some 
excitement. One fine morning last summer the peaceful 
travellers along the road were startled by the apparition 
of a toll-gate at Asliton. It was no shadowy ghost, but a 
substantial reality, one of the sort which people rarely like 
to face, that is at first, and until they beco me accustomed 
to it. The original managers of our branch road had not 
achieved a great deal of popularity ; they were frequently 
blamed for being tx)o slow and inefficient: now the com- 
plaining parties, viewing this unexpected obstruction, were 
v/aked up to find king Stork worse than king Log. How- 
ever, our people are always willing to pay for any real 
improvement; and if the road continues to receive the 
attention which the manager of the main stem has so far 
given it, there is no doubt we shall soon come to look 
even upon a toll-gate as one of the ornaments of the neigh- 

The presence of some railroad engineers in the early 
part of the winter, and their promise to continue the 
survey in this vicinity, produced for a time a pleasing ex- 
citement. The immediate prospect of getting a railroad 
seems to be moderately fair. It has been pronounced on 
high authority " only a question of time " (I) I should 
like very much to know whether Chapter V, VI, or a 
still later one of this history, will chronicle the first ar- 


rival of the steam-horse over our classic ways; now, alas! 
one deep gulf of mud. 

During the past year, our Lyceum Hall has been im- 
proved and ornamented by the addition of a fine com- 
modious porch ; which is nearly or quite paid for. This 
great external improvement would be glory enough for 
one year, even if there were a slight falling off in the 
arrangements for affording entertainment and iustruction 
within the hall. The season and the roads have been very 
unfavorable ; but it is believed there is no just ground for 
complaint in relation to the uses made of this important 
building. An extraordinary course of readings for the 
benefit of the library had decided success last summer. 
It was followed by a more artistic display from a dis- 
tinguished Professor of elocution, meeting with an admir- 
ing and generous support ; which showed the appreciative 
character of the people, as well as their readiness " to go 
off" into the heroic vein. 

The literary society continued its regular meetings. 
Some indications of a lack of interest gave rise to a fear 
that the society might be dying out, but at a subsequent 
meeting the interest flamed up again. It may be con- 
sidered in a less flourishing condition than at some former 
periods of its history; but there is no reason for despair- 
ing of its life. Perhaps there needs an infusion of fresh 
blood, perhaps it wants cooking over in some particulars ; 
the meat, the stuff is here. A lively impression of the 
void which would be left by the extinction of these pleasant 
reunions ought to be sufficient to renovate and preserve 
them in vigorous health and unfading lustre. 

A new Debating Society must be numbered among the 
improving institutions of the season. It is thought to 
awaken an interest for argumentative discussion. 


A projected undertaking which was not carried into 
execution, promised at one time to add a very important 
institution to the number of those which have stirred up 
our neighborhood. This was nothing less than the scheme 
of establishing a newspaper. Many favoring opinions and 
good Avishes were expressed for the success of the enter- 
prise ; but after due deliberation it was prudently aban- 

The schools have been for the most part flourishing. 
In last year's historical sketch, the hope was held out that 
" the swelling tide of public instruction ' ' might rise suffi- 
ciently high to reach the shores of '* the Athens of Mont- 
gomery County," as some persons have dared to call it. 
The success of the Sandy Spring School the present year 
seems to justify that prediction ; its numbers, no longer to 
be contained within former limits, flowed out into a wing 
attached to the building. 

The colored school continues to deserve all that was 
said of it last year. That people with their prosperous 
school, their fine new church and certain other prospec- 
tive privileges, are surely trying for " the third story of 
Noah's Ark," to use an expression of one of their 
preachers. The voice of this community is, I am sure, 
" let 'em up " as high as they have capacity to climb, by 
the aid of education, religion and eternal justice. • 

After the extraordinary performances of our young 
people, the last year, in the matrimonial line, as duly 
recorded in Chapter III, it is not surprising that one 
solemnization only of this most interesting event in the 
life of man should be all that we have to note in this 
place. Our record of marriages so far stands thus: 
Chapter I, one marriage ; II, three marriages ; III, six 
marriages ; IV, one marriage. 


Historians find it hard to keep wholly to the past with- 
out venturing even a glance to the future : 

* ' Heaven from all creatures hides the book of fate, 
All but the page prescribed, the present date." 

Happy, happy for us that it is so ! We know that the 
revolving wheel of time drops from its circumference 
each year one person after another, till all that once lived 
be gone. Who is to go, and who to stay a little longer ? 
But of that we know nothing. 

While every inducement that can operate on a sound 
mind and heart should make us value the friends who 
are left us a little longer, there is also a powerful motive 
to cherish the memory of those that have departed. To 
feel that the neighborhood dead are ours ! Ours, by the 
remembrance of every kind act done by them; ours, by 
thought of every kindness which we might have shown 
toward them, yet did not; ours, by the hope to meet 

In the record of deaths the present year we find two 
little children in one family, Caroline F. and Henry H. 
Moore, the former on the 13th of April, the latter the 
11th of February. In the family of Edward Peirce, 
another little child, April 27th. The next record is of 
Mary Brooke, wife of Basil Brooke, on the 2d day of the 
11th month, aged 91 years 4 months and 21 days. So far 
as my acquaintance with the annals of the neighborhood 
extends, this is the most advanced age to which any of its 
residents have attained. It would be to me a labor of 
love to collect some incidents of this long, blameless life. 
She was not a native of Sandy Spring, but had spent here 
full threescore years and ten, from the time of her mar- 
riage to the day of her death. Born five days before the 


battle of Bunker Hill, she was twelve years old when 
the constitution of our country was framed, and. she lived 
through all its vicissitudes, through wars foreign and 
domestic, to see the assured grandeur of the nation 
emerge from its last crowning trial. An incident con- 
nected with her journey as a bride from Baltimore to her 
life's home at " Charley Forrest," is noticeable as show- 
ing the nature of our republican institutions. The 
driver of the hack which brought up the wedding party 
was grandfathei" of the man (now a prosperous banker of 
Baltimore) who recently married the niece of a former 
President of the United States, a lady who had presided as 
mistress at the White House during his administration, 
and, as an honored guest, graced the royal banquets of 
Queen Victoria. If the bride of 1865 leads as blameless 
a life, and acquires as many sincere friends and as few 
enemies as the bride of 1795, it cannot fail to be well 
with her at the last. 

November 20th died Julia Miles. The limits of our 
neighborhood may well bo slightly extended to include 
one who was so frequently a welcome and valued inmate 
of our homes. Her intelligence and refinement dignified 
the useful life she led, and won for her warm friends, who 
sympathized sincerely with her severe sufferings and 
lamented her early death. February 9th, William Sta- 
bler, in the 35th year of his age. Of the persons assembled 
in this hall at its last annual meeting, whose place seemed 
less likely to be vacant now than his? Always interested 
in the concerns of our Lyceum, having contributed his 
full share of efforts to prosper it from the beginning, it is 
here in an especial degree we note his loss. In all enter- 
prises likely to promote the general welfare he was ready 
to do his part, while his industry, honesty, and solid 


sense distinguished him as one to be relied upon. The 
loss of such a man in the prime of life, aj)art from the 
deep sense of bereavement experienced in the circle im- 
mediately around him, is a greater blow to the fabric of a 
neighborhood's true prosperity than many inundating 
floods and destructive fires. 

Before withdrawing our minds from the contemplation 
of the places left vacant by departed friends, and while 
our feelings are softened by the impressions aroused 
through their memories, it seems a good opportunity for 
examining whether we have individually anything to do 
that might tend to make our neighborhood the better for 
our having lived in it, or at least that might preserve it 
from being any the worse on that account. The appointed 
work of some is with the hands ; of some, with the pen ; 
of others, with the tongue ; of all, more or less, with the 
example of their lives. Perhaps the influence most afiect- 
ing the liarmonij of the neighborhood (the most important 
of all) is that which is exerted by the tongue. May he 
who, in future, like the mysterious author of the " Address 
to a Skeleton in the British Museum," shall undertake to 
apostrophize ours, may he, unblamed, adopt these im- 
pressive lines : 

•'Here, in this silent cavern, hung 
The ready, swift and tuneful tongue : 
If falsehood's honey it disdained,' 
And, where it could not praise, was chained : 
If bold in virtue's cause it spoke, 
Yet gentle concord never broke, 
That tuneful tongue shall plead for thee 
When death unveils Eternity." 

The historian of the decline and iaW of nations ever 
finds himself obliged to trace those melancholy results to 


the formation of ^Mrf/es within the State bitterly hostile 
to each other. Within the smaller sphere of a neighbor- 
hood, there is no question that the tendency to form 
cliques and'5?«rf/es is one of the symptoms of decline most 
to be guarded against. Have ye none of it I 

In this historic year eight additions have been made 
to our neighborhood by the coming amongst us of the 
"Norwood" family. 

Another annual record will complete the 5th year of 
these annals. It may then be found interesting to con- 
centrate the statistics of births, deaths, and marriages of 
Sandy Spring, in a more regular form. Thus far emigra- 
tion and immigration seem to count for nothing. 


From 4th Month, 1867, to Fourth Moxth, 1868. 

A changed neighborhood — A fair month following a discouraging 
one— Profits from the potato — Xew Road System — The Rail- 
road not progressive — Subdivision of a large farm — Teachers' 
Association — The Xew School System — Associations healthful, 
especially the Ladies' — Literary affairs less promising, perhaps 
' ' a little overdone ' ' — Activity of mind kept up — The Post 
Office mails in 6 months, 10,141 letters — A Savings Institution 
organized — First Day Readings — Relief to the Southern Sec- 
tion — 4 Marriages, 1 Death — Five years' Statistics. 

At its meeting in last month, the Farmers Club of 
Sandy Spring celebrated its 24th anniversary. Looking 
back oyer the long period that had elapsed since its origin, 
the early members were naturally led to recall the agri- 
cultural condition of the neighborhood at that time. The 
attempt to picture it w as not a very easy one ; so great is 



the change which has been effected. If we conceive two 
photographs taken in the growing season, from a point in 
space above, — the one representing the condition twenty- 
four years ago, the other as it is at present, there might be 
some difficulty in recognizing their identity : the new 
buildings, and the altered appearance of vegetation, would 
create the impression of a different country. 

Facts of this nature form an important part of the 
history of a rural community ; yet by no means the most 
important part. They are the result, the outgrowth of 
causes originating in the character of the people and the 
circumstances of the times. Manners and customs, feel- 
ings, opinions and institutions, change as much as outward 
facts ; and the former have much the greater influence on 
the happiness of the people, and the present and future 
condition of the neighborhood in which their lot is cast. 

It is natural then to ask, how a life-picture of our com- 
munity taken some years ago would show by the side of 
one taken now. In the case of external, material improve- 
ments, the changes were so gradual as scarcely to be per- 
ceptible from year to year, yet leading to a condition more 
and more widely different. 

Of a nature still more imperceptible, and much less easy 
to delineate, but assuredly not less actual, are the changes 
which slowly creep on in the character and institutions 
of a community; and these, according as they are con- 
formable or non-conformable to the line of progress 
marked out by the higher powers, will elevate to still 
greater perfection, or bring down to certain ultimate 
failure and ruin. In view of this effect, which it requires 
a considerable period of time to render broadly visible, it 
would not be difficult for your historian, if permitted to 
draw material from the whole period of his acquaintance 


with the events and people of the neighborhood, to show 
you many an occurrence of thrilling interest. But that is 
not the purpose of this history, which is confined in each 
chapter to the incidents of twelve calendar months. It 
must consider one year at a time. Let us see now what 
we can make of the last. 

It is stated in the preceding chapter, written just a year 
ago, that the roads were then " one deep gulf of mud," 
and the question was being agitated, " owing to the quantity 
of moisture in the ground, whether it is possible to get 
through in season with the necessary farm work ? " Now 
it is well to commence this record with a reminder of the 
character of the season which immediately followed. The 
whole month of April, then just begun, proved to be lovely. 
Perhaps a more favorable month for farm-work never was. 
The thermometer did not descend once so low as the freez- 
ing point, while fair weather filled the entire month, or 
nearly so. In making this reference to the weather I am 
rather encroaching on the province of your meteorologist, 
who will doubtless favor us with a full report; yet it 
seemed well, in a moral point of view, to recall a lesson for 
the benefit of the discontented brethren, which we shall 
all doubtless remember until the next time the wet or the 
drv weather shall continue to bother us a little longer 
than we would desire. 

The season continued to be good for the chief farming 
crops. Rain was perhaps rather in excess, but its in- 
jurious influence was less marked than was anticipated. 
Probably no single production reached the amount per 
acre occasionally secured in former years. The high 
prices, however, ought to make up for any deficiencies, so 
that the profits of the farmer for the past year leave him 
little to complain of and much to be thankful for. Es- 


pecially is this the case with the potato-raisers, some of 
whom realized what would in old times have been con- 
sidered a small fortune. One of the members of the Junior 
Club reports an aggregate yield from their club alone of 
10,000 bushels of this most valuable of roots, which is 
becoming one among the two or three most valuable staples 
of our neighborhood farms. 

There has been no lack of energy apparent in the 
improvements goiug on in farm-implements, buildings or 
modes of tillage. The important subject of roads has 
received the attention it deserves, and the efforts made to 
procure a better system from the legislature have met 
with more than usual success. They need to be well 
followed, as no system will w^ork of itself. Less success- 
ful, so far, have been the attempts to get up a railroad. 
Some new hopes are awakened, but as they are not 
founded on the absolute certainty which history requires, 
the subject must be ruled out of this chapter. Before 
leaving the account of material improvements, at least of 
considerable changes in such affairs, it is necessary to 
refer to the sale of a large tract of land near the centre of 
the neighborhood, and the parcelling of it out into small 
lots. This circumstance goes to secure the almost cer- 
tainty tliat a considerable part of our lands is destined to 
be cut up into small holdings, owned by the specially 
operative class. There has been much dispute among 
political economists who have deigned to discuss the sub- 
ject, whether this system is conducive to the welfare of 
an agricultural community. In the course of time we 
shall doubtless have the opportunity to illustrate the 
proposition in one way or the other. 

Now ascend we from the physical and material depart- 
ment to the intellectual. Such evidences as there may 


be of progress in this respect, your historian will find his 
liighest gratification in diligently collecting and setting 

In the first place may be mentioned the new event of 
the " Teachers' Association" of Montgomery County, held 
in this building last summer. Unfortunately the busy 
season prevented the attendance of many who might have 
profited by the interesting exercises. The members, of 
Avhom many attended from a distance, all testified to the 
kindness and hospitality with which they were received. 
Invitations were cordially extended to repeat the visit at 
a more convenient season of the year. Although, in the 
opinion of your historian, the State is threatened with 
serious injury and loss by the change recently made in its 
public school system, there appears to be no reason why 
our own neighborhood should suffer. Our citizens have 
only to take proper advantage of the District-Trustee 
feature of the new law in order to keep the management 
of their public school in their own hands. In the mean- 
time the private boarding schools, taking both together in 
view, may be regarded as decidedly flourishing. And so 
that essential element of a people's progress, "the 
School," an element by which Sandy Spring has been 
distinguished for a full half century, is still preserved 
to us. 

The other improving institutions known as the " Far- 
mers' Club," the " Club Junior," the " Ladies' Association 
for Mutual Improvement," the "Horticultural Society," 
were successfully carried on, each in its season, and with 
its purposes fully provided for. So well has the Ladies' 
Association fulfilled its mission, gaining houor and interest 
not only by the subjects wdiich it selects, but also by tliose 
which it avoids, that a serious eff'ort is being made (as I 


am told) to organize another similar one. It has our best 
Avishes, accompanied with the caution that^ in choosing a 
name, there may be no attempt to distinguish the two 
Associations by any invidious epithet referring to such 
unimportant matters as a difference of age. 

The subject of intellectual progress during the year 
may now be considered as pretty well exhausted. In 
former pages of this book, it is true, there wore other 
agencies for mental improvement mentioned ; as Lectures, 
Reading Circles, and such. Perhaps the less that is said 
on these neglected affairs, the higher will be the degree 
of our self-satisfaction. 

It is only fair to our worthy President to refrain from 
dwelling upon these omissions, because he is doubtless able 
to give excellent reasons for practically discontinuing the 
Lyceum Lectures during the past season. The Literary 
Society has had its difficulties too ; but the design of sus- 
taining it as a settled institution of the neighborhood is by 
no means abandoned. Vigorous are the attempts which 
have been made to keep life in its body ; and a few weeks 
will show whether it has only been in a state of suspended 
animation, or whether those attempts must prove it no 
better than a galvanized corpse. 

We are compelled to own that the experience of the past 
year indicates a somewhat critical condition for the boasted 
literary character of Sandy Spring. In the natural course 
of events we have apparently approached a crisis. The 
first enthusiasm for the Lyceum has passed away, the 
charm of novelty being gone. It has now reached the 
point when it has to contend with that lukewarmness apt 
to accompany such enterprises as bring no excitement to 
the senses and no profit to the purse. It has also to meet 
the depressing influences from the discouraging prophecies 


of those who dechired at the beginning tliat " they knew 
how it would be ; that it might flourish while it was a new 
thing, and then would be sure to go the way of such under- 
takings in other places." Now it may be that the multi- 
tude of societies amongst us has served to withdraw interest 
from the Lyceum. It may be. as several of our solid men 
thought, that " this sort of thing is a little overdone " ; 
causing the just claims of business and industry to be 
neglected in consequence of too great devotion to literary 
and social entertainments. However these things be, it is 
certain that a crisis is upon us; we have to decide a ques- 
tion whose importance cannot easily be overestimated. 
It is a proposition which I think can be demonstrated : 
whatsoever other circumstances may have produced an 
influence in shaping the condition of this neighborhood, 
it ^distinguishing characteristic, — that which has mainly 
made it what it has been, and what it is coming to be, is 
the mental activity of the people. I do not claim for them 
larger minds than those possessed by other residents of our 
State, nor a better or more thorough education ; but I do 
claim, as an unquestionable faculty, a wondrous activity 
of mind. It Avill be a great mistake then (to use the 
mildest term) for us to give up such a powerful stimulus 
to that activity as this Lyceum, with all its appurtenances, 
affords. I do not believe you will do it. Where men feel 
a real want they are very apt to appropriate means of 
supply. But it may be well to remember that it is much 
easier to keep the flame alive than to restore to life when 
once suffered to die. An instance of the sort of activity 
just referred to is exhibited in the following " item" for- 
Avarded to me by a member of the committee appointed by 
my request, at your last Annual Meeting, to assist the 
Historian by furnishing him with some of their notes of 


neighborhood transactions. '^ There were mailed in the 
last six months from this Sandy Spring Post Office, ten 
thousand one hundred and forty-one letters." TAventy 
thousand letters sent from our neighborhood office in one 
year ! I find by inspecting the returns of the British Post 
Office that about twenty letters for each individual passed 
through the mails of that country in one year, according 
to the latest report within my reach ; which return appar- 
ently includes the letters that pass both ways. The num- 
ber shown by our office exceeds greatly the English average. 
This little item (so good and appropriate that we have 
only to regret there are not more of the same sort from 
the same source) afi*ords strong statistical evidence much 
to be relied on in an exhibition of the intellectual life of a 

Another evidence of life has been recently shown in the 
effort, zealously and successfully made, to organize and 
establish a Savings Institution. The general animating 
interest taken in this enterprise, and the success of its 
preliminary proceeding, may be set down as the crowning 
event of the historical year. It will be for future annals 
to record the full establishment and growing strength of 
an institution which, we think, is bound to succeed. 

In a sketch exhibiting our agricultural, social, literary 
and business transactions, there should be room made for 
all subjects of general interest. The higher and purer 
the motives that lead to any undertaking, the worthier is 
it of enduring record. In this class of events it is proper 
to notice the commencement, last summer, of a course of 
readings in the Lyceum on First day morning. They 
appeared to be generally well attended throughout, and 
would perhaps have been more so if held a little later in 
the morning. In the same class may be mentioned the 


meeting held in second month last for the revision of the 
Discipline; wherein the members generally were invited, 
in accordance with a just interpretation of the require- 
ments of the spirit of the age, to partake in the delibera- 
tions of the assembly. Another step forward. On the 
same high level with these two last events I placed the 
liberal and unselfish subscription made for "Southern 
Relief," which was started at the close of a Lyceum lec- 
ture, going up Avith very little effort to the sum of $107. 
If a man can say truly, •' What I kept I lost — what I left 
behind me is not mine — what I gave away alone remains 
with me," — a community may repeat the sentiment with 
added emphasis. 

I now come to the most pleasurable part of my office, 
in which the degree of satisfaction is proportional to the 
extent of the record. On this principle the pleasure now 
is fourfold the amount last year. Four marriages are to 
be entered here. 

Our neighborhood, in common with a large adjacent 
countrv, has had abundant cause of thankfulness for the 
general good health that has prevailed throughout the 
past year. It has been much the healthiest season since 
this record commenced. Within the somewhat indefinite 
circle that comprises our neighborhood I note but one 
death during the year, but that was of the sort that 
leaves a wide blank. 

Died on the morning of March 15th, Roger Brooke, in 
the 58th year of his age. On the afternoon following, a 
large number of neighbors and friends collected at his 
funeral. A more than usual feeling of solemnity per- 
vaded the assemblage; and many a kind expression 
evinced the sincere regard felt for one whose warm 
friendship had been widely shared. His nearest neighbors 


had the most to say in his praise. One, not a very near 
neighbor, who had known him from boyhood, was deeply 
moved in recalling his peculiar manly and honorable 
traits of character, and loving to dwell on one pleasant 
incident that had left a deep impression on his memory. 
It was just thirty years ago, being the spring of 1838, 
since the writer of this article commenced farming opera- 
tions where he now resides. The situation was not 
promising, in fact "it was hard lines" with him. To 
make it worse, the spring was unusually wet and cold. 
The month of May was more than half over, and the field 
designed for corn, on which so much depended, was not 
half plowed. One morning as " he drove his team afield," 
not very "jocund" indeed, his poor little team and little 
old plow — ^just as the sun was rising — what was his sur- 
prise to see the decayed fence taken down at the farther 
corner, and — enter three fine horses with a big plow and 
strong, skilful driver; and without so much as saying 
" by your leave," begin to tear up the ground in a way — 
well, a way that has done me good ever since. It was 
Ivoger's team. 

And as I recall the impression which that incident 
produced at the time, remaining there ever since, it 
seemed worthy of record here; not merely as a tribute to 
the departed, but as suggesting that no one perhaps can 
perform a better act than by lending a little helip just at 
tlie rigJit time to a young man struggling under difficul- 
ties to make a start in life. 

Five years having elapsed since this record was begun, I 
now sum up, as promised heretofore, the scattered statistics 
of marriages, births and deaths during the several years of 
the period; relating to a population, as nearly as I can 
estimate, approximating three hundred : 


For the year from 




1863-4-2 to 4-4-1864 




1864-4-4 to 4-3-1865 




1865-4-3 to 4-2-1866 




1866-4-2 to 4-1-1867 




1867-4-1 to 4-6-1868 




Total in fiye years, 15 41 28 

An agreeable addition was made to our numbers this 
last year, by immigration. Two new families have come 
to reside among us, a rather infrequent but welcome event. 


From Foueth Month, 1868, to Fourth Month, 1869. 

What is a neighborhood? — Difficult weather — Disappointment in 
price — Fruit a failure, also ice — First complaints of poultry 
— First attempt at a census of the neighborhood — Two large 
fires and one disastrous flood — Progress of "Savings Institu- 
tion," and first Directors — More of railroads — Tower of Coast 
Surs'ey — Porch at Meeting House — Political contest — Science 
in the Lyceum — Introduction of the piano — Amusements — 
"Spare the birds ! " — '' Hard times." 

Before resuming our historical sketch, it seems proper 
now at the commencement of a second period of five years, 
the second Lustrum, as the old Eomans called it, to make 
some inquiry into the nature and intent of this sort of 
record, with a view to satisfaction upon the question 
whether it is a real thing, and not a mere fanciful specula- 
tion. Is there such a fixed fact, such a real entity as a 
tieigliborliood, possessing such actual existence as might 


entitle it to be portrayed in a history? Let us endeavor 
to briefly clear up this subject. It will not be disputed 
that there is a very general understanding as to what is 
meant by the claim of country. The events of the past 
few years have dispelled all confusion of ideas in regard to 
that matter. We have been taught by stern lessons that 
we have a country, to which much is due. We have 
known what it was to sympathize with its distresses, to 
suffer keen apprehensions in its time of danger, and to 
feel our own relief at its escape. We have learned to be 
proud of its good faith, to rejoice in its prosperity, and to 
mourn over its illustrious dead. To feel, in short, that we 
are part and parcel of it ; that if we were disposed to leave 
it, it won't let us go. 

Now there is a somewhat similar feeling, which may 
and of right ought to exist in regard to our own neighbor- 
hood, the social circle wherein all our immediate interests 
are closely bound. A natural, healthy and beneficial feel- 
ing leads us to take a lively interest in all that concerns 
its welfare, to be anxious for its improvement, jealous for 
its reputation, sorrowful for its shortcomings. Perhaps 
this sentiment is most strongly felt when we are absent 
for a time. Let any one who has spent a week at the sea- 
shore, or in any place where men do congregate, call to 
mind his emotions when by chance his own neighborhood 
is mentioned; how lively the interest excited by remarks 
made upon it ; how pleasant to hear favorable comments, 
how vexatious any sarcastic remark. Under such circum- 
stances we take up for our neighborhood, as if it were our 
own fireside. Does not this fact show that there is such 
an entity f an actual existing thing as a neighborhood? 
Of course it does. Again, tliere is another band that 
draws us still nearer together, — the enclosures of yonder 


graveyard. We are united into one community by our 
dead as well as by our living. Who does not feel the 
force of the hallowed tie ? The dead of the past five 
years are a sad reality; an important, inexorable fact, 
from which there is no escape. I look over their names 
set down in the pages of this little book, and think how 
much we have lost by their removal from the active life 
of the neighborhood. Names recalling so much of ex- 
cellence, of promise, of solid worth, that it is not too much 
to say our whole community would have stood higher at 
this day if these had been spared to live and labor. 

I think then we may justly claim that we place before our 
minds a reality in the idea brought up by the words " Sai^dy 
Spring"; it thus unquestionably possesses a claim to form 
history. Looking back with varied emotions of pain and 
pleasure on the past, gathering strength and wisdom from 
the retrospect, but fixing our eyes and hearts and hopes 
upon the future, with the steady purpose to sustain the 
character of our neighborhood, and to raise it to still 
higher degrees of excellence, let us now give our attention 
to the special events of the past year. 

The weather being a matter of so much importance to an 
agricultural community, and really interesting to every- 
body, 1 am compelled to encroach so far upon the province 
of your meteorologist as to remark that the spring of last 
year was a difficult season for farming operations. The 
frequent rains delayed the sowing of oats so late that it 
was in poor condition to meet the drought of the last 
of June and first of July. The result was a crop short 
in quantity and far worse in quality. The Aveight per 
bushel averaged about twenty pounds ; not quite so bad 
as in a recent season, when it scarcely reached above 
fifteen. The corn planting was also generally delayed to a 


late period in May, but the season proved more favorable 
in the end, giving us a full crop of that most important of 
all agricultural products. Potatoes yielded on the whole 
a very fair return, both in quality and quantity ; but in 
respect of that other valuable consideration, price in the 
market, there was serious disappointment. It must be 
confessed that the disappointment was much aggravated, 
if not, indeed, altogether caused by the high prices of the few 
latter years, creating anticipations which were not realized. 
Our enterprising young farmers, as 1 am informed, are not 
all discouraged about potatoes, but intend to put in the 
usual crop this spring. 

There was no cause to complain of the wheat crop, in 
any respect. Hay was abundant, and the price as good as 
could be expected with such a full crop. The great failure 
of the year was in fruit. Apples and peaches, the two 
far exceeding all others in value and excellence, were 
nearer being a total failure, it is considered, than has ever 
been the case with us before. 

Amongst the failures in important crops of the year 
just closing, I am compelled to enumerate the ice crop. I 
know it would have been kind to pass over this deficiency in 
silence ; especially as it might be thought to suggest invidi- 
ous comparisons. But an impartial historian has no right 
to indulge any feelings of that sort, nor to slur over an 
incident of practical importance for the sake of shielding 
improvident confidence, putting offto January what ought 
to be done in December. The report of the meteorologist 
will doubtless show that the average temperature of the 
first winter month was favorable to procuring ice. On 
the whole then we find slight reason to complain of the 
bounty of nature during the past year. With one compara- 
tively unimportant exception, in the case of poultry, there 


has been a general exemption from disease with man and 
"beast. Some families did appear to have more than their 
share of affliction ; but not a si7igle death has taken place 
amongst the persons included in our special neighborhood. 

In order that Ave might obtain a definite idea of the 
extent of the circle referred to as comprising the neighbor- 
hood of Sandy Spring, I have, with the assistance of a 
colleague and the suggestions of some other friends, made 
out a list of families, being a census of the persons who 
are concerned. Of course it was difficult in some cases to 
draw the separating line, but our return may be regarded 
for practical purposes sufficiently correct. The list hereto 
annexed shows 328 individuals in 66 families. 

In this circle there were during the first four years 27 
deaths ; in the last two years one death only : this seems 
to be a very remarkable circumstance. 

The number of births reported for the present year is 
seven. Number of marriages, one. 

Among the unfortunate contingencies of the year must 
be noted the unusual circumstance of two destructive fires : 
the house of Samuel Ellicott, and the barn of Dr. F. 
Thomas. Also a disastrous flood on the 24th of July, 
which washed away Thomas Lea's mill. All these losses 
are already repaired or very nearly so. 

The organization of the " Savings Institution of Sandy 
Spring" was mentioned in the last chapter of this history, 
with sanguine expectations of its success. These hopes 
have been thus far fully realized, and indeed exceeded by 
the actual results. The Institution was opened on the 
13th of April, 1868; on the first day of the following 
March the returns show that in the first ten and a-half 
months there had been paid in $9545, on which the in- 
terest accrued was $240; withdrawn |2665, leaving $7120 


on deposit. The considerable number of depositors, 183, 
shows the extent to which the benefits of the Institution 
have ah'eady reached, and gives reasonable grounds for the 
hope that its future influence will be widely felt. This 
success places the new institution in the front rank of our 
beneficial associations, and entitles its projectors to last- 
ing remembrance. 

- In each successive chapter of the present record some 
mention has been made of the railroad, which has been a 
lively subject of interest and expectation for many years. 
At length our hopes seem to touch solid ground. The 
whistle of the locomotive has not yet reached our ears, ex- 
cept from the dim distance of the Laurel Road, but some 
decided preliminary measures have been taken. On the 
15th of June, the engineers so long looked for came to the 
Manor and commenced operations. They went on to 
make the necessary surveys, and had fixed definitely upon 
the line when they were called away. The delays since 
that period served to confirm the doubts of the skeptical 
and to temper the ardor of the sanguine ; but the latter 
class having made up their minds for many years that 
"the railroad was only a question of time," can never be 
driven from that stand ; and the very latest advices con- 
firm the faith of such that the time has indeed come, and 
the coming summer will make it clear to all. 

In connection with public proceedings the tower created 
by the Coast Survey officers must not be forgotten. The 
constant view of this object ought to inspire a scientific 
interest, especially when the gentlemen operating from its 
summit shall have arrived; while the sight from thence 
is well calculated to widen and correct our knowledge of 
local points in our neighborhood, as well as to cultivate a 
taste for natural scenery. 


The porch erected at the meeting house is an improve- 
ment well deserving of mention ; and along with it the 
whitewashing of the interior, after nsing it for 51 years 
without a brush being put on the walls. 

Our people took a lively interest in the political contest 
of last fall. They formed an active club that held its 
meetings in this building, at which a large amount of 
speaking, and, on one or two occasions, of real eloquence, 
was poured forth on the altar of patriotism. They also 
erected a lofty and handsome pole, unfurling at its top at 
sundry times a flag, to tell the passers-by where they were 
to be found politically. 

This use of the Lyceum Building was by no means the 
only way in which it was occupied. After a season of 
unusual dearth in literary affairs, a course of lectures was 
revived, commencing with readings and recitations, and 
sustained by an audience large enough to prove that our 
people have not lost their interest in intellectual improve- 
ment. Their appreciation of the last lecture by Prof. 
Schaffer, which was highly flavored with real science, 
affords a gratifying proof of their love of knowledge. 

Another course of lectures, on history, which the young 
persons of the neighborhood have lately started, is receiv- 
ing more favorable support than was anticipated by the 

The clubs have been going on in the usual pleasant 
way. It has appeared to me, perhaps owing to better 
opportunity of observing, that "the Ladies' Association 
for Mutual Improvement " has taken on a more vigorous 
life than ever, as the spirit of the age seems to demand. 
Its career has been a uniform success. And whether it 
shall find in the future some more active part to take, or 
shall continue satisfied with its present quiet sphere of 


influence, it is certain that entire confidence may be 
reposed in its perfect discretion. 

We cannot but indulge a reasonable expectation that 
the Junior Farmers Club will attain to some useful 
results hitherto undiscovered ; while the Senior institu- 
tion may always find enough new subjects to keep up the 
fresh interest of their meetings. 

The social life of the neighborhood has lost none of the 
agreeable features for which it has always been noted; 
even though the winter entertainment, in consequence of 
the total privation of sleighing amusement, has missed a 
portion of its usual excitement. 

An entirely new interest has been added in several 
families by the introduction of the piano into society. 
Other amusements have been scarce; the attempt so 
vigorously made among the boys to get up the base ball 
game having come to an abrupt termination. Many wise 
people begin to discover that amusements of an innocent 
kind are essential to a perfectly healthy development of 
the youthful mind and body ; and it is not unlikely that 
this natural demand should require some judicious means 
of supply among us. In the meantime it is not difficult 
to point to one injudicious sort of amusement, happily not 
indulged to much-extent by those belonging to our imme- 
diate circle. When alluding on a former page to the 
deplorable failure of the fruit crop in the past year, I 
should have remarked upon a phenomenon that accom- 
panied it, namely, the extreme scarcity of the birds. No 
accidental coincidence was this. It is universally agreed 
that insects are the chief enemies of fruit, and that birds 
are the appointed agents to keep the insect world within 
proper bounds. It "goes without telling" that in- 
genious youth can work out the calculation thus — " I spare 


that robin — the robin will eat many thousand insects this 
sjiring — many apples, peaches, plums, &c., escape deadly 
injury." It was to be expected that the colored people, 
so long denied the use of guns, would manifest a disposi- 
tion to abuse the privileges suddenly granted to them, 
and I verily believe this is one cause of the recent dimi- 
nution in the number of the feathered tribe, "enlivening 
companions of the spring." It is to be hoped that along 
with their other new acquirements our colored folks will 
learn so much natural history as will acquaint them with 
the use and purpose of birds. 

Our neighborhood has continued to afford during the 
year past, ample facilities for the best sort of female educa- 
tion. But for " those not termed girls," there seems to be 
still a great want only partially supplied. Six youths have 
been sent away to distant places for the instruction that 
ought to be provided in some way nearer home. 

The subject of least satisfaction to our pride has been 
left for the last. During the forty years that I have been 
conversant with the condition of our dear old Sandy Spring, 
there has never been so much said about "hard times" as 
in the past year. What is the real meaning of it ? The 
essential comforts of life appear to abound ; nobody has 
been sold out or sent to jail. Merchants are busy ; mechan- 
ics still have employment, farmers have ample occupation 
for their own industry and that of the laboring class ; but 
there is — pressure. The true nature of this state of things 
is well worthy of inquiry. Having bestowed considerable 
reflection upon this subject, and made some calculations 
in regard to it, I will briefly state the conclusions which 
have been arrived at. 

In order to see how far those persons are correct who 
trace the difficulties to the heavy drain on our resources 


required for national expenses, let us look at the figures. 
The people of our neighborhood as now defined, constitute 
nearly one one-hundred-thousandth part of the whole pop- 
ulation. If we regard ourselves, as I think we may, as 
forming a fair average between the luxurious livers of the 
cities and the plain men of the rural districts, we are thus 
mulcted, directly and indirectly, in the round sum of |3000 
annually. This is an average tax of about forty -five dollars 
to each family ; rather heavy certainly, but not enough to 
break any one down, unless as " the straw that breaks the 
camel's back." The load must be up to the breaking point 
before; and that is where the difficulty lies. For several 
years in recent times, the receipts of our people were con- 
siderably greater than they had been previously. By a 
very natural law, expenses went up in a similar ratio. This 
was very satisfactory, easy and pleasant. But when potatoes, 
hay, &c., falling in price or quantity, or both, brought down 
one side of the balance-sheet, it was not so satisfactory to 
bring down the other side in the same proportion. Now 
the accurate adjustment of "expenses to receipts is the 
great financial business of life. It is something that has 
to be done either voluntarily or involuntarily. The wise 
man does it voluntarily and in advance. In order that 
this may be accomplished, the practice of keeping accounts, 
in some simple, correct mode, should be learned by farmers, 
who as a class greatly need the instruction. 

If the inquiry were made of our merchants in regard to 
the aggregate amount of sales during the past year, as 
compared with preceding years, it would be found, I am 
told, that there has been no diminution in that respect, 
though perhaps rather more delay in collections. Which 
shows that expenses have not been reduced. K"ow it is 
evident, that to make the balance-sheet right it is necessary 


either to diminish expenses, or to increase receipts — one, 
or both. 

It is well to bear in mind, as the final lesson of the day, 
that the method of increasing production is much prefer- 
able to the other plan. A large, liberal, judicious expen- 
diture (taking due care of the other end of the purse) is 
the proper accompaniment of national and domestic 


From Fourth Month, 1869, to Fourth Month, 4th, 1870. 

Descriptions of Sandy Spring by "William Darby, Moncure D. 
Conway, and A. G. Riddle, Esq. — ^* NoUesse oblige'^ — A 
dull year — Disappointments about the railroad — Ashton 
Turnpike — Wheat, oats and corn fairly good, despite the 
rainless months — Low prices cause reduction of seed — Hay 
comes to the rescue — On the whole, " a thankful year " — The 
16 year interval — The Societies flourish, and a new one, " The 
Sociable" — ** Supper left out" — Lectures by B. Hallo well, 
A. G. Riddle, T. C. Taylor and Mr. Coleman— The girls ahead 
of the boys in respect of education — Yet the report is of mar- 
riages. None ! — Other statistics interesting. 

We begin this year's review of neighborhood events by 
taking a glance at the past. Your historian holds strongly 
the opinion which he has heretofore frequently expressed, 
that it is impossible to attain to a right comprehension of 
the present actual condition of a country, neighborhood, 
or individual, without referring to the situation in former 
years and tracing the successive steps of progress. An 
account has been given in the first part of this book of 
the early history of Sandy Spring neighborhood, and a 
sketch of its early experiences. At the present time your 


attention is invited to three several striking views taken 
of us at intervals of about twenty years. They are drawn 
by the hands of three individuals who are perhaps the 
most remarkable for intellectual endowments of all the 
visitors or transient dwellers among us, that have been 
known by me, being men of unique and decided genius. 

Nearly forty years ago, William Darby wrote and pub- 
lished in one of the popular magazines of the period a 
sketch of the neighborhood, as it appeared to him ; from 
which are extracted the following lines : 

"Sandy Spring is one of those nooks from which we 
can see the stir of the great Babel, and not feel the crowd. 
In ail my wanderings over this world of care, and those 
wanderings were brief neither in time nor space, I have seen 
no spot where, if my choice was under my own control, I 
could so willingly spend the evening of my days. The 
hand that traces these rude lines has been embrowned 
in the wilds of the West and under the burning sun of 
Arkansas, Florida and Louisiana ; it has been benumbed 
in the snows of Canada. Under every sky I have visited 
I have found warm, sincere and noble hearts ; but such 
Avere in most instances single flowers that bloom alone. 
In the society of Sandy Spring we find a whole garden. 
It is a society where useful employment is honor, and 
where mental improvement goes hand in hand with toil ; 
where no door is shut upon the traveller," &c. 

From this delineation drawn by "a diamond in the 
rough," we pass twenty years onward to a period when 
there came among us a young man, whose name has since 
become widely and creditably known, both in this country 
and in England. In age, in circumstances, education and 
character, Moncure D. Conway is exceedingly unlike the 
writer just quoted; yet observe how similar the strain in 


which he speaks. Writing from London, where he was 
enjoying familiar social intercourse with Carlyle, 
Tennyson, Browning, Newman, and other literary mag- 
nates, he says : 

" My first tottering steps toward the kingdom of heaven 
were taken at Sandy Spring. And now that old neighbor- 
hood, and they who dwell there, have receded into (or gone 
ahead into) a golden age. Often in the twilight I revisit 
the old scenes and faces ; and sometimes have a vision of 
myself in old age returning to that spot where I buckled 
on my armor for a long and weary war. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^h^ 
how often have I longed for the old woodland walks, the 
dreams and glories of the days when every bush was a 
* burning bush ' there in Sandy Spring." 

In a book published by Mr. Conway in England, which 
went through several editions during the war, he describes 
his first impressions on visiting the neighborhood. "It 
was quite diiferent," he says, " from any I had ever seen. 
So beautiful and cheerful Avas this Quaker neighborhood, 
with its bright homes and fields filled with happy 
laborers, the only happy negroes I had anywhere known, 
that I always experienced an exhilaration in riding there ; 
and have often gone several miles out of my way to go 
through it to my appointments. I could tell the very 
line on the ground where the ordinary Maryland ended 
and the Quaker region began. I found on further 
acquaintance that I Avas in a place where mental culture 
was general, Avhere there Avas a good circulating library 
and excellent schools, and the interior life of Sandy 
Spring more attractive even than the exterior." 

Another interval of nearly tAventy years passed by, 
bringing us to very recent times, Avhen an observer arriA^es 
in the neighborhood, avIio is altogether as different in 


profession, character and style of talents from the two 
men last named, as they from one another. During his 
stay in this vicinity, Hon. A. G. Riddle sent to an Ohio 
newspaper a communication from which the following 
descriptive remarks are extracted : " I am in the heart of 
an old-time community of Quakers, who occupy all these 
lovely slopes and valleys for miles around, with their fine 
farms and beautifully embowered residences. They are 
a rich, cultivated and serene, thoughtful, contemplative, 
cheerful and social people, with many really learned men 
among them. There are some sixty or seventy families 
who have occupied this section of Maryland for seventy 
or eighty years" (he should have said "for a century and 
a half"). "Eighty or ninety years ago they emancipated 
their slaves, wiio, with their descendants, live on small 
farms around. At Sandy Spring is their store, postoffice, 
Lyceum, school house, &c., and there too, under the 
grand old oaks in the margin of a deep wood, is their 
meeting house. The whole community, southern in 
type, but northern in political sentiments, is made up of 
cultivated and refined people. I have seen a good deal of 
them; and, on the whole, I think they manage to get 
about as much out of life and the world, in the way of 
quiet, cheerful happiness, as any people I have ever met." 
However rose-colored these descriptions may appear to 
ourselves, they are unquestionably the sincere expression 
of sentiments of three truthful and gifted observers — 
outsiders too, and with no selfish interest whatever in 
this region of ours. The question now suggested to us is, 
what can we (who are stated above to have the talent of 
getting "so much out of life and the world"), how much 
can we get out of the foregoing portraitures ? The poet 
says, and every wise person has tliouglit the same : 


"Oh, wad some power the giftie gi'e us 
To see ourselves as ithers see us, 
It wad frae mony a blunder free us, 

And foolish notion ! " 

There is one notion removed by these descriptions of 
the past, which I have heard expressed by sensible, but 
misinformed observers, iiamely, that the fame of Sandy 
Spring is entirely of recent origin and due in large part 
to modern importations ; which is not so. I might have 
gone back more than forty years to a considerably more 
remote period, and shown that already in those early 
days the neighborhood had a reputation extending into 
tlie adjoining States or provinces, both to the North and 
the South. Whether deserved or undeserved, the praise 
goeth back to ancient times; "the people are to the 
manner born." 

It is to be remarked that all those flattering expressions 
are from outsiders. However graciously they may be 
received, I have never known the parties immediately con- 
cerned to make use of such expressions, except in the way 
of quotations, contributing to amusement. It is no fault 
of ours that people will talk so about us ; neither is it 
likely to do us harm. Only weak-minded persons are 
hurt by this sort of encomiums, which are taken at their 
real value by the reflecting, who know themselves and 
their own imperfections better than others can know them. 
The approval of the judicious is a wholesome encourage- 
ment and stimulant, especially to the young. An ancient 
and animating motto, originating in the times of French 
chivalry, — "Noblesse oblige," — admonishes us in that 
condensed phrase, that nobleness of origin creates an obli- 
gation to perform noble actions and live noble lives. If 
our young people will take this sentiment to heart, and 


buckle up earnestly to the work that devolves on them, so 
that some intelligent visitor to Sandy Spring, twenty, forty, 
sixty years hence shall be able to write and print such 
flattering descriptions of the neighborhood as those above 
transcribed, the local historian of the future will doubt- 
less copy them with a satisfaction very similar to mine. 

And now it becomes my duty to relate the incidents 
and the performances of the year. Such a neighborhood 
so highly spoken of ought to make decided progress every 
year of its existence. It may be the fault of the historian, 
but the achievements of the past year do not strike him as 
having been very exciting. On the contrary, it has been 
rather a dull year; and that is one reason why he has 
been induced to borrow some interest by recurring to the 
long past. 

To those who have been for years yearning for a railroad, 
and who were quite recently excited by strong hopes of an 
early accomplishment of our desires, it has been a tanta- 
lizing year. The arrival of engineers to complete the 
survey and location of the Laurel Branch was anxiously 
expected from month to month ; but they failed to come. 
Some relief was experienced in reading the proceedings of 
Congress, looking to a new line running from Washington 
City northward : a considerable degree of uncertainty still 
hangs over that prospect. To aggravate our disappoint- 
ments, we have been favored within the last week with a 
long list, published in the principal newspaper of the State, 
of the various railroads contemplated in Maryland, but 
not making even the slightest allusion to a route through 
Sandy Spring. All this succession of disappointments 
would be enough to damp the ardor of the most sanguine, 
were it not for a deep-rooted conviction still held by some 
of the best-informed persons, that the railroad from Point 


of Rocks through Laurel is a necessity to the B. & 0. R. R. 
and therefore must be made. To those determined be- 
lievers there are not wanting unmistakable signs of that 
which is to come to pass : signs that wall be visible to 
others erelong. 

In the meantime, without waiting for the railroad, but 
wisely putting their own shoulders to the wheel, the resi- 
dents of the eastern section of the neighborhood have made 
energetic and successful exertions to procure subscriptions 
for an important turnpike from Ashton to Washington 
City. The experience of this open winter has confirmed 
the opinion that roads made of dirt, however ridged and 
drained, cannot be relied on for the season w^hen transpor- 
tation is chiefly carried on by farmers. Stone roads are 
now the great desideratum. The benefit of those pre- 
viously made in our section is universally acknowledged. 
In this reference to turnpikes, it is worth while to record 
the amount of tolls collected at the Ashton gate for the last 
twelve months, ^328.81 ; in the previous year, §312, vary- 
ing slightly from being twenty-seven dollars per month 
for the last three years. 

The amount of agricultural produce in the neighbor- 
hood the past year may be considered a fair average, not- 
withstanding a severe drought that prevailed through the 
middle and latter part of the summer. The yield of 
wheat, as reported in the Farmers' Club, averaged twenty 
bushels per acre : probably the quantity sown was not so 
large as in some years. Oats yielded unusually well and 
its price made it a profitable crop ; the amount sown was 
not large. The great staple, corn, came up much nearer 
to the average than was anticipated during the rainless 
months. Perhaps this favorable yield of a crop considered 
so dependent on a proper supply of moisture affords a 


more convincing evidence than any we have lately had of 
the increased productive capacity which our farms have 
attained. The other partial staple of the neighborhood, 
potatoes, also yielded well; not much complaint about 
the quantity, but a great deal about the price. The fall- 
ing off in this respect will cause a reduction in the 
number of acres to be planted in the spring, to little more 
than one-third of the seed put in the ground the past two 
or three years. 

With wheat and potatoes at half price, the income of 
our farmers has been seriously affected. One crop, how- 
ever, came in to the rescue. Fortunately the hay crop was 
full in quantity, and fairly remunerating in price. Fruit 
was abundant, as it had not been for a number of years. 
On the whole one may say, looking fiiirly into the actual 
results of the past year, that, although we cannot call it a 
prosperous one, we may still find much to be thankful for. 
Especially for this: the farmer's life presents such a 
variety of resources that it is scarcely possible all should 
fail. And the most valuable conclusions we can gather 
from this fact is that we should avail ourselves of it, by 
increasing the variety of our productions as much as 

There can be no harm in mentioning that the present 
writer has for several years been anticipating a drought 
for the year 1870 ; there being evidence of the remarkable 
fact that the four diyest seasons of the present century up 
to date were in 1806, 1822, 1838 and 1854, which show 
an interval of sixteen years. This would bring the period 
of regular drought round to the present year. Your his- 
torian gives notice that if the drought should not come, 
he will shelter his prediction under the fact that it came 
last summer, which was only one year too soon. 


The boast of our neighborhood, referring entirely to the 
declaration of others concerning us, is, that " mental im- 
provement goes hand in hand with toil." What are the 
triumphs of the year in a social and literary way ? 

The four settled institutions, clubs and associations, 
have all gone ahead in their usual interesting and im- 
proving course. That outgi'owth of the Horticultural 
Society, the annual fair, held in the ninth month at Ly- 
ceum Hall, was highly successful at its last celebration, 
if we may judge from the opinions freely expressed by 

It would deserve a more detailed account than the his- 
torian can give, he not being present. Another literary 
association, which has taken the name of the " Sociable," 
was organized, and has held its first meeting. From the 
plan and arrangements adopted, there is reason to hope 
this young institution may be productive of practical ad- 
vantage and improvement in several ways, if its members 
"stick." If they do it will be the more creditable to them, 
because they have left out the supjjer, which has hereto- 
fore been found an essential accompaniment of all our 
permanent associations. 

The exercises proper to this building, and for which it 
was principally erected, have been rather Jess frequent 
than usual, yet not altogether neglected. Indeed, the lec- 
tures, though not very numerous, were, in respect of quality, 
quite up to par, if not above it. We had three during the 
year ; one upon Cuba, by Hon. A. G. Riddle, one upon the 
Indians, by Benjamin Hallowell, and one upon the Yose- 
niite Valley, by T. 0. Taylor, which were not behind any 
of the previous addresses. The lecture upon Ocean Cur- 
rents, by Mr. Coleman, is also well worthy of special men- 
tion. Our next favor in this line depends somewhat on 


Mr. Eicldle, whose leisure and convenience are questions 
which our secretary must solve. When the lecture comes 
we can all warrant its excellent quality. 

The schools have well maintained their character. The 
school at Sandy Spring has been conducted with increased 
excellence under several professors, male and female. Still 
there is a want, sensibly felt, of a school for boys of higher 
grade, if they are to keep up with the girls. Somehow 
or other it has happened that for many years in the neigh- 
borhood, the fair sex have held the reputation of being 
ahead in this business of education, and have no doubt 
deserved it. Now the question comes in this connection, 
whether it is owing to this fact of feminine supremacy in 
culture, that I am obliged to make a record such as was 
never made before in the seven years which are covered by 
this narrative, namely, of marriages in the year, 7ione; 
number of births, eight, pretty well distributed round the 
neighborliood, except in the central parts ; number of 
deaths belonging properly to Sandy Spring, four. 

Tlie Savings Institution made better progress during 
its second year than was expected, even by its sanguine 

Present Year. First Year. 

Eeceipts in Bank, |16,684.24 |9,545 

Amount withdrawn, 6,873.82 2,665 

Interest accrued, 771.51 240 

On deposit, 16,115.75 7,120 

No. of depositors, 266 183 

Results which may be viewed as encouraging in several 
respects. Times cannot be so very liard. 

Before taking final leave of the annals of '69-70, I will 
ask you to revive with me the recollection of the evening 


of the 18tli January. A literary entertainment had been 
provided, consisting of readings, recitations, &c., some of 
them novel in their character. The hall was full to its 
greatest comfortable capacity, and the attention and inter- 
est of the audience were evidently sustained in a lively 
manner, to the close of the proceedings. The perfor- 
mances were in a general way highly satisfactory, giving 
assurance that our neighborhood need never want for 
entertainments of this sort, if only the necessary enterprise 
is used in getting them up. 

But there was a gratification experienced on that oc- 
casion, while viewing the room and its occupants, beyond 
the amusement of the moment, in speculating upon the 
living material there collected together. Reflecting that 
the future of Sandy Spring is to be built up mainly of 
that material, your historian found great satisfaction in 
observing that it had never appeared to better advantage. 
The material is still sound at heart; and the building 
must rise higher and higher from year to year : whether 
the progress shall be fast or slow will depend entirely on 
the care taken to develop and employ the intelligence 
necessary to direct the mode of structure, to discover its 
proper place for each tie and brace and beam, to dress and 
shape them rightly, and to do all the work as under the 
eye of the Master Builder. 

]^ote: Some additional statistics of interest have been 
prepared by inquiring friends, which, on being carefully 
veritied, are considered w^orthy of a place in the record. 

Kumber of men over 21 being without wives, 18; num- 
ber of women over 21 being without husbands, 60 ; num- 
ber of widows, 20 ; number of widowers, 2 ! 

Does this last exhibit indicate (as has been savagely as- 
serted) that the men take ten times as good care of their 
wives as the wives do of their husbands ? 



From 4th Month, 4th, 1870, to Fourth Month, 3d, 1871. 

Reasons for commencing the Lyceum year with the 4th month — 
Moralizing — Advance of the seasons — Of the 16 year prophecy 

— Census of Friends' Mojithly Meeting, and of our agriculture 

— New buildings — On roads, the Norwood Branch — Silence 
about " Railroad " — " The Home Interests " — The Farmer's 
Club in reference to the moon — Oyster Shell Lime vs. Phos- 
phates — County Agricultural Fair in place of the Horticul- 
tural — The Sociable takes up the subject of amusements — 
Society and late hours ^— The " Marriage gale '' — Fears for the 
Lyceum — Visit of Caroline Talbott. 

I ask you to join with me in self-congratulation upon 
the circumstance of our having accidentally fixed this 
special period as the commencement of our Lyceum year. 
It is very near about the time which was used by our fore- 
fathers for centuries as the beginning of the civil year ; 
and, although some pestilent reformers, just one hundred 
and twenty years ago, changed the old arrangements, mak- 
ing New Year's Day come near about midwinter (on the 
same perverse principle by which the day begins in the 
viiddle of the night), still it is undeniable that nature has 
selected this particular period in average seasons for be- 
ginning her year. It has also been found in most other 
neighborhoods with which I am acquainted, to be the best 
season for business arrangements connected with passing 
from one year into the next. In the northern counties of 
this State, and in some of the adjacent States, the first of 
April, as I am told, is the people's moving day, renting 
day, hiring day, and general settlement day. It is con- 


sidered for various good reasons a more convenient period 
than midwinter ; and the festive season of Christmas is 
not clouded by thoughts of having to provide the next 
week for certain pecuniary arrangements which the 
farmer has not yet had time to meet. My purpose now in 
bringing these considerations forward is merely to demon- 
strate that we happened to fall upon the true and natural 
period for commencing our historical year, witli the 
special purpose of taking a simple, sensible, serious re- 
view of the one just closed. It is surely the part of wis- 
dom to do so. I know it has been said " Let the dead past 
bury its dead I" Very good. We bury the past as we 
last week buried the seeds of grass, grain and garden, to 
come up again. " There's the rub," and the good of it : 
they won't stay buried ; they will come up. Besides, we 
know well that if we want clover and oats and sweet corn, 
we must not scatter garlic and daisy and chickweed. 

" Sown in darkness, or sown in light, 
Sown in weakness, or sown in might, 
Sown in meekness, or sown in wi'ath, 
In the broad world-field or the shadowy path. 
Sure will the hurvest be ! " 

Your historian is not accustomed to be so poetical and 
moralistic at the commencement of his review. Forgive 
him ! The extraordinary fervor must surely be suggested 
by the extraordinary progress and early luxuriance of the 
present season. We have had in many respects an ex- 
traordinary year. The most marked feature Avas an un- 
usual regularity in the advance of the successive seasons. 
Last spring was not an early one ; but when it did fairly 
commence, it went on with scarcely any of those back- 
sets so common in our climate. Xo " winter lingering in 
the lap of May '^ last year. The summer, — well, the sum- 


rner went on regularly too, until it attained a high steady 
temperature, which was of such intensity as probably not 
to have passed altogether out of your recollection. Then 
came the autumn, one of the most beautiful that any of us 
has known : its calm lovely days by no means " the saddest 
of the year," followed one another in a remarkable succes- 
sion of gradually reduced temperature overlapping far into 
December, and putting off the actual advent of winter 
until all might be supposed ready for his coming. Fresh 
roses in bloom were plucked from the gardens late into 
December. At length, winter came just as we like to see 
it, " short, sharp and decisive " ; and withal dry, but es- 
pecially short. From roses in December 26th to hya- 
cinths in March 17th, both in bloom in the open air, was 
a rapid move. Indeed, March seems to have missed his 
usual place in the calendar. His absence caused no grief. 
We have now made the circuit of the year : yet another 
matter in regard to the weather remains to be referred to. 
Your historian undertook, in the review of last year, to 
make something like a prophecy for the next. How is it 
as to the fulfilment? Was there, or was there not, a 
drouglit in the year 1870 ? If this question was pro- 
pounded in many large sections of this country, and also 
in Europe, there would come a decided answer in the 
affirmative. I collected various newspaper extracts, which 
prove the existence of a severe and extensive drought ; but 
it is hot necessary to read them. You, farmers, who are 
so fortunate as to have potatoes to sell, know well enough 
why the price that you realize is so unexpectedly high. 
The low waters and dry wells and ice -ponds offered proof 
of the same fact. There was a considerable drought in 
the year 1870. But, on the other hand, when we recall 
the painful recollection of copious and continued rains 


last June, by which our wheat crop was so greatly injured ; 
added to which that no single crop with ns suffered 
seriously from want of moisture, it must be acknowledo^ed 
that your historian was justly taunted with having his 
prediction cast up to him, and is very willing to admit 
that it would be safer to confine himself hereafter to his 
proper province of the past. And yet, the practical point 
which he meant to make was borne out in one important 
particular, namely, that he who should put in his potato 
crop in moist land and tend it properly would profit by 
the predicted drought. I venture to ask you to remember 
this in 1886. 

My reason for dwelling somewhat on the preceding sub- 
ject will be apparent to you all ; and, as many weather 
predictions are just now coming into vogue, you will 
excuse the long-drawn specimen of this sort of prophecy : 
but it is time that we change the theme. 

Whatsoever other events of joy or sorrow the year just 
ended has brought to us, it has taken none of us away. 
Of the three hundred and twenty-eight persons now in- 
cluded in "our neighborhood," all still live — all of us, 
with several more added. It has been a year for taking 
the census in more cases than one. The Friends had it 
taken of the members of their own Society. The figures 
show a fair increase during the last ten years. Then, one 
hundred and eighty-one members of Sandy Spring Monthly 
Meeting were enumerated ; now the number is two hun- 
dred and eighteen, an increase of full twenty per cent. 
The State of Maryhmd has made an increase of only 13 
per cent, in the same period. 

The national census furnished some facts in regard to 
the agricultural productions of our neighborhood which 
are worth recording here. Your historian having held 


the office of Census-taker in both the years of 1850 and 
1870, is enabled to compare the products of nine farms at 
those two several periods. The estimate is given in the 
moneyed value at present prices. 

Total value of productions in 1850, $10,365. In 1870, 
$36,320. Average per farm in 1850, $1151; in 1870, 
$4035, which shows an increase on the same land over 3^- 

This augmented production in the last twenty years 
will scarcely surprise you: a more important question 
just now is whether the improvement still goes on in the 
same ratio from year to year. I think it does. From the 
best observation that I can make during the present year, 
there appears to be no falling off in the energetic prose- 
cution of the labors of agriculture among our people. I 
think that, as an instance of industry well applied, there 
has been a greater show of large stones taken up in 
plowed fields than has been usually the case in one year. 
The plowman who is careful to remove these obstructions 
is not likely to fail in other measures for ameliorating the 

Also there is now going on in the neighborhood a more 
than usual number of buildings, and these of the best 
sort for farmers; all this in spite of the alleged "hard 
times." It may be that the work of improvement is 
shown more in the number of new houses than in new 
hams, which would not be considered a favorable indi- 
cation in some districts. It is, however, in accordance 
with the spirit of Sandy Spring, which, though appre- 
ciating fine stock at their full value, has always preferred, 
and it is to be hoped always will prefer, to provide first for 
the comfort and welfare of human beings. 

Next in importance to improvements of the farm, so for 


as the substantial material interests of the people are con- 
cerned, comes the subject of roads. It was mentioned in 
the last chapter that vigorous efforts were being made to 
construct a turnpike from Ashton to the district line, a 
large subscription, which was a surprise to many, having 
been obtained. During the year several miles of the work 
have been done ; difficulties remain to be overcome before 
it is completed, yet none that can stop such men as have 
undertaken to finish the work. 

The year is noted for another enterprise in the line of a 
turnpike; one to connect Sandy Spring more directly 
with the main stem from Brookeville to Washington. 
This enterprise, which may be said almost to have 
sprung into being full gi'own, like Minerva from the 
brain of Jupiter, has also met with drawbacks in the exe- 
cution, but is now proceeding with steady, deliberate pro- 
gress. Impelled by an energy " that knows no such word 
as fail," and backed up by the strong corporation of the 
main stem, it is sure to be set down in my next record 
among the finished labors. 

After the discussion of turnpikes you will naturally 
expect some reference to an interesting subject that has 
had a place in all the preceding annals. But, if it is 
only for variety I must disappoint you this time, passing 
on to other topics, scarcely saying the word " railroad." 
We shall none the less " keep a great tliinkhig about it " ; 
and doubtless have a great deal to say next year! 

So much for material progress. How is it with things 
social, intellectual and spiritual? 

The incidents of the year, so far as they have been re- 
ferred to, show no want' of life in these respects, but rather 
the contrary. The various associations which are becom- 
ing the chief characteristics of our neighborhood are 


flonrisbing and increasing in numbers. A new society 
was formed during last summer, with the interesting and 
promising title of "Home Interests." Its peculiar feature 
appears to be that it is composed exclusively of young mar- 
ried folks. If there is not much known about this society 
outside its own circle, this is no cause for wonder or blame, 
since the important and interesting class of which it is 
composed are always sure to find no lack of subjects with- 
in, and concerning themselves alone. This freemasonry 
will doubtless expand and receive accessions of new mem- 

The older " Ladies' Association " (using the term only 
in reference to the date of its formation) pursues the even 
tenor of its way, neither straying aside on the one hand to 
urge disturbing political theories, nor on the other to oppose 
them, but devoting itself to " moral and social improve- 
ment"; ready to aid all proper benevolent enterprises in 
feeding and clothing the destitute at home or in the far 

The Farmers' Club at one of its meetings last year 
threw off in a very decided manner any imputation that 
might be started, of its beginning to feel " the infirmities 
of age," on the occasion of a suggestion from one of the 
members that "the time might come" when the winte?' 
meetings could be dispensed with. The proposition met 
with no favor. On the contrary, it was agreed by a num- 
ber of the members to undertake at once a regular series 
of useful farm experiments, which implies an energy 
almost youthful in its character. It is not in my power 
to say whether the younger Farmers' Club is doing its 
whole duty in that way. If it shrinks from any duty that 
merely requires a little trouble, the time may come when 
it will be distinguished from its senior confrere as being 


the club -which meets of moonlight evenings. However, 
some of its members are engaged in an experiment which 
I am disi^osed to regard with great interest: namely, the 
application of oyster-sliell lime. Tlie period has arrived, 
at least on some of our farms, when concentrated ammo- 
niacal and phosphated fertilizers will no longer suffice to 
restore to the soil the vast amount of material carried to 
town in the form of liay. 

The Horticultural Society, once deemed exclusive, but 
really the least so of all, embracing as it does all ages and 
both sexes, proved its importance last year both by what 
it did and what it omitted. I refer only to the latter 
charge. It was concluded, though with reluctance on the 
part of a portion of the members, to omit the September 
Fair, and concentrate efforts on the County Fair soon to 
take place in Eockville. The motive was good, but the 
result, in its effects, was of doubtful advantage. County 
Agricultural Fairs, the larger the better, are good things, 
but horse races are bad things; and this neighborhood will 
be untrue, not merely to its religious professions, but to 
the moral character which its people have certainly 
claimed, if it fails to distinguish between innocent amuse- 
ments, and those which, if not essentially immoral, are at 
least hurtful in immediate or remote influence. Perhaps 
no question of more importance to the future welfare of 
the neighborhood has loomed up during the year than 
that which relates to the subject of amusements. 

But I assure you, before going further into this question, 
that I do not mean to forget that a history is not a sermon. 
That is to say, not directly such ; and yet history were 
never worth the writing, if it does not indirectly preach the 
truth to us. It is the saying of some old sage, " Tell me a 
people's amusements, and I will tell you their chara^ier "; 


and ill accordance with this principle they have always 
been considered within the province of the historian. 

In order to perform this part of my task, it is now the 
proper time to refer to one of the neighborhood associations, 
hitherto passed by. If any doubt was expressed in regard 
to the new institution, called the " Sociable," whether the 
members were likely to "stick," the customary provision 
foY feed being left out of the plan of the society, the experi- 
ence of the present year has served to banish that doubt. 
The Sociable has been the most popular thing of the sea- 
son ; its plan seems to have worked well every way. The 
system of giving attention to elementary principles of edu- 
cation, and calling all the members to bear a part, both 
with tongue and pen, is calculated to be higbly improving. 
The written essays have possessed real merit, and there are 
several young writers thus developed by learning their 
own powers, who, after acquiring by practice the grand 
attainments of compression and brevity, will be able to sus- 
tain and increase the literary reputation of the neigh- 

Others have talked about establishing a paper at Sandy 
Spring; but these young people of ours have got it up, 
and very creditably too. Possibly it may be the germ of 
a larger enterprise of this sort. Were it only as easy to 
support a paper pecuniarily as to fill its columns with 
good reading matter, the thing were very practicable here. 

The juveniles of the Sociable naturally took up the sub- 
ject of amusements for discussion. Youth and amuse- 
ments have a natural connection. They seem to have 
carried on the discussion with the freedom that belongs to 
the times, yet with the apparent desire to bring the ques- 
tions involved to the test of reason and truth. The day 
has passed when these or any other questions can be 


settled by tradition or authority. Let the young people 
freely examine and test for themselves I It has become a 
very interesting problem at this time, in which the old as 
well as the young are concerned, and in which the views 
peculiar to both are entitled to consideration, to determine 
the nature and limits of rational recreation. Your histo- 
rian will now only observe, in his effort to impress the 
lessons of history touching the subject, that all amusements 
should be brought to these tests: Do they tend to pro- 
mote health or endanger it ? to refine the feelings, or to 
render them more coarse ? to produce respect to what is 
really worthy of reverence, or to produce the reverse ? In a 
word, does the individual in practicing the sport feel as if 
he was higher up in the scale of being, or does he feel a 
little lower down, after it is over ? Years hence, the stand- 
ing of this neighborhood will show the influence of hav- 
ing adopted the one or the other sort of amusement. 

We have now discussed the various societies. What 
shall be said of " Society," technically so called ? Accord- 
ing to the newspapers, the idea of society at the Capital 
seems to consist in descriptions of the dresses worn by 
ladies at parties. Although it must be admitted that the 
fashion of dress should have a place in history, the present 
writer feels wholly inadequate to that part of his task. Nor 
does he receive any help on this point in turning to the 
valuable information furnished him by the lady who has 
consented to render some assistance in this portion of the 
annals. Since she says not a word about changes in the 
style of attire, from bonnet to slipper, we must continue 
our sin of omission. It is due, however, to the importance 
of the subject, to say a word in regard to social usages, for 
they certainly rise to the dignity of history. In these pro- 
miscuous details it may be proper to remark that, accord- 


ing to my observation, there have been fewer parties this 
past year than in some previons seasons; and this has ap- 
peared to be a creditable circumstance, as evincing, in a 
proper way, the appreciation felt by the lovers of social 
pleasures, of the rather hard times, and the difficulties 
experienced by some to fulfil all their obligations with 
accustomed punctuality. 

It is also well deserving of mention, while referring to 
the subject of social usages, that a mmily effort was made 
this year (which scarcely met a womanly seconding) to 
check the growing evil of " late hours." It is very much 
to be hoped that an evil so indisputable among country 
people will resist the influence of city example. There 
is, in this matter, a positive discordance between the pro- 
prieties of town and country. There is conclusive evi- 
dence that the "hard times," so often unjustly complained 
of, is this year not wholly a myth; the operations of the 
"Sandy Spring Savings Institution " serve to show the 
correctness of the complaint. The amount received from 
depositors in the present year is only |9715, being $6300 
less than the preceding. The amount now invested is 
$31,409.94, which must be regarded as a decided indication 
of a prosperous and useful institution. 

Among the most interesting phenomena of the year 
whose events have passed into history, was one which 
impressed the country everywhere, so far as our acquaint- 
ance extends — a pleasant gale, if we may term it so, which 
reached our neighborhood in the autumn, and blew for a 
time with much impetuosity; nor has it ceased yet to 
agitate the throbbing belles. I refer, of course, to the 
"marriage gale," whose results (as thus far ascertained) 
may be summed up in the actual solemnization of three 
weddings, very near together, so beautiful that none more 


beautiful have ever been recorded in these pages. The 
recollection of such events is peculiarly pleasant, even in 
withered bosoms. Thanksgiving Day of 1870, how inex- 
pressibly bright and sweet and balmy! And yet there 
was another side to the picture ; for the influence of these 
exciting events served to diminish the interest felt in open- 
ing the lecture course of the Lyceum, And being strongly 
impressed with the conviction that literary culture and the 
mental activity thereby promoted are immediately con- 
nected with keeping up, in a worthy and respectable man- 
ner, the exercises for which this hall was built, the least 
indication of a want of interest in them seems to me a 
subject for regret. Looking back, however, over the whole 
winter's course, so far as it has gone, I cannot see anything 
like failure. The lectures and other literary entertain- 
ments have not, in my judgment, fallen below par; in 
several instances they were considerably above that stand- 
ard. Thus much can fairly be said of the lecturers. A 
more important question relates to the audience. Their 
attendance and deportment, their degree of interest in 
what is being said, is a far more important matter for the 
permanent and assured success of such an institution, 
than the occasional success or failure of a speaker. As 
was said at the inauguration of the Lyceum twelve years 
ago, "Furnish us with tlie right audie?ice, and we will insure 
lecturers fairly satisfactory." Being bound simply to record 
such facts as he remembers, your historian takes pleasure 
in referring, in this connection, to the very last lecture, 
wherein the audience performed their part quite as well as 
the speaker did his, and that was highly satisfactory to all. 
In the annals of things spiritual, it would be an omission 
to forget the visit of friend Caroline Talbott during the 
winter. The thronged attendance on her ministrations 


proved the depth and earnestness of the interest felt by our 
people in the high themes of which she discoursed, ac- 
ceptably to most of her auditors, though not to all. 

The number of births in the year was 7, of which 4 
were boys and 3 girls. 

The marriages, as before stated, were 3, but these are 
imperfectly alluded to without the names of the parties. 
That blank is thus filled : 

On the 10th day of Noyember, 1870, Philip T. Sta- 
bler to Cornelia Nichols. 

On the 24th day of November, Walter H. Brooke to 
Caroline H. Leggett. 

On the 1st day of December, James P. Stabler to Alice 

Deaths — None. 


From Fourth Month, 3d, 1871, to Fourth Month, 1st, 1872. 

Influence and variations of weather — More compliments from Mr. 
Ramsdel — Summer boarders — Combined action — Birth of the 
various Associations — "Agreeing to differ" — The "Inno- 
cents" — Debating Society — The use of "supper" — The 
turnpikes nearly finished — On toll-gates — Fresh news of rail- 
roads — PostofRce reports — The Lyceum fairly active — Hor- 
ticultural increases in favor — Tile manufacture — The many 
marriages increase visiting — Origin of the " Farmers' Conven- 
tion " — First-day school revives. 

In commencing this, the ninth Chapter of these Neigh- 
borhood Annals, the writer desires to express an intention 
(if life is spared so long) of making one more addition to 
the historical sketches of the present volume. Ten years 
will then stand recorded. 


Your meteorologist has frequently and very justly 
called our attention to the degree of general similarity 
which one season bears to another. At the outset of my 
present sketch, I am impressed with the fact of the differ- 
ence sometimes observed. I find in looking over last 
year's record, that a poetical ofFusion at the beginning 
was attributed to the genial influence of the balmy at- 
mosphere we were then enjoying. " March," it was said, 
"seemed to have been left out of the calendar." How 
about it this year? Was there ever a more genuine 
March month? You will have no poetry this time in- 
spired by the winds prevailing as I write. 

While on the subject of the weather of last year, it may 
be noted down by way of supplement to the full report 
you have just had, that the three spring months of '71 
were the hottest on record for eighty- two years ; average 
temperature being 57to°. On April 8th the thermometer 
rose to 88° (in the shade of course). The young people 
present can remember the alliteration by the rej^etition of 
eights. It will probably be long before they have such 
another experience. Wheat harvest commenced June 1 0th, 
rijoe oats were cut in the last part of the same month. 
Kainfall at the Smithsonian for the year now expiring 
was 32 J inches, to 37 inches for the preceding year; with 
an average of 40 inches for six years. The dry wells so 
numerous this season are thus accounted for. 

The year just passed away has not been marked by any 
very extraordinary events. No occurrence of an especially 
sensational character is now remembered, unless, indeed, 
it consist in the notoriety whicli we may have acquired 
through the appearance of a remarkable description of 
our neighborhood, published in several newspapers of the 
county. I have already quoted in former Annals what 


appeared to me worthy and sincere tributes to the past 
and present character of the community of Sandy Spring, 
from men well qualified to form a correct and sober judg- 
ment. The sketch to which I now refer is painted in 
much livelier colors. It came to us half a year ago, in 
the hot months. Let us take a look at it in these cool 
days (if we can do so without blushing), and see whether 
we can recognize our own lineaments. 

The writer, after saying some capital things about the 
fashionable watering-places, gets right np on his high 
horse and speaks thus : 

" Let me tell you of Sandy Spring. It is in Montgomery 
County, Maryland, 16 or 18 miles north of Washington, 
on high ground where mosquitoes never come, and where 
big bills, hotel discomforts, plotting mammas, willing 
girls, heartless compliments, fashionable languor, gaudy 
dress and indigestion are never known. Instead, you have 
a locality where sincerity is the ruling feature, where 
health is an established law, and where enjoyment seeks 
incentive in one's own nature. Sandy Spring is a com- 
munity of Quakers ; not the sort that are always theeing 
and thouing you, always turning down the corners of their 
mouth and looking grave at the sight of enjoyment, and 
smiling only in their sleep : but the kind that the love of 
God has made happy ; the kind in whose nature selfish- 
ness has given way to fairness ; the kind who believe that 
God has not made men after his own image to groan and 
weep and lament the wickedness of the world, but rather 
to read sermons in nature, gratitude in the happiness 
which every neighbor's family feels, and enjoyment which 
harmless pleasure brings ; where laughter is not a crime, 
and where music is not regarded as too worldly for the elect. 
... 1 do not believe there is a place on earth which the 


love of God and man has so ennobled. Sincerity is the 
word which expresses their religions qnality and describes 
their dealings with mankind. You may stay among these 
Quakers for months, subject them to the severest test of 
constant companionship, and yet you will never hear a 
hasty, an angry, or an impatient word from their lips, or 
see a mean action, be it ever so insignificant. They are 
moral, without seeming to wear upon or about them a 
look of reproach and warning to others. They are thrifty, 
without being mean and stingy. They are benevolent 
without ostentation. They are intelligent, refined and 
wise, without being didactic; they are careful, judicious 
and thoughtful, without being suspicious. The location 
of this newly discovered Eden is perfect." After a good 
deal more in the same strain, which I have scarce the 
nerve to quote, bringing as it does the color to the cheek, 
the writer finishes up with describing the homesteads and 
the children. Instead of expanding upon the beauty and 
perfection of the latter, where he might have showered 
praises that would still fail to "come up to the parents' 
wish," he merely says : " their number I do not contract 
to calculate, being almost as bad as Ginx," &c., &c. We 
are informed that the writer of the above sketch (whose 
name is Kamsdel) expects to become a resident to some 
extent of the neighborhood so extravagantly eulogized. I 
hope that he will carry out the scheme; and then we 
would like so much to hear from him again, say, three or 
four years hence. In the meantime would it not be. nice 
if we w^ere to become all that his fancy has pictured us ? 
I commenced copying the gentleman's description with 
the idea of turning it into burlesque, as was probably 
more than half intended by the writer. But as I proceeded 
other thoughts came. I remembered a child who was 


praised for merits that he could but partially claim, and 
the effect was so decidedly favorable as actually to stimu- 
late him to deserve the commendation. Now there are 
points in the delineation just read to you which strike me 
with great force as suggestions for practical improvement. 
For what else are people made but to improve ? " Heart- 
less compliments," "gaudy dress," "gloomy outside re- 
ligion," " hasty words," " selfish actions," since he acquits 
us of all these, it may really be that we are so far clear 
that it would be practicable to become still more so. 
" Sincerity" is the crowning virtue which he emphatically 
awards us: let us hope that he had some ground for this 
tribute (and I honestly think there is a claim for it) ; on 
that substantial basis we may build up still more. 

An institution of this neighborhood, not referred to in 
these pages hitheni:o, is the taking of summer boarders. 
This practice is one not to be slighted, for its influence has 
been considerable. It goes back also into old times. Ac- 
cording to my impressions, the practice as at present car- 
ried on was fairly instituted about forty years ago, begin- 
ning at the oldest homestead in this region of country, the 
original " Charley Forrest." Since that day, how many 
and what various sorts of people have sought our "classic 
shades" to rest under "the big trees," and recruit in the 
heats of summer, sometimes lingering after those heats 
had passed ! The institution now forms an important fea- 
ture in the arrangements of a number of families. It thus 
becomes an interesting question for the historian to inves- 
tigate the influences for good or for evil exerted in this 
way upon the neighborhood. Having been placed in cir- 
cumstances favorable for observation, and having also 
heard the opinions of several old residents, I have been led 
to speculate considerably on the subject, with the follow- 


ing results : The injurious tendencies brought to my 
notice might be summed up in the words of caution and 
reproof (quite familiar to our young people), in regard to 
the danger of adopting city customs, frivolous fashions and 
amusements, " heartless compliments," gaudy dress, and 
the rest of those follies from which we are said to have 
been hitherto exempt. So far as such adoption extends to 
the introduction of town ways, which are, from the nature 
of things, wholly unsuited to rational country life — for 
example, the turning day into night, and vice versa — not 
to speak of the street-sweeping trains, whose worst effect 
has been to render walking among the ladies an almost 
antiquated exercise — so far the influence of summer board- 
ers is, of course, unfavorable. But when we take a wider 
view of the subject and consider the actual normal rela- 
tions of town and country toward each ^ther, we shall find 
many important quickening influences producing decided 
benefits to the latter. The fault of country people is in 
being too slow; city folks are sometimes "fast"; at any 
rate intercourse between the two has the effect to enliven 
the faculties. The mingling together of opposite qualities 
is often a mutual advantage. The fact is, town and country 
are so constituted that each is necessary to the other. In 
fine, there does not remain a doubt that the advantages 
which this neighborhood has received from its lai'ge and 
free intercourse with persons from the city during the past 
forty years greatly preponderate over the evils before men- 
tioned, which are essentially transient and superficial. Our 
minds have been animated and liberalized, our resources, 
in a pecuniary point of view, have been increased, and our 
morals have not probably been impaired. 

Assuredly the past year shows no indications of dimin- 
ished activity, either in a material, mental or social view. 


The best criterion of the degree of real civilization and 
progress in a community has been said, on high authority, 
to be found in their power of combining together to accom- 
plish beneficial purposes, — the " clubbing faculty," we may 
term it. Estimated by this test, the year now being re- 
corded compares favorably with any previous one ; perhaps 
it stands in the fore-front. 

As these associations are such an important feature of 
our neighborhood, it is well to make out a list of them, 
giving the date of their origin and the number of persons 
composing the body, so far as has been ascertained. They 
are here put down in the order of their formation, not of 
their present importance — of course not : 

1. The Library Company, organized 1842. 

2. The Farmers' Club, composed of 16 members, organ- 
ized 1844. 

3. Ladies' Association for Mutual Improvement, 15 
members, organized 1857. 

4. Horticultural Society (20 to 30 members), organized 

5. Club Junior (now Enterprise Club), 15 members, 
organized 1865. 

6. The Sociable, 33 members, organized 1869. 

7. The Home Interests, 24 members, organized 1870. 

8. Montgomery Club (No. 3), 15 members, organized 

9. The Innocents, 14 members, organized 1872. 

Total number of members composing the eight associa- 
tions (omitting the Library Company), is 154. Of these, 
some are members of more than one association. Proba- 
bly there are now 125 separate individuals that occupy a 
place in one or the other society. 

The importance of these exhibits, in taking a right view 


of the present and future character of our neighborhood, 
can hardly be overestimated. Man is a weak creature of 
himself. The interesting partnership with a woman more 
than doubles his worth and power. The family relation 
is the germ of all that is of high value in society. Still 
there is, so far, too much of selfishness in the combining 
principle. There must be a motive of wider reach to that 
principle before it can produce its whole effects in elevating 
society. Joint action for a co'inmon beneficial purpose 
is the crowning operation of the grand associative princi- 
ple. Our Mutual Fire Insurance Company (which has 
not yet received in these Annals the notice to which its 
importance and success entitle it), and the Savings Institu- 
tion, are further illustrations of that operating power in 
our neighborhood. Both are business, not social, institu- 
tions ; yet the difficulties of originating such Avould never 
have been successfully met and overcome by a commu- 
nity which had taken no lessons in the science of com- 
bined action. We have now learned some of these first 
lessons, but I am sure that we do not claim to have attained 
anything like perfection in the science. We have partly 
acquired the indispensable qualification to agree, but in 
respect of the more advanced attainment, that of agreeing 
to differ, there is much to learn yet. Joint action is the 
body, of which harmony of feeling is the soul. 

It would no doubt be gratifjdng to give some further 
particulars in regard to the operations during the year of 
these interesting associations ; especially of two or three 
youngest ones, their constitution, objects, &c. ; but these 
points have scarcely developed as yet. Taking the very 
youngest, they (as I am informed) have no special pur- 
pose, ignoring those prosy subjects of potato culture, 
pickles and preserves, moral and mental culture, guano. 


peonies, begonias, and such like; in short, meeting "to 
have a good time" (don't we old folks envy them!) yet 
guaranteed by their very name, the " Innocents," from 
aught unworthy the character of the neighborhood of 
which they constitute an interesting part. The Club, 
designated as No. 3, though it has had more names than 
is the case with "anybody's darling" that I am acquainted 
with, has started out with some new features which give 
the promise of usefulness and permanence desired by all. 
The Sociable was organized this year with the interest- 
ing addition of a Debating Society. The younger portion 
of this community who feel a desire to sustain and elevate 
its character, really ought not to suffer this institution to 
languish and die away. There is surely enough capacity 
here to maintain respectably these mingled social and 
literary reunions, which afford, just so long as the spirit 
is kept up, and no longer, a pleasant means of improve- 
ment. The form in which tlie Association appears this 
winter is a variation of the old-time Reading Circle; and 
will go on, I trust, to receive from year to year, new 
adaptations to the spirit of the times as suggested by the 
inventive geniuses constantly bursting into bloom. But 
"the Sociable" cannot be let go without referring to a 
compliment paid them in these pages two years since, on 
account of their " dispensing with all entertainments not 
of an intellectual kind": again in last year it was con- 
ceded that they had still stuck to their resolution. Now 
I am informed they have ceased to stich ; having yielded 
to the essential conditions for success and permanence in 
all institutions gotten up at Sandy Spring. This grave 
historical fact, showing our weakness on a minor point, 
received another illustration this winter, in the meetings 
held at the Lyceum for the benevolent purpose of making 


garments to clothe the red brethren in or near the Eocky 
Mountains. Forty-two garments were made at the last 
meeting ! The question was started whether this hand- 
some report could have been rendered without the in- 
genious addition of a supper. It is no use to struggle 
against nature : it is better, by complying, to march on 
to new triumphs of association ! The Insurance Direc- 
tors have their feed, and are very punctual in attending 
to their duties. The bank only has failed to come into it 
yet; perhaps the sight and touch of tempting morsels 
may prove too strong for their ascetic self-denial. 

In the department of material improvements we note 
first, in regard to the two turnpikes, that the hope- 
ful predictions made a year ago are precisely fulfilled. 
The " Norwood Branch " is at least so nearly completed 
that a very few days of the open weather, for which it has 
been so long waiting, will add the last smoothing touch. 
The Ashton road has been pushed through its most diffi- 
cult points by those " not-to-be-appalled men," heretofore 
spoken of. 

The traveller at this end has of late experienced a similar 
impression to that felt by the shipwrecked voyager told us 
by Dean Swift, who, being cast ashore on an unknown 
island, and coming upon a gallows with a man hanging 
to it, " thanked God for this evidence that he had got into 
a civilized country " ! A new tollgate is at first regarded 
as a similar evidence of civilization. I am not aware that 
it has really inconvenienced any parties, unless it was 
some of the youths having a nocturnal call in that direc- 
tion, who found themselves scarce of pennies. Looking 
round the whole situation it would appear that the said 
tollgate is judiciously located. Your historian now feels 
the reward for his abstaining from allusions to the sub- 


ject of railroads. For, just at the present time a fresh 
interest is awakened on that subject, and very fresh news 
is handed round to raise our hopes to the highest pitch. 
The charter for a new road to run from Washington City 
on the meridian line, as far as it can get, having been 
obtained, steps are now being taken to organize, "and 
commence taking in the money." But this is not the 
exciting news. Most probably there will be plenty of time 
to tell of the progress of "the Washington and Pennsyl- 
vania Line" railroad in our future annals; the other — the 
long-talked-of "Laurel Cut-off" — is to be spoken of only 
once more in next year's sketch, and then as being a finished 
work. The steam-whistle is to be the shrill accompaniment 
to the president's address at the next annual meeting, and 
perhaps scare your horses as they come and return. I 
relate this very fresh news as it was told me. It was 
further confidently asserted that " the road will be in 
running order by next Christmas "; but I would not like 
to be held strictly responsible for the entire accuracy of 
the reports. My faith however is great, being exceeded 
only by that of a lady friend. 

That index of advancing civilization, the postoffice, 
reports 21,450 letters sent from Sandy Spring in 1871, 
and eighty different publications taken, with 244 sub- 

The Savings Institution shows a fair amount of work for 
the year, a total of $26,774 being saved away (but, says 
the merchant, withdrawn from active circulation here) — 
the gain for the year in deposits |5364 — with 388 de- 

The central literary institution, the Lyceum, without 
accomplishing anything remarkably brilliant this past 
season, has been sustained fairly well. There has been no 


falling off in the attendance, nor any apparent lack of 
interest. The audience has been decidedly respectable 
and respectful. At the annual election a year ago it was 
urged by one of the old standard members that the Board 
of Directors should be filled chiefly with young men. The 
president bears testimony that every member of the board 
constituted in accordance with this idea was in attend- 
ance at the called meetings — a thing believed to be 
hitherto unprecedented, at least for some years back. 
The success of this effort at infusing young blood indi- 
cates the propriety of carrying it further in the choice of 
officers. Why not try the infusion of another congenial 
element? It need scarcely be said what is referred to 
among such admirers of the sex. 

(Your president of the past two years takes this oppor- 
tunity to make his last farewell bow with many thanks 
for your attention and frequent expressions of satisfaction 
with the Annals.) 

The fair held in last 9th month, under the auspices of 
the Horticultural Society, assisted by the two Farmers' 
Clubs, was considered a complete success, attracting many 
strangers, whose presence added much to the interest of 
the affair. A new feature was introduced by the exhibi- 
tion of stock ; some disposition being manifested to look 
forward to a time when an Agricultural Fair based on 
sound principles may spring out of this flourishing begin- 

One of our citizens having added to his brickmaking 
establishment preparatory machines for manufacturing 
drain-tiles, it would seem now to be a worthy subject to 
call the attention of our Farmers' Clubs to the project. 
The enterprise is in its infancy, and the same may be said 
of draining in our neighborhood — in old, rather raw, 


though somewhat conceited infancy, at present stands 
our unscientific art of draining. 

Now we turn with pleasure from these material worldly 
concerns to a more interesting portion of the year's pro- 
ceedings. It was mentioned, "in our last," that a marri- 
age gale was blowing over the land with more than usual 
intensity. Neither did it stop with the year by any means, 
but rather continued to prevail with increasing force. The 
history must do itself the honor of a more particular 
record than usual, being indebted for this to the lady 
historienne. Married in the year 1871 : 4th month 6th, 
Arthur Stabler and Annie McFarland ; 9th month 12th, 
Alban G. Thomas and Susan H. Leggett; 9th month 
14:th, Roger Brooke and Louisa Thomas; 10th month 
26th, William S. Brooke and Mary P. Coffin. And then 
came a lull in the gale; probably temporary. 

There will be more of this sort of interesting perform- 
ances, and what is to be done about it ? A puzzling ques- 
tion arose in my mind, on the evening of a day which I 
had spent very pleasantly in visiting certain of the happy 
homes, called into existence by the life-partnerships 
formed within the past tw.o years. The question took this 
shape: How ever are the good folks of our neighborhood 
to go the rounds of visiting each other's houses if they 
keep on multiplying (the houses, I mean) at this rate ? It 
can't be done in the way and manner of the last hundred 
years ; with all the good social feeling in the world, there 
are limits to its exercise. Note this fact : our young peo- 
ple don't emigrate, the tracks all point totuard, not from 
Sandy Spring ! Must our people then resolve into sepa- 
rate circles — the associations visiting only among them- 
selves? This would be bad — cliques the probable result. 

Yet there is a way by which the unity of the neighbor- 


hood can be preserved ; let some one having " a genius for 
society," devise a scheme by which everybody shall come 
to see everybody in a social, hospitable way, at one or more 
central points — this Lyceum for one. I can only throw 
out a hint now, leaving it to be developed in the future. 
As an example, the three Farmers' Clubs might (and 
ought to) have a system for combining their wisdom, and 
for co-operating in making important experiments. They 
should hold a general meeting at least once in every year.* 
Our friend, Hadassah Moore, who has kindly consented 
to render valuable assistance in furnishing information of 
the statistical sort, sends the record of births — five during 
the year. I am not minded to give tmmes in this case, as 
in the marriages. For while no one ever objects to hav- 
ing the year of her wedding placed on a public record, it 
might some years hereafter be different in the other case. 
The Family Bible sometimes tells its tales with inconve- 
nient precision. Delay it as we may, that other solemn 
record cannot be omitted or concealed. Iso well- trained 
mind, with right feelings, can desire to leave that part 
blank in the simple annals of a united neighborhood. No 
other part is so suggestive of holy emotions. 

* ' The flowers of love and hope we gather here 
Shall yet bloom for us in the realm of God ; 
They shed not their last fragrance on our bier, 
They lie not withered on the cold grave sod." 

Death came early into our midst. 

Fourth month, 7th, '71, Kachel G. Gilpin died, after 
a lingering illness, leaving several children, all of whom 

"■'~' Out of the preceding Quixotic scheme for holding social meet- 
ings grew up the very popular " Farmers' Convention," Avhich col- 
lects some time in January of each year an agricultural band of 
one or two hundred men. 


were married and settled, except one. Although well 
advanced in years, she never seemed at all like an old 
person. She was one of a lovely class, wlio are fully 
appreciated only by those who have lived in the house 
with them. Having enjoyed that experience, it is with 
a mournful satisfaction I join in a tribute of love and 
praise to her memory. 

Fifth month, 30th, again, " in the unfolding of human 
events, death was to read our people another impressive 
lesson ; to come again into our midst and take from us a 
bright and loved young friend." William Thomas died 
in Philadelphia, where he had gone for the benefit of his 
health. His remains were interred here, followed to their 
last resting-place by a very large and solemn train. It 
has been my solemn duty several times in these pages, to 
express the common sorrow over the loss to the neighbor- 
hood, of young men and women who had given promise 
of future usefulness. I have never felt a stronger sense 
of such loss than in the present case. 

To the clearest and brightest intellect, our loved Willie 
joined a high moral principle, a conscience almost too sen- 
sitive — if such can be. These high qualities gave promise 
of a career which not even his great modesty could have 
prevented from being a very sliining one. His Creator had 
decided to call him thus early, and we can only be recon-» 

Ninth month, 17th, at the home of her cliiklhood, 
Mary Ellen Stone died, after an illness of several montlis ; 
hastened, if not produced, by her indefatigable energy 
in tlie worthy pursuit of teaching school, in which she 
had already, though so young, gained the approbation 
of many judicious friends. So young ! My eyes often turn 
to her childhood's home across the way, but where is she ? 


Second month, 10th, '72, Catharine Chancllee, one of the 
oldest members of our meeting, departed this life. She had 
long been frail in appearance, and rather delicate in health 
for several years. Not very often seen aAvay from home, 
her kind and hospitable feelings were familiar to all who 
went to see her there. 

Thus there have been this year four marriages, five 
births, four deaths, amongst us ; a remarkable approach to 
equality in these three great events of human life. 

We close this chapter in noting one more incident, the 
revival of the First-day school. An interesting group of 
scholars and teachers devote a portion of the afternoon, 
with perseverance, to education in its best sense, not limited 
to scholastic attainments. We know that our children are 
endowed with emotional as well as infelledual faculties; 
with a heart and soul, as well as a mind. Thus may their 
way be opened to right and true culture ! 


From Fourth Month, 1st, 1872, to Fourth Month, 7th, 1873. 

Progress of the History — The " Dry Season" attended with some 
good crops — The " Epizootic " — " How does farming pay ? " 
Cautions to young farmers — The Labor Question — Quota- 
tions of value — On "polish" — On wild "tame beasts" — 
Severe remarks on railroads — Extent of the "Association 
Principle ' ' — Diminished interest toward the Lyceum — 
Dramatic entertainments — Suramaiy of ten years' statistics — 
The Historian's Farewell. 

It is stated on the first page of this book that " at a meet- 
ing of the Lyceum Company, held the 6th of the 4th month, 
1863, an order was passed appointing a Historian, whose duty 



it should be to make a record of neighborhood events, and 
read it at tlie following annual meeting." This duty having 
fallen upon me, it has appeared to be the proper thing to 
keep up the custom for a full decade ; and now, for various 
reasoHS, it is my desire to be released from a duty which 
has been hitherto a pleasure, because of the tokens of ap- 
parent interest and expressions of kindly approval which 
my efforts have received from you. I am very sensible of 
the imperfection of these sketches, considered as a record 
of events, and am conscious whatever merits they possess 
in this respect must be divided with the Lady His- 
toriennes, who have furnished reports of remarkable accu- 
racy. My ov/n contributions appear to consist largely of 
moral reflections, and effusion of sentiments "wise and 
otherwise " ; but yon always listened patiently, so as to leave 
the impression on my mind that, in these annual assem- 
blages, we were having rather a good time in looking at 
ourselves and pretending we are thus to appear in His- 
tory. I mnst venture to trespass on that patience still 
further this evening, and indeed put it to a harder proof 
than it has yet sustained. The pictures of the neighbor- 
hood presented in the previous pages, drawn by the hands 
of talented and disinterested parties though they were, 
are a little rose-colored, are they not? Mainly just and 
true, perhaps ; certainly very comfortable and encouraging, 
yet rather one-sided; the liglits being employed in the 
picture more conspicuously than the shades. Xow we 
know very well that all true pictures of things earthly 
must have their shades too. 

It is not necessary, and, as I think, not beneficial, to 
dwell on the dark side ; but after reading over several of 
the preceding chapters, I am impressed with the conviction 
that variety (not to mention aiiy other motive) requires a 


sort of description somewhat different from the eulogies 
which filled several pages ; in short, neither praise nor dis- 
praise, but simple Arcadian truth. Yonr historian, as he 
has been called from the beginning, is not going to shoot 
a Parthian arrow, firing and then running away, but will 
try to avoid an excess of sentiment, and bear in mind that 
we are all a set of plain, simple farmers, making no claims 
to any other title than this. 

It is altogether natural that an agricultural community, 
in reviewing the year just past, should first direct their at- 
tention to that great fact upon which so much of their 
prosperity depends, namely, the weather. This subject 
is generally considered commonplace, and yet a very popu- 
lar one amongst people of all classes. When we rightly 
examine it, we find abundant reason for the general inter- 
est, in tSe infinite variety therein perceived. No two years 
of the past ten have resembled each other, and the last is 
especially distinct. While the chief facts belonging to the 
Aveather are duly reported to us from the proper quarter, 
there are always other and more general considerations 
connected with the influences of the seasons, that also 
claim a place here. In the year now closing, the dry, the 
hot, the cold, and (throughout last month) the windy, 
have all been distinguishing characteristics. The dry in- 
fluence prevailed in the spring and early summer, in a de- 
gree really alarming. When a dry April was followed by 
a dryer May, with very little improvement in June, it was 
all up with the grass crop. Hay was put down in the esti- 
mate at one-fourth to a third of the average yield. The 
springs, the wells and streams failed in corresponding de- 
gree. My own spring, which had kept up a fair flow for 
the previous 34 years, ceased running for some days; 
the Patuxent had but one-fourth its usual summer current 


(as Thomas Lea informed me), and some of the oldest in- 
habitants said it wonld reqnire to go back at least half a 
century, indeed even to 1806, to find a year when the 
streams were so low. The greatest inconvenience was 
sustained from the failure of the wells. Then was the 
digging of wells and the lengthening of pumps the liveliest 
business going on. It was during the first half of June 
that the word " famine " came to be frequently mentioned. 
Now, mark what followed. Our farmers were surprised 
to find on harvesting and threshing their wheat, that the 
amount of grain bore an extraordinary disproportion to the 
mpagre straw; in fact, that it was a superior crop. 
The great corn crop was still better, being generally 
above the average. Fruit was abundant, and of better 
quality than usual. In short, the apprehended famine did 
not come. It is well to recall these unrealized fears, and 
with the recollection confirm our faith, that " while the 
earth remaineth, seed-time and harvest, and summer and 
winter, and day and night shall not cease." 

The deficiency in the two other important productions, hay 
and potatoes, not fully compensated by their increased price, 
still left the season, pecuniarily speaking, with a balance 
on the wrong side. Then in the fall there fell upon us, 
as it was were from the clouds — well, we don't know how 
it did come, certainly in a mysterious, unprecedented Avay — 
that calamity of the horse influenza, or Epizootic, with its 
other unpronounceable names. We heard rumors of the 
pestilence through October, as first appearing in Canada, 
then crossing the border (without regard to the tariff), 
swooping down upon town and country, disturbing trade 
more than farming, and at last reaching us at the close of 
the month. Wherever there was a horse, a mule, or a don- 
key, there was the disease. There were comparatively few 


fatal cases, but the suspension of work was almost total. 
Then did some folks recover an accomplishment little used 
since they were infants, finding they could actually ^vcdk 
miles. On one meeting day (First-day, too), there were in 
the stalls so few horses (only two or three), we would 
scarcely have known that any were there if it had not been 
for the cough. A lady was drawn in her carriage a couple 
of miles to church, by man, or rather, boy-power. For- 
tunately the disease came at the most favorable season for 
the farmer. It still remains to be proved whether its con- 
sequences have yet entirely disappeared. 

A pretty hard year, on the Avhole, for the agricultural 
interest. The worst of it is, that our young people show 
increasing signs of restlessness under the condition of 
things, and fresh doubts are being started on the important 
question, whether farming at Sandy Spring is a profitable 
business. Grave and settled men are discussing the ques- 
tion, " How does farming pay ? " A big question, involving 
many considerations, going deep into political economy, 
and still deeper into otlier economies, not to be settled with- 
out reference to the highest principles. In order to start 
from the solid basis of statistics, I have taken some pains 
to estimate the amount of land possessed by the 65 or 70 
families who constitute " our neighborhood," as included 
in these annals. I find between 10,000 and 10,500 acres, 
which gives an average of full 150 acres to each family — 
a very fair farm. 

Now let us consider there are difi'erent systems of farm- 
ing. There was (and it still exists) the old Maryland sys- 
tem. I need not take up space here to describe it, being 
too well known to need description. Without using harsh 
language, it may be justly claimed that that system 
has no proper place now in judicious agriculture, but 


belongs to a state of things gone by, as we hope, forever. 
A new era has come; new men, new ideas require a 
new system, and whether we like it or not, we have got 
to conform to it, or be dropped out of the agricultural 
circle. What is the course going on in Sandy Spring ? 
Let us refer to statistics. One of the principles insisted 
upon by many, though not by all, is that farming ope- 
rations require to be concentrated upon fewer acres. Our 
average of 150 acres to a farm would be regarded, ac- 
cording to the notions of olden times, as quite too moder- 
ate; but a different conclusion will be formed when we 
take into view the changed circumstances in regard to the 
market for farm products, the labor by which they are 
produced, and, I venture to-ad>d,"the probable future means 
of conveyance to market. There is surely room for a 
greater concentration yet. When this fact comes to be 
properly realized, the talk about the necessity of our 
Sandy Spring youth having to swarm and leave the native 
hive — where honey does so abound, and prevented from 
cloying by the stings always inseparable — that sort of talk 
will be regarded as absurd. Plenty of room for a century 
yet ! What is required in order to make a place for every 
figure in the multiplication table, and to put plenty on the 
taUe for every figure that comes, is a simple conformity to 
facts. Our two great and growing cities want all that we 
can produce; but lue cannot produce profitably all the 
sorts of things which they want. We must be smart 
enough to find out what articles it will pay us best to 
direct our attention to. 

The stern logic of facts may require something else 
than knowing what to sell. We must see and judge 
calmly and intelligently, what we ought, and what we 
ought not, to iiiy. There is one very plain fact which 


some persons find it difficult to learn, namely, never to 
buy what you cannot pay for. As we are dealing with 
facts (which are the special province of history), there is 
another one, not unconnected with political and domestic 
economy, which may be put into the following aphorism : 
" If young people insist on heg Inning where their parents 
left off, they may have to leave off where their parents 
began." Very good, but perhaps not wholly original. 

Leaving the suggestions pertaining to economy, which 
is the least popular, and perhaps least lovable of all the 
greater virtues in proportion to its real value, it is not 
amiss to refer to another fact, which the whirligig of 
time has made conspicuous, and is yearly making more so 
in all places, and ev^ja^ Sfln|iy;^pring, The desire to get 
rich, always too strong, is continually growing stronger ; 
and the worst part about it is, people want to get rich 
without working for it. They want the results without 
the labor by which alone it can be legitimately obtained. 
It is a horrible confession, but too true: we ivant some- 
thing without giving its equivalent. Is this honest? If 
not, then we all know that it can never really and truly suc- 
ceed. And as we are all honest in intention at least, there 
must be some awful blunder made in the lessons we learn 
regarding the true purposes of life. If education means 
what the best authorities in unison with common sense 
declare that it does mean, namely, the fitting of boys and 
girls to fulfil the duties of a useful, noble life, when they 
become men and women, then it must be very far from 
having attained as yet to anything like a perfect system. 
Most true is it that one effect of the great work called 
education is to diminish taste for labor ; I mean for hard 

But this is a repulsive subject. We leave it with 


expressing tlie hope and expectation, as you know I am a 
devont believer in progress, that tlie grand improvements 
in machinery will ultimately render hard work on a farm 
unnecessary. In the meantime it is not the worst thing 
we have to do. 

I have dwelt so long upon this branch of my annual 
sketch, that there is but little room left for remarks upon 
a subject that has become of vital concern — the labor 
question. Yet would the annals of the year be very im- 
perfect if our experience in relation to this matter were 
wholly left out. Taken altogether, the experience is less 
satisfactory this year than usual ; especially is this the case 
in the female department, wherein the troubles seem to 
portend, if they have not reached, a crisis. The difficul- 
ties with respect io field labor appear to find a reasonable 
explanation in the extraordinary demand for workmen 
created by the magnificent enterprises going on within 
the District of Columbia. The high wages offered there 
would necessarily tend to draw away our regular hands; 
but this inconvenience is probably only temporary. Our 
neighborhood had been favored, owing to the operation of 
mo7'al causes, beyond the adjacent communities, good labor 
being generally abundant. It is reasonable to anticipate 
that the men will return. But this explanation does not 
promise relief from the difficulties connected with a 
scarcity of female help, which shows no very hopeful signs 
of improvement. However, we may indulge the expectation 
that affairs being in a transition state, are likely to settle 
down in some agreeable way. They almost always do. 

Efforts are being made in neighboring communities of 
our county and state, to introduce foreign labor to cure 
the prevalent evils. The proceeding demands our serious 
attention. After looking all around its probable influ- 


ences, we may come to the conclusion that " it is better to 
bear the ills Ave have (trying to cure them) than fly to 
others that we know not of." Having lately met with 
the best article I ever saw on this subject, I transcribe a 
small portion, which clearly points out the high ground 
that can alone be successfully maintained. 

"It seems that civilized society is on the verge of 
very grave experiences in what is called the ^question of 
labor.' The relations between employers and employed, 
between rich and poor, are everywhere coming up for read- 
justment. In what direction and how far the changes 
will go, how profoundly they will aifect the whole status 
of civilized life, are questions which thoughtful men are 
beginning to ponder very seriously. We must not be de- 
ceived by general phrases and big words into supposing 
that the * Labor Question' is something vague and far off; 
something for the editors and writers and politicians to 
settle, as being a matter which ive, the common people, 
cannot understand, and in which, therefore, we have no 
duty. Of all subjects, it belongs to us— to us, the whole 
people of the land, to our everyday lives, our business, 
our families. The great danger and difficulty of the whole 
matter lies in one word — selfishness. The way, and the 
only way, to a just, peaceful and happy issue lies through 
each man's caring for others as well as for himself. There 
is great talk about Human Rights, but rights without 
duties mean sheer failure and wretchedness. So long as 
every one is intent solely on his own rights, or exacting from 
others what he believes his due, the world is simply a 
great battlefield of selfish passions. When I pay my 
hands for their work, does that end my obligation to them ? 
No ! they are your fellow-beings as well as your workmen. 
There are thousands of women who live under the same 


roof with their servants for months and years and never 
exchange a word with them, except about work. We 
must come to the simple doctrine, ' Do unto others as ye 
would that others should dp unto you.' Without that there 
is no solution of the * labor problem ' ; with it, there can be 
no failure." Such is the whole simple truth, and all 
adverse doctrines of business interests or political economy 
are the feeblest outcome of a science which excludes the 
most important data of the case. 

From " female help " to summer boarders is quite a 
natural transition. That institution, now so much in- 
creased in numbers and magnitude, may be regarded as a 
success. Some apprehensions in respect to the influence 
on the social tone of the rural neighborhood produced 
by so large an influx from the city, are still occasionally 
expressed; but, "whether for good, or whether for ill," 
summer boarders are an institution fixed and likely to go 
on, at least while it continues to pour the vitalizing stream 
of a thousand dollars a week into the current of neigh- 
borhood business. And then you know it gives such a 
2wlish to rustic youth ! You may say, '* Polish is a thing 
merely on the surface"; but I have always noticed that a 
mineral must have a good grain all through to be sus- 
ceptible of fine polish ; you can not polish chalk, but you 
may marble and the precious metals. May our young 
men be firm as marble ! Our young women are sure to 
be precious ! 

It is a fact not to be called in question that our sum- 
mer guests are often as solid and as little frivolous as our- 
selves; men and women whose friendship is a real and 
lasting acquisition. And sometimes they undergo bar- 
barous treatment amongst us when fierce animals en- 
danger life and limb. A brief entry on my notes is 


headed " Bulls on the rampage! " which recalls two cases 
that excited so lively an interest in the neighborhood last 
summer, as to claim a space among the annals of the 
season. Those wild beasts threw mad dogs quite into 
the shade. It would not cause regret to some persons if 
mad dogs and those bulls could be thrown into the same 
inclosure, provided a strong, high wall shut them in. 

The only " unfinished business " which I find coming 
up from last year relates to the Ashton turnpike. The 
energetic and practical gentlemen who first stirred up the 
interest to undertake the work have the honor of com- 
pleting it, in a w^ay that cannot fail to be satisfactory 
after the two finishing essentials for these roads, time and 
travel, shall have done their duty. 

Another piece of "unfinished business" came near be- 
ing forgotten — such is the frailty of human memory ! 
That railroad, our standing excitement, now in danger of 
becoming a stmiding joke, was " to be in running order 
by Christmas." It may be recollected that the Christ- 
mas of what year was not stated. Indeed, some proceed- 
ings occurred which w^ere calculated to cast a doubt upon 
the desirability of having any railroad at all. When it 
was seen that, in the near future, "the sacred soil of 
Sandy Spring " was about to be profaned by the inva- 
sion, then rose the spirit of the Old Dominion, and like a 
lion prepared to bar the way. It seemed dreadful that a 
farm must be bisected, that the old arrangements of 
fields must be altered; the loss of time by the field- 
hands looking up every hour or two from their work at 
the passing trains began to be estimated; and more 
serious results inseparable from those rapid, rushing rail- 
ways loomed up in the future distance. What influence 
upon the early construction of the road may be produced 


by these expressions of adverse feelings it is impossible 
to say; but rating the effect at the lowest point, there 
remains this fact, which (as having had some experience 
in railroad works) I consider unquestionable; that, as 
railroads are planned and constructed by men, a kindly 
and liberal course pursued toward those who administer 
them is sure to have a favorable influence in securing 
important advantages. 

If it were not that a historian is essentially an imper- 
sonal being, I should feel some delicacy in throwing out 
these remarks; but, as Carlyle says, "history is a looking 
before and after"; and I should be very neglectful of 
that latter outlook if I failed to suggest that for those 
who come after us, the objections as to " the neiv ar- 
rangement of fences," "the cutting off of corners of 
fields," and such changes as a railroad would now require, 
will seem to them of very much less importance than they 
do to us now ; and, if securing the greatest of material 
advantages shall have been put in jeopardy by us for 
objections no stronger than these, there will be small 
thanks awarded by our posterity. 

Looking down upon our neighborhood as if it were 
spread before our mental eyes, the most prominent feature 
that it now presents is, the extent to which the principle 
(and practice) of association has extended among us. It 
is very rare to meet an individual who has not been drawn 
in. Close and near together come the meetings of clubs, 
of societies with various objects, and some with none at all, 
except present gratification. This is certainly an interest- 
ing and important fact in the progressive career of the 
community. In this very book, line upon line has been 
written, claiming the highest utility for these social and 
business gatherings. Among them all, none has been 


more successful than the attempt to get up a meeting oi 
the meetings, a club of the clubs, an Annual Convention of 
the Farmers. Widening out the objects of the growing 
agricultural clubs, this Convention held a preliminary 
meeting in November, and assembling about the middle of 
January in large numbers, laid the foundations for an or- 
ganization which holds out the prospect of extensive future 
usefulness. Its projectors may do well to remember there 
is always some danger that a band which binds beautifully 
a limited number of homogeneous threads, may possibly 
break if stretched too far; but when strengthened by the 
golden thread of unselfish motive and true desire for im- 
provement, there is nothing to fear. 

That other large enterprise, the Horticultural Fair, has 
proved that an association may be conducted so as to deal 
successfully with a number of heterogeneous elements. 
Each Fair seems better than the last, even despite inclem- 
ent weather. 

Seeing the rapid spread of these societies, the cautious 
observer of frail human nature must put the serious 
question, whether they may not be carried to extremes 
and so " run into the ground." Experience shows there 
may be too much of a good thing. Let us pause a moment 
and regard the several associations, simply on rational 
grounds. The Farmers' Clubs are not mere pleasure gath- 
erings; to carry them out rightly includes considerable 
labor. When you have to work there is not much danger 
of going too far in one direction. 

Of the Ladies' Association, I must say, though extremely 
averse to flattery, that mischief and such as they cannot 
possibly go together ; their gatherings are unmixed good. 

I doubt not the same, or very nearly the same, may be 
said of •'•' the Home Interests,*' when their members shall 


have passed beyond the giddy verge of youth. The Horti- 
cultural comes next, and now we begin to mix things ; 
perhaps all the better for that ; the members are certainly 
nice, mingling both sexes and all ages, from 10 to 70 
years. The interesting and able Debating Society more 
than sustains its credit. The Sociable is surely endowed 
with the faculty of perpetual existence, from its name and 

We have summoned to the bar of History a number of 
our Associations, and find them not guilty of "going to 

It was stated that another, with the sweet title of the 
" Innocents," had organized, with no special object save to 
enjoy themselves and " have a good time." Neither is any 
charge laid against these, so far as your historian has heard. 
All seem to keep within the limits wherein alone pleasure 
has any real existence. 

A friend to true enjoyment says, 

" Oh watch ye well in pleasure ! for pleasure oCt betray s." 

And another and nobler bard, with deep pathos, ex- 

" Lives there tlie man who has not tried 
How mirth can into folly glide, 
And folly into sin ?" 

AVhile I should be the last person to disparage the bene- 
ficial influences exerted in so many directions by the 
multitudinous associations that have started up vigor- 
ously amongst us, I must be excused for expressing regrets 
at the diminished interest shown toward the Lyceum and 
its peculiar exercises. I think this circumstance, in part, 
attributable to the recent multiplication of social engage- 
ments ; but the fact is evident, whatsoever the cause. The 


Annual Course of Lectures designed for tlie j^ast winter, 
has not been well sustained. I know it may be said that 
the officers of the Lyceum have not furnished as many 
opportunities to attend lectures as usual; but there is not 
where the difficulty lies. In the first address ever de- 
livered in this building, some fourteen years ago, the prom- 
ise was confidently made, that if audiences Avere properly 
kept up, lecturers would not be wanting. And it was so, and 
always will be so. Xow, how has it been this winter ? The 
directors proposed a course of literary and scientific lec- 
tures which cannot be said to have succeeded; though 
there is no place in the country (I say it deliberately) 
where just such lectures are more wanted than at Sandy 
Spring, — thorough information, such as the times and 
our reputation demand, in regard to the fundamental prin- 
ciples on which depends all correct practice in the me- 
chanical and agricultural arts, in finance, in true economy, 
and in the best way of living. 

Passing over the neglected lectures, one of which at 
least deserved a better fate, your historian is bound to 
refer slightly to a circumstance which a number of our 
most interested auditors, our most concerned members, were 
pained to observe, namely, a gradual deterioration of that 
quiet and attentive deportment that marked our early 
meetings. Lecturers of that day spoke admiringly of the 
good order of the audience. Some of the best in recent 
times have received quite a different impression. It might 
be a mitigation of the complaint if we could lay the fault 
upon the youthful pupils of the schools, who often helped 
out our numbers; but not justly could we "lay that 
flattering unction to our souls." 

Every one must see that the Lyceum proper cannot be 
kept up without the observance of good order. The old 



charge, "a word to the wise," is all that is needed at 
Sandy Spring ! 

It is true that Sandy Spring got along a good while 
without a Lyceum ; it might, doubtless, continue to exist 
were the hall to become a ruin. But would there not be 
left a void which few of us in this stirring age might like 
to see ? 

Since the above lines were written, a meeting was held 
at the Lyceum, the third in the regular course, which was 
very numerously attended. No falling off in numbers 
or diminution of interest could be complained of on that 
occasion. And yet your historian, although much grati- 
fied at this evidence of life among us, does not see reason 
for taking back any of the remarks previously made. The 
entertainment spoken of being dramatic in its character, 
was so different from the old-fashioned Lyceum exercises 
that it is not to be judged by the same rules. The intro- 
duction of this species of amusement is something new ; 
probably it is the commencement of a gratification which 
in all ages and quarters of the world has produced the 
most lively pleasure among the people who have witnessed 
it. Now, although we all desire that the entertainments 
at this hall shall continue to be of the highest and best 
quality, it is very certain that neither sage nor saint can 
edify people who fail to come and hear. Allow me to 
propose this compromise : let those who incline to come 
here chiefly for entertainment, attend and feel interested in 
the lectures for instruction ; and let those who consider 
instruction the main object, not fail to countenance by 
their presence, restraining within proper limits, those 
meetings where innocent amusement is the attraction. 
So will all be lovely! 

The rest of the chapter must be told in a few words. 


My respected colleague has furnished a list of events, 
which forms part of the record — being preserved along 
with it. We find by reference to that list, while our 
"Savings Institution" boasts of an increase of $7000, 
having now in its vaults a solid round sum of over 
$33,000, that our neighborhood presents a richer increase 
of a better sort than in any one of the past ten years — 
little treasures more precious than silver or gold — being 
eleven babes ! The mention of it draws out our poetry — 

"As the cradle rocks in the peasant's cot, 
So it rocks in the noble's hall ; 
And the richest gift of the loftiest lot 
Is the boon that is given to all." 

(Not quite to all; there being not a single babe within 
a mile of the centre of Sandy Spring.) 

Referring to babes, it requires to be stated that they 
had a rough time of it through the winter with the 
w^hooping-cough ; which disease was not confined to them, 
for mothers and even grandmothers were compelled to 
sympathize personally. Still we have cause to be thank- 
ful that no vacant chair at home, no little mound in the 
churchyard, witnesses the visit of the rude disease. 

There were two marriages this year: 

1. Llewellyn Massey and Emily Thomas, 8th month 
8th, 1872. 

2. William Parker and Anna M. Bentley, 11th month 
12th, 1872. 

The deaths properly belonging to the neighborhood 
were four : 

Wilson Scott, 6th month 4th, 1872, after a suffering 
illness of several weeks; last of the children of one of 
our old settlers, the quiet, respected Isaac Scott. 

A summer child was born to Charles H. and Anna F. 


Brooke; his little life was just like a drop of morning 
dew, that "just as it touches earth, exhales into heaven." 

7th month 11th, 1872, Isaac Bond, of consumption, long- 
latent in his system, but wearing him away rapidly at 
the last. His case is scarcely one which can strictly be 
included as belonging to Sandy Spring, as he came but to 
die. Yet neither can he be wholly separated from the 
community with which he was always most closely con- 
nected and where all his affections were fastened. 

1st month 6th, 1873, Ann Wetherald died at the age of 
83, having survived her distinguished husband, Thomas 
Wetherald, for forty years. 

3d month 10th, Virginia F. Moore died in Alexandria, 
where she and her little daughter had gone to spend the 
winter. This book contains the record of her youthful 
husband's death in 1864, and of a little darling in 1866, 
by which mournful events her young life, before as bright 
as any we have known, was darkened by a shadow never 
to be lifted on earth. 

Much sympathy is felt for the death of W. H. Bukoff- 
ski's two only children. 

Summary of the marriages, births and deaths of the last 
ten years: 

Marriages, 25 ; births, 79 ; deaths, 40, — in a population 
of about 330. 

Several interesting features pertaining to the past year 
should not be altogether omitted : among these are the 
flourishing condition of the First-Day School, the close 
of James S. Hallowell's " Fulford Boarding School," and 
the establishment of one for boys by Coleman and Mar- 

I have found that considerably more space is now re- 
quired in order to make out anything like an annual 
sketch than Avhen the task was first undertaken. 


And now the pen, which has recorded the long train of 
events that have constituted a very imperfect biography 
of the Sandy Spring neighborhood for the past ten years, 
drops from the weary hand. Under the decided expecta- 
tion that the writer has made his last entry in these 
annals, he asks you to listen to a few closing words — they 
shall be a prayer : that when the fingers that held the 
pen are stiff, and the heart that dictated its many 
utterances is cold in yonder churchyard, may some 
friendly voice be heard to say of the writer — " He was a 
sincere w^ell wisher to his race and a true lover of Sandy 
Spring." W. H. F. 


From Fourth Month, 7th, 1873, to Fourth Month, 6th, 1874. 

Resumption of the History — Influence of the age — "10 years 
ago ! ' ' — The solid basis — Former prices — Increase of travel- 
ling — Also of the use of fresh meats — Country stores — Econo- 
my and Micawber — Wheat exceeding former products; 43 
bushels per acre — Dairy business extending — Railroad located 
from Hanover through our farms — Rise of the Grange: its 
character and influence — Good lectures at the Lyceum, by 
Rev. J. F. W. Ware, Samuel Stabler, of California, and others 
— The " Black Friday " did not weaken the " Savings Institu- 
tion" ; but the "Mutual Insurance Company" suffered losses 
by fire of over $40,000— The Rockville and Horticultural Fairs 
" better than ever before ' ' — The Telegraph established at Olney, 
and the Metropolitan Railroad by Rockville — Xo marriage this 
year, but interesting " golden wedding " of Edward and Ann R. 
Stabler — "Silver wedding" of Warwick P. and Mary M. 
Miller — And the "golden wedding" of Robert H. and Anna 
Miller : all of which occurred within our historical year, from 
4th Month, 1873, to 4th Month, 1874. 

Since it is yonr expressed desire this history, commenced 
ten years ago, should not be suffered to drop yet awhile 


(as was the sincere expectation of the writer), he resumes 
the pen without making any further explanation of his 
change of purpose. He w^onld warn you in advance that 
there is a period in the life of every man, coming at 
different ages in different persons — some reach it at sixty, 
some at seventy, others at a still later period — when the 
individual experiences an honest conviction that he ought 
to give up responsible business : but if he proceeds beyond 
that period the conviction leaves him; he gets further 
and further from perceiving or acknowledging the gather- 
ing shadows, and clings with nerveless hand to the sceptre, 
the pen, the gavel, or whatever may be the instrument of 
his office. An anticipation of this sort is before the 
mind of your historian. Started again on the course, you 
may expect a succession of volumes rivalling Bancroft in 
numbers, or simulating even the Chinese historians. 
Being now supported by two lady assistants (for he is 
gratified to announce that Mrs. Mary B. Thomas has con- 
sented to join the editorial corps), he is quite unable to 
promise when the undertaking will come to a final close. 

In entering upon the second decade it seems entirely 
consistent with the nature and objects of history to take 
a retrospective glance at our situation when the last de- 
cade commenced. The doctrine so frequently uttered 
that " history is philosophy teaching by example," renders 
it liighly proper to take such view. 

Ten years used to seem a long while to me. To some 
of the audience it doubtless so appears now: (I know; 
because about forty years ago a young lady sent me a copy 
of verses — I have them yet — entitled "When we were 
young, ten years ago!") The period seems quite brief 
now. Yet when we think how much has occurred, if we 
only refer to the changes which this book records — the 


marriages, births, deaths — ah ! it scarcely seems the same 
world ! 

But in makiiis; the comparison of then and now, we 
must guard against the mistake of regarding as changes 
in the object, what are in fact only changes in ourselves. 
We old people are quite liable to this error ; which is 
simply unavoidable, if the subject is viewed as colored by 
our own feelings. The only way to avoid it is by sticking 
to facts. Here statistics, figures, come in, to strip the 
subject of illusions, and render our conclusions of some 
value and interest. Your historian has been brought to 
see, partly against his will, certainly in opposition to all 
his imaginative and poetic instincts, that the prosperity 
of a community must rest, like all other things, on a solid 
material basis. It would be disagreeable, and only par- 
tially true, to say, that in this, as in other material things, 
money is the measure of value. Poor indeed, wretchedly 
poor, is the man or the neighborhood that is not distin- 
guished for something better than money ; which is of the 
earth, earthy; like the foundation-stones of a building to 
be kept out of sight — low doion,\Y\\QVQ\i belongs; not to 
be compared to the beautiful pillars. Avails, bay-windows, 
mantels, &c. ; and yet, where are all those valuable and 
beautiful things when the foundation gives way ? These 
are facts which it is well to face. I return to the figures, 
with which I shall not detain you, but only present a very 
meagre specimen to illustrate the point. I find in a 
record of nine or ten years back, that agricultural produc- 
tions stood at prices far beyond the present time: Hay 
brought $30 a ton, oats were 97 cents a bushel, pork 18 
cents a pound. Compare those figures with the corres- 
ponding prices for the last two or three years. Flush 
times were those, for money came in faster even than it 
went out. Is this the case now ? 


Let lis turn away from the grovelling thought, to read 
a lively passage from the contribution of my new lady 
assistant. She says : " Our people seem to have done more 
travelling this year than ever before ; persons from Sandy 
Spring have visited Boston, New York, Philadelphia, 
Mauch Chunk, Gettysburg, Watkins Glen, Niagara, 
Ohio, Indiana, Valley of Virginia, Rehoboth Beach, Cape 
May, St. Louis, Chicago, Quincy, Omaha, St. Paul's, 
Utah, Colorado, San Francisco, Mammoth Cave, Chatta- 
nooga, &c." Not to be behind the times, various " Ameri- 
can citizens of African descent" took advantage of a 
cheap excursion to Richmond, Virginia. There were also 
forty-five individuals from this place present at Balti- 
more Yearly Meeting in the fall. Now here is a go for 
certain ! You couldn't find anything like that ten years 
ago, or indeed ever before. The most snarling critic can- 
not deny that travelling has a great effect in expanding 
the mind, conducing to progress. But when one has a 
leading subject Aveighing on his mind, he is apt to find a 
connection between it and some other things that appear 
quite different. That our people should have done so 
much travelling is a thing to be proud of, but indeed it 
does cost ! 

In this connection too let us state another very differ- 
ent fact, but ending in the same result as to pecuniary 

Thomas J. Lea reports a great increase in the con- 
sumption of fresh beef. 

Add to this our other supplies of fresh meats, and 
there is an amazing total. Of course the summer boarders 
are responsible for part of this large consumption, though 
only for a small part. 

This is really and truly a sign of progress. It shows 


that we are changing our meat diet from the pork and 
bacon that served as the staple for onr forefathers, to the 
more wholesome mutton and beef. I think it is probably 
worth all it costs, but (like the travelling business) it does 
cost. The money in this case stays in the neighborhood 
too, Avhich is a good thing. It is also a favorable circum- 
stance that the money spent in our stores, or at least a 
fair fraction of it, remains among our own people. 

The mercantile statistics of the neighborhood, so far as 
relates to our dealings with the stores, would form an 
important item of the general prosperity, especially if the 
review were extended over the period of the past fifteen 
or sixteen years. I speak only of the collective opera- 
tions, not of the dealings of particular individual store- 
keepers. Such review would, I think, refute the remark 
made recently by one of our pi-osperous citizens, to the 
effect that "these stores were the greatest evil of the 
times " ; which was of course a hasty exaggeration. When 
we reflect on the fact that the three or four stores at 
w^hich our people mostly deal, receive in cash or promises 
to pay an amount equivalent to the interest of a million 
dollars, there is some difficulty in understanding how the 
amount is made up from the producing capacity of the 
surrounding estates in addition to other large necessary 
expenditures. No one can be so unfair as to attach 
blame for this condition of things to the persons who keep 
the stores; who are all too well known and too highly 
esteemed to need any sort of excuse or explanation. It 
is probable these gentlemen could enlighten us better than 
any one else as to the point where the real mischief lies ; 
not so much in the amount of goods bought, as in the 
amount not paid for. 

These are times when, throughout the length and 


breadth of our land, a deeper concern than I have ever 
known before is felt by all reflecting citizens at the heavy 
debt which is piling up everywhere by individuals and 
communitieSi Our national law-makers are now in the 
act of relieving the pressure of the debt by increasmg its 
amount. Probably some individuals would like to pursue 
the same course with their private obligations ; a road to 
ruin which does not very much concern Sandy Spring; 
at least we will hope so. Still, inasmuch as human 
nature is much the same everywhere, and as nature allows 
no exceptions to her laws, it is, perhaps, not a superfluous 
caution at this time, to direct your attention to that prac- 
tical principle in the right conduct of life which is 
nowhere better illustrated than in the words of Micawber : 
" Income, £20 ; expenses, £19 19s. 6d. ; result, peace and 
happiness. Income, £20 ; expenses, £20 10s. ; result, 
misery and ruin ! " 

Examine the figures, young people ; tlie magic numerals 
that comprise such momentous issues! It is a solemn 
fact requiring no prophetic insight to discern, that all the 
culture which this neighborhood has attained, all its social 
advantages, its respect abroad and comfort at home, will 
be unavailing to prevent a catastrophe, if the groundwork 
of human prosperity fails: industry directed by intelli- 
gence, prudence, and the resolve never to incur a debt 
without rational assurance of being able to pay. (Con- 
gratulate me on being through with this portion of this 
year's history ! ) 

Tokens of energy and improvement during the year are 
by no means wanting. Agriculture, the foundation-rock 
on which our chief prosperity must be built, can show 
some considerable successes, while it can scarcely be called 
a very brilliant year. The wheat crop may be boasted of. 


One of our farmers (whose initials are S. P. T.) raised 420 
bushels on ten acres, a production probably never exceeded 
in this part of the country. Such a return might be con- 
sidered exceptional ; but I have to add that the Farmers' 
Club, consisting of a corps that might be excused for 
showing some falling off, if such a privilege may be 
claimed for any cause, raised 7000 bushels of wheat last 
summer. There is no report as yet from the younger 
clubs ; but if the men whose average years are novr just 55 i 
have done thus much, Avhat may we not suppose of the 
vigorous youth whose age is just about one-half their 
fathers? Sandy Spring farming is going on all right. 
When one crop fails there is sure to be success in another. 
For example, the peach crop this year was one of the 
worst, but there were some favored exceptions. In con- 
nection with the dairy business, as yet only begun, a 
notice of " a most superior milk wagon '' was put up ; but, 
unfortunately, the vehicle was forwarded to Philadelphia. 
Still, it shows the enterprise of an Ashton manufacturer. 
This is probably a slight forerunner of the new direction 
W'hich our daii'y business will take as soon as that railroad 
is finished. 

We come now to one of the two gi'eat incidents that dis- 
tinguish the year. One day last spring the railroad engi- 
neers entered the neighborhood. Eire and flame heralded 
their approach. The mode pursued of getting rid of tim- 
ber on some 25 acres exhibited the quality of dispatch for 
which railroads are distinguished; though the owner of the 
land thus despoiled probably failed to see the beauty of the 
operation. Xo more did some of the landowners through 
whose farms the location was made, see much beauty in 
leveled line and curve. The new location, however, pro- 
ceeded, greatly to the satisfaction of tlie engineers on one 


side, and certain gentlemen of the neighborhood, " whose 
ox was not gored " this time, on the other. The straight 
line was located from Hanover to Gaithersburg, the engi- 
neers resting from their labors when summer came, since 
Avhic'h the railroad has also rested. 

Your historian, revievv^ing the remarks made a year ago 
on the subject of railroad incursions and land damages, 
sees no reason, from the threatened personal injuries of the 
past year, to recall the sentiments there expressed. A rail- 
road is the great want of our neighborhood.' Let her 
come, even if some nervous individuals have to get out of 
her thundering track. Will Sandy Spring ever have one ? 
That is the question. 

It is scarcely necessary to inform you that the other 
illustrious incident of the year is the institution amongst 
us of the new order of the Grange. It comes among us, 
not like a railroad, bringing public benefit with private in- 
jury, sacrificing the comfort and sometimes the very home 
and hearth of the individual to the greater benefit of the 
community; but with designed injury to none, and kind- 
ness and good-will to all. The idea of the Grange is sim- 
ply an expansion of the principle which underlies all the 
pleasant and improving associations that distinguish our 
neighborhood; it may almost be termed a peculiarly Sandy 
Spring idea ; hence the degree of acceptance it has met, 
sufficient to counterbalance the obstructions with which 
it had naturally to contend. It was unavoidable that 
a people trained as ours should shrink somewhat from 
entering a strange " Secret Order." We are, among our- 
selves, a united people — more so than most communities ; 
united, and yet isolated. It might be predicted that the 
Grange would be slow in overcoming these natural ob- 
structions. Yet we find that already a considerable num- 


ber, knowing themselyes to be farmers, could not refuse 
their countenance to the first grand combination formed to 
benefit the farmers; having experienced the pleasure and 
profit of associating together in so many ways, they readily 
received the idea, so congenial with their own experience, 
of trying the principle on a larger scale ; being nurtured 
and trained in faith in the equality of woman, they were 
naturally attracted to the first national business association 
that acknowledged her equality, and the essential require- 
ment of her presence, her assistance and counsel. Having 
been continually reminded by their own excellent ritual 
that social love and kindness are the true fruits of religion, 
they found it an easy step from the doctrine "becoming 
their own Christian profession," to the doctrine that these 
qualities are also most becoming, without distinction of 
profession, to all. 

The Grange proposes for itself all these things. Three 
orders have been established amongst us, comprising about 
150 members. Their permanence will depend on the con- 
tinued zeal in carrying out the cardinal principles of the 
Order. I confess to considerable curiosity, not free from 
some uncertainty, in regard to this part of next year's 
record. But, in the meantime, whether our friends stand 
clear or join, there is not the slightest ground for un- 
pleasant divisions ; he must be a false Granger who desires 
to throw a stone at any one outside. The question has 
arisen, whether the new association will interfere with the 
good old ones. No indications of that sort are apparent 
yet. The Farmers' Clubs are natural auxiliaries to the 
Grange ; the various associations in Avhich our ladies take 
either the entire arrangement, or divide the work with 
their brothers, find a congenial spirit among the Patrons of 
Husbandry, so that it will be only a question of distinct or 


of combined action in the same direction. Each associa- 
tion has at present a beneficial purpose ; all may find it true 
economy, both of time and power, to concentrate. 

The literary interests of the neighborhood, as finding 
expression in the transactions of the Lyceum, have not 
been neglected ; the lectures not very numerous, but good. 
Mr. AVare favored us again in the fifth month, but the 
weather again refused to favor his kind effort for our 
benefit. We may reasonably hope, since the weather is 
fully as capricious in its frowns as in its smiles, that when 
he comes as he has promised to do next month, the bright 
May season will be on its best behavior. Mr. Ware comes 
a long distance — all the way from Boston — to entertain 
and instruct us ; but we (just among ourselves, would not 
have it get out you know !) can understand how naturally 
a man should revolve first on one and then on the other 
" hub of the universe ! " For the present Lyceum season, 
science was declared in order, and a very successful exhi- 
bition of its brilliant and recondite mysteries was had. 

Another lecture on a branch of science less brilliant, 
but not less important nor less interesting, is promised. 
It is sure to supply deep and needed instruction about 
common things; always the most valuable. Among the 
lectures delivered here last season we must not omit the 
mention of a life-like picture of California, drawn by 
Samuel Stabler, one of our Sandy Spring boys, who 
wandered off to that distant region; one of the few worth 
keeping whom we have lost in that way. 

The lectures spoken of, like the best speeches of all de- 
scription, have been " fit, though few." Also the condition 
of Lyceum Hall has been improved. Ventilation, that 
all -important and much neglected feature in public rooms, 
is ingeniously provided for. Indeed, it may be admitted 


that the younger hands into whose charge the Lyceum has 
passed, have done then- duty "passing well." This transi- 
tion by which young blood was substituted before the 
old fluid was quite chilled in the veins, appears to have 
been a master-stroke, accomplishing more objects than one. 

Long live the Lyceum ! It has done good service, and 
has more (and better, I trust) yet to do. The true quality 
of work is not best seen while being done, at least this is 
the case in work where the heart of the doer is the active 

It would never do to pass the year '73, with three months 
of '74, without any reference to the "Black Friday" of 
last September. Our people are becoming more and more 
interested in the financial condition of the country. Al- 
though there must be ground for apprehension in regard 
to business affairs, it is to be noted that our Savings In- 
stitution shows that some people have saved money; its 
deposits having been increased this year by a full six and 
and a-half thousand dollars. 

The Fire Insurance Company had much the hardest 
year of its existence, paying for over $40,000 of property 
destroyed by fire. This rapid agent of destruction was at 
its work in our very midst : the barn of Wm. H. Stabler, 
together with a number of vehicles and farm implements, 
but fortunately no stock, being consumed in the early 
mornmg of the 1st of June. 

It should have been stated among agricultural matters, 
that the Second Annual Convention of all the Clubs was 
held at the appointed time, and numerously attended. In 
the opinion of our new lady historian, the "EockvillePair 
and our Horticultural Exhibition " were, if possible, better 
than ever before. The telegraph recently established at 
Olney, and the opening of railroad travel through our 


county, (but not alas ! through Sandy Spring) were glori- 
ous improvements. 

The statistical account shows of births, five boys and 
four girls, total nine. Amongst these new arrivals in our 
happy community, my younger assistant specifies a boy, 
making a graceful allusion which I cannot forbear to quote. 
She writes, " July 20th, '73, at Kockland, a child was born, 
who received the name of one whose memory is yet green 
and bright in Sandy Spring, J. Elgar Hallowell." 

The list of deaths during the past twelve mouths, of 
those who can properly be assigned to our neighborhood, 
is short but deeply impressed, being in number only two. 

May 24th, 1873, Walter Bond, son of Samuel and Sarah 
A. Bond. By this sad event, the band which had joined 
two interesting twin brothers was parted. The bereave- 
ment seems in some w^ay more-conspicuous, more constantly 
brought to mind by the presence of him who was left. 
They appeared in life to be always so closely united. 

October 28th, 1 873, died Isaac Briggs. Born at Brooke- 
ville in 1803, he had just completed the term of the 
Psalmist, threescore years and ten. His eventful life was 
closed at the " Church Home " in Baltimore, among 
strangers, who ministered to his dying hours with the 
tenderness of true " Sisters," the name they so well deserve 
to bear. It is their own statement that they were pecu- 
liarly attracted to the expiring man. And over the wide 
extent of country through which he wandered, in all the 
various places and situations into which an eccentric genius 
led him, he made and left behind him everywhere many 
warm friends. As the friend who assists me writes, 

' ' Tke kindliest of all human natures, 
He joined to courage strong, 
And love, that reached to all earth's creatures, 
With sturdy hate of wrong. ' ' 


He was a man that had no nse for outward profession ; 
" no tithe took he of mint or anise or cummin " ; but in the 
weightier matters of the law, "kindness and justice and 
truth, there lives no man nor woman who can bear witness 
against him. Exposed in his wanderings to temptations, 
which, fortunately, few of us know anything about, he 
walked clear and pure in the reality, while caring too 
little, indeed, for the aiypearance of wrong. Unhappily for 
himself, he formed none of the closest ties, the nearest and 
dearest ; yet his death has left a blank with some that will 
never be filled. After his long wanderings his remains 
rest in yonder grave, among his kindred. 

There is another department in the three divisions of our 
record of family statistics which must be left vacant this 
year, for the second time only since the record began. Of 
marriages (within the year) none. 

Happily for us, in the gloom we are not left without 
some rays of light. The dark cloud, as we may term it, has 
both a silver and a golden lining. Although weddings are 
admitted by all the world to be very interesting affairs on 
the occasion of their first occurrence, it may be seriously 
claimed that their solemnization, after long years of "truth- 
tried wedded love," is something still more impressive and 
interesting. The year 1873 has been thrice honored in 
this way. 

The Golden Wedding of Edward and Ann R. Stabler 
was celebrated on Christmas Eve, the 50th anniversary of 
the marriage and the home -bringing of the bride to the 
house which has been her dwelling ever since. There was 
but one opinion among the numerous guests in regard to 
the interest and beauty of the celebration, a full account of 
which is preserved in the neat little pamphlet dedicated to 
it. The Silver AYedding of Warwick P. and Mary M. Mil- 


ler was celebrated the 9th of May. Shining with milder 
lustre, it gaye a delightful evening to a large circle of 
friends. Another deeply interesting alfair of a similar kind 
took place on the 23d of April. Thongh occurring outside 
the limits of our neighborhood, the large number of our 
people so intimately connected with the celebration ren- 
ders it quite proper to speak of the golden wedding of 
Robert H. and Anna Miller. The peculiar circumstances 
attending this celebration will long keep it in the pleasant 
memories of hundreds of closely interested persons. On 
the 10th of March following, the husband (father and 
grandfather) passed from earth. 


From Fourth Month, 6th, 1874, to Fourth Month, 5th, 1875. 

" The bright side, the true side" — Progress always — Yet named a 
* ' dry year ' ' — Sandy Spring less affected by drought — Low 
price of hay some advantage — The Colorado Bug makes its 
appearance — Encouraging views — A co-operative laundry 
suggested — The Horticultural Society furnishes a fine dis- 
play — The 3d Annual Convention of Farmers' Clubs highly 
successful — The Grange flourishing — Also all the other 
Societies — False charges against the Lyceum, where eleven 
lectures were delivered in the year — The fiery element shows 
abatement — Deposits increase in the "Savings" — Lines bor- 
rowed from the sea — Voyage to Europe — Telegraph with- 
drawn — Interesting statistics — An "Old Folks Party" at 

In casting thoughts backward over the year just trans- 
pired, we cannot say that the experience of Sandy Spring 
contradicts materially the general impressions in other 
places, that it has not been one of the prosperous years to 


farmers. Since the bright points are not very numer- 
ous or striking, it may require more than the usual effort 
on the part of your historian to discover and describe 
what few there be. It is certainly not worth while to 
dwell upon the opposite sort. It would not pay you in 
any shape or fashion to come here and listen to a recital 
of troubles, failures, disappointments and such — Oh, no ! 
let me be excused from that. We do not propose to waste 
your time and spoil an evening, which has many bright 
and pleasant reminiscences in the past — now getting to 
be a long past 

It is my serious conviction, formed in early life, and 
confirmed both by its sad and its happy experiences, that 
the Iright side of humaa life and things is the true side ; 
and history means (if it has any sensible meaning at all) 
the record of human progress along the meandering, but 
ever on-flowing current of the way. Although there is 
often a seeming retrogression, it is like the bends of the 
Mississippi river in going to ^evv Orleans: the great 
flood in its windings only seems to go back; while all the 
time it is making its resistless way on — on to the great 
deep which is to swallow it at last. So with the river of 

It goes on progressively to its destined end and aim, 
and nothing can divert its course; evolving perpetually 
new and higher forms of being. It is only by believing 
in and actively co-operating with this grand scheme of 
progress that we can truly obey and really experience 
the fruits of obedience. 

Last summer I visited the "Jardin des Plantes" in 
Paris, and saw there the most famous sun-dial in the 
world. Placed on the summit of a high circular mound, 
it bears the memorable inscription — " Horas non numero, 


nisi Serenas" — or, "I take no account of any but the 
calm, sunshiny hours." This motto I propose for my 
history, and stick by it so far as human weakness will 
allow; not wholly to exclude the serious troubles and 
misfortunes, that may not be entirely ignored, and which 
rightly viewed must be essential elements and causes of 

The reports of my associates, upon which I have greatly 
relied, are very satisfactory, as far as they go, but are 
unfortunately rather brief. Especially is this the case 
with the report of the junior member of the historical 
firm, who gives us this year only a taste of the valuable 
material which she is so well qualified and so well 
situated to accumulate. Her opening sentence is "Noth- 
ing of vital importance seems to have transpired." We 
make this our first note then — a dry year ! Our meteoro- 
logists will no doubt dilate at proper length upon the 
weather; they will show, I presume, that it has been in 
several respects quite remarkable. The temperature at 
the close of last April was unusually low, destroying the 
fruit in many places, though not universally. The 
drought of the summer is an incident too common of late 
years to be considered remarkable, but its continuance 
through the autumn, especially the absolute rainlessness of 
October and part of November, is without precedent in 
my recollection. The winter of '74-5 has-become histori- 
cal, not so much by extremes of low temperature, as by 
persistent cold. Happy are we not to live where whole 
farms are covered many feet thick with blocks of ice, 
which cannot prove a desirable top-dressing. 

We find in regard to the first subject we touch, that 
the year has had about it something quite "remarkable." 
As we go on, perhaps we shall find it exhibit other 


features of characteristic importance and interest. Time 
is like other things in this : its degree of impressiveness 
depends very much upon the way we examine it. Only 
put on the right glasses, and there does not exist an object 
in nature that fails to offer wonders of structure and 
beauty. Surely, then, tw^elve months can never roll 
around a numerous, active, intelligent, diversified, but 
united body of men, women and children, without chang- 
ing, marking, and lea^^ng traces of the mark as they 
pass by. 

Still keeping in view the idea that our paramount con- 
cern is with the reviving features of t "^ we note 
that the favoring spring and early sun....^. wrought us 
full crops of grass and wheat; while vjther one of 
the trio of most important productions mdian corn, en- 
dured the drought and came out with us a fuller crop 
decidedly than was the case in the country generally. I 
think it is an established fact that we suffer less in 
seasons of deficient moisture than do most other fertile 
sections of neighboring counties. The higher price of 
corn has helped out bravely; though it has scarcely suf- 
ficed to compensate for the diminished price of wheat and 
hay. It is the opinion of some of our judicious farmers, 
that a price of hay, too low to tc' pt such large exporta- 
tions as we have all indulged in of late years, might be no 
real disadvantage ; and that a better return would come 
of using gi'ass in certain other forms. 

The constitutional tendency of which farmers are ac- 
cused, to croak and grumble, found this year a strong 
justification for venting itself, in the advent of a most un- 
welcome visitor, the Colorado bug. This was, indeed, a 
new experience. It came upon us without preparation. 
AVe had heard much about the animal, but there is a 


great difference between the sympathy felt for a misfor- 
tune experienced by our fellow-laborers across the Missis- 
sippi, and the shock of its sudden arrival at our own 
doors. It appeared as if the ugly animal had made a 
quick jump across the Alleghany Mountains, and lit 
clown on every potato patch throughout the land around 
us. In this there was a striking resemblance to the 
epizootic among the horses in a preceding year. I think 
the bug was first seen by the farmers on the Ijrst day of 
June, '74, keeping on with increasing numbers till about 
the middle of August. 

One of ow - ptato-grow^ers estimated that he caught at 
least tLx_ s>ns of the bugs in a ten-acre lot, and the 

vines, thou;"^' . leared of the pests one day, were found 
covered with t ^m the following morning. So far as I 
can gather the Vesults of this first year's experience, it 
would seem to show that diligent picking with the 
fingers will efiec ually prevail against their ravages ; but 
so much labor is required as to render this favorite pro- 
duction in many parts of our neighborhood a doubtful 
crop to depend upon, while the enemy stays with us. 
Our club designs to plant forty-nine acres this year 
against the eighty-nine planted last year. The efficacy of 
Paris green appears ) have been tried successfully ; the 
fears of its infecting .:he tuber with its poison may be 
regarded as groundless. In parts of Germany, potatoes 
are raised in soils containing a far larger quantity of 
arsenic than is in the Paris green. Well, we shall have 
something to look forward to : perhaps the freezing of the 
ground to an unwonted depth last winter may have de- 
stroyed the embryo of the nasty little beast. I reckon we 
had better plant the tubers, if not quite in the usual 


Whatever may be said in regard to the pecuniary 
results of farming operations in our neighborhood, it 
cannot be alleged that there has been any falling off 
in diligent effort. " Our old men have doubtless their 
usual visions " (of better days long ago) " and our young 
men dreamed dreams" (of better days to come), but 
neither dream nor vision has weakened the busy hand 
nor dulled the active mind. While the spirit survives 
with fraternal feeling, Sandy Spring is safe, whether 
money be plenty or " tight " ; perhaps all the safer when it 
is a little tight. The apprehension that we cannot make 
a living here, out of the ground, in some honest way, is 
simply preposterous. While the earth endureth, and 
men crowd the cities, grain, hay, roots, meat, butter, 
cream, fruit, one or the other, all or a few, are sure to be 
in demand, and to supply all the real wants of the best 
sort of living. 

There has been a considerable manifestation this year 
of a spirit of inquiry and experiment among the younger 
farmers, and this is a very good thing. Also some show 
of an effort to economize expenses. One of the valuable 
associations, yclept the " Home Interests," has the merit 
of starting the bold project of a " co-operation laundry," 
which claims to introduce economy into an important 
and troublesome department of the household ; not only 
economy of exjoenses, but the saving of the hardest part of 
woman's work, by making steam and machinery perform 
it. I believe this is only n project as yet, **the sinews of 
war " not having been fully provided. 

Other indications are not wanting to show there is a 
full measure of interest and spirit connected with things 
relating to our great business of life. The Horticultural 
Society was kept up with unflagging zeal through the 


season ; and with the ready assistance of others outside its 
necessarily restricted membership, presented to the sur- 
rounding community in September a highly successful 
exhibition of vegetables, fruits and flowers. My asso- 
ciate also notes an increased interest in our County Fair, 
evinced by a creditable display from this vicinity. In 
the same connection we record the Third Annual Con- 
vention of the Farmers' Clubs of Montgomery county, 
having been so interesting and popular as to merit being 
considered an established institution. The design was 
first shadowed in this little book. In the record made 
three years ago it is remarked : " The Farmers' Clubs might 
(and ought to) have a system for combining their wisdom 
and for co-operating in making important experiments ; 
they ought to hold a general meeting at least once a 
year " ; and the Lyceum was named as the proper place. 
Now since the idea thus thrown out has borne such fine 
fruit, it may be as well to remind you where it originated^ 
People are always willing to own a child after he becomes 
in any way distinguished ! 

Next after the sketch of the progress of agriculture 
among us, generally come remarks upon social institu- 
tions and the general condition of the neighborhood. 
Between these two, and as being closely connected with 
both, properly comes a notice of the recent institution of 
the Grange. It is, however, impracticable from the very 
nature of the Order to give any definite description of 
operations from which the outside world is of course 
excluded. As a subject in which many of our people are 
directly interested, it is proper to note in this Kecord the 
erection of a fine building at Olney, for the accommoda- 
tion of the Order, also affording a spacious lecture room, 
where several excellent and instructive public addresses 


have been already delivered. The construction of the 
building was distinguished by the strict carrying out of 
the principle of "punctuality in all our dealings," which 
is so often impressed on our own peculiar people. Indeed, 
it is no more than fair to claim that the commendable 
characteristics of Sandy Spring have been impressed in 
considerable degree upon the new Order, contributing to 
its solid prosperity. 

The Grange not being a special institution of our 
neighborhood, these local annals do not need to dwell 
upon the subject: the less so because, unfortunately, 
there is a difference of sentiment in regard to it, while 
the satisfaction, the very life of this record depends upon 
its referring to subjects and events in which all of us can 
feel a common interest, and which all may recognize as a 
sort of common property. I pass the subject with this 
remark — coming from one who knows whereof he 
speaks — no permanent trouble is to be apprehended 
where there is no real ground for a difference, because both 
parties are seeking the same end, and by almost the same 
means, namely — co-operative action and "unity of the 
Spirit in the bond of peace." 

Other institutions which may be characterized as the 
Agricultural-Social, Moral -Social, Home-domestic-Social, 
and the Literary-Social, still live and flourish. What 
a social people we must be ! Although predictions have 
been made of extinction by absorption of several of these 
associations, there is a spirit prevailing amongst them 
that seems to refuse to perish. As this spirit is, within 
itself, probably the best trait we have to boast of, may it 
continue to wave ! if only it does not quite use up some of 
the young people who are animated by it beyond reason 
and moderation at the expense of sound sleep and rest. 


In reviewing the operations of the Lyceum proper I 
discover that it has been shindered by some of us. It was 
reported as being in a languishing condition — thus, "lec- 
tures not well attended" — "the people satiated with 
them," and other similar accusations of failing interest in 
this literary centre. 

Now we find that there have been eleven lectures de- 
livered in this hall during the present year. When were 
there ever more ? Look at the variety of subjects ! 
" Poetry of the Bible," " Sketch of the Colorado Country," 
"Afternoon of the 19th Century," "The Dairy," "The 
Dignity of Labor," " Local Option," " Visit to Aston Row- 
ant," "Spain and Palestine," "Pictures of Rocky Mountain 
Scenery," " Sinai." Naturally some of these were better 
attended than others, and no doubt better merited at- 
tendance ; but all were instructive. Rev. Mr. Ware's lec- 
ture combined merit and interest in a high degree ; and as 
he was at last favored with a beautiful evening, the audi- 
ence was as large as any in Lyceum's best days. Again, 
the Magic Lantern brought a crowd that showed how 
the youthful fondness for pictures survives among us 
all. Appeals to the eye are more attractive than to the 
ear, which known fact may be explained in this way: 
When we are children we are apt not to understand the 
subject clearly, or may be repelled by excess of advice ; 
and when we are grown up our self-love revolts from the 
idea that " the fellow can teach us anything." Perhaps 
we are satiated with lectures of quite another sort. We 
love to look at pictures — they do not offer insults in any 
way. Popular lectures should always have something 
to shoiu, if practicable. Still, when we come to think 
seriously, there are not many of us who would hesitate 
to acknoAvledge that we might learn a great deal more 


from sound, rational lectures without adventitious aids. 
"Were men to live coeval with the sun, the patriarch 
pupil would be learning still." If those lines could be 
truly said in the times of Young's " Night Thoughts," 
how much more forcibly might they be uttered now ! 

The two solid institutions doing business at the Insur- 
ance Building, corner of two neighborhood Turnpikes, 
present in their recent annual statements a favorable con- 
dition of affairs in both companies. The fiery element, so 
prevalent for several preceding years, showed a decided 
abatement in '74 (though it makes a lively start in '75). 
The increase of deposits in the Savings Bank is steady: a 
trifle less than the increase was last year, making over 
$45,000 now, and giving promise that the eighth year 
will show savings to an amount exceeding $50,000 if all 
goes well. Of the investments there are a little more 
than $3500 loaned to individuals properly secured ; a cir- 
cumstance which indicates that the bank is widening its 
sphere of usefulness without any diminution of safety. 
No security is so safe as land. * * 'i' ^ Thus we see the 
ship moves on — ship that holds our common "destiny. 
Watchman, what of the night ? Where is she now ? Any 
breakers in sight? How are the engines working? Is 
there still proper depth ? Above all, how is she steering ? 
and whither ? All secure, master ! plenty of steam from 
the boiler — breakers wellnigh passed. She is steering 
calmly on — the only gale to be feared has, it is hoped, 
subsided. Breezes will of course arise, but only such as 
disturb the surface ; for, 

" Though winds are raging o'er the upper ocean, 
And billows wild contend with angry roar, 
We know, far down beneath the wild commotion, 
That peaceful stillness reigneth evermore." 


And while the social dei^ths are kept sweet and calm 
and pure by the salt of religious principle, to which 
this neighborhood owes what it has of most value, 
there will ever arise from those depths an influence 
powerful to calm the surface, though ruffled by transient 

The foregoing figure of speech savors plainly of the 
sea ; which was for a time during the past year the abode 
of several of your fellow-citizens of Sandy Spring. There 
were at least seven who tried the Atlantic waves, although 
only three of us reached the European shores. Four of 
the seven made a shorter trip along the American coast ; 
one of whom, Charles F. Brooke, has since tried a more 
extensive journey to the Far West, and his reports of the 
land nearly resemble mine of the sea. No brother or 
sister of our neighborhood is likely to be deluded into a 
passionate love, either of the ocean or of Colorado, by the 
relation of his experiences or mine. The European party 
had, on the whole, " a good time " ; one of my associates 
is pleased to write : " September 24th brought the return 
home of our European party in renewed health, and with 
a host of pleasant recollections, which they have shared 
with some of us who were not so fortunate." That party 
can never forget another composed of fifty friends, who 
came one bright moonlight evening, the 28th of June, to 
bid farewell to the travellers ; nor the kind greeting that 
welcomed the return. 

I regret to wind up remarks upon the travellers of this 
year with an observation from the notes of one of my 
assistants, rather severe, but doubtless just, running 
thus: "June: numerous husbands ofi" on trips, while 
their self-denying wives attend to home matters." Who 
is hit ? 


Among tlie losses of the year we have to note the with- 
drawal of the Olney telegraph. It was a short-lived 
benefaction, but while it existed a gi'eat advantage in 
several instances ; the loss is much to be lamented. The 
deprivation in this instance does not seem to be charge- 
able to a want of enterprise on our part, but to circum- 
stances beyond our control. The failure or disappoint- 
ment is not properly a reflection upon our neighborhood. 
It is undeniable that, for telegraphs and railroads, we are 
obliged to depend upon others. The enterprises and per- 
formances within our own power, which we accomplish, 
are the only sort to find proper mention here. As to the 
question now of some interest, whether the road, when it 
comes, shall start from Laurel or Hanover, and shall 
begin in this year or some other future year, that is the 
concern of John W. Garrett. We can do nothing to 
hasten or retard. The historian of Sandy Spring regards 
it as a want of proper dignity to dwell upon this matter 
any further, particularly as he has no recent information 
to communicate. 

We proceed to a conclusion with a record of affairs 
which are peculiarly our own ; the three most im- 
portant concerns of human beings, the subjects which 
arouse the most powerful and deepest emotions of joy 
and grief. 

For the ten years recorded on previous pages there 
was an average of 2| marriages amongst us per year 
(though it may be considered by fair young maidens as 
almost an outrage to treat weddings as questions of 
average, and to speak of half marriages too !) This year 
we are favored with three weddings, which is of course 
" too many by half." 


On 9th month, 24th, married, Joseph T. McDowell to 
Annie Stone. The bride was taken away from the quiet 
country to the great metropolitan city. 

10th month, 6th, Gerard Hopkins and Emily Snowden. 
Whether we are to lose finally the happy pair in the bay 
region of Virginia, or to rejoice in their return, time will 
make manifest. 

11th month, 5th, Edward C. Dickinson and Fannie I. 
Lea. Again the bride is taken away from among us to 
Northern Pennsylvania. Doubtless in each case our loss 
is their gain. 

It is hoped that in another year ive shall be making 
gains at the expense of some other neighborhood, so as 
not to keep on losing. So far as the mere question of 
population is concerned our gains are nearly triple our 

In the blooming month of May, the extreme south- 
western verge of our neighborhood, the dwelling of 
Roger B. Farquhar was gladdened by the arrival of a 
boy. In the following month, a daughter brightened the 
opposite extremity ; and a boy, her first cousin, was born 
near midsummer. Autumn afforded another boy. Then 
in early February a little girl came to keep company 
with its sister near the well-travelled turnpike. March 
arrived, and before its close three children, a girl and 
two boys, joined the procession. My associate, who takes 
special care of this department, was confessedly unable to 
keep her record fully up. It stands thus : Eight births 
this year — five boys and three girls. 

Under date 10th month, 30th, my associate writes: 
"Truly our neighborhood has been blessed with health 
the past year, which should be a cause of gratitude and 
thankfulness to the Good Father. There has not been a 


funeral at our meeting house since this day a year ago, 
when Isaac Briggs was buried." 

Though very healthy still, the neighborhood has not 
altogether escaped the visits of the king of terrors. 5th 
month, 22d, the remains of William D. Stabler were 
brought from Frankford, Penn., and buried in the ceme- 
tery. He was a very good young man, with mind excep- 
tionally bright, till overcome by mental disease. The 
wanderer is freed and at rest. 

12th month, 17th, died at the residence of Edward C. 
Gilpin, Elizabeth Feast. From want of acquaintance, I 
am not able to add anything to the simple announce- 
ment, which indeed suffices for the last page of mortal 
history for us all. On the same day died Roger Brooke 
Nesbitt, at Longwood, the residence of his grandparents, 
E. J. and Mary Hall. 

While we have reason to be thankful for the general 
health of ourselves and our friends, it is proper to note 
that it has been a year of extraordinary mortality among 
our colored neighbors ; and their losses have been more in 
quality than in numbers. That energetic, useful and 
respected citizen (as my assistant justly terms him), 
William Bellows, would have been a loss in any com- 
munity; "like Robert CoUyer, he kept a book by his 
anvil and studied as he toiled." Considered as a farmer, 
old Samuel Pumphrey was an example, and I miss him 
greatly. Thomas Marriott was one to be singled out 
amongst his people as an industrious, honest, thriving 
man. Such men are a serious loss to their employers, 
and to their own people who need the encouragement of 
good example. 

During the year just past, the anniversary of two 
Golden Weddings came round, which my senior associate 


refers to in beautiful terms, mentioning that feeble health 
prevented their celebration. 

The parties were Benjamin and Margaret E. Hallowell 
and William H. and Eliza Stabler. She further remarks 
that in the last week of the year '74, " our young friend 
Charlie Kirk met with a very severe accident from the 
horns of an Alderney bull, that cast quite a gloom over our 

Two social events from two extremes of life will close 
the present chapter. On New Year's day, a party came 
off at Stanmore, consisting of twenty guests, whose ages 
averaged 60 years. Whether called the "Old Folks 
Party " or " the Centennial," it was enjoyed with a gusto 
that might compare very favorably with younger gath- 

Again, a few evenings ago, the very juvenile scholars 
of a bright little school taught by Elizabeth Bond, gave 
a series of recitations and tableaux, which excited enthu- 
siastic praises of a numerous audience. In fact our schools 
are still looking up, all bright at Sandy Spring and Stan- 
more; a new duty is imposed upon them to follow the 
fashion now prevailing over the country, and to get up, 
with proper assistance from this whole audience, the 
amusing and improving entertainment, " A Spelling Bee." 



Fro.m Fourth Month, oth, 1875, to Fourth Month, 3d, 1876. 

Cause of grumbling among farmers — Changes going on in Sandy 
Spring — Connection with "The Centennial" — Proposals to 
bring out old china, &c. — Past, present and future — " All's 
"well " if the farm is — Abundance better than scarcity, even if 
low prices seem to equalize them — Paris green is effectual 
against the potato bug — Use of oyster shell continues — A 
Dairy Association instituted — A reporter of the Sun appears at 
"The Farmers' Convention" — The wells continue dry — 
Pairing oi the societies — Centennial Debating Society — Lec- 
tures fi'uitful, on London and on "Injustice" — Horticul- 
tural Fair — A blind performer well supported — Other per- 
formers were M. D. Conway, Francis Miller and Dr. J. Wilson 
Magruder — People more reckless about fires — Sandy Spring 
Railroad, " a sure thing " — The historian takes to moralizmg 
— The three brothers — The deaths exceed aggregate of births 
and maiTiages — Marcus Nutting api)ear3 on the scene. 

The 13th annual return of the day on which we open 
this book of history finds the neighborhood " with little 
to complain of, and much to be thankful for." This is 
said, notwithstanding the unusual prevalence of influ- 
enza and other catarrhal diseases, which have in some 
cases been quite severe; also without meaning to intimate 
that our fai'ming community has given up its time- 
honored privileges (which truly were more honored in the 
breach than the observance) of complaining and grumb- 
ling. Having taken some pains to ascertain the origin of 
this chronic disposition of our fraternity, otherwise so 
sensible, I find it is because we are more than any other 
class of people brought into direct connection with a 
greater variety of things that will not go just the way 
which we would have them to go. Our prosperity is 


dependent at every turn upon an infinite number of 
variable circumstances ; especially on that most conspicu- 
ous one, the weather. We can do nothing to change it, 
and we can not blame ourselves for the injuries that in 
consequence befall ; so we think to take refuge in fretting. 
Now it is indeed a fact that we are touched in more 
tender places than other people ; we are more dependent 
and therefore more helpless. At the same time if we 
would but look at the subject rightly, we might see that 
the continual contact at every point of our business with 
nature and her grand laws, ever varied yet ever the 
same, is the very thing that renders our position the most 
enviable of all upon earth. 

With this merited encomium upon country pursuits 
and country pleasures, which every passing year more 
strongly confirms in my mind, I turn to the survey of the 
one just closed. The general impression left in looking 
over it is one of life and activity. This quality has been 
heretofore claimed as one of the leading characteristics of 
our neighborhood, and I cannot see that it has lost any- 
thing in this trait. It seems to me we have been quite 
active, of course in different degrees, our young people 
especially, as should always be the case. Another im- 
pression of no slight import comes in casting the eye of 
the mind over the neighborhood, viewed as a whole, is that 
fSandy Spring is growing less and less homogeneous. 
"Whether this be for good or whether for ill, it is not 
mine to say," but I am convinced of this fact : in order 
that there be reason and propriety in undertaking to 
sketch the history of a community, it is necessary there 
should exist a considerable degree of similarity among its 
people, besides strong common interests, and decided 
characteristics that distinguish it from other contiguous 


districts. Such, it is belieyed, has been the case with 
our own. General, though not universal agreement in 
the important particulars of religion, politics and social 
customs has marked the community, and set it off as 
possessing that separate individuality which gives a sort 
of distinct existence, admitting of being made the subject 
of real history. Now it is the impression of your his- 
torian, that even within the period of his official super- 
vision, there can be perceived a notable change in several 
of these particulars. In the first place, the family groups 
constituting the community of Sandy Spring have con- 
siderably increased in number, and are more widely sepa- 
rated in space. Xew associations have been formed ; new 
interests developed; in some parts the ties have been 
drawn more closely, in others they have been loosened ; 
while in a conspicuous degree, the dividing lines that 
separated our own from contiguous communities are less 
strongly marked, or even measurably erased ; so that it 
seems not unlikely the time will come, perhaps already 
is, when " Sandy Spring '' shall fail to comprise the com- 
munity to which we have been accustomed to attach the 
name. Let the railroad be once made, and the influences 
tending to change will be so increased that we may 
scarcely know ourselves to be the same people. Perhaps 
we may be better — there is still room for that — richer, 
doubtless, but not quite the same. However, it is going 
beyond my duty as historian to express an opinion as to 
the question whether these changes make us better or 
worse; it suffices to note the fact. While these metamor- 
phoses widen the field of this sketch, they also confuse 
and dim it; thus removing some of the justification of its 
Our narrative, like almost every other proceeding of 


the present year, naturally connects itself with the great 
Centennial Anniversary, so full of historical associa- 
tions of the most interesting character. We are drawn 
to look back to tlie condition of our neighborhood 
at the epoch toward which so many views are now 
strained, and would fain recall the situation one hundred 
years ago. What would we not give for a true picture of 
people and things belonging to that period! So grad- 
ually do the generations of men melt one into another, as 
they come successively up the scene, it is only by taking 
a long retrospect that Ave can realize the wonderful 
change. I can think of nothing that would be so in- 
teresting as a life-like view of the men and women, the 
youths and maidens, the boys and girls of '76 presented 
to us now, unless it were such a view of the future reali- 
ties of 1976. A suggestion has been made to attempt a 
celebration at the Lyceum with the aim of restoring the 
times of '76, in some faint degree, by a collection of old 
china and other such genuine ancient articles belonging 
to the period, of which a few fine specimens still remain, 
chiefly among the Thomas family. By recalling also 
from such sources as are within our reach, stories of inci- 
dents then occurring, with sketches of individuals living 
in the olden time within our region, not omitting old cos- 
tumes and all such. So many persons throughout our 
land are now manifesting an interest in these reminis- 
cences, it must surely be a natural and hot unworthy im- 
pulse that leads to sympathize with them. On the con- 
trary we may readily believe it is our better nature that 
is stirred by reviving the memory of old times, especially 
"the times that tried men's souls," that brought out 
some of the finest characters in history, and created the 
nation to which we belong. We ought to feel grateful 


to those who have interested themselves in this Centen- 
nial work, and be willing to take a little trouble to assist. 
It is all ver}- well to say, '^ Let the dead past bury its 
dead," — " Act, act in the living present," and so on ; these 
ideas are good in their place; but it is also true there is a 
time for all things. The lyresent is not all; it requires 
past, present and future, all three, to fill the mind and 
soul of man and satisfy his infinite cravings. They who 
attend exclusively to either of the three divisions of time, 
lose at least a fraction of life, real life, well worth the 
living. Let the old revive the memories of days gone by, 
and of incidents related by their fathers; and let the 
3^oung listen to the narratives, and extend their scope in 
reading books that tell of the period; it will not be lost 
time, but quite the contrary. It is at least safe to say 
that people can afi'ord to do all this once in a hundred 
years. Those who live at the Bi-Centennial will thank 
us for making a permanent record of what we are doing 
now. Even this history, should it be preserved, may 
afford some amusement to the antiquarian of those future 
days, who shall hunt among the rubbish of the long, long 
ago. How strange are the fancies that cross the mind 
given up to such meditations ! 

It may be safely said that the fellow who is supposed 
in those last lines to have got hold of this 13th Chapter 
will be puzzled to conjecture the subject to which it 
forms the preface. I have never thought it necessary to 
apologize for want of system in the arrangement of these 
sketches ; perhaps the less systematic they are the more 
like the life they are intended to portray. Country life, 
however charming, cannot boast of much system ; in fact 
it would not be hurt by a little more. Still it was always 
designed to start the narrative with an account of what 


the year has done for the agricultural interest; knowing 
if a good exhibit can be made of this department, we can 
adopt the cry "All's well ! " 

The season was marked with more variety than usual. 
While the unprecedentedly large corn crop, due to the 
copious rains of August (8f inches), forms a leading feature 
in the list of productions, the severe drought of May 
and June cut the grass very short and almost destroyed the 
young clover. Wheat came out pretty well on an 
average, taking yield and price both into consideration. 
If the proQts of the potato crop disappointed expectation, 
neither the season nor the bug can be blamed. Over 
production is sometimes as bad for pecuniary results as 
is partial failure. Still abundance is to be preferred to 
scarcity when we take an intelligent view of their effects. 
Although 7i barrels of corn at $4 seems as good as ten 
barrels at $3, every farmer knows that it is not so. As 
regards the potato bug, the bugaboo of '74, though it 
appeared again in June of '75, in large numbers and with 
undiminished voracity, the free use of Paris green is 
found to be so effectual that the ugly little monster is 
viewed comparatively with contempt. It must be due to 
other causes than fear of the bug that the Farmers' Club 
diminished the field of planting from forty-nine acres last 
year and eighty-nine the year before, to thirty acres only 
the coming season. If the course pursued by those pru- 
dent old farmers is assumed as an indication of the action 
in this respect over the whole country, somebody will 
make a good thing of potatoes next fall. 

Among the bountiful products of the season the great 
peach crop must not be forgotten. The growers of this 
most delicious of our fruits suffered from the same dis- 
advantage as the potato planters ; the very abundance of 


production seriously depressed prices ; but that was not 
nearly so bad as a failure of crops. This is about all we 
have to say on the most important subject in which our 
community is concerned ; except that if our farmers are 
**' carrying " as much wheat (to borrow a phrase from our 
brothers of the mercantile profession) as of corn and 
23otatoes, at the date we now are, it is even a little hetter 
with them than merely " ivelV^ As one of my associates 
says, it is pleasant here to notice that two farms in our 
neighborhood have recently been purchased by gentlemen 
from Baltimore, who intend to reside with us at least half 
of each year. This is not only complimentary to our 
agricultural and social advantages, but also a welcome 
acquisition to us in respect of the latter feature at least. 

The younger class, upon whose shoulders have already 
fallen "the burden and heat of the day," appear to have 
sustained their character for enterprise and the spirit 
of improvement, which is a sure pledge that the agricul- 
tural reputation of Sandy Spring neighborhood is in no 
danger of going backward. The use of oyster shell lime 
continues. (It is much to be desired that your historian 
should be able to report the quantity of lime and other 
fertilizers which have been applied during the past year. 
There ought to be another assistant, if this history is 
worthy to be continued.) 

A Dairy Association has been recently instituted that 
indicates the extent to which this important branch of 
agricultural industry has attained in our community. 
The object is so worthy as to entitle the new association 
at once to a distinguished place amongst the neighborhood 
societies that bloom (and bear fruit) in such abundance. 

The Annual Convention of Farmers' Clubs held its 
fourth annual meeting in January, and was successful as 


heretofore in drawing a goodly number of the " bone and 
sinew " class, who manifest a fair degree of interest in its 
proceedings. A new feature in the scene showed that the 
interest extended beyond our boundaries. When the 
President, Henry C. Hallowell, entered the room (and 
here I feel called upon to mention a name closely con- 
nected with this, and that other distinguished institution, 
the Horticultural Fair), he, the president, was agree- 
ably surprised to find a regular reporter of the Baltimore 
Sitny with paper and pencil, on tlie spot. We were also 
again favored with the presence of the editor of the 
American Farmer, which seemed to be a very proper and 
natural part of the proceedings ; but that other evidence 
of fame was something new. Distinguished characters 
must pay the penalty of renown. Well, I reckon ice can 
stand it — if our admirers can ; having had enough of that 
sort of thing to get used to it. 

As my associate observes, the subject of the weather has 
passed into other hands ; still she cannot avoid mentioning 
as a remarkable fact that no thunderstorm occurred in 
May. But July made up for the deficiency; on the 10th 
of that month the lightning struck Ashton store and 
several trees in the neighborhood, cutting up some very 
queer antics, as it often does. It is also a circumstance 
worthy of record here, that while the stress of drought 
ceased after midsummer, so far as the surface of the ground 
was concerned, its effects on the streams and wells con- 
tinued to be felt in places far months afterward. The 
veins of water that supply some of our wells must have 
been lower than at any previous period for forty years. 

It was observed in last year's record that the Grange 
holds a place connecting agricultural and social interests. 
After the experience of another year, I must still view it 


in that light. As it cannot be considered a special insti- 
tution of our neighborhood; and as it has the domestic 
character of reserving its best things for the home circle 
(like all well-regulated families), it is not necessary here 
to devote to this subject the wide sjDace it might otherwise 
justly claim. I am required, however, to state the fact that 
the Grange at Ashton, which belonged peculiarly to Sandy 
Spring, withdrew from that location, translating its truly 
valuable membership to a more ample sphere at Olney. 
The sentinel at the "outer gate" declares that so far 
"All's welL" 

From these friendly borders we come out to dwell with 
undiminished interest upon the rich and ample field occu- 
pied by the various associations with which we are all 
familiar. It is the remark of a wise man, that when a people 
are prosperous, all their affairs proceeding in a healthy and 
satisfactory manner, the history of the country becomes 
barren for want of subjects. I suppose it must be so with 
descriptions of our numerous societies ; all going on pleas- 
antly, harmoniously, improvingly, with nothing special to 
record. Yet I do not like to let them off so, forming as 
they do, the most distinguishing feature of the neighbor- 
hood, without counting them over to see if I have them all. 
For convenience sake, and because it sounds more affection- 
ate, let us pair them thus : 

1. Farmers' Club with 2. Ladies' Association. 

3. Enterprise Club " 4. The Home Interests. 

5. Montgomery Club " 6. The Sociable. 

7. The Horticultural " 8. Dairy Association. 

There were the same number of associations recorded in 
1872, and with the same titles, except that the Dairy has 
taken the place of the Innocents. Shall this be regarded 

a:n'nals of sandy spring. 153 

as evidence of that progress which we all so earnestly and 
above all things desire ? Let ns suppose so. (But a mys- 
terious whisper has reached me, of the rise of still another 
society; its name and purpose have not fully developed. ) 

There remains another and a decidedly meritorious 
association. As we have none topai'7' this with, its mem- 
bers being safely left to attend to that themselves, it is 
proper to describe further. The name was well chosen — 
" Centennial Debating Society." It seems to have adopted 
a judicious plan in selecting as topics for discussion such 
subjects as have a direct and present interest, instead of 
old, unpractical, abstract questions. Having had the 
pleasure of attending their closing meeting for the season, 
I can readily testify that the debate was more than usually 
interesting. Only one public meeting was allowed ; why 
not more? Why not give the ladies opportunities to 
enlighten and improve their minds too ? 

No one can say that the Lyceum has not been well used 
this year. Let us recall some of the work done therein. 
The "Spelling Bee" recommended at the close of last 
year's sketch came off with success a short time afterward. 
The prize was carried off by one of our married ladies who 
happens to reside just now in an adjoining county. About 
a month later (in May), a lecture was delivered for the 
benefit of the Horticultural Society, the subject being 
the " Largest City " and the " Finest Gardens in the 
World." The contribution thus brought to the funds of 
the society was rather meagre ; although the lecture was 
by a member who had recently crossed the seas. 

The next scene at the Lyceum was of more lively charac- 
ter, being a dramatic entertainment given by the " Sociable." 
It is a deserved compliment to say that there was real 
talent developed on that occasion ; and the inquiry arises 


(addressed to the more rigid members of onr society), "For 
what is a faculty given that promotes enjoyment, unless it 
be used ? " 

Passing over the summer montlis, during wliich this 
Hall usually has vacation (although the presence of many 
strangers in the neighborhood would probably secure an 
audience for any species of lively entertainment that our 
young folks might devise, as summer boarders don't want 
anything very solid), we come to the 21st of September, 
the day of the Horticultural Fair, when the Hall puts on 
its gayest aspect, and an audience or band of spectators 
of varied fashion assembles to enjoy and encourage a dis- 
play of rare interest. Much more might be said of this 
institution lately grown up among us, which finds its 
parallel in very few country places, but deserves to be 
cherished with increasing satisfaction. The effort made 
by the president to place the Fair on a broader footing 
was partially successful. So far as related to relieving 
the financial condition, and enlisting a wider circle of 
co-operating officials, the plan was excellent; but your 
historian knows that he has your unanimous voices in 
favor of a protest, absolute and irrepealable, against making 
any change in the presiding officer ; all of us are " third 
termers " in this case, which means an extension to three 
times three. 

The regular winter course of lectures began rather 
later than usual. This was through no omission on the 
part of the President of the Lyceum, who was unwearied 
in his efforts to gratify the somewhat jaded literary taste 
of the Sandy Spring audience, by securing the services 
of distinguished lecturers from abroad. The course was 
opened in December, by a discourse of Dr. John Wilson 
Magruder, who gave a spicy and successful lecture on 


"Injustice." There was a good audience, who highly 
enjoyed his telling hits at the faults of the day, including 
their own. 

On the last evening of the old year and the first of the 
new, a large crowd collected here to view the wild scenery 
of California and the Rocky Mountains, exhibited by 
Jonathan K. Taylor, of Wilmington. People of all ages de- 
light to see pictures, and this display afforded ample 

Two more evening entertainments, also very successful 
in their results, followed in the 2d month of the year, 
consisting chiefly of dramatic recitations ; the blind per- 
former attracted much sympathy and regard from the 
neighborhood, which were evidently reciprocated by 

February 25th, Moncure D. Conway gave us a lecture 
on London, which is too fresh in our recollections to re- 
quire comment. The same may be said of Francis Miller's 
Centennial Address, closing up the course. When we come 
to think over all these demonstrations, we must admit the 
considerable value of the Lyceum. 

Now let us look at some business concerns, of a general 
character of course ; private or individual business belongs 
not to history, but to a special department, sometimes 
confounded with it, called gossij). And what is a better 
index of the general prosperity than that afforded by the 
condition of the Savings Institution ? Measured by this 
criterion, we were never more prosperous. The antici- 
pation expressed in last year's sketch of reaching by 
another year the amount of $50,000 deposits, is more than 
fulfilled ; approaching to $60,000. You will find in the 
Annual Report some details worth reading; they show 
a healthy condition. Since it has been unanimously 


agreed by the Directors to make loans upon the solid 
security of land, up to one-fourth of our deposits, the 
objection heretofore made against our mode of operation, 
as tending to drain all the surplus money away from the 
country to the city, is no longer justified. The Mutual 
Fire Insurance Company, whose headquarters are with 
us, while its operations embrace nearly the whole State, is 
not adding to its ready money, though the actual capital 
is continually swelling, the premium notes now in excess 
of $800,000. Recent experience goes to confirm the un- 
pleasant statement that the general liability to burn, of 
the houses in this State, is greater than formerly. People 
are more reckless. 

There follows an extract from the Baltimore Americari^ 
giving the last and most authentic news about the never- 
to-be-omitted "Sandy Spring Eailroad": "Mr. Keyser 
exhibited a map, showing a line from Hanover on the 
Washington Branch, to the Metropolitan Eoad, which 
would relieve the AVashington Branch entirely of the 
through business. That road would have been built be- 
fore this, but for financial difficulties. It will be about 
twenty-five miles, and cost about $1,000,000. That road 
will yet be — must be — built." 

I always told you that a railroad through Sandy Spring 
was a sure thing — as sure as taxes I 

My associate mentions that we had a large, good Quar- 
terly Meeting, in Sixtli Month last. This item of the 
year's history I'ecalls another of quite sufficient import- 
ance to make it matter of record. A move was made 
toward dropping the Sandy Spring " Preparative Meet- 
ing," as having become rather matter of form than of 
substance. Difficulties were found to be in the way, which 
led to a general agreement not to urge the matter, though 


it can scarcely be said that the convictions of its advocates 
were changed. 

The page which contains a reference to Meeting affairs 
might be considered a proper phice to record delinquencies 
of our young folks (of course old folks don't have any of 
the sort referred to); I mean those excesses of the social 
impulses that lead to turning day into night, or night into 
day, one or both, and the hurtful loss of sleep, or its trans- 
fer from the earlier parts of the night to the earlier parts 
of the day. If this sketch were a moral discourse, instead 
of a History, I should feel just like Franklin, when his 
graceless nephew desired to write a promissory note ac- 
knowledging a loan: the wise old man said: "You have 
the money, but don't waste paper." Your historian is 
differently situated ; he has nothing to do with reforming 
people — his business is to record facts of sufficient import- 
ance ; and one of these facts is, that the delinquency afore- 
said has increased, is increasing, and ought — but it is 
not my province to dictate what any person ought to do. 
Still a historian, while bound to relate facts that may 
affect the manners and morals of the community which 
he describes, may indulge himself in an ejaculation such 
as this : " How soon will our young people discover that 
their own homes have social claims on their leisure mo- 
ments, and that * evenings at home ' might often be 
made as pleasant as in any other place ? " Of course they 
all expect to find it so, with the proper companion. But 
ah ! it seems to require preparation and use to know how 
rightly to enjoy the home. If the bee did not learn to 
make honey in the parental hive, before swarming, he 
would fail in the new one, had he ever so fine a queen ; 
mayhap there would be little honey, but plenty of stings. 

This last allusion (to the honey, of course) naturally 


brings us to the record of marriages for the year. This 
department is brief, but oh, how niucli can be told in one 
short line I 

Married, 10th Month, ?th, 1875, Annie Miller to Joseph 
M. Shoemaker, of Philadelphia. When these strangers 
(be they ever so nice) come and take away our girls, it is 
some satisfaction to place her name Mrst, as being that 
with which we are most concerned. 

This i:)ortion of our record being small the present year, 
there is some satisfaction in referring to an associated an- 
niversary, always interesting, — the Golden Wedding in 
August last, of Caleb and Ann Stabler, grandparents of 
the bride just named. Although at the request of the 
parties there was no celebration of the event, yet none the 
less did many an affectionate pra3'er go up from ntimerous 
friends, that their remaining days may be lit up with 
golden reflections from the memories of their well -spent 
lives. The last month of the year saw their old homestead 
broken up, but not their home. 

Close in the same neighborhood another anniversary 
took place, the Tin Wedding of Asa and Albina Stabler. 

Being "short'' on this marriage stock, it is proper to 
make much out of little. Tin Weddings are not much ; 
but while discoursing of the historic subject, it is proper 
to record the remarkable circumstance that the three 
brothers Stabler — Edw^ard, Caleb, and Henry — should 
have passed the 50th anniversary of their marriage w ithin 
less than two years of each other ; making, with Benjamin 
llallowell's, four such anniversaries, all in the same neigh- 

My associate writes, that in order to repair an omission 
made last year, she desires me to record the marriage of 
G. W. C. Beall and Mary Palmer. 


Births in the neighborhood during the year, 3 boys 
and 1 girl. 

The next and last part of our record for the year shows a 
result altogether unprecedented in our Annals ; the number 
of deaths exceeding the aggregate of births and marriages. 
It is with pain I proceed to the narrative ; pain softened 
by the sympathy of many hearts present. 

It is proper that I should use the pens of my associates, 
instead of indulging too far the expression of my own 
feelings in the delineation of persons so near and dear to 
myself individually, though better known to none than 
to me. 

At Falling Green, Fourth Month, 18th, 1875, Mary B. 
Brooke, just two months after a pleasant gathering of near 
relatives at her residence, to celebrate her seventy-seventh 
birthday; loved and respected by all who knew her, she 
possessed a character in which rare intelligence and sweet- 
ness were combined. 

Two weeks afterwards, at Rockland, Fifth Month, 1st, 
Margaret E. Hallowell, wife of Benjamin Hallowell (and 
sister of the writer), closed a long, useful and precious life, 
wanting a few months of seventy-seven years. She was 
married in the same year as the preceding cousin : they 
were close friends in their youth, womanhood and old 
age ; their remains rest side by side in the " old kirkyard." 

Fourth Month, 23d, Joseph Scott, an aged uncle of 
Caroline B. Scott, died at her house, and was buried at 
the Meeting House. Known, as I believe, to few, no harm 
was ever said of him. 

Eleventh Month, 22d, Samuel Thomas, son of Edward, 
died after a very long and suffering illness. " He has no 
doubt entered the beautiful land where the weary are at 
rest." His custom of friendly salutation with the warm 
pressure of his hand remains still in my memory. 


" An empty cradle," my associate says, " stands for the 
next record." A page of the last chapter, written a year 
ago, mentions that " in the blooming month of May, the 
extreme southwestern verge of our neighborhood was 
gladdened by the arrival of a boy, to whom was given the 
name of Robert M. Farquhar." His little frame of more 
than ordinary beauty was struck within a few months by 
a strange disease. Being carried in the hope of relief to 
Lakeside, Baltimore county, he died there on the 20th 
day of the Tenth Month, and was returned to his parents' 

My young friend adds these lines from George Herbert : 

" It is not growing like a tree 
In bulk, doth make man better l^e ; 
Or standing long an oak, 

Three hundred year, 
To fall a log, at last. 

Dry, bald, and sere : 
The lily of a day 
Is fairer far than they ; 
Although it fall and die that night, 
It was the plant and flower of Light." 

Second Month, 21st, 1876, Aunt Sally Gilpin died, aged 
ninety-five years and eight months. This is probably the 
greatest age ever reached in this neighborhood. While 
she lived, five generations subsisted at one time among us. 

These six deaths are all that properly can be said to 
belong to our neighborhood. Yet it would seem unnatural 
to omit the mention of the death of Benjamin P. Moore at 
Fallston, Harford county, on the 25th, Fourth Month, in 
his eighty-fourth year, so numerous are his relatives 
and friends here, who highly esteemed the man that filled 
the measure of a Christian gentleman. 


It is also proper to notice the burial, Fourth Month, 10th, 
of Mortimer Osborn, whose dying request was ful- 
filled, that he might be brought to Sandy Spring to be 

I close with decidedly the most startling and sensa- 
tional event of the year. This was the sudden appearance 
of a person professing to be one Marcus Nutting, Avell 
known in the western border of our neighborhood, who 
left his family twenty-seven years ago, and was universally 
supposed to be dead ; but now returns to claim valuable 
property, sold by his family years ago in order to provide 
subsistence, and greatly improved by other hands. He 
Avould fain reap where he did not sow. Perhaps it is 
lawful to hope it will turn out a Tichborne case. 


From Fourth Month, 8d, 1876, to Fourth Month, 2d, 1877. 

Ancient recollections — Questions touching the future — Animated 
pursuit in agricultural improvements — Various products of the 
crops — How hay should go to market — Of the potato predic- 
tion — Peculiarities of the weather — Improvements of mills — 
Railroads very slightly referred to — Sandy Spring at the 
Centennial — The tramps and murderer ; how the latter was 
caught — Discussions of the Presidential election — The beacon 
lights of true progress — Monkey and hand organ — Defence of 
the Lyceum — Science invites more attention, as comprising all 
that is worth knowing, all that there is to know — Triumph of the 
elder Farmers' Club at Annual Convention — Sleighing and 
Burns — List of visitors to the Centennial. 

I preface the narrative of the present year by reading a 
historical sketch of our neighborhood, referring to a period 


considerably further back than any hitherto described in 
these pages. (See Appendix.) 

According to the recollections of this ancient chroni- 
cler, it would appear that Sandy Spring had its attractions 
and its notabilities, even so long ago as the beginning of the 
present century ; that there were men and women here of 
worth and character, even before we came on the stage of 
action, and pointing to hopeful grounds for believing 
that "wisdom will not die with us." In reminiscences 
such as these, and the prospects they suggest, lie the 
interest and value of history. 

A distinguished living writer, whose profound work on 
the " Intellectual Development of Europe " has lately been 
added to our Library, strongly advocates the doctrine that 
every institution, community and nation, large or small, 
has, like the individual, its beginning, growth, maturity, 
decline and extinction. I am not quite satisfied with the 
evidences which Mr. Draper gives of his theory ; but if it 
is indeed an inexorable law of nature, then shall we also 
have to contemplate the fate of our neighborhood as some- 
thing inevitable. We may, however, derive some comfort 
from the reflection, that the modern scientific prophets are 
by no means stingy in the length of time they allot to 
periods past and to come. With a lavish hand they give 
us years, centuries, aeons, as necessary to bring about the 
changes that have occurred, as well as those which they 
predict. The sun himself, scientifically as well as practi- 
cally speaking, " is but a spark of fire, a transient meteor 
in the sky"; containing the elements of his own inevi- 
table dissolution, he must pass away into other forms — 
but not very soon; he will, by the lowest calculation, 
endure for several millions of years yet. So, as is written 
in another valuable book, a precious old treasure which 


is also just added to onr Library by its liberal-minded 
Directresses, so 

" It must come, the day decreed by fates, — 
How my heart trembles while my tongue relates ! — 
The day, when thou, imperial land, must bend. 
Must see thy heroes fall, thy glories end ! " 

Even so, doubtless, will it be with Sandy Spring. 

Without giving way to melancholy emotions, it is 
interesting, and quite pertinent to the present occasion, to 
ask which of the three possible stages of existence we may 
have reached : is it growth, maturity, or decline ? What 
answer does the history of the last year give to the 
momentous query? 

Taking a fair retrospect, we find the tokens of more 
than usual activity and movement, such as might be looked 
for in the Nation's Centennial Year. It is also unde- 
niable that activity is life ; though it is well to remark 
that in estimating permanent effects, it makes a material 
difference luliat direction the movement takes, and whether 
it has been such as to advance the more important, per- 
manent and higher interests. 

x\s before observed, the material interests of this neigh- 
borhood are essentially agricultural; and taking the con- 
dition of our agriculture as the criterion, I see no reason 
to doubt that the general result shows progress. This is 
especially visible in certain departments of farming in- 
dustry; perhaps more in the dairy business than in any 
other. Whether we consider the Dairy Association as 
cause or effect of the recent animated pursuit (and it may 
be justly regarded as both), it has certainly been the means 
of diffusing information in a wider circle, of the success at- 
tained by those among us who have devoted a larger 


portion of time and labor to this interesting branch of rural 
industry. So wide is the renown already acquired by this 
Association, that its proceedings have been noticed in that 
other " Hub," away in Boston ! Of course this is all right. 
Harmony requires the two hubs to make correspondhig 

In regard to old staples of the farmer, you may recollect 
that the returns of crops made at the Annual Convention 
in the 1st month showed that there was no falling off in 
aggregate product. The wheat crop rather exceeded the 
general average, being a little over 20 bushels per acre. 
Corn was not so good as in the previous year, which was 
exceptionally bountiful. Some grumbling there was — 
not without cause — about the low price of hay ; yet when we 
consider the immense amount produced, and that the 
profits are mainly derived from sales to town horses, and a 
limited number of town cows, it is not surprising that 
prices fall below the former exceptional figures. There 
would be small hope of better times in this respect if 
farmers could not look to any other uses of their corn and 
hay. Set before your mind's eye, in one heap, the huge 
production of corn and hay in this country, and on the 
other side the chance of selling the whole surplus to feed 
city cows and horses, and the view is despairing. Fortu- 
nately, however, the field is widened materially — in the 
case of corn, by a foreign demand lately springing up, and 
in the case of hay, by the well-established fact that for 
the best present and future profit the hay " should go to 
market on its own legs," or else in tin-cans and the butter- 
box ; in short, should be made to feed man instead of 
heast. He will always pay better for his own personal 
gratification than that of his animals. 

In regard to the once great staple of potatoes, I must 


revive your recollection of something that was said on the 
subject in the sketch read a year ago. It was to this 
effect : that " somebody who was not deterred by bugs and 
low prices from planting a full crop, would probably 
make a good thing of it the coming season," and, as you 
are now aware, somebody did that very thing; though 
fewer than was desired. Now here was a fulfilment of 
" historical prophecy " worthy of your observation, and of 
your attention to future predictions. But why speak of 
this proof of my successful predictions ? Is it not always 
the case that " a prophet shall have honor, save in his own 
country " ? 

It was customary in former chapters to describe in con- 
nection with agricultural affairs, the weather, on which 
they are so dependent. Now since you have a meteorologist 
of your own who comes before you with his report, sanc- 
tioned by the National Signal Service Bureau, these pages 
may be spared from the usual weather observations, except 
those of the Assistant Historian ; she remarks that thun- 
derstorms were unusually prevalent and severe in the 5th 
month ; also that the heat of the 7th month was excessive, 
and the cold of the 12th unexampled; while the sleighing 
consequent on the steady severity of the first two winter 
months lasted continuously for forty- four days. 

In reference to business concerns, other than agricultu- 
ral, it is proper to mention the subject of the neighborhood 
mills, and the improvements effected during the year in 
these important structures. On the Patuxent, an old mill 
lias been refitted, and operated by the hands of two enter- 
prising young men of the Lea family, with a vigor and 
energy deserving success. In the central part of the 
neighborhood, the steam mill of B. Rush Roberts, which 
has been of such great benefit to the public, meriting re- 


cord in our history as an institution of which we may well 
be proud, has also been revised and improved. If it should 
ever be suffered to stop, we would complain more of the 
privation than we manifested gratitude at the establish- 
ment: such is mankind. 

There remains still another mill, a greater novelty than 
either of the others. A turbine wheel was fixed up — I 
might almost say constructed — by Charles F. Brooke, 
whose inventive enterprise was, doubtless, sharpened by 
that trip to the far West mentioned in a former chapter. 
The wheel strikes us as being a queer little fellow, whose 
effective power is another proof of the old saying, that 
strength is not always in proportion to size; that "cun- 
ning is better than strong." 

Another evidence, in the way of business prosperity, 
that Sandy Spring is not ready for its Gibbon, is afforded 
by the continued, gi'adual growth of the " Savings Institu- 
tion," whose deposits (though its most active founder, J. T. 
Moore, tells me I must not call them "deposits," but "its 
total funds on hand,") have risen in the year from $60,000 
to $70,000. It is a gi-atifying feature of our Institution, 
that a considerable portion of this fund remains in the 
county to push on the wheels of progress. 

Under the head of material improvements would prop- 
erly come a statement of the condition and prospects of 
the railroad, which has been spoken of several times be- 
fore, and which shall continue to constitute one of the 
subjects of this history so long as the present writer holds 
the pen. This is about all that he has to say at this time. 
Better luck next time. 

It is well remarked by my Associate that the events of the 
year, as far as they are matter of record, are all summed 
up, and nearly all swallowed up in one comprehensive 


word, " The Centennial." It will be of interest to state 
the number and names of those who went from Sandy 
Spring, — the person who did not go became a curiosity, 
l^eginning in the 5th month, at the very opening, the 
stream of visitors from our neighborhood kept up the flow 
through the whole season. Some of these, on the 10th of 
May, saw the great Corliss engine set in motion by the 
President and the Emperor, and looked, Noyember 10th, 
upon the last revolution of the immense wheel, slowly, 
slowly dying away! In many cases the visits were re- 
peated a second and a third time ; and who is there that 
regrets having gone ? whose brain was not enlarged and 
lilled with pictures and ideas that will be a treasure while 
life remains? The information imparted to the mind, 
and the life and energy given to the spirit, by one of the 
greatest of human achievements, are full of compensation 
to the individual and to the nations for all it cost. Per- 
liaps the comparative degree of attendance on the Centen- 
nial by different country neighborhoods is a fair criterion 
of their intelligence and progress. 

The event which we are next bound to record is of very 
different character. In common v/ith most other rural 
communities, we have been pedered by the invasion of 
tramps, in unusual numbers. While Ave are obliged by 
our reason and better feelings to make some allowance for 
a throng of disagreeable visitors, of whom many come 
because they have no place in the wide earth to go, since 
the depression in business has closed the avenues of in- 
dustry, their coming among us is none the less unwelcome 
on that account. But there were some who came to hide 
themselves from the avengers of their crime. Two of 
these, guilty of atrocious murder, dropped last summer 
into our midst and went to work in ditching for some 


weeks, without giving the least suspicion for some time of 
the horrid characters we were harboring in our kitchens 
and tenant-houses. Then Sandy Spring store was broken 
open and robbed. Other burglaries followed; but the 
avenger was on their track. He came ; and with assist- 
ance freely and efficiently rendered, secured the culprits. 
The capture required no little contrivance to plan and 
courage to e:iecute. 

It is only the truth to say that great credit is due to 
those whose courage and contrivance delivered our com- 
munity from dangers certainly to be apprehended from 
the presence of such miscreants. And it is great satis- 
faction to have this proof that Sandy Spring is not a safe 
place for men of that character. Neither is it the first 
time she has showed that she nourishes within her quiet 
borders the spirit called for by the occasion. Of course 
we are a peaceful people ; but still we would rather keep 
with us the sort of young men who have the spirit which 
the occasion calls for. This is very useful sometimes, and 
not really un-Quakerlike. 

Another important event of the year remains to be re- 
ferred to ; I allude to the Presidential election of 1876. 
This event is rendered conspicuous in our annals, chiefly 
by the circumstance that it produced a division in political 
sentiment, such as, I suppose, has never before occurred 
among us. Yet there is not much harm apparent from 
it so far; the disputes have been lively, without being 
violent, I think. And then — may I not say ? — " there is 
a little bird in the air " that sings of a coming lull in the 
waves of party strife. 

Now having disposed of mere events and material con- 
cerns, let us turn to those beacon -lights of true progi-ess 
shining forth from our intellectual, moral, aesthetic and 


industrial associations (for we have them all). Let us 
begin with the Lyceum as the central point for developing 
literary and scientific progress. Should the gains there- 
from seem small, the deficiencies cannot be imputed to 
the president and directors. There have been lectures 
and exhibitions of various sorts and of different qualities; 
the attendance has been large at times, at other times 
small ; with this unfortunate circumstance that some of 
the best lectures ever delivered here have had a meagre 
audience, while throngs have come to see and hear those 
which professed only to offer entertainment. 

Such preference palpably paid to passing pleasure drew 
from one of the fathers and steady friends of the Lyceum 
the caustic censure that "a monkey and hand-organ 
would soon be the only sort of attraction sufficient to fill 
this hall." Too severe this, perhaps, but like all honest 
severity, much more wholesome than flattery. It is proper, 
however, to acknowledge that our people are not peculiar 
in preferring entertainment to instruction. Why do they 
come, if not to be entertained ? Still the fact remains, 
that it is best of all to give each demand and faculty of 
our nature its proper place. A laugh is good; something 
to feed the mind with thoughts that inform and elevate 
is better; and, in the end, higher and more enduring 
pleasure will come of the latter. A proper mixture of 
instruction and entertainmeilt is what this Lyceum was 
built for ; and if your historian is not mistaken in appre- 
hending that a disproportionate place is being given to the 
comic and the droll, this is the right time and place to 
sound the alarm. Instead of continuing the process of 
scolding, to which there are always great objections to be 
made, let me recommend that our young people shall take 
up a course that may lead to solid acquisitions worthy of 


their character for intelligence, and the times they live in. 
Let them form an association for the promotion of science, 
art, and the study of history. Books alone will not answer. 
A society is wanted to cultivate that acquaintance with the 
history of past times, without which no solid judgment 
can be formed of the present. Such knowledge is abso- 
lutely necessary in order to correct the raw, crude notions 
formed of passing events, from prejudices instilled by the 
passions and excitements of the parties of the day. An 
association for the promotion of science among us — 
science, that queen in the realm of mind whose power goes 
on more and more rapidly dispersing old clouds of dark- 
ness, and bringing the light that shows the true nature and 
meaning of all created things, from starry universes down 
to the microscopic germs floating in the invisible air and 
bringing the seeds of pestilence and death — science, which 
as now being investigated and utilized, comprehends simply 
all that is worth knowing — all there is to know. 

Lately while groping in that mine of wisdom, the Life 
of Benjamin Franklin, I was impressed with this idea of 
a new association such as I have just mentioned, and from 
his success in getting up a similar society in Philadel- 
phia, which has grown to be one of the most illustrious 
in the country, I drew the conviction that such a man, 
Avith the material he could find in this neighborhood, 
might organize an association that would overtop all others 
in usefulness and intellectual benefits. 

Alas! we have no Benjamin Franklin. We shall have 
to Avait until the hunger for knowledge — " the longing to 
know " — shall become so strong as to be irresistible. 

In the meantime the various associations which we at 
present possess are going on in their quiet way, doing their 
accustomed work ; a part of which doubtless is '• to spread 


peace and good will amongst men." Notwithstanding the 
eulogy just passed upon science, this tendency of the 
various societies kept alive so long among us is even 
better. Science is wholly an affair of the intellectual part ; 
the other — the emotional part — the feelings, constituting 
at least three-fourths of our being, and a still larger pro- 
portion of our happiness, is consequently of greater im- 
portance. All of our varied societies, in different degrees, 
while promoting the culture of the intellect, have served 
also to animate and keep alive the principles upon which 
society mainly depends. 

My loose sheets, like the evening hour, are running out 
so rapidly that I have not time or space to describe more 
particularly the meetings of the Societies, further than to 
say, in the language of the Discipline, "I believe they 
were all held, and attended by most of the members." 
Also to notice the pleasing arrangement by which they 
succeed one another. Last week the Debating Society (of 
Centennial origin, which has not only kept up well, but 
has developed new and growing talent), held its last 
meeting for the season ; while the Horticultural, which 
slumbers through the winter, along with the flowers it 
cherishes, blooms again into life to-morrow evening, in 
that respect rather anticipating the birth of its sweet chil- 
dren. The Sociable too, in which no decline is admitted 
by its faithful members, soon comes to its annual pause. 
The Clubs engaged in agricultural pursuits have all been 
faithful to their duty, the elder of the three maintaining 
its place at the head of the column. At least this claim 
appeared to be supported by the comparative exhibit of 
pvincipal crops made at the Annual Convention. The 
"Farmers' Club" excelled in the return of wheat, corn 
and hogs; not descending to compete in respect of pota- 


toes, dairy products and other small matters, in which the 
other tAvo went far ahead. Indeed, the original Society ac- 
knowledges, and wath entire satisfaction, the greater enter- 
prise of the parties animated by younger blood, being well 
pleased to see our improvements carried on and exceeded 
by those who must naturally take our place. No earthly 
prospect could be so gratifying as the assurance that our 
sons shall make as great improyement in the next thirty 
years as we have done in the last. 

Howeyer it may be that the elder class of our farmers 
have still done their proper part in their respective fields 
of active usefulness through the summer season, they can 
show few results for the past winter — a season which ap- 
peared to exist almost solely for the use of the young. 
Sleighing of nearly seven weeks' duration kept up and in- 
creased the whirl into which the Centennial had plunged 
the youthful mind. Louder and louder swelled the cry — 

" Then top and maintop crowd the sail — 
Heave Care o'ei-side ! 
And large, before Enjoyment's gale, 
Let's tak' the tide I 

" Oh ! Life — how pleasant is thy morning ! 
Young Fancy's rays the hills adorning, 
Cold, pausing Caution's lessons scorning, 

We frisk away, 
Like schoolboys at the expected warning 

To joy and play. 

" We wander there, we wander here, 
We eye the rose upon the brier. 
Unmindful that the thorn is near 

Among the leaves ; 
Although the puny wound appear. 

Short while it grieves." 


An observant yonng lady declared with meaning signi- 
ficance, " If that sleighing had lasted a little longer, some- 
thing dreadful would have happened ! " Perhaps she re- 
ferred to the-used np condition of the horses, or the health 
of the yonng, or patience of the old. The sleighing cer- 
tainly lasted long enough to become historical. 

And yet the year has but one wedding to commemorate. 
Eleventh month, 16th, 1876, John Thomas to Kate 
Vickers of Baltimore. Here we gain a sister without 
losing a brother. Only one this time, but just wait till 
next year ! 

In the field of pleasure, as in the field of labor, the old 
and the young occupy a different and contrasted place, 
but our next leaf unites both, — all ages, withont distinc- 
tion, in the grave. No difference, no separation, there ! 

5th month, 8th, 1876, the remains of Anna Stabler were 
brought from Philadelphia and laid in Leawood Ceme- 
tery. The deceased deserves more than a passing mention. 
Her energy in the performance of duty was remarkable 
through life, and the conscientious care which she took of 
her motherless nieces and nephews will long be gratefully 
remembered by them. Among her active enterprises 
the cause of education obtained the most earnest efforts ; 
and while engaged in the labors of a boarding school, it is 
worthy of memorizing that the first stage run from this 
neighborhood to Laurel was started by her about the year 
184 — . It made weekly trips, and was justly acknowl- 
edged to be a great accommodation. In the latter part of 
her life her health gave way and her mind was clouded. 

7th month, 18th, Howard Stabler, after a sad and dis- 
tressing disease, died before reaching the middle point of 

8th month, 5th, Samuel Miller, of Alexandria, died at 


the house of liis nephew, Warwick P. Miller, and was 
buried in the stone-walled enclosure of his family burying 
ground. In a quiet way he had led an active life for 
more than the full span of man; his friends many, his 
enemies few or none. 

9th month, 2d, Caroline B. Scott's mother died at her 
house, after a short illness, having come to live with her 

10th month, 29th, Harriet Iddings departed this life at 
a very advanced age, surrounded by all her children. A 
blameless life and conscience void of offence were hers. 
The first obituary record of this history is of the death of 
her husband. 

12th month, 27th, Anna Holland passed away very sud- 
denly, to the spirit land. Her death was a great shock to 
her family and friends. 

2d month, 20th, 1877, "The dear little infant," its 
grandmother writes, " closed its eyes in dreamless sleep, 
at Xorwood, after a few hours' illness." 

Second month, 21st, 1877. The same pen writes, 
"Deborah Paxson, sister of Charles Iddings, died at his 
house, struck down in a few days by a strange, severe ill- 
ness. She had lived with her husband many years in 
California, and they were spending the winter at Eiverside. 
She was a very lovely and attractive woman, and much 
respected by all who knew her, following her aged mother 
after a short interval to the same spirit land," — the 
" Beautiful Land " (friend Moore well expresses it), for she 
was certainly one of those who mahe this earth heautiful, 
even when lying wrapt in her shroud, strewn with white 
flowers, fit emblems of the purity and loveliness of the 
form they covered and the soul gone up to heaven. 

Third month, 21st, at Oak Grove, Hannah Birdsall,in the 


seventy-fourth year of her age. The present writer remem- 
bers forty-five years ago, when first he began to be interested 
in looking at such groups of human beings, that the three 
sisters Sarah, Hannah, and Lydia resided at Mount Airy, 
assisting in dispensing the known hospitality of their 
father, Bernard Gilpin. The sisters, as is the destiny of 
women, were widely separated for many years ; Hannah 
returned to her old neighborhood and the society of her 
elder sister, sharing with her the dutiful attentions and 
tender cares of near relatives and friends. 

The number of deaths this year is unusually large ; of 
whom seven only belong to the statistical record of this 
neighborhood. Number of births, 8. 

Some miscellaneous contributions from one of my associ- 
ates are very properly annexed to the foregoing, as per- 
taining to the annals of the Centennial year. 

On alternate First-Day evenings, meetings are now held 
in rotation at the houses of several friends, and attended 
by a large and appreciative class, coming to listen to Bible 
readings and expositions, chiefly by Edward J. Farquhar. 
This outcome of the First-Day school appears to have 
been kept up with a spirit and interest characteristic of a 
revival. Collections are being made for repairs to the 
Meeting House, not before they are wanted. 

We conclude with a list of persons visiting the " Cen- 
tennial " from our neighborhood, prepared by Mary B. 
Thomas. Of these visiting friends the Stabler family fur- 
nished 36; the Miller, 18 ; Hallowell, 15 ; Thomas, 15; 
the Brooke family, 14 ; Moore, 13 ; Farquhar, 12 ; Lea, 
11; Gilpin, 10; Bond, 9; Schofield, 7; Bentley, 7; Kirk, 
6 ; Janney, 5 ; Iddings, 5 ; Elljcott, 4 ; Eoberts, Porter, 
Hopkins, Stone, Scott, Chandlee, Hall, Holland, each 2; 
Magruder, Snowden, Hartshorne, each 3 ; Leggett, Jack- 


son, Taylor, each 1 ; comprising in all, 215 ; with many 
colored persons. 

Enthusiasts consider this a record of honor. 


From Fourth Month, 2d, 1877, to Fourth Month, 1st, 1878. 

Progress of the History — The story of the world — Repairs of the 
Meeting House — Its great influence — Increase in wheat crop 

— " Dear Old Fogy " — Favors of the season — Former remark- 
able seasons — Our Bank — Telephone instead of telegraph — 
Steam at Brooke Grove Mill — Improved roads — Immigration 
of Baltimoreans — " Human degradation ' ' — First step to co- 
operation — Fifth Month Quarterly Meeting — The Book Club 

— Improvements in schools — The Lyceum again — Agricul- 
tural College — Preachers — Sweet marriage ceremonies — Char- 
acter of the obituaries in this History. 

The suggestion made by Francis Miller at our Annual 
Meeting fifteen years ago, that a "Historian should be 
appointed to make a record of neighborhood events," 
seemed at the time to some of us a mere fancy; but it 
was regularly carried out, the yearly record growing by 
degrees, from nine pages up to twenty ; sometimes written 
on loose, detached leaves, and never in a condition adapted 
for preservation. Several members of the Lyceum, among 
whom B. Gilpin Stabler is remembered as most active, 
became dissatisfied with the situation ; and it was resolved a 
year ago that these sketches contained matters of permanent 
interest to the families of Sandy Spring neighborhood. In 
accordance with that resolution, a handsome and durable 
bound volume has been procured from Cushings & Bailey, 
containing 400 pages, of which the previous sketches occupy 


just 200, leaving the same number to be filled with future 
history. The back and sides of the book, which is now 
your property, bear the inscription, suggested by H. C. 
Hallowell, in letters of gold, " Annals of Sandy Spring." 

Thus raised to new dignity, the work of your historian 
demands increased care and pains. Just consider the 
situation ! it is-certainly a novel one. The writer has now 
to address an audience, many of whom in the early days 
of the History were too young to understand the signifi- 
cance of the word. They have grown up under the influ- 
ences of a period fuller of change than any other since the 
world began : new views of life, its objects and pursuits, 
and especially of its pleasures, are naturally theirs ; while 
the lessons of experience which comprise the chief prac- 
tical benefits of history, are less likely than ever to secure 
their proper authority in the youthful mind. When told 
as it might be, and sometimes is, history is by no means 
wanting in entertainment, which, however, is never its 
chief purpose; and those who take it up with such view 
are very apt soon to lay it down. " I don't want to study 
history," said a bright boy of ten years old to his aged 
parent; "tell me about the things that happened when 
you were young ! " " All right," replied the father, " that 
will he History ; the most important and interesting events 
of common life make up the best part of that grand study ; 
the best and most instructive." I will close this preface 
with a short, solemn extract : 

" The story of the world has yet to be Avritten. Pray 
you that have children, not that they be strong, or clever, 
or comely, or ambitious, or wealthy ; but that they have 
sense to know how to live !" 

This is the science of sciences ; all studies should be 
auxiliary to that. 


The first eyent noted in the minutes kept by the his- 
torian refers to the central point of the neighborhood and 
to the repairs made there. The roof of the meeting 
house, which had slieltered it for sixty years, was replaced 
with new shingles, and the ceiling of the interior made 
sound and safe with fresh plastering where required in 
consequence of injury sustained from the leaky roof. 
Who of those here present will see that the next roof 
is put on in proper time? The moral of this event 
seems to be — and you all know your historian is nothing 
if not allowed to moralize — that we who sit reflecting 
below that roof may remind ourselves that things which 
are old are not always venerable. 

As was stated, this year's narrative begins at the centre ; 
yes — for it is simply a historical fact that yon building, 
now of brick, formerly of timber, is originally and 
essentially the central point of this peculiar neighbor- 
hood. Without it — I mean without the influences which 
erected and sustained it, and which have been sustained 
by the administration of its proper office— there would 
have been, doubtless, a community in this part of Mont- 
gomery County, but one different from this. Sandy 
Spring, with the peculiar features that mark its char- 
acter, would never have existed. The efforts and 
sacrifices made to advance toward a higher life, an im- 
provement infinitely more valuable than houses and land, 
are due to the high social, moral and religious principles 
of the founders. Whatsoever advantages are now possessed 
were built upon that only sure foundation ; and whatso- 
ever hope can be justly entertained of their continuance 
and progress depends upon the degree in which those 
principles shall be substantially maintained. PrinrAples, 
I say, not forms that necessarily vary with the passing 


years ; changes in them are essential to growth, and there- 
fore to life; but life and growth depend upon the sound 

It is proper to mention, as connected with the Meeting 
House, the purchase for a hundred dollars of a piece of 
land adjoining it. Our careful managers have shown a 
proper foresight in this matter, and our people were 
reasonably quick to respond with the necessary supply of 
funds — being more prompt than in the case of the roof. 
Thus one improvement suggests another; it is only 
necessary to make a good beginning. 

It is usual to make early reference to the experience of 
the past year in regard to farming operations, as being the 
chief interest of a material character. Beyond question 
that interest centred this year on wheat. It began a 
year ago. A mischievous speculation took the price up 
last April above the point where it could be sustained. A 
few profited by it, while the chief mischief was stored 
away in the farmers' minds by inducing very many to 
decline a fair price in the fall, hoping that a rise would 
occur again this spring. At the present writing the 
appearance of such good fortune is not near so bright as 
the appearance of the growing wheat and the almost un- 
precedented show which it makes for a good crop. Owing 
to early sowing, and the wonderful mildness of the season 
(up to a very recent date), we have now in the wheat 
fields a growth of stem and leaf which may, perhaps, be 
considered superfluous. It looks very beautiful now ; 
whether the harvest shall be in proportion must be left to 
the next chapter to relate. Experience is said to be 
against it; but experience is sometimes an old fogy — 
though, in the long run, a very dear old fogy. For some 
reason which has not been satisfactorily assigned, the 


wheat crop of last year was large in almost all parts of 
the country ; the same may be said of most other crops, 
the single failure being in apples. And notwithstanding 
some disappointments in the matter of price, the agri- 
cultural outlook has been, and is, brighter than usual. 
Health generally good — weather never finer — and spirits 
(if you look at the younger and more numerous class) 
higher than ever before in this part of the world. This 
fact is the more remarkable as there was no sleighing to 
speak of; a merciful dispensation, doubtless, for the pre- 
servation of health and horses. 

Although the subject of weather has been fully treated 
statistically, it may be interesting to record that the season 
is a very forward one, and to make some comparison with 
former seasons, I copy here a few records from my diary 
of the year 1842. 

" January 1st. We have had by far the finest weather 
through this month that I ever knew. February 28th. 
I must repeat of the winter just gone, that never in my 
recollection have we been favored with so much fine 
weather. March 3d. A most beautiful Spring day ; the 
robins sing lively ; grass getting quite green ; lilacs show- 
ing considerable leaf. March 4th. Thermometer nearly 
80°. March 10th. A little peach tree in front yard, 
with south exposure, has full bloom on it. Apricot is in 
bloom. March 20th. Damson and cherry come out very 
full. Anemone in bloom. For nearly a week in the 
early part of this (March) month we sat without fire." 
So far the mild climate was unprecedented, but on '-the 
29th of March, thermometer fell to 29°. Peach blossoms 
killed in many places. On the 31st the wind blew lion- 
like. April 16th. The season has made very little pro- 
gress in the past two weeks." But on May 1st (still in 


1842 ) I write : " Nature wears to-day such a dress as would 
accord with the poet's prettiest fancies about May-Day. 
The locust is coming out in bloom." The presumption 
that people must be interested in a theme which they 
talk so much, is my excuse for dwelling on the subject of 
the weather so long. Certainly it passes through strange 
modifications, as will be proved by records carefully kept. 

I believe that in great business centres people look to 
the banks as an index of the situation, showing the rise 
and fall of the general prosperity. It can scarcely be 
claimed that our Savings Institution has acquired as yet 
all the high powers and functions of banks. Being only 
10 years old ( the first meeting to organize it was held on 
22d of February, 1868) and not meddling with the critical 
business of discounts, its influence is of course limited, 
but so far as it has gone the indications of success are 
favorable. The amount due depositors increased during 
the past year, in round numbers, from $70,000 to $80,000. 
Notwithstanding the distressing failures everywhere 
of savings banks, and our lowering of interest from 
6 to 5 per cent., the amount withdrawn during the past 
month indicates not the least diminution of confidence 
among the people. The Bank is on a solid foundation; 
its Directors have learned useful lessons in finance in the 
past ten years, and to say that its officers are honest men 
is only to say what everybody knows. Nothing is required 
but a continuance of confidence to establish this Insti- 
tution on a basis of permanent usefulness, widening grad- 
ually every year, and striking its roots deeper as it grows. 

During the past year we have to note a serious loss in 

the facilities of intercourse with the outside world. The 

Western Union has removed the telegraph, whicli so often 

served our purposes of business convenience, and the more 



precious object of keeping up instant communication with 
dear and distant friends. Now this losing advantages is 
something we do not like at all. It seems like "going 
back," which does not belong, and never has belonged, to 
the neighborhood of Sandy Spring, whose honest pride 
and stirring aspirations point naturally forward. It is 
some comfort to know that the privation, however much 
to be regretted, is not from any weakening on our part. 
We are no more responsible for the undoing by the Tele- 
graph Company than for the not doing by the B. & 0. R. 
E. Company of what they often promised should be done. 
The Eailroad has fallen into troubles never anticipated, 
so we must let it off for awhile, trusting that a way will be 
found to supply the longed-for communication. 

But Ave rejoice to learn that a cheering exhibition of an 
enterprising spirit has been afforded recently in a similar 
direction to that we have lost ; an affair wholly got up by 
our Sandy Spring boys. The Telegraph set up by people 
from outside is taken away ; the Telephone, which is to 
the Telegraph as Eapliael to a ho use -painter, has been 
erected, actually placing in closest and tenderest connec- 
tion the two historical mansions, Sharon and Brooke 

Happy is the man or the neighborhood that never looks 
to another to do what can be done by the energies at home. 
It were something worthy the reputation of Sandy Spring 
to produce a telephone connecting with the nearest tele- 
graph station of the B. & 0. Eailroad, provided that such 
an enterprise should be found, after making a prudent 
estimate of cost, to be within our reach. 

In close vicinity to the operating telephone another re- 
cent exhibition of energy is puffing away in rather louder 
tones. The junior partner of Brooke, Grove Mill has 


added a steam engine to the water power. We entertain 
a lively recollection of repeated floods in that stream the 
past season, causing such destruction as to induce the 
neighbors, who could not afford to dispense Avith the use 
of that mill, to turn out and make a frolic of repairing the 
dam. Those floods of the autumn of '77 left their mark 
on many a wheat field and common road. 

The statement has often been repeated that nothing 
shows a better spirit at work for the benefit of a farming 
community than the improvement of its roads. In this 
respect, more than usual has been done the present year. 
The Ashton turnpike is kept in excellent condition, while 
individual contributions have been made toward other 
roads. A peculiar act of benevolence was manifested by 
a private gentleman who placed a thousand dollars in the 
hands of another private gentleman, for the improvement 
mainly of the Laurel road, being extended also to the 
centre of the neighborhood. The donor of the benefaction 
was John S. Miller, not long a resident, who put it into the 
right hands when he gave it to Caleb Stabler. This 
affair well deserves a place in the history of a rural com- 
munity, reflecting as it does nearly equal honor on both 

Before leaving the narrative of improvements (among 
which must not be forgotten a fine barn on the " manor," 
whose building was compared to the blossoming of "Jonah's 
gourd"), it is pleasant to mention an addition to the 
neighborhood of another sort — one to which Sandy Spring 
has often been greatly indebted for the estimation in 
which its social qualities are held. The family of the 
late Henry Tyson, who was closely connected with our 
people, have come among us, whether for permanent 
settlement or not it is too soon to determine. 


Those additions and improvements constitute what may 
be termed the bright or "day-side" of the history. 
Unfortunately, there is always a dark or night-side too ; 
and as truth forms its whole value and highest quality, 
the latter cannot be wholly omitted. You must not fall 
into the natural error of supposing that the '' night- 
side " here meant is intended to apply to the turning 
of night into day (or day into night, which ?) by young 
folks in pursuit of pleasure; that belongs to another 
concern. What is now meant refers to the doings of 
tramps, and of native pilferers, worse than tramps, whose 
nightly performances almost keep up with honest business. 
In the early part of the year some steps were taken 
toward forming an association for the suppression of 
these nuisances. But that remains, as it has always 
been, a most difficult undertaking to accomplish. It 
would seem that the progress in science, morals and 
humanity, in all that most elevates a community, only 
serves to widen the chasm that separates between the 
vicious and the virtuous classes, rendering it more dif- 
ficult to devise effective means of redress, such as will 
not shock the higher principles of Christianity. The Con- 
vention which met in Baltimore last winter to consider 
these questions failed to present any sort of acceptable 
legislation ; indeed, the remedies proposed were worse 
than the disease. I append an extract which contains 
a sentiment that ought certainly to go doAvn to posterity 
as being the principles of Sandy Spring : 

" Human degradation. — In casting the vote which de- 
feated the whipping-post bill in Kentucky, the Lieutenant 
Governor put his decision on the broad ground that 
humanity is already too much degraded, and that no 
amount of saving in criminal expenses would warrant 
the State in promoting human degradation.'' 


With that golden extract, and another, that " Error is 
often er the child of ignorance than of evil intent," let 
us " pass into the sunshine, out of the shade." 

If our neighborhood is more distinguished for any one 
thing than another it must be for the number of its 
Associations. I suppose it is also generally understood 
that all these had their origin in the old Farmers' Club. 
The discovery was then made that it is a pleasant thing 
to come together and discourse on subjects of common 
interest, enjoy a good supper and get home to our families 
in good time. Behold the programme containing all the 
essentials of a rational and successful rural association; 
this being modified to suit circumstances (too much 
modified in the last particular), has formed the basis of all 
the successful efforts at social combinations. The benefits 
resulting from that first step toward co-operation can 
scarcely be told. Without the Club of '44, would there 
have been a Mutual Insurance Company of '48; a 
Lyceum of '58; a Turnpike of '60; a Savings Bank of '68 ; 
and the whole host of delightful and profitable associ- 
ations of both sexes, which form a large part of our 
social existence? Certainly this is a triumphant illus- 
tration of a great historian's assertion that "progressive 
human civilization is the result of learning to act together 
for a common end." 

There is so much of interest and instruction in the 
career of different societies, in observing the various 
features that distinguish them, their successes and occa- 
sional failures and the causes thereof, I am inclined to 
offer the suggestion that each permanent association 
should have a historian for itself. 

So much is lost because it is impossible for one person 
to discover what is said and done worthy of record in the 


various assemblages. This view is confirmed by the 
"assistant historian," who suggests that it would be well 
to have the help of correspondents in different portions 
of the neighborhood to gather up interesting occurrences, 
so that nothing may be lost. With the aid actually fur- 
nished I am enabled to note down the following several 
particulars: The Quarterly Meeting held for the first 
time in the 5th month is described " as a very good one ; 
we were highly favored in doors and outside too; the 
weather being very pleasant, and the country appeared 
beautiful, dressed in its early green." But it is added, 
"the attendance was much smaller than usual." The 
change of season for holding it not being satisfactory, the 
former date is to be restored in the 6tii month. 

There has been an omission hitherto in noticing the 
existence of a circulating library, known as " The Book 
Club." This addition to the reading material is said 
to be "in healthy condition, with twenty-eight members." 
The idea had got about that it was composed chiefly of 
works of fiction; but this could scarcely be the case, 
else the term " healthy " would not apply. There should 
be, of course, a fair admixture of instruction and enter- 
tainment in such libraries ; but the success of this Book 
Club certainly confirms the view held and carried out by 
the founders of the old "Sandy Spring Library," to the 
efiect that it was not necessary to include works of fiction, 
because a sufficient supply would be sure to find their 
way into this lively neighborhood. 

From books to schools is a natural transition. Our 
Public School enjoyed for a while the valuable services of 
an excellent young man, George W. Israel ; although here 
for a short time, he seemed to drop very naturally into the 
social circle. On the subject of schools there will prob- 


ably be something further to record at the next annual 
meeting. In passing from it, I take pleasure in noticing 
a delightful little May party with which Lizzie Bond 
brightened up her youthful pupils, and their friends too. 
Oh, you school children of these days ! How is the path of 
learning bordered for you with flowers ! — contrasted with 
the thorny road your predecessors had to pursue in old 
times, how thankful you ought to be ! Assuredly it is an 
improvement which cannot fail to be twice blessed ; first 
in the character of the child ; again, and for life, in that of 
the woman and the man. 

The historian of the neighborhood speaking in this hall 
cannot avoid giving due place in his truthful narrative to 
the affairs of the Lyceum itself. To leave that out were 
indeed " to play Hamlet with the part of Hamlet omitted." 
One of my assistants sliotvs a proper anxiety (though 
speaking in rather an apologetic strain) that we should all 
be reminded of the various useful services rendered by this 
building during the past year. Although the hall was 
prevented from putting on the sweetest aspect of beauty 
which it ever wears, owing to the temporary suspension of 
the Horticultural Exhibition, yet we had the annual Con- 
vention of the Farmers' Clubs, which showed no abate- 
ment of general interest. The Dairy Association con- 
tinued its quarterly meetings, and the Centennial Debating 
Society with unflagging spirit kept up their discussions 
in such manner and upon such questions as to extend the 
interest outside these walls. Its last meeting, to which 
the public were admitted, was well attended, and the de- 
cision arrived at that "England is wrong in meddling 
with the Turko-Kussian afiair," will be confirmed by the 
majority of the American people— though Earl Beacons- 
field sees the question in a different light. The President 


of the Lyceum performed his part ; he secured promises 
from able men to deliver lectures here, but wisely con- 
cluded not to expose them to the mortifying ordeal of 
empty benches. Our young folks seem really not to have 
time to attend lectures ; other entertainments are more 
attractive now. The repetition of "Buck Fanshaw's Funer- 
al" brought crowds, but then a blind man was the speaker, 
and it is a duty to assist the blind. These sarcastic 
remarks are unprofitable ; facts are the historian's proper 
business, and to them 1 propose to confine myself. The 
Lyceum has latterly fallen off in accomplishing the pur- 
poses for which the building was mainly erected. These 
purposes are clearly set forth in the definition of the W' ord. 
Worcester's Dictionary gives four definitions of "Lyceum," 
every one implying " an institution for literary or scientific 
instruction and improvement." While these objects were 
designed by the founders to be kept in the forefront, there 
w^as no thought of excluding the idea of entertainment. 
For those who believe that amusements occupy a rightful 
and important place in the education of human beings, it is 
only when they interfere with the improvement of the mind 
or with health of body, or with other duties, that any objec- 
tion can be properly made. In the case of our Lyceum 
no objection is made to anything done within its walls, 
but for what has not been done. It must be acknowledged 
that the advocates of amusing entertainments can make a 
very strong case in their favor. According to reports of 
the Treasurer, the finances of the Lyceum company had 
run to very low ebb. Obliged to borrow money to pay 
necessary expenses, it was relieved from this sad condition 
by the kind oflices of the lively and flourishing society 
called the " Sociable," whose distinguished efforts not only 
relieved us from debt, but left us with a comfortable sur- 


pins. From this it would appear that the efforts of the 
Lyceum to give instruction were rewarded with insolvency; 
cimtisements brought wealth and prosperity. Does it not 
remind you of the question lately stirred up through 
the State, relating to the Agricultural College ? While 
endeavoring to teach agriculture, it fell " over head and 
ears " in debt ; transferring its efforts to the preparation of 
boys for West Point and the ^N'aval Academy, it now exults 
in entire freedom from debt, with triumphant success in 
all respects, excepting the one object for which it was 
built ! Perhaps the parallel drawn between the Lyceum 
and the College is scarcely fair. The only complaint 
which can be made of the former is that spices and season- 
ing are being used in too great proportion to solid viands 
that afford novirishment essential to true life. So far 
from objecting to the late evening entertainment which 
thronged this hall up to if not beyond its utmost capacity, 
the judgment of your historian regards the influence of 
music, which formed a principal part of the novelt}^, as a 
favorable element introduoed into our modern society. As 
it is not apprehended that the cultivation of this one of 
the fine arts is likely to be carried to any great excess 
among us, let it be welcomed to its proper place. " The 
possession of a faculty is the divine warrant for its exer- 
cise," and the many of us who do not possess it have only 
not to try to exercise, nor to condemn. 

One more suggestion regarding our Lyceum. In its 
early days a full attendance was secured by disposing of 
tickets to a lecture course, at the commencement of the 
season. Let us use the same method again. There is some- 
thing'so divine in purely mental pursuits, it will never 
do to slight their paramount claims. Direct the overflow- 
ing streams in the minds of the rising generation into 
worthy channels, and all will be well. 


It is a natural transition to pass from moralizing to 
preaching ; and it seems entirely proper to refer to the 
discourses of two ministers, who favored us during the 
past year Avith no commonplace sermons. The first was a 
lady friend from West Chester, Pa.; her communication was 
remarkable for the beauty and propriety of its language, 
and for the earnestness with which she urged the duty of 
taking wise care of our bodily health, and of every good 
gift from the Heavenly Father which tends to promote 
the happiness of life. 

The other discourse was by Sunderland Gardner, who 
expounded with great clearness the simple fundamental 
principles of our Society, impressing with deep conviction 
their full sufficiency, if properly maintained, not only as 
a guide through the paths of duty, but as a means of 
evolving and developing all the better powers of our 
nature, up to the highest perfection of which they are 
capable. The opportunity of listening to such teachers 
is one of the notcAvorthy events of the year. 

Another occurrence, so agre(»ble to the present writer 
that he can in nowise refrain from recording it, was the 
meeting last 5th day at his house of the "Ladies Associ- 
ation for Mutual Improvement. " 

The allusion to these eighteen excellent women, all 
save three in the present possession of happy husbands, 
opens a clear way to congenial events next to be recorded. 
The predictions made a year ago, of the probable conse- 
quences — at least sequences — of all that winters sleighing, 
were to a certain extent verified — there being three marri- 
ages to record : 

Fourth month, 10th, 1877, Samuel Hopkins to Tatty 
Smith. The blow was softened to her friends, in that 
the sweet bride was not taken entirely out of their social 


Tenth month, 18th, 1877, Granville Farquhar and Patty 
Thomas. The hundred witnesses of the dignified and 
beautiful ceremony by which these two " took each other 
as loving and faithful companions for life, with mutual 
declarations of perfect equality, forming the truest founda- 
tion for permanent happiness," agreed that they had 
never seen this wedding surpassed. 

First month, 10th, 1878, Alban Brooke and Sarah 
Pleasants. This number, three, for marriages, has never 
been exceeded in our neighborhood in the last 15 years. 
Only three births within the year ; less than half the 
average number. 

In writing the obituary notices which form an import- 
ant part of these records, it has been the aim of our his- 
torian to state a few leading traits of character known to 
him, which may serve to recall the deceased to your minds 
and to leave a pleasant and true impression of the departed ; 
without illusive coloring, *'to keep their memory green." 

Fifth month, 23d, 1877. The first name on the mourn- 
ful death-roll is Mary Chalfant. Few children of her 
age among us had excited so warm an interest in life, and 
so much sincere grief in death. Tears from many, even 
those not connected by near relationship, bedewed her 
grave. Yet sad as it was to lose her, it is a pleasure and 
privilege to think of her, not as " lying under the daisies," 
but as a little fairy dropped down into the dull precincts 
of the village, and brightening them up with a transient 

Seventh month, 26th. How wide apart, how strangely 
distinguished are the marks on which death's arrows in 
succession fall ! Elizabeth Pleasants departed next, after 
a lingering and painful illness. Long afflicted and dis- 
tressed, she had been unable of late years to occupy the 


place in general society which she once adorned. Only 
those whose acquaintance dated back to periods of the 
" far past," could fully appreciate her qualities of gentle- 
ness, lively wit and intelligence, delicacy of feeling and 
crystal purity, never exceeded in any person we ever met. 
While we live, the influence of her quiet spirit will not 
pass from earth ; emotions of deep tenderness will ever 
rise at the mention of her name. 

Xinth month, 7th, Benjamin Hallowell closed his long 
and useful life. If that picture, looking down on me with 
its benevolent expression as I wi'ite, could speak, I believe 
it would say, "Write no more; let that simple notice 
suffice !" But when we remember how closely this emi- 
nent man was identified with our neighborhood, it seems 
natural and proper to give his memory a fitting recogni- 
tion in the " Annals of Sandy Spring." It was here he 
brought the first fruits of his labors in the great cause of 
education ; and it was here, after that life-work, exerted 
for many years with all the strength of his powerful 
nature, and crowned with distinguished success, here he 
returned with the ripe fruits gathered, to continue while 
life should last, serving God and man as " truth opened 
the Avay." Here his remains rest under the overshadow- 
ing poplar, near those of his Margaret — his life companion 
— whom he had loved so long and so well. 

A gifted son of genius, now resident in England, writes 
thus of the impression made on his mind by the man whom 
he had learned to reverence long years before. It affords 
me much satisfaction to find a place for part of his letter 
in the present memorial. He writes from — 

Loi^DOK, October 22d, 1877. 
My Dear Mrs. Miller: — I have just heard of your 
beloved and revered father's death, and cannot forbear 


writing you to say how deeply I feel this event. All 
sorrow at the death of such a man as Benjamin Hallo- 
well is overarched with a bow of hope. He remains so 
immortal in our grateful hearts that we cannot think of 
his life as closed and ended; he only rests from his labors, 
as we knew them ; and where our own weak wisdom 
valued him so much, we cannot think the Great Wisdom 
will value him less, but much more. 

After long years of contact with sects and their dog- 
mas, I find that at last I have a creed — and it is written 
in such lines and hearts as your father's. The faith that 
can produce such men is the faith for me. With one 
Benjamin Hallowell I will outweigh all the theologies 
ever written. Dear old Sandy Spring — how I love it ! 

I have over my table, in a frame, sent from India, one 
leaf of the " Holy Bo Tree " — the tree under which, it is 
said, Buddha sat down a Prince, and at last rose up a 
Prophet, an "Enlightened Teacher," 500 years before 
Christ. As I look at the leaf, it seems to be transformed 
to many — to an old oak grove with Sandy Spring Meeting 
House in the centre. There I sat down a Methodist 
preacher, and rose up with faith in " the Inward Light." 
We must all have our own Bo Tree before we can rever- 
ence that of another; and though I am not a prophet, 
nor very " enlightened," I can see the light, and as Paul 

says, " follow after." 

[Signed] M. D. Co^^way. 

Last on the list of the valued dead of the year is Sarah 
T. Brooke, who closed a blameless life, of nearly 83 years, 
on the 1st of the 10th month, 1877. She was throughout 
life a good woman, who tried by example and precept to 
do what she thought was right. Failing health confined 



her to the house some time before her death. She had 
always lived in her native place. 

In closing up such a document as the foregoing, there 
are sure to be left some loose ends to gather up, of inter- 
esting facts, omitted in their proper place. One that 
comes up now is a very recent enterprise — a printing 
press of A. G. Thomas, which already exhibits such neat 
work as to deserve the encouragement which it can 
scarcely fail to receive. 

The word with us still is Onward ! 

As the "Nutting," alias "Montgomery County Tich- 
borne case," was noticed in a previous Chapter, as an 
element of threatened disturbance, it is gratifying to state 
that it ended as all such cases ought to terminate — in 

Another striking feature of the past summer and fall 
was the revival of athletic exercises in the most intense 
form of base ball. 
























Total last 5 




Total last 15 




Average per year 



i + 




Feom Fourth Month, 1st, 1878, to Fourth Month, 7th, 1879. 

Census of the Neighborhood — Prosperity and adversity — The great 
hailstorm — A cold May — Failure of f rait — Stanmore board- 
ing school removed to Rockland — Base ball vigorously renew- 
ed — Celebration of Eliza Kirk's birthday — Pleasure tours in 
new directions — The five crops abundant — Relief to yellow 
fever sufferers — A new party — Fears for the corn needless — 
A bad sport — Establishment of the " Benevolent Aid Society "' 

— Election at Mechanicsville — Bible readings resumed — The 
Oysterman, a welcome arrival — Bad conduct at "Sharp St." 

— Fire -crackers banished from the stores at Christmas — Big 
fires, kindliest assistance. 

Census of ^' Our Neighborhood," {Sandy Spring,') taken 
April 1st, 1879. 

Families. No. of Persons. 

Families. No. of Persons. 


Charles H. Brooke, 



James Holland, 



James Stabler, 



Amos Holland, 



Rog-er B. Farquhar, 



G. W. C. Beall, 



William S. Brooke, 



George E. Brooke, 



Roger Brooke, 



James P. Stabler, 



Sallie Brooke, 



Mary G. Tyson, 



Alban G. Brooke, 



Bernard Gilpin, 



Mahlon Kirk, 



William H. Farquhar 



Sai'ah B. Farquhar, 



Alban Gilpin, 



Richard S. Kirk, 



Clara Chalfant, 



Granville Farquhar, 



Wm. H. Stabler, 



Dr. Wm. E. Magruder 



Edward Stabler, 



Henry C. Hallowell, 



Arthur Stabler, 



Francis Miller, 



Richard T. Bentley, 



Joseph "Wetherald, 



B. Rush Roberts, 



Robert S. Moore, 



Charles G. Porter, 



Samuel Bond, 



Benjamin H. Miller, 



James H. Stone, 



Philip T. Stabler, 



Joseph T. Moore, 



William Schofield, 



Wm. W. Moore, 



John Smith, 



Robert R. Moore, 



Sally Loa, 



Caroline B. Scott, 



Mary Chandlee, 



Benjamin D. Palmer, 



Edward Lea, 



Penuol Palmer, 



Elizabeth E. Tyson, 








ies. No. of Persons. 

Families. No. of Persons. 


Charles A. Tddings, 



William S. Bond, 



Harry T. Lea, 



William Kinnaird, 



Edward C. Gilpin, 



Gideon Gilpin, 



Thomas J. Lea, 



Francis Thomas, 



Isaac Hartshorne, 



John Thomas, 



Harry Stabler, 



William John Thomas 



Georg-e L. Stabler, 



Edward P. Thomas, 



Edward Pierce, 



Samuel P. Thomas, 



Sam'l A. Janney, 



Charles Stabler, 



Henry Chandlee, 



Mary P. Thomas, 



Mahlon Chandlee, 



Hetty Stabler, 



Samuel Ellicott. 



Dr. Edward Idding-s, 



James S. Hallowell, 



Alban G. Thomas, 






Llewellyn Massey, 



Frederick Stabler, 



Henrietta Snowden, 



Robert M. Stabler, 



Walter H. Brooke, 



Asa M. Stabler, 



Samuel Hopkins, 



Warwick P. Miller. 



Thomas Lea, 



William Lea, 

Families 85. 


No, of Persons 407. 

An important part of the history of a people is contained 
in information of a statistical character. 

In order that statistics should be of proper value, they 
must possess definiteness and precision. It may be justly 
claimed that a considerable degree of care has been exer- 
cised in drawing up the statements made in this volume 
of the births, marriages and deaths, with other statistical 
matter pertaining to "our neighborhood"; still there has 
prevailed all the time a slight degree of indefiniteness in 
regard to the exact names and number of the individuals 
of whom " our neighborhood " is really composed. 

In accordance therefore with the spirit of progress 
which we claim, it has been thought by your historians 
advisable to prepare a regular census of the people referred 
to all along in our Sketches of Sandy Spring. The 
lines that include them are lines neither of sect nor party, 
of latitude nor longitude, extending from Charles H. 
Brooke on the west, to Samuel Hopkins on the east (but 


not taking in all between), the boundaries being of a social 
character, rather spiritual than material. 

The work of this census was not without its difficulties, 
such as are always experienced in drawing Imes of this 
nature. In general, it was thought better to avoid the ex- 
treme of exclusiveness. Of course the performance is 
imperfect ; but from long experience in census-taking (as 
you know), your historian ventures to express the opinion 
that it is not any fuller of errors than are most other cen- 

The observation was made to me lately that I would 
find a great deal in this year to recount, as there was an 
idea prevailing that the current of neighborhood activity 
was running with more than usual force and life ; perhaps 
this is the case, in some directious it certainly has been so. 
Prosperity was mingled with a full proportion of adversity. 
Within a mouth from the beginning of our "record year" 
a most disastrous hailstorm crushed into the ground the 
reasonable hopes of some of our best farmers, and a month 
before the end the still greater calamity of fire struck on 
the farmers tenderest spot — the 7iohIe horse and the capa- 
cious stored barn. The year belongs to the category of 
those that are not soon forgotten. Its ample blessings 
showered down in liberal abundance shall have their place 
in a subsequent part of the story. 

We know that time is not measured by months nearly 
as practically or impressively as by events ; " Fifty years 
of Europe are worth a cycle of Cathay." Substitute 
"Sandy Spring" for "Europe," remembering that noth- 
ing is more promotive of progress than the full belief in 
it, we can make out a very fair exhibit for the year just 
closed. The neighborhood has certainly been alive, and 
life is activity. Whether it has always been of a beneficial 


sort is a circumstance yet to be developed. HoAvever that 
may appear, the truth still remains, that all pleasures 
which promote neither vigor of body nor elevation of mind 
are a waste of that energy by which alone progress is pro- 
moted. Your historian must again repeat that he set out in 
the beginning to make his record consist almost wholly in 
relating the essential progress of our beloved neighborhood. 
Other circumstances were scarce worth the pains to record. 

It affords me real pleasure to follow the good example 
of my senior assistant in taking up the story of each 
month in succession, as the rolling year brings one after 
another into view, into (we may say) the materials of our 
life ; for so it is made up. 

I begin these notices by copying the first minute made 
by the junior assistant, whose mind excels in portraying 
the beautiful, as well as in registering with precision the 
actual dates and events of the record. She writes : -' On 
the morning of the 14th of the 4th month, I saw, be- 
tween the hours of 5 and 6 o'clock, a very beautiful and 
perfect rainbow, a rare event in the morning. The arch 
was without a fault. I would have liked all my friends to 
see it." Thus you see we begin with that most beautiful 
of nature's displays, beautiful indeed, but oh, so tran- 
sient I Still a lovely omen, this bow of promise, for what 
the year was to evolve, promise for some, while soon for 


" A transient form, 
Evanishing amid the storm." 

On the 28th of this same month of April, 1878, occurred 
the great hailstorm, which is certainly entitled to have 
its memory preserved by the following description made 
freshly at the time. The account is from the pen of our 
junior historian, who might truly say, if she indulges in 
Latin, '' magna pars fiii.^' 


On Sunday, April 28th, 1878, occurred the most terrific 
hailstorm ever known in this latitude by the present gen- 
eration. The morning was lovely and the landscape lay 
green and smiling until noon ; the sky became overcast 
soon afterward, and clouds of a singular brassy tint ap- 
peared in the southwest. In a few moments a dense gray 
wall moving swiftly from S. W. to N. E. swept over a dis- 
trict of eiglit or ten miles in length by from three-quarters 
of a mile to a mile and a half in breadth. The hail fell 
for nearly half an hour without an instant's cessation, and 
during most of that time it was impossible to see one inch 
beyond the window pane. The noise can only be compar- 
ed to the roar of Niagara, persons in the same room hav- 
ing to shout in order to be heard. When the storm ceased, 
what a scene of desolation met the eye ! Wheat tall enough 
to conceal a post-and-rail fence was mowed down to stubble 
on a level with the lowest rail (it put up stalks after- 
ward that produced eight bushels of wheat to the acre); 
fruit trees heavy laden an hour before, were not only 
stripped of every apple, peach and pear, but in many cases 
not a leaf was left ; gardens were as bare of green and 
growing plants as a floor; cattle that had luaded in pas- 
ture in the morning, stood lowing for food until they re- 
ceived their supper from the barns. The ground was 
covered for miles to a depth varying from four inches to 
two feet, and hail was found in sheltered places one and 
two weeks after the storm. Most fortunately the hail 
stones were of moderate size. 

The loss to the community, which suffered in growing 
crops and orchards, can scarcely be estimated, going up 
easily into thousands of dollars. The principal losers 
amongst those included in this history, were William Lea, 
William S. Bond, William Kinnaird, John Thomas, Wil- 


liam John Thomas, Dr. F. Thomas, Edward P. Thomas, 
Charles Stabler, A. G. Thomas, Llewellyn Massey, Walter 
Brooke and Samuel Thomas. (All these names will be 
read wdth increased interest in future years.) Carriage 
loads of people came from distance of miles to witness the 
destruction. As the season advanced, the stricken forest 
put forth a few leaves, which on some oak trees grew to an 
inordinate size and of singular shape. From elevated 
points at a distance, the "burnt district," as it was termed, 
could be distinguished far and wide. Nor must we omit 
to mention the timely, generous assistance in farm work, 
given by those who escaped the afflictive visitation — 
friendly aid not to be specially recorded here. 

It must be interesting to compare the hailstorm of 
1878 with one that occurred in 1799, also within our neigh- 
borhood, as recorded in a letter written by Mrs. Chandlee, 
the grandmother of our young ladies of that name, under 
date "Black Meadows, 5th month, 2r5th, 1799." It 
appears from the writer's statement, that the storm broke 
out in the evening of the 24th of May, about six o'clock, 
" continuing three-quarters of an hour with incessant 
flashes of lightning and constant peals of thunder. The 
devastation of timber, loss of grain, clover, outhouses, 
gardens, &c., is almost past description." She says the 
trees were nearly stripped of leaves, many having merely 
the stem left with a brow^n crust around it, as if scorched 
by the lightning. The danger to the house was very 
great ; glass from the windows, and the hail flew over the 
house in such a manner that there seemed bardly a spot 
large enough for her babe and herself to find shelter, the 
roof being part blown off. 

This storm, described in the letter as resembling the 
hurricanes of the West Indies more than our tempests. 


appears to have exceeded our hailstorm of hist year in 

Perhaps you have now had a sufficiency in the way of 
storms; but my attention has been drawn to the descrip- 
tion of another that occurred in our county, a few extracts 
from which will serve to furnish an additional comparison 
offered by these interesting natural phenomena. 

The hailstorm referred to (according to the account in 
the paper of the day), desolated a tract between Eockville 
and Clarksburg, breaking out on Sunday, the 7th of June, 
1818, sixty years before our own. " It approached from 
the southeast accompanied by a confused rumbling noise. 
Fortunately it did not drive much, or the mischief must 
have been much greater, as some of the hail measured 
fourteen inches in circumference ; a large hog was seen to 
fall dead from receiving one, and the backs of the cattle 
were so lacerated as to canse the blood to run down their 
sides. Generally they were the size of a goose Qgg, and 
were of irregular, conical form. Some farmers had their 
prospects blighted in seeing their towering fields of grain 
laid prostrate to the earth." (From the Federcd Gazette 
and Baltimore Daily Advertiser.^ 

I was somewhat surprised to see in the advertising 
columns, the notice of an auction sale of Alderney cows. 

Eeturning to our neighborhood annals, it is noted that 
the month of May w^as a rather remarkable one. The 
weather changed cold, so that the early progress of the 
season was interrupted. Actual frosts produced injury in 
many places ; but their chief disastrous effects were upon 
white wheat, which appears to have blossomed at the 
critical period, and was thus cut short to a degree suffi- 
cient to discourage most farmers from sowing it again in 
the following autumn. A green bug (aphis') swarmed in 


great numbers on the wheat head, producing some alarm, 
but without doing notable injury. The worst feature 
affecting the wlieat crop was the distressing fall in price. 

June came with continuing abundance of moisture, and 
cool to an extraordinary degree. The apprehensions, 
which our farmers had been abundant in expressing, as 
to the prospect of crops, were gradually removed ; a full 
crop, barring white wheat sown in corn stubble, was 
harvested. An unusually heavy hay crop was cut, which 
had throughout the year an extremely depressing effect 
on the market. Abundance prevailed in nearly all the 
main farm productions, with one sad exception, which was 
in the case of fruit. Perhaps no worse exhibit is made of 
that great article of comfort and luxury in any part of 
these annals. 

This month was brightened to a number of our people 
by an interesting marriage that took place at Bloomfield 
with numerous festivities. Boarders came from the city, 
though scarcely in such numbers as usual; and our young 
farmers enjoyed all the gay recreation required to relieve 
the monotony of hard work. The close of the month of 
June was distinguished by the final breaking up of 
" Stanmore Boarding School of Grirls." 

July is regarded by my statistical correspondent as 
being " quite uneventful " ; although it witnessed the 
renewal of ihe game of base ball with renewed zeal. 
Some queer difficulties arose in the preliminaries, showing 
that our young men are already up to the mature poli- 
ticians. As those latter use party-spirit to accomplish 
what they profess to make their object, namely, the public 
good, so in " officering the nines," did the former employ 
the same unblest means for spoiling tlieir pleasure. Party 
spirit, alas I lias just about as much to do in good govern- 


ment as in sportive games. None the less was there ex- 
pended in yonder pastnre-lot, agreeably to close mathe- 
matical calculation of the "Correlation of Forces," an 
amount of muscular exertions, which being conyerted into 
another form of power, might haye cut and secured all 
the harvests of the neighborhood ! Whether this is to be 
considered, in mechanical phrase, a waste of power, is for 
you to judge. A deliberate conclusion would be — that 
sport becomes waste of power just when it passes the 
point where it runs into excess. All must admit that the 
escape from serious injuries, by bat and ball, was cause 
for much gratitude and satisfaction. 

The 1st day of August was pleasantly commemorated 
by a celebration at Woodburn, of the 84th birthday of 
our much-loved and respected friend, Eliza Kirk. Her 
children, grandchildren, and numerous old friends were 
around her, and left nothing undone to bring to her 
affectionate heart the gratification so well merited by her 
long and useful life. 

In August were continued the tours in pursuit of health 
and pleasure, begun in the preceding month, with more 
than usual satisfaction to several parties. The Virginia 
springs and the seashore, away up to the island-mountain 
of Maine, were the choice spots visited. 

By the end of the month, the per^cted corn crop com- 
pletes the almost unprecedented abundance of all the five 
chief crops of our neighborhood, viz., grass, wheat, oats, 
corn and potatoes. But welcome abundance is attended 
with the natural accompaniment of low prices, which 
takes off considerably from the satisfaction of the pro- 
ducer. It seems that we can rarely have both blessings 
at once. 

Another blessing must be noted, namely, the prevalence 


of good health among us, while the Southwest is so 
terribly afflicted with yellow fever. Liberal contribu- 
tions were made to relieve, so far as in our power, the 
sufferings of our fellow-countrymen. 

September. xA.pprehensions entertained lest the corn 
should not harden ; but by the middle of the month it 
was cut and set up in excellent condition, affording ample 
time for preparations to sow wheat. A few began that 
important work in this month. There was a decided dis- 
position among some to experiment with new fertilizers. 
Wheat very steady at $1.00. The Xew Party, got up to 
make money more easily and expeditiously and abund- 
antly, attracts notice in the crowd. 

The Horticultural Fair was held at the Lyceum, after 
the intermission of a year. The vegetable exhibit was not 
remarkable any way except for the diminished figure cut 
by the pumpkin tribe, but the display of flowers gave 
shining proof of the increased devotion of our ladies to 
the charming department of horticulture. The success 
of the Fair as shown by the large number of visitors, and 
by its general management, was every way encouraging. 

The history of September, 1878, cannot be closed with- 
out referring to the establishment of " Rockland Boarding 
School for Girls,'*' which seems from its position and man- 
agement rather a transfer of " Stanmore " than a wholly 
new concern ; my assistant adds that "it was hailed with 
such satisfaction by us young mothers as to deserve special 

^ CcLober furnished less material thau usual in the way 
of gay and brilliant foliage to deck the parlors with 
autumn wreaths, but it was good for sowing wheat, dig- 
ging potatoes, and commencing the husking of corn ; the 
dryness of the latter disappointed the croakers of the pre- 


vious month, as so often happens. Those useful labors 
being well finished, who shall blame us for indulging in a 
little "high sport" (?) when a party of "old men and 
boys, and loving friends, and youths and maidens gay," 
met to enjoy the excitement of a " bag fox-chase." Any 
one desirous of information as to particulars may know 
where to inquire, but they need not go to the genuine old 
sportsman, who considers such fox hunting like box pigeon 
shooting, heneath the chivalry of true sport. 

This month was signalized by the establishment of " the 
Sandy Spring Branch of the Benevolent Aid Society," 
which made a good start under the presidency of Caroline 
H. Miller, and being conducted almost exclusively by 
ladies, increased until about a hundred names were 
enrolled. Meetings were held twice during the month 
throughout the cold season, and it is believed much good 
was accomplished. 

November was ushered in by the performance of the 
great civic duty of voting at a new place, Mechanicsville, 
the larger part of our neighborhood being thrown into the 
newly organized eighth district of the county. There 
came, or wT-re at liberty to come, about 70 out of the 
whole number of voters in the neighborhood census, their 
political sentiments being expressed nearly thus : 50 re- 
publicans, 10 democratic, 5 " the new" party." 

A wide circle of our friends was shocked at hearing of 
the sudden death on the 5th of this month, of Anna T. 
Hallowell, widow of the late J, Elgar Hallowell. For a 
number of years she had lived among us, endeared to the 
hearts of her relatives and numerous friends by her lovely 
traits of character and winning face and manners. 
Though not properly a resident of Sandy Spring for the 
last sixteen years, she felt so near and dear that we never 


ceased to claim her as one with us. " Her place is kept" 
in many a Avarm heart. 

In this month were resumed the bi-weekly meetings 
for Bible reading and other religious exercises, conducted 
by E. J. Farquhar, at the house of Benjamin H. and Sarah 
T. Miller. The number who attended with considerable 
regularity Avas sufficient to produce the impression that 
there is among many of us what may be termed " a ground 
swell" of fresh religious feeling. Every serious thinking 
person must desire that it may not be smothered, but may 
find the proper direction that Avill conduct to peace and 
the higher life. 

In this same month the two societies, the " Debating " 
and the '* Sociable," recommenced the performance of their 
interesting functions. In regard to the success of the 
latter, no doubts or insinuations are admissible. The 
croAvded meetings, the high style of literary' proceedings, 
declamatory and A\Titten, the 2^ower it has twice exhibited 
to fill this Lyceum hall when it gracefully consents to aid 
some struggling effort in a good cause, finally its manifest 
reluctance to adjourn for the season, all these are clear 
indications of a brilliant success. 

In addition to other pleasant things Xovember has 
also brought round the oysterman to give us countrymen 
a taste of city luxury — a Avelcome arriA'al, but of course it 

December. Early in this month occurred a A^ery ugly 
fracas at the colored people's church. The number of their 
young men going round with nothing to do is becoming 
a source of increasing concern, though nothing could be 
better punishment for one guilty of the graA'e offence of 
knifing a riAal than a year in the House of Correction, 
lately awarded by our Court. As " idleness is the great 


mother of mischief," it becomes a matter of serious mo- 
ment that the employers of labor should look round more 
diligently, and exert their efforts more efficiently to find 
work for all persons seeking labor. This is a duty whose 
neglect will insure future heavy penalty. 

On the 15th died John S. Miller, a citizen of Philadel- 
phia, of whom honorable mention was made a year ago, 
for a large contribution to repair of public roads. He had 
reached an advanced age, and accumulated a large property 
which was divided in an equitable manner among his rela- 
tives. So considerable was the amount that ought to 
flow into and swell the current of Sandy Spring business 
activities that apprehensions were entertained by some of 
the apprehensive sort, lest mischievous effects might arise 
from the sudden influx. It is proper to state that no such 
injurious effects appear thus far to have been produced. 

Christmas was pronounced to have been more than 
usually quiet, especially around the stores, whose proprie- 
tors manifested great and disinterested regard for the 
peace and safety of the community, by withdrawing from 
sale all fire-crackers, torpedoes, and such nuisances pecu- 
liar to the season. 

Another reform, well worth recording, may be claimed 
for the holiday; there was less drinking among those who 
have been in the practice of indulging in that way. It is 
due to the truth of history to state that this improvement 
was attributed by certain disbelievers in progress, to the 
fact that the continued low prices of produce, especially 
of hay, had left people too poor to indulge in dissipation ; 
if it was so, it was a blessed poverty ; but the idea had 
little or no foundation. Considerable ice was stored 
away in Christmas week. 

January, 1879. This, the 10th month of our year, was 


distinguished for a spell of very cold weather. The ther- 
mometer sinking on an average through the neighbor- 
hood, only to minus 3° and 5°, was but a partial test of the 
severity of the cold. " The wind makes the weather," is 
an old saying, which was true this time. The frost-king 
managed to penetrate cellars and potato caves, with dis- 
astrous effects. On the other hand, ice houses, not being 
large enough to hold all the ice desired, new ones were 
made above ground. From notes made in this month 1 
observe it stated that " society revives in full feather " ; 
frequent parties restore the social character of our young 
folks, which was accused of a falling off in the early 
part of the winter. 

Another revival, truly worthy of the name, came on in 
its turn. The Lyceum, our pride of former years, monu- 
ment of our earliest efforts to raise the standard of intel- 
lectual improvement, had threatened to become a monu- 
ment indeed. Several preceding ^mges of this history 
complain in mournful words of the lukewarmness which 
had crept over our better aspirations. Our officers had 
done their duty in making efforts to provide high-class 
entertainment. The peoj^le would not come; they ap- 
peared to grow weary; cloyed with such substantial 
aliment of mind, and wanting something of lighter sort. 
A nev»' plan was used, or rather an old one revived. 
Tickets Avere sold in advance by interesting little children. 
The effort was a success ; for who could refuse the cherub 
aj^pli cants ? Lectures were started again, and went on. 
On the 16th, Hon. Alonzo Bell favored us with one of the 
healthy sort, worth listening to, for it was bracing to the 
soul. Every person was pleased, and many observed 
" This is indeed an old-time Lyceum audience " ; for the 
room was filled. Other successful lectures followed. 


Capt. Tyson, a man of words as well as deeds, but of 
deeds surpassing his words, displayed to a crowded audi- 
ence at the next meeting in February, a graphic picture 
of that fascinating Arctic scenery, with the still more 
moving qualities of true manhood in mastering its 
dangers and terrible sufferings, in a way to fasten the 
attention of old and young, sedate and gay ; also the best 
order was observed. Interest the people ; they will listen. 

It was observed throughout this exceptionally severe 
winter (as we must continue to regard it), that the health 
of our people was remarkably good as long as the severe 
cold lasted ; so soon as there came a partial thaw, catarrhs 
and neuralgia began to be very prevalent, with tendency 
to pneumonia. But with the one exception of James 
Stone, there was no severe case. Taking the year through, 
the general health was fairly good. The preservation of 
all the numerous tender children is indeed remarkable, 
and, as my venerable sister justly writes, a cause of devout 
thankfulness. But we have to note an unusual number 
of accidents; six having occurred. The sufferers were 
Eobert E. Moore, from the stage running away; Charles 
r. Kirk, from the horns of a horrible bull; E. P. 
Thomas, from gravitation ; Charles H. Burke, a broken 
bone; Llewellyn Massey — and a dreadful wound by a 
gun in his own hand, that caused the death of 
Frank Sullivan ; and the fall, at a later date, of Rebecca 
Thomas, not severe, but slow of cure. 

The Convention of Farmers' Clubs, held at the usual 
time in January, was well attended, and served to bring 
out the various qualities of the respective tribes. The 
amicable competition thus exhibited appeared to afford 
amusement without any serious opposition. More im- 
portant measures were started by a resolution unani- 

210 an:n'als of sandy spking. 

mously adopted, looking to a reform in the management 
of county affairs; a rolling stone which appears to be 
gathering moss. 

It is supposed to be the province of historians to record 
the joys, sorro^vs, and misfortunes of others, not their own. 
Now it is the singular office of two out of three who con- 
tribute to these annals, to tell of disastrous eyents affect- 
ing their own case. 

A fire broke out in January, which threatened to de- 
stroy the dwelling of Edward P. and Mary B. Thomas ; 
it was checked in time. On the last day of February the 
barn of Wm. H. Farquhar with all its contents was wholly 
destroyed. The building had stood for 60 to 70 years ; 
within half an hour it was reduced to smoke and ashes. 
Xo reasonable doubt exists that the source of the mischief 
was the smoking-pipe of the hired man. Xo comment is 
needed to enforce the lesson: Beware of pipes! An 
attendant feature of this very serious calamity well deserves 
a more extended notice than I feel able to give it ; before 
the flames of the hay, straw, and fodder were extin- 
guished, tw'o loads icere seen coming up the road from a 
neighior\s ham or stack, sent to supply the remaining 
stock with necessary subsistence. One horse, the most 
valuable, was consumed in the fire; another neighbor 
took in the dry cows " to keep in his barn till the grass 
should come." The day following many loads of fodder 
were deposited in such quantities as to elicit the remark 
of a relative, that she had never seen corn groio so fast as 
it did that day in Uncle William's barnyard. 

It would take more room on tliese pages than I have to 
spare, to recite the evidences of neighborly kindness which 
were drawn out by the calamity. And it would be ungrate- 
ful and unjust were I not to add, that the kindnesses were 


by no means limited by the bounds of neighhorJiood. When 
the new building no\¥ being constructed, shall rise on the 
ruins of the old, its figure from roof to foundation-stone 
shall be while it stands, at least for me and my children, 
an enduring monument of the brotherly kindness shown 
by the members of " Olney Grange," as well as by the 
nearer neighbors of Sandy Spring. 

The record of the year touching matters of business is 
not very different from the country generally, only rather 
less depressed. The Savings Institution still continues 
to show an increase of deposits, though of smaller amount, 
with a stronger basis than a year ago. A test of the 
neighborhood life is shown by the operations of the Post- 
Oflfice. Samuel Bond, Assistant Postmaster, has kindly 
forwarded the following report : 

During the twelve months ending April 1st, 1879, were 
cancelled $793 of postage stamps, Avhich being reduced 
to single letter postage, would make 28,433 letters sent 
from the office, but of course there were circulars, cards, 
&c., included. During the same period Avere sold here 
7085 postal cards, against 3400 sold in 1874, the year they 
were introduced. Of money orders issued during the 
year amounting to $2845, sent away — $1287 sent here — 
excess sent out $1558, against a difference in same direc- 
tion of $1727 in 1871. 

As another feature showing progress in our neighbor- 
hood, my Junior Assistant very properly suggests that 
notice should be taken of the great increase in the num- 
ber of cows, which she estimates as being four times as 
numerous as they were ten years ago. Also the recent 
opening in the forests affording views more extended, 
besides the substantial benefits from an increase of arable 
soil. Then there is now going on a planting of hedges ; 


numerous bay-windows and conserYatories are added to 
dwellings, while the paint brush is more used than of yore; 
all of which are tokens of improved civilization. Mention 
is also made of the pleasant incident of a " house-warming 
entertainment," presided over by Mary P. Thomas, which 
afforded sympathetic gratification to all the old friends 
who rejoiced that the parents had come into such agree- 
able quarters in their declining years. At the very close 
of the year we were indebted to the contractor for estab- 
lishing a new mail. That " herald of a noisy world " now 
comes twice a day; Avhen I was Postmaster it used to 
come twice a week. 

The closing pages of this year's history have room for 
only one more line — the most important of all. 

Within the limits now defined as constituting "our 
neighborhood," the statistical return is: marriages 2; births 
14 (9 boys and 5 girls) ; deaths 1. 


From Fourth Month, 7th, 1879, to Fourth Month, oth, 1880. 

The largest tree — Changes in men — The spirit remains — A year 
of action — New buildings — April an important month — Barn 
raising — Pleasant Quarterly Meeting — Help to sick harvesters 
— Early sound of the steam whistle, for threshing — New 
games, the Archery — A new Bible class — Numerous premiums 
at Rock\ille Fair — The Great Cyclone — Remarks on Monthly 
Meeting — Reflections — Sanitary facts — Dr. Hartshorne's 
book — Mild winter — A house warming — The ladies' success 
at the Lyceum — The Dickens Calendar — Amanda D6yo — 
Revising the Discipline — Two new Societies — The Farmers' 
Club conclude to use the moonshine. 

There are many trees still standing in our neighborhood 
which were growing when the first white settlers made 


their way gradually and cautiously along what is now 
called the Laurel road, leading then, as now, from the 
lower counties where settlement began. The chestnut 
tree standing nearly in front of Cherry Grove, largest 
tree in this part of the country, being thirty feet in girth 
at the ground, and twenty-two and a half feet at flye feet 
higher up the trunk, probably did not attract the atten- 
tion of the adventurous travellers nearly two centuries 
ago, unless indeed a panther Avas hanging to an upper 
bough, or a bear was hugging the trunk with arms which 
might then readily enclose it. 

The appearance now presented by these remains of the 
ancient forest differs greatly from that which it bore when 
first viewed by the eyes of our forefathers, who, neverthe- 
less, /ailed to perceive the changes as they proceeded from 
one year to another. The full life of a tree far exceeds 
that of a man ; yet even in his case, the change annually 
produced in the man, although really greater than in the 
forest, is scarcely perceptible, or at least is apt to be denied 
by him, and by the friend who good-naturedly compli- 
ments him with the assurance that " he is looking just the 
same as he did years ago." This may safely be called a 
pleasing delusion on one side, and perhaps an innocent 
fraud on the other. For all the time, alike in the man as 
in the tree, continual, eternal change is remorselessly 
proceeding onward, with results — not now to be described 
— the time inevitably comes when neither self-delusion 
nor friendly compliments can hide the unwelcome fact. 
Such is the law with every individual thing that has life. 
Some writers say the same law prevails with nations; 
asking of "Assyria, Greece, Kome, Carthage, where are 
they?" Modern scientists agreeing with Scripture at 
least on one point, claim to have settled it beyond doubt, 


that the whole uniyerse is passing and bound to pass 
through the same career ; that the time must come when 
"the Sun himself shall grow dim with age, all Xature 
sink in years"; but here the bard and prophet, inspired 
from a higher source than material science, come in, assur- 
ing us there is that "which shall flourish in immortal 


Unhurt amidst the war of elements, 

The wreck of matter and the crush of worlds." 

In plain simple prose, there are two distinct realities 
which the mind has to keep in view, if it would arrive at 
truth; one, obvious to the senses, consisting of things 
changeable and perishing ; the other, relating to something 
just as real as the former, but requiring the use of a 
different part of our nature to comprehend and appretjiate. 
The individual tree dies, but the principle of life remains. 
The individual men and women who composed the nations 
of Greece and Eome are not to be found there now ; but if 
it is asked " Where is the spirit, the essential part that 
constituted those nations ? " the true answer comes — " It 
is here, around and within us, in our books and our lives, 
diffused over the civilized world in the things that make 
it refined and beautiful, as well as in the law and order es- 
sential to its government." This order and beauty, like all 
essential principles, belong to the spiritual, that does not 
perish. Every real existence is endowed with it. There- 
fore, as was shown on a former page of this history ( see 
Chapter VII ), that this neighborhood is such a real entity, 
an existing thing, our object should be to get at its essential, 
its spiritual part, which includes the life of the place, and 
on which depends the problem of its present condition 
and future destiny. 

It may now be perceived that in selecting material for 


our Annals, the principal effort is to describe such events 
as appear to have closest connection with permanence of 
condition and character ; not slighting, however, everyday 
incidents, such perhaps 

" As have no sHght or trivial influence 
On that best portion of a good man's life, — 
His little, nameless, unremembered acts 
Of kindness and of love." 

Preliminary remarks being at last disposed of we come 
to the events of the rushing year. A year of action and 
life it has been ; one sharing, too, in the prosperity of the 
country. True, it has not passed without visitations from 
the " pale messenger," but in each case it was the " ripe 
fruit that was shaken from the tree." 

This general activity was shown in a shape which is 
perhaps the most striking. New buildings are exception- 
ally numerous and fair to look upon. Three large barns, 
which naturally come first, seem to claim, from the high 
position on which they are erected, that degree of respect 
always accorded to them by a farming community. The 
year boasts also of two fine new dwellings; one, a neat 
and comfortable addition to the aspiring village of 
Ashton; the other exhibiting, near the shore of Rock 
Creek, a specimen of ornamental architecture such as 
was not previously attained in our section. 

As the erection of good houses and barns is one of the 
most important evidences of improvement in a country, 
it is a fact worthy of record, to state that within the 
period embraced in this historical sketch (a space of 16 
years, or since the war), we may count up, among build- 
ings either wholly new, or so much repaired as properly to 
be reckoned among the new ones — of houses 30 (not 


counting a number of tenant-houses) ; of barns 22 
(beside 25 stables, wagon-houses, shops and such). These 
are the property of our 85 families. There are at least 
20 new additional houses within the circle bounding our 

Taking the months in regular course, we note in regard 
to April (a very important month to farmers ; once let 
" Time's forelock " out of your hands during this precious 
month and you will have trouble enough to catch up 
with the old fellow — Ijut this is a digression). Last April 
was steadily cool, and not so favorable to the rapid ad- 
vance of vegetation as it was to plowing and building. 
The youthful class enjoyed themselves in practising on 
old amusements and in organizing new ones. The 
Sociable closed for the season. The Horticultural made 
a bright commencement at Xorwood. Fruit was full of 
promising bloom. But while this month was full of ani- 
mation to others, it was made very sad to our elder histo- 
rian, by the death of an only sister and brother. Xearly the 
same loss fell during the year upon him who writes this. 

May. The month came in cool, and continued so 
rather steadily, the thermometer on the 3d being at 37°. 
Instead of raising a May-pole, our young men spent May- 
day in raising a big barn for William Lea. The new style 
of making barns, 20 to 25 feet to the square, and the in- 
troduction of new machiuery, render this old business 
somewhat different from what barn-raising used to be. 
Still the crowd assemble in numbers of 100 or more, 
and partake the abundant entertainment, very much as 
they did in the olden time. Everything went on satis- 
factorily, to the great relief of many who looked 
anxiously on. 

The same proceeding with nearly the same method, 
and nearly the same favorable results, was repeated on 


the 14th of the month, in raising the barn of ^Ym. H. 
Farquhar, on the site of the conflagration described in 
this story a year ago. A cheerful, vigorous crowd, over 
70 in number, lent their willing hands; and though 
much was said about the folly of using such a superfluity 
of men to accomplish a Avork that is done in some places 
with one-tenth of the number here employed, the im- 
pression produced on my mind was very favorable to the 
scene before me. There was so much of the hearty 
hilarity and social feeling described as belonging to the 
" good old times " we read of. Nor must it be forgotten 
that some 30 to 40 of the gentler sex brightened the 
scene by their presence, doubtless imparting vigor to the 
muscles whose activity was needed. 

To this month belongs another scene, of very different 
order, in which that sex bore the most conspicuous part. 
As a memento to be handed down to future generations 
(it would have astonished the former), the programme 
is hereto appended. See 

1st PARTE. 3ncl PARTE. 

1. Aukl Lan,!? Syne, by yc whole 1- Home Again, by All ye Syngers. 

Companie. 3. Ye Old Sexton, by Brother Zaolia- 

3. Dost Thou Love Me? by Sister riah. 

Ruth and Brother Simon. 3. AMERICA, by ye whole Coni- 

3. Hail Columbia, by all ye Syngers. panie. 

4. Y''e Bloom is on ye Rye, by 4. Auld Robin Gray, by Phoebe 

Brother Caleb. Mayflower. 

5. Ye Dearest Spot, by Every One 5. Cousin Judediah, by All Ye 

of ye Syngers. Syngers. 

C. Within a Mile of Edinboro Town, 6. Old Folks at Home, by ye wliole 
by Phoebe Mayflower. Companie. 

7. Yankee Doodle, by ye Mankind 7. John Anderson my Jo, by Rosa 

Syngers. Belinda. 

8. Coming through the Rye, Rosa 8. Marseilles Hymn, by every one 

Belinda. of ye Syngers. 

Sister CAROLINE POUNDKEYS, from ye village of Baltimore, will 
sounde on ye Spinet for ye Syngers. 


Lively and innocent amusement was made the means 
of filling up the empty coffers of the Lyceum. 

June. "A yery j^leasant and good Quarterly Meeting,'^ 
is the first record of this month ; attended with none of 
those objectionable disturbances which have sometimes 
been made by rude visitors from town. This month, 
though decidedly cool for awhile, was distinguished by its 
favoring weather, there being just enough rain in the early 
part and becoming dry toward the close, so as to make a 
good time for harvest. Wheat ripened fast, of a quality 
and quantity not to be complained of; and the grass crop 
came out all right. " The boys," besides doing full duty 
at their respective harvests, rendered acceptable help to 
one who was sick ; making with the aid and presence of 
the "girls," a choice frolic. 

July. As usual, many boarders and strangers came to 
the neighborhood ; of whom nothing remarkable is related. 
There was about the average of summer travel by our 
people ; a number were to be seen paddling in the ocean 
deeps (or rather "shallows"), while others with alpen- 
stock in hand, climbed Mount Mitchell, mightiest peak 
of the Alleghany range, returning with such glowing 
accounts as to turn the attention of tourists in a new 

At an early period in the month the now familiar sound 
of the steam whistle began to be heard, token that thresh- 
ing was begun. This music, very animating if not 
melodious, was rendered still more exciting by prospects 
of the increased price of wheat. Those who sold gained 
no great advantage by their haste, but had the satisfaction 
of superior energy in being aliead. They will be very apt 
to do the same next year, and probably make a suc- 
cessful hit. The hay crop came out much better than 


was anticipated, proving a source of profit to those wlio 
did not make engagements too i^astily. 

And now, the " labors of the harvest being ended," our 
young men who had stood up so faithfully to their work, 
" bearing the burden and heat of the day," are quite 
ready for recreation — for recreation that will recreate 
most eifectually. Dropping the old game of base ball, 
whether the relish for it was outgrown, or because the old 
ground had been plowed up, where should they turn? 
In this age of progress it could only be to seek for com- 
rades in sport of a higher order; comrades, who formerly 
were merely spectators, noiu to be indeed comrades in the 
game! But in order to do justice to the subject, it is 
absolutely requisite that I should "drop into poetry." 
The subject demands it; your historian's known esthetic 
predilections must not be stifled. What shall it be ? 
Nothing appropriate occurs but these lines : 

" Forth from the pass, in tumult driven, 
Like chaff before the wind of heaven, 

The Archery appear ! 
For life, for life, tlieir race they ply — 
While shriek. and shout and battle-cry, 
And plaids and bonnets waving high. 
And targets flashing to the sky, 

Are maddening in their rear." 

The only excuse that can be made for introducing such 
inappropriate verse as the foregoing, is the fact that the 
lines would keep running a race in my head. Could any- 
thing be less appropriate to describe the archery meetings 
of last summer ? 

A green lawn ; gayly colored target, with circular divi- 
sions pleasing to the eye ; long bows, curved in the line 
of beauty; fancifully decked arrows; lively maidens, 


bending with native grace the bow which impels the 
arrow against — no vital part; sport "that owes no pleas- 
ure to another's pain " ; all these, in the fresh air and 
nnder the blue sky — how could a young farmer find a 
recreation more delicate, more refining, more innocent? 

And yet ancient faith requires a glance at the other side. 
So powerful is the influence of amusements on the tone of 
society; their quality is regarded by historians as such an 
indication of the rise and progress, or the decline and 
fall of a community, that new ways are not to be passed 
over. In reference to the sports of archery, there are 
some observing critics who view them as out of keep- 
ing with rural life; affording a measure of exercise to a 
class not specially in need of it; involving expensive prep- 
arations; communicating no new ideas of value; and 
being severe on delicate fingers. Since pleasure is some- 
thing not to be measured by rules of science, the true 
w^orth and nature of archery as a farmer's game must be 
left to the parties most nearly concerned, who are not 
entirely oblivious to the comfort of others outside. 

The weather of July was somewhat peculiar, and ex- 
tremely variable. About the 25th there fell some heavy 
rains, following distressing drought, which completely 
changed the face of the great corn crop; a dearth had 
threatened, but the deliverer came, leaving some disagree- 
able mementoes, in deep scratches in plowed fields. 

August came in hot and growing. Eain fell in exces- 
sive abundance. This being comparatively a leisure 
month with farmers, the tourist feeling took possession of 
a number. Amusements grew more and more lively — 
archery fairly boomed. Sport of a more doubtful char- 
acter began to exhibit a degree of excitement among 
some of the young ladies, which elicited from an old 


bachelor (of course) the sharp remark that "the sex, 
grown weary of being hunted, would now a-hunting go." 
On the other hand, a new Bible Class was formed in this 
month ; so various and multitudinous are the ways of this 
neighborhood getting to be. 

In this month William Henry Gilpin died — a happy re- 
lease for him — his life was a sad one ; deprived from early 
years of the faculties which alone render persons respon- 
sible for their actions. 

It is proper here to record that at the close of the 
month many of us were saddened to hear of the very sudden 
death of Gerard H. Reese, in Baltimore, who had been 
closely knit by ties of friendship and kin to a large circle 
at Sandy Spring. 

September. This is the month of Fairs, and our people 
bore a full part in the two that most concern them. They 
swept numerous premiums at Eockville ; and at our 
Lyceum they made the Horticultural Fair a complete suc- 
cess, as regards the chief purposes for which it is designed, 
viz. the assemblage of a friendly crowd, and the unequalled 
exhibition of flowers and fruits, with the no less aesthetic 
triumphs of culinary art.. 

On the 3d of September, 1879, occurred one of those 
tremendous sports of our atmosphere, which are fortun- 
ately exceeding rare in any one place. The first Cyclone 
mentioned in the history of the neighborhood passed sev- 
eral miles through what may be called its western interior, 
or very nearly its centre, with a varying width of thirty 
to seventy yards. Coming doimi (for that seems to suit 
the course that cyclones take) between the land of Stephen 
Holland and that of the old Cashell family, it struck and 
twisted in cyclone fashion the limbs of a cherry tree, and 
went on scattering heaps of manure in the adjoining field. 


then into the quiet abode of the ancient dead, where the 
heavy tombstones of wife and husband were flung, one to 
the east and one to the Avest, — passing on through a gap 
in the cornfield (made by itself), at the edge of which it 
dug up some potatoes, and even the weeds of the patchy 
after this low freak, its course was ascending, for a few 
hundred yards merely brushing the tops of the forest trees. 
Again dropping into a field of Augustus Cashell, it lifted 
three or four stones out of their bed ; for a space of half a 
mile its track was barely discernible, then skirting the land 
of Penuel Palmer, it struck with tremendous force into 
the woods of Frederick Stabler, prostrating the largest 
trees ; next, after an interval, it passed into the woodland 
of Joseph T. Moore, playing havoc there (perhaps the 
most destructive on the whole route), then into William AY. 
Moore's cornfield, scraping the very earth, and close by a 
tenant-house which escaped serious injury. Still on, pre- 
serving very nearly the same direction of north by east, it 
came to James Powell's, where it moved the corn-house 
from its foundation so gently as scarcely to spill any grains 
from an open barrel of wheat which it carried along. 
James H. Stone and William H. Parquhar were the next 
victims of the tornado, suffering just alike in the orchard 
and the front yard. The last named lost a half dozen of 
his most valuable apple trees, and had the symmetry of 
his ornamental trees sadly and lastingly impaired. After 
leaving this place the cyclone made one more tremendous 
dig into some large trees on the public road west of 
"Charley Forest,'' taking down an apple tree or two of 
Si. Bowen's; its further track could be just followed, un- 
til near the field of Mahlon Chandlee, not far from his 
dwelling, the whirlwind went up into the higher regions 
whence it fell. This rising and falling of the cyclone 


was a very peculiar feature ; viewed from the hills, the 
double cones mec^ting in hour-glass shape, the numerous 
inner whirls partially detached, — the wind rushing in at 
the edges of the track, — all these features of a real cy- 
clone — ours had them all ! Yet the damage to property 
was very small to what it might have been with a little 
bend in its course; the injuries to person none. 

Something new occurred in the quiet sphere of the 
Monthly Meeting in making an alteration of one of the 
answers to the Queries. It was to the effect that too many 
of the younger portion of the Society passed in their pur- 
suit of pleasure beyond the line of moderatmi, in which 
alone lies safety. For moderation is the key to true pleas- 
ure — " a key to the plan of God." There is no question 
as to the fact that our young people are becoming more 
devoted to the pursuit of pleasure, than they were in 
former times. It does not follow they are growing tuorse: 
only more excited. A whirl not so destructive as the 
cyclone, but like it, rushing, booming, pushing, has got 
hold of them; forward is the word; but not always 
onward and upward I Like the cyclone, it tends to 
uncover the roots. Hunting the bear and the deer in the 
glens of the Alleghanies, as was done successfully last fall 
by some of our young men, who gained health and vigor 
there, is doubtless gallant sport; but of that other — the 
bag fox business — the least said the soonest mended. 

A wise philosopher declares that the fault most prolific 
of evil among the vices is sloth. Philosophers are liable to 
make mistakes, but it appears to me there is truth in that 
doctrine. Does not virtue consist in doing f All progress 
certainly does. Now herein lies the excellence of Sandy 
Spring — such as it is ; and in its exemption from sloth 
consists the freedom from vice — so far as that is wanting. 


It is due to facts touching these ethical subjects, that the 
following record should be made : there came to certain 
households a visitation of sore disease, attended with 
deepest affliction. Then were tlie same young men and 
maidens who had been foremost in the pursuits of pleas- 
ure, now among the first to proffer their kindly services at 
the bed of pain. While of the manly youth, not one even 
of those who are most given to sport and fun is ever 
accused of the excesses that have been the ruin of many 
flourishing communities. 

Scanning impartially the actual condition of our neigh- 
borhood, it seems as if the sanitary question was now 
of chief importance. Physical health has so much in- 
fluence on future prosperity as well as on present comfort 
that it claims the earnest attention of all who love their 
race. The best way to get an answer in this concern, to 
the significant question — " Watchman, what of the night?" 
is to refer to facts bearing directly upon the situation. 
Individual cases must here be regarded as impersonal ; 
that is, as concerning us all equally. 

The cases mentioned must be taken, as the lawyers use 
them, to establish their object by employing a supposi- 
tious case. They naturally include those belonging to the 
more delicate half of the race, whose health is undeniably 
of even more importance to the general welfare than that 
of the other and more robust half. Inquiring of a mother 
whose daughter is at present from home, whetlier the 
latter would not return to stay during the next year, the 
reply was — one to be noted — "the social dissipation 
(using that word in mildest form) prevailing at Sandy 
Spring is such that I think it would be better for my 
daughter not to be exposed to the influence, till her 
Jiealth is more consolidated.'- The next case relates to a 


young lady whose health has latterly not been so good as the 
many friends who love her would ardently desire ; having 
lengthened out a recent visit beyond the appointed period, 
she gave the reason for it quite seriously, that "she 
believed it would be better for her health to rest awhile 
from our neighborhood visiting, especially the being out 
so much and so late at night." 

It is difficult to judge how these simple statements will 
impress those who listen to them; but my feelings in 
writing them down are something more than serious — 
they are awful! I will spare you further reflections 
of my own ; but entreat most earnestly that you will give 
the subject the reflection it deserves. You, young men, 
who must be mainly (not wholly) responsible for the 
growth of such a social condition as is indicated in cases 
like the foregoing, your more robust constitutions do not 
experience so quickly the inevitable results of excess in 
social pleasures ; yet you are, if possible, more interested 
in the health of those whose soundness of health is to be 
of such vital consequence to your own welfare and 
happiness. It is not too much to say that a large portion 
of the neighborhood's future welfare, growth and pros- 
perity depends on a reform which will bring about the 
inoderatmi demanded alike by good feeling and good 
sense. Let me here refer to a little book, just published 
by Dr. Henry Hartshorne, entitled " Home." It contains 
the counsels of an able physician, and a well-known, 
highly-esteemed friend. 

October was very dry and warm, making the farmers 
uneasy about their wheat. 

November possessed several interesting claims on 
our attention, as that month usually does. First came 
the election of our State officers and representatives ; in 


the result of wliicli we were disappointed. Better luck, 
we hope, next NoYember ! 

The various Associations flourish. The Benevolent 
Aid Society holds its Second Annual Meeting, and begins 
its winter career ; the winter proved so extraordinarily 
mild that the need was small for its charitable minis- 
trations. A general regret Avas expressed, that the failing 
health of the President, Caroline H. Miller, compelled 
her to resign a position which, it is no idle compliment 
to say, she adorned. 

On the 27th of the month a very large gathering of 
neighbors and friends was received by Eoger B. and 
Caroline M. Farquhar in their new dwelling (before 
described) near the shores of Rock Creek. It was 
" Thanksgiving Day," appropriately chosen for the pleas- 
ing, ancient ceremony of "House-warming." To the 
good taste shown in the construction of this fine building 
was added a greater charm, the good feeling that collected 
so large and so varied a company, filling the house with 
the warmth of social enjoyment. Chief Judge R. J. 
Bowie was introduced by his own request to Thomas C. 
Groomes, the successful architect of the building ; and 
all came away at a seasonable hour, thinking ratlier better 
of themselves and of one another. 

December was in part enlivened by a wedding on the 
16th; followed on the 18th by another entertainment at 
the Lyceum — the joint production of the Sociable and the 
Musicale. This mingled aesthetic and useful performance 
was deserving of the highest praise ; being projected and 
accomplished by the ladies, without any assistance from 
the other side. It was a full success in all the arrange- 
ments, even allowing the audience to get home at a 
respectable hour of tlie night. This triumph may be 


useful in taking dotvn the vanity of the other sex, who, in 
youth, are apt to think nothing can be done without their 

In the article forwarded by my younger assistant, full 
of appropriate material for our history, there is no notice 
of the "Dickens Calendar" for 1880, a work which has 
assisted to spread the literary fame of Sandy Spring over 
a considerable section of the country, and has been ac- 
knowledged in England, as something which will be 
looked for in '81. It was prepared by Mary B. Thomas, 
with assistance in the ornamental part from Harriet I. Lea. 

The year 1880 came in with the remarkable weather 
which has signalized our Annals. The consequence was 
a great failure of the now indispensable ice-crop. Not a 
total failure ; some have filled their houses ; a number 
have partly filled ; others say they mean to have ice some 
way. Those who have none are encouraged by the old 
saying, "a warm winter makes a cool summer." 

A lady from the north, Amanda Deyo, made a deep im- 
pression in the latter part of the winter by her eloquent 
lectures. The language of Mary B. Thomas is the unvar- 
nished truth, who writes, " If the visit of Mrs. A. Deyo to 
this community does not bear good fruit in the coming 
years, it will be the fault of as, who having ears to hear, 
hear not. Her soul-stirring appeals in favor of peace, 
of temperance, and of woman suffrage, will long be remem- 
bered by those who had the rare pleasure of listening 
to this truly eloquent and gifted woman. She also 
delivered several sermons of great power and pathos ; and 
her course of lectures to ladies upon physiology was well 
attended." Her lecture on woman suffrage was the most 
able of the four. It may be truly said, the strongest argu- 
ment presented by Mrs. Deyo in favor of woman's capacity 
to vote, was the lady herself. 


The revival of interest felt in religious questions was not 
originated by friend Deyo, although well seconded by her 
eloquent discourses. Several causes were at work. Other 
ladies from a distance helped to stir up the new life, which 
gained fresh animation from influences coming from an 
opposite direction ; opjjosite as to modes and forms, and 
ideas of mediators ; the same, as looking to the source, 
centre and end. An indication of new life Avas shown by 
numerous meetings of the members of Friends' Society, 
held for the purpose of revising the Discipline. The 
changes proposed exhibit a liberal and enlightened senti- 
ment, and if met in other quarters by the same spirit may 
prove a durable point of reference, perhaps " a new de- 
parture," in the progress of the Society. 

The allotted space to which the annals of a year are 
limited, renders it impossible to do justice to the various 
associations, whose number and quality defy descrip- 
tion. Sufficient to say, they have all lived and flourished 
in lively manner. (The Debating Society was exalted to 
fame bestowed by the newspaper.) At least two new 
Societies have entered into existence, if indeed the " Tem- 
perance Society " can be termed a new one. Youngest of 
all is the " Peace Society," which begins already to call 
for Amanda Deyo ; it furnishes however a pleasing, ap- 
propriate motto : " Let us have peace!" 

As we are nothing with all our societies and lectures if 
we fail in giving to agriculture the first place in our 
interests, it would never do to pass without notice the 
Annual Convention of the Clubs, held now in the 1st 
month for 7 years (with 8 meetings). The last one 
exhibited the same lively interest in the great cause as did 
all the preceding. Farmers coming from a distance 
formed an acceptable part of the meeting; for, despite 


the accusation of conceit against Sandy Spring (at which 
none laugh more heartily than ourselves) we are more 
than willing to acknowledge our obligations to other 
farmers, and to own with pleasure the great improvements 
going on all around. A lively picture of this is given by 
Mary B. Thomas, one of our historians. 

In connection with fiirming incidents, I note a change 
made by the venerable "Farmers' Club of Sandy Spring" 
— the father of all the clubs; having made a new de- 
parture in the time of their meetings, so as to have the 
benefit of moonshine in returning home. The idea was 
borrowed from the practice of the younger clubs, who 
must feel great satisfaction in the instruction which they 
gave their elders. 

This year of '79-'80 has been distinguished by the 
general revival of business over our country. The best 
evidence which we can ofier is found in the annual state- 
ment of our Savings Institution. On March 1st, 1880, 
the amount on hand was |1 03,088. 14, the gain for the 
year being $14,772.10. The deposits made during the 
single month of March exceeded in amount the aggre- 
gated deposits of any quarter since the Institution Avas 
organized. While these results afford a just cause for 
satisfaction, they impose on our directors a deep sense of 
responsibility on account of the increased load laid upon 
them, and a solemn duty to make safety the polar star in 
guiding their future proceedings. 

Our other great institution, holding a much higher 
rank in the business transactions of Sandy Spring, namely 
" The Mutual Fire Insurance Company, of Montgomery 
Connty," has had the opportunity which it has never 
delayed to embrace, of paying promptly a heavy amount 
of losses by fire. Yet it is a remarkable circumstance 


that the losses for the tirst quarter of the present j'ear, 
usually rntming up to about $10,000, have fallen short of 
$500; owing to the extraordinarily mild winter. 

The record showing the three important events of 
human life alone remains to be put in place. It will be 
recollected that, in making these statistics, the reference 
is exclusively to the 85 families — 407 individuals hereto- 
fore named. ' Still the interest felt in other neighbors, ac- 
quaintances and friends, is too strong to allow an entire 
omission of events nearly concerning them. 

Of marriages are reckoned three. 

October 21st, 1879, Charles F. Brooke and Cornelia S. 
Miller, by the beautiful and dignified ceremony of 
Friends' Society. 

December 16, 1879, Benjamin D. Palmer and Miss 
Mollie Mackall. 

January 15th, 1880, Allan Farquhar and Charlotte H. 
Pleasants; this marriage being recorded in the clerk's 
office at Eockville, and the first in the county per- 
formed by Friends' ceremony where neither party was a 

Of deaths there have been but two, within the limit of 
our neighborhood census. 

Ninth month, 15th, 1879. Ann M. Stabler, wife of 
Caleb Stabler, after a short illness, in the 80th year of her 
age ; a kind and loving spirit, respected by all who knew 
her, young and old. Her peaceful death was the natural 
close of a peaceful life. She was laid to rest in the family 
burying ground at Alloway, in a perfect autumn evening, 
w^hich seemed typical of her ripe years of usefulness, 
followed to the grave by children and grandchildren — 
such as constitute the best "mother's monument." 

Tw^elfth month, 26th. Phebe Farquhar, after a long 


tiiid most distressing illness, having nearly readied her 
75th year. I^o children followed her to the tomb ; but 
weeping brothers and sisters, nephews and nieces and 
sorrowing friends, testified to the high esteem and 
respect with which she had been long regarded. From 
her very birth it had been her lot to suffer with complaints 
of a nervous character; but these, while making life a scene 
of much distress, had no power to dim the brightness of 
extraordinary intellect, nor to lower the tone of high, 
pure moral conduct. Deep thought, strong feelings, yet 
reserved, and intense admiration of the noble and beau- 
tiful in nature and character, Avere her most impressive 

A wider view taken by our friend Hadassah leads to 
mention the death of Jonathan D. Barnsley, who died very 
suddenly by a stroke of apoplexy, on the 29tli of 
January, 1880. And of John Osborne, whose remains 
were brought from Baltimore to our burying ground ; 
and of Sally Keith, a very meritorious woman. 

First month, 23d, 1880. At Philadelphia, in the 52d 
year of her age, Alice Bentley Stabler. This lovely and 
lovable woman came in the summer of 1818 from Ohio, 
where she was born, and resided in the neighborhood of 
Sandy Spring for a number of years, during which 
she gained many warm friends. Their interest and 
affection were manifested in paying the last tribute to her 
remains when brought back for interment in the private 
cemetery of Thomas P. Stabler. 

Our Statistical Eeport stands for this year, births 5 (4 
boys and 1 girl) ; marriages 3 ; deaths 2. 



From Fourth Month, 5th, 1880, to Fourth Month, 4th, 1881. 

Changes, ■which way ? — Historian's proper business — Evolution — 
Darwinism — Subjective and Objective — Real Value — (Ther- 
mometer 32° on 4th Month, 8th, once 88°) — Peach buds de- 
stroyed — Library for Grange — " Local Option Campaign " — 
Census of Friends — Dr. Scott in Europe — Binders, first em- 
ployed — Sad, sudden death of Dr. J. W. Magruder, and others 
— The Farmer's vacation — Improvements at Ashton and else- 
where — Premiums at Rockville Fair — Orthodox Meeting House 
finished — Gold Mining roused again — "Glorious Victory of 
Local Option" — Afternoon First-Day Meeting — "Oh, the 
long and dreary Winter ! " — Fast Driving — Farmers' Con- 
vention collects 200 — Mrs. Mullan's letter — Judge Bowie's 
death — S. Ellicott's, Jas. Stone and B. R. Roberts. 

The individual who looks back over periods of his past 
life must recognize the fact that a change has been going 
on in his inner self; although he may perhaps be nnable 
to satisfy his own mind as to what direction it may have 
moved. Was it forward or backward, npward or down- 
ward? that is the question wiiich the reflecting person 
naturally asks himself. It must have been one way or 
the other ; and it is scarcely necessary to add that it is a 
right important matter — wliicli was the way 'i 

The interest I have felt in this historical sketch for 
these last seventeen years has mainly proceeded from the 
comparison Avhich my mind has been carrying on between 
the life of the neighborhood and the life of the individual. 
The conviction has grown and strengthened that there is 
a close resemUance ; and I have thought that some profit- 
able reflections might be gathered therefrom. 


The proper business of the historian is no doubt chiefly 
concerned with describing actions and events ; what may 
be called outward facts : so that history is properly oh- 
jedive. But in a degree it is also subjective; for it 
penetrates into the causes of things; it looks within, to 
examine the motives from which actions spring. 

But human life, whether of the individual or the com- 
munity, would be imperfectly described if the inquiry be 
confined either to actions or motives — one or both. Not 
what we are or have been, but what we are becoming^ that 
is, coming to he, is the great point. To use the more 
scientific modern expression, the question to be examined 
by us is, how does the evolution of the neighborhood 
proceed ? 

After having used already the rather hard words " ob- 
jective and subjective," it may seem severe upon my 
audience to introduce this formidable term ; but there is 
no advantage in trying to shun such expressions now, 
especially in a place enjoying the reputation of Sandy 
Spring for keeping up even with the advanced literati. 
Evolution must be regarded as an established fact. Not 
necessarily in the way that Darwin speaks of it. As to 
his theory, wiiich undertakes to describe the beginning 
and transmigration of all things in the universe, especially 
of human beings, we may still fairly claim to apply the 
•Scotch verdict — ''not proven! " 

Still there is no denying the fact, fully established by 
modern science, that every thing and person, all the 
faculties of body and mind that go to make up the human 
being, are always and all the time undergoing the evolving 
process; and, like "poor Joe," compelled irresistibly "to 
move on ! " This decree of the Creator is established by 
no Scotch verdict, but tlie Almighty mind. 


^ow, just as the individual, be he young or old or of 
middle age, has been ''going on," or "evolving" (which is 
a better word, because the process is "from within, out- 
ward 'Oj so has it been wdth this neighborhood, viewed as 
a whole, constantly going through the universal scheme 
of evolution, ever since it first began to be an organized 
community by building the meeting house down yonder. 
It is interesting and not unprofitable, certainly not untrue, 
to regard that spot, with its change of structure, as the 
central point where " began, continues, and (may we not 
say?) wdll end the life of this Sandy Spring." 

My work is now to trace, with the help received from our 
two valuable auxiliaries, the course of events, and especially " 
such as have most directly contributed to the evolution that 
has taken place in the neighborhood since the last Annual 
Kecord. Of course ^\e shall adhere to the objective 
mainly, since innermost motives, although the real source 
of outward actions, are generally too secret and sacred for 
our pens to intrude. Before commencing the Monthly 
Eecords, it seems proper to make the general statement 
that our people have fairly and fully shared in the obvious 
acknowledged prosperity of the United States. Yet»in 
setting this claim forward I am forcibly reminded to put 
the question. What constitutes prosperity? Where the 
heart is recently torn by grief for the loss of friends who 
were so near and dear, how insignificant, so far as human 
happiness is concerned, appear those large crops, big 
barns, inflated bank investments, and all worldly gains ! 
AVhen some of its best inhabitants are taken away by 
death, the neighborhood learns to estimate what it is that 
constitutes real value. 

April, 1880. The first event chronicled this month 
was a fire that occurred near the Patuxent river, among 


the Johnson family. It was not a large house, but tlie 
loss was felt very severely by the sufferers. Such lively 
efforts were made by our people, living in the vicinity, to 
provide clothing and other necessaries for their relief, 
that a portion of the supplies sent from a distance was 
returned. First came fire, then frost; the latter did 
the most damage. On the 8th of the month the ther- 
mometer sunk to 32° (on the same day of the same 
month, years ago, it rose to 88°). Of course, apprehensions 
on account of the fruit were generally excited, which 
were proved by the results to be only too true. Peach 
buds were destroyed, occasioning serious loss to persons 
who have been increasing their stock of trees; the few 
who escaped the damage received corresponding ad- 

The first meeting of the Horticultural Society for the 
year was held in this month at Olney on the 16th, and 
was admitted by the large company that attended to be a 
very interesting affair ; but none could tell Charles Far- 
quhar how to save his peaches. 

The lovers of amusement, reinforced by a visitor from 
New York, commenced in this month to gratify their love 
of sport, by the practice of what is called " Ball Shoot- 
ing." It is described as an exhibition of wonderful skill ; 
and is certainly very innocent. 

An entertainment of quite another sort was had at 
Olney Grange Hall; it was packed with an animated 
crowd, that came to enjoy a fine concert and each other's 
company. The benediction was in the object; the col- 
lection of 225 persons producing a considerable sum, to 
be devoted for the benefit of a library for the use of the 
members of that worthy Order; and, perhaps, for a 
number outside. 


May. The most important minute of the month's pro- 
ceedings is found in this notice — "Now begins the Local 
Option Campaign." The weather 'was warm last month ; 
but toward the end. of this the heat, with the drought, 
became excessive. The census taken on the first day of 
this month, of the members of Sandy Spring Monthly 
Meeting, shows a total of 247 — divided, as follows: adult 
males, 76 — females, 84 — male minors, 45 — female minors, 
42. This preponderance of boys occasioned some surprise ; 
but it is probably owing to the fact that one party 
remains under the denomination of minor till he reaches 
the age of 21, while the girls cease to be so after 18. A 
singular fact relating to the census is that in each of 20 
families there are just 3 children. 

June. The first day of this beautiful month was sig- 
nalized by a large Local Option meeting in the court 
house at Rockville. A plan of organization was adopted, 
which worked splendidly, and led to a success beyond the 
expectations of the most sanguine advocates of the great 

Considerable interest was manifested at times during 
this month and the last, in "cables" from the other side 
of the Atlantic, telling of feats of skill in shooting at 
long range, performed by our fellow-neighbor. Dr. Samuel 
I. Scott. Some pride in the success obtained in the far 
foreign land by one of our " Sandy Spring boys," was 
very natural ; even for those who prefer to admire the 
skill manifested in his immediate profession. Still 
" nothing succeeds in the world like success." 

The appointment of our Lyceum President, Benjamin 
H. Miller, as one of the Maryland delegates to the Presi- 
dential Convention in Chicago, Avas of local interest; 
his last vote being generally approved. 


A matter of equal or superior interest, namely the 
harvest, approached with rapid strides. None earlier is 
remembered. Considerable excitement was roused in the 
use of binders, now first successfully employed amongst 
us. Uncertainty in regard to the yield of the wheat 
crop continued longer than usual. The correct verdict 
probably was " somewhat above the average, on the whole, 
yet varying very much in individual cases." Threshing 
actually began in this month. 

I cannot forbear recording, as a matter of general 
interest, the return of Eliza N. Bentley to her old home ; 
briuging another charming attraction, beside herself, in 
books and pictures. 

A tragical death occurred on the 14th, caused by 
kerosene — Mabel Peirce the victim. 

July, 1880. Another very sad and sudden death oc- 
curred near the Bone Mill; Jane Cuff falling in the 
night into a well. 

It is a time of tragical deaths. In the afternoon of the 
13th of this month a large company held the usual 
monthly meetiug of the Olney Grange; and while all 
were enjoying the entertainment, at which no one assisted 
so agreeably as Dr. John Willson Magruder, he suddenly 
dropped on the floor, and by the coming of dawn next 
morning, his bright, bold spirit had left its splendid 
earthly tenement a mass of lifeless clay. A void was 
left there, never since filled. 

In this same month occurred, near Rockville, a horrible 
tragedy, not to be named or described. 

An extraordinary rainfall happened on the fifth, which 
measured five inches, though lasting scarcely two hours. 
Harvest closed as it began, very early; oats being cut 
the 4th. 


A young officer, Thomas L. Moore, took his place in 
the " M. F. I. " — whose services and deportment therein 
have been wholly satisfactory to those concerned. 

In tliis month, invalids and others not much sick, 
sought the springs, the mountains, and the ocean shore. 
I know one who hrought out of the water a grievous 
trouble that lasted years. It is a pleasing task to close 
the record of an awful month with the announcement 
that the 15th was chosen as their wedding day by Edward 
]Sr. Bentley and Hallie Chandlee. 

August. The farmers' comparatively leisure month — 
which they are certainly entitled to, for the recreation 
that best suits them, whether it be travel abroad or 
enjoyments at home. Tours were taken by Caleb Stabler, 
B. Rush Roberts, Henry C. Hallowell and others, whose 
years and character gave assurance that they were not 
likely to get into mischief, though the line of travel 
carried some of them near a thousand miles away. 

In relation to amusements of the more youthful portion, 
the remark was made some time in July that it had been 
so far "a quiet season." It continued so; although the 
archery games were resumed with lively spirit.. Your 
historian, having a better opportunity of making obser- 
vations, at a meeting held before his own door, by the 
large group now constituting the Archery Club, can 
testify that the players and the game form an animated 
picture very pleasing to the eye. At the same time, 
he perceived that there were more and stronger impulses 
stirred up amongst the players than he liad been aware 
of. All pleasant so far, no doubt; but capable of being 
carried far enough to lead to mischief; "human nature" 
will exert itself. 

Improvements must be noted, as usual, in several 


places : buildings at Ashton ; a fire-proof at Sandy Spring ; 
the free use of field beans as a fertilizing material ; their 
introduction into this neighborhood beiug due, I am told, 
to the enterprising spirit of Henry H. Miller. Corn 
begins to promise a heavy yield. 

September, 1880. This month developed rapidly 
through its early stages, the assurance that the corn 
crop was going to be very fine, especially for those who 
had followed the fashion of late j^lanting ; the success of 
a doubtful practice, owing, as seems to me, to unusual 
amount of rain. The Horticultural Fair held at the 
Lyceum, near the beginning of the month, was very well 
attended, but, to use the mild expression of my worthy 
colleague, " the various articles were not quite as numer- 
ous as at some other exhibitions." Not quite, indeed. A 
more profitaMe Fair was looming in the near future ; and 
contributors preferred "to put their productions where 
they would do the most goodP Which they did. 

The Fair of the Agricultural Society, at Eockville, 
again suffered severely from disastrous weather. Great 
pains had been taken to insure a success, and liberal 
premiums profusely offered; but no exertions of the 
worthy President could make up for heavy rain. Con- 
tributors from Sandy Spring luid not much to complain 
of; securing over $250 to their portion, out of near $950 
off'ered to the whole county, not including allowance for 
the races. No doubt those who profited most by the Fair, 
having merited all they received, will be found ready 
to assist liberally in relieving the sore need of the Society, 
Since faith in equinoctials as a reason for changing the 
time of meeting was not successful, shall we depend 
on Yennor next time to fix the date ? 

The wheat seeding began in the latter part of September 


more extensively than usual, and the present appearance 
would favor the practice. A Local Option meeting was 
held on the 26th, and attended by a large throng. Eloqnent 
speakers, especially Mr. Nye and Dr. Magruder, addressed 
the meeting, and a boom for Temperance was excited, 
which will tell at the polls. 

The Orthodox Meeting House, built in a very convenient 
location on a half acre of land, bought of B. Rush Roberts, 
was finished this month; the first meeting being held and 
quite numerously attended, in the 11th Month. This 
being one of the subjects affecting the interests of the 
neighborhood, a few remarks may not be out of place 
here. I think the general impression is one favorable to 
tlie influence of the new church. Some stir was produced 
among us at first, and that may do good in a community 
for the most part so well satisfied and comfortable as to 
be in some danger of growing too indifterent and quiet. 
The moderate degree of excitement thus awakened being 
controlled by the spirit of charity, which, I verily believe, 
prevails throughout this section, can only tend to freshen 
up the interest of our members in the principles inherited 
from a long line of faithful ancestors ; while it must con- 
firm their regard for the old sj^ot where the forefathers 
began to assemble a century and a half ago, and Avhere 
their remains rest in peace. 

October, 1880. A month dry and very dry, bat drilling 
in the Avheat goes on lively. Gold mining, or rather the 
spirit of it, is roused again near the old spot, at Brooke 
Meadow. Digging has also been done in the land of 
James S. Hallowell, but so far without practical result. 
Many wells have given out that failed to be restored until 
far into the winter. My colleague writes that she has 
nothing to note during the month. The politicians 


would not agree witli her. One thing does deserve to be 
noted, for it was indeed "a thing of beauty," namely, the 
more than usual brilliancy of the autumn foliage. 

November. No scarcity of subjects now. The great 
event of the second being the election of the President, 
for whom the larger number of us voted, attended with 
the still finer victory of "Local Option" ; these taken to- 
gether produced more pleasing excitement than I ever 
knew at any previous election. The best part of the 
triumph is the moral one : every district in our county 
giving a majority, in all amounting to 1530, against "free 
liquor." The coming May will see it put into action, 
unless those who won the victory shall suffer its fruits to 
be lost. 

The day thus made so bright and glorious w^as followed 
by one that filled with sincere mourning the many friends 
of Samuel Ellicott, who departed this life the third of 
November, 1880. 

It was in this eleventh month that one of the concerned 
female friends made the proposition to have an afternoon 
meeting on First-Day, with a special object to interest the 
young friends in the principles of the Society. The sug- 
gestion (of Patty T. Farquhar) met with approval, for it was 
thought that some explanation might be given of Friends' 
doctrines that would be new to many and profitable to all. 
The first gatherings were in considerable numbers, and 
they have continued, although diminishing in degree, and 
designed to be kept up on every alternate First-day. It 
was to be anticipated that an undertaking of this kind, so 
new in its character, would meet with doubtful support, if 
not direct opposition from some of our members. The 
purpose was not fully understood ; and as it came to be 
explained by those who differed in their views, it was 


natural that some confusion might result. One of the 
chief objects of the undertaking was to impart to children 
clearer views of the principles of the Society to which 
they belong. Probably this purpose has not been fully 
accomplished as yet ; but it may well be regarded as within 
the reach of diligent, devoted effort, even though there are 
difficulties connected with it. The alternate evening 
gatherings to hear expositions of Scripture, and consult on 
other religious subjects, still go on. It may be justly 
claimed that the evidences afforded during the year now 
closing of increasing interest in religious questions cannot 
be doubted ; which ought to encourage all who feel that 
such interest is essential to true, real progress. 

During the early part of November a sufficient quantity 
of rain fell to give the wheat a fine start. Also a violent 
wind-storm came on the 6th, about 11 P. M., doing con- 
siderable damage to the trees at Eockland, and to sheds 
and stacks elsewhere, performing some very remarkable 
feats, resembling a cyclone. 

On the night of the 28th, at a point of time very near 
the coming of a new day, Benjamin Kush Koberts passed 
from works to rewards. 

December. The new month came in with his funeral : 
and the long train of friends that followed his remains to 
the grave, showed, though imperfectly, the high respect 
felt for the departed. 

On the morning of the 8th, James 11. Stone passed 
away very quietly, after a long illness of nearly two years. 
He was last to go of the three whose death made such a 
serious break in the long list, hitherto unbroken by death, 
of the old " Farmers' Club of Sandy Spring." 

Until the 20th of this month the weather had been 
variable, though rather cold 3 now, the winter is on and 


before lis — the memorable winter of '80-'81, the most 
severe for a quarter of a century. "Oh, the long and 
dreary winter ! Oh, the cold and cruel winter ! " was the 
Cry of many, in sympathy with Hiawatha. Yet few were 
much hurt. The impressions produced on our minds by 
the sad losses of friends at the beginning of the season, 
had, doubtless, much influence in casting an aspect of 
gloom over the period that followed. 

Among the events of the season the writer must not 
forget to refer to the long period of sleighing, lasting 
nearly, eight weeks; and in perfection of quality probably 
never surpassed. How much pleasure attended it and 
what interesting combinations are yet to result from the 
numerous merry rides taken by our youths and maidens, I 
am quite unequal to describe or foretell, — but must speak 
a word for an important party in the jolly concern. 
Fortunately for the riders and the beasts that drew them, 
the epizootic of the previous autumn had borne lightly on 
the health and strength of the horses ; else the immediate 
sequelcB of the sleighing frolics might have been less 
agreeable. It is a scientific conclusion susceptible of 
proof, that a considerable portion of vigor and power was 
drawn out of the beasts by the continued rapid movement 
which was unavoidable. It is not to be supposed that 
many of the horses which flourished in the winter of '80- 
'81 will ever reach the 25, 28 and 35 years that were at- 
tained by three at Clifton. In those earlier times, the 
average speed in lively driving was not over five miles an 
hour ; now it could not be put below seven. Probably 
the period in which the owners of horses will enjoy their 
use will be found in the same proportion; that is, as 
5 to 7. This makes a great diff'erence in actual value of 
the noblest of beasts. Does the comparative satisfaction 
hold the same ? 


In agricultural commuuities, the treatment and con- 
dition of horses are justly considered next in importance 
to that of human beings. It is an undeniable fact that 
horses are being driven fast and faster; in one sense I 
suppose this is progTess. But I could not forbear an 
earnest eflbrt to invite attention to a subject that does 
really come near to "the business and bosoms of the 

If prose fails to convince, pray listen to a few lines of 
genuine poetry. While riding the other day behind a 
horse, once very sleek, but now looking rather forlcii'n, the 
idea rose to put a question to the animal — "What do you 
think about this fast driving, which I well know you 
have experienced ? " and the answer came : 

'•The only art my shame to cover, 
To hide my ribs from every eye. 
To bring repentance to my lover 
And pinch his pocket — is to die I " 

and die he did — or soon will. 

Januarv, 1881. The new vear beiuo^ that of which so 
many disastrous prophecies have been made, came in with 
thermometer at 10° to 28° (minus), the latter being the 
lowest figure ever reached in this neighborhood ; and was 
at or near the banks of " Hawlings Eiver." 

The first business affair, as usual, was the Annual 
Meeting of the stockholders, or rather members of the 
Mutual Fire Insurance Company of Montgomery County. 
It w^as attended by a larger number of persons than usual, 
on account of the interest felt in the election of a director 
to supply the place of B. Eush Roberts, who had been for 
many years one of the most active and useful members of 
the board. The choice of Charles G. Porter gave general 
satisfaction. This large institution, having now property 


insured to the amount of $13,750,000, with premium 
notes over |930,000, has paid during the year losses by 
fire over $22,000 (which is less than the average of late 

The Farmers' Convention was worthy of a fuller account 
than I have time or space to give ; but the published notices 
of the proceedings amply supply deficiencies here. The 
number coming from a wide sweep of country was estimated 
at 200. A new feature was introduced which proved very 
popular. The meeting beginning now at 10, the ladies 
came in at 12, bringing us a luxurious dinner, and Avent 
like a flash of light. The president's introductory re- 
marks were excellent, and two essays read by Dr. Frank 
Thomas and Charles F. Kirk were far above the common 
sort. The new feed called ensilage was exhibited, and 
well explained and recommended by Robert F. Roberts, of 
Alexandria, Va. The County Grange held a delightful 
quarterly meeting at Brighton. Lea's mill changed hands, 
Henry T. Lea coming to the steam mill, and George L. 
Stabler taking the one he left. 

A newspaper article appeared in the "Baltimore Amer- 
ican," written by a lady, Virginia Mullan, giving to our 
beloved neighborhood, so far as she became acquainted 
with it, such admiring appreciation as would no doubt be 
almost too much for our well-known modesty to allow of 
my copying it in this place. It shall be filed away for 
future reference. What a loss that the lady did not get to 
see the whole of the neighborhood, when she manifested 
such true perception of a part ! 

In this month of January, on the 22d, Wm. Henry 
Farquhar, Jr., was married to Isabella Robbins, of New 

February, 1881. About the middle of this month the 


snow and sleighing left ns, and we saw with great satis- 
faction the bare gronnd once more : wheels took the place 
which rnnners had usurped so long. Even the young men 
acknowledged for once they were tired of sleighing; but 
it would appear that a young woman tired of sleighing is 
a phenomenon yet to be seen. On the 22d of this month 
three persons Avent from the neighborhood to attend a 
" Centennial of a Friends' Meeting House," in Baltimore, 
the oldest place of worship in the city. The house is 
kept in beautiful order. 

As usual, February is not an exciting month. Excite- 
ment waited for 

March. The inauguration of President Garfield was a 
grand affair, more fully attended and more interesting than 
usual. The only drawback Avas the dismal weather. No 
President has taken his seat with so many favorable omens 
for very many years. But troubles must come. (!) The 
world is in such a state of universal excitement, the 
booming elements so far from a condition of harmonious 
operation, and yet all the nations drawn by recent dis- 
coveries and inventions so much more nearly together 
than ever before, that a clashing in some point is surely 
unavoidable; and when it comes, history wdll have to 
record other scenes than those which happen in our 
peaceful neighborhood. 

Peaceful as we are, we cannot all tliinh alike. The 
spirit of compromise is, however, always at hand to settle 
such differences as may occur. So it proved at the annual 
meeting on the 10th of this month, of the " Sandy Spring 
Savings Institution." The new treasurer, Joseph T. 
Moore, who has certainly found the place he was designed 
for, produced a report which was very flattering: it shows 
amount now on hand, $136,698, paying to depositors an 


interest of $6278.56, leaving a surplus owned by that 
mysterious body called "the Institution," of $2320.59. It 
also exhibits a list of moneyed inyestments now worth 
. $7000 more than they cost. The question arose, shall the 
interest now allowed be 4 or 5 per cent. ? That blessed 
spirit of compromise decided on 4*, to the general satis- 

How varied the incidents that affect the feelings of 
mankind ! At the usual First-day meeting, held on the 
13th, after listening with rapt attention to a moving dis- 
course delivered by Caroline H. Miller, with that clear- 
ness, beauty, and impressiveness which characterize her 
addresses, we were startled and shocked by the announce- 
ment from Koger B. Farquhar, of the death of Judge 
Richard J. Bowie, about the middle of the preceding night. 
If it is ever proper to include the name of one not a 
resident in our local mortuary record. Judge Bowie had 
the fullest unquestionable claim to this tribute of our 
respect and love. He had always manifested these feelings 
towards us in a remarkable degree. At a time when 
Sandy Spring was far from receiving the testimonies of 
regard ordinarily shown by neighboring communities 
toward each other, we could look to Judge Bowie as 
a fast friend, I might almost say as a protector in 
those troubled days. Thus was our mutual regard 
cemented by ties that only death could sever. So much 
has been well, truly, and beautifully written and spoken 
of this departed ornament and stay of our county and 
State, that it is needless for me to enter into further 
delineation of his spotless character, or to repeat in this 
place the praise profusely and justly lavished on Judge 
Bowie by the many writers and speakers who were prompt 
to undertake the ready task. Measured by my feelings, it 


is a relief to express the opinion that he who praised 
highest came nearest the full truth. Such a union of 
purity and mental power, of firmness and gentleness, of 
courtesy and dignity, of those excellences of mind, soul 
and person " that give the world assurance of a man," is 
indeed rarely found. 

We hear nothing but favorable accounts from our vari- 
ous societies, social and literary ; Olney Grange with its 
new library in the number. The Lyceum proceedings are 
rather stagnant ; the suggestion being made that its bright 
spirit has moved to the village of Mechanicsville, which 
is "all right!" 

Special mention is due to the Benevolent Aid Society, 
which began its work on its regular day, the first Tuesday 
in Xovember, and continued its semi-monthly meetings 
till the 29th of this month. Although the demands for 
assistance during this most inclement season might have 
been expected to increase over the past year, such was not 
the case. Of the $50 received from subscriptions and 
donations, there remain at the winding up ^15, which can 
be usefully employed in the summer. Does this look like 
a justification of thoughtless remarks predicting that the 
alarming influence of these charities would be to increase 
the number of worthless idlers ? Xo ; it is very safe to 
give to such distributors as this Association — ^just try 
it freely — " and don't you forget ! " 

William John Thomas, after a very busy life as a 
farmer, last autumn relinquished the occupation to his 
son, who bears the name of the old-time original builder 
of the house — John Thomas — a brother of his great- 
grandfather. This is the third case of the kind happen- 
ing in this neighborhood within a year; wherein the 
venerable sire, having done his share of the world's work, 


leaves his son to do the same. May he, in each case, do 
as well, or better ! 

Your historian, having already prepared in Avriting 
several tributes to the memory of onr three friends who 
departed this life near the close of the year 1880, has 
received with much satisfaction the following obituaries 
from the pen of his two colleagues. 

Samuel Ellicott died 11th month, 3d, after a long and 
suffering illness. He was a very remarkable man. Though 
deprived of sight in his boyhood, he became one among 
our best farmers ; loved and respected by all his friends. 
He was the first member of the old club " to cross the 
river and enter the Beautiful Land " — 

" The Land — by the spoiler untrod, 

Unpolluted by sorrow or care ; 
It is lighted alone by the presence of God, 

Whose throne and whose temple are there : 
Its crystalline streams, with a murmurous flow, 

Meander through valleys of green, 
And its mountains of jasper are bright in the glow 

Of a splendor no mortal hath seen." 

Died, 12th month, 8th, James H. Stone, passing away 
quietly, after a very long and depressing illness; fully 
prepared for "the happy change" — so far as one human 
being can judge the condition of another. He was faith- 
ful and industrious in the work which occupied his time. 
A farmer of the sort so much needed in our neighbor- 
hood, distinguishing himself by a steady course of im- 
provement ; so that he left a flourishing, productive, in- 
viting tract, where he found one little better than a barren 
waste; and to do this is to perform one of the cardinal 
duties of country life. He was a true friend and kindly 
neighbor, always ready to lend and to help. 


Benjamin Rush Eoberts was born in Chester county, 
Pennsylvania, in the year 1810. His father dying prema- 
turely, the young lad was thrown on his own resources at 
a tender age, but he took with him out into the busy 
world the priceless riches of truth, honesty, perseverance 
and a good heart. He came to Baltimore to live, appren- 
ticed himself to an apothecary, and after some years of 
close application, he entered into the drug business on his 
own account, and was, almost from the first, very suc- 
cessful. He once told the writer he was convinced that 
any one, working steadily and honestly at lohatever he 
could do lest, might secure a competency for old age. He 
married the eldest daughter of John Needles of Baltimore, 
and they lived together nearly 44 years, a happy, united 

The druggist is almost proverbially short-lived. B. 
Rush Roberts, preferring health to wealth, relinquished 
his occupation when in the full tide of prosjDerity ; and 
moving to Sandy Spring in 1851, he took his place among 
us as a practical farmer, and was ever foremost in advo- 
cating agricultural reforms. It will be within the bounds 
of truth to state that there was not a single public efifort 
here aiming at good results in which he did not join 
heartily, identifying himself completely with his new 
home. With no children of his own to provide for, the 
boys and girls whom he wisely aided to become self- 
supporting are scattered from the Delaware to the Missis- 
sippi. Who can estimate the future harvest of good deeds 
which may spring up from this good seed ? His house 
was ever open to any who needed shelter ; he constantly 
put in practice the truth that " when you trust a man you 
place him under the wholesome restraint of public 
opinion"; and although he gave the meanest tramp 


shelter, his hospitality, so far as we know, was never 
abused. A servant who lived at his home of " Sherwood," 
said that " if people were not nice when they came there, 
they got so before they left." During the war Miss Dix 
was quietly informed that she might select a number of 
hospital nurses who needed recreation and send them to 
Sherwood for a fortnight each ; they came by twos and 
threes, and returned cheered and strengthened. 

His offices of trust were many and varied, and the duties 
of each were discharged with energy and fidelity. While 
he was no man's enemy, he was not afraid of any man ; 
and in small things as in great he dared to do what he 
helieved to be right. His cheerful disposition, his charity 
of thought no less than of deed, his kindly greeting to 
young and old, combine to make his memory precious, and 
we believe that all who knew him will agree that Sandy 
Spring is the better for his sojourn amongst us. 

While a noble and correct life enabled him to meet 
death without fear, still the complete and orderly arrange- 
ment of his temporal affairs had much to do with the 
serenity of his last days on earth. His sufferings were 
great, yet his patience and sweetness of disposition never 
failed, and his childlike faith never wavered. Not long- 
before he died he said : " It has always seemed to me that 
religion was a simple thing, and I have thought it con- 
sists in doing each day what we believe to be right." He 
quietly passed away during the night of the 28th of 
November, and was laid to rest on the first of December, 
1880, while the flood of the sun's setting rays seemed 
typical of the glory into which he had surely entered. 

Statistics of our neighborhood for the year, as before 
stated : Births, 4 (2 of each sex) ; Marriages, 2 ; Deaths, 3. 



From Fourth Month, 4th, 1881, to Fourth Month, 3d, 1882. 

Transfer of the ''Early History "to "The Introductory "— The 
Woman Board of Directors — Fund for benefit of Library — 
Close of the long, cold winter of 1880-1881 — Three little boys 
and a girl, great comfort to Grandparents — Death of President 
Garfield — Excursions to a distance — Successful use of Ensilage 
— Double Tin Wedding — Schools looking up — Aid to suf- 
ferers by Michigan fires — Election of a Friend, Joseph T. 
Moore, as Senator of Montgomery County — Engineers come and 
go — New arrangements in Friends' Graveyard — F. D. S. — 
Exhortations to the Young — Diphtheria. 

[Ill the manuscript book where these Animal Reports 
were originally entered, this Chapter was made to consist 
chiefly of the " Early History of Sandy Spring." The 
publication of the book has rendered it appropriate to 
transfer that section to the beginning, where, with the aid 
of a more careful research, it may occupy its place as an 

The usual amount of space and time being thus fully 
employed, the historian will be excused for giving a very 
condensed account of the incidents of the last twelve 
months. In order not to neglect any important events, 
w^e take them as usual in monthly order. 

April, 1881. The first entry of my esteemed and re- 
spected colleague describes the death of her niece, Sarah 
F. Townsend, in language so appropriate and beautiful 
that it will (as it should) be carefully preserved. It 
occurred at Dresden, Germany, 4th month, 11th, 1881. 

My younger colleague makes the statement, very properly 
inserted here, that " for the first time a Board of Directors 
composed entirely of women was elected at the Annual 


Meeting of the Lyceum Company." Also, that "a de- 
lightful Concert at Grange Hall was given for the benefit 
of the Library ; amount collected being nearly $50." The 
latter part of this month was rendered pleasantly memor- 
able by the change of weather, closing up at last the long, 
severe winter. 

May. Only the sad record of the birth and death in the 
same day of a son to Edward N. and Hallie Bentley, is 
furnished this month. The little one, who is without a 
name from either of my associates, finds here, at least, a 
slight memorial. (Grandma finds a name — Herbert.) 

June, 1881. This is one of the months that shall be 
called " wonderful," and none can dispute the name. 

On the 10th, a little boy, at Charles F. Brooke's, name 
" Warwick " — their firstborn. 

On the 13th, Helen Lea presented her husband with 
twins — "John" and "Henry." 

On the 16th, a little girl, at the " Cedars," name 
" Marion." Quite a time of rejoicing ; granddaughters 
being scarce in that family circle ! 

The Seventh month (July) opened with an event of the 
saddest nature and of universal interest. The tragical 
murder and death of President Garfield was felt as keenly 
at Sandy Spring as everywhere over the world. 

One of the many expressions of the general grief is pre- 
served here, as too feeling and comprehensive to be forgotten : 

" The emblems of mourning which arrest the eye on 
every hand, and also in remote and unfrequented places, 
attest in the most touching manner the extent and depth 
of the public grief over the death of our late President. 
It is expected on such occasions that public buildings 
and tall edifices will be hung with the symbols of sorrow, 
and such manifestations are taken very much as matters 


of course. But when private dwellings, including those of 
the poor and humble, in city and country, the shop of the 
artisan, the secluded farmhouse, the country blacksmith's 
shop, the sleeve of the errand boy, are alike decorated with 
something which tells that a human heart is sore because 
our President is dead, we feel that a great wave of human 
love and sympathy has swept over the land. And not 
over our land alone. The echo of our lament has come 
back to us from the other side of the water — first in the 
noble and womanly message from the Queen of England, 
herself a widow, to the widow of our unburied President; 
then in the tolling bells and draped flags of that stern old 
country, whose sorrow is never counterfeited, and whose 
sym23athy has seldom, if ever, been so greatly stirred by a 
calamity happening beyond her own borders, i^ever has 
there been an affection so nearly universal among all 
civilized nations. Nobody can stand in its presence with- 
out gaining a grander view of hnman nature and feeling 
a closer kinship to his fellow-man. It has been the lot 
of President Garfield to fill great places in the world, but 
the greatest by far is that which he now holds, unchange- 
able by events and incorruptible by time, in the hearts 
which far and near follow him to the grave." 

Eighth month. Month of vacation for farmers, who use 
it in that way. As usual, many strangers and boarders 
in the neighborhood, and a receding wave from Sandy 
Spring. Boston, Y\'hite Mountains, Mount Desert and 
Kew Mexico, with excursions to "the Springs" and the 
Ocean, also the new, increasing attraction of Luray Cave, 
were the chosen spots for the summer. Drought begins. 

Xinth month. Drought continues and becomes severe. 
The experiment with Ensilage was tried by Edvv^ard P. 
Thomas with complete success. Whatever helps the 
dairyman is bound to be a success. 


A very interesting tin wedding was celebrated by Alban 
G. Thomas and his wife, which was conveniently made to 
include, at the same time and place, a similar celebration 
for Eoger Brooke and his wife. The next entry I see and 
copy with regret is simply " rowdy games." When, 
where, or by whom played is no way mentioned; cer- 
tainly they had no connection with the preceding cele- 

The death of President Garfield prevents the Horticul- 
tural Fair. On this sad theme Caroline EL Miller delivered 
an eloquent address in the Meeting House, which was 
highly acceptable both to those who heard and those who 
afterward read it. 

Rockland School opens its fourtli session with a large 
number of very interesting pupils. Other schools resume 
their duties; among which that of J. Llewellyn Massie 
deserves respectful notice. 

Tenth month begins with a very high temperature; 
but on the 6th frost comes, with thermometer 32°. The 
ladies form a Literary Society, conducted in a way that 
does them much honor. A larger group of the same active, 
benevolent, refined portion of the human race make a 
highly successful effort to aid the sufferers by the Mich- 
igan fires. A full narrative from the pen of the Chair- 
man of the Committee, Sarah T. Miller, is appended to 
this record, by request of the Benevolent Aid Society. 

Eleventh Month, 1881. The most exciting event of this 
month was the State and county election, at which one of 
the Friends of Sandy Spring, Joseph T. Moore, was 
chosen Senator for Montgomery County. 

The engineers for a new railroad appeared on the old 
ground ; they did not fool us much this time ! 

A proposition was made in the Monthly Meeting, which 


was afterwards approved, to have family lots in the grave- 

The First-Day School was removed to the Lyceum; 
where some 40 girls and boys attend with profit. 

Caroline H. Miller gives another excellent address in 
meeting, being an exhortation to the yonng people to de- 
vote themselves to pursuits of a more improving character 
than the pleasures for which there is a growing attraction. 

A little girl arrives at Granville Farquhar's ; her name 
is "Faith." 

Twelfth Month, 1881. A general aspect of green over 
the face of nature, rather peculiar for the commencement 
of winter. 

The sympathies of the whole neighborhood were greatly 
moved by the ravages of diphtheria in the family of a 
highly-respected neighbor, John Brady. AVithin less 
than a week four of his children, all grown, were carried 
to our graveyard. Notwithstanding the danger of infec- 
tion, two of our young friends, Lucy Fawcett and Hannah 
B. Brooke, went to the fearful dwelling to assist the 
suffering ones — the former remaining two months. 

On the 26th of this month, Cleorah Palmer, the widow 
of our old family physician, passed away to " the Spirit 
Land," after being afflicted with delicate health for 
several months ; a truly kind and thoughtful friend and 

First Month, 1882. A new director, Henry M. Murray, 
of Anne Arundel County, was elected to our Fire Insur- 
ance Company. 

No ice came for a long time ; but about the 25th we got 
a fair abundance. It is worth while to state the fact that 
several of our ice-houses have had a supply of this now 
essential article for every year of the past thirty. 

At the Farmers' Convention, on the 12th, 150 men 


collected and discussed the interesting subjects of their 
business. This institution is no longer confined to the 
reports of our Clubs. 

Second Month. Henry C. Hallowell delivered a lecture 
on Health, being the first of the Lyceum course this 
winter. It is pleasant to see the literary hall again in 
use ; and upon a subject which is at last discovered to be 
one worthy the attention of the people. 

Third Month. In the absence of other material for 
this last month of the year, I have to record a list kept 
by one of our lady friends, of the number of " Visitors to 
Sandy Spring" within the past twelve months. She 
reports the number at 750 — coming from ten States and 

Year's Statistical Report: Births, boys, 7; girls, 3; 
total 10; deaths, 8; marriages, 0. 


From Fourth Month, 3d, 1882, to Fourth Month, 2d, 1883. 

Conclusions of the Lyceum Company to print the ' ' Annals ' ' — The 
Last always melancholy — Gibbon's Decline and Fall — Meta- 
morphoses from the War, its epithets " scattered to the wind " 
— Difficulties of the Historian — Cold May— Close of F. D. S.— 
The army worm — Pleuro-pneumonia — Infants' party — The 
three weddings at Rockland — Great crops of corn — Fruit 
scarce — Telephone makes slow progress — Horticultural Exhi- 
bition at its best — Potato rot — "Benevolent Aid Society" — 
"Heat is life, and cold is death!" — Higher grade school 
at " Sherwood " — Rise of the farmers — The R. R. look to the 
" Narrow Gauge " — The " Bank" and '• F. I. Co." — Obitu- 
aries — Last tribute by C. H. M. to Garfield. 

The proceedings of our last Annual Meeting are brought 
up afresh in your memories by the report of the Secretary, 
and the decision in regard to printing the "Annals of 


Twenty Years " must now be made. Whatsoever be the 
conclusion at which we arrive, it is certain that the His- 
torical Sketch here laid before you by the present writer 
"will be the last. This word, however or whenever it is 
used, has a pathos of its own which I am confident you 
have all experienced. The readers of Walter Scott's finest 
poem — and who has not read " the Lady of the Lake " ? — 
must remember the lines — 

"It is the last time — 'tis the last," 
He muttered thrice — " the last time e'er 
That angel voice shall Roderick hear." 

The pathos of this oft-repeated word is naturally much 
more deeply felt on this occasion by the writer than by 
any who listen to him. In the same spirit he cannot 
forbear quoting a few celebrated lines — in form j^TOse, but 
truly poetic in dignity of style. They are the author's 
leavetaking of " Gibbon's Eome " ; and thus rather more 
appropriate 7iovj than was Koderick's sigh of love. Gibbon 
describes what he calls his "final deliverance" after 
tw^enty years' devotion to his great History. 

He writes : " It was on the day, or rather night, of the 
27th of June, 1787, between the hours of eleven and 
twelve, that I wrote the last lines of the last page, in a 
summer-house in my garden. After laying down my pen 
I took several turns in a 'berceau,' or covered walk of 
acacias, which commands a prospect of the country, the 
lake and the mountains. The air was temperate, the sky 
was serene, the silver orb of the moon was reflected from 
the waters, and all nature was silent. I will not dis- 
semble first emotions of joy on the recovery of my freedom 
and, perhaps, the establishment of my fame. But my 
pride was soon humbled, and a sober melancholy was 


spread over my mind by the idea that I had taken an 
everlasting leave of an old and agreeable companion; and 
that whatsoever might be the future date of my History, 
the life of the historian must be short and precarious." 

There have been few writers of history who would 
venture to institute any sort of comparison between their 
works and " the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire." 
It is quite needless to say that I have done nothing of the 
kind. But there has long been a particular attraction 
that drew my thoughts in writing the latter chapters of 
these Annals, to the melancholy view of Gibbon's great 
work; and the recent revision of those chapters has 
served somewhat to deepen the mournful impression. 
Not that I perceive such decided indications of decline 
among us as would justify the fancy even, that the evi- 
dent progress in our special business, in our growing 
institutions, and in other improvements of high character 
— all which are to be described without exaggeration 
further on in this chapter — that these last are to be 
douMed as more than overshadowing all gloomy prospects, 
not even fancy will allow. You will naturally be quite 
ready to attribute the sombre coloring spread over some 
parts of the present narrative, if any such there should 
be, to the difference which is unavoidable between the 
eyes that look out upon objects at the age of fifty and 
those which are dimmed by gazing around for seventy 
years. Having nearly attained the latter era, your once 
lively historian has reached the experience of the solid 
Frenchman, who declared that indeed " this world would 
be a very happy place to live in if it were not for its 

Looking back over the long period since these Annals 
commenced, and reflecting upon the various changes 


which are presented to the mind, one can hardly fail to 
perceive that the Sandy Spring of 1863 has been passing 
through certain metamorphoses indispensably required by 
the active movements of the busy world. During the first 
two years we were necessarily in the midst of a tremen- 
dous war. This experience, so strange and uncongenial to 
the principles and habits of the larger portion of our 
people, must have given a certain twist to the neighbor- 
hood which it would probably never wholly lose. War 
is a tremendously stirring influence; while its natural 
tendency would seem to be separation, it sometimes serves 
to unite. The latter effect was produced in this region ; 
and to such extent that it pains the writer to read now 
the expression of "rebel," which he freely used in the 
earlier pages of this history. All feelings of a hostile 
character are scattered to the winds; bitter enemies in 
those days are warm friends in these. In this spirit our 
neighborhood has moved on ; losing in the natural order 
some of its valuable members by death, receiving other 
valuable accessions from new settlers and from the grow- 
ing strength of our own energetic youth ; extending our 
borders by closer acquaintance with pleasant neighbors; 
increasing the profits of our regular business by improving 
the soil, by new machinery, new stock and new material 
for feeding them, by new ways of operating with gi-eater 
profit on the same old articles. 

From year to year it has been the aim of these annals 
to sketch the changes, and, especially, the jyrogress of 
things and people in and around Sandy Spring. A great 
difficulty has occurred in drawing the lines that bound 
the neighborhood. So cordial are the social feelings of 
our people generally, that the effort once made to produce 
a map of the neighborhood, which failed at that time from 


certain causes, appears now to be almost impracticable. 
The roads and the streams can be laid down with sufficient 
accuracy, but where will you find two of our own people 
who would fill the statistic column with the same names? 
Several attempts at forming a census are exhibited in the 
annals, showing an increasing population ; but the increase 
evidently exceeds the natural order, and must be owing, as 
it ought, to the growth of social influences. Neither sect, 
nor politics, nor aristocracy, not even county lines, define 
the limits of the neighborhood of Sandy Spring. The 
last attempt at a census was made for the first of the 
Fourth Month, 1879 ; when the number of persons was 
stated at 407 — the families 85. 

The year closing on this day has been a stirring period; 
events being made the more exciting by their more than 
usually opposite characters of grief and joy. Tliese inci- 
dents of human life have both come with features so 
strongly marked as to produce a deep impression upon us 
all. Leaving each event to its proper place in the record, 
we will go on wdth the usual monthly calendar. 

Fourth Month (April), 1882 — (to commence with the 
first act of the year). It was concluded at the Annual 
Meeting of the Lyceum that the historian should con- 
tinue his official work another year, with a view to possible 

The first note made by our respected friend who has 
been so important an adjunct in preserving the emotional 
statistics of these annals, is, as she says, "a sad one: 
Again the angel of death has passed over our neighborhood ; 
and Eliza Brooke, wife of George E. Brooke, has left us 
for ' the Beautiful Land ' ; loved and respected in a wide 
circle, she will long be missed, not only by her family and 
relations, but by her many friends. She was brought to 


Brooke Grove a bride in the springtime of the year 1840 ; 
and at the same season her loving eyes were" closed forever 
— having been married just 42 years and one week." 

On the morning of the 26th, Cornelia, wife of Philip 
T. Stabler, presented him with twins — two little girls. 
Certainly onr neighborhood is in a very flourishing con- 
dition ; two sets of twins having been born in less than a 

Fifth Month (May). Ann E. Stabler, wife of Edward 
Stabler, died on the morning of the 3d of this month, 
having reached the age of 84 years. A kind and loving 
spirit j)assed away to its heavenly home; after having 
lived more than 58 years in the same house. Therein all 
her children — ten in number — were born, all are living 
still. She was grandmother to the twins above spoken 
of, but had never seen them. A sketch of her life was 
printed by her husband and sent to many of her friends. 

The weather of May was not very May-like. At its com- 
mencement the Benevolent Aid Society appointed a meet- 
ing to provide clothing; the thermometer starting at 44°, 
with ice in the night. On the afternoon of the 2d, a very 
pleasant and large horticultural meeting was held at Fall- 
ing Green, though the weather was rather uncongenial for 
commencing the rosy spectacle. Indeed, roses suffered 
that night, where exposed to a temperature of 34°. The 
gardens were faithfully attended to, so far as wet grounds 

The prettiest and most charming event of this May 
month was exhibited on the 21st, in the women's side of 
the meeting house, it being the closing scene of the First- 
day school. A large collection of girls, with a smaller 
number of boys, who had attended faithfully through the 
season at their profitable morning exercises, listened to 


short speeches, and received the prizes they had merited. 
The same afternoon, at a few steps' distance, occurred the 
funeral of Kichard Tucker, an old resident of the yicinity. 
Another old resident, T. Jefferson Higgins, died on the 
18th of the 12th month. He had won the sincere regard 
of our people. 

Sixth month (June). Our Quarterly Meeting has nat- 
urally received from oiir friend the lirst notice of events 
in this month, claiming that "it was a very good one; un- 
usually quiet and orderly on the porches and around the 
house ; the committee appointed by the meeting to keep 
order did their part very faithfully." 

For the first event of June, another hand writes : " Two 
formidable visitations break suddenly upon the neighbor- 
hood; the army worm and the pi euro-pneumonia. The 
first was an entire novelty to all of us under 50 years old. 
The earliest conversation on the subject which I heard 
from was on the IStli of this month, at Edward P. 
Thomas's, and so uncertain its character at first as to use 
the expression * pseudo-army worm.' The mischief was 
considerable in a few places, chiefly on the grass and oats, 
while neither wheat nor corn appeared to suffer seriously. 
The stay of the unlovely worm was brief." Pleuro-pneu- 
monia on one farm, that of Wm. W. Moore, proved quite a 
serious affair. The official gentleman, Mr. Le May, paid 
two or three visits, but the legal arrangements intended to 
bear upon losses by this much dreaded disease appear to 
be less satisfactory than is desirable. This month gave us 
a considerable amount of cool weather. Of the 6tli there 
is this record, "An unusual day ; thermometer 51°, but no 
frost, which was actually feared." 

The most lively incident of the whole month was the 
" Infants' party," on the 16th. It was given, we may say, 


by Marion Farquhar, who was just one year old. The in- 
fants present were seven, with five other little children, 
and divers connections, including grandparents of course. 

Eockland School closed in a very interesting and pleas- 
ing manner to all concerned, including the girls them- 
selves. On the 28th Samuel Wetherald and Florence 
Sullivan were married, in Ashton Church. 

7th month (July). The most pleasant peculiarity of 
the weather this hottest of all months of the year, was this 
time an unusual coolness. This did not produce an un- 
usual degi'ee of healthfulness, but had rather a contrary 
tendenc}'. The physicians were very busy, and in the end 
had the great satisfaction of seeing their patients restored. 

There was a lively and memorable portion of the month, 
on which my respectable colleague comments in these 
words : " The three beautiful weddings at Eockland I how 
can I write about them ? I will leave the full particulars 
to another hand, for it was an occasion long to be remem- 
bered, especially by the very many who were present there." 
The peculiar interest of the celebration consisted in this : 
the most important periods in the life of six individuals 
were singularly (and very conveniently) joined in one. 
The marriage of the two young people, John C. Bentley 
and Cornelia Hallowell, taking place on the green sward 
and under the shady trees, was, of course, an event of the 
most consequence; while the "silver weddings'^ of the 
bride's parents, and of her mother's sister, added to the 
presence of a hundred near relatives, of whom a large num- 
ber had come from beyond the Mississippi to congratulate 
the happy parties, rendered the ceremony unique, as well 
as highly interesting ; and when in the evening, the lawn 
lit with lanterns, and the dwelling Avith liveliest lamps, 
were filled by an added crowd of friends and neighbors 


near 300 slrong, the happy event was complete to the sat- 
isfaction of all. 

It is pleasant to remember that the month was closed by 
a successful exhibition at the Grange Hall, which was got 
up in the cause of benevolence. 

8th month ( August ). On the 4th of this month the 
twins of r. T. and Cornelia Stabler were buried in the same 
coffin, having died about twelve hours apart, but not in this 

Rains fall of the sort very congenial to corn, which now 
shows how great the crop is to be. The grasses are simi- 
larly favored, so that agriculture may be said to be u^o. 
The value of ensilage is coming to be fully appreciated, 
and suitable preparations made to provide properly for one 
of the greatest agricultural discoveries of modern times. 

Fruits, especially apples, are very scarce ; peaches, par- 
tially distributed among a favored few. 

The scheme for a telephone was again vigorously started. 
It does not seem to make progress, except in the hands 
of James P. Stabler, whose inventive genius promises 
to be an honor to his name and neighborhood. 

Ninth month (September). The tribute due to a dear 
old friend, who died in this month, will be rendered 
hereafter from the expressive sketch of Caroline H. 

The continuance of the rains kept the corn too green to 
be cut at the usual period, and caused delay to seeding. 
Malarious influences still prevail. The Horticultural 
Fair was pronounced the most successful during the 
whole seventeen years. The President, who had been 
the life of it, showed his energy in another form by 
erecting buildings for the benefit and improvement of his 
prosperous school at Rockland. Two other very appro- 


priate buildings were put np by Charles Stabler and 
Samnel P. Thomas. 

Tenth month (October). Our friend mentions, as her 
only record in this month, a wedding on the 5th which 
she denominates " a very pleasant one, that passed off very 
nicely in every respect," — the parties being Wm. C. Riggs 
and Annie S. Hallowell. 

The three events in which our own business was concerned 
are the facts that corn was cut in this month, scarcely ever 
so late before ; that no frost came worthy of notice ; lastly, 
that the rot in potatoes is found to be a very serious 
infliction ; this loss has not been so heavy for a number 
of years — owing, no doubt, to the rains. 

Eleventh month (November). My senior associate 
" does not remember anything of extra note occurring in 
this month." The Clubs and other Associations took 
place as usual, also a revival of a precious, rational, 
improving " Eeading Circle." But there is a portion of 
our citizens who found the early part of the month more 
interesting than agreeable. I refer to the politicians; 
many of whom were disappointed by the election ; and 
yet not so hadly ^^ disappointecU^ Several of us thought 
that good may come of it. 

The Benevolent Aid Society resumed its hallowed 
mission; that is to say, the ladies did; the men rather 
avoided conspicuous position; they cdloiu women to be 
conspicuous in some matters, I should say, "in their 

Winter came on as it always does. The weather, which 
is the presentation of its leading phenomena, is the proper 
theme of your meteorologist; and he doubtless treats of 
the degrees of the thermometer, of the snow that shelters 
the wheat and troubles the old, and the sleighing that 


charms the young. How different tlie impression made 
on us at the two periods of life ! The expUination was 
made half a century ago by one of those self-taught men 
of genius that come occasionally to give a shock to the 
learned, who, while affecting to despise the rustic, are not 
ashamed to borrow and profit by his discoveries. It was 
Samuel Thompson that was the author of the great maxim 
"Heat is life, and cold is death." No wonder that we 
who are nearing life's upper border, should regard 
whiter in rather a different light from that which shines 
on and warms the young. 

Although the temperature of the winter of '82-'83 has 
been far from the severity of several seasons fixed in our 
memories, it is certain the season was not a genial one ; 
neither in the heart of winter nor the month that foretells, 
without bringing on, the spring. As I write — on the 24tli 
of March — my eyes are dazzled with the snow spread 
widely over the fields, and I have just exchanged salutes 
(not congratulations) with a company that came in the 
sleigh. Without indulging in complainings that are 
wrong and useless, we may be allowed — we cannot avoid 
grieving for sickness and death. Both have been with us 
to an extent beyond common experience. 

Before giving expression to the natural emotions excited 
by our sad loss, it seems only proper and right to refer to 
the pleasant topics and the earnest efforts toward im- 
provement of the people which have also characterized 
the cruel portion of the year. Toward the beginning of 
the monthly records, allusion was made to the charming 
close of last year's First-Day School. The resumption of 
last fall was rather later than usual ; but since it began 
and got fairly under way it may be said to have proceeded 
with more satisfaction than ever. The voluntary coming 


of 40 or 50 little girls and boys into a school devoted 
wholly to their improvement in that learning and those 
qualities that are the best for the life on which they have 
just entered, cannot fail of receiving the approbation of all. 
Perhaps the gratifying success of this juvenile moral 
school has assisted to arouse the whole community of Sandy 
Spring, includiiig some who are no longer residents, to 
a vigorous exertion of their best efforts to procure a school 
of higher grade, composed of both sexes, than any we have 
ever had. Help has come from nearly all directions. Our 
friend Mary Eoberts at once made the generous bequest of 
the land, which her husband, no longer with us, would so 
freely have bestowed. The essential pecuniary means is 
now secured, and there remains to be obtained only the 
one most important figure of all, — a well qualified teacher, 
to take the most useful post in human society. Kext in 
importance to these promising improvements of an intel- 
lectual character, showing that our people are resolved not 
to neglect their progress in mental pursuits, there has 
been strong evidence that the main business of our lives 
has lost nothing of its interest. Agricultural improve- 
ments abound everywhere in the variety of machinery pro- 
cured regardless of cost, in new stock of pure breed, and 
in substituting one farm product for another less profit- 
able. The use of ensilage, lately pronounced by high auth- 
ority to be the greatest discovery of modern times, is an 
encouraging proof that farmers deserve the disrespectful 
epithet of '•' old fogies " no longer. The spirit of improve- 
ment has spread all around the once neglected and forlorn 
fields of old Montgomery. A pleasant and lively evidence 
of this fresh spirit was exhibited at the last meeting of the 
Farmers' Convention in this hall, where a gathering of 
nearly two hundred practical agriculturists manifested the 


interest which they felt in actual improvements, and the 
determination that they should go on and prosper. Depend 
npon it, a force almost electric is being aroused over the 
whole land, to raise not only the soil but also the men who 
cultivate it, up to the elevated position which is their 
rightful place in a world that depends wholly upon them 
for existence. 

It is with great pleasure that the last chapter of the 
Annals which contains so many disappointed hopes of get- 
ting a railroad for Sandy SjDring, shall not be left by the 
old writer without some reference to future possibilities 
that the object so long desired may yet be attained. The 
scheme is possible now, because it looks no longer to other 
selfish corporations, but to its own energies. The practi- 
cability of " narrow gauge roads " being fully established, 
and the cost being thus brought within our reach, what 
shall hinder ? 

The railroad is one of the very desirable improvements 
for Sandy Spring that is in anticipation, — it may be " long 
a coming," but there are two accomplisliecl facts, the Fire 
Insurance Company, and the " Savings Institution," that 
have actually readied an elevated position, the statement 
of which is restful and reviving to the weary hand of your 
old historian. 

The Mutual Fire Insurance Company of Montgomery 
County will, in another month, have been in successful op- 
eration just thirfcy-five years; Edward Stabler being con- 
tinuous President, and Robert E. Moore, Secretary, with 
the office at Sandy Spring. It has had property insured in 
every county of the State, to the total amount, January 1, 
1883, of over fourteen and a half millions of dollars, and 
holding premium notes over a million. The losses by 
fire on these notes annually have been a little over three 


per cent. ; the payments having been promptly made, and 
with the least possible dispute. Estimated assets are 

The " Savings Institution of Sandy Spring '* has been in 
existence over fifteen years, commencing in a very humble 
Avay (as set down in former pages), and reaching March 
1, 1883, the condition as follows: 

"Amount on hand, $173,061 54. 

Investment in bonds, $79,304 05 

. In mortgages,. 73,325 00 

Sundries, 20,372 49 

The year ending March 1, 1883, has been a very pros- 
perous one in every respect ; the business large, with no 
known bad debts ; every demand promptly paid over the 
counter, without a second notice. 

[Extracted.] Joseph T. Moore, Treasurer." 

It now only remains to pay our sorrowing tributes to 
our friends who have gone before. The number is largely 
in excess of previous average losses by death. Of the two 
who left us in the spring, a feeling mention is made at the 
time of their departure by my associate ; who, in the 
present writing, takes her leave also of this record. In 
the next obituary you will easily recognize the words of 
Caroline H. Miller. 

Ninth month, 4th, died Edward Thomas, aged 72. 
Some thoughts of the dear friend, whose once familiar 
face must henceforth be but a pleasant memory, dwell so 
earnestly with me, that I trust their expression may not 
seem inappropriate. With him another link has fallen 
from the chain of goodly, I may say, of godly brothers 
and sisters; a chain which they have kept strong and 
bright through many years by love and truth. 


Another life has been laid down — that had indeed grown 
heavy through burdens of the flesh too grievous to be 
borne. Another faithful and loving wife has been left, to 
bear for a few years the saddest of all titles and loneliest 
of all lots ! We have parted with our loved friend forever 
to the outward vision ; but it will be long ere he is for- 
gotten! Though "he had known sorrow and was well 
acquainted with grief" — whom did he ever oppress with 
his murmurings ? None ! for true hero that he was, he 
wore his sackcloth underneath; his greeting always 
bright and pleasant; his words glowing with innocent 
mirth or sparkling with harmless wit — when can we for- 
get him ? Never! His memory will still be green in the 
hearts of his children's children when their fair young 
heads shall be whitened by the snows of time. Cheerful, 
patient, enduring man ! Strong in all that was good and 
true ! Such deaths are a real bereavement. We mourn 
him with sincere sorrow ; while we fervently exclaim — 
" Let me, too, die the death of the righteous, and let my 
last end be like his ! " 

Twelfth month, 8th, died Carrie M. Stabler, aged 9 
years, nearly. Our three friends whose departure has 
been recorded had reached an age that averaged over 75 
years. Highly as they were esteemed, and deeply as they 
were lamented, the loss had nothing unnatural about it. 
In the regular course of things their time had come to 
depart. The ripe apple falls easily to the ground. But 
for this dear, bright child, just come to an age when life 
begins to gather its sweetest fruits, and the 2^oiver comes 
with it to distribute of them — oh, so much ! — and most to 
those who are most near — how strange and mysterious 
are the laws that bring about these cruel ends ! Vain, in- 
deed, is any attempt to fathom or explain. Perhaps it is 


something worse than useless to try. I know that the 
little pet of our First-Day School will never return to 
join the companions she loved ; never fill out and perfect 
in this life the brisjht qualities of the true woman which 
her early years seemed to promise. This thought, in my 
own experience, under a similar affliction — this sorrowful 
thought that the gifted child could never unfold its gifts, 
was saddest of all. But another and holier thought also 
came : " Could such hopeless things be ? Could that which 
Avas best and most precious and most promising of all that 
■we see or know, or have to do with, in our whole experience 
of this life, can it pass as if it had never an existence, 
wholly away? This universe exhibits no such wasteful 
management. And once assured that our little lamb is 
safe folded in the arms of the Good Shepherd, it is not so 
long to wait ! " 

Twelfth month, 12th, died Mary B. Kirk. The writer 
of these tributes of affection to long-tried friends, thus 
rendered to him a "labor of love," has always been a 
warm advocate of marriage. But in contemplating a life 
such as hers, whose name is above written, one may justly 
feel a degree of uncertainty, at least as to the duty or 
necessity resting upon every woman to enter into wedlock. 
I have known Mary intimately ever since I was a boy ; and 
was acquainted, for the most part, with her manner of 
life. While sitting with the solemnized gathering of 
friends, assembled to follow her remains to the grave, 
within the room where she had dwelt during the chief 
portion of her life, a deep impression came over me. 
I seemed to see, and followed in thought, that life 
of hers spread out before me. And one clear figure 
marked the whole, forming into words substantially such 
as these : " The labors of her active life were directed to 


efforts, generally successful, to make other people more 
comfortable," always seeming ready to help everybody. 
Yet her life, especially the early part of it, was one of 
great, continued suffering; as the victims of the demon, 
dyspepsia, alone can rightly understand. Fortunately for 
her, and for so many others, she succeeded almost in 
throwing off the scourge. Then her devoted spirit was 
able to manifest itself; with results which tempted me 
to the suggestion that perhaps the world was the better 
for her life to have been one of single blessedness. 

2d month, 22d, 1883, died Wm. Henry Stabler, aged 81. 
Again the hand of death, so busy this cruel year, struck 
upon the old. But it fell with gentle force upon one well 
prepared for the stroke. For the period of a few years 
the strong life current which had marked his active, de- 
cided nature had somewhat failed, but long before his 
departure it returned calm and refreshed. "Wm. Henry 
Stabler was a man so long and widely known, his death 
forms an historicaJ event in our annals. On a former page 
there is a brief obituary notice of his son William, and a 
line describing him reads — "His industry, honesty and 
solid sense distinguished him as one to be relied upon." The 
father and son were much alike. As the phrase is often 
used, " He was a man who had very little nonsense about 
him." Steady and straightforward in his business, he 
asked and expected of others to do only what in similar cir- 
cumstances he would do himself. While attending closely 
and with success to his own affairs, he was by no means 
deficient in active efforts to promote the general welfare. 
One example of this I cannot refrain from placing on this 
record. It is some years now since the landowners of 
Sandy Spring were relieved from a nuisance both onerous 
and expensive. Probably there are many who forget the 


times when liogs and cattle roamed freely through our 
woods, compelling every one to keep his gates shut ; more 
still who forget the man most active to get the nuisance 
abated. That man was Wm. Henry Stabler. He was not 
the only actor in the case, but it is my distinct recollection 
he was decidedly the most efficient. Another and yet 
more important change in our neighborhood is due to the 
same source. But enough has been written ; of all the 
men among us he cared the least for praise ; only substan- 
tial qualities attach to his memory and name. 

It is by a strange coincidence that your historian's last 
" labor of love " in this way should be directed as it has 
been. The last similar contribution of the friend whose 
care and accurate observation have added so much of real 
value to our sketches is " to mention with expressions of 
deep sympathy " the death in Alexandria of one of the 
'•' Eockland scholars " from Bermuda. She remarks that 
it spread a gloom over our pleasant neighborhood ; softened 
somewhat by the tokens of lovely Christian resignation 
manifested by the stricken mother in the island far away. 

The record of our sincere tributes of sympathetic feeling 
toward valued friends would be quite imperfect without 
referring to the afflictions which now for three months 
have prevailed in the household of Washington B. Chich- 
ester. While it has been the lot of the distressed family 
to suffer in nearly all its members, the chief anxiety cen- 
tred during this long period in one who was the especial 
darling of her many friends. Hope of her recovery is now 
growing stronger from day to day. 

Twice before in the course of these annual records, 
which have ventured to come together and call themselves 
a history, the writer has made an unsuccessful attempt to 
bid "good-bye" to you, the constituents and proprietors of 


Sandy Spring Lyceum, and now and here the leavetaking 
is final. This hall may be truly called the centre of the 
intellectual movement of the neighborhood. Pass your 
thoughts over the twenty-four years since its construction. 
What a variety of uses it has subserved ! Perhaps it has 
never witnessed a brighter succession of rational entertain- 
ments than during the last year. This speaks well for its 
present managers and its future prospects. Our latest 
entertainment (though entitled by its high object to a more 
exalted name) was signalized among the many successful 
exhibitions by its large audience, by the nobility of its pur- 
pose, by the charm and excellence of the performance, 
above all by the earnestness, dignity and eloquence of her 
who instituted the brilliant scene. Francis Miller in this 
hall, just twenty years ago, made the suggestion which led 
to these historic records. How proper and agreeable then is 
it that the long narrative should close by referring to the 
success of his wife, Caroline H. Miller, in securing to the 
Lyceum Company a delightful entertainment, while fur- 
nishing a profitable contribution for the benefit of a hos- 
pital to be erected in honor of the lamented Garfield. 

The following sketch of Sandy Spring at an early 
period in its history, drawn up by Thomas McCormick, 
when nearly 90 years of age, was, at the request of Caleb 
Stabler, inserted in the Annals. 

My earliest recollections of this most delightful locality 
date back nearly 80 years. In 1797 it fell to my lot to 
become a member of the family of my uncle, Thomas 
Moore, of precious memory, after whom I was named. He 
was then living on his farm, known as " Eetreat," near 
Brookeville. Being only about six years old, I had been 
but little at school ; the only instruction I had received 
in that line was from drunken Irish wandering teachers, 
who knew but little themselves, and did not know how to 
teach children even when sober, much less when drunk. 
Such for the most part were the teachers we had at that 
time in Loudoun county, Virginia. Soon after I came to 
live with my uncle I was entered as a scholar in an 
excellent school that had recently been opened under the 
care and management of Isaac Briggs, a member of the 
Society of Friends. The school building was a very neat 
log structure, situated on the road leading to the Sandy 
Spring Meeting House, and near the residence of Basil 
Brooke. This school was patronized not only by the 
immediate neighborhood, but from the adjoining counties 
and from other States and cities. It may be interesting to 
the few that still survive to see a list of their former 


schoolmates. I believe I can give them nearly all from 

1st. From the neighborhood, viz. : Thomas P. and 
Edward Stabler, Richard and John Brooke, Mahlon 
Ohandlee, Francis and James Hance, Richard Holmes, 
Samuel and Remus Riggs, Samuel White, Sarah, Eliza- 
beth and Ann Gilpin, Anna and Mary Briggs. 

2d. From adjoining counties : Richard P. and Gerard 
Snowden, Nicholas Snowden, Joseph Harrison (West 
River), John and Samuel Ellicott (from Ellicott's Mills). 

3d. From Baltimore : John and Samuel Carejj Samuel 
Patrick, Isaac and Thomas Tyson, John Brown, Isaac 
and Wm. Trimble, Jonathan Balderston. 

4th. From Philadelphia : Three brothers of the 
Garriguez family, two Miss Thompsons, from Loudoun,Va., 
and three young Frenchmen, who came to learn the 
English language : their names were Derazon, John 
Batter and Dugravia Shaulattle. 

From these young Frenchmen we boys learned all the 
French we ever knew; and that was, how to ask per- 
mission to go out ; and would receive our answers in the 
same language. I would put it down here, but fear I 
shall be criticized by the learned boys of these times ; now 
look out — but don't laugh! ^^ Plait-il de 7ne laisser 
sortirf — " Otii, on 2^eut sortir," — and out we go. 

Now if any boy of our then age can give us better 
French, let him speak out ! 

All the scholars from a distance boarded among the 
neighbors ; the teacher taking a full share. There was 
no corporeal punishment used in the school ; "the dunce 
bench " and " dunce station " were often in requisition, 
until some lazy fellow thought one place about as good 
as another, and they were content. It so happened that 


several of these delinquents boarded with the teacher; 
and in the woods between the school and home there 
were some fine hircli trees, with long, slender SAvitches, 
and you may guess the rest! Our beloved teacher was a 
good, kind-hearted man, was as fond of a little exercise 
on the playground as any of us, and often either brought 
his dinner with him, or would hurry back after dining at 
home, to have a race in the woods. Though rather a 
stout man, he was active on the foot, could run very fast 
for a moderate distance, enjoying it very much when time 
would admit. 

On one occasion, I well remember, when he was pur- 
suing or being pursued, he stumbled, fell, and broke his 
collar-bone. This was a sad accident for him, and while 
we sympathized Avith him in his affliction, we (bad 
fellows) thought we saw in it the prospect of a few weeks' 
release from school duties; but, alas I this hope was soon 
cut off. William Stabler came forward fully equal to the 
occasion, took the professor's chair, and we well knew 
that meant hushiess — no holiday, no play now^ '^ Come 
to books I" sounded from the door next morning. 

Here I pause a moment to think of William Stabler. I 
remember him well ; saw him in his last illness, being 
often sent by my anxious uncle and aunt to inquire after 
him; and his most excellent companion, Deborah Stabler 
— who ever knew her, but to love her ? She was a dear 
friend of my mother, their acquaintance having com- 
menced before either was married. She lived and labored 
for her Divine Master, preached His word to many, and 
was taken to her reward in the mansion prepared for her. 
It was the custom of our teacher, on each and every 4th 
day, to take the whole school to the meeting house for 
worship, which practice was right and profitable. 


Having noticed the school and teacher, I will now 
mention the fixmilies that then composed the Society of 
Sandy Spring Meeting. I begin with Evan Thomas and 
Mary Brooke, who sat at the head of the meeting, regular 
in their attendance, and seldom allowing a meeting to 
pass without having a message to deliver. Here I will 
take the liberty of saying for myself that some of my 
earliest religions impressions were made under the min- 
istry of these dear ministers of Christ. 

Then follow, John Thomas and wife, Ei chard Thomas, 
Sr., and Richard Thomas, Jr., Basil Brooke, Gerard 
Brooke, James Brooke, Samuel Brooke, Thomas Moore, 
Bernard Gilpin, Caleb Bentley, George Chandlee, Samuel 
Hance, and some others I might mention. How few of 
that large company of Christian believers remain ! Only 
about three or four now ; and very soon all will have 
passed away. But it is a pleasant reflection that nearly 
all of them have left representatives in children, grand 
and great-grandchildren. Some have already, and we 
hope all may, prove worthy representatives of such a 
parentage ; not in membership only, but in spirituality 
also. But who out of all these families are now laboring 
in the ministry ? Can a church long continue to live and 
prosper without a living ministry? Look to this, my 
young friends ! There is work for you. 

I hope I shall not be thought officious in thus giving 
counsel when it has not been asked. No, no! what I 
have written is dictated by the kindly feeling I have for 
the place and people, among whom I have spent so many 
happy days ; first in my boyhood, then in middle life ; 
and now, when I am old and gray-headed, I delight to 
visit and enjoy the society of the few of my early com- 
panions that are left, and of their immediate descend- 


ants. And if it should be decided by my Heavenly 
Father that I may not see you again, 1 leave this testi- 
mony of the love I still bear to my dear friends of 
Sandy Spring. 
August 17th, 1876. Thomas McCormick. 

If the foregoing hastily-prepared sketch, after exami- 
nation by my friends of Sandy Spring, and particularly 
by my ministerial brother, Benjamin Hallowell, it may 
be copied for future reference, with any alterations or 
additions that may be suggested. T. McC. 

Note.— Of the 45 persons herein named, six are living. 

A letter from Hon. A. B. Davis, furnishing, by request, 
his recollections regarding the origin of "The Mutual 
Fire Insurance Company of Montgomery County." 

Greejs^wood, Oct. 8th, 1883. 
Wm. Henry Farquhar, Esq., Sandy Spring. 

My Dear Friend: — Your esteemed favor of the 6th 
inst. informing me that you were about to write a sketch 
of the history of the Montgomery Fire Insurance Com- 
pany, and asking my recollection and co-operation in the 
first effort in that direction in 1842, in which your 
brother, Dr. Charles Farquhar, Benjamin Hallo well and 
others were prominent, is received. Allow me to express 
my gratification that you have undertaken so important 
and interesting a task. Your knowledge and experience 
is well known, and affords a guarantee that the work will 
be well and faithfully performed, and the rise and 
progress of an institution which has been so successful, 
and has relieved and assisted the unfortunate sufferers by 
fire in so many instances, ought to be perpetuated and 
made known to the whole community. 

With regard to the meeting to which you refer, I can- 
not remember whether my name was attached to the call, 
but I have a distinct recollection of being present; and 
that the meeting took place in the old Academy building 
in Brookeville, with a goodly attendance from the neigh- 
borhood of Sandy Spring and Brookeville, at which your 
brother, Dr. Charles Farquhar, was the chief speaker. 
He held in his hand and read from a pamphlet the plan 
and working of a Fire Insurance Society, gotten up 
especially for the benefit and protection of farmers. No 
society, however, was formed, as the result of that meet- 
ing; for the reason, doubtless, which you suggest, viz.. 


that " the community was not ripe yet for so useful an 
organization." Success was reserved for a later day, under 
the leadership of the late Edward Stabler, who had ob- 
tained a copy of the Lycoming plan, a cheaper and more 
liberal one for an agricultural community. This he 
espoused with great ardor and zeal, and pressed with suc- 
cess upon our people. 

But tlie first meeting to which you refer, at which 
your brother and the late Benjamin Hallowell took the 
leading part, must have made a strong and favorable im- 
pression upon me ; for I find that subsequently thereto, 
and before the organization of the present company, I had 
for the first time effected an insurance upon my dwelling- 
house, in the Frederick County Mutual Fire Insurance 
Company. At this time, as one of the State agents, I was 
a frequent visitor to the City of Frederick, on behalf of 
the then prostrate and unfinished Chesapeake and Ohio 
Canal ; and thus had an opportunity to learn something 
of the working of the Frederick Insurance Company. 

Soon after the organization of the present company, 
Mr. Stabler, by letter and by personal visits, urged me to 
become a member and director of the Montgomery com- 
pany. He appeared anxious to have both myself and my 
friend and neighbor, Mr. Remus Briggs, in the Board of 

This service as a director (having withdrawn from the 
Frederick company to become a member of the Mont- 
gomery company) enabled me to witness the intelligent 
zeal and devotion of Mr. Stabler, as President of the 
Company, of which he was justly entitled to be called the 
founder; also the invaluable services of another officer of 
the company, Robert R. Moore, its faithful, efficient and 
devoted Secretary and Treasurer; who, in my judgment, 
and without in the least disparaging any other officer, is 


entitled to share the honor of the success of our insur- 
ance company. 

When this company was organizing, and in the first 
years of its comparatively slow growth, I met in my visits 
to Frederick, about the Canal Company, the Hon. John 
Davis, of Massachusetts, " Honest John," as he was famil- 
iarly called. I learned from him that he had organized 
a similar company in Massachusetts, and it had met with 
wonderful success, more than double ours, in the same 
time. I asked him the cause of his success ; he replied 
that "under the mutual plan, insurance was so cheap 
that a farmer who neglected it and met with a loss, got 
no sympathy or assistance ; and that this absence of sym- 
pathy forced every one into the Insurance Company — 
hence their success ! " 

Another important lesson I learned from my interviews 
with these gentlemen, Messrs. Davis and Hale, and Capt. 
Swift, a distinguished civil engineer. I asked the latter 
gentleman how it was that with their turnpikes, railroads 
and manufacturing companies they succeeded much 
better than we did at the South. His reply was — " In 
Boston it had gone into a proverb that every company, 
managed by a Board of Directors, was a failure. Now, 
when a company was organized, their first act was to look 
for a person acquainted with the business and qualified 
to manage it, and with a salary sufficient to secure his 
whole time and services, to give him full control, and fix 
upon him the responsibility of success." There can be 
no doubt of the wisdom of this course of management. 
I have had several occasions to observe and test it. 

I shall look forward with interest to the forthcoming 
of your history, and wish you success. 

Very truly, your friend, 

A. B. Davis. 



Tear ending 

















3 867 








5 years (average 8i) 41 (average o") 28 (average 3) 15 

5 years (average 71) 38 (average 2f ) 12 (average 2) 10 














1874 9 

1875 8 

1876 5 

1877 8 

1878 3 




years (average 6f) 33 (average 4i) 21 

(average If) 


1879 14 

1880 5 

1881 4 

1882 10 

1883 3 






5 years (average 71) 36 (average 3f) 17 (average 2) 10 

(Total 20 yrs. av. 71) 148 (ave'g 3i%) 78 (average 2f ) 43 

In 20 years there were 43 marriages ; divorces, none. 

ann"als of sandy spriitg. 285 

Statistics from Postoffice at San^dy Spri:n^g, Md. 

Amount of stamps cancelled for quarter 
ending March 31st, 1881, (equal to 25,876 
letters @ 3 cts. each) |776 29 

Amount of same for 1871, 10 years ago 638 64 

Excess this year |137 65 

Amount of money orders issued for year 
ending March 31st, 1881 |3,517 00 

Amount of money orders issued for year 
ending March 31st, 1871 2,461 00 

Excess this year $1,056 00 

Amount of money orders paid to persons 
here to March 31st, 1881, one year $1,783 00 

Amount of money orders paid to persons 
here to March 31st, 1871, one year 724 00 

Excess this year $1,059 00 

It seems there is $1734 more sent out of the neighbor- 
hood this year by money orders than received by same, 
just about double. 

Edward Stabler, Postmaster, 
S. Bond, Assistant Postmaster, 


Last snow in 1866-67 was May 3d. 

First snow in 1867-68 was November 12th. 

On the 14th of February, 1865, there was a remarkable 
variation in the thermometers of the neighborhood, the 
observations having been made about 7 A. M., viz. : 

Highest, 11°, at Stanmore and William J. Scofield's. 

Lowest, 4°, at Riverside. 

Eange 15°. 


On the 8tli of January, 1866, at twelve central places 
in the neighborhood, the thermometer ranged from 4° 
to 8°. 


Last snow in 1867-68 was April 12th. 

First snow in 1868-69 was on November 20th. 

On April 12th, 1868, there was a remarkable fall of 
the thermometer, viz.: 


On April.l2th, at 12 o'clock M 72 

" " " " lOi " P. M 27° 

" " 13th " 7 " A. M 22° 

Being a fall in 19 hours of 50° 

or more than 2^° per hour. 

On April 23d, at 4 o'clock P. M 76° 

" " 24th, " 7 " A. M 30° 

Being a fall in 15 hours of 46° 

or more than 3° per hour. 

Snow on only one day in January. No sleighing during 
the entire winter of 1868-69. Thunder heard in February. 

On the 24th of the 7th month there was a terrific 
flood on the Patapsco, Patuxent, and some other streams 
in Baltimore, Howard and Montgomery counties. Bridges, 
dwellings, mills and factories were washed away, many 
lives and much property were destroyed; some, who 
escaped unharmed as to person, losing everything they 
possessed in the world. The scene of devastation and ruin 
at Ellicott City beggars all power of description. A sudden 
and tremendous rain fell in the section of country near 
the head-waters of the streams, and the water being 
checked in its very sudden rise and flow by bridges and 
dams, either swept them away or flooded the adjacent 


country. In Baltimore the water was up to the top of 
the lamp-posts in certain streets. 

Seventeen year Locusts {Cicada septemdecem'). — The lo- 
custs were first noticed ascending the trees at night in great 
numbers on the 30th of May. In the morning early they 
came out of their shells, and after being warmed and 
turned black by the sun, flew away. For about two weeks 
they came up in great numbers. They then filled the air 
with their harsh noise, and in about two weeks more had 
pierced the limbs of bushes and tender trees, particularly 
the chestnuts. They did not seem to pierce the locust 
tree. They then began to die off rapidly, and by the last 
of June but few were seen or heard. The damage done 
was slight compared with their countless number. A few 
young peach orchards were injured or destroyed. Their 
noise was at its height about the middle of June. The 
male only makes the noise, by means of a tight parch- 
ment-like membrane under the wing, moved by internal 
fibres or muscles. The eggs are deposited side by side in 
the slits or punctures made in the limbs, about a dozen in 
each place, and each female laying about one hundred 
eggs. Their empty shells or jackets are left sticking to 
the bark and limbs of the trees. The chickens and hogs 
fattened on them. They are ?iot poisonous to beast or 
human. But few crows were seen while they were 
abundant, and corn was undisturbed, the crows finding 
plenty of food near theii- nests in the fat grub and winged 
locust. They do no damage to vegetation except by pier- 
cing the young twigs, which generally die and break off. 
The little grub, about tV of an inch in length, hatches out 
about the first of August, falls to the ground, finds its 
way into the earth to a depth of about four feet, and 
emerges at the end of seventeen years, piercing the ground 
with myriads of holes. 



Last snow in 1868-69 was April 11th. 

First " 1869-70 " November 13th. 

Haze. — In July there was a haze for fire days, during 
which the sun had the red appearance usual in " Indian 

Drought. — There was no rain to wet the ground from 
July 29th to August 28th, and i;hen not enough for plow- 
ing. It lasted until Sept. 26th, nearly two months. Corn 
and potatoes were affected by it. It extended through the 
Southern and Middle States, much of the com fodder in 
Virginia being left uncut. In the West, on the contrary, 
the crops Avere shortened by excessive rains. Large fields 
of grain were lost because the ground was too soft to allow 
the machines to work, and there were no " cradles " to cut 

Flood. — On Oct. 3d there was a heavy rain, flooding the 
streams and doing much damage in some places. 

Mild Winter. — Winter was very mild. Most farmers 
plowed both for corn and oats. The birds were frequently 
heard singing, a number not having migrated. It was 
with difficulty that ice was stored, some not filling 
their houses. Jan. 10th and 11th it was gathered four 
inches thick. On Feb. 8th and 9th we had the only 
sleighing for this winter, and the first since the winter of 

Edipse. — The gi'eat phenomenon of the year was the 
eclipse of the Sun on the 7th of August, — nearly total 
here, and entirely so in portions of the United States. 
An audience so intelligent as this has doubtless read many 
and accurate descriptions of this wonder of wonders which 
in grandeur and interest stands unrivalled. 


Last snow in 1869-70 was April otli. 

First " 1870-71 " December 17th. 

Haze. — In August there were five days during wiiich 
the sun presented a red appearance, and was partially 
obscured by a haze caused by destructive fires in Canada. 

Hailstorm. — On May 10th a hailstorm did some little 
damage, but less than might have been, being unaccom- 
panied by wind. In Philadelphia and New Jersey there 
were violent hailstorms which did very great damage to 
crops and to property. 

Wet iveatlier. — The early part of June was so wet as to 
prevent the proper cultivation of gardens and crops. 

Heat. — July was remarkable for intense and long-con- 
tinued heat. The thermometer at 1 o'clock on the 16th 
was 91°; 17th 94°; 25th 93°; 26th 91°; 28th 90°. In the 
cities there were many deaths from sunstroke, and the 
mortality was greatly increased. 

Auroras. — There was a brilliant aurora on Aug. 19th. 
Fine auroral displays were noticed in October and other 


Last snow in 1870-71 was March 4th. 

First " 1871-72 " ,]S^vember 28th. 

April was unusually dry, garden seeds not sprouting 
from lack of moisture. The early part of the month 
was very warm, viz.: Thermometer at 1 P. M. on the 8th 
was 86°; 9th 82°; 10th 80°, etc. The average for the 
month was 50°, which was from 3° to 7° higher than for 
a number of years past. 

There was frost on the 11th of May. The latter part 
of the month was dry and dusty, the dust flying after 
harrows and carriages in clouds. 


A most remarkable and almost appalling evidence of the 
force of electricity was manifested on the 28th of April, 
about 8 o'clock P. M., upon the farm of Elizabeth E. 
Tyson. Two trees standing nearly 30 feet apart were 
struck, one being about Ih feet in diameter, the other 
2 feet. One was cut off 12 feet above the ground, the other 
8 feet above the ground, the pieces being scattered over a 
space of 4 acres. Some of them were as large as sticks 
of cord-wood. One piece 6 feet long and 6 inches in 
diameter v/as thrown 70 yards from the tree, and another 
12 inches in diameter and 8 feet long was thrown 20 feet. 
Long strips were lodged in branches of trees 30 feet from 
the ground and 40 yards from the point of departure. 
The electricity followed a root from the largest tree, plow- 
ing out a ditch 40 feet long, 4 feet wide at the top, and 3 
feet deep near the tree, and running out to a mere mark at 
the end. Some of the dirt thrown out was seen sticking 
to the bark of the surrounding trees, 6 or 8 feet from the 

In July there were many thunderstorms and heavy 
rains. On the 7th a tornado, limited in extent, blew 
down fences and overturned and twisted off a venerable 
locust tree, 73 feet in height, in front of the house at 

September was dry; wells and springs failing. 

On the 12th of October the atmosphere was filled with 
smoke from the great fire in Chicago. The smell of 
ashes was perceptible. Persons in Maryland, Pennsyl- 
vania, New York, and other widely-separated places, were 
aroused in the night, thinking their own premises were 
on fire. It was an admirable illustration of the divisi- 
bility of matter. 

December was remarkable for high winds. On the 21st 


the thermometer was —3° at 7 A. M., 6° at 1 P. M., and 4° 
at 9 P. M., making the average of the day If °. The old 
Washingtonian sa3nng that if we have ice thick enough for 
gathering before Christmas we will not have after, though 
often true, was falsified this season. Ice 6 inches thick 
was stored on the 16th of December, and on the 21st of 
March there was skating upon ice 6 inches thick. 

March was remarkable for its low temperature. On the 
5th the thermometer was 4°. On the 21st it was 16°. 
The average for the month was 28.4°, being nearly 13° 
colder than the year before. But little spring work has 
been done, the ground being frozen the greater part 
of the month. 

The ground was not without patches of snow from No- 
vember to about the 20th of March. 

The most striking point in connection with the meteor- 
ology of the year is the small rainfall in this latitude. 
The amount of rain and melted snow that fell in the State 
of Maryland as compiled from reports of 5 or 6 stations, 
was for 1871, 38.88 in. Average for 6 preceding years, 
50.41 in. 

The past winter has been one of unprecedented severity, 
and heartrending accounts have reached us of terrible 
suffering in the West and Northwest. On one railroad 9 
passenger trains and 1000 cars of freight were detained, 
entailing a risk of life and a heavy loss of property. 

A great advance has been made in meteorological know- 
ledge, and the ])ublic are beginning to reap some advantage 
from the long-continued labors of scientific men, com- 
mencing with Franklin, and ably seconded in latter days 
by Prof. Espy. By attentively watching the phenomena 
connected with rain, currents of air, changes in the height 
of the barometer, and other things, and by laboriously 


collating the results, a law of storms has been developed 
which by the aid of the telegraph in announcing the 
changes as they occur over the country, enables the cen- 
tral observer to give us the daily "probabilities" that 
have proved so wonderfully accurate even thus early in the 
experiment. By cautionary signals on the lakes and on 
the coast many lives and much property have been saved. 
When experience adds to the knowledge already gained, 
it is proposed to have a system of signals by cannon from 
various points for the benefit of farmers and others. We 
are as yet in the infancy of meteorology as a science, gi'eat 
as have been the advances made in recent times. The day 
will no doubt come when w^e shall know the "probable" 
weather of the coming 24 hours with almost the same cer- 
tainty with which we now foretell an eclipse. 

Heney C. Hallowell. 

April 7th, 1873. 

Last snow in 1871-72 was April 15th. 

First snow in 1872-73 was ISiovember 16th. 

On the 26th of April (1872) the thermometer at 2 
P. M. was 90°, and at 11 P. M. it was 70°. 

May was almost without rain ; small garden seeds in 
many places not germinating. 

June was exceedingly dry. July was hot and dry. On 
the 1st the thermometer was 94° ; on the 2d, 97° ; on 
the 3d, 98° ; on the 4th it was 91° at 10 A. M. There 
were many deaths in the cities from heat. Streams were 
low, many springs and wells were dry, and some mills 
were unable to grind. In some cases cattle had to be 
driven a considerable distance for water. 

August was warm and oppressive. There were many 
auroras. Part of September was oppressively warm. 


A long, cold and hard winter began in December. On 
the 22d the thermometer was 0° at 7 A. M., 6° at 1 P. M., 
the average for the day being 4°. On the 26th there 
was a snow 6 inches deep, and great snowstorms were 
reported all over the Northwestern and Middle States. 

On the 30th of January the thermometer through the 
neighborhood ranged from zero to 26° below, the greatest 
cold ever recorded in this latitude. On the 27th a snow 
9 inches deep fell, and, being followed by cold weather, 
was packed into fine sleighing. 

February was cold and wintry, the thermometer being 
—1° on the 24th at 7 A. M. 

March began cold, the thermometer on the 4tli being 2°. 
There were great discomfort and suffering amongst the 
vast multitudes attending the 2d inauguration of Presi- 
dent Grant. By the middle of March the hard grasp of 
the Frost King began to relax, and the swelling buds, the 
notes of the robin and blue-bird, and the smell of the 
freshly-turned sod gave unmistakable evidence that the 
earth would be once more clothed in the countless glories 
of another spring. The invalids began to revive under 
the bright anticipation, the aged to enjoy once more their 
accustomed walks and drives, and all to prepare for the 
busy pleasures of a country life. Some gardens were 
plowed, and early seeds were planted on the 19th, and 
although there was some cold and blustering weather after- 
wards, this glimpse of a warm season served to keep our 
spirits from* drooping when winter gave us a parting blast. 

The rainfall for the year was considerably below the 
average, the record at Washington, D. C, showing a 
total of only 38 inches, while the average for the first 4 
months (April, May, June and July) was but 1.7 inches 
per month. 

Henry 0. Hallowell. 



April 6th, 1874. 

Titer mometer at 7 A. M. 



Lowest. Range. 




4° 80° 




1 80 




8 75 




8 73 




4 80 




— 3 81 




12 94 




8 71 


Average for 8 yrs. 81.2 J 2 79.2i 48.6 

Last snow in 1872-73 was March 26th. 

First snoAV in 1873-74 was Noyember 12th. 


wmeter Averages 

at 7 A. M, 





Nov., Dee., Jan., 

Feb. & Mar. 





























































Av.forlOyrs.27.5 28.8 35.1 


April 9th the thermometer was 85° at 2 P. M. The first 
15 days averaged 7f ° higher than the last 15 days. In 


the first 15 days there were only two days that the ther- 
mometer did not get above 62° ; in the last 15 days there 
was only one day on which it reached 62°. 

July. Dry. On the 3d, thermometer was 94°; on 
the 14th, 95°. On the 15th, an appearance similar to a 
rainbow was observed in the west in the afternoon. 

August. Violent thunderstorm on the morning of 
the 12th ; many telegraph poles near Hermon and Olney 
being shattered by lightning. On the 13th very heavy 
rain, amounting to 7 inches, and carrying away the 
Brooke Grove dam. From the 12th to 21st some rain 
fell every day ; 9.42 inches in 10 days. In many locali- 
ties there were terrible and destructive storms. In Moores- 
town, N. J., the hailstones were 7i inches in circumfer- 
ence, and on a plate looked like apple dumplings. The 
devastation was proportionate. 

October. On the 30th the thermometer was 24° at 
7 A. M. 

November. Winter set in early. On the 17th the 
deepest snow of late years fell and lay for a week. 

December. On the fourth the thermometer reached 
69° ; on the 12th, 71°. On the 24th a magnificent meteor 
was observed, which was fully described in the papers of 
the succeeding week. It has rarely been the fortune of 
any one to see so grand and beautiful a sight. (See ex- 
tract from Scientific American of Feb. 7, 1874, on file 
with original Met. Reports.) 

January. On the 4th the thermometer was 67°. On 
the 23d, 62° at 7 A. M. ; the next morning 29°, a change 
of 33° in 24 hours. Month remarkably Avarm ; farmers 
at their spring work ; grass growing, buds swelling. 
Frogs heard on the 29th. 

February. On tlie 6th a very fine sleighing snow. 


Average of thermometer on the 22d was 631°. Flocks of 
blackbirds seen. Fires went out in many houses during 
the day. On the 23d the thermometer reached 761°, 
being the warmest noon since September. On the 23d 
the thermometer averaged 62t°; on the 24th it averaged 
33i°, a difference of 29i°. On the 25th fell the next 
deepest snow of the winter. 

March. On the morning of the 4th the thermometer 
was 51° milder than on the same day one year before. A 
remarkably high wind was blowing uninterruptedly for 
7 days from the 8th to the 14th. 

April 5th, 1875. 








181 days. 

71 days. 

97 days. 

16 days. 

113 days 

















































Ay. for 9 yrs 

. 203 





Last snow in 1873-74 was April 29th. 

First snow in 1874-75 was December 1st. 

April. Very cold and disagreeable. The highest noon 
temperature was 67°, although it reached 76° the preced- 
ing February. Thermometer was 25° at 7 A. M. three 
days in the month. 28th, first sign of asparagus. 29th, 
a furious snowstorm, 4 inches deep. The contrast of 


the snow with deep green grass and wheat was peculiar ; 
Dear blossoms looked dark in comparison with the snow. 
l^he whole day was remarkably cold (average 36i°), and 
ground crusted at night. Far the coldest April on record, 
being 7i° below the average for 7 years previous. 

May. Apple in bloom on the 1st; peach came out 
March 19th. A warm spell from the 10th to the 15th 
caused an unusually rapid transformation in the forests. 
The coldest spring on record. 

June was the warmest on record. Thermometer above 
90° from the 7th to 10th at noon; 99° on the 29th, 
the warmest day for 6 years. Comet first observed on 
the 21st. 

July. A violent storm on the 4th demolished a church 
in Beltsville, buildings in Washington, etc. Lightning 
struck and shivered a post on the Brook Grove farm, 
partially melting a nail. Comet disappeared on the 15th. 

August. 20th, thermometer 98°; 21st, 96°. Yet it 
was the coldest August on our record (8 years). Drought 
injured pastures and the corn crop. 

September. Nearly 5 J inches of rain fell from the 
15th to 17th. 

October was wonderfully dry; there were but 2 or 3 
sprinkles fell in the whole month. Eainfall for the 
month, i inch. A haze like Indian summer, caused by 
burning prairies, was observed for weeks. 

December. Eather warm. Thermometer above 60° 
on the 3d and 28th. No ice gathered in the month. 

January. For two weeks the thermometer was only 
seen above 32° on 2 days. The coldest January since 

February was colder still. Average thermometer for 
one week (4th to 10th) was 12^°. Papers said it was the 


coldest spell for 20 years. On the lOtli the thermometer 
Avas 3° helow zero. The temperature for tlie first 3 weeks 
averaged 21.2°. The winter was very cold after Xew 
Year. It was noted for its sleets and scarcity of snow 
until February. There was sleet on the ground almost 
uninterruptedly for 6 weeks in January and February. 
Numerous accidents occurred in the cities. Water and 
ground froze to a great depth. Immense gorges and 
fields of ice formed on the Delaware and Susquehanna 
March 24th, a 6 inch snow fell. 

Henry C. Hallowell, 
Allan Farquhar. 

April 3d, 1876. 

Last "snow in 1874-75 was April 24th. 

First snow in 1875-76 was October 31st. 

April 13th, 2 inches of snow; 18th very cold; average 
of the day, 27f. Hot fires kept up all day, and overcoats 
required whenever out of doors. On the 19th the ther- 
mometer sunk to 19°, the lowest on record for April. 
Ice on ponds would bear a rabbit. The ground remained 
frozen until afternoon. 29th, first peach blossoms in 
orchards. Month very cold, with 6 snowy days. Latest 
season on record; being a month later than 1871. 

May 5th. Forests absolutely unchanged in appearance. 
7th, strawberries just in bloom, (I have known ripe ones 
gathered on this day). 9th, thermometer 84° ; 10th, 
73° at sunrise, which is surpassed by few summer morn- 
ings. 21st, thermometer 91°. Coldest spring for many 

June 11th. First mess of strawberries. 24th to 27th, 


thermometer 95° at noon for 4 successive days. Tlie first 
20 days in June averaged 67° ; the last 10 days, 79°. 

July 6th. Very hot at noon ; followed by a thunder- 
storm. Lightning struck Ashton store, indulging in 
strange freaks, but doing little damage. 

August, cool and very wet. Highest thermometer 86°. 
Nearly 9 inches of rain fell on 16 days, which promoted 
luxuriant vegetation, but failed to affect wells, which 
were very low through the whole summer and fall. The 
coolest summer on record. 

September 24th, thermometer 39° ; a mild frost. 

October 13th, first killing frost. 26th, thermometer 
75° at noon. 

November 30th was very wintry ; average of the day, 
17°. Month rainy and much corn was injured. The 
autumn foliage was more than usually fine. 

December 20th, the only first-rate ice-getting weather 
of the winter. 23d, thermometer 66° at noon. No snow 
to speak of during the month. The year 1875 was the 
coldest on record (dating back to 1867) ; every month, 
except May and December, being below the average. 

January 2d. Thermometer 67° at noon ; the average for 
the day was 571. There has been no day Avarmer since. 
The 19th was the warmest morning since September 
17th. 28th, thermometer 69° at noon. Lilac buds Avere 
swelled. 29th, thermometer 59° at 7 A. M. ; 30th, 21°; 
a difference of 38°. Month's average 39°, the warmest 
January on record. Hardly any snow. 

February 2d. A powerful wind caused destruction to 
trees and fences. 3d, first lona fide snow of the season, 
5 inches deep. The winter of 1875-76 was the warmest 
on record, and remarkable for the almost total absence 
of snow. 


March 17tli. A sunny, beautiful morning, followed by 
a short, but violent storm of hail and snow — a model St. 
Patrick's Day. 19th, thermometer 13°, the coldest I 
have known so late. 20th, a wild equinoctial storm of 
snow and rain. 28th, a rainstorm carried away a portion 
of the wall of Brooke Grove dam. 

The season, w^hich promised to be an early one (myrtles 
and daffodils being in bloom March loth), seems now 
almost stationary. Little or no plowing has been done 
for 4 w^eeks, and gardens, with rare exceptions, still 
remain untouched. 

April 2d, 1877. 

Last snow in 1875-76 was March 24th. 

First snow in 1876-77 was October 15th. 

Mo)iilily Notes, 

April 12th. Thermometer 75°. First day of real 
spring. Month very dry ; there was rain on but 6 days. 

May 1st. Thermometer 31° at 7 A. M. ; decidedly the 
lowest I have known in May. It was fortunately too dry 
to kill all the fruit, but considerable damage was done to 
peaches in some places. This was the third successive 
dry May. 

June. Considerable Fultz and other weak-strawed 
wheat was lodged by windy rains in the early part of the 
month. On the 24th the hot spell commenced. The 
warmest June on record. 

July. A month to be remembered. Among the many 
sultry days I select 4, viz. On the 2d, thermometer 98° 
at noon; 8th, thermometer 85° at 9 P. M. (the highest I 
have known at that hour) ; 10th and 11th, both 99° at 
noon. The 10th w^as the warmest day on record — 79° at 


sunrise, 99° at noon, and 81° at 9 P, M. ; an average for 
the day of 86^°. This extraordinarily hot spell closed on 
the 22d. For 29 successive days the noon temperature 
never once fell below 86°. These 29 days averaged 73° 
at sunrise, 92° at noon, and 78° at 9 P. M., making the 
average temperature for this period just 81°, which is 11° 
warmer than I ever knew it for the same length of time. 
In the country the comparatively cool nights made it 
quite endurable, but in cities (notably Philadelphia) even 
they brought no relief; the thermometer being 90° or 92° 
at sunrise on several days, and sleep before midnight was 
out of the question. There was a heavy rain on the 30th. 
The last week being quite cool, brought the average for 
July below that of 1868. 

August was very dr}^, only 1^ inches of rain. The 
next warmest summer I have known, and the very driest. 
Only Si inches of rain fell in the 3 months, being 4i 
inches below the average for 3 years preceding. 

September. The drought broke on the 7th, and very 
soon we had no cause to complain on that score. From 
the 14th to 24th there were 3 floods, making 8^ inches, 
or as much as fell during the whole summer. Farmers 
were alarmed about wheat-seeding, forgetting the promise 
that seed-time and harvest shall not cease. 

October 15th. Snow fell the night before, and the 
ground was white all day; a sight I never before knew 
in this month. This was the coldest day until November 
24th. Month very cold and dry. 

November 1st. Thermometer 75° at noon ; on the 2d 
74°, the highest on record for November, and warmer 
than any day in the preceding October. This was the 
warmest November on record (since 1867) ; the lowest 
thermometer being 28°. Wheat got an excellent start. 


December 8th. A moderate day, the thermometer 
being 33° at 9 P. M. ; but at 3 o'clock next mornhig 
a northwest gale struck us which continued all day, 
uncapping hay-stacks, and scattering fodder- shocks over 
the fields where farmers were so improvident as to leave 
them out. Thermometer 5° at sunrise, and only reached 
9° at noon. The 18th Avas the commencement of 6 w^eeks' 
sleighing. 29th, rain froze on trees and shrubbery; this, 
illumined by a full moon, made the night of the 30th a 
glimpse into fairyland. The coldest month for at least 
10 years, the average being 9° below the normal for 
December. So closed the great Centennial year, 

January 1st. The deepest snow for probably 20 years. 
1 foot deep on a level, but a high wind next day piled 
drifts 5 to 6 feet high, rendering roads in places impass- 
able and everywhere risky. For the rest of that week 
upsets Avere the order of the day (or rather night). On 
the 5th the thermometer ranged from 13° on the 
Manor to — 10° in the Patuxent valley. There w^as a full 
6 weeks of sleighing, the first time for many years. This 
brightened up the neighborhood wonderfully, and some 
of its effects (if report is to be relied on) will be 

February was a beautiful month; the warmest Febru- 
ary for at least 10 years, with little wind and but 5 days 
of falling weather. 

March 9th. Thermometer 59° at 7 A. M. ; on the 10th 
17°, a variation of 42° in 24 hours, at the same time of 
day. 18th, thermometer 11° ; 19th, snowing all day 
(nearly); 20th, thermometer 13°, and snowing till noon. 
24th, thermometer 70° at noon. Verily, no one can say 
our climate is monotonous. 


April 1st, 1878. 

Without an attempt to treat of all interesting facts 
connected Avith the weather for the past year, I shall 
follow its course and select the most striking features that 
have been noted down. 

May. The first 10 days were very cold, being 2° below 
the average for April. With the 16th, however, com- 
menced a week of hot summer weather, averaging 75 j°, or 
more than 26° warmer than the first 10 days. On the 20th 
the thermometer was 93°, which was exceeded by but 2 
days during the summer. 

June 21st and 26th, violent storms, accompanied by 
destructive lightning; that on the 21st lodging uncut 
wheat; that on the 26th scattering shocks about. Great 
fears were entertained that the noble crop would not be 
housed in safety, but little was seriously injured. A very 
large crop raised despite the dry May and wet June. 

August 21st. A gust, accompanied with hail, reduced 
the temperature from 88° to 64° in three-quarters of an 
hour. There was only 11° variation in the noon temper- 
ature for the whole month of August — 78° to 89°. 

September 1st. A slight earthquake at 11 P. M. Not 
a drop of rain in the last 2 weeks. July, August, and 
September, taken together, were the driest on record. 

October 4th. There began a series of heavy rains. At 

3 P. M. the storm culminated in a kind of water- 
spout. Nearly 4i inches fell within 12 hours. Newly- 
seeded wheat fields were disastrously washed ; Brooke 
Grove and other dams carried away. On the 8th another 
deluge, 2i inches fell in 6 hours, making 7 inches within 

4 days, nearly as much as the total for 3 months preceding. 
About 6 inches more rain fell in the month than the 
average for 4 preceding Octobers. 


!N"ovember 4th. The first destructive frost. 22(1 to 
24th the flood-king still reigned. 4 inches fell on the 
24th alone. The effects on the Potomac river were ter- 
rible; the canal much damaged. The warmest and 
wettest November on record. The same can be said of 
the whole fall of ]877. 

December. The heavens were very interesting. On 
the 8th was a partial occultation of Venus by the moon. 
Either coquetting with the dark border, or lingering 
perched on the end of the horn, the planet presented 
a beautiful sight. On the 13th could be seen all the 
visible planets in the southwestern sky, including the 
moon. 29th, a bouquet of 8 wild flowers was gathered in 
the open air. Decidedly the warmest winter month on 
record. Not a flake of snow seen, and the lowest ther- 
mometer 21°. 

January. The ground whitened for the first time. 6th 
to 8th, the only cold snap, which enabled most persons to 
fill their ice-houses. The 31st was such a day as comes 
once in 20 years. AYild blasts from the east dashed sleet 
and snow everywhere; the tightest buildings were not 
proof against it. There were but 3 inches of snow on a 
level, but it piled in drifts 5 and 6 feet high, while fields 
generally were almost bare. Lanes running north and 
south were rendered impassable for days. 

February. Thaws and rains made the roads like old 
times, through the first half of the month, — a very warm 
February. Thunder and frogs heard on the 21st; flocks 
of robins seen on the 25th. As much appearance of 
spring as is ordinarily sefen a month later. 

March contained many lovely days and little disagree- 
able weather. On the 11th farmers (that is, jjoor farmers) 
sowed oats, and wheat looked too forward to make the best 


crop. Upon 10 out of the past 13 St. Patrick's Days 
has it rained, or snowed, or hailed, or sleeted, or done 
something characteristic of the day. Some rain has 
fallen upon 11 out of the past 15 Sundays. 24th, bar- 
ometer fell to 28.88 inches. There was a rainstorm fol- 
lowed by a northwester. Thermometer 20° next morn- 
ing. Peaches were injured and wheat blades scorched. 

A wonderful winter; only 6 days on which snow fell. 
Average temperature for November, December, January, 
February, and March was 40.4°, all except January being 
the warmest on record. This is more than 5° higher 
than the average for 10 previous years ; so look out for a 
grand crop of weeds, insects, etc. 

April 7th, 1879. 

Discarding the system used on former occasions, your 
statistician will treat of nature's phenomena in a new way, 
assured that full description will prove more acceptable 
than bare mention of facts and figures. 

Therefore, instead of following through the past year, 
jotting down notes in each successive month, I shall 
divide my work into chapters, not confining myself to the 
exact order of occurrence. 

General Temperature, 
Last spring was 5° warmer than the preceding year. 
Summer, owing to a very cold June, and in spite of a hot 
July, was rather cool on the whole. Fall, normal ; and 
winter 6i° colder than last year, though not one of the 
very coldest. The year 1878 was the warmest for the 
past 12 years ; averaging 54°. 

Rain and Snow. 

Snow fell on 20 days last winter. First snow December 
8th. Last snow (we hope) April 5th. Deepest was on 


March 2d, 8 inches. June, July, and October, all had an 
unusually heavy rainfall, while in September, February, 
and March it was very light. 52 inches fell during the 
year 1878, being an average of 1 inch per week. 

Early Season of 1878. 

Last spring was one of the earliest seasons ever known. 
The 7 months ending with April had all, except .Janu- 
ary, been remarkably warm. The lowest temperature in 
April Avas 41°. Wheat heads were seen April 27th, and 
by May 8th the fields were fully out. April 30th the 
following is noted : " Cherry and lilac leaves full-sized ; 
oats hide the ground; plenty of clover in bloom; Col- 
orado and other bugs in profusion." By May 9th the 
forests were nearly as in June. Fireflies, May 18th. 
There was a severely cold spell from the 11th to 13th, 
when the thermometer fell to 37°, and sweet potatoes, 
beans, tomatoes, and probably wheatfields, were damaged 
by a white frost. 

The Great Hailstorm, 

On Sunday, the 28th of April, a vast, copper-colored 
cloud passed over this section from southwest to north- 
east, accompanied by violent thunder and heavy rain. In 
the centre of its path, a strip extending from the District 
line nearly to Ellicott City, and from 1 to 1^ miles wide, 
was visited by the most destructive hailstorm ever ex- 
perienced in this vicinity. AVhere heaviest, the hailstones 
lay to the depth of 2 or 3 inches in the fields (enough for 
sleighing), while they w^ere piled in drifts 2 feet deep on 
the banks of streams. Although followed by hot weather, 
a pile was found a week later in E. P. Thomas's woods 
estimated to contain 5 bushels. Had an army of African 


locusts passed over it, this region could hardly have pre- 
sented a more desolate appearance than it did on the 
morning after the storm. Eich wheatfields just coming 
into head were mangled to pieces, their fine promise 
utterly destroyed. Not content with tearing off every 
vestige of blossom from fruit trees, the remorseless de- 
stroyer so bruised and battered the trees themselves that 
in all its track there hardly remained a peach tree worth 
preserving. Rank clover was pared off so close to the 
ground as hardly to afford pasture ; while as for the 
forests, 6 weeks later they looked almost as barren and 
drear as we see them now. Fortunately no person was 
hurt, nor live stock killed, but the damage to crops, etc., 
in this section was estimated at $10,000. The storm 
lasted a little over half an hour. 

Celestial Phenomena. 

On the 6th of May there was a transit of Mercury over 
the sun's disk. September 5th, an occultation of a bright 
star in Sagittarius. This phenomenon is well worth watch- 
ing, as showing how even the brightest stars are but mere 
points of light. Slowly as the moon travels, yet, even 
with a good telescope, the instant a star is touched by the 
moon's edge its light totally disappears. 

Special Rains. 

There was rain upon 19 out of the 25 Sundays ending 
with June 9th. On June 17th and 18th, 31 inches fell. 
Wheat was laid flat, but, fit emblem of truth, rose again. 
July 19th, thermometer 96° at noon, followed by a storm 
during which 3 inches fell in 3 hours. 3i inches fell on 
the 23d of October. » 


Hot Weather. 
A hot spell lasting 26 days ended July 21st. 

Loio Barometer. 

On October 23d, during the storm spoken of above, the 
barometer sunk to 28.54 inches ; and on December 10th, 
when a warm morning was followed by a heavy rain, 
turning into a savage snowstorm by night, it was 28.46 
inches, the lowest I ever saw it. 


Cold Weather. 

About noon on Thursday, January 2d, commenced a 
spell of such weather as we trust not often to experience. 
After a mild forenoon a powerful northwestern gale 
sprung up, w^hich hardly paused for 3 days. At 12 M. the 
thermometer was 37°; at 4 P. M., 21°; at 9 P. M., 6°. 
Next morning (Friday, January 3d) it was — 3°, and blow- 
ing harder than ever. Saturday and Sunday both, 3° at 
7 A. M., after which it slowly moderated. Potatoes froze 
in cellars always thought secure, w^hile conservatories and 
pits could not save the flowers in many places. 

The Recent Tliaw. 

On the 11th of March, thermometer reached 70°, and 
the frost left the ground a few days later ; snow that had 
lain for 3 months disappeared, and the efiect on turnpikes 
is known too well to be recorded here. 

April 5th, 1880. 

My daily record of current events having been recently 
discontinued, this report will necessarily be less complete 
than 'some that have preceded it. Following no special 


system, since none has been proved the best; wearying 
you with no long columns of bare statistics, since for 
general minds these carry little interest, while persons 
wishing such dry facts can obtain them better by applying 
to the writer, than by hearing them discharged bombshell 
fashion into the ears of a public assembly ; with a desire 
less to cover the whole ground than to confine this report 
within the limits of your patient attention, I shall now 
touch briefly upon nature's most striking events since 
our last assembling together. 

Since early fall a warm southern current has generally 
prevailed. October was the warmest on record, being 
8° above the average ; December was very warm, while 
both the following winter months surpassed all precedent ; 
January being more than 8°, and February 6°, warmer 
than our average. The winter demands comparison with 
those of past years. The warmest known before (speak- 
ing with the usual conceit of young persons who im- 
agine their diminutive span of life includes all things 
worth knowing) was that of 1875-76, averaging 26.6°. 
The average for past 12 winters, 32 ^°. This past winter 
averaged 39i°, being 6f ° above the normal, 9i° above last 
year, and nearly 2f° higher than the warmest before 
known. There was, naturally, quite a scare about ice; 
but we had a spell in early February that saved us — 
except those who preferred waiting to get 5 inches of 
clear ice rather than gather such snoAvy indifi'erent stuff 
as most of us were content with and thankful for. March 
was colder than January, yet warmer than the average. 

There were 11 days on which snow fell, beginning No- 
vember 20th and ending March 13th. The deepest was 
but 6 inches, February 2d and 3d. 

More than 71 inches of rain fell between the 16th and 


20th of May, while but z inch fell on the other 26 days 
of May. The same irregularity was shown in July; f 
inch falling upon the first 24 days, and nearly 6 inches 
upon the 25th and 26th. During this flood, bridges on 
Hawlings river were carried away, and it was actually 
dangerous to cross certain places where there is usually 
no stream at all, the water rushed by so furiously. During 
32 days ending August 26th there fell 15f inches of rain, 
an average of almost J inch per day for a month. Then the 
flood-gates were closed, and with that fondness for going to 
extremes for which our weather (as well as perhaps some 
other things in Sandy Spring) is so noted, a dry spell set 
in that lasted considerably more than 3 months. During 
this period of over 100 days ending with the 4th of 
December, but 4 inches of rain fell — less by an inch than 
during 24 hours of July. It was difficult to get wheat 
ground in proper condition, and to the drought we owe 
the present scarcity of timothy. 

Several events in October and November were so pecu- 
liar as to deserve mention. October 1st the thermome- 
ter was 78° ; October 2d, 81° ; 3d, 85°, which was 5° higher 
than the highest recorded in October before. This year 
there were 5 days above 80°. The average of the first 18 
days was nearly 69°, being more than 16° above the 
October normal, being warmer than any September on 
record, and warmer than June in 1878. Average noon 
temperature for this period 771°. November vibrated be- 
tween Labrador and Florida. Average of the first week 
37°, which was lower than that of any month this winter. 
2d week averaged 63°, hardly a figure for September to be 
ashamed of Then a second Polar wave struck us, and 
the average for the 3d week was 35 2°. 

The barometer stood highest on October 26th, during 


the heart of the dry spell, 30.11 inches. Lowest, Febru- 
ary 3d, jusfc after our deepest snow, 28.86 inches. 

There was an occultation of Venus on October 13th at 
10 P. M. ; also a fine one of Mars at the close of St. 
Patrick's Day, which for an amazing wonder was actually 

Now I will ask you to stand with me upon the hill near 
where the Emory road joins the Washington turnpike. 
Time, September 3d ; hour, 6 P. M. It has been showery 
through the day, but now the sun has burst out low 
on the horizon, casting a brilliant rainbow against the 
leaden eastern sky. Your eyes are suddenly called to the 
southeast, where you see a whirling copper-colored funnel 
driving to the northward. It grows darker and rises 
from the ground for a short space ; then a white column- 
like smoke is seen among the tree-tops beneath; they 
join again, and the air above is filled with tossing shingles, 
boughs, and no one knows what besides. The colors 
change, sometimes black and gloomy, then lit up as by an 
internal (or infernal) fire. A load, rushing, roaring 
sound, as of a great loaded freight train crossing a bridge. 
The spectacle dies away in the northeast, and you realize 
your first experience of a cyclone. Although more awful 
in its progress and effects than the hailstorm, this calam- 
ity occasioned comparatively little damage. Like it, no 
persons were injured, though who can tell what might 
have befallen a human being exposed to the full fury of 
the whirlwind ! Tracing out its path from A. J. CashelFs 
place, through the lands of G-. W. 0. Beall, Jos. T. Moore, 
Jas. H. Stone, Wm. H. Farquhar, and others, to where 
the savage wind-demon spent his wrath upon Cyrus 
Bowen's little grove, what a scene of enormous destruc- 
tive energy meets onr eyes! The track of tlie storm 


varied in widtli from 25 to 100 or more yards ; not all 

yisited alike, but as if dipping down upon some spots 

with especial severity, then leaving others comparatively 

uninjured. Giant trees were uprooted, twisted off, or torn 

asunder, lying in every direction ; branches carried rods 

or miles — no one knows ; potatoes dug up ; even the very 

gi'avestones wrenched from their places and thrown flat 

upon the ground. "In the hereafter angels may roll the 

stones from our graves away," but we trust for the sake 

of those who come after us that it will not often be done 

in that way. 

ALLAiq- Farquhar. 

April 4th, 1881. 

With no carefully prepared record to draw from ; with 
only frail memory, aided and refreshed by files of the 
rough drafts of old weather-charts for the signal service ; 
you need hardly expect a full report. Such as it is, how- 
ever, it shall be confined strictly within the domain of 

Half of the rain in last April fell on the 29th. Not a 
drop from that day to the 22d of May. Eain fell on but 4 
May days, and the total was less than I of an inch; the least 
ever known in this month. The hay crop was cut short, 
young clover killed out, plowing sod resembled quarry- 
ing, while gardens in some localities painfully near home 
proved failures. Very hot with it all, being 3^° above 
the warmest previous May (that of 1872). 

June 12th was rather the warmest morning in the 
whole summer; 76° at sunrise. Reached 93° at noon, 
and soon after 2 P. M. a violent local storm set in, inflict- 
ing considerable damage to trees and buildings at Fair 
Hill, Willow Grove, etc., besides lessening the wheat crop 


by suddenly killing off fields that had been green the day 
before. Two days later fell the first soaking rain since 
April. It postponed wheat harvest until in some fields 
wire alone could hold the dead-ripe sheaves together. 

July 5th the weather was muggy. E'o clear sunshine, 
but not especially ominous. Yet between 7 and 10 P. M., 
a space of 2 J hours, 5 inches were poured out; it did 
not rain in drops, but the bottom seemed to have dropped 
out of some immense tank suspended in the air. By 
half-past 10 the stars were shining tranquilly. The effect 
of this deluge was observable the whole season ; it was 
largely answerable for the greatest corn crop produced in 
recent years. July gave us nearly 8^ inches of rain, the 
most recorded for this month. The weather not oj^pres- 
sive except on the fatal 13th, when the heat struck down 
one of the foremost men in talent and originality of 
thought that this county ever knew. 

But for the kindness of the Montgomery County 
Agricultural Society we should have suffered grievously 
with drought in September, as three-fourths of the rain that 
fell in the month fell on the week of the Fair. The total 
rainftill for August, September and October was consid- 
erably less than that for July alone. 

This long, cold, hard winter cast its first shadow before 
on October 1st, when a frost nipped some exposed fields 
of corn. On the night of the 6th of November a storm 
centre, only second in violence to the cyclone of the year 
before, passed through the neighborhood from the same 
direction as have all our most disastrous storms lately, 
viz. S. S. W. Its greatest power was shown at Eockland, 
where many of the trees adorning that beautiful home were 
torn up or mauled about as if in the luinds of a malignant 
demon. The roof of the Bank was lifted up, and a dwel- 


ling near by had its "walls cracked and chimney blown off. 
The storm was very severe at Bloomfield, taking especial 
delight in slaying down the grove of pines near the house. 
The yard locusts were doubtless saved, as some at Rock- 
land had been, by being so slender as to bend before the 

Winter began in earnest on the 18th of November. 
Thermometer on the 19th, 18°; 22d, 12°; 23d, 13°; 21th, 
12°, etc. A number were filling their ice houses on 
Thanksgiving Day. But all other cold spells were for- 
gotten in the snap which was included between December 
29th and January 1st. The thermometers behaved out 
of all reason. Mine, more sober and dignified than the 
rest, only recorded — 7°, — 7°, and — 10° for the three morn- 
ings; but — 20° and — 25° were common; while in some the 
mercury huddled way down in the bulb till they thought 
it was lost. One observer, not being satisfied with only 
16° below zero, took his thermometer to a point 100 yards 
distant from the house and at a level about 25 feet lower, 
when it fell to —24°. 

There w^ere very nearly 8 weeks of unbroken good 
sleighing, from December 20th to about the middle of 
February, when the rain and warm weather carried away 
the snow so fast that things were generally liquefied. The 
poor dam at Brooke Grove went out again, this time past 
recall. Just before the thaw the barometer rose to 30.13 
inches, the highest for the year. Lowest, March 30th, 
28.61 inches. 

Severe sleets on the 9th and 21st of January deserve 
mention, as some trees that had stood the cyclone and two 
hurricanes were broken by this new enemy. This was the 
coldest winter on record in this locality; the average 
temperature for 6 months ending March 31st, 1881, was 


about 8° colder than for the 6 months ending March 
31st, 1880. 

What aspect does kind nature wear at this, her favorite 
season ? We have had just one day of spring thus far ; 
March 16th, when it actually was 63°. Wheat fields are 
about as forward as sometimes on the 1st of March. What 
encouragement can there be for early gardening and 
planting when on a clear day in April I found snow on a 
tree in our orchard at 5 o'clock in the afternoon, which 
had lain there all day, even with the sun shining ; when 
it has snowed upon 6 days of the past week, and when 
the noon temperature thus far in April has averaged more 
than 25° below the noon average for April last year ? 

There were 24 snowy days this winter (besides I don't 
know how many in April). First snow, November 13th ; 
last snow (judging from the present outlook) about the 
17th of June! 

Blessed is the nation that has no history! And we can 
well hope for less material to fill our Meteorological 
Reports in future. Striking events in that line may be 
interesting, but, as a rule, are not profitable. 

April 3d, 1882. 

There has surely been enough weather in the past two 
years to satisfy the most ardent craver of excitement. 
Extremes have been the order of the day; bitter, pro- 
tracted cold ; fierce, still more protracted, unseasonable 
heat ; washing storms followed by months of almost un- 
broken drought — all combine to form ample material 
for a lively narrative ; but I long since gave up my fond- 
ness for meteorological gymnastics, and would ask no 
more racy and varied report for 1883 than the following: 


" April, normal ; May, normal ; June, normal," and so 
around to March aarain. 

April 5th, 1881. "Ground frozen too hard to plow sod ; 
a tramp frozen to death near Laurel," etc. The first week 
in April averaged 32.9° ; just fair winter weather. Plowed 
garden on the 25th. Then the pendulum flies back, and 
by May 12th the thermometer runs up to 92° at noon, 
and only sinks to 83° by 9 P. M., which is higher than 
any night during the whole summer of 1880 at the same 
hour ; and has not been surpassed since, not even by the 
7th of September. Next day 94° at noon. The 2d week 
in May averaged 75.4°, being very nearly equal to the 
average temperature of the hottest summer known. May 
18th, first soaking rain since March. Xo flies worried us 
until the 1 7th of June ; but they made up for it at the 
other end of summer. The great comet was first seen 
on the 25th. On the 27th two inches of rain fell in 
a half-hour, washing cornfields and levelling acres of 
wheat. This storm was especially severe at Xorwood. 
June was the only month between March and December 
which had a rainfall up to the average. July 6th, ther- 
mometer 95°,which for two months we fondly hoped would 
be the warmest for the year. On the 7th a heavy thunder- 
storm, the lightning killed two large oaks on our place, 
one of which could ill be spared. Only 4 days in August 
on which any rain fell. 

On the 20th of August began a spell of weather that 
rivalled the well-remembered four weeks of '76, and is 
without a parallel at this season of the year. From that 
time until October 5th, a period of 46 days, a tropical heat 
blazed at the parched and thirsty earth, the coldest day 
rising to 73°, and on but 7 out of the 46 days failing to reach 
80° at noon. The climax was reached on the ever-mem- 


orable 7th of September, which was without exception 
the hottest day I ever saw. No work was attempted, all 
we did was to exist, and rejoice that our suffering Presi- 
dent had been removed from the stifling, sickening atmos- 
phere of the Potomac flats to the cool, healthy breezes of 
the seaside. Our thermometer was 98° ; only 7° higher 
than I ever saw it in September before ; but other instru- 
ments showed 100°, and one as high as 103°. Next day 
it fell to 94°, and we reached for our overcoats and arctics. 
There was no soaking rain between the 10th of July- and 
10th of September — just the critical two months for corn; 
no wonder then that the crop was cut very short. The 
drought was not finally broken until October 24th, so for 
the third successive year farmers drove their drills 
through clouds of dust and among clods like the debris 
of brickyards. 

When the long 7 weeks of torrid summer ended on the 
4th of October, did autumn tranquilly descend upon the 
earth like gathering shades of the twilight, and by a gradu- 
ally lessening temperature prepare us for the changing 
season ? Not much, it didn't ! After reaching 87° on the 
2d, decidedly above any record for October, and more 
befitting July than the month when chestnuts fall and 
gums turn crimson, the thermometer subsided for a day 
or two into its usual rut of about 82° or 83°. Then with 
scarce as much warning as is granted us by a summer 
thunder-gust, a fall of 50° gave us ice half an inch thick, 
a killing frost, and all the accompaniments of a winter 
morning — a change in less than 40 hours from Brazil to 
Greenland. As if satisfied with this display of power, in 
two days more 46° out of the 50° variation were recovered. 

September, October, November and December were 
each and all warmer than any for 15 years. The rainfall 


for 5 months ending with NoYember was bnt 14 inches, 
while the three winter months ensuing show a record of 
nearly 17 inches, being more than double the average for 

Only one night this winter did the thermometer sink 
below 16°, namely, January 24th ; still there was a 
chance for all to get ice of a fair quality. There were 11 
snowy days, but only one deep snow, that of February 
4th, when 13 inches fell in one day. There was a solid 3 
inches already on the ground when this deep snow fell, 
but instead of bringing us good sleighing, it simply 
ushered in spring, for the thermometer rose to 40° or 
higher every day for two weeks thereafter. 

Still, after all these changes and extremes, our outlook 
now is not all discouraging. Wheat never made a healthier 
show on the first of April ; stock have come out of the 
winter in decidedly better condition than last year, while 
farmers have been able to commence their spring work at 
least two weeks earlier than in 1881. 



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15yr. lOvr. 

9.6 3.10 

8.3 3.05 

10.8 3.79 

9.6 3.21)^ 

9.7 3.43 
9.5 3.84 
9.3 4.60 

10. 5.45 

8.2 4.55 
7.5 3.16 

8.3 3.64 
8.7 3.11 




















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15 5.97 

8 4.65 

11 4.06 

6 1.90 
14 4.73 

7 3.35 

S il.Bl y 4.U'J 

4 2.111 14 7.07 

5 3.311 10 6.78 
8 3.62 7 .73 
7 2.22 7 .87 

11 6.01 5 1.80 

days in. 

10 2.20 
8 3.73 

11 5.46 
11 1.61 

8 1.71 
11 7.33 

days in. 

11 2.00 
10 2.12 
13 4.98 

9 3.21 
4 .85 
10 4.33 

7 8.41 
13 2.65 

6 2.71 

8 2.35 

12 3.21 

13 4.10 

days in. 
10 2.55 
8 1.92 

10 1.53 
8 3.01 
8 7.97 

11 3.11 
8 6.69 

13 9.71 

7 2.01 
5 .99 

8 1.16 
10 4.56 






days in. 
9 409 

7 2.41 

10 3.39 

8 3.21 
10 4.60 
10 5.98 

9 7.75 
13 5.19 

9 2.04 
7 5.90 
6 3.32 
9 4.23 


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days i 

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5 1 

14 3 
12 3 

8 1 

9 5 
9 2 
8 2 

8 3 

9 8 
10 9 

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days in. 

8 1.61 

9 3.97 

11 6.28 

6 2.02 

8 2 90 

7 2-79 

9 4.11 
7 1.56 

12 10.53 
9 1.67 

11 3.94 
7 1.34 

days in. 
9 2.51 

7 2.34 
10 3.66 

8 2.96 
6 1.46 

10 2.72 

9 3.67 
16 8.83 

8 3.13 

6 1.88 

7 5.26 
13 3.70 

days in. 
8 2.58 

7 2.78 

8 1.68 
15 6.84 

8 2.40 
8 2.02 
8 3.52 
8 3.44 

8 6.96 
1 .13 
6 2.83 

9 1.89 














days i 

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11 5 

8 3 

12 3 
14 6 

5 1 

9 2 
14 11 

8 4 

7 6 
10 3 

8 1 



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1° IS 

1 3 1 







August — 







April 2d, 1883. 

The year just closed deserves our profound thankful- 
ness. Complaint might be made of the wet spring and 
the cold winter, the 1)ackwardness of the present season or 
the potato-rot last fall, the low price of hay or the defeat 
of the Eepublican party; but the grand fact remains that 
this has been the most productive year our farmers ever 
knew. It is rare indeed that a great wheat and corn crop 
both occur the same year; yet the year 1882 saw the 
largest of either ever gathered ia the State of Maryland. 

On April 12th last year the thermometer was 21°, and 
the promise for peaches was disastrously blighted; an- 
other of the many illustrations proving the truth of that 
familiar adage, " The early worm gets caught." A 
singular snow occurred on the 23d of April. There was 
very little here, but near Washington, and Fairfax 
county, Va., six or seven inches fell and sleighs travelled 

May was the coldest and about the wettest on record. 
Average temperature for the month 5° below the normal. 
On the 3d the thermometer sunk to 34°, being the coldest 
ever known in May except May 1st, 1876. There was an 
abrupt stride from winter to summer on the 9th, when it 
rose to 83°, and the heat told on both men and horses, but 
this was the only hot day during the month. On several 
days coal fires were kept going all day. The first wheat 
head was seen on the 21st, and fields were only fairly out 
by the 30th. There was rain on 12 out of 13 consecutive 
days, ending May 16th, and the sun was visible but once 
between the 4th and 15th. Instead of enjoying a fine 
view of the conjunction of Venus and Jupiter in the 
early part of the month, these planets could not once be 
seen for 15 successive evenings. There was much trouble 
in getting cornfields in fit order to plant. 


On the 9th of June we had our first saucer of straw- 
berries — ^just one month later than in 1878. 

July was very temperate ; not a single oppressive day, 
and the average noon temperature for the month was 
under 83°, which was very favorable for our enormous 
harvest. The other extreme was reached, however, on the 
4th, which was the coldest July day in history; the ther- 
n\ometer was 58° at nOon, being the lowest at that time of 
day until the last of September. Take the summer all 
through it was the coldest on record, being nearly 2° 
below the average for 15 years. 

Although the year 1882 had no especial floods, and 
indeed the rainfall was but very slightly above the 
normal, still the showers were so generally distributed 
that it seemed a very rainy year. There were 113 rainy 
days, being 4 more than the average. Owing to a suc- 
cession of copious rains through August and September, 
and to the warm October, fall pastures carried more 
stock and to a later period than usual. Besides the corn, 
there was a great growth of potatoes, but unfortunately 
these latter rotted to the extent of thousands of bushels. 

Only 1.6 inches of rain fell during the two months of 
October and November; the ground became very hard 
for fall plowing. The coldest in October was 42°, and 
we continued to use Lima beans and sweet corn until the 
first week of November. No corn-husking was done in 
October except what farmers afterwards regretted. First 
frost on November od ; the first snow, November 26th. On 
the 28th a 4-inch snow caught whole fields of corn 

The great astronomical event of the year, the transit of 
Venus on the 6th of December, was observed here in spite 
of thin clouds which prevailed all day; most of us pre- 


ferring to take oiir chances of even a cloudy transit of 
Venus this time rather than to "vvait until the next one. 

There were 18 rainy and snowy days in January, the 
most in any month for 14 years. 

February 2d, 1883. Thermometer at 7 A. M., 15° 





a a 








a i( 




The past winter has been long and cold ; all the five 
months, except February, being below the average. Coal 
fires have been needed almost all the time, and there was 
abundant opportunity for hauling ice. Yet the lowest 
thermometer was 3° on the 23d and 24th of January. The 
far Northwest experienced one of the coldest winters ever 
known ; still it was of some benefit as showing'that cattle 
and sheep can stand even this severe weather with very 
little loss. The breaking up of winter was, in some 
localities, far worse than the continuance ; rapid melting 
of snow under warm and copious rainfall raising the 
Ohio and other rivers to a disastrous height. 

This has been decidedly the coldest March for 11 years, 
averaging 34^°, or near 5^° below the normal. Eight good 
sleighing on the 23d and 24th. The month went out 
like a roaring lion, and sweet April was ushered in under 
" Grim Winter's cold white wind-swept mantle." 

This record would fall sadly short of its true purpose 
were no allusion to be made to two of the most beautiful 
and wonderful sights ever beheld in the heavens. On 
Sunday night, the 16th of April, I was awakened a little 
before midnight, and glancing out the north window saw 
the whole sky illumined with a strange light. We often 
see reddish streaks in the north with a white band, and 
occasionally a little wavering and changing; but here for 


the first time was the Aurora Borealis in all its grandeur. 
To those who shared the rapture of witnessing this awful 
manifestation of unseen power, any description would be 
needless, save to recall the impression ; while to those who 
failed to see it, human language can no more portray that 
ever-changing yet ever-beautiful panorama than the drip- 
ping of a rainspout can mimic the thunders of Niagara. 
Imagine yourselves under an illimitable dome whose 
ceiling is the loveliest, most delicate drapery; imagine 
this drapery of every conceivable shade of exquisite blend- 
ing colors, no two pieces alike, and the same piece never 
appearing the same for two seconds together; imagine 
flashes of white and rosy light starting out of utter dark- 
ness, too swiftly for the eye to follow ; and through all 
this glorious pageant imagine the tranquil radiance of the 
same familiar unchanging stars that have watched this 
earth since man first gazed in wonder at " their eternal 
ray" — these were the sole motionless dwellers in a trans- 
figured sky. 

In the southeast, just over the horizon, at 5 o'clock on 
a morning in early October, a strange visitor could be 
seen, shining bright against the background of the 
moonless heavens. The giant comet had swung past his 
perihelion, and was now pursuing his erratic journey into 
the distant depths of ether, not to return for thousands 
of years. May his next appearance, with his glowing ball 
of a head and curved scimitar of a tail, show him not 
only a brighter and better world than he now leaves, but 
our Narrow Gauge Railroad and an enlargement of this 

Lyceum ! 

Allan Fauquhar.