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Full text of "The Annals of Scottish natural history"

RETURN TO 



LIBRARY OF MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY 



WOODS HOLE, MASS. 



LOANED BY AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



The Annals 



OF 



Scottish Natural History 



A QUARTERLY MAGAZINE 



WITH WHICH IS INCORPORATED 

naturalist 



EDITED BY 



J. A. HARVIE-BROWN, F.R.S.E., F.Z.S. 

MEMBER OF THE BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION 

JAMES W. H. TRAIL, M.A., M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

PROFESSOR OF BOTANY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN 



WILLIAM EAGLE CLARKE, F.L.S., F.R.S.E. 

KEEPER OF THE NATURAL HISTORY DEPARTMENT, ROYAL SCOTTISH MUSEUM, EDINBURGH 



1907 




EDINBURGH 

DAVID DOUGLAS, CASTLE STREET 
LONDON: R. H. PORTER, 7 PRINCES ST., CAVENDISH SQUARE 



The Annals 

of 

Scottish Natural History 

No. 6l] 1907 [JANUARY 



WANTED THE NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY 

OF SCOTLAND. 

By JAMES W. H. TRAIL, M.A., M.D., F.R.S. 

THE time is long past since it was possible for any one to 
claim that he took all knowledge for his province ; and 
societies, like individuals, have had to restrict their scope to 
ever-narrowing fields as knowledge has grown and deepened. 
Some have applied themselves to the investigation of a 
single science or portion of a science ; while others, with 
wider range of subjects, have limited their action within a 
definite, it may be a relatively small geographical area. 
More and more has it become evident that concentration 
in a definite field is a condition necessary to the production 
of work of permanent value, and that for all but a gifted few 
that field must not be wide. 

But while the subdivision of labour is necessary, and 
has brought with it very great increase in knowledge in 
almost every field of study, it has also brought very serious 
loss and danger. The many workers toil on within their 
narrowing limitations ; and however precious the ore they 
seek, they tend to shut themselves off from the wider vision 
6 1 B 



2 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

and to lose knowledge of and sympathy with the work of 
others, and the sense of proportion that should make their 
own work sane and true. Even within the narrow limits of 
the special study the work fails, crushed under the accumula- 
tions of materials that will not be fitted into a coherent 
scheme, or defective through the difficulty of ascertaining 
what has been already published on the same subject. 
There have been, and there are, numerous societies in 
Scotland whose object has been to add to what was already 
known of the natural history of the country ; and outside 
the work of the societies there have been issued numerous 
books and papers in journals, forming a mass of information 
of large amount and of much worth, if only it could be made 
readily accessible. But much of it is buried almost beyond 
reach, and a relatively small part alone can be made full 
use of. The influence of this literature as a whole on the 
study of the natural history of Scotland is hurtful rather 
than helpful while it cannot be properly utilised, as the 
vague knowledge of its existence tends to disguise how 
very much remains to be done, and the effort to search 
out the records consumes much time that can ill be 
spared. 

The societies that existed in Scotland a century ago 
included inquiries into the natural history only as a part of 
their proceedings ; yet the small number of publications 
issued in any form made it comparatively easy to follow 
all that was being done. But for many years it has been 
almost impossible to ascertain all that has been issued. 
Many societies have been formed, most of them strictly 
limited in their scope, either to certain counties or districts, 
or to certain subjects. Among the most successful are those 
that restrict their publications strictly within the limits in- 
dicated by their names ; and numerous valuable contributions 
have been issued by these societies. But for the most part 
these publications are issued only to the members of each 
society, or in exchange with other societies, and this makes 
it almost impossible for a worker to have access to some of 
these publications. When we turn to the papers issued in 
journals the practical difficulty is hardly less ; for we find 
them scattered through numerous publications, each usually 



WANTED THE NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY OF SCOTLAND 3 

limited to one science, or even to a much narrower field ; 
and no one can hope to keep account of these papers by 
one's own watchfulness. Still more difficult is it not to 
overlook what appears in separate form, or in local works, 
guidebooks, travels, sometimes in foreign languages, and in 
ways that are very apt to escape notice. 

As the years pass, many contributions, while still of 
great value, become forgotten, especially if issued in a 
local publication. Their subjects are investigated again, 
under the supposition that they have not been previously 
approached, and much labour is wasted that might have 
been saved had the earlier work not been forgotten ; or after 
completion of the work anew the earlier paper is found, and 
the second proves to have been needless, and is thereupon 
withdrawn. Every worker knows how large a part of the 
time that should be available for extending knowledge is 
spent in seeking to find out what had already been published 
on the subject under investigation, and must have longed 
for an accurate and full subject -index to the field of 
investigation. This heavy burden on scientific work grows 
more exigent year by year, and threatens to preclude 
advance, if the inquiry must be made anew by each indi- 
vidual. There is urgent need to free research from such 
burdens as far as that is possible. If relief is not given by 
efficient indexing research will build itself into its own 
tomb ; and its very earnestness and productiveness will 
only cause it to be crushed by its own products the more 
speedily. 

It may be thought that to advocate the formation of 
another natural history society is only to add to the burdens 
already so oppressive. That might be so if it were on the 
lines of those already existing ; but the society of which 
there is need should not be on these lines. Its aims should 
be to supplement and strengthen the work of all societies 
and individuals that seek in any way to extend what is 
known of the natural history of Scotland ; in no way to 
diminish or to interfere with their usefulness or freedom, but 
to aid them by bringing within the reach of all a knowledge 
of what has been gained in the past and is being done at 
the present time ; to show what is known and what gaps 



4 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

exist ; and thus to suggest where labour can be most usefully 
and profitably applied to extend what is known, within the 
limits of place and time in which each works. 

Scotland is exceedingly well defined as a natural area 
for investigation, since even its southern frontier, by which 
alone it is in contact with any other land-surface, is clearly 
marked throughout most of its length by the Cheviot hills. 
Its surface is much diversified ; and the numerous islands 
along its west and north coasts offer problems of an interest- 
ing and important kind in their relation to the origins of 
fauna and flora, and to the evolution of new types by isola- 
tion. But while these conditions appear so favourable to the 
pursuance of a systematic investigation of the natural history 
of the country as a whole, no organisation has been formed 
with that aim a strange and unfavourable contrast to what 
exists in various parts of continental Europe, often where 
only political instead of natural limits mark out the 
countries. Finland, Switzerland, Bavaria, and Branden- 
burg afford examples of admirable work of the kind in 
question. 

It is more than time that steps were taken to provide 
for a careful and thorough investigation of the natural 
history of Scotland as a whole, to take up work of a kind 
that no existing society attempts to discharge, and to 
supplement the individualism of the workers, and even of 
the numerous societies, by the common efforts of all to the 
same end, by means that shall make the work of each 
known to all to whom it can be helpful. 

Such an aim can be fulfilled only by co-operation. 
There is much need for the formation of a new society 
whose one end should be the investigation of the natural 
history of Scotland. That " Natural history " should be 
interpreted in the old, wide sense, to include all that falls 
under physiography and geology, as well as zoology and 
botany. Anthropology should not be excluded, although, 
for the sake of convenience, it would be represented probably 
by physical and prehistoric aspects rather than by its 
other sides. Geology has already been the care of the 
Geological Survey ; the Ordnance Survey has given excellent 
maps of the present configuration of the country ; and the 



WANTED THE NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY OF SCOTLAND 5 

climate is the object of continued observation and records 
by the meteorologists. In so far as all these have national 
support for their study, there is less need to make other 
provision for them ; yet even in these there are side issues 
that call for inquiry ; and there is room for extension of 
the information acquired into forms that would bring it 
more directly before those likely to be interested in such 
things. 

It is, however, in the sciences of botany, zoology, and 
anthropology that the want of co-operation and co-ordina- 
tion is most evident and the urgent need of action is most 
felt. Much has been done in the study of the flora and 
fauna, and, especially in recent years, of the origin of the 
human population of Scotland ; but that work has been 
done in an isolated way by individual workers or by local 
societies. It has rarely been done with reference to the 
whole country, or as part of a general scheme. Much of 
what has been done has been made known only to members 
of the local society, or at least to few others ; and in a 
short time much excellent work is forgotten, buried in 
publications that can scarcely be procured or seen even for 
reference. What has been put on record is most difficult 
of access, and much of it has appeared under conditions 
that tend to its being overlooked or out of reach of many 
to whom it would be of great value. Some parts of the 
work have been repeated needlessly, while very much 
remains untouched or nearly so ; and there is at present no 
means of readily learning what has been done, and what 
awaits investigation. The need of a guide is urgent ; but 
the guide must be one accepted as authoritative, not apt to 
be overlooked or forgotten, and readily accessible to all 
whenever required. 

The preparation of such a guide and its publication 
would be of great and immediate service ; but the labour 
is too great to be accomplished except by co-operation. 
There is great need to supplement and extend the more 
or less isolated efforts of the past by a definite scheme or 
survey in which these efforts should have their due recogni- 
tion and be preserved from loss. But such a survey should 
be extended to the whole of Scotland and its islands, and 



6 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

should indicate what has been already accomplished, suggest 
researches that should be undertaken, and advise as to 
methods and sources of information, where such advice 
would be likely to attract or be useful to new workers or 
to aid those already in the field. 

There is no likelihood that a Biological survey of 
Scotland will be placed on a similar basis with the 
Geological survey as a national undertaking. It must 
depend on the voluntary support of such as think that the 
survey should be made, and that what extends our know- 
ledge of our country ought to be made known. A survey 
of the natural history of a country to be efficient must, like 
other surveys, be the working out of a co-ordinated scheme, 
prepared after due consideration, and with full knowledge 
of the scope of the work and of the means available. The 
researches that have been made on the natural history of 
Scotland have for the most part related to some limited 
district, or to the distribution of some group (vascular plants, 
mosses and liverworts, fungi, seaweeds, and desmids among 
plants, and lepidoptera, beetles, etc., among animals) 
throughout the country. No general scheme for such a 
survey has ever been prepared. Indeed, there has been no 
organisation with authority to do so, since each society's 
efforts have been rightly directed to its own field, and 
each individual's to one or to a few groups. But the time 
is more than come for the preparation of a scheme for a 
survey of the whole natural history of Scotland, in which 
existing societies and individuals will find the true place 
for their work and inspiration and assistance for more 
strenuous efforts. In a well -devised scheme no existing 
organisation or research should be interfered with or dis- 
couraged. The new should supplement and not supersede 
the old. 

No existing organisation can with advantage undertake 
a national survey of the kind required. That will require 
a new society, formed for the promotion of whatever will 
advance that aim THE NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY OF 
SCOTLAND in the fullest sense of the name. 

The work to be done by such a society, and the relations 
between it and those at present existing have been already 



WANTED THE NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY OF SCOTLAND 7 

referred to, but a more definite and systematised statement 
with regard to them and to the organisation and means that 
may be employed may not be out of place. 

Aims of the Society. To carry out a full survey of the 
Natural History of Scotland in the widest sense, in so far as 
not already provided for (e.g. by the Geological and Ordnance 
Surveys), and to promote all that tends towards that end, 
especially by co-ordinating and rendering more accessible 
all information that bears on it. 

Relations to otlier Societies with similar aims and to 
individual research. Mutually helpful, supplementing and 
in no way interfering with or superseding each other. 

Work of the Society. (i) To procure and publish guides 
to all the information contained in published books and 
journals, such guides to contain lists of the various items 
classified by subjects, by localities, and by authors, with 
a brief indication of the contents and where each paper may 
be found ; (2) To issue for each year a classified index of 
new papers relating to the natural history of Scotland, 
whether contained in the publications of the various local 
societies, of societies outside Scotland, in journals or in books 
touching on or devoted to any part of the society's field of 
work ; thus a far wider circulation would be secured from 
the first for all information of real value ; it would be more 
widely helpful, and would be less likely to be forgotten after- 
wards ; (3) To include with this index short statements of 
published researches elsewhere that throw light on the natural 
history of Scotland, and that may suggest lines of inquiry that 
should be followed up in this country, or that suggest or 
describe new methods of study that might be usefully applied 
here ; (4) To prepare and issue a reasoned scheme of in- 
vestigation for the whole of Scotland, indicating what has 
been or is being accomplished, and what most evidently 
awaits investigation as regards either districts or subjects, 
and to secure advice for those seeking it on any matter, 
especially by the appointment of referees willing to name 
specimens submitted to them ; (5) To assist in the preparation 
and issue of monographs on such divisions of the whole 
scheme as might be judged ready for publication, whether 
these be large or small parts of the whole ; (6) To assist in 



8 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

the preparation and issue of maps or of other means by 
which distribution in Scotland of animals, plants, minerals, 
etc., may be graphically and effectively shown, and their 
past history in the country and their relations to man 
traced. While these are some of the more important lines 
of work that should be undertaken by the society, its 
usefulness will certainly extend in other 'directions also. 
Meetings for the reading of papers should not be included 
in its sphere of activity, its function being to supply in- 
formation in print, but not to provide opportunities for verbal 
discussion. 

Constitution of the Society. A large membership is very 
desirable, to permit of a considerable circulation of the 
reports and other publications at a relatively low expense, and 
also to supply a larger number of active workers in various 
departments. The organisation of the work should be en- 
trusted to a committee elected by the society. The work 
of the secretary would probably be sufficient after a time to 
require the services of a skilled paid official, who should be 
responsible for the preparation of the annual reports of 
current literature, and for the issue of all other publications, 
under the directions of the committee. Voluntary assistance 
should be of great use towards the preparation of the much- 
needed subject -index to past literature. Those engaged 
in any special research have usually to prepare such an 
index for personal use in the special field, and could give 
valuable aid by contributing the index in each case ; but 
to carry through the formation of the index as a whole the 
past literature should be searched systematically. Large aid 
could be given towards this if a list of periodicals and other 
literature in want of examination were prepared and circu- 
lated, with a request for volunteers to look through such of 
the work as they could conveniently undertake to prepare 
separate slips of the various articles or notices in such 
slips to be sent to the secretary, who should classify the 
information supplied in them according to the scheme 
approved by the committee. It would make information 
obtained in this way more useful if the slips were of uniform 
size and design, to be obtained from the secretary by any 
one signifying the willingness and intention to examine and 



WANTED THE NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY OF SCOTLAND 9 

send in the slips for a given part of the literature. The 
preparation of monographs suitable for publication on any 
part of the field must be done by those whose study the 
groups have been ; but the co-operation of specialists may 
be relied upon for this part of the work. 

To permit of the issue of such monographs, with the 
requisite maps, of the index to the past literature and of the 
annual reports, and possibly of a journal on a fairly adequate 
scale, will require financial support from a pretty large 
number of members, if, as is much to be desired, the sub- 
scription be not more than ten shillings a year ; for it is 
much to be wished that the help afforded by such publications 
should reach all to whom it would be of service, many of 
whom could not afford to pay a large subscription. 

But if developed, as the work of the society should be, 
into a national survey, there is reason to hope that it would 
commend itself to those who could and would give it 
financial support that would permit of its being carried on 
with success. 

In conclusion, may I ask that the question of organising 
such a survey be considered, neither overlooking nor 
exaggerating the difficulties and labour involved. The 
need of some such organisation has been keenly felt by the 
Editors of this magazine, and also doubtless by many others, 
who may have been deterred by the apparent greatness of 
the task. Co-operation and co-ordination of the efforts 
already employed would make a successful commencement 
of the work possible without delay. 

Discussion will be welcomed, whether of details towards 
carrying out the scheme, or of obstacles that would oppose 
it, for it is well to know the difficulties to be overcome. It 
would be helpful if those that approve generally of the 
proposals would indicate their approval through this journal 
or to myself. 

UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN. 



io ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 



WHALING IN SCOTLAND. 

By R. C. HALDANE, F.S.A. (Scot.). 
PLATE I. 

THE season of 1906 has been a productive one and presents 
features of great interest. The results have been 

B. B. B. B. 

musculus. sibbaldii. borealis. Megaptera. Sperm, biscayensis. 

Norrona Co. 40 ... 37 

Shetland Co. 31 ... 16 ... 

Alexandra Co. 49 ... 72 

Olna Co. 178 i 137 3 

Buneveneader Co. 19 53 64 2 i 6 



3 1 ? 54 3 2 6 5 i 6 

and one Bottle-nose whale (Hyperoodon) brought in at Olna. 

The large number of B. borealis killed this year is very 
remarkable, also the six Right Atlantic Whales, Balcena 
biscayensis. 

BAL^ENOPTERA SIBBALDII (Blue Whale). 

The particulars of these whales are given below : 

No. of Bulls. Average Length. No. of Cows. Average Length. 
ft. ins. ft. ins. 

Buneveneader . 35 700 18 7 2 7 

Olna. . . i 620 

Last year, 1905, Buneveneader had 

18 702 13 716 

This year there were bulls of 82, 80, 79, 76, and 73 feet, and cows of 
83, 82, 78, 78, 76, 76, and 74 feet long. The Shetland whales of this 
species never seem to be large. Hjort gives the length of these 
whales as " up to 85 feet." The migration of these whales seems 
to be about longitude 10 W., passing between Iceland and Faroe 
and then spreading East and West. They are fairly abundant west 
of St. Kilda, but rare in Shetland waters. On igth July one of 
these Blue Whales had a foetus 22 feet long, "but the latter was not 
full grown yet." On ist August another was got 18 feet long not 
developed enough for birth. These two cases show how large the 
young Blue Whales are at birth. 



WHALING IN SCOTLAND 



ii 



BAUENOPTERA MUSCULUS. 



STATION. 


Number 
of Bulls 
killed. 


Average 
Length. 


Number 
of Cows 
killed. 


Average 
Length. 


Proportion 
of Bulls 
per cent. 


Proportion 
of Cows 
per cent. 






ft. ins. 




ft. ins. 






Norrona . 


2O 


59 o 


20 


61 5 


50.0 


50.0 


Shetland 


18 


58 5 


13 


58 7 


58.0 


42.O 


Alexandra 


21 


60 9 


28 


61 8 


42.8 


57-1 


Olna 


84 


57 7 


94 


58 i 


47.1 


5 2.8 


Buneveneader 


IO 


56 8 


12 


56 i 


47-3 


52-6 




153 


58 6 


I6 7 


59 2 


49.1 


50.9 



For comparison I add the table from my paper in the July "Annals.' 



Norrona . 


42 


61 3 


3i 


61 9 


57-5 


42.4 


Shetland 


24 


62 6 


24 


65 i 


50.0 


50.0 


Alexandra 


56 


60 9 


3i 


64 7 


64-3 


35-6 


Olna 


8i 


5 8 2 


83 


58 4 


49-3 


50.6 


Buneveneader 


45 


60 7 


33 


6O 2 


57-6 


42.3 




248 


60 5 


202 


62 o 


55-7 


44.1 



The first thing to notice is that these whales are much fewer 
than last year, their size smaller, and cows are more numerous than 
bulls. The reason of the first is from the invasion of B. borealis, 
which comes nearer land than the Finner, and the latter will not 
associate with the former. Occasionally a small Finner will be 
found near them, but the adult Finner keeps away from B. borealis. 
One captain of a whaler told me there was a regular belt of water 
(in which there were plenty of herrings) between the two whales. 
The B. borealis left about iSth July, and then Finners came back. 
I attribute the smaller size to differences in the measurement. 
Hjort gives the size of B. imiscitlus as "60-65 f eet > seldom over 70 
feet." Why the proportion of the sexes has changed I can only say 
that I do not know. In 1904 there were, out of 226 Finner 
whales, 60 per cent of bulls and 40 per cent of cows. It is not 
that whales are getting fewer, for the captain of a steamer coming 
from Iceland told me that for some 40 miles between Iceland and 
Faroe he passed thousands of Finner whales ; he said they were 
blowing all round the ship as far as he could see. Whaling was 
just about over at the time. I tried to get the proportion of the 
sexes from foetuses. Out of 19, 1 1 were bulls and 8 cows, or 
about 58 bulls per cent, but the number is too small for much use. 
I counted the baleen plates in a large Finner 71 feet long. 
I took the right side to show the difference in colour. The first 
anterior 170 plates were yellow, and the 207 posterior plates were 
grey; total, 377 plates. The number of plates varies with the 
individual whale. 



12 



ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 



The farther north these, or any other, whales are killed, the 
thicker is the blubber. The last season, 1906, was cold and 
inclement, and it seemed to me that the blubber was thicker than 
formerly. 

At Norrona station one Finner had herrings inside, and at the 
Alexandra station ten had fed on herrings. The latter part of July 
is the time when these whales first begin to eat herrings ; in August 
they are more frequently found with herrings. 

BAL^ENOPTERA BOREALIS (Seihval). Plate I. 

I have just stated that these whales came in vast numbers this 
year. In 1904 the four Shetland stations had only five of these 
whales. In 1905 the number went up to thirty-two, of which the 
Olna station had twenty-seven and the Alexandra none. 1906 
showed the extraordinary number of 262. It was not only off the 
Shetland coast where they were, but off Harris they seemed just as 
plentiful. Once off the coast of Finmark there was a similar 
invasion, when Finner whales kept away ; the following year they 
were gone. To those who are interested in the migration of fish 
and other denizens of the sea this will be noteworthy. These 
whales feed on much the same food as B. sibbaldii and do not eat 
fish. Hjort gives the length as from 40 to 50 feet. I counted 
290 plates of baleen in one individual. The particulars of these 
whales given below may be of interest : 



STATION. 


Number 
of Bulls 
killed. 


Average 
Length. 


Number 
of Cows 
killed. 


Average 
Length. 


Proportion 
of Bulls 
per cent. 


Proportion 
of Cows 
per cent. 






ft. ins. 




ft. ins. 






Norrona . 


22 


39 8 


15 


39 2 


59-5 


40.5 


Shetland 


7 


43 4 


9 


46 o 


43-7 


56.3 


Alexandra 


25 


41 o 


47 


4i 5 


34-7 


65-3 


Olna 


76 


42 6 


61 


42 o 


55-4 


44-5 


Buneveneader 


43 


36-48 


25 


36-48 


63.2 


36.8 




173 


4i 7 


157 


42 2 


5i-3 


48.7 



In the above average lengths I have not included the return from 
Buneveneader station. A note from the manager says : " From i3th 
June to 6th of July 62 Seihval were killed near St. Kilda ; 22 of 
these were female, but no foetus ; dimensions, 36 to 48 feet and from 
14-20 (girth). A storm came and brought them away (6th July), so 
none were to be seen on the fishing grounds after that." 

The last paragraph is very interesting ; the whales, curious, 
changeful creatures, went off on account of a storm. In Shetland 
we had fine weather at the time and they stayed on for another 
twelve days and left us on the i8th July. We had a storm on the 
1 9th, few were seen after that. I particularly wanted a small fcetus 



ANN. SCOT. NAT. HIST. 1907. 



PLATE I. 




BAL.EXOPTERA BOREALIS : DORSAL ASPECT. 




BAL.-ENOPTERA BOREALIS: VENTRAL ASPECT. 



Whaling in Scotland. P. 12. 



WHALING IN SCOTLAND 13 

of B. borealis for the University Museum of Zoology, Cambridge, 
but during the month they were near us the foetuses were all too 
large. In this they seem different from B. musculns, the foetuses of 
which vary greatly in size. 

The baleen of the Seihval is fringed with soft silky hair of a 
dirty white colour. It is valuable, the present market price being 
j>TS to * IO a ton - That from B. musculus being ^27 : los. 
The smaller size of the Seihval makes it less valuable than the 
Finner, probably two Seihvals are equal in value to one Finner. In 
one thing it is superior : the beef is excellent, like veal, and cooked 
as veal cutlets one can hardly tell the difference, only the whale is 
richer. 

The same hairs occur on the jaws in both B. musculus and 
borealis. B. borealis has a peculiar parasite attached to the stomach, 
I was told, but it may have been taken from the intestine near the 
stomach, small red and white objects like tiny sausages. These 
Dr. Harmer considers are Echinorhynchus turbinella, and there is 
also Echinorhynchus porrigens, Rudolphi. One whale had received 
an injury to the snout, the end of which had been battered in, but 
had healed, leaving a concavity. In this were some barnacles, 
Conchoderma aurita ; they were growing close to and among the 
coarse hairs which grow at the end of the upper jaw. 

The following are the lengths of the biggest of these whales 
killed, in feet : 

Norrona Bulls 45, 45, 42, 42, Cows 47, 45, 45, 44 

Shetland 47, 46, 45, 44, 47, 47, 47, 46 

Alexandra 46, 47, 46, 44, 48, 46, 46, 46 

Olna ,, 56, 50, 50, 50, 57, 52, 52, 50 

The last station got some whales of unusual length. 

BAL/ENA BISCAYENSIS \_ = B. australis\ 

The Buneveneader station was the only one to get any of the 
Atlantic Right whales. Four bulls and two cows. The length and 
then the girth is given- 
Bulls . . 37x23,51x40,48x38,52x39 
Cows . . 48 x 37, 52 x 39 

Hjort gives the length as up to 50 feet, and the whalebone from 
5 to 7 feet. 

The whalebone of the above is given as from 2 to 8 feet in 
length, and is valuable. These whales are called Nordcaper in 
Norway. The only other specimen I have heard of was got in 
1903 by a Faroe whaler 50 miles west of Shetland ; so far as I know 
no more have been got near Shetland than this one, unless the 
Faroe whalers have got any, for they often " fish " in Shetland waters. 



14 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

MEGAPTERA LONGIMANA (Humpback Knol) 

The Olna station got 2 bulls, 42 and 41 feet, and i cow of 43 
feet. Buneveneader station, 2 bulls, both 32 feet, the girth of which 
is given as 20 and 21 feet. 

These whales live on shrimps and are of a very savage nature. 
They are by no means common. I have records of only seventeen 
having been killed in Shetland in four years. 

PHYSETER MACROCEPHALUS (Sperm Whale) 

The one got off the Flannen Islands by the Buneveneader 
Company was a large bull 68 feet long, the girth is given at 33 feet. 
I regret not having been informed as to the contents of the stomach, 
they are such omnivorous creatures. 

HYPEROODON DIODON \_ = H. rostratuni\ (Bottle-nose) 

There are plenty of these whales round Shetland, but they are 
not fired at by the whalers on account of their small size. The one 
killed at Olna was a bull of 26^ feet. Hjort gives the length at 20 
to 25 feet. The oil is as valuable as sperm oil. In Norway this 
is a separate fishery conducted in sailing craft with small harpoons. 

A Norwegian gentleman suggests a reason for the grooves in 
the thorax of the Balaenophorae and Megaptera. In Norway they 
have grooves in the ski to give a better grip of the snow and to 
make them go faster. It is possible that these whales have grooves 
to enable them to travel faster through the water. 1 

The herring fishermen and curers are making a great outcry 
about whaling ruining the herring fishing. It is difficult to reconcile 
this statement with the fact that the last three years have been the 
finest herring years on record : 

i93 309,909 crans. 

I 94 . 543> 2 4 

J 95 . 645,834 

1906 . . 455,000 

1 I suggested the same in different terms, viz. that these grooves are 
"sluices" to allow the resisting water to pass; and that if no such grooves 
existed on the under surfaces of the animals, the resistance to their progress, as 
bottom-feeders, would affect the quantities of their food, and prevent it reaching 
their mouths, the weight of water being diverted to either side ; besides the 
great pressure also would affect the progress of the huge animals through the water. 
Perhaps additional probability may be lent to the theory here advanced by quite 
recent discoveries made in ship-building by Mr. William Peterson of Newcastle, 
which is thus described : " His design is for a groove of about 3 feet from edge 
to edge, and a foot in depth, to run from the bows alongside a ship. In this 
hollow, it is claimed, the spiral energy of the waves cast up when the bow cleaves 
the water, etc.," causes increased speed with less coal or driving power. Has Mr. 
William Peterson thus taken the lesson from Nature ! ? J. A. H.-B. 



WHALING IN SCOTLAND 15 

It is true that the West Coast fishing was a failure this year, but 
this has happened long before whaling began, and is probably due 
to the cold for the first six months of this year. 

Government has been asked to stop whaling entirely, but as 
more than half the capital in the four whaling stations is British, 
this could not be done without paying compensation. Even if it 
were done, what would be the result ? Whalers from Faroe would 
take the places of the existing whale steamers. Floating factories 
would anchor, and after flensing the carcases would let them drift. 
Affairs would be far worse than at present, and there would be no 
remedy without altering International law. 

LOCHEND, SHETLAND. 



ON THE OCCURRENCE OF THE SIBERIAN 
CHIFF-CHAFF (PHYLLOSCOPUS TRISTIS} 
IN SCOTLAND : A NEW BIRD TO THE 
BRITISH FAUNA. 

By WM. EAGLE CLARKE, F.R.S.E., F.L.S. 

IN October 1902 I received from the Sule Skerry lighthouse, 
a lonely rock-station situated out in the Atlantic and some 
33 miles west of Orkney, an example of a Phylloscopus^ 
which had been captured at the lantern a short time 
previously, namely on the night of September 23. In order 
to preserve this specimen until such time as it was possible 
to despatch it to the mainland, the bird had been immersed 
in methylated spirit, and reached me in a sodden state. 
On examination I found that it was a Chiff-Chaff, but its 
condition did not then allow me to detect the differences 
between the European and Asiatic species. Fortunately, 
however, I had the specimen preserved, and having recently 
received a Chiff-Chaff from Fair Isle I was led to examine my 
lighthouse and other material relating to the genus. I then 
found that my old friend of 1902 was not the British and 
ordinary European species, but the bird known as the Siberian 
Chiff-Chaff, the PJiylloscopus tristis of Blyth. This was an 
interesting discovery, for the species has not been detected 
in Western Europe, not even on that wonderful island, Heligo- 
land, which has furnished so many surprises for ornithologists 



16 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

especially those who are interested in the phenomenon of 
bird migration. 

This new British bird is a summer visitor to North- 
eastern Europe, and finds its western limit in the valley of the 
River Petchora, where it was discovered by Messrs. Harvie- 
Brown and Seebohm during their notable investigations into 
the ornis of that little-known region. Eastwards, the last- 
named naturalist found it nesting in the valley of the Yenesei, 
and it also occurs in summer in the highlands of Kashmir. 
In winter it is widely distributed over India, being only 
absent from the southern portion of the peninsula. The 
only record known to me for Europe, beyond the Petchora 
and Eastern Russia, is one for the river Po in Italy, as 
mentioned by Eduardo in " Avicula " (ii. 1-2) in 1898. 

In plumage Phylloscopus tristis resembles our Chiff-Chaff, 
P. riifus, but is browner above ; has the under parts buff, 
paler on the chin, throat, and abdomen ; and the bill and 
legs darker, the latter being blackish brown. It differs 
also from the Common Chiff-Chaff in its song, which is loud 
but not musical. 

Its nest was found by Seebohm on the lower Yenesei. 
One which he describes was placed in the branches of an alder 
about 4 feet from the ground, and was semidomed, com- 
posed of grass, and lined with grouse feathers. The eggs 
are white, spotted with dark purple, and are large for the 
size of the bird. 

THE ROYAL SCOTTISH MUSEUM, EDINBURGH. 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS SEEN IN THE OUTER 
HEBRIDES DURING THE SPRING OF 1906. 

By NORMAN B. KINNEAR, M.B.O.U. 

DURING last spring I spent some six weeks in the Outer 
Hebrides, starting at Barra and working north to Stornoway. 
For part of the time I was fortunate in having my friend 
Mr. P. H. Bahr for a companion, and my only regret is that 
he was not able to continue with me for the whole trip. 
The principal object of our visit was to see certain species 



NOTES ON BIRDS SEEN IN THE OUTER HEBRIDES 17 

which had recently been reported in these pages as breeding 
in the Outer Hebrides, and at the same time to obtain some 
photographs of birds and their nests. We were exception- 
ally fortunate, and Bahr obtained some splendid photographs 
of old birds on their nests and with their young. To the 
different proprietors we wish to acknowledge our thanks for 
their kindness in giving us permission to visit the various 
islands, and we are also indebted to their keepers, who 
afforded us great assistance. 

Among the birds given in the following list, the Coal 
Titmouse, Spotted Flycatcher, and Crane are new to the 
Outer Hebrides ; and the Missel-Thrush and Golden-crested 
Wren have not been recorded before during the breeding 
season. The Heron also is an addition to the list of breed- 
ing species. By finding the nests of the Shoveller, Scaup, 
and Tufted Duck we were able to confirm the previous 
record in the " Annals " of these species breeding in the 
Outer Hebrides. 

MISSEL-THRUSH, Turdus viscivorus, Linnaeus. The breeding of this 
species may now be regarded as established. I saw a Missel- 
Thrush in the Castle grounds at Stornoway on and July, and 
a few days later, on the yth, I came across three, two old ones 
and a young one, which had evidently been bred in the 
district. In all probability the pair of birds seen in the Castle 
grounds by Dr. Mackenzie on 26th April 1902 ("Annals," 
1902, p. 138) bred there, and were not just passing migrants, 
as suggested by Mr. Harvie- Brown. The woods round the 
Castle are of considerable extent, and it is not always easy to 
find the Missel-Thrushes, so that may account for Mr. Harvie- 
Brown not seeing the birds during his visit. 

SONG THRUSH, Turdus musicus, Linnaeus. We found the Song 
Thrush fairly plentiful in all the islands, but their chief strong- 
hold is in the woods round Stornoway. It is found at a 
considerable height on the bleak hillsides, and I saw one 
singing on Eval, in North Uist, at about 800 feet, and another 
on the Cleisham in Harris at 600 feet. We were much struck 
by the dark colour of all the Song Thrushes we saw in Barra 
and the Uists. Near Stornoway I saw both light and dark 
examples, but I am not sure that the former were not young 
birds. 

BLACKBIRD, Turdus merula, Linnaeus. In Barra we saw a single 
male at North Bay and another in a small plantation on the 
61 C 



18 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

east side of the island. We only came across one in South 
Uist, and that was a male in the garden at Grogary Lodge. 
I saw a pair, and found a nest, in a garden near Loch Maddy, 
North Uist. Round Stornoway the Blackbird is nearly as 
common as the Song Thrush. 

WHINCHAT, Pratincola rubetra (Linnaeus). We did not come 
across the Whinchat in either Barra, the Uists, or Benbecula. 
In Lewis I saw a pair near Loch Tholta Bhredein, some five 
miles to the south-west of Stornoway, and there are several 
pairs breeding in the Castle grounds near that town. 

STONECHAT, Pratincola rubicola (Linnaeus). This species does not 
seem to have been found breeding in Barra. On i8th May 
we saw a single male by the side of Traig Mhoir, and on the 
22nd a male and two females among the heather at the foot of 
Ben Erival. The first bird seen may possibly have been a 
passing migrant, but I do not think the other three were, as 
two of them, a pair, kept flying about as if they had a nest, 
though we failed to find one. In South Uist we saw a male 
near Daliburgh on ist June, and in Benbecula two pairs at 
the foot of Rueval. The Stonechat is not uncommon in 
North Uist, and I also saw it in Harris and Lewis. 

REDBREAST, Erithacus rubeciila (Linnaeus). We saw two Robins in 
Barra during the last week of May ; it has bred there since 
1892. Round Stornoway it is very abundant. 

WHITETHROAT, Sylvia cinerea (Bechstein). A single bird, seen in a 
small plantation on the east side of Barra, was the only 
example of this species we came across in the Outer Hebrides. 

GOLDEN-CRESTED WREN, Regulus cristatus, K. L. Koch. A few 
pairs of Golden-crested Wrens bred in the woods round the 
Castle at Stornoway, and I several times fell in with family 
parties of old and young birds. Mr. D. Mackenzie tells me 
this species is plentiful at Stornoway in the autumn, but I do 
not think it has been recorded before during the breeding 
season. 

HEDGE SPARROW, Accentor inodularis (Linnaeus). In Barra we 
came across a pair at North Bay, and a single bird amongst 
some trees near Traig Mhoir. Dr. M'Rury does not seem to 
have met with this species in South Uist, but we saw one in 
the garden at Grogary Lodge, and another among some long 
heather near the head of Loch Skiport. It is common in the 
Castle grounds at Stornoway. 

COAL TITMOUSE, Parus britannicus, Sharpe and Dresser. In October 
1904 Mr. D. Mackenzie, Stornoway, saw a small flock of 
Coal Tits on a tree in front of Mhorsgail Lodge, Lewis. He 
ran into the lodge for a gun to shoot a specimen, but the Tits 



NOTES ON BIRDS SEEN IN THE OUTER HEBRIDES 19 

had gone by the time he returned. Mr. Mackenzie is a native 
of Sutherland, and is well acquainted with the Coal Tit there, 
so I think there is no doubt about the identification. During 
the first week of July I frequently came across family parties of 
Coal Tits in the woods round Stornoway Castle, which had 
evidently been bred there, but it cannot be said to be an 
abundant species. 

WHITE WAGTAIL, Motacilla alba, Linnaeus. This species was fairly 
numerous on migration in Barra from the i8th, the day we 
landed, to the 22nd of May. 

SPOTTED FLYCATCHER, Muscicapa grisola, Linnaeus. On yth July I 
saw a single bird at the back of the Castle gardens, Stornoway. 
It appeared from its actions to have young or a nest near, but 
I was unable to find either or see a second bird. 

SWALLOW, Hit-undo rustica, Linnaeus. We saw three Swallows at 
the back of Ben Scurrival, Barra, on 22nd May. Mr. D. 
Mackenzie, Stornoway, tells me that about fifteen years ago the 
coachman at the Castle asked him to come and see a pair of 
birds which were nesting at the stables, as he did not know 
what they were. Mr. Mackenzie found that they were a pair 
of Swallows, but he has not seen any nesting there since. 

SAND MARTIN, Chelidon riparia (Linnaeus). One seen at Rueless, 
on the east side of Barra, on 24th May. 

GREENFINCH, Ligiirinus chloris, Linnaeus. No mention of this 
species at Stornoway is made in Mr. Harvie Brown's supple- 
ment to the " Fauna of the Outer Hebrides," but from all I was 
able to learn it must have been a breeding species there for 
some time. It is not yet really abundant, but I saw a few 
both old and young birds in the Castle grounds. 

HOUSE SPARROW, Passer domesticus, Linnaeus. The House Sparrow 
in the Outer Hebrides seems still to be confined to Castlebay, 
Barra ; Tarbert, Harris ; and Stornoway, Lewis. 

TREE SPARROW, Passer montanus (Linnaeus). We only saw the 
Tree Sparrow in Barra at Eoligary, where there is a long- 
established colony. On the west side of North Uist I came 
across six Tree Sparrows by the roadside near Balmartin. 
They were all old birds, but though I watched them for some 
time I was unable to ascertain whether they were nesting. At 
Stornoway I found a small colony of six pairs breeding in the 
Castle grounds. The nests were in Spruce trees, and in three 
of them the lower part was made of dried grass, and the upper, 
the domed part, of green moss. 

/ 

(To be continued.} 



20 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

BIRD-LIFE AS OBSERVED AT SKERRYVORE 

LIGHTHOUSE. 

By JAMES TOMISON, Principal Light-Keeper. 

SKERRYVORE LIGHTHOUSE is situated on a small reef in 
North Lat. 56 19' 22" and West Long. f 6' 32"; n 
nautical miles W.S.W. ^- W. of the island of Tiree, the 
nearest land ; 33 miles S. \ E. of Barrahead, the southern- 
most point of the Outer Hebrides; 30 miles W. of lona; and 
50 miles from the nearest point of the mainland of Scotland. 
From Hynish Point in Tiree to the Mackenzie Rock 3 
miles W.S.W. of Skerryvore there is a continuation of 
" foul " ground consisting of small rocks, some above sea- 
level, others covered at high water, and others constantly 
under water, but near enough the surface to be a source of 
the greatest danger to the mariner who unwittingly comes 
in their vicinity. There is thus stretching right out in the 
Atlantic, in the fairway of all shipping passing through the 
Outer Minch, as dangerous a line of reefs and shoals as can 
be found anywhere round our coasts. The Skerryvore, or 
Big Skerry, was selected as the most suitable on which to 
erect a lighthouse, owing to it being always above water, 
and being of some considerable extent, affording fair facilities 
for landing. The superficial area of this rock at low water 
is about 300 sq. ft., and less than half that size at high 
water. The rock itself consists of quartz, felspar, hornblende, 
and mica, and is extremely hard, so that where it is polished 
by the action of the sea it is quite smooth and slippery, and 
landing on it has been described as " like climbing up the 
neck of a bottle." A trap rock in the form of a dyke of 
basalt intersects the strata, and lies almost due North and 
South, being continuous until lost in the sea at either end, 
a distance of 150 feet. The building of the lighthouse was 
begun in 1838, and after six years of arduous labour was 
completed, and the light first exhibited on ist Feb. 1844. 
It has now withstood the force of the Atlantic storms and 
billows for over sixty years, and to-day shows not the slightest 
signs of decay. 

From an ornithological point of view it is a place of 



BIRD-LIFE AS OBSERVED AT SKERRYVORE LIGHTHOUSE 21 

considerable interest, standing as it does right in the track 
of the migration stream passing between the Inner and the 
Outer Isles. Since being appointed there in August 1903, 
I have kept notes of all feathered visitors that have come 
under my notice, and at the request of the Editors I have 
prepared this contribution regarding them. 

We have no birds that may be classified as residents, 
for the simple fact that there is no place to reside on. A 
few are seen about more or less the whole year round, but 
the great bulk of our visitors are birds of passage calling on 
their way North and South. During migration the number 
of visitors depends a good deal on weather conditions. It is 
pretty well known now by all students of bird-migration that 
the beams of light issuing from the lantern of a lighthouse 
attract the passing flocks, and this especially is the case 
when the atmosphere is hazy, and when there is a night of 
"sma"' rain or Scotch mist. This condition of weather un- 
doubtedly makes the beams more conspicuous and attractive. 
The night must also be quite dark. Moonlight is a most 
unfortunate time for the observer who is anxious to witness 
a rush, for I never yet saw a bird on the windows when the 
moon reigned on high. Also if the atmosphere is very 
clear, no matter how dark it may be, the passing crowds 
pass on without a pause. But in spring or autumn, if the 
wind is easterly, and the horizon hazy, hazy enough to 
obscure a light about eight or ten miles distant, and if a 
large crowd of birds happens to be passing, the scene 
witnessed from the balcony of the tower is really worthy of 
being termed one of Nature's wonderful sights. Hundreds 
of birds are flying about in all directions, crossing and re- 
crossing one another's flight, but never coming into collision, 
all seemingly of the opinion that the only way of escape out 
of the confusion into which they have got is through the 
windows of the lantern. In ordinary clear weather they 
pass at a great height, so high as to be invisible to the 
naked eye. This was very forcibly brought under my 
notice this year in September and November. On 27th 
Sept., a clear quiet day, I distinctly heard the cry of Red- 
wings high overhead, but could see no birds. I happened 
to have the telescope in my hand, and at once levelled it 



22 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

in the direction of the sound, when I distinctly saw a 
considerable flock passing in a southerly direction. After 
following their flight till lost sight of, I searched the northern 
sky for some time, and was rewarded for my trouble by 
seeing another flock coming direct from Barrahead. When 
passing the rock they slightly altered their course, and 
disappeared, going due South. Again on loth Nov. 1 
heard the sound of Redwings, and got sight of one flock 
travelling in exactly the same direction. This was all I 
was able to see, but nearly every day in November when 
the weather was moderate I could hear them passing. On 
rare occasions a straggler rested on the rock during day- 
light. This autumn I have seen more migrants than in 
any former season. On i/th July a flock of twenty-five 
Turnstones were seen flying around the rock without resting, 
and after having a good look round departed in the direction 
of the coast of Ireland. On 2oth Aug. Wheatears first 
made their appearance, and from then onwards we had a 
few visitors every day till the end of September. White 
Wagtails were also fairly numerous. But the first great 
rush of the season took place on the night of 2Oth to 2ist 
Sept. For some days previous the weather was very 
mild and quiet, a little hazy, wind S.E., barometer high 
30.20 to 30.30, temperature 58 to 60. About 8 P.M. on the 
2Oth a few Meadow Pipits and Wheatears were noticed on 
the lantern, and at 10 P.M. the Meadow Pipits were flying 
round in thousands. Standing on the balcony watching 
them, one could almost imagine there was a heavy fall of 
snow, the flakes abnormally big. Thousands were flitting 
about ; hundreds were striking against the dome and 
windows ; hundreds were sitting dazed and stupid on the 
trimming-paths ; and scores falling to the rock below, some 
instantaneously killed, others seriously injured, falling help- 
lessly into the sea. This continued till dawn, when all that 
were still uninjured disappeared. The weather all night 
was delightful ; wind S.E., light breeze, haze dense enough 
to make Dhuheartach Light 18 miles distant very in- 
distinct (in clear weather it shows very clearly). Along 
with the Pipits were a number of Wheatears, one Starling, 
one Ring Ouzel, two Jack Snipe, a few White Wagtails, one 



BIRD-LIFE AS OBSERVED AT SKERRYVORE LIGHTHOUSE 23 

Thrush, and one Yellow-Browed Warbler. Redshanks and 
Golden Plovers were heard but not seen. 

On 2ist Oct. there was a great rush of Redwings, Field- 
fares Blackbirds, and Thrushes, with a few Starlings. The 
wind was S.E., strong breeze, almost a gale, haze and rain. 
From 7 P.M. till dawn the following morning their numbers 
were far in excess of anything seen here for years. They 
were striking the windows constantly, and the number killed 
that night was almost beyond calculation. As the wind was 
strong, nearly every one as it struck was carried away, falling 
in the sea, a small percentage only falling and remaining on 
the balcony. Yet in the morning we picked up ninety-eight 
dead on the gallery. Watching them from the lee side of 
the lantern, from 10 P.M. to midnight there seemed a constant 
fall of dead and maimed. The only way I can give an idea 
of the number of fatalities is this : from the focus of the 
light till all was lost in darkness, a distance of 20 to 30 ft. 
down, the eye could always detect three falling, sometimes 
more, but I consider this a fair average Were I to go 
more minutely into this I might lay myself open to criticism, 
and some might be inclined to doubt my statements. Some- 
times we use the terms hundreds and thousands without 
thinking what these figures mean, but on this occasion when 
I say thousands were killed I do not exaggerate in the 
slightest. Unfortunately, that night there was a very heavy 
sea washing right over the rock, so that not a single specimen 
was left around the base of the tower. Taking the strength 

o o 

of the wind into consideration, and from observation, I am 
inclined to say that the number falling on the balcony formed 
about i per cent of the death-roll. The rush consisted mainly 
of Fieldfares and Redwings, with a few Thrushes, Blackbirds, 
and Starlings. The following night, though the weather 
conditions were the same, only about a dozen were seen. 

Another great rush took place on loth Nov. wind S.E., 
fresh breeze, rain but on this occasion very few were killed. 
They were first observed at 10 P.M., and by midnight vast 
crowds were circling round, consisting chiefly of Fieldfares 
and Redwings, a few Thrushes and Blackbirds, and one 
Starling. Whether these birds come down by the Outer 
Islands, or are blown out of their course by easterly winds, 



24 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

is difficult to say. From what I have seen I am satisfied 
there is a stream coming down outside and passing this 
place on their way South. This is very distinctly seen in 
the case of the sea birds Guillemots and Razorbills. In 
August I have watched them for days coming from Barra- 
head in flocks of from twenty to fifty, and when passing the 
tower altered their course to a direction that would fetch the 
north coast of Ireland. 

I will now give a list of birds seen at Skerryvore, with 
some notes of their occurrence. 

THRUSH, Turdus musicus. A visitor on migration. Never very 
numerous. Generally in company with Redwings and Field- 
fares ; more common in autumn than spring. 

REDWING, Turdus iliacus. A regular spring and autumn visitor, 
sometimes in great numbers. The earliest record of their 
appearance in autumn was on 2yth Sept. this year. As a rule 
they are not seen till the 8th or loth Oct., but weather con- 
ditions may have something to do with this. The main body 
seems to pass South in October and the first half of November, 
but stragglers are not uncommon till the end of November. 
In spring so far I have never observed any great rush. 

FIELDFARE, Turdus pilaris. Not plentiful in spring, but always 
common in October and November, generally arriving about 
ten days to a fortnight after first appearance of Redwings. 
Rarely seen after end of November. 

BLACKBIRD, Turdus merula. Fairly common in March and April, 
and again in October and November, for the most part in 
company with Redwings and Fieldfares. 

RING OUZEL, Turdus torquatus. An occasional visitor in spring 
and autumn. 

WHEATEAR, Saxicola oinanthe. Always seen in spring and autumn, 
sometimes in considerable numbers. Earliest occurrence in 
spring, 26th March 1906. In the Fall the date of arrival 
varies from i5th to aoth Aug., and on through August and 
September they are almost daily visitors. I have noticed four 
or five about the rock a whole day, departing before sunset, 
and the following day fresh arrivals took their place. When 
the weather is clear none are seen on the lantern at night, 
and as they make no particular cry when on the passage, it is 
not easy to detect their occurrence unless they rest on the 
rock. In hazy weather numbers are seen at night, but never 
in a great rush. 



BIRD-LIFE AS OBSERVED AT SKERRYVORE LIGHTHOUSE 25 

REDSTART, Ruticilla phosnicurus. A rare visitor. Two were seen 
on the rock at 2 P.M. on 6th Oct. 1903; wind S.E., fresh 
breeze. Both were secured. Another was killed on the 
lantern on the night of 2rst Sept. 1906; wind S.E., fresh 
breeze, haze. 

ROBIN, Erithacus rubecula. Very rarely seen. Two on the rock 

on roth April 1906. 
GOLDCREST, Regulus cristatus. Once seen, on 24th March 1904, 

when about sixty made their appearance on the lantern at 

10 P.M., and remained fluttering about all night. Wind S.E., 

light breeze, haze. 

YELLOW- BROWED WARBLER, Phylloscopus superciliosus. One was 
captured on the night of the 2oth Sept. 1906, or, to be 
more particular, at 2 A.M. of 2ist. On the same night there 
was a great rush of Pipits, Wheatears, White Wagtails, and 
amongst the dead on the trimming-path this rare and interest- 
ing visitor was found. It was identified by Mr. Eagle Clarke. 

WHITE WAGTAIL, Motacilla alba. A common visitor in August 
and September, in company with Pipits and Wheatears, but 
often seen during the day, two or three at a time, without any 
other species along with them. 

PIED WAGTAIL, Motacilla htgubris. Seen on the rock on ist Sept. 
1906, at 10 A.M. 

MEADOW PIPIT, Anthus pratensis. Common in spring and autumn, 
sometimes a few remaining a day or two on the rock when the 
weather is moderate. The biggest rush seen was on 2oth to 
2ist Sept., when they were about the lantern all night in large 
numbers. 

ROCK PIPIT, Anthus obscurus. Has been recognised on several 
occasions. 

PIED FLY-CATCHER, Muscicapa atricapilla. One specimen got on 
2ist Sept. 1906. 

SWALLOW, Hirundo rustica. A summer visitor, generally in May 
and June, when one or two stray out in this direction. When 
they do favour us with a visit it is usually an afternoon call, 
and more than once I have seen one come in at the door and 
take up its quarters for the night on a coil of rope. 

GREEN FINCH, Ligurinus chloris. Three were found dead at the 
foot of the tower on the morning of 3rd Nov. 1906. Wind 
all the previous night S.E., light breeze, haze. A few 
Redwings were seen and heard, but none on the lantern. This 
is the only record of this species. 

HAWFINCH, Coccothraustes vulgar is. One found dead at foot of 
tower, 28th April 1904. Wind S., strong breeze. Rain the 



26 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

previous night. One caught on lantern on nth Nov. 1906, 
at 11.30 P.M. Wind fresh breeze, clear. This was the only 
bird seen that night. 

HOUSE SPARROW, Passer domesticiis. A rare visitor in summer for 
a few hours, probably wandering from Tiree. 

BRAMBLING, Fringilla montifringilla. A rare visitor. One caught 
in October 1905, and kept in a cage till April following, when 
it accidentally escaped. One on lantern on zoth Nov. 1906. 

COMMON BUNTING, Emberiza miliaria. Has been seen in spring 
and autumn. 

SNOW BUNTING, Plectrophenax nivalis. This species always calls 
on the passage South and North, sometimes in flocks of twenty 
to thirty, often seen only through the day, but when weather 
conditions are suitable they are also attracted by the light at 
night. They are more often seen in September and October 
than in spring, but, wonderful to say, though other migrants 
have been more than ordinarily numerous, not a single member 
of this species has been seen this autumn. It would be interest- 
ing to learn if they have failed to visit other localities on this 
route. 

STARLING, Sturnus vulgaris. An erratic and irregular visitor. 
Frequent on migration, and in summer a flock of half-a- 
dozen or so often come out from the direction of Tiree, 
occasionally remaining overnight, roosting on the dome of the 
lantern. 

ROOK, Corvus frugilegus. One solitary individual arrived on the 
rock on the afternoon of 6th April 1906, and spent the night 
in one of the windows of the tower. 

SKYLARK, Alauda arvensis. Is only a visitor on migration. Earliest 
seen in spring, 2ist Feb. 1905, when three were seen flying 
round the rock. In March 1905 flocks of from ten to twenty 
passed North, generally resting for half-an-hour on some out- 
lying rock. The dates on which they were seen were 8th, 
wind N.E., fresh breeze, clear; iSth, wind S., strong breeze, 
rain; 25th, wind S.E., fresh breeze, clear. A straggler is not 
uncommon during summer. In autumn they begin to make 
their appearance towards the end of August, and are mostly 
seen on the lantern in company with Wheatears and Pipits. 
In September, October, and November, when there is a rush 
of other birds, we can always depend on seeing one or two 
Larks, and now and again a solitary specimen will appear on 
the windows, spending the night making fruitless endeavours to 
get inside, only departing on the approach of daylight. 

SWIFT, Cypselus apus. Has been seen every year in August, passing 
South. 



BIRD-LIFE AS OBSERVED AT SKERRYVORE LIGHTHOUSE 27 

LONG-EARED OWL, Asio otus. One seen resting on the rock on 
1 2th Nov. 1906. 

PEREGRINE FALCON, Falco peregrinus. One captured on the 
lantern on 26th Sept. 1903. 

MERLIN, Falco tzsalon. An occasional visitor in September. 

CORMORANT, Phalacrocorax carbo. Always present around the 
rock from August till February or March. When the breeding 
season comes round they all leave, but it is not uncommon 
to see one on a fishing expedition during the spring and 
summer. During stormy weather, when the Atlantic billows 
are having some gentle exercise, and covering all reefs and 
rocks to a depth of from 20 to 50 feet, the Cormorants dis- 
appear for a time, but whenever the weather improves they 
return at once. They do most of their fishing quite close to 
the rock, where the water is shallow, and apparently make a 
good living, at least one would infer so when they spend the 
winter in such a locality. 

SHAG, Phalacrocorax gracutus.Wha.t has been written about the 
Cormorant applies also to the Shags, only the latter are to be 
seen in greater numbers and do not seem to be so afraid of 
man's presence, since they rest very frequently on the lighthouse 
rock, and more than once have tried to take up their quarters 
for the night in the windows, a proceeding always decidedly 
objected to by the lightkeepers. The Cormorant never comes 
near the tower. 

GANNET, Sula bassana. The Solan is to be seen practically all the 
year round. Towards the end of November and in December 
one is rarely seen, but in January a few are daily seen, gradually 
increasing in numbers as the season advances. The numerous 
shoals in the vicinity are swarming with fish, and hospitably 
entertain passing Solans. We must admit that Nature never 
makes mistakes, but when I see these birds feeding I cannot 
help feeling that there is something wrong when they require 
so much food : it seems a waste of good material. I have 
carefully watched them, singling out one bird, and have seen it 
make 25 dives in 30 mins., every time, as far as I could 
judge, securing its prey, and each fish would weigh from 4 to 
6 oz. This goes on the whole day long, from an hour before 
sunrise to an hour after sunset. I have seen them fishing on a 
clear night, diving from a height of 20 or 30 ft., one hour 
after sunset. The Cormorant and Shag bring their captures to 
the surface before swallowing ; the Solan swallows its catch 
under water. Only once have I seen the fish in its bill above 
water, and this was when, instead of diving, it merely skimmed 
through the surface amongst a shoal of podleys. After paying 



28 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

careful attention to their habits it is easy to form a conclusion 
whether a dive has been successful or not. If nothing is 
caught the bird on emerging from the water immediately takes 
to flight, so quickly, in fact, that the observer feels inclined to 
think that there is a small display of temper, whereas when 
successful a short time is spent on the surface before flight, the 
bird giving itself a general shake up and dipping its bill once 
or twice in the water. The Solan always falls on its prey from 
a great height in the air, in my opinion the height above water 
depends on the depth of the fish under water, probably the 
greater height giving it more impetus to reach a greater depth. 
I have often seen one alter its mind when half-way between 
the starting-point of its fall and the water, and continue its 
flight, the cause of this being that the fish had moved out of 
line of original aim. Though it does not dive from the surface 
like other sea birds after its prey, it can do so all right. 
Frequently, when fishing close to the rock, I have seen them 
during a heavy sea, on coming to the surface, dive to avoid a 
broken billow. In doing this they do not dive like the Shag, 
but disappear like the Northern Diver, and on coming up on 
the other side of the billow take to flight at once. 

HERON, Ardea cinerea. The Heron is a casual visitor, sometimes 
flying past without resting, and on other occasions spending an 
hour on an outlying reef. I have detected them coming out 
here from Tiree, and altering their course to due South when 
near the lighthouse. This was in August. I never saw them 
in spring. At Earraid, on the S.W. of Mull, one has nested 
and reared its young these past three years, always in the same 
spot a ledge on one of the higher cliffs of the island. 

EIDER, Somateria mollissima. May be called a regular winter 
resident, arriving in September and remaining till March, living 
at sea in all weathers, and only landing on the rock on a fine 
day for a few hours. 

CORN CRAKE, Crex pratensis. Has been seen twice on the rock 

i4th Sept. 1904 and i2th Sept. 1906. 
GOLDEN PLOVER, Charadrius phtvialis. Is always seen and heard 

on migration, but more often in the autumn than spring. 

This year in October and November two or three were seen 

nearly every day arriving from the North, and after a short rest 

continuing their flight in a southerly direction. 

LAPWING, Vanellus vitlgaris. -Is only an occasional visitor, seen on 
both migrations. 

TURNSTONE, Strepsilas interpres. A regular winter resident. About 
five or six are always on the rock from August to April feeding 
amongst the seaweed when the tide is out. They are so 



BIRD-LIFE AS OBSERVED AT SKERRYVORE LIGHTHOUSE 29 

accustomed to seeing us about that they are quite tame, and 
seem to have no great fear of mankind. Along with them 
from a dozen to twenty Purple Sandpipers (Tringa striata) are 
constantly on the rock. I have never yet been able to decide 
what they do, or where they go during a gale. Very often 
the whole rock is constantly under water for days, but no 
matter how quickly the sea may fall, as soon as there is a part 
left uncovered, we can rely on seeing a few Turnstones and 
Purple Sandpipers. Both leave in April about the same time ; 
the Turnstone is the first to return. 

SNIPE, Gallinago calestis. Has been got dead on the lantern on 
frequent occasions in autumn. 

JACK SNIPE, Gallinago gallinula. -TvfO were got dead on the 
lantern on 2oth Sept. 1906. 

SANDERLING, Calidris arenaria. Seen pretty regularly in September. 

COMMON SANDPIPER, Totanus hypolencus. Two seen in August this 
year flying about the rock. 

REDSHANK, Totanus calidris. More often heard than seen on 
migration. I have never yet known one to strike the 
lantern. In summer a straggler calls and spends an hour or 
two on the rocks. 

CURLEW, Numenius arquata. Is a regular spring and autumn 
migrant, seen in flocks of from three to twenty. Never seen 
resting. 

WHIMBREL, Numenius ph&opus. Often seen in May and August, 
two or three calling and resting for a short time. 

ARCTIC TERN, Sterna macrura. Seen in June and July in quest 
of food. I have often seen them with a small fish in their bills 
passing at full speed for Tiree, having got this fish a long way 
to the westward of the rock. We also daily see them fishing 
close to the tower, and when successful they at once start for 
home with their catch. Towards the end of July they are 
accompanied by their young, who rest on the rock whilst the 
parents fish for them. 

LITTLE GULL, Larus minutus. Once seen here, 24th Sept. 1903, 
at 6 P.M. ; wind S.E., strong breeze, It was flying about the 
rock, but did not alight. It came sometimes within six feet of 
where I was standing, and I am perfectly satisfied of its identity. 

SABINE'S GULL, Xena sabinii. Seen flying about the tower for a 
short time, January 1905. 

BLACK-HEADED GULL, Larus ridibundus. A rare visitor in summer. 

HERRING GULL, Larus argentatus. Seen all the year round, some- 
times in great flocks. From six to a dozen are rarely ever 
absent, summer or winter. 



30 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

LESSER BLACKBACK GULL, Lants fuscus. A summer visitor in 

June, July, and August. 
GREAT BLACKBACKED GULL, Larus marinus.-T\vo or three are 

constantly here. 
GLACOUS GULL, Larus glaucus. One or two immature birds 

periodically seen in November, December, and January. The 

latest occurrence was on 3rd April 1904. 
KITTIWAKE, Rissa tridactyla. A few may be termed resident all the 

year round ; but in August especially enormous flocks are seen 

at sea, and very often covering every available piece of rock. 

ARCTIC SKUA, Stercorarius crepidatus. Often seen in summer. 

RAZORBILL, Alca torda. A regular migrant in both seasons, and 
also seen fishing in the vicinity in summer. 

GUILLEMOT, Uria troile. Vast flocks seen passing on migration, 

especially in August. 
BLACK GUILLEMOT, Uria grylle. A few spend the winter in the 

near vicinity of the rock, but never land. 
PUFFIN, Fratercula arctica. Very rarely seen. 
LITTLE AUK, Mergus alle. Small flocks are periodically seen in 

winter, generally in January. 
FULMAR, Fulmarus glacialis. I have never seen this species from 

the rock, but when on board the steamer a few miles from it in 

summer I have never failed to see a few flying about. 

MANX SHEARWATER, Puffinns anglorum. Always numerous in 
spring and summer. Seen on wing all around the rock, some- 
times one or two, and occasionally scores. On 6th April 1905, 
when on board the Hesperus between Dhuheartach Lighthouse 
and lona, I saw them in hundreds. The sea all the way in 
about 15 miles was covered with them, and crowds were on 
wing all around us. I never before or since saw such numbers 
of them. 

STORM PETREL, Procellaria pelagica. Seen occasionally near the 
rock towards the end of August and in September at twilight 
on a dark gloomy afternoon. Have got a few specimens on the 
lantern. 

THE NORTHERN DIVER is represented by two and sometimes three 
specimens, arriving in November, and remaining till April, 
always feeding in close vicinity to the rock. They will at times 
disappear for a week, and I have more than once seen them on 
the wing coming out from Tiree, circling round the rock, and 
settling down a short distance out. On the rock at low water 
there is a long narrow pool, 20 ft. long, 3 ft. broad, and 4 ft. 
deep, and the rock all around it, about 3 ft. above water edge, 
the water escaping at one end amongst loose rocks. On the 



BIRD-LIFE AS OBSERVED AT SKERRYVORE LIGHTHOUSE 31 

2ist March last I noticed a bird in this pool, and found that 
it was a diver that had got left by the tide, and was unable to 
get out, as there was no room for it to stretch its wings. I 
spent over an hour watching it, admiring its expertness in the 
water, and amused at its clumsy attempts to climb up the rocks. 
When swimming under water it never made the slightest move- 
ment with its wings, the propelling power being done with its 
feet alone, and both feet were without exception used simul- 
taneously, not alternately as we see surface swimming birds 
usually doing. And what amazed me most of all was the great 
rate at which it could travel. Of course it was frightened, but 
allowing for that the speed was extraordinary, for when doing 
its best the eye could hardly detect anything but a streak from 
one end of the pool to the other. I took it out of the water, 
and set it down on the rock. There a more helpless creature 
one could hardly imagine. In the end I let it flounder into 
the sea, when it disappeared like magic, and came to the 
surface more than half-a-mile out. 

SKERRYVORE LIGHTHOUSE. 



ON THE SCOTTISH SPECIES OF OXYURA 



By P. CAMERON. 

SOME time ago I sent to the Abbe J. J. Kieffer the collec- 
tion of Oxyura I collected during the period I resided in 
Scotland, to aid him in his monograph of the European 
species for Andre's " Species des Hymenopteres." As the 
collection contained an exceptionally large number of un- 
described species, besides known species unrecorded for the 
British Isles, and as M. Kieffer in his work does not give 
the particular localities where the species were captured, I 
have thought it desirable to draw up a complete catalogue of 
the collection with the localities where the species were taken. 
Very little attention has been given to the Oxyura in 
this country. The late A. H. Haliday and Francis Walker 
recorded a few Scottish species, and a small number of species 
have been noted from Scotland in more recent years. In 
1873 th e Rev. T. A. Marshall published "A Catalogue of 
British Hymenoptera ; Oxyura " (Entomological Society of 
London) in which 373 were recorded. As 142 species 



32 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

of these were Walkerian species of Sceliomd&, etc., the list, 
so far as these are concerned, cannot be regarded as a critical 
one. The following illustration will show how largely M. 
Kieffer has increased our knowledge of these minute insects. 
In Marshall's catalogue are recorded 1 5 British species of 
Anteon, mostly described by Walker ; in the present list 47 
species of that genus are recorded from Scotland. 

Not much is known about the natural history of the 
BetJiylida and the Dryinincs. Species of the former group 
have been reared from Lepidopterous, Coleopterous, and 
Dipterous larvae, and some species have been taken in ants' 
nests. The Dryinin(z, so far as we know, are parasites on 
Honwptera ( TypJilocyba, etc.). Aplielopns melaleucus has been 
reared by Giard in France from TypJilocyba kippocastani and 
T. Douglasi. The species in Scotland appear chiefly in June. 
Many species of Oxyura may, however, be found in the 
autumn in fungi. 

In the following lists the species recorded in Marshall's 
catalogue are marked thus *. 

BETHYLIM;. 

By recent authors, following the example of Haliday, this group 
is referred to the Aculeate division of the Hymenoptera. 

BETHYLUS, Latr., sec. Kieffer. 

i. mandtbularis, Kieffer, Clober. 
*2. fulvicornis, Curtis., Bishopton. 

*3. fuscicornis, Walker, sec. Kief., Tollcross, Claddich, Loch Awe, 
Mull. This species has been taken in the Sierra Nevada, 
Spain, by Dr. D. Sharp, F.R.S. 

PROCTOTRYPID^:. 

DRYININ.E. 

ANTEON, Jurine. 

1. Cameroni, Kief., Thornhill. 

2. fusciformis, K., Dumfries. 

3. flavicornis, K., Dairy, Ayrshire, Sutherlandshire. 

4. procericornis, K., Mugdock, Eccles, Dumfriesshire, Bonar 

Bridge, Sutherlandshire. 

5. vitellineipes, K., Clydesdale. 

6. melanocera, K., Mugdock. 



ON THE SCOTTISH SPECIES OF OXYURA 33 

7. hyalinipenniS) K., Carribber Glen, Manuel, Dairy. 

8. imberbis, K., Rannoch. 

9. divisus, K., Mugdock, Dumfries. 

10. flavinervis, K., Dumfries. 

1 1 . nigricornis, K., Eccles. 

12. filicornis, K., Sutherlandshire. 

13. divisiis, K., Clober Moor. 

14. nigroclavatus, K., Gadder, Kilsyth, Mull. 

15. vulgaris, K., Kenmuir on the Clyde, Gadder, Dumfries, 

Sutherlandshire, Glen Lyon, Mull. 
var. trivia/is, K., Claddich. 

1 6. brevicolliSy K., Thorn.hill, Gadder, Bonar Bridge. 

17. parvicollis, K., Gadder. 

1 8. xanthostigma, K., Dumfries. 

19. scoticus, K., Sutherlandshire. 

20. aervatits, K., Bonar Bridge. 

21. tririalis, K., \&t.flaviscapus, K., Claddich. 

22. (equalis, K., Glen Lyon. 

23. pyrenaicus, K.. Clober, Bonar Bridge. 

24. integer, K., Gadder, Mugdock, Bonar Bridge. 

25. indivisus, K., Bishopton, Thornhill, Dumfries. 

26. crenulatus, K., Bonar Bridge. 

27. minutellus, K., Kenmuir, Dumfries. 

28. vicinus, K., Manuel, Dumfries. 

29. arcitatits, K., Eccles, Thornhill. 

30. flavitarsis, K., Clober. 

31. subapferitSy K., Aviemore (Champion). 

32. fuscodavafits, K., Kenmuir, Gadder, Thornhill. 

33. rectus, K., Gadder, Fossil Marsh, Bishopton, Dumfries, Bonar 

Bridge. 

34. dedivis, K., Clober Moor. 

35. triareolatuS) K., Bonar Bridge. 

36. pal/idicornis, K., Clober. 

37. graciltcollis, K., Fossil Marsh. 

38. fractinervis, K., Clober. 

39. curvinenns, K., Bonar Bridge. 
*40. azon/Sy Walker, Clydesdale. 

41. divisus, K., Dumfries, Mugdock. 

42. parviilus, K., Dumfries. 

43. triangularis, K., Bonar Bridge. 

44. indivisus, K., Thornhill, Dumfries. 

45. neglectns, K., Clydesdale. 

46. nitidus, K., Clydesdale. 

47. pallid inervis, K., Mugdock. 

LABEO, Hal. 

*i. excisus, Westw., Bishopton. 

6 1 D 



34 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

APHELOPUS, Dal. 

*i. melalcucus, Dal. Type form; Cadder, Clober, Kenmuir, Dum- 
fries, Bonar Bridge ; var. atratus, Dal, Dumfries, Bonar 
Bridge ; var. nigriceps, K., Claddich, Dumfries, Cadder ; 
var. carinatitS) K., Cadder. 

I have taken Auteon succineipes, K. near Gloucester, and A. 
nitidus, K. in Dunham Park, Cheshire. 

( To be continued?) 
NEW MILLS, BY STOCKI-ORT. 



SOME SCOTTISH IXODID^ (TICKS). 
By WILLIAM EVANS, F.R.S.E. 

HAVING recently had occasion to pay a little attention to 
the parasitic Acarina known as Ticks, occurring in Scotland, 
it may interest some of the readers of the " Annals " to learn 
what species I have so far found. I therefore subjoin the 
short list. Dates and other facts bearing on the life-history 
of the species are purposely given in some detail. Several 
other species are recorded from England, and one or two of 
them may be expected to occur north of the Border. Ticks 
are not prepossessing creatures, but they are deeply interest- 
ing all the same, and their intimate connection with certain 

o 

diseases in domestic animals has brought them into promi- 
nence. During recent years they have been the subject of a 
number of important papers, including the valuable series by 
Prof. G. Neumann of Toulouse, published in the " Memoires 
de la Societe Zoologique de France," 1896-1902, under the 
title ' Revision de la famille des Ixodides,' and in the 
"Archives de Parasitologie," 1902-1906, in the form of 
' Notes sur les Ixodides.' Attention may also be directed 
to Salmon and Stiles' treatise on ' The Cattle Ticks of the 
United States,' in the i/th "Annual Report of the Bureau 
of Animal Industry," for 1900, and to E. G. Wheler's useful 
paper on 'British Ticks,' in the "Journal of Agricultural 
Science," 1906. 

My best thanks are due to Prof. Neumann, who has 
kindly examined specimens of each species, and confirmed 



SOME SCOTTISH IXODID/E (TICKS) 35. 

my identifications. To Dr. J. H. Ashworth I am indebted 
for a sight of some of the foreign literature. 

Ixodes ricinus (L.) l Locally common on cattle, sheep, and deer. 
In the immediate neighbourhood of Edinburgh it appears to be 
scarce at the present time. Shepherds and others to whom I have 
spoken about it, say they seldom see it except on animals that have 
recently been brought from other parts of the country. A case in 
point occurred in October 1905, when several were found at a dairy 
in the vicinity on a newly bought in cow. On 2ist September 
1906, I observed numbers on cows grazing on a moor south of 
Callander. They were mostly affixed to the udders and adjacent 
parts of the legs of the animals. Of four good-sized females (length 
6 to 7 mm.) secured for examination, it was found that three had 
the much smaller male (length just over 2 mm.) attached to the 
ventral surface as figured by Wheler. We have here a date for the 
coming together of the sexes, a point on which Wheler is silent. 
In August 1906 several nymphs were got on the head of a Red 
Deer from Argyllshire. In April 1894, near Oban, I found a large 
replete female under a stone in a slight recess at the base of a rock, 
where sheep were in the habit of sheltering; and in April 1902 
another this time a "fasting" one under a stone near Aberfoyle, 
On i gth September 1905 an adult male was found on the under- 
side of a piece of bark lying on the ground at the top of Finlarig 
Wood near Killin. Mr. A. E. Shipley has shown me a few larvae 
and nymphs taken from a Red Grouse last summer. In the North 
of England, according to Wheler, this species is known as the 
" Grass-tick." 

Ixodes hexagonus, Leach. This species is attached chiefly to 
Carnivores. Two forms occur, the type and the variety inchoatus, 
Neumann. Of the former, I have a distended female which I took 
off a Polecat (Mustela putorius) killed in Ross-shire towards the end 
of January i 906, and half a dozen larvae from a hedgehog (Erinaceus 
europ&us) captured near Edinburgh in June. 

The variety, or subspecies, /. //. inchoatus is a common pest on 
dogs in many parts of the country, and well deserves the name of 
" dog-tick." Shepherds' dogs, especially young collies, on the 
Pentlands and Moorfoot districts are much infested with it, and I 
have had no difficulty in obtaining any number of specimens. 
Sporting-dogs, by being better attended to, are freer from them. So 
far as I have seen, the parts of the host usually selected for attach- 
ment are the neck, fore part of the back, and down the sides behind 
the fore-legs. The following records are given chiefly for the sake 
of the dates: April 1905, one (9) on retriever, Dalkeith ; 3rd 

1 This name is now used in preference to /. reduviits. 



36 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

March 1906, several nymphs and half a dozen females, not much 
distended, from collie, Crosswood, Pentland Hills; loth March, 
two females, considerably distended, from young collie, Swanston ; 
September 1905 and September 1906, nymphs (a few) and females, 
in various stages of distention, common on young collies at Bavelaw. 
The male I have not yet met with ; it should be looked for in the 
kennels or houses in which the dogs are kept, for apparently it is 
not its habit to seek the female on the host or to accompany her 
thither. The fasting periods of this tick are no doubt spent in 
chinks and other places of concealment about the homes of its 
hosts. I expect male ticks feed little, if at all, after reaching 
maturity. In 1849 Dr. G. Johnston of Berwick gave to the dog- 
tick of the Eastern Borders the name Ixodes canisuga (" Proc. Berw. 
Nat. Club," vol. ii. p. 371), a fact which has been overlooked by 
subsequent writers ; but his description is, I daresay, scarcely pre- 
cise enough to warrant the adoption of this name for the subspecies. 

Ixodes tenuirostris, Neum. The only example of this species I 
have seen is a fully distended nymph, which I found crawling on 
a Water Vole (Arvicola amphibius, var. ater} from Drumlithie, 
Kincardineshire, 3oth October 1905. I am not aware of any 
previous record for Scotland. In England it has been taken from 
the Field Vole and the Bank Vole. 

Ixodes putus (Cambr.) = 7. borealis, Kram. and Neum. In the 
"Annals" for April 1906 (p. 85) I recorded and figured this tick 
from St. Kilda, specimens (adult females and nymphs) having been 
handed to me by Mr. James Waterston, who collected them there 
in the summer of 1905, from Puffins and Fulmars, and on the 
ledges frequented by these birds. Almost simultaneously it was 
recorded from the Hebrides by Mr. Wheler ("British Ticks," in 
"Journ. Agric. Sci.," p. 416). Since I recorded the St. Kilda 
specimens, the Rev. O. P. Cambridge has submitted a type of 
his Kerguelen tick to Prof. Neumann, who informs me it is a 
nymph, and confirms him in his former determination that the 
southern and northern forms are of the same species. I do not 
think it necessary to use the subgeneric name Ceratixodes, and 
Neumann himself drops it in his letters to me. 

Ixodes sp. ? A tick which I have been unable to identify with 
any described species, and of which I have sent specimens to Prof. 
Neumann for his opinion, occurs on Cormorants (Phalacrocorax 
carbo) frequenting the Firth of Forth. On the head of a dead 
immature Cormorant got on the beach near North Berwick in 
October last, I found the remains of several examples, and from 
the heads of two of these birds, shot in the same locality on lyth 
November and kindly sent to me by Mr. W. Ingles, a score of 
living larvre, nymphs, and adult females (the largest 8 mm. in 
length) were obtained. The back of the bird's head seems to 



SOME SCOTTISH IXODID.K (TICKS) 37 

be the part usually selected for attachment. The adult examples 
were of a pale bluish grey colour, but all have become reddish 
after being a week or two in spirits. 

Since the above was put in type, I have received a note from 
Prof. Neumann saying my Cormorant tick appears to him to be a new 
species, that whicu it comes nearest being fx. eudyptidis, Mask. It 
will be described soon. 

EDINBURGH. 



ALIEN PLANTS. 
By JAMES FRASER. 

DURING the year 1906 the following "alien'' or "intro- 
duced" plants were observed by Mr. James M'Andrew and 
myself, a few of them not in the immediate vicinity of 
Edinburgh, whence the change of title from that of my 
previous lists which appeared in the " Annals of Scot. Nat. 
Hist." for April 1904, 1905, and 1906. 

In this list the locality is mentioned by name instead of 
by a number ; and, as before, the relative abundance of each 
species in its locality is represented by the Greek letters 
thus : a = once found ; /3 = twice or thrice, but rare ; 7 = 
neither rare nor frequent ; B = frequent ; e = abundant. 

Under each Natural Order the names of the species are 
arranged alphabetically, and those not previously found in 
Britain are distinguished by a star in front of the name. 

RANUNCULACE^E. 

Adonis autumnalis, L. Leith, a. 

Delphinium Ajacis, L. Leith, a. 
*D. hybridum, Steph. Leith, ft. 
*D. pubescens, DC, Leith, a. 

Eranthis hyemalis, Salisb. Monimail, Fife, y. 

Ranunculus trilobus, Desf. Leith and Slateford, 8. 

PAPAVERACE.-E. 

Glaucium corniculatum, Curt. var. rubrum. Leith, y. 

FUMARIACE^E. 

Fumaria Borsei, Jord, Leith, ft. 
F. densiflora, DC. Leith, y. 
F. officinalis, L. Leith, e. 



38 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

CRUCIFER^:. 

Arabis albida, Stev. Slateford, ft. 

Alyssum incanum, L. var. viride, Tausch. Leith, a. 

Brassica dissecta, Boiss. Leith, u. 

Carrichtera Vella, DC. Leith and Slateford, a. 

Conringia austriaca, Sweet. Slateford, a. 

Iberis amara, L. Leith, a. 

Lepidium incisum, Roth. Leith, /3. 

Hesperis laciniata, All. Leith, a. 

CARYOPHYLLE^E. 

Gypsophila paniculata, L. Leith, a. 
Holosteum umbellatum, L. Leith, a. 
Saponaria officinalis, L. Inverkeithing, Fife, 8. 
Silene Armeria, L. Leith, ft. 
S. conica, L. Leith, ft. 
S. Muscipula, L. Leith and Slateford, 8. 
S. rubella, L. Leith, ft. 
S. gallica, var. anglica, L. Leith, y. 
S. gallica, var. quinquevulnera, L. Leith, y. 
*Velezia rigida, L. Leith, u. 

PORTULACE^E. 

*Claytonia virginica, L. Near Aberdour, Fife, ft. 

MALVACEAE. 

Lavatera punctata, All. Leith, ft. 

Malva borealis, Wallm. Leith, ft. 

M. moschata, L, Morningside, Edinburgh, a. 

LINE,*:. 

Linum angustifolium, Huds. Leith, a. 

GERANIACE.*:. 

^Geranium reflexum, L Ratho, 8. 
G. pusillum, Burin, f. Slateford, ft. 
Limnanthes Douglasii, R.Br. Leith, a. 
Oxalis corniculata, L. Slateford, y. 

AMPELIDE^E. 

Vitis vinifera, L. Slateford, ft. 



ALIEN PLANTS 39 

LEGUMINOS^E. 

* Astragalus sesameus, L. Leith and Slateford, y. 

Galega officinalis, Z. Leith, a. 

Medicago disciformis, DC. Leith, ft. 

M. sphoerocarpa, Bert. Leith and Slateford, 8. 

M. tornata, Wittd. Leith, y. 

M. turbinata, Willd. Leith, ft. 
*AIelilotus infesta, Gnss. Leith, y. 

Onobrychis Caput-galli, Lam. Leith, a. 

Ononis mitissima, L. Leith, a. 

Ornithopus perpusillus, L. Leith, a. 
*Trifolium hirtum, All. Leith, a. 
*T. involucratum, Ortega. Slateford, a. 
*T. mutabile, Portenschl. Leith, u. 
*T. nigrescens, Viv. Leith, a. 
*T. purpureum, Lois. Leith, ft. 

T. subterraneum, L. Esk Mouth, a. 

T. suffocatum, L. Leith, y. 

Trigonella arabica, Del. Leith and Slateford, ft. 

T. besseriana, Ser. Leith, ft. 
*T. crassipes, J3oiss. Leith, a. 

T. gladiata, Stev. Leith, ft. 

T. laciniata, Z. Leith, a. 

Vicia pannonica, Crantz. Leith and Slateford, ft. 

SAXIFRAGES. 
Saxifraga tridactylites, Z. Elie, Fife, y. 

CRASSULACES. 

Sedum album, Z. frtr. micranthum, Bast. Blackford Hill, e. 
S. Telephium, Z. j/ar. Fabaria, H. C. Wats. Morenish, Perth- 
shire, e. 

ONAGRARIES. 

CEnothera purpurea, Curt. Leith, ft. 
O. tenella, Cav. Slateford, ft. 

CUCURBITACE.E. 

*Ecballium Elaterium, A. Rich. Gorgie, a. 

UMBELLIFERS. 

Archangelica officinalis, Hoffm. Longniddry, e. 
Astrantia major, Z. Carribber Glen, ft. 
Caucalis arvensis, Huds. Leith, ft. 
*Chserophyllum nodosum, Lain. Leith, a. 
Scandix australis, Z. Slateford, y. 



40 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

CAPRIFOLIACE^E. 

Sambucus Ebulus, L. Inverkeithing, Fife, e. 

RUBIACE^E. 

*Crucianella angustifolia, L. Leith, (3. 

VALERIANE/K. 

*Fedia Cornucopias, Gccrtn. Leith, f3. 
Valerianella eriocarpa, Desv. Leith and Slateford, (3. 
V. rimosa, Bast. Leith, /3. 

DIPSACE^E. 
Scabiosa maritima, L. Leith, /3. 

COMPOSITE. 

Achillea nobilis, L. Slateford, a. 

Anthem is mixta, L. Slateford, -y. 

Arctium tomentosum, Lam. Slateford, y. 
* Artemisia longifolia, Nutt. Leith, a. 
*A. sericea, Weber. Leith, y. 

Carduus nigrescens, VilL Slateford, f3 ?. 

Centaurea solstitialis, L. var. Adami, IV. Leith, a. 

Lactuca Scariola, L. Leith, a. 
*Lasthenia glabrata, Lindl. Slateford, /3. 

Onopordon illyricum, L. Slateford, (3 ?. 

O. tauricum, Willd. Leith and Slateford, y. 

Picris (Helminthia) echioides, L. Leith and Slateford, (3. 

Solidago lanceolata, L. Craigmillar Quarry, f3. 

Xanthium strumarium, L. Leith, y. 

Xeranthemum annuum, Z. Leith, a. 

CAMPANULACE^;. 
Specularia pentagonia, A. DC. Leith, f3. 

POLEMONIACE^:. 

Gilia capitata, Si/us. Slateford, /3. 

BORAGINE^:. 

Alkanna lutea, A. DC. Leith, a. 
Amsinckia angustifolia, Lehm. Leith, /3. 
Anchusa undulata, L. Leith, a. 
Echium violaceum, L. Leith, a. 

Lithospermum arvense, L. var. medium [Chev.]. Slateford, 8. 
*Nonnea alba, DC. Leith, a. 



ALIEN PLANTS 41 

CONVOLVULACE^E. 

^Convolvulus althaeoides, L. Leith, /?. 

SOLANACE/E. 

Lycium chinense, Mill. Elie and Inverkeithing, Fife, y. 
Physalis Alkekengi, Z. Leith, 8 (seedlings). 
Solanum villosum, Lam. Leith, a ?. 

SCROPHULARINE^E. 

Mimulus Langsdorfii, Donn. var. guttatus, DC. Near Gore- 

bridge, . 

Veronica acinifolia, Z. Slateford, y. 
V. triphyllos, Z. Slateford, 8. 

LAB I AT /E. 

*Lallemantia iberica, Fisch. and Mey. Slateford, y. 
Lamium maculatum, var. Isevigatum, Z. Gilmerton, 8 
Mentha alopecuroides, Hull. Near Killin, 8. 
Origanum vulgare, var. virens, G. and G. (non Hoffm.}. Railway 

Bank, Trinity, y. 

Stachys arvensis, Z. Rosyth, Fife, y. 
Salvia - - ? Leith, a. 

AMARANTHACE/E. 

Amaranthus Blitum, Z. Leith, a. 
*A. spinosus, Z. Leith, y. 

POLYGONACE^:. 
Rumex alpinus, Z. Lawers, Perthshire, y. 

EUPHORBIACE^E. 

^Euphorbia falcata, Z. Slateford, f3. 
*E. taurinensis, All. Slateford, ft. 
Ricinus communis, Z. Leith, c5 (seedlings). 

HYDROCHARIDE^E. 

Stratiotes aloides, Z. Blackhall Pond, y. 



Ornithogalum umbellatum, Z. Near Kirkliston, y. 



42 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 



*Agrostis elegans, Thore. Leith, a. 

Apera intermedia, Hackel. Leith, a. 

Bromus commutatus, Schrader. Leith and Slateford, y. 

B. commutatus var. pubescens. Leith, a. 

B. erectus, Huds. var. villosus, Bab. Leith, a. 
*B. divaricatus, Rhode. Leith and Slateford, 8. 

B. madritensis, L. var. rigidus, Roth. Slateford, (3. 

B. secalinus, L. var. velutinus (Schrad.). Kinghorn, Fife, a; 
Leith, p. 

Cynodon Dactylon, Pers. Leith, /3. 

Koeleria phleoides, Pers. forma. Leith, a. 

Panicum glabrum, Gaud. Leith, y. 

Phalaris brachystachys, Link. Near Joppa, a ?. 

P. intermedia, Bosc. Leith, a. 
*P. tuberosa, L. Slateford, a. 
*Poa persica, Trin. Leith, a. 

Triticum cylindricum, Ces. var. - - ? Leith and Slateford, y. 

I have once more to express my gratitude to Professor Hackel 
for his kindness in again identifying several of the grasses Poa 
persica, Trin., Koeleria phleoides, Pers., and Phalaris intermedia, 
Bosc. and to A. O. Hume, Esq., C.B., F.L.S., for much valuable 
direct and indirect assistance in determining and verifying a number 
of others. I have also to record my indebtedness to A. B. Jackson, 
Esq., who was the first to find Apera intermedia, Hackel, in Britain 
(Leicestershire) about two years ago, and who very kindly verified 
my specimen of that plant by comparing it with his one. 

LEITH, December 1906. 



WEST HIGHLAND MOSSES AND PROBLEMS 
THEY SUGGEST. 

By JAMES STIRTON, M.D., F.L.S. 

LAST year, during the months of July and August and part 
of September, at Arisaig on the West Coast, several important 
mosses were found, and the distribution of others of scarcely 
less significance showed peculiarities of an almost unique 
character. 

The most important is the beautiful and remarkable 
Myurium Hebridarum (Sch.) remarkable as regards its 
area of growth and spread. It was found about 5 miles 



WEST HIGHLAND MOSSES AND PROBLEMS THEY SUGGEST 43 

south-west of Arisaig in a station of very restricted area, 
close to the sea, its usual habitat. This is the second station 
for the moss on the mainland of Scotland. The first was 
discovered some years ago by Dr. Macvicar at a station 
similarly situated to the present one, and only several miles 
to the east of it. These are the only known stations 
diverging a little from the main line of growth. There is 
possibly another near Loch Coruisk in Skye, although the 
rock formation there would seem to favour this slighter lateral 
extension. As is now well known, its area is confined to 
the ridge in the sea extending from the Faroe Islands down 
to St. Helena. I have the moss from the Butt of Lewis 
down the whole chain of islands of the Outer Hebrides to 
Barra, where, in places, it grows very luxuriantly. I have it 
also from the Azores, and it has been reported from the 
Canaries and St. Helena, but from nowhere else in the 
world. Now the plant has never been found in fruit, and 
the only other means of spread, apart from the natural 
extension of the tufts, is through buds, which are only very 
occasionally seen, extruding a little beyond the general 
surface of the compact masses ; but these, from their size, 
can only be carried short distances by winds, and even then 
it is more than doubtful whether they can serve for purposes 
of propagation, inasmuch as no radicles have ever been seen 
on them. Radicles are necessary for the development of 
buds, and such are abundantly supplied to the detached buds 
in the species of the genus Campylopus, which never fruit 
a genus well represented in these same islands. 

In my opinion all this argues strongly in favour of a 
continued land-surface, such as has been indicated as the 
continent of Atlantis. 

The question of the length of time necessary for so great 
extensions in range as are implied in such slow growths and 
spread opens up a wide field for speculation a speculation 
of rather an alluring nature in these days of sweeping 
generalisations. 

The next moss in importance is Hedwigidiwn imberbe 
(Sm.), inasmuch as the present station is the second for 
Scotland, and not more than eight such are known through- 
out the world. This moss was discovered within restricted 



44 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

and well-defined limits, on a mountain 2 miles east of 
Arisaig a nameless mountain of an elevation of not more 
than 1500 feet. Bartholomew's map on a scale of 2 miles 
to the inch scarcely, or at least doubtfully, indicates it. I 
applied for information to several of the older inhabitants 
without eliciting anything definite as to its name. At length 
the Rev. J. Chisholm, of St. Mary's, Arisaig, a good Gaelic 
scholar, promised to investigate the matter. In a day or 
two a card was handed in, on which were written two words, 
" Sithean Mor." The next step was their pronunciation. 
An appeal to the Rev. D. M'Lean resulted in words as near 
the pronunciation as possible, " Shean Mor," with the addition 
by way of translation, " The larger height of the Fairies." 

The moss second in the order of discovery is Dicrannui 
Fergussoni. In this instance the specimens show a greater 
degree of development than those of any other known locality. 
The more typical show serratures on the upper half of the 
margin of the leaf, sharply defined, as well as prominent 
pellucid serratures on the back of the nerve, at times as high 
as .008 mm. The red tomentum is also, in two instances, 
as well marked as in D. Miililenbeckii (Sch.), a moss not 
hitherto detected in Britain ; indeed the whole stems, from 
base to apex, are shrouded in these felt-like masses. The 
areolation is besides different from that of D. Scottianniu, 
inasmuch as the upper cells are oval and much larger, viz. 
.Oi2-.oi8 by .OO7-.OI mm. Rather abundant throughout 
the district, but barren. This moss is clearly in process of 
evolution and differentiation from D. Scottianum, and accord- 
ingly ought to be closely observed. 

I have now four stations for this moss ; but the speci- 
mens from Arisaig show a much greater divergence from the 
original type than those of any of the others. All this implies 
that I have no belief in the fixity of species ; I mean, of course, 
in the sense that all freaks and variations on the part of nature 
quickly revert to the unalterable type, and that there can be 
no departures from that type such as may lead ultimately 
to diverse types in the course of time and amid changes 
of surroundings, etc. All such changes are much more 
frequently seen in plants of simpler organisations, and 
especially in genera which propagate, for much the greater 



WEST HIGHLAND MOSSES AND PROBLEMS THEY SUGGEST 45 

part, by other means than spores properly so called. Long 
observations, extending back for nearly forty years, have 
only served to strengthen this belief. At any rate, such 
a condition of mind has this advantage, that it often gives an 
increased spur to research. I am glad to observe that other 
botanists are acting under the same conviction, even if they 
clo not openly profess it. 

Lastly, there is certainly a much greater distinction 
between this moss and D. Scottianum than between Cauipy- 
lopus setifolins and C. Sliaivii. 



ADDITIONS FOR 1906 TO CENSUS OF 
SCOTTISH HEPATIOE. 

By SYMERS M. MACVICAR. 

SlXCE the " Additions " were published in the "Annals," 
1905, p. 1 08, the Moss Exchange Club has issued a " Census 
Catalogue of British Hepatics," in which is incorporated all 
the Scottish records of which I have examined specimens 
up to nearly the close of 1905. The records for Scotland, 
additional to those in the " Annals," amounted to 1 40. These 
included two species new to the Scottish flora, Ricda 
crystallina and Prionolobus Massalongi. The former was 
discovered by Mr. M'Andrew, and almost simultaneously 
by Mr. W. Evans, in reservoirs on the Pentland Hills. A 
few days later it was also found in Fife by Mr. Aimer. 
The old records for this species in Scotland must be referred 
to R. glauca and R. sorocarpa. The Prionolobus was found 
by the late John Sim in Kincardineshire in 187(7 ?) 

The present paper contains 125 records of specimens 
examined, most of them having been found in 1906. They 
include three additions to the Scottish flora, Lophozia badejisis 
(Gottsche) Schffn. Prioiwlobus striatnlus (C. Jens.) Schffn., 
and Cephaloziella Limprichtii Warnst. The LopJiozia has 
been a much confused species. I found it in my herbarium, 
under the name L. turbinata, from four localities in Scotland, 
the earliest specimen having been gathered on Mochra Hill, 
Ayrshire, by Mr. P. Ewing, in January 1883. The distinctive 



46 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

characters of L. badensis and L. turbinata will be found in 
Lindb. and Arnell's Muse. Asiae bor. p. 46. The Prionolobus 
was found by the writer among Sphagnum on Lousie Wood 
Law, Elvanfoot ; it is an addition to the Britannic flora. 
This species is described and figured by C. Jensen in Revue 
Bryologique, 1904, p. 25. The Cephaloziella is closely allied 
to Ceph. myriantha. The locality where it was found is at 
the side of a footpath on Kirkton farm at the base of Tinto. 
A translation of the original description of the species will 
be found in Journ. Bot., 1905, p. 186. Other interesting 
species given below are Anthelia julacca and Hygrobiella 
laxifolia from Ayrshire, Gymnomitrium adnstinn and Hygrob. 
laxifolia from Lanarkshire, Pallavidnia Flotowiana and 
Madothcca Thuja from Haddingtonshire, Lophozia atlantica 
from Arran, Sphenolobus Pearsoni from Mull, and Anastrepta 
orcadensis from its original locality, Ward Hill, Hoy, Orkney, 
where it was discovered by Hooker in 1808. 

72. DUMFRIES. 
Cephaloziella byssacea, Miss K. B. Macvicar. 

75- AYR - 
(C. Scott.} 

Lophozia Mulleri. Ptilidium ciliare. 

Hygrobiella laxifolia. Trichocolea tomentella. 

Bazzania tricrenata. Scapania irrigua. 

Lophozia badensis, P. Ewing. 
Anthelia julacea, G. West. 

76. RENFREW. 
Riccia Lescuriana, P. Ewing. Lophozia excisa, .5. M. Macvicar. 

77. LANARK. 
(S. M. Macvicar.} 

Aneura latifrons. A. pumila. 

Metzgeria conjugata. Lophozia Miilleri, ?w. bantriensis. 

Pellia Neesiana. L. excisa, var. Limprichtii. 
Gymnomitrium adustum, var. L. barbata. 

olivacea. Cephalozia connivens. 

Marsupella emarginata. C. leucantha. 

Nardia hyalina. Hygrobiella laxifolia. 

Aplozia crenulata. Prionolobus striatulus. 



ADDITIONS FOR 1906 TO CENSUS OF SCOTTISH HEPATIC/E 47 

Cephaloziella Limprichtii. Blepharostoma trichophyllum. 

Odontoschisma Sphagni. Scapania compacta. 

Kantia Sprengelii. S. subalpina. 

Kantia arguta. S. irrigua. 

78. PEEBLES. 
( //". Evans.) 

Riccia glauca. Fossombronia Wondraczekii. 

k. sorocarpa. Cephaloziella bifida. 

(S. M. Macvicar.) 

Aneura multifida. Cephaloziella byssacea. 

Nardia obovata. Kantia arguta. 

Lophozia bicrenata. Scapania compacta. 

L. excisa. S. nemorosa. 

L. quinquedentata. S. irrigua. 

L. barbata. S. curta. 

Sphenolobus exsectreformis. Lophozia incisa. 
Cephalozia leucantha. 

82. HADDINGTON. 

(/. M 1 Andrew.) 

Pallavicinia Flotowiana. Lophozia gracilis. 

Lophozia Miilleri, var. bantriensis. Chiloscyphus pallescens. 

L. bicrenata. Cephaloziella bifida. 

L. quinquedentata. Madotheca Thuja. 

83. EDINBURGH. 

Riccia slauca ) 

u T f W. Evans. Lophozia badensis,/. M'Andrew. 

84. LINLITHGOW. 
(/. AP Andrew^ 

Aneura latifrons. Lophozia bicrenata. 

Marsupella emarginata. Ptihdium ciliare. 

Aplozia pumila. Scapania undulata. 

( JT. Evans.) 
Lophozia Floerkii, var. Baueriana. Scapania nemorosa. 

85. FIFE. 

Lophozia badensis } 

<-* u i 11 -4.1 '' Evans. 

Cephaloziella mynantha J 

Scapania nemorosa, J. M 1 - Andrew. 

86. STIRLING. 
Sphenolobus minutus ) 
Lepidozia trichoclados // 



48 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

95. ELGIN. 
Lophozia Miilleri, A. Croall. 

96. EASTERNESS. 
(Miss K. B. Macvicar^) 

Nardia obovata. Chiloscyphus polyanthos. 

Aplozia riparia. Madotheca rivularis. 

A. puinila. 

98. ARGYLL. 

Marsupella erythrorhiza ) 

. \ S. M. Macvicar. 

M. Jorgensenii j 

99. DUMBARTON. 
(S. M. Macvicar.") 

Marsupella Pearsoni. Lepidozia Pearsoni. 

Cephaloziella byssacea. Microlejeunea ulicina. 

Odontoschisma denudatum, var. 
elongatum. 

100. CLYDE ISLES. 
Lophozia atlantica \ 

Cephaloziella byssacea j ' ' ac ^tcaf . 

103. MID EBUDES. 
(D. Kennedy.} 

Marsupella Pearsoni. Hygrobiella laxifolia. 

M. aquatica. Lepidozia Pearsoni. 

Aplozia crenulata. L. trichoclados. 

Sphenolobus Pearsoni. Anthelia julacea. 

Anastrepta orcadensis. Radula aquilegia. 
Cephalozia leucantha. 

1 06. EAST Ross. 

Eremonotus myriocarpus ) 
Cephaloziella byssacea ] W ' West - 
Lophozia badensis, Miss K. B. Macvicar. 

in. ORKNEY. 
(D. Lil/ie.} 

Metzgeria furcata. Lophocolea cus])idata. 

M. conjugata. Eremonotus myriocarpus. 

Gymnomitrium crenulatum. Cephaloziella myriantha. 

Marsupella aquatica. Bazzania triangularis. 

Lophozia quinquedentata. Lepidozia reptans. 

Anastrepta orcadensis. L. Pearsoni. 

Plagiochila spinulosa. Radula Lindbergii. 



ADDITIONS FOR 1906 TO CENSUS OF SCOTTISH HEPATIC/K 4 9 

112. SHETLAND. 

Cephaloziella bifida ") 

r v r / Sim. 

Lejeunea cavifoha y 

Marsupella Pearsoni ) . 

XT j- \ W. H. Beeby. 

Nardia compressa J 

Sphenolobus exsectaeformis ) T 

Scapania compacta } Fair Isle " Mlss 

INVERMOIDART, ACHARACLE, ARGYLLSHIRE. 



ZOOLOGICAL NOTES. 

Lesser Shrew on Ailsa Craig. For some time a Shrew has 
been known to inhabit Ailsa Craig, but the species had not been 
determined, though it was thought most probably to be the Lesser 
Shrew (Sorex pygmaus). Through the kindness of Mr. Thomson, 
the principal lightkeeper on Ailsa Craig, I have received a single 
specimen, which turns out to be Sorex pygmceus, as was expected. 
This is the only specimen Mr. Thomson was able to catch, though 
he has been trying for some time ; and in his letter which came 
with the specimen he says, " These little animals seem to be dying 
out here; at one time they used to be plentiful enough."- NORMAN 
B. KINNEAR, Edinburgh. 

Common Shrew at Dunnet Head. The Common Shrew (Sorex 
araneits) has already been recorded as common in Caithness, but 
perhaps it is worth while mentioning that I trapped a single example 
on Dunnet Hill last October. It is thus interesting to note that 
while the Common Shrew is found in the very north of the mainland, 
as Dunnet Hill is about one and a half miles off the most northerly 
point, yet it does not extend across the Pentland Firth, the 
Lesser Shrew (Sorex pygmceies) being the only species of Shrew 
known with certainty to occur in Orkney. NORMAN B. KINNEAR, 
Edinburgh. 

Wild Cats in N.-W. Highlands and Skye. My friend, Mr. 
Osgood H. Mackenzie of Inverewe, Poolewe, West Ross-shire, writing 
to me under date of i4th November 1906, says: "My stalker has 
trapped two half-sized Wild Cats, quite pure bred, we believe. They 
were not injured. Wild Cats are on the increase here owing to no 
trapping in forests."- -J. A. HARVIE-BROWN. 

Bird Notes from Shetland. At 10.15 P - M - on X 4 tn September 
I heard a considerable number of Terns calling, passing overhead, 
and apparently going in a southerly direction ; and others were heard 
again on the 2oth calling overhead, 10 P.M., and also going south. 

On 3rd and 4th October a Swallow was seen at Bressay. 

On the yth a Bullfinch, presumably belonging to the large 
6 1 E 



50 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

northern species (P. major), was seen at Lerwick ; and a large flock 
of Bramblings, hundreds of them, appeared at Sound. And on the 
9th between twenty and thirty Swallows were observed at Lerwick ; 
also Blackbirds, Twites, Greenfinches, Chaffinches, and Redstarts. 

A Nightjar was found dead floating in the harbour at Lerwick 
on 2oth October. It was badly damaged, having apparently come 
in contact with some object during flight. 

There was a rush of birds at Lerwick from the 5th to the loth 
of October of a very unusual and extensive kind. It was not 
confined to a small space, but extended from the north to the south 
end of the town, the birds, judging from the sound, apparently 
travelling from an easterly to a southerly or south-westerly direction. 
I heard them passing overhead from 7.30 till after 10 P.M., and, 
judging from the frequency of the calls, the birds must have been in 
countless numbers. Unfortunately, owing to the darkness it was 
impossible to see them, but I drew the attention of a number of 
people to the migration. I was able to recognise the call of the 
Redwing. 

The Bullfinch referred to on yth October was apparently attracted 
by the light, and came to a window of a house at the Hillhead, 
Lerwick. The bird was captured alive and put in a cage, under the 
impression that it had escaped. Another, a female, came to our dining- 
room between 9 and 10 P.M. on nth October. My sister (who saw 
the Bullfinches last winter) heard it, and lifted up the blind and got 
a good view of it sitting on the sill. JOHN S. TULLOCH, Lerwick. 

Bird Notes from North Shetland for 1906. SNOWY OWL 
(Nyctea scandiaca). One shot on 3oth January. SPOTTED FLY- 
CATCHER (Muscicapa grisola). Two seen on loth April. A rare 
bird of passage in Unst. CRANE (Grus rit?erea).One seen on 
1 6th May. BUFFON'S SKUA (Stercorarius parasiticits). One on 
3oth May. The second I have seen during eight years of observa- 
tion. BLUETHROAT (Cyanecula suedca). One seen on 25th 
September ; two on the following day. GREAT TITMOUSE (Parus 
major). One killed on 1 6th October ; came into the house through 
an open window. Single birds also seen on the iyth and 2ist. 
CORNCRAKE (Crex pratensis). A male killed on i8th October. 
NORTHERN BULLFINCH (Pyrrhula major). Many seen on 4th 
November. T. EDMONSTON SAXBY, Baltasound, Unst. 

Albino Brambling in Fife. On the nth of December we saw 
a most beautiful Albino Brambling (Fringilla montifringilld). It 
was sitting in the trees on Lahill Avenue, with a large flock of 
ordinary Bramblings. It was pure white on the crown of the head, 
tail, primaries, and scapulars, and whitish on the back and rump. 
The breast was a pale plum colour shading off into white, and on 
the sides of the head, nape, and secondaries there was some brown. 
It flew and behaved in all ways as an ordinary Brambling, of which 



ZOOLOGICAL NOTES 5 1 

we have an unusual amount this winter. EVELYN V. BAXTER and 
LEONORA JEFFREY RINTOUL, Colinsburgh, Fife. 

Yellow - browed Warbler at Skerryvore Lighthouse. A 

Yellow-browed Warbler (Phylloscopus siiperciliosus] was captured on 
the morning of the 2ist September at 2.30 A.M. At 8 P.M. the 
previous night a few Meadow Pipits made their appearance, gradu- 
ally increasing in numbers till 10 P.M., when they were to be seen in 
hundreds, resting on and flying about the lantern. At 1 1 P.M. one 
young Ring Ouzel killed itself, that being the only one seen. One 
Thrush was seen, also several White Wagtails ; and Redshanks and 
Golden Plovers flying about most of the night. Two Jack Snipe were 
found dead at the foot of the Tower in the morning. The wind was 
S.E. all night, and had been blowing moderately from E. and S.E. for 
three days previous. It was what might be called a lovely night, 
wind light airs, horizon hazy, but overhead the stars were shining 
fairly bright. The haze was just dense enough to make the beams 
of light from the lantern very distinct. The Yellow-browed Warbler 
struck against the glass at 2.30 A.M., and was picked up dead. No 
other warblers were seen that night. Mr. Eagle Clarke has kindly 
examined the specimen, and confirms my identification. JAMES 
TOMISON, Skerryvore Lighthouse. 

Migration of the Redbreasted Flycatcher (Musricapa parva}. 
As showing the extent which a migratory movement often covers, 
it may be of interest to record that on 2oth September, the day on 
which the Redbreasted Flycatchers were seen on Fair Island by Mr. 
Eagle Clarke, as mentioned by him in his interesting note, p. 236, 
one was shot in Norfolk, and on i8th September two more, which I 
have examined and find to be young birds. At the same time 
several Arctic Bluethroats were seen, another species also met with 
by Mr. Clarke on this northern island, which seems so favoured by 
migrants. J. H. GURNEY, Keswick, Norfolk. 

[Another Redbreasted Flycatcher was obtained at Fair Isle 
on 4th October. W. E. C] 

Rose-coloured Pastors in Foula. On the 28th of October five 
or six rose-coloured Pastors (Pastor roseus) appeared in the garden 
of the Congregational Manse at Foula, Shetland, one of them being 
a fine adult male. A southerly wind prevailed at the time of their 
visit. WM. ROBERTSON, The Manse, Foula. 

[This bird has on several occasions visited Shetland, but never 
before to our knowledge in the numbers indicated. EDS.] 

Capereaillie in Midlothian. My friend J. S. Tait of Bavelaw 
tells me that his keeper reported to him that two Capereaillie had 
been seen in the woods there in the beginning of August. Mr. 
Tait himself, in September, flushed the two birds, and saw them 
quite clearly. Sir Thomas Gibson Carmichael writes that these two 



52 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

have been also seen on his property. He says, in a letter to Mr. 
Tait, that his keeper could have shot them several times, but knew 
that Sir Thomas would not wish it. " He saw one this morning 
quite close to him" (November 6, 1906). I know that the Caper- 
caillie had appeared in Fife, but this appearance of the bird to the 
south of the Forth is new to me. I believe that the two birds seen 
were both males. H. N. BONAR, Saltoun, Pencaitland. 

[Mr. William Evans tells us he has six records of Capercaillies in 
Midlothian, including one shot in Bavelaw fir-wood nearly twenty 
years ago. EDS.] 

Capereaillie in Dumfriesshire. A friend of mine who is 
personally acquainted with the appearance of Capereaillie (Tetrao 
urogallus) in Perthshire, when out shooting on the hills to the 
N.N.W. of this county in November 1905, saw one cock and two 
hen Capereaillie, just after a fall of snow. He tried to stalk them, 
but they got up when out of shot, and flew off in a northerly direction. 
This is I believe the furthest south that these birds have been 
recorded the previous most southerly point being Tarbolton Moss, 
in Ayrshire, of which occurrence I informed you, on p. 116, No. 58, 
of the "Annals of Scot. Nat. Hist."--HuGH S. GLADSTONE, Thorn- 
hill, Dumfriesshire. 

Capercaillies in Moray. It is interesting to record that Caper- 
caillies (Tetrao urogallus} have now got up here, Elgin. Last year 
there were certainly none ; but in the beginning of October one of 
my keepers said he had seen a hen on the Binn Hill. I said it 
must have been a Grey Hen. Afterwards, when looking for Woodcock 
on the hill, we saw two cocks and a hen. The Binn Hill is a 
wooded hill about 400 feet high, facing the sea. It is covered with 
trees, mostly Scotch fir, some larch and spruce. The different 
portions vary from 20 feet to 40 feet in height. Between it and 
the sea there is a waste of stones separating belts of Scotch firs 
about 40 feet high, with heather, juniper, and bracken underneath ; 
and this was where we saw the birds. Altogether, I should say, 
there are between four and five hundred acres of wood. I have 
made inquiries among the neighbouring keepers, and hear that in 
the Gordon Castle woods there are now, they think, about thirty 
Capercaillies, and these are believed to have arrived last year. Last 
week a cock was killed at Pluscarden, on the other side of Elgin, 
and there are two more ( $ and 9 ) left. JAMES DAVIDSON, Elgin. 

Grey -Lag Goose in Ayrshire. A Grey -Lag Goose (Anser 
cinerens), a young male, was shot near the Black Rocks, south of 
Fairlie, on the evening of i3th November 1906, by Mr. Knox 
Whyte. There was another bird in its company at the time. There 
are a few old records of this species having been observed in the 
Clyde Area, but the above appears to be the first specimen obtained. 
ROBERT WILSON, Glasgow. 



ZOOLOGICAL NOTES 53 

Dotterel at the Flannan Islands. In September last I received, 
in the flesh, a specimen of the Dotterel (Eudromias morinellus), a 
bird-of-the-year, from Eilean Mor, Flannan Isles. The occurrence 
of this species in this remote locality is of considerable interest to 
those who concern themselves with the migratory movements of 
birds, for this species has not hitherto been detected in the Outer 
Hebrides, of which the Flannans are far western outliers. WM. 
EAGLE CLARKE. 

Mortality among" Guillemots and Razorbills. Since the end 
of July there has been one of the mysterious epidemics (?) running 
its course amongst the Solway Guillemots, and, to a lesser extent, 
amongst the Razorbills too. Old and young have been equally 
affected, and many of the latter were mere chicks. All along the 
tide mark from about Auchencairn eastwards defunct individuals 
have been strewn in very large numbers, and up till mid-September 
this fatality seems to have been continuous. Since then it hardly 
appears to have been so bad. Such epidemics amongst these rock- 
birds have occurred occasionally, one of the most fatal having taken 
place in 1869. Some authorities attribute this widespread destruc- 
tion of the birds to destitution following upon tempestuous weather ; 
others to starvation owing to absence of their food over the banks 
where they dive for it ; while most seem to favour the disease theory. 
It seems strange that no precise observations upon the cause of the 
mortality seem to have been made. All the birds that I handled in 
August and September, cast ashore as described, were extremely 
emaciated, but in fine condition as to plumage. Their stomachs 
were always empty. Some few I caught ashore in a helpless con- 
dition. Many were noticed close inshore, within a stone's throw of 
the edge, and this was a most unusual place for these birds, in such 
shallow water as our firth. ROBERT SERVICK, Maxwelltown. 

Fulmar nesting 1 at Dunnet Head. From Mr. Harvie-Brown's 
note in the October number of the "Annals" it might be supposed 
that last year was the first time the Fulmar (Fiilmarus glacialis] had 
nested at Dunnet Head. That is not the case, as I was told by one 
of the lightkeepers, Mr. H. Laidlaw, when there last October, that 
the Fulmar had bred since 1900. At first there were only two 
pairs nesting, but now they have increased to three colonies, with 
from ten to twelve pairs in each. NORMAN B. KINXEAR, Edinburgh. 

Miiller's Topknot captured in the Sound of Mull. A specimen 
of Miiller's Topknot (Zeiigopten/s pitnctatus] was captured on yth 
September last in a wire fish trap on the coast of Morven in the 
Sound of Mull, nearly opposite Tobermory. I believe it to be the 
third specimen caught during the past fifteen years one off Ardna- 
murchan Coast at Kilchoan, and two off Drimnin shore. A. BURN- 
MURDOCH, Edinburgh. 



54 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

Chrysops sepuleralis, F., Theriopleetes montanus, Mg., and 
other Tabanidse at Abepfoyle (Forth). On 3Oth June 1905, a 
bright, warm summer day, Tabanidcz were very plentiful in a meadow 
near Aberfoyle. Flies were not the special object of my pursuit at 
the time, but the "clegs" forced themselves on my notice, and I 
captured a number. On examining them later I found three species 
of Chn'sops represented, namely, C, ctzcutiens, C. relicta, and half a 
dozen specimens (9 $ ) of what I made out to be the rare C. sepul- 
eralis, F., a determination in which Mr. Verrall, to whom I sub- 
mitted a specimen, concurred. Theriopleetes was represented by 
T. solstitialis, and a darker species, an example ( $ ) of which Mr. 
Verrall returned to me with the name T. montanus, var. Of several 
Tabanus sude fiats seen, one only allowed itself to be netted. Females 
of the ubiquitous Hcematopota pluvialis were, of course, abundant, 
but only one male was got. WILLIAM EVANS, Edinburgh. 

Lepidoptera from West Ross-shire, etc. The following is a 
list of Butterflies and Moths taken by me this year at Swordale, and 
which, according to Barrett's " British Lepidoptera," have either 
not been found so far north before, or in East Ross : 

Chrysophanus phlceas, L. ; Cotnonympha pamphihis, L. ; Demas 

coryli, L. ; Posdlocampa populi, L. ; Trichiura cratcegi, L. ; Centra 

furcula, L. ; Notodonta dictaa, L. ; N. ziczac, L. ; N. dromedaries, L. ; 

Ptemstoma palpi na, L. ; Thyatira bat is, L. ; Asphalia flavicornis, L. ; 

Acronycta rumids, L. ; Triphccna jantliina, Esp. ; Noctua neglecta, 

Hb. ; Polia clii, L. ; Miselia oxyacantlm, L. ; Miana strigilis, Clerck ; 

Panolis piniperda, Panz. ; Xanthia cerago, Schiff. ; Phisia bractea, 

Fab. ; P. pnlclirina, Haw. ; Euclidia mi, Clerck ; Hypena, pro- 

boscidalis, L. ; Rumia cratcegata, L. ; Cabera pusaria, L. ; C. 

exantliemaria, L. ; Fidonia carbonaria, L. ; Numeria pulverana, L. ; 

Selenia illunaria, Hb. ; Metrocampa margaritata, L. ; EUopia 

fasciaria, L. ; Biston betularius, L. ; Phigalia pilosaria, Schiff; 

Lomaspilis marginata, L. ; Anticlea badiata, Schiff ; A. derivata, 

Schiff; Coremia multistrigaria, Haw. ; Emmelesia alchemillata, L. ; 

Cidaria psittacata, Schiff; C. miata, L. ; C. corylata, Thnbg. ; C. 

suffumata, Schiff; C. silaceata, Schiff; C. prunata, L. ; C. fidvata, 

Forst. ; T/iera Jirmata, Hb. ; T. variata, Schiff; Hypsipetes ruberata, 

Frr. ; H. imphtviata, Schiff; Oporabia dihitata, Schiff; Carsia im- 

butata, Hb. ; Eubolia palumbaria, Schiff; Eupitheda lariciata, Frr. 

At the end of September I found the following species at 
Dornoch, Sutherland : Platypteryx lacertinaria, L. ; Hadena pisi, 
L. ; and also obtained larvae of : Cidaria corylata, Thnbg. ; Cabera 
exanthemaria, L. (2); Platypteryx lacertinaria, L. (i, off birch); 
Cymatophhora duplaris, L. ; Notodonta dromedarius, L. ; Hadena 
pisi, L. (2) ; Rumia cratczgata, L. (2) ; Lomaspilis marginata, L. (a 
few, very young) ; and Eupitheda laridata, Frr. (from larch and 
Scotch fir). DOROTHY JACKSON, Swordale, Evanton, Ross-shire. 



ZOOLOGICAL NOTES 55 

Chseroeampa eelerio, Z., at Galashiels. It may be of interest 
to note that a fine specimen of the above species of Hawk-Moth 
was taken in the town of Galashiels in the month of October this 
year. The species always appears to be uncertain and irregular in 
its appearance, and in Scotland has only occurred in the Moray 
area and the south, as stated in Barrett's work, vol. ii. p. 55. The 
present example found its way into the collection of the South of 
Scotland Entomological Society, but through the good offices of the 
Secretary, Mr. John Clapperton, it has been presented by them to 
the Royal Scottish Museum. PERCY H. GRIMSHAW, Edinburgh. 



BOTANICAL NOTES AND NEWS. 

Carex murieata, Linn., in North Aberdeen. Among plants 
collected in the neighbourhood of Banff during the autumn of this 
year (1906) by Mr. William G. Craib, a student in the University of 
Aberdeen, were several local and scarce species. Among them was 
an example of the above sedge, gathered in the parish of King 
Edward. This is its first record for the vice-county of North 
Aberdeen (92), though known from the neighbouring vice-counties. 
It is very local and nowhere common in the north-east of Scotland. 
-J. W. H. TRAIL. 

The Disappearance of British Plants. In the " Journal of the 
Royal Horticultural Society," in December 1906, appeared an excellent 
address on this subject (reproduced in great part in the "Journal of 
Botany," 1906, pp. 414-422), well deserving to be read and thought 
over. To those familiar with the flora of a town and its vicinity 
the local disappearance of species is only too evident ; yet Prof. 
Boulger found himself unable to name a single species that had dis- 
appeared wholly in recent times from the British Islands, while re- 
calling the extinction of Calamagrostis neglecta, var. borealis, from its 
single locality, a marsh near Loch Tay in Mid Perth, recorded by 
Mr. Druce. The editor of the " Journal of Botany " adds Erythrca 
latifolia, no longer found on the Lancashire sandhills, its former sole 
British habitat. Others are, if not extinct, perilously near that fate 
in Britain, and stand in need of protection. Only a few are in 
serious danger from the covetousness of botanists, the more serious 
risks arising from industrial and urban operations, amusements such 
as golf, and the collection of wild plants for sale by tradesmen. 

Botanical Nomenclature. The unavoidable difficulties in the 
determination of the correct names of plants are sufficient in them- 
selves to test the perseverance of the student, and to bring despair 
to the less sanguine. When to these are added the more irritating 
troubles caused by the diversity of names applied to the species, 
and by the changes of names rendered so frequent by the researches 



56 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

into priority within recent years, the effect is to repel too many from 
the study of plant-life, and to rouse an earnest wish to have the 
nomenclature at least relieved from the burden of uncertainty in its 
use. Its aim is to aid research, not to leave obstacles in the way. 
It is largely based on convention, and the most useful agreement 
is that which codifies the methods and results shown by experience 
to be of most value. A great advance in this direction was made 
by the last International Botanical Congress, which met at Vienna. 
Two volumes have been recently issued as a record of the meeting, 
and in one of these is a statement of the code recommended for the 
regulation of botanical nomenclature. The code is also issued 
separately, and as an appendix to the November and December 
numbers of the "Journal of Botany." A list of generic names that 
should, for good reasons, be retained, though not entitled to be so 
by mere priority, will commend itself to many botanists. 

Some Plants which spread from my Garden. It may be of a 

little interest to give a short account of some of the plants which 
spread from the garden of this farm, Hillocks of Terpersie, in the 
parish of Tullynessle, near Alford, in Aberdeenshire, at nearly 900 
feet above the sea-level, on the south side of the Coreen Hills. 

The Great Mullein ( Verbasatm Thapsus) sometimes appears in the 
fields, but rarely survives its first season, though in October of this 
year I found a plant in flower on three-year-old lea, beside a decayed 
stem of the last year's growth. The Milk Thistle (Mariana lactea) 
and the Welted Thistle (Carduus crispus] also show themselves near 
the garden, and even some distance from it, but they only occasion- 
ally succeed in flowering. The Common Comfrey (Symphytitm 
officinale) appears near the steading, and the Bloody-veined Dock 
(Rumex sanguineus) appears here and there in the fields, but seldom 
reaches a height of \\ feet. Peppermint (Mentha piperita], Mar- 
joram (Origanum vulgare), and Common Balm (Melissa officinalis) 
extend only a little way from the garden. White Deadnettle 
(Lamiuin album} and Spotted Deadnettle (L. maciilatuni} also spread 
from it, as do, among weeds of this genus, the Henbit Deadnettle 
(L. amplexicaule), and Red Deadnettle (L. purpureuni). The 
Leopard's Bane (Doronicum Pardalianches] grows here and there on 
the fields. The Burdock (Arcthtm Lappa} occurs in the shelter of 
the garden, and occasionally spreads on to the fields, and on gravel 
a considerable distance down a stream. Good King Henry (Cheno- 
podium Bonus- Henricus) extends beyond the garden, and the 
Common Cowslip (Primula veris) has been met with by me on pasture 
fields. I have also seen small plants of Meadow Rue (Thalictruiii), 
Lark-spur (Delphinium\ Columbine (Aquilegia\ Monkshood (Aconi- 
ti/i/i), Lily of the Valley (Convallaria maja/is), Common Solomon's 
Seal (Polygonatum innlliflorum, Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis\ species 
of Allium and Crocus, outside the garden, either through seeds or 



BOTANICAL NOTES AND NEWS 57 

by young plants, but they rarely succeed. Still less successful are 
Dielytra spectabilis, Atropa Belladonna, and Ly thrum virgatum, 
portions of which from the gardens when thrown on the top-dress- 
ing heap are carried out to the fields, but soon die off. I have also 
seen one or two small plants of Morina longifolia on the fields, but 
whether from seed or outcast I have not been able to satisfy myself. 

W. WILSON. 



CURRENT LITERATURE. 

The Titles and Purport of Papers and Notes relating to Scottish Natural 
History which have appeared during the Quarter October-December 1906. 

[The Editors desire assistance to enable them to make this Section as complete as 
possible. Contributions on the lines indicated will be most acceptable, and 
will bear the initials of the Contributor. The Editors will have access to the 
sources of information undermentioned.] 

ZOOLOGY. 

HOOPOE IN ORKNEY. H. W. Robinson. The Field, 24th 
November 1906, p. 908. Example picked up dead near the Loch 
of Harray, near Stromness, on i6th November. 

SPOTTED CRAKE IN LEWIS. Arthur W. Rowlands. The Field, 
loth November 1906, p. 822. Specimen shot at Stornoway on 
1 5th October. 

LOCH BROOM SEA MONSTER. Zoologist, October 1 906, pp. 
396-398. Notes by Messrs. J. Murie and J. A. Harvie-Brown. 
expressing the opinion that the monster in question was a Basking 
Shark (Selache maxima). 

A MOLLUSCAN VISIT TO SOME OF THE INNER HEBRIDES 
(ISLAY, COLL, TIREE, AND IONA). By Rev. G. A. Frank Knight, 
M.A., F.R.S.E. Trans. Perthshire Soc. Nat. Sci., vol. iv., pt. iii., 
1906, pp. 135-161. 

EMPIS HYALIPENNIS, FLN., IN DUMBARTONSHIRE. J. R. Malloch. 

Ent. Mo. Mag., November 1906, p. 257. Four specimens taken 
on 25th August in Murroch Glen, near Bonhill. 

ON A FEW TACHINID.E AND THEIR HOSTS. By Claude Morley, 
F.E.S. Entomologist, December 1906, pp. 270-274. - -Tachina 
larvarum, L., reared from Galashiels specimens of Macrothylacia 
rubi by Mr. Haggart. 

POLIETES HIRTICRURA, MEADS. By James Waterston, Ent. 
Mo. Mag., December 1906, pp. 269-270. The female (hitherto 
unknown) described from a specimen taken in Glen Ashdale, near 
Whiting Bay, Arran. 



58 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

ON THE BRITISH SPECIES OF PHORA (PART I.). (Continued.) 
By Dr. John H. Wood. Ent. Mo. Mag., November and December 
1906, pp. 262-266. P. opaca and fennica recorded from Bonhill 
(Malloch), and P. femorata from Nairn (Yerbury) and Bonhill 
(Malloch). 

PHORA CUBITALIS, BECK., A SPECIES NEW TO THE BRITISH LIST. 
J. R. Malloch. Ent. Mo. Mag., October 1906, p. 233. Over 
thirty specimens taken in July at Bonhill, Dumbartonshire. 

PHORA SORDIDA, ZETT., IN DUMBARTONSHIRE. J. R. Malloch. 
Ent. Mo. Mag., December 1906, p. 276. Several specimens taken 
near Bonhill on 22nd September. 

COLEOPTERA IN INVERNESS-SHIRE. James E. Black. Ent. 
Record, December 1906, pp. 321-322. Thirty-four species recorded 
as taken at Newtonmore in the month of June. 

NOTE ON SCYDM^ENID/E AND PSELAPHID/E FROM THE NORTHUM- 
BERLAND AND DURHAM DISTRICT. R. S. Bagnall. Ent. Record, 
December 1906, p. 326. This note also refers to a specimen of 
Euplectus piceus taken in Glen Ashdale, Arran, in July. 

CARIDA AFFINIS, PAYK., A BEETLE NEW TO BRITAIN. D. Sharp. 
Ent. Mo. Mag., October 1906, p. 220. Several specimens found 
by Mr. C. G. Lamb and Col. Yerbury in Strathspey in July. 

OTIORRHYNCHUS MORIO, R, v. EBENINUS, GYLL., IN SUTHER- 
LAND. J. Kidson Taylor. Ent. Mo. Mag., December 1906, p. 
272. A single specimen taken near Lochinvar in June 1901. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL NOTES ON THE PAST SEASON. By Percy C. 
Reid, F.E.S. Ent. Record, December 1906, pp. 301-302. Four- 
teen species of Lepidoptera recorded from Kinloch Rannoch, and 
three other species recorded as taken in Scotland in October. 

COLLECTIVE INQUIRY AS TO PROGRESSIVE MELANISM IN 
LEPIDOPTERA. Summary of evidence prepared by L. Doncaster, 
M.A. (continued). Ent. Record, 15th October 1906, pp. 248-254. 
Numerous Scottish forms are alluded to in this useful paper. 

ACHERONTIA ATROPOS IN ROXBURGHSHIRE. B. Weddcll. 

Entomologist, November 1906, p. 261. Specimen captured at 
Newtown St. Boswells on 8th October. 

ACULEATE HYMENOPTERA AT ST. FILLANS AND THE BRAES 
OF BALQUHIDDER, PERTHSHIRE. G. A. James Rothney. Ent. 
Mo. Mag., November 1906, p. 257. A list of twenty-two species 
given, taken between 5th July and 3rd August. 

CRABRO CARBONARIUS, ETC., IN THE SOUTH OF SCOTLAND. 
William Evans. Ent. Mo. Mag., October 1906, p. 232. In this 
note Scottish localities are given for the above species and also 
C. aphidum, C. capitosus, and Andrena ruficrus. 



CURRENT LITERATURE 59 

TRI^NODES REUTERI, M'LACH., A SPECIES OF TRICHOPTERA 
NEW TO BRITAIN. By K. J. Morton, F.E.S. Ent. Mo. Mag., 
December 1906, pp. 270-271. Several specimens taken by Mr. 
W. Evans on 7th July at the River Laggan (Forth) near Aberfoyle, 
and again on the i4th of the same month by Messrs. Evans and 
Morton. 

A CATALOGUE OF LAND, FRESH-WATER, AND MARINE CRUS- 
TACEA FOUND IN THE BASIN OF THE RlVER FORTH AND ITS 

ESTUARY. By Thomas Scott, LL.D., F.L.S. Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. 
Edin., vol. xvi., No. 7, 1906. In this, the second part of the paper, 
the Ostracoda, Copepoda, and Cirripedia are dealt with. 

ON NEW AND RARE BRITISH MITES OF THE FAMILY ORIBATID/E. 
C. Warburton and N. D. F. Pearce. Proc. Zool. Soc. Land., 1905, 
vol. ii. (published April 1906), pp. 564-569), pis. 19, 20. Of the 
eleven species recorded in this paper, seven are described as new 
to science. The type of Nothrus crinitus, sp. nov., was taken at 
Lochgelly, Fife, in May 1905, by W. Evans. 



BOTANY. 

THE DISAPPEARANCE OF BRITISH PLANTS. By G. S. Boulger, 
F.L.S. Joiirn. Bot., 1906, pp. 414-422. This is a reprint of a 
paper in t\\Qjonrn. Roy. Hortic. Soc., December 1905. 

MEETING OF THE SCOTTISH ALPINE BOTANICAL CLUB, 1905, 
AT KILLIN. By Alexander Cowan. Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., xxiii., 
1906, pp. 165-167. Cystopteris montana found on Meall nan 
Tarmachan. 

THE EXTRA-TROPICAL TREES OF ARRAN. By Rev. David 
Landsborough, LL.D. Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin., xxiii. 1906, pp. 
1 36- 1 57- A very valuable contribution to the records of the growth 
in the open air in Arran, and at Kinloch Hourn in West Inverness, 
of many woody plants from warm climates, the dimensions being 
given. A list is added of twenty -three species of Bamiuisacece 
growing at Achnashie in Argyll. 

NOTE ON A RARE BRITISH FERN, CYSTOPTERIS FRAGILIS, VAR. 
SEMPERVIRENS. By William Young. Proc. Bot. Soc. Edin., xxiii., 
1906, pp. 192-194. Found in Corrie Ceann-mor, S. Aberdeen- 
shire, in July 1904. 

NOTE ON RHACOMITIUM RAMULOSUM. By William Young. 
Proc, Bot. Soc. Edin., xxiii., 1906, pp. 190-191. Found on Craig 
Mhor, in Mid Perth, in June 1898, but recently determined. 

BRITISH CoENOGONiACEiE. By A. Lorrain Smith, F.L.S. 
Joitrn. Bot., 1906, pp. 266-268. Calls attention to Racodiian 



60 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

mpestre or Byssus nigra as including two forms, the one of which 
incloses filaments of C/adophora, while the other incloses cells of 
Chroolepus aureus ; and records the latter type as found in Dumfries- 
shire. 



BOOK NOTICES. 

THE EGGS OF THE BIRDS OF EUROPE. By H. E. Dresser, 
F.L.S., F.Z.S., etc. London: The Author, 110 Cannon Street, 
E.G. Price IDS. 6d. per Part. 

Since our notice on the appearance of the first number of this 
highly important and beautiful work, several parts have been issued ; 
and we are now able to form a more deliberate opinion as to its 
merits, that is to say of its artistic merits, for the value of its letter- 
press was assured by the high scientific status of the author. It is 
a source of great satisfaction to us to offer our sincere congratula- 
tions to Mr. Dresser on the marked success he has achieved in the 
matter of his plates. We confess we were at first sceptical as to 
whether the three-colour process was suitable for the reproduction 
of portraits of such difficult subjects as birds' eggs are so well 
known to be. Now we are more than pleased to pronounce that his 
plates are surprisingly excellent. Indeed, so realistic do the eggs 
appear that one has the feeling that it were possible to pick up each 
of them from the plate : the unfortunate flatness which has hitherto 
been so manifest even in the best productions having been entirely 
overcome. It is an immense advantage too, as we have already 
pointed out in our previous notice, that we have now for the first 
time a great work on bird's eggs in which absolutely reliable 
portraits of specially selected specimens are afforded, in the place of 
the interpretations of artists, who have for the most part failed to 
produce satisfactory likenesses. 

Mr. Dresser has been successful in securing the co-operation 
of a number of naturalist-photographers, who have supplied him 
with pictures of the nests and eggs, many of them rare and difficult 
to obtain, and these add much to the attractiveness of his pages. 

In all, six parts of this work have been issued. These contain 
29 plates, whereon are depicted many hundreds of specimens, 
showing the range of variation in the eggs of over 170 species. 

A FAUNA OF THE TAY BASIN AND STRATHMORE. By J. A. 
Harvie-Brown. Edinburgh: David Douglas, 1906. Price 305. net. 

The object of this notice is to draw the attention of our readers 
to the fact that Mr. Harvie-Brown has again rendered British 
naturalists indebted to him for another great contribution to our 
knowledge of the Vertebrate Fauna of Scotland. The book in this 
instance deals with one of the most interesting, beautiful, and highly 



BOOK NOTICES 61 

diversified areas in Great Britain. So diversified, indeed, is " Tay," 
that it may safely be said that in spite of this valuable contribution 
to our knowledge, much necessarily remains to be accomplished ere 
the fauna of the innumerable mountains, moorlands, woods, and 
lochs of the fair county of Perth, which forms the greater part of 
the Basin, are worked out with the thoroughness they so well deserve. 

Mr. Harvie-Brown, however, affords us much information about 
the mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians of this singularly 
attractive area ; also a full description of its physical features, and 
his views on a number of problems relating to the distribution of life 
therein. The fauna of the Tay area is, as we should expect, a rich one. 
It comprises 43 mammals, 236 birds, 3 reptiles, and 4 amphibians. 

The volume contains in all 463 pages; and there are 21 full- 
page plates, a number of text illustrations, and 5 maps. 

W. E. C. 

THE CAMBRIDGE NATURAL HISTORY, VOL. I. Protozoa, by 
Prof. Marcus Hartog, D.Sc. ; Porifera (Sponges), by Igerna B. J. 
Sollas, B.Sc. ; Coelenterata and Ctenophora, by Prof. S. J. Hickson, 
F.R.S. ; Echinodermata, by Prof. S. W. MacBride, F.R.S. London : 
Macmillan and Co. Ltd., 1906. 

This outstanding " Natural History " is now nearing completion, 
and the appearance of the present volume, occupying as it does the 
first place in order in the series, has naturally been looked forward 
to with some impatience. Its issue at this late date, instead of at 
the beginning of the enterprise, has, however, been a distinct advan- 
tage, in that it has enabled the authors to take cognisance of recent 
important researches in their respective subjects. The volume, 
which is a bulky one, extending to close on 700 pages, is in every 
way a worthy companion to its forerunners. 

In a series of well-written chapters, occupying 160 pages 
none too many Dr. Hartog deals with the Protozoa, starting with 
an examination of " the structure and behaviour of protoplasm and 
of the cell as an introduction to the detailed study of the Protozoa, or, 
better still, Protista, the lowest types of living beings, and of animals 
at large." 

The classification of the Protozoa is admittedly a matter of 
great difficulty, and that adopted by the author is probably as good 
as could at present be devised. In the succeeding section, to which 
78 pages are devoted, Miss Sollas gives a clear and well-arranged 
account of the Porifera or Sponges, in which is included a key to 
British genera. Prof. Hickson's treatment, extending over 180 pages, 
of the Phyla Coelenterata and Ctenophora for to this rank does 
he raise the latter strikes us as particularly good from whatever 
point it is regarded. And the same has to be said of Prof. 
MacBride's account of the Echinodermata, which occupies 197 pages. 
In both the systematic part can be highly commended. The Sea- 



62 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

cucumbers, we observe, are placed beside the Sea-urchins in the 
sub-Phylum Eleutherozoa ; and most of the British species of 
Echinoderm, it should be said, are mentioned in their proper places. 
The volume is, like the rest of the series, well illustrated, a 
number of the figures being original. W. E. 

THE RECREATIONS OF A NATURALIST. By James Edmund 
Harting. With Eighty-one Illustrations. London : T. Fisher Unwin, 
1906. 

Mr. Harting, who is so well and so favourably known to all 
field-naturalists, has for many years past contributed articles of con- 
siderable interest to zoologists and sportsmen to various magazines, 
through whose pages they are scattered far and wide, both as regards 
place and time. These, over forty in number and covering a re- 
markable variety of subjects, are now garnered and form a handsome 
volume, which will be welcome to zoologists, especially to those who 
have had the advantage of their author's friendship. The articles, 
which are written in an attractive style, include many that have 
been seldom, if ever, treated upon from Mr. Harting's standpoint, 
and the information he affords and his critical remarks thereon 
are extremely useful and acceptable. 

The book is nicely got up and well illustrated, and the frontis- 
piece is an excellent portrait of the author with one of his favourite 
falcons on his wrist. 

ENTOMOLOGY, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS BIOLOGICAL 
AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS. By Justus Watson Folsom, Sc.D. 
(Harvard). London: Rebman Limited, 1906. Svo. Pp. 485 
and 5 Plates (one coloured). 143. net. 

The author of this new work on Insects is to be heartily con- 
gratulated on having produced a most excellent handbook on entirely 
new lines. The whole treatment of the subject is most lucid and 
refreshing, masterly and entertaining. We have seldom seen the 
innumerable facts relating to entomological matters presented in a 
more attractive form, and the book is eminently readable and 
suggestive from beginning to end. For an example of the lucidity 
of style in dealing with a difficult subject we need only refer the 
reader to the account given on pp. 103-109 of the Sounds of Insects 
and Hearing. The illustrations, of which there are some 300, are 
exceedingly well executed and happily chosen, a large number of 
them being original. Plates I. and II. are novel and of much 
interest, showing the successive stages in the pupation and emergence 
of the imago of the well-known Milkweed Butterfly, Anosia plexippus. 
We notice, by the way, a slip on p. 18, in estimating the number of 
described species of Coleoptera as 18,000 this figure only re- 
presenting about one-fifth of the actual number at present known. 

The book is divided into thirteen chapters, commencing with 



BOOK NOTICES 63 

three dealing with classification, anatomy, physiology, and develop- 
ment ; then follow seven treating of aquatic forms, colour, origin of 
adaptations, the relations of insects to plants, animals, and other 
insects ; then one on insect behaviour, one on distribution, and a 
concluding chapter on insects in relation to man. Not the least 
useful feature of the volume is a very full classified bibliography, 
giving (upon a rough estimate) about 1000 titles. 

In conclusion, we can honestly recommend Dr. Folsom's work 
as one of the best general introductions to the science that has 
appeared in recent years. The price is exceedingly moderate. 

P. H. G. 

BRITISH FLOWERING PLANTS. By W. F. Kirby, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
London: Sidney Appleton, 1906. With 120 Coloured Plates and 
119 Illustrations in the text. 55. 

How TO FIND AND NAME WILD FLOWERS. By Thomas Fox, 
F.L.S. London: Cassell and Company, 1906. Illustrated by the 
Author. 2s. 

These two works represent different types of the efforts so 
frequent on the part of publishers to meet the growing interest in 
and love for Nature. The desire to know more about the universe, 
and especially about the living beings that dwell around one's home, 
can only add to the richness and enjoyment of life ; but without a 
guide progress is slow and uncertain. Books written by those that 
possess the required knowledge along with the power of clear 
exposition are the best substitutes for the living voice and guidance 
of the enthusiastic teacher ; and their usefulness is greatly increased 
by well-selected illustrations. Among the difficulties of the beginner 
not the least are those to be overcome in learning the names of 
plants and animals ; and the books that have been issued as guides 
through the maze of difficulties are already many, yet have not solved 
the problems, if one may judge from the everflowing streams of new 
efforts. The two under review are not likely to stop that flow or to 
meet the needs of beginners, although both can claim the merit of 
being very low-priced for the work involved in their production. 

" British Flowering Plants " is scarcely an accurate title for a 
book that in its 120 coloured "plates" includes over 20 per cent 
of species riot native in the British Isles. The descriptions rarely 
give real guidance likely to help a beginner in doubt as to the 
characters of a genus or family, or as to the methods or aims of 
classification ; but there are notes on the properties and uses of 
some of the plants that may arouse interest, and numerous references 
to the insects that feed on the various plants give the work an 
individuality among such books. 

" How to Find and Name Wild Flowers " must have cost its 
author much labour, but we fear the usefulness to the beginner will 
not be as great as he hopes. A classification based on the months 



64 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

of flowering, the colours of petals, and the size of flowers must bristle 
with difficulties, and it has the defect of separating widely plants 
that should be kept together. Tested by the characters given, a 
large proportion of the plants could not be referred to their genera, 
and some not even to their families. There are conveniences in the 
use of a more or less arbitrary method of working out the name of 
an unknown specimen, but the Linnean classification is very much 
simpler and more precise than any other that has been proposed for 
this end. It is not likely to be superseded by this new method. 
Mr, Fox is evidently a supporter of the use of English names for all 
flowering plants in our flora. But, after all, are such names as 
"Umbelliferous Jagged Chickweed," "Yellow Alpine Whitlow 
Grass," "Austere Strawberry Tree," "Remote-flowered Sea-lavender," 
" Small Eight-stamened Waterwort," " Sweet William Catchfly," and 
" Cow Herb " popular names in any sense or more easy to remember 
than the scientific names, which are free from ambiguity and known 
to botanists of all countries ? Where genuine popular names, in 
common use, exist, by all means use them in works for English- 
speaking readers wherever their use does not endanger clearness and 
accuracy. But to strain this desire for English names to the point 
of translating a scientific name into equally unfamiliar English is 
surely a mistake. Exception might be taken to various statements, 
such as leaves of Bog Myrtle "2-3 inches" long, Campanula 
glomerata beginning to flower in August, stem of " Comarum palustre" 
" bent down " ; but it is unnecessary to go into details. Part II. of 
the book gives a list of the greater number of British native and 
alien flowering plants, in their systematic order, with brief characters 
of the families and larger divisions. In this list the scientific names 
are used. References are given from the descriptions in Part I. to 
this list, and vice versa. For each species in the list an abstract of 
the distribution in Great Britain is given, the extremes being named 
and the number of "counties" from which the plant has been recorded ; 
but the total number of " counties " is given as 1 1 8 instead of the 
commonly received 112. Several excellent photographs of common 
plants are scattered through the book. 

I GO A-WALKING THROUGH THE WOODS AND O'ER THE MOOR. 

With Illustrations from Photographs. By Charles Reid, Wishaw. 
Edinburgh: T. N. Foulis, 1907. 23. 6d.' net. 

This is the third of the series submitted to us for notice, and, 
like its precursors, it is an excellent little book of its kind. Mr. 
Reid's pictures of mammals, old and young ; birds and their nests ; 
and country scenes, are very charming, and have been beautifully repro- 
duced, while the accompanying letterpress is appropriate. In spite 
of much that has been done on similar lines, these pictures, seventy 
in number, hold their own and compare favourably with any we 
have seen. 



ANN. SCOT. NAT. HIST. 1907. 



PLATE II. 





LAGENORltYNCHUS ALBIROS'J'RIS. 



The Annals 

of 

Scottish Natural History 

No. 62] 1907 [APRIL 



WHITE-BEAKED DOLPHIN, LAGENORHYNCHUS 
ALBIROSTRIS, IN THE FIRTH OF FORTH. 

By BRUCE CAMPBELL. 
PLATE II. 

A FINE specimen of this uncommon Cetacean was captured 
off Cramond on the 26th of March. I had the pleasure of 
examining and photographing it on the following day, and 
found it to be an adult male measuring 8 feet 8.5 inches 
on the straight. Its stomach contained the bones of 
fishes and the claws and the legs of Hermit Crab (Pagurus 
bernJiardus), 

This species is new, so far as is known, to the fauna of 
the Firth of Forth, but examples have been obtained in the 
North Sea just to the north and south of the mouth of the 
Firth, namely at the Bell Rock and off Berwick. Though 
this species was described in 1846 from an English specimen 
captured off Yarmouth, it was not until 1879 that it was 
detected in Scottish seas, but since that date several have 
been obtained on both the east and west coasts of Scotland. 
The White-beaked Dolphin is a native of the North Atlantic 
from Davis Straits south-eastwards to the British and Irish 
coasts, the North Sea and the Baltic. 

62 B 



66 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

As its name implies, this Dolphin has the tip of its beak 
and lips, and also the under parts, creamy white ; while the 
colour of the upper surface is deep purplish black. In this 
example the beak slips were mottled with grey, and there were 
greyish patches above the flippers and on the back between 
the dorsal fin and the tail. 

This latest Scottish example has been presented to the 
Royal Scottish Museum by its captor, Mr. William Lumley, 
of Cramond. 

The following are the dimensions of this specimen : 

Feet. Inches. 

Extreme length . . . 8 8.5 

Depth in front of dorsal fin . .23 

Width across tail . . . . 2 8.5 

Height of dorsal fin (on curve) . .25 
Length of anterior edge of flipper i 9.5 

Mouth slit 1 1.5 

Angle of mouth to eye . . . 2.5 

Blow-hole to tip of beak . . I 2.5 

Tip of beak to dorsal fin . . . 3 10 

Diameter of blow-hole . . . 1.75 

EDINBURGH. 



THE BIRDS OF FAIR ISLE. II. THE RESULTS 
OF OBSERVATIONS MADE DURING THE 
YEAR 1906. 

By WM. EAGLE CLARKE, F.R.S.E., F.L.S. 

MY previous communication l on the birds of Fair Isle was 
based upon observations and inquiries made during a visit 
to the island in the autumn of 1905. In that contribution 
I was able to enumerate one hundred species as comprising 
its known avifauna. Throughout the whole of the follow- 
ing year, 1906, the investigations were vigorously carried 
on, with the gratifying result that considerable additions 

1 'The Birds of Fair Isle, Native and Migratory,' "Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist.,'' 
1906, pp. 4-24, 69-80. 



THE BIRDS OF FAIR ISLE 67 

were made to our knowledge of the ornis of this interesting 
and remote island. 

Along with Mr. Norman B. Kinnear, I again spent 
several weeks at Fair Isle in the past autumn. During 
this sojourn we observed nearly one hundred species and 
many thousands of individuals, the vast majority of which 
were on their passage southwards to more or less distant 
winter haunts. 

A more important contribution, however, is that fur- 
nished by my valued correspondent, Mr. George Stout. 
This enthusiastic and capable observer deserves special 
mention and thanks for the conscientious and accurate 
manner in which he has carried out my instructions and 
wishes. Mr. J. W. Anderson has also helped with observa- 
tions and specimens, and deserves mention. 

The Fair Isle record for 1906 is a remarkable one, and 
affords material for a study in bird-migration which I hope 
shortly to be able to prepare. The aim of the present paper 
is to afford additional information on the species already 
treated of, and to enumerate, with particulars of their occur- 
rence, the birds no less than forty-three in number which 
have been added to the fauna of the isle during the past year. 

The Fair Isle avifauna as at present known comprises 
143 species. Of these 32 are natives, being either residents 
or summer visitors. The rest are visitors during the periods 
of their spring and autumn passages, most of them being 
regular in their appearance, while a few must be accounted 
rare not only in Fair Isle, but elsewhere in Britain. 

Among the more interesting and rare birds occurring in 
1906, mention may be made of the Red-rumped Swallow, 
new to fauna of the British Isles ; and of the Reed Warbler 
and the Scarlet Grosbeak, both of which are additions to the 
fauna of Scotland. The Greater Redpoll, Woodlark, Shore 
Lark, Sedge Warbler, and Red -breasted Flycatcher have 
not hitherto been known to occur in the Shetlands, of which 
Fair Isle is accounted an integral, though outlying, part. 
Others, such as the Little Bunting, Ortolan Bunting, 
Northern Bullfinch, and Yellow - browed Warbler, are 
decidedly rare as British birds ; while the Lapp Bunting, 
Yellow Wagtail, Tree Pipit, Creeper, Red-backed Shrike, 



68 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

Lesser Whitethroat, Chiff- Chaff, Bluethroat, Stonechat, 
Spotted and Pied Flycatchers, Shelduck, Green Sandpiper, 
and Pomatorhine Skua, are reckoned as quite uncommon as 
visitors to the northern isles. 

The occurrences of rare birds have always had a peculiar 
charm for British ornithologists, but to the student of bird- 
migration their irregular, and in some instances erratic 
appearances, are not helpful in connection with his re- 
searches ; indeed they are often distracting, and present 
problems which admit of no satisfactory explanation. 

Though the period (the whole of September and the first 
week of October) covered by our 1906 visit coincided 
as to date with that of 1905, yet quite a number of 
migrants came under notice during the past autumn which 
were not observed by us in the previous year. On the 
other hand, only one of the birds of passage of 1905, the 
Ruff, was not detected in 1906. 

It has been suggested to me that Fair Isle must possess 
some peculiar and special advantages over other northern 
islands, and thus render it much visited by migratory 
birds. In my opinion such is not the case. It has, how- 
ever, decided advantages for the observer. The secret, if 
secret it be, of its superiority as our observing station over 
the Isles of the Orkney and Shetland groups, lies in its 
detached position and its small size. This results in (i) 
some concentration at Fair Isle, whereas the isles of both 
the groups named are many, large, and not far apart, 
and thus the migrants visiting them are widely and thinly 
scattered ; while (2) its small size renders it possible to ascer- 
tain, with some degree of completeness, what species are 
present each day. In this latter respect, however, even 
Fair Isle, with its two and a half miles of varied surface, is 
too extensive for a couple of observers, and there were days 
on which feathered visitors were abundant when we were 
conscious that, in spite of our utmost endeavours, we had 
missed many birds. 

The experience gained during many holidays devoted to 
bird watching has convinced me that, with all our great army 
of trained observers, we in Britain see only an infinitesimal 
number of the migrants which visit our shores: far fewer than is 



THE BIRDS OF FAIR ISLE 69 

generally supposed, and this is especially the case on the main- 
land. Thus the Lapland Bunting, which was so numerous 
at the Flannans and at Suleskerry in the autumn of 1904, 
and at Fair Isle in 1905 and 1906, entirely escaped notice 
elsewhere in Scotland ; and the Yellow-browed Warbler which 
was observed at Fair Isle in 1905 and again in 1906 (when 
it was not uncommon, and was also captured at Skerryvore), 
has never been detected on the mainland of Scotland. On 
reaching the mainland the migrants, especially the passerines, 
become widely scattered over the country where cover 
abounds, and thus the vast majority of them escape notice. 

Specimens of all the birds mentioned, or about to be men- 
tioned, have been presented to the Royal Scottish Museum. 

It is again my pleasant duty to express our gratitude to 
John Bruce, Esq., of Sumburgh, and to the Commissioners of 
Northern Lighthouses, for the privileges they so graciously 
granted us ; and to Mr. Dick Peddie for his kind and valued 
co-operation. Our acknowledgments are also due to Mr. 
and Mrs. Wallace for their great kindness during our residence 
in the Skadan Lighthouse, and to our many good friends 
amoncr the natives, who allowed us to visit their crofts, the 

*-> 

great resort of the small migratory birds. 

In the following list the species that are numbered are 
additions to the one hundred recorded in my first contribu- 
tion. Certain other birds are treated of, and concerning 
these the information now given is supplementary to the 
data of 1905, and throws additional light on them as Fair 
Island species. 

CHAFFINCH, Fringilla coelebs. This migratory visitor was 
observed in the autumn of 1906 in much greater abundance 
than it did at same season of the previous year. They 
arrived during the last week of September in fair numbers, 
but were much more numerous during October, and a few 
remained throughout the winter. It is, as we should expect, 
a bird of double passage at Fair Isle, and was observed on 
its spring journey northwards on several days about mid- 
April. 

101. LINNET, Acanthis cannabina. An adult male, obtained on 
1 8th April, is the only bird of this species which has, as yet, 
come under observation. There is also little information 
regarding this bird as a Shetland species. 



yo ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

102. MEALY REDPOLL, Acanthis linaria. A small party appeared 

on the Island in May, one of which, a typical example of 
this species, was forwarded to me. A few appeared in 
January of the present year. Several Redpolls were seen by 
us late in September, but as they were very wild we failed to 
secure specimens. 

GREATER REDPOLL, Acanthis rostrata. In the " Annals " 
for 1906 (p. 17) I alluded to the abundance of a form of 
Redpoll which did not seem to belong to the well-known 
Mealy species (A. linaria}, and whose particular identity I 
reserved for further consideration. Since then I have had 
an opportunity of comparing these specimens with the fine 
series of Mealy Redpolls in Mr. Rothschild's great collection 
at Tring, and have satisfied myself that they belong to the 
form described by Coues as sEgiothus restrains, which is 
considered by some authorities to be the young of A. horne- 
manni (several adults of which species were present at the 
same time), whose young have not, I believe, been described 
by those who recognise these two forms as distinct. As a 
visitor to Scotland, A. rostrata has only hitherto been recorded 
for the Island of Barra, Outer Hebrides, where my friend 
Mr. W. L. MacGillivray has several times obtained it. 

The Greater Redpoll, as it is termed by the American 
ornithologists, is a native of Greenland ; but in the winter 
visits Labrador, and the N.E. of Canada and the United 
States. 

NORTHERN BULLFINCH, Pyrrhnla major. This is, no doubt, 
the species or race treated of in my former contribution under 
the name of P. europea, the common Bullfinch. A few birds 
of both sexes of this fine northern bird appeared in 
November, but only remained a few days on the island. 

This Bullfinch was only added to the fauna of Scotland 
last year on the strength of Shetland and Fair Isle records 
("Annals," 1906, p. 115). 

103. SCARLET GROSBEAK, Carpedacus erythrinus. This is new to 

the Scottish fauna. A bird of the year, in its inconspicuous 
dull green plumage, was shot from a patch of potatoes on 
3rd October. The nearest native haunts of this rare 
straggler to Britain are Finland and the eastern countries 
bordering the Baltic, whence its range extends to Kam- 
tschatka. Its previous visits to our isles, so far as they have 
come under observation, are only two in number, both to 
southern counties in England. 

104. REED BUNTING, Emberiza schceniclus. During the last week 

of May and early days of June several of these birds visited 



THE BIRDS OF FAIR ISLE 71 

the island, haunting the margins of ditches. A few again 
appeared late in September, and throughout October it was 
frequent and occasionally fairly numerous. The last was 
observed on 2oth November. Since this species is probably 
a bird of double passage in Fair Isle, it seems strange that 
in Shetland it is only known as a rare casual visitor : one 
which has been observed on four occasions, according to 
recorded information. 

LITTLE BUNTING, Emberiza pusilla. An adult female was 
shot on 3rd October. It was fortunately detected among a 
vast number of Twites which were seeking shelter and food 
in the stubbles. On 2nd October 1905 one was observed 
close to where this specimen was obtained, as already re- 
corded in the pages of the " Annals." There are only three 
records of the occurrence of this bird in Scotland, all of 
them for the northern isles ; and it has been equally rare in 
its visits, so far as we know of them, to England. 

105. YELLOW BUNTING, Emberiza dtrinella. One example only 

came under notice in spring ; but in autumn it was occasion- 
ally numerous, and a few remained the winter. Saxby saw 
this bird several times in Unst, and Mr. T. Henderson, jun., 
tells us that it occurs in Dunrossness on migration ; other- 
wise there is little information regarding this bird for Shet- 
land. 

1 06. ORTOLAN BUNTING, Emberiza hortulana. This species is only 

to be regarded as an occasional visitor to Fair Isle during the 
seasons of passage. Quite a number appeared on the island 
during the last days of May, and a bird of the year was captured 
on 1 8th September. There is only one previous record, I 
believe, of the occurrence of the Ortolan Bunting in Shet- 
land, namely, that of one adult male at Spiggie, Dunrossness, 
on 3oth April 1898. It has rarely been recorded for Scot- 
land, namely, near Aberdeen in 1863, and at the Isle of May 
in 1888. 

LAPLAND BUNTING, Calcarius lapponicus. The first arrivals 
were observed on 8th September, or one day later than last 
year. They were not so numerous as in 1905, but were 
nevertheless seen almost daily after the date named. This 
bird does not appear to winter in the island ; but the return 
movement north was witnessed in May, when a few arrived 
and were duly chronicled. 

107. WOODLARK, Alanda arborea. A few appeared during the 

early days of November, and remained on the island until 
the middle of December. The occurrence of this species at 
this remote northern station is somewhat remarkable, and it 



72 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

will be interesting to know if its visits are repeated. In 
summer its range extends to the southern portion of Scandi- 
navia, but its lines of flight to reach these nesting haunts do 
not appear to lie along any section of the British shores. The 
specimens sent me from Fair Isle are the only satisfactory 
proof we have of the occurrence of this species in Scotland. 

1 08. SHORE LARK, Otocorys alpestris. A small number of Shore 

Larks arrived on the island towards the end of October, 
and remained until mid-December, after which date they 
were not observed. The most seen on any occasion was 
seven. 

This species has not hitherto been detected in Shetland, 
and hence may be regarded as an addition to the fauna 
of the archipelago, though doubtless it has often visited the 
islands on its somewhat irregular though numerous visits to 
the coasts of Britain. 

109. PIED WAGTAIL, Motadlla lugubris. - - A few appeared on 

passage in April and May, sometimes in company with 
M. alba. No birds of this species were observed during 
September 1905 and 1906, when the White Wagtail was 
one of the commonest birds of passage throughout the month, 
no. YELLOW WAGTAIL, Motadlla rayi. On 8th May an adult 
male was captured, and forwarded to me in the flesh for 
identification, by Mr. J. W. Anderson. The occurrence of 
this species at Fair Isle is interesting, but can only be regarded 
as exceptional, since Scandinavia and the rest of Northern 
Europe lie far beyond the bird's summer home. Saxby, how- 
ever, in his " Birds of Shetland " (p. 84), tells us that it is a 
rare straggler to Unst, and that, so far as he was able to ascer- 
tain, it appeared in the late summer and early autumn. He 
remarks that he several times saw it feeding among cattle. 

TREE PIPIT, Anthus trivialis. This has proved to be a bird 
of double passage. It was not at all uncommon during May, 
and again in September, while stragglers occurred well on 
into October. On some days it was quite numerous, both 
in spring and autumn. This species, no doubt, escaped our 
notice in 1905, when only one specimen was obtained. 
Previous to our visits this bird had no place in the Shet- 
land avifauna. 

in. CREEPER, Cerfhia fcwiiliaris. On 2;th December a male 
was found in an exhausted condition and allowed itself to 
be captured by the hand. This bird has been compared 
with the extensive series of Creepers in Mr. Rothschild's 
collection, and found to belong to the Continental and not 
to the British race. It must have been blown across the 



THE BIRDS OF FAIR ISLE 73 

waters of the North Sea by the fierce gales which prevailed 
just prior to its appearance. 

There are two previous records of the occurrence of 
Creepers in Shetland, namely, one in Unst in 1859, and a 
male at Bressay on i2th October 1882. 

A knowledge of racial forms is of the greatest possible 
service to those interested in bird migration, for it is of the 
utmost importance to know whence our bird visitors have 
come. This information is to be found in Dr. Hartert's 
" Die Vogel der palaarktischen Fauna," a most useful book 
now in the course of publication. It is to be hoped that 
the author will give us an English version, some day, for 
the benefit of those who do not read German. 

112. RED-BACKED SHRIKE, Lanius colhirio. Several appeared on 

passage late in May and in early June. One of these was 
observed feeding on a Rock Pipit (Anthiis obscurus] which 
it had just captured. A short time afterwards an examina- 
tion of the victim's remains revealed the fact that not a 
scrap of flesh remained upon its bones. It has not, to our 
knowledge, been detected in autumn. The only Shetland 
records are those of Saxby, who saw one in October 
1866, and a female accompanied by three young birds in 
June 1870. 

COMMON WHITETHROAT, Sylvia cinerea. Fairly frequent on 
passage in May and early June and again in September, but 
only observed in small numbers. In September 1905 a 
single bird only came under notice. It appears to have 
been observed on a few occasions only in the more northern 
isles, i.e., in the Shetland group proper. 

113. LESSER WHITETHROAT, Sylvia curruca. During the spring 

and autumn migratory movements of 1906, this bird, 
hitherto regarded as a somewhat uncommon visitor to 
Scotland, occurred frequently, and occasionally in some 
abundance. It was observed on three dates in May, when 
it was not uncommon ; and one remained on the island until 
1 8th June, and was heard in full song. In September Mr. 
Kinnear and I saw it on nine days, and sometimes several 
were seen on the same date. The last came under our 
notice on 4th October, the day we left the island. The 
only previous records for the occurrence of this species 
in Shetland are those of Saxby, who mentions, in his 
delightful book, " The Birds of Shetland," that he met with 
this species on three occasions. 

114. CHIFF-CHAFF, Phylloscopus ritfits. -The passage movements 

of this little Leaf-warbler very largely escape notice ; prob- 



74 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

ably because it is then silent, or nearly so, and hence does 
not proclaim itself and is consequently overlooked. A 
male specimen was obtained on zoth October 1906, and 
duly forwarded to me. 

So far as I have been able to ascertain, this is the first 
specimen that has ever been obtained in any of the Isles of 
the Shetland group. Saxby, however, mentions it as occur- 
ring very rarely at about the same times of the year as the 
Willow-warbler. 

YELLOW-BROWED WARBLER, Phylloscopus supertiliosus. Dur- 
ing our 1905 visit we accounted ourselves fortunate when 
we obtained a single specimen the second Scottish of 
this interesting little migrant. In the autumn of 1906 no 
less than six of these birds came under our observation 
during the latter half of September and the early days of 
October, and, no doubt, several others escaped notice. They 
all frequented the plots of potatoes and turnips, and were ex- 
tremely shy and restless, and hence very difficult to approach. 

115. SEDGE WARBLER, Acrocephalus phragmitis. This was another 

bird of double passage in 1906. It was not uncommon 
during the second, third, and fourth weeks of May ; but only 
twice came under our notice in the autumn, namely, in the 
latter half of September, when single birds were seen. This 
bird has not hitherto, strange to say, been recorded for any 
of the Islands of the Shetland group ; and yet, as it is a 
summer visitor to Norway, where it reaches a high northern 
latitude, it most probably occurs annually on passage in our 
northern Isles, as indeed the Fair Isle record for 1906 
indicates. 

1 1 6. REED WARBLER, Acrocephalus streperus. The only Reed 

Warbler known to have occurred in Scotland was shot from 
among some potatoes on 241)1 September a day on which 
Pied Flycatchers, Redstarts, Redwings, Thrushes, Tree 
Pipits, Chaffinches, Jack Snipe, and other migrants, were 
present in numbers. This species is unknown in Norway, 
but is found as far north as the south of Sweden. The 
occurrence of this bird at Fair Isle presents one of those 
enigmas, already alluded to, with which the study of bird 
migration is so much beset. 

REDBREAST, Erithacus rubecula. This is chiefly a bird of 
double passage, but a small number pass the winter in the 
island. Only a few appeared in September, but in October 
and November its visits were frequent, and it was occasion- 
ally observed in considerable numbers. Several remained 
through the winter of 1906-7. 



THE BIRDS OF FAIR ISLE 75 

On the spring passage it was not much observed, but 
individuals were seen in March, April, and May on 
their way northwards. The birds obtained at Fair Isle 
all belonged to the Continental race, which is characterised 
by having a much paler breast than the native British 
bird. All these immigrants were remarkably wild. The 
Redbreast has usually been considered a very uncommon 
bird in the Shetlands. 

ARCTIC BLUETHROAT, Cyanecula suecica. This species, which 
has hitherto been regarded as an extremely rare visitor to 
Scotland, again appeared at Fair Isle in the autumn of 1906. 
On 20th September and the following days no less than 
twelve of these birds, adults of both sexes and young, were 
seen, and it is certain that a number of others escaped 
notice. Their chief haunts during their visit were the faces 
of the great cliffs which flank the geos on the west side of 
the island, where insect life was abundant owing to the 
genial influence of the sun, to which they are exposed. In 
such retreats as these it was most difficult to discover them. 
Others frequented the cover afforded by the patches of potatoes 
and bracken. These birds reminded us much of the Red- 
breast in their actions and attitudes. Some of the adults still 
retained their beautiful frontlets, while in others they were 
partially hidden by the more sombre winter dress. 

117. REDSTART, Rutialla phwnicurus. Though not observed by 

us in the autumn of 1905, the Redstart proved to be quite 
common on its southerly passage from the middle of 
September to the end of that month in 1906, and stragglers 
occurred down to late in October. It was almost as fre- 
quent and abundant on the northerly passage in the second, 
third, and fourth weeks of May. During their visits to Fair 
Isle, these birds, like the last, were most abundant on the 
gaunt precipitous faces of the geos, and much less frequent 
on the stone walls and among the cover afforded by the 
crofted portion of the island. 

1 1 8. WHINCHAT, Pratincola rubefm. -Th\s is another bird of 

double passage whose autumn southerly flight escaped notice 
during our first visit. During May both males and females 
were observed on their northward passage on eight different 
days ; and in September we saw it also on eight occasions. 
On some days small numbers were seen both in spring and 
autumn, and the bird was probably fairly numerous. The 
Whinchat has only been detected in Shetland on very few 
occasions, and is accounted as a rare visitor to the group. 

119. STONECHAT, Pratincola rubicola. A bird of double passage, 

though certainly not numerous. In 1906 it appeared in 



;6 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

April and a few were seen at intervals throughout that month. 
On September a single bird only came under notice. The 
occurrence of this bird at Fair Isle is interesting since there 
appears to be only one previous instance of the visits of the 
Stonechat to the Shetland group ; and as it is not a native of 
Scandinavia, the bird must be regarded as a casual straggler 
only to our Northern Isles. 

1 20. HEDGE ACCENTOR, Accentor modularis. In 1906 this species 

was observed both on the spring and autumn passage, but 
only very small numbers came under notice at both seasons. 
It does not appear to pass the winter on the island. There 
seem to be only three records for this species as a visitor to 
Shetland, all relating to single birds, but as the Hedge 
Sparrow is a migratory species in Scandinavia its visits are, 
perhaps, more frequent than is expected, and the Fair Isle 
observations indicate that such is the case. 

121. SPOTTED FLYCATCHER, Musricapa grisola, Several appeared 

on their way north from late in May to beyond the middle 
of June ; but on the return journey southward only one 
came under our notice, namely, on i5th September. This 
bird, according to published records, has seldom been 
observed in the Shetlands. 

122. PIED FLYCATCHER, Musdcapa atricapilla. Though this species 

did not come under our notice in the autumn of 1905, yet 
it was fairly common, passing at intervals and usually in 
small parties, in September 1906. A number of these visitors 
were males, but all were in the greenish grey plumage of 
autumn. During their short sojourn on this treeless and 
shrubless isle, these Flycatchers chiefly frequented the steep 
cliffs on the west side, which the sun rendered especially 
genial, and where also insect life was abundant : advantages 
which most of the insectivorous birds among the migrants 
were not slow to take advantage of. 

This species has rarely been recorded for Shetland. 

123. RED-BREASTED FLYCATCHER, Musdcapa parva. The occur- 

rence of this Central European summer bird at Fair Isle in 
some numbers in the autumn of 1906 was one of those 
pleasant surprises which sometimes fall to the lot of the ob- 
server of bird migration. On 2oth September three or four 
were seen, and an adult female and a young male were 
secured ; and on the following day several others were 
observed. It is probable that on both these dates this bird 
was present in fair numbers, for those seen frequented the 
great range of lofty cliffs which flanks the entire west side 



THE BIRDS OF FAIR ISLE 77 

of the island, and it was most difficult to detect them. 
In these singular haunts they were busily engaged in the 
pursuit of insects, which were evidently abundant on the 
faces of the lichen-clad perpendicular rocks. When thus 
employed they were very sprightly in their actions, and 
we noticed that they had a habit of erecting their tails 
to a remarkable degree indeed, until they were almost 
parallel with their backs. Occasionally they quitted the 
cliffs and alighted on the fences or on rocks near their 
summit ; but at all times and everywhere they displayed 
extreme shyness and wariness, and were practically un- 
approachable. On the days named these birds appeared 
synchronously with the Arctic Bluethroats, Redbreasts, Red- 
starts, Bramblings, Redwings, Goldcrests, Yellow - browed 
Warblers, and other northern migrants ; and it seems to me 
highly probable that these Flycatchers reached the island in 
their company. 

On 4th October there was another considerable arrival 
of immigrants, and among them was a bird of the year of 
this species. 

There is only one previous record for the occur- 
rence of this little Flycatcher in Scotland, namely, at 
the Monach Isle, Outer Hebrides, on 22nd October 1893. 

124. SWALLOW, Hirnndo rnstica. A few were seen on the spring 

passage northward during May and June ; but only a single 
example was detected returning in the autumn. Several 
were seen, on rare occasions, in the summer of 1906, but the 
species does not nest on the island. 

125. RED-RUMPED SWALLOW, Hirundo rufula. The occurrence of 

this southern straggler, the first that is known to have 
reached the shores of Britain, on the 2nd of June 1906, has 
already been recorded in the pages of this magazine 
("Annals," 1906, p. 205). 

126. HOUSE-MARTIN, Chelidon urbica. In spring this species is 

much more abundant as a passing migrant than the Swallow, 
but it has not yet been detected as an autumn visitor on its 
return southern flight. 

127. SAND-MARTIN, Cotile riparia. Several were seen late in May, 

and others late in June ; but none were observed as visitors 
during the autumn. It appears to be a rare bird in the 
Shetland group. That it should be so is interesting and 
significant, for the species has a high northern range in 
Scandinavia, and hence might naturally be expected to 
occur regularly, and in some numbers, in the Archipelago, 
while on its spring and autumn migratory journeys. 



78 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

128. SWIFT, Cypsehts apus. One or two were seen at intervals from 

3ist May to 2yth July. On 6th July six were seen. It 
would seem as if these were non-breeding birds which had 
pushed their way thus far north but had not proceeded 
to the summer haunts of the species in Scandinavia. It 
appears to be very irregular in its visits to Shetland. 

WRYNECK, lynx torqiiilla. On the 3rd of September one was 
observed on some wooden fencing on the west side of the 
island. We did not meet with this species in the flesh on 
our previous visit. 

CUCKOO, Cuculus canorus. In 1906, the Cuckoo appeared on 
both the spring and autumn passages. It occurred in May 
and early June on its northward journey, and was observed 
again early in September on its return southward. Three 
was the largest number seen on any occasion. 

This species does not appear to be regarded as a regular 
visitor, according to present knowledge, to the Shetland 
Islands. 

129. SHORT-EARED OWL, Asia accipitrimts. From the latter days of 

October until the second week of November this common 
migratory Owl was seen at intervals, but only in small 
numbers. 

130. WHOOPER, Cygnus musicus. Swans on passage are recorded 

for both spring and autumn. The head of one obtained 
was that of a Whooper in immature plumage. 

131. WHITE-FRONTED GOOSE, Anser albifrons. For a wing of this 

Goose I am indebted to Mr. J. W. Anderson, who obtained 
the bird in the autumn of 1905. It is regarded as an 
occasional visitor to Shetland, but I expect it occurs there 
regularly on migration. 

132. SHELDUCK, Tadorjia cornuta. A young bird appeared at the 

island late in May ; and during October a few, once as many 
as eight, were seen on several occasions. It is considered 
rare in Shetland, but the group, including Fair Isle, may be 
visited by migrants to and from Northern Europe. 

133. SCAUP, Fuligula marila. A few were seen on several occasions 

during the first half of November. The Fair Isle waters, 
however, offer no suitable feeding grounds for this diving 
duck, and hence it does not come much under notice. 

134. VELVET SCOTER, (Edemia fusca. An adult female was washed 

up on ist December. This species has seldom been 
recorded for Shetland, but it is probable that the bird has 
escaped notice, for comparatively little attention has been 



THE BIRDS OF FAIR ISLE 79 

paid to the islands during the periods of migration, except 
by Saxby in Unst. 

135. TURTLE DOVE, Turtur turtur. An immature bird appeared 

on 25th September, and was observed feeding on some 
bare stony ground much frequented by migratory parties of 
Golden Plover. Young birds are not infrequent in Shetland 
as casual visitors during the period of the autumn passage. 

136. WATER RAIL, Rallus aquaticus. We saw one by the side 

of a burn on 28th September, and several were observed 
in October, November, and December. 

137. GREAT SNIPE, Gallinago major. One rose at our feet, out of 

some rough grass, on the south end of the island on 5th 
September. 

LITTLE STINT, Tringa mimtta. As this is a somewhat rare, 
or, perhaps, to speak more correctly, an overlooked, species 
on migration in Shetland, it may be well to state that a 
single bird was obtained on i4th August. One was seen 
by us in September 1905. 

GREEN SANDPIPER, Totanus ochropus. A Green Sandpiper, 
perhaps the same individual, was seen on several occasions 
between yth and i4th September. Our observations for 
the previous season related to the first known occurrence 
of this species in any of the northern islands. We were 
gratified to renew its acquaintance at Fair Isle in 1906, 
since it confirmed the opinions we then expressed regarding 
its visits there being probably not unusual. 

138. COMMON TERN, Sterna fluviatilis. 

139. ARCTIC TERN, Sterna macrura. Neither of these species have 

hitherto been identified as visitors to the island, and our 
introduction to them was a rather remarkable one. At 
10.30 on the night of nth September our attention was 
drawn, by their loud cries, to a number of birds flying round 
the lantern of the Skadan Lighthouse. On going out to 
investigate we found a number of Terns careering noisily 
around the light. We at once ascended to the gallery, 
where we succeeded in capturing a number of examples as 
they struck against the windows, and these included repre- 
sentatives of both species. The birds remained flying in the 
rays until 2 A.M., when the dismal and terrifying shrieks of 
the foghorn scared them from the mystifying and dangerous 
influences of the light. On this night the beams from the 
lantern were particularly brilliant, owing to the alternating 
drizzle and heavy rain which prevailed. Three Herons 
were also attracted to the lantern, and while we stood on 



8o ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

the gallery they came quite close up, and once or twice 
were within an ace of striking the glass. Several Wheatears 
and White Wagtails also appeared, on this, the only night 
on which the weather conditions were favourable for the 
display of the decoying powers of the lantern. 

On the two following days a number of Terns were 
present off the south end of the island ; and on the night of 
the 2oth, at 9 P.M., a party again appeared on migration 
in the vicinity of the lighthouse, but as the night was clear 
they did not approach the lantern, and only announced 
their presence through their cries. 

The Common Tern has only recently been added to 
native birds of Shetland. 

140. ICELAND GULL, Larus kucopterus. One was seen on loth 

December, and so well described that I have little hesitation 
in accepting the record. This is another species about 
which we have, as yet, little information relating to its 
visits to Shetland. I have reason, however, to believe that 
it is not very rare at Fair Isle during the winter months. 

141. POMATORHINE SKUA, Stercorarius poniatorhinus. An immature 

female was obtained on 2yth November. This, strange to 
say, appears to be only the fourth known occurrence of 
this bird for Shetland, and yet one would expect that it 
must regularly visit the seas of the group on its passages 
between its summer and winter haunts. 

142. RED-THROATED DIVER, Colymbus septentrionalis. One seen 

on loth September is the only example that has, as yet, 
been observed at Fair Isle. It seems remarkable that this 
species, which breeds in Shetland, as well as in Northern 
Europe, should not have been noticed on any other 
occasion. 

143. MANX SHEARWATER, Puffinus anglorum. A few were seen 

late in May, during June, and early in July. I should not 
be surprised if the " Lingy Bird," as the Fair Islanders call 
this species, bred in small numbers on the island. 

FULMAR PETREL, Fulmarus glacialis. We observed several 
Fulmars hovering around and alighting on the cliffs at one 
of their breeding stations on the and of September, but all 
appear to have departed on the gth, for after that date we 
saw them no more. It does not appear to leave its native 
haunts for a protracted period, but like other species of 
rock-breeding sea-fowl returns early in the year to its 
nesting-places. Mr. George Stout informs me that in 1907 
the first of these birds returned on iyth January and took 
up their residence on the cliffs and stacks. 



NOTES ON BIRDS SEEN IN THE OUTER HEBRIDES 81 

NOTES ON THE BIRDS SEEN IN THE OUTER 
HEBRIDES DURING THE SPRING OF 1906. 

By NORMAN B. KINNEAR, M.B.O.U. 
( Continued from p. 1 9.) 

CROSSBILL, Loxia curvirostris, Linnaeus. Dr. Mackenzie, Stornoway, 
tells me that in 1895, the year in which Dr. M'Rury came 
across the Crossbills in Barra, he saw a flock of seven in his 
garden in Stornoway on 8th July, and that they remained about 
the district for nearly three weeks. 

HOODED CROW, Corvus comix, Linnaeus. One of the North Uist 
keepers showed me three Hoodies' eggs which he had taken 
from a nest, after shooting the female bird as she flew off. 
The eggs were of a beautiful pale blue without any spots. 

CUCKOO, Cuculus canonts, Linnaeus. Both in North Uist and The 
Lews I was told that the Cuckoo was scarcer than usual this 
year. 

SHORT- EARED OWL, Asio accipitrinus (Pallas). We only came 
across one or two Short-eared Owls in the whole of the Outer 
Hebrides, and these were in South Uist. 

HEN HARRIER, Circus cyaneus (Linnaeus). We twice saw a Hen 
Harrier in Barra, but it probably had come from South Uist, 
where there still are a few. In North Uist I saw one example, 
and was told that a few pairs nest there annually. In both 
these islands the Hen Harrier is now carefully protected. 

HERON, Ardea rinerea, Linnaeus. We saw two Herons in Barra 
near Eoligary, and in the Uists and Benbecula this species 
was frequently seen. Mr. D. Mackenzie, Stornoway, informed 
me that Herons had bred for the last two or three years on 
the west side of The Lews near the Harris march. On writing 
to the keeper there, I learned that the first pair bred there in 
1902, behind a Rowan tree on the face of a cliff overhanging 
a sea loch. In 1903 there was again a single nest in the same 
place, but it was disturbed by boys, and next year the birds 
nested in company with another pair in a fresh place further 
inland. Another pair joined the small colony in 1905, and 
last year there were again three nests in the same place. 

GREY LAG GOOSE, Anser rinereus, Meyer. The Grey Lag still nests 
in The Uists and Benbecula. In South Uist there has been 
a decided increase since the " Vertebrate Fauna of the Outer 
Hebrides " was written. 
62 C 



82 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

PINK-FOOTED GOOSE, Anser brachyrhynchus, Baillon. Bahr put up 
a single bird near Eoligary, Barra, in the end of May. Mr. 
W. L. MacGillivray told us he had seen two there for some 
time. 

BERNACLE GOOSE, Bernida kucopsis, Bech stein. We saw one on 
Fiaray, a small island off the north end of Barra, in the end of 
May. Probably it was a pricked bird. 

WHOOPER SWAN, Cygnus musiais, Bechstein. On ist June we saw 
nine wild Swans on a small loch in South Uist. We took 
them to be Whoopers, but as they were a good distance off, 
and we were going in the opposite direction, we put off trying 
to identify them till our return in the afternoon, by which time 
they had departed. An angler fishing on a loch a little further 
north told us that the Swans passed over his head in the 
afternoon, flying in a northerly direction. 

SHOVELLER, Anas dypeata (Linnaeus). This species has already 
been recorded as breeding in the Outer Hebrides south of the 
Sound of Harris. We found one nest and saw several pairs 
of birds. 

PINTAIL, Dafila acuta (Linnaeus). A single drake Pintail was seen 
on a loch in one of the islands in the beginning of June, but 
we did not see any signs of a female or a nest. 

TEAL, Nettion crecca (Linnaeus). The Teal now breeds plentifully 
in The Uists and Benbecula. We did not come across this 
species in Barra. 

WIGEON, Mareca penelope (Linnaeus). Several times we saw a pair 
of Wigeon during June, but we failed to make certain whether 
they were nesting. 

SCAUP, Fnligula marila (Linnaeus). We are glad to be able to con- 
firm the record in the " Annals " of this species breeding in the 
" Outer Hebrides." We found a nest on a small island in 
Loch . The first time we landed on the island a 

female Scaup flew off from a tussock of grass a few feet away 
and alighted on the water close by. On going to the tussock 
we found a nest alongside, containing nine eggs and a quantity 
of down mixed with bits of dried grass. Without disturbing 
the nest, we left the island and returned in about an hour. 
This time the duck flew off before we stepped on to the island, 
and on examining the nest again we found the eggs carefully 
covered with down, so probably the duck had been watching 
our approach and getting prepared. Alongside the present 
nest were the remains of a last year's nest, but whether it had 
also been a Scaup's or not it is impossible to say. There were 
no other nests on the island. 



NOTES ON BIRDS SEEN IN THE OUTER HEBRIDES 83 

TUFTED DUCK, Fiiligula cristata (Leach). The Tufted Duck breeds 
in the same islands as the Shoveller, and we found it to be 
rather more numerous than that species. 

GOLDEN-EYE, Clangula glaudon (Linnaeus). I saw a single female 
Golden-eye in Loch Maddy in June. 

LONG-TAILED DUCK, Harelda glacialis (Linnaeus). We saw a very 
interesting freshly killed specimen shot at North Bay, Barrn, 
on xyth May. It was rather backward, for it had only just 
begun to change from winter to summer plumage. 

EIDER DUCK, Somateria mollissima (Linnaeus). Very few Eiders, 
if any, nest on the fresh-water lochs in South Uist or Benbecula, 
but in North Uist a fair number do so. I saw a female Eider 
of a pale fawn colour in Loch Maddy. 

GOOSANDER, Mergus merganser, Linnaeus. I saw a male in the 
Sound of Fuday off Barra on 22nd May. This species is of 
rare occurrence in the Outer Hebrides. 

WOOD PIGEON, Columba palumbus, Linnaeus. On 8th June one 
was shot at Grogarry, South Uist, by the head gamekeeper. 
The Wood Pigeon has occurred only a few times in the Uists 
and Barra. 

RED GROUSE, Lagopus sco/icits, Latham. The Grouse in the Outer 
Hebrides sit very close. We did not see a single bird in Barra, 
only their marks, but in the other islands we were more 
fortunate. The Barra Grouse is very dark in colour, and so 
also, I believe, are specimens from the Uists and Benbecula ; 
but in The Lews they are the reverse, and I was much struck 
by their light colour. Both Mr. D. Mackenzie and D. Graham, 
the head keeper at Lewis Castle, consider the Grouse of The 
Lews to be much lighter than the ordinary run of birds from 
Sutherland and West Ross-shire, which parts of the mainland 
they are well acquainted with. 

PTARMIGAN, Lagopus nintiis (Montin). On the evening of ist June, 
near a large loch in the southern end of South Uist, a strange 
bird got up some distance in front of us. Bahr at once said, 
" That is a Ptarmigan." On following it up, the bird rose wild, 
but watching it carefully with our glasses as it flew across the 
loch, we made certain that it was a Ptarmigan. A few days 
later we again saw the bird about the same place, and this 
time were able to have a good look at it on the ground, and 
make absolutely certain as to its identity. By the side of a 
loch, practically at sea-level, is about the last place one would 
expect to see a Ptarmigan, and I think the only explanation 
is that it must have come from the Harris or the Skye hills, 
which are the nearest on which Ptarmigan are found. During 



84 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

the preceding week the wind had been northerly. The 
Ptarmigan used to be found in South Uist, and John 
MacGillivray, writing in 1841, mentions that it is found on Ben 
More and Hecla in that island. More recently, in 1900, 
one or more were seen on Hecla by an old shepherd, Archie 
Macdonald by name. 

LANDRAIL, Crex pratensis, Bechstein. AVhile cycling past a loch 
in South Uist we saw a Corncrake running along in the water 
at the edge of a loch being mobbed by Common Gulls. It 
eventually made its escape into some thick heather. I was 
told that the Corncrake was scarcer than usual round Stornoway 
this year. 

WATER HEN, Gallimila chloropus (Linnaeus). We did not see 
many Water Hens in the Uists, and certainly it must be shyer 
than on the mainland, if it is really common. 

CRANE, Grus com/minis, Bechstein. Mr. D. Mackenzie tells me 
that on i .|th May a Crane was shot near Stornoway. It had 
been seen in the district for about a week or ten days before 
it was killed. This bird is not known to have occurred before 
in the Outer Hebrides. 

TURNSTONE, Strepsilas interpres (Linnaeus). We saw several Turn- 
stones in full summer plumage on a small island off the north 
end of Barra on 2 6th May. 

RED-NECKED PHALAROPE, Phalaropus hyperboreits (Linnaeus). This 
bird is strictly protected. I tried to watch a bird into its nest, 
but found it quite impossible, as it crept about in the grass, 
more like a mouse than a bird. 

DUNLIN, Tringa alpina, Linnaeus. The Dunlin does not seem to 
breed regularly in Barra. Mr. W. L. MacGillivray has only 
seen two nests, and these were on an island a little to the 
north of the main island. Round Loch Hallan, in South 
Uist, we saw a great many Dunlin flying about in twos and 
threes during the last few days of May. These must have 
been chiefly migrants, as a day or two later only about a 
quarter of the number were to be seen. 

PURPLE SANDPIPER, Tringa striata, Linnaeus. We observed half 
a dozen Purple Sandpipers on the same island off Barra where 
we saw the Turnstones. They appeared to be in full summer 
plumage. 

SANDERLING, Calidris arenaria (Linnaeus). We saw a small flock 
on the shore on the west side of South Uist in June, and 
Bahr saw either the same flock or another in Benbecula a 
few days later. 



ANN. SCOT. NAT. HIST. 1907. 



PLATE III. 





NOTES ON BIRDS SEEN IN THE OUTER HEBRIDES 85 

REDSHANK, Totanus calidris (Linnaeus). We saw a single bird in 
South Uist in the beginning of June, and another near 
Loch Maddy, North Uist, a little later in the same month. 

WHIMBREL, Numenins phceopits (Linnaeus). When we first landed 
in Barra on i8th May there were quite a number of Whimbrel 
on the west side of the island. They gradually passed away 
northwards, and on 2 6th May, our last day on the island, we 
only saw two or three. On the 3ist of May we saw three 
on the north side of the Sound of Barra. 

COMMON TERN, Sterna fluviatilis, Naumann. A single example, 
seen by Bahr in Loch Boisdale harbour, was the only Common 
Tern we saw throughout the Outer Hebrides. 

LESSER TERN, Sterna minuta, Linnaeus. Mr. W. L. MacGillivray 
told us that the Lesser Terns first appeared in Barra in the 
summer of 1901, and nested there in 1902 and 1903, but 
since then they have not returned. We visited one other 
Hebridean nesting locality, but only saw about six pairs of 
these birds. 

IvORY-GuLL, Pagophila eburnea (Phipps). Dr. Mackenzie, North 
Uist, told me on 28th June that he had lately seen an Ivory- 
Gull on his farm of Scolpig in that island. He said there 
was no doubt about the identification as he was quite close to 
the bird. 

FULMAR, Fulinariis glacialis (Linnaeus). The principal lightkeeper 
at Barra Head informs me that he saw the first pair of Fulmars 
there in 1899, but it was not till 1902 that he actually saw 
eggs, though he adds that they may have nested there before 
that date without his knowing. There are from eight to twelve 
pairs breeding there now. 

EDINBURGH. 



ON A NEW BRITISH TERRESTRIAL ISOPOD. 

By ALEXANDER PATIENCE. 

TRICHONISCIDyE. 
Genus TRICHONISCUS, Brandt, 1833. 
Trichoniscus spinosus, n. sp. (Plate III.). 

Description of Species. Body oblong-oval in form, about 
two and a half times as long as broad. Dorsal face convex 
and closely covered with small spines directed backwards. 



86 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

Cephalon with front obtusely rounded, lateral lobes moder- 
ately produced and bearing one or two small spines on the 
outer edge. Lateral parts of the segments of mesosome 
edged with small appressed spines, the three posterior 
segments having the corners recurved and acuminate. 
Metasome occupies about one-fourth of the length of body, 
the terminal expansion of the last segment being obtusely 
rounded at the tip and armed with from two to five 
triangularly-shaped spines. Antennulse with the last joint 
longer than the second and bearing from four to six sensory 
filaments. Antennae about one-third the length of body, 
spinulose, and the flagellum composed of three articulations. 
Eyes consist of three visual elements embedded in dark 
pigment. Left mandible with two, right with one, penicil 
behind the cutting part. Last pair of legs in both sexes of 
the same structure, the last joint having on the outer edge 
three or four short but fairly prominent spines. Inner ramus 
of first pair of pleopoda of male not greatly produced, the 
tip of the last joint reaching to the middle of the distal joint 
of second pair ; the last joint of very delicate structure, 
needle-shaped and about twice the length of first. Inner 
ramus of second pair biarticulate, the last joint about three 
times the length of first, abruptly contracted at about two- 
thirds towards the distal end and terminating in a spear-like 
point. Uropoda with the outer ramus about twice the length 
of basal part, the inner ramus being narrower and shorter. 
Colour dark reddish brown, marbled with white. Length of 
adult female 3.5 mm. 

Remarks. This species bears some resemblance to 
Trichoniscus stebbingi, Patience, in the general form of the 
body ; in the type of coloration ; in the structure of the 
first pair of pleopoda of the male, and in the shape of the 
last segment of the metasome. The telson, however, in 
T. spinosus is more obtusely rounded at the tip than in the 
above-named species, and in this respect connects T. stebbingi 
with the other British species of Trickoniscus, where the tip 
of the last segment of the metasome is truncate. Again, the 
last joint of the inner ramus of the first pair of pleopoda of 
the male is slightly longer and comparatively more slender 
than in T. stebbingi, while the colour arrangement on the 



ON A NEW BRITISH TERRESTRIAL ISOPOD 87 

dorsal face presents a more definite pattern. The antennae, 
legs, and uropoda, which in T. spinosus are coloured, are in 
T. stebbingi generally devoid of pigment. 

Occurrence. I discovered this pretty little species recently 
(Feb. 6, 1907) in a greenhouse in Springburn Public Park, 
Glasgow, living in company with T. stebbingi, T. pusillus, 
Brandt, T. roseus (Koch) and HaplopJitlialnms danicus, Budde- 
Lund. All these species were bearing ova. I have not yet 
found it outside the greenhouse mentioned above, but as I 
first met with the closely allied species, T. stebbingi, in the 
open country, I have no reason to doubt that T. spinosus 
will yet be discovered in quite open situations. 

I have drawn attention recently in two papers, relating 
to the distribution of the terrestrial isopods within the Clyde 
faunal-area, to the fact that my examination of a large 
number of hothouses throughout the area showed that the 
members of the Trichoniscida do not seem to have any 
marked preference for these places, although the food there 
is both choice and abundant. Evidently the most important 
and indispensable condition to their existence is a fairly 
abundant and steady supply of moisture, and where I have 
met with these species inhabiting greenhouses, this condition 
of things usually obtained. Many species, however, belong- 
ing to the Oniscidce, do not seem to be affected in the same 
manner, e.g. I have found Porcellio scaber, Latr., P. dilatatus, 
Brandt, Metoponorthus pruinosus (Brandt), and Cylisticus 
convexus (De Geer), living in hundreds in tomato-houses in 
widely separated parts of the Clyde faunal-area, where they 
seemed to enjoy the almost tropical heat which usually prevails. 

The members of the Trichoniscidcs are evidently a hardy 
race. Bate and Westvvood refer to Kinahan as having found 
T. vividus (Koch) quite active mid snow. The same remark 
may be equally well applied to many more members of the 
family, for I have found during the past winter (i) T. 
pygniceus, G. O. Sars, and T. roseus living quite actively in a 
garden at Dullatur, Dumbartonshire, underneath old logs 
which were covered with snow and ice, and (2) T. pusillus 
and H. danicus in several places near Lanark, under the bark 
of fallen trees, where the interstices had become filled up 
with ice. 



88 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

T. spinosus like T. stebbingi is active in its movements 
and runs with agility when alarmed. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE. 

$ Female specimen of Trichoniscus spinosus, about 3.3 mm. 

M. Mandibles. 

A. Antenna. 

/. 7 One of the seventh pair of legs. 

pip 1 <$ One of the first pair of pleopoda of male. 

pip 2 <J One of the second pair of pleopoda of male. 

T. Last segment of metasome with the uropoda. 



A CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS A KNOWLEDGE 
OF THE SCOTTISH CRYPTIN^E (ICHNEU- 

MONIDM}. 

By P. CAMERON. 

IN this paper I have only enumerated the species I have 
collected myself, and in my own collection. It cannot 
therefore be regarded, in any respect, as a complete catalogue 
of the species inhabiting Scotland ; but the I 1 3 species 
enumerated may be looked upon as fairly illustrating the 
Cryptince of the country. The species were examined some 
years ago by the late Mr. John B. Bridgman of Norwich 
and, more recently, by Mr. Claude Morley, the author of a 
work on the British Cryptince. 

Judging by my collection the tribe Cryptini (which 
contains some of the largest species) appears to be poorly 
represented in Scotland, although common in more southern 
districts. 

I have followed the generic arrangement of Prof. 
Schmiedeknecht in his Opuscula Ichneumonologica. 

STILPINI. 
EXOLYTUS, Foer. 

1. l&vigatus, Gr., Lambhill, near Glasgow, Dumfries, Sutherland- 

shire. 

2. splendens, Gr., Glen Lyon, Kingussie. 

3. scrutator, Hal., Clyde near Cambuslang, Bishopton, Blair 

Athol. 



THE SCOTTISH CRYPTIN^E 89 

ATRACTODES, Gr. 

1. bicolor, Gr., Bishopton. 

2. gilvipes, Holmg., Gadder, Thornhill, Bishopton, Cambuslang, 

' Kenmuir, Kilsyth, Rannoch, Loch Awe, Glenelg, Kingussie, 
Sutherlandshire. 

3. gravidits, Gr., Dairy, Arran. 

4. extlis, Curt, Glen Lyon, Rannoch, Bonar Bridge, Altnaharra. 

5. albovinctuS) Curt, Thornhill. 

MESATRACODES, Mori. 
i. propreator, Hal., Lambhill, near Glasgow, Cadder, Loch Awe. 

ASYNCRITA, Foer. 
i. foveolata, Gr. = culteltator, Curt., Cadder. 

POLYRHEMBIA, Foer. 

i. tenebricosa, Gr. =vestalis, Curt., Cadder, Milngavie, Kelvinside, 
Cambuslang, Kilsyth, Strathblane, Cannisburn, Kenmuir, 
Gleniffer, Glen Lyon, Rannoch, Loch Awe, Ben Lawers, on 
flowers at about 3000 feet, Kingussie, Glenelg, Sutherland- 
shire. 

STILPNUS, Gr. 

1. gagates, Gr., Clober, Kenmuir, Bishopton, Fossil Marsh. 

2. deplanatus, Gr., Sutherlandshire, Cadder. 

3. dryaduin, Curt., Clober. Rare. 

4. pavonice, Gr., Cadder. Rare, 

Obs. A, gilvipes and P. tenebricosa are among the commonest 
and most widely spread of the Scotch Ichneumonidse. 

PEZOMACHINI. 

PEZOMACHUS, Gr. 

1. festinans, F., Carmyle. 

2. anthracinus, F., Dumfries, Castlecary, Clober, Cadder, near 

Cambuslang, Kingussie, Sutherlandshire. I have a specimen 
from Alsasua, Spain, given me by Dr. D. Sharp, F.R.S. 

3. nigritus, F., Clober, bred from Spider's eggs, Kingussie. 

4. timid-us, F., Bothwell. 

5. acarorum, L., Eccles, Kelvindale, Paisley. 

6. carnifex, F., Cadder, Mugdock, Clober, Kilsyth, Bishopton, 

Rannoch. 

7. ochraceus, F., Cadder. 

8. corruptor, F., Cadder, Glenelg. 



90 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

9. intermedius, F., Ballantrae, Gleniffer, Cambuslang, Bishopton, 
Mugdock, Rannoch, Kingussie. 

10. modesties, F., Manuel, Kenmuir, Mugdock. 

11. comes, F., Eccles, Thornhill, Gadder. 

12. bicolor, Gr., Eccles, Gadder. 

13. fraudulentus, Gr., Gadder, Bute. 

14. attenhis, F., Gadder, Manuel. 

15. micrurus, F., Gadder. 

1 6. instabilis, F., Thornhill, Gadder, Rannoch. 
i 7. costatus, Bridg., Bishopton. 

1 8. palpator, Gr., Gadder. 

19. linearis, F., Dumfries, Ballantrae. 

20. indicator, F., Bishopton. 

21. fasciatus, F., Gleniffer, Kenmuir, Cambuslang, Clober, Paisley, 

Manuel, Claddich, Loch Awe, Rannoch, Sutherlandshire. 
Bred from a Spider's egg-bag. 

P. Carnifex, fasciatus, and anthracinus are the three commonest 
species. 

PEZOLOCHUS, Foer. 

i. rufipes, F., Galloway, Dumfries, Mugdock, Bishopton. I have 
an example from Malta given me by Mr. J. J. Walker. 

ORESBIUS, Marshall. 

i. castaneus, Marsh. Top of Gyrvil, Rannoch (over 3000 feet), 
and of Goatfell, Arran. 

THAUMATSTYPUS, Foer. 
i. Billupsi, Bridg., Gadder. 

HEMITELLINI. 
CREMNODES, Foer. 

i. atricapillus, Gr., Mugdock. Bred from dipterous leaf-miner 
of Primrose. 

Cremnodus is regarded by Prof. Schmiedeknecht as identical 
with Hemitelles. Cf. Opus. Ichn., 871. 

HEMITELES, Gr. 

1. fu/vipes, Gr., Mugdock. Bred from the cocoons of Apanteles 

sericeus, the parasite of Thera juniperana. 

2. submarginatus, Bridg., Claddich, Loch Awe, Arran. 

3. marginatus, Bridg., Gadder. 

4. dngulator, Gr., Glen Lyon, Kingussie. 



THE SCOTTISH CRYPTIN& 91 

5. bicolorinus, Gr., Cadder, Rannoch, Beauly, Kingussie. 

6. ridibunduS) Gr., Clyde near Cambuslang. 

7. area/or, Cadder, Mugdock, Paisley, Dairy. Bred from galls 

of Nematus gallicola, West. 

8. rufocinctus, Gr., Cadder. 

9. teaebrosus, Gr., Rannoch. 

10. pictipes, Gr., Glenelg. 

11. castaneus, Tasch., Dairy. 

12. melanarius, Gr., Glenelg. 

13. varitarsis, Gr., Fossil Marsh. 

14. levigatus, Rutz., Cadder. 

15. biannulatus, Gr., Cadder. 

1 6. subanmilatus, Bridg., Fossil Marsh. 

17. floricolator, Gr., Clober. 

1 8. tristator, Gr., Mugdock. 

19. po/itus, Bridg., Kingussie, Braemar. 

20. necator, Gr., Bonar Bridge, Cadder. 

21. incisus, Bridg., Cadder, Kilsyth, Strathblane, Bishopton. Bred 

from Nematus viridis. 

22. siii/is, Gmel., Kenmuir, Rannoch, Glenelg. 

23. subzonatus, Bridg., Gleniffer, Cadder, Kingussie. 

24. hemipterus, ., Cadder. 

25. Bridgmani, Schm. Theroscopus niger, Bridg., Kingussie. 

Many of the species of Hemiteles are hyperparasites, i.e. 
parasites on other Ichneumons. 

PHYGADEUONINI. 
CRATOCRYPTUS, Thorns. 

1. anatorms, Gr., Cadder. 

2. parvu/us, Gr., Cadder, Bishopton, Rannoch, Sutherlandshire. 

PLECTOCRYPTUS, Thorns, 
i. digitatus, Gmel., Kingussie. 

STENOCRYPTUS, Thorns. 

1. nignventris, Thorns., Kingussie. 

2. oviventris, Gr., Clyde near Cambuslang, Rannoch. 

3. brevicornis, Tasch., Cadder. 

MICROCRYPTUS, Thorns. 

1. leucostictus, Gr., Cadder. 

2. abdominator, Gr., Cadder, Kenmuir, Clober, Rannoch, Kin- 

gussie. 

3. scoficus, Marshall, Rannoch. 



92 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

4. cretatus, Gr., Dumfries. 

5. ser leans, Gr., Bonar Bridge. 

6. erythrinus, Gr., Fossil Marsh. 

7. bifrons, Gmel, Glen Lyon, Kingussie. 

8. nigrocinctus, Gr., Clyde near Newton, Gadder, Thornhill. 

9. brachypterus, Gr., Gadder. 

10. micropterus, Gr., Fossil Marsh. 

HEMICRYPTUS, Kriech. 

1. labralis, Gr., Clyde opposite Kenmuir, Cadder, Sutherland- 

shire. 

2. galactinus, Gr., Clyde opposite Kenmuir. 

ACANTHOCRYPTUS, Thorns. 

1. nigricollis, Thorns., Clyde opposite Kenmuir, Dairy. 

2. quadrispinus, Gr., Dairy. 

STYLOCRYPTUS, Thorns. 1 

1. profligator, Gr., Rannoch. 

2. suffoldensts, Mori., Clyde opposite Kenmuir. 

3. erythrogaster, Kenmuir, Clober, Rannoch. 
*4. brevis, Gr., Kenmuir, Rannoch. 

5- glyphicremis, Foer. Cf. Schmiedeknecht, Opus. Ich., 658. 

PHYGADEUON, Gr. 

1. vagans, Gr., Cadder, Paisley, Clyde opposite Carmyle, 

Rannoch, Kingussie, Loch Awe, Sutherlandshire. 

2. variabilzs, Gr., Fossil Marsh, Cadder, Kenmuir, Blantyre, 

Rannoch, Glen Lyon, Kingussie, Glenelg, Bonar Bridge. 

3. dumetomm, Gr., Cadder, Clober, Mugdock, Blantyre, Stirling, 

Kingussie, Sutherlandshire. 

4. flavimamis, Gr., Cadder, ex Emphytus serotinus. 

5. extguus, Gr., Beauly. 

6. fumator, Gr., Fossil Marsh, Cadder, Clober, Kenmuir, Clyde 

opposite Carmyle, Gleniffer, Stirling, Strathblane, Dairy, 
Craig Dubh, near Kingussie, 2000 feet ; top of Ben 
Clibrich, Sutherlandshire. 

7. inflatus. Thorns., Cadder, Gleniffer, Bishopton, Carmyle, 

Blantyre, Stirling, Loch Awe, Rannoch, Glenelg. Parasitic 
on Emphytus serotinus. 

8. scaposis, Thorns., Clober, Cadder, Dairy, Sutherlandshire. 

9. rotundipennis, Thorns., Cadder, Kilsyth. 

10. dimidiates, Thorns., Fossil Marsh, Mugdock Moor, Bishopton, 
Rannoch. 

1 The generic location of the species marked * is not clear to me. 



THE SCOTTISH CRYPTIN& 93 

11. mixtus, Bridg., Stirling. 

12. ambzguus, Gr., Glenelg. 

13. tarsatus, Bridg., Arran. 

ISCHNOCRYPTUS, Kriech. 

i. hercynicus, Gr., Blantyre. 
*2. pellucidator, Gr., Kingussie, Sutherlandshire. 

LEPTOCRYPTUS, Thorns., ? PANARGYROPS. 

i. areus, Gr., Cadder. 
*2. tenuts, Gr., Glenelg, Kingussie. 
*3- tenerriinus, Gr., Cadder, Gleniffer. 

CRYPTINI. 

CRYPTUS, F. 

1. sponsor, F., Sutherlandshire. 

2. obscurus, Gr., Rannoch, Kingussie, Glenelg, Altnaharra. 

SPILOCRYPTUS, Thorns. 

1. incubator, Sturm., Clober. 

2. cimbiris, Tschek, Claddich, Loch Awe, Rannoch, Cadder. 

Bred from Trichiosoma lucorum. 

IDIOLISPA, Foer. 
i. ana/is, Gr., Braemar (F. G. Binnie). 

GONIOCRYPTUS, Thorns, 
i. titillator, Gr., Stirling, Rannoch, Kingussie. 

HABROCRYPTUS, Thorns, 
i. assertorius, F., Fossil Marsh. Rare. 



SOME RHIZOPODS AND HELIOZOA OF THE 

FORTH AREA. 

By JAMES MURRAY. 

THIS short list of Sarcodina has been compiled almost 
entirely from material supplied to me by Mr. W. Evans. 
While examining the Sphagnum and other mosses which he 
sent to me from time to time during the year 1905, chiefly 



94 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

with an eye to the Rotifers and Tardigrada (see published 
lists), I noticed incidentally any Sarcodina which I could 
identify. Those are chiefly the common and easy species. 
Drawings of some of the more difficult species were sent to 
Dr. Penard, who named them ; and Dr. Penard himself has 
since examined for Mr. Evans a sample of Sphagnum from 
the Forth Area, and supplied notes of species which do not 
come within my limited knowledge. Mr. Cash has also 
examined moss sent by Mr. Evans, and given a list of many 
interesting species. Dr. Penard's and Mr. Cash's lists are 
being published by Mr. Evans in the " Proceedings of the 
Royal Physical Society." The sole reason for publishing 
this very incomplete and unauthoritative list is that a 
number of the common species which I observed did not 
happen to occur in the moss sent to those specialists, or at 
any rate were not noted by them, and that it supplies 
additional localities for many of the others. 

Beyond the species found in the moss collected by 
Mr. Evans I have only added some half-dozen species 
collected by the Lake Survey in Loch Vennachar in the 
year 1902, as there were no other records of most of them 
from the Forth Area. 

CLASS SARCODINA. 

SUB-CLASS LOBOSA. 

Order AMCEB/EA. 
Amoeba terricola, Greefif. Hopetoun Woods, June 1906. 

Order TESTACEA. 

Difflugia piriformis, Perty. Bavelaw Moss, Roslin, Marl Pit near 
Davidson's Mains, Gullane Links, Winchburgh, Largo Links, 
Aberfoyle. 

D. capreolata, Penard. Aberfoyle. 

D. bacilli/era, Penard. Loch Vennachar (1902). 

D. acuminata, Ehr., and var. inflata, Penard. Bavelaw Moss. 

D. globulosa, Duj. Bavelaw, Aberfoyle. 

D. constricta, Ehr. Duddingston Loch, Roslin, Loch Leven, 
Doune, Aberfoyle. 

D. arci/la, Leidy. Aberfoyle. 



SOME RHIZOPODS AND HELIOZOA OF THE FORTH AREA 95 

Centropyxis aculeata, Stein. Davidson's Mains, Lothian Burn, 
Bavelaw, Hopetoun, Gullane, Largo, Ochils behind Dollar, 
Aberfoyle. 

Pontigulasia bigibbosa, Penard. Aberfoyle. 
Lecquereusia spiralis (Ehr.). Loch Vennachar (1902). 
L. modesta. Rhumb. Loch Vennachar (1902). 
Hyalosphenia papilio, Leidy. Bavelaw, Aberfoyle. 
H. elegans, Leidy. Thornton (Fife), Aberfoyle. 

Nebela collaris, Leidy. Duddingston Loch, Lothian Burn, Bavelaw, 
Gullane, Hopetoun, Thornton, Aberfoyle. 

JV. bohemica, Taranek. Roslin, Aberfoyle. 
JV. tubulosa, Penard. Near Doune. 
N. lageniformis, Penard. Bavelaw, Gullane. 
N. carinata, Leidy. Bavelaw, Aberfoyle. 
JV. marginafa, Penard. Aberfoyle. 

JV. flabellulum, Leidy. Bavelaw, Star Moss near Markinch, Aber- 
foyle. 
N. bursella, Vedj. Aberfoyle. 

N. militaris^ Penard. Aberfoyle. 

N. crenulata, Penard. Lothian Burn, Gullane. 

Quadru/a symmetrica, F. E. Schultze. Ochils near Dollar, Hope- 
toun. 

Heleopera petricola, Leidy. Upper Elf Loch, Lothian Burn, Kirk- 
newton, Thornton, Aberfoyle. 

Var. amethystea, Penard. From all the same localities as 
the type, except Elf Loch. 

H. cydostomci) Penard. Luffness Marsh, July 1906. 

Arcella vitlgaris, Ehr. Duddingston, Bavelaw, Gullane, Largo, 
Markinch, Ochils, Aberfoyle. 

A. discoides, Ehr. Upper Elf Loch, Bavelaw, Thornton, Markinch, 
Ochils, Aberfoyle. 

A. artocrea, Leidy ( = catinus, Pen., and vitlgaris, var. compressa, 
Cash). Aberfoyle. 

Sub-Class FILOSA. 
Order MONOSTOMINA. 

Cyphoderia ampulla (Ehr.). Duddingston, Lothian Burn, Bavelaw, 
Gullane, Winchburgh, Ochils, Aberfoyle. 

Euglypha alveolata, Duj. Loch Vennachar. 



96 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

E. ciliata (Ehr.). Roslin, Hopetoun, Thornton, Doune, Aberfoyle. 

E. brachiata, Leidy. Loch Vennachar. 

Placocysta spinosa, Leidy. Thornton, Aberfoyle. 

Assulina seminulum (Ehr.). Bavelaw, Leadburn, Aberfoyle. 

A. minor, Penard. Leadburn, Aberfoyle. 

Trinema enchelys (Ehr.). Aberfoyle, Loch Vennachar. 

Sub-Class HELIOZOA. 
Order APHROTHORACA. 
Actinophrys sol, Ehr. Bavelaw, Loch Leven. 

Actinospharium eichhorni, Ehr. Nether Habbies Howe (Pentlands), 
Aberfoyle. 

Order CHALAROTHORACA. 

Acanthocystis turfacea, Carter. Loch Vennachar. 



NOTES ON THE FLORA OF BERWICKSHIRE. 
By G. CLARIDGE DRUCE, M.A., F.L.S. 

IN August of 1906 I spent a few days in the bracing air of 
Berwickshire, and had the advantage of the company of my 
friend Mr. A. H. Evans, the well-known ornithologist, whose 
knowledge of the botany of the plants of his native district 
is very thorough. In " Topographical Botany " the records 
are unusually free from personal vouchers, so that I venture 
to give a list of the more important species which were 
noticed by me during my visit, and have added a few which 
Mr. Evans or Mr. Ferguson of Duns also communicated 

o 

to me. 

The occurrence of Agrimonia agrimonoides in such a 
natural-looking situation is remarkable, nor could I obtain 
a clue to its introduction. The most interesting find prob- 
ably was that of the hybrid orchis, which I had not 
observed hitherto in Britain. Our search in Gordon bog for 
the Utricularia which has been called Bremii was unsuccess- 
ful, only U. minor being observed, but the bog has suffered 
much recently from drainage. 



NOTES ON THE FLORA OF BERWICKSHIRE 97 

p Signifies personal voucher. '~ New record. f Introduced species. 

* Ranunculus peltatus, Sc/ira/ik, var. truncatus (Hiern). Colding- 

ham Loch. 

p R. Lingua, L. Duns. 

R. Steveni, Andrz. Duns. 

'' Caltha radicans, Forst. Coldingham, on the margins of the loch 
in some plenty. 

Fumaria Boraei, Jord. Near Gordon, 
p Coronopus procumbens, Gil. Duns, 
p Cochlearia officinalis, Z. Berwick, Tweedside. 
p Cardamine flexuosa, With. Duns, 
p Cakile maritima, Scop. Berwick coast, 
p Helianthemum Chamascistus, Mill. St. Abbs, 
p Viola lutea, Huds. A very beautiful form with large flowers of 
deep yellow with upper petals purple, in fields near Gordon. 

* V. segetalis, Jord. Near Duns. 
Polygala serpyllacea, Weihe. Gordon, etc. 

p Silene maritima, With. St. Abbs, 
p Dianthus deltoides, L. Berwickshire, A. H. Evans. 
Saponaria officinalis, L. 

* Lychnis alba x dioica. Duns, 
p L. alba, Mill. Duns. 

* Spergula sativa, Boenn. Duns. 

p Arenaria peploides, L. Near Berwick. 

* Spergularia media (Z.) (S. marginata, Syme). Near Berwick, 
p S. marina, Mert and Koch. Near Berwick. 

p Arenaria verna, Z. St. Abbs. 

p Stellaria palustris, Retz. Gordon Bog. 

p Cerastium semidecandrum, Z. St. Abbs. 

p Millegrana Radiola, Druce. Saughton Leas. 

p Sagina nodosa, Fenzl. Coldingham. 

f Linum usitatissimum, Z. Duns. 

p Malva rotundifolia, Z. Near Berwick. 

M. moschata, Z. Duns, 

p Geranium pratense, Z. Near Duns. 

p Trifolium procumbens, Z., var. majiis, Koch. Duns. 

* T. arvense, Z. Lamberton, A. H. Evans. 

p Astragalus glycyphyllus, Z. Lamberton, A. H. Evans. 

* Vicia angustifolia, Z. Near Gordon. This removes the query 

to record in "Top. Bot." 
62 D 



98 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

* V. lathyroides, L. St. Abbs, A. H. Evans. 

* V. Orobus, DC. Grant's House, A. H. Evans, 
p Prunus Padus, L. Duns. 

p Geum intermedium, Ehrh. Duns. 

p G. rivale, L. Duns. 

p Potentilla palustris, Scop. Gordon. 

* Rubus Selmeri, Lindeb. Duns. 
R. dasyphyllus, Rogers. Duns. 
R. Radula, Weihe. agg. Duns. 

* Rosa Eglanteria, L. Near Coldingham. 

* R. glauca, Vill. Duns. 

* R. coriifolia, Fries. Duns. 

* R. dumalis, Bechst. Duns. 

* R. dumetorum, Thnill. Duns. 

p Alchemilla vulgaris, Z., van filicaulis (Buser), var. alpestris 
(Schmidt). Duns. 

* Agrimonia agrimonioides, L. Quite naturalised in a wood near 

Duns ; showed me by Mr. Ferguson, 
p Epilobium angustifolium, L. John's House. 

* E. obscurum, Schreb. Duns. 

E. montanum, L. A curious form with very pale flowers of a 
different tint from the normal, with much of the appearance 
of roseum, grows on walls in Duns, 
p Hippuris vulgaris, L. Gordon. 

* Myriophyllum spicatum, L. Duns, Coldingham. 
- f Callitriche hamulata, Kuetz. Duns. 

p Parnassia palustris, L. Gordon. 

Ribes nigrum, L. Duns. 

R. rubrum, L. Duns. 

R. Grossularia, L. Duns, 
p CEnanthe crocata, L. 
f Carum Petroselinum, Benth. and Hook. Quite naturalised at 

Burnmouth. 

p Ligusticum scoticum, L. St. Abbs, 
p Viburnum Opulus, L. Duns. 

* Galium Withering!!, Sm. Coldingham. 
p G. boreale, L. A. H. Evans. 

p Valeriana dioica, L. Langton Leas. 

p Taraxacum palustre, DC. Langton Leas. 

* Arctium intermedium, Lange. Duns. 
A. minus, Bcrnh. Duns. 



NOTES ON THE FLORA OF BERWICKSHIRE 99 

p Tragopogon pratense, L. By the Tweed. 

f Silybum Marianum, Gaertn. Duns. 

p Carduus tenuiflorus, Curt. Berwick. 

p C. crispus, L. Duns. 

p Campanula latifolia, L. Duns. 

p Vaccinium Vitis-idasa, L. Langton Leas. 

* Pyrola minor, L. Near Langton Leas, Mr. Ferguson, 
p Veronica didyma, Ten. Duns. 

p V. Buxbaumii, Ten. Duns, 

p V. montana, L. Duns. 

Rhinanthus Crista-galli, Z. Duns. 

* R. stenophyllus, Schur. Duns. 

* Euphrasia brevipila, Burnat. Langton. 

* E. nemorosa, H. Mart. Duns. 

* E. curta, Fries. St. Abbs. 

* E. gracilis, Fries. Langton. 

* E. Rostkoviana, Hayne. Gordon. 

p Lathrsea Squamaria, L. Paxton, A. H. Evans, 

p Mentha piperita, Z., var. officinalis. St. Abbs, Gordon. 

p M. longifolia, Huds. Duns, in some plenty by a stream side, 

p Clinopodium vulgare, L. Duns. 

; Galeopsis bifida, Boenn. Duns. 
G. speciosa, Mill. Gordon. 

* Thymus Chamaedrys, Fries. Duns. 

p Stachys ambigua, Sm. John's House. 

p Salvia Verbenaca, L. Berwick. 

f Anchusa sempervirens, L. Quite naturalised to the east of Duns 

by the roadside. 

p Pinguicula vulgaris, L. Langton Leas. 
p Littorella uniflora, Asch. Coldingham Loch. 

Chenopodium album, Z., var. candicans (Lam.), and var. viride, 

L. Duns. 

p Atriplex hastata, Z. Duns. 
p Rumex Hydrolapatheum, Huds. By the Eden, near Gordon. 

* Polygonum Bistorta, Z. Berwick. 

p Empetrum nigrum, Z. Langton Leas. 
f Euphorbia exigua, Z. Duns. 

Quercus Robur, Z. (pedunculata). Duns. 

* Q. foemina, Mill (sessiliflora, Sal.). Duns. 
Betula alba, Z. Langton. 

B. pubescens, Ehrh. Gordon. 



ioo ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 



t Populus alba, L. Duns. 

p Juniperus communis, L, Grant's House. 

p Goodyera repens, R. Br. Near Langton, Mr. Ferguson. 

p Listera cordata, R. Br. Langton Leas. 

* Orchis maculata, Z., var. ericetorum (Linton). Langton. 

* Orchis maculata, var. ericetorum x Habenaria conopsea. This 

interesting hybrid was found by Mr. Evans and myself in a 
marshy spot on the east side of Langton Leas, and was a 
good intermediate. The perfume of conopsea was retained, 
but the facies of the spike was rather that of maculata. 

| Habenaria bifolia, R.Br. Gordon bog. 

p H. viridis, R.Br. Near Duns, Mr. Ferguson. 

p Neottia Nidus-avis, Scop. Near Duns, Mr. Ferguson. 

p Scilla verna, L. St. Abbs. 

p Allium Scorodoprasum, L. Showed to me by Mr. A. H. Evans 
on the banks of the Whitadder, in considerable plenty. 

p A. vineale, L. With the foregoing. 

Potamogeton filiformis, Nolte. Still abundant at Coldingham. 

p P. crispus, L. Duns. 

p P. polygonifolius, Pour. Langton. 

t Acorus Calamus, L. Duns, in the castle lake, doubtless planted. 

t Typha angustifolia, Z. With the above, and probably introduced. 
Sparganium minimum, Fries. Gordon. 

p Juncus Gerardi, Lois. Near Berwick. 

* J. bufonius, Z., \ax.fasciculatus, Koch. By the Tweed, 
p Schcenus nigricans, L. Gordon. 

p Scirpus maritimus, L. By the Tweed. 

p S. sylvaticus, L. A. H. Evans. 

p Carex canescens, L. Gordon. 

p C. disticha, ffuds.St. Abbs. 

p C. paniculata, Z., var. simplicior, And. Gordon. 

* C. flava, Z. Gordon. 

p C. extensa, Good. Fast Castle. 

p C. pendula, Huds. Lamberton, A. H. Evans. 

p C. acutiformis, Ehrh. Duns. 

p C. riparia, Curt. Whitadder. 

p Milium effusum, Z. Peasdene, A. H. Evans. 

* Agrostis canina, Z. Gordon. 

* Phragmites communis, Tn'ti., var. uniflora, Bor. Gordon, 
p Avena pubescens, Huds. Greenland. 

* Arrhenatherum avenaceum, var. tuberosum (Gilib.). Duns. 



NOTES ON THE FLORA OF BERWICKSHIRE 101 

p Glyceria plicata, Fries. Coldingham. 
p G. maritima, J/. and K. Tweedside. 

* G. distans, Wahl. By the Tweed, about two miles above 

Berwick ; scarce. 

* Poa nemoralis, L. Duns, 
p Briza media, Z. Duns. 

p Festuca rubra, L. Duns, etc. 

p Agropyron caninum, Beauv. Duns. 

A. repens, Beauv., var. barbatnm. Duns, 
p Hordeum murinum, L. Duns, by the Tweed, 
p Cystopteris fragilis, Bernh. Duns, 
p Polystichum angulare, Presl. Peasdale, A. H. Evans, 
p Asplenium marinum, L. Fast Castle, 
p Phyllitis Scolopendrium, Greene. Duns, 
p Botrichium Lunaria, Sw. Gordon, 
p Selaginella selaginoides, Link. Langton. 
p Equisetum sylvaticum, L. Gordon. 

Lastrea spinulosa, Presl. Duns. 

Agrostis alba, Z., *var. stolonifera (L.) Duns. 
*var. gigantea, Meyer. Duns. 

Poa pratensis, Z., var. subavrulea (Sm.). St. Abbs. 

Chara fragilis, Desv. Duns. 

C. aspera, Willd. Coldingham. 

OXFORD. 



TRITICUM PEREGRINUM, HACKEL. A NEW 
SPECIES FOUND AS AN ALIEN NEAR 
EDINBURGH. 

By JAMES FRASER. 

LAST year, in each of two places, near Edinburgh, I found a 
single plant of a Triticum which evidently belonged to the 
sub-genus ^Egilops, and at once suggested sEgilops niutica, 
Boiss. On comparing it with the latter, however, and with 
every other species of Triticum in the Herbarium of the 
Edinburgh Botanic Gardens, which, by the courtesy of 
Professor J. Bayley Balfour, F.R.S., I was permitted to do, 
it was at once seen that it corresponded with none of them. 
Specimens were sent to Professor Hackel, who, with charac- 



102 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

teristic kindness at once replied that after careful study he 
could not identify it with any described plant, and that he 
considered it to be a new species of Triticum of unknown 
habitat, but almost certainly of oriental origin. 

In both the places, though five miles apart, where this 
plant occurred, the conditions are somewhat similar : one 
place is a derelict poultry farm where grain-refuse from dis- 
tilleries is thrown, yielding a luxuriant crop of hundreds of 
foreign plants ; the other is a stretch of uneven waste 
ground, whose hollows are being filled up with sweepings 
from the holds of grain -ships and with other refuse. In 
both these places the plant was growing in association with 
Triticiim crassum, Aitchis. and Hemsley, a native of Central 
Asia ; Phleum grcecum, Boiss. and Heldr. ; Phlenm aspernm, 
Jacq. ; Apera intermedia, Hackel, whose only known habitat is 
Asia Minor ; and the three well-known species of ^Egilops. 

The following diagnosis by Professor Hackel is pub- 
lished in Scotland at his request, as he desired it to appear 
in connection with the observations of Mr. James M' Andrew 
and myself on alien plants here : 

" Triticum (sub. -gen. ^Egilops] peregrinum, Hackel, 
nov. spec. Annuum. Culmi graciles, circ. 35 cm. alti, apice 
longe nudi, glaberrimi. Vaginae ventricosae, ore plus minus 
fimbriatae, ceterum glaberrimae. Ligula brevissima, truncata. 
Laminae anguste lineares (6-8 cm. longae, 2-7 mm. latae), 
acutae, utrinque pilis mollibus patentibus plus minus con- 
spersae. Spica brevis (3-6 cm. lg., 6-8 mm. diam.) sursum 
attenuata, e spiculis fertilibus 4-5 constans, adjectis in basi 
spiculis sterilibus 3 parvis v. minutis, rhacheos articuli sub- 
curvati sursum modice dilatati dorso complanati, ventre 
concavi, plus minus scabri, spicula adjacente plus minusve 
breviores. Spiculas fertiles ovato-oblongas (circ. 12 mm. lg., 
4 mm. It), 4-florae, floribus 2 inferioribus fertilibus, superi- 
oribus sterilibus, decrescentibus, viridulae. Glumae -steriles 
subaequales, |-^ spiculae aequantes, obovato-oblongae, circ. 
7 mm. lg., sinuato-bidentatae, dentibus triangularibus acutis 
v. acutiusculis in spicula terminali interdum (altero v. ambis) 
in aristam brevem latiusculam productis, inter dentes inter- 
dum denticulum minutum exhibentes, dorso elevato 7-nervis, 



TRIT1CUM PEREGR1NUM, IIACKEL 103 

nervis aculeolato - scaberrimis. Glumae fertiles oblongae, 
retusre, bidentatae, dente altero nervum medium excipiente 
plerumque in mucronulum crassum obtusiusculum producto, 
altero depresso-triangulari, interclum tertio rotundato aucto, 
ceterum muticae, 5 -nerves, tota superficie minute scabro- 
punctatae. Palea glumam fertilem aequans, oblonga, obtuse 
bidentata, carinis setuloso - ciliolata. Lodiculaa ciliatse. 
Ovarium apice hispidulum. Spica cum omnibus spiculis 
fertilibus demum caduca, spiculis sterilibus in culmo 
manentibus. 

Patria ignota, introductam in Scotia prope Edinburgh 
(Slateford et Leith Docks), invenit J. Eraser. 

Affinis Tritico mutico (/Egilopi vinticce, Boiss.) quod 
differt a nostro spica elongata gracili multispiculata, inter- 
nodiis spicula adjacente longioribus, spiculis minoribus angusti- 
oribus, oblongis, glumis sterilibus vix dimidiam spiculam 
asquantibus apice dilatatis obscure sinuato - clenticulatis, 
glumis fertilibus obtusissimis subintegris." 

LEITH, March 1907. 



BUTOMUS UMBELLATUS, L., IN CAITHNESS. 
By ARTHUR BENNETT. 

MR. R. BAIN of Wick, in a letter recently sent me, tells me 
he has seen three specimens of Butomus on the north side 
of the Wick river, and a botanical friend informs him that 
he has " seen it in the same place a good many years ago." 
Mr. Bain adds, " I am a good deal surprised that your friend 
Mr. Grant has not reported it." I am not, because it may 
be it flowered only occasionally. It is one of those semi- 
aquatic species that are very uncertain in flowering. 

Of course, with such a paucity of specimens we cannot 
say much ; but there is no reason why the species should 
not be a native of Scotland. The late Dr. B. White in his 
Flora of Perth considered it a native, and also in letters to 
myself when discussing the grade of various species. 

In Sweden it is general in the provinces of Skane, 
Halland, Sodermarland, Upland, and Nerike, and occurs 
in twelve other provinces north to Jemtland about 64" N. 



104 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

latitude. 1 Indicated in S. Norway ; it occurs in Finland in 
eleven provinces north to Kemi in lat. 65 30" (Cashen 1793, 
Brenner iS/o).' 2 In Russia in Livonia and Petropoli (St. 
Petersburg), etc. Thus its distribution lends itself to being 
native in Scotland, though the greater severity of the winters 
in 64 ' N. lat. does not count altogether, as the fall of snow 
is greater, and this tends to the preservation of plants that 
without it even in the south of England die in winter. 
I am not advocating that Butomus is native in Caithness ; 
but how do such plants become introduced (unless planted) ? 
The appearance of semi-aquatic plants in quarries, gravel 
pits, railway cuttings, is very curious, as they surely do not 
occur in horse fodder, and at least in many examples of 
Dutch and Belgium packed goods I never detected any of 
these species. An entomological friend (Mr. Thurnel) tells 
me that when he finds in isolated gravel pits Scirpus 
palnstris, L., he is almost sure to find a species of moth 
(Bactra furfurana> Haw.) whose larva feeds in the stems. If 
it is difficult to account for the appearance of the Scirpus, it 
seems much more so with the moth. It is easy to account 
for the introduction of many aliens, and of many species 
native in the south but not in the north, but semi-aquatics 
seem to present more difficulty even than aquatics. 

C ROY DON. 



POTAMOGETON UNDULATUS, WOLFGANG, 

IN SCOTLAND. 

By ARTHUR BENNETT. 

THIS plant, which is generally considered as a hybrid 
(Potamogeton prcelongus x crispus], was reported as a British 
plant by Mr. Fryer 3 and by myself; 4 but Mr. Baagoe of 
Naersted, Denmark, showed ' :> that the British plant must be 
referred to P. perfoliatus x crispus. To this Mr. Fryer has 
given the name x P. Cooperi, and the plate quoted below 
and description refer to this and not to Wolfgang's plant 

1 Berlin: Skand, Halfons 1 13, 1875. 2 Hjelt : Fl. Fennica I, 513, 1895. 

3 "Journ. of Botany," t. 313, p. 289 (1891). 
4 " Irish Naturalist," p. 124(1894). ' "Hot. liddsk," xxi. p. 221 (1897). 



PQTAMOGETON UNDULATUS IN SCOTLAND 105 

I am now able to report the true plant from Scotland, 
whence it was sent me by Mr. Kidston, whose label is as 
below : 

" Potamogeton prczlongns, Wulf. Kildean. River Forth 
near Stirling. Sept. 10, 1894. Stirlingshire." 

The false report of the plant before, naturally made one 
very cautious as to a second one, and it was not till recently 
that, on a careful comparison of Mr. Kidston's specimens with 
types gathered by Wolfgang and Besser in Lithuania, and 
Caspary in Prussia, which I possess, they were found to be 
identical. The Scotch specimens are absolutely sterile (in 
my specimens), the flowers that remain unopened, though 
most had fallen off; if anything they are rather more 
towards prcelongus, while Caspary's are more towards crispus, 
Wolfgang's original specimens being exactly intermediate. 
It differs from prcelongus by being sterile, the apex of the 
leaves scarcely cucullate, and by the stem being compressed ; 
from crispus by the non-serrated edge of the leaves, the 
greater number of nerves, with more numerous cross veins ; 
from perfoliatus by possessing numerous bast-bundles in the 
bark, and by differences in the axial cylinders. I give the 
original description, etc. 

POTAMOGETON UNDULATUS, Wolfg. (Besser in lift.}, in 

Roem. and SchuL, " Sys. Veg. Mant." iii. 361 (1827). 
P. CRISPUS, / Eiclnvald, " Nat. Skizz.-Lithauen," etc., 

105 (1830). 

P. CRISPUS, var., LEDEBOUR, " Fl. Ross." iv. 29 (1853). 
P. CRISPA x PR.ELONGUS, Caspary in " P. Oe. G. 

Konigl." v. i 8, 99 (1877). 
P. DECIPIENS, Nolte, teste ScJnnaUiausen, ex. Nyman. 

" Consp. Fl. Europ." supp. 287 (1890). 
P. CRISPUS, L., Richter, " Fl. Europ." i. 14 (1890). 
P. PR/ELONGUS x CRISPUS, Asch. and Gracb. " Syn. Fl. 

Mitt.europ." i. 338 (1897). 
RAUNKL-ER, Danske, Blomsterpl. 105 (1895). 

" Caule compresso, sulco utrinque longitudinali fluctanti, 
inferne ramosa ; foliis omnibus submersis, membranaceis, 
integerrimis, alternis, oblongo-ovalis, lanceolatis, rotundato- 



io6 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

obtusis, apice planis amplexicaulibus ; stipulis truncatis, com- 
planitis, caule adpressis, Wolfg. Ms. No. 22. Besser in lift. 

" Differt a P. crispo foliis longioribus, majoribus integer- 
rimis nee crispatis, nee serrulatis, colore atroviride, et venis 
non convergentibus, sed transversim reticulato-strictis, Wolf. 

" In specim. nostro flores desunt, folia 4-5 poll. \-\ poll, 
lata, majora quam in crispo, quidquam undulata, 5-7-nervia, 
nervis 3 fortioribus. Maxime sane affinio P. crispo." Roem. 
et Sch. I.e. 

The distribution of the plant is 

Denmark. River Gudenaa. Jylland ! Baagoe. 

Nilso-Ribe. Jylland ! 

Vigersdal. Sjaelland ! 

Lithuania. In fluvio Wahu, Wilna, Besser ! and 

Wolfgang ! 
W. Prussia. Dlugi See, Kreis Kartham, Caspary ! 

Glembohi See. 
E. Prussia. Berent. Neustadt. Schwetz. Nei- 

denburg and Allenstein. 
Sch. Holstein. Ascherson and Graebner, I.e., but not 

mentioned by Prahl., " Krit. Fl. Holst- 

Sch." 1890. 

The finest specimens I have seen are those in the 
herbarium of M. Casimir de Candolle, gathered by Besser. 

I may say that Mr. Baagoe's excellent paper is in 
English as well as Danish. 



POTAMOGETON MACVICARII, MIHI, P. PRO- 
LONG US x P. POLYGONIFOLIUS, A NEW 

HYBRID. 

By ARTHUR BENNETT. 

IN the year 1897 Mr. Symers M. Macvicar sent me a series 
of gatherings of Potanwgeton specimens from the West of 
Scotland (Moidart, etc., in Argyllshire). Among them were 
specimens from Ardnamurchan named 

" P. prczlongus (leaves hooded when fresh). 25.8.1897." 



POTAMOGETON MACVICARII: A NEW HYBRID 107 

On these special specimens I seem to have made no 
remark, at that time accepting the name without comment. 

In August 1906 Dr. Graebner of Berlin paid me a visit 
in connection with his work on the genus for Engler's 
" Natiirl. Pflanzenfamilien " ; and as a result I have gone care- 
fully over many hundred specimens both of British and 
foreign examples to assist him in his work. On this sheet 
of specimens coming under examination, I at once saw they 
differed from pr&longus in many ways. To examine at once 
my series from all over its area of distribution was a natural 
result, with the conclusion that there was nothing among 
them similar. Turning to Mr. Macvicar's letter accompany- 
ing the specimens, he writes, " I send you a long narrow- 
leaved P. prcelongus from Ardnamurchan. It is the longest- 
leaved form I have seen." In this same letter, speaking of 
the loch in which the specimens were gathered, he remarks, 
" The only other Potainogetons in the loch which could be 
seen were P. natans and P. polygonifolius, but of course 
there may be others." 

Consulting many Continental and British floras, I can 
find no reference to any other condition in the species than 
" semiamplexicaul leaves" (Fries 1 remarks "Folia semper 
semiamplexicantia, nulla petiolata, basi subovata ") ; except 
that Chamisso, in Linn. 2, p. 192 (1827), in the description 
says, " ex ovato sensim attenuata." 

In the original description of the species by Wulfen 2 he 
says, " Fol. . . ., omnino sessilia ex ovata semiamplexicauli 
basi," and, later on, adds, " sed sessilia." 

Mr. Macvicar has lately kindly sent me his collection of 
specimens of the genus for Moidart, etc., and among them 
are specimens of polygonifolius with submersed elongate 
leaves very like some of the young growths of the present 
plant. I may here say how necessary it is to study this 
genus in all its aspects, especially the young spring and 
autumnal growths ; Mr. Fryer, who has done this more than 
any other botanist, has shown how needful it is to the full 
understanding of the many and difficult problems the genus 

1 "Nov. Fl. Suec." 42 (1828). 

2 F. X. Wulfen. ' Plant, nov. descriptiones,' in Rcemers " Arch, ftir die 
Botanik." iii. 331 (1805). 



loS ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

involves. No herbarium specimens can answer the queries 
(unless specially collected) like the growing plants. Fortun- 
ately Mr. Macvicar's specimens of this plant show well the 
varying stages of growth, and it is these young growths that 
at once show the specimens cannot be prcelongus " pure and 
simple." 

It may be urged (and rightly) " but how do you know 
how these species differ among themselves ; may not these 
specimens be only an extreme form of the species?" In 
answer to this I may say I had prcelongns growing for eight 
years in my garden ; it was watched week by week (along 
with alpinus and Griffithii}, and I never saw anything 
approaching to these specimens. 

P. prcelongus in its usual form occurs in many lochs 
in Moidart, " Lochs Bealachna, Garisha," etc. ; and the 
specimens are in no way different to others from its area of 
distribution. 

fjab. Loch-na-Craig-dhui, Ardnamurchan, and Loch 
Dow, Moidart, Argyllshire. This first loch has a stream 
running through it from Loch Sligneach, and discharges its 
waters by the Allt Eas-an-Taileia into Kentra Bay. 

Differs from prcelongns (to which it is most nearly 
related) by the leaves being distinctly tapered into the 
footstalk, and in the young growths with a distinct petiole, 
the stipules much less persistent (even in the young growths), 
in the young leaves never hooded at the apex (and not 
always so in the mature growth), or even if slightly so, not 
splitting as they so often do in prcelongns, and in the structure 
of the venation of the leaves, which is between prcelongus and 
polygonifolins. In the young state the aspect of the leaves 
is very like the submerged elongated leaves of polygonifolins, 
except that the apex is rounded, instead of pointed (or 
subacute). 

None of the specimens have flowers or fruits. 

Taking a series of leaves and comparing them with 
those of prcelongns, they show as under : 

X P. Macvicarii. P. prcelongus. 

3 principal nerves. 3 principal nerves. 

8 lesser do. I I lesser do. 



GOOSEBERRY-MILDEWS 109 

GOOSEBERRY-MILDEWS 
By JAMES W. H. TRAIL, A.M., M.D., F.R.S. 

TllE leaves of Gooseberries have long been known to be 
liable to the attack of a mildew, which covers them with a 
thin pale grey web of slender interwoven tubular cells, which 
draw their nourishment from the leaf by means of suckers 
pushed into the cells of the surface on which they grow. 
On the web after a time appear small balls, changing from 
yellow to dark brown. Each of these bears around it a 
circle of from 10 to 15 appendages as long as the diameter 
of the ball, in the form of stiff brown tubular cells, which 
end in repeatedly bifurcated pale tips imbedded among the 
web. The balls inclose in each from 4 to 8 asci, each con- 
taining about 4 ascospores. This fungus, Microsphcera 
Grossularia, Lev., has been found throughout Europe, in 
Northern Asia and in North America, and in colonies else- 
where, to which it has been carried. It is often exceedingly 
prevalent, especially in autumn. It has* been recorded from 
many localities in Scotland, in all parts of the country. 
But though so common, and certainly weakening the plants 
to some extent, it does not appear to injure the fruit to any 
serious extent. But since 1834 another mildew has been 
observed in North America on the fruits of various species of 
Ribes, and is known by the name of SpJicerotheca Mors-uvce 
(Schw.) Berk. Originally found on R. Uva-crispa, it has since 
been found on several other species, including the gooseberry. 
It has extended its range widely in the United States and 
in Canada, and is dreaded as a dangerous scourge of the 
gooseberry. In 1900 it was observed, for the first time to 
the east of the Atlantic Ocean, in three gardens in the north- 
east of Ireland. Attention was called to its occurrence there, 
and to the danger of its becoming epidemic in Europe, by 
Mr. E. S. Salmon, F.L.S, in the "Journal of the Royal Horti- 
cultural Society," a full description and figures being given to 
allow of the recognition of the fungus and the destruction of 
infected bushes with the least possible delay. 

It was found in central Russia in 1901, on bushes sent 
from St. Petersburg and Riga two years previously. In 



no ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

Sweden also it was found in 1901, on bushes received in 
1900 from a nursery in Denmark. In Ireland it has, since 
1900, been observed throughout County Down, and in 
localities scattered through the whole eastern half of the 
island. So in Russia it has been found widely scattered, 
Finland showing it in several localities on imported bushes. 
It has also appeared in eastern Germany, in a number of 
places in Denmark, and in one in southern Norway, on 
bushes imported from Denmark. In almost all these 
localities there is evidence of importation of gooseberry 
bushes a year or two before the fungus appeared ; and in 
some cases it was ascertained that they had been brought 
from North America, where the disease prevails. In 
October 1906 Mr. Salmon detected the fungus in a garden 
in Worcester, England, on bushes recently imported from 
the Continent, and at once made the fact known, and urged 
the necessity of endeavouring to prevent the spread of the 
injury by compulsory and thorough destruction of the affected 
plants. Mr. George Massee, having visited the infected area, 
came to the conclusion from information obtained there that 
the fungus had been growing on gooseberry bushes in that 
locality for a number of years, and that its effects in England 
were likely to be less harmful than in the United States, 
and were in fact of no very serious import. In opposition 
to these views Mr. Salmon urges that the evidence is 
strongly in favour of the recent introduction of the fungus 
into Europe from America ; that the assertion of the 
existence of the fungus in Worcestershire a number of years 
ago is based on the confounding the effects of injuries done 
to young twigs by aphides with those due to the fungus ; and 
that the evidence of such experts as Professor J. Eriksson in 
Sweden goes to prove that the range of the fungus is ex- 
tending very rapidly on the Continent, and that it has been 
necessary to uproot and burn all affected plants. In Sweden 
the importation of gooseberry plants has been prohibited 
since 1905. As yet this fungus has not been observed any- 
where in Scotland, but it is most unlikely that we shall 
remain free of the pest ; and, in view of the experience else- 
where, it is much to be desired that it should be recognised 
at once, and measures taken to destroy it before it can get 



GOOSEBERRY-MILDEWS in 

a hold and become dispersed over the country. In the 
United States of America good results have been found to 
follow spraying the bushes with a solution of sulphide of 
potassium, in the proportion of ^ oz. in one gallon of water ; 
but this treatment has not been found equally beneficial in 
Europe ; and it is therefore not recommended as a trust- 
worthy safeguard. 

The fungus is most conspicuous when it attacks the 
berries, usually more severely on one side than on the other, 
causing the fruit to become distorted from the attacked spots 
ceasing to grow. At first the spots are pale, being covered 
with a web of fungus-tubes, which becomes powdery from 
the separation of the reproductive cells or conidia. Gradually 
the web thickens, becomes rusty brown, and may be peeled 
off the surface of the fruit. On the web there may be found 
small black balls (perithecia), each bearing near its base a 
number of long unbranched tubular cells or appendages, en- 
tangled among the tubes of the web. Each perithecium 
contains only one ascus, in which lie eight elliptical 
ascospores. 

The fungus also grows on the young twigs and leaves, 
usually making its first appearance on the terminal buds 
while these are opening, and in severe attacks destroying 
these parts, covering them with a growth similar to that on 
the fruits. 



ZOOLOGICAL NOTES. 

Martens in N.-W. Highlands and Skye. Mr. John Smith, 
forty years head-keeper of shootings in Sutherlandshire, reports to 
me, under date of i ith December 1906, that "he was informed that 
two Martens had recently been obtained, and that a litter of them 
was seen last summer, so it appears they are not ail dead yet. I am 
of opinion they must have come up from the shore." 

The above localities are in Sutherland and N.-W. Highlands. 
I have before pointed out the recurrence of abnormal seasons of 
plenty in several species of animals. The above appears to bear 
out my remarks. But now we must also take into consideration 
the great increase of protection given to many animals, by the 
extension of deer forests, now almost continuous along our western 
sea-board and across Scotland. 



ii2 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

Beside those above recorded in Assynt, I am likewise informed 
of at least four others obtained at Inverpolly by the keeper there. 
My informants are my cousin Chas. Blunt, who resides at Baden, 
Tarbert, and Mr. Jas. S. Henderson, Ullapool. One was obtained 
by Mr. Henderson himself on the 22nd January, and the others were 
obtained about the same time. J. A. HARVIE-BROWN, Dunipace. 

Common Seal in the Tay. A Seal (P. vifu/ina) was captured 
in the Tay, near Stanley, above Perth, 2ist January. The specimen 
was a male, very fat and in plump condition, and is probably the 
same individual which has been seen from time to time near Perth 
during the past four or five weeks. ALEX. M. RODGER, Perth. 

Bird Notes from the Solway District. THE LESSER REDPOLL 
(Linota rufescens\ A NEW TRAIT. For the last month or more I 
have been interested in noting a new habit on the part of the 
Lesser Redpoll. A small party of over a dozen of these Redpolls 
have been located in our nursery grounds since about November. 
In December several large beds were sown with seed of the 
Common Birch (Betula alba}. Following the usual practice in 
nurseries, this seed is very lightly, or scarcely at all, covered with 
soil, so that it practically lies on the surface. Recently some of the 
Redpolls found this out, and first one pair only, subsequently the 
whole party, have since been busy when the surface of the soil 
became dry, which, however, it has only seldom been. I am 
describing this new habit of eating sown seed on the part of the 
Lesser Redpoll merely as a student of birds and not as a nursery- 
man, otherwise I should have had to point out a very obvious 
remedy ! But for all the little damage this small party have been 
doing, I have not molested them. It is quite another thing when, 
later in the season, hosts of Greenfinches, Chaffinches, and Sparrows 
descend upon the sown pine seeds. GREAT GREY SHRIKE 
(Lanins excubitor). Mr. Norman Menzies of Newtonairds sent me a 
fine young male Shrike on 28th December last. It had been shot 
on the previous day by Mr. Menzies. The bird was of the typical 
double-spotted form. This species, formerly of regular annual 
winter occurrence here, has now become decidedly scarce, the last I 
heard of having been got seven years ago. GREATER SPOTTED 
WOODPECKER (Dendrocopus major). It is not yet too late to put on 
record a rather remarkable occurrence of this species in two 
localities in Solway, a notice of which I have purposely refrained 
from mentioning earlier. During the months of February, March, 
and April, some strange sounds were heard in the woods of 
Southwick and in Kirkcudbrightshire, and caused a considerable 
amount of talk and speculation, no one, except some interested 
parties who were early initiated into the mystery, being able to 
account for them. During the same period an exactly similar 



ZOOLOGICAL NOTES 113 

occurrence took place at Closeburn, in Dumfriesshire, some thirty 
miles distant. In both cases the sounds ceased in May, and 
although a pair of birds was undoubtedly present at each locality, 
no nest was discovered to my knowledge, nor indeed any signs of 
their having nested. So fhr, nothing has been seen of the birds up 
till date of writing. SMEW (Mergus albellus).^ finely plumaged 
young female was sent to me on 2nd January 1907. It had been 
shot at Kirkconnell by Mr. Robert Maxwell Witham. There was 
another bird of the same species in its company when first seen on 
the salt merse lands of Kirkconnell. My last record of a local 
Smew is one taken on the neighbouring estate of Shambellie during 
the arctic weather of February 1895. GREEN SANDPIPER (Totanus 
ochropus. This species I was very pleased to see again, the last 
occurrence here to my knowledge being 26 years old. Mr. 
Paterson Jun. of Broomlands shot a pretty female specimen on his 
shooting at Locharbriggs, Dumfriesshire, on the afternoon of 
29th December 1906. It seems strange that the Green Sandpiper 
should not turn up, because some half-century or more ago (vide 
Sir Wm. Jardine) it seems to have been quite a familiar species in 
Dumfriesshire. FORK-TAILED PETRELS (Procellaria leucorrhod). 
In November we had a severe NNW. gale, one of the kind that 
brings to Nithsdale and Annandale squall after squall, heavy with 
rain-clouds that hold salt spray which leaves on trees and hedges a 
coating of salt that is often quite visible, and may always be tasted 
if touched with a moist finger-tip. When a storm of this type 
happens in November we invariably hear of Petrels being brought 
along with it, and flung exhausted across the country. This 
particular gale was no exception, for a Fork-Tailed Petrel was picked 
up at Dunscore on the morning of i8th November. It was caged, 
but died shortly after, as well it might, for its captor offered it 
canary-seed as food. Another one was found alive in Lochar Moss, 
and within a couple of miles a third was picked up dead. Two 
days afterwards a fourth was got at Castlemilk near Lockerbie. 
ROBERT SERVICE, Maxweiltown. 

Bird Notes from Thornhill, Dumfriesshire. GREAT GREY 
SHRIKE (Lanius excubitor). -A female was shot at Newtonairds, 
Dumfriesshire, on 26th December 1906. Presumably blown in 
by north-easterly gales then raging. GREEN SANDPIPER (Totanus 
ochropus). Shot near Dumfries on same date, under similar 
conditions. SNIPE (Galli/iago ca>lestis}. With white secondaries, 
scapulars, and a sprinkling of white feathers on body. Shot four 
miles west of Thornhill, Dumfriesshire, on yth November 1906. 
WATER RAIL (Rallus aquaticus). Shot four miles west of Thornhill, 
Dumfriesshire, on yth November 1906. This is the first time, as 
far as I can ascertain, that this bird has been seen in this locality. 
HUGH S. GLADSTONE, Thornhill. 

62 E 



114 



ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 



Marked Starlings. Mr. R. Tomlinson of Musselburgh has 
asked me to notify in " The Annals," that he has attached tabs to 
the legs of a number of Starlings. The tabs in question are, " as 
far as he found it possible and practicable," attached to the left 
legs of the birds. 

Should any of these liberated birds come under the notice of 
our readers, or otherwise attract attention, we would be obliged 
if such occurrences were communicated to "The Annals." The 
birds liberated are numbered on a metal ring as follows, and were 
liberated on the dates given : 

Nos. 61, 63, 18, 30, 36, 38. 

67, 61, 2, 31, 22. 
,, 34, 42, 49, 45, 29, 13, 12, 17. 

47, 34, 5, 9- 

19, 71, 63, 66, 54, 7, 10, 52, 69. 

40, 46, 57. 

59, 55, 35- 

44, 54, 46, ii. 

,, 3, 6, 39, 68, 25, 37, 19, 23, 36. 
65, 33, 15, 65, 43, 40, 51. 

,, 6, 9, 52, 64, 48, 14, 27. 
,, 37, 27, 5, 62. 

24, 41, 58, 4, 52. 
31, 64, 38, plain ring, no number. 

53, 29, I, 30, 4- 
,, 67, 2, 21. 
,, 69, 10. 

59- 

16, 70, 50 60, 39, 43. 
23, 64, 55, 49, 72, 25, 28, 60, 70, 7- 

,, 33- 

,, 24, 44, 45, 56. 
16, 14, 20, 26, 42. 

J. A. HARVIE-BROWN, Dunipace. 

Bramblings in West Ross-shire. I shot a pair of Bramblings 
here to-day in the garden, a male and a female, and I think it is 
not a usual visitor here. The last time they were noticed was in 
January 1899 by my sister, but there were only one or two to be 
seen then. To-day I saw six pairs altogether, which have apparently 
been driven here by the storm. They are being added to the 
Braemore collection, as we have not a specimen there. ALAN A. 
FOWLER, Inverbroom, Ross-shire. 

Rustic Bunting in Aberdeenshire. On gth April 1905, I 
received from Learney, Torphins, a pair of Rustic Buntings (Emberiza 
rustica). The birds were all but spoiled, having been dead, I should 
think, a fortnight. They were dried up, but by careful handling and 
softening in spirits I managed to skin and stuff them, not quite what 



1906. 
December 


II. 


5, 


13- 


,, 


14. 


,, 


15- 


,, 


17- 


,, 


20. 


,, 


21. 


,, 


23- 


" 


27. 
28. 


1907 

January 


22. 


,, 


23- 


, , 


25- 


, , 


29. 


,, 


3- 


,, 
February 


31- 
I. 


,, 


4- 


" 


5- 
6. 


5) 


7- 
8. 


1 1 


10. 



ZOOLOGICAL NOTES 115 

I should like them to have been, but very fair birds under the 
circumstances. E. T. CLARKE, Cheltenham. 

[This bird was recorded for the first time for Scotland in " The 
Annals" for 1906 (p. 138). The above occurrence, however, 
takes precedence as regards date of capture- EDS.] 

Nesting 1 of the Snow Bunting 1 in Aberdeenshire. Last season 
I received from Rathen in the above county a clutch of four eggs of 
the above-named species. They were sent to me as Snow Birds, 
which is, I suppose, a local name for them. E. T. CLARKE, 
Cheltenham. 

Great Grey Shrike in Mull. On 2oth January, as I was 
returning from a short walk, I was struck with an unusual com- 
motion among chaffinches and a few other small birds in the 
shrubbery in front of my house. As there was no cat about I 
proceeded to make inquiry as to the cause of the hubbub, when 
out from a laurel flew a light grey bird about the size of a thrush, 
and perched on the branch of a tree. I had no difficulty in 
deciding that the bird was a Great Grey Shrike (Lanins excubitor). 
I got a momentary glance of what must have been the same bird 
two days previously as it flew out of a rough bramble-covered 
thicket. D. MACDONALD, Mull. 

Snowy Owl in Perthshire. Two Snowy Owls (Nyctca scandiaca) 
were killed about 40 years ago on the Duke of Atholl's estate, Blair 
Atholl, and were preserved by my grandfather. One is now in the 
possession of Mr. Monsey of Bleak House, Cheltenham E. T. 
CLARKE, Cheltenham. 

Pintail in Forth Area. Mr. W. Hannay, the gamekeeper 
upon Denovan ^hootings, brought to me an immature $ Pintail 
(Dafila aci/ta] in a very interesting plumage. It was shot by him 
whilst waiting at "flight" for ducks on Stumpig Moss (Stirlingshire) 
on 22nd December. It had alighted, and had been sitting there 
some time, as he shot it on the rise and not "flighting in." 

The apparent rapidity with which wild ducks, of various species, 
" take up house " in this country, after first records of nesting, is a 
point well worthy of notice. There are few exceptions, I think, 
which can be quoted, where actual habitation and continuous 
nesting, in this class of birds, have not followed rapidly upon all 
authenticated records of "first nesting." At least, I do not recall 
any exceptions to the rule. Attention drawn to any exceptions will 
be acceptable. 

The only other instance of the occurrence in winter of this duck 
in this district was also a male, shot by myself on the Water of 
Bonny, and I think it was recorded at the time in the " Zoologist," 
early in the seventies or in the sixties. 

The nesting of the Pintail in South of Shetland, on the 



Ii6 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

authority of Mr. Henderson of Spiggie, has already been recorded in 
"The Annals," and feathers of the young ( $ birds) in his possession 
have been sent to me. J. A. HARVIE-BROWN, Dunipace. 

Occurrence of the American Wigeon in Benbeeula, Outer 
Hebrides. The following note is sent in response to the Editor's 
request for information regarding the capture of the American 
Wigeon (Mareca americand). When we arrived at Greagorry, we 
found everything under snow and practically all the fresh-water lochs 
frozen up. On 3rd January we tried some of the salt-water lochs 
for Wigeon, etc. On one of these, Ob Suille, about a mile east of 
Greagorry, we found about thirty Wigeon. Of these we shot two 
as they passed out to sea. Our shots disturbed a solitary Brent, 
which flew up to the top of the loch. We then sent the men round 
to flush the Goose or anything else that might have remained, while 
we guarded the outlet. The men flushed the Wigeon in one of the 
small bays of the south side, and it flew towards me, lighting again 
after flying about 200 yards, and swam towards or past me, feeding 
from time to time. When abreast of me I stood up, it rose, and I 
shot it. Unfortunately it was not killed and my spaniel pulled most 
of the tail out in retrieving it. It was a male of the year, I fancy, 
but, if so, in very fine plumage. EDWARD M. CORBETT, Greagorry, 
Benbeeula. 

[This rare visitor has been obtained on one or two occasions in 
England, but this is the first authentic record of its capture in 
Scotland. The bird has been presented to the Natural History 
Museum, South Kensington. EDS.] 

Velvet Scoter at Barra, Outer Hebrides. An adult female 
Velvet Scoter ( (Edemia fusca) was found dead a few yards above 
high-water mark at Eoligary en the 25th of November last. It is 
the first I have known to occur in the Island of Barra ; but I have 
a male in my collection obtained in South Harris in the spring of 
T8Q6. WM. L. MACGILLIVRAY, Barra. 

Capercaillie in the South of Scotland. Mr. Gladstone notes 
the appearance of Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) in Dumfriesshire 
as marking the southernmost limit of their occurrence in Scotlar d. 
We in Wigtownshire are considerably farther south than Thornhill 
(as I write I am actually farther south than Durham). In 1873 or 
1874 two Capercaillie hens were shot in this county, one on the 
estate of Barnbarroch and one on that of Penninghame. The 
appearance of this strong-flying bird may be expected, I fancy, in 
any district where there is suitable woodland more frequently in the 
future as the stock increases in Central Scotland. HERBERT 
MAXWELL, Monreith. 

Capercaillie and Willow Grouse in Moray. In reference to 
the article in the January number of "The Annals" on the above 



ZOOLOGICAL NOTES 117 

subject, it may be interesting to know that, some ten years ago, 
the Duke of Richmond turned out two cocks and some hen 
Capercaillies (Tttrao urogallus) at Gordon Castle. In 1898-9, at 
least two cocks and three hens arrived here, a fe\v miles up the 
Spey, and this present season I have had upwards of 12 nests 
hatched out. This will easily account for these birds in the district 
from Keith to Forres, and no doubt they will continue to extend 
their range as long as they find woods suitable and quiet. 

I am now trying to acclimatise Norwegian Rype or Willow 
Grouse (Lagopus lagopus), which, if successful, may possibly cross 
with our red grouse, and in any case be an addition to the moor- 
edge bird life. 

I have had two unusual visitors here this winter. A Great 
Grey Shrike (Lanins excubitor) and a Little Auk (Mergulus alle) 
blown in with the heavy storm, about twelve miles from the coast. 
W. STEUART MENZIES, Craig Ellachie. 

Hen Capereaillie in full Male Plumage. A hen Capercaillie 
(Tetrao itrogaHus) was shot at Torphins, North Aberdeenshire, in 
January 1906, and was obtained from Messrs. Allan and Son, Sauchie- 
hall Street, Glasgow. I sent the bird to the " Field " office for inspec- 
tion, and a short article appeared in the columns of that paper by 
J. E. Harting. I believe Mr. Harvie-Brown has quoted two in partly 
assumed plumage, but the plumage in this case was complete, 
looking like a miniature cock. E. T. CLARKE, Cheltenham. 

Quail in Fife. Mr. Skinner, taxidermist, Kirkcaldy, tells me 
that two Quails (Coturnix coturnix) were taken in Fife last summer, 
one near Freuchie, and one near Inverkeilor. LEONORA JEFFREY 
RINTOUL, Largo. 

[One was shot at Whitburgh, East Lothian, on 6th October. 
EDS.] 

Rush of Golden Plover in Tiree. It will perhaps interest you 
to hear that from the igth to the 23rd of December, there were 
thousands of Golden Plover (Charadrhis pluvialis] passing south 
over the island. Such a big southerly migration of these birds at 
that date is unprecedented so far as I know. The southerly move- 
ments of this bird usually end towards the close of November, but 
in open seasons a great many stay all the winter with us. On the 
24th frost set in, and on the 26th, 2yth, and 28th we had a 
tremendous snowstorm with a heavy gale from the north which 
drove all the Golden Plover off the island. I am of opinion that 
the Golden Plover knew that the storm was coming, and hence the 
heavy migration southwards. PETER ANDERSON, Tiree. 

Grey Plover, Woodcock, and Great Crested Grebe in Shetland 
in Winter. It may interest you to know that a few Grey Plover 
(Squatarola helvetica) have been in this neighbourhood since October 



Ii8 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

last. I saw one of them on 23rd February. In my experience 
it is very unusual for Grey Plover to winter here. We have also 
had a considerable number of Woodcock (Scolopax rusticula) 
throughout the winter. A Great Crested Grebe (Podicipes cristatits}, 
the first I have ever seen here, was obtained on i ith January. 
THOMAS HENDERSON Jun., Spiggie. 

Supposed Occurrence of the Yellow-shanked Sandpiper near 
Hawiek. In the " Scotsman " for i4th October 1906, it is recorded 
that a pair of these birds was shot near Hawiek about the end of 
July. One of them was fortunately preserved, and was submitted 
to me some time ago for my opinion as to its identification. I found 
it to be a young Redshank in first plumage. As no further com- 
munication has been made to the press regarding it, I have deemed 
it desirable to publish this note on the subject. WM. EAGLE 
CLARKE, Edinburgh. 

Fulmar Petrels at Dunnet Head, Caithness. Mr. N. Kinnear 
having kindly drawn my attention to the Fulmar Petrels (Fulmarus 
glacialis) nesting at Dunnet Head, Caithness, I have thought it 
worth while to ascertain particulars, and place the complete facts 
on record, so far as I have been able to attain them. 

The following account of their advent and recurrence is supplied 
by Mr. Laidlaw, at my request, through my good friend Mr. Lewis 
Uunbar of Thurso. Mr. Laidlaw writes : " The first time I 
observed the Fulmars here was in May 1900. They may have 
been here before and I not see them. I could only see three 
birds there. They were below the Lighthouse. In February 1901 
I saw them again, and counted ten birds that time, and every 
year they have increased in number. They first came below the 
Lighthouse. I saw them in no other place until the year 1904, 
when I noticed some on the east side of the Head about half a 
mile. I saw two pairs that same year ; and last year (1906) there 
was one pair about three miles on the Thurso side of the Head. They 
have been gradually increasing in numbers year by year : as nearly 
as I can count, there were fifteen pairs below the Lighthouse nine 
pairs on the east side and six pairs on the west side. That is within 
the number, as it is impossible to get the correct number when 
some are flying about. I can't tell the exact date or the month 
that they come, or in what numbers. What more information you 
would like I would be glad to give you if I can." 

The above precise account from the resident lighthouse-keeper 
is of interest now, and may prove of greater interest in the chrono- 
logical history of the species, and its marvellous dispersal, at some 
future time. From personal observation of the whole cliff-faces of 
the promontory, I may, I think, venture to predict a great future 
for " Fulmardom " in the Pentland Area of Scotland, upon these 



ZOOLOGICAL NOTES "9 

Dunnet Head precipices. How much farther south the birds may 
yet occupy, I will not at present venture to say. Mr. Kearton and 
Mr. W. L. Dunbar saw a pair of these birds hovering about Holborn 
Head on ist June 1905, but whether they were nesting it was 
impossible to say. The ledges of the cliffs at Holborn Head dip 
towards the sea, and consequently afford less holding-ground for rock 
birds and their eggs than the cliffs of Dunnet. J. A. HARVIE- 
BROWN. 

The Wood- Wasp (Sirex gigas). The late summer of 1906 was 
remarkable in the extreme south-west of Scotland for an unusual 
number of that fine insect the so-called Wood-Wasp (Sirex gigas). 
Needless to say, it is not a wasp, nor in any way related to wasps,, 
its affinities being with the saw-flies and ichneumon flies. Foresters 
need apprehend no mischief to growing trees from the presence of 
these flies, as they deposit their eggs only in dying or felled trees ; 
but carpenters have reason to complain of the tunnels made in 
timber by the larvas, and considerable alarm is said to have been 
caused sometimes by the emergence of numbers of hornet-like 
creatures from the foreign timber in newly built houses. 

I saw a female Wood-wasp in August last, quite dead, having 
driven her ovipositor into a larch pole in a paling and failed to 
withdraw it. HERBERT MAXWELL. 

Lepidoptera of East Ross-shire : a Correction. By an un- 
fortunate slip, Miss Dorothy Jackson's notes on the Lepidoptera of 
East Ross-shire were attributed to the western section of the county 
in the January number of "The Annals " (p. 54). Only one species 
(Eudidia mi) was taken in West Ross-shire. 

Phoxiehilidium femoratum (Rathke) from the Firth of Forth. - 

Having submitted to Prof. Carpenter a pair of Pycnogonids, found 
under a stone between tide-marks at North Berwick, in January 
1896, he informs me that they belong to the species Phoxiehilidium 
femoratum (Rathke), which, so far as I know, has not previously 
been recorded from the Firth of Forth, though known from other 
parts of the east coast of Scotland. AVILLIAM EVANS, Edinburgh. 

Prsemaehilis hiberniea, Carpenter, in Scotland. A most interest- 
ing discovery has recently been made by my friend Prof. G. H. 
Carpenter of Dublin, namely that the Thysanuran which in Ireland 
has been regarded as Machilis polypoda (L.) is not that insect, but 
a new species which he has just described under the name of 
Prcemachilis hiberniea (see Irish Naturalist, 1907, pp. 54-5 6 )- O n 
hearing of this discovery I resubmitted to Prof. Carpenter some 
specimens (from Arthur's Seat, February 1896, and Bridge of Allan, 
February 1898) recorded by us as Machilis polypoda in our joint 
paper on the Collembola and Thysanura of the Edinburgh district, 



120 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

1899 ; and he finds they all undoubtedly belong to the new species, 
P. hibernica. The interesting question now arises, have we J/. 
polypoda in Scotland ? WILLIAM EVANS, Edinburgh. 

Some Pezomaehi and other Cryptinse from " Forth."- -During 
last year Mr. Claude Morley, F.E.S., kindly examined a number of my 
Ichneumonida, and reported among them the following Cryptince : 
Atractodes bicolor, Grav. 9 Gullane Links, 9/96. 
A. vestalis, Hal. 9 9 Luffness Links, 7/98 and 8/04 ; c? 9 Largo 

Links, 6/04 ; $ Currie, 6/06. 

Stilpnus deplanatus, Gr. 9 , Kilconquhar Loch, 8/04. 
Pezomachus acarorum, L. Huntlaw, near Pencaitland, 5/06. My 

Pezomaehi are all 9 9 and apterous. 
P. ant/iratinits, Forst. West end of Loch Leven, 7/06. 
P. attentus Forst. Forest Mill, Clackmannan, 7/01 ; coast, 

Dunbar, 3/05. 

P.fasciatus, Forst. Aberlady, 9/93 and 8/96 ; Thornton, Fife, 8/98. 
P. festinans, Gr. Thornton, 8/98; Glenfarg, 9/99. 
P. fraudulent-US, Forst. Wemyss Woods, Thornton, 8/04. 
P. impotens, Forst. One, not quite typical, Aberlady, 9/93. 
P. instabilis, Forst. Near Dunfermline, 10/97 ; Oakley, 8/98. 
P. intermedius, Forst. Harburn, 10/95; Balerno, 3/05; Gifford, 

4/5- 
P. kiesenwetteri, var. bellzcosus, Forst. Elie, 7/05. 

P. modestus, Forst. One under stone, Hillend, near Edinburgh, 

3/99- 
P. ochraceus, Forst. East bank of Avon, near Inveravon, 2/03 ; 

Abbey Craig, near Stirling, 4/06. 

Hemiteles areator, Panz. 9 near Dunfermline, 10/97. 
H. necator, Gr. 9 Near Drumshoreland, 8/06. 
H. varicornis, Gr. 9 Bavelaw, 3/05. 
Microcryptus abdominator, Gr. $ $ Cullalo, Fife, 7/04, and 

Dirleton, 6/06. 

M. bifrons, Gr. 9 9 Kirknewton, 5/01, and Boness, 6/0 1. 
M. nigrorinctus, Gr. $ Kirknewton, 7/00 ; 9 9 in grass tufts, 

Kirknewton and Hillend, 1/02. 

Phygadenon fumator, Gr. $ $ Gullane, 7/98, and Currie, 6/06. 
P. inflatus, Thorns. $ Charlestown, Fife, 7/04 ; $ near Carlops, 

8/04. 
P. vagalmndi/s, Gr. ? $ Kirknewton, 7/95, and Swanston, 8/00 ; 

Drumshoreland, 7/04. 
P. variabilis, Gr. $ $ Aberlady, 8/04; Humbie, E. L., 7/04: 

Currie, 6/06. 

Pycnocryptus peregrinator, L. ? St. Davids, Fife, 6/00. 
Cryptus albatorius. $> $ Currie and Dirleton, 6/06. 
C. obscitnts, Gr. $ Saltoun, E. L., 7/04. 
C. tarsoleuciis, Schr. 9 Kinghorn, 5/00. 



BOTANICAL NOTES AND NEWS 121 

Spilocryptus abbreviator, Fab. ( = Fez. hopei, Gr.). $ near Balerno, 

9/5- 
Goniocryptus titillator, Gr. $ $ Saltoun, E. L., 7/04. 

WILLIAM EVANS, Edinburgh. 



BOTANICAL NOTES AND NEWS. 

List of British Seed-plants and Ferns. This will be welcomed 
by British botanists, whose thanks will be given to the authors, 
Mr. James Britten and Dr. A. B. Rendle, and to the Trustees of the 
British Museum, under whose authority it has just been issued as 
one of the official publications from the Department of Botany, at 
the very low price of fourpence. In the preface it is explained that 
the list has been compiled in accordance with the International 
Rules of Botanical Nomenclature, adopted by a large majority at 
the Botanical Congress at Vienna in 1905. One of these rules 
embodied the usage of zoologists that the earliest specific name must 
stand, no matter under what genus the plant was first described in 
a recognisable manner. Adherence to this rule entails some altera- 
tions of name, though frequently these are returns to names familiar 
a good many years ago to British botanists. The authors have 
done a good deal more than merely compile the " List," having 
made use of the admirable library of the Department to refer to the 
original description of each species and thus ensure accuracy. 
Varieties have not been included, nor have critical forms of Rubus, 
Hieracium, Euplirasia, and Salix, the other genera and species 
being accepted as limited in the gth edition of Babington's 
" Manual," but the nomenclature is correlated for Bentham's 
"Handbook," ed. 6, 1892, and Hooker's "Student's Flora," ed. 3, 
1884. Of evident aliens only those thoroughly naturalised are 
named, in italics. At the end of the List follows an arrange- 
ment of the families according to recent views of their affinity. A 
commentary explaining all changes of nomenclature rendered 
necessary is given in the "Journal of Botany" for March (pp. 99- 
108). Although finality in nomenclature can hardly be regarded as 
attained, yet this may be accepted as representing a great step on 
the way to a more satisfactory solution of the difficulties. 

New Species of Lichen, Aspicilia Lilliei, B. de Lesd. Ecosse ; 
Caithness, Ousdale supra saxa granitica. Leg. Rev. D. Lillie, 1905. 
Crusta tartarea, circa .5 mm. crassa, rimoso-areolata, alba, intus 
flavida, K C KC . Apothecia minuta, atra, in areolis immersa, 
rotundo-deformia, vel lirelliformia. Epith. olivaceum, hypoth. in 
coloratura, paraphyses gelatinoso - concrete, asci anguste clavati. 
Sporre 4-6, ellipsoideas, 13-15^ lat., 5-6 crass. Gelat. hym. I. in- 
tense cserulescit. Cette espece a tout a fait 1'aspect de r Aspicilia 



122 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

calcarea dont elle differe par son thalle jauni interieurement, et par ses 
spores ("Bulletin de la Societe Botan. de France," vi. 1906, p. 515). 

Hieraeium nigreseens, Willd., var. eommutatum, Lindeb., etc., 
on Ben Heasgarnieh, Mid Perth. I gathered the hawkweed which 
the Rev. W. R. Linton thinks is probably the above variety, on the 
eastern slopes of Ben Heasgarnieh in August last, where 1 also 
found H. cerintkeforme, Backh. ; H. gracilentum, Backh. ; H. 
Soinmerfeltii, Lindeb. ; and H. sarcophyllum, var. expallidiforme, 
Uahlst., as well as Salix Arbiiscula and S. Myrsinites. I also 
gathered Carex canescens, *var. fallax, F. Kurs. ; C. alpina at nearly 
3000 feet, C. atrofusca in quantity and good condition, and C. 
telhilata, Good, var. grypus. G. C. DRUCE. 

Altitudinal Range of Utrieularia minor. On aoth August 
1905 I found this plant in a wet spot at about 2250 ft. above sea- 
level on the south side of the Tarmachans, near Killin, Perthshire. 
The moss Hypnum trifarium was growing beside it. WILLIAM 
EVANS. 

[This is, so far as I am aware, a very considerable extension of 
the altitudinal range of U. minor for Scotland, the highest previous 
record that I have met with being 1500 ft., in pools north-west of 
Loch Ericht, with U. intermedia, found by H. N. Dixon in 1883, 
see " Journ. Bot," 1894, p. 88. J. W. H. T.] 



CURRENT LITERATURE. 

The Titles and Purport of Papers and Notes relating to Scottish Natural 
History which have appeared during the Quarter January-March 1907. 

[The Editors desire assistance to enable them to make this Section as complete as 
possible. Contributions on the lines indicated will be most acceptable, and 
will bear the initials of the Contributor. The Editors will have access to the 
sources of information undermentioned.] 

ZOOLOGY. 

WINTER WHITENING IN A BROWN HARE. R. L. The Field, 
2nd February 1907, p. 183. This note refers to a specimen 
obtained at Carradale, Argyllshire, in which the head exhibits light 
areas, some almost pure white and others a mixture of white and 
brown hairs, forming a series of symmetrically arranged patches on 
both sides. The specimen is now in the Natural History Museum, 
South Kensington. 

THE OCCURRENCE OF Risso's DOLPHIN, GRAMPUS GRISEUS, Cuv., 
IN THE FORTH. By James Eggleton. Tratis. Nat. Hist. Soc. 
Glasgow, vol. vii. (N.S.), part iii. pp. 253-257 (February 1907). 
This paper refers principally to a specimen captured near the 
Inchbrake Light, off Kincardine, on i5th October 1904. A brief 
history of this mammal as a British species is also given. 



CURRENT LITERATURE 123 

THE HOODED AND CARRION CROWS IN SCOTLAND. D. A. M. 
The Field, gth February 1907, p. 215. A short paragraph giving 
particulars of distribution in various parts of the country. 

GREENLAND FALCON IN LEWIS. R. The Field, 23rd February 
1907, p. 307. Specimen seen at Scaliscro on 2ist January. 

GREENLAND FALCON IN ARGYLLSHIRE. Austin Mackenzie. 
The Field, 26th January 1907, p. 149. One seen, but the exact 
locality not specified. 

RIBBON FISH IN ORKNEY. H. W. Robinson. The Field, i6th 
March 1907, p. 445. Specimen washed ashore at Whitemill, 
Burness, Sanday. It measured 13 feet in length, 2 inches across, 
and about 8 inches in depth. 

ON THE OCCURRENCE OF CONODONTS IN THE ARENIG-LLANDEILO 
FORMATIONS OF THE SOUTHERN UPLANDS OF SCOTLAND. By John 
Smith. Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Glasgow, vol. vii. (N.S.), part iii. 
pp. 235-252, pis. v.-ix. (February 1907). Several new species are 
described and figured. 

GALASHIELS AND DISTRICT : A GUIDE TO THE EXISTING 
FAUNA. Proc. Berwickshire Nat. Club, vol. xix., No. ii. pp. i 79-203. 
This paper consists of ( i ) General Remarks, by William Shaw ; 
(2) List of Coleoptera captured by J. M. Whitehead and others ; 
and (3) List of Land and Freshwater Mollusca found by J. 
Roseburgh. At the beginning of the paper is also given a List of 
Butterflies and a List of Moths found in the district. 

MONOGRAPH OF THE LAND AND FRESHWATER MOLLUSCA OF 
THE BRITISH ISLES. By John W. Taylor. Parts 13 and 14, pub- 
lished 1 6th February 1907. As usual, full details of distribution 
in Scotland are given under each species. 

SCOTTISH LEPIDOPTERA IN 1906. By A. E. Gibbs, F.L.S. 
Entomologist, March 1907, pp. 55-58. A summary of the species 
collected by Mr. L. G. Esson in Perthshire, Aberdeenshire, and 
Elginshire. 

LEPIDOPTERA OF EAST SUTHERLAND. By M. A. Rollason. 
Entomologist, February 1907, pp. 40-41. A list of ninety-three 
species taken during 1906 within a ten-mile radius of Golspie. 
The larvte of five species are also mentioned. 

RETROSPECT OF A COLEOPTERIST FOR 1906. By Prof. T. 
Hudson Beare, B.Sc., F.R.S.E., F.E.S. Ent. Record, February 
1907, pp. 29-33. Several Scottish records, all previously published, 
are referred to. 

PSYCHODID/E IN DUMBARTONSHIRE IN 1906. By J. R. Malloch. 

Ent. Mo. Mag., February 1907, p. 43. Twenty species recorded, 
all identified by the Rev. A. E. Eaton. 



i2 4 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

THE GROUSE-FLY, ORNITHOMYIA LAGOPODIS, SP. N. By D. 
Sharp, M.A., F.R.S. Ent. Mo. Mag., March 1897, pp. 58-60.- 
This interesting new species is described from specimens captured 
in the northern half of Scotland. 

A NEW BRITISH FLEA. By the Hon. N. Charles Rothschild, 
M.A., F.L.S. Ent. Mo. Mag., January 1907, p. n. A single 
specimen of a flea new to science, and named Ceratophyllus borealis, 
taken by Mr. Norman H. Joy on the Island of St. Kilda in July 
last, and probably found in the nest of a gannet. 

DRAGON-FLY SEASONS OF 1905 AND 1906. By W. J. Lucas, 
B.A., F.E.S. Entomologist^ February 1907, pp. 30-33. Somato- 
chlora arctica and ^Eschna cserulea taken by Mr. K. J. Morton 
at Rannoch. 

ANURIDA MARITIMA, GUER., AND ITS ENEMIES. By Richard S. 
Bagnall. Ent. Record, March 1907, p. 71. Found in July 1906, 
on the shores of Ayrshire, Arran, the Cumbraes, and the Kyles of 
Bute. 

A CONTRIBUTION TO THE HYDRACHNID FAUNA OF SCOTLAND. 
By Win. Williamson. Trans. Edinburgh Field Nat. and Micro. Soc., 
vol. v., part iv., pp. 239-242 (1906). A list given of thirty species, 
collected chiefly in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh, Glasgow, and 
West Kilbride. 

NOTES ON NEW AND RARE COPEPODA FROM THE SCOTTISH 

SEAS. By Thomas Scott, LL.D. Styli Ann. Rept. Fishery Board 

for Scotland, 1905, part iii., pp. 275-280, pi. xiv. Three species 

are dealt with, one of which is new to science and called Amphiascus 

catharinae. 

THE ENCYSTMENT OF MACROBIOTUS. By James Murray. 
Zoologist, January 1907, pp. 4-11 and figs. 1-5. --This paper 
includes the description of a new species illustrated in the figures 
and called M. dispar. Specimens were found in a pond at Nerston, 
near Glasgow, in Loch Tay, in a pond near Shetland, and in the 
Shetland Isles. 

BOTANY. 

ON THE HISTOLOGY OF PLANT-GALLS : I. XESTOPHANES TOR- 
MENTILL^E. By R. A. Robertson (Proc. Scot. Microsc. Soc., 1906, 
iv. pp. 136-141). 

FLORA OF CAIRNIE PARISH. By Peter Stuart, M.A., being pp. 
191-198 in The Parish of Cairnie (Aberdeenshire), by James Pirie 
(Banff, 1906); an enumeration of species noted by Mr. Stuart as 
observed in the parish. 

NOTES ON THE " LIST OF BRITISH SEED-PLANTS AND FERNS." 
By James Britten, F.L.S., and A. B. Rendle, D.Sc., F.L.S. (Journ. 



CURRENT LITERATURE 125 

Bot., 1907, pp. 99-108), being an explanatory commentary on 
the more important alterations in nomenclature made in the List by 
these authors, just published by the Trustees of the British 
Museum. 

HIERACIUM NOTES. By Rev. Augustin Ley, M.A. (Journ. Bot., 
1907, pp. 108-112). Enumerates and describes Scandinavian 
forms recently detected in Britain. Among these is H. pinnatifidum, 
Lonnr., from 89 and 96. 

NOTES ON LIMONIUM. By C. E. Salmon, F.L.S. (Journ. Bot., 
1 907, pp. 24-25). Treats of L. binervosinn ( = L. occidentale Statice 
Dodartii, Bab.), and records var. hit mile from near Cramond (83, 
Midlothian) in 1842, as well as from Mull of Galloway. 

NEW AND RARE BRITISH HEPATIC^. By Symers M. Macvicar 
(Journ, Bot., 1907, pp. 63-66). Of references to Scottish plants 
are a disentangling of Lophozia badensis, (Gottsche) Schiffn., irom 
L. turbinata (Raddi), (with records for L. badensis from counties 
Ayr, Edinburgh, Fife, and East Ross), and a record of Prionolobus 
striatulus, (C. Jens.) Schiffner, from Lousie-wood La\v, in Lanark, 
new to Scotland. 

ASPICILIA LlLLIEf, N.SP., AND RHIZOCARPON LOTUM, STITZ., IN 

SCOTLAND. By M. PJouly de Lesdain (Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 1906, 
pp. 515-517). Found by Rev. D. Lillie in Caithness, in 1905. 



BOOK NOTICES. 

OOTHECA WOLLEYANA; AN ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF THE 
COLLECTION OF BIRDS' EGGS FORMED BY THE LATE JOHN WOLLEY, 
M.A., F.Z.S. Edited by Alfred Newton. Part IV. Alcse-Anseres : 
with Supplement and Appendix. London : R. H. Porter. Price 
253. net. 

We cordially congratulate Prof. Newton on the completion of 
his great tribute to the memory of the late John Woliey. The 
collection which it describes so well not only includes the historical 
one formed by Mr. Woliey, but also that amassed with great and 
unremitting care during the past sixty years or more by Prof. Newton 
himself. Some idea of the extent of these combined cabinets may 
be gathered from the fact that their history and description occupies 
no less than 1289 pages of letterpress and forms two handsome 
volumes. This magnificent collection, we are glad to learn, has 
been presented by Prof. Newton to the Cambridge University, in 
whose Museum of Zoology it finds a most appropriate resting-place. 
Like its predecessors, this final Part deals with a number of species 



126 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

around whose nesting haunts and eggs little or nothing was known 
when Wolley embarked upon his adventurous and arduous ex- 
peditions to northern Europe in search of reliable information 
regarding them. Fortunately, and thanks to his enthusiasm and 
indomitable industry, many triumphs were achieved, and these are 
related in the " Ootheca " in the delightfully simple words in which 
he recorded them in his field-books ere the flush of success had 
passed away. Those who have not made a study of the 
literature relating to the nidification of our British birds are un- 
aware how much John Wolley contributed towards the making ot 
the history of quite a remarkable number of our rarer and more 
interesting species. It is a book whose freshness will never fade, 
while its historical associations will secure for it a permanent place 
among the classics of ornithological literature. 

o o 

A series of appendices are devoted to reprints of Mr. Wolley's 
other contributions to Natural History. These are of an interesting 
and varied nature, and many of them relate to Scottish subjects. 

THE AQUATIC BIRDS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. By 
Charles J. Patten, M.A., M.D., Sc.D. With many illustrations. 
London : R. H. Porter, 1906. Price 305. net. 

Prof. Patten has good claims to be the author of such a work as 
the one under notice. He has devoted over twenty years to the 
study of his subject, and being a field observer of the best type has 
made himself familiar with most of the species either in their native 
swamps and marshes, or on our shores and mud-flats during the 
periods of passage or in winter. The first-hand information thus 
acquired has enabled him to add to our knowledge and to introduce 
into his book that strong personal element which never fails to be 
appreciated, and which renders such works of special value and, 
needless to say, adds immensely to their attractiveness. 

The species dealt with in this volume, which contains over 600 
pages, are the Cormorants, Gannet, Herons, Ducks, Geese, Pigeons, 
Game-birds, Rails, Crakes, Bustards, Plovers, Snipe, Gulls, Terns, 
Skuas, Guillemots, etc., and Petrels. It will be noted, however, that 
a few of the groups included are eminently terrestrial, but Prof. 
Patten pleads that it is inadvisable, from the systematic standpoint, 
to omit the species which happen to resort to dry situations : a plea 
which hardly applies to whole Orders such as the pigeons, for 
instance. An excellent feature of the book is the systematic arrange- 
ment of its subject matter, which renders it possible to at once find 
the precise information wanted concerning any species. Thus we 
have for each species and under definite headings, sections devoted to 
food, flight, voice, geographical distribution, descriptive characters 
(including all stages of plumage), and average dimensions. The book 
throughout bears evidence of having been prepared with the greatest 
care ; it affords much original and interesting information, and is an 



BOOK NOTICES 127 

excellent up-to-date manual on the British aquatic birds, native and 
migratory. It contains many excellent illustrations, of which 56 
are full-page and 68 are text figures, a goodly number of which are 
original, and all are acceptable and worthy of reproduction. 

A NATURAL HISTORY OF THE BRITISH BUTTERFLIES. Vol. i. 
By J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. London : Elliot Stock, 66 Paternoster Row, 
E.G. Price 2 is. net. 

With astonishing rapidity and unflagging industry Mr. Tutt has 
again issued one of his important volumes on British Lepidoptera. 
We were partly prepared for the appearance of the one now under 
consideration, since it consists of the first twenty parts of the work 
announced under the above title, which has been appearing 
regularly for some months. No one foresaw, however, not even the 
author himself (as he frankly confesses), that the account of the 
Rhopalocera would run to such a length. With 470 pages in the 
volume and only ten species dealt with, it strikes one that surely 
everything has been said about the creatures that need be. The 
only fear is whether some of the details given are not really de trop. 
For instance, does it serve any useful purpose to give a list, extend- 
ing over half-a-dozen closely printed pages, of the times of appearance 
of the Small Copper? However, the author may have his reasons 
for entering into such minute detail, and, at any rate, the possession 
of such a volume renders all other works superfluous, excepting, of 
course, such as are embellished with fine coloured plates. 

The introductory chapters are particularly interesting, and full 
of information such as might be difficult to find elsewhere. These 
preliminary chapters are fourteen in number, four of which deal with 
egg-laying, egg-structure, and the photographing and collecting of 
eggs, while the structure (external and internal) and habits of larvae 
furnish material for other seven which run to over sixty pages. The 
species treated of in Part II. (the bulk of the volume) are the eight 
" Skippers " and the two " Coppers," and it must be somewhat 
alarming to the young amateur to find so many of them under new 
and unfamiliar generic names. However, our indefatigable and 
always careful author has gone fully into questions of classification 
and nomenclature, and before his special knowledge in such matters 
we can only bow the head in silent acquiescence. 

The serious student of Lepidoptera in Scotland will find the 
present volume, like its predecessors, absolutely indispensable. The 
twenty excellent photographic plates help materially to render the 
book attractive as well as useful. Got up in the same style as 
the previous four volumes, the text is so closely printed that the 
pages have a somewhat forbidding aspect. When one commences 
to read, however, this feeling soon passes away, especially in the 
introductory chapters, and the reader commences instead to admire 
the energy and enterprise of the author. 



128 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

We understand that the second volume, on Butterflies, will be 
published in twenty parts at one shilling each net. This method of 
publication should enable any one at all interested in the subject to 
procure the work without feeling the expense. P. H. G. 

THE BRITISH TUNICATES ; AN UNFINISHED MONOGRAPH BY 
THE LATE JOSHUA ALDER AND THE LATE ALBANY HANCOCK, 
F.L.S. Edited by John Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S., Secretary of 
the Ray Society. Vol. ii. With lives of the Authors by Canon 
A. M. Norman and the late Dennis Embleton. London : Ray 
Society, 1907. 

Never in the whole course of its long career of usefulness has 
the Ray Society been doing better work for British Naturalists than 
during recent years. Through its benign agency a number of 
singularly valuable and much-needed monographs have been issued, 
which, in all probability, would not otherwise have seen the light 
on account of the expense involved in their production. The 
volume for 1907 is the second of the unfinished work on British 
Tunicates by two great masters on the subject, both, alas, no longer 
with us, but concerning whom biographies are furnished by con- 
tributors most competent to write them. The volume is illustrated 
by thirty plates, chiefly coloured, and has been edited by Mr. John 
Hopkinson, to whom we offer our congratulations on the excellence 
of this latest production of the Ray Society. 

ILLUSTRATED HANDBOOK TO THE PERTHSHIRE NATURAL 
HISTORY MUSEUM, AND A BRIEF GUIDE TO THE ANIMALS, 
PLANTS, AND ROCKS OF THE COUNTY. By Alex. M. Rodger, 
Curator. Second edition. Perth: The Society, 1906. Price 3d. 

This is an excellent little guide to the collections of the Perth 
Museum, which is one of the best arranged local institutions of 
its kind in Great Britain. It treats mainly of the fine series of 
specimens illustrating the Fauna, F'lora, and Geology of the extensive 
and varied surface of the County of Perth ; affording in a series of 
annotated lists much information in brief on the Perthshire mammals, 
birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, plants, trees, fungi, etc. ; and also 
an enumeration of the rocks and minerals. Another section is 
devoted to the Index and Type Collections, concerning which it 
gives reliable and appropriate information for the use of the visitor 
to the general collections to be seen in the Museum. It is a neat 
and well-illustrated Handbook, and reflects great credit on the 
Curator, Mr. Alexander M. Rodger ; and the Society is to be con- 
gratulated on its all-round excellence, and its usefulness not only 
in the Museum, but outside of it. 



- 






The Annals 

of 

Scottish Natural History 

NO. 6 3 ] 1907 [JULY 

IN MEMORIAM: ALFRED NEWTON. 

WITH PORTRAIT. 

THE death of such a distinguished naturalist as Professor 
Newton demands some notice in the pages of this magazine. 
With him ornithological science has lost its brightest orna- 
ment, and the zoological editors of " The Annals " a very 
old and greatly revered friend. 

Alfred Newton, the fifth son of William Newton, Esq., 
of Elveden Hall, Suffolk, was born on the iith of June 
1829, and died at Cambridge on the 7th of June 1907, and 
had thus nearly completed the seventy-eighth year of his age. 

Professor Newton was perhaps best known to British 
naturalists as the editor of volumes i. and ii. of " Yarrell's 
Birds " : masterly productions, through which the literature 
of the ornithology of our islands was raised to its highest 
level, both in its scholarly and scientific aspects. His greatest 
work, however, was " The Dictionary of Birds," a volume 
which is a perfect mine of ornithological wealth, culled 
from marvellously wide sources, and illumined by original 
contributions of the greatest value. Another important 
work, and the last completed, was the " Ootheca Wolleyana," 
recently noticed in these pages. The papers which stand to 
his credit are many and important, and it is impossible to 
enumerate them here. 

63 B 



130 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

In 1866 he was appointed Professor of Zoology and 
Comparative Anatomy in the University of Cambridge (a 
post which he held to his death), and he was a Fellow of 
Magdalene College. He was editor of the second series of 
" The Ibis " ; was chairman, for twenty years, of the British 
Association Committee on the Migration of Birds ; and 
had filled the important offices of Vice-President of the 
Royal and Zoological Societies. In recognition of his services 
to science he received one of the Royal Medals of the 
Royal Society, and the Gold Medal of the Linnean Society. 

No other British naturalist has ever done so much to 
foster the study of his favourite science, ornithology, as 
Alfred Newton. The position he held for so many years 
in his University afforded him great opportunities, and these, 
coupled with his singularly attractive and inspiring person- 
ality, made him the central figure and guiding spirit of 
a large and enthusiastic band of bird-men. The death of 
such a man is an irreparable loss to natural science, and 
creates a void in a host of friendships that will never be 
filled. 

OBITUARY. 

On 5th June died Alexander Somerville, B.Sc., one of 
the most keenly interested students of the natural history 
of Scotland, especially of its vascular plants, as the pages 
of this journal have frequently testified. His constant 
readiness to place his knowledge and help at the service 
of others, and his kindly nature, were such as to make his 
death a grief to his numerous friends. We hope to give a 
sketch of his services to Scottish botany in our next issue. 



REPORT ON SCOTTISH ORNITHOLOGY 

FOR 1906. 

By JOHN PATERSON. 

IN the annals of Scottish ornithology, the year 1906 is 
somewhat memorable for various reasons. Like its pre- 
decessor it owes some of its ornithological distinction to the 



REPORT ON SCOTTISH ORNITHOLOGY FOR 1906 131 

information which has resulted from Mr. Eagle Clarke's in- 
vestigation of the avi-fauna of Fair Isle, especially at the 
period of the autumn passage. No particular reference can 
be made here to the details of this inquiry, as they have 
already appeared in full in an earlier number of this year's 
" Annals " (pp. 66-80). But the report would be incom- 
plete without references to the important results obtained, 
and they are consequently briefly mentioned in their natural 
place under species. 

During the spring passage the comparatively favour- 
able conditions which obtained till mid-April were then 
interrupted by a period of cold and wet weather, which 
unhappily continued until the end of May. As a result 
of this unfavourable change at a critical period for the 
appearance of one of the most satisfactory to observe of all 
our visitors the Willow-Wren, we find its appearance in 
numbers later by a week or ten days than in the two pre- 
ceding years. 

The phenomena of the autumn passage would alone 
lend the year distinction however. The first great rush of 
the season was on the 2Oth and 2ist September, when 
thousands of Meadow Pipits appeared at Skerryvore with 
a S.E. wind, and among other species a Yellow-browed 
Warbler. This synchronised to a day with the appearance 
of the Red-breasted Flycatchers, Arctic Bluethroats, and 
Yellow-browed Warblers at the Fair Isle, but the movement 
does not seem to have been observed on our coasts generally. 
Between 5th and loth October a rush of a "very unusual 
and extensive kind " was noted at Lerwick, the call of the 
Redwing being distinguishable, and this species supplies 
the dominant note of the great October movement of 1906. 
It was by the loth October numerous at Spiggie, in numbers 
all over the island at the Pentland Skerries, while a flock is 
reported on the same date at Sule Skerry. This movement 
seems to have been confined to the extreme northern group 
of localities, but a different story falls to be told of that 
which took place ten clays later. On the ipth October 
" very large numbers " are reported from Kirkliston, on the 
2Oth "immense flocks" at Spiggie, and on the 2 1st at the 
Bell Rock, thousands are reported, many being killed ; a 



132 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

" rush " at the lantern at Sule Skerry ; a " great rush " at 
Skerryvore, the " numbers were far in excess of anything 
seen here for years": 98 birds of this and other species 
being picked up on the gallery of the lantern next morning 
(p. 23), while at Mull 100 are noted as arriving all on 
2 ist October, and like the previous movement with a S.E. 
wind. On the 22nd, at Pentland Skerries a " great rush" 
of Fieldfares, Redwings, etc. The influence of this ex- 
traordinary inrush was felt throughout the winter. To it 
is probably to be attributed the fact of the Redwing being 
" more abundant than usual " this winter at Kirkliston, of 
the " large flocks here this winter " recorded from Newburn, 
and of the fact that the writer has never in his experience 
in the Glasgow district seen so many Redwings as during 
the winter of 1906-7. To give a concrete illustration of 
this I may say that in an equal number of excursions for 
observation in the winters of 1905-6 and 1906-7, I find 
five entries of Redwings in the former to sixteen in the 
latter. From Carmichael, the Rev. J. D. W. Gibson writes 
" We had an unusual number of Redwings with us this 
autumn. Some seasons this species is very rare on migra- 
tion here. Both Fieldfares and they have been in large 
flocks." Later Mr. Gibson writes " This species [Redwing] 
was very abundant in November, and it is not usual to find 
any so late here." 

Another distinction of the last quarter of 1906 was the 
appearance in unusual numbers, and so far as " Clyde " is 
concerned at any rate, of unprecedented numbers of the 
Brambling. Fife correspondents write " There have been 
larger flocks about here during December than we have ever 
seen before." At Kirkliston they have been " unusually 
numerous this winter." In Mull, where they arrived on 
i Sth October, they " betook themselves to Aros beech woods," 
where 500 or so remained till 3Oth December when they 
left." Though much larger flocks have occurred in "Solway " 
in some other years, Mr. Service has never known them so 
" generally diffused." At Carmichael in Lanarkshire, they 
were in enormous flocks, and the Rev. Mr. Gibson writes 
" I should say there are more of this species than of 
any other with us at present." Curiously the lighthouse 



REPORT ON SCOTTISH ORNITHOLOGY FOR 1906 133 

returns throw no light on the great immigration of this 
species. 

The last distinction of the interesting quarter which 
closed 1906, was the great movement connected with the 
outbreak of boreal conditions on the afternoon of Christmas 
day, which has been dealt with for English and Irish 
localities in the pages of the "Zoologist" in January, February, 
March, and April of this year. Referring to his experience 
at Fairlie, Ayrshire, Mr. Robert Wilson writes of the 26th 
December thus : " At Brigaird Point, from daybreak until 
well on in the forenoon, a great movement took place Star- 
lings and Skylarks in thousands, great numbers of Chaffinches, 
Redwings, and Fieldfares, many Ring-Doves and a few 
Stock-Doves, and one Kestrel, all flying in little trips low 
over the ground, and coming out from the land along the 
ridge of the Spit and disappearing over the water due west. 
Many Common Snipe along the shore line, one Jack Snipe, 
Golden Plovers abundant. Hundreds of Wigeon and a 
good many Mallards flighting over the Black Rock after 
sundown, making but poor headway against the bitter blast." 
This narrative may be followed appropriately by this note 
under 3rd January 1907, in the Schedule from Douglashead 
Lighthouse, Isle of Man : -" Great number of Meadow-Pipits 
and Wrens found dead amongst the rocks where they had 
taken shelter from the snow-storm." 

Cordial thanks are given to the numerous correspondents 
through whose kind co-operation it has been possible to 
make this report. The compiler hopes that the good work 
will continue to receive their support and that this national 
undertaking may improve with the flux of time. 

TURDUS VISCIVORUS (Mistle-Thrush). In song, Glasgow, 28th 
January; Mull, 20th February; Edinburgh, 2ist; Kirkliston, 
26th. Nest in crevice of stone quarry close to ground at 
Kirkliston. Its breeding in the Outer Hebrides may now be 
considered established (p. 17). Passing south, in Mull on 
5th August, loth September (large numbers), and 26th (7). 
In song again, Edinburgh, 23rd December. 

T. MUSICUS (Song-Thrush). In song, in Mull, 5th January; Kirk- 
liston, 23rd. Reappears Caldwell (Renfrew), zgih January, 
and returns to Carmichael (Lanark), 6th February. Nest of 



134 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

Blackbird with four Song-Thrush's eggs at Beith. Nest very 
shallow and out of order. Singing on Eval, North Uist, at 
about 800 feet, and Mr. Kinnear was much struck with dark 
coloration of all seen in Barra and the Uists (p. 17). Last 
in song, Kirkliston, 6th July. Sings again, i6th September, 
and intermittently in many localities till 2oth December. All 
over the island at Pentland Skerries on loth October, when 
there was another movement, 2nd to icth November. 

T. ILIACUS (Redwing). Last seen mainland in spring, in several 
localities, 2nd to 4th April. In autumn, first at Pentland 
Skerries, i6th September (i); many passing Skerryvore, 27th; 
Mainland appearances, 4th October, Glasgow and Kirkliston ; 
6th, Beith (Ayr). For remarkable immigration on 2 ist 
October, and abundance during winter on mainland, see 
introduction. Dates of chief movements, loth and 2ist 
October, and loth November. 

T. PILARIS (Fieldfare). Last mainland observations in spring, ist 
to 6th May, exactly a month later than preceding species. 
First autumn appearances, 8th to loth October, Sule Skerry 
and Spiggie, Shetland. On the mainland, i3th October, 
Burntisland ; iSth, Mull; i9th, Caldwell. Greatest move- 
ment of immigration, 2ist to 22nd October (see introduction). 
Abundant all winter throughout parts of mainland whence 
observations come. 

T. MERULA (Blackbird). No important movement whatever 
recorded. Singing in Edinburgh district in the end of 
January and continued till Sth July. 

T. TORQUATUS (Ring-Ouzel). Mull, 4th April; Beattock, loth. 
Mull, 3oth June, begin to gather and all local birds away a 
month later. Nine on Ben Ledi on 22nd September (W. 
Evans). Between 7th October and 4th November a few at 
Sule Skerry, Pentland Skerries, and Bell Rock. 

SAXICOLA DESERTI (Desert Wheatear). One sent in the flesh from 
Pentland Skerries, secured 26th May. 

S. CENANTHE (Wheatear). 24th March. Lendalfoot (Ayr); 26th, 
Skerryvore; ist April, North Berwick; 2nd, Beith and Crail ; 
5th, Swordale, E. Ross ; 6th, Broughton, Beattock, and Mull. 
Spring passage reported at lighthouses till 26th May. 5th 
June, Eden, Fife, one () with white head. In autumn, 2oth 
August, Skerryvore, and daily a few till end of September. 
Latest mainland occurrences, 10 and nth October, Crail. 

PRATINCOLA RUBETRA (Whinchat). ist May, Drumeldrie (Fife), 
and Broughton (Peebles); 2nd, Mull; 5th, Bute; iSth, Car- 
michael (Lanark). In May at the Fair Isle on eight occasions, 
and the same number of times in September (p. 75). 



REPORT ON SCOTTISH ORNITHOLOGY FOR 1906 135 

P. RUBICOLA (Stonechat). Fair Isle, a few throughout April and 
one in September (pp. 75, 76). 

RUTICILLA PHCENICURUS (Redstart). April 20th, Coldstream ( $ ) ; 
28th North Berwick; ist May, Beattock ; 2nd, Lendalfoot 
(); 6th, Mull; 8th, Burntisland. May 25th, at Luss, Loch 
Lomond, two nests with six fresh eggs each. At North 
Ronaldshay, i6th September (3); Pentland Skerries, igth ; 
Skerry vore, 2ist (i); Pentland Skerries, 5th October; Ler- 
wick, gth (several). From middle to end of September quite 
common in Fair Isle and stragglers till late October. Almost 
as frequent and abundant there in May after the first week 

(P- 75)- 
CVANECULA SUECICA (Bluethroat). On Fair Isle on 2 oth September 

and following days, a dozen seen, others no doubt escaping 
notice (p. 75). Unst, 25th September (i) ; 26th (2), (p. 58). 

ERITHACUS RUBECULA (Redbreast). A straggler at the Fair Isle in 
September, it was occasionally seen in considerable numbers 
in October and November. Not much observed in the spring 
(pp. 74) 75)- Numerous at Spiggie (Shetland) on 23rd 
October ; a number at Pentland Skerries on 2nd November ; 
a few during the day with snow on 3 oth December at same 
place. 

SYLVIA CINEREA (Whitethroat). 6th May, first observed at Cadder, 
near Glasgow. Reported from five localities between nth 
and 1 6th. Laying at Kirkliston on 27th May, it was last in 
song there on 23rd July. Several at Saltoun, i3th September. 

S. CURRUCA (Lesser Whitethroat). Not uncommon on three days 
in May at Fair Isle, and one remained till iSth June. Seen 
there nine days in September, and the last on 4th October, the 
day Mr. Clarke left the island (p. 73). This is an interesting 
series of observations on a most elusive Scottish species. 

S. ATRICAPILLA (Blackcap). At Kirkliston on i5th May. On 24th 
August at Bell Rock (i) ; 5th October, Spiggie (Shetland) (i) ; 
1 2th Pentland Skerries (i) ; 23rd Spiggie, several. 

S. HORTENSIS (Garden-Warbler). At Eaglescarnie, Haddington, 
2nd May (H. N. Bonar). Kirkliston, i3th, and Rouken Glen, 
Glasgow, 1 6th. Last in song on nth July at Kirkliston. 
On 5th October one shot at Pentland Skerries and sent in the 
flesh, and on 8th October a number there. 

REGULUS CRISTATUS (Golden-crested Wren). In song in Mull on 
2oth February. Nest on a cypress about 3 inches from the 
trunk at Beith, the closest to the trunk Mr. Craig has seen it 
in his long experience. Pretty generally observed from the ist 
till the 2 ist of October from the Bell Rock to Spiggie 
(Shetland). 



136 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

PHYLLOSCOPUS SUPERCILIOSUS (Yellow-browed Warbler). In the 
second half of September and early days of October, six at 
the Fair Isle (p. 74), and on 2 ist September one at Skerryvore 

(p. sO- 

P. RUFUS (Chiffchaff). At Lendalfoot (Ayr), 4th April ; Beith 
(Ayr), 1 5th; Coldstream, iSth (H. N. Bonar). At Whittinge- 
hame, 5th June (H. N. Bonar). At the Bell Rock one killed 
28th August, and one on loth October at Fair Isle (p. 74). 

P. TROCHILUS (Willow- Wren). Lendalfoot, 5th April; Carmyle, 
near Glasgow, i3th, and Kirkliston same date. First recorded 
as abundant on 28th on the Cart near Glasgow, and at Edin- 
burgh on ist May full numbers. Singing softly at Pencaitland 
on nth September, it is last recorded for the mainland on the 
iSth at Gilston, Colinsburgh. 

P. SIBILATRIX (Wood- Wren). On 4th May appears at Burntisland ; 
7th, Roslin Glen, several (Evans) ; 8th, Kirkliston ; i2th, Mull, 
but Mr. M 'Donald writes that in a given area in Aros Woods 
there, but two pairs occurred where twenty could have been 
marked in former years. There was a small addition to the 
nesting birds there, however, early in June. 

ACROCEPHALUS STREPERUS (Reed- Warbler). - - The first Scottish 
example was shot on the Fair Isle on 24th September (p. 74). 

A. PHRAGMITIS (Sedge- Warbler). Several appeared at the Bell Rock 
on 1 2th May, two being killed. It is reported as occurring at 
Kirkliston on i3th, and was laying there on 2nd June. Last 
in song at Glen Dam (E. Renfrew) on 28th July, and Kirk- 
liston on ist August. Last seen on the mainland at the Lake 
of Menteith (Binnie) on i2th September, in which month there 
were two occurrences in the latter half at the Fair Isle, where it 
was not uncommon from the second week till the end of May 
(P- 74). 

CINCLUS AQUATICUS (Dipper). In Mull begins on ist March re- 
pairing nest which has been used for the past eight years. The 
nest is a formidable affair now. Two broods were reared, and 
the autumnal song began on 22nd August. At Alyth (Perth), 
on 23rd March, has young birds (Dr. Dewar). Returned to 
winter quarters at Caldwell (Renfrew) on 26th September. 

CERTHIA FAMILIARIS (Tree-Creeper). On ipth May, in Bute, a 
nest with six fresh eggs (R. Wilson). One of the Continental 
race found exhausted at the Fair Isle on 27th December 
(p. 72). 

MOTACILLA LUGUBRIS (Pied Wagtail). On 4th March returned to 
Caldwell, and on 22nd to West Calder. A dozen at North 
Ronaldshay on 24th, and on 26th, a pair by the river, inland 



REPORT ON SCOTTISH ORNITHOLOGY FOR I9 o(5 137 

at Swordale, East Ross. On the 26th April, Mr. Robert 
Wilson saw over forty roosting in reeds at the Little Loch 
(E. Renfrew). At Beith, a Blackbird's nest of the year with 
three Pied Wagtails' eggs was found, of course the Wagtail 
lined the nest to fit itself. No important movements reported 
in autumn, and none observed on Fair Isle on September 
1905 or 1906 (p. 72). 

M. ALBA (White Wagtail). Beginning at Beith on 8th April, this 
species is observed on the west coast in Mull, Barra, and the 
Flannans, up till 3rd June, at last-named locality. The other 
spring records are April and May, at the Fair Isle (p. 72) ; a 
few pairs at Dornoch Firth on 2 2nd May, and two seen at 
Sule Skerry on gth. In autumn a dozen are reported from 
Sule Skerry on 3oth August. It was one of the commonest 
birds of passage on the Fair Isle in September as in 1905 
(p. 72), and was numerous at Spiggie (Shetland) on i4th. 

M. MELANOPE (Grey Wagtail). Returned to Caldwell on 5th 
March; Kirkliston, i3th; and Mull, 3ist, where a few 
remained till 3ist December. Young away at the Rouken 
Glen, Glasgow, on i6th May. 



M. RAII (Yellow Wagtail). Appeared first in Clyde at Beith, 

April. A male was captured at the Fair Isle on Sth May- 
an exceptional occurrence (p. 72). 

A.NTHUS TRIVIALIS (Tree-Pipit). At Kirkliston, 24th April ; Mull, 
26th; Caldwell, 3oth ; Cadder, near Glasgow, 6th May, many. 
Last in song at Kirkliston, i6th July. 

A. PRATENSIS (Meadow-Pipit). Returned to Carmichael (Lanark), 
1 9th March; Mull, 2ist, on the moors but not numerous yet ; 
Mearns Moor (E. Renfrew), returned, 25th. On 2nd June, 
Mr J. Craig writes from Beith, that he found a Meadow-Pipit's 
nest with two eggs and a Cuckoo's egg, but they were cold. 
He visited the nest a week later, but it was forsaken as the 
eggs were still cold probably the full clutch had been laid 
before the Cuckoo deposited her egg, and she reduced the 
number to two which caused the Pipit to forsake. This, 
Mr. Craig, who has very great experience, never knew a Pipit 
to do before, and thinks it must have been a young bird. On 
2oth and 2ist September at Skerryvore there was a great rush 
of Meadow-Pipits with a S.E. wind thousands being observed 
(see introduction). 

LANIUS EXCUBITOR (Great Grey Shrike). One seen at Unst on 
24th October, and on 2/th December at Newtonairds 
(Dumfries), a young male of the double-spotted form (p. 112). 



138 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

L. COLLURIO (Red-backed Shrike). Several late in May and early 
in June at Fair Isle (p. 73). 

MUSCICAPA ATRICAPILLA (Pied Flycatcher). One at Scoughall, 
east of North Berwick, on 8th May (W. Evans). Another 
at Skerryvore on 2ist September, in which month at Fair 
Isle small parties were passing at intervals (p. 76). 

M. GRISOLA (Spotted Flycatcher). Two are reported from Unst 
on loth April, by T. Edmonston Saxby (p. 50), an extra- 
ordinary date for a species that is pretty free from any vagaries 
in the way of early occurrences. The next date is just at the 
time it is expected, loth May, Dunbar, thereafter follow, i4th, 
Kirkliston, i8th, Carmichael. Several appeared at Fair Isle 
from late May till beyond mid-June, but only one in autumn, 
on 1 5th September (p. 76). It was laying at Kirkliston on 
6th June. From 28th July till end of August it was abundant 
at Colinsburgh, and is last recorded for the mainland in East 
Ross on 1 3th September. 

M. PARVA (Red-breasted Flycatcher). Three or four observed on 
2oth and 2ist September at Fair Isle, and another thereon 
4th October (pp. 76, 77). 

HIRUNDO RUSTICA (Swallow). Beith, 6th April; Carmyle (Glasgow), 
i3th; Lendalfoot, iSth; Carmichael, 20th; Kirkliston, 2ist; 
Blackford Hill, two on 6th May, "seems late in arriving in 
the district this spring (W. Evans); Edinburgh, 7th May, 
"now in full numbers" (Binnie) ; Mull, 26th May, "remark- 
able absence of species." In autumn reported from nine 
mainland localities in October, and on 22nd November, near 
Cockenzie, one was observed (W. Evans). 

H. RUFULA (Red-rumped Swallow). One at Fair Isle on 2nd June 
("Annals," 1906, p. 205). 

CHELIDON URBICA (House Martin). On i6th April one at Colins- 
burgh flying north ; appears Kirkliston 24th ; 6th' May, Mull ; 
same date Canty Bay Hotel near North Berwick, where 
numbers breed annually, first two pairs appeared (W. Evans) ; 
May 8th, Largo, several. In Mull nesting abnormally late, 
young of first and only brood leave nest on 8th August. At 
Aberlady on 2gth September, young still in nest. Last 
observation Crail, i6th October (2). 

COTILE RIPARIA (Sand-Martin). On 3rd April at Burntisland ; i2th 
at Beith, and same day at Dunbar, one (Evans); i3th, 
Elie, four (Evans): i3th, Cambuslang ; iSth, Coldstream, 
several. Last seen Largo Bay, iSth September, with other 
species. 



REPORT ON SCOTTISH ORNITHOLOGY FOR 1906 139 

LIGURINUS CHLORIS (Greenfinch). Earliest nesting reported Colins- 
burgh, 27th April, three eggs. Last nesting 26th August, 
Kirkliston. Last in song igth August, Edinburgh. Must 
have been breeding for some time at Stornoway where Kinnear 
observed a few in the Castle grounds (p. 19). From loth 
November till 8th December at Mull, almost solely confined 
their attention to seeds of the Burdock (Arctium Lappd], and 
was the only species so doing. Previous to this with Twites 
at seeds of Knapweed (Centaurea nigra), A few remained in 
Mull till 3151 December. At Stobcross Quay in Glasgow 
Harbour on 28th December, a flock of 40/50 suddenly 
appeared on the deck of the Anchor Line Co.'s S.S. Persia. 
This was during the hard spell which began on Christmas day 
(see introduction). 

COCCOTHRAUSTES vuLGARis (Hawfinch). One caught at Skerry vore 
on i ith November. 

CARDUELIS ELEGANS (Goldfinch). One at Cow Parsnip (Her- 
acleuin Sphondylium) in Mains Woods, Giffnock, East Renfrew, 
on nth November (R. Wilson). Information about this bird 
as a Scottish species is desirable. The paucity of observations 
that comes is remarkable, now that we have so many interested 
observers. 

C. SPINUS (Siskin). Small flock resident during January at Car- 
michael (Lanark). Crail, iyth February, one. Swordale (E. 
Ross), 3rd March, several. 

PASSER MONTANUS (Tree-Sparrow). Nesting colony discovered in 
South Bute by John Robertson ("Annals," 1906, p. 237). On 
1 4th July there, six or seven pairs seen by Robert Wilson, who 
found four nests with young and two with fresh eggs. At Kirk- 
liston, 1 8th May, a full clutch partly incubated three pairs 
nesting (I.e. p. 185). Half-a-dozen observed near Balmartin in 
North Uist. A colony of six pairs nests in the Castle grounds, 
Stornoway (p. 19). Nesting in the Columban ruins, lona, 
with the House-Sparrow on 2oth June. This, however, is an 
old station. 

FRINGILLA CCELEBS (Chaffinch). On half-a-dozen dates between 
23rd January and i2th February parties at the Flannans of 
from seven to thirty birds. At Kirkliston on iSth February 
in song, which it attempts at Garscadden, Glasgow, on same 
date unsuccessfully. Last in song gth July, Kirkliston. 
Between 3rd and i6th October it is reported five times from 
the Bell Rock and Pentland Skerries. This was the month 
in which it was most abundant at Fair Isle (p. 69). There is 
no other reference to it from August till December in the 
schedules, etc., received. 



I 4 o ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

F. MONTIFRINGILLA (Brambling). Curiously the only light thrown 
on the appearance of this species in autumn are the records of 
"hundreds " at Sound, Shetland, yth October, and of varying 
numbers, but only once of a large flock at the Pentland Skerries 
between that date and the 1 6th of same month. Nor can these* 
trivial movements be connected with the great immigration to 
" Forth " and " Clyde " which took place apparently unobserved. 
Supplementing the observations already made in the introduc- 
tion (q.v.\ it may be said that from the Clyde above Lanark, 
through the Glasgow district, and on to the Gareloch and Bute 
and South Ayrshire they have been traced. Where in former 
years they were unknown they have become familiar, and where 
they were recognised as regular visitors, as at Carmichael, they 
have been in unprecedented numbers. So abundant was the 
beech-mast at Carmichael that they refused grain laid on the 
ground where they fed. The last of them had not left the 
Glasgow district on the 2ist of April, and the Gareloch on 
24th April 1907. On nth December at Largs, one, pure 
white on crown of head, primaries, and scapulars. Whitish on 
back and rump. Breast pale plum colour, shading off to white. 
A little brown on the sides of the head, nape, and secondaries. 
On 5th January 1907 a cream-coloured one at Carmichael. 

[It occurred in great numbers at Fair Isle from September 
1 9 to end of October. W. E. C.] 

L. LINARIA (Mealy Redpoll). A small party appeared on Fair Isle 
in May (p. 70). 

L. RUFESCENS (Lesser Redpoll). Bute, ig\h May, a nest with four 
slightly incubated eggs, which is early (Wilson). 

L. FLAVIROSTRIS (Twite). In Bute on igth May, a nest with six 
eggs on the point of hatching (Wilson). 

PYRRHULA MAJOR (Northern Bullfinch). One presumed to be this 
species on 7th, and another on iith October at Lerwick (pp. 
49, 50). Many ( $ and $ ) seen Unst, 4th November (p. 50). 
A few of both sexes in November for a few days on Fair Isle 

(P- 7)- 

CARPODACUS ERYTHRINUS (Scarlet Grosbeak). One shot on Fair 
Isle on 3rd October, an addition to the Scottish Fauna (p. 70). 

EMBERIZA MILIARIA (Corn Bunting). At Whalsay, 8th February, a 
mixed flock. In N.W. Mull a passing migrant (i) on 2nd 
May. Last in song, i2th August, Edinburgh. At Fife Ness 
crowds sheltering on the lee side of turnip leaves on i5th 
October. At Lendalfoot (So. Ayr) about a hundred for a 
week " a very unusual sight here " (Chas. Berry). 

E. CITRINELLA (Yellow Bunting). At Kirkliston. Sings on iSth 
February. Last nest there 24th August and last in song 28th. 



REPORT ON SCOTTISH ORNITHOLOGY FOR 1906 141 

Only once observed in spring at Fair Isle, but occasionally 
numerous in autumn and a few remained for the winter (p. 71). 

E. HORTULANA (Ortolan Bunting). Quite a number during the last 
days of May, and one on iSth September at Fair Isle (p. 71). 

E. PUSILLA (Little Bunting). An adult female shot at Fair Isle on 
3rd October (p. 71). 

E. SCHCENICLUS (Reed-Bunting). At Kirkliston, nest in middle of 
hedgerow and another in barley field each some distance from 
water. Glen Dam, E. Renfrew, last in song 28th July. 
During last days of May and early June several at Fair Isle where 
it occurred from late September till 2oth November (pp. 70, 71). 

PLECTROPHENAX NIVALIS (Snow-Bunting). In first half of year 
widely reported, except in south-west where only one bird 
(Cardross, i3th February) seen. First autumn appearance at 
Spiggie, Shetland, a flock on 8th October. A clutch from 
Rathen, Aberdeenshire, taken this season ("Annals," p. 115). 

CALCARIUS LAPPONICUS (Lapland Banting). A few on Fair Isle in 
May, returned on 8th September, and seen almost daily after 
that date (p. 7 i ). 

STURNUS VULGARIS (Starling). Lighthouse observation on this 
species quite trifling this year. At Glenorchard, Glasgow, 
most of the Starlings which roosted during the winter left in 
the first week of February. On i ith November at Drumpellier 
(Lanark) "the trees and lift were black with starlings. The 
trees with their visitors looked as if the foliage had suddenly 
appeared again. Not an inch seemed without its bird, while 
vast flocks circled around. Sudden movements would take 
place and a black mass would burst from a tree, thin out like 
dust and disappear from that tree's neighbourhood. It brought 
to mind what I had once seen at the blowing up of a land- 
mine " (Alex. Ross). 

PASTOR ROSEUS (Rose-coloured Starling). At Foula, Shetland, on 
28th October, 5/6, one a fine ad. c? (P- 51)- 

PICA RUSTICA (Magpie). In East Renfrew on 4th November a 
flock of ten and another of eleven (Rennie). 

CORVUS MONEDULA ( Jackdaw). At Crosswood Reservoir, West 
Calder, four arrived ist March, on 2gth it was building at 
Kirkliston, and on 2nd April at Edinburgh, but it was just 
beginning to lay on ist May at Cleghorn Woods, Lanark. 

C. CORONE (Carrion-Crow). Building at Kirkliston on glh April. 

On 8th May in Fife, one killed a young Mistle-Thrush and 

carried it off to its nest. 
C. CORNIX (Hooded Crow). At the Flannans in twos or threes 

between 22nd January and 5th April. At Pentland Skerries 



142 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

on 2ist October a flock of thirty or forty. On 3rd November 
at the Bell Rock, several flying westward. 

C. FRUGILEGUS (Rook). On 2ist January enormous gathering at 
Balgray, E. Renfrew. Clearing out old nest at Edinburgh 
on 4th February, building at Kirkliston, 22nd, and young 
out of nest there, 2nd May. A Lugton keeper estimates his 
loss in nests of Pheasant's eggs this season, owing to Rook's 
depredations, at fifty. 

ALAUDA ARVENSIS (Skylark). Singing at North Ronaldshay, where 
they had their first flock (20) for a long time on iSth February. 
On this date, also singing at Garscadden, Glasgow. In 
Edinburgh singing three days earlier. Reappears at Caldwell 
(E. Renfrew) on 4th March. On 2yth May, at Edinburgh, 
young fully fledged and last in song there, 6th July. In the 
autumn, first movement recorded igth and 2oth September. 
Mull, passing south, flying high. Big accession to numbers 
at Kirkliston this month. In various localities, in song between 
3oth September and 4th November. 

A. ARBOREA (Wood- Lark). -A few early in November at the Fair 
Isle, which remained till mid-December (p. 71). 

OTOCORYS ALPESTRIS (Shore-Lark). A small number at Fair Isle 
from the end of October till mid-December (p. 72). 

CYPSELUS APUS (Swift). Kirkliston, 4th May ; Camphill, Glasgow 
(2); Giffnock (i); Blackford Hill, a dozen (Evans); North 
Berwick, all on 6th May. Largo, two flying north, and Forfar, 
several seen on 7th. On 2oth a dozen passing north at Mull. 
Passing south again in Mull, 26th July till ist August. Last 
record Kirkliston, 25th August. 

CAPRIMULGUS EUROP^EUS (Nightjar). On 26th May at Pentland 
Skerries remains found of a bird seen flying about middle of 
April. On October 2nd one seen at Pentland Skerries, 
and on 2oth one found dead in the harbour at Lerwick. 

IYNX TORQUILLA (Wryneck). One at the Fair Isle on 3rd September 
(p. 78). 

DENDROCOPUS MAJOR (Great Spotted Woodpecker). From February 
till May at South wick (Kirkcudbright) and at Closeburn 
(Dumfries), a pair at each but no nest found (pp. 112-113). 

ALCEDO ISPIDA (Kingfisher). On the Clyde near Glasgow, nest 
ready for eggs i3th April. 

CORACIAS GARRULUS (Roller). At Balnacoil on the Brora, Suther- 
land, one on 28th May ("Annals," 1906, p. 185). 

UPUPA EPOPS (Hoopoe). One picked up dead at Loch of Harray, 
near Stromness, on i6th November (The field, 24th November 
1906, p. 908). 



REPORT ON SCOTTISH ORNITHOLOGY FOR 1906 143 

CUCULUS CANORUS (Cuckoo). 2Qth April, North Berwick; 3oth, 
Caldwell and Broughton ; 4th May, Beattock, Carmichael, and 
West Calder; 5th, Torduff, Pentland Hills (Evans), Bute and 
Inverbroom ; 6th, Teasses and Lahill in Fife, Swordale (E. 
Ross), and Mull ; July 3rd, calling half-an-hour at Caldwell. 
Said to be scarcer this year in North Uist and Lewis (p. Si). 
At Pentland Skerries, yth November, one. 

STRIX FLAMMEA (White or Barn Owl). ayth July, returns to nest- 
ing-place (Edinburgh). 

A. ACCIPITRINUS (Short-eared Owl). Kinnear only saw one or two 
in the Outer Hebrides, and these were in South Uist (p. 81). 
i gth September, Dunnet (i); 8th October, Spiggie (Shetland), 
(i); 22nd October, Bell Rock, one caught in Tower window, 
Pentland Skerries same date (i); 23rd, Spiggie (i). In small 
numbers end October till second week November at Fair Isle 
. (p. 78). 

NYCTEA SCANDIACA (Snowy Owl). 3oth January, Unst, one shot 
(p. 50); 6th and yth May, Flannans (i). 

CIRCUS CYANEUS (Hen Harrier). Twice seen in Barra and seen in 
North Uist where a few pairs said to nest (p. Si). 

BUTEO LAGOPUS (Rough-legged Buzzard). loth November or about 
that date, one killed in Gorebridge district (Evans). i6th 
November, one (?) in Caithness. 

PERNIS APIVORUS (Honey-Buzzard). One shot at Largo on 2ist 
May ("Annals," 1906, p. 186). 

FALCO CANDICANS (Greenland Falcon). 26th May, Barra, one shot 
("Annals," 1906, p. 237). 

F. ISLANDUS (Iceland Falcon). Eye Peninsula, Lewis, 2Sth February, 
one obtained ("Annals," 1906, p. 185). 

(To be continued.'] 



THE SPRING RETURN OF THE WOODCOCKS 
IN FORTH AND CLYDE. 

By J. A. HARVIE-BROWN. 

THE return of the Woodcocks and the passing of the spring- 
migration of these birds has always been a prominent 
feature in the central districts of Scotland, which lie between 
the Firths of Forth and Clyde ; nearly always remarkable 



144 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

for its punctual occurrence during the first ten to fourteen 
days of March. They are not shot now as formerly ; and, 
indeed, I am one of those who are of the opinion that the 
well-known and vast increase, which has taken place in their 
numbers as a nesting species all over Scotland of late years, 
has been greatly due to this change in action by our best 
sportsmen. 

It always seems desirable to carefully record such 
appearances of this interesting game-bird, and let me give 
such particulars as I can of the return of the Woodcocks in 
the spring of the present year, 1907, as instanced by 
information I have received from the extensive Woodcock 
covers of Touch, near Stirling, and elsewhere. 

Mr. Simpson, head-keeper, at Touch, informs me that 
" The Woodcocks were seen on the loth March (1907) to the 
number of perhaps 200 to 300." On the loth snow lay on 
the ground to a uniform depth of some 2\ inches. The keepers 
at Touch were tracking foxes at the time the flight of Wood- 
cocks was met with. Mr. Simpson continues, " It is about 
eight or nine years ago that I saw anything like the above, 
and it was, if I remember aright, in the first week in March ; 
and they only stayed one clay, and the weather was open 
and fine at that time. 1 Also, 1900 was a good season i.e., 
shooting season. I saw in October, in the high wood of 
Touch, in about twenty acres, over 100. 

"When we were shooting this year (1906), on the 4th 
December we killed thirty-one Woodcock. They just come 
in for a day or two, though we also have a good few all the 
year round ; and I have seen young on the 2Oth April well 
fledged. I got three this year in one day with only one leg 
each. They might have been shot off, or the birds snared, 
and the wire have cut them through, or someone might have 
put rings on too tight when young." 

In intimate connection with the above information, I 
may add the following: On the 5th December 1907, 
when shooting our covers here at Dunipace, which covers 
face the south (Touch covers face the north and east), our 
party saw, at least, twenty birds ; and of those driven out of 

1 1895 was a year disastrous in the annals of the Woodcock population in the 
north and west of Scotland. 



SPRING RETURN OF WOODCOCKS IN P'ORTH AND CLYDE 145 

cover seven were shot by the ' guns ' outside. As sportsmen 
know, two 'guns,' walking quietly with a spaniel, would probably 
have accounted for a good many more. Our cover seldom 
holds so many Woodcock per acre as equally adapted covers 
which face the north and east. Torwood covers, where I 
have seen thirty-five and thirty-eight shot in a day, face 
north and east, and so, as seen above, do the covers of 
Touch, which are the Woodcocks' favourite holds. Again on 
the following Saturday (i 5th December) thirty-eight l were 
shot on Mugdock ground, in the south-west of the county, 
and on Torwood, above mentioned, thirty-two ; and I have 
other returns to show the inrush, and probably continued 
residence for ten days or more, of the autumn flights of 
Woodcock in Central Scotland in 1906. 

In the history of the bird in this district I can go 
back to 1865, when I found my first Woodcock's nest, duly 
recorded at the time in the pages of the " Zoologist." 

The date of these eggs was 25th April, but they were 
very hard set. I have already related elsewhere the late 
hatching off of Woodcock in our covers here in 1902 ; and, 
on that occasion, I accounted for the lateness, and for the 
abnormal numbers nesting on our ground of both Woodcocks 
and Snipe, by the sudden and great cold snap of 2nd and 
3rd May, which recorded 17 of frost over a great part of the 
North of Scotland ; and the succeeding north-east blizzard 
of wind and sleet and snow, which continued well into June, 
with little or no change in direction. As I have also related, 
the large number of young Snipes hatched on our ground at 
that late date in May, about the loth May 1902, perished, 
and were found in numbers dead within a few feet of the 
empty shells. Now, I think there can be scarcely any reason- 
able doubt that both these large accessions of Snipe and Wood- 
cock in Central Scotland in the late nesting season of 1902 
(and again, almost similarly, in 1904) were directly due to 
the first layings having been destroyed on the morning of that 
phenomenal exposition by King Frost, viz. on the morning 
of the 3rd May, over a large extent of their northern breeding 
range in Scotland, and a consequent crushing down of the 
Snipe and Woodcock population after that event; or otherwise, 

1 The usual average at Mugdock for a whole season is about that figure. 

63 c 



146 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

check had been applied to the productiveness even of the 
first laying of these Snipe and Woodcocks' eggs, and their 
season abruptly (3rd May) put off. That is a point for the 
physiologists to decide, and scarcely affects the chapter in 
the life-history of the Woodcock which I am desirous of 
trying to elucidate. 

Returning to the subject of the return of the Woodcocks in 
spring, it is worthy of passing remark, that, however regularly, 
and however abundant the birds may appear in Central 
Scotland early in March, no such great wave of flight 
appears to take place to the east of the narrow winding 
tideway of the Forth, or rather I should say, no such 
phenomenon has as yet been recorded, nor have I ever 
succeeded in obtaining records or statistics of any such 
return from anywhere in Fife south of the Ochils, and 
we have some good observers living along that line, i.e. 
south of the Ochils from near Alloa to the East Neuk. 
Nevertheless, on occasions of phenomenal returns, I have 
had abundant proof of their enhanced numbers or sudden 
appearances from most covers between this place and the 
south side of the river Forth, on Polmaise, Dunmore, and 
Airth Castle grounds, and on the flat moss, which is partly 
upon Dunmore, Airth, and Kinnaird. 

Now, the area within which the return of the Woodcock 
is known and spoken of as a well-known annual phenomenon 
of migration, I beg to define as stretching between the upper 
estuaries of Clyde and Forth (spring return), or Forth and 
Clyde (autumn), and including in breadth from the southern 
boundaries of the watersheds of Tay with Forth, and the 
southern boundary of Forth, so far as the area is included 
between the Firths of Forth and Clyde (of the rest of the 
Forth area I do not speak here). The expression, " return of 
the Woodcocks," so far as I am aware, was originally and 
solely used in that so-defined district. It may have been, 
and may now be, used elsewhere ; but I have known of it 
in Forth and Central Forth as long as I can remember, 
and heard it so spoken of by our fathers. But I do not 
recollect hearing it used anywhere else in Scotland until 
perhaps occasionally much more recently. 

Now, of the further extension of the migrations, spring 



SPRING RETURN OF WOODCOCKS IN FORTH AND CLYDE 147 

and autumn, of the Woodcock to the west, in contradistinction 
to its extensions as recorded to the east (vide antca], we 
have abundance of evidence ; but perhaps no one has paid 
such complete and thorough attention to this part of our 
inquiry, and as regards its increase and extension as a nest- 
ing species, as Mr. R. M. Buchanan of Fairholm, Giffnock, 
Renfrewshire, whose careful and excellent accumulations of 
statistics and ingeniously marked mapping of the Clyde area, 
north of the firth, we hope to reproduce in reduced form at 
some future time. 

Now, all the above may at this time form one chapter 
only in the completed history of the distribution, dispersal, 
and migrations of the species in Britain. 

But, to complete such a history, it would be necessary to 
analyse all the records as far back as the history of the 
species in Britain can take us ; and these brought down to 
date for every county or every definable natural area from 
as early a period as possible. That done, then it would be 
desirable to continue the inquiry upon more elaborated lines, 
and to see whether the results fit in with our previous 
knowledge and these said analyses, or in what respects they 
differ. 

Then the present contribution and its significance might 
merely occupy one small paragraph, or one portion of a 
whole chapter, if properly condensed. 

Here lies work for those who do not consider that our 
knowledge of this species is yet completed. And in this 
work lies a suggestion of similar endeavour as regards the 

o o 

distribution, dispersal, and migrations of every species known 
in the country, whether resident or migrant, whether breeding 
or merely passing portions of their lives in this country. 

This knowledge of species, if acquired in any country 
which is included within the range of all seasons of each 
species, in time could scarcely fail to illuminate the still 
brooding darkness which surrounds these several natural 

o 

phenomena. Future means towards advancing the informa- 
tion may be found in marking (or labelling) birds caught 
for the purpose, and released, so that the individuals may be 
recognisable whenever they may a second time be met with. 
Something has been attempted on these lines already 



I 4 8 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

but would have to be done upon a much more extensive 
scale if reasonable expectation of success is to follow, and 
some systematic plan be followed universally. 

Much has been done, but much more remains to be 
undertaken, and it must be by combined and widespread 
endeavour, to be successful. 1 

In reference to the date mentioned in the text above, 
viz. the loth March, it is interesting to note that " G. L." 
in "The Field" (of May 25, 1907, pp. 863-4), gives details 
of the migration of the birds as observed by him in Jutland, 
distinguishing the area there of the principal movements 
between the 7th March and the I4th, and again other later 
flights. It appears to the present writer that these Jutland 
notes have direct bearing upon the subject of this paper. 



THE BLACK SEA-BREAM (CANTHARUS CAN- 
THARUS (L.) = CANTHARUS LINEATUS 
(MONT.) ), IN THE FIRTH OF FORTH. 

By WILLIAM EVANS, F.R.S.E. 

ON I 3th April last (1907) a strange fish was captured in 
the salmon-nets at the Aberlady end of Gosford Bay on the 
south side of the Firth of Forth. It was taken to my friend 

j 

Mr. James Lamb, Aberlady, who at once sent me word, 
enclosing a rough drawing of the fish, and asking what I 

o o o o 

thought it would be. The sketch clearly indicated a Sea- 
Bream of some kind ; and as the members of that group 
are all uncommon in the Firth, I asked Mr. Lamb to send 
me the fish for examination, which he most kindly did. On 
its arrival I was pleased to see that it was a Bream, and a 
closer examination of its characters left no doubt that it was 
a fine example of the Cantharus lineatus of Montagu, known 
on the English coasts as the " Black Sea-Bream " or " Old 
Wife." The total length of the fish was about 1 7^- ins., and 

1 But the foundations have been laid down, and the first endeavour ought to 
be to collate all previous data and result, then start afresh. 



THE BLACK SEA-BREAM IN THE FIRTH OF FORTH 149 

its greatest depth about 5-!- inches ; so that it was clearly a 
full-grown specimen. Its general colour was silvery-grey, 
darker above and paler beneath, very much the same as in a 
salmon. 

The species is not included in Parnell's well-known 
Essay on the Fishes of the Firth of Forth, published in 
1837; but in Giinther's Catalogue of the Fishes in the 
British Museum, a specimen from the Parnell collection 
from the Firth of Forth, is mentioned. When at the 
British Museum a few weeks ago, Mr. Eagle Clarke had, 
through the courtesy of Mr. Boulenger, an opportunity of 




seeing this specimen, which he tells me is labelled simply 
" Firth of Forth ; presented by Dr. R. Parnell, January 4, 
1839." It is about 15 ins. in length, and I think we may 
assume that it was captured in 1838. The example I now 
have the pleasure of recording would thus appear to be but 
the second that has been obtained in the Firth, and the first 
to which a precise locality and date can be assigned. 

The species, which is abundant in the Mediterranean 
and adjacent parts of the North Atlantic, occurs, according 
to Day's " British Fishes," not infrequently along the west 
and south coasts of England, but becomes rare in the North 
Sea, where it has, however, been met with off the north of 



150 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

Scotland (Banffshire coast, T. Edward], and the south of 
Norway. Prof. F. A. Smitt, in his " History of Scandinavian 
Fishes" (1893), p. 55, writes of it as follows: "From its 
proper home, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic between 
the Canary Islands and England, the Black Sea-Bream has 
several times wandered north and been met with on the 
south coast of Norway, up to Trondhjem Fjord. On only 
one single occasion, however, has it been found in Swedish 
waters. ... It is extremely improbable that it propagates 
its species north of England, as only full-grown specimens, 
and never small fry, have been taken there. ... Its flesh is 
generally little esteemed, but in the north of France it is 
considered fairly good." 

The present specimen, it should be stated, has been 
presented to the Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh. A 
photograph of it, taken by my son, W. E. Evans, is here 
reproduced. 



ON THE DIPTERA OF ST. KILDA. 

BY PERCY H. GRIMSHAW, F.E.S. 

I AM indebted to my friend the Rev. James Waterston, 
B.D., B.Sc., for the privilege of examining a very fine 
collection of Diptera made by him in the island of St. Kilda 
during the months of June and July 1905. As considerably 
over one thousand specimens were taken with discrimination 
and carefully pinned by Mr. Waterston, it may fairly be claimed 
that the present collection is a representative one, and that 
the following list gives a tolerably good idea of the actual 
Dipterous fauna of this small and remote, but none the less 
interesting portion of the British Isles. Although I have 
been able to clearly distinguish 119 species, yet a number 
of these have baffled any attempt on my part to identify 
them specifically. It is possible that some of those still 
unnamed may be new to science, while the most interesting 
of those satisfactorily determined include such species as 
Diamesa tonsa, Hal. (probably never seen since the type 
was described fifty years ago), RJiampJiouiyiafninipennis, Zett 



ON THE DIPTERA OF ST. KILDA 151 

(a rare species), TacJiypcza nervosa, Mg., and Lonchoptera 
trilineata, Zett. (both new to Britain), Ccenosia geniculata, 
Fin. (rare), and C. albicornis, Mg. (new to Britain). All the 
specimens are in beautiful condition, and it is a pleasure to 
add that with characteristic generosity Mr. Waterston is 
presenting a selection of them to the Royal Scottish 
Museum. 

In the following list a few notes of interest have been 
added by Mr. Waterston. These are placed within square 
brackets, and have the initials J. W. appended. 

Family MYCETOPHILID./E. 

1. SCIARA sp. i $ belonging to the section HA. ic. of Winnertz' 

monograph. 

2. SCIARA sp. i headless <, with yellowish halteres, pitchy legs 

and shining black thorax. 

3. BOLETINA sp. 2 $ $ and i $ . 

4. BOLETINA sp. Three specimens of a smaller species than No. 3. 

5. LASIOSOMA HIRTUM, Mg. i < 

6. SCIOPHILA sp. i (J. 

7. MACROCERA FASCIATA, Mg. i 6*. 

Family BIBIONID/E. 

8. SCATOPSE NOTATA, Linn. Four specimens. 

9. DILOPHUS FEBRILIS, Linn. 6 $ <$ . 

Family CHIRONOMID^E. 

10. ORTHOCLADIUS ? SORDIDELLUS, Zett. 4 $ $ and 4 $ $ of 

what I believe to be this species. 

n. ORTHOCLADIUS sp. i $ of a species coming near variabilis^ 
Staeg., but I cannot exactly identify it. 

12. TANYTARSUS TENUIS, Mg. i $ and 2 9 $ of this elegant 

and delicate species. 

13. TANYTARSUS sp. 2 $ <, possibly venues, Mg. 

14. METRIOCNEMUS FUSCIPES, Mg. 2 $ $ and i o. 

15. DIAMESA TONSA, Hal. A single 6* belonging to this genus 

agrees pretty well with Haliday's description of tonsa in 



152 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

Walker's "Ins. Brit." vol. iii. p. 195. The peculiar genitalia 
appear to mark off this species from its allies, as well as the 
remarkable antennae, which are figured in Walker's work. 
Unfortunately Haliday's type cannot be found in the 
collection at Dublin, and I believe the St. Kilda specimen 
is the first obtained since. 

1 6. CERATOPOGON FLAVIPES, Mg. 5 $ and 21 99. The 

colour of the legs varies, in some specimens being almost 
entirely pitchy or blackish. 

1 7. CERATOPOGON sp. 2 9 $ of a species with hairy wings. 

Family LIMNOBIID^. 

I 8. LlMNOBIA NUBECULOSA, Mg. 2 ^ . 

19. DICRANOMYIA MiTis, Mg. 2 S $ and i 9. 

20. GONIOMYIA TENELLA, Mg. 8 <$ and j <j> , O ne pair being 

in cop. 

2 1. RHYPHOLOPHUS NODULOSUS, Mcq. i $ and i 9 . 

22. ERIOPTERA FUSCIPENNIS, Mg. 6 $ <$ and i $. 

23. ERIOPTERA TRIVIALIS, Mg. i 9. 

24. LIMNOPHILA MEIGENII, Verr. 5 (J ct. 

Family TIPULID^. 

25. TlPULA ? CONFUSA, ll'lp. 2 ^ . 

26. TIPULA ? MARMORATA, Mg. i $ and 299. 

27. TIPULA OLERACEA, Linn. 4 ^ $ and i 9. 

28. TIPULA sp. i <$ KVM flavolineata, Mg. ? 

29. TIPULA JT/. i 9 near vernalis Mg. ? 

Family TABANID^. 

30. HAEMATOPOTA PLUVIALIS, Linn. 3 $ (J and 5 $ 9. [During 

the last week of my stay this was a pest. J. W.] 

Family EMPID^. 

31. RHAMPHOMYIA FUMIPENNIS, Zett. i $> and 299 of this fine 

and rare species. At first sight rather like sulcata, Fin., but 
easily distinguished by its blackish halteres. Previously 
recorded as British only from Muchalls (Aberdeenshire) and 
Rannoch (Perthshire). 



ON THE DIPTERA OF ST. KILDA 153 

32. EMPIS STERCOREA, Linn. i 9 . 

33. EMPIS sp. i $ and 2 $ 9 of a small shining black species 

with simply ciliated dark legs. 

34. HILARA sp. 15 $ $ and 9 9 9 of a species belonging to 

the chorica group, but I cannot determine it with certainty. 

35. CLINOCERA FONTINALIS, Hal. 2 <J $ and 5 99. [On 

surface of water in the " Well of Virtues," West Bay. J. W.] 

36. HEMERODROMIA PRECATORIA, Fin. 4 $ $ and 14 $ 9. 

37. TACHYPEZA NERVOSA, Mg. i 9 and 2 < o Although not 

recorded as British I can come to no other conclusion than 
that the St. Kilda specimens represent the true nervosa of 
Meigen. I have also seen specimens of the same species from 
Aberfoyle taken by Mr. A. E. J. Carter. 

38. TACHYDROMIA COMPTA, Wlk. 4 9 9 . 

39. TACHYDROMIA sp. i $ and 599 like cursitans. Fab., but 

the abdomen has no grey side-spots. 

Family DOLICHOPODID^E. 

40. DOLICHOPUS ATRATUS, Mg. 1 6 $ $ and 1 5 9 9- [Abundant 

everywhere, especially in marsh. J. W.] 

41. DOLICHOPUS PLUMIPES, Scop. 41 3 and 24 9 9. [Abun- 

dant everywhere, especially in marsh. J. W.] 

42. DOLICHOPUS GRISEIPENNIS, Sfann. 16 $ and 129 9. 

[Abundant, but chiefly in marsh. Later in appearance than 
the other two species of the genus. J. W.] 

43. SYNTORMON PALLIPES, Fab. 2 o 6 an d 299. 

44. CAMPSICNEMUS sp. i $. 

45. SYMPYCNUS ANNULIPES, Mg. 14 $ $ and 15 $ 9. 

46. ? SCHOENOPHILUS sp. Two specimens of a tiny species which 

appears to belong to this genus, but it is not versutus, Wlk. 

47. Represented by five specimens which I am unable to de- 

termine. 

Family LONCHOPTERID^. 

48. LONCHOPTERA TRILINEATA, Zett. 6 $ $ and io $ 9. These 

agree fairly well with Zetterstedt's description, and I cannot 
make them fit with any other species, in spite of the fact that 
trilineata is not on the British list. 



154 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 



Family SYRPHID^E. 

49. LIOGASTER METALLINA, Fab. 6 $ and 29$. [Common 

in and near marsh by sweeping. J. W.] 

50. PLATYCHIRUS MANICATUS, Mg. 6 $ $ and 2 $ $. [Very 

common in north of island, a few in cultivated area in 
south. J. W.] 

51. PLATYCHIRUS CLYPEATUS, Mg. n $ 3 and 9 <j> <j> . 

[Abundant in marsh in south of island, a few on the cliff 
ledge in north. J. W.] 

52. MELANOSTOMA MELLINUM, Linn. A single $ with dark 

abdomen totally devoid of spots and the legs much darker 
than the typical form. [In marsh. J. W.] 

53. ASCIA PODAGRICA, Fab. 4 $ $ and 17 $? $ . [Somewhat 

large specimens, but antennje and cross-vein obscuration 
typical. J. W.] 

54. ERISTALIS ARBUSTORUM, Linn. 19 $ $ and 16 $ ?. 

[Common, latterly abundant. In cultivated area only, and 
there chiefly on flowers of Marigold. J. W.] 

55. HELOPHILUS PENDULUS, Linn. 3 $ $ and $ $. [Seen 

only on two days in the month, first one then a dozen, on 
Marigold. J. W.] 

56. SYRITTA PIPIENS, Linn. 4 $ $. [Generally distributed. In 

cultivated area and on cliff edges ; never in numbers. 
J. W.] 

Family TACHINID^E. 

57. SlPHONA GENICULATA, Deg. 4 $ . 

58. CYNOMYIA MORTUORUM, Linn. 4 $ $ and $ $. [Abundant 

especially on north slope. Has a curious habit of settling 
on grass. J. W.] 

59. A specimen which I cannot identify, coming somewhere near 

Brachycoma. 

Family MUSCID^E. 

60. MYIOSPILA MEDITABUNDA, Fab. i $ and 4 $ 9. [Swarming 

in marsh. J. W.] 

6 1. CALLIPHORA ERYTHROCEPHALA, Mg.--\ $ and 3 $ $. 

[Common. J. W.] 



ON THE DIPTERA OF ST. KILDA 155 

Family ANTHOMYIID^. 

62. HYETODESIA INCANA, Wied. 13 $ $ and 2 $ 9. [Swarming 

in marsh. J. W.] 

63. HYETODESIA OBSCURATA, Mg. 18 $ . 

64. HYETODESIA LONGIPES, Zett. 15 $ $ and 4 ? $. [Common. 

Scattered specimens in cultivated area, common in marsh. 
J. W.] 

65. HYETODESIA sp. i $ not determined, with black legs, striped 

thorax, and yellowish cinereous indefinitely tessellated abdo- 
men. 

66. SPILOGASTER DUPLICATA, Mg. i $ and 10 $ 9. 

67. LIMNOPHORA SOLITARIA, Zett. 15 $$ and ii $ $. 

[Always near water. Common in burn in glen ; swarming 
in marsh. Has the habit of settling on stones. J. W.] 

68. HYDROT^A DENTIPES, Fab. 10 $ & and 5 $ ? . [Common 

in cultivated area and in marsh. J. W.] 

69. ANTHOMYIA RADICUM, Linn. 2 $ $ . 

70. PHORBIA FLOCCOSA, Mcq. 4 $ $. 

71. PHORBIA PUDICA, Rnd. 4 $ $. 

72. PHORBIA sp. 52 $ $ of a species which may be ignota, Rnd., 

or something near. 

73. PHORBIA sp. 8 $ $. 

74. PHORBIA sp. 2 $ $. (Also 14 $ ? of the genus PJwrbia 

not identified). 

75. PEGOMYIA BICOLOR, Wied. 7 $ $ and 4 $ $ . 

76. HOMALOMYIA CANICULARIS, Linn. 1 J 

77. HOMALOMYIA SERENA, Fin. 34 $ $ and 14 $ $. 

78. AZELIA ZETTERSTEDTI, 7?(^. 1 <J . 

79. AZELIA CILIPES, Zfa/. 1 (J- 

So. CCELOMYIA MOLLISSIMA, Hal. 1 8 $ and 1 8 $ $. [Noted 
in hundreds on a hot day towards the end of June. On 
Ranunculus acris flowers, not elsewhere. J. W.] 

8 1. CCENOSIA GENICULATA, Fin. 7 $ $ of this rare and interest- 

ing species. 

82. CCENOSIA ALBICORNIS, Mg. 15 $ <$ of this species (which is 

new to Britain) correspond exactly with the descriptions given 
by Meigen and Schiner. 

83. CCENOSIA sp. 10 $ 9 undetermined. All the femora are 

dark and the tibia? light. 



156 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

Family CORDYLURID/E. 

84. SCATOPHAGA STERCORARiA, Linn. 4 $ <$ and 4 ? ? [Very 

common everywhere except on exposed rocky heights. J. W.] 

85. SCATOPHAGA MERDARIA, Fab. 5 $ $ and 2 $ $ of this doubt- 

fully distinct form. 

86. SCATOPHAGA SQUALIDA, Mg. 7 $ $ and 6 $ $. [Common 

with S. stercoraria, J. W.] 

87. SCATOPHAGA LITOREA, Mg. 5 o $ and 12 $ ?. [On the 

lower part of the island. J. W.] 

Family HELOMYZID^E. 

88. BLEPHAROPTERA MODESTA, Mg. i <$ and i $ . 

89. BLEPHAROPTERA sp. i $ r\oax flavicornis, Lw. 

90. BLEPHAROPTERA sp. 4 $ and 2 9 $ undetermined. 

Family SCIOMYZID^E. 

91. ELGIVA ALBISETA, Scop. 4 $ 3 and 2 <j> o_ . [Common in 

marsh. J. W.] 

Family SEPSID.E. 

92. NEMOPODA CYLINDRICA, Fab. 2 o $ and 299. 

93. THEMIRA PUTRIS, Linn. 5 $ and 3 9J <J> . 

Family PIOPHILID^E. 

94-95. PIOPHILA spp. 23 specimens belonging to this genus 
represent, I believe, two distinct species, but I cannot 
satisfactorily identify them. One has a black epistome and 
the other a yellow one. 

Family EPHYDRID^E. 

96. NOTIPHILA ULIGINOSA, Hal. 9 $ $ and 14 $ $. 

97. HYDRELLIA GRISEOLA, Fin. 39 specimens, sex not determined. 

98. HYDRELLIA NIGRIPES, Zett. i $. 

99. HYDRELLIA RANUNCULI, Hal. 4 ^ and 3 $ $ . 

100. SCATELLA STAGNALis, Fin. 3 specimens. 



ON THE DIPTERA OF ST. KILDA 157 

Family DROSOPHILID^E. 

1 01. SCAPTOMYZA GRAMiNUM, Fin. 4 specimens. 

102. DROSOPHILA sp. i specimen. 

Family OPOMYZID^E. 

103. BALIOPTERA COMBINATA, Linn. i 9 

Family CHLOROPID^. 

104. OSCINIS PUSILLA, Mg. 4 specimens. 

105. CENTOR CERERIS, Fin. i specimen. 

1 06. CHLOROPS sp. 3 specimens. 

Family AGROMYZID^E. 

107. SCHCENOMYZA LiTORELLA, Fin. 9 $ $ and 27 $ . Some 

of the $ 9 show three shining black fasciae on the abdomen 
where the posterior edge of a segment slides under the 
anterior edge of the succeeding one. The question has 
occurred to me whether Meigen's fasdata is not founded 
on specimens in this condition. So far as I can see there is 
no other difference between the two species. 

1 08. CERATOMYZA DENTICORNIS, Panz. 13 specimens. 

109. AGROMYZA NIGRIPES, Mg. i specimen. 

i lo-n 2. PHYTOMYZA spp. 6 specimens representing at least 3 
species. 

Family BORBORID^E. 

113. BORBORUS NITIDUS, Mg. i c? and i $. 

114. BORBORUS GENICULATUS, Mcq. i $, . 

115. BORBORUS ? VITRIPENNIS, Mg. i 9- 

1 1 6. LIMOSINA SYLVATICA, Mg. 4 $ $ and 599- 

117. LIMOSINA FONTINALIS, Fin. 3 specimens. 

1 1 8. LIMOSINA CRASSIMANA, Hal. 3 specimens. 

119. LIMOSINA sp. i specimen. 

NOTE. 

Since the above paper was in type I have received some notes 
from Mr. Waterston regarding the capture of certain of the Diptera, 
also in reference to the weather conditions, methods of collecting, 
and other information of some interest. His remarks are incor- 
porated in the following paragraph. 



158 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

The specimens were taken on Hirta, the main island of a group 
of four which are collectively called St. Kilda. The other three are 
known as Boreray, Soay, and Dun. Mr. Waterston's stay on the 
island extended from iyth June to lyth July inclusive, and from 
information since received it appears that the weather conditions 
were unusually favourable for insect life. The Diptera formed by 
far the largest part of the insect fauna noted. In one little patch 
the marsh they rose in swarms on hot days. In the evenings col- 
lecting was done by sweeping, and on one occasion over 2000 
specimens were obtained in a quarter of an hour. On some days 
hardly anything new was added to the previous captures, as Mr. 
Waterston made it a rule that if he recognised a species he took as 
little of it as possible. Some species, however, occurred with per- 
sistent regularity, and consequently the rule was occasionally broken 
unconsciously. Under these circumstances it is, therefore, important 
to note that the number of specimens of a species in the collection 
is no clue to the frequency of its occurrence on the island. The 
occurrence of Ccelomyia mollissima is of particular interest. It was 
only seen on a single day on a ledge about 100 feet from the top of 
the cliff and 400 feet from sea-level. This ledge was covered with 
a good layer of blackish earth enriched by droppings of puffins and 
other organic debris. The place was moist, had a luxurious vegeta- 
tion, and in June and July the heat was great in the forenoon. 
C. mollissima occurred on every buttercup, and the point of interest 
was that, as this fly usually frequents moist woods, it occurred here 
on St. Kilda only on the one spot where the conditions were 
similar. 

THE ROYAL SCOTTISH MUSEUM, EDINBURGH. 



ON THE SCOTTISH SPECIES OF OXYURA 

II. 1 



By P. CAMERON. 

SCELIONINAE. 

THE species of this group are parasitic in the eggs of other 
insects. Says Dr. Ashmead of them in his " Monograph of 
the North American Proctotrypidae," p. 137, "This group is 
probably the most extensive in the whole family, and of the 

1 Part i., antea, p. 34. 



ON THE SCOTTISH SPECIES OF OXYURA 159 

greatest economic importance, all the species comprising it 
being strictly egg parasites, scarcely a single order of insects 
being free from their attack." Most of them are of very 
minute size. Marshall records 61 British species, mostly 
described by F. Walker. 

TELEASINI. 
TELEAS, Lat. 
i. coriaceus, K. Bonar Bridge. 

HOPLOGYRON, Ashm. 

1. cursor, K., Thornhill, April, in sphagnum. 

2. m'gerriimts, K., Clober. 

*3. timarte, Wlk., Bute in June. 

4. bacilliger, K., Ben Clibrich, Sutherlandshire ; Manuel. 

5. ruforwtits, K., Thornhill, in haystalk ; Manuel. 

6. micropterus, K., Eccles, in haystack. 

7. levigena, K., New Galloway. 

*8. mermerus, Wlk., Bonar Bridge, Dumfries, New Galloway. 
*g. agek, Wlk., Bonar Bridge. 

10. antennaliS) K., Clydesdale. 

11. striatigena, K., Bishopton, Dalmally. 

12. agilis, K., Eccles. 

13. carinifrons, K., Eccles, in haystack; Bonar Bridge. 

14. punctatifrons, K., Claddich. 

15. fimbriatus, K., Clydesdale. 

1 6. Cameroni, K., Dumfries, New Galloway. 

GYRON, Hal. 
*i. misellus, Hal., Eccles. 

CERAPHRONIN^E. 

A very extensive group, and, as most of the species are parasites 
on aphidae, of great utility to the farmer and gardener. 

MEGASPILINI. 
LAGYNODES, Foer. 

*i. palliduS) Boh., Ballantrae. 

2. reflexus, Ruthe, Mugdock. 

3. ri/fescens, Ruthe, Clober, Dumfries, Manuel, Sutherlandshire. 

I have this species from the London district and from 
Scarborough (D. Sharp). 



160 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 



APHANOGMUS, Thorns. 
i.furcatus, K., Mugdock. 

MEGASPILUS, West. 

*i. dux, Curt. Clydesdale. 

2. rufimamts, K., Kingussie. 

*3. pundulatus, Cam. Tr. Ent. Soc. iSSi, 557, Dairy, Ayrshire. 
*4. Mullensis, Cam. I.e. 558, Ben More, Mull, 2000 feet. 

CONOSTIGMUS, K. 

1. Carpenterei, K., hills near Stirling. 

2. nigriventrts, K., Clydesdale. 

3. subfilicornis, K., Galloway, Bishopton, Eccles, Dumfries, 

Strathblane. 

I took this species near Gloucester, and Mr. C. G. Champion 
gave me a specimen from Lee and Houndslow in the London 

district. 

*4. rnfipes, Nees, Manuel. 

5. dubiosus, K., Clober, Thornhill. 

6. fasaatipennis, K., Clydesdale. 

7. planifrons, K., Ballantrae. 

8. Incidus, K., Bishopton. 

9. lentus, K., Dumfries. 

10. versicolor, K., Clober, Mugdock, Kilpatrick Hills, Dalmally, 

Claddich. Probably a common and widely distributed 
species. 

[lineatifrons, K., I have this species from the Manchester district, 
and C. humilis, K., from Dunham Park, Cheshire.] 

11. punctifrons, K., Claddich. 

12. inconstant, K., Bishopton. Also from Houndslow, Surrey 

(C. G. Champion). 

C. inconstans, K., var. pennatus, K., has been taken by Mr. 
Champion at Lee, Surrey. 

13. levifrons, K., Mugdock. 

14. apterus, K., Clydesdale. 

15. clavicornis, K., Manuel. 

1 6. basalis, K., Clyde near Newton. 

17. bntanniciis, K., Mugdock. 

1 8. brachypterus, K., Clober. 

19. rhopalophorus, K., Clydesdale. 

20. nifescejis, K., Clyde near Cambuslang. 

21. ruficollis, K., Clober Moor. 

22. scabriventris, K., Clober, Dairy, Colvend. 



ON THE SCOTTISH SPECIES OF OXYURA 161 

I took C. testaceipes, K., in Cheshire ; Mr. Champion captured 
C. crassinervis, K., at Box Hill, and C. leptolhorax^ K., at Caldon, 
Surrey, all three being additions to the British Fauna. 

What may be an undescribed species of Conostigmus was taken 
by me at Claddich. 

LYGOCERUS, Foer. 

1. subquadratus, K., Clober. 

2. breadalbanensis (Cam.), K., Ben Lawers in July at a height of 

about 3900 feet. 

3. apliidivorus, K., Kelvinside, Mull. Bred from an Aphis on 

Southernwood (Artemesia) in my garden at Whitle, Derby- 
shire. 

4. rectangitlaris, K., Manual, Dumfries. Bred from Rose-aphis in 

June at New Galloway. 

5. saniramosus, K., Cadder. 

6. fusciventris, K., Mugdock. 

7. bicolor, K., New Galloway. Also a specimen taken at Ben Lawers, 

along with L. breadalbanensis. 

8. rufiventris, K., Clydesdale. 

9. frenalis, K., Loch Libo. 

10. sordidipes, K., Bonar Bridge; L. Cameroni, K., was taken by 
my old friend, F. G. Binnie, at Tadcaster, Yorkshire. 

TRICHOSTERESIS, Foer. 

*i. glabra, Boh., Cadder, Bishopton. I have also taken it near 

Gloucester. 
2. punctatipenniS) K., Clober. 

CERAPHRON, Jur. 

Marshall, in his Entomological Society's Catalogue, records 8 
British species of this genus, and in " The Entomologists' Annual," 
1874, p. 146, he records an additional species, C, sattellaris, Thorns., 
from England, I presume, but no locality is given. It is noteworthy 
that of his 9 species, 7 of them are Scandinavian species described 
by C. G. Thomson. It might have been expected that some of 
Thomson's species would have been taken by me. As a matter of 
fact the 6 species I have captured are undescribed. 

1. Cameroni, K., Eccles, Thornhill, in haystack. September. 

2. spinifer, K., Eccles, Moffat. May. 

3. notiats, K., Clyde, near Cambuslang. 

4. armatus, K., Manuel. August. 

5. nigraticeps, K., Cockerloy Hill, Linlithgow, August; Clober. 

6. nigrelliceps, K., Eccles. September. 

63 D 



162 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

THE FALSE-SCORPIONS OF THE WEST OF 

SCOTLAND. 

By ROBERT GODFREY. 

THE following list of False-scorpions known to occur in the 
West of Scotland is given in the hope that it may rouse the 
interest of other naturalists in this little-studied group. It 
contains seven species, in comparison with eight known from 
the East coast. Of the seven, three have not yet been taken 
in the Eastern division of Scotland, and two of these are 
new to the Scottish list. The list has, however, some very 
conspicuous omissions : Cheiridium innseorum (Leach), e.g., 
ought to be as common here as in the East of Scotland, 
though it has so far eluded my search in haylofts and other 
likely places ; Chelifer rufeolus, Simon, ought also to be 
discovered in old byres and barns ; and, during the months 
of August and September, Chelifer nodosus, Schrank, should 
be occasionally at least seen clinging to the legs of flies 
on our window panes. Then, again, Chelifer cimicoides, F., 
and other species which live under the bark of old trees in 
England, should yet be found in similar situations in the 
S.W. of Scotland. Careful search would, I have no 
doubt, soon raise our list to nearly double its present 
number. 

CHELIFER DUBIUS (Cambridge). Two individuals, found in com- 
pany with Ideoroncus cambridgii and Chthonins rayi, were 
taken by Mr. Robert Whyte on a piece of driftwood near 
Balmacara House, Ross-shire, on August 27, 1906. Ch. 
dubius makes a nest for moulting purposes only. The adults 
do not hibernate inside nests, nor does the female make any 
nest for the purposes of reproduction, but simply carries her 
embryonic mass about with her attached to the under surface 
of her hind-body. 

CHELIFER CANCROIDES (Linn.}. This species was added to the 
Scottish list on April 2, 1907, on the strength of a single 
specimen found among hayseed in a Glasgow stable. Later 
search, however, revealed a large colony living in the joints of 
old harness buried in the hayseed. On April 29, Robert 



THE FALSE-SCORPIONS OF THE WEST OF SCOTLAND 163 

Whyte and I obtained the moulting nests of the species between 
the tightly-sewn pieces of harness leather. 

IDEORONCUS CAMBRIDGII (L. KocJi). Though as yet undetected on 
the East coast, this is a widely distributed species on the West, 
ranging from Balmacara, Ross-shire, through Argyll and Ayr, 
to the Solway Firth. It occurs on several of the islands, as 
on the Maiden Island and Kerrera at Oban, and on the Rough 
Island in the Solway ; abounds on natural ground near the sea, 
and ranges inland to Ben Cruachan and the western shore of 
Loch Awe. In spite of its abundance, nothing is yet known 
concerning its reproductive habits, and no evidence is yet 
forthcoming of any nest-building habits in this species. 

OBISIUM MARITIMUM, Leach. The only Scottish locality for this 
species yet known is at the head of Loch Fyne, near Shirvan, 
where it was discovered by Mr. Henry Drummond Simpson 
and myself in September 1904. It lives under stones below 
high-water mark, and constructs nests for moulting and for 
reproduction. 

OBISIUM MUSCORUM, Leach. Universally distributed from Strome 
Ferry and the hills of Skye to the Solway Firth. I have 
personally taken it in Ross, Skye, Argyll, and small islands off- 
shore, Dumbarton, Lanark, Renfrew, Ayr, and Kirkcudbright. 

This species, like the two species of Chthonius hereafter 
mentioned, constructs nests for the various purposes of moult- 
ing, hibernating, and reproduction. 

CHTHONIUS TETRACHELATUS (Preyss}. Next to O. mitscorum the 
present species is probably the most widely-distributed of our 
Scottish False-scorpions. In the western counties, it has been 
taken in Argyll, Renfrew, Ayr, and Kirkcudbright. Besides 
haunting natural hillsides, this species occurs about farm- 
steadings, and is frequently to be obtained about empty flower- 
pots and old bricks in conservatories. My observations on 
the nest-building habits of this species were first carried out in 
Ayr and Argyll. 

CHTHONIUS RAYI, L. Koch. The most northerly haunt known for 
this species in Scotland is at Balmacara, West Ross, where 
Messrs Whyte and I took about two hundred specimens in the 
autumn of 1906. It is recorded from Oban by Mr. Evans, 
and was taken near Dalbeattie by Mr. Aird Whyte in January 
1907. 

in FINLAY DRIVE, DENNISTOUN, 
GLASGOW. 



1 64 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

ON THE FLORA OF SHETLAND. 
By WILLIAM H. BEEBY, F.L.S. 

SINCE my last article on this subject (" Annals," January, 
1892), many visits have been made to the islands, but 
naturally there has not been so much to record as during 
the earlier years of the work. Moreover, the habit of 
returning several times to the same place, for the purpose 
of elucidating some doubtful point, does not tend to produce 
the greatest number of new records. A considerable amount 
of matter has, however, accumulated, and it seems desirable 
that it should now be published. 

In the interval a new edition (I9O3) 1 of Edmondston's 
"Flora" has been issued under the editorship of Mr. C. F. 
Argyll Saxby, a nephew of the author. It is difficult to 
know how to describe this work, which is neither a simple 
reprint, nor a new edition brought up to date. It comprises 
most of the species recorded in the original work, and the 
arrangement and nomenclature are modernised. Many of 
the records and remarks of the present writer are incorporated, 
but not those of the earlier observers, Tate, Craig-Christie, 
etc. ; so that a number of more or less common plants are, 
in consequence, absent from its pages. Certain plants 
recorded by Edmondston in his " Flora " are also omitted, 
apparently quite at haphazard. Thus, on the one hand, we 
note the exclusion of, for example, Dancus Carota, which 
really was an erroneous record, although the plant still 
flourishes in the Shetland of " Topographical Botany " ; 
while, on the other hand, Mr. Saxby excludes Ranunculus 
Ficaria, Sinapis arvensis, Silene acaulis, Arctiwn, Aira pr&cox, 
and others, all of which are recorded by Edmondston, and 
all of which really do occur ; the last in particular being one 
of the most prevalent plants. There are three or four new 
records which will require confirmation. Mrs. Jessie M. E. 
Saxby, a sister of the author, contributes a brief but 
interesting biography of the youthful botanist, whose short 
life came to so tragic a close but ten months after the 

1 Oliphant, Anderson and Ferrier. Price 2s. 



ON THE FLORA OF SHETLAND 165 

publication of his " Flora," and while he was still only in his 
twenty-first year. The book is well printed, and is withal 
so light and portable, that it is regrettable that it should 
not be a more reliable guide to the Flora of the islands. 

One or two mistakes have crept into Mr. Bennett's 
supplement to " Topographical Botany " ; and, as the 
practice with regard to Shetland plants is, " once a record, 
always a record," it may be well to dispose of them before 
they have become established on the permanent list. I do 
not deal with some instances of what I regard as omissions, 
and confine myself to the other side of the question : " Viola 
lutea, Beeby (?)." I think this should read " Beeby spec. (?)," 
which is not quite the same thing. Certainly a little doubt 
was felt about some of my Unst gatherings in 1886 or 1887, 
but the plants were referred without hesitation to V. tricolor 
by Professor Babington, and I have not seen any reason to 
doubt the correctness of his determination. " Carduus nutans, 
Evans." This was but a single specimen on the beach, " very 
likely from the rubbish of boats " (A. H. E. in lift.}. This 
record appeared to me so unlikely when first published, that 
I wrote to Mr. Evans for details, with the above result. 
" Scirpus acicularis, Beeby." This was an error of mine, 
and was subsequently withdrawn ("Journ. Bot." 1894, p. 87). 
Mr. Bennett wrote recently that he had unfortunately omitted 
to take note of the correction, hence the record. Besides 
these, there are " Mentha arvensis, all except 71"; and 
" Alnus glutinosa, all except ill." What is the authority 
for the occurrence of these two plants ? Shetland is not 
credited with them in Professor Trail's " Additions," and 
I have been unable to trace any record of their being 
found. 

Concerning the forms of Ranunculus acris named below, 
I must call to mind that in "Scot. Nat," January 1891, I 
wrote of R. Steveni, and of the burnside form (presumably 
intending R. vulgatus), that " cultivation of the two states 
indicates that the differences between them are due to 
situation alone." I cannot now recall the experiment ; but 
I was then living in London, and my plants grown at 
Reigate were about that time removed to my late mother's 
new garden at Worplesdon. There may have been some 



166 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

mixture of roots ; but in any case recent observations lead 
me to think that the statement quoted above is incorrect. 

In the following list all new records since my last paper 
are marked with an asterisk, although some of them have 
already been recorded, of course without locality, in the 
supplement to " Top. Botany." Other abbreviations are : 

D = Dunrossness. 
N =: Northmaven. 
S = Sandsting and Aithsting. 
U - Unst. 

L = Neighbourhood of Lerwick. 
Conf. = Confirmation of previously unconfirmed record. 

In order to prevent misunderstanding, it must be observed 
that the term form, when used by Rouy and Foucaud, Alfred 
Fryer, and, I believe, the late F. Townsend, indicates a grade 
superior to the variety ; intermediate, that is, to the variety 
and sub-species, i 

Ranunculus Drouetii, F. Schultz. This must replace my previous 
record of R. trichophyllus^ made in error. Messrs. H. and J. 
Groves write, " In spite of the dark colour, we should refer 
this to R. Dronetii, rather than to R. trichophyllus" Occurs 
both in Kirkiegarth Loch and Bardaster Loch, Walls ; by the 
shallow stony shores the plant forms small tufts a few inches 
high, but in deep water the stems are two feet long, or so. 
Both states flower under water. 

R, acris, L. The following short account is founded mainly on Mr. 
Rouy's determinations of some of my plants sent to him by Mr. 
F. Townsend. As Rouy and Foucaud sometimes use the same 
name both for a sub-species and also for a form of that sub- 
species, I have written the aggregate names, as of Rouy and 
Foucaud, to avoid misunderstanding. 

Sub-sp. I. R. Boraanus, Rouy and F., form R, rectus, Bor. D. 
Quendale Sands, L. Scalloway, N. Hillswick, Ollaberry (R.), 
U. Baltasound. 

Sub. var. pumihis, Rouy and F. Rocks by the Loch of Lumbister, 
Yell (R.). I now doubt whether the type R. Boraanus, Jord., 
occurs. 

Sub-sp. II. R. Steveni, Andrz. D. near Skelberry, L. Bressay; 
pastures by Asta and Tingwall Lochs. N. Ollaberry (R.). 



ON THE FLORA OF SHETLAND 167 

Sub-sp. III. R. Friesianus, Rouy and F., form R. vulgatus, Jord. 
D. near Spiggie, L. Burn between Lerwick and Grimista. 
Estwick Bum, Ollaberry (R.) ; form R. Friesianus, Jord. 
By the Gluss Burn, near Ollaberry (R.). 

Those named by M. Rouy are marked (R.). I have only given 
a few of the known localities. Sub-sp. I. is common on the 
lower hill slopes and on low ground, generally where the soil 
is light and dryish. Sub-sp. II. affects natural pasture and 
meadow lands at low elevations ; it has a tendency to be 
gregarious, but does not form such dense masses as the next. 
It is local, but fairly common. Sub-sp. III. frequents the banks 
of the lowland burns, and frequently forms dense masses a yard 
in length. The three sub-species appear to me to be fairly 
separable, and to differ both in habit and in habitat, in leaf 
characters and in root characters. The distinctions founded 
on the beak of the fruit have not, so far, appeared to me so 
reliable. 

Cochlearia micacea, Marshall. U. Baltasound, W. A. Shoolbred 
(Marshall in " Journ. Bot." 1895). I have also gathered it on 
the Hill of Hamar. 

Subularia aquatica, L. S. This proves to be common ; but as most 
of the lochs have gradually shelving bottoms, and the plant 
does not grow where there is a possibility of drought, it is only 
seen on wading out some distance. 

Cardamine hirsuta, L. S. Rocks by the Vaara Burn, by Burga 
\Vater, and rocks west above Hamari Water. Conf. 

*Elatine hexandra, DC. S. A few scraps floating in Kirkiegarth 
Loch, Walls, amid a mass of derelict Callitnche. I could 
not find the plant growing, but the loch contains so much 
decomposed peat in a state of suspension that it is often im- 
possible to see the bottom. The pieces found bore a few half- 
ripe capsules. 

Hypericum pulchrum, L. S. A curious colour variation occurred 
on the hills above the Lochs of Hostigates. The flowers were 
cream-coloured, or rather just the colour known to artists as 
Naples yellow. In consequence of this change in the body 
colour of the petals, the red splashes on their underside were 
pure lake, instead of the usual rather orange red. 

*Erodium cicutarium, L'Her. D. "... Sandwick Parish. . . . 
The soil sandy, produces plenty of Geranium cicutarium, not 
observable anywhere else, either here or in Orkney." Low's 
"Tour" (1774). Sandy ground near the sea, Levenwick. 
The two places lie a few miles apart on the opposite sides of 



1 68 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

Charmer Wick, so that the discovery of the plant at Levemvick 
practically confirms Low's record. 

*Oxalis Acetosella, L. N. Abundant in a ravine on the Bjorgs of 
Skelberry, alt. c. 500 feet. 

Vicia septum, L. S. Holm in Burga Water, and on various other 
holms in the neighbourhood of Walls and Clousta. The one 
or two plants recorded from Tingwall owed their immunity to 
the fact that they grew in the midst of a mass of Lathyrus 
pratensis, a plant which for some reason is avoided by the 
sheep. 

Alchemilla vulgaris, L. All the plants so far collected belong to 
A. filicaulis, Buser. The plant recorded as A. vulgaris, var. 
subsericea, K., is referred A. filicaulis, var. vestita, Buser. 

A. conjuncta, Bab. The Queen's Hotel, Baltasound, lies some way 
back from the road, and it was only on paying a visit there in 
1898 that I saw this plant in the garden. It occurred in some 
plenty, scattered indiscriminately over the small lawn and 
flower beds, most or all of the plants being evidently self-sown. 
I could only learn that the plant was there when the hotel was 
built. Prior to its erection, the site was occupied by a store 
kept by one Thomson, then dead. I had visited this store in 
1886 and 1887 but on both occasions, unfortunately, after 
dark. Mr. Thomson's family had left Shetland, but I learnt 
from Mrs. Hunter of Ernsdale that Thomson was much given 
to horticulture, and " was always bringing things into his 
garden." Last year I heard that the' family had returned to 
Shetland, and I wrote and elicited the following information : 
(i) That the Alchemilla was not given to them by Edmondston, 
who, I thought, might have had roots sent to him; (2) that 
most of their plants were grown from seeds obtained from an 
Edinburgh florist ; but (3) that there were also in their garden 
some native Shetland plants originally got at Sandwick in Unst. 
This seemed a possible clue to a native habitat for this most 
illusive of British plants, and although I was not staying in 
Unst last year I made a special trip to Baltasound in order to 
investigate. Sandwick is, as its name implies, a sandy bay ; 
two burns run down into it, and I thoroughly examined one 
without result. The other looked quite similar through the 
glass, but there was not time to search it. The ground did 
not look at all likely, still the plant may occur somewhere in 
the neighbourhood. I have given full details so that any 
botanist visiting Unst and feeling disposed to follow up the 
search may know where to start. If lodgings can be got, 
sojourn should be made at Uyeasound, as this is quite near to 
the ground to be worked. 



ON THE FLORA OF SHETLAND 169 

Rubus saxatilis, L. S. This flowers rather frequently on the sea- 
bank ; a few ripe fruits were seen on the south side of Clousta 
Voe. 

Rosa glauca, Vill. All old gatherings of Rosa as well as several 
new ones were referred to this by Prof. Crepin. The record 
of R. dumalis is therefore cancelled. 

Pyrus Aucuparia, Ehrh. S. Seen for the first time with flowers 
and fruit on the holm in Hamari Water. 

*Peucedanum Ostruthium, Koch. S. A large patch within the 
enclosure of the croft of Setter near Walls ; origin unknown. 
Called locally " Alexanders," a name for which I imagine some 
ill-informed tourist is responsible. An ancient Roman Catholic 
burial-ground lies near the croft, so that the introduction of 
the plant may date from monkish times. 

Centaurea Cyanus, L. D. A few plants in a cornfield at Levenwick, 
probably sown with the crop. Conf. 

Hieracia. These will be dealt with on a future occasion, mean- 
while the following are the principal additions : The plant 
recorded as H. truncatum is now named H. dovrense, var. 
H. ethlandicz, Hanb., but I have since found H. truncatum, 
Lindeb. ; *ff. flocculosum, Backh.- ; * H. duriceps, Hanb. ; 
* H. stictophyllum, Dahlst. ; and *H. strictum, Fries. 

* Taraxacum spectabile, Dahlst. Mr. C. H. Ostenfield considers this 
the same as the Faroe plant, and to be referable to this species 
or to be very close to it. The plant is particularly frequent 
in S., where it occurs commonly by the stony shores of lochs, 
burnsides, etc., while it sometimes grows rather high up on the 
hills, among rocks and heather, but in the higher parts it rarely 
flowers. I have never seen it on cultivated land. Also occurs 
in U., N., and Yell. I have had this in cultivation since 1901. 
It does not begin to flower until the third or fourth week in 
May, and the flowering season is short, lasting but about three 
weeks. The plants formerly referred to as T. palustre belong 
here. The Shetland plant usually has the leaves marbled 
with purplish-chocolate, after the manner of some of the 
Hieracia. 

*Crepis wrens, L. N. Quite naturalised and in some plenty on 
grassy banks within the enclosure of St. Magnus Hotel, Hills- 
wick, likely introduced during building operations. 

Campanula rotundifolia, L. D. Moor between Skelberry and 
Boddam. A large patch in one place, only a few plants show- 
ing flower. I could not see it elsewhere on the moor. Conf. 

(To be continued.} 



170 



ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 



APERA INTERMEDIA AS AN ALIEN IN 

BRITAIN. 

By A. BRUCE JACKSON. 

THIS interesting grass was first collected in England by my 
friend Dr. W. A. Vice, who found it associated with other 
aliens of Eastern origin on waste ground at Blaby Mill, 
Leicestershire, in June 1903. A specimen was subsequently 
sent to the herbarium of the Leicester Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society, where I found it wrongly labelled Polypogon 
monspeliensis, I submitted an example to Dr. Hackel, who 
identified it with an undescribed species, Apcra intermedia, 
Hackel, collected several years ago by Dr. Zederbauer on 
the Erdchias-Dagh, a volcano in Asia Minor. A note embody- 
ing this information appeared in " Journ. Bot.," 1904, p. 348. 

In 1906 Mr. James Eraser gathered, with other aliens, at 
Leith docks near Edinburgh, a grass which I identified as 
Apera intermedia from comparison with the Blaby specimen. 
Its occurrence in Scotland was recorded by Mr. Eraser in his 
paper on Scottish aliens ("Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist." 1907, p. 42). 

Last autumn I submitted a portion of a Leith specimen 
to Prof. Hackel, who wrote as follows : 

The Apera contained in your letter is really A. intermedia, 
Hack., though in one point it is less characteristic than the 
specimen from Blaby you sent formerly. The sterile glumes 
of true intermedia have somewhat elongated points (like 
small bristles), those of the Leith specimen are pointed but 
not bristle bearing. A, intermedia is somewhat intermediate 
between A. Spica-venti and A. interrnpta, but nearer to the 
latter. The chief differences are : 



Apera internipta, Beauv. 

Panicula interrupta ; rami primarii 
plerumque breviores quam in- 
ternodia, inter verticillos, raro 
eos aequantes. 

Glumos steriles acutae, muticae. 

Gluma fertilis callo brevissime bar- 
bulato, arista earn 5-6plo super- 
ante terminata. 

Antheras .4-. 5 mm. longae. 



Apera intermedia, Hack. 

Panicula aequalis ; rami primarii 
racheos internodia superantes. 

Glumas steriles (saltern superior) in 
setulam brevissimam abeuntes. 

Gluma fertilis callo glabro, arista 
earn 3-4plo superante ter- 
minata. 

Anthero; 1.5 mm. longee (quam 
gluma fertilis 2 mm. 
parum breviores). 



longa 



APERA INTERMEDIA AS AN ALIEN IN BRITAIN 171 

Apera intermedia has just been described by Dr. Hackel 
in " Annalen de Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien," xx. p. 430 

(1907.). 

At present it is known only from the three localities 
mentioned, and is not included in Dunn's " Alien Flora." 

KEW, 2yd May, 1907. 



NEW AND RARE MOSSES FROM THE 
WEST OF SCOTLAND. 

BY JAMES STIRTON, M.D., F.L.S. 

I HAVE, in the first place, to record the discovery of fruiting 
specimens of Ulota pkyllantJia and Scotica from three localities 
in the neighbourhood of Arisaig. How many capsules of each 
have been secured cannot be reckoned at present certainly 
twenty in the aggregate. As is well-known, U.phyllantha 
is found in great profusion in the west of Scotland, includ- 
ing the Outer Hebrides, where trees can be got to grow, also 
in Wales and Ireland, Western and Northern Europe, and 
throughout extensive tracts in Canada and North America ; 
and yet I should say not more than a dozen capsules have 
ever been found, and not more than half that number in good 
condition. As in other instances, fruit has been found only 
where U. Bruchii in a fertile state grew intermingled with 
it. The fruit of U. Bruchii was ripe in September, but the 
capsules of the other two must have ripened three months 
previously. What influence the antheridia of U. Bruchii 
could have had in fructifying the other two it is impossible 
to say, but the probability is that there was a determining 
influence of some sort. 

The fruit of U. Scotica is the longer of the two, and the 
long, slender neck runs far down the seta. In one instance 
of U. Scotica eight pale pinkish, short, broad teeth were seen, 
with eight shorter cilia between ; the teeth were also seen to 
split into two distinct parts. 

I have not yet ventured to separate the two kinds of 
capsules from the mixed tufts, for the reason that the 
fructified stems have leaves, for the most part, with only 



172 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

rudimentary propagula ; accordingly the minute structure of 
the leaf requires examination for adequate determination. 

Along the main road at Arisaig grows a Grimmia on 
stones which, in wet weather, has a peculiar glossy or silky 
sheen, such as I have not seen in any other species of this 
perplexing genus. The flat tufts are often extended con- 
tinuously from two to six inches, but the strange 
peculiarity about it is its rapidity of growth. I have 
watched a tuft of Grimmia Stirtoni (Sch.), near Killin, from 
year to year for the purpose of getting fruit, showing 
scarcely any difference in the size of the button-like patches. 
On the contrary, this moss, during three months, often 
extended from two inches to nearly four, and what is more, 
minute new patches became quickly visible in the near 
neighbourhood. Moreover, in 1904 this moss could be 
detected for not more than half a mile, while in 1906 it 
could be traced for nearly double that distance. It never 
fruits. By what means was it propagated so quickly ? 
This puzzled me, until in the beginning of September, 
during rainy weather, propagula were seen in abundance at 
the apices of stems, and generally attached to leaves near 
their bases as well as to the stems themselves. These 
propagula are quite unique in character. They are globular, 
yellow, then reddish-brown, simple, or at times I -septate, 
with granular contents, in clusters or in short chains, and large, 
.O3-.O38 mm. diam. A question arises whence the origin of 
this moss, or, rather, whence the origin of these germinat- 
ing cells. This question is rendered more difficult of 
solution from the fact that the moss grows nowhere else in 
the district, and I have not observed it in any of my 
rambles elsewhere. 

Grimmia polita. Tufts extended, of a yellowish green 
colour, stems strong, simple, or not infrequently somewhat 
fastigiately branched above : leaf a little crisped when dry, 
laxly spreading when wet, or cohering in little bundles during 
wet weather, ovate lanceolate acuminate, terminating in a 
long, nearly smooth hair; nerve strong, .065 mm. broad 
near base, scarcely narrowing upwards for more than the 
lower half, turning red, of rather dense structure within, 
but on the very prominent convex back a row of close cells, 



NEW AND RARE MOSSES FROM THE WEST OF SCOTLAND 173 

evidently a continuation of the paginal cells, as chlorophyll 
was detected in them, another central row of larger cells, 
and in front, irregularly placed smaller cells ; central basal 
cells of the leaf long, narrow, granular, .O38-.O5 5 by .oo5-.ooS 
mm. ; outwards broader and shorter, with three to five short 
perpendicular rows, at basal margin of nearly hyaline, oblong 
cells, about .032 by .01 mm.; upwards, cells gradually 
denser, until they are ultimately quite opaque and densely 
granular, variable in shape and larger than usual .ooS-.oi i 
mm. diam. ; margin recurved for nearly two-thirds up from 
base, and what is unusual, more broadly recurved in the 
middle than below ; pagina unistratose below, soon one 
marginal transverse couple of cells seen, then two such, 
and near apex very often three close couples seen. Accord- 
ingly all the cells except those of the small basal marginal 
group are more or less densely granular ; besides, in wet 
weather, minute points, like sterei'ds, are seen everywhere 
between and even on the cells. 

This moss is evidently allied to G. trichophylla (Grey.), 
but is quite distinct from it ; besides, the latter, which fruits 
freely, was not detected in the district. Indeed, this part 
of the West Coast is rather deficient in species of this genus. 

At Glenfinnan, a railway station half-way between 
Arisaig and Fort-William, was discovered a peculiar little 
moss, 

OligotricJium exiguuin. In lax tufts, green above, red 
below ; stems simple, very slender, slightly undulating, from 
a quarter to half-an-inch long ; pale, then red ; leaves laxly 
disposed around stem, incurved when dry, still a little 
incurved when wet, upper green, lower red, slightly sheath- 
ing, oblong, apex deeply cucullate with the nerve bent 
nearly at right angles, rendered sharpish by means of a 
longish apical cell ; nerve in lowest fourth free of lamellae ; 
above with from six to eight or nine lamellae, long, slender, 
composed of from seven to ten bluntly quadrate cells in 
single series, apical cell a little longer ; lamellae nearly as 
broad as the breadth of pagina of either side, nerve im- 
perfectly or interruptedly (two to three) lamellate above ; 
cells at central base oblong, .02 by .Oil mm., only a few 
such, the rest, upwards, nearly bluntly square, but variable, 



174 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

.Oi2-.oi8 mm. across, somewhat smaller near apex ; pagina 
unistratose, nonpapillose ; margin entire but incurved above, 
with one or two teeth near apex. Barren. 

There is another Oligotrichum from Connel Ferry, with 
stems from a half to one inch in height, but these stems, instead 
of being simple, as they are usually, have two to five fastigiate 
branches arising from a common stock situated about half 
way up the stems. The apex of the leaf is, besides, slightly 
incurved. 

Let this form meanwhile be called O. hercynicum, var. 
fastigiatum. 

There grows on a wide but rather shallow basin opening 
on the sea to the north of Arisaig a minute moss in very 
dense, and, in two instances, very wide continuous flat 
tufts, from five to eight inches in diameter. As many as 
six separate patches have been noticed, those farthest apart 
not more than two miles from each other. As I cannot 
identify this moss with any other, and as, moreover, it is 
very constant to its characters, I think it right to describe it, 
although it is barren. 

Pohlia tenerrima. In very dense, generally large tufts of 
a beautiful green colour above, pale or pale yellow below ; 
stems a quarter to one-third of an inch long, generally 
simple, rarely divided, very slender ; leaves laxly disposed 
around the stem, very tender as well as small, on an average 
.7 by .27 mm. at greatest breadth, erecto- patent when 
moist, straight and more upright when dry, but pagina 
shrivelling somewhat, ovate-lanceolate scarcely acuminate ; 
nerve slender, pale then yellowish above, .04 mm. wide near 
base, tapering, and either very slightly excurrent or vanishing 
in the acute apex, where it is rather indefinite ; margin 
plane, entire or faintly serrated near apex ; cells at central 
base narrowly oblong, .O28-.O4 by .ooS-.oii mm., outwards 
shorter, and at margin with one or two rows of quadrate 
cells, .01 3 -.01 8 by. o i -.01 2 mm., upwards, cells narrower 
and rhomboid, .027-. 03 2 by .007 mm. On peaty soil mixed 
with sand. 

The areolation points to association with Pohlia. The 
leaves are wonderfully uniform in size and shape throughout 
the whole series of tufts, and only show a little smaller and 



NEW AND RARE MOSSES FROM THE WEST OF SCOTLAND 175 

shorter near base of stem, but lengthen very little towards 
its summit. The stems, although slender, are tenacious, as 
the older may be traced continuously down through the soil 
to a depth of half an inch. 

Barbula limosella. Tufts very compact, often extended, 
forming patches of a vivid green colour above, reddish below, 
as well as radiculose ; stems very slender, simple for much 
the greater part, occasionally bifurcate, one-third of an inch 
long or less ; leaves curled and crisped when dry, widely 
spreading when moist, with the upper fourth strongly re- 
curved or squarrose, especially the short, extended part of 
nerve ; base hyaline as in B. limosa ; upper cells large, 
distinct, hexagonal, or merely rounded, .OO9-.OI4 mm. across, 
without papillae ; indeed scarcely any papillae detected 
throughout the leaf, which has a blunt apex, as in TricJi. 
brachydontium, and pagina frequently ending abruptly and 
unequally, but the nerve in this is certainly extended. At 
the mouth of the basin, near Arisaig, on muddy soil mixed 
with sand, a little within high-water mark of spring tides. 

In this broad, shallow basin, through which a sluggish 
stream meanders, and which opens out like a trumpet on the 
sea, where its breadth is two miles, are found five mosses 
belonging to a closely allied group, viz., Barbula tortuosa ; a 
large form of B. nitida, as well as its usual condition ; B. 
limosa ("Annals," April 1905), and B. limosella ; lastly, B. 
exiqnella, referred to below. The upper cells of B. limosa 
are obscure from the presence of papillae, and minute, .005-8 
mm. across. Accordingly the upper cells of B. limosella are 
nearly four times as large as those of B. limosa. B. limosella 
is the most slender of the four as well as the most compactly 
tufted. 

Schistidium nodulosum. Laxly tufted, of a dark green 
above, reddish below ; stems simple or dichotomously 
branched, about half an inch in length ; leaves rather closely 
arranged, imbricated when dry, spreading a little when wet, 
ovate lanceolate slightly acuminate, contracted at base ; 
nerve strong, thick, bulging much behind, reddish at base, 
.06 mm. broad, slightly broader above, and near apex 
still .045 mm. broad, strongly nodulose behind and at sides, 
nodules .004-6 mm. high, rounded at apex, sparsely nodulose 



176 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

behind, also on margin near apex, as well as on the lower 
part of the hyaline hair, which is besides crisped or spirally 
twisted throughout, and nearly half the length of pagina ; 
margin strongly recurved near base, almost spirally so for 
two-thirds upwards, plane thereafter ; cells at central base 
bluntly oblong, separate, .024-. 04 by .007-9 mm., outwards 
shorter and slightly constricted with three or four marginal 
rows of roundish or irregular cells, .OI-.OI3 by .007-9 rnm., 
upwards at first slightly constricted, then roundish, separate, 
.006-9 mm. across ; pagina below thin, thicker upwards, 
unistratose at first, then on margin one transverse couple 
of cells, soon two such, and farther up often three, with not 
infrequently one detached couple nearer nerve. Arisaig and 
on Ben Lawers, 1 867. Barren in both instances. I 
described in the "Annals" for April, 1900, a corresponding 
nodular condition of Schist. maritimum, but the other 
peculiarities in the present moss warrant, in my opinion, 
specific distinction. 

Throughout a series of years I have picked up from time 
to time a moss, on open moors more especially, which I had 
rather rashly identified with Breutelia arcuata. Last year 
the two were found in close proximity, when the contrast 
between the two was rendered much more manifest. In the 
absence of fruit I have, meanwhile at least, inserted the 
present one under the genus Bartramia. 

Bartrainia subvirella. In extended rather dense patches 
of a yellowish-green colour ; stems for the greater part 
dichotomously branched with not infrequently very short 
branchlets near the apex ; leaves closely arranged round 
stems, slightly spreading and straight both in a wet and dry 
state, not clasping (as in Breutelia), rather broadly and 
roundly ovate-lanceolate, shortly acuminate, only slightly 
sulcate near base, plane and smooth above, thin and trans- 
lucent, very fragile in upper fourth ; nerve narrow, .04 mm. 
near base, tapering and vanishing considerably below apex, 
margin rather broadly reflexed in lower half, serrate through- 
out, but more sharply so above ; central basal cells much 
shorter and a little broader than those of Breutelia, bluntly 
cylindrical, hyaline, .O25-.O35 by .005-. 0065 mm., becoming 
narrower and longer upwards, .O32-.O45 by .004-5 mm., with 



NEW AND RARE MOSSES FROM THE WEST OF SCOTLAND 177 

papillae at the lower extremities of cells ; at alar base a 
longish group of bluntly oblong cells, coloured red below, 
.OI6-.O25 by .01 -.01 3 mm. It is not necessary to indicate 
further the differences between the two mosses, as they are 
manifest enough. 

The next moss has been familiar to me for several years, 
more especially in the neighbourhood of Glasgow. It was 
got throughout November of last year in perfect fruit. It 
differs from Hypnum cupressiforme in several important 
particulars. 

Hypnum teichophilum. Tufts large, dark-green, prostrate; 
stems stout, irregularly branched ; leaves large, not divari- 
cately arranged on stem, but regularly imbricated on its 
upper aspect and falcate downward, convex, somewhat de- 
current on stem ; margin plane except in lowest fifth, where 
it is often seen slightly reflexed, entire except in uppermost 
fourth, where it is slightly serrulated, nerveless, or obsoletely 
2-nerved just at base ; alar basal spaces well defined, nearly 
square or slightly oblong, composed of five to eight perpen- 
dicular rows, each having five to seven or eight cells, cells 
square (or slightly oblong), with thickish walls, becoming 
reddish, but contents remaining colourless or only very 
sparingly granular, .018-. 02 7 by .01 4-. 021 mm. ; cell above 
long, narrowly acicular with sharply-pointed extremities, .06- 
.085 by .OO3-.OO45 mm., a little broader near base ; capsule 
on a long, reddish, strong seta, oblong, curved, brown ; lid 
large, conical, terminating in a slender, shortish acumen. 
Accordingly this moss differs from any form of H, cupressi- 
forme in its cell formation, both alar and general, in the 
disposition of the leaves round the stem, in the seta, capsule 
and lid. 

Dr. Braithwaite, in his work on British mosses, states 
that the alar cells in H. cupressiforme are typically square in 
shape. Such is not the case. They are small, oval, and, in 
much the larger proportion, reddish-yellow as well as darkly 
granular. 

There is still another moss scattered here and there 

throughout the district of Arisaig, in crevices of rocks, but, 

in two instances, on stones slightly covered with earth. It 

is near Dicranum montanum, but differs in the habitat, in 

63 E 



178 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

the leaves not being papillose, and in their apices quite entire 
and much narrower, etc. 

Dicranuin leiophylliun. Tufts large, rather lax, of a dark- 
green colour above, brown beneath, slightly radiculose ; stems 
simple or bifurcate, about half an inch or more long ; leaves 
ovate lanceolate, narrowly subulate, much curled when dry, 
laxly spreading when moist, slightly clasping the stems 
where they are broader, but rather quickly narrowing into 
the long subulate upper portion, which is quite entire and 
a little rounded at apex, but narrow, about .03 mm. broad, 
not papillose, margin plane, entire, but a little incurved 
upwards ; nerve, .06 5 -.08 5 mm. broad near base, tapering 
and vanishing below apex ; auricles well developed, cells 
large, colourless at first, then with thick, brownish walls, 
oblong or oblongo-hexagonal, .03-. 045 by .oi3-.Oi8 mm., 
central basal cells granular, narrow, cylindrical, .O4-.O6 by 
.0045 -.006 mm., outwards shorter, broader until near margin, 
much the same as those just above, upwards gradually short- 
ening into the dense, distinctly separate, opaque, quadrate or 
rounded, granular cells above, .OO7-.OI mm. across, but near 
margin always smaller (.00 5 -.008 mm.) than cells found 
quite at apex ; seta (often two from one perichaetium), pale, 
then reddish, long, strong ; capsule erect, oblong, brown ; teeth 
dicranoid but broken ; lid (in young capsules) long, subulate 
above, not much shorter than capsule. The fruit is either 
that of the previous year, or too young for examination. 

The upper cells of the leaf have a distinct resemblance 
to those of Ampkoridium Mougeotii in their peculiar opacity, 
in being faintly striated longitudinally, and in showing 
slender connecting tubes with neighbouring cells, especially 
in a vertical direction. 

I have seen the same peculiarities in several other mosses 
but more particularly in Bartrainia Oedcri (Sw.). 

TricJiostonimn episemwn. Tufts rather dense, having 
much the appearance of those of Tr. brachydontiiun ; stems 
strong, about one inch in length, leaves oblong, reflexed 
when wet, obtuse and rounded at the apex as in Tr. litorale ; 
nerve strong, pale then red, .085-.! mm. broad near base, 
tapering and excurrent in a short stump, margin plane, 
crenulated above from projecting cells as well as papillose ; 



NEW AND RARE MOSSES FROM THE WEST OF SCOTLAND 179 

cells at base large, oblongo-hexagonal, with thin walls, but 
merely oblong nearer the margin, all hyaline, .O4-.O6 by 
.01 -.01 3 mm., above, at first shorter and oblong, passing 
gradually into the obscure, large, upper, generally hexagonal, 
but often bluntly quadrate cells, .OO9-.OI4 mm. diam., densely 
and minutely papillose back and front. Connel Ferry, 1905. 

According to the description by Dr. Braithwaite, vol. i. 
pp. 243, 246, this cannot be either T. angustifolinm or T. 
lutescens (Lindb.). 

In 1903, Mr. D. Haggart sent me from Glen Lochy, 
Killin, a Rhacomitrium which, owing to the papillosity of the 
leaves, and long teeth of the peristome, nearly as long as 
the capsule, was referred to R. canesceus. The leaves, how- 
ever, are quite muticous, and even slightly rounded as well 
as slightly hollow at apex. But what is most remarkable is 
the areolation of the leaf, which is that of R. hetcrostichuvi, 
viz., in upper half the cells are green-chlorophyllose, at first 
short and constricted in the middle, while nearer the apex 
they are quadrate, .OO7-.OI mm. across. 

I think it right to call attention to this moss. Mean- 
while, it may be named R. consodans. 

Another Rhacomitrium has similar peculiarities. It 
resembles in habit what I have described, in the " Annals " 
for April 1902, as R. amblyphyllum. The two have in 
common blunt apices to the leaves, where the breadth at the 
junction of hair with pagina varies from .12 to .25 mm., but 
in this the areolation is entirely that of R. microcarpuin, inas- 
much as the cells near and at apex are sinuose, .OI4-.O25 
by .005-7 rnm. Let this be named R. divergens. 

This moss has been discovered in many places in the 
West of Scotland and Western Islands. 

As I have said in a previous paper, I am anxious to call 
attention to such peculiarities of structure, inasmuch as they 
seem to indicate departures from the usual conditions of 
organisation, which may have important bearings on the life- 
history of the plants themselves. 

The genera which I have studied more closely as showing 
stronger tendencies to such departures from the normal, are 
Campylopus, Dicramnn, Griimnia, and the near ally of the 
last, Rkacomitrium. 



ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

There was also found south of Arisaig on open moors, 
generally near rivulets, but not in woods, Hypnum corru- 
gatntuin, described in the "Annals" for April 1897, under 
H. triquetrum. On two occasions small quantities of Barbula 
exiguclla, also described in the " Annals " for April 1897, 
were picked up ; but, as in Orkney, only young setae were 
seen. In my older collections made during the sixties on 
the Breadalbane Ranges, I have come across Barbula icmado- 
pJiila (Sch.) from near the base of King's Seat, Killin, and 
Hypimm canariense at the base of Ben Lawers, near the Inn. 



ZOOLOGICAL NOTES. 

A Novel Method of Skinning- Birds and Mammals. When I was 
resident at Quendale, Dunrossness, Shetland, a small boy, a native, 
showed me the trick he had of skinning Snow-Buntings, which 
were caught with sieve-traps in large numbers and used as food. A 
small incision was made at the occiput, and a straw-stem inserted 
as a blow-pipe, and the whole skin of the bird was thus completely 
loosened. This plan was perfectly successful, so long, of course, as 
the skin was in no other place broken or perforated. Remember- 
ing the above, we experimented here with a Pipistrelle Bat, and a 
proper blow-pipe, with perfect success. The whole skin of the body 
was easily separated from the flesh, and even the leathery wings were 
expanded between the dorsal and ventral surfaces. The toughest 
part to separate by the impelled air was that part of the skin 
between the shoulder blades. I cannot imagine a more perfect 
way for separating the skin from the flesh of small mammals and 
birds, so long as the skin is uninjured and perfect. I do not 
know whether this method is generally known to collectors or not, 
but I cannot recollect ever having seen it mentioned in a book ; 
so I have thought it worth making note of, in our present number 
of the "Annals," as it may prove an aid to those who are at 
present studying or collecting our smaller mammals, as well 
as to our bird-collectors at home or abroad. Of course, after this 
operation a larger slit has to be made and the further divestment 
performed, and the body removed. J. A. HARVIE-BROWN. 

A Litter of Male Foxes. A Fox's den was found here 
about the middle of May, containing eight cubs, every one of which 
was a male. I have never heard of a similar occurrence, and I do 
not think it can be at all common. FRANCIS G. GUNNIS, Brora, 
Sutherland. 



ZOOLOGICAL NOTES 181 

The Hawfinch in East Lothian. On 25111 April 1907, one of 
my foresters picked up a dead adult male Hawfinch (Coccothraustes 
vulgaris] close to the foot of a spruce near the lake at Smeaton- 
Hepburn. The bird being strange to him, he gave it to my boy, who 
in turn brought it to me for identification. The bird had evidently 
been dead a few days and the breast was slightly eaten, fortunately 
the skin was in a sufficiently good condition to be capable of being 
preserved. The occasions on which the Hawfinch has been found 
in East Lothian are few : so far as I have been able to ascertain 
there is no certain record of their having been seen alive in the 
county. Mr. W. Evans, to whom I wrote, kindly replied that 
in the autumn of 1904 a keeper at Luffness stated to him that he 
had seen a pair in the woods there. This identification may or may 
not have been correct ; that they should not have been seen alive, is 
no more than one would expect, taking into consideration their un- 
doubted rarity, and the extraordinary facility possessed by them 
of avoiding the human eye. Turnbull, in his "Birds of East Lothian," 
says, " rare, mostly seen in winter " ; in this connection I may 
mention that I have a specimen probably obtained by my father in 
the county, but so far no record of its origin has been found. Mr. 
Tunnard tells me that, in addition to the female found starved in 
Tynninghame gardens during the third week of February 1904 (and 
recorded), there is a male in the museum there, obtained, he thinks, 
in the eighties, and recorded. I have not had an opportunity of 
finding this notice. The foregoing notes and records seem to 
complete the history of the Hawfinch in East Lothian so far as 
known. 

With regard to other parts of Scotland the records though few, 
as Mr. Eagle Clarke writes me, include an adult and a young bird 
at Arniston, and an undoubted egg from Fife ; he also mentions 
having received a notice of a male obtained in the Upper Forth 
district during March this year. That there is a record of the 
steady extension of the Hawfinch's breeding area northward from 
its haunts in the south of England is undoubted, and I am 
reasonably certain, considering April is the birds' breeding month, 
that both the Smeaton bird, and that in the Upper Forth district, 
would have had nests, had not an evil fate overtaken them. Mr. 
Eagle Clarke is of opinion that the Hawfinch is undoubtedly 
establishing itself in Scotland. 

Lord Lilford, in his " British Birds," mentions that in summer 
the Hawfinch frequents and shows a marked preference for the 
yew tree, which is also a favourite nesting-place ; it is perhaps worth 
recording that the spruce tree (a bare pole) at the foot of which the 
bird was found is surrounded by old yews, and forms the com- 
mencement of an old yew walk, so I have hopes that it may yet be 
my fortune to find a nest. ARCHIBALD BUCHAN-HEPBURN. 



ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

Hawfinch in Upper Forth District. On i8th March last, Mr. 
Simpson, gamekeeper at Touch, Stirlingshire, shot a Hawfinch, 
which has been preserved and presented to the museum of the 
Smith Institute at Stirling. J. A. HARVIE-BROWN. 

Great Spotted Woodpecker in " Forth and Tay." I have 
evidence of the Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopus major) 
appearing and remaining to nest in several new localities in Scotland, 
namely, in Stirlingshire and Perthshire. Two pairs have been 
observed in one locality in the former county. My friend, Mr. 
J. G. B. Henderson of Nether Parkley, Linlithgow, adds yet another 
locality for the advance of the Great Spotted Woodpecker in 
Scotland, viz., as follows: "At least one bird has been in the 
neighbourhood of Dupplin (Tay) this spring. The keeper has 
known of it for some time, and my friend, Mr. Seton M. Thompson, 
saw it on the 24th of May. J. A. HARVIE-BROWN. 

Probable Occurrence of the Great Spotted Woodpecker in 
the Loch Awe District. Last year a proprietor on the shores of 
Loch Awe noticed that a Woodpecker (^Dendrocopus major] had 
most evidently been at work boring in a Wellingtonia in his 
grounds. The bird was never observed, but this year they have 
again begun in the same tree. My informant, who was lately there, 
saw r the tree, with several circular holes about one and a half or two 
inches in diameter, not quite through the bark, some apparently 
freshly chipped and with white splashes of excrement around them. 
Another visitor who was lately there said that he had recently seen 
just the same thing on the shores of Loch Fyne. Although the 
bird has not yet been seen, I presume that there can be little 
doubt but that it is the work of the Great Spotted Woodpecker, 
and is interesting in view of the recent reports of its nesting in other 
parts of the county. CHAS. H. ALSTON, Letterawe, Loch Awe. 

Wanted : Notes on the Osprey. I have for many years back 
been engaged in collecting information on the Osprey's haunts in 
Scotland, with a view to publication, and shall be obliged to our 
readers for any items they may be able to afford me. J. A. HARVIE- 
BROWN, Dunipace, Larbert. 

Garganey in Shetland. You will no doubt be interested to 
hear that I was fortunate enough to obtain on i4th April, a very 
good specimen of the Garganey (Querquedula circia\ a male; also 
two Brent geese out of a flock of eight. I have never come across 
the Garganey before. No other rarities to report so far, though I 
am hoping ere long some will turn up. T. EDMONDSTON SAXBY, 
Baltasound, Shetland. 

Pintail in Clyde Area. With reference to Mr. Harvie- 
Brown's note in the "Annals of Scottish Natural History" on 
" Pintail in Forth Area " it may be of interest to note that I saw a 



ZOOLOGICAL NOTES 183 

Pintail Duck (Dafila acnta) which was shot on 9th January 1903 
near the river Kelvin at Balmore in Stirlingshire. Although this 
is in " Clyde " area it is not so very far distant from the part of 
Forth of which Mr. Harvie-Brown speaks. JAS. BARTHOLOMEW, 
Kinnelhead, Beattock. 

Smew (Mergus albellus) in "Forth."- On 8th January last 
an immature Smew, which I had the pleasure of receiving in the 
flesh, was shot by one of the Dun bar gunners near the mouth of 
the Belhaven burn. On examination I found it to be a male. The 
specimen was exhibited by me at a meeting of the Royal Physical 
Society on 28th January. I also received, through the kindness of 
Mr. D. Bruce, an Eared or Black-necked Grebe (Podicipes nigricollis], 
male, killed on 3rd January on the coast about two miles south of 
Dunbar. WILLIAM EVANS, Edinburgh. 

Swans in the Outer Hebrides. In the April "Annals," Mr. 
Kinnear records having seen a flock of Whooper Swans (Cyg/n/s 
musicus] in the Outer Hebrides on ist June 1906, a rather surprising 
date. I dare say Mr. Kinnear is not aware that small flocks of 
Mute Swans are quite common in the islands, and they come and 
go during summer between Barra and Tiree. PETER ANDERSON, 
Tiree. 

Food of the Wood Pigeon. Mr. Simpson, gamekeeper, at 
Touch, Stirlingshire, informs me that the crop of a Wood Pigeon 
(Columba palumbus], which he shot on the i ith April, was full of little 
grey slugs. This I think is unusual. J. A. HARVIE-BROWX. 

Pied Flycatcher in Kirkcudbrightshire. Hitherto all the re- 
ferences to the occurrence of this beautiful and interesting bird as 
a local species have been in the Dumfriesshire portion of Solway. 
It now gives me very great pleasure indeed to record its 
presence and nesting in Kirkcudbrightshire. An explicit statement 
of locality will not be made in the meantime, as I am disgusted to 
find that the "collector" has at last reached this district. 

The discovery is not mine, but was made by a friend whose 
name is also not to be mentioned, as it would surely indicate a 
locality. My friend, having seen the birds and found their nest, 
took me to the spot on the 6th June current, where I had the 
supreme satisfaction of putting my eye to the aperture in a tree trunk 
and seeing the hen bird not four inches away. We saw an egg 
peeping out from beneath her, but did not disturb her further. While 
we were "keeking in," the cock (which, however, we had already 
thoroughly examined with the glasses) came on a branch not more 
than four feet above our heads and sat there with a beautiful air of 
assumed indifference. The hole in the bole of the tree is quite a 
small one, and there is not much room for the sitting bird inside. 
The nest is about five feet from ground level. It is believed there 



1 84 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

are some other Pied Flycatchers not far off, and I may be able to 
say more of them by and by. This makes the third Solvvay nest of 
the species that I have personally examined, and in addition there- 
to I once met with a brood of fledglings. All the localities for 
these four instances are rather widely scattered. ROBERT SERVICE, 
Maxwelltown, Dumfries. 

Shetland Garden Warbler. J. C. Grierson, Esq., sent, for 

identification and record, a specimen of the Garden Warbler. It 

was found dead in the greenhouse tank the day before, i.e. Qth June 

1907. The locality is at Mr. Greirson's house Helendall, Lerwick. 

-J. A. HARVIE-BROWN. 

Winter Movements of Woodeoek. The shoreward migration 
of Woodcocks was very pronounced in December when the first 
universal fall of snow took place there. Mr. Jas. Davidson saw 
very few there till the 2nd week in December. Down to the ist 
February in all 150 were shot on Innes property, but the keepers 
only shot on Saturdays to supply six cock pheasants per week to 
order. Our great flights here Central Scotland were ist to i5th 
December. They were first known to have dropped in here on 2yth 
and 28th November. There were big bags made on ist December 
Mugdoch, 38 on that day. The second portion, or indeed second 
flight, came in about ten days later, and on the i5th December 33 
were killed in Torwood. On this ground on the ist December 
over 20 were seen and 7 shot, which is almost I think a record in 
autumn flight, though I have seen many more in a day about the 
1 2th March. J. A. HARVIE-BROWN, Dunipace. 

Birds recently added to the Perth Museum. The following 
interesting specimens, among others, collected in and around 
Arbroath by Dr. T. F. and Dr. W. S. Dewar, have been presented 
to the Perthshire Natural History Museum, in Perth, Fulmar 
Petrel, Montagu's Harrier, Golden Oriole, Wryneck, Red-legged 
Partridge, Black-tailed Godwit, also a Black Rat. The kindness of 
the Messrs. Dewars is much appreciated by the Museum Committee. 
A female Bittern (Botaurus stellaris) was taken in a very exhausted 
condition, near a stream, not far from Carnoustie, on 2 ist January. 
The bird died and is now in the Perth Museum. ALEX. M. RODGER, 
Perth Museum. 

Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa belgica] in Lanarkshire. There 
is but one record of the occurrence of the Black-tailed Godwit 
in Clyde during the spring, one having been shot on Loch 
Lomond as long ago as May 1851, by the late Sir Geo. Hector 
Leith Buchanan, Bart, of Ross Priory. This bird, in the bay dress 
of summer, I saw in the collection of rare local birds at Ross Priory 
a few years ago. This year on the 4th May I visited Gad Loch, 
Lanarkshire, near Lenzie, with Messrs. A. Ross, A. M'Leod, and 



ZOOLOGICAL NOTES 185 

R. Henderson, to gather information relating to the appearance of 
our summer visitors and birds of passage. We were delighted to 
make there the acquaintance of the Black-tailed Godwit in brilliant 
summer dress, strongly contrasting with the fresh green of the grass. 
In flight they presented a remarkable appearance owing to their 
high coloration and purity of the white on the wings and its extent 
on the rump against the deep black of the tail. There were three 
birds, but they disappeared over night. JOHN PATERSON, Glasgow. 

Tufted Duck (Fuligula cristata) in West Lothian. On the yth 
June last I found a Tufted Duck's nest for the first time in this 
county : this was on an island in a small loch, and contained a clutch 
of nine eggs. On the loch itself were several other ducks of the same 
species. On later inquiry I was informed that the " Goldeneye " 
as the Tufted Duck is named locally bred on this loch last year 
(1906), which was the first occasion to the knowledge of the keepers 
on the estate on which it had done so. S. E. BROCK, Kirkliston. 

Lesser White-throat (Sylvia currucd) nesting 1 in " Tay." On 
the afternoon of 26th May, I sat reading in my little town garden. 
That garden is within the Burgh of Forfar, but on the fringe of the 
populous part ; and, owing to the fact that the plants in which I am 
particularly interested are all microscopic, it is, to say truth, in a 
sad tangle of weeds and herbage ; most of all is this the case in an 
odd acute-angled corner occupied by a score of neglected gooseberry 
bushes. Now as I read, the interesting and suspicious movements 
of a little bird among these bushes attracted my attention. By the 
use of a field-glass I saw that it was a White-throat. As I watched, 
it made many journeys to and fro so that I was able to fix the scene 
of its operations to a nicety ; and lo, when I went in among the 
tangled undergrowth to corroborate, there was the nest in process 
of construction in the gooseberry bush, somewhat hidden by herb- 
age and about 16 inches from the ground. I did not visit it again 
till 3oth May. On that day I found the nest apparently completed, 
but, to my surprise, by no means like a typical or well-built 
White-throat's nest ; considerably less neat and delicate, indeed. 
When I returned on Sunday, 2nd June, there were three eggs, but 
they were not White-throat's eggs. When I went to inspect the 
nest on Monday, 3rd June, a fourth egg was there. The bird is 
so stealthy in its movements that is not easy to see ; but the result 
of several recent glances have confirmed my original view that it 
was a White-throat. To-day, I have solved the difficulty by taking 
an egg and examining it carefully : it is a typical egg of the Lesser 
White-throat, whose nesting in North-eastern Scotland has hitherto 
been a matter of considerable doubt. THOMAS F. DEWAR, Forfar. 

Note on the Breeding of the Snow-Bunting in Buehan. I see 

in the April "Annals" the record of the nesting of the Snow-Bunting 



i86 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

at Rathen, Aberdeenshire. I fear there is some mistake. Rathen 
parish is in the north-east corner of Buchan, a district I know 
well. A part of the parish borders the sea at Inverallochy for 
a little distance. The parish is wholly under cultivation and below 
200 feet elevation above sea-level; very much of it under 100 feet 
elevation ; only in the south-west of the parish does the land rise 
abruptly to 700 feet to form the hill of Mormond. No one would 
expect for a moment to find the Snow-Bunting breeding in such a 
district, and I suspect the eggs are varieties of the common Bunting, 
Emberiza miliaria a characteristically abundant bird of the district. 
I may add it is comparatively easy to become possessed of Snow- 
Bunting's eggs in Buchan. Buchan seamen, fishing in the Arctic 
Regions, are in the habit of bringing home Arctic eggs, and I never 
received any Arctic eggs without those of the Snow-Bunting being 
amongst them. I have received 50 on a single piece of thread 
from a Peterhead seaman, and I have seen in a labourer's home 
the kitchen window festooned with Little Auk's eggs. WILLIAM 
SERLE, The Manse, Duddingston. 

Gemmous Dragonet (Callionymus lyra) in Shetland Seas. 

There was captured on a sea-line, about a mile off Boddom, on the 
south-east coast of the mainland, in April last, a male specimen of 
this brilliantly-coloured fish. Not having seen one like it before, 
I sent it to Mr. Eagle Clarke for identification ; and he also 
informs me that there appears to be no previous record for this 
species in the Shetland seas, but that its occurrence is not 
surprising, since it has been obtained in Scandinavian waters, and is 
not very uncommon on the coasts of the Scottish mainland. 
T. HENDERSON, Jun., Dunrossness, Shetland. 

Early Appearance of Eristalis tenax, Z., in the Forth 
District. Whilst at Gullane on Saturday, 23rd March, about 
2.30 P.M. I found three female specimens of Eristalis tenax, L., 
which were kindly identified by Mr. Grimshaw. As the date is 
very early for these flies, he has asked me to give particulars of 
their capture. They were on the sand at the mouth of a small 
damp cave situated about two and one-third miles north-eastward 
along the coast from Gullane, at a place marked on the Ordnance 
Map as " Hanging rocks." The wings of a fourth specimen were 
lying on the sand near the three I procured. The mouth of the 
cave faces almost due north, and being about half-way down the cliff, 
the sun's rays would be completely excluded. R. D. R. TROUP, 
Edinburgh. 

[Verrall, in his " British Flies," says of this species, " my dates 
extend from i4th February to 22nd November, but I expect it may 
occur at any time."- P. H. G.] 



BOTANICAL NOTES AND NEWS 187 



BOTANICAL NOTES AND NEWS. 

The Plants of the Flannan Islands. In the "Annals" No. 55, 
187, 1905, Ur. Trail enumerates the specimens brought by Mr. 
Eagle Clarke from these islands. 

The following additional species were gathered by Mr. W. ]. 
Gibson on Eilean Mor in July 1899. They were kindly sent to me 
by Mr. A. Somerville, with a request to name them and return to 
Mr. Gibson. 

They add nine species to the thirteen given by Dr. Trail, viz. : 

Lychnis Flos-cuculi, L. 

Cerastiiun tetrandum, Curt. 

C. glomeratum, Thuill. 

Sagina maritiina, Don. 

Spergularia neglecta, Syme. 

Plantago maritiina, L., var. minor, Hook and Am. 

Atriplex hastata, L. 

Rumex Acetosa, L. " Tufts of this were growing beside the Puffins' 
burrows and nowhere else. ' Martin Martin, Gent.,' who visited 
the Western islands about 1695, says that the Fulmars (Fidmarus 
glacialis] of St. Kilda eat it. If the Puffins do so also, it forms a 
good illustration of how plants are spread by birds " (W. G. in ////.). 
The Rev. N. Mackenzie, in "Notes on the Birds of St. Kilda," 1 
does not mention that they eat the sorrel, but remarks, "but prefers 
those places where there are steep grassy slopes with tufts of earth 
or sorrel," i.e. to make their nests. 

Poa annua, L. 

Festuca rnbra, L. 

Of Matricaria inodora, L., M. Gibson remarks, "Growing in 
great profusion on upper slopes of cliffs. The Chamomile odour 
was very pronounced in the fresh plants." This is rather surprising 
as Mr. Gibson's specimens are inodora, not Chainomilla. 

Armeria maritiina, "The leaves of this seem to form the 
greater part of the short close sward " (W. G. /;/ lift.}. Mr. Gibson, 2 
speaking of Eilean Mor, remarks "The top slopes considerably to 
the south-west, and is covered with a close mat of short grass, 
decorated with sea -pinks and diminutive buttercups and ragged- 
robins." 

Accounts of the birds (with photos of Eilean Mor), by Mr. Eagle 
Clarke, will be found in the " Annals " for 1905, pp. 8, 80, and 243 : 
of the Diptera, p. 218; Coleoptera, p. 20, and Spiders, p. 120. 
ARTHUR BENNETT, Croydon. 

1 "Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist." 78 (1905). 
2 In " Chambers's Journal," ii. 796 (1899). 



iSS ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

The May issue of the " Journal of Botany " is of peculiar interest 
to lovers of the British flora because of its containing an exceptional 
number of papers of importance in their bearing on its study. 
They are on " Three interesting Ascomycetes," by W. B. Grove, 
B.A. ; " Forms of Potamogeton new to Britain," by Arthur 
Bennett; "A Synopsis of the Orders, Genera, and Species of 
Mycetozoa," by A. and G. Lister ; and on " British Roses of the 
Mollis-Tomentosa Group," by Rev. Augustine Ley, M.A. 

New Records of Plants in South Aberdeenshipe. In Sep- 
tember of 1906 we found the following plants, new to South 
Aberdeen (v.c. 92), while collecting within a few miles of Aberdeen 

itself :- 

Ranunculus circinatns^ Sibth., at the Loch of Skene. 

Nasturtium palustre, DC., at Grandholm Mills on Donside, 
where it had been known to a retired mill-worker, named Thompson, 
for some years. 

Potentilla argentea, L., as a casual on the roadside at Balmoral. 

Scutellaria galericitlata, L., from the Loch of Park. 

We have also seen Euphorbia Cyparissias, L., specimen, which 
had been growing as a garden weed at West Cults. A. C. MACRAE, 
Macgregor Skene. 

Origin of the Blue Lupine (Lupinus nootkatensis, Bonn) as a 
Denizen by the Dee. As mentioned in a note in this Journal, 
(1900, p. 128), the earliest example of this Lupine known to me to 
have been gathered in Scotland is a fragment in the Kew Herbarium, 
bearing the label " L. polyphylhts, ? naturalised on the banks of the 
Dee near Aboyne, August 1862," gathered by the Rev. M. J. 
Berkeley. The Lupine forms so conspicuous a feature along the Dee, 
for most of its course, and has produced so great effects on the 
native vegetation, and even on the course of the river, that I have 
sought to ascertain how and when it was introduced into the valley. 
About a week ago a former student, Dr. Duncan Mackintosh, now 
in medical practice at Aboyne, mentioned to me that he had been 
told by an old man, who had been employed in the gardens at 
Balmoral when Her Majesty, the late Queen Victoria, purchased the 
old castle and estate as a residence, that the Lupine was one of the 
first plants brought from the south, and had not been seen, at least 
on upper Deeside, before, and that from the plants grown at Balmoral 
seeds had been carried into the river, and had sprung up along the 
river banks and spread by seeds quickly. As Balmoral was purchased 
by Her Majesty in 1847, and was used as a residence at once, this 
makes it probable that the Lupine was introduced before 1850, and 
had sprung up from seeds carried down river as far as Aboyne before 
1 86 1. It now looks as much at home on the more recently formed 
shingles as any natives. TAMES W. H. TRAIL. 



CURRENT LITERATURE 189 



CURRENT LITERATURE. 

The Titles and Purport of Papers and Notes relating to Scottish Natural 
History which have appeared during the Quarter April-June 1907. 

[The Editors desire assistance to enable them to make this Section as complete as 
possible. Contributions on the lines indicated will be most acceptable, and 
will bear the initials of the Contributor. The Editors will have access to the 
sources of information undermentioned.] 

ZOOLOGY. 

THE MAMMALS OF THE EDINBURGH OR FORTH AREA. SUPPLE- 
MENTARY NOTES. By William Evans, F.R.S.E., Proc. Roy. P/iys. 
Soc. Edin. vol. xvi. No. 8 (May 1907), pp. 387-405. Brings the 
total number of species now known to have occurred in the area up 
to fifty. 

SCOTTISH AND NORWEGIAN RED DEER. R. L. 77/6' Field, 1 5th 
June 1907, p. 1015. Refers to a paper by Dr. Leonard Stejneger, 
in a recent issue of the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Contributions, 
dealing with the racial differences between the Red Deer of western 
Norway and those of Sweden. According to this author, the former 
are inseparable from those of Scotland, and thus furnish evidence in 
favour of a late land connection between the two countries in 
question. 

RAVEN AND RING OUSEL NEAR GLASGOW. D. A. M., The 
Field, 8th June 1907, p. 957. Specimen of the former seen flying 
high (and croaking) within one mile of Glasgow, and the latter heard 
in May singing within two miles of the city. 

EARLY NEST OF THE DIPPER. T. Thornton MacKeith, 
Zoologist, April 1907, p. 151. Records the commencement of a 
nest at Uplawmoor, Renfrewshire, on i5th February, the fourth egg 
being laid on i6th March.- The same observer (Zoologist, June 
1907, p. 235) took a clutch of five Dipper's eggs in the same 
locality on i4th April, and on 3oth April found five freshly laid eggs 
in the identical nest. 

LANDRAIL KILLED BY TELEGRAPH WIRE. A. Crawshay, The 
Field, 27th April 1907, p. 689. The incident occurred at New 
Cumnock on 22nd April, an early date for the arrival of this 
species. 

MIGRATION OF WILD SWANS. H. W. Robinson, The Field, 
27th April 1907, p. 689. Large flights observed passing over 
Graemsay, Orkneys, on i5th April. 

ON MELANOTUS RUFIPES, HERBST., AND M. CASTANIPES, PAYK. 
E. A. Newberry, Ent. Mo. Mag., June 1907, p. 123. A short 



190 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

article relative to the distinctness of these two species, and based 
partially on an examination of specimens taken at Rannoch. 

NOTES ON THE GENUS GONATOPUS (DRYININ/E). A. J. Chitty, 
Ent. Record, April 1907, pp. 79-82. Scottish localities are referred 
to. 

NOTES ON DIPTERA IN SCOTLAND, 1906. A. E. J. Carter, Ent. 
J/(>. Mag., May 1907, pp. 110-112. A long list of species, taken at 
Polton, Musselburgh, and Aberfoyle. 

DIPTERA IN DUMBARTONSHIRE IN 1906. J. R. Malloch, Ent. 
Mo. Mag., April 1907, pp. 86-87. A list of 82 species taken chiefly 
at Bonhill. 

THE MYRIAPODS (CENTIPEDES AND MILLIPEDES) OF THE FORTH 
AREA. William Evans, F.R.S.E., Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edin., vol. 
xvi. Xo. 8 (May 1907), pp. 405-414. -- Notes on 17 species, 
specimens of nearly all of which were determined for the author by 
Mr. Pocock. 



BOTANY. 

A FURTHER CONTRIBUTION TO THE FRESH-WATER PLANKTON OF 
THE SCOTTISH LOCHS, by W. West and G. S. West, Trans. Roy. 
Soc. Edin., xli. 1906, pp. 477-518, 7 plates. 

NOTES ON THE FORMATION AND FLORA OF A SHINGLE ISLAND IN 
THE RIVER ORCHY, DALMALLY, ARGYLL. By Beatrice Sprague, 
Trans. Edinb. Field Nat. and Micr. Soc., v. 1906, pp. 290-315, 3 
maps. 

NOTES ON BRITISH RUBI. By Edward Gilbert, M.D., Jonrn. 
Bot. 1907, pp. 129-135. 

BRITISH ROSES OF THE MOLLIS-TOMENTOSA GROUP. By Rev. 
Augustine Ley, Joitrn. Bot., 1907, pp. 200-210. A discussion of 
the forms, which are ranked under 18 'species.' Each is defined, 
and its distribution in Britain, as known to the author, is 
indicated. 

FORMS OF POTAMOGETON NEW TO BRITAIN. By Arthur Bennett, 
fourn. Bot., 1907, pp. 172-176. An important contribution to the 
history of the genus in Britain. Several of the forms are from 

Scotland. 

SYNOPSIS OF THE ORDERS, GENERA, AND SPECIES OF MYCETOZOA. 
By A. and G. Lister, Journ. Bot. 1907, pp. 176-197. A very 
valuable abstract of the most distinctive features of the group in all 
grades of classification down to species. 



BOOK NOTICES 191 



BOOK NOTICES. 

THE BRITISH WARBLERS : A HISTORY, WITH PROBLEMS OF 
THEIR LIVES. Bv H. Eliot Howard, F.Z.S., AI.B.O.U. Illustrated 
by Henrich Gronvold. London, R. H. Porter, 1907. Part I. price 
2 is. net. 

Among the sciences, the literature of ornithology stands unsur- 
passed for the beauty of its works, and the book under notice 
will certainly be second to none. The Warblers form one of the 
most attractive groups among our native birds, and are well worthy 
of having an exhaustive monograph devoted to the delineation of 
their graceful forms and their engaging and interesting life-histories. 
Mr. Howard's book promises to furnish this in a manner 
which is in all respects worthy of his feathered favourites. The 
coloured portraits of both birds and eggs are of extreme beauty and 
excellence, and are decidedly the best we have ever seen ; while 
the series of photogravure pictures illustrating courting attitudes, 
from drawings by the author, are, we believe, unique. The strong 
point of the letterpress is its originality. Air. Howard has watched 
his subjects with remarkable zeal and affords us some of the best 
peeps into the least observed phases of their life-histories that have 
ever been given us. He deals too with many of the problems raised 
in a pleasing and philosophic manner ; and the descriptions of his 
bird-watchings are graphic and devoid of those wearisome details 
which characterise the essays of some recent writers. The text, 
too, is admirably arranged, and one can find at once any item of 
information, whether it relates to description of plumage, geo- 
graphical distribution, or habits. 

The work is to be completed in S parts. Part I. contains 24 
pages of letterpress, and deals with the Sedge Warbler and the 
Grasshopper Warbler. It contains 4 coloured and 10 photogravure 
plates, and two maps showing the approximate distribution of the 
birds during summer and winter. 

BlRD-LlFE OF THE BORDERS ON MOORLAND AND SEA, WITH 

FAUNAL NOTES EXTENDING OVER FORTY YEARS. By Abel Chapman, 
F.Z.S. etc. With coloured maps, and numerous illustrations. 
London, Gurney and Jackson, 1907. 145. net. 

This is a second edition of what was deservedly the bird-book 
of the year 1889. Written by one possessed of an intimate know- 
ledge of his subject and an attractive pen, and a first-rate orni- 
thologist to boot, the edition soon became exhausted and the book 
has been very scarce for many years. The work was certainly well 
worthy of being reprinted, but fortunately more than this has been 
accomplished, for Mr. Chapman has been induced to practically 



192 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

rewrite and much enlarge the book ; and he has added several 
plates to his series of original and vigorous pen-and-ink sketches 
pictures that will be much appreciated by those familiar with bird-life 
in the open. There is no better book of its kind, and to Scottish 
naturalists it will be especially acceptable since it deals with the 
bird-life of the Cheviots, the moorlands of the Border, and the 
adjacent seaboard. In its new form it will be welcome even to 
those who possess the original edition. 

We have only one fault to find with the author, namely, that he 
has not brought his chapters on migration up to the level of 
modern knowledge, and hence some of his statements are now 
known not to hold good. The book forms a handsome and well- 
printed volume of 458 pages, and the reproductions of the plates 
are excellent. 

EUROPEAN ANIMALS : THEIR GEOLOGICAL HISTORY AND 
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. By R. F. Scharff, Ph.D., B.Sc. 
London: Archibald Constable and Co., Ltd., 1907. 75. 6d. net. 

This book has strong claims on British naturalists, since a con- 
siderable portion of it is devoted to the history of the animals of 
our islands past and present a subject of the greatest importance 
to all who are genuinely interested in our insular fauna. Scottish 
naturalists will find a chapter devoted to the animal life of their 
country, which is compared with that of both England and Ireland ; 
and its associations with Iceland on the one hand and Scandinavia 
on the other are fully discussed. Other chapters, in like manner, 
deal with the distribution of animals in other European countries. 
Many very intricate and difficult problems naturally present them- 
selves for solution in dealing with such subjects, and these are 
treated fully and fairly ; and although we do not always agree 
with the deductions which Dr. Scharff draws from the facts pre- 
sented, yet his conclusions are always worthy of careful considera- 
tion. The book is replete with useful facts gleaned from many 
sources, and dealing with all classes of animals ; those species which 
bear evidence of great importance are depicted along with their 
geographical distribution on a series of maps. The book is one which 
should certainly be in the hands of all British zoologists, not only 
on account of the elaborate manner in which it treats of the history 
of our fauna, but also as a book of reference dealing with the past 
and present distribution of European animals generally. It is a 
well got up volume, and is remarkably reasonable in price. 



ANN. SCOT. NAT. HIST. 1907. 



PLATE IV. 







V > /? U 



The Annals 

of 

Scottish Natural History 

NO. 64] 1907 [OCTOBER 

THE LATE ALEXANDER SOMERVILLE, B.Sc. 

WITH PORTRAIT. 

ALEXANDER SOMERVILLE was born in Glasgow in 1842, his 
father being the well-known and revered missionary Dr. 
A. N. Somerville, who was for many years minister of the 
Anderston Free Church in Glasgow, previous to his missionary 
services. Mr. A. Somerville was educated in Glasgow, first at 
the Academy and then for three years at the University. 
Entering on business, he went to Calcutta, where he spent 
fifteen years. Owing to ill-health he returned to Scotland, 
and resumed tastes and pursuits that had been interrupted by 
want of leisure during the intervening years. Returning to 
the University of Glasgow, he entered on the curriculum in 
Science and graduated B.Sc. As a boy he had been in- 
terested in entomology ; and natural history on all its sides 
attracted him greatly, his studies being chiefly directed for 
several years to the Mollusca, and afterwards to the vascular 
plants of the British Islands. In both fields his efforts were 
unwearied and successful, and the results were most freely 
placed at the service of others. Numerous communications 
were made by him to scientific periodicals, especially to the 
publications of the Glasgow Natural History Society, of 
which he was a strong supporter, being its President for 
some years. An enthusiast himself, his zeal communicated 
64 B 



194 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

itself to others ; and he was never happier than when able 
to assist a fellow-worker. 

He diligently explored the western shores of Scotland 
for Mollusca, dredging the seas and lochs, and keeping most 
careful records of the results in manuscripts now in the 
possession of his nephew, the Rev. G. A. Frank Knight. 
They give the localities explored, the depths in fathoms, the 
numbers of the species and varieties in each haul of the dredge, 
distinguishing the dead from the living specimens. They show 
that in this thorough way he had investigated the whole of 
the Clyde area and almost the whole West Coast up to the 
Butt of Lewis and Loch Broom. These records have 
remained unpublished ; but Mr. Knight is engaged in pre- 
paring reports on them which will make available to 
conchologists the stores of information amassed by Mr. 
Somerville. His knowledge of critical species was such that 
he was one of three referees appointed by the Conchological 
Society of Great Britain and Ireland for Marine Mollusca. 
He was for a number of years on the Council of the Society, 
and for three years was its President. In 1886 he issued a 
List of the British Brachiopoda and Marine Mollusca, which 
was recognised as the standard until the appearance in 1 900 
of the Conchological Society's official list. 

For many years he was a strong supporter of the 
marine station at Millport, and did much to obtain means for 
its equipment and to extend its usefulness. The topo- 
graphical distribution of Scottish plants was of great and 
continued interest to him, and was investigated with care like 
that bestowed on the Mollusca. Though chiefly carried on 
in the West of Scotland, his researches extended to other 
regions also, e.g. to Orkney, where he spent some weeks 
a few years ago investigating the flora. Ever ready to 
spend time and labour in assisting others, he went to 
districts, such as Linlithgow, about which information was 
desirable, and communicated the results of his visits most 
freely, as is often evidenced by the pages of this and of 
other scientific journals. He contributed articles to the 
" Journal of the Conchological Society," the " Transactions of 
the Glasgow Natural History Society," and other scientific 
papers ; but his scientific services are not less evident in 



THE LATE ALEXANDER SOMERVILLE, B.Sc. 195 

the frequent acknowledgments in the publications of other 
workers of assistance and information supplied by him. 
Since iSSi he was a Fellow of the Linnean Society. He 
was much interested in the Scottish Antarctic Expedition, 
and was ready to lend a helping hand to whatever could 
promote natural science. 

Nor was he less disposed to assist in social work and 
philanthropic efforts at home and abroad. His personal 
character won him the esteem and affection of those that had 
the privilege of his acquaintance. Of late years his health 
rendered him unable to undertake the expeditions of former 
years in search of shells and plants ; and for some months 
he often suffered severe pain ; but his interest in the 
familiar studies remained keen, as did also his pleasure in 
the progress made by others. He died in his house in 
Glasgow on 5th June 1907. He was twice married ; and 
is survived by a widow, two sons, and four daughters. 

His memory will remain with his friends as that of a 
zealous and earnest seeker after truth, a successful student 
of biological science, and an unselfish and lovable man. 



REPORT ON SCOTTISH ORNITHOLOGY 

FOR 1906. 

By JOHN PATERSON. 
(Continued from p. 143.) 

FALCO JESALON (Merlin). Observed at the Flannans, Qth and 29th 
April and i3th and i4th May. At Pentland Skerries on loth 
August, two chased over the island by Terns. At Sule Skerry, 
1 6th September (i); 2151(4). 

SULA BASSANA (Gannet). Seen frequently all January at the Bell 
Rock. On 2nd May, diving among shoal of young Coal-fish 5 
yards off Tobermory pier. On gth August, flocks passing S. 
at Bell Rock. 

ARDEA CINEREA (Common Heron). At North Ronaldshay, 7th 
January, two from the S. rested for a few minutes and then 
went N. Small colony (three nests) west side of The Lews 
(p. 81). On 25th July, five flying across the island at Noup 



196 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

Head in a S.E. direction. At Kelburne Castle (Ayr), young 
still in nests on i6th September. On the following day, at 
Spiggie, Shetland (13). One at Pentland Skerries on gih Octo- 
ber ; " not often seen here." Another same locality next day. 

ANSER CINEREUS (Grey-Lag Goose). More numerous than usual 
towards end of February in North Uist ("Annals," 1906, p. 
114). Inverbroom, i4th May, "wild geese" (sp. ?) went N. 
Decidedly increased as a nesting species in South Uist since 
the "Outer Hebrides" volume of the Scottish Fauna series 
appeared (p. 81). Introduced half-wild birds now nesting in 
"Tay" ("Annals," 1906, p. 237). On 4th October, at Spiggie, 
Shetland, eight flying about loch for some days. Between 6th 
and 1 3th October, "wild geese" (sp. ?) seen daily passing S. at 
Inverbroom. At Burntisland, on loth October, small flock 
" wild geese " (sp. ?) passing S. ; 1 2th, at same place, large flocks 
passing S. At Sule Skerry "geese" (sp. ?) (7), passing E. to 

^1 W. At Fairlie (Ayr), on i3th November, a young male Grey- 
Lag shot (p. 52). 

A. SEGETUM (Bean Goose). One shot at Pentland Skerries on 3rd 
November. 

A. BRACHYRHYNCHUS (Pink-footed Goose). Geese, probably " pink- 

footed," flying round Forfar in the night of 2ist October. 
The same incident reported from Arbroath on the same night 
"Geese flying in the fog all the night through." On loth 
November, Mr. Wm. Evans saw several hundreds in the 
Aberlady district. They seemed to Mr. Evans more abundant 
than usual that autumn. On the i4th November, a very large 
flock of geese flying over Montrose basin, probably "Pink- 
footed." 

BERNICLA LEUCOPSIS (Barnacle-Goose). In North Uist, in February, 
more than usually numerous ("Annals," 1906, p. 114). 
Twelve at the Flannans on 26th March, and about a hundred 
on ist May. 

B. BRENTA (Brent Goose). At Fairlie (Ayr), on 2 7th January (50) ; 

24th February (about 60). At Lingay, North Uist, flock of 
160 on rough wild days ("Annals," 1906, p. 114). On 4th 
October, at Loch Ard-na-laird, Grimersta, Lewis (n). 

CYGNUS MUSICUS (Whooper Swan). At the Fair Isle, in spring and 
autumn, a head obtained belonging to this species (p. 78). 
At Lerwick, nth April, five "Swans" (sp. ?) flying N. At 
Unst, 1 2th, flocks of six and nine " Whoopers," evidently very 
tired, flying very low. In South Uist, on ist June, nine, which 
flew N. ; believed to be " Whoopers" (p. 82). 13* October, 
at Spiggie, Shetland, one Whooper ; 1 4th, three Whoopers ; 
2oth, eight Swans (sp. ?) on Loch. 



REPORT ON SCOTTISH ORNITHOLOGY FOR 1906 197 

C. BEWICKI (Bewick's Swan). On 7th February, at North Uist (3); 
ist March (4) (" Annals," 1906, p. 1 14). The following record 
referring to Bishop Loch (Lanark) is supplied by Mr. Alex. 
Ross. On 5th January (2); yth (4 ad. 3 jitv.} ; i4th (8 ad. 
3/z>.) ; 1 8th February, still there ; 25th, "gone." Reappeared 
4th November (i) ; 24th (3); gth December, thirteen, which 
had been frozen out and driven off when the Loch revisited 
ist January 1907. On 3ist December, Mr. Ross and the 
writer saw thirteen flying and calling in a snowfall, proceed- 
ing W. to E. along the Forth and Clyde Canal at Glasgow. 
An hour later Mr. M'Keith, Caldwell, 12 miles S. of 
Glasgow, saw thirteen flying S.W. into Ayrshire. On same 
date Mr. John Robertson saw four in Bute. 

TADORNA CORNUTA (Common Sheld-Duck). Common and increas- 
ing in N. Uist in February (p. 1 14). Becoming more numerous 
at Fairlie (Ayr) 24th February. At Bishop Loch, east of 
Glasgow, on 2gth April, four, migrating of course. In Fife, 
young hatched out by iSth June. In October, three at Sule 
Skerry on i2th, five flying S.E. at the Pentland Skerries on 
24th, and at the Fair Isle a few on several occasions this month, 
once as many as eight (p. 78). 

ANAS BOSCAS (Mallard). "Nothing like so numerous as usual" at 
North Uist in February (p. 114). In Bute, on 151!! April, a 
nest with ten eggs. 

A. STREPERA (Gadwall). Brood reared near Broughton, Peebles 
(The Field, 28th July 1906, p. 196). One shot early in August 
in " Tay " out of what appeared a family party (" Annals," 
1906, p. 238). 

SPATULA CLYPEATA (Shoveller). On 25th March, at Gad Loch, 
Lenzie (3); 2 ist April, Harelaw Dam (i); 6th May, Fossil 
Marsh, a pair; 2oth, Hogganfield, a pair; 9th June, Fossil 
Marsh (again), a pair all near Glasgow. The Shoveller is 
" a late nester." It would be interesting to have some data for 
Scotland on this point. In the autumn, two at Kilconquhar 
on 8th August, four at Hogganfield on 6th September, and 
eleven at Bishop Loch on 4th November. 

DAFILA ACUTA (Pintail). Early in August a bird of the year shot 
out of what appeared a family party ("Annals," 1906, p. 238). 
On the Eden, i2th September (i). On 22nd December, im- 
mature (J shot at Stumpig Moss (Stirling) (p. 115). 

NETTION CRECCA (Teal). Nothing like so numerous as usual in 
North Uist in February (p. 114). " Now breeds plentifully " 
in the Uists and Benbecula (p. 82). 



198 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

MARECA PENELOPE (Wigeon). A few at Swordale (E. Ross) on 5th 
May the last seen. The last pair goes almost simultaneously 
from Mull (6th May). The others had left last-named locality 
before 26th April. Reappeared at Swordale on loth Septem- 
ber, and was plentiful at Spiggie, Dunrossness, Shetland, on 
27th. Appeared at Fairlie (Ayr) on 25th September. 

FULIGULA FERINA (Pochard). Two at the Glen Dam (E. Renfrew) 
28th July. At Loch Libo (E. Renfrew) on gth December (71). 

F. CRISTATA (Tufted Duck). Many on the Glen Dam (E. Renfrew) 
on 28th July. 

F. MARILA (Scaup Duck). At Swordale (E. Ross) the last lot for 
the season seen on 26th March. Confirmed as a breeding 
species in the outer Hebrides (p. 82). At Swordale, on i4th 
November, 2^,1$. A few on several occasions in first half 
of November in Fair Isle (p. 78). 

CLANGULA GLAUCION (Golden-eye). More numerous than usual in 
N. Uist in February ("Annals," 1906, p. 114). On Mishnish 
Loch, Mull, seven on 25th April. One (?) in Loch Maddy 
in June (p. 83). On 26th August one at Balgray Dam (E. 
Renfrew). First seen at Kirkliston, igth October. 

HARELDA GLACIALIS (Long-tailed Duck). On i2th March, flock at 
Bell Rock last seen there (a pair) on nth April. A good 
many at Balcomie (Crail) on 24th. At Balcomie, on 6th 
October, small parties kept arriving from the north, some 
passing; on 8th more arrivals, and on i4th flocks passing 
between 10 A.M. and i P.M., one party which alighted consisted 
of nine drakes in full white winter plumage and one in dark 
plumage with a white crest. 

SOMATERIA MOLLISSIMA (Common Eider Duck). Small numbers at 
the Flannans between 23rd January and gth April. On 5th 
June nests with five and three eggs respectively in Fife. On 
2oth June with young off Coll. Fair number breed at N. Uist, 
9 of a pale fawn colour seen in Loch Maddy (p. 83). In 
autumn first seen at Bell Rock on i7th September. 

S. SPECTABILIS (King Eider). On island of Graemsay, Orkney, 
ad. $ shot on 2ist February ("Annals," 1906, p. 116). One 
observed by Alex. Ross near Kintra at the south of Laggan 
Bay, Islay, on 25th July. 

CEDEMIA FUSCA (Velvet-Scoter). Enormous flocks ("thousands") 
at Largo Bay on 6th June. " Have records of this and the 
common species all through the year " (Leonora J. Rintoul and 
Evelyn V. Baxter). An ad. ( $ ) found dead at Eoligary, Barra, 
on 25th November (p. 116). Another ad. ( 9 ) washed up on 
ist December at the Fair Isle. 



REPORT ON SCOTTISH ORNITHOLOGY FOR 1906 199 

CE. PERSPICILLATA (Surf-Scoter). At Stromness, i4th to 2ist 
December, an ad. <J ("Annals," 1906, p. 117). 

MERGUS MERGANSER (Goosander). At Kirk o' Muir, Carronside, 
in February, an ad. (<j) ("Annals," 1906, p. 117). One (<$) 
off Barra on 22nd May, "a rare occurrence in the Outer 
Hebrides " (p. 83). One on the loch at Spiggie on 7th October. 

M. SERRATOR (Red-breasted Merganser). About thirty at Swordale 
on 6th February. One at Balcomie (Crail) on 24th April. 
On 25th May, at Luss (Loch Lomond), with young on the water 
and nest with nine fresh eggs. On nth July, at Swordale, one 
( 5 ) with twenty-six young in her company. Two on the Eden 
(Fife) on loth August. 

M. ALBELLUS (Smew). One, shot at Kirkconnel, reached Mr. Service 
on 2nd January, 1907 (p. 113). Seen several times in the 
Sound of Harris in February, but no males (p. 114). 

COLUMBA PALUMBUS (Ring-Dove). One found dead at the Flannans 
on 1 4th May. On 8th June one shot at Grogary, "only a 
few occur in the Uists and Barra" (p. 83). 

C. CENAS (Stock-Dove). Three nests with eggs on i5th April in 
Bute, one set hard incubated, and on i4th July, in same locality, 
two nests with fresh eggs. Four Stock-doves observed in Cleg- 
horn Woods, Lanark, on ist May. 

C. LIVIA (Rock-Dove). On i5th April in Bute two nests with 
young, one lot fourteen days old. 

TURTUR COMMUNIS (Turtle-Dove). An immature bird on 25th 
September at the Fair Isle (p. 79). 

SYRRHAPTES PARADOXUS (Pallas's Sand-Grouse). A flock of six seen 
on some "well-known links" in East Lothian (The Field, 2nd 
June, 1906, p. 901). [A very doubtful record. EDS.] 

TETRAOUROGALLUs(Capercaillie). Hen shot atTorphins (Aberdeen) 
(p. 117). August-November, two at Bavelaw, Midlothian (pp. 
51-52). On the Binn Hill, near Elgin, in October, two 6* and 
one $ ; at Gordon Castle Woods about thirty, and at Pluscarden 
towards the end of the year one ( o* ) killed, " and there are two 
more ( $ and $ ) left " (p. 5 2). 

T. TETRIX (Black Grouse). Hybrid with Pheasant, shot at Barcaple 
(Kirkcudbright) January 1906 (Bull. B. O. Club, 1906, p. 54, 
"Annals," 1906, p. 239). 

LAGOPUS SCOTICUS (Red Grouse). Young seen on iSth May at 
Crosswood, W. Calder. Kinnear notes Barra birds very dark, 
but found the Lews birds so light that he was much struck 
with them (p. 83). In N. Uist, a few, decreasing (p. 114). 



200 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

L. MUTUS (Ptarmigan). One practically at sea-level in South Uist 
on ist June (p. 83). 

PHASIANUS COLCHICUS (Pheasant). Near Edinburgh on 2gth April 
nest with fourteen eggs (Binnie). 

PERDIX CINEREA (Partridge). At Kirkliston lays on 26th April. 
At Gilston (Fife) on 3rd June nest and sixteen eggs. 

COTURNIX COMMUNIS (Quail). This species was heard during July 
calling in the fields adjoining the links at Balcomie (Crail) by 
the writer. Two were taken in Fife during the summer, one 
at Freuchie and the other at Inverkeilor (p. 117). One got at 
Sandside, Reay, on 3oth September. 

CREX PRATENSIS (Corn-crake). There are usually reports of the 
appearance of this species in April from several localities, but 
this year the earliest reports are Burntisland and Lennoxlove 
(Haddington) ist May. Kinnear was told that it was scarcer 
than usual round Stornoway this year (p. 84). Still calling at 
Crossmyloof (Glasgow) and Fairlie (Ayr) on 6th August. One 
shot at Lahill (Fife) on 26th September, and one killed i8th 
October at Unst (p. 50). 

PORZANA MARUETTA (Spotted Crake). One shot at Stornoway on 
i5th October (The Field, loth November 1906, p. 822). 

RALLUS AQUATICUS (Water-Rail). One seen in N. Uist on 6th 
February ("Annals," 1906, p. 114). Young one unable to fly 
in Tiree in August (Lc. p. 237). At the Pentland Skerries on 
9th October and i2th. Two at Spiggie on i7th. In the 
Fair Isle observed from 28th September till December (p. 79). 

GRUS COMMUNIS (Crane). One shot near Stornoway on the i4th 
May (p. 84), and another observed two days later in North 
Shetland (p. 50). 

EUDROMIAS MORINELLUS (Dotterel). A bird of the year received 
in the flesh in September from the Flannans (p. 53). 

^EGIALITIS HIATICOLA (Ringed Plover). Three newly hatched 
young on 7th August, in Fife. "No nests this year [Fife] 
with over three eggs and several birds sitting on two." 

CHARADRIUS PLUVIALIS (Golden Plover). One black-breasted at 
Cardross, i3th February. At Swordale a pair returned to 
Moor on i9th March and reported on Mearns Moor 
(E. Renfrew) on 25th. In the last named locality had eggs 
by 22nd April, well incubated, and on 29th observed one 
" on her nest, her neck was stretched full out, and her head 
rested on the ground while the wings were slightly extended " 
(Robert Wilson). In October and November at Skerryvore 
a few two or three daily from the north, proceeding S. after 



REPORT ON SCOTTISH ORNITHOLOGY FOR 1906 201 

a rest. A conspicuous feature of the fields around Glasgow 
until after the snow on i3th December, when it practically 
disappeared, any that were left clearing out after the snow- 
storm on Christmas night. An unprecedented rush of thousands 
took place over Tiree from the igth to the 23rd. They pro- 
ceeded southward anticipating the great snow-storm of 26th 
to 28th (p. 117). 

SQUATAROLA HELVETICA (Grey Plover). One on the Tyne estuary 
on 1 2th May (W. Evans) ; a few wintered at Spiggie (Shetland), 
which is very unusual (p. 117). In E. Ross (Swordale) from 
i gth September till 20th November, there being "a good 
many" on 2oth October. In East Fife from loth August (7) 
and 1 8th (14) till gth October in small numbers. In Ayrshire 
at Girvan on 23rd September (i), and at Fairlie 6th September 
(i), 6th October (i), ist November (2). 

VANELLUS VULGARIS (Lapwing). Returned to Carmichael (Lanark) 
6th February, spring call at Kirkliston 22nd, and near Glasgow 
28th. Returned to Crosswood, West Calder, 3rd March (5); 
Swordale, 4th (a few) ; Mearns Moor, 25th. First nest Swordale, 
4th April; Kirkliston, i3th; at Tentsmuir on i6th June, 
"still has eggs." In autumn, 24th September, at Pentland 
Skerries, a flock passing S.E. being the first seen for six weeks. 
Swarming along three miles of shore at Fairlie (Ayr) 6th 
October, but very scarce by the igth, when not more than fifty 
seen all afternoon. About a hundred pass south at Spiggie 
on nth October. After the snow which fell in the Glasgow 
district on i3th December they practically disappeared. 

STREPSILAS INTERPRES (Turnstone). At the Bell Rock on i3th 
April (3); Whitberry Point, near Dunbar, ten "beauties" on 
1 2th May (W. Evans). Fairly numerous in Bute on igth 
May. On i7th July Skerryvore visited by twenty-five which 
passed on to Ireland (p. 22). Fairlie (Ayr), 25th August (2) ; 
Mull, 5th and igth September, in large numbers on both dates ; 
23rd, Girvan (30); igth October, Fairlie (16); 24th, Pentland 
Skerries, thirty or forty. 

H.EMATOPUS OSTRALEGUS (Oyster-Catcher). First pair arrived Sule 
Skerry, 1 8th February, six on 2 5 th. At the Flannans two on 2 oth 
March; return to breeding ground, Swordale, on 315:. Three 
"chicks" at Fairlie, 4th August, on which date the species is 
observed at the Bell Rock. On i3th November at Largo 
Bay one with a broken wing when approached took to the 
water and swam a long way out, " as well as any duck." 

PHALAROPUS FULICARIUS (Grey Phalarope). At the Flannans on 
1 8th May (i), igth (2); Bell Rock, 6th to gth September, 
one remained feeding three days. 



202 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

SCOLOPAX RUSTICULA (Woodcock). In North Uist not so numerous 
as usual (February) ("Annals," 1906, p. 114). One flushed 
from two young at Swordale, ist July. First seen at Spiggie 
on 6th October; fifteen were shot on Fitful Head on 23rd. 
A considerable number seen throughout the winter (p. 118). 

GALLINAGO MAJOR (Great Snipe). One on the Fair Isle on 5th 
September (p. 79). 

G. CCELESTIS (Common Snipe). Not so numerous as usual in 
N. Uist ("Annals," 1906, p. 114) on 4th February, on which 
date one drumming. At Crosswood, West Calder, drumming 
on 3ist March. Some that had been at Sule Skerry all winter 
disappeared early in April. At Gilston (Fife) nest with four 
eggs on 3rd May. More than usual at Inverbroom on 26th 
December. 

G. GALLINULA (Jack Snipe). In February not so numerous as 
usual in N. Uist ("Annals," 1906, p. 114). One shot near 
Loch Spynie on loth August, and another reported from 
Pitgaveny (The Field, 25th August 1906, p. 342); "supposed" 
to breed in Shetland ("Annals," 1906, p. 239). First shot at 
Swordale, 24th October. 

TRINGA ALPINA (Dunlin). At Crosswood, W. Calder, on i2th 
April (2), and on 29th April one at Hogganfield and three at 
Bishop Loch on passage, both localities near Glasgow. In 
last few days of May in South Uist a great many which must 
have been chiefly migrants (p. 84). Young, newly hatched, in 
Fife on 5th June; young on Mearns Moor (E. Renfrew) on 
1 5th, "very scarce here this season." In numbers in Mull on 
5th September. A pair at Pentland Skerries on 1 2th October. 

T. MINUTA (Little Stint). One obtained on Fair Isle on i4th August 
(p. 79). On 1 6th August one on the Eden (Fife), and 
on 1 5th September in same locality, two. One at Spiggie on 
6th October. 

T. SUBARQUATA (Curlew-Sandpiper). At the mouth of the Eden 
(Fife) on i5th September, two. 

T. STRIATA (Purple Sandpiper). From 5th February till 25th May, 
in small numbers at the Flannans. At Crail several on 3rd 
April; at Bell Rock, two on i3th. On island off Barra, half- 
a-dozen in last days of May (p. 84). Two at Elie on 2oth 
July. About fifty at Sule Skerry on i4th August. At 
Balcomie (Fife) a few on i4th October. 

T. CANUTUS (Knot). Several at the Eden on 5th June, at Aberlady 
Bay on i8th July (eleven) (W. Evans). Flocks at the Eden 
1 8th August till 1 5th September. At Fairlie (Ayr) about 
twenty on 3rd September. 



REPORT ON SCOTTISH ORNITHOLOGY FOR 1906 203 

CALIDRIS ARENARIA (Sanderling). Three at Largo on 6th June, and 
a small flock in South Uist and Benbecula in this month 
(p. 84). Several at Largo on yth August, and the Eden on 
iith. Two in Mull on 5th September, and one in Swordale 
6th, two 8th October. 

MACHETES PUGNAX (Ruff). Over a dozen in one flock on ist 
September at Spiggie, Dunrossness, Shetland ("Annals," 1906, 
p. 239). 

TOTANUS HYPOLEUCUS (Common Sandpiper). Cloverhill, Broughton, 
26th March. West Calder, nth; Caldwell and Beith, i2th; 
and Clyde at Newton, i3th; Carmichael (Lanark), zyth April. 
Eggs slightly incubated at Broomlee on 22nd May (Binnie). 
On 2ist July from Balcomie to Crail in every ditch and wet 
place where as a rule there are none. " Evidently just passing." 
Last seen at Swordale (E. Ross) on 8th August. 

T. OCHROPUS (Green Sandpiper). Dunbarnie Links, near Largo, 
23rd August (W. Evans). Fair Isle, one on ;th and i4th 
September (p. 79). Locharbriggs (Dumfries) one ( $ ) shot, 
29th December (p. 113). 

T. CALIDRIS (Redshank). Cloverhill, Broughton, iyth March; 
Crosswood, W. Calder, two arrived i8th; returned to Mearns 
Moor 25th, and to Swordale on 6th April. In Mull on 6th 
July, passing N.W. On 6th October flock of 150 at Fairlie 
(Ayr), mostly young. 

T. CANESCENS (Greenshank). Fairly numerous in N. Uist in 
February (" Annals," 1906, p. 114). At Waulkmill Glen Dam 
(E. Renfrew) on 2ist January a pair, i8th February one, 2gth 
July one, 5th August two ; Kilchattan, Bute, one on 8th 
April; Crosswood, W. Calder, on i3th May, two; near North 
Berwick, 25th August, one (W. Evans); at Fairlie (Ayr) on 
nth and 25th August (i), 3rd September (3), 5th (2), 6th 
(4); at Swordale (E. Ross) on 2oth October (2); Salen, Mull, 
on 22nd October (2) ; ;th November (3). 

LIMOSA LAPPONICA (Bar-tailed Godwit). In N. Uist on 6th February, 
flocks (20, 10, and 40) ("Annals," 1906, p. 114). Large flocks 
at Eden mouth on i8th June. Fourteen (one a fine red bird) 
at Aberlady Bay, i8th July (W. Evans). Eden on icth August 
a "good many." Large flocks on the Dornoch Firth on 26th 
September. 

NUMENIUS ARQUATA (Common Curlew). Arrived Crosswood, 
W. Calder, on 3rd March ; Mearns Moor, same date ; Caldwell, 
4th ; Cloverhill, Broughton, gth ; and left Sule Skerry about 
25th April. Seen at the Bell Rock on 4th August, and twelve 
arrived for winter on 6th August. On the 23rd numbers 



204 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

passing eastward (? from Pentland Moors to the shores of the 
Forth) over Morningside late in evening. Flock seen at 
Pentland Skerries on 28th September. 

N. PH^OPUS (Whimbrel). Numbers in Barra throughout May 
(p. 85). Northward movement general from yth May till 8th 
June. One at Aberlady on i8th July (W. Evans), and another 
at Garroch Head, Bute, on 2oth. Small numbers Elie and 
Eden mouth, 26th July till i8th August. 

STERNA CANTIACA (Sandwich Tern). At Crail several on 24th 
April, North Berwick 2gth. Quite a fair-sized flock at Loch 
of Strathbeg on 2yth July ("Annals," 1906, p. 239). Parties 
of varying size continually passed south at Balcomie (E. Fife) 
from 10.15 A - M - till 4.15 P.M. on 6th October. 

S. FLUVIATILIS (Common Tern). First report 29th April at North 
Berwick ; 3rd May, Bell Rock (6) ; 5th, large flock ; 8th, Largo 
Bay, evidently just arrived, "any number" sitting on the sand 
very tired ; nth, Pentland Skerries, numbers flying over island 
till 2ist when they settled; gth, Elliot sands, numerous 
"terns"; many nests and eggs in Fife by i3th June, but 
numbers less than usual in proportion to birds (Largo). At 
Tarrsgeir, a small rock south of Texa, off Port Ellen, Islay, a 
colony of 400 pairs nesting in July (Alex. Ross). At North 
Ronaldshay, i3th to 24th August, great numbers. Leaving 
from 2yth at Sule Skerry. When undisturbed usually leave 
Pentland Skerries first week in August. This year strangers 
robbed many nests in June, 1 and consequently large numbers of 
young were late. The young strong on the wing left early in 
August as usual. Last seen Bell Rock i4th September. 
Numbers of both species at the Fair Isle nth to i3th, and 
again on 2oth September (pp. 79, 80). Stragglers at the East 
Neuk of Fife till gth October (4). 

S. MACRURA (Arctic Tern). At Loch of Sandwick, Whalsay, on 
29th May. With Common Terns at the Fair Isle in September 
(see previous species). Thousands at Nigg Sands, Swordale, 
on 1 4th August, and five at Dornoch on 2yth September (two 
young running after parents for food). 

S. MINUTA (Little Tern). Ness of Sound on yth June (5) ; Fife, 
1 8th June, nests with two and three eggs ; six pairs in one 
nesting locality in Outer Hebrides (p. 85). Spiggie on 6th 
October (i), passing east. 

LARUS RIDIBUNDUS (Black-headed Gull). Assumes hood, " Clyde " 
on 1 2th February, Kirkliston xyth, and Garscadden i8th. On 
22nd March great flocks arrived N. Ronaldshay "presumably 
for season." At the great colony at Harelaw Dam (E. Renfrew), 

[' In Pentland Skerries? EDS.] 



REPORT ON SCOTTISH ORNITHOLOGY FOR 1906 205 

laying only beginning on 2ist April. First appeared Whalsay 
on 22nd April. A colony of about fifty pairs nesting at the 
Little Loch (E. Renfrew) disappeared 7th May, all the nests 
having been destroyed. In Mull on 3rd July first seen on 
return from nesting. Noup Head loth July (16). Winter 
plumage, Edinburgh, i2th August. 

L. FUSCUS (Lesser Black-backed Gull). Appears in Mull on 5th 
April. Last seen there 22nd September. On 4th November 
at Bishop Loch, near Glasgow, several. Appearances at this 
season of this migratory gull deserve attention. 

L. GLAUCUS (Glaucous Gull). One at Southerness (Solway) in 
mid-September. Two at Sule Skerry on ;th November. 

L. LEUCOPTERUS (Iceland Gull). At Ullapool on 28th January (i) 
("Annals," 1906, p. 115). In Tobermory Bay, Mull, one, 
immature, for a fortnight in December. One on xoth December 
at the Fair Isle (p. 80). 

RISSA TRIDACTYLA (Kittiwake Gull). At the Bell Rock on 2ist 
February and i2th March flocks flying south. Several at 
the Flannans on 2oth March. Arrived at Treshnish Isles 
on 3rd April. 

PAGOPHILA EBURNEA (Ivory Gull). One in North Uist in June 

(P- 85). 

STERCORARIUS POMATORHINUS (Pomatorhine Skua). An immature 
female obtained on the Fair Isle on 27th November (p. 80). 

S. CREPIDATUS (Arctic Skua). Loch of Sandwick, Whalsay, 2 9th 
May, a number. Between nth June and 8th October in 
East Fife small numbers thirteen being of the dark form, 
three light, and one not noted. 

S. PARASITICUS (Buffon's Skua). On Unst on 3oth May one killed, 
the second obtained in eight years (p. 50). One (6*) shot on 
the hills at Morvern, 1 Argyll, in the first days of June (p. 186). 
Another ( cO at Morven, Caithness, about 7th June. One with 
" extremely long " middle tail feathers reported from Balcomie 
on 5th October, and another shot at Lochnabhraon on 6th. 

ALCA TORDA (Razorbill). Seen in numbers about the Flannans from 
1 3th February and arrived to stay on 2Oth March. Seen sitting 
on the cliffs at Noup Head on 2 2nd ; before that date swimming 
and flying about. From the end of July till the middle of 
September a great continuous mortality of this and the next 
species in Solway (p. 53). At Balcomie on 8th October with 
fresh south wind "from 10.15 A - M - when we got out . . . till 
it was too dark to see, a constant stream " passed south. Till 

1 " Morvern " is rarely used, and " Morven," Argyll ; " Morven," Caithness ; 
and " Morven," Aberdeenshire, is more in general use. J. A. H.-B. 



206 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

i P.M. they came fast and thick with a large proportion of big 
flocks, thereafter the stream seemed to slacken. On gth (with 
a south-east wind) the movement continued, though not so fast 
and furious. After two days of very thick fog and other two 
of varying conditions, during which time no migration was 
observed, the movement was again resumed on the i4th, many 
Razor-bills, Guillemots, and Long-tailed ducks passing, all going 
south, between 10 A.M. and i P.M., slackening towards the latter 
hour. On the i6th a distinct northward movement, a lot 
flying off that way either in small parties or singly. 

URIA TROILE. (Guillemot). At Noup Head appearing in dozens 
from 1 7th February till there were many swimming and flying 
about. They were sitting on the cliffs on 2ist March, and are 
reported at the Flannans as having arrived to stay on the 
previous day. On the i5th of August they were all away from 
Noup Head. On 6th October there was a great arrival at 
Balcomie with a west wind. There were again some parties 
passing there among the Razorbills on the 8th and i4th. 

MERGULUS ALLE (Little Auk). East Neuk of Fife, 8th October (2) ; 
Dunbar, one got on 8th December (Evans) ; North Berwick, 
29th December. 

FRATERCULA ARCTICA (Puffin). At the Flannans, one on 6th April, 
several on the Qth, hundreds on the i2th. On last-named date 
at Noup Head great numbers, the first this year. On the i3th 
at Sule Skerry great numbers arrived for breeding. Returned 
to Treshnish Isles and Staffa on i6th. A white one seen at 
Sule Skerry on ist June. Leaving Sule Skerry from loth 
August and last seen 2nd September. All away from Noup 
Head i2th August. Flocks flying N. at the Bell Rock on 
1 4th- 1 5th October. 

COLYMBUS ARCTICUS (Black-throated Diver). One at Largo Bay on 
6th June. Some at St. Andrews on i6th August. 

C. SEPTENTRIONALIS (Red-throated Diver). The (same ?) pair 
nesting for eight years past at a freshwater loch in Mull returned 
mid-April. Several at Lerwick 2nd May. Four at Largo Bay 
on 8th May. One at Bute on ipth. Some at St. Andrews 
on 1 6th August. One at the Fair Isle on loth September 
(p. 80). 

PODICIPES CRISTATUS (Great-crested Grebe). Reappears in E. 
Renfrew (Balgray) on 4th March. Nest and five eggs on i3th 
in E. Renfrew. 

P. GRISEIGENA (Red-necked Grebe). One at the Eden, St. Andrews, 
27th January, and another on i2th September. 



REPORT ON SCOTTISH ORNITHOLOGY FOR 1906 207 

P. NIGRICOLLIS (Eared Grebe). One shot by Chas. Berry at 
Lendalfoot (Ayr) on 2yth January. "Not the Slavonian but 
the one with the bill turned a little upwards, especially the lower 
mandible." This is a new species to the " Clyde " list. 

PODICIPES FLUVIATILIS (Little Grebe). At Mishnish Lochs on nth 
March. Back at nesting place, Edinburgh, on 24th. Builds 
at Kirkliston on i5th April, and clutch of six eggs there on 24th 
June. 

PROCELLARIA PELAGICA (Storm-Petrel). About the beginning of 
June at Lunga, Treshnish, one with a white throat (" Annals," 
1906, p. 186). 

OCEANODROMA LEUCORRHOA (Leach's Fork-tailed Petrel). First 
observed at the Flannans on i6th April ; there were several there 
on 8th May. After one of the gales in the end of November 
examples were found at Dunscore, Lochar Moss, and Castlemilk 
respectively all Dumfriesshire localities. 

PUFFINUS ANGLORUM (Manx Shearwater). Seen in the Firth of Forth 
from the latter part of May till the end of Autumn. " Not so 
plentiful as I have in some years seen them " (W. Evans). 
A few seen late in May till early July at the Fair Isle (p. 80). 

FULMARUS GLACIALIS (Fulmar). Appeared at the Fair Isle on iyth 
January (p. 80). At the Flannans 4th February (5), i2th (6). 
Isle Ornsay (Skye), one seen 25th July ("Annals," 1906, p. 
240). Whalsay, two small colonies. Eight to twelve pairs 
now at Barra Head (p. 85). Fifteen pairs below the Light- 
house at Dunnet Head, and one pair three miles on the Thurso 
side of the Head (p. 1 1 8). " Quite a large colony " on Yell 
this year (Annals, 1906, p. 240). "Say two dozen" at Noup 
Head on iyth November. 

CORRECTIONS. P. 140, under F. MONTIFRINGILLA, for Largs read Largo ; 
p. 143, under STRIX FLAMMEA, read 27th January, not July. 

Acknowledgments for assistance are due to the following 
contributors : In the northern group of localities John R. 
Laurence, Pentland Skerries ; Kenneth Sinclair, North 
Ronaldshay ; John Edgar, Noup Head ; the Lightkeepers, 
Sule Skerry ; T. Edmonston Saxby, L.R.C.S., F.R.Met.Soc., 
etc., Baltasound ; John S. Tulloch, Lerwick ; Thomas 
Henderson, jun., Spiggie. On the East of Scotland Lewis 
Dunbar, Thurso ; Annie Jackson, Swordale, Easter Ross ; 
the Keepers, Bell Rock Lighthouse, per R. Clyne, Signal 
Tower, Arbroath ; T. F. Dewar, M.D., D.Sc, Forfar ; 
Leonora J. Rintoul, Lahill, Largo, and Evelyn V. Baxter, 



208 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

Gilston, Colinsburgh ; A. C. Gairns, Cloverhill, Broughton ; 
D. J. Balfour Kirke, Burntisland ; Wm. French Little, 
Crosswood Reservoir, West Calder ; Wm. Evans, Edinburgh ; 
S. E. Brock, Kirkliston ; Wm. Binnie, Edinburgh ; Rev. H. 
N. Bonar ; W. M. Ingles, North Berwick. In the West 
and South- West Robert Anderson, Flannan Islands ; Lady 
Fowler's family, Inverbroom ; D. MacDonald, Tobermory ; 
T. Thornton MacKeith, Caldwell ; John Robertson, Robert 
Wilson, and Alex. Ross, Glasgow ; John Craig, Beith ; 
Chas. Berry, Lendalfoot ; Rev. J. D. W. Gibson, Carmichael ; 
James Bartholomew, Beattock ; Robert Service, Dumfries ; 
Wm. Begg, Douglashead Lighthouse. 

1150 CATHCART ROAD, GLASGOW. 



SOME BIRD NOTES FROM THE OUTER 
HEBRIDES DURING A MONTH SPENT 
THERE, MAY-JUNE 1907. 

By P. H. BAHR, B.A., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 

I SHALL endeavour to make these notes supplementary to a 
paper contributed by my friend, Mr. N. B. Kinnear, in the 
"Annals" for January and April 1907, which in turn have 
enabled us to bring the information contained in Mr. Harvie- 
Brown's " Appendix " more up to date. In addition to 
enumerating the various species observed, a few of which 
have not been previously recorded at this time of the year, 
I intend more especially to deal with certain traits and 
habits incidentally observed during my efforts to obtain 
characteristic photographs of certain of them. Though 
such photography has been stigmatised by some as useless, 
yet more certainly has it had the effect of causing more 
careful observation of the home life of even our commonest 
species, and many new and interesting facts have come to 
light. As such, then, I present these few and meagre 
observations, hoping that they may still prove of interest 

1 "Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist.," April, July, October 1902, January 1903. 



SOME BIRD NOTES FROM THE OUTER HEBRIDES 209 

to the readers of the " Annals." I am no collector of skins 
or eggs, and I do not wish in any way to imperil the 
already overharassed members of our avifauna. I am 
greatly indebted to those who allowed me to stray over 
their valuable preserves, and hope, by publishing these 
notes, I am in no way betraying the localities in which 
certain species, dear to the collector, were observed. 

SONG THRUSH, Turdus musicus, Linn. It is generally recognised 
that this species is on the increase. According to my 
experience they are not found so much in the gardens, even 
such as contain bushes, as among the wooded islands in 
even the wildest lochs. On 2ist June I disturbed several 
from such islands, where, amongst the ruins of some long- 
forgotten castle, they appeared to find an abundance of snails, 
et hoc genus omne. It is to be noted that I did not find 
any on islands where the Gulls bred, nor could I find any 
nests. The specimens I saw were all of the dark variety. On 
another occasion I saw one on the moors by the side of the 
road. Only once did I hear their song, and that was at Loch 
Boisdale on my way home on 2yth June. I imagine that they 
were deterred from singing by the execrable weather. Under 
no circumstances does one appreciate the beauty of the song 
more than when, above the shrieking of the Gulls, it resounds 
from some lonely den, re-echoing from the hillsides as it falls 
on the observer's ear. 

BLACKBIRD, Turdus merula, Linn. As on the last occasion I visited 
these islands, so on this, my experience was limited to a single 
pair, probably the same ; these were feeding on the borders of 
the aforementioned loch, and appeared to inhabit the same 
islands as the Thrushes. 

STONECHAT, Pratincola rubicola, Linn. Unless this species too be 
on the increase, it would appear to be much more abundant 
than has been supposed. Some five pairs were observed in 
S. Uist, even in the wildest parts of the island ; they all 
appeared to be breeding, but no young ones were observed. 

WHITETHROAT, Sylvia cinerea, Bech. Whereas last year we only 
saw a single bird during our travels, this, on the other hand, I 
heard no less than three individuals singing: two on 2gth 
May on an island which served as a nesting site for the 
Black-throated Diver, and one two days later on an island in 
another loch. That at least one of these was resident would 
appear from the fact that I heard it on subsequent occasions. ' 

SWALLOW, Hirundo rustica, Linn. This species would seem to have 
been especially numerous this year, owing no doubt to the 
64 C 



210 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

stormy weather, which blew many out of their course. Thus 
after a storm from the S.E. two were seen in S. Uist on -?ist 

tj 

May. Again on 4th June two more. The keepers tell me that 
several years ago they nested at Grogary Lodge. On another 
occasion, 8th June, after another gale three more were seen. 

HOUSE MARTIN, Chelidon nrbica, Linn. A single example, which 
is new to the list, was seen after a violent gale (from no 
particular direction, as it blew from all quarters) on 4th June. 

TWITE, Linota flavirostris, Linn. This in the Outer Isles represents 
the Sparrow elsewhere. Its nests are found abundantly, not 
only in the cultivated parts, but high up on the barren moors 
far from human habitation. In some stunted sycamore trees 
we found four nests on 27th June. Some of the eggs were 
partly incubated. I marvelled at the manner in which the 
eggs remained in the nest when perilously swaying in the 
storm. On 5th June a patch of gorse yielded five nests : two 
which contained six eggs, one young birds. 

STARLING, Sturnus vittgaris, Linn. This bird has become even 
more numerous than last year. Numbers nest amongst the 
stones on which the foundation of the roadway is built. The 
young were all flying by gth June. 

RAVEN, Corvus corax. Linn. Of these we saw but little. Once 
while photographing an Oyster Catcher on her nest, a 
particularly miserable specimen passed over. The Oyster 
Catchers immediately gave chase, and so discovered us in our 
lair. This specimen was in full moult, and many of its 
primaries were missing. 

SKYLARK, Alauda arvemis, Linn. The skylark's song sounds to me 
the sweetest when heard above the raging of the storm : no 
amount of rain seems able to damp their spirits. In these 
islands the nests are sometimes found miles away from any 
others of their kind, out on the moors. Last year I found one 
close to that of a Wild Goose, some seven miles from the 
nearest piece of cultivated ground. This bird is a very good 
mimic, and is able to imitate the call notes of many shore birds 
to perfection. At the end of May, when searching for Dunlins' 
nests, we were often misled by hearing their characteristic trill, 
which, on further investigation, proved to proceed from this 
versatile songster's throat. That they are able to reproduce 
these notes, even before their rightful owners have arrived, goes 
far to prove that their memory serves to last from one season 
to another. In like manner I have heard them reproduce the 
love-song of the Ringed Plover, and even the shrill notes of 
the Oyster Catcher, interspersed, of course, with snatches of 
their original composition. In other parts where the Redshank 



SOME BIRD NOTES FROM THE OUTER HEBRIDES 211 

is common, his plaintive whistle makes a welcome addition to 
the Skylark's repertoire. 

NIGHTJAR, Cafrimulgus eiiroptzus, Linn. This species is an 
addition to the list. After an extra violent gale from the S.E. 
we saw one, evidently exhausted, on the " machair " (the low- 
lying ground) on 2nd June. It was being mobbed by Pewits 
and Gulls. 

CUCKOO, Citcuhis canorus, Linn. This was a bad year for Cuckoos. 
Whereas last year they were fairly common, this I heard but 
two, and that not till igth June. I often wonder what attrac- 
tions they can possibly find in such a barren place. 

BARN OWL, Strix flammea, Linn. In his "Appendix" to the Avi- 
fauna of the Outer Hebrides, Mr. Harvie-Brown includes 
this species in brackets. I do not know whether such evidence 
as I can supply will be of sufficient importance for these to be 
removed. I heard its peculiar cry about midnight on 
several occasions about yth June, but was never in the twilight 
able to detect the author. 

SHORT-EARED OWL, Asia acdpitrinus, Pall. Though observed in 
comparatively plentiful numbers last year, not a single specimen 
was in evidence this. This fact would be in accord with the 
well-known sporadic habits of this species. 

HEN HARRIER, Cyrcus cyaneus, Linn. Males were observed 
plentifully last year. I had not caught a glimpse of one on 
this occasion till near the end of our stay. On 25th June 
I flushed a female in a little-frequented spot. She flew round 
my head, uttering cries of anxiety. The cause thereof was 
found to be a solitary young one about fourteen days old, still 
covered with down, with bright yellow cere and talons. He 
was sitting on a few twigs of heather under a rock on the side 
of a steep incline. From its rude structure, the nest 
appeared to have been recently made ; the real nest was 
found thirty yards farther on amongst some deep heather. 
No trace of young or egg-shells could be detected on the 
original site. It would appear that the young one had been 
removed by the parents, and not washed out by some newly 
formed torrent ; for the new nest was not below the original 
one, but thirty yards to one side of it, on the same horizontal 
level. I am glad to be able to report that the keepers, acting 
on instructions from headquarters, did not attempt to shoot the 
old birds, and spared the life of their offspring. 

PEREGRINE, Fako peregrimts, Tunstall. On i3th June a fine pair 
were shot off some sea-girt rocks by the keepers, presumably 
in the neighbourhood of their nest. The female, a particularly 
fine specimen, weighed 2 Ibs., her mate | Ib. less. The male 



212 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

above had an incubation mark, and this was an oval spot some 
2\ x 1 1 inches, situated on the lower part of the abdomen. 
The stomach contained the remains of at least three young 
birds, one of which was a Duckling, the other two looked like 
young Black-headed Gulls. The carcass of this Peregrine was 
devoured by Common Gulls How are the mighty fallen ! 
During the evening of i5th June, I saw a fine specimen fly 
over, chased by every bird in the vicinity. I first became 
aware of his approach by the shrieking of the Pewits, who rose 
in a black cloud, having detected their enemy long before we 
could see him. The Oyster Catchers all sounded their alarm 
note, and an angry buzzing told us that the Black-headed Gulls 
had all been aroused. The excitement continued long after its 
author had vanished into space. The next morning we dis- 
covered the cause in the shape of the carcass of a freshly killed 
Black-headed Gull. 

KESTREL, Fako tinnunculus, Linn. Of late years has become 
scarcer, but now more plentiful again. In the stomach of a 
male shot from the nest on i2th June the remains of three 
mice were found. 

HERON, Ardea cinerea, Linn. Was extremely common this year 
both on fresh-water and sea lochs. 

GREY LAG GOOSE, Anser cinereus, Mayer. By 28th May all the 
Geese had hatched off. The commonest number of young 
was five. By 25th June all old, and young, had collected on a 
solitary hill loch, where they were to be seen in great quantities, 
when they had, for the most part, begun to moult. In fact, 
I only saw two which could fly. The primary feathers were 
found on the islands scattered in great profusion. On this 
loch I counted no less than 147 adults, entirely omitting the 
numerous young, which, I think, shows that no diminution in 
their numbers is taking place. When swimming with their 
young they are able, by stretching out their necks and sinking 
their bodies, to make themselves well-nigh invisible. On these 
occasions the gander leads the way, and his mate brings up 
the rear. 

BERNACLE GOOSE, Bernida leucopsis, Bech. A fine specimen in 
full plumage frequented the fresh-water lochs and sea-front on 
2oth June and subsequent days and then disappeared. It 
appeared to have no desire to associate with the Grey Lag. 

MUTE SWAN, Cygnus olor, Gmelin. A number of these swans are 
commonly to be seen flying about. The noise caused by 
the vibration of their primaries carries to a great distance. 
With a flock numbering some seven individuals, a Black Swan 
was seen associating. This is the second occasion on which 
this exotic species has been observed. 



SOME BIRD NOTES FROM THE OUTER HEBRIDES 213 

SHOVELLER, Anas dypeata, Linn. Is still on the increase. We found 
two nests this year, one on 2 8th May. This contained eleven 
eggs, and was in exactly the same position as the one we 
found last year. The young had all hatched off by lyth June, 
when not a vestige of the down or egg-shells remained one is 
at a loss to know what happens to it. In the beginning of 
June we constantly observed a Mallard drake associating with 
a Shoveller duck, seemingly paired to her. In a collection made 
in these islands there is a remarkable variety of the Mallard 
which is to all appearances a hybrid between that species and 
the Shoveller. 

PINTAIL, Dafila acuta, Linn. Though a single drake was seen last 
year in the middle of June, we were unable to obtain any 
evidence that they remain to breed. None were seen this 
year. 

TEAL, Nettion crecca, Linn. Were abundant this year. By the 2oth 
of June females were seen with young. One of the keepers 
found a nest containing sixteen eggs. 

WIGEON, Mareca penelope, Linn. A pair was seen last year, in the 
middle of June. No traces of any could be found this season. 

TUFTED DUCK, Fuligula cristata, Leach. A nest with nine eggs 
was found in the same hollow, which contained a Scaup's nest 
with a similar number last year. These are to all intents and 
purposes the same in both species, though the down differs. 
Unless special steps had been taken, a mistake in identity might 
easily have occurred. Only one pair of these ducks were seen, 
as compared with four times that number last year. By i yth 
June these eggs had all hatched off, and again every vestige 
of down and egg-shell had disappeared. 

SCAUP, Fuligula mania, Linn. I think it is well known that duck 
are especially erratic in regard to their appearance in a 
locality. Last season we observed no less than five pairs ; this, 
on the other hand, not a single specimen was seen. 

GOLDEN-EYE, Clangula glaucion, Linn. On agth May, amid the 
wintry storms we were treated to, two pairs of Golden-eye 
appeared and stayed till 8th June, raising hopes that they 
might breed, though in the absence of trees they would have 
had to exercise their wits to find suitable nesting-holes. They 
were composed of two females, a fine drake in full plumage, 
and a sombre-coloured one of the same sex with white spot but 
faintly marked. 

LONG-TAILED DUCK, Harelda glacialis, Linn. This duck is not 
common off these coasts during the summer. A pair in full 
summer plumage were seen out at sea on 8th June. 



2i 4 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

SCOTER, CEdemia nigra, Linn. A pair were seen in the same locality, 
namely, an inlet of the sea, on two occasions, 2oth and 251)1 
June. It is quite possible that they were breeding, but no 
further evidence came to light. The record of this species 
remaining in summer is, I believe, new. 

LANDRAIL, Crex pratensis, Bech. On their arrival in May, before 
the grass and rushes have grown tall enough, these birds may 
be seen skulking about in the open anxiously searching for 
cover. When thus exposed they are constantly mobbed by 
Common Gulls. On 23rd June we found a nest containing 
eleven eggs in a small tuft of rushes in the middle of a bare 
field. On one occasion, after an extra heavy shower, we almost 
succeeded in catching a Landrail whose wings had become so 
sodden that he was unable to fly. 

RINGED PLOVER, ALgialitis hiaticola. Linn. Breeds in great 
numbers on the sandy " machairs " amongst the growing oats. 
So sorely are they harassed by the Common Gulls that it is 
a puzzle to me how they manage to keep up their numbers. 
These of all other eggs are the most palatable to these marauders. 
The contents of no less than six nests were robbed in this way. 
and only one pair of all those which came under our notice 
managed to hatch off its young in safety. Owing to the in- 
clement weather, no doubt, few complete clutches of eggs 
were found, three being the full complement in several instances. 
We found also that those nests in proximity to the Pewits 
proved best, as the latter courageously and untiringly beat off 
the Common Gulls, when engaged on their diurnal egg-hunt, 
from their particular stretch of ground. Of the puny attacks 
of the smaller species the Gulls appeared not to take the least 
notice. In these parts it would appear, from an experience 
during this and last season, that nesting is not commenced till 
the end of May. Though one would think that the eggs laid 
amongst their natural habitat, the shingle on the foreshore, 
would fare better than those farther inland, this does not 
appear to be the case, for in the latter instance as well they 
disappeared with the greatest regularity. The peculiar flight 
indulged in during the love season is remarkable, being more 
owl- than plover-like, and while thus engaged their version of a 
love-song, sounding like " pourt, pourt, pourt," may be heard ; 
often I observed them in their fervour chasing a Dunlin in mis- 
take for their own mate. Owing, no doubt, to the constant dis- 
turbance by herd boys and cattle, they were as difficult to 
photograph as their nests. One in particular completely 
defeated us, for she would observe the slight movement of the 
string long before the shutter was released. The rapidity 
with which a bird is able to receive an impression and act on 



SOME BIRD NOTES FROM THE OUTER HEBRIDES 215 

it, I think, is well shown by the fact that they are able to hear 
the click of the shutter and fly off before the exposure is 
completed a period lasting but -^ of a second. While 
conscious of being observed in the neighbourhood of her nest, 
the hen bird would pretend to be feeding, apparently finding 
a store of nourishment amid barren stones and sand, but in 
reality keeping her weather-eye open in one direction. This 
habit they share in common with other waders. The cock bird 
mounted guard on a knoll overlooking the nest, and to him 
the hen would run and hold a consultation when perplexed 
as to the nature of the strange object. Once or twice she 
behaved in an extraordinary way : under the eye of the camera 
she would pluck a daisy and run away a short distance and 
pretend to devour it, returning in a few seconds for another. 
The nests when first found were mere hollows in the sand, 
but as incubation commenced a lining of grasses, small stones, 
and bits of shell was added, and in one instance the leaves of 
the beautiful silver-weed, which grew around in great profusion. 

(To be continued.} 



PROSECUTION UNDER THE WILD BIRDS ACT. 

AT the Lerwick Sheriff Court on 8th July before Sheriff 
Broun Major William Stirling, J.P., D.L., a Member of the 
British Ornithologists' Union, residing at Ord House, Muir- 
of-Ord, near Dingwall, Ross-shire, and A. L. Jessop, Leasing- 
ham, near Sleaford, Lincolnshire, were charged with having 
on 3rd June, at a part of the island of Hascasay, in the 
parish of Yell, Shetland, taken two eggs of the Great Skua 
and four eggs of Richardson's Skua. 

The accused did not appear, and Mr. J. C. Grierson, 
solicitor, acted as their agent. 

Wm. Hoseason, son of James Hoseason, farmer, deponed 
that his father was appointed by the Society for the Pro- 
tection of Wild Birds to protect the scheduled eggs in the 
islands. He (witness) was sent to Hascasay to watch that 
no eggs were taken. On the 3rd of June he was in the house 
on the island when two strangers came. They said they 
were in search of eggs, but he told them they could not take 
any as the eggs were protected. The men said they could 
not understand that. They said they would have a look 
round. He (witness) followed the men. They soon came to 



216 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

a Great Skua's nest on the east side of the island, and after 
having a look at the eggs they all turned away. On the 
way back one of the men said it was a great pity to leave 
the eggs, but he (witness) told them that these eggs were 
protected, and that if they took them they would have to 
take the consequences. The two men then stood aside, and 
spoke for a little, and then they said they would take the 
eggs and stand the consequences. They afterwards took the 
eggs. He (witness) did not know the gentlemen's names at 
the time, but he learned afterwards. They also took four of 
the Richardson's Skua's eggs from the middle of the island. 

The eggs were produced in court and were identified by 
witness. 

Mr. Grierson briefly addressed the Court. The offence 
was not a serious one, he said, and the i for each egg 
mentioned in the Order did not actually mean that the eggs 
were worth that sum, and suggested that the eggs should not 
be forfeited. If the Sheriff would not allow the men to keep 
the eggs, perhaps he would agree to send them to Christ's 
Hospital, London, which school was very much interested in 
ornithology. 

The Sheriff sentenced accused to pay a fine of \ for 
each egg, jointly and severally, and the eggs to be forfeited. 
One Great Skua's egg, and two of the Richardson's Skua's 
e gg s > were to be sent to Christ's Hospital, London, and the 
remaining three to the Edinburgh Museum. 



CENTROLOPHUS NIGER, GMELIN, ON THE 
SCOTTISH COAST, WITH A NOTE ON ONE 
OR TWO POINTS IN ITS STRUCTURE. 

By JOHN RENNIE, D.Sc. 

IN the month of June in the present year I received from 
Mr. Ewen, schoolmaster, Cullen, a fish regarding which he 
supplied me with the following note : " It was caught in a 
net among herring. The locality was a herring area called 
by fishermen 'Smith Bank,' a sandy tract about 18 to 25 
miles N.E. of Cullen. The skipper thinks it had been feed- 



CENTROLOPHUS NIGER ON THE SCOTTISH COAST 217 

ing on young herring. None of them has ever seen such a 
fish before." This interesting find on examination proves to 
be a specimen of a somewhat rare visitor to northern waters, 
viz. CentrolopJius niger, Gmelin. regarding which notes have 
already been made in these " Annals." It is generally 
regarded as a Mediterranean fish ; Regan (" Ann. and Mag. 
Nat. Hist.," 1902, p. 195) gives its distribution as " Mediter- 
ranean and N. Atlantic." According to Traquair, it has also 
occurred in Ireland, and Jordan and Evermann record it 
from Dennis, Mass., although Traquair throws doubt upon 
the identity of the species in this latter case. The present 
specimen is the fourth recorded from the east coast of Scot- 
land ; three of these have been found between Lossiemouth 
and Aberdeen, the fourth occurred in Largo Bay (see notes 
in the "Annals" for 1902 by Dr. Traquair and Mr. George 
Sim). The earliest record is by Dr. Gordon in 1841. 

In Dr. Traquair's communication some particulars are 
given as to dimensions, in which he notes in the proportions 
of his specimen some differences from the current descriptions 
and figures. Since the Cullen example proves on the whole 
intermediate it may be of some value to record particularly 
its more important characteristics. 

Along the dorsal region the fish is a deep blue-black 
colour ; ventrally it is lighter, being of a greyish slaty blue. 
This lighter colour is in part, however, due to the fish having 
been immersed in spirit. The total length is 14.7 inches ; 
the greatest depth, just in front of the anus, is about 3 inches. 
It is thus contained! slightly less than five times in the total 
length. Traquair's specimen is stated to be in body depth 
"slightly over four times in the total." Regan gives the 
depth of the body as about four times. From snout to 
posterior margin of operculum this latest example measures 
2.9 inches, almost exactly one-fifth of the total length. 
This accords with the proportion given by both Gunther and 
Day, viz. one in five. Traquair's measurement is " rather 
less than one in five and a half." Regan gives this dimension 
as four and a third to five times, hence Traquair's figure ex- 
tends the range of variation of this dimension. The pectoral 
fin measures 1.6 inches to the tip of the longest ray, giving a 
proportion of rather more than half the length of the head. 



2i8 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

Traquair's figure for this dimension is one-half, while Day's 
is two-thirds. There are 20 rays in the left fin and 21 in 
the right. The caudal fin is 2.5 inches long, and is thus 
practically one-sixth of the total. This is Traquair's pro- 
portion ; it is less than that of Cuvier and Valenciennes or 
of Day. There are 38 dorsal and 22 ventral fin rays, but 
no other specially distinctive external characters. 

Mr. Sim in his note comments upon the cesophageal 
pouches and speculates as to their function. These structures 
appear to be characteristic of the Families Stromateidse and 
Tetragonuridas, to the former of which Centrolophus belongs. 
They are carefully described by Sim, who, however, omits to 
note that the ridges which divide the pouches into compart- 
ments are simply continuations of the cesophageal ridges. 
They are here deeper, bridging over the cavity of the pouch, 
and are fibrous in character. In their anterior parts these 
ridges are very large, and project prominently into the lumen 
of the gullet as expanded plates. The edges of the ridges as 
well as of these plates are beset with numerous recurved 
setiform spines, which, as Sim points out, are simple and not 
barbed as stated by Gunther. As to the function of these 
pouches, it may be of interest to note that I found their 
cavities filled with a soft, creamy, pulpy substance similar to 
the contents of the stomach and pyloric caeca. The only 
difference observable was that the material in the latter 
organs was in a more fluid condition ; it was, in fact, in a 
further advanced stage of digestion. Remarkable as it 
undoubtedly is, the facts seem to suggest that these fishes 
regurgitate their food ; and as these pouches are so very 
thoroughly supplied with spines it seems possible that some 
sort of rumination is indulged in. Certainly the substance in 
the pouches had no resemblance to recently swallowed 
material unacted upon. Boulenger states that the Stroma- 
teidae feed on crustaceans, medusas, and the fry of other 
fish ; the circumstances under which this example was 
caught suggest the last named at the time of capture, yet 
there were no recognisable traces of herring fry, either in the 
pouches or in the stomach. 

NATURAL HISTORY DEPARTMENT, 
THE UNIVERSITY, ABERDEEN. 



SOME ARTIIROSTRACA FROM ST. KILDA 219 

SOME ARTHROSTRACA AND OTHER INVERTE- 
BRATA FROM ST. KILDA. 

By C. GORDON HEWITT, M.Sc. 

THE following list of certain invertebrates collected during 
a month's visit to St. Kilda, in July 1907, has been written 
to assist in the completion of a fauna of that island. As 
Mr. Waterston of Edinburgh has published one or two 
short lists describing his collections of the previous year, 
I shall only include in this short paper those species which 
he has not already recorded, as repetition is both use- 
less and confusing. A list of the Coleoptera, together with 
those collected by Mr. Waterston, is to be published by 
Professor Hudson Beare in a separate paper. The following 
list contains the Isopods and Amphipods, together with 
certain Lepidoptera and Hydroids : 

ARTHROSTRACA. 

AMPHIPODA. 

Gammarus tocusta, Fabr. This species is common on the shore, 
beneath the rocks. 

G. pulex, Desm. This is common in both streams, and occurs in 
several of the wells. 

ISOPODA (Marine). 

Eurydice pulchra, Leach. This was common, swimming about in 
the pools beneath the rocks on the shore. 

Idotea baltica, Pallas. These occurred in the same situations, and 
were rather small specimens. 

Jizra marina, Fabr. Under stones beneath the tide-marks. This 
species has a wide distribution throughout the Atlantic coasts. 

Ligia oceanica, L. This species was interesting, as I found mature 
specimens in the crevices of the rocks on the top of Ruadval, 
almost 450 feet above sea-level. Its presence there, like that 
of the littoral mollusc Littorina littorea, is explained by the 
almost constant presence of spray from the Dun passage. 
The largest specimens were below the normal size. I found 
the young individuals on the stones between tide-marks. 



220 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

The fauna of the shore of Village Bay, which is practically 
the only shore on the island, is very scanty. Crustacea are 
almost absent except for a few small species. Not a single 
species of decapod was seen. This scarcity of littoral 
animal life is no doubt due to the powerful action of the 
sea. A species of animal attaining any size would almost 
certainly be crushed by the violent action of the boulders 
which form the greater part of the shore. 

ISOPODA (Terrestrial). 

Oniscus ase/lus, L. Common everywhere under stones. Its colour 
varied from light brown to dark slate. 

Trichoniscus pusillus, Brandt. Fairly common near the shore and 
on the slopes of Connacher and Mullach Mor where the 
ground was damp. The specimens were rather small. 

Porcellio scaber, Latreille. This is certainly by far the commonest 
invertebrate in the island. It occurs in thousands under 
stones and rubbish in fact, everywhere from the seashore to 
the top of the hills. As Sars states, this is the most widely 
distributed species of the Oniscoidea. 

LEPIDOPTERA. 

Owing to the very bad state of the weather during the whole 
of my visit, it was impossible to do much collecting of insects of 
this order. About forty species were obtained, of which the follow- 
ing are a few : 

Hepialus velleda, 1 Hb. A large series of this species was collected, 
as it showed great variations in size and colour. The variety 
gallica also. 

Melanchra thalassina, Rott. 

Plusia interrogationis, L. Obtained in the glen, where the larva 
feeds on the heather (Callund). 

Tephrodystis venosata, Fb. This form was fairly common near the 
shore, where the larva feeds on the white sea-campion. 

Hydriomena alchemillata, L. 

Xanthorhoe munitata, Hb. The Shetland variety of this northern 

form was obtained. 
Eois rusticata, F. This species was extremely abundant, being 

by far the commonest moth at the time of my visit. 

1 Mr. Waterston has already recorded this species ("Ann. Scot. Nat. 
Hist.," July 1906, p. 152). 



SOME ARTHROSTRACA FROM ST. KILDA 221 

I was interested to find among the large numbers of 
specimens of Forficula auricularia, L., which occur on the 
island, a number of the " high-males," the forceps of some 
of the specimens measuring .75 cms., while those of the 
"low-males" measured .3 cms. 

COELENTERATA. 

A few Hydroids were found on the rocks in Village Bay ; the 
following species occur : 

Clava sqtmmata, O. F. Miiller. This was common. 

Coryne pusilla, Gartner. My friend Mr. F. H. Gravely, to whom I 
showed these Hydroids, tells me that the specimens of this 
species were remarkably stunted, having the hydrocauli very 
much tangled ; the perisarc also was less regularly annulated 
than is usual. 

Campanularia flexnosa, Hincks. 

THE UNIVERSITY, MANCHESTER, August 1907. 



HYMENOPTEROLOGICAL NOTES. 

By P. CAMERON. 
I. NOCTURNAL HYMENOPTERA. 

THE Hymenoptera are, as regards the vast majority of the 
species, light- and sun-loving insects. There are, however, 
a few forms which are more or less nocturnal in their habits. 
I am not now alluding to humble-bees (Bombi), which, during 
warm and moonlight nights, may be seen actively collecting 
honey or pollen, but to various species and even genera 
of different tribes and families which apparently, to their 
more or less nocturnal habits, have acquired a close identity 
in coloration, as well as a peculiarity in their simple (ocelli) 
and compound eyes. There may, of course, be exceptions, 
but as a rule nocturnal Hymenoptera have their bodies of a 
uniform fulvous or light brownish coloration, only slightly, 
in some cases, marked with black. They have also their 
eyes larger than is the case with most day-flying species ; 
and, further, they approximate more to each other on the 



222 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

top than is the case with species which are not known to fly 
at night. Very noteworthy, also, is the fact that the ocelli, 
in these nocturnal or quasi-nocturnal species, are much larger 
than usual, as well as being of a light glassy brown colour. 
As examples of these two peculiarities we have the Ichneumon 
tribe OpJiionini> e.g. OpJiion and its ally Eniscospilus, which 
are well known to be attracted by artificial light at night, and I 
have also seen Ophion at "sugar" placed as bait for moths at 
night. It is the same with the Paniscini, which are identical 
in coloration, uniformly fulvous, as well as the Braconid 
tribe Zeleini; e.g. I have known Zele to come to lamplight 
at night. Then it is known that the large ants of the genus 
Dorylus (all of them of a uniform fulvous colour) come to 
light and have been seen flying at night in large numbers. 
A correspondent sent me from Java a number of a large 
species of Dorylus, which caused great alarm by flying in 
huge numbers into the fire, besides hovering almost in clouds 
round the lighted lamps. Then among bees we have the 
large Indian Xylocopa rufescens, which has been found on 
flowers at night ; it is of a uniform golden brown colour, and 
its ocelli are larger than they are in most of its congeners. 

From the fact that the ocelli are larger with the nocturnal 
than they are with diurnal species, one might fairly conclude 
that the simple eyes aid the compound ones in enabling the 
insect to see better in darkness. 

II. ALPINE HYMENOPTERA. 

The number of Scottish Alpine Hymenoptera, so far as I 
know, is not large. Among the Saw-flies we have Nematus 
breadalbanensis, Cam., which is found on the mountains (the 
Breadalbane and Ben More, Mull) at a height of 3000 feet 
and upwards ; N. clibrichelliis, Cam., which I captured on the 
top of Ben Clibrich, Sutherlandshire (3180 feet). Probably 
N. carinatus, Htg., and N. lativentris, Thorns., are also 
Alpine species, having been found on the Braemar mountains, 
but I have no note of the elevation at which they were taken. 
Polyrhembra tenebriossa, Gr., I have taken on flowers at a 
height of about 3000 feet on Ben Lawers ; Phygadeuon 
fuinator, Gr., at 2000 feet, also on flowers. The curious 



HYMENOPTEROLOGICAL NOTES 223 

apterous Ichneumon, Orcsbitis castaneus. Marsh., occurs on 
mountain tops on Goatfell, Arran and Gyrvel, Rannoch. 
Among Alpine Oxyura we have Lygocerus bread albanensis, K., 
and Z,. bicolor, K., which I captured near the top of Ben 
Lawers (about 3900 feet) ; and Megaspilus ninUcnsis, Cam., 
from Ben More, Mull. A very rare British Ichneumon, 
Arenetra pilosella, Gr., I found in April near a snow-patch 
half-way up Ben Lawers. 

It need hardly be said that nearer the Equator Hymenop- 
tera are more or less abundant at a much greater height 
than they are in more northern regions. Thus at Simla, 
Masuri, and elsewhere in the Himalayas Hymenoptera are 
common at a height of 6000 feet and upwards, as they are 
also in the more southern parts of the Rocky Mountains. 
Mr. Edward Whymper captured a few species of Hymenop- 
tera, of both the aculeate and parasitic divisions of the 
Order, in the Equatorial Andes at a height of from I 2,000 
to 13,300 feet (see his "Travels amongst the Great Andes of 
the Equator," p. 356) ; those found at the latter elevation 
being Ichneumons belonging to the Ichneumonini and 
Paniscini (cf. Cameron, " The Entomologist," 1908, pp. 95 
and 1 60). The highest Hymenoptera of which I can find 
any record are those mentioned by Hooker in his " Himalayan 
Journals," 2nd ed., vol. ii. p. 146. There we read : " At nearly 
I 7,000 feet I passed two small lakes, on the banks of one of 
which I found bees, a May-fly, and gnat." The bees prob- 
ably were either Bombi or belonging to the genus Andrena, 
both being not uncommon at high elevations in the Himalayas, 
as they are in northern latitudes. 



HYDROT^EA BORUSSICA, STEIN, A FLY 
NEW TO THE BRITISH LIST. 

By PERCY H. GRIMSHAW, F.E.S. 

ON the gth July of the present year my friend Mr. 
A. E. J. Carter found a single male Hydrotcea sitting on a 
leaf at Comrie in Perthshire. He noted that it bore some 
resemblance to H. curvipes, but in certain points did not 



224 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

agree with the published descriptions of that species. Upon 
his return to Edinburgh Mr. Carter brought the specimen 
to me, and upon examination it proved to be an interest- 
ing addition to the British list, namely, the little-known 
H. borussica, first described by Stein in the " Entomologische 
Nachrichten," Jahrg. xxv. (1899), p. 23, and more fully 
afterwards in his monograph of the genus published in 
the " Verhandlungen der k.k. zool.-bot. Gesellsch. Wien, 

Jahrg. 1903, pp. 334-335- 

At first sight H. borussica may be distinguished from 
H. curvipes by its darker colour, the thorax having a 
decidedly blackish tint with hardly any trace of longitudinal 
stripes. The yellow markings on the abdomen are some- 
what darker, and restricted to the two basal segments, while 
in the better-known species this colour extends over part or 
the whole of the third. The wings are also much clearer in 
the present specimen, although Stein's description says they 
are conspicuously tinged with yellow. 

The bristle arrangement on the legs is of the same 
general character, but there are several important differences 
which afford at once a safe and ready means of separating 
the two species. The following characters, belonging to 
H. borussica, will serve to show how it may be dis- 
tinguished from H. curvipes : the front tibiae are less deeply 
excavated, and with the long postero-ventral hairs only 
extending along the apical third ; the middle femora have 
about five postero-ventral blunt spines, which are confined 
to the basal third, whereas in H. curvipes there are on this 
surface only 3 to 4, which are more widely spaced and occupy 
the middle third ; the middle tibiae are furnished at the tip 
with two very long fine antero-dorsal hairs which are absent 
in the other species ; the hind tibiae are bent much as in 
H. curvipes, but with more than the apical half thickened on 
the ventral surface at the middle is a very characteristic 
short row of about I 2 to 15 long and strong bristles which 
do not converge at t/ie apex, but whose ends are tortuous, the 
whole forming a band easily visible to the naked eye and 
occupying about the middle sixth of the tibia, the dorsal 
surface with a row of long fine bristles occupying about the 
basal half. 



HYDROT.-EA BORUSSICA, A FLY NEW TO BRITISH LIST 225 



The female of this interesting species is as yet unknown. 
The male has only been found, so far as I am aware, in 
Russia and Eastern Prussia. 

THE ROYAL SCOTTISH MUSEUM, EDINBURGH, 
2$th September 1907. 



A NEW LOUSE (H^EMATOPINUS OVILLUS, 
NEUM.) FROM THE SHEEP. 

By WILLIAM EVANS, F.R.S.E. 

IN the spring of last year (1906), when collecting material 
for a list of the parasitic Hemiptera of this district, I 
obtained, through the kindness of Mr. W. F. Little, a 
number of small brownish Anoplura taken from the face of 
a sheep of the " Black-faced " breed at Crosswood, Pentland 
Hills, Midlothian. The date on which they were taken was 
the 3<Dth of April, and I was informed that this louse is 
common in spring on the faces especi- 
ally about the cheeks of sheep in that 
part of the Pentlands. 

That these lice belonged to the 
well-known genus Hcematopinus was 
evident at a glance, but I could not 
make them fit with any of the de- 
scribed species, though it was clear 
they were closely related to H. sten- 
opsis, Burm., the louse of the goat. 
Not being able to identify them, I sent 
several examples to Professor L.-G. 
Neumann of the Veterinary College, 
Toulouse, for his opinion. He replied 
that they undoubtedly belonged to a 
new species, and that by an interesting 
coincidence he had only a few weeks 
before received from New Zealand a 
specimen of the same parasite found there on the face of a 
sheep belonging to the " Border- Leicester " breed, and had 
written for further specimens to study before describing the 
64 D 




X 2.2. 



226 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

insect. These he has since received, and in May of the 
present year I had a few more from Black-faced Sheep on 
the western Fentlands. 

Professor Neumann has now described this new species 
of Anoplura, to which he has given the name of Hamatopinus 
ovillus, in the Revtie Veterinaire for August 1907, pp. 520- 
524, where full particulars will be found. It is not a little 
remarkable that a parasite of so well known a domestic 
animal as the sheep should have remained unknown to 
science till now. No species of Hcematopinus has hitherto 
been recorded as occurring on the sheep. Doubtless 
H. ovillus has reached New Zealand from this country by 
importation on its host. The length of my specimens, one 
of which is figured on p. 225, varies from 2 to 2^ mm. 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS TO THE TOPO- 
GRAPHICAL BOTANY OF SCOTLAND. 

By JAMES W. H. TRAIL, A.M., M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. 
(Continued from No. 60, Oct. 1906, p. 233.) 

GRAMINACE^E. 

Panicum capillare, L., casual, in 83. P. Crus-galli, L., 83 cas. ; P. 

glabrum, Gaud., 83 cas.; P. miliaceum, L., 83 cas. ; P. sanguin- 

a!e, L., 83 cas. 
Setaria italica, Beauv., 83 cas. ; S. viridis, Beauv., 83 cas. ; S. glauca, 

Beauv., 83 cas. 

Cynodon Dactylon, Pers., 83 cas. 
Phalaris brachystachys, Link, 83 cas. ; P. canariensis, L., 83, 84, 93 ; 

P. carulescens, Desf., 83 cas. ; P. intermedia, Bosc., 83 cas. ; 

P. paradoxa, L., 83 cas. ; P. minor, Retz., 83 cas. ; P. tuberosa, 

L. 83 cas. 

Alopecums myosuroides, Huds., 83 cas. 
Phleum asperitm, Jacq., 83 cas. ; P. Bohmeri, Wibel, 83 cas. ; P. 

echinatum, Host., 83 cas. ; P. grcecum, Boiss. and Heldr., 83 

cas. ; P. Michelii, All., 83 cas. ; P. temie, Schrad., 83 cas. 
Agrostis canina, Z., 8 1 ; i.e. from all the vice-counties, var. scotica, 

Hackel, 105. 

A. palustris, ffuds., So ; i.e. from all the vice-counties ; var. maritima, 
.y 106; var. coarctata, Hoffm., 94, 106, 107. 



TOPOGRAPHICAL BOTANY OF SCOTLAND 227 

A. vulgaris, With. The form pumila has been recorded from 72, 

74, 75, 86-98, 101, 102, 104-112. 
A. elegans, Thore, 83 cas. 
Polypogon monspeliensis, Desf., 83 cas. ; P. maritimus, Willd., 

83 cas. 

Gastridium australe, Beauv., 83 cas. 
Apera Spica-venti, Beauv., 93 frequent cas. ; A. intermedia, Hackel, 

83 cas. 

Ammophila arundinacea, Host., 84, 103. 
Lagurns ovatus, L., 83 cas. 

Deschampsia alpina, Roem. and Schult., 100, 102, 105, 106. 
D. discolor, Roem. and Schult., 90 confirmed, 93. 
D. flexuosa, Trin., var. montana, Hook, f., 106, 108. 
Trisetum pratense, Pers., 110; I have no record of this for 74. 

T. pumilum, Kunth, 83 cas. 

Avena pratensis, L., in ?; var. longifolia (Parn.}, 94, 98. 
A. strigosa, Schreb., 83, 93, 108; A. fatua, L., 108; A. barbata, 

Brot., 83 cas. ; A. sterilis, L., 83 cas. 
Gaudinia fragilis, Beauv., casual 83, 92. 
Phragmites communis, Trin., All. 
Cynosurus echinatus, L., 83 cas. 
Molinia varia, Schranck, 78, i.e. in all the vice-counties. 

var. depauperata (Lindl.} has been recorded from a number 
of vice-counties, and probably may be found where the 
plant grows on poor open moorlands and other suitable 
localities. 

Eragrostis major, Host, 83 cas. 

Kceleria cristata, Pers. Under this name records stand for all the 
vice-counties except 76, 77 ? 78, 84, 105, lOSj, 112 ; but a 
critical examination of examples from Scotland by Dr. Domin 
has shown the following results : 

K. glauca, DC., subsp. arenaria, Dumort., 85, 90, 95, 106, 

107. 

K. britannica, Domin. (probably a subspecies of K. gracilis, 
Pers.}, is the common plant in Scotland, though as yet 
recorded only from 83, 90, 92, 94, 95, 96, 109, in. 
K. phleoides, Pers., 83 cas. 

Catabrosa aquatica, Beauv., 105 ; var. littoralis, Parn., 103. 
Dactylis hispanica, Roth., 83 cas. 
Echinaria capitata, Desf., 83 cas. 
Briza media, L., 99 ; B. minor, L., casual, 83, 92 ; B. maxima, L., 

casual, 83, 92, 93. 

Wangenheimia disticha, Mcench., 83 cas. 

Poa annua, L., var. supina, Gaud., 106 ; P. bulbosa, L., 83 cas. 
Poa glauca, Sm., 89, 108. 
P. Balfouri, Parnell, 92, 97, 106. 



228 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

P. nemoralis, Z., 74, 82, 84, 85, 93, 107, 108 ; rar. divaricata, 

Svme, 94, (delete 92); var. glaucantha, Reichb., 98, 108. 
P. compressa, Z., 85 confirmed, 92 f? 
P. Chaixi, Vill., 83. 
P. pratensis, Z., 107, i.e. in all the vice-counties; var. sub-caerulea 

(Sm.\ 8 1, 96, 97. 

P. palustris, L., 83 cas. ; P. persica, Trin., 83 cas. 
P. trivialis, Z., 107 ; i.e. in all the vice-counties. 
P. bulbosa, L., var. vivipara, 83 cas. 
Glyceria fluitans, R. Br., 84 ; i.e. in all the vice-counties ; var. 

triticea, />., 90. 
G. plicata, Fr., 74, 76, 90, 91, 92, 94, 108, in confirmed; var. 

pedicellata (Towns.), 111 ; #<zr. declinata (Breb.\ 92, 94, 96, 

100. 

G. aquatica, Sin., 82, 91, 93, 94, 101, (delete 74). 
G. distans, Wahlenb., 84, 106. 
Sderochloa dura, Beauv., 83 cas. 
S. procumbens, Beauv. ( = Festuca procumbens, Kuntfi) ; almost 

certainly not native in Scotland, 83 cas., 91, 92 (plentiful in 

1906 along N. bank of new channel of River Dee at Aberdeen). 
Festuca rottboellioides, Kunth., 72 ; F. ituiglumis, Soland., casual in 

83 and 92. 

F. Myuros, L., 83 cas. 
F. sciuroides, Roth., 79. 

F. ovina, Z., var. paludosa (Gaud.), 105, 106. 
F. rubra, Z., has no record for 80 ; var. grandiflora, Hackel, 90. 
F. sylvatica, Vill., 93. 
F. elatior, Z., has no record for 80; var. pratensis, Huds., 74, 84, 

93, 95- 
F. ciliata, Pers., 83 cas. ; F. ligustica, Bertol., casual 83, 92. 

Bromus giganteus, Z., 97. 

B. erectus, Huds., 72, 73; B. madritensis, L., 92 cas. 

B. racemosus, Z., 80, 85, 91, 93, 94!; B. commutatus, Schrad., 

107. 

B. mollis, Z., var. glabratus, Da'//., 75 ?; var. Lloydianus, Syme, 73. 
B. Alopecuros, Poir., 83 cas. ; B. arvensis, L., 83 cas. ; B. divari- 

catus, Rhode, 83 cas. ; B. inertnis, Leys., 85 cas. ; B.japonicus, 

Thunb., 83 cas. ; B. macrostachys, Desf., 83 cas. 
B. patulus, Mert. and Koch., 83 cas. ; B. rigidus, Roth., 83 cas. ; 

B. scoparius, L., 83 cas.; B. secalinus, L., var. velutinus( Schrad.), 

83 cas., 85 cas. 
B. squarrosus, L., casual 83, 92 ; B. tectorum, L., 83 cas. ; B. 

unioloides, H.B.K., frequent casual, 83, 84, 92. 
Brachypodium distachyon, Rcem. and Schult., casual in 83 and 92. 
Lolium rigidum, Gaud., 83 cas. ; L. temulentum, Z., 83 cas., 93 cas. 
Psilurus nardoides, Trin., 83 cas. 



TOPOGRAPHICAL BOTANY OF SCOTLAND 229 

Agropyrum caninum, Z., 84. 

A. repens, Z., var., Leersianum, Gray, common, 81, 93, 94, 95, 

96, 98, 106. 

A. pungens (?) Rcem. and Schult., 93. 
A. acutum, R<xm. and Schult., 75, 90, 102, 103. 
A. junceum, Beauv., 82, 84. 
A. triticeum, J. Gsertn., 83 cas. 
sEgilops cylindrica^ Host., 83 cas. ; ^. ovata, L., 83 cas. ; &. 

peregrina, Hackel, 83 cas. ; s. speltoides, Tausch., var. 

Aucheri (Boiss.), 83 cas. ; ^. triaristata, Willd., 83 cas. ; 

^E. triuntialis, L., 83 cas. 
Hordeum murinum, L., 747. 

H. marinum, Huds., 83 cas., 84?, 92 frequent cas. 
H. bulbosum, L., 83 cas. ; H. jitbatttm, L., 83 cas.; H. 

All., 83 cas. ; If. sylvaticum, Huds., 83 cas. 
H. Caput-MedustZ) Cosson, casual in 83 and 92. 
Elymus arenarius, Z., 84 ; E. sibiricus, L., casual in 83 and 85. 



GYMNOSPERMS. 

CONIFERyE. 

Juniperus communis, Z., 79?; var. intermedia, Nyman, 108. 
J. nana, Willd., 93. 
Taxus baccata, Z., 84, 937. 

CRYPTOGAMS. 

FlLICES. 

Hymenophyllum tunbridgense, Sm., (delete 112). 

Cryptogramme crispa, R. Br., 94. 

Asplenium Adiantum-nigrum, Z., var. Serpentini, Koch., 94. 

A. Trichomanes, Z., 112. 

A. Ruta-muraria, Z., 112; var. pseudo-germanicum, Milde, 89. 

Athyrium alpestre, Milde, 105, 106. 

Cystopteris fragilis, Bernh., var. dentata, Hook., 93, 94 ; var. sem- 

pervirens, 92. 

Polystichum lobatum, Presl., var. aculeatum, Syme, 79. 
Lastrrea Filix-mas, Z., var. abbreviata, Bab., 106. 
L. spinulosa, Presl., 79, 81, 94. 
L. dilatata, Presl., var. collina, Moore, in. 
Phegopteris Dryopteris, Fee, 1 1 o. 
P. polypodioides, Fee, 93. 
Ophioglossum vulgatum, Z., 94. 
Botrychium Lunaria, Z., var. incisum, Milde, Pentland Hills. 



230 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

EQUISETACE^E. 

Equisetum maximum, Lam., 84. 

E. arvense, Z., var. alpestre, Wahlenb., 72?; var. nemorosum, 

Brau n, 106. 

E. sylvaticum, Z., var. capillare (Hoffm.\ 92, 107. 
E. palustre, Z., var. polystachyum, 93 ; var. nudum, Neivm., in. 
E. limosum, Sm., var. fluviatile (Z.), 73. 
E. hyemale, Z., 97. 
E. variegatum, Schleich, 104, 108, no ; var. arenarium, JVewm., 106. 

LYCOPODIACE^E. 

Lycopodium Selago, Z., var. recurvum, Desv., 106. 

L. inundatum, Z., 97. 

L. annotinum, Z., 96, 106. 

L. alpinum, Z., zwr. decipiens, Syme, 106. 

Isoetes lacustris, Z., 98, 102 (Lightfoot). 

L echinospora, Dur., 112. 

CHARACE^J. 

Chara fragilis, Desv., 81, 93; var. capillacea, Coss. and G., 73; 

var. delicatula, A. Br., 93, 105. 

C. aspera, Willd., 81, 93 ; var. desmacantha, H. andy. Groves, in. 
C. baltica, Bruzel, in. 
C. hispida, Z., 80, 82, 85, 93, 109. 
C. vulgaris, Z., 85, 93. 
Nitella translucens, Agardh, 74, 85. 
N. opaca, Agardh, 94. 

SUPPLEMENT. 

While these " Additions and Corrections " have been in 
course of publication, various papers and short notes have 
been published in botanical journals, and other information 
has also been acquired. Such additional information as 
came to hand in time has been included in these additions ; 
but a good many notes relate to species in families already 
passed. As it appears desirable to make this record as far 
as possible complete, up to this date (July 1907), these are 
given as a supplementary list below. 

" RANUNCULACEjE. 

Adonis autumnalis, L., 83 cas. 
Ranunculus circinatus, Sibth., 92. 
R. trichophyllus, Chaix. Delete 112. 
R. Drouettii, Godr., 112 confirmed. 



TOPOGRAPHICAL BOTANY OF SCOTLAND 231 

R. scoticus, Marshall^ 94. 

R. sardous, Crantz, 102. 

-/?. trilobus, L., 83 cas. 

Caltha radicans, Forster, 94. 

Delphinium Conso/ida, L., D. divaricatum, Ledeb., D. hybridum, 

Steph., and D. pubescens, DC. ; all casuals in 83. 
Eranthis hyemalis, Salisb., 85. 

PAPAVERACE^E. 

Palaver hybridum, L., and P. nudicaule, L., casuals in 83. 
Argemone mexicana, L., 83 cas. 

CRUCIFER^E. 

Arabis hirsuta, Scop., 99. 

Cardamine pratensis, Z., var. dentata, Hayne and Welw., 94. 
(Alyssum maritimum, L., said to have been found in 91 or 92.) 
A. incanum, Z., var. viride, Taitsch., 83 cas. 
Cochlearia alpina, Wats., 90. 
Hesperis ladniata, AIL, 83 cas. 
Sisymbrium orientale, L., 83 cas. 
Brassica subularia, Brot, 83 cas. 
Iberis sempervirens, L., 92 cas. 
Carrichtera Vella, DC., 83 cas. 
Chorispora syriaca, Boiss., and C. tenella, DC., casuals in 83. 

RESEDACE^E. 
Reseda crispata, Link., 83 cas. 

VIOLACE^E. 
Viola lutea, Huds., var. amoena (Symons), 94. 

POLYGALACE^E. 

Polygala oxyptera, Reichenb,, 102. 

CARYOPHYLLACE.E. 

Velezia rigida, L., 83 cas. 
Dianthus barbatus, L., 83 cas. 
Gypsophila paniculata, L., 83 cas. 
Saponaria officinalis, L., 81. 
Silene conica, Z,, 83 cas. 
S. dichotoma, Ehrh., 94. 
S. anglica, Z., and var. quinquevulnera, L., 6 1 . juvenalis, Del., and 

S. rubella, L., casuals in 83. 
Cerastium triviale, Link., var. holosteoides, Fr., 112 (Fair Isle). 



232 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

C. alpinum, Z., var. pubescens, Syme, 94. 

C. hir sit turn, Tenore, 92 cas. 

Holosteuin umbellatum, L., 83 cas. 

Sagina Reuteri, Boiss., 83 cas. 

S. apetala, Z., 103. 

Spergula vulgaris, Boenn., 112 (Fair Isle). 

PORTULACACEiE. 

Claytonia virginica, L., 83 cas. 

ELATINACE^E. 
Elatine hexandra, DC., 103. 

MALVACEAE. 

Althaea rosea, Cav., 83 cas. 
Lavatera punctata, All., 83 cas. 
Malva moschata, Z., 84 cas.; M. borealis, Wallm., 83 cas. 

LINAGES. 

Limim usitatissimum, L., casual in 8r, 92, 93; Z. angustifolium, 
Huds., Z. grandiflorum, Desf., and Z. perenne, L., casuals in 

83- 

GERANIACE^E. 

Geranium lucidum, Z., 94. 

G. Robertianum, Z., var. modestum, Jord., 94. 

G. reflexitm, L., 83 cas. 

Erodium cicutarium, L ' Herit., 112. 

E. maritimum, Z'Z/mY., 83 cas. 

Oxalis Acetosella, Z., 112. 

O. stricta, L., 83 cas. To this name must be transferred the records 
formerly given under O. corniculata, in accordance with the 
fact that these names have been transposed in English floras. 

Impatiens Roylei, Walp., casual in 83, 92, and no doubt elsewhere. 

Limnanthes Douglasii, R. Br., 83 cas. 

AMPELIDACE^E. 

Vitis vinifera, L. Seedlings may often be found in numbers on 
rubbish heaps near towns, e.g. in 83 and 92, no doubt from 
refuse of fruiterers' shops ; but they seldom grow to more than 
a foot or so in height, or survive more than one winter. 

(To be continued.} 



ON THE FLORA OF SHETLAND 233 

ON THE FLORA OF SHETLAND. 

By WILLIAM H. BEEBY, F.L.S. 
( Continued from p. 169.) 

*Rhinanthus groenlandicus, Chabert. Mr. C. H. Ostenfeld, who 
has had great facilities for the study of the arctic and boreal 
forms, has kindly named my plants (conf. also Ostenfeld's 
" Phanerogameae and Pteridophyta of the Faroes," p. 51). U. 
Cliffs north of Saxa Vord. S. By Burga Water and on holm 
in the same loch. *var. Driimmond-Hayi (B. White). N. 
Hillside, Benegarth, North Roe. The Burga Water plant is 
"exactly the plant of the Faroes"; this, the large form, is 
rather less scarce than the variety. 

Euphrasia. A detailed account of the species must be deferred, 
but the following are the forms so far detected : E. borealis, 
Towns. ; E. scottica, Wetest ; E. Foulaensis, Towns. ; E. curta, 
Fr. E. curta f. piccola, Towns. 

Statice maritima, Mill, *var. planifolia (Syme). U. Hill of Hamar, 
near Baltasound. N. Rocks on the east side of Sand Voe. 
I have had the Unst plant in cultivation, side by side with 
the type, since 1898; in addition to the recorded characters, 
I may mention that under these equal conditions the variety 
flowers about three weeks earlier than the type. 

Plantago lanceolata, L. D. A curious proliferous form occurred near 
Spiggie, with heads recalling the " Hen-and-chickens " daisy, 
the central head being small, and surrounded by numerous 
very small heads on long stalks proceeding from below the 
base of the main head. The plants (2) were seen two years 
in succession. *var. depressa, Rostr. (" Flo. Danica," tab. 
3008). U. Sea-sands, Sandwick. N. Hillside, Benegarth. 
L. Scalloway. D. In many places. Chiefly on sand, but 
not confined to it. Leaves very broad, which is the chief 
characteristic. Doubtless it is the plant recorded as P. media 
by Edmondston. Mr. Ostenfeld writes of the Unst plant- 
" Just the same form that E. Rostrup named var. depressa." 

Atriplex hastata, L. U. A common weed at Baltasound. 

*A. lariniata, L. D. Some half-dozen plants on a sandbank near 
Clayval (1899). Next year I visited the spot again, but 
found the Atriplex and all the other low-growing plants buried 
under an additional foot or two of sand, above which the tops 
of Psamma arenaria just showed. Doubtless the plant occurs 



234 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

in other places on the adjacent coast, which affords many 
suitable habitats. 

*Salix Caprea, L. S. Almost covering two small holms in the 
middle of Mousa Vord Loch, to which, so far as known, it is 
now entirely confined. This is a puzzling form, owing to the 
young branches being pubescent, and to the leaves having a 
tendency to be somewhat obovate. The Rev. E. F. Linton 
was at first disposed to consider it a hybrid between S. Caprea 
and one of the other Caprea, but on my explaining that it was 
the only Sahx occurring either on or near the holms, he referred 
it to S. Caprea, informing me that sometimes in very exposed 
situations in the north, the branchlets have a tendency to be- 
come pubescent. I have a tree in the garden which I believe 
to have been grown from a cutting of the Mousa Vord plant. 
I omitted to label it, so cannot be quite positive ; but I do 
not myself feel much doubt, as I have never brought into this 
garden any other willow of any sort whatever, and as I know 
of no S. Caprea in the near vicinity, it is unlikely to have 
originated from wind-borne seed. Mr. C. H. Ostenfeld con- 
siders the Mousa Vord plant a large-leaved form of S. cinerea, 
but in this opinion I am unable to concur ; partly because my 
large series of Surrey Caprecz, which has been criticised by both 
F. B. White and E. F. Linton, shows one or two plants with 
leaves having an obovate tendency, as well as one plant from 
dry sand on the middle of Bagshot Heath with much more 
pubescent twigs than the Shetland plant, but chiefly because 
the clothing of the under side of the leaf is to my eye that of 
S. Caprea and not S. cinerea. Mr. Ostenfeld agrees that the 
garden plant is S. Caprea. 

*Betnla alba, L. Recorded by T. Edmondston in a list of Shetland 
plants contributed to "Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist," 1841 ; 
also by him in the same year in the " New Stat. Account of 
Scotland." The Shetland volume of the latter work contains a 
chapter entitled " General Observations on the County," by Dr. 
Laurence Edmondston, father of the botanist. Dr. Edmondston, 
who was himself a naturalist, confirms the occurrence of the 
birch in these words " No indigenous trees are to be seen, if 
we except a few dwarf bushes of birch, willow, and mountain 
ash." The fact that Edmondston omits the birch from his 
Flora is of no moment ; he also omits sundry quite common 
plants such as Lotus corniculatus, Galinm Aparine, Lobelia 
Dortmanna, actually recorded by himself in his lists published 
a few years earlier ! It may be mentioned that in the north 
part of Northmaven there is a loch called " Birka Water," 
while in the south part of the same parish there is a ward hill 
called " Birka Vird " ; but whether the birch still lingers in 



ON THE FLORA OF SHETLAND 235 

Shetland is at present uncertain. I accept the record on the 
authority of Dr. Laurence Edmondston. I have good specimens 
of branches and stem from the peat, kindly sent me by Mr. 
William J. Gordon, Yell. 

\Alnusglutinosa, Gaert. " Hazel, mountain ash, and elder shrubs are 
found in the mountains,"- Rev. James Gordon, in " Stat. 
Account of Scotland," (North Yell and Fetlar) 1794. Mr. 
Symers M. Macvicar, to whom I am indebted for extracts from 
the old " Statistical Account," suggests that " elder " is a mis- 
print for "alder." This I think very likely, for it is pretty sure 
that elder bushes never grew "in the mountains" in Shetland. 
Roots from the peat in North Roe have been referred 
doubtfully to Alnus. The only tree I have seen is by the 
side of the inn at Tresta, where many plants both native and 
exotic have been gathered together in the unusually sheltered 
garden, by a former proprietor. I have not ascertained the 
origin of the tree, which is a fine healthy specimen some 
twenty feet high.] 

*Corylus Arellana, L. Yell. "Hazels . . . are found in the 
mountains." Rev. James Gordon, I.e., 1794. Belting. 
" The mountain ash or rowan tree, the hazel, the honeysuckle, 
the hip brier, and willow, are natives in many of the islets or 
holms in the freshwater lochs." Rev. John Bryden in "New 
Stat. Account," 1841. I regard this evidence as satisfactory 
considering the nature of the plant. As it occurred on the 
holms, there is no particular reason to suppose that it has 
become extinct. The nuts are found from time to time in the 
peat. 

Potamogeton polygonifolius, Pour., form cancel/ahis, Fryer. This is 
the name that has been given to the remarkable form, found 
in the Burn of Brooster, near Walls. (" Scot. Nat.," January 
1891.) 

P. vaginatus, Turcz. L. Tingwall Loch, 1887. This plant, the 
exact name of which has been somewhat doubtful, is now 
definitely identified by Mr. Arthur Bennett (" J. of Bot.," 
May 1907). It also occurs in Asta Loch, which drains out of 
Tingwall Loch. The plant which occurs abundantly in Spiggie 
Loch, Dunrossness, is probably the same ; but in the absence 
of fruit, or more developed specimens, Mr. Bennett is unable 
to speak with certainty. As a British plant, it is confined 
to Shetland. 

Iris Pseud-acorus, L. All the plants examined, in various districts, 
belong to /. acoriformis, Boreau. 

*Carex glauca xflava. S. Holm in a small tarn on Gibbie Law's 
Burn. This plant, which appeared to me to be a hybrid, is 



236 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

thought by Mr. Ostenfeld to probably originate as above. 
Mr. Ostenfeld added, that C. Hornschuchiana might be the 
second parent if it occurred. This sedge does not, however, 
occur on the holm, which is a very small one, and I have not 
seen it growing near. 

*C. vesicaria, L. S. Abundant in drains running into the west end 
of Grasswater, near Bridge of Walls. 

* Tritiaim junceum x repens. U. Sea-sands, Norwick. N. Head of 
Sand Voe. Abundant in both places. Mr. Ostenfeld con- 
firms the name. 

*Asplenium Ruta-muraria, L. S. On several groups of rocks 
about the north Loch of Hostigates. 

*A. Trichomanes, L. S. Sparingly on rocks, west above Hamari 
Water. Very sparingly on a ledge of rocks, above the south 
side of the North Voe of Clousta. 

Polypodium Phegopteris, L. N. Exposed ledge of rock at the 
N.W. corner of the Bjorgs of Skelberry, alt. c. 550 feet 
Conf. 

Osmunda regalis, L. S. South Loch of Hostigates ; Burga Water ; 
Flatpunds Loch ; Galta Water. On holms in the above lochs, 
abundant on most. By Hostigates I found two seedlings 
respectively ^ inch and i^ inch high. These were half-buried 
among large stones, and had so far escaped the sheep. The 
fern fruits very freely, and myriads of spores must be drifted 
ashore every year, but no plants are seen on the shores of the 
lochs. Conf. 

*Isoetes echinospora, Dur. S. Culeryn ; Burga Water ; Kirkiegarth 
and Bardaster Lochs, Walls, and in several other lochs. 
Apparently common in this district. 

Isoetes lacustris, L. The spores of this species are covered with 
thin ridges, or plates, not tubercles. All our books describe 
them wrongly, down to the last edition of Babington. They 
are correctly described in the Scandinavian Floras. See Blytt, 
" Norges Flora " ; and Lange, " Danske Flora." 

THE FRESH-WATER HOLMS. The examination of the Holms 
which are scattered over so many of the fresh-water lochs has 
especially attracted my attention during recent years, although 
comparatively few of them have actually been visited. Whether 
regarded as the final refuges of some species no longer known in 
Shetland beyond their confines, or as enabling us to conjure up a 
picture of Shetland loch-side vegetation, as it was before the advent 
of the sheep, these holms demand our serious consideration ; and 
until they have been more fully investigated it cannot be claimed 



ON THE FLORA OF SHETLAND 237 

that our knowledge of the Shetland Flora approaches completeness. 
As recorded above, Salix Caprea is entirely confined to two small 
holms in the middle of Mousa Vord Loch ; Vicia sepium is 
practically extinct, except on various holms on which it flourishes ; 
while Osmunda regalis luxuriates on the holms in some four or five 
different lochs, and doubtless on others, but is no longer found 
on their shores. It may be worth while to try to give a rough 
picture of the vegetation on some of these holms. Burga-water. 
As one approaches the green holm at the north end of this loch, 
from the south, one sees a thick belt of Osmunda surrounding a 
third or more of the islet ; mixed with it grow Spiraea Uhnaria 
and other common species, while over all trail festoons of Vicia 
sepium and Lathyrus pratensis behind this belt are considerable 
thickets of Salix aurita, while in the open grassy spots between 
the thickets are found Rhinanthus grcenlandicus, Hieracium crocatum, 
and other interesting plants ; the northern part of the holm is 
sterile, and is covered with a dense growth of Luzula sylvatica 
almost to the exclusion of any other plants. Hostigates. The 
small holm in the south loch contains large clumps of Osmunda mixed 
with other ferns and common plants, as well as well-grown examples 
of Pyrus Aucuparia ; these last, however, are not so fine as those 
on the holm in the adjacent north loch, where they reach a height 
of some six feet. Hamari-water. -The holm in this loch is 
particularly interesting. A bank along one side was covered with 
Rosa glauca and Lonicera Peridyniemim, both flowering profusely ; 
among and below them common ferns luxuriate, and below these 
Spiraea, Caltha, etc. ; while in the dryer parts Hieracium strictum is 
plentiful, as well as Salix aurita, S. repens, and various other plants. 
At the farther end I came upon a little forest of miniature rowan 
trees, most of them perfectly symmetrical little trees, covered with 
flowers and fruit, but none of them over four feet in height ! One 
tree a little under four feet bore between thirty and forty bunches 
of withered flowers and half-ripe fruit ; the lowest branches sprang 
from the main stem only some three or four inches from the soil, 
and were borne down and touching the ground with the weight of 
the fruit. Nowhere else have I seen, in the wild state, plants that 
so nearly approach the dwarfed Japanese trees with which we are 
now familiar. Unfortunately, I had no camera with me ; but when 
at Clousta some few years later, I made a special visit to Hamari- 
water for the purpose of photographing the little forest. After 
wading across to the holm, I was surprised to find that there were 
no rowan-trees to be seen ; eventually, however, I recognised them 
in a number of dead-looking sticks, some bearing one leaf, some 
two or three, but no sign of flower or fruit. On getting back to 
Clousta at night, I learned that there had been an exceptionally 
severe snow-storm with biting north-east wind at the end of May 



238 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

or beginning of June, and this no doubt accounted for the disaster. 
The incident well exemplifies the precariousness of the seasons in 
Shetland. Mousa Vord. The two holms in the middle of this 
loch are practically one, being connected by a ridge of rocks a little 
below the surface. The soil is poor, and owing to this and to the 
greater part of their area being covered by the thickets of Salix 
Caprea, the flora is very scanty indeed. The following is a list of 
all the plants seen on these holms : 



Ranunculus acris. 

,, repens. 

Caltha palustris. 



subsp. radicans. 



Cardamine pratensis. 
Cerastium triviale. 
Sagina procumbens. 
Spirosa Ulmaria. 
Geum rivale. 
Angelica sylvestris. 



Rumex Acetosa. 

Acetosella. 
Salix Caprea. 
Luzula sylvatica. 
Anthoxanthum odoratum. 
Agrostis alba. 
Holcus lanatus. 
Poa pratensis. 

,, trivialis. 
Festuca rubra. 



From these few observations on the flora of the holms I think 
one may safely surmise what the loch-side vegetation was like in 
the olden time a thousand years ago. While now little meets the 
eye but the eternally recurring prospect of undulating purple-brown 
heather-clad hills stretching right down to the margin of the loch 
basin, with rarely a shrub to break the monotony, there would then 
have been the pleasant relief of a broad margin of greenery round 
many of the lochs ; first, a belt of Osmunda and other ferns, as well 
as many other herbaceous species ; behind these thickets of wild 
roses and honeysuckle, or of several species of willow, with small 
trees of mountain ash and sometimes birch interspersed. This 
vegetation would extend some little way up the ravines and gullies, 
while the lower slopes of the hills themselves would be dotted over 
with shrubs of one sort or another ; so that the ancient landscape 
must have been far more diversified and pleasing to the eye than 
the present often somewhat dreary aspect. So far as the herbaceous 
plants are concerned, the sheep, and to a lesser degree the ponies 
and cattle, are responsible for the change that has been wrought ; 
but in the case of the trees and shrubs the hand of man has been 
a potent influence, " for a shrub of the size of a walking-stick, a 
flail tree, or a fishing-rod, would prove a temptation too strong for 
the moral courage of a Shetlander to resist." * Then much brush- 
wood was no doubt cut for firing, while the sheep, again, have put 
the finishing touch by nibbling off any seedlings as fast as they 
spring up and so destroying all chance of renovation. 

As an illustration of another phase of vegetation in Shetland I 

1 Rev. John Bryden, I.e. 



ON THE FLORA OF SHETLAND 239 

give a list of the plants seen growing on the turf roof of a byre at 
the croft of Setter, near Walls. 



Cardamine pratensis. 
Cerastium triviale. 

,, tetrandum. 
Stellaria media. 
Sagina procumbens. 
Potentilla silvestris. 
Hydrocotyle vulgaris. 
Galium saxatile. 
Scabiosa Succisa. 
Solidago Virga-aurea. 
Leontodon autumnalis. 



Galeopsis Tetrahit. 
Rumex Acetosella. 
Juncus supinus. 

,, bufonius. 

,, squarrosus. 
Agrostis vulgaris. 
Aira flexuosa. 
,, praecox. 
Poa annua. 
,, pratensis. 



I may add, in conclusion, that the few observations on 
the scenery past and present apply more particularly to the 
peat and heather tracts. On the limestone, clay-slate, etc., 
where the hills are clothed chiefly with coarse grasses, the 
general coloration is of course much brighter ; but there is 
the same monotony as regards trees and shrubs. At the 
same time one often comes across charming burn-side fore- 
ground studies, while the grandeur of the coast scenery 
alone more than compensates for any shortcomings that 
some may find in the inland landscape. 

THAMES DITTON, May 1907. 



A CONTRIBUTION TO A FLORA OF ST. KILDA : 
BEING A LIST OF CERTAIN LICHENS, 
MOSSES, HEPATICyE, AND FRESH-WATER 
ALG^:. 

By C. GORDON HEWITT, M.Sc. 

DURING the visit to St. Kilda, in July 1906, which I made 
in order to study the insect fauna of that isolated volcanic 
rock, I also collected a few lichens, algae, and bryophytes, 
with the hope of assisting in the completion of the flora 
of that island, as these groups had not been studied to my 
knowledge. 

The lichens were kindly identified by my friend Dr. O. V. 



240 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

Darbishire, the rest by Mr. H. Murray of the Manchester 
Museum, to both of whom I wish to express my thanks. 

The following list is not supposed to be by any means 
complete, and any one making a closer study of the lower 
orders of plants would be well rewarded. 

ALG.E. 

Rhizodonium hieroglyphicum, Ktitz., var. tortuosum, 

Tetraspora gelatinosa, Desv. On Nardia, also in damp places on 
Armeria maritima. 

HEPATIOE. 

Metzgeria furcata (L.), Raddi. 

Nardia compressa (Hook.), G. and Benn. On rocks in bed of stream. 

Chiloscyphus polyanthus (L.), Dum. This interesting form almost 
fills the " Well of Virtues " at the bottom of the glen. 

Musci. 

Mnium hornuui, L. On the top of Connacher. 
Pterygophylhim lucens, Brid. In damp places. 
Fissidens adiantoides, Hedw. In moist situations. 

LICHENS. 
Cladonia uncialis, Hffm. 

Cladonia, sp. 

C. furcata, Hffm. 

C. rangiferina, Nyl. 

Ramalina farinacea (L.), Ach. 

R. polymorpha, Ach. 

Parmelia saxatilis (L.), Ach. 

P. otivacea, L. 

Ricasolia amplissima, Scop. This usually lignicolous species was 
found on rocks of Mullach of Bich, and Cairn Mor. 

R. Icetce-virens (Lightft.), Nyl. On the cliffs of Ruadval. 

Peltigera canina, L. On the rocks of the cleits. 

P. horizontalis, L. 

Physcia aquila. Ach. 

Xanthoria parietina, L. 

Placodimn, sp. 



A CONTRIBUTION TO A FLORA OF ST. KILDA 241 

Pannaria plumbed^ Lightft. On Ruadval. 

Ochrolechia parella (L.), Mass. 

Aca rospora fuscata (Schrad.), Th. Fr. On the rocks of cleits. 

Biatora lucida (Ach.), Th. Fr. On the rocks of cleits. 

Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.), Dl. On the rocks of cleits. 

The orchis O. maculata which occurs on the^banks of 
the stream interested me during my visit. It is usually 
pollinated by bees, but as no bees have yet been discovered 
in St. Kilda, the flowers of that island have to depend on 
other insects for pollination. Quite accidentally one morning 
a dipterous fly, an Anthomyia, I believe, settled on my 
hand ; upon its head I noticed two pollinia of 0. maculata, 
but before I was able to capture it, it flew away. O. maculata 
is no doubt dependent on the visits of flower-haunting flies 
and other insects in this island, where the hum of the bee 
has not yet been heard. 


THE UNIVERSITY, MANCHESTER, August 1907. 



THE NOMENCLATURE OF BRITISH PLANTS. 
By GEORGE CLARIDGE DRUCE, M.A., F.L.S. 

IN my paper on the " Nomenclature of British Plants " which 
appeared in the "Annals" for October 1906, but which 
unfortunately I had no opportunity of seeing in proof, so 
that numerous misprints occur, I made some suggestions of 
a tentative nature as to certain changes which, if the Vienna 
" Actes " were followed, might have to be made in the 
names of our British plants. These were based upon the 
arrangement and limitations of Bentham and Hooker's 
"Genera Plantarum." In 1907 Rendle and Britten issued a 
"List of British Seed-Plants and Ferns," in which the compilers 
adopt the sequence and generic limitations of Groves's edition 
of" Babington's Manual of British Botany," which differs con- 
siderably from those used by Bentham and Hooker. 

In this List about seventy of the names suggested by 
me in the foregoing paper are also used, so that, working 
independently, it is pleasing to find that agreement in the 
64 E 



242 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

majority of cases is obtained. Erwin Janchen of Vienna, 
an enthusiastic worker at nomenclature, has also published 
a list of alterations which are necessitated in Fritsch's " Ex- 
kursion Flora " of Austria, and also adopts a considerable 
number of the foregoing names. He also chooses the 
following names suggested by me in the " Annals " which 
are not used by Rendle and Britten : Calamagrostis canescens, 
PJiraginites vulgaris, Bronms hordeaceus, Polygonatuni odor- 
atum, and Crepis mollis. With regard to one of these, Poly- 
gonatuni odoratum, doubts have been expressed as to whether 
Convallaria odorata, Miller, means our Polygonatuni officinale, 
or rather refers to a form of P. inultiflorum. If that be 
so, then our Polygonatuni should be called Polygonatuni 
angulosum (Lam.), since Convallaria angulosa, Lam., "Fl. Fr.," 
iii. 268 (1778), is earlier than P. officinale, Allioni, " Fl. 

Fed.," 131 (1785). 

The genus Erytlircea must be replaced by Centaurium, 
Miller, "British Herbal," 1756, p. 62 ; and our plants are 
C. unibellatum, Gilib. (Erythrtza Centaurium}, C. vulgare, Rafn. 
(E. littoralis), C. latifoliwn (Sm.), C. pulchelluni, Druce, and 
C. capitatum, Rendle and Britten, as Centaurion capitatum. 

Danaa cornubiense replaces Physospermum cornubiense 
according to Dr. Janchen. Carex Hostiana, DC., has pre- 
cedence over C. Hornschuchiana, Hoppe. ; and we must read 
Alnus rotundifolia, Miller, vice A.glutinosa, Gaertn. ; and Dr. 
Janchen gives good reason for rejecting Helianthemum 
marifolium, Miller, in favour of H. camun, Baumg. it is the 
Cistus canus, L., 1753. Coronopus vernicarius, M. and T., 
replaces C.procumbens, Gilib. Inula squarrosa, Bernh., must be 
substituted for /. Conyza, DC. ; and Dr. Janchen uses Matri- 
caria suaveolens, Buchenau, instead of M. discoidea, DC. 
Taraxacum vulgare, Schrank, precedes T. officinale, Wigg. ; 
and Dr. Janchen uses Hieracium lanceolatum,Vill. i instea.d oflf. 
strictum,Fries. 1 Rendle and Britten correct me in showing that 
Nymphoides orbiculata, Gilib., must be written N. peltatum, 
Rendl. and Brit, since peltatum was the oldest specific name. 
Other corrections made by them are of Silene venosa, Gilib., 
which they suggest should be .S. latifolia (Mill.), R. and B. ; 
and if S. latifolia, Poiret, is not valid, then that must be so, 
1 The Rev. W. R. Linton does not agree to this, but retains H. strictum, Fr. 



THE NOMENCLATURE OF BRITISH PLANTS 243 

although Schinz and Thellung, in "Bull. Herb. Boiss.," p. 506, 
reject this and some other names, which they term " tot- 
geboren." In this particular instance they use Silene vnlgaris, 
Moench, but I should prefer to follow the plan followed by 
Rendle and Britten in using the earliest specific name, even 
if it had not been generally adopted. Statice Armeria, L., 
it should be S. maritima, Mill. is not British, nor are Rumex 
aquaticus, L., and Carex. vitilis, Fries. Valerianella rimosa, 
Bast., is older than V. Auricula, DC. Cephalanthera Dania- 
sonium (Mill.) is rejected by Rendle and Britten in favour of 
C. grandifiora, S. F. Gray, but with this I do not concur. Two 
obvious errors in my paper are Polygonum sagittatum, Gilib., 
which was a misprint for Fagopyrum sagittatum, Gilib. (it is 
correctly given on p. 218); the other is Hordeum bulbosum, 
L., which was a lapsus calami for H. nodosum, L. 

H. Schinz and A. Thellung in "Bull. Herb. Boiss.," I.e., also 

adopt some names used by me in the " Annals " instead of 

those used in Rendle and Britten's List, e.g. Ranunculus 

fozniculaceus, Gilib., instead of R. divaricatus, Schrank, and 

Galiiim liercynicum, Weig., instead of G. saxatile, L. 

I cannot follow Rendle and Britten in using the name 
Myosotis scorpioides, L., for M.palustris ; but on the contrary, 
following the English custom, since the var. a in the " Species 
Plantarum," of M. scorpioides, L., is arvensis (if this name be 
retained), I should write M. scorpioides, L., vice M. arvensis. 
There is also this advantage, that in rejecting M. arvensis, 
Hill, we get rid of a most ambiguous name, since it was 
partly, if not wholly, M. versicolor. M. palustris, Hill, was 
the Water Forget-me-not, and is well defined. To go into a 

o o 

detailed criticism of the " Plant List " would now take up too 
much space and time, but one may point out that Ononis 
reclinata is wrongly omitted and Ophioglossum lusitanicum 
wrongly included. Only those who have worked at the 
subject know how extremely difficult it is ; to prepare a list 
without errors is well-nigh impossible, and even then the 
names selected may, according to the standpoint adopted, be 
rejected for several reasons. This much may be said, that 
Britten and Rendle, Janchen, and Schinz and Thellung still 
differ widely in their choice of names. The latter authors, I 
think correctly, use Arabis scabra, AIL, instead of A. stricta 



244 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

Huds., and write Ludvigia, L., rather than Ludwigia, and 
Evonymus, L., instead of Euonymus. They also use Potentilla 
Tabcrn&montani, Asch., instead of P. verna, L. ; but the older 
name is P. minor, Gilib., although that perhaps is used in an 
aggregate sense. They are correct in using P. erecta, Hampe, 
instead of P. sylvestris, Neck., which Rendle and Britten 
employ, and also show that if Galium sylvestre, Pollich, is to 
be rejected, it must be called G. asperum, Schreber, and 
not G. umbellatum, Lam. ; but I have yet to be convinced 
that G. sylvestre, Scop., is a Galiinn the description does not 
suggest it, and no one, I believe, has yet identified it. They 
also point out that the authority of Anagallis tenella is Murray 
and not Lightfoot, and that Scrophularia alata, Gilib., has 
priority over 5. umbrosa, Dum. We are also indebted to 
them for vindicating the use of the name Veronica Tournefortii, 
Gmelin, instead of V. Buxbaumii. F. W. Schmidt used V. 
Tournefortii in. 1791, but it is a synonym of V. pectinata ; 
therefore V. Tournefortii^ Gmel., 1805, is available, and pre- 
cedes V. Buxbaumii, Ten. They also reject Mr. Robinson's re- 
versal of the names of Oxalis slricta and O. corniculata. Dr. 
Janchen tells me that the Orchis montana, Schmidt, 1794, was 
only a large form of Habenaria bifolia and not the plant 
familiar to us as H. cldorantha, Bab. Since there is an earlier 
H. chlorantJia than that of Babington it would appear that 
we must use H. virescens (Zollik) for that species, since 
Zollik's specific name virescens dates from Gaudin's " Flora 
Helvetica" (1829) and is therefore earlier than H. chloroleuca, 
Ridley. The Continental authorities chiefly use Platanthera 
for the generic name instead of Habenaria. The wider 
question of the advisability of following the Vienna " Actes " 
when they depart from the Rule of Priority must not be 
touched on here, although it demands most serious attention, 
and I for one cannot assent to such an unfair and illogical 
practice. 

ZOOLOGICAL NOTES. 

Mr. Norman B. Kinnear. Our friend and valued contributor, 
Mr. Norman B. Kinnear, has been offered, and has accepted, the 
Keepership of the Museum of the Bombay Natural History Society, 



ZOOLOGICAL NOTES 245 

and will proceed to India in October to take up the appointment. 
The Society was founded in 1883, and now its members number 
some 1200, resident in all parts of India and Burma. By the excel- 
lence of its work and the value of its publications it has become one 
of the leading societies of its kind in the East, and has earned and 
received the generous recognition of the Government of Bombay. 
During the quarter of a century it has existed the Society has amassed 
very considerable and valuable collections from all parts of the Indian 
Empire. Mr. Kinnear, who is a keen and promising zoologist, is a 
great-grandson of that distinguished naturalist, the late Sir William 
Jardine, Bart. 

The Editors of the " Annals," while much regretting the loss 
Scottish Natural History sustains, extend to Mr. Kinnear their best 
wishes for a career of usefulness and distinction in his new sphere 
of activity. 

Hedgehog in Argyll. In view of the remarks on this subject 
in Messrs. Harvie-Brown and Buckley's "Vertebrate Fauna of 
Argyll and the Inner Hebrides " (1892), the following extracts from 
my diary during a visit to Ballachulish in 1893 may be of some 
interest as supplementing the occurrences which have since been 
recorded in this Magazine (see "Annals." 1901, p. 233 ; and 1902, 
pp. 50 and 117). "29/72 August. Mrs. Campbell" (wife of Dr. 
Campbell, who was, I believe, lessee of the Ballachulish quarries) 
" showed me a Hedgehog found by her gardener on the hillside 
near their house." " ist September. I saw the gardener, who stated 
that it was the first he had seen in the locality, and that a man at 
the quarries said he had not heard of one being seen in the neigh- 
bourhood for quite ten years. On the same day we saw a Mole." 
A. HOLTE MACPHERSON, London, W. 

Great Grey Seal in the Firth of Forth. Perhaps it might 
interest your readers to know that on the afternoon of 2yth July 
I saw, in the bay to the north-west of Rossend Castle, Burntisland, 
a Great Grey Seal (Halichcents gryp/u/s}. It was not over 60 yards 
from the shore, and I could quite easily identify it by its size, shape 
of the head and neck, and grey colour of the skin. It came up 
twice, and I had it under observation on its reappearance the 
second time very particularly. Being seated in the 1.35 train from 
Edinburgh, which had only drawn up waiting the signal to enter 
Burntisland Station, I had no opportunity of seeing where it 
eventually went to. I pointed it out to the occupants of the 
carriage, and they remarked on its large size. Being a native of 
the county of Orkney, and thus quite familiar with the appearance 
of these seals in the water, I had not the slightest hesitation in 
identifying the animal. Is not this a rather unusual occurrence 
in a busy waterway like the Forth ? F. SEATTER. 



246 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

Interesting 1 Birds at Fair Isle. I have just returned from a five 
weeks' residence on Fair Isle, where in the course of my investiga- 
tions I witnessed the passage movements of no less than 82 species 
of migratory birds. Among the birds observed were several species 
of special interest (some of them being new to Scotland), and these I 
propose to mention in this preliminary note, reserving full parti- 
culars for a future contribution on the results of the year's observa- 
tions. The rarer species that came under my notice during September 
and the early days of October were Black-throated Chat (Saxicola 
occidental! s]. Black-headed Bunting (Emberiza melanocephala], Grey- 
headed Wagtail (Motacilla inridis\ Red-breasted Flycatcher (Musci- 
capa parva}, Greater Redpoll (Acanthis rostrata), Ortolan Bunting 
(Emberiza hortitland), Lapland Bunting (Calcarius lapponicus), 
and Hoopoe (Upnpa epops). WM. EAGLE CLARKE. 

Peculiar Blackbird's Eggs and their Significance. The 

following record relating to several peculiar clutches of Blackbird's 
eggs seems to prove that, in cases where the eggs of birds of one 
species are subject to variation, each individual female of that 
species lays year after year eggs similar in colour and markings. 

Early in April 1903 I found a Blackbird's nest containing three 
pure blue eggs, but these were taken before the clutch was complete. 

On iQth April 1905, within a few yards of the same spot, I 
again found a Blackbird's nest, presumably belonging to the same 
bird, as it contained two pure blue eggs and a third of ordinary 
Blackbird's-egg type. This nest was also robbed before the clutch 
was complete, but by 26th April a new nest had been constructed 
close by the old one, and two eggs had been laid, both pure blue 
in colour. On 3oth April, when I again looked at the nest, the 
bird was sitting closely on a clutch of three eggs, one of which, 
the last laid, was of ordinary markings. Again the nest was robbed, 
and again, on loth May, I found the bird sitting on another nest, 
which contained a clutch of eggs similar to that found on 3oth April. 

The next nestful of these peculiar eggs which I found was dis- 
covered on 8th April 1906, and consisted of two unspotted eggs: 
on gth April the number remained the same, but a pure blue egg 
was found on the ground a few yards away ; this egg I placed in 
the nest, which, however, proved to be deserted. 

This year I did not find the unspotted Blackbird's eggs until 
28th June, when I found a deserted clutch in a nest built about 
50 yards from the former sites. This clutch consisted of five 
eggs : four blue and unspotted, and the fifth of ordinary markings. 

It is, of course, impossible to prove from the above scanty 
observations that all these nests belonged to the same pair of birds ; 
yet, as, with the exception of the 1907 nest, all were built within 
a space of about 100 square yards, it is quite probable that 
they did. 



ZOOLOGICAL NOTES 247 

A gardener who had been at work near the last-mentioned nest 
declared to me that it belonged to a pair of birds of which the 
male was a pied specimen, as he had several times seen the bird 
near the nest ; but as the nest w r as deserted when I first saw it, and 
the eggs were taken two days later, I was unable to make any 
personal observations on this point. If the gardener's statement 
could but be satisfactorily proven, it would form a record of unusual 
interest. WILLIAM BINNIE, Aberdeen. 

Unusual Situation of Willow-Wren's Nest. During the past 
nesting-season I came across a Willow- Wren's nest in a very unex- 
pected position, viz. on the extremity of the drooping branch of 
a spruce, fully nine feet above the ground. The locality in which 
this nest was found is a rather damp, low-lying patch of woodland ; 
which fact, in conjunction with the inclemency of the season, may 
account for the bird's unusual choice of a nesting-place. S. E. 
BROCK, Kirkliston. 

Redstart in Mull. In regard to the distribution of the Red- 
start (Ruticilla phxnicitrus] in the Hebrides, it should, in view of 
doubts to the contrary, be stated that in this portion of the Inner 
Hebrides the species is a fairly common summer visitor. 
D. MACDONALD, Tobermory. 

Pied Flycatcher in Ayrshire. I think it may interest you to 
know that we have had a Pied Flycatcher (Muscicapa atricapilhi) 
breeding here. The nest was in a small hollow on the bole of an 
old acacia tree about 4 feet from the ground. The young birds 
were hatched out all right, and all seemed to be going well, when 
either the bird itself or another started to build a second nest on 
the top of them, and they were all smothered a catastrophe I 
cannot account for. MARY YOUNG, Glendoune. 

Great Spotted Woodpecker nesting in Perthshire. In con- 
nection with the extension of range of this species as a native bird 
in Scotland, which is being discussed in the pages of the " Annals," 
it will be of interest to record that I have received reliable informa- 
tion of its nesting both at Crieff and Drumtochty in May last. 
MARY BEDFORD, Meikleour, Perthshire. 

Great Spotted Woodpecker nesting- near Callander, Perth- 
shire. -This spring my daughter discovered that we had the Great 
Spotted Woodpecker {Dendrocopus major} in this neighbourhood. 
In June she watched a pair of these birds carrying lichens in their 
beaks and depositing them in a small hole in an alder, so that 
there can be no doubt they are nesting with us. J. B. BAILLIE 
HAMILTON, Callander. 

Albino Shag in Mull. On i4th and i5th June I visited a bird 
colony established within recent years at Rhu-na-Caillich, in the 
extreme N.W. of Mull. While there I was assured by Mr. Alex. 



248 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

Mitchell, lessee of the salmon fishings, that a wholly white Shag 
(Pkalacrocorax graculus) was seen near there a few days previous to 
my visit. On i8th July I was informed by four Staffa boatmen 
that they had that morning passed close to a Shag which was com- 
pletely white. All my informants were unanimous that the bird was 
a Shag, and that a similarly coloured bird had never before been 
observed by them. D. MACDONALD, Tobermory. 

Little Bittern in Inverness-shire. It may be of interest to 
your readers to know that I found a Little Bittern (Ardetta minutd), 
a female, at Lentran station, six miles from Inverness, on the gth 
of June. The bird was alive, but one wing was broken, it having 
evidently come in contact with the telegraph wires. WM. MILNE, 
Inverness. 

[The Little Bittern is of rare occurrence in Scotland, and has 
not hitherto been known to visit the Moray area. EDS.] 

Nesting of the Quail in East Lothian. Learning that a strange 
note had been repeatedly heard by the field-workers at Saltoun East 
Mains farm on 3rd June in the young corn and grass fields, I 
went out on the morning of 5th and heard the unmistakable 
dactylic cry of the Quail (Coturnix coturnix). There seemed to be 
three calling males in the grass field that day. After this the call 
was heard almost daily in four different fields for at least a fortnight. 
I managed to see a bird once, in a spot where the hay grew thinly, 
and another time I surprised one feeding in the middle of the road, 
as I came along quietly on my bicycle. Its alarm cry was exactly 
like that of a partridge, though not quite so strong. The hay-field 
where I first heard the birds calling was cut on lyth July, but in 
spite of vigilance and precautions following on my interest in the 
matter, the nest was not found till the horse-rakes had dragged a 
great swathe of hay over it. I found one egg close beside the 
empty nest, and other five some ten yards off, all broken, containing 
chicks on which the down had begun to form. Possibly there had 
been more eggs than these, but I could only find the six. H. N. 
BONAR, Saltoun. 

[Introduced Quails were put down in Stirlingshire, remained 
some time, but disappeared. J. A. H.-B.] 

Garganey in Aberdeenshire. On the loth of November 1906 
we saw a Garganey (Qiterquedula circid) at the mouth of the Don. 
It allowed us to get very close to it, and, although it kept itself 
partially submerged while we were near it, we were able to identify 
it by the light streak over the eye. We also found its footmarks 
on the sand, and had a distant view of the whole bird before it swam 
off and submerged itself. According to Mr. Sim, the only record 
for this district was also for the autumn migration season (22nd 
October 1898). A. L. THOMSON and L. N. G. RAMSAY, 
Aberdeen. 



ZOOLOGICAL NOTES 249 

Tufted Duck nesting 1 in West Lothian. With reference to 
Mr. Brock's notice in the July number of the "Annals," I may 
state that I have known the Tufted Duck to nest regularly in the 
eastern portion of West Lothian during the last ten years.- BRUCE 
CAMPBELL, Edinburgh. 

Dotterel in Mull. On the iQth of May I accompanied a friend 
in a climb to view the grand panorama to be seen from the summit 
of one of the mountains of N.W. Mull. The sight was very grand, 
but to me a more interesting one was in store, for my eye caught 
sight of a plover-like bird, and within a few feet of it its brighter- 
coloured mate a pair of Dotterels (E/idromias morinellns). We 
had our binoculars, but there was little need for them, as the birds 
were so confiding as to permit our approach to within ten yards of 
them. During the hour we watched them they were engaged seek- 
ing insects, which they found among the coarse herbage on the hill- 
top. They were never more than a few yards apart while thus 
engaged, as each bird would move three or four feet, pick up an 
insect, stand for a second or two, and then repeat the process. I 
visited the scene again on the 24th, but, as I expected, both birds 
had taken their departure. D. MACDONALD, Tobermory. 

Woodcocks in Dumfriesshire. Of recent years the nesting of 
Woodcocks in this locality has become more and more frequent. 
Their nests are to be found in woods and coverts, and in the spring 
at twilight Woodcocks may be seen " roding " up and down the 
sides and edges of the coverts. In June and July the broods, accom- 
panied by their parents, may be flushed in the more open parts of 
the woods. In August they seem to have left the woods and taken 
refuge in the great stretches of bracken, which grows here in some 
places to the height of four or five feet. Such patches of cover, if 
near a wood, may be almost counted on to hold a Woodcock. This 
season (1907) they have been more than usually plentiful, and already 
(ist September) many have been shot. On iyth August five couple 
were shot while walking up grouse. It was noticed that they were 
usually flushed at the edge of a clump of brackens, and that where 
one was flushed another Woodcock was nearly certain to be within 
thirty yards ; but never were two birds flushed at a time, so 
close did they lie. When on the wing they flew "like owls," in a 
dull, heavy, direct way, very different from their autumnal zigzag flight 
in the coverts. On three or four occasions we saw, say at a hundred 
yards in front of us, one of these birds flutter up out of the 
bracken and settle down again a few feet off. This happened 
presumably when the bird wished to move and was unable to do so 
on foot because of the too dense undergrowth of heather or dead 
bracken. It would be interesting to know if this increase in numbers 
of Woodcock is general throughout Scotland this season. HUGH S. 
GLADSTONE, Capenoch, Thornhill, Dumfriesshire. 



250 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

Black-tailed Godwit in Barra. On her return from the north 
of the Long Island, Her Grace the Duchess of Bedford shot a 
Black-tailed Godwit at Eoligary, Barra, which will be preserved and 
find a resting-place in the collection of local birds formed by the 
Messrs. MacGillivray of Eoligary. It was shot by her on yth 
September 1907. Her Grace perfectly identified the bird before it 
was shot, and I am informed of the above facts by Mr. Wm. 
MacGillivray in lit. igth September 1907, with the additional 
information that so far as he, Mr. MacGillivray, is aware, " this is 
the first record of the species for Barra." J. A. HARVIE-BROWN. 

Black-throated Diver on the Aberdeenshire Coast. On the 
3oth of January 1907 a Black-throated Diver (Colymbus arcticus) 
was shot at the mouth of the Don ; it is now in Marischal College 
Museum. Mr. Sim ("Vertebrate Fauna of Dee") said in 1903 
that he had had only one specimen through his hands in forty 
years ; thus, although there has been another since, it seems to be 
very rare in this district. A. LANDSBOROUGH THOMSON, Aberdeen. 

The House Cricket (Grylhis domesticits) in an old Quarry near 
Edinburgh. One associates the House Cricket so entirely with 
ovens and fireplaces, that I was almost incredulous when my son 
told me he heard dozens " chirping " in an old quarry west of 
Slateford, near Edinburgh, on the evening of 25th June last. On 
2oth July he heard them again, and this time brought home three 
in support of his statement. I then visited the place myself, and 
found the insects quite numerous, and at all stages from newly 
hatched young to full-sized adults. They were living under a layer 
of rubbish, including pieces of old furs, corsets, the stuffing of 
chairs, tin cans, etc., that had been from time to time deposited in 
the quarry. 

No doubt the crickets have been introduced into the quarry 
with some of the rubbish, and it will be interesting to see if the 
colony survives the winter in the open. WILLIAM EVANS, Edinburgh. 

False-Scorpions of the West of Scotland. Since writing my 
note for the July " Annals " I have detected two other species in the 
West of Scotland. 

Cheiridium museorum (Leach) has been obtained in the two 
widely separated counties of Ayr and Ross. In the former county a 
number of specimens were taken by myself in a meal-mill at Dairy 
on 29th June, and in the latter a single adult was discovered by Mr. 
G. A. White in a hay-barn at Balmacara on 26th August. 

This species builds nests for the various purposes of moulting, 
reproduction, and resting. But it differs to some extent in its re- 
productive habits from our other Scottish species. Sometimes the 
female follows the course adopted by Obisium and Chthonius of shut- 
ting herself inside her nest and retaining her embryo mass attached to 



ZOOLOGICAL NOTES 251 

her genital pore during the period occupied by the embryonic 
changes ; but at other times she apparently lays a few eggs inside a 
nest and allows them to develop without her presence in the nest at 
all. This latter method is so startling that I have diffidence in 
publishing the fact ; but in June 1905 I obtained such nests with 
eggs in my own house in Edinburgh, and in the spring of 1907 
Mr. G. A. Whyte obtained strongly confirmatory evidence by finding 
nests containing several young that had attained their definitive 
form and were unaccompanied by the female. 

Chelifer rufeolus, Simon. On 28th June I obtained three im- 
mature individuals of this species the first Scottish examples from 
a stable loft in Walls Street, Glasgow ; and in the month of August 
Messrs. Whyte and I discovered it commonly at Balmacara, where 
we took eighty specimens from a small byre. In the Glasgow stable 
the moulting nests were found on wood and in a clotted mass of 
straw ; and in the byre at Balmacara a female carrying her embryonic 
mass was shaken out of some refuse on 24th August. The synonymy 
of this species is not yet finally settled, and it is possible that in the 
future another name will be substituted for that used here. 

Two records made this summer of species already referred to in 
the July " Annals " deserve notice. Chelifer cancroides (Linn.) has 
been discovered in a second Glasgow stable ; and Obisium maritimiim, 
Leach, has been obtained on the shore of Loch Duich, near 
Balmacara. ROBERT GODFREY. 



BOTANICAL NOTES AND NEWS. 

Juneus baltieus, Willd., away from the Sea-Coast. This 
plant is given in works on the British flora as found " in sandy 
places near the sea, or rarely by inland lakes." The only locality 
under the latter head is, or rather was, the Loch of Drum or Park 
in the valley of the Dee, about twelve miles inland. It now seems 
to be extinct at this place ; at least it has not been found there for 
some years. In August of this year, while residing at Aviemore in 
East Inverness-shire, I walked from the railway station of Daviot by 
Moy and Tomatin to Carr Bridge. Between the two last places the 
road crosses a range of hills ; and although it passes through a 
ravine known as the Slochd Mor, it reaches a height of 1327 feet 
above sea-level. Near a milestone marked " Carrbridge 6i " miles, 
where the altitude must approach 1300 feet, grow several clumps of 
J. baltieus. Two or three of these are some feet across, and of 
vigorous growth, so that the conditions appear to be very favourable 
despite the altitude and the distance from the sea-coast. Even the 
upper end of the Moray Firth is nearly twenty miles away : and the 
open sea is considerably more distant. JAMES W. H. TRAIL. 



252 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

Mite-Galls on the Beech (Fagus sylvatica) in Scotland. In 

August I found in Rothiemurchus several forms of growth on the 
leaves of beech trees, which were due to the action of microscopic 
mites of the group Eriophyidce, formerly known as Phytoptida. 
The most frequent was the form once regarded as a fungus, under 
the name of Erineum fagineum^ Persoon, consisting of patches on the 
lower surface of the leaves covered with short clubbed hairs. I have 
seen these patches in various parts of Scotland, from Dumfries north- 
wards, but always of a pale colour, or at most becoming pale rusty 
brown. The red variety, described from the Continent of Europe, 
has not been seen by me in Scotland. 

On a few trees in Rothiemurchus, and on one by the Findhorn 
near Relugas, I met with leaves bearing similar pale hairs on the 
upper surface in narrow belts along the chief veins, the so-called 
Erineum nervisequum, Kunze. These sometimes occurred on the 
same leaves as E. fagineum, but usually there appeared to be 
little connection between them. They are both attributed to 
Eriophyes nervisequus, Can. 

On a few other trees the leaves were still more markedly altered, 
being thickened in texture, permanently folded along the veins, and 
covered with hairs, which early become pale brown. The leaves 
remain small and useless to the plant. Usually the two or three 
terminal leaves of a shoot are entirely altered, while the lower ones 
show no sign of injury. One or two trees showed many branches 
affected, while others had few attacked. I have seen this gall only 
rarely before in Aberdeenshire and Perthshire, and at Kew, near 
London. All the examples that I have found have been dry and 
vacated by the makers. It has been attributed to Eriophyes stenaspis, 
Nalepa ; but the gall characteristic of this mite is a rolling of the leaf- 
margins into narrow tubes more or less filled with hairs, known as 
Leg-no n drcumscriptum, Bremi. This latter gall I have found in 
Dumfries and elsewhere in Scotland, but not frequently, and never 
associated with the plicate leaves. I looked without success for the 
rolled leaf-margins on the trees that bore the other form ; and I did 
not see them in the valley of the Spey this autumn. 

As the Beech is itself a comparatively recent introduction into 
Scotland from the continent of Europe, its galls must have been 
introduced with young trees. JAMES W. H. TRAIL. 

Galled Flowers of Field Gentian (Gentiana campestris, L.). I 
had occasionally observed in former years distorted and swollen 
flowers on the Gentian in the valley of the Dee, e.g. in Braemar and 
near Dinnet, but had not had the fitting opportunity to examine 
these closely, hence I was glad to use the opportunity to do so pre- 
sented by finding such flowers rather plentifully in August in various 
places in Rothiemurchus, in Abernethy, Cromdale, and elsewhere near 
the Spey. The plants showed a tendency to be badly affected in 



BOTANICAL NOTES AND NEWS 253 

limited areas, and to remain free from the attack in other places a 
little way off from infested spots. Only the flowers showed signs of 
injury. They remained closed, but much swollen, and the purplish 
colour of the corolla was often very evident, though in other 
examples the green alone was visible. The parts of the flower 
become much swollen, and so distorted as to be useless for their 
proper functions, the stamens often bearing no pollen ; while the 
ovary becomes inflated, and, bursting down one side, displays a 
smaller flower of like structure, the ovary of which may show even 
a third flower from its interior. Among the distorted organs of the 
flowers were numbers of the cause of injury, the mite Eriophyes 
Kerneri, Nalepa. JAMES W. H. TRAIL. 

A New Variety of the Lesser Broomrape (Orobanche minor, 
Sm.) in Scotland. When in Scotland in August I had the pleasure 
of finding near Cupar, Fife, some specimens of a very dark-coloured 
Orobanche, which I could not name. I sent it to Mr. Claridge 
Druce, who said he believed it to be an unusual variety of O. minor, 
a plant very rarely found in Scotland, 1 and advised me to send it to 
Professor Von Beck of Prague, who is writing a monograph on the 
Orobanchacecz. I did so, and I now forward a translation of the 
Professor's very interesting reply : "Botanic Garden and Institute 
of the Imperial German University, Prague, 4th September 1907. 
Honoured Madam I thank you sincerely for your kindness in 
sending the Orobanche, which is indeed an unusual form of O. minor. 
I had not seen it before, and I recognise it as forma condliata, 
Corolla excepta basi alba amethystino-violacea, squamae calycis cum 
cauli purpurascentes. It is very interesting that other Orobanches 
found in Scotland are also of a darker colour, as is the case with 
O. rubra, Hook." M. C. MURRAY. 



CURRENT LITERATURE. 

The Titles and Purport of Papers and Notes relating to Scottish Natural 
History which have appeared during the Quarter July- September 1907. 

[The Editors desire assistance to enable them to make this Section as complete as 
possible. Contributions on the lines indicated will be most acceptable, and 
will bear the initials of the Contributor. The Editors will have access to the 
sources of information undermentioned.] 

ZOOLOGY. 

THE CRESTED TIT IN SCOTLAND. " Lichen Grey." The Field, 
loth August 1907, p. 249. A short article, describing the nesting 
and other habits of the species, with a note on its distribution. 

1 Only in Fifeshire (85), where it has been suggested that it was introduced 
probably with agricultural seeds (Ed. "A.S.N.H."). 



254 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

NESTING OF THE SCOTKR IN SUTHERLAND. C. H. T. White- 
head. The Field, i3th July 1907, p. 53, and 3ist August 1907, p. 
435. Nest with six young and two eggs found towards end of June 
near the edge of an inland loch, and another brood a few days later 
swimming with the moiher in a small tarn. 

SOME NOTES ON THE LEPIDOPTERA OF THE " DALE COLLECTION " 
OF BRITISH INSECTS, NOW IN THE OXFORD UNIVERSITY MUSEUM 
(continued}. James J. Walker, M.A., R.N., F.L.S. Ent. Mo. Mag., 
July 1907, pp. 154-158. Reference made to a series of Zygaena 
exulans from Braemar ; specimens of Sphinx pinastri taken by Dr. 
Leach near Edinburgh and by Mr. Wilson, in 1818, in " Ravelston 
Wood, near Edinburgh " ; and four examples of Sesia scolieeformis 
from Rannoch. 

NOTES ON THE GENUS CRYPTOPHAGUS, WITH A TABLE OF SPECIES. 
Arthur J. Chitty. Ent. Mo. Mag., July- August 1907, pp. 164- 
171. -C. fumatus taken at Forres and C. cylindrus mentioned as 
occurring in the North of Scotland. 

ON THE BRACONIDOUS CRYPTOGASTRES. Claude Morley, F.E.S. 
Entomologist, August 1907, pp. 179-184. Acrogaster rufipes re- 
corded from Aberdeenshire, and A. quadridentatus from Nairn. 

HYPOPHYLLUS CRINIPES, STAEG., IN THE FORTH DISTRICT. 
A. E. J. Carter. Ent. Mo. Mag., July 1907, p. 160. One male 
and two females taken at Musselburgh. 

ON SOME BRITISH POLYZOA. Canon A. M. Norman, M.A., etc. 
Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., September 1907, pp. 207-212, 
plate ix. Terebripora ditrupse, sp. n., described from specimens 
obtained off Shetland. Schizoporella alderi and Phylactella pygmoea 
are also recorded from Shetland. 

ON THE OCCURRENCE OF A SUPPOSED AUSTRALASIAN HYDROID 
(SERTULARIA ELONGATA) IN THE NORTH SEA. James Ritchie, M.A., 
B.Sc. Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc., vol. xvii. No. 2 (March 1907), pp. 78- 
80. A cluster of colonies found in the net of a trawler which had 
been working off the Shetland Isles and off Buchan Ness. The 
author comes to the conclusion that the specimen drifted from an 
Australasian, perhaps from a West Australian locality, to the spot 
where it was picked up. 

THE ATRACTYLIS COCCINEA OF T. S. WRIGHT. G. S. Russell, 
M.A. Ann. and. Mag. Nat. Hist., July 1907, pp. 52-55, and 
figure. Redescribes the species, and refers to specimens obtained 
in the Firths of Forth and Clyde. 

HISTORY OF THE LOCH-AN-EILEIN OSPREYS. C. G. Cash. 
Cairngorm Club Journal, July 1907, pp. 270-278. Give chrono- 
logical notes gathered from various sources and from personal 
observations extending from the year 1804 to 1902. Information 
regarding Loch Morlich, Glenmore, is also given. 



CURRENT LITERATURE 255 

BOTANY. 

HYBRIDS AMONG BRITISH PHANEROGAMS. By Rev. E. F. Linton, 
M.A. Jonrn. Bot., 1907, pp. 268-276, 296-304. A catalogue with 
notes of all known to the author. The ferns and allies are also 
included, despite the title of the paper. 

PLANTS OF E. PERTH AND S. ABERDEEN. By Rev. E. S. 
Marshall, M.A., F.L.S., and W. A. Shoolbred, F.L.S. Jonrn. Bot., 
1907, pp. 292-296. Several new to each district are mentioned in 
the critical genera, e.g., Hieracium. 

ON THE DISAPPEARANCE OF CRYPTOGAMIC PLANTS. By A. R. 
Horwood. Journ. Bot., 1907, pp. 334-339. Relates to Leicester- 
shire especially, but gives valuable notes on effects of industrial 
works on these plants, the gases proving harmful. 

NOTES ON BRITISH HEPATIC^. By Symers M. Macvicar. 
Journ. Bot., 1907, pp. 258-262. Several species and varieties 
discussed, either new to Britain or of critical importance. 

NEW LOCALITIES OF RARE LICHENS. By A. Lorrain Smith. 
Journ. Bot., 1907, p. 345. Names Pertusaria gyrocheila from 
Harris and Ramalina Curnowii from Lewis. 

GALL FORMATION ON RAMALINA. By A. Lorrain Smith. Journ. 
Bot., 1907, pp. 344-345. Thalli deformed and showing cavities 
tenanted by mites. R. cuspidata, var. crassa, from North-East 
Scotland, is one of the forms named as bearing the galls. 



BOOK NOTICES. 

THE LETTERS TO GILBERT WHITE OF SELBORNE FROM HIS 
INTIMATE FRIEND AND CONTEMPORARY THE REV. JOHN MULSO. 
Edited with Notes and Introduction by Rashleigh Holt-White, M.A. 
London : R. H. Porter. 

This volume contains a series of 229 letters addressed to 
Gilbert White between the years i 744 and 1 790. That these should 
have been carefully preserved by their distinguished recipient is no 
small recommendation, and will appeal to many who revere all things 
associated with White's memory. The letters relate to a great 
variety of subjects, many of them of current interest at the time 
they were penned ; but it must be said that the allusions to natural 
history are few and of little consequence. We are able to gather 
from them, however, some knowledge of subjects and persons 
in which White was evidently interested other than Natural 
History and naturalists, and this is undoubtedly their chief value. 
On the other hand, a perusal of them does not lead one to 



256 ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 

form a high opinion of their author, but the fact remains that, what- 
ever his faults, he was Gilbert White's oldest and most intimate 
friend, and one for whom he evidently had great regard. Mulso 
seems to have been a far-seeing man, for, writing in 1776, he says 
of the Natural History of Selborne : " Your work, upon the whole, 
will immortalize your place of abode as well as yourself, it will 
correct men's principles ; and give health to those who chuse to 
visit the scenes of Mr. Grimm's pencil, in their original " : prophetic 
words. The introduction affords information of interest anent 
the Mulso family and the friendly relations existing between its 
members and the Selborne naturalist. 

REPORT ON THE IMMIGRATIONS OF SUMMER RESIDENTS IN 
THE SPRING OF 1906. By the Committee appointed by the British 
Ornithologists' Club. London : Witherby & Co., 1907. Price 6s. 

This is the Second Report issued by the Committee, and like 
the last deals solely with the arrival of Summer birds on the English 
coasts, their dispersal to accustomed English nesting haunts, and their 
passage movements to beyond the area, so far as it may be possible 
to detect them. It contains a considerable amount of information 
on the dates of arrival on great stretches of coast-line and from wide 
inland areas, and may be studied with advantage in conjunction 
with Mr. Paterson's Report on the Scottish movements. As these 
English investigations of the Club are still in their infancy, it would 
be well to desist from drawing useless and misleading deductions 
from the data at present obtained, and to reserve for some future 
Report a final and authoritative pronouncement based upon the 
necessary adequate material. 

THE INSECT HUNTER'S COMPANION. By the Rev. Joseph 
Greene, M.A. Fifth edition, revised and extended by A. B. Farn. 
London: West, Newman and Co., 1907. Price is. 6d. net. 

This little book is an old friend in a new garb. The text is 
practically the same as in the older editions, but the typography and 
paper are improved, and the book is bound in a neat green gilt- 
lettered cover. Although it was written so many years ago, we 
venture to think that this little work will still hold its own amid the 
many larger and more up-to-date handbooks. For the schoolboy 
or novice it is an agreeable and useful fulfilment of its title, and can 
be conveniently carried in the pocket and even taken into the field. 



I NDEX 



Acherontia atropos in Roxburghshire 
(Curr. Lit.), 58 

Aculeate Hymenoptera in Perthshire 
(Curr. Lit.), 58 

Alien Plants, 37 

ALSTON, CHARLES H., Probable occur- 
rence of the Great Spotted Wood- 
pecker in Loch Awe District, 182 

ANDERSON, PETER, Rush of Golden 
Plover at Tiree, 117 ; Swans in the 
Outer Hebrides, 183 

Anitrida maritiina and its enemies 
(Curr. Lit.), 124 

Apera intermedia as an Alien in Britain, 
170 

Arthrostraca, some, and other Inverte- 
brates from St. Kilda. 219 

Aspicilia Lilliei, a new species of 
Lichen, 121, 125 

Atractylis coccinea in Forth and Clyde 
(Curr. Lit.), 254 

BARTHOLOMEW, JAMES, Pintail in 
Clyde Area, 182 

BAXTER, EVELYN V., and RINTOUL, 
LEONORA J., Albino Brambling in 
Fife, 50 

BEDFORD, Her Grace the Duchess of, 
Great Spotted Woodpecker nest- 
ing in Perthshire, 247 

BEEBY, WILLIAM H., F.L.S., On the 
Flora of Shetland, 164 

BENNETT, ARTHUR, F.L.S., Butomus 
umbellatits in Caithness, 103 ; 
Potamogeton jinditlatits in Scot- 
land, 104 ; Potamogeton Macoicarii, 
1 06 ; The Plants of the Flannan 
Islands, 187 

BINNIE, WILLIAM, Peculiar Blackbird's 
Eggs and their Significance, 246 

Bird-Life as observed at Skerryvore 
Lighthouse, 20 

Bird- Notes from Shetland, 49 

Bird-Notes from North Shetland for 
1906, 50 

Bird-Notes from the Solway District, 112 

6 4 



Bird-Notes from Thornhill, Dumfries- 
shire, 113 

Birds added to Perth Museum, 184 

Birds of Fair Isle in 1906, 65 ; in 
1907, 245 

Birds seen in Outer Hebrides during 
the spring of 1906, 16, 81 

Bittern, Little, in Inverness-shire, 248 

BONAR, Rev. H. N., F.Z.S., Caper- 
caillie in Midlothian, 51 ; Nesting 
of Quail in East Lothian, 248 

Book Notices : Eggs of the Birds of 
Europe, by H. E. Dresser, 60 ; 
Cambridge Natural History (Proto- 
zoa, Porifera, Coelenterata, Cteno- 
phora, Echinodermata), 61 ; The 
Recreations of a Naturalist, by 
James Edmund Harting, 62 ; 
British Flowering Plants, and How 
to Find and Name Wild Flowers, 
63 ; I go a-walking through the 
Woods and o'er the Moor, 64 ; 
Ootheca Wolleyana, edited by 
Alfred Newton, Part IV., 125 ; 
The Aquatic Birds of Great Britain 
and Ireland, by Prof. C. J. Patten, 
126 ; A Natural History of British 
Butterflies, by J. W. Tutt, 127 ; 
The British Tunicates, by Alder 
and Hancock, edited by John 
Hopkinson, 128; Illustrated Hand- 
book to the Perth Museum, by 
Alex. M. Rodger, 128; The British 
Warblers, Part I., by H. E. 
Howard, 191 ; Bird-Life of the 
Borders, by Abel Chapman, 191 ; 
European Animals : their Geo- 
logical and Geographical Distribu- 
tion, by R. F. Scharff, 192 ; The 
Letters of John Mulso to Gilbert 
White, edited by Rashleigh Holte- 
White, 255 ; Report on the Im- 
migration of Summer Residents in 
1906, 256 ; The Insect Hunter's 
Companion, by the late Joseph 
Green, 256 



ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 



Botanical Nomenclature, 55 

Braconidous Cryptogastres, Scottish 
(Curr. Lit.), 254 

Brambling, Albino, in Fife, 50 

Brambling in West Ross-shire, 114 

Bream (Black Sea-) in the Firth of 
Forth, 148 

BROCK, SYDNEY E., Tufted Duck in 
West Lothian, 185 ; Unusual Situa- 
tion of Willow Warbler's Nest, 247 

Broomrape, Lesser, New Variety of, 253 

BUCHAN-HEPBURN, Sir A., Bart., 
Hawfinch in East Lothian, 181 

Bunting, Rustic, in Aberdeenshire, 
114 

Bunting, Snow, nesting in Aberdeen- 
shire, 115, 185 

BURN-MURDOCH, A., Muller's Top- 
knot in the Sound of Mull, 53 

Butonnis iiiubdlatus in Caithness, 103 

CAMERON, PETER, On the Scottish 

Species of Oxyura (Proctotrypidce), 

31, 158; Scottish Cryptin?e 

(Ichneumonidce), 88 ; Hymenop- 

terological Notes, 221 
CAMPBELL, BRUCE, White - beaked 

Dolphin in the Firth of Forth, 65 ; 

Tufted Duck nesting in West 

Lothian, 249 
Capercaillie in Midlothian, 51 ; in 

Dumfriesshire, 52 ; in Moray, 52 ; 

in the South of Scotland, 116 
Capercaillie hen in male plumage, 117 
Capercaillie and Willow Grouse in 

Moray, 116 

Carex niuricata in North Aberdeen, 55 
Carida affinis in Strathspey (Curr. Lit. ), 

58 

Centrolophus niger on the Scottish 
Coast, with note on points of 
Structure, 216 

Chcerocampa celerio at Galashiels, 55 
Chrysops sepulcralis at Aberfoyle, 54 
CLARKE, E. T., Rustic Bunting in 
Aberdeenshire, 114; Nesting of 
Snow Bunting in Aberdeenshire, 
115 ; Snowy Owl in Perthshire, 
115 ; Hen Capercaillie in Male 
Plumage, 117 

CLARKE, W. EAGLE, F. R. S.E., F. L.S. , 
Occurrence of the Siberian Chiff- 
Chaff in Scotland : a new Bird to 
the British Fanua, 15 ; Dotterel at 
the Flannan Islands, 53 ; Birds of 
Fair Isle in 1906, 66 ; Supposed 
occurrence of the Yellow-shanked 
Sandpiper near Hawick, 118; 
Rare Birds at Fair Isle, 245 
CoenogoniaceEe, British (Curr. Lit.), 59 
Coleoptera in Inverness-shire (Curr. 
Lit.) 58 



Coleoptera in 1906 (Curr. Lit.), 123 

Conodonts, occurrence of in S. Scot- 
land (Curr. Lit.), 123 

Copepoda, New and Rare Scottish 
(Curr. Lit.), 124 

CORBETT, EDWARD M., American 
Wigeon in Benbecula, 116 

Crabro carbonariiis in S. Scotland (Curr. 
Lit.), 58 

Crake, Spotted, in Lewis (Curr. Lit.), 

Cricket, House, in old Quarry near 
Edinburgh, 250 

Crows, Hooded and Carrion, in Scot- 
land (Curr. Lit.), 123 

Crustacea of the Forth Area (Curr. 

Lit.), 59 

Cryptinos, Contribution towards Know- 
ledge of Scottish, 88 

Cryptophagitsfumatus and C. cylindrus 
in North of Scotland (Curr. Lit. ), 

254 
Cystopteris fragilis, var. sempervirens 

(Curr. Lit.), 59 

DAVIDSON, JAMES, F.Z.S., Capercail- 
lies in Moray, 52 

DEWAR, THOMAS F., M.D., D.Sc., 
Lesser Whitethroat nesting in 
" Tay," 185 

Dipper, early nest of (Curr. Lit.), 
189 

Diptera in Dumbartonshire in 1906 
(Curr. Lit.), 190 ; in Scotland in 
1906 (Curr. Lit.), 190 

Diptera of St. Kilda, 150 

Diver, Black - throated, on the Aber- 
deenshire Coast, 250 

Dolphin, Risso's, in the Forth (Curr. 
Lit.), 122 

Dolphin, White-beaked, in Firth of 
Forth, 65 

Dotterel at the Flannan Islands, 53 ; 
in Mull, 249 

Dragon-Fly Seasons of 1905 and 1906 
(Curr. Lit.), 124 

Dragonet, Gemmous, in Shetland Seas, 
1 86 

DRUCE, G. CLARIDGE, M.A., F.L.S., 
Notes on the Flora of Berwick- 
shire, 96 ; Hieracium nigrescens, 
var. coin in ittafum, on Ben Heas- 
garnich, Mid Perth, 122 ; Nom- 
enclature of British Plants, 241 

Duck, Tufted, in \Vest Lothian, 185,249 

Eggs, peculiar Blackbird's, and their 

significance, 246 
Enipi's hyali tennis in Dumbartonshire, 

(Curr. Lit.), 57 
Eristalis fenax, early appearance of, 

1 86 



INDEX 



259 



EVANS, WILLIAM, F. R.S. E., Some 
Scottish Ixodicke (Ticks), 34 ; 
Chrysops sep2ilcralis, Therioplectes 
1/iontaiuis, and other Tabanidse at 
Aberfoyle, 54 ; Phoxichilidium 
femor at n>n from the Firth of Forth, 
119; Pramachilis hibernica in 
Scotland, 119; Some Pezomachi 
and other Cryptinas from " Forth," 
1 20 ; Altitudinal Range of Utri- 
cidaria minor, 122 ; Black Sea- 
Bream {Cantharus canthants) in 
the Firth of Forth, 148 ; Smew in 
"Forth," 183; A New Louse 
(Hsematopinus ovillus) from the 
Sheep, 225 ; The House Cricket 
in an old Quarry near Edinburgh, 
250 

Fair Isle, Birds of, in 1906, 65 ; in 

1907, 245 
Falcon, Greenland, in Lewis (Curr. 

Lit.), 123; in Argyllshire (Curr. 

Lit.), 123 
False-Scorpions of West of Scotland, 

162, 250 
Fauna of Galashiels and District 

(Curr. Lit.), 123 

Flea, new British (Curr. Lit.), 124 
Flora of Berwickshire, Notes on, 96 
Flora of Cairnie Parish (Curr. Lit.), 

124 

Flora of St. Kilda, a Contribution to, 239 
Flora of Shetland, 164 
Flora of a Shingle Island in the River 

Orchy (Curr. Lit.), 190 
Flycatcher, Pied, in Kirkcudbright, 183; 

in Ayrshire, 247 
Flycatcher, Red-breasted, migration of, 

51 
FOWLER, ALAN A., Bramblings in West 

Ross-shire, 114 
FRASER, JAMES, Alien Plants, 37 ; 

Triticum peregrinuui, a new alien 

found near Edinburgh, 101 
Foxes, Litter of Male, 180 
Fulmar nesting at Dunnet Head, 53, 1 18 

Galled Flowers of Field Gentian, 252 

Garganey in Shetland, 182 ; Aberdeen- 
shire, 248 

Godwit, Black-tailed, in Lanarkshire, 
184 ; in Barra, 250 

Gonatopus, Notes on Genus (Curr. Lit.), 
190 

Goose, Grey-Lag, in Ayrshire, 52 

Gooseberry-Mildews, 109 

GLADSTONE, HUGH S., M.A., F.Z.S., 
Capercaillie in Dumfriesshire, 52 ; 
Bird-Notes from Thornhill, Dum- 
friesshire, 113; Woodcock in 
Dumfriesshire, 249 



Grebe, Great Crested, in Shetland in 

Winter, 117 
GRIMSHAW, PERCY H.,F.E.S., Charo- 

campaceIerioa.tGa.lasb.iels, 55 > On 

the Diptera of St. Kilda, 150; 

Hydrotao. borussica, a Fly new to 

the British List, 223 
GODFREY, ROBERT, M.A., The False- 
Scorpions of the West of Scotland, 

162 
GUNNIS, FRANCIS G., F.Z.S., A 

Litter of Male Foxes, 180 
GURNEY, J. II., F.L.S., F.Z.S., 

Migration of the Red - breasted 

Flycatcher, 51 



HALDANE, R. C. , F.S.A. (Scot.), 
Whaling in Scotland, 10 

HAMILTON, J. B. BAILI.IE, Great 
Spotted Woodpecker nesting near 
Callander, Perthshire, 247 

Hare, Brown, Winter Whitening of 
(Curr. Lit.), 122 

HARVIE-BROWN, J. A., F.R.S.E., 
F.Z.S., Wild Cats in the N.W. 
Highlands, 49 ; Martens in N.W. 
Highlands, III ; Marked Starlings, 
114; Pintail in Forth, 115; Ful- 
mar Petrels at Dunnet Head, 118 ; 
Spring Return of Woodcock in 
Forth and Clyde, 143 ; A Novel 
Method of Skinning Mammals and 
Birds, 180; Hawfinch in Upper 
Forth, 182 ; Great Spotted Wood- 
pecker in Forth and Tay, 182 ; 
Food of the Wood Pigeon, 183 ; 
Garden Warbler in Scotland, 184 ; 
Winter Movements of Woodcock, 
184 ; Black-tailed Godwit in Barra, 
250 

HiCDiatopinus ovillus, a new Louse from 
the Sheep, 225 

Hawfinch in East Lothian, 181 ; Upper 
Forth, 182 

Hedgehog in Argyll, 245 

Heliozoa of Forth Area, 93 

HENDERSON, THOMAS, Jun., Grey 
Plover, Woodcock, and Great 
Crested Grebe in Shetland in 
Winter, 117; Gemmous Dragonet 
in Shetland Seas, 186 

Hepatioe, New and Rare (Curr. Lit.), 
125 ; British, Notes on (Curr. Lit.), 

255 
Hepaticce, Scottish, Additions to Census 

for 1906, 45 

HEWITT, C. GORDON, M.Sc., Some 
Arthrostraca and other Inverte- 
brates from St. Kilda, 219; A 
Contribution to a Flora of St. 
Kilda: being a list of certain 



260 



ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 



Lichens, Mosses, Hepaticoe, and 

Fresh-water Algx, 239 
Hieraciitin, Notes on (Curr. Lit.), 125 
Hieracium nigrescens, var. coininittatnin, 

in Mid Perth, 122 
Hoopoe in Orkney (Curr. Lit.), 57 
Hydrachnid Fauna of Scotland (Curr. 

Lit.), 124 
Hydroid, Supposed Australian, in North 

Sea (Curr. Lit.), 254 
Hydrot^a bornssica, A Fly new to the 

British List, 223 
Hymenopterological Notes, 221 
Hypophylhis crinipes in " Forth " (Curr. 

Lit.), 221 

Isopod, New British Terrestrial, 85 
Ixodidse, Some Scottish, 34 

JACKSON, A. BRUCE, Apera intermedia 
as an Alien in Britain, 170 

JACKSON, DOROTHY, Lepidoptera from 
East Ross-shire, 54 

Juncits balticus away from the Sea- 
coast, 251 

KINNEAR, NORMAN B., M.B.O.U., 
Notes on Birds seen in the Outer 
Hebrides in the Spring of 1906, 16, 
81 ; Lesser Shrew at Ailsa Craig, 
49 ; Common Shrew at Dunnet 
Head, 49 ; Fulmar nesting at 
Dunnet Head, 53 ; Indian appoint- 
ment for, 244 

Lepidoptera from East Ross-shire, 
etc., 54, 119; Kinloch-Rannoch 
(Curr. Lit.), 58; in East Suther- 
land (Curr. Lit.), 123; Scottish, 
in 1906 (Curr. Lit.), 123 ; Scottish, 
in "Dale Collection" at Oxford 
(Curr. Lit.), 254 
Lichens, Rare, New Localities for (Curr. 

Lit.), 255 

Limonium, Notes on (Curr. Lit.), 125 
Louse, New, from the Sheep, 225 
Lupine, Blue, Origin of as a Denizen 
of the Dee, 188 

MACDONALD, D., Great Grey Shrike 

in Mull, 115; Redstart in Mull, 

247 ; Albino Shag in Mull, 247 ; 

Dotterel in Mull, 249 
MACGILLIVRAY, WM. L., Velvet 

Scoter in Barra, 116 
MACPHERSON, A. HOLTE, M.A., etc., 

Hedgehog in Argyll, 245 
MACRAE, A C., New Records of Plants 

for South Aberdeenshire, 188 
Macrobiotus dispar, sp. n. (Curr. Lit.), 

124 



Mammals of the Forth Area (Curr. 

Lit.), 189 

Martens in N. W. Highlands, in 
MACVICAR, SYMERS M., Additions 

for 1906 to Census of Scottish 

Hepatioe, 45 
MAXWELL, Sir HERBERT, Bart., F.R.S., 

Capercaillie in the South of Scot- 
land, 116; Wood Wasps, 119 
Melanism in Scottish Lepidoptera 

(Curr. Lit.), 58 
MENZIES, W. STEWART, Capercaillie 

and Willow Grouse in Moray, 116 
MILNE, WM., Little Bittern in Inver- 
ness-shire, 248 
Mite-Galls on the Beech in Scotland, 

252 
Mollusca of Inner Hebrides (Curr. 

Lit.), 57 
Mortality amongst Guillemots and 

Razorbills, 53 
Mosses, New and Rare from the West 

of Scotland, 171 
Mosses, West Highland, and Problems 

they suggest, 42 
MURRAY, JAMES, Some Rhizopods and 

Heliozoa of the Forth Area, 93 
MURRAY, M. C., ANew Variety of the 

Lesser Broomrape in Scotland, 253 
Mycetozoa, Synopsis of (Curr. Lit.), 

190 
Myriapodj of the Forth Area (Curr. 

Lit.), 190 

Natural History Society of Scotland, 

wanted, I 

NEWTON, ALFRED, In Memoriam, 129 
Nomenclature of British Plants, 241 

Ornithology, Scottish, Report on for 
1906, 130, 195 

Omithomyia lagopodis, a new Grouse- 
Fly (Curr. Lit.), 124 

Oribatidse, New (Curr. Lit.), 95 

Ospreys, History of the Loch - an- 
Eilein (Curr. Lit.), 254 

Otiorrhynchus tnorio, v. ebem'nits, in 
Sutherland (Curr. Lit.), 58 

Oxynra (Proctotrypida), Scottish 
Species of, 31, 158 

Owl, Snowy, in Perthshire, 115 

Pastor, Rose-coloured, in Foula, 51 
PATERSON, JOHN, Black-tailed God- 
wit in Lanarkshire, 184 ; Report on 
-Scottish Ornithology for 1906, 130, 

195 
PATIENCE, ALEXANDER, New British 

Terrestrial Isopod, 85 
Pezomachi and other Cryptinae from 

" Forth," 120 



INDEX 



261 



Phanerogams, Hybrids among British 

(Curr. Lit.), 255 
Phora, British (Curr. Lit.), 58 
Phora cubitalis (Curr. Lit.), 58 
Phora sordida in Dumbartonshire (Curr. 

Lit.), 58 
Phoxichilidium femoratum from Firth 

of Forth, 119 
Pintail in Clyde Area, 182 
Pintail in P'orth Area, 115 
Plankton of Scottish Lochs (Curr. Lit.), 

190 

Plants, British, disappearance of, 55 
Plants, Cryptogamic, disappearance of 

(Curr. Lit.), 255 

Plants of the Flannan Islands, 187 
Plants of East Perth and South Aber- 
deen (Curr. Lit.), 255 
Plants, New Records for South Aber- 

deenshire, 188 

Plants spreading from Garden, 56 
Plover, Grey, in Shetland in winter, 

117 

Plover, rush of Golden, at Tiree, 117 
Polietes hirticrnra in Arran (Curr. Lit. ), 

57 

Polyzoa from Shetland (Curr. Lit.), 254 
Prosecution under the Wild Birds Act, 

215 
Potamogeton, forms new to Britain 

(Cur. Lit.), 190 
Potamogeton Macvicarii, Bennett, P. 

prcelongus x P. polygon if oli us, a 

new hybrid, 106 
Potamogeton nndulatus in Scotland, 

104 
Pramaehilis hibernica in Scotland, 

119 
Psychodidas in Dumbarton in 1906 

(Curr. Lit.), 123 

Quail in Fife, 117 

Quail nesting in East Lothian, 248 

Ramalina, Gall formation on (Curr. 
Lit.), 255 

RAMSAY, L. N. G., and A. L. THOM- 
SON, Garganey in Aberdeenshire, 
248 

Raven and Ring Ousel near Glasgow 
(Curr. Lit), 189 

Red Deer, Scottish and Norwegian 
(Curr. Lit.), 189 

Redstart in Mull, 247 

RENNIE, JOHN, D. Sc. , Centrolophus 
niger, Gmelin, on the Scottish 
coast, with a note on one or two 
points on its structure, 216 

Rhacomitium ramulosum in Mid Perth 
(Curr. Lit.), 59 

Rhizocarpon Lotum in Scotland (Curr. 
Lit.), 125 



Rhizopods of Forth Area, 93 

Ribbon Fish in Orkney (Curr. Lit.), 123 

RINTOUL, LEONORA JEFFREY, Quail 

in Fife, 117 
ROBERTSON, Rev. W., Rose-coloured 

Pastors in Foula, 51 
RODGER, ALEXANDER M. , Common 

Seal in the Tay, 112; birds 

recently added to the Perth 

Museum, 184 
Roses of Mollis Tomentosa Group (Curr. 

Lit.) 190 
Rubi, British, Notes on (Curr. Lit.), 190 

Sandpiper, Yellow-shanked, supposed 

occurrence of near Hawick, 118 
SAXBY, Dr. T. EDMONDSTON, Bird 
Notes from North Shetland for 
1906, 50 ; Garganey in Shetland, 
182 
Scoter nesting in Sutherland (Curr. 

Lit.), 254 

Scoter, Velvet, at Burra, 116 
Seal, Common, in the Tay, 112 
Seal, Great Grey, in the Firth of Forth, 

245 
SEATTER, F., Great Grey Seal in the 

Firth of Forth, 245 
Seed-Plants and Ferns, List of British, 

121, 124 

SERLE, Rev. WM., M.A., M.B.O.U., 
Note on the Breeding of the Snow- 
Bunting in Buchan, 185 
SERVICE, ROBERT, M.B.O.U., Mor- 
tality among Guillemots and 
Razorbills, 53 ; Bird Notes from 
the Sol way District, 112; Pied 
Flycatcher in Kirkcudbright, 183 
Shag, Albino, in Mull, 247 
Shrew, Common, at Dunnet Head, 49 
Shrew, Lesser, at Ailsa Craig, 49 
Shrike, Great Grey, in Mull, 115 
Siberian Chiff-Chaff in Scotland, 15 
Skinning Birds and Mammals, New 

Method of, 180 
Smew in " Forth," 183 

SOMERVILLE, ALEXANDER, the late, 

193 
St. Kilda, Diptera of, 150 

Starlings, Marked, 114 

STIRTON, JAMES, M.D., F.L.S., 
West Highland Mosses and Prob- 
lems they suggest, 42 ; New and 
Rare Mosses from the West of 
Scotland, 171 

Swans, Wild, Migration of (Curr. Lit.), 
189 

Swans in the Outer Hebrides, 183 

Tabanidre at Aberfoyle, 54 
Tachinidas and their Hosts (Curr. Lit.), 
57 



262 



ANNALS OF SCOTTISH NATURAL HISTORY 



THOMSON, A, LANDSBOROUGH, Black- 
throated Diver on the Aberdeen- 
shire Coast, 250 

THOMSON, A. L., and RAMSAY, 
L. N. G., Garganey in Aberdeen- 
shire, 248 

Therioplcctes montanus at Aberfoyle, 54 

Titmouse, Crested, in Scotland (Curr. 
Lit), 253 

TOMISON, JAMES, Bird Life at Skerry- 
vore Lighthouse, 20 ; Yellow - 
browed Warbler at Skerryvore 
Lighthouse, 15 

Topknot, Mullet's, in Sound of Mull, 

53 
TRAIL, JAMES W. H., M.A., M.D., 

F. L. S., Wanted, The Natural 
History Society of Scotland, I ; 
Carex muricata in North Aber- 
deen, 55 ; Gooseberry Mildews, 
109 ; Origin of the Blue Lupine 
as a Denizen by the Dee, 188 ; 
Juncus balticus away from the Sea- 
coast, 251 ; Mite-galls on the 
Beech in Scotland, 252 ; Galled 
Flowers of Field Gentian, 252 

Trees, Extra - Tropical, in Arran 
(Curr. Lit.), 59 

Tricenodes reuteri near Aberfoyle (Curr. 
Lit.), 59 

Triticum peregrimtm near Edinburgh, 
101 

TROUP, R. D. R., Early appearance of 
Eristalis tenax in the Forth Dis- 
trict, 186 

TULLOCH, JOHN S., Bird Notes from 
Shetland, 49 



Utricularia, Altitudinal Range of, 122 

Warbler, Garden, in Shetland, 184 
Warbler, Willow, unusual situation ol 

nest of, 247 
Warbler, Yellow-browed, at Skerryvore 

Lighthouse, 51 
Whaling in Scotland, 10 
Whitethroat, Lesser, nesting in " Tay," 

185 

Wigeon, American, in Benbecula, 116 
Wild Cats in N.W. Highlands, 49 
WILSON, ROBERT, Grey-Lag Goose in 

Ayrshire, 52 
WILSON, W., Some Plants which 

spread from my Garden, 56 
Woodcock, Winter movements of, 184 
Woodcock, Spring return of, in Forth 

and Clyde, 143 

Woodcock in Dumfriesshire, 249 
Woodcock in Shetland in winter, 117 
Woodpecker, Great Spotted, nesting 

in Loch Awe District, 182 
Woodpecker, Great Spotted, nesting 

near Callander, Perthshire, 247 
Woodpecker, Great Spotted, in Forth 

and Tay, 182 
Woodpecker, Great Spotted, nesting 

in Perthshire, 247 
Wood Pigeon, Food of, 183 
Wood Wasp, 119 

Xestophanes Tormentilla, Histology of, 
(Curr. Lit.), 124 

YOUNG, MARY, Pied Flycatcher in 
Ayrshire, 247 



END OF VOL. XVI. 



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